CURRENT Air Traffic Control Manual

CURRENT Air Traffic Control Manual
ORDER
JO 7110.65W
Air Traffic Organization Policy
Effective Date:
December 10, 2015
SUBJ:
Air Traffic Control
This order prescribes air traffic control procedures and phraseology for use by personnel providing
air traffic control services. Controllers are required to be familiar with the provisions of this order that
pertain to their operational responsibilities and to exercise their best judgment if they encounter
situations not covered by it.
Distribution: ZAT-710, ZAT-464
Initiated By: AJV-0
Vice President, System Operations Services
RECORD OF CHANGES
CHANGE
TO
BASIC
SUPPLEMENTS
FAA Form 1320−5
JO 7110.65W
DIRECTIVE NO.
OPTIONAL
(6−80) USE PREVIOUS EDITION
CHANGE
TO
BASIC
SUPPLEMENTS
OPTIONAL
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Explanation of Changes
Basic
Direct questions through appropriate facility/service center office staff
to the Office of Primary Interest (OPI)
a. 1-1-7. DELIVERY DATES
This change deletes the requirement to contact the
local National Geospatial/Intelligence Agency
representative to obtain required publications and
adds both the Defense Switching Network and
commercial telephone contact numbers to request
required publications.
b. 1-2-6. ABBREVIATIONS
2-2-11. FORWARDING AMENDED
AND UTM DATA
2-6-2. HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT
WEATHER ADVISORY SERVICE (HIWAS)
2-10-1. EN ROUTE SECTOR TEAM
POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES
4-5-3. EXCEPTIONS
4-6-3. DELAYS
5-1-6. SERVICE LIMITATIONS
5-2-2. DISCRETE ENVIRONMENT
5-2-17. VALIDATION OF MODE C
READOUT
5-3-3. BEACON IDENTIFICATION
METHODS
5-3-8. TARGET MARKERS
5-4-3. METHODS
5-4-5. TRANSERRING CONTROLLER
HANDOFF
5-4-7. POINT OUT
5-4-11. EN ROUTE FOURTH LINE
DATA BLOCK USAGE
5-5-4. MINIMA
5-5-9. SEPARATION FROM
OBSTRUCTIONS
5-5-10. ADJACENT AIRSPACE
5-5-11. EDGE OF SCOPE
5-6-2. METHODS
5-14-1. CONFLICT ALERT (CA) AND
MODE C INTRUDER (MCI) ALERT
5-14-3. COMPUTER ENTRY OF
ASSIGNED ALTITUDE
5-14-5. SELECTED ALTITUDE LIMITS
5-14-8. CONTROLLER INITIATED
COAST TRACKS
Explanation of Changes
5-14-9. ERAM COMPUTER ENTRIES
OF HOLD INFORMATION
5-14-10. ERAM VISUAL INDICATOR
OF SPECIAL ACTIVITY AIRSPACE (SAA)
STATUS
10-2-5. EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
11-1-2. DUTIES AND
RESPONSIBILITIES
13-1-1. DESCRIPTION
13-1-2. CONFLICT DETECTION AND
RESOLUTION
13-1-3. TRIAL PLANNING
13-1-4. URET−BASED CLEARANCES
13-1-5. THE AIRCRAFT LIST (ACL),
DEPARTURE (DL), AND FLIGHT DATA
MANAGEMENT
13-1-6. MANUAL COORDINATION
AND THE COORDINATION MENU
13-1-7. HOLDING
13-1-8. RECORDING OF CONTROL
DATA
13-1-9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF
AUTOMATED NOTIFICATION
13-1-10. CURRENCY OF
TRAJECTORY INFORMATION
13-1-11. DELAY REPORTING
13-1-12. OVERDUE AIRCRAFT
13-1-14. FORCAST WINDS
13-1-15. INTERFACILITY
CONNECTIVITY
13-1-16. PRIMARY RDP/FDP
OUTAGES
13-1-17. URET AIRSPACE
CONFIGURATION ELEMENTS
The changes are intended to be a verbatim
incorporation of previously vetted FAA Order
7110.311C, into FAA Order 7110.65. Some of the
paragraphs that will have ERAM terminology
added to them also contain legacy terminology that
is no longer valid and those terms are being
removed. During this global cleanup, additional
paragraphs that were not part of FAA Order
E of C−1
JO 7110.65W
7110.311C but contained legacy terminology were
also identified. In these paragraphs, minor editorial
changes were made to remove outdated legacy
terms.
c. 1-2-6. ABBREVIATIONS
2-1-6. SAFETY ALERTS
5-2-13. CODE MONITOR
5-2-17. VALIDATION OF MODE C
5-4-6. RECEIVING CONTROLLER
HANDOFF
5-5-2. TARGET SEPARATION
5-5-4. MINIMA
5-15-1. APPLICATION
Chapter 5, Section 16. TPX-42
7-6-1. BASIC RADAR SERVICE TO VFR
AIRCRAFT
7-7-3. SEPARATION
7-8-3. SEPARATION
7-9-4. SEPARATION
This change includes new procedures for ADS-B
only surveillance as prescribed in the CARTS and
STARS ADS-B Only SRMD addendum. Chapter 5,
Section 15, has been revised to include STARS and
adds ERAM related Mode C content. Obsolete
provisions relating to TPX-42 and references to
PIDP and DAIR have been removed. This change
also moves Target Resolution information now
contained in Chapter 7 NOTES into procedural
guidance. This change cancels and incorporates
N JO 7110.683, Guidance for the Implementation
of FUSION/Automatic Dependent Surveillance−
Broadcast (ADS−B) within Common Automated
Terminal System Model IIIE (CARTS) and
Standard Automation Replacement System
(STARTS) effective January 29, 2015.
d. 1-2-6. ABBREVIATIONS
8-1-7. OCEANIC NAVIGATIONAL
ERROR REPORTING (ONER)
PROCEDURES
This changes the title of paragraph of 8−1−7 and
deletes the NOTE.
e. 2-1-6. SAFETY ALERT
With this modification, paragraph 2-1-6b example
will comply with prescribed phraseology.
f. 2-1-19. WAKE TURBULENCE
2-1-20. WAKE TURBULENCE
CAUTIONARY ADVISORIES
2-4-14. WORDS AND PHRASES
2-4-21. DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT
E of C−2
12/10/15
TYPES
3-3-5. BRAKING ACTION ADVISORIES
3-7-3. GROUND OPERATIONS
3-10-10. ALTITUDE RESTRICTED
LOW APPROACH
4-8-11. PRACTICE APPROACHES
5-5-7. PASSING OR DIVERGING
7-2-1. VISUAL SEPARATION
This change adds the Super weight class to the
order. Where applicable, “When wake turbulence
separation is required” is used in lieu of excessive
wording.
g. 2-3-8. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT SUFFIX
This change adds an additional aircraft equipment
suffix, Slant O (/O), for RVSM capable aircraft that
maintain an operating transponder with no Mode C
altitude reporting capability. This suffix is for ATC
use only.
h. 3-9-6. SAME RUNWAY SEPARATION
3-9-7. WAKE TURBULENCE
SEPARATION FOR INTERSECTION
DEPARTURES
3-9-8. INTERSECTING
RUNWAY/INTERSECTING FLIGHT PATH
OPERATIONS
3-9-9. NONINTERSECTING
CONVERGING RUNWAY OPERATIONS
3-10-3. SAME RUNWAY SEPARATION
3-10-4. INTERSECTING
RUNWAY/INTERSECTING FLIGHT PATH
OPERATIONS
5-5-4. MINIMA
5-5-7. PASSING OR DIVERGING
5-8-3. SUCCESSIVE OR
SIMULTANEOUS DEPARTURES
5-8-5. DEPARTURES AND ARRIVALS
ON PARALLEL OR NONINTERSECTING
DIVERGING RUNWAYS
6-1-4. ADJACENT AIRPORT
OPERATION
6-1-5. ARRIVAL MINIMA
6-7-5. ARRIVAL MINIMA
7-4-3. CLEARANCE FOR VISUAL
APPROACH
7-4-4. APPROACHES TO MULTIPLE
RUNWAYS
7-6-7. SEQUENCING
This change adds the super weight class to the listed
paragraphs, modifies wake turbulence separation
minima behind the B757 aircraft, and adds a
12/10/15
requirement to provide 10 NM separation in front of
and behind an aircraft when the data block indicates
“NOWGT.” Paragraph 3-9-7 has been edited to
define the requirements of the procedure in a
progressive format for easier readability.
i. 3-9-9. NONINTERSECTING
CONVERGING RUNWAY OPERATIONS
The change describes the conditions where an
independent safety analysis specific to Converging
Runway Operations could provide an equivalent
level of safety and improve efficiency.
j. 4-3-2. DEPARTURE CLEARANCES
This change adds directive guidance not to solicit a
VCOA from the pilot. It also adds a new NOTE
specifying that pilots will advise ATC of their intent
to utilize the VCOA option.
k. 4-8-1. APPROACH CLEARANCE
This change reorganizes content to provide clarity.
l. 4-8-11. PRACTICE APPROACHES
7-3-1. VFR-ON-TOP
10-6-5. SERVICES TO RESCUE
AIRCRAFT
This change removes the word “standard” while
ensuring the application of IFR separation.
m. 5-4-2. TERMS
The change revises the term “point out” for
consistency and added clarity.
n. 5-6-1. APPLICATION
This change removes the last sentence from
paragraph 5-6-1a due to misapplication related to
the vectoring and rerouting of RNAV aircraft. All
aircraft should be allowed to remain on their own
navigation to the extent possible, consistent with
operational needs and pilot requests.
o. 5-9-6. SIMULTANEOUS DEPENDENT
APPROACHES
This change introduces the use of 1 mile radar
separation diagonally on simultaneous dependent
approaches when runway centerlines are separated
by at least 2,500 feet but no more than 3,600 feet;
and it alters the existing paragraph to account for the
Explanation of Changes
JO 7110.65W
new 3,600 foot standard. There are no additional
conditions or procedures required when utilizing
the 1 NM minimum separation standard.
p. 5-9-7. SIMULTANEOUS
INDEPENDENT APPROACHES – DUAL
AND TRIPLE
This change incorporates the latest AFS guidance
concerning centerline spacing in the conduct of
simultaneous parallel approaches. This change also
articulates specific AFS mitigations not previously
included. Lastly, the paragraph has been
re-organized by moving monitoring requirement
from the runway spacing provisions, and specifies
that FUSION is not to be used when conducting
final monitoring activities.
q. 5-9-8. SIMULTANEOUS
INDEPENDENT CLOSE PARALLEL
APPROACHES-HIGH UPDATE RADAR
5-9-9. SIMULTANEOUS
INDEPENDENT CLOSE PARALLEL
APPROACHES – HIGH UPDATE RADAR
NOT REQUIRED
5-9-10. SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET
INSTRUMENT APPROACHES
(SOIA)−HIGH UPDATE RADAR
5-9-11. SIMULTANEOUS
INDEPENDENT APPROACHES TO
WIDELY−SPACED PARALLEL RUNWAYS
WITHOUT FINAL MONITORS
This change revises paragraph 5−9−8 to include
PRM Approaches to better articulate the
appropriate circumstances when PRM approaches
need to be assigned to users which is lacking today.
This change also deletes paragraph 5−9−9, and
renumbers 5−9−10 and 5−9−11.
r. 5-9-11. TRANSITIONAL PROCEDURES
This new paragraph allows a controller to issue
control instructions without incurring a loss of
separation which results in a low MOC.
s. Entire Publication
Additional editorial/format changes were made
where necessary. Revision bars were not used
because of the insignificant nature of these changes.
E of C−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. General
Section 1. Introduction
Paragraph
Page
1−1−1. PURPOSE OF THIS ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−2. AUDIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−3. WHERE TO FIND THIS ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−4. WHAT THIS ORDER CANCELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−5. EXPLANATION OF CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−6. SUBMISSION CUTOFF AND EFFECTIVE DATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−7. DELIVERY DATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROCEDURAL CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−9. PROCEDURAL LETTERS OF AGREEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−10. CONSTRAINTS GOVERNING SUPPLEMENTS AND PROCEDURAL
DEVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−11. SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−12. REFERENCES TO FAA NON−AIR TRAFFIC ORGANIZATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−13. DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−2
1−1−2
1−1−2
1−1−2
1−1−3
Section 2. Terms of Reference
1−2−1.
1−2−2.
1−2−3.
1−2−4.
1−2−5.
1−2−6.
WORD MEANINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COURSE DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ANNOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−2−1
1−2−2
1−2−2
1−2−3
1−2−3
1−2−3
Chapter 2. General Control
Section 1. General
2−1−1. ATC SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−2. DUTY PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−3. PROCEDURAL PREFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−4. OPERATIONAL PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−5. EXPEDITIOUS COMPLIANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−6. SAFETY ALERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−7. INFLIGHT EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−8. MINIMUM FUEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−9. REPORTING ESSENTIAL FLIGHT INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−10. NAVAID MALFUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−11. USE OF MARSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−12. MILITARY PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−13. FORMATION FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−14. COORDINATE USE OF AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−15. CONTROL TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−16. SURFACE AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
2−1−1
2−1−1
2−1−1
2−1−2
2−1−3
2−1−3
2−1−4
2−1−4
2−1−5
2−1−5
2−1−5
2−1−6
2−1−6
2−1−6
2−1−7
2−1−7
i
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Paragraph
2−1−17.
2−1−18.
2−1−19.
2−1−20.
2−1−21.
2−1−22.
2−1−23.
2−1−24.
2−1−25.
2−1−26.
2−1−27.
2−1−28.
2−1−29.
2−1−30.
Page
RADIO COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATIONAL REQUESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WAKE TURBULENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WAKE TURBULENCE CAUTIONARY ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRAFFIC ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BIRD ACTIVITY INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRANSFER OF POSITION RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHEELS DOWN CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUPERVISORY NOTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PILOT DEVIATION NOTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCAS RESOLUTION ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RVSM OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TERRAIN AWARENESS WARNING SYSTEM (TAWS) ALERTS . . . . . . . . . . . .
“BLUE LIGHTNING” EVENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−7
2−1−9
2−1−9
2−1−9
2−1−10
2−1−11
2−1−11
2−1−11
2−1−11
2−1−12
2−1−12
2−1−12
2−1−13
2−1−13
Section 2. Flight Plans and Control Information
2−2−1. RECORDING INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−2. FORWARDING INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−3. FORWARDING VFR DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−4. MILITARY DVFR DEPARTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−5. IFR TO VFR FLIGHT PLAN CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−6. IFR FLIGHT PROGRESS DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−7. MANUAL INPUT OF COMPUTER-ASSIGNED BEACON CODES . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−8. ALTRV INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−9. COMPUTER MESSAGE VERIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−10. TRANSMIT PROPOSED FLIGHT PLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−11. FORWARDING AMENDED AND UTM DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−12. AIRBORNE MILITARY FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−13. FORWARDING FLIGHT PLAN DATA BETWEEN U.S. ARTCCs AND
CANADIAN ACCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−14. TELETYPE FLIGHT DATA FORMAT− U.S. ARTCCs − CANADIAN ACCs . . . .
2−2−15. NORTH AMERICAN ROUTE PROGRAM (NRP) INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−1
2−2−1
2−2−1
2−2−1
2−2−1
2−2−1
2−2−2
2−2−2
2−2−2
2−2−3
2−2−3
2−2−4
2−2−4
2−2−4
2−2−5
Section 3. Flight Progress Strips
2−3−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−2. EN ROUTE DATA ENTRIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−3. OCEANIC DATA ENTRIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−4. TERMINAL DATA ENTRIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−5. AIRCRAFT IDENTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−6. AIRCRAFT TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−7. USAF/USN UNDERGRADUATE PILOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−8. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT SUFFIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−9. CLEARANCE STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−10. CONTROL SYMBOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−1
2−3−3
2−3−5
2−3−6
2−3−9
2−3−10
2−3−10
2−3−10
2−3−10
2−3−12
Section 4. Radio and Interphone Communications
2−4−1. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−2. MONITORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−3. PILOT ACKNOWLEDGMENT/READ BACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ii
2−4−1
2−4−1
2−4−1
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Paragraph
Page
2−4−4. AUTHORIZED INTERRUPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−5. AUTHORIZED TRANSMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−6. FALSE OR DECEPTIVE COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−7. AUTHORIZED RELAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−8. RADIO MESSAGE FORMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−9. ABBREVIATED TRANSMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−10. INTERPHONE TRANSMISSION PRIORITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−11. PRIORITY INTERRUPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−12. INTERPHONE MESSAGE FORMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−13. INTERPHONE MESSAGE TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−14. WORDS AND PHRASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−15. EMPHASIS FOR CLARITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−16. ICAO PHONETICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−17. NUMBERS USAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−18. NUMBER CLARIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−19. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−20. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−21. DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−22. AIRSPACE CLASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−1
2−4−1
2−4−2
2−4−2
2−4−2
2−4−2
2−4−2
2−4−3
2−4−3
2−4−4
2−4−4
2−4−4
2−4−5
2−4−5
2−4−7
2−4−8
2−4−8
2−4−11
2−4−11
Section 5. Route and NAVAID Description
2−5−1. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS) ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−5−2. NAVAID TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−5−3. NAVAID FIXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−5−1
2−5−1
2−5−2
Section 6. Weather Information
2−6−1.
2−6−2.
2−6−3.
2−6−4.
2−6−5.
2−6−6.
2−6−7.
FAMILIARIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISORY SERVICE (HIWAS) . . . . . . . .
PIREP INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WEATHER AND CHAFF SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALM WIND CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REPORTING WEATHER CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DISSEMINATING WEATHER INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−6−1
2−6−1
2−6−1
2−6−2
2−6−5
2−6−5
2−6−5
Section 7. Altimeter Settings
2−7−1. CURRENT SETTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−7−2. ALTIMETER SETTING ISSUANCE BELOW LOWEST USABLE FL . . . . . . . . . .
2−7−1
2−7−1
Section 8. Runway Visibility Reporting− Terminal
2−8−1. FURNISH RVR/RVV VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−8−2. ARRIVAL/DEPARTURE RUNWAY VISIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−8−3. TERMINOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−8−1
2−8−1
2−8−1
Section 9. Automatic Terminal Information Service Procedures
2−9−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−9−2. OPERATING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−9−3. CONTENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−9−1
2−9−1
2−9−2
Section 10. Team Position Responsibilities
2−10−1. EN ROUTE SECTOR TEAM POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
2−10−1
iii
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Paragraph
Page
2−10−2. TERMINAL RADAR/NONRADAR TEAM POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES . . .
2−10−3. TOWER TEAM POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−10−2
2−10−4
Chapter 3. Airport Traffic Control− Terminal
Section 1. General
3−1−1. PROVIDE SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−2. PREVENTIVE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−3. USE OF ACTIVE RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−4. COORDINATION BETWEEN LOCAL AND GROUND CONTROLLERS . . . . . . .
3−1−5. VEHICLES/EQUIPMENT/PERSONNEL ON RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−6. TRAFFIC INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−7. POSITION DETERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−8. LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR/MICROBURST ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−9. USE OF TOWER RADAR DISPLAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−10. OBSERVED ABNORMALITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−11. SURFACE AREA RESTRICTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−12. VISUALLY SCANNING RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−13. ESTABLISHING TWO−WAY COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−14. GROUND OPERATIONS WHEN VOLCANIC ASH IS PRESENT . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−15. GROUND OPERATIONS RELATED TO THREE/FOUR−HOUR TARMAC RULE
3−1−1
3−1−1
3−1−1
3−1−2
3−1−2
3−1−2
3−1−2
3−1−3
3−1−5
3−1−5
3−1−5
3−1−6
3−1−6
3−1−6
3−1−6
Section 2. Visual Signals
3−2−1. LIGHT SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−2−2. WARNING SIGNAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−2−3. RECEIVER-ONLY ACKNOWLEDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−2−1
3−2−1
3−2−1
Section 3. Airport Conditions
3−3−1.
3−3−2.
3−3−3.
3−3−4.
3−3−5.
3−3−6.
3−3−7.
LANDING AREA CONDITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLOSED/UNSAFE RUNWAY INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIMELY INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BRAKING ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BRAKING ACTION ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ARRESTING SYSTEM OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FAR FIELD MONITOR (FFM) REMOTE STATUS UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−3−1
3−3−1
3−3−1
3−3−2
3−3−2
3−3−3
3−3−4
Section 4. Airport Lighting
3−4−1. EMERGENCY LIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−2. RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−3. VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATORS (VASI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−4. PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATORS (PAPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−5. APPROACH LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−6. ALS INTENSITY SETTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−7. SEQUENCED FLASHING LIGHTS (SFL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−8. MALSR/ODALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−9. ALSF−2/SSALR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−10. RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−11. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY, RUNWAY CENTERLINE, AND TOUCH
DOWN ZONE LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iv
3−4−1
3−4−1
3−4−1
3−4−1
3−4−2
3−4−2
3−4−2
3−4−2
3−4−3
3−4−3
3−4−4
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Paragraph
3−4−12.
3−4−13.
3−4−14.
3−4−15.
3−4−16.
3−4−17.
3−4−18.
3−4−19.
3−4−20.
Page
HIRL ASSOCIATED WITH MALSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HIRL CHANGES AFFECTING RVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MEDIUM INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH AND RUNWAY EDGE LIGHT OPERATION . . .
HIGH SPEED TURNOFF LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TAXIWAY LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ROTATING BEACON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RUNWAY STATUS LIGHTS (RWSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−4−4
3−4−4
3−4−4
3−4−4
3−4−5
3−4−5
3−4−5
3−4−5
3−4−5
Section 5. Runway Selection
3−5−1. SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−5−2. STOL RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−5−3. TAILWIND COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−5−1
3−5−1
3−5−1
Section 6. Airport Surface Detection Procedures
3−6−1.
3−6−2.
3−6−3.
3−6−4.
3−6−5.
EQUIPMENT USAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFORMATION USAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAFETY LOGIC ALERT RESPONSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RADAR−ONLY MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−6−1
3−6−1
3−6−1
3−6−1
3−6−2
Section 7. Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures
3−7−1.
3−7−2.
3−7−3.
3−7−4.
3−7−5.
3−7−6.
GROUND TRAFFIC MOVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GROUND OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RUNWAY PROXIMITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRECISION APPROACH CRITICAL AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRECISION OBSTACLE FREE ZONE (POFZ) AND FINAL APPROACH
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE SURFACES (OCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−7−1
3−7−2
3−7−4
3−7−4
3−7−4
3−7−5
Section 8. Spacing and Sequencing
3−8−1.
3−8−2.
3−8−3.
3−8−4.
SEQUENCE/SPACING APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TOUCH-AND-GO OR STOP-AND-GO OR LOW APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SIMULTANEOUS SAME DIRECTION OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SIMULTANEOUS OPPOSITE DIRECTION OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−8−1
3−8−1
3−8−1
3−8−2
Section 9. Departure Procedures and Separation
3−9−1. DEPARTURE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9−2. DEPARTURE DELAY INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9−3. DEPARTURE CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9−4. LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9−5. ANTICIPATING SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9−6. SAME RUNWAY SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9−7. WAKE TURBULENCE SEPARATION FOR INTERSECTION DEPARTURES . . . .
3−9−8. INTERSECTING RUNWAY/INTERSECTING FLIGHT PATH OPERATIONS . . . .
3−9−9. NONINTERSECTING CONVERGING RUNWAY OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9−10. TAKEOFF CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−9−11. CANCELLATION OF TAKEOFF CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
3−9−1
3−9−1
3−9−2
3−9−2
3−9−4
3−9−4
3−9−6
3−9−7
3−9−9
3−9−11
3−9−12
v
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Section 10. Arrival Procedures and Separation
Paragraph
Page
3−10−1. LANDING INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−2. FORWARDING APPROACH INFORMATION BY NONAPPROACH
CONTROL FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−3. SAME RUNWAY SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−4. INTERSECTING RUNWAY/INTERSECTING FLIGHT PATH SEPARATION . . .
3−10−5. LANDING CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−6. ANTICIPATING SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−7. LANDING CLEARANCE WITHOUT VISUAL OBSERVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−8. WITHHOLDING LANDING CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−9. RUNWAY EXITING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−10. ALTITUDE RESTRICTED LOW APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−11. CLOSED TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−12. OVERHEAD MANEUVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−13. SIMULATED FLAMEOUT (SFO) APPROACHES/EMERGENCY
LANDING PATTERN (ELP) OPERATIONS/PRACTICE PRECAUTIONARY
APPROACHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−10−1
3−10−1
3−10−2
3−10−3
3−10−6
3−10−7
3−10−7
3−10−8
3−10−8
3−10−8
3−10−9
3−10−9
3−10−11
Section 11. Helicopter Operations
3−11−1.
3−11−2.
3−11−3.
3−11−4.
3−11−5.
3−11−6.
TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HELICOPTER TAKEOFF CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HELICOPTER DEPARTURE SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HELICOPTER ARRIVAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SIMULTANEOUS LANDINGS OR TAKEOFFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HELICOPTER LANDING CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−11−1
3−11−1
3−11−2
3−11−3
3−11−3
3−11−4
Section 12. Sea Lane Operations
3−12−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−12−2. DEPARTURE SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−12−3. ARRIVAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−12−1
3−12−1
3−12−1
Chapter 4. IFR
Section 1. NAVAID Use Limitations
4−1−1.
4−1−2.
4−1−3.
4−1−4.
4−1−5.
ALTITUDE AND DISTANCE LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXCEPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CROSSING ALTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VFR-ON-TOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FIX USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−1−1
4−1−2
4−1−2
4−1−2
4−1−2
Section 2. Clearances
4−2−1.
4−2−2.
4−2−3.
4−2−4.
4−2−5.
4−2−6.
4−2−7.
4−2−8.
vi
CLEARANCE ITEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEARANCE PREFIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DELIVERY INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEARANCE RELAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ROUTE OR ALTITUDE AMENDMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THROUGH CLEARANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTRV CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IFR−VFR AND VFR−IFR FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−2−1
4−2−1
4−2−1
4−2−1
4−2−1
4−2−3
4−2−3
4−2−3
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Paragraph
Page
4−2−9. CLEARANCE ITEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−2−10. CANCELLATION OF IFR FLIGHT PLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−2−3
4−2−4
Section 3. Departure Procedures
4−3−1.
4−3−2.
4−3−3.
4−3−4.
DEPARTURE TERMINOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DEPARTURE CLEARANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABBREVIATED DEPARTURE CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DEPARTURE RESTRICTIONS, CLEARANCE VOID TIMES, HOLD FOR
RELEASE, AND RELEASE TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−5. GROUND STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−6. DELAY SEQUENCING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−7. FORWARD DEPARTURE DELAY INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−8. COORDINATION WITH RECEIVING FACILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−9. VFR RELEASE OF IFR DEPARTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−10. FORWARDING DEPARTURE TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−1
4−3−1
4−3−4
4−3−6
4−3−8
4−3−8
4−3−8
4−3−8
4−3−8
4−3−8
Section 4. Route Assignment
4−4−1.
4−4−2.
4−4−3.
4−4−4.
4−4−5.
4−4−6.
ROUTE USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ROUTE STRUCTURE TRANSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DEGREE-DISTANCE ROUTE DEFINITION FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS . . . .
ALTERNATIVE ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLASS G AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIRECT CLEARANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−4−1
4−4−2
4−4−3
4−4−3
4−4−3
4−4−4
Section 5. Altitude Assignment and Verification
4−5−1.
4−5−2.
4−5−3.
4−5−4.
4−5−5.
4−5−6.
4−5−7.
4−5−8.
4−5−9.
VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLIGHT DIRECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXCEPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOWEST USABLE FLIGHT LEVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADJUSTED MINIMUM FLIGHT LEVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MINIMUM EN ROUTE ALTITUDES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ANTICIPATED ALTITUDE CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE CONFIRMATION− NONRADAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−5−1
4−5−1
4−5−1
4−5−2
4−5−2
4−5−2
4−5−3
4−5−8
4−5−8
Section 6. Holding Aircraft
4−6−1.
4−6−2.
4−6−3.
4−6−4.
4−6−5.
4−6−6.
4−6−7.
4−6−8.
CLEARANCE TO HOLDING FIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEARANCE BEYOND FIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DELAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HOLDING INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VISUAL HOLDING POINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HOLDING FLIGHT PATH DEVIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNMONITORED NAVAIDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ILS PROTECTION/CRITICAL AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−6−1
4−6−2
4−6−2
4−6−3
4−6−3
4−6−3
4−6−3
4−6−3
Section 7. Arrival Procedures
4−7−1. CLEARANCE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−2. ADVANCE DESCENT CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−3. SINGLE FREQUENCY APPROACHES (SFA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
4−7−1
4−7−1
4−7−1
vii
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Paragraph
Page
4−7−4. RADIO FREQUENCY AND RADAR BEACON CHANGES FOR MILITARY
AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−5. MILITARY TURBOJET EN ROUTE DESCENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−6. ARRIVAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−7. WEATHER INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−8. BELOW MINIMA REPORT BY PILOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−9. TRANSFER OF JURISDICTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−10. APPROACH INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−11. ARRIVAL INFORMATION BY APPROACH CONTROL FACILITIES . . . . . . . . .
4−7−12. AIRPORT CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−13. SWITCHING ILS/MLS RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−7−2
4−7−2
4−7−3
4−7−3
4−7−4
4−7−4
4−7−4
4−7−5
4−7−5
4−7−6
Section 8. Approach Clearance Procedures
4−8−1.
4−8−2.
4−8−3.
4−8−4.
APPROACH CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEARANCE LIMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RELAYED APPROACH CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENT FOR MILITARY HIGH ALTITUDE INSTRUMENT
APPROACHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−5. SPECIFYING ALTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−6. CIRCLING APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−7. SIDE−STEP MANEUVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−8. COMMUNICATIONS RELEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−9. MISSED APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−10. APPROACH INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−11. PRACTICE APPROACHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−12. LOW APPROACH AND TOUCH-AND-GO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−8−1
4−8−7
4−8−7
4−8−7
4−8−7
4−8−7
4−8−7
4−8−8
4−8−8
4−8−8
4−8−8
4−8−9
Chapter 5. Radar
Section 1. General
5−1−1. PRESENTATION AND EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−2. ALIGNMENT ACCURACY CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−3. RADAR USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−4. BEACON RANGE ACCURACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−5. ELECTRONIC ATTACK (EA) ACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−6. SERVICE LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−7. ELECTRONIC CURSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−8. MERGING TARGET PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−9. HOLDING PATTERN SURVEILLANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−10. DEVIATION ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−11. RADAR FIX POSTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−12. POSITION REPORTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−13. RADAR SERVICE TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−1
5−1−1
5−1−1
5−1−2
5−1−2
5−1−3
5−1−3
5−1−3
5−1−4
5−1−4
5−1−4
5−1−4
5−1−4
Section 2. Beacon Systems
5−2−1.
5−2−2.
5−2−3.
5−2−4.
viii
ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DISCRETE ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NONDISCRETE ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIXED ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−1
5−2−1
5−2−1
5−2−1
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Paragraph
Page
5−2−5. RADAR BEACON CODE CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−6. FUNCTION CODE ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−7. EMERGENCY CODE ASSIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−8. RADIO FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−9. VFR CODE ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−10. BEACON CODE FOR PRESSURE SUIT FLIGHTS AND FLIGHTS ABOVE
FL 600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−11. AIR DEFENSE EXERCISE BEACON CODE ASSIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−12. STANDBY OR LOW SENSITIVITY OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−13. CODE MONITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−14. FAILURE TO DISPLAY ASSIGNED BEACON CODE OR
INOPERATIVE/MALFUNCTIONING TRANSPONDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−15. INOPERATIVE OR MALFUNCTIONING INTERROGATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−16. FAILED TRANSPONDER IN CLASS A AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−17. VALIDATION OF MODE C READOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−18. ALTITUDE CONFIRMATION− MODE C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−19. ALTITUDE CONFIRMATION− NON−MODE C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−20. AUTOMATIC ALTITUDE REPORTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−21. INFLIGHT DEVIATIONS FROM TRANSPONDER/MODE C
REQUIREMENTS BETWEEN 10,000 FEET AND 18,000 FEET . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−22. BEACON TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−23. ALTITUDE FILTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−24. INOPERATIVE OR MALFUNCTIONING ADS-B TRANSMITTER . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−2
5−2−2
5−2−3
5−2−3
5−2−3
5−2−4
5−2−4
5−2−5
5−2−5
5−2−5
5−2−6
5−2−6
5−2−6
5−2−7
5−2−7
5−2−8
5−2−8
5−2−8
5−2−9
5−2−9
Section 3. Radar Identification
5−3−1.
5−3−2.
5−3−3.
5−3−4.
5−3−5.
5−3−6.
5−3−7.
5−3−8.
5−3−9.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIMARY RADAR IDENTIFICATION METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BEACON IDENTIFICATION METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TERMINAL AUTOMATION SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION METHODS . . . . . . . .
QUESTIONABLE IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
POSITION INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IDENTIFICATION STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TARGET MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TARGET MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−3−1
5−3−1
5−3−1
5−3−2
5−3−2
5−3−2
5−3−2
5−3−3
5−3−3
Section 4. Transfer of Radar Identification
5−4−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−2. TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−3. METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−4. TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−5. TRANSFERRING CONTROLLER HANDOFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−6. RECEIVING CONTROLLER HANDOFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−7. POINT OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−8. AUTOMATED INFORMATION TRANSFER (AIT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−9. INTERFACILITY AUTOMATED INFORMATION TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−10. PREARRANGED COORDINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−11. EN ROUTE FOURTH LINE DATA BLOCK USAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−1
5−4−1
5−4−1
5−4−2
5−4−2
5−4−3
5−4−4
5−4−4
5−4−5
5−4−5
5−4−5
Section 5. Radar Separation
5−5−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
5−5−1
ix
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Paragraph
Page
5−5−2. TARGET SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−3. TARGET RESOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−4. MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−5. VERTICAL APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−6. EXCEPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−7. PASSING OR DIVERGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−8. ADDITIONAL SEPARATION FOR FORMATION FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−9. SEPARATION FROM OBSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−10. ADJACENT AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−11. EDGE OF SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−12. BEACON TARGET DISPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−5−1
5−5−2
5−5−2
5−5−5
5−5−5
5−5−5
5−5−6
5−5−7
5−5−7
5−5−7
5−5−8
Section 6. Vectoring
5−6−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−6−2. METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−6−3. VECTORS BELOW MINIMUM ALTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−6−1
5−6−1
5−6−2
Section 7. Speed Adjustment
5−7−1.
5−7−2.
5−7−3.
5−7−4.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−7−1
5−7−2
5−7−3
5−7−4
Section 8. Radar Departures
5−8−1.
5−8−2.
5−8−3.
5−8−4.
5−8−5.
PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INITIAL HEADING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUCCESSIVE OR SIMULTANEOUS DEPARTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DEPARTURE AND ARRIVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DEPARTURES AND ARRIVALS ON PARALLEL OR NONINTERSECTING
DIVERGING RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−8−1
5−8−1
5−8−1
5−8−3
5−8−3
Section 9. Radar Arrivals
5−9−1.
5−9−2.
5−9−3.
5−9−4.
5−9−5.
5−9−6.
5−9−7.
5−9−8.
VECTORS TO FINAL APPROACH COURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FINAL APPROACH COURSE INTERCEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VECTORS ACROSS FINAL APPROACH COURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ARRIVAL INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPROACH SEPARATION RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SIMULTANEOUS DEPENDENT APPROACHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT APPROACHES− DUAL & TRIPLE . . . . . . . .
SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT CLOSE PARALLEL APPROACHES –
PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM) APPROACHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−9−9. SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET INSTRUMENT APPROACHES (SOIA)−
HIGH UPDATE RADAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−9−10. SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT APPROACHES TO WIDELY-SPACED
PARALLEL RUNWAYS WITHOUT FINAL MONITORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−9−11. TRANSITIONAL PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−9−1
5−9−1
5−9−2
5−9−2
5−9−5
5−9−6
5−9−7
5−9−9
5−9−10
5−9−13
5−9−14
Section 10. Radar Approaches− Terminal
5−10−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−2. APPROACH INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
5−10−1
5−10−1
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Paragraph
Page
5−10−3. NO-GYRO APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−4. LOST COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−5. RADAR CONTACT LOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−6. LANDING CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−7. POSITION INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−8. FINAL CONTROLLER CHANGEOVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−9. COMMUNICATIONS CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−10. TRANSMISSION ACKNOWLEDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−11. MISSED APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−12. LOW APPROACH AND TOUCH-AND-GO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−13. TOWER CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−14. FINAL APPROACH ABNORMALITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−15. MILITARY SINGLE FREQUENCY APPROACHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−10−2
5−10−2
5−10−3
5−10−3
5−10−3
5−10−3
5−10−4
5−10−4
5−10−4
5−10−4
5−10−4
5−10−5
5−10−5
Section 11. Surveillance Approaches− Terminal
5−11−1.
5−11−2.
5−11−3.
5−11−4.
5−11−5.
5−11−6.
ALTITUDE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VISUAL REFERENCE REPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DESCENT NOTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DESCENT INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FINAL APPROACH GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPROACH GUIDANCE TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−11−1
5−11−1
5−11−1
5−11−1
5−11−1
5−11−2
Section 12. PAR Approaches− Terminal
5−12−1. GLIDEPATH NOTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−2. DECISION HEIGHT (DH) NOTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−3. DESCENT INSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−4. GLIDEPATH AND COURSE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−5. DISTANCE FROM TOUCHDOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−6. DECISION HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−7. POSITION ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−8. APPROACH GUIDANCE TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−9. COMMUNICATION TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−10. ELEVATION FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−11. SURVEILLANCE UNUSABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−12−1
5−12−1
5−12−1
5−12−1
5−12−1
5−12−1
5−12−1
5−12−2
5−12−2
5−12−2
5−12−3
Section 13. Use of PAR for Approach Monitoring− Terminal
5−13−1. MONITOR ON PAR EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−13−2. MONITOR AVAILABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−13−3. MONITOR INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−13−1
5−13−1
5−13−1
Section 14. Automation− En Route
5−14−1.
5−14−2.
5−14−3.
5−14−4.
5−14−5.
5−14−6.
5−14−7.
5−14−8.
CONFLICT ALERT (CA) AND MODE C INTRUDER (MCI) ALERT . . . . . . . . . .
EN ROUTE MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARNING (E-MSAW) . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPUTER ENTRY OF FLIGHT PLAN INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENTRY OF REPORTED ALTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SELECTED ALTITUDE LIMITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTOR ELIGIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COAST TRACKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTROLLER INITIATED COAST TRACKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
5−14−1
5−14−1
5−14−2
5−14−2
5−14−2
5−14−2
5−14−3
5−14−3
xi
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Paragraph
Page
5−14−9. ERAM COMPUTER ENTRY OF HOLD INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−14−10. ERAM VISUAL INDICATOR OF SPECIAL ACTIVITY AIRSPACE (SAA)
STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−14−3
5−14−3
Section 15. Common Automated Radar Terminal Systems (CARTS)
& Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System
(STARS)−Terminal
5−15−1.
5−15−2.
5−15−3.
5−15−4.
5−15−5.
5−15−6.
5−15−7.
5−15−8.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FUNCTIONAL USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFORMATION DISPLAYED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CA/MCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INHIBITING MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARNING (MSAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRACK SUSPEND FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−15−1
5−15−1
5−15−1
5−15−1
5−15−1
5−15−2
5−15−2
5−15−2
Chapter 6. Nonradar
Section 1. General
6−1−1.
6−1−2.
6−1−3.
6−1−4.
6−1−5.
DISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NONRECEIPT OF POSITION REPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DUPLICATE POSITION REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADJACENT AIRPORT OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ARRIVAL MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−1−1
6−1−1
6−1−1
6−1−1
6−1−1
Section 2. Initial Separation of Successive Departing Aircraft
6−2−1. MINIMA ON DIVERGING COURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−2−2. MINIMA ON SAME COURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−2−1
6−2−3
Section 3. Initial Separation of Departing and Arriving Aircraft
6−3−1. SEPARATION MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−3−1
Section 4. Longitudinal Separation
6−4−1.
6−4−2.
6−4−3.
6−4−4.
6−4−5.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MINIMA ON SAME, CONVERGING, OR CROSSING COURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MINIMA ON OPPOSITE COURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION BY PILOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RNAV AIRCRAFT ALONG VOR AIRWAYS/ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−1
6−4−1
6−4−5
6−4−6
6−4−6
Section 5. Lateral Separation
6−5−1.
6−5−2.
6−5−3.
6−5−4.
6−5−5.
SEPARATION METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MINIMA ON DIVERGING RADIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DME ARC MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MINIMA ALONG OTHER THAN ESTABLISHED AIRWAYS OR ROUTES . . . . .
RNAV MINIMA− DIVERGING/CROSSING COURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−5−1
6−5−1
6−5−2
6−5−2
6−5−4
Section 6. Vertical Separation
6−6−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xii
6−6−1
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Paragraph
Page
6−6−2. EXCEPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−6−3. SEPARATION BY PILOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−6−1
6−6−1
Section 7. Timed Approaches
6−7−1.
6−7−2.
6−7−3.
6−7−4.
6−7−5.
6−7−6.
6−7−7.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPROACH SEQUENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEQUENCE INTERRUPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LEVEL FLIGHT RESTRICTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTERVAL MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIME CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MISSED APPROACHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−7−1
6−7−1
6−7−2
6−7−2
6−7−2
6−7−2
6−7−2
Chapter 7. Visual
Section 1. General
7−1−1.
7−1−2.
7−1−3.
7−1−4.
CLASS A AIRSPACE RESTRICTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VFR CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE FOR VFR ARRIVING AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . .
VISUAL HOLDING OF VFR AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−1
7−1−1
7−1−1
7−1−1
Section 2. Visual Separation
7−2−1. VISUAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−2−1
Section 3. VFR-On-Top
7−3−1. VFR-ON-TOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−3−2. ALTITUDE FOR DIRECTION OF FLIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−3−1
7−3−2
Section 4. Approaches
7−4−1.
7−4−2.
7−4−3.
7−4−4.
7−4−5.
VISUAL APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VECTORS FOR VISUAL APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEARANCE FOR VISUAL APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPROACHES TO MULTIPLE RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHARTED VISUAL FLIGHT PROCEDURES (CVFP). USA/USN NOT
APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−4−6. CONTACT APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−4−1
7−4−1
7−4−1
7−4−2
7−4−3
7−4−4
Section 5. Special VFR (SVFR)
7−5−1.
7−5−2.
7−5−3.
7−5−4.
7−5−5.
7−5−6.
7−5−7.
7−5−8.
AUTHORIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOCAL OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLIMB TO VFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GROUND VISIBILITY BELOW ONE MILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLIGHT VISIBILITY BELOW ONE MILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−5−1
7−5−1
7−5−2
7−5−2
7−5−3
7−5−3
7−5−3
7−5−4
Section 6. Basic Radar Service to VFR Aircraft− Terminal
7−6−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
7−6−1
xiii
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Paragraph
Page
7−6−2. SERVICE AVAILABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−3. INITIAL CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−4. IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−5. HOLDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−6. APPROACH SEQUENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−7. SEQUENCING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−8. CONTROL TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−9. ABANDONED APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−10. VFR DEPARTURE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−11. TERMINATION OF SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−12. SERVICE PROVIDED WHEN TOWER IS INOPERATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−6−1
7−6−1
7−6−1
7−6−1
7−6−1
7−6−1
7−6−2
7−6−2
7−6−2
7−6−2
7−6−3
Section 7. Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)− Terminal
7−7−1.
7−7−2.
7−7−3.
7−7−4.
7−7−5.
7−7−6.
7−7−7.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ISSUANCE OF EFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HELICOPTER TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPROACH INTERVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRSA DEPARTURE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−7−1
7−7−1
7−7−1
7−7−1
7−7−1
7−7−1
7−7−1
Section 8. Class C Service− Terminal
7−8−1.
7−8−2.
7−8−3.
7−8−4.
7−8−5.
7−8−6.
7−8−7.
7−8−8.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLASS C SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ESTABLISHING TWO-WAY COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXCEPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADJACENT AIRPORT OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TERMINATION OF SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−8−1
7−8−1
7−8−1
7−8−1
7−8−2
7−8−2
7−8−2
7−8−2
Section 9. Class B Service Area− Terminal
7−9−1.
7−9−2.
7−9−3.
7−9−4.
7−9−5.
7−9−6.
7−9−7.
7−9−8.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VFR AIRCRAFT IN CLASS B AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRAFFIC ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HELICOPTER TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPROACH INTERVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−9−1
7−9−1
7−9−1
7−9−2
7−9−2
7−9−2
7−9−2
7−9−2
Chapter 8. Offshore/Oceanic Procedures
Section 1. General
8−1−1.
8−1−2.
8−1−3.
8−1−4.
xiv
ATC SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATIONS IN OFFSHORE AIRSPACE AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VFR FLIGHT PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TYPES OF SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−1−1
8−1−1
8−1−1
8−1−1
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Paragraph
8−1−5.
8−1−6.
8−1−7.
8−1−8.
8−1−9.
Page
ALTIMETER SETTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RECEIPT OF POSITION REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OCEANIC ERROR REPORT PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USE OF CONTROL ESTIMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RVSM OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−1−1
8−1−1
8−1−1
8−1−1
8−1−1
Section 2. Coordination
8−2−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−2−2. TRANSFER OF CONTROL AND COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−2−3. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES INTERFACILITY DATA COMMUNICATIONS (AIDC)
8−2−1
8−2−1
8−2−1
Section 3. Longitudinal Separation
8−3−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−3−2. SEPARATION METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−3−3. MACH NUMBER TECHNIQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−3−1
8−3−1
8−3−2
Section 4. Lateral Separation
8−4−1.
8−4−2.
8−4−3.
8−4−4.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REDUCTION OF ROUTE PROTECTED AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRACK SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−4−1
8−4−1
8−4−3
8−4−4
Section 5. Offshore/Oceanic Transition Procedures
8−5−1.
8−5−2.
8−5−3.
8−5−4.
8−5−5.
ALTITUDE/FLIGHT LEVEL TRANSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COURSE DIVERGENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPPOSITE DIRECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAME DIRECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RADAR IDENTIFICATION APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−5−1
8−5−1
8−5−1
8−5−2
8−5−2
Section 6. Separation from Airspace Reservations
8−6−1. TEMPORARY STATIONARY AIRSPACE RESERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−6−2. REFUSAL OF AVOIDANCE CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−6−3. TEMPORARY MOVING AIRSPACE RESERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−6−1
8−6−1
8−6−1
Section 7. North Atlantic ICAO Region
8−7−1.
8−7−2.
8−7−3.
8−7−4.
8−7−5.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VERTICAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LATERAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROCEDURES FOR WEATHER DEVIATIONS IN NORTH ATLANTIC (NAT)
AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−7−1
8−7−1
8−7−1
8−7−2
8−7−2
Section 8. Caribbean ICAO Region
8−8−1.
8−8−2.
8−8−3.
8−8−4.
8−8−5.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VERTICAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LATERAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VFR CLIMB AND DESCENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
8−8−1
8−8−1
8−8−1
8−8−2
8−8−2
xv
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Section 9. Pacific ICAO Region
Paragraph
8−9−1.
8−9−2.
8−9−3.
8−9−4.
8−9−5.
8−9−6.
8−9−7.
8−9−8.
Page
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VERTICAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LATERAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPOSITE SEPARATION MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPOSITE SEPARATION ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPOSITE SEPARATION APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROCEDURES FOR WEATHER DEVIATIONS AND OTHER
CONTINGENCIES IN OCEANIC CONTROLLED AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−9−1
8−9−1
8−9−1
8−9−2
8−9−2
8−9−2
8−9−3
8−9−4
Section 10. North American ICAO Region
8−10−1.
8−10−2.
8−10−3.
8−10−4.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VERTICAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LATERAL SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−10−1
8−10−1
8−10−1
8−10−1
Chapter 9. Special Flights
Section 1. General
9−1−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−1−2. SPECIAL HANDLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−1−3. FLIGHT CHECK AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−1−1
9−1−1
9−1−1
Section 2. Special Operations
9−2−1. AIRCRAFT CARRYING DANGEROUS MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−2. CELESTIAL NAVIGATION TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−3. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) SPECIAL FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−4. EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−5. FAA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−6. FLYNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−7. IFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−8. INTERCEPTOR OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−9. SPECIAL INTEREST SITES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−10. WASHINGTON, DC, SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (DC SFRA)/ATC
SECURITY SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−11. SECURITY NOTICE (SECNOT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−12. LAW ENFORCEMENT OPERATIONS BY CIVIL AND MILITARY
ORGANIZATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−13. MILITARY AERIAL REFUELING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−14. MILITARY OPERATIONS ABOVE FL 600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−15. MILITARY SPECIAL USE FREQUENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−16. AVOIDANCE OF AREAS OF NUCLEAR RADIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−17. SAMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−18. AWACS/NORAD SPECIAL FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−19. WEATHER RECONNAISSANCE FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−20. EVASIVE ACTION MANEUVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−21. NONSTANDARD FORMATION/CELL OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−22. OPEN SKIES TREATY AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xvi
9−2−1
9−2−1
9−2−1
9−2−2
9−2−2
9−2−2
9−2−2
9−2−4
9−2−4
9−2−4
9−2−5
9−2−5
9−2−6
9−2−7
9−2−8
9−2−8
9−2−8
9−2−9
9−2−9
9−2−9
9−2−10
9−2−10
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 3. Special Use, ATC−Assigned Airspace, and Stationary
ALTRVs
Paragraph
9−3−1.
9−3−2.
9−3−3.
9−3−4.
Page
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VFR-ON-TOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRANSITING ACTIVE SUA/ATCAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−3−1
9−3−1
9−3−1
9−3−2
Section 4. Fuel Dumping
9−4−1.
9−4−2.
9−4−3.
9−4−4.
9−4−5.
INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ROUTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFORMATION DISSEMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−4−1
9−4−1
9−4−1
9−4−1
9−4−1
Section 5. Jettisoning of External Stores
9−5−1. JETTISONING OF EXTERNAL STORES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−5−1
Section 6. Unmanned Free Balloons
9−6−1. APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−6−2. DERELICT BALLOONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−6−1
9−6−2
Section 7. Parachute Operations
9−7−1.
9−7−2.
9−7−3.
9−7−4.
COORDINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLASS A, CLASS B, AND CLASS C AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLASS D AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER CONTROL AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−7−1
9−7−1
9−7−1
9−7−1
Section 8. Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) Reports
9−8−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−8−1
Chapter 10. Emergencies
Section 1. General
10−1−1.
10−1−2.
10−1−3.
10−1−4.
10−1−5.
10−1−6.
10−1−7.
EMERGENCY DETERMINATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OBTAINING INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROVIDING ASSISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COORDINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRPORT GROUND EMERGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFLIGHT EMERGENCIES INVOLVING MILITARY FIGHTER-TYPE
AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−1
10−1−1
10−1−1
10−1−1
10−1−2
10−1−2
10−1−2
Section 2. Emergency Assistance
10−2−1.
10−2−2.
10−2−3.
10−2−4.
INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FREQUENCY CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT ORIENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTITUDE CHANGE FOR IMPROVED RECEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
10−2−1
10−2−1
10−2−1
10−2−1
xvii
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Paragraph
Page
10−2−5. EMERGENCY SITUATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−6. HIJACKED AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−7. VFR AIRCRAFT IN WEATHER DIFFICULTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−8. RADAR ASSISTANCE TO VFR AIRCRAFT IN WEATHER DIFFICULTY . . . . .
10−2−9. RADAR ASSISTANCE TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−10. EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT) SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−11. AIRCRAFT BOMB THREATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−12. EXPLOSIVE DETECTION K−9 TEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−13. MANPADS ALERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−14. UNAUTHORIZED LASER ILLUMINATION OF AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−15. EMERGENCY AIRPORT RECOMMENDATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−16. GUIDANCE TO EMERGENCY AIRPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−17. EMERGENCY OBSTRUCTION VIDEO MAP (EOVM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−18. VOLCANIC ASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−19. REPORTING DEATH, ILLNESS, OR OTHER PUBLIC HEALTH RISK ON
BOARD AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−2−1
10−2−2
10−2−2
10−2−2
10−2−3
10−2−3
10−2−4
10−2−5
10−2−5
10−2−5
10−2−6
10−2−6
10−2−6
10−2−6
10−2−7
Section 3. Overdue Aircraft
10−3−1.
10−3−2.
10−3−3.
10−3−4.
10−3−5.
10−3−6.
10−3−7.
OVERDUE AIRCRAFT/OTHER SITUATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFORMATION TO BE FORWARDED TO ARTCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFORMATION TO BE FORWARDED TO RCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALNOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESPONSIBILITY TRANSFER TO RCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LAST KNOWN POSITION DETERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALNOT CANCELLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−3−1
10−3−1
10−3−1
10−3−2
10−3−2
10−3−3
10−3−3
Section 4. Control Actions
10−4−1.
10−4−2.
10−4−3.
10−4−4.
TRAFFIC RESTRICTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRAFFIC RESUMPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−4−1
10−4−1
10−4−1
10−4−1
Section 5. Miscellaneous Operations
10−5−1. EXPLOSIVE CARGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−5−1
Section 6. Oceanic Emergency Procedures
10−6−1.
10−6−2.
10−6−3.
10−6−4.
10−6−5.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PHASES OF EMERGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALERTING SERVICE AND SPECIAL ASSISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFLIGHT CONTINGENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SERVICES TO RESCUE AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−6−1
10−6−1
10−6−1
10−6−2
10−6−3
Section 7. Ground Missile Emergencies
10−7−1.
10−7−2.
10−7−3.
10−7−4.
10−7−5.
INFORMATION RELAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IFR AND SVFR MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VFR MINIMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMOKE COLUMN AVOIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXTENDED NOTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−7−1
10−7−1
10−7−1
10−7−1
10−7−1
Chapter 11. Traffic Management Procedures
Section 1. General
11−1−1. DUTY RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xviii
11−1−1
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Paragraph
Page
11−1−2. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−1−3. TIME BASED FLOW MANAGEMENT (TBFM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−1−1
11−1−2
Chapter 12. Canadian Airspace Procedures
Section 1. General Control
12−1−1.
12−1−2.
12−1−3.
12−1−4.
12−1−5.
12−1−6.
12−1−7.
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRSPACE CLASSIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ONE THOUSAND−ON−TOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DEPARTURE CLEARANCE/COMMUNICATION FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PARACHUTE JUMPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPECIAL VFR (SVFR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−1
12−1−1
12−1−1
12−1−1
12−1−2
12−1−2
12−1−2
Chapter 13. Decision Support Tools
Section 1. ERAM Decision Support Tools (EDST)
13−1−1.
13−1−2.
13−1−3.
13−1−4.
13−1−5.
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONFLICT DETECTION AND RESOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRIAL PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONFLICT PROBE-BASED CLEARANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE AIRCRAFT LIST (ACL), DEPARTURE LIST (DL) AND FLIGHT DATA
MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−6. MANUAL COORDINATION AND THE COORDINATION MENU . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−7. HOLDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−8. RECORDING OF CONTROL DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF AUTOMATED NOTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−10. CURRENCY OF TRAJECTORY INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−11. DELAY REPORTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−12. OVERDUE AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−13. USE OF GRAPHICS PLAN DISPLAY (GPD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−14. FORECAST WINDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−15. INTERFACILITY CONNECTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−16. SURVEILLANCE AND FLIGHT DATA OUTAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−17. AIRSPACE CONFIGURATION ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−1
13−1−1
13−1−1
13−1−1
13−1−1
13−1−2
13−1−2
13−1−2
13−1−5
13−1−5
13−1−5
13−1−5
13−1−6
13−1−6
13−1−6
13−1−6
13−1−6
Section 2. Ocean21 − Oceanic
13−2−1.
13−2−2.
13−2−3.
13−2−4.
13−2−5.
13−2−6.
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONFLICT DETECTION AND RESOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTROLLER PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC) . . . . . . . . . .
COORDINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TEAM RESPONSIBILITIES − MULTIPLE PERSON OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
13−2−1
13−2−1
13−2−2
13−2−3
13−2−4
13−2−4
xix
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Appendices
Paragraph
Page
Appendix A. Aircraft Information Fixed‐Wing Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix A-1
Appendix B. Aircraft Information Helicopters/Rotorcrafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B-1
Appendix C. Aircraft Information Specific Amateur-Built/Experimental Aircraft . . . .
Appendix C-1
Appendix D. Standard Operating Practice (SOP) for the Transfer of Position Responsibility Appendix D-1
PILOT/CONTROLLER GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PCG−1
xx
Table of Contents
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 1. General
Section 1. Introduction
1−1−1. PURPOSE OF THIS ORDER
This order prescribes air traffic control procedures
and phraseology for use by persons providing
air traffic control services. Controllers are required to
be familiar with the provisions of this order that
pertain to their operational responsibilities and to
exercise their best judgment if they encounter
situations that are not covered by it.
1−1−2. AUDIENCE
TBL 1−1−1
Publication Schedule
Basic or
Change
Cutoff Date for Effective Date
Submission
of Publication
JO 7110.65W
6/25/15
12/10/15
Change 1
12/10/15
5/26/16
Change 2
5/26/16
11/10/16
Change 3
11/10/16
4/27/17
JO 7110.65X
4/27/17
10/12/17
1−1−7. DELIVERY DATES
This order applies to all ATO personnel and anyone
using ATO directives.
a. If an FAA facility has not received the
order/changes at least 30 days before the above
effective dates, the facility must notify its service area
office distribution officer.
1−1−3. WHERE TO FIND THIS ORDER
b. If a military facility has not received the
order/changes at least 30 days before the above
effective dates, the facility must notify its appropriate
military headquarters. (See TBL 1−1−2.)
This order is available on the FAA Web site at
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices.
TBL 1−1−2
1−1−4. WHAT THIS ORDER CANCELS
FAA Order JO 7110.65V, Air Traffic Control, dated
April 3, 2014, and all changes to it are canceled.
1−1−5. EXPLANATION OF CHANGES
The significant changes to this order are identified in
the Explanation of Changes page(s). It is advisable to
retain the page(s) throughout the duration of the basic
order.
1−1−6. SUBMISSION CUTOFF AND
EFFECTIVE DATES
This order and its changes are scheduled to be
published to coincide with AIRAC dates.
(See TBL 1−1−1.)
Introduction
Military Distribution Contacts
Military
Headquarters
DSN
Commercial
U.S. Army
USAASA
656−4868 (703) 806−4868
U.S. Air Force
884-5509
U.S. Navy
CNO (N980A)
224−2638 (703) 614−2638
HQ AFFSA
(405) 734-5509
1−1−8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
PROCEDURAL CHANGES
The office of primary responsibility (OPR) for this
order is:
FAA Headquarters, Mission Support Services
Air Traffic Procedures (AJV-8)
600 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20597
a. Personnel should submit recommended
changes in procedures to facility management.
1−1−1
JO 7110.65W
b. Recommendations from other sources should
be submitted through appropriate FAA, military, or
industry/user channels.
c. Proposed changes must be submitted,
electronically, to the Air Traffic Procedures
Correspondence
Mailbox
at
9−AJV−8−HQ−[email protected] The
submission should include a description of the
recommended change, and the proposed language to
be used in the order.
d. Procedural changes will not be made to this
order until the operational system software has been
adapted to accomplish the revised procedures
1−1−9. PROCEDURAL LETTERS OF
AGREEMENT
Procedures/minima which are applied jointly or
otherwise require the cooperation or concurrence of
more than one facility/organization must be documented in a letter of agreement. Letters of agreement
only supplement this order. Any minima they specify
must not be less than that specified herein unless
appropriate military authority has authorized application of reduced separation between military aircraft.
12/10/15
TBL 1−1−3
Military Operations Interface Offices
Branch
Address
U.S. Navy
Department of the Navy
Chief of Naval Operations
N980A, NAATSEA
2000 Navy Pentagon (5D453)
Washington, D.C. 20350−2000
U.S. Air Force
HQ AFFSA/A3A
Bldg 4 Room 240
6500 S. MacArthur Blvd
Oklahoma City, OK 73169
Email: [email protected]
U.S. Army
Director
USAASA (MOAS−AS)
9325 Gunston Road, Suite N319
Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060−5582
NOTE−
Terminal: Headquarters USAF has delegated to Major Air
Command, Directors of Operations (MAJCOM/DOs)
authority to reduce same runway separation standards for
military aircraft. These are specified and approved by
affected ATC and user units. When applied, appropriate
advisories may be required; e.g., “(A/C call sign) continue
straight ahead on right side; F−16 landing behind on left.”
“(A/C call sign) hold position on right side; F−5 behind on
left.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−3, Use of Active Runways.
a. Exceptional or unusual requirements may
dictate procedural deviations or supplementary
procedures to this order. Prior to implementing
supplemental or any procedural deviation that alters
the level, quality, or degree of service, obtain prior
approval from the Vice President, Mission Support
Services.
1−1−11. SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(SMS)
Every employee is responsible to ensure the safety of
equipment and procedures used in the provision of
services within the National Airspace System (NAS).
Risk assessment techniques and mitigations, as
appropriate, are intended for implementation of any
planned safety significant changes within the NAS, as
directed by FAA Order 1100.161, Air Traffic Safety
Oversight. Direction regarding the SMS and its
application can be found in the FAA Safety
Management System Manual and FAA
Order 1100.161. The SMS will be implemented
through a period of transitional activities. (Additional
information pertaining to these requirements and
processes can be obtained by contacting the service
area offices.)
b. If military operations or facilities are involved,
prior approval by the following appropriate
headquarters is required for subsequent interface with
FAA. (See TBL 1−1−3.)
1−1−12. REFERENCES TO FAA NON−AIR
TRAFFIC ORGANIZATIONS
When references are made to regional office
organizations that are not part of the Air Traffic
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−1, ATC Service.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−1, Letters of Agreement.
1−1−10. CONSTRAINTS GOVERNING
SUPPLEMENTS AND PROCEDURAL
DEVIATIONS
1−1−2
Introduction
12/10/15
Organization (i.e., Communications Center, Flight
Standards, Airport offices, etc.), the facility should
contact the FAA region where the facility is
physically located − not the region where the
facility’s service area office is located.
1−1−13. DISTRIBUTION
This order is distributed to selected offices in
Introduction
JO 7110.65W
Washington headquarters, regional offices, service
area offices, the William J. Hughes Technical Center,
and the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center. Also,
copies are sent to all air traffic field facilities and
international aviation field offices; and to interested
aviation public.
1−1−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Terms of Reference
1−2−1. WORD MEANINGS
As used in this order:
a. “Shall” or “must” means a procedure is
mandatory.
b. “Shall not” or “must not” means a procedure is
prohibited.
o. Flight operations in accordance with the options
of “due regard” or “operational” obligates the
authorized state aircraft commander to:
1. Separate his/her aircraft from all other
air traffic; and
c. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.
2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency
assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions;
and
d. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is
optional.
3. Operate under at least one of the following
conditions:
e. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the
application of a procedure.
(a) In visual meteorological conditions
(VMC); or
f. Singular words include the plural.
g. Plural words include the singular.
h. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members,
or both.
i. “Approved separation” means separation in
accordance with the applicable minima in this order.
j. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea
level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
k. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise
specified, and means statute miles in conjunction
with visibility.
l. “Course,” “bearing,” “azimuth,” “heading,” and
“wind direction” information must always be
magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.
m. “Time” when used for ATC operational
activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated
Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is
made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time
checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.
n. “Runway” means the runway used by aircraft
and, unless otherwise specified, does not include
helipads and/or their accompanying takeoff/landing
courses. (See Pilot/Controller Glossary terms –
Runway and Helipad.)
Terms of Reference
(b) Wthin radar surveillance and radio
communications of a surface radar facility; or
(c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is
sufficient to provide separation between his/her
aircraft and any other aircraft he/she may be
controlling and other aircraft; or
(d) Operate within Class G airspace.
(e) An understanding between the pilot and
controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the
status of the flight should be arrived at before the
aircraft leaves ATC frequency.
NOTE−
1. A pilot’s use of the phrase “Going Tactical” does not
indicate “Due Regard.” An understanding between the
pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the
status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft
leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
2. The above conditions provide for a level of safety
equivalent to that normally given by International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills
U.S. Government obligations under Article 3 of the
Chicago Convention of 1944 (Reference (d)), which
stipulates there must be “due regard for the safety of
navigation of civil aircraft” when flight is not being
conducted under ICAO flight procedures.
p. “CFR” means Code of Federal Regulations.
1−2−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 1−2−1
Divergence
1−2−2. COURSE DEFINITIONS
The following definitions must be used in the
application of the separation criteria in this order.
NOTE−
The term “protected airspace,” as used in this paragraph,
is the airspace equal to one half the required applicable
lateral separation on either side of an aircraft along its
projected flight path. If the protected airspace of
two aircraft does not overlap, applicable lateral separation is ensured.
a. SAME COURSES are courses whose protected
airspaces are coincident, overlap, or intersect and
whose angular difference is less than 45 degrees.
(See FIG 1−2−1.)
1−2−2
b. CROSSING COURSES are intersecting courses
whose angular difference is 45 through 135 degrees
inclusive. (See FIG 1−2−1.)
c. OPPOSITE/RECIPROCAL COURSES are
courses whose protected airspaces are coincident,
overlap, or intersect and whose angular difference is
greater than 135 degrees through 180 degrees
inclusive. (See FIG 1−2−1.)
1−2−3. NOTES
Statements of fact, or of a prefatory or explanatory
nature relating to directive material, are set forth as
notes.
Terms of Reference
12/10/15
1−2−4. REFERENCES
As used in this order, references direct attention to an
additional or supporting source of information such
as FAA, NWS, and other agencies’ orders, directives,
notices, CFRs, and Advisory Circulars (ACs).
1−2−5. ANNOTATIONS
Revised, reprinted, or new pages are marked as
follows:
a. The change number and the effective date are
printed on each revised or additional page.
b. A page that does not require a change is
reprinted in its original form.
c. Bold vertical lines in the margin of changed
pages indicate the location of substantive revisions to
the order. Bold vertical lines adjacent to the title of a
chapter, section, or paragraph means that extensive
changes have been made to that chapter, section, or
paragraph.
JO 7110.65W
h. The annotation EXAMPLE provides a sample of
the way the prescribed phraseology associated with
the preceding paragraph(s) will be used. If the
preceding paragraph(s) does (do) not include specific
prescribed phraseology, the EXAMPLE merely
denotes suggested words and/or phrases that may be
used in communications.
NOTE−
The use of the exact text contained in an example not
preceded with specific prescribed phraseology is not
mandatory. However, the words and/or phrases are
expected, to the extent practical, to approximate those used
in the example.
1−2−6. ABBREVIATIONS
As used in this manual, the following abbreviations
have the meanings indicated. (See TBL 1−2−1.)
TBL 1−2−1
FAA Order JO 7110.65 Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Meaning
AAR . . . . . . .
Airport acceptance rate
d. Paragraphs/sections
annotated
with
EN ROUTE, OCEANIC, or TERMINAL are only to
be applied by the designated type facility. When they
are not so designated, the paragraphs/sections apply
to all types of facilities (en route, oceanic, and
terminal).
AC . . . . . . . .
Advisory Circular
ACC . . . . . . .
Area Control Center
ACD . . . . . . .
ARTS Color Display
ACE−IDS . . .
ASOS Controller Equipment− Information
Display System
ACL . . . . . . .
Aircraft list
e. The annotation, USAF for the U.S. Air Force,
USN for the U.S. Navy, and USA for the U.S. Army
denotes that the procedure immediately following the
annotation applies only to the designated service.
ACLS . . . . . .
Automatic Carrier Landing System
ADC . . . . . . .
Aerospace Defense Command
ADIZ . . . . . .
Air Defense Identification Zone (to be
pronounced “AY DIZ”)
ADS . . . . . . .
Automatic Dependent Surveillance
ADS−B . . . . .
Automatic Dependent Surveillance
Broadcast
ADS−C . . . . .
Automatic Dependent Surveillance
Contract
AERT . . . . . .
Automation Embedded Route Text
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−12, Military Procedures.
f. WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION inserted within a paragraph means that the remaining
information in the paragraph requires the application
of wake turbulence procedures.
AFP . . . . . . .
Airspace Flow Program
g. The annotation PHRASEOLOGY denotes the
prescribed words and/or phrases to be used in
communications.
AIDC . . . . . .
ATS Interfacility Data Communications
AIM . . . . . . .
Aeronautical Information Manual
AIRMET . . .
Airmen’s meteorological information
NOTE−
Controllers may, after first using the prescribed
phraseology for a specific procedure, rephrase the
message to ensure the content is understood. Good
judgment must be exercised when using nonstandard
phraseology.
ALERFA . . .
Alert phase code (Alerting Service)
ALNOT . . . .
Alert notice
ALS . . . . . . .
Approach Light System
ALTRV . . . . .
Altitude reservation
AMASS . . . .
Airport Movement Area Safety System
Terms of Reference
1−2−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Abbreviation
Meaning
Abbreviation
AMB . . . . . .
Ambiguity−A disparity greater than 2 miles
exists between the position declared for a
target by ATTS and another facility’s
computer declared position during
interfacility handoff
CFR . . . . . . .
Code of Federal Regulations
CFR . . . . . . .
Call for Release
CIC . . . . . . . .
Controller−in−Charge
CNS . . . . . . .
Continuous
AMVER . . . .
Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel
Rescue System
CPDLC . . . . .
Controller Pilot Data Link
Communications
ANG . . . . . . .
Air National Guard
CPME . . . . . .
APR . . . . . . .
ATC preferred route
Calibration Performance Monitor
Equipment
APREQ . . . .
Approval Request
CTA . . . . . . .
Control Area
ARINC . . . . .
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
CTRD . . . . . .
Certified Tower Radar Display
ARIP . . . . . .
Air refueling initial point
CVFP . . . . . .
Charted Visual Flight Procedure
ARSR . . . . . .
Air route surveillance radar
CWA . . . . . . .
Center Weather Advisory
ARTCC . . . . .
Air Route Traffic Control Center
DETRESFA .
Distress Phase code (Alerting Service)
ARTS . . . . . .
Automated Radar Terminal System
DH . . . . . . . .
Decision height
ASD . . . . . . .
Aircraft Situation Display
DL . . . . . . . .
Departure List
ASDE . . . . . .
Airport surface detection equipment
DME . . . . . . .
ASDE−X . . .
Airport Surface Detection Equipment
System − Model X
Distance measuring equipment compatible
with TACAN
DOE . . . . . . .
Department of Energy
ASF . . . . . . .
Airport Stream Filters
DP . . . . . . . .
Instrument Departure Procedure
ASOS . . . . . .
Automated Surface Observing System
DR . . . . . . . .
Dead reckoning
ASR . . . . . . .
Airport surveillance radar
DRT . . . . . . .
Diversion recovery tool
ATC . . . . . . .
Air traffic control
DSR . . . . . . .
Display System Replacement
ATCAA . . . .
ATC assigned airspace
DTAS . . . . . .
Digital Terminal Automation Systems
ATCSCC . . . .
David J. Hurley Air Traffic Control System
Command Center
DTM . . . . . . .
Digital Terrain Map
ATD . . . . . . .
Along−Track Distance
DVFR . . . . . .
Defense Visual Flight Rules
ATIS . . . . . . .
Automatic Terminal Information Service
DVRSN . . . .
Diversion
ATO . . . . . . .
Air Traffic Organization
EA . . . . . . . .
Electronic Attack
ATO COO . .
Air Traffic Organization Chief Operating
Officer
EAS . . . . . . .
En Route Automation System
EBUS . . . . . .
Enhanced Backup Surveillance System
ATS . . . . . . .
Air Traffic Service
EDCT . . . . . .
Expect Departure Clearance Time
AWOS . . . . .
Automated Weather Observing System
EDST . . . . . .
En Route Decision Support Tool
BAASS . . . . .
Bigelow Aerospace Advanced Space
Studies
EFC . . . . . . .
Expect further clearance
ELDB . . . . . .
Enhanced Limited Data Block
BASE . . . . . .
Cloud base
ELP . . . . . . .
Emergency Landing Pattern
CA . . . . . . . .
Conflict Alert
ELT . . . . . . . .
Emergency locator transmitter
CARCAH . . .
Chief, Aerial Reconnaissance
Coordination, All Hurricanes
EOS . . . . . . .
End Service
EOVM . . . . .
Emergency obstruction video map
CARF . . . . . .
Central Altitude Reservation Function
ERAM . . . . .
En Route Automation Modernization
CARTS . . . . .
Common ARTS
ERIDS . . . . .
En Route Information Display System
CAT . . . . . . .
Clear air turbulence
ETA . . . . . . .
Estimated time of arrival
CDT . . . . . . .
Controlled departure time
FAA . . . . . . .
Federal Aviation Administration
CENRAP . . .
Center Radar ARTS Presentation
FAAO . . . . . .
FAA Order
CEP . . . . . . .
Central East Pacific
FANS . . . . . .
Future Air Navigation System
CERAP . . . . .
Combined Center/RAPCON
1−2−4
Meaning
Terms of Reference
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Abbreviation
Meaning
Abbreviation
Meaning
FDB . . . . . . .
Full Data Block
LORAN . . . .
Long Range Navigation System
FDIO . . . . . .
Flight Data Input/Output
Mach . . . . . .
Mach number
FDP . . . . . . .
Flight data processing
MALS . . . . .
Medium Intensity Approach Light System
FIR . . . . . . . .
Flight Information Region
MALSR . . . .
FL . . . . . . . . .
Flight level
Medium Approach Light System with
runway alignment indicator lights
FLIP . . . . . . .
Flight Information Publication
MAP . . . . . . .
Missed approach point
FLM . . . . . . .
Front−Line Manager
MARSA . . . .
FLY . . . . . . .
Fly or flying
Military authority assumes responsibility
for separation of aircraft
FMS . . . . . . .
Flight Management System
MCA . . . . . .
Minimum crossing altitude
FMSP . . . . . .
Flight Management System Procedure
MCI . . . . . . .
Mode C Intruder
FSM . . . . . . .
Flight Schedule Monitor
MDA . . . . . .
Minimum descent altitude
FSS . . . . . . . .
Flight Service Station
MDM . . . . . .
Main display monitor
GCA . . . . . . .
Ground controlled approach
MEA . . . . . . .
Minimum en route (IFR) altitude
GNSS . . . . . .
Global Navigation Satellite System
MEARTS . . .
Micro En Route Automated Radar
Tracking System
GPD . . . . . . .
Graphics Plan Display
METAR . . . .
Aviation Routine Weather Report
GPS . . . . . . .
Global Positioning System
MIA . . . . . . .
Minimum IFR altitude
GS . . . . . . . .
Ground stop
MIAWS . . . .
Medium Intensity Airport Weather System
HAR . . . . . . .
High Altitude Redesign
MIRL . . . . . .
Medium intensity runway lights
HF/RO . . . . .
High Frequency/Radio Operator
MLS . . . . . . .
Microwave Landing System
HIRL . . . . . .
High intensity runway lights
MNPS . . . . . .
IAFDOF . . . .
Inappropriate Altitude for Direction of
Flight
Minimum Navigation Performance
Specification
MNT . . . . . . .
Mach Number Technique
ICAO . . . . . .
International Civil Aviation Organization
MOA . . . . . .
Military operations area
IDENT . . . . .
Aircraft identification
MOCA . . . . .
Minimum obstruction clearance altitude
IDS . . . . . . . .
IFR . . . . . . . .
IFSS . . . . . . .
ILS . . . . . . . .
INCERFA . . .
Information Display System
Instrument flight rules
International Flight Service Station
Instrument Landing System
Uncertainty Phase code (Alerting Service)
MRA . . . . . .
Minimum reception altitude
MSAW . . . . .
Minimum Safe Altitude Warning
MSL . . . . . . .
Mean sea level
MTI . . . . . . .
Moving target indicator
INREQ . . . . .
Information request
MTR . . . . . . .
Military training route
INS . . . . . . . .
Inertial Navigation System
MVA . . . . . . .
Minimum vectoring altitude
IR . . . . . . . . .
IFR military training route
NADIN . . . . .
IRU . . . . . . . .
Inertial Reference Unit
National Airspace Data Interchange
Network
ISR . . . . . . . .
Increased Separation Required
NAR . . . . . . .
National Automation Request
ITWS . . . . . .
Integrated Terminal Weather System
NAS . . . . . . .
National Airspace System
JATO . . . . . .
Jet assisted takeoff
NAT . . . . . . .
ICAO North Atlantic Region
LAHSO . . . .
Land and Hold Short Operations
NBCAP . . . .
National Beacon Code Allocation Plan
LOA . . . . . . .
Letter of Agreement
NDB . . . . . . .
Nondirectional radio beacon
LLWAS . . . . .
Low Level Wind Shear Alert System
LLWAS NE .
Low Level Wind Shear Alert System
Network Expansion
NHOP . . . . . .
NM . . . . . . . .
NOAA . . . . .
National Hurricane Operations Plan
Nautical mile
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration
LLWAS−RS .
Low Level Wind Shear Alert System
Relocation/Sustainment
NOPAC . . . .
North Pacific
LLWS . . . . . .
Low Level Wind Shear
NORAD . . . .
North American Aerospace Defense
Command
L/MF . . . . . .
Low/medium frequency
Terms of Reference
1−2−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
Abbreviation
Meaning
Abbreviation
Meaning
NOS . . . . . . .
National Ocean Service
RVV . . . . . . .
Runway visibility value
NOTAM . . . .
Notice to Airmen
SAA . . . . . . .
Special Activity Airspace
NRP . . . . . . .
North American Route Program
NRR . . . . . . .
Nonrestrictive Route
SAR . . . . . . .
Search and rescue
NRS . . . . . . .
Navigation Reference System
SATCOM . . .
Satellite Communication
NTZ . . . . . . .
No transgression zone
SDP . . . . . . .
Surveillance Data Processing
NWS . . . . . . .
National Weather Service
SELCAL . . . .
Selective Calling System
NWSOP . . . .
National Winter Storm Operations Plan
SFA . . . . . . . .
Single frequency approach
SFO . . . . . . .
Simulated flameout
ODALS . . . .
Omnidirectional Approach Lighting
System
SID . . . . . . . .
Standard Instrument Departure
SIGMET . . . .
Significant meteorological information
ODP . . . . . . .
Obstacle Departure Procedure
SPA . . . . . . . .
Special Posting Area
OID . . . . . . .
Operator Interface Device
SPECI . . . . . .
OS . . . . . . . .
Operations Supervisor
Nonroutine (Special) Aviation Weather
Report
OTR . . . . . . .
Oceanic transition route
STAR . . . . . .
Standard terminal arrival
PAPI . . . . . . .
Precision Approach Path Indicators
STARS . . . . .
Standard Terminal Automation
Replacement System
PAR . . . . . . .
Precision approach radar
STMC . . . . . .
PAR . . . . . . .
Preferred arrival route
Supervisory Traffic Management
Coordinator
PBCT . . . . . .
Proposed boundary crossing time
STMCIC . . . .
P/CG . . . . . . .
Pilot/Controller Glossary
Supervisory Traffic Management
Coordinator−in−charge
PDAR . . . . . .
Preferential departure arrival route
STOL . . . . . .
Short takeoff and landing
PDC . . . . . . .
Pre−Departure Clearance
SURPIC . . . .
Surface Picture
PDR . . . . . . .
Preferential departure route
SVFR . . . . . .
Special Visual Flight Rules
PPI . . . . . . . .
Plan position indicator
TAA . . . . . . .
Terminal arrival area
PTP . . . . . . . .
Point−to−point
TAS . . . . . . .
Terminal Automation Systems
PVD . . . . . . .
Plan view display
TACAN . . . .
RA . . . . . . . .
Radar Associate
TACAN UHF navigational aid
(omnidirectional course and distance
information)
RAIL . . . . . .
Runway alignment indicator lights
TAWS . . . . . .
Terrain Awareness Warning System
RAPCON . . .
Radar Approach Control Facility (USAF)
TCAS . . . . . .
RATCF . . . . .
Radar Air Traffic Control Facility (USN)
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance
System
RBS . . . . . . .
Radar bomb scoring
TCDD . . . . . .
Tower cab digital display
RCC . . . . . . .
Rescue Coordination Center
TDLS . . . . . .
Terminal Data Link System
RCLS . . . . . .
Runway Centerline System
TDW . . . . . .
Tower display workstation
RCR . . . . . . .
Runway condition reading
TDWR . . . . .
Terminal Doppler Weather Radar
RE . . . . . . . .
Recent (used to qualify weather
phenomena such as rain, e.g. recent rain =
RERA)
TDZL . . . . . .
Touchdown Zone Light System
TFMS . . . . . .
Traffic Flow Management System
TMC . . . . . . .
Traffic Management Coordinator
TMU . . . . . . .
Traffic Management Unit
TRACON . . .
Terminal Radar Approach Control
TRSA . . . . . .
Terminal radar service area
UFO . . . . . . .
Unidentified flying object
UHF . . . . . . .
Ultra high frequency
REIL . . . . . . .
RNAV . . . . . .
RNP . . . . . . .
RTQC . . . . . .
RVR . . . . . . .
Runway end identifier lights
Area navigation
Required Navigation Performance
Real−Time Quality Control
Runway visual range
RVSM . . . . . .
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum
1−2−6
Terms of Reference
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
USA . . . . . . .
Abbreviation
United States Army
Meaning
USAF . . . . . .
USN . . . . . . .
United States Air Force
United States Navy
UTC . . . . . . .
Coordinated universal time
UTM . . . . . . .
Unsuccessful transmission message
UUA . . . . . . .
Urgent pilot weather report
VFR . . . . . . .
Visual flight rules
VHF . . . . . . .
Very high frequency
VMC . . . . . .
Visual meteorological conditions
VNAV . . . . . .
Vertical Navigation
VOR . . . . . . .
VHF navigational aid (omnidirectional
course information)
VOR/DME . .
Collocated VOR and DME navigational
aids (VHF course and UHF distance
information)
VORTAC . . .
Collocated VOR and TACAN navigation
aids (VHF and UHF course and UHF
distance information)
VR . . . . . . . .
VFR military training route
VSCS . . . . . .
Voice Switching and Control System
WAAS . . . . .
Wide Area Augmentation System
WARP . . . . .
Weather and Radar Processing
WATRS . . . . .
West Atlantic Route System
WSO . . . . . .
Weather Service Office
WSP . . . . . . .
Weather System Processor
WST . . . . . . .
Convective SIGMET
Terms of Reference
1−2−7
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 2. General Control
Section 1. General
2−1−1. ATC SERVICE
The primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent
a collision between aircraft operating in the system
and to provide a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of
traffic, and to provide support for National Security
and Homeland Defense. In addition to its primary
function, the ATC system has the capability to
provide, with certain limitations, additional services.
The ability to provide additional services is limited by
many factors, such as the volume of traffic, frequency
congestion, quality of radar, controller workload,
higher priority duties, and the pure physical inability
to scan and detect those situations that fall in this
category. It is recognized that these services cannot be
provided in cases in which the provision of services
is precluded by the above factors. Consistent with the
aforementioned conditions, controllers must provide
additional service procedures to the extent permitted
by higher priority duties and other circumstances.
The provision of additional services is not optional on
the part of the controller, but rather is required when
the work situation permits. Provide air traffic control
service in accordance with the procedures and
minima in this order except when:
a. A deviation is necessary to conform with ICAO
Documents, National Rules of the Air, or special
agreements where the U.S. provides air traffic control
service in airspace outside the U.S. and its
possessions or:
NOTE−
Pilots are required to abide by CFRs or other applicable
regulations regardless of the application of any procedure
or minima in this order.
b. Other procedures/minima are prescribed in a
letter of agreement, FAA directive, or a military
document, or:
NOTE−
These procedures may include altitude reservations,
air refueling, fighter interceptor operations, law enforcement, etc.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 1−1−9Procedural Letters of Agreement.
General
c. A deviation is necessary to assist an aircraft
when an emergency has been declared.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−6Safety Alert.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 10 Emergencies.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−8Merging Target Procedures.
2−1−2. DUTY PRIORITY
a. Give first priority to separating aircraft and
issuing safety alerts as required in this order. Good
judgment must be used in prioritizing all other
provisions of this order based on the requirements of
the situation at hand.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−6Safety Alert.
NOTE−
Because there are many variables involved, it is virtually
impossible to develop a standard list of duty priorities that
would apply uniformly to every conceivable situation.
Each set of circumstances must be evaluated on its own
merit, and when more than one action is required,
controllers must exercise their best judgment based on the
facts and circumstances known to them. That action which
is most critical from a safety standpoint is performed first.
b. Provide support to national security and
homeland defense activities to include, but not be
limited to, reporting of suspicious and/or unusual
aircraft/pilot activities.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4 Special Operations.
c. Provide additional services to the extent
possible, contingent only upon higher priority duties
and other factors including limitations of radar,
volume of traffic, frequency congestion, and
workload.
2−1−3. PROCEDURAL PREFERENCE
a. Use automation procedures in preference to
nonautomation procedures when workload, communications, and equipment capabilities permit.
b. Use radar separation in preference to nonradar
separation when it will be to an operational advantage
and workload, communications, and equipment
permit.
2−1−1
JO 7110.65W
c. Use nonradar separation in preference to radar
separation when the situation dictates that an
operational advantage will be gained.
NOTE−
One situation may be where vertical separation would
preclude excessive vectoring.
2−1−4. OPERATIONAL PRIORITY
Provide air traffic control service to aircraft on a “first
come, first served” basis as circumstances permit,
except the following:
NOTE−
It is solely the pilot’s prerogative to cancel an IFR flight
plan. However, a pilot’s retention of an IFR flight plan does
not afford priority over VFR aircraft. For example, this
does not preclude the requirement for the pilot of an
arriving IFR aircraft to adjust his/her flight path, as
necessary, to enter a traffic pattern in sequence with
arriving VFR aircraft.
a. An aircraft in distress has the right of way over
all other air traffic.
REFERENCE−
14 CFR Section 91.113(c).
b. Provide priority to civilian air ambulance
flights (call sign “MEDEVAC”). Use of the
MEDEVAC call sign indicates that operational
priority is requested. When verbally requested,
provide priority to AIR EVAC, HOSP, and scheduled
air carrier/air taxi flights. Assist the pilots of
MEDEVAC, AIR EVAC, and HOSP aircraft to avoid
areas of significant weather and turbulent conditions.
When requested by a pilot, provide notifications to
expedite ground handling of patients, vital organs, or
urgently needed medical materials.
NOTE−
It is recognized that heavy traffic flow may affect the
controller’s ability to provide priority handling. However,
without compromising safety, good judgment must be used
in each situation to facilitate the most expeditious
movement of a MEDEVAC aircraft.
c. Provide maximum assistance to SAR aircraft
performing a SAR mission.
12/10/15
NOTE−
As used herein the terms presidential aircraft and
entourage include aircraft and entourage of the President,
Vice President, or other public figures when designated by
the White House.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−20Aircraft Identification.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−3−2Departure Clearances.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 5−1−1 Advance Coordination.
e. Provide special handling, as required to
expedite Flight Check aircraft.
NOTE−
It is recognized that unexpected wind conditions, weather,
or heavy traffic flows may affect controller’s ability to
provide priority or special handling at the specific time
requested.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−1−3, Flight Check Aircraft.
f. Expedite movement of NIGHT WATCH aircraft
when NAOC (pronounced NA−YOCK) is indicated
in the remarks section of the flight plan or in
air/ground communications.
NOTE−
The term “NAOC” will not be a part of the call sign but may
be used when the aircraft is airborne to indicate a request
for special handling.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4, Para 12−1−1 Applications.
g. Provide expeditious handling for any civil or
military aircraft using the code name “FLYNET.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−6FLYNET.
FAAO JO 7610.4, Para 12−4−1 “FLYNET” Flights, Nuclear
Emergency Teams.
h. Provide expeditious handling of aircraft using
the code name “Garden Plot” only when CARF
notifies you that such priority is authorized. Refer any
questions regarding flight procedures to CARF for
resolution.
NOTE−
Garden Plot flights require priority movement and are
coordinated by the military with CARF. State authority will
contact the Regional Administrator to arrange for priority
of National Guard troop movements within a particular
state.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−1−3, Providing Assistance.
i. Provide special handling for USAF aircraft
engaged in aerial sampling missions using the code
name “SAMP.”
d. Expedite the movement of presidential aircraft
and entourage and any rescue support aircraft as well
as related control messages when traffic conditions
and communications facilities permit.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−17, SAMP.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 5−3−4, Atmosphere Sampling For Nuclear
Contamination.
FAAO JO 7610.4, Para 12−4−3, Atmospheric Sampling For Nuclear
Contamination.
2−1−2
General
12/10/15
j. Provide maximum assistance to expedite the
movement of interceptor aircraft on active air defense
missions until the unknown aircraft is identified.
k. Expedite movement of Special Air Mission
aircraft when SCOOT is indicated in the remarks
section of the flight plan or in air/ground
communications.
NOTE−
The term “SCOOT” will not be part of the call sign but may
be used when the aircraft is airborne to indicate a request
for special handling.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4, Para 12−7−1, Applications.
l. When requested, provide priority handling to
TEAL and NOAA mission aircraft.
NOTE−
Priority handling may be requested by the pilot, or via
telephone from CARCAH or the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (53WRS) operations center personnel, or
in the remarks section of the flight plan.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−19, Weather Reconnaissance Flights.
m. IFR aircraft must have priority over SVFR
aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 7, Section 5, Special VFR (SVFR).
n. Providing priority and special handling to
expedite the movement of OPEN SKIES Treaty
observation and demonstration (F and D) flights.
NOTE−
An OPEN SKIES Treaty (F and D) aircraft has priority
over all “regular” air traffic. “Regular” is defined as all
aircraft traffic other than:
1. Emergencies.
2. Aircraft directly involved in presidential movement.
3. Forces or activities in actual combat.
4. MEDEVAC, and active SAR missions.
5. AIR EVAC and HOSP aircraft that have requested
priority handling.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−22, OPEN SKIES Treaty Aircraft.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 5−3−7, OPEN SKIES Treaty Aircraft Priority
Flight (F and D).
Treaty on OPEN SKIES, Treaty Document, 102−37.
o. Aircraft operating under the North American
Route Program (NRP) and in airspace identified in
the High Altitude Redesign (HAR) program, are not
subject to route limiting restrictions (e.g., published
preferred IFR routes, letter of agreement requirements, standard operating procedures).
General
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−3−2, En Route Data Entries.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−2−15, North American Route Program
(NRP) Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−5, Route or Altitude Amendments.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 17, Section 16, North American Route
Program.
p. If able, provide priority handling to diverted
flights. Priority handling may be requested via use of
“DVRSN” in the remarks section of the flight plan or
by the flight being placed on the Diversion Recovery
Tool (DRT).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 17−4−5, Diversion Recovery.
2−1−5. EXPEDITIOUS COMPLIANCE
a. Use the word “immediately” only when
expeditious compliance is required to avoid an
imminent situation.
b. Use the word “expedite” only when prompt
compliance is required to avoid the development of
an imminent situation. If an “expedite” climb or
descent clearance is issued by ATC, and subsequently
the altitude to maintain is changed or restated without
an expedite instruction, the expedite instruction is
canceled.
c. In either case, if time permits, include the reason
for this action.
2−1−6. SAFETY ALERT
Issue a safety alert to an aircraft if you are aware the
aircraft is in a position/altitude that, in your judgment,
places it in unsafe proximity to terrain, obstructions,
or other aircraft. Once the pilot informs you action is
being taken to resolve the situation, you may
discontinue the issuance of further alerts. Do not
assume that because someone else has responsibility
for the aircraft that the unsafe situation has been
observed and the safety alert issued; inform the
appropriate controller.
NOTE−
1. The issuance of a safety alert is a first priority (see
para 2−1−2, Duty Priority) once the controller observes
and recognizes a situation of unsafe aircraft proximity to
terrain, obstacles, or other aircraft. Conditions, such as
workload, traffic volume, the quality/limitations of the
radar system, and the available lead time to react are
factors in determining whether it is reasonable for the
controller to observe and recognize such situations. While
a controller cannot see immediately the development of
every situation where a safety alert must be issued, the
2−1−3
JO 7110.65W
controller must remain vigilant for such situations and
issue a safety alert when the situation is recognized.
2. Recognition of situations of unsafe proximity may result
from MSAW/E−MSAW, automatic altitude readouts,
Conflict/Mode C Intruder Alert, observations on a PAR
scope, or pilot reports.
3. Once the alert is issued, it is solely the pilot’s
prerogative to determine what course of action, if any, will
be taken.
a. Terrain/Obstruction Alert. Immediately issue/
initiate an alert to an aircraft if you are aware the
aircraft is at an altitude that, in your judgment, places
it in unsafe proximity to terrain and/or obstructions.
Issue the alert as follows:
PHRASEOLOGY−
LOW ALTITUDE ALERT (call sign),
CHECK YOUR ALTITUDE IMMEDIATELY.
and, if the aircraft is not yet on final approach,
THE (as appropriate) MEA/MVA/MOCA/MIA IN YOUR
AREA IS (altitude),
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term − Final Approach − IFR
b. Aircraft Conflict/Mode C Intruder Alert.
Immediately issue/initiate an alert to an aircraft if you
are aware of another aircraft at an altitude that you
believe places them in unsafe proximity. If feasible,
offer the pilot an alternate course of action. When an
alternate course of action is given, end the
transmission with the word “immediately.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC ALERT (call sign) (position of aircraft) ADVISE
YOU TURN LEFT/RIGHT (heading),
and/or
CLIMB/DESCEND (specific altitude if appropriate)
IMMEDIATELY.
EXAMPLE−
“Traffic Alert, Cessna Three Four Juliet, 12’o clock, 1 mile
advise you turn left immediately.”
or
“Traffic Alert, Cessna Three-Four Juliet, 12’o clock, 1
mile advise you turn left and climb immediately.”
2−1−4
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−14−1, Conflict Alert (CA) and Mode C
Intruder (MCI) Alert.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−14−2, En Route Minimum Safe Altitude
Warning (E−MSAW).
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−15−6, CA/MCI.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−23, Altitude Filters.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-1-21, Traffic Advisories
2−1−7. INFLIGHT EQUIPMENT
MALFUNCTIONS
a. When a pilot reports an inflight equipment
malfunction, determine the nature and extent of any
special handling desired.
NOTE−
Inflight equipment malfunctions include partial or
complete failure of equipment, which may affect either
safety, separation standards, and/or the ability of the flight
to proceed under IFR, or in Reduced Vertical Separation
Minimum (RVSM) airspace, in the ATC system. Controllers may expect reports from pilots regarding VOR,
TACAN, ADF, GPS, RVSM capability, or low frequency
navigation receivers, impairment of air−ground communications capability, or other equipment deemed
appropriate by the pilot (e.g., airborne weather radar).
Pilots should communicate the nature and extent of any
assistance desired from ATC.
b. Provide the maximum assistance possible
consistent with equipment, workload, and any special
handling requested.
c. Relay to other controllers or facilities who will
subsequently handle the aircraft, all pertinent details
concerning the aircraft and any special handling
required or being provided.
2−1−8. MINIMUM FUEL
If an aircraft declares a state of “minimum fuel,”
inform any facility to whom control jurisdiction is
transferred of the minimum fuel problem and be alert
for any occurrence which might delay the aircraft
en route.
NOTE−
Use of the term “minimum fuel” indicates recognition by
a pilot that his/her fuel supply has reached a state where,
upon reaching destination, he/she cannot accept any undue
delay. This is not an emergency situation but merely an
advisory that indicates an emergency situation is possible
should any undue delay occur. A minimum fuel advisory
does not imply a need for traffic priority. Common sense
and good judgment will determine the extent of assistance
to be given in minimum fuel situations. If, at any time, the
General
12/10/15
remaining usable fuel supply suggests the need for traffic
priority to ensure a safe landing, the pilot should declare
an emergency and report fuel remaining in minutes.
2−1−9. REPORTING ESSENTIAL FLIGHT
INFORMATION
Report as soon as possible to the appropriate FSS,
airport manager’s office, ARTCC, approach control
facility, operations office, or military operations
office any information concerning components of the
NAS or any flight conditions which may have an
adverse effect on air safety.
NOTE−
FSSs are responsible for classifying and disseminating
Notices to Airmen.
JO 7110.65W
b. When an aircraft reports a GPS or WAAS
anomaly, request the following information and/or
take the following actions:
1. Record the following minimum information:
(a) Aircraft make, model, and call sign.
(b) Location or position, and altitude at the
time where GPS or WAAS anomaly was observed.
(c) Date/time of occurrence.
2. Request a report from a second aircraft.
3. Record the incident on FAA Form 7230−4 or
appropriate military form.
4. Inform other aircraft of the anomaly as
specified in paragraph 4-8-1j or k, as applicable.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−3, Timely Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−6, Service Limitations.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−1−2, Periodic Maintenance.
USN, See OPNAVINST 3721.30.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ATTENTION ALL AIRCRAFT, GPS REPORTED
UNRELIABLE (OR WAAS UNAVAILABLE) IN
VICINITY/AREA (position).
2−1−10. NAVAID MALFUNCTIONS
EXAMPLE−
“Attention all aircraft, GPS reported unreliable (or WAAS
unavailable) in the area 30 miles south of Waco VOR.”
a. When an aircraft reports a ground−based
NAVAID malfunction, take the following actions:
1. Request a report from a second aircraft.
2. If the second aircraft reports normal
operations, continue use and inform the first aircraft.
Record the incident on FAA Form 7230−4 or
appropriate military form.
3. If the second aircraft confirms the malfunction or in the absence of a second aircraft report,
activate the standby equipment or request the monitor
facility to activate.
4. If normal operation is reported after the
standby equipment is activated, continue use, record
the incident on FAA Form 7230−4 or appropriate
military form, and notify technical operations
personnel (the Systems Engineer of the ARTCC
when an en route aid is involved).
5. If continued malfunction is reported after the
standby equipment is activated or the standby
equipment cannot be activated, inform technical
operations personnel and request advice on whether
or not the aid should be shut down. In the absence of
a second aircraft report, advise the technical
operations personnel of the time of the initial aircraft
report and the estimated time a second aircraft report
could be obtained.
General
c. When a pilot reports a WAAS anomaly,
determine from the pilot what indications he or she
observes and record the information in accordance
with sub-paragraph b above.
2−1−11. USE OF MARSA
a. MARSA may only be applied to military
operations specified in a letter of agreement or other
appropriate FAA or military document.
NOTE−
Application of MARSA is a military command prerogative.
It will not be invoked indiscriminately by individual units
or pilots. It will be used only for IFR operations requiring
its use. Commands authorizing MARSA will ensure that its
implementation and terms of use are documented and
coordinated with the control agency having jurisdiction
over the area in which the operations are conducted. Terms
of use will assign responsibility and provide for separation
among participating aircraft.
b. ATC facilities do not invoke or deny MARSA.
Their sole responsibility concerning the use of
MARSA is to provide separation between military
aircraft engaged in MARSA operations and other
nonparticipating IFR aircraft.
c. DOD must ensure that military pilots requesting
special-use airspace/ATCAAs have coordinated with
the scheduling agency, have obtained approval for
2−1−5
JO 7110.65W
entry, and are familiar with the appropriate MARSA
procedures. ATC is not responsible for determining
which military aircraft are authorized to enter
special-use airspace/ATCAAs.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−13, Military Aerial Refueling.
2−1−12. MILITARY PROCEDURES
Military procedures in the form of additions,
modifications, and exceptions to the basic FAA
procedure are prescribed herein when a common
procedure has not been attained or to fulfill a specific
requirement. They must be applied by:
a. ATC facilities operated by that military service.
EXAMPLE−
1. An Air Force facility providing service for an Air Force
base would apply USAF procedures to all traffic regardless
of class.
2. A Navy facility providing service for a Naval Air Station
would apply USN procedures to all traffic regardless of
class.
b. ATC facilities, regardless of their parent
organization (FAA, USAF, USN, USA), supporting
a designated military airport exclusively. This
designation determines which military procedures
are to be applied.
EXAMPLE−
1. An FAA facility supports a USAF base exclusively;
USAF procedures are applied to all traffic at that base.
2. An FAA facility provides approach control service for a
Naval Air Station as well as supporting a civil airport;
basic FAA procedures are applied at both locations by the
FAA facility.
3. A USAF facility supports a USAF base and provides
approach control service to a satellite civilian airport;
USAF procedures are applied at both locations by the
USAF facility.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 1−2−5, Annotations.
c. Other ATC facilities when specified in a letter of
agreement.
EXAMPLE−
A USAF unit is using a civil airport supported by an FAA
facility− USAF procedures will be applied as specified in
a letter of agreement between the unit and the FAA facility
to the aircraft of the USAF unit. Basic FAA procedures will
be applied to all other aircraft.
2−1−6
12/10/15
2−1−13. FORMATION FLIGHTS
a. Control formation flights as a single aircraft.
When individual control is requested, issue advisory
information which will assist the pilots in attaining
separation. When pilot reports indicate separation has
been established, issue control instructions as
required.
NOTE−
1. Separation responsibility between aircraft within the
formation during transition to individual control rests with
the pilots concerned until approved separation has been
attained.
2. Formation join-up and breakaway will be conducted in
VFR weather conditions unless prior authorization has
been obtained from ATC or individual control has been
approved.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−8, Additional Separation for Formation
Flights.
P/CG Term− Formation Flight.
b. Military and civil formation flights in RVSM
airspace.
1. Utilize RVSM separation standards for a
formation flight, which consists of all RVSM
approved aircraft.
2. Utilize non−RVSM separation standards for
a formation flight above FL 290, which does not
consist of all RVSM approved aircraft.
3. If aircraft are requesting to form a formation
flight to FL 290 or above, the controller who issues
the clearance creating the formation flight is
responsible for ensuring that the proper equipment
suffix is entered for the lead aircraft.
4. If the flight departs as a formation, and is
requesting FL 290 or above, the first center sector
must ensure that the proper equipment suffix is
entered.
5. If the formation flight is below FL 290 and
later requests FL 290 or above, the controller
receiving the RVSM altitude request must ensure the
proper equipment suffix is entered.
6. Upon break−up of the formation flight, the
controller initiating the break−up must ensure that all
aircraft or flights are assigned their proper equipment
suffix.
2−1−14. COORDINATE USE OF AIRSPACE
a. Ensure that the necessary coordination has been
accomplished before you allow an aircraft under your
General
12/10/15
control to enter another controller’s area of
jurisdiction.
b. Before you issue a control instruction directly to
a pilot that will change the aircraft’s heading, route,
speed, or altitude, you must ensure that coordination
has been completed with all controllers whose area of
jurisdiction is affected by those instructions unless
otherwise specified by a letter of agreement or facility
directive. If your control instruction will be relayed to
the pilot through a source other than another radar
controller (FSS, ARINC, another pilot, etc.), you are
still responsible to ensure that all required coordination is completed.
NOTE−
1. It is good operating practice for controllers to confirm
that required coordination has been/will be effected,
especially in unusual circumstances, such as recently
modified sector configurations, airspace changes, route
changes, etc.
2. Ensuring that all required coordination has been
completed does not necessarily imply that the controller
issuing the control instruction directly to the pilot has to
perform the coordination action.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−15, Control Transfer.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−10, Adjacent Airspace.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−5, Transferring Controller Handoff.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−6, Receiving Controller Handoff.
2−1−15. CONTROL TRANSFER
a. Transfer control of an aircraft in accordance
with the following conditions:
1. At a prescribed or coordinated location, time,
fix, or altitude; or,
2. At the time a radar handoff and frequency
change to the receiving controller have been
completed and when authorized by a facility directive
or letter of agreement which specifies the type and
extent of control that is transferred.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−14, Coordinate Use of Airspace.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−5, Transferring Controller Handoff.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−6, Receiving Controller Handoff.
b. Transfer control of an aircraft only after
eliminating any potential conflict with other aircraft
for which you have separation responsibility.
c. Assume control of an aircraft only after it is in
your area of jurisdiction unless specifically coordin-
General
JO 7110.65W
ated or as specified by letter of agreement or a facility
directive.
2−1−16. SURFACE AREAS
a. Coordinate with the appropriate nonapproach
control tower on an individual aircraft basis before
issuing a clearance which would require flight within
a surface area for which the tower has responsibility
unless otherwise specified in a letter of agreement.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−1, Letters of Agreement.
14 CFR Section 91.127, Operating on or in the Vicinity of an Airport
in Class E Airspace.
P/CG Term− Surface Area.
b. Coordinate with the appropriate control tower
for transit authorization when you are providing radar
traffic advisory service to an aircraft that will enter
another facility’s airspace.
NOTE−
The pilot is not expected to obtain his/her own
authorization through each area when in contact with a
radar facility.
c. Transfer communications to the appropriate
facility, if required, prior to operation within a surface
area for which the tower has responsibility.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−17, Radio Communications Transfer.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−11, Surface Area Restrictions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−1, Application.
14 CFR Section 91.129, Operations in Class D Airspace.
2−1−17. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
a. Transfer radio communications before an
aircraft enters the receiving controller’s area of
jurisdiction unless otherwise coordinated or specified
by a letter of agreement or a facility directive.
b. Transfer radio communications by specifying
the following:
NOTE−
Radio communications transfer procedures may be
specified by a letter of agreement or contained in the route
description of an MTR as published in the DOD Planning
AP/1B (AP/3).
1. The facility name or location name and
terminal function to be contacted. TERMINAL: Omit
the location name when transferring communications
to another controller within your facility, or, when the
tower and TRACON share the same name (for
example, Phoenix Tower and Phoenix TRACON).
2−1−7
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
EXCEPTION. Controllers must include the name of
the facility when instructing an aircraft to change
frequency for final approach guidance.
nications include two−way VHF or UHF radio contact,
data link, or high frequency (HF) radio through an
approved third−party provider such as ARINC.
2. Frequency to use except the following may be
omitted:
d. In situations where an operational advantage
will be gained, and following coordination with the
receiving controller, you may instruct aircraft on the
ground to monitor the receiving controller’s
frequency.
(a) FSS frequency.
(b) Departure frequency if previously given
or published on a SID chart for the procedure issued.
(c) TERMINAL:
(1) Ground or local control frequency if in
your opinion the pilot knows which frequency is in
use.
(2) The numbers preceding the decimal
point if the ground control frequency is in the
121 MHz bandwidth.
EXAMPLE−
“Contact Tower.”
“Contact Ground.”
“Contact Ground Point Seven.”
“Contact Ground, One Two Zero Point Eight.”
“Contact Huntington Radio.”
“Contact Departure.”
“Contact Los Angeles Center, One Two Three Point Four.”
3. Time, fix, altitude, or specifically when to
contact a facility. You may omit this when
compliance is expected upon receipt.
NOTE−
AIM, para 5−3−1, ARTCC Communications, informs pilots
that they are expected to maintain a listening watch on the
transferring controller’s frequency until the time, fix, or
altitude specified.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTACT (facility name or location name and terminal
function), (frequency).
If required,
AT (time, fix, or altitude).
c. Controllers must, within a reasonable amount of
time, take appropriate action to establish/restore
communications with all aircraft for which a
communications transfer or initial contact to his/her
sector is expected/required.
NOTE−
For the purposes of this paragraph, a reasonable amount
of time is considered to be 5 minutes from the time the
aircraft enters the controller’s area of jurisdiction or comes
within range of radio/communications coverage. Commu-
2−1−8
EXAMPLE−
“Monitor Tower.”
“Monitor Ground.”
“Monitor Ground Point Seven.”
“Monitor Ground, One Two Zero Point Eight.”
e. In situations where a sector has multiple
frequencies or when sectors are combined using
multiple frequencies and the aircraft will remain
under your jurisdiction, transfer radio communication by specifying the following:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification) CHANGE TO MY FREQUENCY (state
frequency).
EXAMPLE−
“United two twenty-two change to my frequency one two
three point four.”
REFERENCE−
AIM, Para 4−2−3, Contact Procedures.
f. Avoid issuing a frequency change to helicopters
known to be single-piloted during air-taxiing,
hovering, or low-level flight. Whenever possible,
relay necessary control instructions until the pilot is
able to change frequency.
NOTE−
Most light helicopters are flown by one pilot and require
the constant use of both hands and feet to maintain control.
Although Flight Control Friction Devices assist the pilot,
changing frequency near the ground could result in
inadvertent ground contact and consequent loss of control.
Pilots are expected to advise ATC of their single-pilot
status if unable to comply with a frequency change.
REFERENCE−
AIM, Para 4−3−14, Communications.
g. In situations where the controller does not want
the pilot to change frequency but the pilot is expecting
or may want a frequency change, use the following
phraseology.
PHRASEOLOGY−
REMAIN THIS FREQUENCY.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−1, Clearance Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−9, Communication Transfer.
General
12/10/15
2−1−18. OPERATIONAL REQUESTS
Respond to a request from another controller, a pilot
or vehicle operator by one of the following verbal
means:
a. Restate the request in complete or abbreviated
terms followed by the word “APPROVED.” The
phraseology “APPROVED AS REQUESTED” may
be substituted in lieu of a lengthy readback.
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
Para 5−5−4, Minima, subparagraphs g and h specify the
required radar wake turbulence separations. Time-based
separations are contained in Para 3-9-6, Same Runway
Separation, Para 3-9-7, Wake Turbulence Separation for
Intersection Departures, Para 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway
Separation, Para 3-9-9, Nonintersecting Converging
Runway Operations, Para 3-10-3, Same Runway Separation, Para 3-10-4, Intersecting Runway Separation, Para
6-1-4, Adjacent Airport Operation, Para 6-1-5, Arrival
Minima, and Para 6-7-5, Interval Minima.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Requested operation) APPROVED.
b. The separation minima must continue to
touchdown for all IFR aircraft not making a visual
approach or maintaining visual separation.
or
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−5, Approach Separation Responsibility.
APPROVED AS REQUESTED.
b. State restrictions followed by the word
“APPROVED.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Restriction and/or additional instructions, requested
operation) APPROVED.
c. State the word “UNABLE” and, time permitting, a reason.
PHRASEOLOGY−
UNABLE (requested operation).
and when necessary,
(reason and/or additional instructions.)
d. State the words “STAND BY.”
NOTE−
“STAND BY” is not an approval or denial. The controller
acknowledges the request and will respond at a later time.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−5, Route or Altitude Amendments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−3, Methods.
2−1−19. WAKE TURBULENCE
a. Apply wake turbulence procedures to an aircraft
operating behind another aircraft when wake
turbulence separation is required.
General
2−1−20. WAKE TURBULENCE
CAUTIONARY ADVISORIES
a. Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories
including the position, altitude if known, and
direction of flight to aircraft operating behind an
aircraft that requires wake turbulence separation
when:
REFERENCE−
AC 90−23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence, Pilot Responsibility, Para 11
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4,Minima, Subparagraph g
1. TERMINAL. VFR aircraft not being radar
vectored are behind the larger aircraft.
2. IFR aircraft accept a visual approach or visual
separation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−1, Visual Approach.
3. TERMINAL. VFR arriving aircraft that have
previously been radar vectored and the vectoring has
been discontinued.
b. Issue cautionary information to any aircraft if in
your opinion, wake turbulence may have an adverse
effect on it. When traffic is known to be a super
aircraft, include the word super in the description.
When traffic is known to be a heavy aircraft, include
the word heavy in the description.
NOTE−
Wake turbulence may be encountered by aircraft in flight
as well as when operating on the airport movement area.
Because wake turbulence is unpredictable, the controller
is not responsible for anticipating its existence or effect.
Although not mandatory during ground operations,
controllers may use the words jet blast, propwash, or
rotorwash, in lieu of wake turbulence, when issuing a
caution advisory.
2−1−9
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
AC 90−23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence.
P/CG Term− Aircraft Classes.
P/CG Term− Wake Turbulence.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CAUTION WAKE TURBULENCE (traffic information).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
2−1−21. TRAFFIC ADVISORIES
Unless an aircraft is operating within Class A airspace
or omission is requested by the pilot, issue traffic
advisories to all aircraft (IFR or VFR) on your
frequency when, in your judgment, their proximity
may diminish to less than the applicable separation
minima. Where no separation minima applies, such
as for VFR aircraft outside of Class B/Class C
airspace, or a TRSA, issue traffic advisories to those
aircraft on your frequency when in your judgment
their proximity warrants it. Provide this service as
follows:
a. To radar identified aircraft:
1. Azimuth from aircraft in terms of the 12−hour
clock, or
2. When rapidly maneuvering aircraft prevent
accurate issuance of traffic as in 1 above, specify the
direction from an aircraft’s position in terms of the
eight cardinal compass points (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW,
W, and NW). This method must be terminated at the
pilot’s request.
3. Distance from aircraft in miles.
12/10/15
(type of aircraft and altitude).
or
When appropriate,
(type of aircraft and relative position), (number of feet)
FEET ABOVE/BELOW YOU.
If altitude is unknown,
ALTITUDE UNKNOWN.
EXAMPLE−
“Traffic, eleven o’clock, one zero miles, southbound,
converging, Boeing Seven Twenty Seven, one seven
thousand.”
“Traffic, twelve o’clock, one five miles, opposite direction,
altitude unknown.”
“Traffic, ten o’clock, one two miles, southeast bound,
one thousand feet below you.”
6. When requested by the pilot, issue radar
vectors to assist in avoiding the traffic, provided the
aircraft to be vectored is within your area of
jurisdiction or coordination has been effected with
the sector/facility in whose area the aircraft is
operating.
7. If unable to provide vector service, inform the
pilot.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−18, Operational Requests.
8. Inform the pilot of the following when traffic
you have issued is not reported in sight:
(a) The traffic is no factor.
4. Direction in which traffic is proceeding
and/or relative movement of traffic.
NOTE−
Relative movement includes closing, converging, parallel
same direction, opposite direction, diverging, overtaking,
crossing left to right, crossing right to left.
5. If known, type of aircraft and altitude.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−21, Description of Aircraft Types.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC, (number) O’CLOCK,
or when appropriate,
(direction) (number) MILES, (direction)−BOUND and/or
(relative movement),
and if known,
2−1−10
(b) The traffic is no longer depicted on radar.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC NO FACTOR/NO LONGER OBSERVED,
or
(number) O’CLOCK TRAFFIC NO FACTOR/NO
LONGER OBSERVED,
or
(direction) TRAFFIC NO FACTOR/NO LONGER
OBSERVED.
b. To aircraft that are not radar identified:
1. Distance and direction from fix.
2. Direction in which traffic is proceeding.
General
12/10/15
3. If known, type of aircraft and altitude.
4. ETA over the fix the aircraft is approaching,
if appropriate.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC, (number) MILES/MINUTES (direction) OF
(airport or fix), (direction)−BOUND,
and if known,
(type of aircraft and altitude),
ESTIMATED (fix) (time),
or
TRAFFIC, NUMEROUS AIRCRAFT VICINITY
(location).
If altitude is unknown,
JO 7110.65W
EXAMPLE−
“Flock of geese, one o’clock, seven miles, northbound, last
reported at four thousand.”
“Flock of small birds, southbound along Mohawk River,
last reported at three thousand.”
“Numerous flocks of ducks, vicinity Lake Winnebago,
altitude unknown.”
b. Relay bird activity information to adjacent
facilities and to FSSs whenever it appears it will
become a factor in their areas.
2−1−23. TRANSFER OF POSITION
RESPONSIBILITY
The transfer of position responsibility must be
accomplished in accordance with the “Standard
Operating Practice (SOP) for the Transfer of Position
Responsibility,” and appropriate facility directives
each time operational responsibility for a position is
transferred from one specialist to another.
ALTITUDE UNKNOWN.
EXAMPLE−
“Traffic, one zero miles east of Forsythe V−O−R,
Southbound, M−D Eighty, descending to one six
thousand.”
“Traffic, reported one zero miles west of Downey V−O−R,
northbound, Apache, altitude unknown, estimated Joliet
V−O−Rone three one five.”
“Traffic, eight minutes west of Chicago Heights V−O−R,
westbound, Mooney, eight thousand, estimated Joliet
V−O−Rtwo zero three five.”
“Traffic, numerous aircraft, vicinity of Delia airport.”
c. For aircraft displaying Mode C, not radar
identified, issue indicated altitude.
2−1−24. WHEELS DOWN CHECK
USA/USAF/USN
Remind aircraft to check wheels down on each
approach unless the pilot has previously reported
wheels down for that approach.
NOTE−
The intent is solely to remind the pilot to lower the wheels,
not to place responsibility on the controller.
a. Tower must issue the wheels down check at an
appropriate place in the pattern.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CHECK WHEELS DOWN.
EXAMPLE−
“Traffic, one o’clock, six miles, eastbound, altitude
indicates six thousand five hundred.”
b. Approach/arrival control, GCA must issue the
wheels down check as follows:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−6, Traffic Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−10, VFR Departure Information.
1. To aircraft conducting ASR, PAR, or radar
monitored approaches, before the aircraft starts
descent on final approach.
2−1−22. BIRD ACTIVITY INFORMATION
a. Issue advisory information on pilot-reported,
tower-observed, or radar-observed and pilot-verified
bird activity. Include position, species or size of birds,
if known, course of flight, and altitude. Do this for at
least 15 minutes after receipt of such information
from pilots or from adjacent facilities unless visual
observation or subsequent reports reveal the activity
is no longer a factor.
General
2. To aircraft conducting instrument approaches
and remaining on the radar facility’s frequency,
before the aircraft passes the outer marker/final
approach fix.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHEELS SHOULD BE DOWN.
2−1−25. SUPERVISORY NOTIFICATION
Ensure supervisor/controller-in-charge (CIC) is
aware of conditions which impact sector/position
2−1−11
JO 7110.65W
operations including, but not limited to, the
following:
a. Weather.
b. Equipment status.
c. Potential sector overload.
d. Emergency situations.
e. Special flights/operations.
f. Possible suspicious aircraft/pilot activity as
prescribed in FAA Order JO 7610.4, paragraph
7−3−1.
2−1−26. PILOT DEVIATION NOTIFICATION
When it appears that the actions of a pilot constitute
a pilot deviation, notify the pilot, workload
permitting.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification) POSSIBLE PILOT DEVIATION ADVISE
YOU CONTACT (facility) AT (telephone number).
REFERENCE−
FAAO 8020.11, Aircraft Accident and Incident Notification,
Investigation, and Reporting, Para 84, Pilot Deviations.
2−1−27. TCAS RESOLUTION ADVISORIES
a. When an aircraft under your control jurisdiction
informs you that it is responding to a TCAS
Resolution Advisory (RA), do not issue control
instructions that are contrary to the RA procedure that
a crew member has advised you that they are
executing. Provide safety alerts regarding terrain or
obstructions and traffic advisories for the aircraft
responding to the RA and all other aircraft under your
control jurisdiction, as appropriate.
b. Unless advised by other aircraft that they are
also responding to a TCAS RA, do not assume that
other aircraft in the proximity of the responding
aircraft are involved in the RA maneuver or are aware
of the responding aircraft’s intended maneuvers.
Continue to provide control instructions, safety
alerts, and traffic advisories as appropriate to such
aircraft.
c. Once the responding aircraft has begun a
maneuver in response to an RA, the controller is not
responsible for providing approved separation
between the aircraft that is responding to an RA and
any other aircraft, airspace, terrain or obstructions.
2−1−12
12/10/15
Responsibility for approved separation resumes
when one of the following conditions are met:
1. The responding aircraft has returned to its
assigned altitude, or
2. A crew member informs you that the TCAS
maneuver is completed and you observe that
approved separation has been reestablished, or
3. The responding aircraft has executed an
alternate clearance and you observe that approved
separation has been reestablished.
NOTE−
1. AC 120−55A, Air Carrier Operational Approval and
Use of TCAS II, suggests pilots use the following
phraseology to notify controllers during TCAS events.
When a TCAS RA may affect an ATC clearance, inform
ATC when beginning the maneuver, or as soon as workload
permits.
EXAMPLE−
1. “New York Center, United 321, TCAS climb.”
NOTE−
2. When the RA has been resolved, the flight crew should
advise ATC they are returning to their previously assigned
clearance or subsequent amended clearance.
EXAMPLE−
2. “New York Center, United 321, clear of conflict,
returning to assigned altitude.”
2−1−28. RVSM OPERATIONS
Controller responsibilities must include but not be
limited to the following:
a. Non−RVSM aircraft operating in RVSM
airspace.
1. Ensure non-RVSM aircraft are not permitted
in RVSM airspace unless they meet the criteria of
excepted aircraft and are previously approved by the
operations supervisor/CIC. The following aircraft are
excepted: DOD, DOD-certified aircraft operated by
NASA (T38, F15, F18, WB57, S3, and U2 aircraft
only), MEDEVAC, manufacturer aircraft being
flown for development/certification, and Foreign
State aircraft. These exceptions are accommodated
on a workload or traffic-permitting basis.
NOTE−
The operations supervisor/CIC is responsible for system
acceptance of a non−RVSM aircraft beyond the initial
sector−to−sectorcoordination following the pilot request
to access the airspace. Operations supervisor/CIC
responsibilities are defined in FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 6,
Section 9, Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM).
General
12/10/15
2. Ensure sector−to−sector coordination for all
non−RVSM aircraft operations within RVSM
airspace.
3. Inform the operational supervisor/CIC when
a non−RVSM exception flight is denied clearance
into RVSM airspace or is removed from RVSM
airspace.
b. Non−RVSM aircraft transitioning RVSM airspace.
Ensure that operations supervisors/CICs are made
aware when non−RVSM aircraft are transitioning
through RVSM airspace.
c. Apply appropriate separation standards and
remove any aircraft from RVSM airspace that advises
it is unable RVSM due to equipment while en route.
d. Use “negative RVSM” in all verbal ground−to−
ground communications involving non−RVSM
aircraft while cleared to operate within RVSM
airspace.
EXAMPLE−
“Point out Baxter21 climbing to FL 360, negative RVSM.”
e. For the following situations, use the associated
phraseology:
1. To deny clearance into RVSM airspace.
PHRASEOLOGY−
“UNABLE CLEARANCE INTO RVSM AIRSPACE.”
2. To request a pilot to report when able to
resume RVSM.
JO 7110.65W
2−1−29. TERRAIN AWARENESS WARNING
SYSTEM (TAWS) ALERTS
a. When an aircraft under your control jurisdiction
informs you that it is responding to a TAWS (or other
on−board low altitude) alert, do not issue control
instructions that are contrary to the TAWS procedure
that a crew member has advised you that they are
executing. Provide safety alerts regarding terrain or
obstructions and traffic advisories for the aircraft
responding to the TAWS alert and all other aircraft
under your control jurisdiction, as appropriate.
b. Once the responding aircraft has begun a
maneuver in response to TAWS alert, the controller is
not responsible for providing approved separation
between the aircraft that is responding to a TAWS
alert and any other aircraft, airspace, terrain or
obstructions. Responsibility for approved separation
resumes when one of the following conditions are
met:
1. The responding aircraft has returned to its
assigned altitude, or
2. A crew member informs you that the TAWS
maneuver is completed and you observe that
approved separation has been reestablished, or
3. The responding aircraft has executed an
alternate clearance and you observe that approved
separation has been reestablished.
PHRASEOLOGY−
“REPORT ABLE TO RESUME RVSM.”
2−1−30. “BLUE LIGHTNING” EVENTS
f. In the event of a change to an aircraft’s
navigational capability amend the equipment suffix
in order to properly identify non−RVSM aircraft on
the controller display.
Ensure that the supervisor/controller−in−charge
(CIC) is notified of reports of possible human
trafficking. These may be referred to as “Blue
Lightning” events.
General
2−1−13
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Flight Plans and Control Information
2−2−1. RECORDING INFORMATION
2−2−4. MILITARY DVFR DEPARTURES
a. Record flight plan information required by the
type of flight plan and existing circumstances. Use
authorized abbreviations when possible.
TERMINAL
NOTE−
Generally, all military overseas flights are required to
clear through a specified military base operations office
(BASOPS). Pilots normally will not file flight plans directly
with an FAA facility unless a BASOPS is not available.
BASOPS will, in turn, forward the IFR flight notification
message to the appropriate center.
b. EN ROUTE. When flight plans are filed directly
with the center, record all items given by the pilot
either on a flight progress strip/flight data entry or on
a voice recorder. If the latter, enter in box 26 of the
initial flight progress strip the sector or position
number to identify where the information may be
found in the event search and rescue (SAR) activities
become necessary.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−3−2, En Route Data Entries.
2−2−2. FORWARDING INFORMATION
a. Except during EAS FDP operation, forward the
flight plan information to the appropriate ATC
facility, FSS, or BASOPS and record the time of filing
and delivery on the form.
b. EN ROUTE. During EAS FDP operation, the
above manual actions are required in cases where the
data is not forwarded automatically by the computer.
NOTE−
During EAS FDP operation, data is exchanged between
interfaced automated facilities and both the data and time
of transmission are recorded automatically.
c. EN ROUTE. Forward proposed tower en route
flight plans and any related amendments to the
appropriate departure terminal facility.
2−2−3. FORWARDING VFR DATA
TERMINAL
Forward aircraft departure times to FSSs or military
operations offices when they have requested them.
Forward other VFR flight plan data only if requested
by the pilot.
Flight Plans and Control Information
Forward departure times on all DVFR departures
from joint-use airports to the military operations
office.
NOTE−
1. Details for handling air carrier and nonscheduled civil
DVFR flight data are contained in FAA Order JO 7610.4,
Special Operations.
2. Civil pilots departing DVFR from a joint-use airport
will include the phrase “DVFR to (destination)” in their
initial call-up to an FAA-operated tower.
2−2−5. IFR TO VFR FLIGHT PLAN CHANGE
Request a pilot to contact the appropriate FSS if the
pilot informs you of a desire to change from an IFR
to a VFR flight plan.
2−2−6. IFR FLIGHT PROGRESS DATA
Forward control information from controller to
controller within a facility, then to the receiving
facility as the aircraft progresses along its route.
Where appropriate, use computer equipment in lieu
of manual coordination procedures. Do not use the
remarks section of flight progress strips in lieu of
voice coordination to pass control information.
Ensure that flight plan and control information is
correct and up-to-date. When covered by a letter of
agreement/facility directive, the time requirements of
subpara a may be reduced, and the time requirements
of subpara b1 and para 2−2−11, Forwarding
Amended and UTM Data, subpara a may be increased
up to 15 minutes when facilitated by automated
systems or mandatory radar handoffs; or if
operationally necessary because of manual data
processing or nonradar operations, the time requirements of subpara a may be increased.
NOTE−
1. The procedures for preparing flight plan and control
information related to altitude reservations (ALTRVs) are
contained in FAAO JO 7210.3, para 8−1−2, Facility
Operation and Administration, ALTRV Flight Data
Processing. Development of the methods for assuring the
accuracy and completeness of ALTRV flight plan and
control information is the responsibility of the military
liaison and security officer.
2−2−1
JO 7110.65W
2. The term facility in this paragraph refers to centers and
terminal facilities when operating in an en route capacity.
a. Forward the following information at least
15 minutes before the aircraft is estimated to enter the
receiving facility’s area:
1. Aircraft identification.
2. Number of aircraft if more than one, heavy
aircraft indicator “H/” if appropriate, type of aircraft,
and aircraft equipment suffix.
3. Assigned altitude and ETA over last reporting
point/fix in transferring facility’s area or assumed
departure time when the departure point is the last
point/fix in the transferring facility’s area.
4. Altitude at which aircraft will enter the
receiving facility’s area if other than the assigned
altitude.
5. True airspeed.
6. Point of departure.
7. Route of flight remaining.
8. Destination airport and clearance limit if
other than destination airport.
9. ETA at destination airport (not required for
military or scheduled air carrier aircraft).
10. Altitude requested by the aircraft if assigned
altitude differs from requested altitude (within a
facility only).
NOTE−
When an aircraft has crossed one facility’s area and
assignment at a different altitude is still desired, the pilot
will reinitiate the request with the next facility.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−8, Anticipated Altitude Changes.
12/10/15
12. Longitudinal separation being used between
aircraft at the same altitude if it results in these aircraft
having less than 10 minutes separation at the
facilities’ boundary.
13. Any additional nonroutine operational
information pertinent to flight safety.
NOTE−
EN ROUTE. This includes alerting the receiving controller
that the flight is conducting celestial navigation training.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−2, Celestial Navigation Training.
b. Forward position report over last reporting
point in the transferring facility’s area if any of the
following conditions exist:
1. Time differs more than 3 minutes from
estimate given.
2. Requested by receiving facility.
3. Agreed to between facilities.
2−2−7. MANUAL INPUT OF COMPUTERASSIGNED BEACON CODES
When a flight plan is manually entered into the
computer and a computer-assigned beacon code has
been forwarded with the flight plan data, insert the
beacon code in the appropriate field as part of the
input message.
2−2−8. ALTRV INFORMATION
EN ROUTE
When an aircraft is a part of an approved ALTRV,
forward only those items necessary to properly
identify the flight, update flight data contained in the
ALTRV APVL, or revise previously given
information.
11. When flight plan data must be forwarded
manually and an aircraft has been assigned a beacon
code by the computer, include the code as part of the
flight plan.
2−2−9. COMPUTER MESSAGE
VERIFICATION
NOTE−
When an IFR aircraft, or a VFR aircraft that has been
assigned a beacon code by the EAS and whose flight plan
will terminate in another facility’s area, cancels ATC
service or does not activate the flight plan, send a remove
strips (RS) message on that aircraft via the EAS keyboard,
the FDIO keyboard or call via service F.
Unless your facility is equipped to automatically
obtain acknowledgment of receipt of transferred data,
when you transfer control information by computer
message, obtain, via Service F, acknowledgment that
the receiving center has received the message and
verification of the following:
2−2−2
EN ROUTE
Flight Plans and Control Information
12/10/15
a. Within the time limits specified by a letter of
agreement or when not covered by a letter of
agreement, at least 15 minutes before the aircraft is
estimated to enter the receiving facility’s area, or at
the time of a radar handoff, or coordination for
transfer of control:
1. Aircraft identification.
2. Assigned altitude.
3. Departure or coordination fix time.
b. Any cancellation of IFR or EAS generated VFR
flight plan.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−2−6, IFR Flight Progress Data.
2−2−10. TRANSMIT PROPOSED FLIGHT
PLAN
EN ROUTE
a. Transmit proposed flight plans which fall
within an ARTCC’s Proposed Boundary Crossing
Time (PBCT) parameter to adjacent ARTCC’s via the
Computer B network during hours of inter-center
computer operation. In addition, when the route of
flight of any proposed flight plan exceeds 20 elements external to the originating ARTCC’s area,
NADIN must be used to forward the data to all
affected centers.
b. During nonautomated operation, the proposed
flight plans must be sent via NADIN to the other
centers involved when any of the following
conditions are met:
1. The route of flight external to the originating
center’s area consists of 10 or more elements and the
flight will enter 3 or more other center areas.
NOTE−
An element is defined as either a fix or route as specified in
FAAO JO 7110.10, Flight Services, para 6−3−3, IFR Flight
Plan Control Messages.
2. The route of flight beyond the first point of
exit from the originating center’s area consists of
10 or more elements, which are primarily fixes
described in fix-radial-distance or latitude/longitude
format, regardless of the number of other center areas
entered.
3. The flight plan remarks are too lengthy for
interphone transmission.
Flight Plans and Control Information
JO 7110.65W
2−2−11. FORWARDING AMENDED AND
UTM DATA
a. Forward any amending data concerning previously forwarded flight plans except that revisions to
ETA information in para 2−2−6, IFR Flight Progress
Data, need only be forwarded when the time differs
by more than 3 minutes from the estimate given.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification), REVISED (revised information).
EXAMPLE−
“American Two, revised flight level, three three zero.”
“United Eight Ten, revised estimate, Front Royal two zero
zero five.”
“Douglas Five Zero One Romeo, revised altitude, eight
thousand.”
“U.S. Air Eleven Fifty−one, revised type, heavy Boeing
Seven Sixty-seven.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−2−6, IFR Flight Progress Data.
b. Computer acceptance of an appropriate input
message fulfills the requirement for sending amended
data. During EAS FDP operations, the amendment
data are considered acknowledged on receipt of a
computer update message or a computer−generated
flight progress strip containing the amended data.
NOTE−
1. The successful utilization of automation equipment
requires timely and accurate insertion of changes and/or
new data.
2. If a pilot is not issued a computer-generated
PDR/PDAR/PAR and if amendment data is not entered into
the computer, the next controller will have incorrect route
information.
c. Forward any amended control information and
record the action on the appropriate flight progress
strip. Additionally, when a route or altitude in a
previously issued clearance is amended within
15 minutes of an aircraft’s proposed departure time,
the facility that amended the clearance must
coordinate the amendment with the receiving facility
via verbal AND automated means to ensure timely
passage of the information.
NOTE−
The term “receiving” facility means the ATC facility that
is expected to transmit the amended clearance to the
intended aircraft/pilot.
2−2−3
JO 7110.65W
d. EN ROUTE. Effect manual coordination on any
interfacility flight plan data that is not passed through
automated means.
e. EN ROUTE. When a controller receives a UTM
notification to an FDIO only facility, they must effect
manual coordination for the flight plan data. In
addition, the controller must verify the flight plan
data to the receiving facility within three minutes of
the transfer of control point estimate.
NOTE−
FDIO only facilities are facilities with FDIO but without
ARTS or STARS.
2−2−12. AIRBORNE MILITARY FLIGHTS
Forward to FSSs the following information received
from airborne military aircraft:
a. IFR flight plans and changes from VFR to IFR
flight plans.
b. Changes to an IFR flight plan as follows:
1. Change in destination:
(a) Aircraft identification and type.
(b) Departure point.
(c) Original destination.
(d) Position and time.
(e) New destination.
(f) ETA.
(g) Remarks including change in fuel exhaustion time.
(h) Revised ETA.
2. Change in fuel exhaustion time.
NOTE−
This makes current information available to FSSs for relay
to military bases concerned and for use by centers in the
event of two−way radio communications failure.
2−2−13. FORWARDING FLIGHT PLAN
DATA BETWEEN U.S. ARTCCs AND
CANADIAN ACCs
EN ROUTE
a. Domestic. (Continental U.S./Canadian airspace
except Alaska) Proposed departure flight plans and
en route estimates will be handled on a 30 minute lead
2−2−4
12/10/15
time (or as bilaterally agreed) between any ACC and
ARTCC.
b. International. Any route changes (except SIDs)
must be forwarded to the appropriate Oceanic/Preoceanic ACC or ARTCC with an optimum lead time
of 30 minutes or as soon as this information becomes
available.
c. Initially, if a flight goes from U.S. airspace into
Canadian airspace and returns to U.S. airspace, the
ACC will be responsible for forwarding the flight
plan data to the appropriate ARTCC by voice
transmission except for flights which traverse
mutually agreed on airways/fixes. These airways/
fixes will be determined on a case-by-case basis and
will be based on time and distance considerations at
the service area office.
2−2−14. TELETYPE FLIGHT DATA
FORMAT− U.S. ARTCCs − CANADIAN ACCs
EN ROUTE
The exchange of flight plan data between Canadian
ACCs and U.S. ARTCCs must be made as follows:
a. The U.S. ARTCCs will transmit flight data to
the Canadian ACCs in one of the following formats:
1. NADIN II input format as described in the
NAS Management Directives (MDs) for:
(a) Flight Plan Messages:
(1) Active.
(2) Proposed.
(b) Amendment messages.
(c) Cancellation messages.
(d) Response Messages to Canadian Input:
(1) Acknowledgment messages.
(2) Error messages.
(3) Rejection messages.
2. Transport Canada (TC) ACC Flight Strip
Format: Where the data to be printed on the ACC strip
form exceeds the strip form field size, the NADIN II
input format in 1 above will be used. Input
sequentially fields 1 through 8 in para 2−2−6, IFR
Flight Progress Data, subpara a.
b. TC’s ACCs will transmit flight data to the FAA
ARTCCs in the following format:
Flight Plans and Control Information
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
1. NADIN II input format as described in NAS
MDs for:
(a) Flight Plan Messages:
(1) Active.
(2) Proposed.
(b) Amendment messages.
(c) Cancellation messages.
(d) Correction messages.
2−2−15. NORTH AMERICAN ROUTE
PROGRAM (NRP) INFORMATION
a. “NRP” must be retained in the remarks section
of the flight plan if the aircraft is moved due to
weather, traffic, or other tactical reasons.
NOTE−
Every effort should be made to ensure the aircraft is
Flight Plans and Control Information
returned to the original filed flight plan/altitude as soon as
conditions warrant.
b. If the route of flight is altered due to a pilot
request, “NRP” must be removed from the remarks
section of the flight plan.
c. “NRP” must not be entered in the remarks
section of a flight plan, unless prior coordination is
accomplished with the ATCSCC or as prescribed by
international NRP flight operations procedures.
d. The en route facility within which an
international flight entering the conterminous U.S.
requests to participate in the NRP must enter “NRP”
in the remarks section of the flight plan.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−3−2, En Route Data Entries.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−5, Route or Altitude Amendments.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 17, Section 16, North American Route
Program.
2−2−5
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 3. Flight Progress Strips
2−3−1. GENERAL
Unless otherwise authorized in a facility directive,
use flight progress strips to post current data on
air traffic and clearances required for control and
other air traffic control services. To prevent
misinterpretation when data is hand printed, use
standard hand-printed characters.
En route: Flight progress strips must be posted.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 6−1−6, Flight Progress Strip Usage.
a. Maintain only necessary current data and
remove the strips from the flight progress boards
when no longer required for control purposes. To
correct, update, or preplan information:
1. Do not erase or overwrite any item. Use an
“X” to delete a climb/descend and maintain arrow, an
at or above/below symbol, a cruise symbol, and
unwanted altitude information. Write the new altitude
information immediately adjacent to it and within the
same space.
2. Do not draw a horizontal line through an
altitude being vacated until after the aircraft has
Flight Progress Strips
reported or is observed (valid Mode C) leaving the
altitude.
3. Preplanning may be accomplished in red
pencil.
b. Manually prepared strips must conform to the
format of machine-generated strips and manual strip
preparation procedures will be modified simultaneously with the operational implementation of
changes in the machine-generated format.
(See FIG 2−3−1.)
c. Altitude information may be written in
thousands of feet provided the procedure is
authorized by the facility manager, and is defined in
a facility directive, i.e. 5,000 feet as 5, and 2,800 as
2.8.
NOTE−
A slant line crossing through the number zero and
underline of the letter “s” on handwritten portions of flight
progress strips are required only when there is reason to
believe the lack of these markings could lead to
misunderstanding. A slant line crossing through the
number zero is required on all weather data.
2−3−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 2−3−1
Standard Recording of Hand-printed Characters
Typed
Hand Printed
Typed
A
T
B
U
C
V
D
W
E
X
F
Y
G
Z
Hand Printed
U
H
I
1
J
2
K
3
L
4
M
5
N
6
O
7
P
8
Q
9
R
0
S
2−3−2
S
Flight Progress Strips
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
2−3−2. EN ROUTE DATA ENTRIES
FIG 2−3−2
Flight Progress Strip
(7230−19)
a. Information recorded on the flight progress
strips (FAA Forms 7230−19) must be entered in the
correspondingly numbered spaces:
TBL 2−3−1
Block
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Information Recorded
Verification symbol if required.
Revision number.
DSR−Not used.
Aircraft identification.
Number of aircraft if more than one, heavy
aircraft indicator “H/” if appropriate, type of
aircraft, and aircraft equipment suffix.
Filed true airspeed.
Sector number.
Computer identification number if required.
Estimated ground speed.
Revised ground speed or strip request (SR)
originator.
Strip number.
DSR− Strip number/Revision number.
Previous fix.
Estimated time over previous fix.
Revised estimated time over previous fix.
Flight Progress Strips
Block
14.
14a.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Information Recorded
Actual time over previous fix, or actual
departure time entered on first fix posting after
departure.
Plus time expressed in minutes from the
previous fix to the posted fix.
Center−estimated time over fix (in hours and
minutes), or clearance information for
departing aircraft.
Arrows to indicate if aircraft is departing (↑) or
arriving (↓).
Pilot−estimated time over fix.
Actual time over fix, time leaving holding fix,
arrival time at nonapproach control airport, or
symbol indicating cancellation of IFR flight
plan for arriving aircraft, or departure time
(actual or assumed).
Fix. For departing aircraft, add proposed
departure time.
Altitude information (in hundreds of feet) or as
noted below.
NOTE− Altitude information may be written in
thousands of feet provided the procedure is
authorized by the facility manager, and is
defined in a facility directive, i.e. FL 330 as 33,
5,000 feet as 5, and 2,800 as 2.8.
2−3−3
JO 7110.65W
Block
20a.
12/10/15
Information Recorded
OPTIONAL USE, when voice recorders are
operational;
REQUIRED USE, when the voice recorders
are not operating and strips are being use at the
facility. This space is used to record reported
RA events. The letters RA followed by a climb
or descent arrow (if the climb or descent action
is reported) and the time (hhmm) the event is
reported.
21.
22.
23.
Next posted fix or coordination fix.
Pilot’s estimated time over next fix.
Arrows to indicate north (↑), south (↓), east
(→), or west (←) direction of flight if required.
24.
Requested altitude.
NOTE− Altitude information may be written in
thousands of feet provided the procedure is
authorized by the facility manager, and is
defined in a facility directive, i.e., FL 330 as 33,
5,000 feet as 5, and 2,800 as 2.8.
25.
2−3−4
Point of origin, route as required for control
and data relay, and destination.
Block
Information Recorded
26.
Pertinent remarks, minimum fuel, point
out/radar vector/speed adjustment information
or sector/position number (when applicable in
accordance with para 2−2−1, Recording Information), or NRP. High Altitude Redesign
(HAR) or Point−to−point (PTP) may be used at
facilities actively using these programs.
27.
28.
Mode 3/A beacon code if applicable.
Miscellaneous control data (expected further
clearance time, time cleared for approach,
etc.).
Transfer of control data and coordination
indicators.
29−30.
b. Latitude/longitude coordinates may be used to
define waypoints and may be substituted for
nonadapted NAVAIDs in space 25 of domestic en
route flight progress strips provided it is necessary to
accommodate a random RNAV or GNSS route
request.
c. Facility air traffic managers may authorize the
optional use of spaces 13, 14, 14a, 22, 23, 24, and 28
for point out information, radar vector information,
speed adjustment information, or transfer of control
data.
Flight Progress Strips
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
2−3−3. OCEANIC DATA ENTRIES
FIG 2−3−3
a. The Ocean21 system displays information on
electronic flight progress strips and, in the event of a
catastrophic system failure, will print flight progress
strips with data in the corresponding numbered
spaces:
TBL 2−3−2
Block
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Information Recorded
Mode 3/A beacon code, if applicable.
Number of aircraft, if more than one, and type
of aircraft.
Aircraft identification.
Reduced separation flags.
Indicators are available for:
M − Mach Number Technique (MNT),
R − Reduced MNT,
D or 3 − Distance−based longitudinal
separation using 50 NM (D) or 30 NM (3), and
W− Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum
(RVSM).
These flags are selectable for aircraft whose
flight plans contain the required equipment
qualifiers for each separation criteria.
Controlling sector number.
Filed airspeed or assigned Mach number/True
airspeed.
Reported flight level. May contain an indicator
for a flight that is climbing (↑) or descending
(↓). Reports from Mode C, ADS or position
reports are displayed in that order of
preference.
Cleared flight level. May contain an indicator
for a future conditional altitude ( * ) that cannot
be displayed.
Flight Progress Strips
Block
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Information Recorded
Requested flight level, if applicable.
Previously reported position.
Actual time over previously reported position.
Last reported position.
Actual time over last reported position.
Next reporting position.
In−conformance pilot’s estimate or
controller−accepted pilot’s estimate for next
reporting position.
Future reporting position(s).
System estimate for future reporting
position(s).
Departure airport or point of origin.
Destination airport or filed point of flight
termination.
Indicators. Indicators and toggles for
displaying or suppressing the display of the
route of flight (F), second flight profile (2),
radar contact (A), annotations (&), degraded
Required Navigation Performance (RNP,
indicator R) and clearance restrictions (X).
Coordination indicator(s).
Annotations.
Clearance restrictions and conditions (may be
multiple lines).
Strip number and total number of strips (printed
strips only).
b. Standard annotations and abbreviations for
Field 22 may be specified by facility directives.
2−3−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
2−3−4. TERMINAL DATA ENTRIES
a. Arrivals:
Information recorded on the flight progress strips
(FAA Forms 7230−7.1, 7230−7.2, and 7230−8) must
be entered in the correspondingly numbered spaces.
Facility managers can authorize omissions and/or
optional use of spaces 2A, 8A, 8B, 9A, 9B, 9C, and
10−18, if no misunderstanding will result. These
omissions and/or optional uses must be specified in a
facility directive.
FIG 2−3−4
TBL 2−3−3
Block
Information Recorded
OPTIONAL USE, when voice recorders are
operational;
REQUIRED USE, when the voice recorders
are not operating and strips are being used at
the facility. This space is used to record
reported RA events when the voice recorders
are not operational and strips are being used at
the facility. The letters RA followed by a climb
or descent arrow (if the climb or descent action
is reported) and the time (hhmm) the event is
reported.
9.
Altitude (in hundreds of feet) and remarks.
NOTE− Altitude information may be written in
thousands of feet provided the procedure is
authorized by the facility manager, and is
defined in a facility directive, i. e., FL 230 as
23, 5,000 feet as 5, and 2,800 as 2.8.
8B.
Block
1.
2.
2A.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8A.
2−3−6
Information Recorded
Aircraft identification.
Revision number (FDIO locations only).
Strip request originator. (At FDIO locations
this indicates the sector or position that
requested a strip be printed.)
Number of aircraft if more than one, heavy
aircraft indicator “H/” if appropriate, type of
aircraft, and aircraft equipment suffix.
Computer identification number if required.
Secondary radar (beacon) code assigned.
(FDIO Locations.) The previous fix will be
printed.
(Non−FDIO Locations.) Use of the inbound
airway. This function is restricted to facilities
where flight data is received via interphone
when agreed upon by the center and terminal
facilities.
Coordination fix.
Estimated time of arrival at the coordination
fix or destination airport.
OPTIONAL USE.
9A.
Minimum fuel, destination airport/point out/
radar vector/speed adjustment information.
Air traffic managers may authorize in a facility
directive the omission of any of these items,
except minimum fuel, if no misunderstanding
will result.
NOTE− Authorized omissions and optional use of
spaces must be specified in the facility directive
concerning strip marking procedures.
9B.
OPTIONAL USE.
9C.
OPTIONAL USE.
10−18. Enter data as specified by a facility directive.
Radar facility personnel need not enter data in
these spaces except when nonradar procedures
are used or when radio recording equipment is
inoperative.
Flight Progress Strips
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
b. Departures:
Information recorded on the flight progress strips
(FAA Forms 7230−7.1, 7230−7.2, and 7230−8) shall
be entered in the correspondingly numbered spaces.
Facility managers can authorize omissions and/or
optional use of spaces 2A, 8A, 8B, 9A, 9B, 9C, and
10−18, if no misunderstanding will result. These
omissions and/or optional uses shall be specified in a
facility directive.
FIG 2−3−5
TBL 2−3−4
Block
Information Recorded
OPTIONAL USE, when voice recorders are
operational;
REQUIRED USE, when the voice recorders
are not operating and strips are being used at
the facility. This space is used to record
reported RA events when the voice recorders
are not operational and strips are being used at
the facility. The letters RA followed by a climb
or descent arrow (if the climb or descent action
is reported) and the time (hhmm) the event is
reported.
9.
Computer−generated: Route, destination,
and remarks. Manually enter altitude/altitude
restrictions in the order flown, if appropriate,
and remarks.
9.
Hand−prepared: Clearance limit, route,
altitude/altitude restrictions in the order flown,
if appropriate, and remarks.
NOTE− Altitude information may be written in
thousands of feet provided the procedure is
authorized by the facility manager, and is
defined in a facility directive, i.e., FL 230 as 23,
5,000 feet as 5, and 2,800 as 2.8.
8B.
Block
Information Recorded
1.
2.
2A.
Aircraft identification.
Revision number (FDIO locations only).
Strip request originator. (At FDIO locations
this indicates the sector or position that
requested a strip be printed.)
3.
Number of aircraft if more than one, heavy
aircraft indicator “H/” if appropriate, type of
aircraft, and aircraft equipment suffix.
4.
Computer identification number if required.
5.
Secondary radar (beacon) code assigned.
6.
Proposed departure time.
7.
Requested altitude.
NOTE− Altitude information may be written in
thousands of feet provided the procedure is
authorized by the facility manager, and is
defined in a facility directive, i. e., FL 230 as
23, 5,000 feet as 5, and 2,800 as 2.8.
8.
8A.
Departure airport.
OPTIONAL USE.
Flight Progress Strips
9A.
9B.
9C.
10−18.
OPTIONAL USE.
OPTIONAL USE.
OPTIONAL USE.
Enter data as specified by a facility directive.
Items, such as departure time, runway used for
takeoff, check marks to indicate information
forwarded or relayed, may be entered in these
spaces.
2−3−7
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
c. Overflights:
Information recorded on the flight progress strips
(FAA Forms 7230−7.1, 7230−7.2, and 7230−8) shall
be entered in the correspondingly numbered spaces.
Facility managers can authorize omissions and/or
optional use of spaces 2A, 8A, 8B, 9A, 9B, 9C, and
10−18, if no misunderstanding will result. These
omissions and/or optional uses shall be specified in a
facility directive.
FIG 2−3−6
TBL 2−3−5
Block
Information Recorded
OPTIONAL USE, when voice recorders are
operational;
REQUIRED USE, when the voice recorders
are not operating and strips are being used at
the facility. This space is used to record
reported RA events when the voice recorders
are not operational and strips are being used at
the facility. The letters RA followed by a climb
or descent arrow (if the climb or descent action
is reported) and the time (hhmm) the event is
reported.
9.
Altitude and route of flight through the
terminal area.
NOTE− Altitude information may be written in
thousands of feet provided the procedure is
authorized by the facility manager, and is
defined in a facility directive, i.e., FL 230 as 23,
5,000 feet as 5, and 2,800 as 2.8.
8B.
Block
1.
2.
2A.
Information Recorded
Aircraft identification.
Revision number (FDIO locations only).
Strip request originator. (At FDIO locations
this indicates the sector or position that
requested a strip be printed.)
3.
Number of aircraft if more than one, heavy
aircraft indicator “H/” if appropriate, type of
aircraft, and aircraft equipment suffix.
4.
Computer identification number if required.
5.
Secondary radar (beacon) code assigned.
6.
Coordination fix.
7.
Overflight coordination indicator (FDIO
locations only).
NOTE− The overflight coordination indicator
identifies the facility to which flight data has
been forwarded.
8.
Estimated time of arrival at the coordination
fix.
8A.
OPTIONAL USE.
9A.
9B.
9C.
10−18.
OPTIONAL USE.
OPTIONAL USE.
OPTIONAL USE.
Enter data as specified by a facility directive.
NOTE−
National standardization of items (10 through 18) is not
practical because of regional and local variations in
operating methods; e.g., single fix, multiple fix, radar,
tower en route control, etc.
2−3−8
Flight Progress Strips
12/10/15
d. Air traffic managers at automated terminal
radar facilities may waive the requirement to use
flight progress strips provided:
1. Backup systems such as multiple radar
sites/systems or single site radars with CENRAP are
utilized.
2. Local procedures are documented in a facility
directive. These procedures should include but not be
limited to:
(a) Departure areas and/or procedures.
(b) Arrival procedures.
(c) Overflight handling procedures.
(d) Transition from radar to nonradar.
(e) Transition from ARTS to non−ARTS.
(f) Transition from ASR to CENRAP.
(g) Transition to or from ESL.
3. No misunderstanding will occur as a result of
no strip usage.
4. Unused flight progress strips, facility developed forms and/or blank notepads shall be
provided for controller use.
5. Facilities shall revert to flight progress strip
usage if backup systems referred to in subpara d1 are
not available.
e. Air traffic managers at FDIO locations may
authorize reduced lateral spacing between fields so as
to print all FDIO data to the left of the strip
perforation. When using FAA Form 7230−7.2, all
items will retain the same relationship to each other
as they do when the full length strip (FAA
Form 7230−7.1) is used.
JO 7110.65W
EXAMPLE−
“N12345.”
“TN5552Q.”
“AAl192.”
“LN751B.”
NOTE−
The letter “L” is not to be used for air carrier/air taxi
MEDEVAC aircraft.
b. Military Aircraft.
1. Prefixes indicating branch of service and/or
type of mission followed by the last 5 digits of the
serial number (the last 4 digits for CFC and CTG).
(See TBL 2−3−6 and TBL 2−3−7.)
2. Pronounceable words of 3, 4, 5, and 6 letters
followed by a 4−, 3−, 2−, or 1−digit number.
EXAMPLE−
“SAMP Three One Six.”
3. Assigned double-letter 2−digit flight number.
4. Navy or Marine fleet and training command
aircraft, one of the following:
(a) The service prefix and 2 letters (use
phonetic alphabet equivalent) followed by 2 or
3 digits.
TBL 2−3−6
Branch of Service Prefix
Prefix
Branch
A
C
G
R
VM
VV
CFC
CTG
U.S. Air Force
U.S. Coast Guard
Air or Army National Guard
U.S. Army
U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Navy
Canadian Forces
Canadian Coast Guard
TBL 2−3−7
2−3−5. AIRCRAFT IDENTITY
Indicate aircraft identity by one of the following
using combinations not to exceed seven alphanumeric characters:
a. Civil aircraft, including the air-carrier letter-digit registration number which can include the letter
“T” for air taxi, the letter “L” for MEDEVAC, or the
3-letter company designator specified in FAA Order
JO 7340.2, Contractions, followed by the trip or flight
number. Use the operating air carrier’s company
name in identifying equipment interchange flights.
Flight Progress Strips
Military Mission Prefix
Prefix
E
F
L
RCH
S
Mission
Medical Air Evacuation
Flight Check
LOGAIR (USAF Contract)
AMC (Air Mobility Command)
Special Air Mission
(b) The service prefix and a digit and a letter
(use phonetic alphabet equivalent) followed by 2 or
3 digits.
2−3−9
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
5. Aircraft carrying the President, Vice President, and/or their family members will use the
identifiers in the following tables. See TBL 2−3−8
and TBL 2−3−9.
TBL 2−3−8
President and Family
Service
President
Family
Air Force
Marine
Navy
Army
Coast Guard
Guard
Commercial
AF1
VM1
VV1
RR1
C1
G1
EXEC1
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
change the requirement to use the letter “Z” as a suffix to
the aircraft identification.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−20, Aircraft Identification.
FAAO JO 7610.4, Chapter 12, Section 10, USAF Undergraduate
Flying Training (UFT)/Pilot Instructor Training (PIT)/Introduction To
Fighter Fundamentals.
2−3−8. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT SUFFIX
a. Indicate, for both VFR and IFR operations, the
aircraft’s radar transponder, DME, or navigation
capability by adding the appropriate symbol,
preceded by a slant. (See TBL 2−3−10.)
b. GNSS-equipped aircraft:
1. Have an equipment suffix of /G, /L, /S, or /V.
2. May be determined by executing an ICAO
flight plan readout and verifying a filed “G” in the
ICAO equipment list.
TBL 2−3−9
Vice President and Family
Service
Vice President
Family
Air Force
Marine
Navy
Army
Coast Guard
Guard
Commercial
AF2
VM2
VV2
RR2
C2
G2
EXEC2
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
c. Special-use. Approved special-use identifiers.
2−3−6. AIRCRAFT TYPE
3. May be determined by verifying with the pilot
that the aircraft is GNSS-equipped.
c. When forwarding this information, state the
aircraft type followed by the word “slant” and the
appropriate phonetic letter equivalent of the suffix.
EXAMPLE−
“Cessna Three−ten slant Tango.”
“A−Ten slant November.”
“F−Sixteen slant Papa.”
“Seven−sixty−seven slant Golf.”
d. Utilize aircraft equipment suffix /O to indicate
“RVSM−capable, no transponder.”
Use the approved codes listed in Appendix A through
Appendix C to indicate aircraft type.
NOTE−
/O is for ATC use only. Users are not authorized to file this
suffix.
2−3−7. USAF/USN UNDERGRADUATE
PILOTS
2−3−9. CLEARANCE STATUS
To identify aircraft piloted by solo USAF/USN
undergraduate student pilots (who may occasionally
request revised clearances because they normally are
restricted to flight in VFR conditions), the aircraft
identification in the flight plan shall include the letter
“Z” as a suffix. Do not use this suffix, however, in
ground-to-air communication.
NOTE−
USAF solo students who have passed an instrument
certification check may penetrate cloud layers in climb or
descent only. Requests for revised clearances to avoid
clouds in level flight can still be expected. This does not
2−3−10
Use an appropriate clearance symbol followed by a
dash (−) and other pertinent information to clearly
show the clearance status of an aircraft. To indicate
delay status use:
a. The symbol “H” at the clearance limit when
holding instructions have been included in the
aircraft’s original clearance. Show detailed holding
information following the dash when holding differs
from the established pattern for the fix; i.e., turns, leg
lengths, etc.
b. The symbols “F” or “O” to indicate the
clearance limit when a delay is not anticipated.
Flight Progress Strips
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
TBL 2−3−10
Aircraft Equipment Suffixes
Navigation Capability
Transponder Capability
RVSM
Any
Failed transponder or Failed Mode
C capability
/H
No GNSS, No RNAV
Transponder with Mode C
/W
RNAV, No GNSS
Transponder with Mode C
/Z
GNSS
Transponder with Mode C
/L
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
/X
/T
/U
/D
/B
/A
/M
/N
/P
/Y
/C
/I
/V
/S
/G
No DME
DME
No RVSM
TACAN
RNAV,
No GNSS
GNSS
Flight Progress Strips
Suffix
2−3−11
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
2−3−10. CONTROL SYMBOLOGY
Use authorized control and clearance symbols or
abbreviations for recording clearances, reports, and
instructions. Control status of aircraft must always be
current. You may use:
a. Plain language markings when it will aid in
understanding information.
b. Locally approved identifiers. Use these only
within your facility and not on teletypewriter or
interphone circuits.
c. Plain sheets of paper or locally prepared forms
to record information when flight progress strips are
not used. (See TBL 2−3−11 and TBL 2−3−12.)
d. Control Information Symbols.
(See FIG 2−3−7 and FIG 2−3−8.)
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−3, Exceptions.
TBL 2−3−12
Miscellaneous Abbreviations
Abbreviation
BC
CT
FA
FMS
GPS
I
ILS
MA
MLS
NDB
OTP
PA
PT
RA
TBL 2−3−11
Clearance Abbreviations
Abbreviation
RH
Meaning
Back course approach
Contact approach
Final approach
Flight management system approach
GPS approach
Initial approach
ILS approach
Missed approach
MLS approach
Nondirectional radio beacon approach
VFR conditions−on−top
Precision approach
Procedure turn
Resolution advisory (Pilot reported
TCAS event)
Runway heading
Meaning
RNAV
A
Cleared to airport (point of intended
landing)
RP
Report immediately upon passing
(fix/altitude)
B
C
Center clearance delivered
ATC clears (when clearance relayed
through non−ATC facility)
CAF
D
F
H
L
N
O
PD
Cleared as filed
Cleared to depart from the fix
Cleared to the fix
Cleared to hold and instructions issued
Cleared to land
Clearance not delivered
Cleared to the outer marker
Cleared to climb/descend at pilot’s
discretion
RX
SA
SI
TA
TL
TR
VA
VR
Report crossing
Surveillance approach
Straight−in approach
TACAN approach
Turn left
Turn right
Visual approach
VOR approach
Q
Cleared to fly specified sectors of a
NAVAID defined in terms of courses,
bearings, radials or quadrants within a
designated radius.
T
Cleared through (for landing and takeoff
through intermediate point)
V
X
Cleared over the fix
Cleared to cross (airway, route, radial) at
(point)
Z
Tower jurisdiction
2−3−12
Area navigation approach
Flight Progress Strips
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
FIG 2−3−7
Control Information Symbols [Part 1]
Flight Progress Strips
2−3−13
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 2−3−8
Control Information Symbols [Part 2]
2−3−14
Flight Progress Strips
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 4. Radio and Interphone Communications
2−4−1. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
Use radio frequencies for the special purposes for
which they are intended. A single frequency may be
used for more than one function except as follows:
TERMINAL. When combining positions in the tower,
do not use ground control frequency for airborne
communications.
NOTE−
Due to the limited number of frequencies assigned to
towers for the ground control function, it is very likely that
airborne use of a ground control frequency could cause
interference to other towers or interference to your aircraft
from another tower. When combining these functions, it is
recommended combining them on local control. The ATIS
may be used to specify the desired frequency.
2−4−2. MONITORING
Monitor interphones and assigned radio frequencies
continuously.
NOTE−
Although all FAA facilities, including RAPCONs and
RATCFs, are required to monitor all assigned frequencies
continuously, USAF facilities may not monitor all
unpublished discrete frequencies.
2−4−3. PILOT ACKNOWLEDGMENT/READ
BACK
Ensure pilots acknowledge all Air Traffic Clearances
and ATC Instructions. When a pilot reads back an Air
Traffic Clearance or ATC Instruction:
a. Ensure that items read back are correct.
b. Ensure the read back of hold short instructions,
whether a part of taxi instructions or a LAHSO
clearance.
c. Ensure pilots use call signs and/or registration
numbers in any read back acknowledging an Air
Traffic Clearance or ATC Instruction.
NOTE−
1. ATC Clearance/Instruction Read Back guidance for
pilots in the AIM states:
a. Although pilots should read back the “numbers,” unless
otherwise required by procedure or controller request,
Radio and Interphone Communications
pilots may acknowledge clearances, control instructions,
or other information by using “Wilco,” “Roger,”
“Affirmative,” or other words or remarks with their
aircraft identification.
b. Altitudes contained in charted procedures, such as
departure procedures, instrument approaches, etc., need
not be read back unless they are specifically stated by the
controller.
c. Initial read back of a taxi, departure or landing
clearance should include the runway assignment,
including left, right, center, etc. if applicable.
2. Until a pilot acknowledges a controller’s clearance or
instruction, a controller cannot know if a pilot will comply
with the clearance or remain as previously cleared.
EXAMPLE−
“Climbing to Flight Level three three zero, United Twelve”
or “November Five Charlie Tango, roger, cleared to land
runway four left.”
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term – Air Traffic Clearance
P/CG Term – ATC Instructions
JO 7110.65, 3-7-2. Taxi and Ground Movement Operations
JO 7110.65, 10-4-4. Communications Failure
AIM Para 4-2-3, Contact Procedures
AIM Para 4-4-7 Pilot Responsibility upon Clearance Issuance
AIM Para 6-4-1, Two-way Radio Communications Failure
Federal Register, April 1, 1999 14 CFR Part 91 Pilot Responsibility for
Compliance with ATC Clearances and Instructions
2−4−4. AUTHORIZED INTERRUPTIONS
As necessary, authorize a pilot to interrupt his/her
communications guard.
NOTE−
Some users have adopted procedures to ensure uninterrupted receiving capability with ATC when a pilot with only
one operative communications radio must interrupt
his/her communications guard because of a safety related
problem requiring airborne communications with his/her
company. In this event, pilots will request approval to
abandon guard on the assigned ATC frequency for a
mutually agreeable time period. Additionally, they will
inform controllers of the NAVAID voice facility and the
company frequency they will monitor.
2−4−5. AUTHORIZED TRANSMISSIONS
Transmit only those messages necessary for air traffic
control or otherwise contributing to air safety.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−2−2, Authorized Messages Not Directly
Associated with Air Traffic Services.
2−4−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
2−4−6. FALSE OR DECEPTIVE
COMMUNICATIONS
2. Identification of ATC unit.
Take action to detect, prevent, and report false,
deceptive, or phantom controller communications to
an aircraft or controller. The following must be
accomplished when false or deceptive communications occur:
4. The word “over” if required.
a. Correct false information.
b. Broadcast an alert to aircraft operating on all
frequencies within the area where deceptive or
phantom transmissions have been received.
EXAMPLE−
“Attention all aircraft. False ATC instructions have been
received in the area of Long Beach Airport. Exercise
extreme caution on all frequencies and verify
instructions.”
c. Collect pertinent information regarding the
incident.
d. Notify the operations supervisor of the false,
deceptive, or phantom transmission and report all
relevant information pertaining to the incident.
2−4−7. AUTHORIZED RELAYS
a. Relay operational information to aircraft or
aircraft operators as necessary. Do not agree to handle
such messages on a regular basis. Give the source of
any such message you relay.
b. Relay official FAA messages as required.
NOTE−
The FAA Administrator and Deputy Administrator will
sometimes use code phrases to identify themselves in
air-to-ground communications as follows:
Administrator: “SAFEAIR ONE.”
Deputy Administrator: “SAFEAIR TWO.”
EXAMPLE−
“Miami Center, Jetstar One, this is SAFEAIR ONE,
(message).”
c. Relay operational information to military
aircraft operating on, or planning to operate on IRs.
2−4−8. RADIO MESSAGE FORMAT
Use the following format for radio communications
with an aircraft:
a. Sector/position on initial radio contact:
1. Identification of aircraft.
2−4−2
3. Message (if any).
b. Subsequent radio transmissions from the same
sector/position must use the same format, except the
identification of the ATC unit may be omitted.
TERMINAL. You may omit aircraft identification
after initial contact when conducting the final portion
of a radar approach.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−20, Aircraft Identification.
2−4−9. ABBREVIATED TRANSMISSIONS
Transmissions may be abbreviated as follows:
a. Use the identification prefix and the last 3 digits
or letters of the aircraft identification after
communications have been established. Do not
abbreviate similar sounding aircraft identifications or
the identification of an air carrier or other civil aircraft
having an FAA authorized call sign.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−20, Aircraft Identification.
b. Omit the facility identification after communication has been established.
c. Transmit the message immediately after the
callup (without waiting for the aircraft’s reply) when
the message is short and receipt is generally assured.
d. Omit the word “over” if the message obviously
requires a reply.
2−4−10. INTERPHONE TRANSMISSION
PRIORITIES
Give priority to interphone transmissions as follows:
a. First priority. Emergency messages including
essential information on aircraft accidents or
suspected accidents. After an actual emergency has
passed, give a lower priority to messages relating to
that accident.
b. Second priority. Clearances and control
instructions.
c. Third priority. Movement and control messages
using the following order of preference when
possible:
1. Progress reports.
2. Departure or arrival reports.
Radio and Interphone Communications
12/10/15
3. Flight plans.
JO 7110.65W
Twenty−eight.”
d. Fourth priority. Movement messages on VFR
aircraft.
Receiver: “Northwest Three Twenty−eight direct Denver
approved. H.F.”
2−4−11. PRIORITY INTERRUPTION
Caller: “G.M.”
Use the words “emergency” or “control” for
interrupting lower priority messages when you have
an emergency or control message to transmit.
2−4−12. INTERPHONE MESSAGE FORMAT
Use the following format for interphone intra/interfacility communications:
a. Both the caller and receiver identify their
facility and/or position in a manner that ensures they
will not be confused with another position.
NOTE−
Other means of identifying a position, such as substituting
departure or arrival gate/fix names for position identification, may be used. However, it must be operationally
beneficial, and the procedure fully covered in a letter of
agreement or a facility directive, as appropriate.
EXAMPLE−
Caller: “Albuquerque Center Sixty Three, Amarillo
Departure.”
Receiver: “Albuquerque Center.”
b. Between two facilities which utilize numeric
position identification, the caller must identify both
facility and position.
EXAMPLE−
Caller: “Albuquerque Sixty Three, Fort Worth Eighty
Two.”
c. Caller states the type of coordination to be
accomplished when advantageous. For example,
handoff or APREQ.
d. The caller states the message.
e. The receiver states the response to the caller’s
message followed by the receiver’s operating initials.
f. The caller states his or her operating initials.
EXAMPLE−
1.
Caller: “Denver High, R Twenty−five.”
2.
Receiver: “Denver High, Go ahead override.”
Caller: “R Twenty−five, Request direct Denver for
Northwest Three Twenty−eight.”
Receiver: “Northwest Three Twenty−eight direct Denver
approved. H.F.”
Caller: “G.M.”
3.
Caller: (“Bolos” is a departure gate in Houston ARTCC’s
Sabine sector)−“Bolos, Houston local.”
Receiver: “Bolos.”
Caller: “Request Flight Level three five zero for American
Twenty−five.”
Receiver: “American Twenty−five Flight Level three five
zero approved, A.C.”
Caller: “G.M.”
4.
Caller: “Sector Twelve, Ontario Approach, APREQ.”
Receiver: “Sector Twelve.”
Caller: “Cactus Five forty−two heading one three zero and
climbing to one four thousand.”
Receiver: “Cactus Five forty−two heading one three zero
and climbing to one four thousand approved. B.N.”
Caller: “A.M.”
5.
Caller: “Zanesville, Columbus, seventy−three line,
handoff.”
Receiver: “Zanesville.”
Caller: “Five miles east of Appleton VOR, United Three
Sixty−six.”
Receiver: “Denver High.”
Receiver: “United Three Sixty−six, radar contact, A.Z.”
Caller: “Request direct Denver for Northwest Three
Caller: “M.E.”
Radio and Interphone Communications
2−4−3
JO 7110.65W
g. Identify the interphone voice line on which the
call is being made when two or more such lines are
collocated at the receiving operating position.
EXAMPLE−
“Washington Center, Washington Approach on the Fifty
Seven line.”
“Chicago Center, O’Hare Tower handoff on the Departure
West line.”
h. TERMINAL. The provisions of subparas a, b, c,
e, f, g, and para 2−4−13, Interphone Message
Termination, may be omitted provided:
1. Abbreviated standard coordination procedures are contained in a facility directive describing
the specific conditions and positions that may utilize
an abbreviated interphone message format; and
2. There will be no possibility of misunderstanding which positions are using the abbreviated
procedures.
12/10/15
3. In communications with or about super or
heavy aircraft when the separation from a following
aircraft may become less than 5 miles by approved
procedure.
4. When issuing traffic advisories.
EXAMPLE−
“United Fifty−Eight Heavy.”
NOTE−
Most airlines will use the word “super” or “heavy”
following the company prefix and flight number when
establishing communications or when changing frequencies within a terminal facility’s area.
e. When in radio communications with “Air Force
One” or “Air Force Two,” do not add the heavy
designator to the call sign. State only the call sign “Air
Force One/Two” regardless of the type aircraft.
2−4−15. EMPHASIS FOR CLARITY
2−4−13. INTERPHONE MESSAGE
TERMINATION
Terminate interphone messages with your operating
initials.
2−4−14. WORDS AND PHRASES
a. Use the words or phrases in radiotelephone and
interphone communication as contained in the P/CG
or, within areas where Controller Pilot Data Link
Communications (CPDLC) is in use, the phraseology
contained in the applicable CPDLC message set.
b. The word super must be used as part of the
identification in all communications with or about
super aircraft.
c. The word heavy must be used as part of the
identification in all communications with or about
heavy aircraft.
d. EN ROUTE. The use of the words super or
heavy may be omitted except as follows:
Emphasize appropriate digits, letters, or similar
sounding words to aid in distinguishing between
similar sounding aircraft identifications.
Additionally:
a. Notify each pilot concerned when communicating with aircraft having similar sounding
identifications.
EXAMPLE−
“United Thirty−one United, Miami Center, U.S. Air
Thirty−one is also on this frequency, acknowledge.”
“U.S. Air Thirty−one U.S. Air, Miami Center, United
Thirty−one is also on this frequency, acknowledge.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−20, Aircraft Identification.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2−1−13, Aircraft Identification Problems.
b. Notify the operations supervisor−in-charge of
any duplicate flight identification numbers or
phonetically similar-sounding call signs when the
aircraft are operating simultaneously within the same
sector.
1. In communications with a terminal facility
about super or heavy aircraft operations.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2−1−13, Aircraft Identification Problems.
2. In communications with or about super or
heavy aircraft with regard to an airport where the en
route center is providing approach control service.
NOTE−
This is especially important when this occurs on a
repetitive, rather than an isolated, basis.
2−4−4
Radio and Interphone Communications
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
2−4−16. ICAO PHONETICS
2−4−17. NUMBERS USAGE
Use the ICAO pronunciation of numbers and
individual letters. (See the ICAO radiotelephony
alphabet and pronunciation in TBL 2−4−1.)
State numbers as follows:
a. Serial numbers. The separate digits.
EXAMPLE−
TBL 2−4−1
ICAO Phonetics
Number
Character
Word
Pronunciation
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Zero
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Six
Seven
Eight
Nine
ZE−RO
WUN
TOO
TREE
FOW−ER
FIFE
SIX
SEV−EN
AIT
NIN−ER
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Alfa
Bravo
Charlie
Delta
Echo
Foxtrot
Golf
Hotel
India
Juliett
Kilo
Lima
Mike
November
Oscar
Papa
Quebec
Romeo
Sierra
Tango
Uniform
Victor
Whiskey
X−ray
Yankee
Zulu
ALFAH
BRAHVOH
CHARLEE
DELLTAH
ECKOH
FOKSTROT
GOLF
HOHTELL
INDEE AH
JEWLEE ETT
KEYLOH
LEEMAH
MIKE
NOVEMBER
OSSCAH
PAHPAH
KEHBECK
ROWME OH
SEEAIRAH
TANGGO
YOUNEE FORM
VIKTAH
WISSKEY
ECKSRAY
YANGKEY
ZOOLOO
NOTE−
Syllables to be emphasized in pronunciation are in bold
face.
Radio and Interphone Communications
11,495
20,069
Statement
“One one four niner five.”
“Two zero zero six niner.”
b. Altitudes or flight levels:
1. Altitudes. Pronounce each digit in the number
of hundreds or thousands followed by the word
“hundred” or “thousand” as appropriate.
EXAMPLE−
Number
10,000
11,000
17,900
Statement
“One zero thousand.”
“One one thousand.”
“One seven thousand niner
hundred.”
NOTE−
Altitudes may be restated in group form for added clarity
if the controller chooses.
EXAMPLE−
Number
10,000
11,000
17,900
Statement
“Ten thousand.”
“Eleven thousand.”
“Seventeen thousand niner
hundred.”
2. Flight levels. The words “flight level”
followed by the separate digits of the flight level.
EXAMPLE−
Flight Level
Statement
180
275
“Flight level one eight zero.”
“Flight level two seven five.”
3. MDA/DH Altitudes. The separate digits of
the MDA/DH altitude.
EXAMPLE−
MDA/DH Altitude
Statement
1,320
“Minimum descent altitude,
one three two zero.”
486
“Decision height, four eight
six.”
2−4−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
c. Time:
1. General time information. The four separate
digits of the hour and minute/s in terms of UTC.
EXAMPLE−
UTC
Time (12 hour)
0715
1915
1:15 a.m. CST
1:15 p.m. CST
Statement
“Zero seven one five.”
“One niner one five.”
2. Upon request. The four separate digits of the
hours and minute/s in terms of UTC followed by the
local standard time equivalent; or the local time
equivalent only. Local time may be based on the
24−hour clock system, and the word “local” or the
time zone equivalent must be stated when other than
UTC is referenced. The term “ZULU” may be used
to denote UTC.
EXAMPLE−
UTC
Time
(24 hour)
Time
(12 hour)
2230
1430 PST
2:30 p.m.
Statement
“Two two three zero,
one four three zero
Pacific or Local.” or
“Two−thirty P−M.”
3. Time check. The word “time” followed by the
four separate digits of the hour and minutes, and
nearest quarter minute. Fractions of a quarter minute
less than eight seconds are stated as the preceding
quarter minute; fractions of a quarter minute of eight
seconds or more are stated as succeeding quarter
minute.
EXAMPLE−
Time
Statement
1415:06
1415:10
“Time, one four one five.”
“Time, one four one five and
one−quarter.”
4. Abbreviated time. The separate digits of the
minutes only.
d. Field elevation. The words “field elevation”
followed by the separate digits of the elevation.
EXAMPLE−
Elevation
Statement
17 feet
817 feet
2,817 feet
“Field elevation, one seven.”
“Field elevation, eight one seven.”
“Field elevation, two eight one seven.”
e. The number “0” as “zero” except where it is
used in approved “group form” for authorized aircraft
call signs, and in stating altitudes.
EXAMPLE−
As Zero
As Group
“Field elevation one six zero.” “Western five thirty.”
“Heading three zero zero.”
“EMAIR One Ten.”
“One zero thousand five “Ten thousand five hundred.”
hundred.”
f. Altimeter setting. The word “altimeter” followed by the separate digits of the altimeter setting.
EXAMPLE−
Setting
Statement
30.01
“Altimeter, three zero zero one.”
g. Surface wind. The word “wind” followed by the
separate digits of the indicated wind direction to the
nearest 10−degree multiple, the word “at” and the
separate digits of the indicated velocity in knots, to
include any gusts.
EXAMPLE−
“Wind zero three zero at two five.”
“Wind two seven zero at one five gusts three five.”
h. Heading. The word “heading” followed by the
three separate digits of the number of degrees,
omitting the word “degrees.” Use heading
360 degrees to indicate a north heading.
EXAMPLE−
EXAMPLE−
Heading
Time
1415
1420
2−4−6
Statement
“One five.”
“Two zero.”
5 degrees
30 degrees
360 degrees
Statement
“Heading zero zero five.”
“Heading zero three zero.”
“Heading three six zero.”
Radio and Interphone Communications
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
i. Radar beacon codes. The separate digits of the
4−digit code.
3. Issue MLS/TACAN frequencies by stating
the assigned two− or three−digit channel number.
EXAMPLE−
EXAMPLE−
“M−L−Schannel Five Three Zero.”
“TACAN channel Niner Seven.”
Code
1000
2100
Statement
“One zero zero zero.”
“Two one zero zero.”
j. Runways. The word “runway,” followed by the
separate digits of the runway designation. For a
parallel runway, state the word “left,” “right,” or
“center” if the letter “L,” “R,” or “C” is included in the
designation.
EXAMPLE−
Designation
Statement
3
8L
27R
“Runway Three.”
“Runway Eight Left.”
“Runway Two Seven Right.”
1. The separate digits of the frequency, inserting
the word “point” where the decimal point occurs.
(a) Omit digits after the second digit to the
right of the decimal point.
(b) When the frequency is in the L/MF band,
include the word “kiloHertz.”
EXAMPLE−
Frequency
Statement
126.55 MHz
369.0 MHz
121.5 MHz
135.275 MHz
302 kHz
“One two six point five five.”
“Three six niner point zero.”
“One two one point five.”
“One three five point two seven.”
“Three zero two kiloHertz.”
2. USAF/USN. Local channelization numbers
may be used in lieu of frequencies for locally based
aircraft when local procedures are established to
ensure that local aircraft and ATC facilities use the
same channelization.
EXAMPLE−
275.8 MHz
1. The separate digits of the speed followed by
“knots” except as required by para 5−7−2, Methods.
EXAMPLE−
Speed
250
190
Statement
“Two five zero knots.”
“One niner zero knots.”
2. The separate digits of the Mach number
preceded by “Mach.”
EXAMPLE−
k. Frequencies.
Frequency
l. Speeds.
Statement
“Local channel one six.”
Radio and Interphone Communications
Mach Number
1.5
0.64
0.7
Statement
“Mach one point five.”
“Mach point six four.”
“Mach point seven.”
m. Miles. The separate digits of the mileage
followed by the word “mile.”
EXAMPLE−
“Three zero mile arc east of Nottingham.”
“Traffic, one o’clock, two five miles, northbound, D−C
Eight, flight level two seven zero.”
2−4−18. NUMBER CLARIFICATION
a. If deemed necessary for clarity, and after stating
numbers as specified in para 2−4−17, Numbers
Usage, controllers may restate numbers using either
group or single-digit form.
EXAMPLE−
“One Seven Thousand, Seventeen Thousand.”
“Altimeter Two Niner Niner Two, Twenty Nine Ninety
Two.”
“One Two Six Point Five Five, One Twenty Six Point Fifty
Five.”
2−4−7
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
2−4−19. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION
2−4−20. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION
Identify facilities as follows:
Use the full identification in reply to aircraft with
similar sounding identifications. For other aircraft,
the same identification may be used in reply that the
pilot used in his/her initial callup except use the
correct identification after communications have
been established. Identify aircraft as follows:
a. Airport traffic control towers. State the name of
the facility followed by the word “tower.” Where
military and civil airports are located in the same
general area and have similar names, state the name
of the military service followed by the name of the
military facility and the word “tower.”
EXAMPLE−
“Columbus Tower.”
“Barksdale Tower.”
“Navy Jacksonville Tower.”
b. Air route traffic control centers. State the name
of the facility followed by the word “center.”
c. Approach control facilities, including
RAPCONs, RATCFs, and ARACs. State the name of
the facility followed by the word “approach.” Where
military and civil facilities are located in the same
general area and have similar names, state the name
of the military service followed by the name of the
military facility and the word “approach.”
EXAMPLE−
“Denver Approach.”
“Griffiss Approach.”
“Navy Jacksonville Approach.”
d. Functions within a terminal facility. State the
name of the facility followed by the name of the
function.
EXAMPLE−
“Boston Departure.”
“LaGuardia Clearance Delivery.”
“O’Hare Ground.”
e. When calling or replying on an interphone line
which connects only two non−VSCS equipped
facilities, you may omit the facility name.
EXAMPLE−
“Bradford High, Handoff.”
f. FAA flight service stations. State the name of the
station followed by the word “radio.”
EXAMPLE−
“Altoona Radio.”
g. Radar facilities having ASR or PAR but not
providing approach control service. State the name
of the facility, followed by the letters “G−C−A.”
EXAMPLE−
“Corpus Christi G−C−A.”
“Davison G−C−A.”
2−4−8
a. U.S. registry aircraft. State one of the following:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−8, Radio Message Format.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−9, Abbreviated Transmissions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−15, Emphasis for Clarity.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−17, Numbers Usage.
1. Civil. State the prefix “November” when
establishing initial communications with U.S.
registered aircraft followed by the ICAO phonetic
pronunciation of the numbers/letters of the aircraft
registration. The controller may state the aircraft
type, the model, the manufacturer’s name, followed
by the ICAO phonetic pronunciation of the
numbers/letters of the aircraft registration if used by
the pilot on the initial or subsequent call.
EXAMPLE−
Air traffic controller’s initiated call:
“November One Two Three Four Golf.”
“November One Two Three Four.”
Responding to pilot’s initial or subsequent call:
“Jet Commander One Two Three Four Papa.”
“Bonanza One Two Three Four Tango.”
“Sikorsky Six Three Eight Mike Foxtrot.”
NOTE−
If aircraft identification becomes a problem when the
procedures specified above are used, the call sign must be
restated after the flight number of the aircraft involved.
EXAMPLE−
“American Five Twenty−One American.”
“Commuter Six Eleven Commuter.”
“General Motors Thirty−Seven General Motors.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2−1−13, Aircraft Identification Problems.
2. Air carrier and other civil aircraft having FAA
authorized call signs. State the call sign followed by
the flight number in group form.
NOTE−
“Group form” is the pronunciation of a series of numbers
as the whole number, or pairs of numbers they represent
rather than pronouncing each separate digit. The use of
group form may, however, be negated by four-digit
identifiers or the placement of zeros in the identifier.
Radio and Interphone Communications
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
“American Fifty−Two.”
“Delta One Hundred.”
“Eastern Metro One Ten.”
“General Motors Thirty Fifteen.”
“United One Zero One.”
“Delta Zero One Zero.”
“TWA Ten Zero Four.”
NOTE−
Air carrier and other civil aircraft having FAA authorized
call signs may be pronounced using single digits if
necessary for clarity.
EXAMPLE−
“United Five One Seven.”
“United Five Seven Zero.”
3. Air taxi and commercial operators not having
FAA authorized call signs. State the prefix “TANGO”
on initial contact, if used by the pilot, followed by the
registration number. The prefix may be dropped in
subsequent communications.
JO 7110.65W
(b) Special military operations. State one of
the following followed by the last 5 digits of the serial
number:
(c) Air evacuation flights. “AIR EVAC,”
“MARINE AIR EVAC,” or “NAVY AIR EVAC.”
EXAMPLE−
“Air Evac One Seven Six Five Two.”
(d) Rescue
“RESCUE.”
flights.
(Service
name)
EXAMPLE−
“Air Force Rescue Six One Five Seven Niner.”
(e) Air Mobility Command. “REACH.”
EXAMPLE−
“Reach Seven Eight Five Six Two.”
(f) Special Air Mission. “SAM.”
EXAMPLE−
“Sam Niner One Five Six Two.”
(g) USAF Contract Aircraft “LOGAIR.”
EXAMPLE−
“Tango Mooney Five Five Five Two Quebec.”
“Tango November One Two Three Four.”
EXAMPLE−
“Logair Seven Five Eight Two Six.”
4. Air carrier/taxi ambulance. State the prefix
“MEDEVAC” if used by the pilot, followed by the
call sign and flight number in group form.
(1) U.S. Air Force, Air National Guard,
Military District of Washington priority aircraft, and
USAF civil disturbance aircraft. Pronounceable
words of 3 to 6 letters followed by a 1 to 5 digit
number.
EXAMPLE−
“MEDEVAC Delta Fifty-One.”
5. Civilian air ambulance. State the word
“MEDEVAC” followed by the numbers/letters of the
registration number.
EXAMPLE−
“MEDEVAC Two Six Four Six.”
6. U.S. military. State one of the following:
(a) The service name, followed by the word
“copter,” when appropriate, and the last 5 digits of the
serial number.
EXAMPLE−
“Navy Five Six Seven One Three.”
“Coast Guard Six One Three Two Seven.”
“Air Guard One Three Five Eight Six.”
“Army Copter Three Two One Seven Six.”
NOTE−
If aircraft identification becomes a problem, the
procedures reflected in FAAO JO 7210.3, Facility
Operation and Administration, para 2−1−13, Aircraft
Identification Problems, will apply.
Radio and Interphone Communications
(h) Military tactical and training:
EXAMPLE−
“Paul Two Zero.”
“Pat One Five Seven.”
“Gaydog Four.”
NOTE−
When the “Z” suffix described in para 2−3−7, USAF/USN
Undergraduate Pilots, is added to identify aircraft piloted
by USAF undergraduate pilots, the call sign will be limited
to a combination of six characters.
(2) Navy or Marine fleet and training
command aircraft. The service name and 2 letters, or
a digit and a letter (use letter phonetic equivalents),
followed by 2 or 3 digits.
EXAMPLE−
“Navy Golf Alfa Two One.”
“Marine Four Charlie Two Three Six.”
7. Presidential aircraft and Presidential family
aircraft:
(a) When the President is aboard a military
aircraft, state the name of the military service,
followed by the word “One.”
2−4−9
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
“Air Force One.”
“Army One.”
“Marine One.”
(a) Department of Energy flights. State the
letters “R−A−C” (use phonetic alphabet equivalents)
followed by the last 4 separate digits of the aircraft
registration number.
(b) When the President is aboard a civil
aircraft, state the words “Executive One.”
EXAMPLE−
“Romeo Alfa Charlie One Six Five Three.”
(c) When a member of the President’s family
is aboard any aircraft, if the U.S. Secret Service or the
White House Staff determines it is necessary, state the
words “Executive One Foxtrot.”
(b) Flight Inspection of navigational aids.
State the call sign “FLIGHT CHECK” followed by
the digits of the registration number.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
8. Vice Presidential aircraft:
(a) When the Vice President is aboard a
military aircraft, state the name of the military
service, followed by the word “Two.”
(c) USAF aircraft engaged in aerial sampling
missions. State the call sign “SAMP” followed by the
last three digits of the serial number.
EXAMPLE−
“SAMP Three One Six.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−17, SAMP.
EXAMPLE−
“Air Force Two.”
“Army Two.”
“Marine Two.”
11. Use a pilot’s name in identification of an
aircraft only in special or emergency situations.
(b) When the Vice President is aboard a civil
aircraft, state the words “Executive Two.”
(c) When a member of the Vice President’s
family is aboard any aircraft, if the U.S. Secret
Service or the White House Staff determines it is
necessary, state the words “Executive Two Foxtrot.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
9. DOT and FAA flights. The following
alphanumeric identifiers and radio/interphone call
signs are established for use in air/ground communications when the Secretary of Transportation, Deputy
Secretary of Transportation, FAA Administrator or
FAA Deputy Administrator have a requirement to
identify themselves. (See TBL 2−4−2.)
TBL 2−4−2
DOT and FAA Alphanumeric Identifiers
and Call Signs
Official
Identifier
Call Sign
Secretary of Transportation
Deputy Secretary of
Transportation
DOT−1
DOT−2
Transport−1
Transport−2
Administrator,
Federal Aviation Administration
FAA−1
Safeair−1
Deputy Administrator,
Federal Aviation Administration
FAA−2
Safeair−2
10. Other Special Flights.
2−4−10
EXAMPLE−
“Flight Check Three Niner Six Five Four.”
b. Foreign registry. State one of the following:
1. Civil. State the aircraft type or the manufacturer’s name followed by the letters/numbers of the
aircraft registration, or state the letters or digits of the
aircraft registration or call sign.
EXAMPLE−
“Stationair F−L−R−B.”
“C−F−L−R−B.”
NOTE−
Letters may be spoken individually or phonetically.
2. Air carrier. The abbreviated name of the
operating company followed by the letters or digits of
the registration or call sign.
EXAMPLE−
“Air France F−L−R−L−G.”
3. The flight number in group form, or you may
use separate digits if that is the format used by the
pilot.
EXAMPLE−
“Scandinavian Sixty−eight.”
“Scandinavian Six Eight.”
4. Foreign Military. Except for military
services identified in FAA Order JO 7340.2,
Contractions, the name of the country and the military
service followed by the separate digits or letters of the
registration or call sign. For military services listed
in FAA Order JO 7340.2, the approved telephony
followed by the separate digits of the serial number.
Radio and Interphone Communications
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
“Canforce Five Six Two Seven.”
“Brazilian Air Force Five Three Two Seven Six.”
2−4−21. DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT
TYPES
Except for super and heavy aircraft, describe aircraft
as follows when issuing traffic information.
a. Military:
1. Military designator, with numbers spoken in
group form, or
2. Service and type, or
3. Type only if no confusion or misidentification is likely.
b. Air Carrier:
1. Manufacturer’s model or type designator.
2. Add the manufacturer’s name, company
name or other identifying features when confusion or
misidentification is likely.
EXAMPLE−
“L−Ten−Eleven.”
“American MD−Eighty. Seven Thirty−Seven.”
“Boeing Seven Fifty−Seven.”
NOTE−
Pilots of “interchange” aircraft are expected to inform the
tower on the first radio contact the name of the operating
company and trip number followed by the company name,
as displayed on the aircraft, and the aircraft type.
c. General Aviation and Air Taxi:
1. Manufacturer’s model or type designator.
Radio and Interphone Communications
JO 7110.65W
2. Manufacturer’s name, or add color when
considered advantageous.
EXAMPLE−
“Tri−Pacer.”
“P A Twenty−Two.”
“Cessna Four−Oh−One.”
“Blue and white King Air.”
“Airliner.”
“Sikorsky S−Seventy−Six.”
d. When issuing traffic information to aircraft
following a super aircraft, specify the word super
before the manufacturer’s name and model.
e. When issuing traffic information to aircraft
following a heavy aircraft, specify the word heavy
before the manufacturer’s name and model.
EXAMPLE−
“Super A-Three-Eighty” or “Super
A-three-eighty-eight.”
“Heavy C-Seventeen.”
“Heavy Boeing Seven Forty-Seven.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
2−4−22. AIRSPACE CLASSES
A, B, C, D, E, and G airspace are pronounced in the
ICAO phonetics for clarification. The term “Class”
may be dropped when referring to airspace in
pilot/controller communications.
EXAMPLE−
“Cessna 123 Mike Romeo cleared to enter Bravo
airspace.”
“Sikorsky 123 Tango Sierra cleared to enter New York
Bravo airspace.”
2−4−11
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 5. Route and NAVAID Description
2−5−1. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS)
ROUTES
Describe ATS routes as follows:
a. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN airways or jet routes.
State the word “Victor” or the letter “J” followed by
the number of the airway or route in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“Victor Twelve.”
“J Five Thirty−Three.”
b. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN alternate airways.
State the word “Victor” followed by the number of the
airway in group form and the alternate direction.
EXAMPLE−
“Victor Twelve South.”
2. Low Altitude − State the letter of the route
phonetically, followed by the number of the route in
group form.
EXAMPLE−
“Tango Two Ten.”
2−5−2. NAVAID TERMS
a. Describe NAVAIDs as follows:
1. State the name or phonetic alphabet equivalent (location identifier) of a NAVAID when using it
in a routing.
EXAMPLE−
“V6 Victor Whiskey Victor (Waterville) V45 Jackson”
c. Colored/L/MF airways. State the color of the
airway followed by the number in group form.
2. When utilized as the clearance limit, state the
name of the NAVAID followed by the type of
NAVAID if the type is known.
EXAMPLE−
“Blue Eighty−One.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (NAVAID name and type)
d. Named Routes. State the words “North
American Route” or “Bahama Route” followed by
the number of the route in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“North American Route Sixty−Seven Bravo.”
“Bahama Route Fifty−Five Victor.”
e. Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. State the
letter(s) of the route phonetically, followed by the
number of the route in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“Romeo Twenty.”
“Alfa Fifty.”
“Golf Sixty−one.”
“Alfa Seven Hundred.”
f. Military Training Routes (MTRs). State the
letters “I−R” or “V−R” followed by the number of the
route in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“I−R Five Thirty−one.”
“V−R Fifty−two.”
g. Published RNAV routes.
1. High Altitude − State the letter “Q” followed
by the route number in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“Q One Forty−five.”
Route and NAVAID Description
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared to Grand Rapids VOR”
b. Describe radials, arcs, courses, bearings, and
quadrants of NAVAIDs as follows:
1. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN/MLS/GPS Waypoint. State the name of the NAVAID or GPS
Waypoint followed by the separate digits of the
radial/azimuth/bearing (omitting the word “degrees”) and the word “radial/azimuth/bearing.”
EXAMPLE−
“Appleton Zero Five Zero Radial.”
“Lindburg Runway Two Seven M−L−S, Two Six Zero
Azimuth.”
2. Arcs about VOR-DME/VORTAC/TACAN/
MLS NAVAIDs. State the distance in miles from the
NAVAID followed by the words “mile arc,” the
direction from the NAVAID in terms of the eight
principal points of the compass, the word “of,” and
the name of the NAVAID.
EXAMPLE−
“Two Zero mile arc southwest of O’Hare Runway Two
Seven Left M−L−S.”
3. Quadrant within a radius of NAVAID. State
direction from NAVAID in terms of the quadrant;
e.g., NE, SE, SW, NW, followed by the distance in
miles from the NAVAID.
2−5−1
JO 7110.65W
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared to fly northeast quadrant of Phillipsburg
VORTAC within Four Zero mile radius.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−4−1, Route Use.
P/CG Term− Quadrant.
4. Nondirectional beacons. State the course to
or the bearing from the radio beacon, omitting the
word “degree,” followed by the words “course to” or
“bearing from,” the name of the radio beacon, and the
words “radio beacon.”
EXAMPLE−
“Three Four Zero bearing from Randolph Radio Beacon.”
5. MLS. State the azimuth to or azimuth from
the MLS, omitting the word “degree” followed by the
words “azimuth to” or “azimuth from,” the name of
the MLS, and the term MLS.
EXAMPLE−
“Two Six Zero azimuth to Linburgh Runway Two Seven
MLS.”
6. Navigation Reference System (NRS) Waypoint. State the single letter corresponding to the ICAO
Flight Information Region (FIR) identifier, followed
by the letter corresponding to the FIR subset (ARTCC
area for the conterminous U.S.), the latitude
2−5−2
12/10/15
increment in single digit or group form, and the
longitude increment.
EXAMPLE−
“Kilo Delta Three Four Uniform.”
“Kilo Delta Thirty Four Uniform.”
2−5−3. NAVAID FIXES
Describe fixes determined by reference to a
radial/localizer/azimuth and distance from a
VOR-DME/VORTAC/TACAN/ILS-DME or MLS
as follows:
a. When a fix is not named, state the name of the
NAVAID followed by a specified radial/localizer/
azimuth, and state the distance in miles followed by
the phrase “mile fix.”
EXAMPLE−
“Appleton Zero Five Zero radial Three Seven mile fix.”
“Reno localizer back course Four mile fix.”
“Hobby Runway One Two M−L−S Zero Niner Zero azimuth
One Two mile fix.”
b. When a fix is charted on a SID, STAR, en route
chart, or approach plate, state the name of the fix.
c. Use specific terms to describe a fix. Do not use
expressions such as “passing Victor Twelve” or
“passing J Eleven.”
Route and NAVAID Description
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 6. Weather Information
2−6−1. FAMILIARIZATION
Become familiar with pertinent weather information
when coming on duty, and stay aware of current
weather information needed to perform ATC duties.
2−6−2. HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER
ADVISORY SERVICE (HIWAS)
Controllers must advise pilots of hazardous weather
that may impact operations within 150 NM of their
sector or area of jurisdiction. Hazardous weather
information contained in HIWAS broadcasts includes
Airmen’s Meteorological Information (AIRMET),
Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET),
Convective SIGMET (WST), Urgent Pilot Weather
Reports (UUA), and Center Weather Advisories
(CWA). Facilities must review alert messages to
determine the geographical area and operational
impact for hazardous weather information broadcasts. The broadcast is not required if aircraft on your
frequency(s) will not be affected.
a. Controllers within commissioned HIWAS areas
must broadcast a HIWAS alert on all frequencies,
except emergency frequency, upon receipt of
hazardous weather information. Controllers are
required to disseminate data based on the operational
impact on the sector or area of control jurisdiction.
NOTE−
The inclusion of the type and number of weather advisory
responsible for the HIWAS advisory is optional.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ATTENTION ALL AIRCRAFT. HAZARDOUS WEATHER
INFORMATION (SIGMET, Convective SIGMET,
AIRMET, Urgent Pilot Weather Report (UUA), or Center
Weather Advisory (CWA), Number or Numbers) FOR
(geographical area) AVAILABLE ON HIWAS, FLIGHT
WATCH, OR FLIGHT SERVICE FREQUENCIES.
your sector or airspace under your jurisdiction, are
out of service.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ATTENTION ALL AIRCRAFT. HAZARDOUS WEATHER
INFORMATION FOR (geographical area) AVAILABLE
FROM FLIGHT WATCH OR FLIGHT SERVICE.
c. Terminal facilities have the option to limit
hazardous weather information broadcasts as follows: Tower cab and approach control facilities may
opt to broadcast hazardous weather information alerts
only when any part of the area described is within
50 NM of the airspace under their jurisdiction.
REFERENCE−
AIM, Chapter 7, Section 1, Meteorology, Para 7−1−5 through
Para 7−1−9.
d. EN ROUTE. ERAM. Controllers must
electronically acknowledge hazardous weather
information messages after appropriate action has
been taken.
NOTE−
EN ROUTE. While hazardous weather information is
commonly distributed via the SIGMET View, it is possible
to receive the information via the GI View.
2−6−3. PIREP INFORMATION
Significant PIREP information includes reports of
strong frontal activity, squall lines, thunderstorms,
light to severe icing, wind shear and turbulence
(including clear air turbulence) of moderate or greater
intensity, volcanic eruptions and volcanic ash clouds,
detection of sulfur gases (SO2 or H2S) in the cabin,
and other conditions pertinent to flight safety.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−8, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst
Advisories.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 6−3−1, Handling of SIGMETs, CWAs, and
PIREPs.
AIM, Para 7−5−9, Flight Operations in Volcanic Ash.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−3−1, SIGMET and PIREP Handling.
b. Controllers outside of commissioned HIWAS
areas must:
a. Solicit PIREPs when requested or when one of
the following conditions exists or is forecast for your
area of jurisdiction:
1. Advise pilots of the availability of hazardous
weather advisories. Pilots requesting additional
information should be directed to contact the nearest
Flight Watch or Flight Service.
1. Ceilings at or below 5,000 feet. These
PIREPs must include cloud base/top reports when
feasible.
2. Apply the same procedure when HIWAS
outlets, or outlets with radio coverage extending into
Weather Information
TERMINAL. Ensure that at least one descent/climbout PIREP, including cloud base/s, top/s, and other
related phenomena, is obtained each hour.
2−6−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
EN ROUTE. When providing approach control
services, the requirements stated in TERMINAL
above apply.
REQUEST/SAY (specific conditions; i.e., ride, cloud,
visibility, etc.) CONDITIONS.
2. Visibility (surface or aloft) at or less than
5 miles.
If necessary,
3. Thunderstorms and related phenomena.
OVER (fix),
4. Turbulence of moderate degree or greater.
or
5. Icing of light degree or greater.
ALONG PRESENT ROUTE,
6. Wind shear.
7. Volcanic ash clouds.
NOTE−
Pilots may forward PIREPs regarding volcanic activity
using the format described in the Volcanic Activity
Reporting Form (VAR) as depicted in the AIM, Appendix 2.
8. Detection of sulfur gases (SO2 or H 2 S),
associated with volcanic activity, in the cabin.
NOTE−
The smell of sulfur gases in the cockpit may indicate
volcanic activity that has not yet been detected or reported
and/or possible entry into an ash-bearing cloud. SO2 is
identifiable as the sharp, acrid odor of a freshly struck
match. H2 S has the odor of rotten eggs.
9. TERMINAL. Braking Action Advisories are
in effect.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−5, Braking Action Advisories.
P/CG Term− Braking Action Advisories.
b. Record with the PIREPs:
1. Time.
2. Aircraft position.
3. Type aircraft.
4. Altitude.
5. When the PIREP involves icing include:
(a) Icing type and intensity.
(b) Air temperature in which icing is
occurring.
c. Obtain PIREPs directly from the pilot, or if the
PIREP has been requested by another facility, you
may instruct the pilot to deliver it directly to that
facility.
PHRASEOLOGY−
REQUEST/SAY FLIGHT CONDITIONS.
Or if appropriate,
2−6−2
or
BETWEEN (fix) AND (fix).
d. Handle PIREPs as follows:
1. Relay pertinent PIREP information to
concerned aircraft in a timely manner.
2. EN ROUTE. Relay all operationally significant PIREPs to the facility weather coordinator.
3. TERMINAL. Relay all operationally significant PIREPs to:
(a) The appropriate intrafacility positions.
(b) The FSS serving the area in which the
report was obtained.
NOTE−
The FSS is responsible for long line dissemination.
(c) Other concerned terminal or en route ATC
facilities, including non−FAA facilities.
(d) Use the word gain and/or loss when
describing to pilots the effects of wind shear on
airspeed.
EXAMPLE−
“Delta Seven Twenty−one, a Boeing Seven Twenty−seven,
previously reported wind shear, loss of Two Five knots at
Four Hundred feet.”
“U.S. Air Seventy−six, a D−C Niner, previously reported
wind shear, gain of Twenty−Five knots between Niner Hundred and Six Hundred feet, followed by a loss of Five Zero
knots between Five Hundred feet and the surface.”
REFERENCE−
AIM, Para 7−1−24, Wind Shear PIREPs.
2−6−4. WEATHER AND CHAFF SERVICES
a. Issue pertinent information on observed/reported weather and chaff areas by defining the area of
coverage in terms of azimuth (by referring to the
12-hour clock) and distance from the aircraft or by
Weather Information
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
indicating the general width of the area and the area
of coverage in terms of fixes or distance and direction
from fixes.
3. “Area of heavy to extreme precipitation between ten
o’clock and two o’clock, one five miles. Area is two five
miles in diameter.”
NOTE−
Weather significant to the safety of aircraft includes such
conditions as funnel cloud activity, lines of thunderstorms,
embedded thunderstorms, large hail, wind shear,
microbursts, moderate to extreme turbulence (including
CAT), and light to severe icing.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Precipitation Radar Weather Descriptions.
REFERENCE−
AIM, Paragraph 7-1-14, ATC Inflight Weather Avoidance Assistance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WEATHER/CHAFF AREA BETWEEN
(number)O’CLOCK AND (number) O’CLOCK
(number) MILES,
or
(number) MILE BAND OF WEATHER/CHAFF FROM
(fix or number of miles and direction from fix) TO (fix or
number of miles and direction from fix).
b. Inform any tower for which you provide
approach control services of observed precipitation
on radar which is likely to affect their operations.
c. Use the term “precipitation” when describing
radar−derived weather. Issue the precipitation
intensity from the lowest descriptor (LIGHT) to the
highest descriptor (EXTREME) when that information is available. Do not use the word “turbulence” in
describing radar−derived weather.
1. LIGHT.
2. MODERATE.
3. HEAVY.
4. EXTREME.
NOTE−
Weather and Radar Processor (WARP) does not display
light intensity.
PHRASEOLOGY−
AREA OF (Intensity) PRECIPITATION BETWEEN
(number) O’CLOCK AND (number) O’CLOCK, (number)
MILES, MOVING (direction) AT (number) KNOTS, TOPS
(altitude). AREA IS (number) MILES IN DIAMETER.
d. When precipitation intensity information is not
available.
PHRASEOLOGY−
AREA OF PRECIPITATION BETWEEN (number)
O’CLOCK AND (number) O’CLOCK, (number) MILES.
MOVING (direction) AT (number) KNOTS, TOPS
(altitude). AREA IS (number) MILES IN DIAMETER,
INTENSITY UNKNOWN.
EXAMPLE−
“Area of precipitation between one o’clock and three
o’clock, three five miles moving south at one five knots, tops
flight level three three zero. Area is three zero miles in
diameter, intensity unknown.”
NOTE−
Phraseology using precipitation intensity descriptions is
only applicable when the radar precipitation intensity
information is determined by NWS radar equipment or
NAS ground based digitized radar equipment with weather
capabilities. This precipitation may not reach the surface.
e. EN ROUTE. When issuing Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) precipitation intensity use the
following:
1. Describe the lowest displayable precipitation
intensity as MODERATE.
2. Describe the highest displayable
precipitation intensity as HEAVY to EXTREME.
PHRASEOLOGY−
AREA OF (Intensity) PRECIPITATION BETWEEN
(number) O’CLOCK and (number) O’CLOCK, (number)
MILES, MOVING (direction) AT (number) KNOTS, TOPS
(altitude). AREA IS (number) MILES IN DIAMETER.
EXAMPLE−
1. “Area of moderate precipitation between ten o’clock
and one o’clock, three zero miles moving east at two zero
knots, tops flight level three seven zero.
2. “Area of moderate precipitation between ten o’clock
and three o’clock, two zero miles. Area is two five miles in
diameter.”
EXAMPLE−
1. “Area of extreme precipitation between eleven o’clock
and one o’clock, one zero miles moving east at two zero
knots, tops flight level three niner zero.”
f. When operational/equipment limitations exist,
controllers must ensure that the highest available
level of precipitation intensity within their area of
jurisdiction is displayed.
2. “Area of heavy precipitation between ten o’clock and
two o’clock, one five miles. Area is two five miles in
diameter.”
g. When requested by the pilot, provide radar
navigational guidance and/or approve deviations
around weather or chaff areas. In areas of significant
Weather Information
2−6−3
JO 7110.65W
weather, plan ahead and be prepared to suggest, upon
pilot request, the use of alternative routes/altitudes.
1. An approval for lateral deviation authorizes
the pilot to maneuver left or right within the limits of
the lateral deviation area.
REFERENCE−
AIM, Paragraph 7-1-14b, 1. (a) ATC Inflight Weather Avoidance
Assistance
2. If a pilot enters your area of jurisdiction
already deviating for weather, advise the pilot of any
additional pertinent weather which may affect his
route.
3. If traffic and airspace (i.e., special use
airspace boundaries, LOA constraints) permit,
combine the approval for weather deviation with a
clearance on course.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DEVIATION (restrictions if necessary) APPROVED,
WHEN ABLE, PROCEED DIRECT (name of
NAVAID/WAYPOINT/FIX)
or
DEVIATION (restrictions if necessary) APPROVED,
WHEN ABLE, FLY HEADING (degrees), VECTOR TO
JOIN (airway) AND ADVISE.
EXAMPLE−
1. “Deviation twenty degrees right approved, when able
proceed direct O’Neill VORTAC and advise.”
En Route: The corresponding fourth line entry is
“D20R/ONL” or “D20R/F.”
2. “Deviation 30 degrees left approved, when able fly
heading zero niner zero, vector join J324 and advise.”
En Route: In this case the free text character limitation
prevents use of fourth line coordination and verbal
coordination is required.
12/10/15
h. When a deviation cannot be approved as
requested because of traffic, take an alternate course
of action that provides positive control for traffic
resolution and satisfies the pilot’s need to avoid
weather.
PHRASEOLOGY−
UNABLE DEVIATION, FLY HEADING (heading),
ADVISE CLEAR OF WEATHER
or
UNABLE DEVIATION, TURN (number of degrees)
DEGREES (left or right)FOR TRAFFIC, ADVISE CLEAR
OF WEATHER,
EXAMPLE−
“Unable deviation, turn thirty degrees right vector for
traffic, advise clear of weather.”
i. When forwarding weather deviation
information, the transferring controller must clearly
coordinate the nature of the route guidance service
being provided. This coordination should include,
but is not limited to: assigned headings, suggested
headings, pilot-initiated deviations. Coordination can
be accomplished by: verbal, automated, or
pre-arranged procedures. Emphasis should be made
between: controller assigned headings, suggested
headings, or pilot initiated deviations.
EXAMPLE−
“(call sign) assigned heading 330 for weather
avoidance”
“(call sign) deviating west, pilot requested…”
REFERENCE−
FAA Order JO 7110.65 2-1-14 Coordinate Use Of Airspace
FAA Order JO 7110.65 5-4-5 Transferring Controller Handoff
FAA Order JO 7110.65 5-4-6 Receiving Controller Handoff
FAA Order JO 7110.65 5-4-10 Prearranged Coordination
FAA Order JO 7110.65 5-4-11 En Route Fourth Line Data Block
Usage
j. En Route Fourth Line Data Transfer
4. If traffic or airspace prevent you from
clearing the aircraft on course at the time of the
approval for a weather deviation, instruct the pilot to
advise when clear of weather.
1. The inclusion of a NAVAID, waypoint, or /F
in the fourth line data indicates that the pilot has been
authorized to deviate for weather and must rejoin the
route at the next NAVAID or waypoint in the route of
flight.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DEVIATION (restrictions if necessary) APPROVED,
ADVISE CLEAR OF WEATHER.
REFERENCE−
FAA Order JO 7110.65 5-4-11 En Route Fourth Line Data Block
Usage
EXAMPLE−
“Deviation North of course approved, advise clear of
weather.”
En Route: In this case the corresponding fourth line entry
is “DN,” and the receiving controller must provide a
clearance to rejoin the route in accordance with paragraph
2-1-15 c.
“Deviation twenty degrees right approved, when able
proceed direct O’Neill VORTAC and advise.” In this
case, the corresponding fourth line entry is
“D20R/ONL” or “D20R/F.”
2. The absence of a NAVAID, waypoint, or /F in
the fourth line indicates that:
2−6−4
EXAMPLE−
Weather Information
12/10/15
(a) The pilot has been authorized to deviate
for weather only, and the receiving controller must
provide a clearance to rejoin the route in accordance
with paragraph 2-1-15c.
EXAMPLE−
“Deviation twenty degrees right approved, advise
clear of weather.”
(b) The free text character limitation prevents
the use of fourth line coordination. Verbal
coordination is required.
EXAMPLE−
“Deviation 30 degrees left approved, when able fly
heading zero niner zero, vector join J324 and
advise.”
k. The supervisory traffic management
coordinator-in-charge/operations
supervisor/controller-in-charge shall verify the
digitized radar weather information by the best means
available (e.g., pilot reports, local tower personnel,
etc.) if the weather data displayed by digitized radar
is reported as questionable or erroneous. Errors in
weather radar presentation shall be reported to the
technical operations technician and the air traffic
supervisor shall determine if the digitized radar
derived weather data is to be displayed and a NOTAM
distributed.
NOTE−
Anomalous propagation (AP) is a natural occurrence
affecting radar and does not in itself constitute a weather
circuit failure.
2−6−5. CALM WIND CONDITIONS
TERMINAL. Describe the wind as calm when the
wind velocity is less than three knots.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−5−3, Tailwind Components.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−4, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting
Flight Path Separation.
2−6−6. REPORTING WEATHER
CONDITIONS
a. When the prevailing visibility at the usual point
of observation, or at the tower level, is less than
4 miles, tower personnel must take prevailing
visibility observations and apply the observations as
follows:
1. Use the lower of the two observations (tower
or surface) for aircraft operations.
Weather Information
JO 7110.65W
2. Forward tower visibility observations to the
weather observer.
3. Notify the weather observer when the tower
observes the prevailing visibility decrease to less than
4 miles or increase to 4 miles or more.
b. Forward current weather changes to the
appropriate control facility as follows:
1. When the official weather changes to a
condition which is below 1,000−foot ceiling or below
the highest circling minimum, whichever is greater,
or less than 3 miles visibility, and when it improves
to a condition which is better than those above.
2. Changes which are classified as special
weather observations during the time that weather
conditions are below 1,000−foot ceiling or the
highest circling minimum, whichever is greater, or
less than 3 miles visibility.
c. Towers at airports where military turbo-jet
en route descents are routinely conducted must also
report the conditions to the ARTCC even if it is not the
controlling facility.
d. If the receiving facility informs you that
weather reports are not required for a specific time
period, discontinue the reports. The time period
specified should not exceed the duration of the
receiving controller’s tour of duty.
e. EN ROUTE. When you determine that weather
reports for an airport will not be required for a specific
time period, inform the FSS or tower of this
determination. The time period specified should not
exceed the duration of receiving controller’s tour of
duty.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−2, Forwarding Approach Information
by Nonapproach Control Facilities.
2−6−7. DISSEMINATING WEATHER
INFORMATION
TERMINAL. Observed elements of weather information must be disseminated as follows:
a. General weather information, such as “large
breaks in the overcast,” “visibility lowering to the
south,” or similar statements which do not include
specific values, and any elements derived directly
from instruments, pilots, or radar may be transmitted
to pilots or other ATC facilities without consulting the
weather reporting station.
2−6−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
b. Specific values, such as ceiling and visibility,
may be transmitted if obtained by one of the
following means:
3. The weather report was composed or verified
by the weather station.
1. You are properly certificated and acting as
official weather observer for the elements being
reported.
4. The information is obtained from an official
Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS) or
an Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS).
NOTE−
USAF controllers do not serve as official weather
observers.
2. You have obtained the information from the
official observer for the elements being reported.
2−6−6
c. Differences between weather elements
observed from the tower and those reported by the
weather station must be reported to the official
observer for the element concerned.
Weather Information
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 7. Altimeter Settings
2−7−1. CURRENT SETTINGS
a. Current altimeter settings must be obtained
from direct-reading instruments or directly from
weather reporting stations.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 2, Section 10, Wind/Altimeter Information.
b. If a pilot requests the altimeter setting in
millibars, ask the nearest weather reporting station
for the equivalent millibar setting.
c. USAF/USA. Use the term “Estimated Altimeter” for altimeter settings reported or received as
estimated.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−1, Departure Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−1, Landing Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−10, Approach Information.
2−7−2. ALTIMETER SETTING ISSUANCE
BELOW LOWEST USABLE FL
a. TERMINAL. Identify the source of an altimeter
setting when issued for a location other than the
aircraft’s departure or destination airport.
b. EN ROUTE. Identify the source of all altimeter
settings when issued.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(If the altimeter is one hour old or less),
THE (facility name) ALTIMETER (setting).
or
(If the altimeter is more than one hour old),
THE (facility name) ALTIMETER (setting) MORE THAN
ONE HOUR OLD.
c. Issue the altimeter setting:
1. To en route aircraft at least one time while
operating in your area of jurisdiction. Issue the setting
for the nearest reporting station along the aircraft’s
route of flight:
NOTE−
14 CFR Section 91.121(1) requires that the pilot set his/her
altimeter to the setting of a station along his/her route of
flight within 100 miles of the aircraft if one is available.
However, issuance of the setting of an adjacent station
during periods that a steep gradient exists will serve to
inform the pilot of the difference between the setting he/she
is using and the pressure in the local area and better enable
Altimeter Settings
him/her to choose a more advantageous setting within the
limitations of 14 CFR Section 91.121.
2. TERMINAL. To all departures. Unless specifically requested by the pilot, the altimeter setting
need not be issued to local aircraft operators who have
requested this omission in writing or to scheduled air
carriers.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−1, Departure Information.
3. TERMINAL. To arriving aircraft on initial
contact or as soon as possible thereafter. The tower
may omit the altimeter if the aircraft is sequenced or
vectored to the airport by the approach control having
jurisdiction at that facility.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−10, Approach Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−2, Approach Information.
4. EN ROUTE. For the destination airport to
arriving aircraft, approximately 50 miles from the
destination, if an approach control facility does not
serve the airport.
5. In addition to the altimeter setting provided
on initial contact, issue changes in altimeter setting to
aircraft executing a nonprecision instrument
approach as frequently as practical when the official
weather report includes the remarks “pressure falling
rapidly.”
d. If the altimeter setting must be obtained by the
pilot of an arriving aircraft from another source,
instruct the pilot to obtain the altimeter setting from
that source.
NOTE−
1. The destination altimeter setting, whether from a local
or remote source, is the setting upon which the instrument
approach is predicated.
2. Approach charts for many locations specify the source
of altimeter settings as non−FAA facilities, such as
UNICOMs.
e. When issuing clearance to descend below the
lowest usable flight level, advise the pilot of the
altimeter setting of the weather reporting station
nearest the point the aircraft will descend below that
flight level.
f. Department of Defense (DOD) aircraft that are
authorized to operate in restricted areas, MOAs, and
ATC assigned airspace areas on “single altimeter
2−7−1
JO 7110.65W
settings” (CFR Exemption 2861A), must be issued
altimeter settings in accordance with standard
procedures while the aircraft are en route to and from
the restricted areas, MOAs, and ATC assigned
airspace areas.
NOTE−
The DOD is responsible for conducting all “single
altimeter setting” operations within the boundaries of
MOAs, restricted areas, and ATCAAs. Under an LOA, the
DOD provides safe altitude clearance between DOD
aircraft and other aircraft operating within, above, and
below the MOAs, restricted areas, and ATCAAs with
appropriate clearance of terrain.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4, Appendix 20, Grant of Exemption No. 2861A Single Altimeter Setting For Frequent Transit of FL180.
g. When the barometric pressure is greater than
31.00 inches Hg., issue the altimeter setting and:
1. En Route/Arrivals. Advise pilots to remain
set on altimeter 31.00 until reaching final approach
segment.
2. Departures. Advise pilots to set altimeter
31.00 prior to reaching any mandatory/crossing
altitude or 1,500 feet AGL, whichever is lower.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ALTIMETER, THREE ONE TWO FIVE, SET THREE ONE
2−7−2
12/10/15
ZERO ZERO UNTIL REACHING THE FINAL
APPROACH FIX.
or
ALTIMETER, THREE ONE ONE ZERO, SET
THREE ONE ZERO ZERO PRIOR TO REACHING
ONE THOUSAND THREE HUNDRED.
NOTE−
1. Aircraft with Mode C altitude reporting will be
displayed on the controller’s radar scope with a uniform
altitude offset above the assigned altitude. With an actual
altimeter of 31.28 inches Hg, the Mode C equipped aircraft
will show 3,300 feet when assigned 3,000 feet. This will
occur unless local directives authorize entering the
altimeter setting 31.00 into the computer system regardless
of the actual barometric pressure.
2. Flight Standards will implement high barometric
pressure procedures by NOTAM defining the geographic
area affected.
3. Airports unable to accurately measure barometric
pressures above 31.00 inches Hg. will report the
barometric pressure as “missing” or “in excess of
31.00 inches of Hg.” Flight operations to or from those
airports are restricted to VFR weather conditions.
REFERENCE−
AIM, Para 7−2−2, Procedures.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−1, Landing Information.
Altimeter Settings
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 8. Runway Visibility Reporting− Terminal
2−8−1. FURNISH RVR/RVV VALUES
Where RVR or RVV equipment is operational,
irrespective of subsequent operation or nonoperation
of navigational or visual aids for the application of
RVR/RVV as a takeoff or landing minima, furnish the
values for the runway in use in accordance with
para 2−8−3, Terminology.
NOTE−
Readout capability of different type/model RVR equipment
varies. For example, older equipment minimum readout
value is 600 feet. Newer equipment may have minimum
readout capability as low as 100 feet. Readout value
increments also may differ. Older equipment have
minimum readout increments of 200 feet. New equipment
increments below 800 feet are 100 feet.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 6560.10, Runway Visual Range (RVR).
FAAO 6750.24, Instrument Landing System (ILS) and Ancillary
Electronic Component Configuration & Perf. Req.
2−8−2. ARRIVAL/DEPARTURE RUNWAY
VISIBILITY
a. Issue current touchdown RVR/RVV for the
runway(s) in use:
1. When prevailing visibility is 1 mile or less
regardless of the value indicated.
2. When RVR/RVV indicates a reportable value
regardless of the prevailing visibility.
NOTE−
Reportable values are: RVR 6,000 feet or less;
RVV 11/2 miles or less.
3. When it is determined from a reliable source
that the indicated RVR value differs by more than
400 feet from the actual conditions within the area of
the transmissometer, the RVR data is not acceptable
and must not be reported.
NOTE−
A reliable source is considered to be a certified weather
observer, automated weather observing system, air traffic
controller, flight service specialist, or pilot.
4. When the observer has reliable reports, or has
otherwise determined that the instrument values are
Runway Visibility Reporting− Terminal
not representative of the associated runway, the data
must not be used.
b. Issue both mid-point and roll-out RVR when the
value of either is less than 2,000 feet and the
touchdown RVR is greater than the mid−point or
roll−out RVR.
c. Local control must issue the current RVR/RVV
to each aircraft prior to landing or departure in
accordance with subparas a and b.
2−8−3. TERMINOLOGY
a. Provide RVR/RVV information by stating the
runway, the abbreviation RVR/RVV, and the
indicated value. When issued along with other
weather elements, transmit these values in the normal
sequence used for weather reporting.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway One Four RVR Two Thousand Four Hundred.”
“Runway Three Two RVV Three Quarters.”
b. When two or more RVR systems serve the
runway in use, report the indicated values for the
different systems in terms of touchdown, mid, and
rollout as appropriate.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two Two Left RVR Two Thousand, rollout
One Thousand Eight Hundred.”
“Runway Two Seven Right RVR One Thousand,
mid Eight Hundred, rollout Six Hundred.”
c. When there is a requirement to issue an RVR or
RVV value and a visibility condition greater or less
than the reportable values of the equipment is
indicated, state the condition as “MORE THAN” or
“LESS THAN” the appropriate minimum or
maximum readable value.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Three Six RVR more than Six Thousand.”
“Runway Niner RVR One Thousand, rollout less than
Six Hundred.”
2−8−1
JO 7110.65W
d. When a readout indicates a rapidly varying
visibility condition (1,000 feet or more for RVR; one
or more reportable values for RVV), report the
current value followed by the range of visibility
variance.
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two Four RVR Two Thousand, variable
One Thousand Six Hundred to Three Thousand.”
“Runway Three One RVV Three-quarters, variable
One-quarter to One.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−8−1, Furnish RVR/RVV Values.
2−8−2
Runway Visibility Reporting− Terminal
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 9. Automatic Terminal Information
Service Procedures
2−9−1. APPLICATION
Use the ATIS, where available, to provide advance
noncontrol airport/terminal area and meteorological
information to aircraft.
a. Identify each ATIS message by a phonetic letter
code word at both the beginning and the end of the
message. Automated systems will have the phonetic
letter code automatically appended. Exceptions may
be made where omissions are required because of
special programs or equipment.
1. Each alphabet letter phonetic word must be
used sequentially, except as authorized in subpara a2,
beginning with “Alpha,” ending with “Zulu,” and
repeated without regard to the beginning of a new
day. Identify the first resumed broadcast message
with “Alpha” or the first assigned alphabet letter
word in the event of a broadcast interruption of more
than 12 hours.
2. Specific sequential portions of the alphabet
may be assigned between facilities or an arrival and
departure ATIS when designated by a letter of
agreement or facility directive.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−4−1, Automatic Terminal Information
Service (ATIS).
b. The ATIS recording must be reviewed for
completeness, accuracy, speech rate, and proper
enunciation before being transmitted.
c. Arrival and departure messages, when broadcast separately, need only contain information
appropriate for that operation.
1. Upon receipt of any new official weather
regardless of whether there is or is not a change in
values.
2. When runway braking action reports are
received that indicate runway braking is worse than
that which is included in the current ATIS broadcast.
3. When there is a change in any other pertinent
data, such as runway change, instrument approach in
use, new or canceled NOTAMs/PIREPs/HIWAS
update, etc.
b. When a pilot acknowledges that he/she has
received the ATIS broadcast, controllers may omit
those items contained in the broadcasts if they are
current. Rapidly changing conditions will be issued
by ATC, and the ATIS will contain the following:
EXAMPLE−
“Latest ceiling/visibility/altimeter/wind/(other conditions) will be issued by approach control/tower.”
c. Broadcast on all appropriate frequencies to
advise aircraft of a change in the ATIS code/message.
d. Controllers must ensure that pilots receive the
most current pertinent information. Ask the pilot to
confirm receipt of the current ATIS information if the
pilot does not initially state the appropriate ATIS
code. Controllers must ensure that changes to
pertinent operational information is provided after
the initial confirmation of ATIS information is
established. Issue the current weather, runway in use,
approach information, and pertinent NOTAMs to
pilots who are unable to receive the ATIS.
EXAMPLE−
“Verify you have information ALPHA.”
2−9−2. OPERATING PROCEDURES
“Information BRAVO now current, visibility three miles.”
Maintain an ATIS message that reflects the most
current arrival and departure information.
“Information CHARLIE now current, Ceiling 1500
Broken.”
a. Make a new recording when any of the
following occur:
“Information CHARLIE now current, advise when you
have CHARLIE.”
Automatic Terminal Information Service Procedures
2−9−1
JO 7110.65W
2−9−3. CONTENT
Include the following in ATIS broadcast as
appropriate:
a. Airport/facility name, phonetic letter code, time
of weather sequence (UTC). Weather information
consisting of wind direction and velocity, visibility,
obstructions to vision, present weather, sky condition, temperature, dew point, altimeter, a density
altitude advisory when appropriate and other
pertinent remarks included in the official weather
observation. Wind direction, velocity, and altimeter
must be reported from certified direct reading
instruments. Temperature and dew point should be
reported from certified direct reading sensors when
available. Always include weather observation
remarks of lightning, cumulonimbus, and towering
cumulus clouds.
NOTE−
ASOS/AWOS is to be considered the primary source of
wind direction, velocity, and altimeter data for weather
observation purposes at those locations that are so
equipped. The ASOS Operator Interface Device (OID)
displays the magnetic wind as “MAG WND” in the
auxiliary data location in the lower left−hand portion of the
screen. Other OID displayed winds are true and are not to
be used for operational purposes.
b. Man−Portable Air Defense Systems
(MANPADS) alert and advisory. Specify the nature
and location of threat or incident, whether reported or
observed and by whom, time (if known), and
notification to pilots to advise ATC if they need to
divert.
EXAMPLE−
1. “MANPADS alert. Exercise extreme caution.
MANPADS threat reported by TSA, Chicago area.”
“Advise on initial contact if you want to divert.”
2. “MANPADS alert. Exercise extreme caution.
MANPADS attack observed by tower one−half mile
northwest of airfield at one−two−five−zero Zulu.” “Advise
on initial contact if you want to divert.”
12/10/15
PHRASEOLOGY−
UNAUTHORIZED LASER ILLUMINATION EVENT,
(UTC time), (location), (altitude), (color), (direction).
EXAMPLE−
UNAUTHORIZED LASER ILLUMINATION EVENT, AT
0100z, 8 MILE FINAL RUNWAY 18R AT 3,000 FEET,
GREEN LASER FROM THE SOUTHWEST.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−2−14, Unauthorized Laser Illumination of
Aircraft.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2−1−27, Reporting Unauthorized Laser
Illumination of Aircraft.
d. The ceiling/sky condition, visibility, and
obstructions to vision may be omitted if the ceiling is
above 5,000 feet and the visibility is more than
5 miles.
EXAMPLE−
A remark may be made, “The weather is better than
five thousand and five.”
e. Instrument/visual approach/es in use. Specify
landing runway/s unless the runway is that to which
the instrument approach is made. Before advertising
non-precision approaches, priority should be given to
available precision, then APV approaches.
f. Departure runway/s (to be given only if different
from landing runway/s or in the instance of a
“departure only” ATIS).
g. Taxiway closures which affect the entrance or
exit of active runways, other closures which impact
airport operations, other NOTAMs and PIREPs
pertinent to operations in the terminal area. Inform
pilots of where hazardous weather is occurring and
how the information may be obtained. Include
available information of known bird activity.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−22, Bird Activity Information.
h. When a runway length has been temporarily or
permanently shortened, ensure that the word
“WARNING” prefaces the runway number, and that
the word “shortened” is also included in the text of the
message.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−2−13, MANPADS Alert.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2−1−9, Handling MANPADS Incidents.
1. Available runway length, as stated in the
NOTAM, must be included in the ATIS broadcast.
This information must be broadcast for the duration
of the construction project.
c. Terminal facilities must include reported
unauthorized laser illumination events on the ATIS
broadcast for one hour following the last report.
Include the time, location, altitude, color, and
direction of the laser as reported by the pilot.
2. For permanently shortened runways, facilities must continue to broadcast this information for a
minimum of 30 days or until the Airport/Facility
Directory (A/FD) has been updated, whichever is
longer.
2−9−2
Automatic Terminal Information Service Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
WARNING, RUNWAY (number) HAS BEEN
SHORTENED, (length in feet) FEET AVAILABLE.
k. Low level wind shear/microburst when reported by pilots or is detected on a wind shear detection
system.
EXAMPLE−
“Warning, Runway One-Zero has been shortened,
niner-thousand eight hundred and fifty feet available.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−8, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst
Advisories.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) MU (first value, second value, third
value) AT (time), (cause).
l. A statement which advises the pilot to read back
instructions to hold short of a runway. The air traffic
manager may elect to remove this requirement
60 days after implementation provided that removing
the statement from the ATIS does not result in
increased requests from aircraft for read back of hold
short instructions.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two Seven, MU forty−two, forty−one, twenty−
eight at one zero one eight Zulu, ice.”
m. Instructions for the pilot to acknowledge
receipt of the ATIS message by informing the
controller on initial contact.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−5, Braking Action Advisories.
EXAMPLE−
“Boston Tower Information Delta. One four zero zero Zulu.
Wind two five zero at one zero. Visibility one zero. Ceiling
four thousand five hundred broken. Temperature three four.
Dew point two eight. Altimeter three zero one zero.
ILS−DME Runway Two Seven Approach in use. Departing
Runway Two Two Right. Hazardous Weather Information
for (geographical area) available on HIWAS, Flight
Watch, or Flight Service Frequencies. Advise on initial
contact you have Delta.”
i. Runway braking action or friction reports when
provided. Include the time of the report and a word
describing the cause of the runway friction problem.
j. Other optional information as local conditions
dictate in coordination with ATC. This may include
such items as VFR arrival frequencies, temporary
airport conditions, LAHSO operations being con−
ducted, or other perishable items that may appear
only for a matter of hours or a few days on the ATIS
message.
Automatic Terminal Information Service Procedures
2−9−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 10. Team Position Responsibilities
2−10−1. EN ROUTE SECTOR TEAM
POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES
a. En Route Sector Team Concept and Intent:
1. There are no absolute divisions of responsibilities regarding position operations. The tasks to be
completed remain the same whether one, two, or
three people are working positions within a sector.
The team, as a whole, has responsibility for the safe
and efficient operation of that sector.
2. The intent of the team concept is not to hold
the team accountable for the action of individual
members, in the event of an operational accident/
incident.
b. Terms. The following terms will be used in
en route facilities for the purpose of standardization:
1. Sector. The area of control responsibility
(delegated airspace) of the en route sector team, and
the team as a whole.
2. Radar Position (R). That position which is in
direct communication with the aircraft and which
uses radar information as the primary means of
separation.
3. Radar Associate (RA). That position sometimes referred to as “D−Side” or “Manual
Controller.”
4. Radar Coordinator Position (RC). That
position sometimes referred to as “Coordinator,”
“Tracker,” or “Handoff Controller” (En Route).
5. Radar Flight Data (FD). That position
commonly referred to as “Assistant Controller” or
“A−Side” position.
6. Nonradar Position (NR). That position which
is usually in direct communication with the aircraft
and which uses nonradar procedures as the primary
means of separation.
c. Primary responsibilities of the En Route Sector
Team Positions:
1. Radar Position:
(a) Ensure separation.
(b) Initiate control instructions.
Team Position Responsibilities
(c) Monitor and operate radios.
(d) Accept and initiate automated handoffs.
(e) Assist the radar associate position with
nonautomated handoff actions when needed.
(f) Assist the radar associate position in
coordination when needed.
(g) Scan radar display. Correlate with flight
progress strip information or EDST data, as
applicable.
(h) Ensure computer entries are completed on
instructions or clearances you issue or receive.
(i) Ensure strip marking and/or electronic
flight data entries are completed on instructions or
clearances you issue or receive.
(j) Adjust equipment at radar position to be
usable by all members of the team.
(k) The radar controller must not be responsible for G/G communications when precluded by
VSCS split functionality.
(l) At ERAM facilities, ensure the situation
display accurately reflects the status of all SAAs that
impact their area of control responsibility.
2. Radar Associate Position:
(a) Ensure separation.
(b) Where available, use EDST to plan,
organize, and expedite the flow of traffic.
(c) Initiate control instructions.
(d) Operate interphones.
(e) Accept and initiate nonautomated handoffs, and ensure radar position is made aware of the
actions.
(f) Assist the radar position by accepting or
initiating automated handoffs which are necessary for
the continued smooth operation of the sector, and
ensure that the radar position is made immediately
aware of any action taken.
(g) Coordinate, including pointouts.
(h) Monitor radios when not performing
higher priority duties.
2−10−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
(i) Scan flight progress strips and/or EDST
data. Correlate with radar data.
(b) Assist Radar Associate Position in
managing flight progress strips.
(j) Manage flight progress strips and/or
electronic flight data.
(c) Receive/process and distribute flight
progress strips.
(k) Ensure computer entries are completed on
instructions issued or received. Enter instructions
issued or received by the radar position when aware
of those instructions.
(d) Ensure flight data processing equipment
is operational, except for EDST capabilities.
(l) As appropriate, ensure strip marking
and/or EDST data entries are completed on
instructions issued or received, and record instructions issued or received by the radar position when
aware of them.
(m) Adjust equipment at radar associate
position to be usable by all members of the team.
(n) Where authorized, perform EDST data
entries to keep the activation status of designated
Airspace Configuration Elements current.
(o) At ERAM facilities, scan the radar
associate display for electronically distributed
information, evaluate the information, and take
action as appropriate.
3. Radar Coordinator Position:
(a) Perform interfacility/intrafacility/sector/
position coordination of traffic actions.
(b) Advise the radar position and the radar
associate position of sector actions required to
accomplish overall objectives.
(c) Perform any of the functions of the
en route sector team which will assist in meeting
situation objectives.
(e) Request/receive and disseminate weather,
NOTAMs, NAS status, traffic management, and
Special Use Airspace status messages.
(f) Manually prepare flight progress strips
when automation systems are not available.
(g) Enter flight data into computer.
(h) Forward flight data via computer.
(i) Assist facility/sector in meeting situation
objectives.
5. En Route Nonradar Position:
(a) Ensure separation.
(b) Initiate control instructions.
(c) Monitor and operate radios.
(d) Accept and initiate transfer of control,
communications, and flight data.
(e) Ensure computer entries are completed on
instructions or clearances issued or received.
(f) Ensure strip marking is completed on
instructions or clearances issued or received.
(g) Facilities utilizing nonradar positions may
modify the standards contained in the radar associate,
radar coordinator, and radar flight data sections to
accommodate facility/sector needs, i.e., nonradar
coordinator, nonradar data positions.
(d) The RC controller must not be responsible
for monitoring or operating radios when precluded by
VSCS split functionality.
2−10−2. TERMINAL RADAR/NONRADAR
TEAM POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES
NOTE−
The Radar Position has the responsibility for managing the
overall sector operations, including aircraft separation
and traffic flows. The Radar Coordinator Position assumes
responsibility for managing traffic flows and the Radar
Position retains responsibility for aircraft separation when
the Radar Coordinator Position is staffed.
1. There are no absolute divisions of responsibilities regarding position operations. The tasks to
be completed remain the same whether one, two, or
three people are working positions within a
facility/sector. The team, as a whole, has responsibility for the safe and efficient operation of that
facility/sector.
4. Radar Flight Data:
(a) Operate interphone.
2−10−2
a. Terminal Radar Team Concept and Intent:
2. The intent of the team concept is not to hold
the team accountable for the action of individual
Team Position Responsibilities
12/10/15
members in the event of an operational error/
deviation.
b. Terms. The following terms will be used in
terminal facilities for the purposes of standardization.
1. Facility/Sector. The area of control responsibility (delegated airspace) of the radar team, and the
team as a whole.
2. Radar Position (R). That position which is in
direct communication with the aircraft and which
uses radar information as the primary means of
separation.
3. Radar Associate Position (RA). That position
commonly referred to as “Handoff Controller” or
“Radar Data Controller.”
4. Radar Coordinator Position (RC). That
position commonly referred to as “Coordinator,”
“Tracker,” “Sequencer,” or “Overhead.”
5. Radar Flight Data (FD). That position
commonly referred to as “Flight Data.”
6. Nonradar Position (NR). That position which
is usually in direct communication with the aircraft
and which uses nonradar procedures as the primary
means of separation.
c. Primary Responsibilities of the Terminal Radar
Team Positions:
1. Radar Position:
(a) Ensure separation.
(b) Initiate control instructions.
(c) Monitor and operate radios.
(d) Accept and initiate automated handoffs.
(e) Assist the Radar Associate Position with
nonautomated handoff actions when needed.
(f) Assist the Radar Associate Position in
coordination when needed.
(g) Scan radar display. Correlate with flight
progress strip information.
(h) Ensure computer entries are completed on
instructions or clearances you issue or receive.
(i) Ensure strip marking is completed on
instructions or clearances you issue or receive.
Team Position Responsibilities
JO 7110.65W
(j) Adjust equipment at Radar Position to be
usable by all members of the team.
2. Radar Associate Position:
(a) Ensure separation.
(b) Initiate control instructions.
(c) Operate interphones.
(d) Maintain awareness of facility/sector
activities.
(e) Accept and initiate nonautomated
handoffs.
(f) Assist the Radar Position by accepting or
initiating automated handoffs which are necessary for
the continued smooth operation of the facility/sector
and ensure that the Radar Position is made
immediately aware of any actions taken.
(g) Coordinate, including point outs.
(h) Scan flight progress strips. Correlate with
radar data.
(i) Manage flight progress strips.
(j) Ensure computer entries are completed on
instructions issued or received, and enter instructions
issued or received by the Radar Position when aware
of those instructions.
(k) Ensure strip marking is completed on
instructions issued or received, and write instructions
issued or received by the Radar Position when aware
of them.
(l) Adjust equipment at Radar Associate
Position to be usable by all members of the Radar
Team.
3. Radar Coordinator Position:
(a) Perform interfacility/sector/position
coordination of traffic actions.
(b) Advise the Radar Position and the Radar
Associate Position of facility/sector actions required
to accomplish overall objectives.
(c) Perform any of the functions of the Radar
Team which will assist in meeting situation
objectives.
NOTE−
The Radar Position has the responsibility of managing the
overall sector operations, including aircraft separation
and traffic flows. The Radar Coordinator Position assumes
2−10−3
JO 7110.65W
responsibility for managing traffic flows and the Radar
Position retains responsibility for aircraft separation when
the Radar Coordinator Position is staffed.
4. Radar Flight Data:
(a) Operate interphones.
(b) Process and forward flight plan
information.
(c) Compile statistical data.
(d) Assist facility/sector in meeting situation
objectives.
5. Terminal Nonradar Position:
(a) Ensure separation.
(b) Initiate control instructions.
(c) Monitor and operate radios.
(d) Accept and initiate transfer of control,
communications and flight data.
(e) Ensure computer entries are completed on
instructions or clearances issued or received.
(f) Ensure strip marking is completed on
instructions or clearances issued or received.
(g) Facilities utilizing nonradar positions may
modify the standards contained in the radar associate,
radar coordinator, and radar flight data sections to
accommodate facility/sector needs, i.e., nonradar
coordinator, nonradar data positions.
2−10−3. TOWER TEAM POSITION
RESPONSIBILITIES
a. Tower Team Concept and Intent:
1. There are no absolute divisions of responsibilities regarding position operations. The tasks to be
completed remain the same whether one, two, or
three people are working positions within a tower
cab. The team as a whole has responsibility for the
safe and efficient operation of that tower cab.
2. The intent of the team concept is not to hold
the team accountable for the action of individual
members in the event of an operational error/
deviation.
b. Terms: The following terms will be used in
terminal facilities for the purpose of standardization.
2−10−4
12/10/15
1. Tower Cab: The area of control responsibility
(delegated airspace and/or airport surface areas) of
the tower team, and the team as a whole.
2. Tower Position(s) (LC or GC): That position
which is in direct communications with the aircraft
and ensures separation of aircraft in/on the area of
jurisdiction.
3. Tower Associate Position(s): That position
commonly referred to as “Local Assist,” “Ground
Assist,” “Local Associate,” or “Ground Associate.”
4. Tower Cab Coordinator Position (CC): That
position commonly referred to as “Coordinator.”
5. Flight Data (FD): That position commonly
referred to as “Flight Data.”
6. Clearance Delivery (CD): That position
commonly referred to as “Clearance.”
c. Primary responsibilities of the Tower Team
Positions:
1. Tower Position(s) (LC or GC):
(a) Ensure separation.
(b) Initiate control instructions.
(c) Monitor and operate communications
equipment.
(d) Utilize tower radar display(s).
(e) Utilize alphanumerics.
(f) Assist the Tower Associate Position with
coordination.
(g) Scan tower cab environment.
(h) Ensure computer entries are completed
for instructions or clearances issued or received.
(i) Ensure strip marking is completed for
instructions or clearances issued or received.
(j) Process and forward flight plan
information.
(k) Perform any functions of the Tower Team
which will assist in meeting situation objectives.
2. Tower Associate Position(s):
(a) Ensure separation.
(b) Operate interphones.
(c) Maintain awareness of tower cab
activities.
Team Position Responsibilities
12/10/15
(d) Utilize alphanumerics.
(e) Utilize tower radar display(s).
(f) Assist Tower Position by accepting/
initiating coordination for the continued smooth
operation of the tower cab and ensure that the Tower
Position is made immediately aware of any actions
taken.
(g) Manage flight plan information.
(h) Ensure computer entries are completed
for instructions issued or received and enter
instructions issued or received by a Tower Position.
(i) Ensure strip marking is completed for
instructions issued or received and enter instructions
issued or received by a Tower Position.
3. Tower Coordinator Position:
(a) Perform interfacility/position coordination for traffic actions.
(b) Advise the tower and the Tower Associate
Position(s) of tower cab actions required to
accomplish overall objectives.
(c) Perform any of the functions of the Tower
Team which will assist in meeting situation
objectives.
NOTE−
The Tower Positions have the responsibility for aircraft
separation and traffic flows. The Tower Coordinator
Position assumes responsibility for managing traffic flows
and the Tower Positions retain responsibility for aircraft
separation when the Tower Coordinator Position is staffed.
Team Position Responsibilities
JO 7110.65W
4. Flight Data:
(a) Operate interphones.
(b) Process and forward flight plan
information.
(c) Compile statistical data.
(d) Assist tower cab in meeting situation
objectives.
(e) Observe and report weather information.
(f) Utilize alphanumerics.
5. Clearance Delivery:
(a) Operate communications equipment.
(b) Process and forward flight plan
information.
(c) Issue clearances and ensure accuracy of
pilot read back.
(d) Assist tower cab in meeting situation
objectives.
(e) Operate tower equipment.
(f) Utilize alphanumerics.
NOTE−
The Tower Positions have the responsibility for aircraft
separation and traffic flows. The Tower Coordinator
Position assumes responsibility for managing traffic flows
and the Tower Positions retain responsibility for aircraft
separation when the Tower Coordinator Position is staffed.
2−10−5
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 3. Airport Traffic Control− Terminal
Section 1. General
3−1−1. PROVIDE SERVICE
Provide airport traffic control service based only
upon observed or known traffic and airport
conditions.
NOTE−
When operating in accordance with CFRs, it is the
responsibility of the pilot to avoid collision with other
aircraft. However, due to the limited space around terminal
locations, traffic information can aid pilots in avoiding
collision between aircraft operating within Class B,
Class C, or Class D surface areas and the terminal radar
service areas, and transiting aircraft operating in
proximity to terminal locations.
3−1−2. PREVENTIVE CONTROL
Provide preventive control service only to aircraft
operating in accordance with a letter of agreement.
When providing this service, issue advice or
instructions only if a situation develops which
requires corrective action.
NOTE−
1. Preventive control differs from other airport traffic
control in that repetitious, routine approval of pilot action
is eliminated. Controllers intervene only when they
observe a traffic conflict developing.
2. Airfield Operating instructions, Memorandums of
Understanding, or other specific directives used exclusively by the Department of Defense (DOD) satisfies the
criteria in Paragraph 3-1-2 above.
3−1−3. USE OF ACTIVE RUNWAYS
The local controller has primary responsibility for
operations conducted on the active runway and must
control the use of those runways. Positive coordination and control is required as follows:
NOTE−
Exceptions may be authorized only as provided in
para 1−1−10, Constraints Governing Supplements and
Procedural Deviations, and FAAO JO 7210.3, Facility
Operation and Administration, para 10−1−7, Use of Active
Runways, where justified by extraordinary circumstances
at specific locations.
General
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 1−1−10, Constraints Governing Supplements
and Procedural Deviations.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−1−7, Use of Active Runways.
a. Ground control must obtain approval from local
control before authorizing an aircraft or a vehicle to
cross or use any portion of an active runway. The
coordination must include the point/intersection at
the runway where the operation will occur.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CROSS (runway) AT (point/intersection).
b. When the local controller authorizes another
controller to cross an active runway, the local
controller must verbally specify the runway to be
crossed and the point/intersection at the runway
where the operation will occur preceded by the word
“cross.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
CROSS (runway) AT (point/intersection).
c. The ground controller must advise the local
controller when the coordinated runway operation is
complete. This may be accomplished verbally or
through visual aids as specified by a facility directive.
d. USA/USAF/USN NOT APPLICABLE. Authorization for aircraft/vehicles to taxi/proceed on or
along an active runway, for purposes other than
crossing, must be provided via direct communications on the appropriate local control frequency. This
authorization may be provided on the ground control
frequency after coordination with local control is
completed for those operations specifically described
in a facility directive.
NOTE−
The USA, USAF, and USN establish local operating
procedures in accordance with, respectively, USA, USAF,
and USN directives.
e. The local controller must coordinate with the
ground controller before using a runway not
previously designated as active.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−4, Coordination Between Local and
Ground Controllers.
3−1−1
JO 7110.65W
3−1−4. COORDINATION BETWEEN LOCAL
AND GROUND CONTROLLERS
Local and ground controllers must exchange
information as necessary for the safe and efficient use
of airport runways and movement areas. This may be
accomplished via verbal means, flight progress strips,
other written information, or automation displays. As
a minimum, provide aircraft identification and
applicable runway/intersection/taxiway information
as follows:
a. Ground control must notify local control when
a departing aircraft has been taxied to a runway other
than one previously designated as active.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−3, Use of Active Runways.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−1−6, Selecting Active Runways.
b. Ground control must notify local control of any
aircraft taxied to an intersection for takeoff. This
notification may be accomplished by verbal means or
by flight progress strips.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−7, Wake Turbulence Separation for
Intersection Departures.
c. When the runways in use for landing/departing
aircraft are not visible from the tower or the aircraft
using them are not visible on radar, advise the
local/ground controller of the aircraft’s location
before releasing the aircraft to the other controller.
3−1−5. VEHICLES/EQUIPMENT/
PERSONNEL ON RUNWAYS
a. Ensure that the runway to be used is free of all
known ground vehicles, equipment, and personnel
before a departing aircraft starts takeoff or a landing
aircraft crosses the runway threshold.
b. Vehicles, equipment, and personnel in direct
communications with the control tower may be
authorized to operate up to the edge of an active
runway surface when necessary. Provide advisories
as specified in para 3−1−6, Traffic Information, and
para 3−7−5, Precision Approach Critical Area, as
appropriate.
PHRASEOLOGY−
PROCEED AS REQUESTED; (and if necessary,
additional instructions or information).
3−1−2
12/10/15
NOTE−
Establishing hold lines/signs is the responsibility of the
airport manager. Standards for surface measurements,
markings, and signs are contained in the following
Advisory Circulars; AC 150/5300−13, Airport Design;
AC 150/5340−1, Standards for Airport Markings, and
AC 150/5340−18, Standards for Airport Sign Systems. The
operator is responsible to properly position the aircraft,
vehicle, or equipment at the appropriate hold line/sign or
designated point. The requirements in para 3−1−12,
Visually Scanning Runways, remain valid as appropriate.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−7−4, Runway Proximity.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−8−2, Touch-and-Go or Stop-and-Go or Low
Approach.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
AC 150/5300−13, Airport Design.
AC 150/5340−1G, Standards for Airport Markings.
14 CFR Section 91.129, Operations in Class D Airspace.
AIM, Para 2−2−3, Obstruction Lights.
P/CG Term− Runway in Use/Active Runway/Duty Runway.
3−1−6. TRAFFIC INFORMATION
a. Describe vehicles, equipment, or personnel on
or near the movement area in a manner which will
assist pilots in recognizing them.
EXAMPLE−
“Mower left of runway two seven.”
“Trucks crossing approach end of runway two five.”
“Workman on taxiway Bravo.”
“Aircraft left of runway one eight.”
b. Describe the relative position of traffic in an
easy to understand manner, such as “to your right” or
“ahead of you.”
EXAMPLE−
“Traffic, U.S. Air MD−Eighty on downwind leg to your
left.”
“King Air inbound from outer marker on straight-in
approach to runway one seven.”
c. When using a CTRD , you may issue traffic
advisories using the standard radar phraseology prescribed
in para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
3−1−7. POSITION DETERMINATION
Determine the position of an aircraft before issuing
taxi instructions or takeoff clearance.
NOTE−
The aircraft’s position may be determined visually by the
controller, by pilots, or through the use of the ASDE.
General
12/10/15
3−1−8. LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR/
MICROBURST ADVISORIES
a. When low level wind shear/microburst is
reported by pilots, Integrated Terminal Weather
System (ITWS), or detected on wind shear detection
systems such as LLWAS NE++, LLWAS−RS, WSP,
or TDWR, controllers must issue the alert to all
arriving and departing aircraft. Continue the alert to
aircraft until it is broadcast on the ATIS and pilots
indicate they have received the appropriate ATIS
code. A statement must be included on the ATIS for
20 minutes following the last report or indication of
the wind shear/microburst.
PHRASEOLOGY−
LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR (or MICROBURST, as
appropriate) ADVISORIES IN EFFECT.
NOTE−
Some aircraft are equipped with Predictive Wind Shear
(PWS) alert systems that warn the flight crew of a potential
wind shear up to 3 miles ahead and 25 degrees either side
of the aircraft heading at or below 1200’ AGL. Pilot reports
may include warnings received from PWS systems.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−6−3, PIREP Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−9−3, Content.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−1, Landing Information.
b. At facilities without ATIS, ensure that wind
shear/microburst information is broadcast to all
arriving and departing aircraft for 20 minutes
following the last report or indication of wind
shear/microburst.
1. At locations equipped with LLWAS, the local
controller must provide wind information as follows:
NOTE−
The LLWAS is designed to detect low level wind shear
conditions around the periphery of an airport. It does not
detect wind shear beyond that limitation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−3−3, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst
Detection Systems.
(a) If an alert is received, issue the airport
wind and the displayed field boundary wind.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WIND SHEAR ALERT. AIRPORT WIND (direction) AT
(velocity). (Location of sensor) BOUNDARY WIND
(direction) AT (velocity).
(b) If multiple alerts are received, issue an
advisory that there are wind shear alerts in
two/several/all quadrants. After issuing the advisory,
issue the airport wind in accordance with para 3−9−1,
General
JO 7110.65W
Departure Information, followed by the field
boundary wind most appropriate to the aircraft
operation.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WIND SHEAR ALERTS TWO/SEVERAL/ALL
QUADRANTS. AIRPORT WIND (direction) AT (velocity).
(Location of sensor) BOUNDARY WIND (direction) AT
(velocity).
(c) If requested by the pilot, issue specific
field boundary wind information even though the
LLWAS may not be in alert status.
NOTE−
The requirements for issuance of wind information remain
valid as appropriate under this paragraph, para 3−9−1,
Departure Information and para 3−10−1, Landing
Information.
2. Wind shear detection systems, including
TDWR, WSP, LLWAS NE++ and LLWAS−RS
provide the capability of displaying microburst alerts,
wind shear alerts, and wind information oriented to
the threshold or departure end of a runway. When
detected, the associated ribbon display allows the
controller to read the displayed alert without any need
for interpretation.
(a) If a wind shear or microburst alert is
received for the runway in use, issue the alert
information for that runway to arriving and departing
aircraft as it is displayed on the ribbon display.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Runway) (arrival/departure) WIND SHEAR/
MICROBURST ALERT, (windspeed) KNOT GAIN/LOSS,
(location).
EXAMPLE−
17A MBA 40K − 3MF
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY 17 ARRIVAL MICROBURST ALERT 40 KNOT
LOSS 3 MILE FINAL.
EXAMPLE−
17D WSA 25K+ 2MD
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY 17 DEPARTURE WIND SHEAR ALERT
25 KNOT GAIN 2 MILE DEPARTURE.
(b) If requested by the pilot or deemed
appropriate by the controller, issue the displayed
wind information oriented to the threshold or
departure end of the runway.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Runway) DEPARTURE/THRESHOLD WIND (direction)
AT (velocity).
3−1−3
JO 7110.65W
(c) LLWAS NE++ or LLWAS−RS may detect
a possible wind shear/microburst at the edge of the
system but may be unable to distinguish between a
wind shear and a microburst. A wind shear alert
message will be displayed, followed by an asterisk,
advising of a possible wind shear outside of the
system network.
NOTE−
LLWAS NE++ when associated with TDWR can detect
wind shear/microbursts outside the network if the TDWR
fails.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Appropriate wind or alert information) POSSIBLE WIND
SHEAR OUTSIDE THE NETWORK.
(d) If unstable conditions produce multiple
alerts, issue an advisory of multiple wind shear/
microburst alerts followed by specific alert or wind
information most appropriate to the aircraft operation.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MULTIPLE WIND SHEAR/MICROBURST ALERTS
(specific alert or wind information).
(e) The LLWAS NE++ and LLWAS−RS are
designed to operate with as many as 50 percent of the
total sensors inoperative. When all three remote
sensors designated for a specific runway arrival or
departure wind display line are inoperative then the
LLWAS NE++ and LLWAS−RS for that runway
arrival/departure must be considered out of service.
When a specific runway arrival or departure wind
display line is inoperative and wind shear/microburst
activity is likely; (for example, frontal activity,
convective storms, PIREPs), the following statement
must be included on the ATIS, “WIND SHEAR AND
MICROBURST INFORMATION FOR RUNWAY
(runway number) ARRIVAL/DEPARTURE NOT
AVAILABLE.”
NOTE−
The geographic situation display (GSD) is a supervisory
planning tool and is not intended to be a primary tool for
microburst or wind shear.
c. Wind Shear Escape Procedures.
1. If an aircraft under your control informs you
that it is performing a wind shear escape, do not issue
control instructions that are contrary to pilot actions.
ATC should continue to provide safety alerts
regarding terrain or obstacles and traffic advisories
for the escape aircraft, as appropriate.
3−1−4
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
“Denver Tower, United 1154, wind shear escape.”
NOTE−
Aircraft that execute a wind shear escape maneuver will
usually conduct a full power climb straight ahead and will
not accept any control instructions until onboard systems
advise the crew or the pilot in command (PIC) advises ATC
that the escape maneuver is no longer required.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term – Wind Shear Escape
2. Unless advised by additional aircraft that they
are also performing an escape procedure, do not
presume that other aircraft in the proximity of the
escape aircraft are responding to wind shear
alerts/events as well. Continue to provide control
instructions, safety alerts, and traffic advisories, as
appropriate.
3. Once the responding aircraft has initiated a
wind shear escape maneuver, the controller is not
responsible for providing approved separation
between the aircraft that is responding to an escape
and any other aircraft, airspace, terrain, or obstacle.
Responsibility for approved separation resumes
when one of the following conditions are met:
(a) Departures:
(1) A crew member informs ATC that the
wind shear escape maneuver is complete and ATC
observes that approved separation has been re-established, or
(2) A crew member informs ATC that the
escape maneuver is complete and has resumed a
previously assigned departure clearance/routing.
(b) Arrivals:
(1) A crew member informs ATC that the
escape maneuver is complete, and
(2) The aircrew has executed an alternate
clearance or requested further instructions.
NOTE−
When the escape procedure is complete, the flight crew
must advise ATC they are returning to their previously
assigned clearance or request further instructions.
EXAMPLE−
“Denver Tower, United 1154, wind shear escape complete,
resuming last assigned heading/(name) DP/clearance.”
Or
“Denver Tower, United 1154, wind shear escape complete,
request further instructions.”
General
12/10/15
3−1−9. USE OF TOWER RADAR DISPLAYS
a. Uncertified tower display workstations must be
used only as an aid to assist controllers in visually
locating aircraft or in determining their spatial
relationship to known geographical points. Radar
services and traffic advisories are not to be provided
using uncertified tower display workstations.
General information may be given in an easy to
understand manner, such as “to your right” or “ahead
of you.”
EXAMPLE−
“Follow the aircraft ahead of you passing the river at the
stacks.” “King Air passing left to right.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−5−3, Functional Use of Certified Tower
Radar Displays.
b. Local controllers may use certified tower radar
displays for the following purposes:
1. To determine an aircraft’s identification,
exact location, or spatial relationship to other aircraft.
JO 7110.65W
other associated radar services) are being provided when,
in fact, they are not.
4. To provide information and instructions to
aircraft operating within the surface area for which
the tower has responsibility.
EXAMPLE−
“TURN BASE LEG NOW.”
NOTE−
Unless otherwise authorized, tower radar displays are
intended to be an aid to local controllers in meeting their
responsibilities to the aircraft operating on the runways or
within the surface area. They are not intended to provide
radar benefits to pilots except for those accrued through a
more efficient and effective local control position. In
addition, local controllers at nonapproach control towers
must devote the majority of their time to visually scanning
the runways and local area; an assurance of continued
positive radar identification could place distracting and
operationally inefficient requirements upon the local
controller. Therefore, since the requirements of
para 5−3−1, Application, cannot be assured, the radar
functions prescribed above are not considered to be radar
services and pilots should not be advised of being in “radar
contact.”
NOTE−
This authorization does not alter visual separation
procedures. When employing visual separation, the
provisions of para 7−2−1, Visual Separation, apply unless
otherwise authorized by the Vice President of Terminal
Service.
c. Additional functions may be performed
provided the procedures have been reviewed and
authorized by appropriate management levels.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−2, Primary Radar Identification
Methods.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−4, Terminal Automation Systems
Identification Methods.
3−1−10. OBSERVED ABNORMALITIES
2. To provide aircraft with radar traffic
advisories.
3. To provide a direction or suggested headings
to VFR aircraft as a method for radar identification or
as an advisory aid to navigation.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification), PROCEED (direction)−BOUND, (other
instructions or information as necessary),
or
(identification), SUGGESTED HEADING (degrees),
(other instructions as necessary).
NOTE−
It is important that the pilot be aware of the fact that the
directions or headings being provided are suggestions or
are advisory in nature. This is to keep the pilot from being
inadvertently misled into assuming that radar vectors (and
General
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−4, Minima.
When requested by a pilot or when you deem it
necessary, inform an aircraft of any observed
abnormal aircraft condition.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Item) APPEAR/S (observed condition).
EXAMPLE−
“Landing gear appears up.”
“Landing gear appears down and in place.”
“Rear baggage door appears open.”
3−1−11. SURFACE AREA RESTRICTIONS
a. If traffic conditions permit, approve a pilot’s
request to cross Class C or Class D surface areas or
exceed the Class C or Class D airspace speed limit.
Do not, however, approve a speed in excess of
250 knots (288 mph) unless the pilot informs you a
higher minimum speed is required.
NOTE−
14 CFR Section 91.117 permits speeds in excess of
3−1−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
250 knots (288 mph) when so required or recommended in
the airplane flight manual or required by normal military
operating procedures.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(A/c call sign) REMAIN OUTSIDE DELTA AIRSPACE
AND STANDBY.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−16, Surface Areas.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
b. Do not approve a pilot’s request or ask a pilot to
conduct unusual maneuvers within surface areas of
Class B, C, or D airspace if they are not essential to
the performance of the flight.
3−1−14. GROUND OPERATIONS WHEN
VOLCANIC ASH IS PRESENT
EXCEPTION. A pilot’s request to conduct aerobatic
practice activities may be approved, when operating
in accordance with a letter of agreement, and the
activity will have no adverse effect on safety of the air
traffic operation or result in a reduction of service to
other users.
a. Avoid requiring aircraft to come to a full stop
while taxiing.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 5−4−7, Aerobatic Practice Areas.
NOTE−
These unusual maneuvers include unnecessary low passes,
unscheduled flybys, practice instrument approaches to
altitudes below specified minima (unless a landing or
touch-and-go is to be made), or any so-called “buzz jobs”
wherein a flight is conducted at a low altitude and/or a high
rate of speed for thrill purposes. Such maneuvers increase
hazards to persons and property and contribute to noise
complaints.
3−1−12. VISUALLY SCANNING RUNWAYS
a. Local controllers must visually scan runways to
the maximum extent possible.
b. Ground control must assist local control in
visually scanning runways, especially when runways
are in close proximity to other movement areas.
3−1−13. ESTABLISHING TWO−WAY
COMMUNICATIONS
Pilots are required to establish two-way radio
communications before entering the Class D
airspace. If the controller responds to a radio call
with, “(a/c call sign) standby,” radio communications
have been established and the pilot can enter the
Class D airspace. If workload or traffic conditions
prevent immediate provision of Class D services,
inform the pilot to remain outside the Class D
airspace until conditions permit the services to be
provided.
3−1−6
When volcanic ash is present on the airport surface,
and to the extent possible:
b. Provide for a rolling takeoff for all departures.
NOTE−
When aircraft begin a taxi or takeoff roll on ash
contaminated surfaces, large amounts of volcanic ash will
again become airborne. This newly airborne ash will
significantly reduce visibility and will be ingested by the
engines of following aircraft.
REFERENCE−
AIM, Para 7−5−9, Flight Operations in Volcanic Ash.
3−1−15. GROUND OPERATIONS RELATED
TO THREE/FOUR−HOUR TARMAC RULE
When a request is made by the pilot−in−command of
an aircraft to return to the ramp, gate, or alternate
deplaning area due to the Three/Four−Hour Tarmac
Rule:
a. Provide the requested services as soon as
operationally practical, or
b. Advise the pilot−in−command that the requested service cannot be accommodated because it
would create a significant disruption to air traffic
operations.
NOTE−
Facility procedures, including actions that constitute a
significant disruption, vary by airport and must be
identified in the facility directive pertaining to the
Three/Four−Hour Tarmac Rule.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification) TAXI TO (ramp, gate, or alternate
deplaning area) VIA (route).
or
(Identification) EXPECT A (number) MINUTE DELAY
DUE TO (ground and/or landing and/or departing)
TRAFFIC,
or
General
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
(Identification) UNABLE DUE TO OPERATIONAL
DISRUPTION.
REFERENCE−
DOT Rule, Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections, 14 CFR, Part
259, commonly referred to as the Three/Four−Hour Tarmac Rule.
General
3−1−7
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Visual Signals
3−2−1. LIGHT SIGNALS
Use ATC light signals from TBL 3−2−1 to control
aircraft and the movement of vehicles, equipment,
and personnel on the movement area when radio
communications cannot be employed.
3−2−3. RECEIVER-ONLY
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
To obtain acknowledgment from an aircraft equipped
with receiver only, request the aircraft to do the
following:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−1, Letters of Agreement.
3−2−2. WARNING SIGNAL
Direct a general warning signal, alternating red and
green, to aircraft or vehicle operators, as appropriate,
when:
NOTE−
The warning signal is not a prohibitive signal and can be
followed by any other light signal, as circumstances
permit.
a. Aircraft are converging and a collision hazard
exists.
b. Mechanical trouble exists of which the pilot
might not be aware.
c. Other hazardous conditions are present which
call for intensified pilot or operator alertness. These
conditions may include obstructions, soft field, ice on
the runway, etc.
a. Fixed-wing aircraft:
1. Between sunrise and sunset:
(a) Move ailerons or rudders while on the
ground.
(b) Rock wings while in flight.
2. Between sunset and sunrise: Flash navigation or landing lights.
b. Helicopters:
1. Between sunrise and sunset:
(a) While hovering, either turn the helicopter
toward the controlling facility and flash the landing
light or rock the tip path plane.
(b) While in flight, either flash the landing
light or rock the tip path plane.
2. Between sunset and sunrise: Flash landing
light or search light.
TBL 3−2−1
ATC Light Signals
Meaning
Color and type of signal
Aircraft on the ground
Aircraft in flight
Movement of vehicles,
equipment and personnel
Steady green
Flashing green
Cleared for takeoff
Cleared to taxi
Cleared to land
Cleared to cross; proceed; go
Return for landing (to be followed Not applicable
by steady green at the proper time)
Steady red
Stop
Give way to other aircraft and
continue circling
Stop
Flashing red
Taxi clear of landing area or
runway in use
Airport unsafe− Do not land
Clear the taxiway/runway
Flashing white
Return to starting point on
airport
Not applicable
Return to starting point on
airport
Alternating red and green General Warning Signal−
Exercise Extreme Caution
Visual Signals
General Warning Signal− Exercise General Warning Signal−
Extreme Caution
Exercise Extreme Caution
3−2−1
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 3. Airport Conditions
3−3−1. LANDING AREA CONDITION
If you observe or are informed of any condition which
affects the safe use of a landing area:
NOTE−
1. The airport management/military operations office is
responsible for observing and reporting the condition of
the landing area.
EXAMPLE−
“ALL RUNWAYS COVERED BY COMPACTED SNOW
SIX INCHES DEEP.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−12, Airport Conditions.
3−3−2. CLOSED/UNSAFE RUNWAY
INFORMATION
2. It is the responsibility of the agency operating the
airport to provide the tower with current information
regarding airport conditions.
If an aircraft requests to takeoff, land, or
touch-and-go on a closed or unsafe runway, inform
the pilot the runway is closed or unsafe, and
3. A disabled aircraft on a runway, after occupants are
clear, is normally handled by flight standards and airport
management/military operations office personnel in the
same manner as any obstruction; e.g., construction
equipment.
a. If the pilot persists in his/her request, quote
him/her the appropriate parts of the NOTAM
applying to the runway and inform him/her that a
clearance cannot be issued.
a. Relay the information to the airport manager/
military operations office concerned.
b. Copy verbatim any information received and
record the name of the person submitting it.
c. Confirm information obtained from other than
authorized airport or FAA personnel unless this
function is the responsibility of the military
operations office.
NOTE−
Civil airport managers are required to provide a list of
airport employees who are authorized to issue information
concerning conditions affecting the safe use of the airport.
d. If you are unable to contact the airport
management or operator, issue a NOTAM publicizing an unsafe condition and inform the management
or operator as soon as practicable.
EXAMPLE−
“DISABLED AIRCRAFT ON RUNWAY.’’
NOTE−
1. Legally, only the airport management/military operations office can close a runway.
2. Military controllers are not authorized to issue
NOTAMs. It is the responsibility of the military operations
office.
e. Issue to aircraft only factual information, as
reported by the airport management concerning the
condition of the runway surface, describing the
accumulation of precipitation.
Airport Conditions
b. Then, if the pilot insists and in your opinion the
intended operation would not adversely affect other
traffic, inform him/her that the operation will be at
his/her own risk.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (runway number) CLOSED/UNSAFE.
If appropriate, (quote NOTAM information),
UNABLE TO ISSUE DEPARTURE/LANDING/TOUCH−
AND−GO CLEARANCE.
DEPARTURE/LANDING/TOUCH−AND−GO WILL BE
AT YOUR OWN RISK.
c. Except as permitted by para 4−8−7, Side-step
Maneuver, where parallel runways are served by
separate ILS/MLS systems and one of the runways is
closed, the ILS/MLS associated with the closed
runway should not be used for approaches unless not
using the ILS/MLS would have an adverse impact on
the operational efficiency of the airport.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−5, Landing Clearance.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−12, Airport Conditions.
3−3−3. TIMELY INFORMATION
Issue airport condition information necessary for an
aircraft’s safe operation in time for it to be useful to
the pilot. Include the following, as appropriate:
a. Construction work on or immediately adjacent
to the movement area.
b. Rough portions of the movement area.
3−3−1
JO 7110.65W
c. Braking conditions caused by ice, snow, slush,
or water.
d. Snowdrifts or piles of snow on or along the
edges of the area and the extent of any plowed area.
e. Parked aircraft on the movement area.
f. Irregular operation of part or all of the airport
lighting system.
g. Volcanic ash on any airport surface area and
whether the ash is wet or dry (if known).
NOTE−
Braking action on wet ash may be degraded. Dry ash on the
runway may necessitate minimum use of reverse thrust.
h. Other pertinent airport conditions.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−12, Airport Conditions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−9, Reporting Essential Flight
Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
3−3−4. BRAKING ACTION
Furnish quality of braking action, as received from
pilots or the airport management, to all aircraft as
follows:
a. Describe the quality of braking action using the
terms “good,” “fair,” “poor,” “nil,” or a combination
of these terms. If the pilot or airport management
reports braking action in other than the foregoing
terms, ask him/her to categorize braking action in
these terms.
NOTE−
The term “nil” is used to indicate bad or no braking action.
b. Include type of aircraft or vehicle from which
the report is received.
EXAMPLE−
“Braking action fair to poor, reported by a heavy D−C
Ten.”
“Braking action poor, reported by a Boeing Seven
Twenty−Seven.”
c. If the braking action report affects only a portion
of a runway, obtain enough information from the pilot
or airport management to describe the braking action
in terms easily understood by the pilot.
EXAMPLE−
“Braking action poor first half of runway, reported by a
Lockheed Ten Eleven.”
“Braking action poor beyond the intersection of runway
two seven, reported by a Boeing Seven Twenty−Seven.”
3−3−2
12/10/15
NOTE−
Descriptive terms, such as the first or the last half of the
runway, should normally be used rather than landmark
descriptions, such as opposite the fire station, south of a
taxiway, etc. Landmarks extraneous to the landing runway
are difficult to distinguish during low visibility, at night, or
anytime a pilot is busy landing an aircraft.
d. Furnish runway friction measurement readings/
values as received from airport management to
aircraft as follows:
1. Furnish information as received from the
airport management to pilots on the ATIS at locations
where friction measuring devices, such as
MU−Meter, Saab Friction Tester (SFT), and
Skiddometer are in use only when the MU values are
40 or less. Use the runway followed by the MU
number for each of the three runway segments, time
of report, and a word describing the cause of the
runway friction problem. Do not issue MU values
when all three segments of the runway have values
reported greater than 40.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway two seven, MU forty−two, forty−one, twenty−
eight at one zero one eight Zulu, ice.”
2. Issue the runway surface condition and/or the
Runway Condition Reading (RCR), if provided, to all
USAF and ANG aircraft. Issue the RCR to other
aircraft upon pilot request.
EXAMPLE−
“Ice on runway, RCR zero five, patchy.”
NOTE−
1. USAF has established RCR procedures for determining
the average deceleration readings of runways under
conditions of water, slush, ice, or snow. The use of the RCR
code is dependent upon the pilot’s having a “stopping
capability chart” specifically applicable to his/her
aircraft.
2. USAF offices furnish RCR information at airports
serving USAF and ANG aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−12, Airport Conditions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−5, Braking Action Advisories.
3−3−5. BRAKING ACTION ADVISORIES
a. When runway braking action reports are
received from pilots or the airport management which
include the terms “fair,” “poor,” or “nil” or whenever
weather conditions are conducive to deteriorating or
rapidly changing runway conditions, include on the
ATIS broadcast the statement “Braking Action
Advisories are in effect.”
Airport Conditions
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−4−1, Automatic Terminal Information
Service (ATIS).
b. During the time Braking Action Advisories are
in effect, take the following action:
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4, Chapter 9, Section 3. Aircraft Arresting System,
Single Frequency Approach (SFA), Simulated Flameout
(SFO)/Emergency Landing Pattern (ELP) Operations, Celestial
Navigation (CELNAV) Training, Para 9−3−1 through Para 9−3−8.
b. Raise aircraft arresting systems whenever:
1. Requested by a pilot.
1. Issue the latest braking action report for the
runway in use to each arriving and departing aircraft
early enough to be of benefit to the pilot. When
possible, include reports from super or heavy aircraft
when the arriving or departing aircraft is a super or
heavy.
NOTE−
The standard emergency phraseology for a pilot requesting
an arresting system to be raised for immediate engagement
is:
2. If no report has been received for the runway
of intended use, issue an advisory to that effect.
or
PHRASEOLOGY−
NO BRAKING ACTION REPORTS RECEIVED FOR
RUNWAY (runway number).
3. Advise the airport management that runway
braking action reports of “fair,” “poor,” or “nil” have
been received.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−1, Letters of Agreement.
4. Solicit PIREPs of runway braking action.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−6−3, PIREP Information.
c. Include runway friction measurement/values
received from airport management on the ATIS.
Furnish the information when requested by the pilot
in accordance with para 3−3−4, Braking Action.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−9−3, Content.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−1, Departure Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−1, Landing Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−12, Airport Conditions.
3−3−6. ARRESTING SYSTEM OPERATION
a. For normal operations, arresting systems
remotely controlled by ATC must remain in the
retracted or down position.
NOTE−
1. USN− Runway Arresting Gear− barriers are not
operated by ATC personnel. Readiness/rigging of the
equipment is the responsibility of the operations
department.
2. A request to raise a barrier or hook cable means the
barrier or cable on the departure end of the runway. If an
approach end engagement is required, the pilot or military
authority will specifically request that the approach end
cable be raised.
Airport Conditions
“BARRIER − BARRIER − BARRIER”
“CABLE − CABLE − CABLE.”
2. Requested by military authority; e.g., airfield
manager, supervisor of flying, mobile control officer,
etc.
NOTE−
USAF. Web barriers at the departure end of the runway may
remain in the up position when requested by the senior
operational commander. The IFR Enroute Supplement and
AP-1 will describe specific barrier configuration. ATC will
advise transient aircraft of the barrier configuration using
the phraseology in subpara c , below.
3. A military jet aircraft is landing with known
or suspected radio failure or conditions (drag
chute/hydraulic/electrical failure, etc.) that indicate
an arresting system may be needed. Exceptions are
authorized for military aircraft which cannot engage
an arresting system (C−9, C−141, C−5, T−39, etc.)
and should be identified in a letter of agreement
and/or appropriate military directive.
c. When requested by military authority due to
freezing weather conditions or malfunction of the
activating mechanism, the barrier/cable may remain
in a raised position provided aircraft are advised.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOUR DEPARTURE/LANDING WILL BE TOWARD/
OVER A RAISED BARRIER/CABLE ON RUNWAY
(number), (location, distance, as appropriate).
d. Inform civil and U.S. Army aircraft whenever
rubber supported cables are in place at the approach
end of the landing runway, and include the distance of
the cables from the threshold. This information may
be omitted if it is published in the “Notices to
Airmen” publication/DOD FLIP.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway One Four arresting cable one thousand feet from
threshold.”
3−3−3
JO 7110.65W
e. When arresting system operation has been
requested, inform the pilot of the indicated
barrier/cable position.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification), BARRIER/CABLE INDICATES
UP/DOWN. CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF/TO LAND.
f. Time permitting, advise pilots of the availability
of all arresting systems on the runway in question
when a pilot requests barrier information.
g. If an aircraft engages a raised barrier/cable,
initiate crash alarm procedures immediately.
h. For preplanned practice engagements not
associated with emergencies, crash alarm systems
need not be activated if, in accordance with local
military operating procedures, all required notifications are made before the practice engagement.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−12, Airport Conditions.
3−3−7. FAR FIELD MONITOR (FFM)
REMOTE STATUS UNIT
a. To meet the demand for more facilities capable
of operating under CAT III weather, Type II
equipment is being upgraded to Integrity Level 3.
This integrity level will support operations which
place a high degree of reliance on ILS guidance for
positioning through touchdown.
b. Installation of the FFM remote status indicating
units is necessary to attain the integrity necessary to
meet internationally agreed upon reliability values in
support of CAT III operations on Type II ILS
equipment. The remote status indicating unit used in
conjunction with Type II equipment adds a third
integrity test; thereby, producing an approach aid
which has integrity capable of providing Level 3
service.
c. The remote status sensing unit, when installed in
the tower cab, will give immediate indications of
3−3−4
12/10/15
localizer out-of-tolerance conditions. The alarm in
the FFM remote status sensing unit indicates an
inoperative or an out-of-tolerance localizer signal;
e.g., the course may have shifted due to equipment
malfunction or vehicle/aircraft encroachment into the
critical area.
d. Operation of the FFM remote sensing unit will
be based on the prevailing weather. The FFM remote
sensing unit must be operational when the weather is
below CAT I ILS minimums.
e. When the remote status unit indicates that the
localizer FFM is in alarm (aural warning following
the preset delay) and:
1. The aircraft is outside the middle marker
(MM), check for encroachment those portions of the
critical area that can be seen from the tower. It is
understood that the entire critical area may not be
visible due to low ceilings and poor visibility. The
check is strictly to determine possible causal factors
for the out-of-tolerance situation. If the alarm has not
cleared prior to the aircraft’s arriving at the MM,
immediately issue an advisory that the FFM remote
status sensing unit indicates the localizer is
unreliable.
2. The aircraft is between the MM and the inner
marker (IM), immediately issue an advisory that the
FFM remote status sensing unit indicates the localizer
is unreliable.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CAUTION, MONITOR INDICATES RUNWAY (number)
LOCALIZER UNRELIABLE.
3. The aircraft has passed the IM, there is no
action requirement. Although the FFM has been
modified with filters which dampen the effect of false
alarms, you may expect alarms when aircraft are
located between the FFM and the localizer antenna
either on landing or on takeoff.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−12, Airport Conditions.
Airport Conditions
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 4. Airport Lighting
3−4−1. EMERGENCY LIGHTING
b. As required by the pilot.
Whenever you become aware that an emergency has
or will occur, take action to provide for the operation
of all appropriate airport lighting aids as required.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−4−2, Lighting Requirements.
TBL 3−4−2
VASI Intensity Setting−Two Step System
Step
High
Low
3−4−2. RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS
Period/Condition
Day−Sunrise to sunset.
Night−Sunset to sunrise.
TBL 3−4−3
VASI Intensity Setting−Three Step System
When separate on−off controls are provided, operate
runway end identifier lights:
Step
Period/Condition
a. When the associated runway lights are lighted.
Turn the REIL off after:
High
Medium
Day−Sunrise to sunset.
Twilight−From sunset to 30 minutes after
sunset and from 30 minutes before sunrise
to sunrise,* and during twilight in Alaska.
1. An arriving aircraft has landed.
2. A departing aircraft has left the traffic pattern
area.
3. It is determined that the lights are of no
further use to the pilot.
b. As required by facility directives to meet local
conditions.
c. As requested by the pilot.
d. Operate intensity setting in accordance with the
values in TBL 3−4−1 except as prescribed in
subparas b and c above.
TBL 3−4−1
REIL Intensity Setting−Three Step System
Settings
Visibility
Day
Night
3
2
Less than 2 miles
Less than 1 mile
2 to 5 miles inclusive 1 to but not including 3
miles
1
When requested
3 miles or more
3−4−3. VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE
INDICATORS (VASI)
VASI systems with remote on−off switching must be
operated when they serve the runway in use and
where intensities are controlled in accordance with
TBL 3−4−2 and TBL 3−4−3 except:
a. As required by facility directives to meet local
conditions.
Airport Lighting
Low
Night−Sunset to sunrise.
*During a 1 year period, twilight may vary 26 to 43 minutes between
25 and 49N latitude.
NOTE−
The basic FAA standard for VASI systems permits
independent operation by means of photoelectric device.
This system has no on−off control feature and is intended
for continuous operation. Other VASI systems in use
include those that are operated remotely from the control
tower. These systems may consist of either a photoelectric
intensity control with only an on−off switch, a two step
intensity system, or a three step intensity system.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−6−5, Visual Approach Slope Indicator
(VASI) Systems.
FAAO 6850.2, Visual Guidance Lighting Systems.
3−4−4. PRECISION APPROACH PATH
INDICATORS (PAPI)
PAPI systems with remote on−off switching shall be
operated when they serve the runway in use and
where intensities are controlled in accordance with
TBL 3−4−4 except:
a. As required by local facility directives to meet
local conditions.
b. As requested by the pilot.
NOTE−
The basic FAA standard for PAPI systems permits
independent operation by means of photoelectric device.
This system has no on−off control feature and is intended
for continuous operation. Other PAPI systems in use
include those that are operated remotely from the control
tower. These systems may consist of either a photoelectric
3−4−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
intensity control with only an on−off switch, or a five−step
intensity system.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 6850.2, Visual Guidance Lighting Systems.
TBL 3−4−4
PAPI Intensity Setting − Five Step System
Step
Period/Condition
5
On Pilot Request
4
Day − Sunrise to sunset
3
Night − Sunset to sunrise
2
On Pilot Request
1
On Pilot Request
*During a 1 year period, twilight may vary 26 to 43 minutes
between 25 and 49N latitude.
3−4−6. ALS INTENSITY SETTINGS
When operating ALS as prescribed in para 3−4−5,
Approach Lights, operate intensity controls in
accordance with the values in TBL 3−4−5 except:
a. When facility directives specify other settings
to meet local atmospheric, topographic, and twilight
conditions.
b. As requested by the pilot.
c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot’s
request.
TBL 3−4−5
ALS Intensity Setting
Step
Visibility
(Applicable to runway served by lights)
Day
3−4−5. APPROACH LIGHTS
Operate approach lights:
a. Between sunset and sunrise when one of the
following conditions exists:
1. They serve the landing runway.
2. They serve a runway to which an approach is
being made but aircraft will land on another runway.
b. Between sunrise and sunset when the ceiling is
less than 1,000 feet or the prevailing visibility is
5 miles or less and approaches are being made to:
1. A landing runway served by the lights.
2. A runway served by the lights but aircraft are
landing on another runway.
3. The airport, but landing will be made on a
runway served by the lights.
c. As requested by the pilot.
d. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot’s
request.
NOTE−
In the interest of energy conservation, the ALS should be
turned off when not needed for aircraft operations.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−4−6, ALS Intensity Settings.
3−4−2
Night
5
Less than 1 mile*
When requested
4
1 to but not including 3 miles When requested
3
3 to but not including 5 miles Less than 1 mile*
2
5 to but not including 7 miles 1 to 3 miles inclusive
1
When requested
Greater than 3 miles
*and/or 6,000 feet or less of the RVR on the runway served by
the ALS and RVR.
NOTE−
Daylight steps 2 and 3 provide recommended settings
applicable to conditions in subparas b and c. At night, use
step 4 or 5 only when requested by a pilot.
3−4−7. SEQUENCED FLASHING LIGHTS
(SFL)
Operate Sequenced Flashing Lights:
NOTE−
SFL are a component of the ALS and cannot be operated
when the ALS is off.
a. When the visibility is less than 3 miles and
instrument approaches are being made to the runway
served by the associated ALS.
b. As requested by the pilot.
c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot’s
request.
3−4−8. MALSR/ODALS
Operate MALSR/ODALS that have separate on−off
and intensity setting controls in accordance with
TBL 3−4−6 and TBL 3−4−7 except:
a. When facility directives specify other settings
to meet local atmospheric, topographic, and twilight
conditions.
Airport Lighting
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
3−4−10. RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS
b. As requested by the pilot.
c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot’s
request.
TBL 3−4−6
Two Step MALS/One Step RAIL/Two Step ODALS
Settings
Visibility
Day
MALS/ODALS
RAIL
Hi
On
Night
Less than
3 miles
Less than
3 miles
MALS/ODALS Low When requested
RAIL
Off
3 miles or more
*At locations providing part−time control tower service, if
duplicate controls are not provided in the associated FSS, the
MALSR/ODALS must be set to low intensity during the hours
of darkness when the tower is not staffed.
TBL 3−4−7
Three Step MALS/Three Step RAIL/
Three Step ODALS
Settings
Visibility
Day
3
2
Less than 2 miles
2 to 5 miles inclusive
Night
Less than 1 mile
1 to but not including
3 miles*
1
When requested
3 miles or more
*At locations providing part−time control tower service, if
duplicate controls are not provided in the FSS on the airport,
the air−to−ground radio link shall be activated during the hours
of darkness when the tower is unmanned. If there is no radio
air−to−ground control, the MALSR/ODALS shall be set on
intensity setting 2 during the hours of darkness when the tower
is not staffed.
Operate the runway edge light system/s serving the
runway/s in use as follows:
a. Between sunset and sunrise, turn the lights on:
1. For departures. Before an aircraft taxies onto
the runway and until it leaves the Class B, Class C, or
Class D surface area.
2. For arrivals:
(a) IFR aircraft−Before the aircraft begins
final approach, or
(b) VFR aircraft−Before the aircraft enters
the Class B, Class C, or Class D surface area, and
(c) Until the aircraft has taxied off the landing
runway.
b. Between sunrise and sunset, turn the lights on as
shown in subparas a1 and a2 when the surface
visibility is less than 2 miles.
c. As required by facility directives to meet local
conditions.
d. Different from subparas a, b, or c above, when:
1. You consider it necessary, or
2. Requested by a pilot and no other known
aircraft will be adversely affected.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−6−2, Operation of Lights When Tower is
Closed.
NOTE−
Pilots may request lights to be turned on or off contrary to
subparas a, b, or c. However, 14 CFR Part 135 operators
are required to land/takeoff on lighted runways/heliport
landing areas at night.
3−4−9. ALSF−2/SSALR
e. Do not turn on the runway edge lights when a
NOTAM closing the runway is in effect.
a. When the prevailing visibility is 3/4 mile or less
or the RVR is 4,000 feet or less, operate the ALSF−2
system as follows:
1. As requested by the pilot.
2. As you deem necessary if not contrary to pilot
request.
b. Operate the SSALR system when the conditions in subpara a are not a factor.
Airport Lighting
NOTE−
Application concerns use for takeoffs/landings/
approaches and does not preclude turning lights on for use
of unaffected portions of a runway for taxiing aircraft,
surface vehicles, maintenance, repair, etc.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−4−15, Simultaneous Approach and Runway
Edge Light Operation.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−6−3, Incompatible Light System Operation.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−6−9, Runway Edge Lights Associated With
Medium Approach Light System/Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.
3−4−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
3−4−11. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY,
RUNWAY CENTERLINE, AND TOUCHDOWN
ZONE LIGHTS
Operate high intensity runway and associated runway
centerline and touchdown zone lights in accordance
with TBL 3−4−8, except:
a. Where a facility directive specifies other
settings to meet local conditions.
b. As requested by the pilot.
c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot
request.
NOTE−
When going from a given brightness step setting to a lower
setting, rotation of the brightness control to a point below
the intended step setting and then back to the appropriate
step setting will ensure that the MALSR will operate at the
appropriate brightness.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−4−14, Medium Intensity Runway Lights.
3−4−13. HIRL CHANGES AFFECTING RVR
Keep the appropriate approach controller or PAR
controller informed, in advance if possible, of HIRL
changes that affect RVR.
TBL 3−4−8
HIRL, RCLS, TDZL Intensity Setting
Step
Visibility
Day
Night
5
4
Less than 1 mile*
1 to but not including
2 miles*
When requested
Less than 1 mile*
3
2 to but not including
3 miles
1 to but not including
3 miles*
2
When requested
3 to 5 miles inclusive
1
When requested
More than 5 miles
*and/or appropriate RVR/RVV equivalent.
3−4−12. HIRL ASSOCIATED WITH MALSR
Operate HIRL which control the associated MALSR
in accordance with TBL 3−4−9, except:
a. As requested by the pilot.
b. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to the
pilot’s request.
3−4−14. MEDIUM INTENSITY RUNWAY
LIGHTS
Operate MIRL or MIRL which control the associated
MALSR in accordance with TBL 3−4−10, except:
a. As requested by the pilot.
b. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to the
pilot’s request.
TBL 3−4−10
MIRL Intensity Setting
Step
Visibility
Day
3
2
1
Less than 2 miles
2 to 3 miles
When requested
Night
Less than 1 mile
1 to 3 miles
More than 3 miles
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−4−12, HIRL Associated With MALSR.
TBL 3−4−9
HIRL Associated with MALSR
Step
Visibility
Day
Night
5
4
Less than 1 mile
1 to but not including
2 miles
When requested
Less than 1 mile
3
2 to but not including
3 miles
1 to but not including
3 miles
2
1
When requested
When requested
3 to 5 miles inclusive
More than 5 miles
3−4−4
3−4−15. SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH AND
RUNWAY EDGE LIGHT OPERATION
Turn on the runway edge lights for the runway in use
whenever the associated approach lights are on. If
multiple runway light selection is not possible, you
may leave the approach lights on and switch the
runway lights to another runway to accommodate
another aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−4−10, Runway Edge Lights.
Airport Lighting
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
3−4−16. HIGH SPEED TURNOFF LIGHTS
Operate high speed turnoff lights:
a. Whenever the associated runway lights are used
for arriving aircraft. Leave them on until the aircraft
has either entered a taxiway or passed the last light.
b. As required by facility directives to meet local
conditions.
c. As requested by the pilot.
a. Where a facility directive specifies other
settings or times to meet local conditions.
b. As requested by the pilot.
c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot
request.
TBL 3−4−11
Three Step Taxiway Lights
Visibility
Day
Night
Less than 1 mile
When requested
When requested
When requested
Less than 1 mile
1 mile of more
TBL 3−4−12
Five Step Taxiway Lights
Step
Visibility
Day
5
4
3
1&2
Night
Less than 1 mile
When requested
When requested
When requested
When requested
Less than 1 mile
1 mile or more
When requested
TBL 3−4−13
One Step Taxiway Lights
Day
Less than 1 mile
Airport Lighting
Night
On
If controls are provided, turn the lights on between
sunset and sunrise.
If controls are provided, turn the rotating beacon on:
Operate taxiway lights in accordance with
TBL 3−4−11, TBL 3−4−12, or TBL 3−4−13 except:
3
2
1
3−4−18. OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS
3−4−19. ROTATING BEACON
3−4−17. TAXIWAY LIGHTS
Step
NOTE−
AC 150/5340-30, Design and Installation Details for
Airport Visual Aides, contains recommended brightness
levels for variable setting taxiway lights.
a. Between sunset and sunrise.
b. Between sunrise and sunset when the reported
ceiling or visibility is below basic VFR minima.
3−4−20. RUNWAY STATUS LIGHTS (RWSL)
TERMINAL
RWSL is equipped with automatic intensity settings
and must be operated on a continuous basis except
under the following conditions:
a. If a pilot or vehicle report indicates any portion
of the RWSL system is on and is not able to accept an
ATC clearance; then
1. ATC must visually scan the entire runway. If
the runway is observed to be clear and the lights are
still illuminated, then the lights must be turned off and
clearance re-issued.
2. If a portion of the runway is not visible from
the tower, ATC must visually scan the ASDE-X. If the
runway is observed to be clear and the lights are still
illuminated, then the lights must be turned off and
clearance re-issued.
b. When the RWSL Operational Status displays
“Lost Comm with System,” consider the RWSL
system out of service until checked and confirmed to
be operational by technical operations personnel.
c. Once RWSL systems are turned off, they must
remain off until returned to service by technical
operations personnel.
d. Upon pilot request, adjust the light intensity.
3−4−5
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 5. Runway Selection
3−5−1. SELECTION
a. Except where a “runway use” program is in
effect, use the runway most nearly aligned with the
wind when 5 knots or more or the “calm wind”
runway when less than 5 knots (set tetrahedron
accordingly) unless use of another runway:
NOTE−
1. If a pilot prefers to use a runway different from that
specified, the pilot is expected to advise ATC.
2. At airports where a “runway use” program is
established, ATC will assign runways deemed to have the
least noise impact. If in the interest of safety a runway
different from that specified is preferred, the pilot is
expected to advise ATC accordingly. ATC will honor such
requests and advise pilots when the requested runway is
noise sensitive.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 8400.9, National Safety and Operational Criteria for Runway
Use Programs.
b. When conducting aircraft operations on other
than the advertised active runway, state the runway in
use.
3−5−2. STOL RUNWAYS
Use STOL runways as follows:
a. A designated STOL runway may be assigned
only when requested by the pilot or as specified in a
letter of agreement with an aircraft operator.
b. Issue the measured STOL runway length if the
pilot requests it.
3−5−3. TAILWIND COMPONENTS
When authorizing use of runways and a tailwind
component exists, always state both wind direction
and velocity.
1. Will be operationally advantageous, or
NOTE−
The wind may be described as “calm” when appropriate.
2. Is requested by the pilot.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−6−5, Calm Wind Conditions.
Runway Selection
3−5−1
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 6. Airport Surface Detection Procedures
3−6−1. EQUIPMENT USAGE
3−6−3. INFORMATION USAGE
a. The operational status of ASDE systems must
be determined during the relief briefing, or as soon as
possible after assuming responsibility for the
associated position.
a. ASDE system derived information may be used
to:
b. Use ASDE systems to augment visual observation of aircraft landing or departing, and aircraft or
vehicular movements on runways and taxiways, or
other parts of the movement area.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−7−2, Radar Use.
1. ASDE systems with safety logic must be
operated continuously.
3. Determine the exact location of aircraft and
vehicles, or spatial relationship to other aircraft/
vehicles on the movement area.
2. ASDE systems without safety logic must be
operated:
(a) Continuously between sunset and sunrise.
(b) When visibility is less than the most
distant point in the active movement area, or
1. Formulate clearances and control instructions to aircraft and vehicles on the movement area.
2. Position aircraft and vehicles using the
movement area.
4. Monitor compliance with control instructions
by aircraft and vehicles on taxiways and runways.
5. Confirm pilot reported positions.
6. Provide directional taxi information, as
appropriate.
(c) When, in your judgment, its use will assist
you in the performance of your duties at any time.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TURN (left/right) ON THE TAXIWAY/RUNWAY YOU ARE
APPROACHING.
3−6−2. IDENTIFICATION
b. Do not provide specific navigational guidance
(exact headings to be followed) unless an emergency
exists or by mutual agreement with the pilot.
a. To identify an observed target/track on an
ASDE system display, correlate its position with one
or more of the following:
1. Pilot/vehicle operator position report.
2. Controller’s visual observation.
3. An identified target observed on the ASR or
CTRD.
b. An observed target/track on an ASDE system
display may be identified as a false target by visual
observation. If the area containing a suspected false
target is not visible from the tower, an airport
operations vehicle or pilots of aircraft operating in the
area may be used to conduct the visual observation.
c. After positive verification that a target is false,
through pilot/vehicle operator position report or
controller visual observation, the track may be
temporarily dropped, which will remove the target
from the display and safety logic processing. A
notation must be made to FAA Form 7230−4, Daily
Record of Facility Operation, when a track is
temporarily dropped.
Airport Surface Detection Procedures
NOTE−
It remains the pilot’s responsibility to navigate visually via
routes to the clearance limit specified by the controller and
to avoid other parked or taxiing aircraft, vehicles, or
persons in the movement area.
c. Do not allow an aircraft to begin departure roll
or cross the landing threshold whenever there is an
unidentified target/track displayed on the runway.
3−6−4. SAFETY LOGIC ALERT
RESPONSES
When the system generates an alert, the controller
must immediately assess the situation visually and as
presented on the ASDE system display, then take
appropriate action as follows:
a. When an arrival aircraft (still airborne, prior to
the landing threshold) activates a warning alert, the
controller must issue go−around instructions.
(Exception: Alerts involving known formation
flights, as they cross the landing threshold, may be
disregarded if all other factors are acceptable.)
3−6−1
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
The intent of this paragraph is that an aircraft does not land
on the runway, on that approach, when the safety logic
system has generated a warning alert. A side−step
maneuver or circle to land on another runway satisfies this
requirement.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−8−1, Sequence/Spacing Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−6, Same Runway Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−3, Same Runway Separation.
P/CG Term− Go Around.
b. When two arrival aircraft, or an arrival aircraft
and a departing aircraft activate an alert, the
controller will issue go−around instructions or take
appropriate action to ensure intersecting runway
separation is maintained.
3−6−2
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting
Flight Path Operations.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−4, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting
Flight Path Separation.
c. For other safety logic system alerts, issue
instructions/clearances based on good judgment and
evaluation of the situation at hand.
3−6−5. RADAR−ONLY MODE
Radar−only mode is an enhancement of the ASDE−X
system which allows the system to stay operational
with safety logic processing, despite a critical fault in
the Multilateration (MLAT) subsystem. The system
stays in full core alert status under radar−only mode
without data block capability.
Airport Surface Detection Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 7. Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures
3−7−1. GROUND TRAFFIC MOVEMENT
Issue by radio or directional light signals specific
instructions which approve or disapprove the
movement of aircraft, vehicles, equipment, or
personnel on the movement area except where
permitted in an LOA.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−1, Letters of Agreement
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−2, Appropriate Subjects
a. Do not issue conditional instructions that are
dependent upon the movement of an arrival aircraft
on or approaching the runway or a departure aircraft
established on a takeoff roll. Do not say, “Line up and
wait behind landing traffic,” or “Taxi/proceed across
Runway Three−Six behind departing/landing Citation.” The above requirements do not preclude
issuing instructions to follow an aircraft observed to
be operating on the movement area in accordance
with an ATC clearance/instruction and in such a
manner that the instructions to follow are not
ambiguous.
b. Do not issue unconditional instructions when
authorizing movement on a runway/taxiway for the
purpose of airfield checks or other airport operations.
Instructions must ensure positive control with
specific instructions to proceed on a runway or
movement area, and as necessary, hold short
instructions.
c. Do not use the word “cleared” in conjunction
with authorization for aircraft to taxi or equipment/
vehicle/personnel operations. Use the prefix “taxi,”
“proceed,” or “hold,” as appropriate, for aircraft
instructions and “proceed” or “hold” for equipment/
vehicles/personnel.
d. Intersection departures may be initiated by a
controller or a controller may authorize an
intersection departure if a pilot requests. Issue the
measured distance from the intersection to the
runway end rounded “down” to the nearest 50 feet to
any pilot who requests and to all military aircraft,
unless use of the intersection is covered in
appropriate directives.
NOTE−
1. Exceptions are authorized where specific military
aircraft routinely make intersection takeoffs and procedures are defined in appropriate directives. The authority
exercising operational control of such aircraft ensures that
all pilots are thoroughly familiar with these procedures,
including the usable runway length from the applicable
intersection.
EXAMPLE−
“Airport 1, proceed on Runway 26R, hold short of Runway
18L.”
2. Some airports publish “declared distances” for a
particular runway. These are published in the Airport
Facility Directory (A/FD) or the Aeronautical Information
Publication (AIP) and there is no requirement that facility
personnel be aware of them. These distances are a means
of satisfying airport design criteria and are intended to be
used by pilots and/or operators for preflight performance
planning only. There are no special markings, signing, or
lighting associated with declared distances and they do not
limit the actual runway available for use by an aircraft.
Therefore, they cannot be used for any air traffic control
purpose. If pilots inquire about the existence of declared
distances, refer them to the A/FD or AIP.
“(Tower), Airport 1 at taxiway B8, request to inspect
Runway 26R.” “Airport 1 proceed as requested, hold short
of Runway 18L.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator)
INTERSECTION DEPARTURE (remaining length) FEET
AVAILABLE.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−3, USE OF ACTIVE RUNWAYS
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−7−2, TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT
OPERATIONS
“Airport 1 proceed on taxi way B, hold short of Runway
18L.”
NOTE−
The following are examples of unconditional instructions
and are not approved for use: “THE FIELD IS YOURS,”
“CLEARED ON ALL SURFACES,” “THE AIRPORT IS
YOURS,” and “PROCEED ON ALL RUNWAYS AND
TAXIWAYS.”
Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−4, Line Up and Wait (LUAW).
e. Do not use the term “full length” when the
runway length available for departures has been
temporarily shortened. On permanently shortened
runways, do not use the term “full length” until the
Airport/Facility Directory is updated to include the
change(s).
3−7−1
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-11, Airport Construction
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-12, Change in Runway Length Due to
Construction
3−7−2. TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT
OPERATIONS
Issue the route for the aircraft/vehicle to follow on the
movement area in concise and easy to understand
terms. The taxi clearance must include the specific
route to follow. When a taxi clearance to a runway is
issued to an aircraft, confirm the aircraft has the
correct runway assignment.
NOTE−
1. A pilot’s read back of taxi instructions with the runway
assignment can be considered confirmation of runway
assignment.
2. Movement of aircraft or vehicles on nonmovement
areas is the responsibility of the pilot, the aircraft operator,
or the airport management.
a. When authorizing an aircraft/vehicle to proceed
on the movement area or to any point other than
assigned takeoff runway, specify the route/taxi
instructions. If it is the intent to hold the
aircraft/vehicle short of any given point along the taxi
route, issue the route and then state the holding
instructions.
NOTE−
1. The absence of holding instructions authorizes an
aircraft/vehicle to cross all taxiways that intersect the taxi
route.
2. Movement of aircraft or vehicles on non−movement
areas is the responsibility of the pilot, the aircraft operator,
or the airport management.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD POSITION.
HOLD FOR (reason)
CROSS (runway/taxiway)
or
TAXI/CONTINUE TAXIING/PROCEED/VIA (route),
or
ON (runway number or taxiways, etc.),
or
TO (location),
3−7−2
12/10/15
or
(direction),
or
ACROSS RUNWAY (number).
or
VIA (route), HOLD SHORT OF (location)
or
FOLLOW (traffic) (restrictions as necessary)
or
BEHIND (traffic).
EXAMPLE−
“Cross Runway Two−Eight Left, hold short of Runway
Two−Eight Right.”
“Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed to the hangar.”
“Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed straight ahead then via
ramp to the hangar.”
“Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed on Taxiway Charlie, hold
short of Runway Two−Seven.”
or
“Taxi/continue taxing/proceed on Charlie, hold short of
Runway Two−Seven.”
b. When authorizing an aircraft to taxi to an
assigned takeoff runway, state the departure runway
followed by the specific taxi route. Issue hold short
restrictions when an aircraft will be required to hold
short of a runway or other points along the taxi route.
NOTE−
If the specific taxi route ends into a connecting taxiway with
the same identifier (for example, taxiway “A” connects
with Taxiway “A1”) at the approach end of the runway, the
connecting taxiway may be omitted from the clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number), TAXI VIA (route as necessary).
or
RUNWAY (number), TAXI VIA (route as necessary)(hold
short instructions as necessary).”
Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Three−Six Left, taxi via taxiway Alpha, hold
short of taxiway Charlie.”
a request to the appropriate Terminal Services
Director of Operations for approval before
authorizing multiple runway crossings.
or
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−3−10 Multiple Runway Crossings.
“Runway Three−Six Left, taxi via Alpha, hold short of
Charlie.”
f. Request a read back of runway hold short
instructions when it is not received from the
pilot/vehicle operator.
or
“Runway Three−Six Left, taxi via taxiway Alpha, hold
short of Runway Two−Seven Right.”
or
“Runway Three−Six Left, taxi via Charlie, cross Runway
Two−Seven Left, hold short of Runway Two−Seven Right.”
or
“Runway Three−Six Left, taxi via Alpha, Charlie, cross
Runway One−Zero.”
c. Aircraft/vehicles must receive a clearance for
each runway their route crosses. An aircraft/vehicle
must have crossed a previous runway before another
runway crossing clearance may be issued.
NOTE−
A clearance is required for aircraft/vehicles to operate on
any active, inactive, or closed runway except for vehicles
operating on closed runways in accordance with a Letter
of Agreement (LOA).
EXAMPLE−
“Cross Runway One−Six Left, hold short of Runway
One−Six Right.”
d. When an aircraft/vehicle is instructed to
“follow” traffic and requires a runway crossing, issue
a runway crossing clearance in addition to the follow
instructions and/or hold short instructions, as
applicable.
EXAMPLE−
“Follow (traffic), cross Runway Two−Seven Right.”
or
“Follow (traffic), cross Runway Two Seven−Right, hold
short Runway Two−Seven Left.”
e. At those airports where the taxi distance
between runway centerlines is less than 1,000 feet,
multiple runway crossings may be issued with a
single clearance. The air traffic manager must submit
Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures
PHRASEOLOGY−
READ BACK HOLD INSTRUCTIONS.
EXAMPLE−
1. “American Four Ninety Two, Runway Three Six Left,
taxi via taxiway Charlie, hold short of Runway Two Seven
Right.”
or
“American Four Ninety Two, Runway Three Six Left, taxi
via Charlie, hold short of Runway Two Seven Right.”
“American Four Ninety Two, Roger.”
“American Four Ninety Two, read back hold instructions.”
2. “Cleveland Tower, American Sixty Three is ready for
departure.”
“American Sixty Three, hold short of Runway Two Three
Left, traffic one mile final.”
“American Sixty Three, Roger.”
“American Sixty Three, read back hold instructions.”
3. “OPS Three proceed via taxiway Charlie hold short of
Runway Two Seven.”
or
“OPS Three proceed via Charlie hold short of Runway Two
Seven.”
“OPS Three, Roger.”
“OPS Three, read back hold instructions.”
NOTE−
Read back hold instructions phraseology may be initiated
for any point on a movement area when the controller
believes the read back is necessary.
g. Issue progressive taxi/ground movement
instructions when:
1. A pilot/operator requests.
3−7−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
2. The specialist deems it necessary due to
traffic or field conditions, e.g., construction or closed
taxiways.
b. Instruct aircraft or vehicle to hold at a specified
point.
3. Necessary during reduced visibility,
especially when the taxi route is not visible from the
tower.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD SHORT OF/AT (runway number or specific point),
(traffic or other information).
NOTE−
Progressive instructions may include step−by−step
directions and/or directional turns.
NOTE−
Establishing hold lines/signs is the responsibility of the
airport manager. The standards for surface measurements,
markings, and signs are contained in AC 150/5300−13,
Airport Design; AC 150/5340−1, Standards for Airport
Markings, and AC 150/5340−18, Standards for Airport
Sign Systems. The operator is responsible for properly
positioning the aircraft, vehicle, or equipment at the
appropriate hold line/sign or designated point. The
requirements in para 3−1−12, Visually Scanning Runways,
remain valid as appropriate.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−7−4, Runway Proximity.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−11−1, Taxi and Ground Movement
Operation.
h. Issue instructions to expedite a taxiing aircraft
or a moving vehicle.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TAXI WITHOUT DELAY (traffic if necessary).
EXIT/PROCEED/CROSS
(runway/taxiway) WITHOUT DELAY.
i. Issue instructions to aircraft/vehicle to hold
short of an approach hold area.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD SHORT OF (runway) APPROACH
3−7−3. GROUND OPERATIONS
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
Avoid clearances which require:
a. Super or heavy aircraft to use greater than
normal taxiing power.
b. Small aircraft or helicopters to taxi in close
proximity to taxiing or hover-taxi helicopters.
NOTE−
Use caution when taxiing smaller aircraft/helicopters in
the vicinity of larger aircraft.
REFERENCE−
AC 90−23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence, Para 10 and Para 11.
3−7−4. RUNWAY PROXIMITY
Hold a taxiing aircraft or vehicle clear of the runway
as follows:
a. Instruct aircraft or vehicle to hold short of a
specific runway.
3−7−4
c. Issue traffic information as necessary.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−7−2, Taxi and Ground Movement
Operations.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−5, Vehicles/Equipment/Personnel on
Runways.
3−7−5. PRECISION APPROACH CRITICAL
AREA
a. ILS critical area dimensions are described in
FAA Order 6750.16, Siting Criteria for Instrument
Landing Systems. Aircraft and vehicle access to the
ILS critical area must be controlled to ensure the
integrity of ILS course signals whenever conditions
are less than reported ceiling 800 feet or visibility less
than 2 miles. Do not authorize vehicles/aircraft to
operate in or over the critical area, except as specified
in subparagraph a1, whenever an arriving aircraft is
inside the ILS outer marker (OM) or the fix used in
lieu of the OM unless the arriving aircraft has
reported the runway in sight or is circling to land on
another runway.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD SHORT OF (runway) ILS CRITICAL AREA.
1. LOCALIZER CRITICAL AREA
(a) Do not authorize vehicle or aircraft
operations in or over the area when an arriving
aircraft is inside the ILS OM or the fix used in lieu of
the OM when conditions are less than reported ceiling
800 feet or visibility less than 2 miles, except:
(1) A preceding arriving aircraft on the
same or another runway that passes over or through
the area while landing or exiting the runway.
Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures
12/10/15
(2) A preceding departing aircraft or
missed approach on the same or another runway that
passes through or over the area.
(b) In addition to subparagraph a1(a), when
conditions are less than reported ceiling 200 feet or
RVR 2,000 feet, do not authorize vehicles or aircraft
operations in or over the area when an arriving
aircraft is inside the middle marker, or in the absence
of a middle marker, ½
mile final.
2. GLIDESLOPE CRITICAL AREA. Do not
authorize vehicles or aircraft operations in or over the
area when an arriving aircraft is inside the ILS OM or
the fix used in lieu of the OM unless the arriving
aircraft has reported the runway in sight or is circling
to land on another runway when conditions are less
than reported ceiling 800 feet or visibility less than
2 miles.
b. Operators commonly conduct “coupled” or
“autoland” approaches to satisfy maintenance,
training, or reliability program requirements.
Promptly issue an advisory if the critical area will not
be protected when an arriving aircraft advises that a
“coupled,” “CATIII,” “autoland,” or similar type
approach will be conducted and the weather indicates
a reported ceiling of 800 feet or more, or the visibility
is 2 miles or more.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ILS CRITICAL AREA NOT PROTECTED.
c. The Department of Defense (DOD) is authorized to define criteria for protection of precision
approach critical areas at military controlled airports.
This protection is provided to all aircraft operating at
that military controlled airport. Waiver authority for
DOD precision approach critical area criteria rests
with the appropriate military authority.
NOTE−
Signs and markings are installed by the airport operator to
define the ILS/MLS critical area. No point along the
longitudinal axis of the aircraft is permitted past the hold
line for holding purposes. The operator is responsible to
properly position the aircraft, vehicle, or equipment at the
appropriate hold line/sign or designated point. The
requirements in para 3−1−12, Visually Scanning Runways,
remain valid as appropriate.
REFERENCE−
AC150/5340−1, Standards for Airport Markings.
Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures
JO 7110.65W
3−7−6. PRECISION OBSTACLE FREE ZONE
(POFZ) AND FINAL APPROACH OBSTACLE
CLEARANCE SURFACES (OCS)
a. Ensure the POFZ is clear of traffic (aircraft or
vehicles) when an aircraft on a vertically−guided
final approach is within 2 miles of the runway
threshold and the reported ceiling is below 300 feet or
visibility is less than 3/4 SM to protect aircraft
executing a missed approach.
NOTE−
Only horizontal surfaces (e.g., the wings) can penetrate the
POFZ, but not the vertical surfaces (e.g., fuselage or tail).
Three hundred feet (300) is used because ATC does not
measure ceilings in fifty (50) foot increments.
b. Ensure the final approach OCS (e.g., ILS /LPV
W, X, and Y surfaces) are clear of aircraft/vehicles
when an aircraft on the vertically−guided approach is
within 2 miles of the runway threshold and the
reported ceiling is below 800 feet or visibility is less
than 2 SM to protect aircraft executing a missed
approach.
NOTE−
1. The POFZ and the close−in portion of the final
approach obstacle clearance surfaces protect aircraft
executing a missed approach. Their dimensions are
described in FAAO 8260.3b, Volume III, Chapter 3,
para 3.4, United States Standards for Terminal Instrument
Procedures.
2. Vehicles that are less than 10 feet in height, necessary
for the maintenance of the airport and/or navigation
facilities operating outside the movement area, are exempt.
c. If it is not possible to clear the POFZ or OCS
prior to an aircraft reaching a point 2 miles from the
runway threshold and the weather is less than
described in subparas a or b above, issue traffic to the
landing aircraft.
NOTE−
The POFZ and/or OCS must be cleared as soon as
practical.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(ACID), IN THE EVENT OF MISSED APPROACH
(issue traffic).
TAXIING AIRCRAFT/VEHICLE LEFT/RIGHT OF
RUNWAY.
EXAMPLE−
“United 623, in the event of missed approach, taxiing
aircraft right of runway.”
“Delta 1058, in the event of missed approach, vehicle left
of runway.”
3−7−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−6, Traffic Information.
FIG 3−7−1
Precision Obstacle Free Zone (POFZ)
3−7−6
Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 8. Spacing and Sequencing
3−8−1. SEQUENCE/SPACING
APPLICATION
Establish the sequence of arriving and departing
aircraft by requiring them to adjust flight or ground
operation, as necessary, to achieve proper spacing.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF OR HOLD SHORT/HOLD IN
POSITION/TAXI OFF THE RUNWAY (traffic).
EXTEND DOWNWIND.
MAKE SHORT APPROACH.
NUMBER (landing sequence number),
FOLLOW (description and location of traffic),
or if traffic is utilizing another runway,
UNABLE OPTION, (alternate instructions).
or
UNABLE (type of option), OTHER OPTIONS
APPROVED.
NOTE−
1. The “Cleared for the Option” procedure will permit an
instructor pilot/flight examiner/pilot the option to make a
touch-and-go, low approach, missed approach, stopand-go, or full stop landing. This procedure will only be
used at those locations with an operational control tower
and will be subject to ATC approval.
2. For proper helicopter spacing, speed adjustments may
be more practical than course changes.
3. Read back of hold short instructions apply when hold
instructions are issued to a pilot in lieu of a takeoff
clearance.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−7−2, Taxi and Ground Movement
Operations.
TRAFFIC (description and location) LANDING RUNWAY
(number of runway being used).
3−8−2. TOUCH-AND-GO OR STOP-AND-GO
OR LOW APPROACH
CIRCLE THE AIRPORT.
Consider an aircraft cleared for touch-and-go,
stop-and-go, or low approach as an arriving aircraft
until it touches down (for touch-and-go), or makes a
complete stop (for stop-and-go), or crosses the
landing threshold (for low approach), and thereafter
as a departing aircraft.
MAKE LEFT/RIGHT THREE−SIXTY/TWO SEVENTY.
GO AROUND (additional instructions as necessary).
CLEARED TO LAND.
CLEARED:
TOUCH−AND−GO,
or
STOP−AND−GO,
or
LOW APPROACH.
CLEARED FOR THE OPTION,
or
OPTION APPROVED,
or
Spacing and Sequencing
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−5, Vehicles/Equipment/Personnel on
Runways.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−7, Wake Turbulence Separation for
Intersection Departures.
3−8−3. SIMULTANEOUS SAME DIRECTION
OPERATION
Authorize simultaneous, same direction operations
on parallel runways, on parallel landing strips, or on
a runway and a parallel landing strip only when the
following conditions are met:
a. Operations are conducted in VFR conditions
unless visual separation is applied.
b. Two-way radio communication is maintained
with the aircraft involved and pertinent traffic
information is issued.
3−8−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
c. The distance between the runways or landing
strips is in accordance with the minima in TBL 3−8−1
(use the greater minimum if two categories are
involved).
TBL 3−8−1
Same Direction Distance Minima
Aircraft category
Minimum distance (feet)
between parallel
Runway
centerlines
Edges of
adjacent strips or
runway and strip
Lightweight,
single−engine,
propeller driven
300
200
Twin−engine,
propeller driven
500
400
All others
700
600
a. Operations are conducted in VFR conditions.
b. Two-way radio communication is maintained
with the aircraft involved and pertinent traffic
information is issued.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC (description) ARRIVING/DEPARTING/LOW
APPROACH, OPPOSITE DIRECTION ON PARALLEL
RUNWAY/LANDING STRIP.
c. The distance between the runways or landing
strips is in accordance with the minima in
TBL 3−8−2.
TBL 3−8−2
Opposite Direction Distance Minima
Type of Operation
Runway
centerlines
Edges of
adjacent strips
or runway and
strip
Between sunrise and
sunset
1,400
1,400
Between sunset and
sunrise
2,800
Not authorized
3−8−4. SIMULTANEOUS OPPOSITE
DIRECTION OPERATION
Authorize simultaneous opposite direction operations on parallel runways, on parallel landing strips,
or on a runway and a parallel landing strip only when
the following conditions are met:
3−8−2
Minimum distance (feet)
between parallel
Spacing and Sequencing
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 9. Departure Procedures and Separation
3−9−1. DEPARTURE INFORMATION
Provide current departure information, as appropriate, to departing aircraft.
a. Departure information contained in the ATIS
broadcast may be omitted if the pilot states the
appropriate ATIS code.
b. Issue departure information by including the
following:
1. Runway in use. (May be omitted if pilot states
“have the numbers.”)
2. Surface wind from direct readout dial, wind
shear detection system, or automated weather
observing system information display. (May be
omitted if pilot states “have the numbers.”)
3. Altimeter setting. (May be omitted if pilot
states “have the numbers.”)
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−7−1, Current Settings.
c. Time, when requested.
g. Issue braking action for the runway in use as
received from pilots or the airport management when
Braking Action Advisories are in effect.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−7−2, Altimeter Setting Issuance Below
Lowest Usable FL.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−8, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst
Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−5, Braking Action Advisories.
P/CG Term− Braking Action Advisories.
h. When the ATIS is unavailable, and when the
runway length available for departure has been
temporarily shortened, controllers must ensure that
pilots receive the runway number combined with a
shortened announcement for all departing aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (NUMBER) SHORTENED
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two-Seven shortened.”
3−9−2. DEPARTURE DELAY INFORMATION
USA/USAF/USN NOT APPLICABLE
When gate-hold procedures are in effect, issue the
following departure delay information as appropriate:
d. Issue the official ceiling and visibility, when
available, to a departing aircraft before takeoff as
follows:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−4−3, Gate Hold Procedures.
1. To a VFR aircraft when weather is below
VFR conditions.
a. Advise departing aircraft the time at which the
pilot can expect to receive engine startup advisory.
2. To an IFR aircraft when weather is below
VFR conditions or highest takeoff minima,
whichever is greater.
PHRASEOLOGY−
GATE HOLD PROCEDURES ARE IN EFFECT. ALL
AIRCRAFT CONTACT (position) ON (frequency) FOR
ENGINE START TIME. EXPECT ENGINE START/TAXI
(time).
NOTE−
Standard takeoff minimums are published in 14 CFR
Section 91.175(f). Takeoff minima other than standard are
prescribed for specific airports/runways and published in
a tabular form supplement to the FAA instrument approach
procedures charts and appropriate FAA Forms 8260.
e. Issue the route for the aircraft/vehicle to follow
on the movement area in concise and easy to
understand terms. The taxi clearance must include the
specific route to follow.
f. USAF NOT APPLICABLE. An advisory to
“check density altitude” when appropriate.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2−10−6, Broadcast Density Altitude Advisory.
Departure Procedures and Separation
b. Advise departing aircraft when to start engines
and/or to advise when ready to taxi.
PHRASEOLOGY−
START ENGINES, ADVISE WHEN READY TO TAXI,
or
ADVISE WHEN READY TO TAXI.
c. If the pilot requests to hold in a delay absorbing
area, the request must be approved if space and traffic
conditions permit.
d. Advise all aircraft on GC/FD frequency upon
termination of gate hold procedures.
3−9−1
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
GATE HOLD PROCEDURES NO LONGER IN EFFECT.
3−9−3. DEPARTURE CONTROL
INSTRUCTIONS
Inform departing IFR, SVFR, VFR aircraft receiving
radar service, and TRSA VFR aircraft of the
following:
a. Before takeoff.
12/10/15
3−9−4. LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW)
a. The intent of LUAW is to position aircraft for an
imminent departure. Authorize an aircraft to line up
and wait, except as restricted in subpara g, when
takeoff clearances cannot be issued because of traffic.
Issue traffic information to any aircraft so authorized.
Traffic information may be omitted when the traffic
is another aircraft which has landed on or is taking off
the runway and is clearly visible to the holding
aircraft. Do not use conditional phrases such as
“behind landing traffic” or “after the departing
aircraft.”
1. Issue the appropriate departure control
frequency and beacon code. The departure control
frequency may be omitted if a SID has been or will be
assigned and the departure control frequency is
published on the SID.
b. First state the runway number followed by the
line up and wait clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DEPARTURE FREQUENCY (frequency), SQUAWK
(code).
1. At facilities without a safety logic system or
facilities with the safety logic system in the limited
configuration:
2. Inform all departing IFR military turboprop/
turbojet aircraft (except transport and cargo types) to
change to departure control frequency. If the local
controller has departure frequency override, transmit
urgent instructions on this frequency. If the override
capability does not exist, transmit urgent instructions
on the emergency frequency.
(a) Do not issue a landing clearance to an
aircraft requesting a full−stop, touch−and−go,
stop−and−go, option, or unrestricted low approach on
the same runway with an aircraft that is holding in
position or taxiing to line up and wait until the aircraft
in position starts takeoff roll.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CHANGE TO DEPARTURE.
3. USAF. USAF control towers are authorized
to inform all departing IFR military transport/cargo
type aircraft operating in formation flight to change
to departure control frequency before takeoff.
b. After takeoff.
1. When the aircraft is about 1/2 mile beyond the
runway end, instruct civil aircraft, and military
transport, and cargo types to contact departure
control, provided further communication with you is
not required.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number), LINE UP AND WAIT.
c. Procedures.
(b) Do not authorize an aircraft to LUAW if
an aircraft has been cleared to land, touch−and−go,
stop−and–go, option, or unrestricted low approach on
the same runway.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number), CONTINUE, TRAFFIC HOLDING
IN POSITION.
EXAMPLE−
“American 528, Runway Two−Three continue, traffic
holding in position.”
2. Except when reported weather conditions are
less than ceiling 800 feet or visibility less than 2
miles, facilities using the safety logic system in the
full core alert mode:
2. Do not request departing military turboprop/
turbojet aircraft (except transport and cargo types) to
make radio frequency or radar beacon changes before
the aircraft reaches 2,500 feet above the surface.
(a) May issue a landing clearance for a
full−stop, touch−and−go, stop−and−go, option, or
unrestricted low approach to an arriving aircraft with
an aircraft holding in position or taxiing to LUAW on
the same runway, or
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
(b) May authorize an aircraft to LUAW when
an aircraft has been cleared for a full stop,
3−9−2
Departure Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
touch−and−go, stop−and−go, option, or unrestricted
low approach on the same runway.
sunset, unless the local assist/local monitor position
is staffed.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−5, Landing Clearance.
j. USN. Do not authorize aircraft to line up and
wait simultaneously on intersecting runways.
d. When an aircraft is authorized to line up and
wait, inform it of the closest traffic requesting a
full−stop, touch−and−go, stop−and− go, option, or
unrestricted low approach to the same runway.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE HOLDING,
or
EXAMPLE−
“United Five, Runway One Eight, line up and wait. Traffic
a Boeing Seven Thirty Seven, six mile final.
TAXI OFF THE RUNWAY.
e. USAF/USN. When an aircraft is authorized to
line up and wait, inform it of the closest traffic within
6 miles on final approach to the same runway. If the
approaching aircraft is on a different frequency,
inform it of the aircraft taxiing into position.
k. When aircraft are authorized to line up and wait
on runways that intersect, traffic must be exchanged
between that aircraft and the aircraft that is authorized
to line up and wait, depart, or arrive to the intersecting
runway(s).
f. Do not authorize an aircraft to line up and wait
when the departure point is not visible from the tower,
unless the aircraft’s position can be verified by ASDE
or the runway is used for departures only.
EXAMPLE−
“United Five, Runway Four, line up and wait, traffic
holding Runway Three−One.”
“Delta One, Runway Three−One, line up and wait, traffic
holding Runway Four.”
g. An aircraft may be authorized to line up and
wait at an intersection between sunset and sunrise
under the following conditions:
1. The procedure must be approved by the
appropriate Director, Terminal Operations (service
area) as well as the Director, Terminal Safety and
Operations Support.
2. The procedure must be contained in a facility
directive.
3. The runway must be used as a departure−only
runway.
4. Only one aircraft at a time is permitted to line
up and wait on the same runway.
5. Document on FAA Form 7230−4, Daily
Record of Facility Operation, the following: “LUAW
at INT of RWY (number) and TWY (name) IN
EFFECT” when using runway as a departure−only
runway. “LUAW at INT of RWY (number) and TWY
(name) SUSPENDED” when runway is not used as
a departure−only runway.
h. Do not authorize an aircraft to line up and wait
at anytime when the intersection is not visible from
the tower.
i. Do not authorize aircraft to simultaneously line
up and wait on the same runway, between sunrise and
Departure Procedures and Separation
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
Or, when issuing traffic information to an arrival aircraft
and an aircraft that is holding on runway(s) that
intersect(s):
“Delta One, Runway Four, line up and wait, traffic landing
Runway Three−One.”
“United Five, Runway Three−One, cleared to land. Traffic
holding in position Runway Four.”
Or, when issuing traffic information to a departing aircraft
and an aircraft that is holding on runway(s) that
intersect(s):
“Delta One, Runway Three−One, line up and wait, traffic
departing Runway Four.”
“United Five, Runway Four, cleared for takeoff, traffic
holding in position Runway Three−One.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting
Flight Path Operations.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−4, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting
Flight Path Separation.
l. When a local controller delivers or amends an
ATC clearance to an aircraft awaiting departure and
that aircraft is holding short of a runway or is holding
in position on a runway, an additional clearance must
be issued to prevent the possibility of the aircraft
inadvertently taxiing onto the runway and/or
beginning takeoff roll. In such cases, append one of
the following ATC instructions as appropriate:
3−9−3
JO 7110.65W
1. HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY, or
2. HOLD IN POSITION.
m. USAF/USN. When issuing additional instructions or information to an aircraft holding in takeoff
position, include instructions to continue holding or
taxi off the runway, unless it is cleared for takeoff.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE HOLDING,
or
TAXI OFF THE RUNWAY.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
n. When authorizing an aircraft to line up and wait
at an intersection, state the runway intersection.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator), LINE UP
AND WAIT.
o. When two or more aircraft call the tower ready
for departure, one or more at the full length of a
runway and one or more at an intersection, state the
location of the aircraft at the full length of the runway
when authorizing that aircraft to line up and wait.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number), FULL−LENGTH, LINE UP AND
WAIT.
EXAMPLE−
“American Four Eighty Two, Runway Three−Zero full
length, line up and wait.”
NOTE−
The controller need not state the location of the aircraft
departing the full length of the runway if there are no
aircraft holding for departure at an intersection for that
same runway.
p. Do not use the term “full length” when the
runway length available for departure has been
temporarily shortened. On permanently shortened
runways, do not use the term “full length” until the
A/FD is updated to include the change(s).
NOTE−
The use of the term “full length” could be interpreted by the
pilot(s) as the available runway length prior to the runway
being shortened.
q. Whenever a runway length has been temporarily or permanently shortened, state the word
“shortened” immediately following the runway
number as part of the line up and wait clearance.
3−9−4
12/10/15
1. The addition of “shortened” must be included
in the line up and wait clearance for the duration of the
construction project when the runway is temporarily
shortened.
2. The addition of “shortened” must be included
in the line up and wait clearance until the A/FD is
updated to include the change(s) when the runway is
permanently shortened.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) SHORTENED, LINE UP AND WAIT.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two-Seven shortened, line up and wait.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-11, Airport Construction
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-12, Change in Runway Length Due to
Construction
3−9−5. ANTICIPATING SEPARATION
Takeoff clearance needs not be withheld until
prescribed separation exists if there is a reasonable
assurance it will exist when the aircraft starts takeoff
roll.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Clear of the Runway.
3−9−6. SAME RUNWAY SEPARATION
Separate a departing aircraft from a preceding
departing or arriving aircraft using the same runway
by ensuring that it does not begin takeoff roll until:
a. The other aircraft has departed and crossed the
runway end or turned to avert any conflict. (See
FIG 3−9−1.) If you can determine distances by
reference to suitable landmarks, the other aircraft
needs only be airborne if the following minimum
distance exists between aircraft: (See FIG 3−9−2.)
1. When only Category I aircraft are involved−
3,000 feet.
2. When a Category I aircraft is preceded by a
Category II aircraft− 3,000 feet.
3. When either the succeeding or both are
Category II aircraft− 4,500 feet.
4. When either is a Category III aircraft−
6,000 feet.
5. When the succeeding aircraft is a helicopter,
visual separation may be applied in lieu of using
distance minima.
Departure Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
FIG 3−9−1
FIG 3−9−3
Same Runway Separation
[View 1]
Preceding Landing Aircraft Clear of Runway
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Clear of the Runway.
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
FIG 3−9−2
Same Runway Separation
[View 2]
c. Do not issue clearances which imply or indicate
approval of rolling takeoffs by super or heavy aircraft
except as provided in Para 3−1−14, Ground
Operations When Volcanic Ash is Present.
d. Do not issue clearances to a small aircraft to line
up and wait on the same runway behind a departing
super or heavy aircraft to apply the necessary
intervals.
REFERENCE−
AC 90−23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence.
e. The minima in Para 5-5-4, Minima, subparagraph g, may be applied in lieu of the time interval
requirements in subparagraphs f and g. When Para
5-5-4, Minima, is applied, ensure that the appropriate
radar separation exists at or prior to the time an
aircraft becomes airborne.
NOTE−
Aircraft same runway separation (SRS) categories are
specified in Appendices A, B, and C and based upon the
following definitions:
CATEGORY I− small aircraft weighing 12,500 lbs. or less,
with a single propeller driven engine, and all helicopters.
CATEGORY II− small aircraft weighing 12,500 lbs. or
less, with propeller driven twin−engines.
NOTE−
The pilot may request additional separation, but should
make this request before taxiing on the runway.
f. Separate IFR/VFR aircraft taking off from the
same runway or a parallel runway separated by less
than 2,500 feet:
NOTE−
Takeoff clearance to the following aircraft should not be
issued until the time interval has passed after the preceding
aircraft begins takeoff roll.
CATEGORY III− all other aircraft.
1. Heavy, large, or small behind super − 3
minutes.
b. A preceding landing aircraft is clear of the
runway. (See FIG 3−9−3.)
2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 2
minutes.
Departure Procedures and Separation
3−9−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
g. Separate a small aircraft behind a B757 by 2
minutes when departing the same runway.
FIG 3−9−4
Same Runway Separation
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD FOR WAKE TURBULENCE.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−7, Wake Turbulence Separation for
Intersection Departures.
l. Separate a small aircraft behind a large aircraft
(except B757) that has departed or made a
low/missed approach when utilizing opposite
direction takeoffs on the same runway by 3 minutes
unless a pilot has initiated a request to deviate from
the time interval. In the latter case, issue a wake
turbulence cautionary advisory before clearing the
aircraft for takeoff. Controllers must not initiate or
suggest a waiver of the time interval.
NOTE−
A request for takeoff does not initiate a waiver request.
m. Inform aircraft when it is necessary to hold in
order to provide the required time interval.
h. Separate aircraft when operating on a runway
with a displaced landing threshold if projected flight
paths will cross when either a departure follows an
arrival or an arrival follows a departure by the
following minima:
1. Heavy, large, or small behind super − 3
minutes.
2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 2
minutes.
3. Small behind B757 − 2 minutes.
i. Separate an aircraft behind another aircraft that
has departed or made a low/missed approach when
utilizing opposite direction takeoffs or landings on
the same or parallel runways separated by less than
2,500 feet by the following minima:
1. Heavy, large, or small behind super − 4
minutes.
2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 3
minutes
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Appendix A, Appendix B, and Appendix C, Aircraft
Information.
j. Separate a small aircraft behind a B757 that has
departed or made a low/missed approach when
utilizing opposite direction takeoffs or landings on
the same runway by − 3 minutes.
k. Do not approve pilot requests to deviate from
the required intervals contained in subparagraphs f
through j.
3−9−6
3−9−7. WAKE TURBULENCE SEPARATION
FOR INTERSECTION DEPARTURES
a. Apply the following wake turbulence criteria
for intersection departures:
1. Separate a small aircraft weighing 12,500 lbs.
or less taking off from an intersection on the same
runway (same or opposite direction takeoff) behind a
departing small aircraft weighing more than 12,500
lbs. by ensuring that the aircraft does not start takeoff
roll until at least 3 minutes after the preceding aircraft
has taken off.
2. Separate a small aircraft taking off from an
intersection on the same runway (same or opposite
direction takeoff) behind a departing large aircraft
(except B757) by ensuring that the aircraft does not
start takeoff roll until at least 3 minutes after the
preceding aircraft has taken off.
3. Separate a small aircraft taking off from an
intersection on the same runway (same or opposite
direction takeoff) behind a departing B757 by
ensuring that the aircraft does not start takeoff roll
until at least 3 minutes after the preceding aircraft has
taken off.
4. Separate aircraft departing from an
intersection on the same runway (same or opposite
direction takeoff), parallel runways separated by less
than 2,500 feet, and parallel runways separated by
less than 2,500 feet with the runway thresholds offset
by 500 feet or more, by ensuring that the aircraft does
not start take-off roll until the following intervals
exist after the preceding aircraft has taken off:
Departure Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
NOTE−
Apply Para 3-9-6, Same Runway Separation, subparagraph f to parallel runways separated by less than 2,500
feet with runway thresholds offset by less than 500 feet.
(a) Heavy, large, or small behind super - 4
minutes.
(b) Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 3
minutes.
5. Inform aircraft when it is necessary to hold in
order to provide the required time interval.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD FOR WAKE TURBULENCE.
NOTE−
Aircraft conducting touch-and-go and stop-and-go
operations are considered to be departing from an
intersection.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−8−2, Touch−and−Go or Stop−and−Go or
Low Approach.
b. The time interval is not required when:
1. A pilot has initiated a request to deviate from
the time intervals contained in subparagraph a1 or a2.
NOTE−
A request for takeoff does not initiate a waiver request; the
request for takeoff must be accomplished by a request to
deviate from the time interval.
2. USA NOT APPLICABLE. The intersection
is 500 feet or less from the departure point of the
preceding aircraft and both aircraft are taking off in
the same direction.
3. Successive touch-and-go or stop-and-go
operations are conducted with any aircraft following
an aircraft in the pattern that requires wake turbulence
separation, or an aircraft departing the same runway
that requires wake turbulence separation in
accordance with subparagraphs a1, a2, a3, or a4
(except for super aircraft), provided the pilot is
maintaining visual separation/spacing behind the
preceding aircraft. Issue a wake turbulence
cautionary advisory and the position of the larger
aircraft.
JO 7110.65W
4. If action is initiated to reduce the separation
between successive touch-and-go or stop-and-go
operations, apply the appropriate separation contained in subparagraph a1, a2, a3, or a4.
c. When applying the provision of subpara b:
1. Issue a wake turbulence advisory before
clearing the aircraft for takeoff.
2. Do not clear the intersection departure for an
immediate takeoff.
3. Issue a clearance to permit the trailing aircraft
to deviate from course enough to avoid the flight path
of the preceding aircraft when applying subpara b1 or
b2.
4. Separation requirements in accordance with
Para 3−9−6, Same Runway Separation, must also
apply.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−6, Same Runway Separation.
3−9−8. INTERSECTING RUNWAY/INTERSECTING FLIGHT PATH OPERATIONS
a. Issue traffic information to each aircraft
operating on intersecting runways.
b. Separate departing aircraft from another
aircraft using an intersecting runway by ensuring that
the departure does not begin takeoff roll until one of
the following exists:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
1. The preceding aircraft has departed and
passed the intersection or is turning to avert any
conflict. (See FIG 3-9-5).
FIG 3−9−5
Intersecting Runway Separation
NOTE−
Not authorized with a Super as the lead or departure
aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7-2-1, Visual Separation
Departure Procedures and Separation
3−9−7
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
2. A preceding arriving aircraft is clear of the
landing runway, completed the landing roll and will
hold short of the intersection, or has passed the
intersection. (See FIG 3-9-6).
FIG 3−9−7
Departure Behind Departure on Intersecting Runway
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Clear of the Runway.
FIG 3−9−6
Intersecting Runway Separation
FIG 3−9−8
Departure Behind Arrival on Intersecting Runway
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
3. Separate IFR/VFR aircraft taking off behind
a departing or landing aircraft on an intersecting
runway if flight paths will cross (see FIG 3-9-7 and
FIG 3-9-8), or an aircraft departing a parallel runway
separated by 2,500 feet or more if projected flights
will cross (see FIG 3-9-9):
FIG 3−9−9
Parallel Runway
NOTE−
Takeoff clearance to the following aircraft should not be
issued until the appropriate time interval has passed after
the preceding aircraft began takeoff roll.
(a) Heavy, large, or small behind super − 3
minutes.
(b) Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 2
minutes.
(c) Small behind B757 − 2 minutes.
3−9−8
4. Pilot requests to deviate from the required
time intervals must not be approved if the preceding
aircraft requires wake turbulence separation.
Departure Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.
FIG 3−9−11
Intersecting Runway Separation
3−9−9. NONINTERSECTING CONVERGING
RUNWAY OPERATIONS
a. Separate departing aircraft from an aircraft
using a nonintersecting runway when the flight paths
intersect by ensuring that the departure does not begin
takeoff roll until one of the following exists:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
1. The preceding aircraft has departed and
crossed the departure runway, or is turning to avert
any conflict. (See FIG 3−9−10).
FIG 3−9−12
Intersecting Runway Separation
FIG 3−9−10
Intersecting Runway Separation
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
b. Separate IFR/VFR aircraft taking off behind a
departing aircraft on a crossing runway if projected
flight paths will cross (See FIG 3-9-13):
2. A preceding arriving aircraft has completed
the landing roll and will hold short of the projected
intersection, passed the projected intersection, or has
crossed over the departure runway (See FIG 3−9−11
and FIG 3-9-12).
Departure Procedures and Separation
1. Heavy, large, or small behind super − 3
minutes.
2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 2
minutes.
3. Small behind B757 − 2 minutes.
3−9−9
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 3−9−13
Intersecting Runway Separation
d. Do not approve pilot requests to deviate from
the required time interval if the preceding aircraft
requires wake turbulence separation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-8-3, Successive or Simultaneous
Departures.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-8-5, Departures and Arrivals on Parallel or
Nonintersecting Diverging Runways.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.
NOTE−
Takeoff clearance to the following aircraft should not be
issued until the time interval has passed from when the
preceding aircraft began takeoff roll.
c. Separate IFR/VFR aircraft departing behind a
landing aircraft on a crossing runway if the departure
will fly through the airborne path of the arrival (See
FIG 3-9-14):
1. Heavy, large, or small behind super − 3
minutes.
2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 2
minutes.
3. Small behind B757 − 2 minutes.
e. If the extended centerline of a runway crosses a
converging runway or the extended centerline of a
converging runway at a distance of 1NM or less from
either departure end, apply the provisions of
Paragraph 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway Separation,
unless: The facility is using aids specified in a facility
directive, (may include, but are not limited to,
Arrival/Departure Window (ADW), ASDE-X
Virtual Runway Intersection Point (VRIP), cut-off
points or automation). (See FIG 3-9-15 and FIG
3-9-16).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-14, Go-Around/Missed Approach
FIG 3−9−15
Intersecting Runway Separation
FIG 3−9−14
Intersecting Runway Separation
3−9−10
Departure Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
FIG 3−9−16
Intersecting Runway Separation
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number), FULL LENGTH, CLEARED FOR
TAKEOFF.
EXAMPLE−
“American Four Eighty Two, Runway Three Zero full
length, cleared for takeoff.”
d. The controller must ensure that all runways
along the taxi route that lead to the departure runway
are crossed before the takeoff clearance is issued,
except as stated in para 3−9−9e.
FIG 3−9−17
Runway/Taxiway Proximity
3−9−10. TAKEOFF CLEARANCE
a. When issuing a clearance for takeoff, first state
the runway number followed by the takeoff
clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number), CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
EXAMPLE−
“RUNWAY TWO SEVEN, CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.”
NOTE−
Turbine−powered aircraft may be considered ready for
takeoff when they reach the runway unless they advise
otherwise.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−3−1, Departure Terminology.
b. When clearing an aircraft for takeoff from an
intersection, state the runway intersection.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator) CLEARED
FOR TAKEOFF.
c. When two or more aircraft call the tower ready
for departure, one or more at the full length of a
runway and one or more at an intersection, state the
location of the aircraft at the full length of the runway
when clearing that aircraft for takeoff.
Departure Procedures and Separation
e. At those airports where the airport configuration
does not allow for an aircraft to completely cross one
runway and hold short of the departure runway and/or
where airports do not have runway hold markings
between runways, state the runway to be crossed with
the takeoff clearance if the aircraft is not able to
complete a runway crossing before reaching its
departure runway.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CROSS RUNWAY (number), RUNWAY (number)
CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
EXAMPLE−
“CROSS RUNWAY TWO FOUR LEFT, RUNWAY TWO
FOUR RIGHT, CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.”
3−9−11
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 3−9−18
Runway/Taxiway Proximity
Directory is updated to include the change(s) when
the runway is permanently shortened.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) SHORTENED, CLEARED FOR
TAKEOFF.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two-Seven shortened, cleared for takeoff.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator)
INTERSECTION DEPARTURE SHORTENED,
CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two-Seven at Juliet, intersection departure
shortened, cleared for takeoff.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-11, Airport Construction
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-12, Change in Runway Length Due to
Construction
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−3−9, Takeoff Clearance.
P/CG Term− Clear of the Runway.
f. Do not use the term “full length” when the
runway length available for departure has been
temporarily shortened. On permanently shortened
runways, do not use the term “full length” until the
Airport/Facility Directory is updated to include the
change(s).
NOTE−
The use of the term “full length” could be interpreted by the
pilot(s) as the available runway length prior to the runway
being shortened.
g. Whenever a runway length has been temporarily or permanently shortened, state the word
“shortened” immediately following the runway
number as part of the takeoff clearance. This
information must be issued in conjunction with the
takeoff clearance.
h. USAF. When an aircraft is cleared for takeoff,
inform it of the closest traffic within 6 miles on final
approach to the same runway. If the approaching
aircraft is on a different frequency, inform it of the
departing aircraft.
i. USA/USN/USAF. Issue surface wind and
takeoff clearance to aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number), WIND (surface wind in direction and
velocity). CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
3−9−11. CANCELLATION OF TAKEOFF
CLEARANCE
Cancel a previously issued clearance for takeoff and
inform the pilot of the reason if circumstances
require. Once an aircraft has started takeoff roll,
cancel the takeoff clearance only for the purpose of
safety.
1. The addition of “shortened” must be included
in the takeoff clearance for the duration of the
construction project when the runway is temporarily
shortened.
NOTE−
In no case should a takeoff clearance be canceled after an
aircraft has started its takeoff roll solely for the purpose of
meeting traffic management requirements/EDCT.
2. The addition of “shortened” must be included
in the takeoff clearance until the Airport/Facility
PHRASEOLOGY−
CANCEL TAKEOFF CLEARANCE (reason).
3−9−12
Departure Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 10. Arrival Procedures and Separation
3−10−1. LANDING INFORMATION
Provide current landing information, as appropriate,
to arriving aircraft. Landing information contained in
the ATIS broadcast may be omitted if the pilot states
the appropriate ATIS code. Runway, wind, and
altimeter may be omitted if a pilot uses the phrase
“have numbers.” Issue landing information by
including the following:
NOTE−
Pilot use of “have numbers” does not indicate receipt of the
ATIS broadcast.
a. Specific traffic pattern information (may be
omitted if the aircraft is to circle the airport to the left).
PHRASEOLOGY−
ENTER LEFT/RIGHT BASE.
sectional charts. This does not preclude the use of the
legs of the traffic pattern as reporting points.
NOTE−
At some locations, VFR checkpoints are depicted on
sectional aeronautical and terminal area charts. In
selecting geographical fixes, depicted VFR checkpoints
are preferred unless the pilot exhibits a familiarity with the
local area.
h. Ceiling and visibility if either is below basic
VFR minima.
i. Low level wind shear or microburst advisories
when available.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−8, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst
Advisories.
STRAIGHT−IN.
j. Issue braking action for the runway in use as
received from pilots or the airport management when
Braking Action Advisories are in effect.
MAKE STRAIGHT−IN.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−5, Braking Action Advisories.
STRAIGHT−IN APPROVED.
RIGHT TRAFFIC.
MAKE RIGHT TRAFFIC.
RIGHT TRAFFIC APPROVED.
CONTINUE.
NOTE−
Additional information should normally be issued with
instructions to continue. Example: “continue, report one
mile final”; “continue, expect landing clearance two mile
final”; etc.
b. Runway in use.
c. Surface wind.
d. Altimeter setting.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−7−1, Current Settings.
e. Any supplementary information.
f. Clearance to land.
g. Requests for additional position reports. Use
prominent geographical fixes which can be easily
recognized from the air, preferably those depicted on
Arrival Procedures and Separation
k. If the pilot does not indicate the appropriate
ATIS code, and when a runway has been shortened,
controllers must ensure that pilots receive the runway
number combined with a shortened announcement
for all arriving aircraft.
3−10−2. FORWARDING APPROACH
INFORMATION BY NONAPPROACH
CONTROL FACILITIES
a. Forward the following, as appropriate, to the
control facility having IFR jurisdiction in your area.
You may eliminate those items that, because of local
conditions or situations, are fully covered in a letter
of agreement or a facility directive.
1. When you clear an arriving aircraft for a
visual approach.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−1, Visual Approach.
2. Aircraft arrival time.
3. Cancellation of IFR flight plan.
4. Information on a missed approach,
unreported, or overdue aircraft.
5. Runway in use.
6. Weather as required.
3−10−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−6−6, Reporting Weather Conditions.
FIG 3−10−2
Same Runway Separation
b. When the weather is below 1,000 feet or 3 miles
or the highest circling minimums, whichever is
greater, issue current weather to aircraft executing an
instrument approach if it changes from that on the
ATIS or that previously forwarded to the center/
approach control.
3−10−3. SAME RUNWAY SEPARATION
a. Separate an arriving aircraft from another
aircraft using the same runway by ensuring that the
arriving aircraft does not cross the landing threshold
until one of the following conditions exists or unless
authorized in para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low
Approach.
1. The other aircraft has landed and is clear of
the runway. (See FIG 3−10−1.) Between sunrise and
sunset, if you can determine distances by reference to
suitable landmarks and the other aircraft has landed,
it need not be clear of the runway if the following
minimum distance from the landing threshold exists:
(b) When a Category II aircraft is landing
behind a Category I or II− 4,500 feet.
(See FIG 3−10−3.)
FIG 3−10−3
Same Runway Separation
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Clear of the Runway.
FIG 3−10−1
Same Runway Separation
2. The other aircraft has departed and crossed
the runway end. (See FIG 3−10−4). If you can
determine distances by reference to suitable
landmarks and the other aircraft is airborne, it need
not have crossed the runway end if the following
minimum distance from the landing threshold exists:
(a) Category I aircraft landing behind
Category I or II− 3,000 feet.
(a) When a Category I aircraft is landing
behind a Category I or II− 3,000 feet.
(See FIG 3−10−2.)
3−10−2
(b) Category II aircraft landing behind
Category I or II− 4,500 feet.
(c) When either is a category III aircraft−
6,000 feet. (See FIG 3−10−5.)
Arrival Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
FIG 3−10−4
Same Runway Separation
REFERENCE−
AC 90−23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence, Para 12, Pilot Responsibility.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
EXAMPLE−
1. “Runway two seven left cleared to land, caution wake
turbulence, heavy Boeing 747 departing runway two seven
right.”
2. “Number two follow Boeing 757 on two-mile final.
Caution wake turbulence.”
3−10−4. INTERSECTING RUNWAY/INTERSECTING FLIGHT PATH SEPARATION
FIG 3−10−5
Same Runway Separation
Issue traffic information to each aircraft operating on
intersecting runways.
a. Separate an arriving aircraft using one runway
from another aircraft using an intersecting runway or
a nonintersecting runway when the flight paths
intersect by ensuring that the arriving aircraft does
not cross the landing threshold or flight path of the
other aircraft until one of the following conditions
exists:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
3. When the succeeding aircraft is a helicopter,
visual separation may be applied in lieu of using
distance minima.
1. The preceding aircraft has departed and
passed the intersection/flight path or is airborne and
turning to avert any conflict.
(See FIG 3−10−6 and FIG 3−10−7.)
FIG 3−10−6
Intersecting Runway Separation
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
b. Issue wake turbulence advisories, and the
position, altitude if known, and the direction of flight
of:
1. The super or heavy to aircraft landing behind
a departing/arriving super or heavy on the same or
parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet.
2. The B757/large aircraft to a small aircraft
landing behind a departing/arriving B757/large
aircraft on the same or parallel runways separated by
less than 2,500 feet.
Arrival Procedures and Separation
3−10−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 3−10−7
FIG 3−10−9
Intersecting Runway Separation
Intersection Runway Separation
NOTE−
When visual separation is being applied by the tower,
appropriate control instructions and traffic advisories
must be issued to ensure go around or missed approaches
avert any conflict with the flight path of traffic on the other
runway.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation, subpara a2.
2. A preceding arriving aircraft is clear of the
landing runway, completed landing roll and will hold
short of the intersection/flight path, or has passed the
intersection/flight path.
(See FIG 3−10−8 and FIG 3−10−9.)
FIG 3−10−8
Intersection Runway Separation
b. “USA/USAF/USN NOT APPLICABLE.” An
aircraft may be authorized to takeoff from one
runway while another aircraft lands simultaneously
on an intersecting runway or an aircraft lands on one
runway while another aircraft lands simultaneously
on an intersecting runway, or an aircraft lands to hold
short of an intersecting taxiway or some other
predetermined point such as an approach/departure
flight path using procedures specified in the current
LAHSO directive. The procedure must be approved
by the air traffic manager and be in accordance with
a facility directive. The following conditions apply:
NOTE−
Application of these procedures does not relieve
controllers from the responsibility of providing other
appropriate separation contained in this order.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−3−7, Land and Hold Short Operations
(LAHSO).
1. A simultaneous takeoff and landing operation
must only be conducted in VFR conditions.
2. Instruct the landing aircraft to hold short of
the intersecting runway being used by the aircraft
taking off. In the case of simultaneous landings and
no operational benefit is lost, restrict the aircraft of
the lesser weight category (if known). LAHSO
clearances must only be issued to aircraft that are
3−10−4
Arrival Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
listed in the current LAHSO directive, whose
Available Landing Distance (ALD) does not exceed
the landing distance requirement for the runway
condition.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY (runway number), (traffic,
type aircraft or other information).
NOTE−
Pilots who prefer to use the full length of the runway or a
runway different from that specified are expected to advise
ATC prior to landing.
3. Issue traffic information to both aircraft
involved and obtain an acknowledgment from each.
Request a read back of hold short instructions when
they are not received from the pilot of the restricted
aircraft.
JO 7110.65W
LAHSO directive, with no reports that braking action
is less than good.
7. There is no tailwind for the landing aircraft
restricted to hold short of the intersection. The wind
may be described as “calm” when appropriate.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−6−5, Calm Wind Conditions.
8. The aircraft required landing distances are
listed in the current LAHSO directive.
9. STOL aircraft operations are in accordance
with a letter of agreement with the aircraft
operator/pilot or the pilot confirms that it is a STOL
aircraft.
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
EXAMPLE−
1. “Runway one eight cleared to land, hold short of
runway one four left, traffic, (type aircraft) landing runway
one four left.”
c. Separate IFR/VFR aircraft landing behind a
departing aircraft on a crossing runway if the arrival
will fly through the airborne path of the departure by
the appropriate radar separation or the following
interval: (See FIG 3-10-10):
(When pilot of restricted aircraft responds with only
acknowledgment):
1. Heavy, large, or small behind super − 3
minutes.
“Runway one four left cleared to land, traffic, (type
aircraft) landing runway one eight will hold short of the
intersection.”
2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 2
minutes.
“Read back hold short instructions.”
d. Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories,
the position, altitude if known, and direction of flight
of the super, heavy, or B757 to:
2. “Runway three six cleared to land, hold short of runway
three three, traffic, (type aircraft) departing runway three
three.”
“Traffic, (type aircraft) landing runway three six will hold
short of the intersection, runway three three cleared for
takeoff.”
3. Small behind B757 − 2 minutes.
REFERENCE−
AC 90−23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence, Para 11, Pilot Responsibility.
FIG 3−10−10
Intersecting Runway Separation
4. Issue the measured distance from the landing
threshold to the hold short point rounded “down” to
the nearest 50−foot increment if requested by either
aircraft.
EXAMPLE−
“Five thousand fifty feet available.”
5. The conditions in subparas b2, 3, and 4 must
be met in sufficient time for the pilots to take other
action, if desired, and no later than the time landing
clearance is issued.
6. Land and Hold Short runways must be free of
any contamination as described in the current
Arrival Procedures and Separation
3−10−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
1. All aircraft landing on a crossing runway
behind a departing super or heavy, or a small aircraft
landing on a crossing runway behind a departing
B757, if the arrival flight path will cross the takeoff
path behind the departing aircraft rotation point. (See
FIG 3−10−11.)
FIG 3−10−12
Intersecting Runway Separation
FIG 3−10−11
Intersecting Runway Separation
EXAMPLE−
“Runway niner cleared to land. Caution wake turbulence,
Boeing Seven Fifty Seven landing runway three six.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−4, Approaches to Multiple Runways.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway niner cleared to land. Caution wake turbulence,
heavy C−One Forty One departing runway one five.”
2. All VFR aircraft landing on a crossing
runway behind an arriving super or heavy, and VFR
small aircraft landing on a crossing runway behind a
B757, if the arrival flight paths will cross. (See
FIG 3−10−12.)
3−10−5. LANDING CLEARANCE
a. When issuing a clearance to land, first state the
runway number followed by the landing clearance. If
the landing runway is changed, controllers must
preface the landing clearance with “Change to
runway.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) CLEARED TO LAND.
Or
CHANGE TO RUNWAY (number) CLEARED TO LAND.
b. Procedures.
1. Facilities without a safety logic system or
facilities with the safety logic system inoperative or
in the limited configuration must not clear an aircraft
for a full−stop, touch−and−go, stop−and−go, option,
or unrestricted low approach when a departing
aircraft has been instructed to line up and wait or is
holding in position on the same runway. The landing
clearance may be issued once the aircraft in position
has started takeoff roll.
2. Facilities using safety logic in the full core
alert runway configuration may issue a landing
3−10−6
Arrival Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
clearance, full−stop, touch−and−go, stop−and−go,
option, or unrestricted low approach to an arriving
aircraft with an aircraft holding in position or taxiing
to LUAW on the same runway except when reported
weather conditions are less than ceiling 800 feet or
visibility less than 2 miles.
c. Inform the closest aircraft that is requesting a
full−stop, touch−and−go, stop−and−go, option, or
unrestricted low approaches when there is traffic
authorized to line up and wait on the same runway.
EXAMPLE−
“Delta One, Runway One−Eight, continue, traffic holding
in position.”
“Delta One, Runway One−Eight, cleared to land. Traffic
holding in position.”
d. USA/USN/USAF. Issue runway identifier
along with surface wind when clearing an aircraft to
land, touch and go, stop and go, low approach, or the
option.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number), WIND (surface wind direction and
velocity), CLEARED TO LAND.
NOTE−
A clearance to land means that appropriate separation on
the landing runway will be ensured. A landing clearance
does not relieve the pilot from compliance with any
previously issued restriction.
e. Whenever a runway length has been temporarily or permanently shortened, state the word
“shortened” immediately following the runway
number as part of the landing clearance. This
information must be issued in conjunction with the
landing clearance.
1. The addition of “shortened” must be included
in the landing clearance for the duration of the
construction project when the runway is temporarily
shortened.
2. The addition of “shortened” must be included
in the landing clearance until the A/FD is updated to
include the change(s) when the runway is permanently shortened.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) SHORTENED, CLEARED TO LAND.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two-Seven shortened, cleared to land.”
Arrival Procedures and Separation
JO 7110.65W
f. If landing clearance is temporarily withheld,
insert the word “shortened” immediately after the
runway number to advise the pilot to continue.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) SHORTENED, CONTINUE.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two­Seven shortened, continue.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10­3­11, Airport Construction
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10­3­12, Change in Runway Length Due to
Construction
3−10−6. ANTICIPATING SEPARATION
a. Landing clearance to succeeding aircraft in a
landing sequence need not be withheld if you observe
the positions of the aircraft and determine that
prescribed runway separation will exist when the
aircraft crosses the landing threshold. Issue traffic
information to the succeeding aircraft if a preceding
arrival has not been previously reported and when
traffic will be departing prior to their arrival.
EXAMPLE−
“American Two Forty−Five, Runway One−Eight, cleared
to land, number two following a United Seven−Thirty−
Seven two mile final. Traffic will depart prior to your
arrival.”
“American Two Forty−Five, Runway One−Eight, cleared
to land. Traffic will depart prior to your arrival.”
NOTE−
Landing sequence number is optional at tower facilities
where the arrival sequence to the runway is established by
the approach control.
b. Anticipating separation must not be applied
when conducting LUAW operations, except as
authorized in paragraph 3−10−5b2. Issue applicable
traffic information when using this provision.
EXAMPLE−
“American Two Forty−Five, Runway One−Eight, cleared
to land. Traffic will be a Boeing Seven−Fifty−Seven
holding in position.”
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Clear of the Runway.
3−10−7. LANDING CLEARANCE WITHOUT
VISUAL OBSERVATION
When an arriving aircraft reports at a position where
he/she should be seen but has not been visually
observed, advise the aircraft as a part of the landing
clearance that it is not in sight and restate the landing
runway.
3−10−7
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
NOT IN SIGHT, RUNWAY (number) CLEARED TO
LAND.
NOTE−
Aircraft observance on the CTRD satisfies the visually
observed requirement.
3−10−8. WITHHOLDING LANDING
CLEARANCE
Do not withhold a landing clearance indefinitely even
though it appears a violation of Title 14 of the Code
of Federal Regulations has been committed. The
apparent violation might be the result of an
emergency situation. In any event, assist the pilot to
the extent possible.
3−10−9. RUNWAY EXITING
a. Instruct aircraft where to turn-off the runway
after landing, when appropriate, and advise the
aircraft to hold short of a runway or taxiway if
required for traffic.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TURN LEFT/RIGHT (taxiway/runway),
or
IF ABLE, TURN LEFT/RIGHT (taxiway/runway)
and if required
HOLD SHORT OF (runway).
NOTE−
Runway exiting or taxi instructions should not normally be
issued to an aircraft prior to, or immediately after,
touchdown.
b. Taxi instructions must be provided to the
aircraft by the local controller when:
1. Compliance with ATC instructions will be
required before the aircraft can change to ground
control, or
2. The aircraft will be required to enter an active
runway in order to taxi clear of the landing runway.
EXAMPLE−
“U.S. Air Ten Forty Two, turn right next taxiway, cross
runway two one, contact ground point seven.”
“U.S. Air Ten Forty Two, turn right on Alfa/next taxiway,
cross Bravo, hold short of Charlie, contact ground point
seven.”
3−10−8
12/10/15
NOTE−
1. An aircraft is expected to taxi clear of the runway unless
otherwise directed by ATC. Pilots must not exit the landing
runway on to an intersecting runway unless authorized by
ATC. In the absence of ATC instructions, an aircraft should
taxi clear of the landing runway by clearing the hold
position marking associated with the landing runway even
if that requires the aircraft to protrude into or enter another
taxiway/ramp area. This does not authorize an aircraft to
cross a subsequent taxiway or ramp after clearing the
landing runway.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Clear of the Runway.
2. The pilot is responsible for ascertaining when the
aircraft is clear of the runway by clearing the runway
holding position marking associated with the landing
runway.
c. Ground control and local control must protect a
taxiway/runway/ramp intersection if an aircraft is
required to enter that intersection to clear the landing
runway.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−1−7, Use of Active Runways.
d. Request a read back of runway hold short
instructions when not received from the pilot.
EXAMPLE−
“American Four Ninety−two, turn left at Taxiway Charlie,
hold short of Runway 27 Right.”
or
“American Four Ninety−two, turn left at Charlie, hold
short of Runway 27 Right.”
“American Four Ninety Two, Roger.”
“American Four Ninety−two, read back hold
instructions.”
NOTE−
Read back hold instructions phraseology may be initiated
for any point on a movement area when the controller
believes the read back is necessary.
3−10−10. ALTITUDE RESTRICTED LOW
APPROACH
A low approach with an altitude restriction of not less
than 500 feet above the airport may be authorized
except over an aircraft in takeoff position or a
departure aircraft. Do not clear aircraft for restricted
altitude low approaches over personnel unless airport
authorities have advised these personnel that the
approaches will be conducted. Advise the approach-
Arrival Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
ing aircraft of the location of applicable ground
traffic, personnel, or equipment.
PHRASEOLOGY−
PATTERN ALTITUDE (altitude). RIGHT TURNS.
NOTE−
1. The 500 feet restriction is a minimum. Higher altitudes
should be used when warranted. For example, 1,000 feet is
more appropriate for super or heavy aircraft operating
over unprotected personnel or small aircraft on or near the
runway.
b. Request for report on initial approach.
2. This authorization includes altitude restricted low
approaches over preceding landing or taxiing aircraft.
Restricted low approaches are not authorized over aircraft
in takeoff position or departing aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED LOW APPROACH AT OR ABOVE (altitude).
TRAFFIC (description and location).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−5, Vehicles/Equipment/Personnel on
Runways.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−6, Traffic Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−2−1, Light Signals.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−3, Timely Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−4, Line Up and Wait (LUAW).
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−3, Same Runway Separation.
3−10−11. CLOSED TRAFFIC
Approve/disapprove pilot requests to remain in
closed traffic for successive operations subject to
local traffic conditions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
LEFT/RIGHT (if required) CLOSED TRAFFIC
APPROVED. REPORT (position if required),
or
PHRASEOLOGY−
REPORT INITIAL.
c. “Break” information and request for pilot
report. Specify the point of “break” only if
nonstandard. Request the pilot to report “break” if
required for traffic or other reasons.
PHRASEOLOGY−
BREAK AT (specified point).
REPORT BREAK.
d. Overhead maneuver patterns are developed at
airports where aircraft have an operational need to
conduct the maneuver. An aircraft conducting an
overhead maneuver is on VFR and the IFR flight plan
is cancelled when the aircraft reaches the “initial
point” on the initial approach portion of the
maneuver. The existence of a standard overhead
maneuver pattern does not eliminate the possible
requirement for an aircraft to conform to conventional rectangular patterns if an overhead maneuver
cannot be approved.
NOTE−
Aircraft operating to an airport without a functioning
control tower must initiate cancellation of the IFR flight
plan prior to executing the overhead maneuver or after
landing.
FIG 3−10−13
Overhead Maneuver
UNABLE CLOSED TRAFFIC, (additional information as
required).
NOTE−
Segregated traffic patterns for helicopters to runways and
other areas may be established by letter of agreement or
other local operating procedures.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−7−4, Runway Proximity.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−4, Line Up and Wait (LUAW).
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−3, Same Runway Separation.
3−10−12. OVERHEAD MANEUVER
Issue the following to arriving aircraft that will
conduct an overhead maneuver:
a. Pattern altitude and direction of traffic. Omit
either or both if standard or when you know the pilot
is familiar with a nonstandard procedure.
Arrival Procedures and Separation
EXAMPLE−
“Air Force Three Six Eight, Runway Six, wind zero seven
zero at eight, pattern altitude six thousand, report initial.”
“Air Force Three Six Eight, break at midfield, report
3−10−9
JO 7110.65W
break.”
“Air Force Three Six Eight, cleared to land.”
“Alfa Kilo Two Two, Runway Three One, wind three three
zero at one four, right turns, report initial.”
“Alfa Kilo Two Two, report break.”
12/10/15
e. Timely and positive controller action is required
to prevent a conflict when an overhead pattern could
extend into the path of a departing or a missed
approach aircraft. Local procedures and/or coordination requirements should be set forth in an
appropriate letter of agreement, facility directive,
base flying manual etc., when the frequency of
occurrence warrants.
“Alfa Kilo Two Two, cleared to land.”
3−10−10
Arrival Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
3−10−13. SIMULATED FLAMEOUT (SFO)
APPROACHES/EMERGENCY LANDING
PATTERN (ELP) OPERATIONS/PRACTICE
PRECAUTIONARY APPROACHES
a. Authorize military aircraft to make SFO/ELP/
practice precautionary approaches if the following
conditions are met:
1. A letter of agreement or local operating
procedure is in effect between the military flying
organization and affected ATC facility.
(a) Include specific coordination, execution,
and approval procedures for the operation.
(b) The exchange or issuance of traffic
information as agreed to in any interfacility letter of
agreement is accomplished.
(c) Include a statement in the procedure that
clarifies at which points SFOs/ELPs may/may not be
terminated. (See FIG 3−10−14 and FIG 3−10−16.)
2. Traffic information regarding aircraft in radio
communication with or visible to tower controllers
which are operating within or adjacent to the
flameout maneuvering area is provided to the
SFO/ELP aircraft and other concerned aircraft.
JO 7110.65W
2. SFO/ELP approaches generally require high descent
rates. Visibility ahead and beneath the aircraft is greatly
restricted.
3. Pattern adjustments for aircraft conducting SFOs and
ELPs may impact the effectiveness of SFO and ELP
training.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−8−12, Low Approach and Touch-and-Go.
FAAO JO 7610.4, Para 9−3−7, Simulated Flameout (SFO)/Emergency
Landing Pattern (ELP) Operations.
b. For overhead SFO/ELP approaches:
1. Request a report at the entry point.
PHRASEOLOGY−
REPORT (high or low) KEY (as appropriate).
2. Request a report at low key.
PHRASEOLOGY−
REPORT LOW KEY.
3. At low key, issue low approach clearance or
alternate instructions.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−8−1, Sequence/Spacing Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−1−7, Inflight Emergencies Involving
Military Fighter-type Aircraft.
FAAO JO 7610.4, Para 9−3−7, Simulated Flameout (SFO)/Emergency
Landing Pattern (ELP) Operations.
3. The high-key altitude or practice precautionary approach maneuvering altitudes of the aircraft
concerned are obtained prior to approving the
approach. (See FIG 3−10−14 and FIG 3−10−16.)
c. For straight−in
approaches:
NOTE−
1. Practice precautionary/SFO/ELP approaches are
authorized only for specific aircraft. Any aircraft, however,
might make precautionary approaches, when engine
failure is considered possible. The practice precautionary
approach maneuvering area/altitudes may not conform to
the standard SFO/ELP maneuvering area/altitudes.
PHRASEOLOGY−
REPORT (distance) MILE SIMULATED FLAMEOUT
FINAL.
Arrival Procedures and Separation
simulation
flameout
1. Request a position report from aircraft
conducting straight−in SFO approaches.
2. At the appropriate position on final (normally
no closer than 3 miles), issue low approach clearance
or alternate instruction. (See FIG 3−10−15.)
3−10−11
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 3−10−14
Simulated Flameout [1]
3−10−12
Arrival Procedures and Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
FIG 3−10−15
Simulated Flameout [2]
FIG 3−10−16
Emergency Landing Pattern
Arrival Procedures and Separation
3−10−13
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 11. Helicopter Operations
3−11−1. TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT
OPERATION
AVOID (aircraft/vehicles/personnel).
If required,
a. When necessary for a wheeled helicopter to taxi
on the surface, use the phraseology in para 3−7−2,
Taxi and Ground Movement Operations.
REMAIN AT OR BELOW (altitude).
NOTE−
Ground taxiing uses less fuel than hover-taxiing and
minimizes air turbulence. However, under certain
conditions, such as rough, soft, or uneven terrain, it may
become necessary to hover/air-taxi for safety considerations. Helicopters with articulating rotors (usually designs
with three or more main rotor blades) are subject to
“ground resonance” and may, on rare occasions, suddenly
lift off the ground to avoid severe damage or destruction.
b. When requested or necessary for a helicopter/
VTOL aircraft to proceed at a slow speed above the
surface, normally below 20 knots and in ground
effect, use the following phraseology, supplemented
as appropriate with the phraseology in para 3−7−2,
Taxi and Ground Movement Operations.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOVER-TAXI (supplemented, as appropriate, from
para 3−7−2, Taxi and Ground Movement Operations.)
CAUTION (dust, blowing snow, loose debris, taxiing light
aircraft, personnel, etc.).
NOTE−
Hover-taxiing consumes fuel at a high burn rate, and
helicopter downwash turbulence (produced in ground
effect) increases significantly with larger and heavier
helicopters.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Hover Taxi.
AIM, Para 4−3−17, VFR Helicopter Operations at Controlled Airports.
c. When requested or necessary for a helicopter to
proceed expeditiously from one point to another,
normally below 100 feet AGL and at airspeeds above
20 knots, use the following phraseology, supplemented as appropriate with the phraseology in
para 3−7−2, Taxi and Ground Movement Operations.
PHRASEOLOGY−
AIR-TAXI:
VIA (direct, as requested, or specified route)
TO (location, heliport, helipad, operating/movement area,
active/inactive runway).
Helicopter Operations
CAUTION (wake turbulence or other reasons above).
LAND AND CONTACT TOWER,
or
HOLD FOR (reason− takeoff clearance, release,
landing/taxiing aircraft, etc.).
NOTE−
Air-taxi is the preferred method for helicopter movements
on airports provided ground operations/conditions permit.
Air-taxi authorizes the pilot to proceed above the surface
either via hover-taxi or flight at speeds more than 20 knots.
Unless otherwise requested or instructed, the pilot is
expected to remain below 100 feet AGL. The pilot is solely
responsible for selecting a safe airspeed for the
altitude/operation being conducted.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Air Taxi.
AIM, Para 4−3−17, VFR Helicopter Operations at Controlled Airports.
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
d. Avoid clearances which require small aircraft or
helicopters to taxi in close proximity to taxiing or
hover-taxi helicopters.
REFERENCE−
AC 90−23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence, Para 10 and Para 11.
3−11−2. HELICOPTER TAKEOFF
CLEARANCE
a. Issue takeoff clearances from movement areas
other than active runways or in diverse directions
from active runways, with additional instructions as
necessary. Whenever possible, issue takeoff clearance in lieu of extended hover−taxi or air−taxi
operations.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Present position, taxiway, helipad, numbers) MAKE
RIGHT/LEFT TURN FOR (direction, points of compass,
heading, NAVAID radial) DEPARTURE/DEPARTURE
ROUTE (number, name, or code), AVOID (aircraft/
vehicles/personnel),
or
3−11−1
JO 7110.65W
REMAIN (direction) OF (active runways, parking areas,
passenger terminals, etc.).
12/10/15
FIG 3−11−1
Helicopter Departure Separation
CAUTION (power lines, unlighted obstructions, trees,
wake turbulence, etc.).
CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
b. If takeoff is requested from non−movement
areas, an area not authorized for helicopter use, or an
area off the airport, and, in your judgment, the
operation appears to be reasonable, use the following
phraseology instead of the takeoff clearance in
subpara a.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DEPARTURE FROM (requested location) WILL BE AT
YOUR OWN RISK (additional instructions, as necessary).
USE CAUTION (if applicable).
c. Unless agreed to by the pilot, do not issue
downwind takeoffs if the tailwind exceeds 5 knots.
NOTE−
A pilot request to takeoff from a given point in a given
direction constitutes agreement.
b. A preceding, arriving helicopter has taxied off
the landing area. (See FIG 3−11−2.)
FIG 3−11−2
Helicopter Departure Separation
3−11−3. HELICOPTER DEPARTURE
SEPARATION
Separate a departing helicopter from other helicopters by ensuring that it does not takeoff until one
of the following conditions exists:
NOTE−
Helicopters performing air-taxiing operations within the
boundary of the airport are considered to be taxiing
aircraft.
a. A preceding, departing helicopter has left the
takeoff area. (See FIG 3−11−1.)
3−11−2
Helicopter Operations
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
3−11−4. HELICOPTER ARRIVAL
SEPARATION
FIG 3−11−5
Helicopter Arrival Separation
Separate an arriving helicopter from other helicopters
by ensuring that it does not land until one of the
following conditions exists:
a. A preceding, arriving helicopter has come to a
stop or taxied off the landing area.
(See FIG 3−11−3 and FIG 3−11−4.)
FIG 3−11−3
Helicopter Arrival Separation
3−11−5. SIMULTANEOUS LANDINGS OR
TAKEOFFS
FIG 3−11−4
Helicopter Arrival Separation
Authorize helicopters to conduct simultaneous
landings or takeoffs if the distance between the
landing or takeoff points is at least 200 feet and the
courses to be flown do not conflict. Refer to surface
markings to determine the 200 foot minimum, or
instruct a helicopter to remain at least 200 feet from
another helicopter. (See FIG 3−11−6.)
FIG 3−11−6
Simultaneous Helicopter Landings or Takeoffs
b. A preceding, departing helicopter has left the
landing area. (See FIG 3−11−5.)
Helicopter Operations
3−11−3
JO 7110.65W
3−11−6. HELICOPTER LANDING
CLEARANCE
a. Issue landing clearances to helicopters going to
movement areas other than active runways or from
diverse directions to points on active runways, with
additional instructions as necessary. Whenever
possible, issue a landing clearance in lieu of extended
hover−taxi or air−taxi operations.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAKE APPROACH STRAIGHT−IN/CIRCLING LEFT/
RIGHT TURN TO (location, runway, taxiway, helipad,
Maltese cross) ARRIVAL/ARRIVAL ROUTE (number,
name, or code).
12/10/15
CAUTION (power lines, unlighted obstructions, wake turbulence, etc.).
CLEARED TO LAND.
b. If landing is requested to non-movement areas,
an area not authorized for helicopter use, or an area
off the airport, and, in your judgment, the operation
appears to be reasonable, use the following
phraseology instead of the landing clearance in
subpara a.
PHRASEOLOGY−
LANDING AT (requested location) WILL BE AT YOUR
OWN RISK (additional instructions, as necessary). USE
CAUTION (if applicable).
HOLD SHORT OF (active runway, extended runway
centerline, other).
c. Unless agreed to by the pilot, do not issue
downwind landings if the tailwind exceeds 5 knots.
REMAIN (direction/distance; e.g., 700 feet, 1 1/2 miles)
OF/FROM (runway, runway centerline, other helicopter/
aircraft).
NOTE−
A pilot request to land at a given point from a given
direction constitutes agreement.
3−11−4
Helicopter Operations
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 12. Sea Lane Operations
3−12−1. APPLICATION
Where sea lanes are established and controlled, apply
the provisions of this section.
FIG 3−12−2
Sea Lane Departure Operations
3−12−2. DEPARTURE SEPARATION
Separate a departing aircraft from a preceding
departing or arriving aircraft using the same sea lane
by ensuring that it does not commence takeoff until:
a. The other aircraft has departed and crossed the
end of the sea lane or turned to avert any conflict. (See
FIG 3−12−1). If you can determine distances by
reference to suitable landmarks, the other aircraft
need only be airborne if the following minimum
distance exists between aircraft:
1. When only Category I aircraft are involved−
1,500 feet.
b. A preceding landing aircraft has taxied out of
the sea lane.
2. When a Category I aircraft is preceded by a
Category II aircraft− 3,000 feet.
NOTE−
Due to the absence of braking capability, caution should be
exercised when instructing a float plane to hold a position
as the aircraft will continue to move because of prop
generated thrust. Therefore, clearance to line up and wait
should be followed by takeoff or other clearance as soon as
is practical.
3. When either the succeeding or both are
Category II aircraft− 3,000 feet.
4. When either is a Category III aircraft−
6,000 feet. (See FIG 3−12−2.)
FIG 3−12−1
Sea Lane Departure Operations
3−12−3. ARRIVAL SEPARATION
Separate an arriving aircraft from another aircraft
using the same sea lane by ensuring that the arriving
aircraft does not cross the landing threshold until one
of the following conditions exists:
a. The other aircraft has landed and taxied out of
the sea lane. Between sunrise and sunset, if you can
determine distances by reference to suitable
landmarks and the other aircraft has landed, it need
not be clear of the sea lane if the following minimum
distance from the landing threshold exists:
Sea Lane Operations
3−12−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
1. When a Category I aircraft is landing behind
a Category I or II− 2,000 feet. (See FIG 3−12−3.)
lane if the following minimum distance from the
landing threshold exists:
FIG 3−12−3
1. When only Category I aircraft are involved−
1,500 feet.
Sea Lane Arrival Operations
2. When either is a Category II aircraft−
3,000 feet.
3. When either is a Category III aircraft−
6,000 feet. (See FIG 3−12−6.)
FIG 3−12−5
Sea Lane Arrival Operations
2. When a Category II aircraft is landing behind
a Category I or II− 2,500 feet. (See FIG 3−12−4.)
FIG 3−12−4
Sea Lane Arrival Operations
[View 2]
FIG 3−12−6
Sea Lane Arrival Operations
b. The other aircraft has departed and crossed the
end of the sea lane or turned to avert any conflict. (See
FIG 3−12−5.) If you can determine distances by
reference to suitable landmarks and the other aircraft
is airborne, it need not have crossed the end of the sea
3−12−2
Sea Lane Operations
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 4. IFR
Section 1. NAVAID Use Limitations
4−1−1. ALTITUDE AND DISTANCE
LIMITATIONS
TBL 4−1−3
When specifying a route other than an established
airway or route, do not exceed the limitations in the
table on any portion of the route which lies within
controlled airspace. (For altitude and distance
limitations,
see
TBL 4−1−1,
TBL 4−1−2,
TBL 4−1−3, and TBL 4−1−4.) (For correct application of altitude and distance limitations see
FIG 4−1−1 and FIG 4−1−2.)
TBL 4−1−1
VOR/VORTAC/TACAN NAVAIDs
Normal Usable Altitudes and Radius Distances
T
L
H
H
H
H
Altitude
12,000 and below
Below 18,000
Below 14,500
14,500 − 17,999
18,000 − FL 450
Above FL 450
Height (feet)
above transmitter
Distance
(miles from transmitter)
4,500
10 (for glideslope)
18 (for localizer)
*Use the current flight check height/altitude limitations if
different from the above minima.
4,500
TBL 4−1−4
MLS
Usable Height and Distance*
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−1−5, Fix Use.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−2, Methods.
Class
ILS
Usable Height and Distance*
Distance
(miles)
25
40
40
100
130
100
Height (feet)
above transmitter
Distance
(miles from transmitter)
20,000
20 (for glideslope)
20 (for azimuth)
*Use the current flight check height/altitude limitations if
different from the above minima.
20,000
FIG 4−1−1
Application of Altitude and Distance Limitations
[Application 1]
TBL 4−1−2
L/MF Radio Beacon (RBN)
Usable Radius Distances for All Altitudes
Class
CL
MH
H
HH
Power (watts)
Under 25
Under 50
50 − 1,999
2,000 or more
NAVAID Use Limitations
Distance
(miles)
15
25
50
75
4−1−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 4−1−2
Application of Altitude and Distance Limitations
[Application 2]
c. Requested routing is via an MTR.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−2, Methods.
4−1−3. CROSSING ALTITUDE
Use an altitude consistent with the limitations of the
aid when clearing an aircraft to cross or hold at a fix.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−2, Methods.
4−1−4. VFR-ON-TOP
Use a route not meeting service volume limitations
only if an aircraft requests to operate “VFR-on-top”
on this route.
NOTE−
Aircraft equipped with TACAN only are expected to:
4−1−2. EXCEPTIONS
1. Define route of flight between TACAN or VORTAC
NAVAIDs in the same manner as VOR-equipped aircraft.
Altitude and distance limitations need not be applied
when any of the following conditions are met:
2. Except in Class A airspace, submit requests for
“VFR-on-top” flight where insufficient TACAN or
VORTAC NAVAIDs exist to define the route.
a. Routing is initiated by ATC or requested by the
pilot and radar monitoring is provided.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−2, Methods.
EXCEPTIONGNSS equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S, and /V not on a
random impromptu route.
4−1−5. FIX USE
NOTE−
1. Except for GNSS-equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S, and /V, not
on a random impromptu route, Paragraph 5-5-1,
Application, requires radar separation be provided to
RNAV aircraft operating at and below FL450 on Q routes
or random RNAV routes, excluding oceanic airspace.
2. When a clearance is issued beyond the altitude and/or
distance limitations of a NAVAID, in addition to being
responsible for maintaining separation from other aircraft
and airspace, the controller is responsible for providing
aircraft with information and advice related to significant
deviations from the expected flight path.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-1-3, Procedural Preference.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-4-2, Route Structure Transitions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-1-10, Deviation Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6-5-4, Minima Along Other Than Established
Airways or Routes.
AIM, Para 5-1-8c, Direct Flights
AIM, Para 5-1-8d, Area Navigation (RNAV)
P/CG Term - Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)[ICAO].
b. Operational necessity requires and approval has
been obtained from the Frequency Management and
Flight Inspection Offices to exceed them.
4−1−2
Request aircraft position reports only over fixes
shown on charts used for the altitude being flown,
except as follows:
NOTE−
Waypoints filed in random RNAV routes automatically
become compulsory reporting points for the flight unless
otherwise advised by ATC.
a. Unless the pilot requests otherwise, use only
those fixes shown on high altitude en route charts,
high altitude instrument approach procedures charts,
and SID charts when clearing military turbojet
single-piloted aircraft.
b. Except for military single-piloted turbojet
aircraft, unpublished fixes may be used if the name of
the NAVAID and, if appropriate, the radial/course/
azimuth and frequency/channel are given to the pilot.
An unpublished fix is defined as one approved and
planned for publication which is not yet depicted on
the charts or one which is used in accord with the
following:
REFERENCE−
FAAO 7130.3, Holding Pattern Criteria.
1. Unpublished fixes are formed by the en route
radial and either a DME distance from the same
NAVAID Use Limitations
12/10/15
NAVAID or an intersecting radial from an off-route
VOR/VORTAC/TACAN. DME must be used in lieu
of off-route radials, whenever possible.
2. Except where known signal coverage restrictions exist, an unpublished fix may be used for ATC
purposes if its location does not exceed NAVAID
altitude and distance limitation, and when off-route
radials are used, the angle of divergence meets the
criteria prescribed below.
NOTE−
Unpublished fixes should not negate the normal use of
published intersections. Frequent routine use of an
unpublished fix would justify establishing a fix.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−1−1, Altitude and Distance Limitations.
3. Do not hold aircraft at unpublished fixes
below the lowest assignable altitude dictated by
terrain clearance for the appropriate holding pattern
airspace area (template) regardless of the MEA for
the route being flown.
4. When the unpublished fix is located on an
off-route radial and the radial providing course
guidance, it must be used consistent with the
following divergence angles:
(a) When holding operations are involved
with respect to subparas (b) and (c) below, the angle
of divergence must be at least 45 degrees.
NAVAID Use Limitations
JO 7110.65W
(b) When both NAVAIDs involved are
located within 30 NM of the unpublished fix, the
minimum divergence angle is 30 degrees.
(c) When the unpublished fix is located over
30 NM from the NAVAID generating the off-course
radial, the minimum divergence angle must increase
1 degree per NM up to 45 NM; e.g., 45 NM would
require 45 degrees.
(d) When the unpublished fix is located
beyond 45 NM from the NAVAID generating the
off-course radial, the minimum divergence angle
must increase 1/2 degree per NM; e.g., 130 NM would
require 88 degrees.
c. Fixes contained in the route description of
MTRs are considered filed fixes.
d. TACAN-only aircraft (type suffix M, N, or P)
possess TACAN with DME, but no VOR or LF
navigation system capability. Assign fixes based on
TACAN or VORTAC facilities only.
NOTE−
TACAN-only aircraft can never be held overhead the
NAVAID, be it TACAN or VORTAC.
e. DME fixes must not be established within the
no-course signal zone of the NAVAID from which
inbound holding course information would be
derived.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−5−3, NAVAID Fixes.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−2, Methods.
4−1−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Clearances
4−2−1. CLEARANCE ITEMS
Issue the following clearance items, as appropriate, in
the order listed below:
a. Aircraft identification.
b. Clearance limit.
1. When the clearance limit is an airport, the
word “airport” must follow the airport name.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT.
2. When the clearance limit is a NAVAID, and
the NAVAID type is known, the type of NAVAID
must follow the NAVAID name.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (NAVAID name and type).
3. When the clearance limit is an intersection or
waypoint, and the type is known, the type must follow
the intersection or waypoint name.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (intersection or waypoint name and type).
c. Standard Instrument Departure (SID).
d. Route of flight including PDR/PDAR/PAR
when applied.
e. Altitude data in the order flown.
f. Mach number, if applicable.
g. USAF. When issuing a clearance to an airborne
aircraft containing an altitude assignment, do not
include more than one of the following in the same
transmission:
1. Frequency change.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−8, IFR−VFR and VFR−IFR Flights.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−7, Altitude Information.
4−2−2. CLEARANCE PREFIX
a. Prefix a clearance, information, or a request for
information which will be relayed to an aircraft
through a non−ATC facility by stating “A−T−C
clears,” “A−T−C advises,” or “A−T−C requests.”
b. Flight service stations must prefix a clearance
with the appropriate phrase: “ATC clears,” “ATC
advises,” etc.
4−2−3. DELIVERY INSTRUCTIONS
Issue specific clearance delivery instructions, if
appropriate.
4−2−4. CLEARANCE RELAY
Relay clearances verbatim.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−4−4, Communications Failure.
4−2−5. ROUTE OR ALTITUDE
AMENDMENTS
a. Amend route of flight in a previously issued
clearance by one of the following:
1. State which portion of the route is being
amended and then state the amendment.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CHANGE (portion of route) TO READ (new portion of
route).
2. State the amendment to the route and then
state that the rest of the route is unchanged.
2. Transponder change.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Amendment to route), REST OF ROUTE UNCHANGED.
3. Heading.
3. Issue a clearance “direct” to a point on the
previously issued route.
4. Altimeter setting.
5. Traffic information containing an altitude.
h. Holding instructions.
i. Any special information.
j. Frequency and beacon code information.
Clearances
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED DIRECT (fix,waypoint).
Or
CLEARED DIRECT (destination) AIRPORT.
NOTE−
Clearances authorizing “direct” to a point on a previously
issued route do not require the phrase “rest of route
4−2−1
JO 7110.65W
unchanged.” However, it must be understood where the
previously cleared route is resumed. When necessary, “rest
of route unchanged” may be used to clarify routing.
4. Issue the entire route by stating the
amendment.
EXAMPLE−
(Cessna 21A has been cleared to the Airville Airport via
V41 Delta VOR V174 Alfa VOR, direct Airville Airport,
maintain 9000. After takeoff, the aircraft is rerouted via
V41 Frank intersection, V71 Delta VOR, V174 Alfa VOR.
The controller issues one of the following as an amended
clearance):
1. “Cessna Two One Alfa change Victor Forty−One Delta
to read Victor Forty−One Frank, Victor Seventy−One
Delta.”
2. “Cessna Two One Alfa cleared via Victor Forty−One
Frank, Victor Seventy−One Delta, rest of route unchanged.”
3. “Cessna Two One Alfa cleared via Victor Forty−One
Frank, Victor Seventy−One Delta, Victor One Seventy−
Four Alfa V−O−R, direct Airville airport, maintain Niner
Thousand.”
b. When route or altitude in a previously issued
clearance is amended, restate all applicable altitude
restrictions.
EXAMPLE−
1. (A departing aircraft is cleared to cross Ollis
intersection at or above 3,000; Gordonsville VOR at or
above 12,000; maintain FL 200. Shortly after departure the
altitude to be maintained is changed to FL 240. Because
altitude restrictions remain in effect, the controller issues
an amended clearance as follows):
“Amend altitude. Cross Ollis intersection at or above
Three Thousand; cross Gordonsville V−O−R at or above
One Two Thousand; maintain Flight Level Two Four
Zero.”
(Shortly after departure, altitude restrictions are no longer
applicable, the controller issues an amended clearance as
follows):
“Climb and maintain Flight Level Two Four Zero.”
2. (An aircraft is cleared to climb via a SID with published
altitude restrictions. Shortly after departure the top
altitude is changed to FL 230 and compliance with the
altitude restrictions is still required, the controller issues
an amended clearance as follows):
4−2−2
12/10/15
“Climb via SID except maintain Flight Level Two Three
Zero.”
NOTE−
1. Restating previously issued altitude to “maintain” is an
amended clearance. If altitude to “maintain” is changed or
restated, whether prior to departure or while airborne and
previously issued altitude restrictions are omitted, altitude
restrictions are canceled, including SID/STAR altitude
restrictions if any.
2. Crossing altitudes and speed restrictions on ODPs are
mandatory and cannot be canceled by ATC.
c. Issue an amended clearance if a speed
restriction is declined because it cannot be complied
with concurrently with a previously issued altitude
restriction.
EXAMPLE−
(An aircraft is cleared to cross Gordonsville VOR at
11,000. Shortly thereafter he/she is cleared to reduce
his/her airspeed to 300 knots. The pilot informs the
controller he/she is unable to comply with both clearances
simultaneously. The controller issues an amended
clearance as follows):
“Cross Gordonsville VOR at One One Thousand. Then,
reduce speed to Three Zero Zero.”
NOTE−
The phrase “do the best you can” or comparable phrases
are not valid substitutes for an amended clearance with
altitude or speed restrictions.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−18, Operational Requests.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Section 6, Vectoring, Para 5−6−2, Methods.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Section 7, Speed Adjustment, Para 5−7−2, Methods.
d. Air traffic control specialists should avoid route
and/or altitude changes for aircraft participating in
the North American Route Program (NRP) and that
are displaying “NRP” in the remarks section of their
flight plan. Specialists at facilities actively participating in the High Altitude Redesign (HAR) program
should avoid route and/or altitude changes for aircraft
participating in full HAR and high altitude
Point−to−point (PTP), and that are displaying
“HAR,” or “PTP” in the remarks section of their
flight plan.
NOTE−
Air traffic control specialists retain the latitude necessary
to tactically resolve conflicts. Every effort should be made
to ensure the aircraft is returned to the original filed flight
plan/altitude as soon as conditions warrant.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−2−15, North American Route Program
Clearances
12/10/15
(NRP) Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−3−2, En Route Data Entries.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 17, Section 16, North American Route
Program.
4−2−6. THROUGH CLEARANCES
You may clear an aircraft through intermediate stops.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED THROUGH (airport) TO (fix).
4−2−7. ALTRV CLEARANCE
Use the phrase “via approved altitude reservation
flight plan,” if the aircraft will operate in an approved
ALTRV.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VIA APPROVED ALTITUDE RESERVATION (mission
name) FLIGHT PLAN.
NOTE−
An ALTRV normally includes the departure, climb, cruise,
and arrival phases of flight up to and including holding
pattern or point/time at which ATC provides separation
between aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−3−3, Abbreviated Departure Clearance.
4−2−8. IFR−VFR AND VFR−IFR FLIGHTS
a. Clear an aircraft planning IFR operations for the
initial part of flight and VFR for the latter part to the
fix at which the IFR part ends.
b. Treat an aircraft planning VFR for the initial
part of flight and IFR for the latter part as a VFR
departure. Issue a clearance to this aircraft when it
requests IFR clearance approaching the fix where it
proposes to start IFR operations. The phraseology
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT AS FILED
may be used with abbreviated departure clearance
procedures.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−3−3, Abbreviated Departure Clearance.
c. When an aircraft changes from VFR to IFR, the
controller must assign a beacon code to Mode-C
equipped aircraft that will allow MSAW alarms.
d. When VFR aircraft operating below the
minimum altitude for IFR operations requests an IFR
clearance and the pilot informs you, or you are aware,
that they are unable to climb in VFR conditions to the
minimum IFR altitude:
Clearances
JO 7110.65W
1. Before issuing a clearance, ask if the pilot is
able to maintain terrain and obstruction clearance
during a climb to the minimum IFR altitude.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft call sign), ARE YOU ABLE TO MAINTAIN
YOUR OWN TERRAIN AND OBSTRUCTION
CLEARANCE UNTIL REACHING (appropriate
MVA/MIA/MEA/OROCA)
NOTE−
Pilots of pop−up aircraft are responsible for terrain and
obstacle clearance until reaching minimum instrument
altitude (MIA) or minimum en route altitude (MEA). Pilot
compliance with an approved FAA procedure or an ATC
instruction transfers that responsibility to the FAA;
therefore, do not assign (or imply) specific course guidance
that will (or could) be in effect below the MIA or MEA.
EXAMPLE−
“November Eight Seven Six, are you able to provide your
own terrain and obstruction clearance between your
present altitude and six thousand feet?”
2. If the pilot is able to maintain their own
terrain and obstruction clearance, issue the appropriate IFR clearance as prescribed in Para 4−2−1,
Clearance Items, and Para 4−5−6, Minimum En
Route Altitudes.
3. If the pilot states that they are unable to
maintain terrain and obstruction clearance, instruct
the pilot to maintain VFR and to state intentions.
4. If appropriate, apply the provisions of
Para 10−2−7, VFR Aircraft In Weather Difficulty, or
Para 10−2−9, Radar Assistance Techniques, as
necessary.
4−2−9. CLEARANCE ITEMS
The following guidelines must be utilized to facilitate
the processing of airfile aircraft:
a. Ensure the aircraft is within your area of
jurisdiction unless otherwise coordinated.
b. Obtain necessary information needed to
provide IFR service.
c. Issue clearance to destination, short range
clearance, or an instruction to the pilot to contact an
FSS if the flight plan cannot be processed. If
clearance is to destination airport, the phraseology
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT must be
used. If clearance is to a NAVAID, state the name of
the NAVAID followed by the type of NAVAID, if the
type is known. If clearance is to an intersection or
4−2−3
JO 7110.65W
waypoint and the type is known, the type must follow
the intersection or waypoint name.
NOTE−
These procedures do not imply that the processing of
airfiles has priority over another ATC duty to be
performed.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−2−1, Recording Information.
4−2−10. CANCELLATION OF IFR FLIGHT
PLAN
12/10/15
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Call sign) REPORT CANCELLATION OF IFR ON
(frequency).
2. Airports without an air/ground communications station:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Call sign) REPORT CANCELLATION OF IFR THIS
FREQUENCY OR WITH FLIGHT SERVICE.
Or
(Call sign) REPORT CANCELLATION OF IFR THIS
FREQUENCY OR WITH (FSS serving the area or the ATC
controlling facility).
a. If necessary, before instructing an IFR aircraft
arriving at an airport not served by an air traffic
control tower or flight service station to change to the
common traffic advisory frequency, provide the pilot
with instructions on how to cancel his/her IFR flight
plan.
b. Respond to a pilot’s cancellation of his/her IFR
flight plan as follows:
1. Airports with an air/ground communications
station:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Call sign) IFR CANCELLATION RECEIVED.
4−2−4
EXAMPLE−
“N13WA report cancellation of IFR this frequency or with
McAlester Radio.”
Clearances
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 3. Departure Procedures
4−3−1. DEPARTURE TERMINOLOGY
Avoid using the term “takeoff” except to actually
clear an aircraft for takeoff or to cancel a takeoff
clearance. Use such terms as “depart,” “departure,” or
“fly” in clearances when necessary.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−9, Takeoff Clearance.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−11, Cancellation of Takeoff Clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DESTINATION AS FILED.
c. Departure Procedures.
1. Specify direction of takeoff/turn or initial
heading/azimuth to be flown after takeoff as follows:
(a) Locations with Airport Traffic Control
Service− Specify these items as necessary.
Include the following items in IFR departure
clearances:
(b) Locations without Airport Traffic Control
Service, but within a Class E surface area− specify
these items if necessary. Obtain/solicit the pilot’s
concurrence concerning these items before issuing
them in a clearance.
NOTE−
When considered necessary, controllers or pilots may
initiate read backs of a clearance. Some pilots may be
required by company rule to do so.
NOTE−
Direction of takeoff and turn after takeoff can be
obtained/solicited directly from the pilot, or relayed by an
FSS, dispatcher, etc., as obtained/solicited from the pilot.
a. Always include the airport of departure when
issuing a departure clearance for relay to an aircraft
by an FSS, dispatcher, etc.
(c) At all other airports− Do not specify
direction of takeoff/turn after takeoff. If necessary to
specify an initial heading/azimuth to be flown after
takeoff, issue the initial heading/azimuth so as to
apply only within controlled airspace.
4−3−2. DEPARTURE CLEARANCES
b. Clearance Limit.
1. Specify the destination airport when practicable, even though it is outside controlled airspace.
Issue short range clearances as provided for in any
procedures established for their use.
(a) When the clearance limit is an airport, the
word “airport” must follow the airport name.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT
(b) When the clearance limit is a NAVAID
and the NAVAID type is known, the type of NAVAID
must follow the NAVAID name.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (NAVAID name and type)
(c) When the clearance limit is an intersection
or waypoint and the type is known, the type must
follow the intersection or waypoint name.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (intersection or waypoint name and type)
2. Where only textually described obstacle
departure procedures (ODP) have been published for
a location and pilot compliance is necessary to ensure
separation, include the procedure as part of the ATC
clearance.
3. Do not solicit use of the Visual Climb over
Airport (VCOA) option.
NOTE−
Pilots will specifically advise ATC of their intent to use the
VCOA option.
EXAMPLE−
“Depart via the (airport name) (runway number)
departure procedure.”
NOTE−
IFR takeoff minimums and departure procedures are
prescribed for specific airports/runways and published in
a tabular form supplement to the FAA instrument approach
procedure chart and appropriate FAA Form 8260. These
procedures are identified on instrument approach
procedure charts with a symbol:
2. For Air Force One (AF1) operations, do not
specify the destination airport.
NOTE−
Presidential detail is responsible for ensuring the accuracy
of the destination airport.
Departure Procedures
4. Compatibility with a procedure issued may
be verified by asking the pilot if items obtained/
4−3−1
JO 7110.65W
solicited will allow him/her to comply with local
traffic pattern, terrain, or obstruction avoidance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FLY RUNWAY HEADING.
DEPART (direction or runway).
TURN LEFT/RIGHT.
WHEN ENTERING CONTROLLED AIRSPACE
(instruction), FLY HEADING (degrees) UNTIL
REACHING (altitude, point, or fix) BEFORE
PROCEEDING ON COURSE.
FLY A (degree) BEARING/AZIMUTH FROM/TO (fix)
UNTIL (time),
or
UNTIL REACHING (fix or altitude),
and if required,
BEFORE PROCEEDING ON COURSE.
EXAMPLE−
“Verify right turn after departure will allow compliance
with local traffic pattern,”or “Verify this clearance will
allow compliance with terrain or obstruction avoidance.”
NOTE−
If a published IFR departure procedure is not included in
an ATC clearance, compliance with such a procedure is the
pilot’s prerogative.
5. SIDs:
(a) Assign a SID (including transition if
necessary). Assign a PDR or the route filed by the
pilot, only when a SID is not established for the
departure route to be flown, or the pilot has indicated
that he/she does not wish to use a SID.
NOTE−
Departure procedure descriptive text contained within
parentheses (for example, “Jimmy One (RNAV)
Departure”) is not included in departure clearance
phraseology.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(SID name and number) DEPARTURE.
(SID name and number) DEPARTURE,
(transition name) TRANSITION.
EXAMPLE−
“Stroudsburg One Departure.”
“Stroudsburg One Departure, Sparta Transition.”
4−3−2
12/10/15
NOTE−
If a pilot does not wish to use a SID issued in an ATC
clearance, or any other SID published for that location,
he/she is expected to advise ATC.
(b) If it is necessary to assign a crossing
altitude which differs from the SID altitude
emphasize the change to the pilot.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(SID name and number) DEPARTURE, EXCEPT CROSS
(revised altitude information).
EXAMPLE−
“Stroudsburg One Departure, except cross Quaker at
five thousand.
“Astoria Two Departure, except cross Astor waypoint at six
thousand.
(c) Specify altitudes when they are not
included in the SID.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(SID name and number) DEPARTURE. CROSS (fix) AT
(altitude).
EXAMPLE−
“Stroudsburg One Departure. Cross Jersey intersection at
four thousand. Cross Range intersection at six thousand.”
depart
“Engle Two departure. Cross Pilim waypoint at or above
five thousand. Cross Engle waypoint at or above seven
thousand. Cross Gorge waypoint at niner thousand.”
d. Route of flight. Specify one or more of the
following:
1. Airway, route, course, heading, azimuth, arc,
or vector.
2. The routing a pilot can expect if any part of
the route beyond a short range clearance limit differs
from that filed.
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE VIA (airways, routes,
or fixes.)
e. Altitude. Use one of the following in the order
of preference listed. Altitude may be omitted if the
top altitude is published in the SID route description.
NOTE−
Turbojet aircraft equipped with afterburner engines may
occasionally be expected to use afterburning during their
climb to the en route altitude. When so advised by the pilot,
the controller may be able to plan his/her traffic to
accommodate the high performance climb and allow the
pilot to climb to his/her planned altitude without
restriction.
Departure Procedures
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
PCG, Climb Via, Top Altitude
1. To the maximum extent possible, Air Force
One will be cleared unrestricted climb to:
(a) 9,000’ AGL or higher.
(b) If unable 9,000’ AGL or higher, then the
highest available altitude below 9,000’ AGL.
2. Assign the altitude requested by the pilot.
3. Assign an altitude, as near as possible to the
altitude requested by the pilot, and
(a) Inform the pilot when to expect clearance
to the requested altitude unless instructions are
contained in the specified SID, or
(b) If the requested altitude is not expected to
be available, inform the pilot what altitude can be
expected and when/where to expect it.
NOTE−
1. 14 CFR Section 91.185, says that in the event of a
two-way radio communication failure, in VFR conditions
or if VFR conditions are encountered after the failure, the
pilot must continue the flight under VFR and land as soon
as practicable. That section also says that when the failure
occurs in IFR conditions the pilot must continue flight at
the highest of the following altitudes or flight levels for the
route segment being flown:
a. The altitude or flight level assigned in the last ATC
clearance received.
b. The minimum altitude (converted, if appropriate, to
minimum flight level as prescribed in 14 CFR Section 91.121(c)) for IFR operations. (This altitude should be
consistent with MEAs, MOCAs, etc.)
c. The altitude or flight level ATC has advised may be
expected in a further clearance.
2. If the expected altitude is the highest of the preceding
choices, the pilot should begin to climb to that expected
altitude at the time or fix specified in the clearance. The
choice to climb to the expected altitude is not applicable if
the pilot has proceeded beyond the specified fix or if the
time designated in the clearance has expired.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB AND MAINTAIN (the altitude as near as possible
to the pilot’s requested altitude). EXPECT (the requested
altitude or an altitude different from the requested altitude)
AT (time or fix),
and if applicable,
(pilot’s requested altitude) IS NOT AVAILABLE.
EXAMPLE−
1. A pilot has requested flight level 350. Flight level 230
Departure Procedures
JO 7110.65W
is immediately available and flight level 350 will be
available at the Appleton zero five zero radial 35 mile fix.
The clearance will read:
“Climb and maintain flight level two three zero. Expect
flight level three five zero at Appleton zero five zero radial
three five mile fix.”
2. A pilot has requested 9,000 feet. An altitude restriction
is required because of facility procedures or requirements.
Assign the altitude and advise the pilot at what fix/time the
pilot may expect the requested altitude. The clearance
could read:
“Climb and maintain five thousand. Expect niner
thousand one zero minutes after departure.”
3. A pilot has requested 17,000 feet which is unavailable.
You plan 15,000 feet to be the pilot’s highest altitude prior
to descent to the pilot’s destination but only 13,000 feet is
available until San Jose VOR. Advise the pilot of the
expected altitude change and at what fix/time to expect
clearance to 15,000 feet. The clearance will read: “Climb
and maintain one three thousand. Expect one five thousand
at San Jose. One seven thousand is not available.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−3−3, Abbreviated Departure Clearance.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−8−2, Initial Heading.
4. Use one of the following when the SID
contains published crossing restrictions:
(a) When the top altitude is included in the
SID route description, instruct aircraft to “climb via
SID.”
(b) When a top altitude is not published on a
SID that contains published crossing restrictions, or
when it is necessary to issue an interim altitude
instruct the aircraft to “Climb via SID except (altitude
assignment/ change)”.
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared to Johnston Airport, Scott One departure, Jonez
transition, Q-One Forty-five. Climb via SID.”
“Cleared to Johnston Airport, Scott One departure,
Jonez transition, Q-One Forty-five, Climb via SID
except maintain flight level one eight zero.”
“Cleared to Johnston Airport, Scott One departure,
Jonez transition, Q-One Forty-five, Climb Via SID
except maintain flight level one eight zero, expect
flight level three five zero one zero minutes after
departure.”
NOTE−
Considering the principle that the last ATC clearance
issued has precedence over the previous, the
phraseology ’maintain (altitude)’ alone cancels
4−3−3
JO 7110.65W
previously issued altitude restrictions, including
SID/STAR altitude restrictions, unless they are
restated or modified.
REFERENCE−
FAA JO7110.65 Para 4-2-5 Route or Altitude Amendments
AIM 4-4-10 Adherence to Clearance
4−3−3. ABBREVIATED DEPARTURE
CLEARANCE
a. Issue an abbreviated departure clearance if its
use reduces verbiage and the following conditions are
met:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−8, IFR-VFR and VFR-IFR Flights.
1. The route of flight filed with ATC has not
been changed by the pilot, company, operations
officer, input operator, or in the stored flight plan
program prior to departure.
NOTE−
A pilot will not accept an abbreviated clearance if the route
of flight filed with ATC has been changed by him/her or the
company or the operations officer before departure.
He/she is expected to inform the control facility on initial
radio contact if he/she cannot accept the clearance. It is the
responsibility of the company or operations officer to
inform the pilot when they make a change.
2. All ATC facilities concerned have sufficient
route of flight information to exercise their control
responsibilities.
NOTE−
The route of flight information to be provided may be
covered in letters of agreement.
3. When the flight will depart IFR, destination
airport information is relayed between the facilities
concerned prior to departure.
EXAMPLE−
1. A tower or flight service station relay of destination
airport information to the center when requesting
clearance:
“Request clearance for United Four Sixty-One to
O’Hare.”
2. A center relay to the tower or flight service station when
initiating a clearance:
“Clearance for United Four Sixty-One to O’Hare.”
NOTE−
Pilots are expected to furnish the facility concerned with
destination airport information on initial radio call-up.
This will provide the information necessary for detecting
any destination airport differences on facility relay.
4−3−4
12/10/15
4. The assigned altitude, according to the
provisions in para 4−3−2, Departure Clearances,
subparagraph e, is stated in the clearance. Where a top
altitude is published in the SID route description it
may be omitted.
b. If it is necessary to modify a filed route of flight
in order to achieve computer acceptance due, for
example, to incorrect fix or airway identification, the
contraction “FRC,” meaning “Full Route Clearance
Necessary,” or “FRC/(fix),” will be added to the
remarks. “FRC” or “FRC/(fix)” must always be the
first item of intra-center remarks. When “FRC” or
“FRC/(fix)” appears on a flight progress strip, the
controller issuing the ATC clearance to the aircraft
must issue a full route clearance to the specified fix,
or, if no fix is specified, for the entire route.
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared to Missoula International Airport, Chief Two
Departure to Angley; direct Salina; then as filed; maintain
one seven thousand.”
NOTE−
Changes, such as those made to conform with traffic flows
and preferred routings, are only permitted to be made by
the pilot (or his/her operations office) or the controller
responsible for initiating the clearance to the aircraft.
c. Specify the destination airport in the clearance.
d. When no changes are required in the filed route,
state the phrase: “Cleared to (destination) airport,
([SID name and number] and SID transition, as
appropriate); then, as filed.” If a SID is not assigned,
follow with “As filed.”
1. Specify the assigned altitude. The altitude
may be omitted and pilots instructed to “climb via
SID” when a top altitude is published in the SID route
description.
2. When the SID has published altitude
restrictions but the top altitude is not published or
must be changed, state the phrase “climb via SID
except maintain” to assign the top altitude. If
required, add any additional instructions or
information, including final requested altitude if
different than assigned except if Pre−Departure
Clearance (PDC) is utilized.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT;
and as appropriate,
(SID name and number) DEPARTURE,
THEN AS FILED.
Departure Procedures
12/10/15
MAINTAIN (altitude); (additional instructions or
information).
Or as appropriate,
CLIMB VIA SID.
CLIMB VIA SID except maintain (altitude); (additional
instructions or information).
If a SID is not assigned,
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT AS FILED.
MAINTAIN (altitude);
and if required,
(additional instructions or information).
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport; David Two Departure,
Kingham Transition; then, as filed. Maintain niner
thousand. Expect flight level four one zero, one zero
minutes after departure.”
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport; David Two Departure,
Kingham Transition; then, as filed. Climb via SID.”
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport; David Two Departure,
Kingham Transition; then, as filed. Climb via SID except
maintain flight level two four zero. Expect flight level four
one zero, one zero minutes after departure.
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport as filed. Maintain niner
thousand. Expect flight level four one zero, one zero
minutes after departure.”
NOTE−
1. SIDs are excluded from “cleared as filed” procedures.
2. If a pilot does not wish to accept an ATC clearance to
fly a SID, he/she is expected to advise ATC or state
“NO SID” in his/her flight plan remarks.
REFERENCE−
PCG, Climb Via, Top Altitude
e. When a filed route will require revisions, the
controller responsible for initiating the clearance to
the aircraft must either:
1. Issue a FRC/FRC until a fix; or
2. If it reduces verbiage, state the phrase:
“Cleared to (destination) airport, or cleared NAVAID,
intersection, or waypoint (type if known), (SID name
Departure Procedures
JO 7110.65W
and number and SID transition, as appropriate), then
as filed, except ...” Specify the necessary revision.
3. Specify the assigned altitude. The altitude
may be omitted and pilots instructed to “climb via
SID” when a top altitude is published in the SID route
description.
4. When the SID has published altitude
restrictions but the top altitude is not published or
must be changed state the phrase “climb via SID
except maintain” and the assign the top altitude. If
required, add any additional instructions or information.
5. If a SID is not assigned, state: “Cleared to
(destination) airport or cleared to NAVAID,
intersection, or waypoint (type if known) as filed,
except ...” Specify the necessary revision, the
assigned altitude; and if required, add any additional
instructions or information.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT.
Or
CLEARED TO (NAVAID name and type).
Or
CLEARED TO (intersection or waypoint name and
type).
and as appropriate,
(SID name and number) DEPARTURE,
(transition name) TRANSITION; THEN,
AS FILED, EXCEPT CHANGE ROUTE TO READ
(amended route portion).
MAINTAIN (altitude);
Or as appropriate,
CLIMB VIA SID
CLIMB VIA SID except maintain (altitude); (additional
instructions or information);
and if required,
(additional instructions or information).
4−3−5
JO 7110.65W
If a SID is not assigned,
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT AS FILED,
EXCEPT CHANGE ROUTE TO READ (amended route
portion).
MAINTAIN (altitude);
and if required,
(additional instructions or information).
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport; South Boston One
Departure; then, as filed, except change route to read
South Boston Victor Twenty Greensboro. Maintain
eight thousand, report leaving four thousand.”
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport; South Boston One
Departure; then, as filed, except change route to read South
Boston Victor Twenty Greensboro; climb via SID.”
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport; South Boston One
Departure; then, as filed, except change route to read South
Boston Victor Twenty Greensboro; climb via SID except
maintain flight level one eight zero, expect flight level three
one zero one zero minutes after departure.”
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport as filed, except change route
to read South Boston Victor Twenty Greensboro. Maintain
eight thousand, report leaving four thousand.”
“Cleared to Reynolds Airport via Victor Ninety-one
Albany, then as filed. Maintain six thousand.”
f. In a nonradar environment specify one, two, or
more fixes, as necessary, to identify the initial route
of flight.
1. Specify the destination airport, when practicable, followed by the word “airport” even though it is
outside controlled airspace.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT
2. When the clearance limit is a NAVAID, the
type of NAVAID must follow the NAVAID name.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (NAVAID name and type)
3. When the clearance limit is an intersection or
waypoint and the type is known, the type must follow
the intersection or waypoint name.
4−3−6
12/10/15
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (intersection or waypoint name and type)
EXAMPLE−
The filed route of flight is from Hutchins V10 Emporia,
thence V10N and V77 to St. Joseph. The clearance will
read:
“Cleared to Watson Airport as filed via Emporia, maintain
Seven Thousand.”
g. Do not apply these procedures when a pilot
requests a detailed clearance or to military operations
conducted within ALTRV, stereo routes, operations
above FL 600, and other military operations requiring
special handling.
NOTE−
Departure clearance procedures and phraseology for
military operations within approved altitude reservations,
military operations above FL 600, and other military
operations requiring special handling are contained in
separate procedures in this order or in a LOA, as
appropriate.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−7, ALTRV Clearance.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−14, Military Operations Above FL 600.
4−3−4. DEPARTURE RESTRICTIONS,
CLEARANCE VOID TIMES, HOLD FOR
RELEASE, AND RELEASE TIMES
Assign departure restrictions, clearance void times,
hold for release, or release times when necessary to
separate departures from other traffic or to restrict or
regulate the departure flow.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−3−1, Overdue Aircraft.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−4−1, Traffic Restrictions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−4−3, Traffic Resumption.
a. Clearance Void Times.
1. When issuing clearance void times at airports
not served by control towers, provide alternative
instructions requiring the pilots to advise ATC of their
intentions no later than 30 minutes after the clearance
void time if not airborne.
2. The facility delivering a clearance void time
to a pilot must issue a time check.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARANCE VOID IF NOT OFF BY (clearance void
time),
and if required,
IF NOT OFF BY (clearance void time), ADVISE (facility)
NOT LATER THAN (time) OF INTENTIONS.
Departure Procedures
12/10/15
TIME (time in hours, minutes, and the nearest quarter
minute).
b. Hold For Release (HFR).
1. “Hold for release” instructions must be used
when necessary to inform a pilot or a controller that
a departure clearance is not valid until additional
instructions are received.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Hold for Release.
2. When issuing hold for release instructions,
include departure delay information.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft identification) CLEARED TO (destination)
AIRPORT AS FILED, MAINTAIN (altitude),
and if required,
(additional instructions or information).
HOLD FOR RELEASE, EXPECT (time in hours and/or
minutes) DEPARTURE DELAY.
3. When conditions allow, release the aircraft as
soon as possible.
PHRASEOLOGY−
To another controller,
JO 7110.65W
2. The facility issuing a release time to a pilot
must include a time check.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft identification) RELEASED FOR DEPARTURE
AT (time in hours and/or minutes),
and if required,
IF NOT OFF BY (time), ADVISE (facility) NOT LATER
THAN (time) OF INTENTIONS.
TIME (time in hours, minutes, and nearest quarter minute).
d. When expect departure clearance times
(EDCT) are assigned through traffic management
programs, excluding overriding call for release
(CFR) operations as described in subparagraph e, the
departure terminal must, to the extent possible, plan
ground movement of aircraft destined to the affected
airport(s) so that flights are sequenced to depart no
earlier than 5 minutes before, and no later than 5
minutes after the EDCT. Do not release aircraft on
their assigned EDCT if a ground stop (GS) applicable
to that aircraft is in effect, unless approval has been
received from the originator of the GS.
e. Call for Release (CFR). When CFR is in effect,
release aircraft so they are airborne within a window
that extends from 2 minutes prior and ends 1 minute
after the assigned time, unless otherwise coordinated.
NOTE−
1. Subparagraph (e) applies to all facilities.
(aircraft identification) RELEASED.
2. Coordination may be verbal, electronic, or written.
To a flight service specialist,
1. If an aircraft has begun to taxi or requests taxi
in a manner consistent with meeting the EDCT, the
aircraft must be released. Additional coordination is
not required.
ADVISE (aircraft identification) RELEASED FOR
DEPARTURE.
To a pilot at an airport not served by a control tower,
(aircraft identification) RELEASED FOR DEPARTURE.
c. Release Times.
1. Release times must be issued to pilots when
necessary to specify the earliest time an aircraft may
depart.
NOTE−
A release time is a departure restriction issued to a pilot
(either directly or through authorized relay) to separate a
departing aircraft from other traffic.
Departure Procedures
2. If an aircraft requests taxi or clearance for
departure inconsistent with meeting the EDCT
window, ask the pilot to verify the EDCT.
(a) If the pilot’s EDCT is the same as the FAA
EDCT, the aircraft is released consistent with the
EDCT.
(b) If the pilot’s EDCT is not the same as the
FAA EDCT, refer to Trust and Verify Note below.
3. If an aircraft requests taxi too late to meet the
EDCT, contact the ATCSCC through the appropriate
TMU.
4−3−7
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
(Trust & Verify) EDCTs are revised by Air Carriers and
Traffic Management for changing conditions en route or at
affected airport(s). Terminal controllers’ use of aircraft
reported EDCT for departure sequencing should be
verified with the appropriate TMU prior to departure if this
can be accomplished without the aircraft incurring delay
beyond the EDCT reported by the aircraft. The preferred
method for verification is the Flight Schedule Monitor
(FSM). If the EDCT cannot be verified without incurring
additional delay, the aircraft should be released based on
the pilot reported EDCT. The aircraft operator is
responsible for operating in a manner consistent to meet
the EDCT.
4−3−5. GROUND STOP
Do not release an aircraft if a ground stop (GS)
applicable to that aircraft is in effect, without the
approval of the originator of the GS.
4−3−6. DELAY SEQUENCING
When aircraft elect to take delay on the ground before
departure, issue departure clearances to them in the
order in which the requests for clearance were
originally made if practicable.
4−3−7. FORWARD DEPARTURE DELAY
INFORMATION
Inform approach control facilities and/or towers of
anticipated departure delays.
4−3−8. COORDINATION WITH RECEIVING
FACILITY
a. Coordinate with the receiving facility before the
departure of an aircraft if the departure point is less
than 15 minutes flying time from the transferring
facility’s boundary unless an automatic transfer of
data between automated systems will occur, in which
case, the flying time requirement may be reduced to
5 minutes or replaced with a mileage from the
boundary parameter when mutually agreeable to both
facilities.
NOTE−
Agreements requiring additional time are encouraged
between facilities that need earlier coordination. However,
when agreements establish mandatory radar handoff
procedures, coordination needs only be effected in a timely
manner prior to transfer of control.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 5, Section 4, Transfer of Radar
Identification, Para 5−4−1, Application.
4−3−8
12/10/15
b. The actual departure time or a subsequent strip
posting time must be forwarded to the receiving
facility unless assumed departure times are agreed
upon and that time is within 3 minutes of the actual
departure time.
4−3−9. VFR RELEASE OF IFR DEPARTURE
When an aircraft which has filed an IFR flight plan
requests a VFR departure through a terminal facility,
FSS, or air/ground communications station:
a. After obtaining, if necessary, approval from the
facility/sector responsible for issuing the IFR
clearance, you may authorize an IFR flight planned
aircraft to depart VFR. Inform the pilot of the proper
frequency and, if appropriate, where or when to
contact the facility responsible for issuing the
clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VFR DEPARTURE AUTHORIZED. CONTACT (facility)
ON (frequency) AT (location or time if required) FOR
CLEARANCE.
b. If the facility/sector responsible for issuing the
clearance is unable to issue a clearance, inform the
pilot, and suggest that the delay be taken on the
ground. If the pilot insists upon taking off VFR and
obtaining an IFR clearance in the air, inform the
facility/sector holding the flight plan of the pilot’s
intentions and, if possible, the VFR departure time.
4−3−10. FORWARDING DEPARTURE TIMES
TERMINAL
Unless alternate procedures are prescribed in a letter
of agreement or automatic departure messages are
being transmitted between automated facilities,
forward departure times to the facility from which
you received the clearance and also to the terminal
departure controller when that position is involved in
the departure sequence.
NOTE−
1. Letters of agreement prescribing assumed departure
times or mandatory radar handoff procedures are
alternatives for providing equivalent procedures.
2. The letters “DM” flashing in the data block signify
unsuccessful transmission of a departure message.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 11−2−6, Automatic Acquisition/Termination
Areas.
Departure Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 4. Route Assignment
4−4−1. ROUTE USE
Clear aircraft via routes consistent with the altitude
stratum in which the operation is to be conducted by
one or more of the following:
NOTE−
Except for certain NAVAIDs/routes used by scheduled air
carriers or authorized for specific uses in the control of IFR
aircraft, Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes, and NAVAIDs
established for use at specified altitudes are shown on
U.S. government charts or DOD FLIP charts.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−5−2, NAVAID Terms.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−1−2, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−6, Minimum En Route Altitudes.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−1, Application.
a. Designated ATS routes.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VIA:
VICTOR (color) (airway number)(the word Romeo when
RNAV for existing Alaska routes),
or
J (route number) (the word Romeo when RNAV for existing
Alaska routes),
or
Q (route number)
or
Tango (route number)
or
SUBSTITUTE (ATS route) FROM (fix) to (fix),
or
IR (route number).
CROSS/JOIN VICTOR/(color) (airway number), (number
of miles) MILES (direction) OF (fix).
b. Radials, courses, azimuths to or from
NAVAIDs.
Route Assignment
PHRASEOLOGY−
VIA;
(name of NAVAID) (specified) RADIAL/COURSE/
AZIMUTH,
or
(fix) AND (fix),
or
RADIALS OF (ATS route) AND (ATS route).
c. Random routes.
1. When not being radar monitored,
GNSS-equipped RNAV aircraft on random RNAV
routes must be cleared via or reported to be
established on a point-to-point route.
(a) The points must be published NAVAIDs,
waypoints, fixes or airports recallable from the
aircraft’s navigation database. The points must be
displayed on controller video maps or depicted on the
controller chart displayed at the control position.
When applying nonradar separation the maximum
distance between points must not exceed 500 miles.
(b) Protect 4 miles either side of the route
centerline.
(c) Assigned altitudes must be at or above the
highest MIA along the projected route segment being
flown, including the protected airspace of that route
segment.
2. Impromptu
PHRASEOLOGY−
DIRECT (name of NAVAID/waypoint/fix/airport)
NOTE−
A random impromptu routing is a direct course initiated by
ATC or requested by the pilot during flight. Aircraft are
cleared from their present position to a NAVAID, waypoint,
fix, or airport.
3. Point-to-Point
PHRASEOLOGY−
After (fix) proceed direct (fix)
NOTE−
A point-to-point route segment begins and ends with a
published NAVAID, waypoint, fix, or airport.
d. DME arcs of NAVAIDS.
4−4−1
JO 7110.65W
e. Radials, courses, azimuths, and headings of
departure or arrival routes.
f. SIDs/STARs.
g. Vectors.
h. Fixes defined in terms of degree-distance from
NAVAIDs for special military operations.
i. Courses, azimuths, bearings, quadrants, or
radials within a radius of a NAVAID.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO FLY (general direction from NAVAID) OF
(NAVAID name and type) BETWEEN (specified)
COURSES TO/BEARINGS FROM/RADIALS (NAVAID
name when a NDB) WITHIN (number of miles) MILE
RADIUS,
or
CLEARED TO FLY (specified) QUADRANT OF (NAVAID
name and type) WITHIN (number of miles) MILE RADIUS.
EXAMPLE−
1. “Cleared to fly east of Allentown VORTAC between the
zero four five and the one three five radials within four zero
mile radius.”
2. “Cleared to fly east of Crystal Lake radio beacon
between the two two five and the three one five courses to
Crystal Lake within three zero mile radius.”
3. “Cleared to fly northeast quadrant of Philipsburg
VORTAC within four zero mile radius.”
j. Fixes/waypoints defined in terms of:
1. Published name; or
2. Degree-distance from NAVAIDs; or
3. Latitude/longitude coordinates, state the
latitude and longitude in degrees and minutes
including the direction from the axis such as North or
West; or
PHRASEOLOGY−
“32 DEGREES, 45 MINUTES NORTH,
105 DEGREES, 37 MINUTES WEST.”
4. Offset from published or established ATS
route at a specified distance and direction for random
(impromptu) RNAV Routes.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DIRECT (fix/waypoint)
4−4−2
12/10/15
DIRECT TO THE (facility) (radial) (distance) FIX.
OFFSET(distance) RIGHT/LEFT OF (route).
EXAMPLE−
“Direct SUNOL.”
“Direct to the Appleton three one zero radial two five mile
fix.”
“Offset eight miles right of Victor six.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-3-8 Aircraft Equipment Suffix.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-5-3 NAVAID Fixes
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-1-2, Exceptions
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-1, Application
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6-5-4, Minima Along Other Than Established
Airways or Routes.
P/CG Term - Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)[ICAO].
4−4−2. ROUTE STRUCTURE TRANSITIONS
To effect transition within or between route
structures, clear an aircraft by one or more of the
following methods, based on NAVAIDs or RNAV:
a. Vector aircraft to or from radials, courses, or
azimuths of the ATS route assigned.
b. Assign a SID/STAR.
c. Clear departing or arriving aircraft to climb or
descend via radials, courses, or azimuths of the ATS
route assigned.
d. Clear departing or arriving aircraft directly to or
between the NAVAIDs forming the ATS route
assigned.
e. Clear aircraft to climb or descend via the ATS
route on which flight will be conducted.
f. Clear aircraft to climb or descend on specified
radials, courses, or azimuths of NAVAIDs.
g. Clear RNAV aircraft between designated or
established ATS routes via random RNAV routes to
a NAVAID, waypoint, airport or fix on the new route.
h. Provide radar monitoring to RNAV equipped
aircraft transitioning via random RNAV routes.
EXCEPTION. GNSS equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S,
and /V not on a random impromptu route.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-1-2, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-4-1, Route Use.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-1, Application.
P/CG Term − Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)[ICAO].
Route Assignment
12/10/15
4−4−3. DEGREE-DISTANCE ROUTE
DEFINITION FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS
EN ROUTE
a. Do not accept a military flight plan whose route
or route segments do not coincide with designated
airways or jet routes or with a direct course between
NAVAIDs unless it is authorized in subpara b and
meets the following degree-distance route definition
and procedural requirements:
1. The route or route segments must be defined
in the flight plan by degree-distance fixes composed
of:
(a) A location identifier;
(b) Azimuth in degrees magnetic; and
(c) Distance in miles from the NAVAID used.
EXAMPLE−
“MKE 030025.”
2. The NAVAIDs selected to define the
degree-distance fixes must be those authorized for
use at the altitude being flown and at a distance within
the published service volume area.
3. The distance between the fixes used to define
the route must not exceed:
(a) Below FL 180− 80 miles;
(b) FL 180 and above− 260 miles; and
(c) For celestial navigation routes, all
altitudes− 260 miles.
4. Degree-distance fixes used to define a route
must be considered compulsory reporting points
except that an aircraft may be authorized by ATC to
omit reports when traffic conditions permit.
5. Military aircraft using degree-distance route
definition procedures must conduct operations in
accordance with the following:
JO 7110.65W
b. The following special military operations are
authorized to define routes, or portions of routes, by
degree-distance fixes:
1. Airborne radar navigation, radar bomb
scoring (RBS), and airborne missile programming
conducted by the USAF, USN, and RAF.
2. Celestial navigation conducted by the USAF,
USN, and RAF.
3. Target aircraft operating in conjunction with
air defense interceptors, and air defense interceptors
while en route to and from assigned airspace.
4. Missions conducted above FL 450.
5. USN fighter and attack aircraft operating in
positive control airspace.
6. USN/USMC aircraft, TACAN equipped,
operating within the Honolulu FIR/Hawaiian airways
area.
7. USAF/USN/USMC aircraft flight planned to
operate on MTRs.
8. USAF Air Mobility Command (AMC)
aircraft operating on approved station-keeping
equipment (SKE) routes in accordance with the
conditions and limitations listed in FAA Exemption
No. 4371 to 14 CFR Section 91.177(a)(2) and
14 CFR Section 91.179(b)(1).
4−4−4. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES
When any part of an airway or route is unusable
because of NAVAID status, clear aircraft that are not
RNAV capable via one of the following alternative
routes:
a. A route depicted on current U.S. Government
charts/publications. Use the word “substitute”
immediately preceding the alternative route in
issuing the clearance.
b. A route defined by specifying NAVAID radials,
courses, or azimuths.
(a) Unless prior coordination has been
effected with the appropriate air traffic control
facility, flight plan the departure and the arrival
phases to conform with the routine flow of traffic
when operating within 75 miles of the departure and
the arrival airport. Use defined routes or airways or
direct courses between NAVAIDs or as otherwise
required to conform to the normal flow of traffic.
c. A route defined as direct to or between
NAVAIDs.
(b) Flight plans must be filed at least 2 hours
before the estimated time of departure.
Include routes through Class G airspace only when
requested by the pilot.
Route Assignment
d. Vectors.
NOTE−
Inform area navigation aircraft that will proceed to the
NAVAID location of the NAVAID outage.
4−4−5. CLASS G AIRSPACE
4−4−3
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
1. Flight plans filed for random RNAV routes through
Class G airspace are considered a request by the pilot.
2. Flight plans containing MTR segments in/through
Class G airspace are considered a request by the pilot.
4−4−6. DIRECT CLEARANCES
a. Unless operational necessity dictates, do not
issue a routing clearance that will take an aircraft off
of its flight plan route if:
1. The aircraft is part of a known traffic
management initiative.
2. The part of the route under consideration for
the direct routing is within a protected segment. If a
flight routing within a protected segment is amended,
coordination must be accomplished as follows:
4−4−4
12/10/15
(a) ATCS: with TMU.
(b) Terminal facility TMU: with overlying
ARTCC TMU.
(c) ARTCC TMU (for amendments outside
their facility): with ATCSCC.
b. EN ROUTE. Do not issue revised routing
clearances that will take an aircraft off its flight plan
route past the last fix in your facility’s airspace, unless
requested by the pilot or operational necessity
dictates.
NOTE−
Nothing in this paragraph must preclude a controller from
issuing a routing clearance that conforms to a letter of
agreement or standard operating procedure within their
own facility or between facilities, is required to maintain
separation or comply with traffic flow management
initiatives.
Route Assignment
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 5. Altitude Assignment and Verification
4−5−1. VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMA
Separate instrument flight rules (IFR) aircraft using
the following minima between altitudes:
Aircraft
Operating
Above FL 410
On course
degrees
magnetic
Assign
Examples
0 through 179
Odd cardinal
flight levels at
intervals of
4,000 feet
beginning with
FL 450
FL 450,
FL 490,
FL 530
180 through 359
Odd cardinal
flight levels at
intervals of
4,000 feet
beginning with
FL 430
FL 430,
FL 470,
FL 510
One way
routes (except
in composite
systems)
Any course
Any cardinal
altitude or
flight level
below FL 410
or any odd
cardinal flight
level above
FL 410
FL 270,
FL 280,
FL 290,
FL 300,
FL 310,
FL 410,
FL 430,
FL 450
Within an
ALTRV
Any course
Any altitude or
flight level
Any course
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−5, Vertical Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−6−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−14, Military Operations Above FL 600.
In transition
to/from or
within Oceanic
airspace where
composite
separation is
authorized
Any odd or
even cardinal
flight level
including those
above FL 290
FL 280,
FL 290,
FL 300,
FL 310,
FL 320,
FL 330,
FL 340
Any course
4−5−2. FLIGHT DIRECTION
In aerial
refueling
tracks and
anchors
Altitude blocks
as requested.
Any altitude or
flight level
050B080,
FL 180B220,
FL 280B310
a. Up to and including FL 410− 1,000 feet.
b. Apply 2,000 feet at or above FL 290 between
non−RVSM aircraft and all other aircraft at or above
FL 290.
c. Above FL 410− 2,000 feet, except:
1. In oceanic airspace, above FL 450 between a
supersonic and any other aircraft− 4,000 feet.
2. Above FL 600 between military aircraft−
5,000 feet.
NOTE−
Oceanic separation procedures are supplemented in
Chapter 8; Section 7, Section 8, Section 9 , and Section 10.
Clear aircraft at altitudes according to the
TBL 4−5−1.
4−5−3. EXCEPTIONS
TBL 4−5−1
Altitude Assignment
Aircraft
Operating
On course
degrees
magnetic
Assign
Examples
Below 3,000
feet above
surface
Any course
Any altitude
At and below
FL 410
0 through 179
Odd cardinal
altitude or
flight levels at
intervals of
2,000 feet
3,000, 5,000,
FL 310,
FL 330
Even cardinal
altitude or
flight levels at
intervals of
2,000 feet
4,000, 6,000,
FL 320,
FL 340
180 through 359
Altitude Assignment and Verification
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−3, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−5, Altitude Assignments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−3−2, Separation Minima.
When traffic, meteorological conditions, or aircraft
operational limitations prevent assignment of
altitudes prescribed in para 4−5−2, Flight Direction,
assign any cardinal altitude or flight level below
FL 410 or any odd cardinal flight level at or above
FL 410 without regard to direction of flight as
follows:
NOTE−
See para 2−3−10, Control Symbology, for control
abbreviations and symbols to be used in conjunction with
this paragraph.
a. For traffic conditions, take this action only if
one of the following conditions exists:
4−5−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
1. Aircraft remain within a facility’s area and
prior approval is obtained from other affected
positions or sectors or the operations are covered in
a Facility Directive.
2. Aircraft will proceed beyond the facility’s
area and specific operations and procedures
permitting random altitude assignment are covered in
a letter of agreement between the appropriate
facilities.
b. Military aircraft are operating on random routes
and prior approval is obtained from the facility
concerned.
c. For meteorological conditions, take this action
only if you obtain prior approval from other affected
positions or sectors within your facility and, if
necessary, from the adjacent facility concerned.
d. For aircraft operational limitations, take this
action only if the pilot informs you the available
appropriate altitude exceeds the operational limitations of his/her aircraft and only after you obtain prior
approval from other affected positions or sectors
within your facility and, if necessary, from the
adjacent facility concerned.
e. For mission requirements, take this action only
when the aircraft is operating on an MTR.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−5, Altitude Assignments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−3−2, Separation Minima.
4−5−4. LOWEST USABLE FLIGHT LEVEL
If a change in atmospheric pressure affects a usable
flight level in your area of jurisdiction, use
TBL 4−5−2 to determine the lowest usable flight
level to clear aircraft at or above 18,000 feet MSL.
TBL 4−5−2
Lowest Usable FL
Altimeter Setting
29.92” or higher
29.91” to 28.92”
28.91” to 27.92”
Lowest Usable FL
180
190
200
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−3−2, Separation Minima.
4−5−2
4−5−5. ADJUSTED MINIMUM FLIGHT
LEVEL
When the prescribed minimum altitude for IFR
operations is at or above 18,000 feet MSL and the
atmospheric pressure is less than 29.92”, add the
appropriate adjustment factor from TBL 4−5−3 to the
flight level equivalent of the minimum altitude in feet
to determine the adjusted minimum flight level.
TBL 4−5−3
Minimum FL Adjustment
Altimeter Setting
Adjustment Factor
29.92” or higher
None
29.91” to 29.42”
500 feet
29.41” to 28.92”
1,000 feet
28.91” to 28.42”
1,500 feet
28.41” to 27.92”
2,000 feet
4−5−6. MINIMUM EN ROUTE ALTITUDES
Except as provided in subparas a and b below, assign
altitudes at or above the MEA for the route segment
being flown. When a lower MEA for subsequent
segments of the route is applicable, issue the lower
MEA only after the aircraft is over or past the
Fix/NAVAID beyond which the lower MEA applies
unless a crossing restriction at or above the higher
MEA is issued.
a. An aircraft may be cleared below the MEA but
not below the MOCA for the route segment being
flown if the altitude assigned is at least 300 feet above
the floor of controlled airspace and one of the
following conditions are met:
NOTE−
Controllers must be aware that in the event of radio
communications failure, a pilot will climb to the MEA for
the route segment being flown.
1. Nonradar procedures are used only within
22 miles of a VOR, VORTAC, or TACAN.
2. Radar procedures are used only when an
operational advantage is realized and the following
actions are taken:
(a) Radar navigational guidance is provided
until the aircraft is within 22 miles of the NAVAID,
and
(b) Lost communications instructions are
issued.
b. An aircraft may be cleared to operate on jet
routes below the MEA (but not below the prescribed
Altitude Assignment and Verification
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
minimum altitude for IFR operations) or above the
maximum authorized altitude if, in either case, radar
service is provided.
e. Where MEAs have not been established, clear
an aircraft at or above the minimum altitude for IFR
operations prescribed by 14 CFR Section 91.177.
NOTE−
Minimum en route and maximum authorized altitudes for
certain jet route segments have been established above the
floor of the jet route structure due to limitations on
navigational signal coverage.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−8, IFR-VFR and VFR-IFR Flights.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−4−1, Route Use.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 5, Section 6, Para 5−6−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−5, Altitude Assignments.
c. Where a higher altitude is required because of an
MEA, the aircraft must be cleared to begin climb to
the higher MEA as follows:
4−5−7. ALTITUDE INFORMATION
1. If no MCA is specified, prior to or
immediately after passing the fix where the higher
MEA is designated. (See FIG 4−5−1.)
FIG 4−5−1
No MCA Specified
Issue altitude instructions as follows:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−1, Clearance Items.
a. Altitude to maintain or cruise. When issuing
cruise in conjunction with an airport clearance limit
and an unpublished route will be used, issue an
appropriate crossing altitude to ensure terrain
clearance until the aircraft reaches a fix, point, or
route where the altitude information is available to
the pilot. When issuing a cruise clearance to an airport
which does not have a published instrument
approach, a cruise clearance without a crossing
restriction may be issued.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN/CRUISE (altitude). MAINTAIN (altitude)
UNTIL (time, fix, waypoint),
or
2. If a MCA is specified, prior to the fix so as to
cross the fix at or above the MCA. (See FIG 4−5−2.)
FIG 4−5−2
MCA Specified
(number of miles or minutes) MILES/MINUTES PAST (fix,
waypoint).
CROSS (fix, point, waypoint),
or
INTERCEPT (route) AT OR ABOVE (altitude), CRUISE
(altitude).
NOTE−
1. The crossing altitude must assure IFR obstruction
clearance to the point where the aircraft is established on
a segment of a published route or instrument approach
procedure.
d. GNSS MEAs may be approved on published
ATS routes. Air traffic may assign GNSS MEAs to
GNSS−equipped aircraft where established.
NOTE−
On high altitude ATS routes, the GNSS MEA is FL180
unless published higher.
Altitude Assignment and Verification
2. When an aircraft is issued a cruise clearance to an
airport which does not have a published instrument
approach procedure, it is not possible to satisfy the
requirement for a crossing altitude that will ensure terrain
clearance until the aircraft reaches a fix, point, or route
where altitude information is available to the pilot. Under
those conditions, a cruise clearance without a crossing
restriction authorizes a pilot to determine the minimum
IFR altitude as prescribed in 14 CFR Section 91.177 and
4−5−3
JO 7110.65W
descend to it at pilot discretion if it is lower than the altitude
specified in the cruise clearance.
b. Instructions to climb or descend including
restrictions, as required. Specify a time restriction
reference the UTC clock reading with a time check.
If you are relaying through an authorized communications provider, such as ARINC, FSS, etc., advise the
radio operator to issue the current time to the aircraft
when the clearance is relayed. The requirement to
issue a time check must be disregarded if the
clearance is issued via Controller Pilot Data Link
Communications (CPDLC).
12/10/15
CLIMB/DESCEND TO REACH (altitude)
AT (time (issue time check) or fix, waypoint),
or
AT (time). CLIMB/DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (altitude)
WHEN ESTABLISHED AT LEAST (number of miles or
minutes) MILES/MINUTES PAST (fix, waypoint) ON THE
(NAVAID) (specified) RADIAL.
CLIMB/DESCEND TO REACH (altitude) AT (time or fix,
waypoint),
or
EXCEPTION. If you are in direct, two-way,
VHF/UHF voice communication with the pilot and
the aircraft is in radar contact, you may specify an
elapsed time interval restriction, in full minute
increments only, without any reference to the UTC
clock. The time restriction begins once the clearance
has been acknowledged by the pilot.
A POINT (number of miles) MILES (direction) OF (name
of DME NAVAID),
EXAMPLE−
1. “United Four Seventeen, climb to reach one three
thousand at two two one five.”
“Time two two one one and one−quarter.”
The pilot is expected to be level at 13,000 feet at 2215 UTC.
Through relay:
2. Through Relay−“Speedbird Five, climb to reach flight
level three−five zero at one−two−one−five, time” (Issue a
time check).
3. In radar contact and in direct controller to pilot,
two-way, VHF/UHF voice communication - “United Four
Seventeen, descend to reach flight level three five zero
within two minutes.” The time restriction begins once the
clearance has been acknowledged by the pilot.
4. “United Four Seventeen climb to leave flight level three
three zero within two minutes, maintain flight level three
five zero.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 1−2−1, Word Meanings.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−17, Numbers Usage.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB/DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (altitude).
If required,
AFTER PASSING (fix, waypoint),
or
AT (time) (time in hours, minutes, and nearest quarter
minute).
4−5−4
or
MAINTAIN (altitude) UNTIL (time (issue time check), fix,
waypoint), THEN CLIMB/DESCEND AND MAINTAIN
(altitude).
CLIMB TO REACH (altitude) AT (time) (issue a time
check).
Or
Using a time interval while in radar contact and in direct
controller to pilot, two-way, VHF/UHF voice
communication:
CLIMB/DESCEND TO REACH/LEAVE (altitude)
WITHIN (number) MINUTES, MAINTAIN (altitude).
Or
CLIMB/DESCEND TO REACH/LEAVE (altitude) IN
(number) MINUTES OR LESS, MAINTAIN (altitude).
c. Specified altitude for crossing a specified fix or
waypoint; or, specified altitude for crossing a
distance (in miles) and direction from a specified fix
or waypoint.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CROSS (fix, waypoint) AT (altitude).
CROSS (fix, waypoint) AT OR ABOVE/BELOW (altitude).
CROSS (number of miles) MILES (direction) OF (name of
fix, waypoint) AT (altitude).
CROSS (number of miles) MILES (direction) OF (name of
fix, waypoint) AT OR ABOVE/BELOW (altitude).
d. A specified altitude over a specified fix for that
portion of a descent clearance where descent at pilot’s
Altitude Assignment and Verification
12/10/15
discretion is permissible. At any other time it is
practicable, authorize climb/descent at pilot’s
discretion.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB/DESCEND AT PILOT’S DISCRETION.
EXAMPLE−
“United Four Seventeen, descend and maintain six thousand.”
NOTE−
The pilot is expected to commence descent upon receipt of
the clearance and to descend at the suggested rates
specified in the AIM, para 4−4−10, Adherence to
Clearance, until reaching the assigned altitude of
6,000 feet.
EXAMPLE−
“United Four Seventeen, descend at pilot’s discretion,
maintain six thousand.”
NOTE−
The pilot is authorized to conduct descent within the
context of the term “at pilot’s discretion” as described in
the AIM.
EXAMPLE−
“United Four Seventeen cross Lakeview V−O−R at or
above flight level two zero zero, descend and maintain
six thousand.”
NOTE−
The pilot is authorized to conduct descent “at pilot’s
discretion” until reaching Lakeview VOR. The pilot must
comply with the clearance provision to cross the Lakeview
VOR at or above FL 200, and after passing Lakeview VOR,
the pilot is expected to descend at the rates specified in the
AIM until reaching the assigned altitude of 6,000 feet.
EXAMPLE−
“United Four Seventeen, cross Lakeview V−O−R at and
maintain six thousand.”
NOTE−
The pilot is authorized to conduct descent “at pilot’s
discretion,” but must comply with the clearance provision
to cross Lakeview VOR at 6,000 feet.
EXAMPLE−
“United Four Seventeen, descend now to flight level two
seven zero, cross Lakeview V−O−R at or below one zero
thousand, descend and maintain six thousand.”
NOTE−
The pilot is expected to promptly execute and complete
descent to FL 270 upon receipt of the clearance. After
reaching FL 270, the pilot is authorized to descend “at
pilot’s discretion” until reaching Lakeview VOR. The pilot
must comply with the clearance provision to cross
Lakeview VOR at or below 10,000 feet. After Lakeview
VOR, the pilot is expected to descend at the rates specified
in the AIM until reaching 6,000 feet.
Altitude Assignment and Verification
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
1. A descent clearance which specifies a crossing altitude
authorizes descent at pilot’s discretion for that portion of
the flight to which the crossing altitude restriction applies.
2. Any other time that authorization to descend at pilot’s
discretion is intended, it must be specifically stated by the
controller.
3. The pilot may need to know of any future restrictions
that might affect the descent, including those that may be
issued in another sector, in order to properly plan a descent
at pilot’s discretion.
4. Controllers need to be aware that the descent rates in
the AIM are only suggested and aircraft will not always
descend at those rates.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Pilot’s Discretion.
e. When a portion of a climb/descent may be
authorized at the pilot’s discretion, specify the
altitude the aircraft must climb/descend to followed
by the altitude to maintain at the pilot’s discretion.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB/DESCEND NOW TO (altitude), THEN
CLIMB/DESCEND AT PILOT’S DISCRETION
MAINTAIN (altitude).
EXAMPLE−
“United Three Ten, descend now to flight level two eight
zero, then descend at pilot’s discretion maintain flight level
two four zero.”
NOTE−
1. The pilot is expected to commence descent upon receipt
of the clearance and to descend as prescribed in the AIM,
para 4−4−10, Adherence to Clearance, until FL 280. At
that point, the pilot is authorized to continue descent to
FL 240 within context of the term “at pilot’s discretion” as
described in the AIM.
2. Controllers need to be aware that the descent rates are
only suggested and aircraft will not always descend at
those rates.
f. When the “pilot’s discretion” portion of a
climb/descent clearance is being canceled by
assigning a new altitude, inform the pilot that the new
altitude is an “amended altitude.”
EXAMPLE−
“American Eighty Three, amend altitude, descend and
maintain Flight Level two six zero.”
NOTE−
American Eighty Three, at FL 280, has been cleared to
descend at pilot’s discretion to FL 240. Subsequently, the
altitude assignment is changed to FL 260. Therefore, pilot’s
discretion is no longer authorized.
g. Altitude assignments involving more than one
altitude.
4−5−5
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN BLOCK (altitude) THROUGH (altitude).
h. Instructions to vertically navigate on a
STAR/SID with published restrictions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DESCEND VIA (STAR name and number).
TERMINAL: DESCEND VIA (STAR name and number and
runway number).
CLIMB VIA (SID name and number).
EXAMPLE−
“Descend via the Eagul Five arrival.”
“Cross Gramm at or above flight level one eight zero, then
descend via the Riivr Two arrival.”
TERMINAL: “Descend via the Lendy One Arrival,
Runway 22 left.”
“Climb via the Dawgs Four Departure.”
NOTE−
When cleared for STARs that contain published speed
restrictions, the pilot must comply with those speed
restrictions independent of any descend via clearance.
Clearance to “descend via” authorizes pilots:
1. To descend at pilot discretion to meet published
restrictions and laterally navigate on a STAR. Pilots
navigating on a STAR must maintain the last assigned
altitude until receiving clearance to descend via. Once
departing an altitude the pilot may not return to that
altitude without an ATC clearance.
2. When cleared to a waypoint depicted on a STAR, to
descend from a previously assigned altitude at pilot’s
discretion to the altitude depicted for that waypoint. ATC
assigned altitudes must ensure obstacle clearance.
3. Once established on the depicted arrival, to descend and
to meet all published or assigned altitude and/or speed
restrictions. Where speed restrictions are published at the
waypoint/fix pilots will begin slowing to comply with the
restrictions prior to reaching the waypoint/fix.
NOTE−
When cleared for SIDs that contain published speed
restrictions, the pilot must comply with those speed
restrictions independent of any “climb via” clearance.
Clearance to “climb via” authorizes pilots:
1. When used in the IFR departure clearance, in a PDC,
DCL or when subsequently cleared after departure to a
waypoint depicted on a SID, to join a procedure after
departure or resume a procedure.
2. When vertical navigation is interrupted and an altitude
is assigned to maintain which is not contained on the
published procedure, to climb from that previously-assigned altitude at pilot’s discretion to the altitude depicted
for the next waypoint. ATC must ensure obstacle clearance
4−5−6
12/10/15
until the aircraft is established on the lateral and vertical
path of the SID.
3. Once established on the depicted departure, to climb and
to meet all published or assigned altitude and speed
restrictions.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-4-2, Route Structure Transitions
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-5-6, Minimum En Route Altitudes
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-9, Separation From Obstructions
PCG, Climb Via, Descend Via.
NOTE−
Pilots cleared for vertical navigation using the phraseology “descend via” or “climb via” must inform ATC, upon
initial contact, of the altitude leaving, the runway
transition or landing direction if assigned (STARs), and
any assigned restrictions not published on the procedure.
EXAMPLE−
“Delta One Twenty One leaving flight level one niner zero,
descending via the Eagul Five arrival runway two-six
transition.”
“Delta One Twenty One leaving flight level one niner zero
for one two thousand, descending via the Eagul Five
arrival, runway two-six transition.”
“JetBlue six zero two leaving flight level two one zero
descending via the Ivane Two arrival landing south.”
“Cactus Seven Eleven leaving two thousand climbing via
the Laura Two departure.”
“Cactus Seven Eleven leaving two thousand for one-six
thousand, climbing via the Laura Two departure.”
REFERENCE−
AIM, Para 5-2-8, Instrument Departure Procedures (DP) − Obstacle
Departure Procedures (ODP) and Standard Instrument Departures
(SID)
PCG, Top Altitude, Bottom Altitude
AIM, Para 5-4-1, Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) Procedures.
1. Assign an altitude to cross the waypoint/fix,
if no altitude is depicted at the waypoint/fix, for
aircraft on a direct routing to a STAR or SID
waypoint/fix.
EXAMPLE−
1. “Proceed direct Denis, cross Denis at or above flight
level two zero zero, then descend via the Mmell One
arrival.”
NOTE−
In Example 1 the aircraft will maintain FL200 or higher
until reaching Denis. The pilot will then comply with the
Mmell One arrival lateral path and published speed
restrictions and will descend at pilot discretion to comply
with published altitude restrictions. The aircraft may begin
slowing prior to Denis to comply with any published speed
restrictions at that waypoint.
Altitude Assignment and Verification
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
2. “Proceed direct Rockr, cross Rockr at or above one-zero
thousand, climb via the Bizee Two departure.”
NOTE−
In Example 2 the aircraft will join the Bizee Two departure
at Rockr and will then comply with departure published
lateral path, published speed and altitude restrictions.
2. A “descend via” clearance must not be used
where procedures contain only published “expect”
altitude and/or speed restrictions.
NOTE−
Pilots are not expected to comply with published “expect”
restrictions in the event of lost communications, unless
ATC has specifically advised the pilot to expect these
restrictions as part of a further clearance.
3. “Descend via” may be used on procedures
that contain both “expect” and required altitude and
speed restrictions only if altitude and/or speed
restrictions or alternate restrictions are issued for the
fix/waypoint associated with all expect restrictions.
4. “Descend via” clearances may also be issued
if an aircraft is past all fixes/waypoints that have
expect restrictions.
5. If it is necessary to assign a crossing altitude
which differs from the STAR or SID altitude,
emphasize the change to the pilot.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DESCEND VIA (STAR name and number) ARRIVAL,
EXCEPT CROSS (fix, point, waypoint), (revised altitude
information).
EXAMPLE−
“United 454 descend via the Haris One Arrival, except
cross Haris at or above one six thousand.”
NOTE−
The aircraft should track laterally and vertically on the
Haris One Arrival and should descend so as to cross Haris
at or above 16,000; remainder of the arrival must be flown
as published.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB VIA SID, EXCEPT CROSS (fix, point, waypoint),
(revised altitude information).
CLIMB VIA (SID name and number), EXCEPT CROSS
(fix, point, waypoint), (revised altitude information).
EXAMPLE−
1. “Climb via SID except cross Mkala at or above seven
thousand.”
NOTE−
In Example 1, the aircraft will comply with the assigned
Altitude Assignment and Verification
JO 7110.65W
SID departure lateral path and any published speed and
altitude restrictions and climb so as to cross Mkala at or
above 7,000; remainder of the departure must be flown as
published.
EXAMPLE−
2. (There is a published altitude at Dvine WP): “Proceed
direct Dvine, Climb via the Suzan Two departure except
cross Mkala at or above seven thousand.”
NOTE−
In Example 2, the aircraft will join the Suzan Two departure
at Dvine, at the published altitude, and then comply with
the published lateral path and any published speed or
altitude restrictions. The aircraft will climb so as to cross
Mkala at or above 7,000; remainder of the departure must
be flown as published.
6. When an aircraft has been issued an interim
altitude and after departure ATC can subsequently
clear the aircraft to climb to the original top altitude
published in the SID instruct aircraft to “climb via
SID.” When issuing a new altitude and compliance
with published restrictions is still required instruct
aircraft to “climb via SID except maintain (altitude).”
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB VIA SID.
CLIMB VIA SID except maintain (altitude).
EXAMPLE−
1. (An aircraft was issued the Teddd One departure, “climb
via SID” in the IFR departure clearance. An interim
altitude of 10,000 was issued instead of the published top
altitude of FL 230; after departure ATC is able to issue the
published top altitude): “Climb via SID.”
NOTE−
In Example 1, the aircraft will track laterally and vertically
on the Teddd One departure and initially climb to 10,000;
Once re-issued the “climb via” clearance the interim
altitude is cancelled aircraft will continue climb to FL230
while complying with published restrictions.
EXAMPLE−
2. (Using Example 1, after departure ATC is able to issue
an altitude higher than the published top altitude): “Climb
via SID except maintain flight level two six zero.”
NOTE−
In Example 2, the aircraft will track laterally and vertically
on the Teddd One departure and initially climb to 10,000;
once issued “climb via” clearance to FL260 the aircraft
will continue climb while complying with published
restrictions.
7. If it is necessary to assign an interim altitude
or assign a bottom or top altitude not contained on a
STAR or SID, the provisions of subparagraph 4-5-7h
4−5−7
JO 7110.65W
may be used in conjunction with subparagraph
4-5-7a.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DESCEND VIA THE (STAR name and number) ARRIVAL
EXCEPT AFTER (fix) MAINTAIN (revised altitude
information).
EXAMPLE−
“United 454 descend via the Eagul Five Arrival, except
after Geeno maintain one zero thousand.”
NOTE−
The aircraft should track laterally and vertically on the
Eagul Five Arrival and should descend so as to comply
with all speed and altitude restrictions until reaching
Geeno and then maintain 10,000. Upon reaching 10,000,
aircraft should maintain 10,000 until cleared by ATC to
continue to descend.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−1, Clearance Information.
AIM, Para 5−4−1, Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) Procedures.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB VIA SID EXCEPT AFTER (waypoint name),
MAINTAIN (altitude).
EXAMPLE−
“Climb via SID except after Baret, maintain flight level one
niner zero.”
NOTE−
1. Considering the principle that the last ATC clearance
issued has precedence over the previous, the phraseology
“maintain (altitude)” alone cancels previously issued
altitude restrictions, including SID/STAR altitude
restrictions unless they are restated or modified, and
authorizes an unrestricted climb or descent. Speed
restrictions remain in effect unless the controller explicitly
cancels the speed restrictions.
2. Restate “climb/descend via” and then use “except” or
“except maintain” phraseology to modify published
restrictions or assign a new top/bottom altitude. Use
“resume” phraseology with “maintain” to rejoin a route
and assign a new altitude where compliance with published
altitude restrictions is not required.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-2-5, Route or Altitude Amendments
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-6-2, Methods
AIM 4-4-10 Adherence to Clearance
AIM, Para 5−2−8. Instrument Departure Procedures (DP) − Obstacle
Departure Procedures (ODP) and Standard Instrument Departures
(SID).
i. When a pilot is unable to accept a clearance,
issue revised instructions to ensure positive control
and approved separation.
NOTE−
1. 14 CFR Section 91.123 states that a pilot is not allowed
4−5−8
12/10/15
to deviate from an ATC clearance “that has been
obtained...unless an amended clearance is obtained”
(except when an emergency exists).
2. A pilot is therefore expected to advise the controller if
a clearance cannot be accepted when the clearance is
issued. “We will try” and other such acknowledgements do
not constitute pilot acceptance of an ATC clearance.
3. Controllers are expected to issue ATC clearances which
conform with normal aircraft operational capabilities and
do not require “last minute” amendments to ensure
approved separation.
4. “Expedite” is not to be used in lieu of appropriate
restrictions to ensure separation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−1−3, Providing Assistance.
4−5−8. ANTICIPATED ALTITUDE CHANGES
If practicable, inform an aircraft when to expect climb
or descent clearance or to request altitude change
from another facility.
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT HIGHER/LOWER IN (number of miles or
minutes) MILES/MINUTES,
or
AT (fix). REQUEST ALTITUDE/FLIGHT LEVEL
CHANGE FROM (name of facility).
If required,
AT (time, fix, or altitude).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−2−6, IFR Flight Progress Data.
4−5−9. ALTITUDE CONFIRMATION−
NONRADAR
a. Request a pilot to confirm assigned altitude on
initial contact and when position reports are received
unless:
NOTE−
For the purpose of this paragraph, “initial contact” means
a pilot’s first radio contact with each sector/position.
1. The pilot states the assigned altitude, or
2. You assign a new altitude to a climbing or
descending aircraft, or
3. TERMINAL. The aircraft was transferred to
you from another sector/position within your facility
(intrafacility).
Altitude Assignment and Verification
12/10/15
PHRASEOLOGY−
(In level flight situations),
VERIFY AT (altitude/flight level).
(In climbing/descending situations),
(if aircraft has been assigned an altitude below the lowest
useable flight level),
VERIFY ASSIGNED ALTITUDE (altitude).
(If aircraft has been assigned a flight level at or above the
lowest useable flight level),
Altitude Assignment and Verification
JO 7110.65W
VERIFY ASSIGNED FLIGHT LEVEL (flight level).
b. USA. Reconfirm all pilot altitude read backs.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(If altitude read back is correct),
AFFIRMATIVE (altitude).
(If altitude read back is not correct),
NEGATIVE. CLIMB/DESCEND AND MAINTAIN
(altitude),
or
NEGATIVE. MAINTAIN (altitude).
4−5−9
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 6. Holding Aircraft
4−6−1. CLEARANCE TO HOLDING FIX
Consider operational factors such as length of delay,
holding airspace limitations, navigational aids,
altitude, meteorological conditions when necessary
to clear an aircraft to a fix other than the destination
airport. Issue the following:
a. Clearance limit (if any part of the route beyond
a clearance limit differs from the last routing cleared,
issue the route the pilot can expect beyond the
clearance limit).
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE VIA (routing).
EXAMPLE−
“Expect further clearance via direct Stillwater V−O−R,
Victor Two Twenty-Six Snapy intersection, direct Newark.”
b. Holding instructions.
1. Holding instructions may be eliminated when
you inform the pilot that no delay is expected.
2. When the pattern is charted, you may omit all
holding instructions except the charted holding
direction and the statement “as published.” Always
issue complete holding instructions when the pilot
requests them.
NOTE−
The most generally used holding patterns are depicted on
U.S. Government or commercially produced low/high
altitude en route, area, and STAR Charts.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (fix), HOLD (direction), AS PUBLISHED,
or
CLEARED TO (fix), NO DELAY EXPECTED.
c. EFC. Do not specify this item if no delay is
expected.
1. When additional holding is expected at any
other fix in your facility’s area, state the fix and your
best estimate of the additional delay. When more than
one fix is involved, state the total additional en route
delay (omit specific fixes).
NOTE−
Additional delay information is not used to determine pilot
action in the event of two-way communications failure.
Pilots are expected to predicate their actions solely on the
provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.185.
Holding Aircraft
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (time),
and if required,
ANTICIPATE ADDITIONAL (time in minutes/hours)
MINUTE/HOUR DELAY AT (fix),
or
ANTICIPATE ADDITIONAL (time in minutes/hours)
MINUTE/HOUR EN ROUTE DELAY.
EXAMPLE−
1. “Expect further clearance one niner two zero,
anticipate additional three zero minute delay at Sweet.”
2. “Expect further clearance one five one zero, anticipate
additional three zero minute en route delay.”
2. When additional holding is expected in an
approach control area, state the total additional
terminal delay.
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (time),
and if required,
ANTICIPATE ADDITIONAL (time in minutes/hours)
MINUTE/HOUR TERMINAL DELAY.
3. TERMINAL. When terminal delays exist or
are expected, inform the appropriate center or
approach control facility so that the information can
be forwarded to arrival aircraft.
4. When delay is expected, issue items in
subparas a and b at least 5 minutes before the aircraft
is estimated to reach the clearance limit. If the traffic
situation requires holding an aircraft that is less than
5 minutes from the holding fix, issue these items
immediately.
NOTE−
1. The AIM indicates that pilots should start speed
reduction when 3 minutes or less from the holding fix. The
additional 2 minutes contained in the 5−minute requirement are necessary to compensate for different
pilot/controller ETAS at the holding fix, minor differences
in clock times, and provision for sufficient planning and
reaction times.
2. When holding is necessary, the phrase “delay
indefinite” should be used when an accurate estimate of the
delay time and the reason for the delay cannot immediately
4−6−1
JO 7110.65W
be determined; i.e., disabled aircraft on the runway,
terminal or center sector saturation, weather below
landing minimums, etc. In any event, every attempt should
be made to provide the pilot with the best possible estimate
of his/her delay time and the reason for the delay.
Controllers/supervisors should consult, as appropriate,
with personnel (other sectors, weather forecasters, the
airport management, other facilities, etc.) who can best
provide this information.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DELAY INDEFINITE, (reason if known), EXPECT
FURTHER CLEARANCE (time). (After determining the
reason for the delay, advise the pilot as soon as possible.)
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared to Drewe, hold west, as published, expect further
clearance via direct Sidney V−O−R one three one five,
anticipate additional two zero minute delay at Woody.”
“Cleared to Aston, hold west on Victor two twenty-five,
seven mile leg, left turns, expect further clearance one
niner two zero, anticipate additional one five minute
terminal delay.”
“Cleared to Wayne, no delay expected.”
“Cleared to Wally, hold north, as published, delay
indefinite, snow removal in progress, expect further
clearance one one three zero.”
4−6−2. CLEARANCE BEYOND FIX
a. If no delay is expected, issue a clearance beyond
the clearance limit as soon as possible and, whenever
possible, at least 5 minutes before the aircraft reaches
the fix.
b. Include the following items when issuing
clearance beyond a clearance limit:
12/10/15
3. Assigned altitude if different from present
altitude.
NOTE−
Except in the event of a two-way communications failure,
when a clearance beyond a fix has not been received, pilots
are expected to hold as depicted on U.S. Government or
commercially produced (meeting FAA requirements)
low/high altitude en route and area or STAR charts. If no
holding pattern is charted and holding instructions have
not been issued, pilots should ask ATC for holding
instructions prior to reaching the fix. If a pilot is unable to
obtain holding instructions prior to reaching the fix, the
pilot is expected to hold in a standard pattern on the course
on which the aircraft approached the fix and request
further clearance as soon as possible.
4−6−3. DELAYS
a. Advise your supervisor or flow controller as
soon as possible when you delay or expect to delay
aircraft.
b. When arrival delays reach or are anticipated to
reach 30 minutes, take the following action:
1. EN ROUTE. The center responsible for
transferring control to an approach control facility or,
for a nonapproach control destination, the center in
whose area the aircraft will land must issue total delay
information as soon as possible after the aircraft
enters the center’s area. Whenever possible, the delay
information must be issued by the first center
controller to communicate with the aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO7110.65, Para 5-14-9, ERAM Computer Entry of Hold
Information
(a) Complete details of the route (airway,
route, course, fix(es), azimuth course, heading, arc, or
vector.)
2. TERMINAL. When tower en route control
service is being provided, the approach control
facility whose area contains the destination airport
must issue total delay information as soon as possible
after the aircraft enters its approach control area.
Whenever possible, the delay information must be
issued by the first terminal controller to communicate
with the aircraft.
(b) The phrase “via last routing cleared.” Use
this phrase only when the most recently issued
routing to the new clearance limit is valid and
verbiage will be reduced.
3. Unless a pilot requests delay information, the
actions specified in subparas 1 and 2 above may be
omitted when total delay information is available to
pilots via ATIS.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VIA LAST ROUTING CLEARED.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Airport) ARRIVAL DELAYS (time in minutes/hours).
1. Clearance limit or approach clearance.
2. Route of flight. Specify one of the following:
4−6−2
Holding Aircraft
12/10/15
4−6−4. HOLDING INSTRUCTIONS
When issuing holding instructions, specify:
a. Direction of holding from the fix/waypoint.
b. Holding fix or waypoint.
NOTE−
The holding fix may be omitted if included at the beginning
of the transmission as the clearance limit.
c. Radial, course, bearing, track, azimuth, airway,
or route on which the aircraft is to hold.
d. Leg length in miles if DME or RNAV is to be
used. Specify leg length in minutes if the pilot
requests it or you consider it necessary.
e. Direction of holding pattern turns only if left
turns are to be made, the pilot requests it, or you
consider it necessary.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD (direction) OF (fix/waypoint) ON (specified radial,
course, bearing, track, airway, azimuth(s), or route.)
If leg length is specified,
(number of minutes/miles) MINUTE/MILE LEG.
If direction of turn is specified,
LEFT/RIGHT TURNS.
NOTE−
It is mandatory for the controller to issue left or right turns
every time a holding pattern is issued for MLS.
f. Issue maximum holding airspeed advisories
when an aircraft is:
1. Approved to exceed the maximum airspeed
of a pattern, and is cleared into a holding pattern that
will protect for the greater speed; or
2. Observed deviating from the holding pattern
airspace area; or
3. Cleared into an airspeed restricted holding
pattern in which the icon has not been published.
Holding Aircraft
JO 7110.65W
EXAMPLE−
Due to turbulence, a turboprop requests to exceed the
recommended maximum holding airspeed. ATCS may
clear the aircraft into a pattern that protects for the
airspeed request, and must advise the pilot of the maximum
holding airspeed for the holding pattern airspace area.
PHRASEOLOGY−
“MAXIMUM HOLDING AIRSPEED IS TWO ONE ZERO
KNOTS.”
4−6−5. VISUAL HOLDING POINTS
You may use as a holding fix a location which the pilot
can determine by visual reference to the surface if
he/she is familiar with it.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD AT (location) UNTIL (time or other condition.)
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−1−4, Visual Holding of VFR Aircraft.
4−6−6. HOLDING FLIGHT PATH DEVIATION
Approve a pilot’s request to deviate from the
prescribed holding flight path if obstacles and traffic
conditions permit.
4−6−7. UNMONITORED NAVAIDs
Separate an aircraft holding at an unmonitored
NAVAID from any other aircraft occupying the
course which the holding aircraft will follow if it does
not receive signals from the NAVAID.
4−6−8. ILS PROTECTION/CRITICAL AREAS
When conditions are less than reported ceiling
800 feet or visibility of 2 miles, do not authorize
aircraft to hold below 5,000 feet AGL inbound
toward the airport on or within 1 statute mile of the
localizer between the ILS OM or the fix used in lieu
of the OM and the airport. USAF. The holding
restriction applies only when an arriving aircraft is
between the ILS OM or the fix used in lieu of the OM
and the runway.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 7130.3, Holding Pattern Criteria.
4−6−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 7. Arrival Procedures
4−7−1. CLEARANCE INFORMATION
Clear an arriving aircraft to a clearance limit by
specifying the following:
a. Name of fix or airport.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT.
Or
CLEARED TO (NAVAID name and type if known).
Or
CLEARED TO (intersection or waypoint name and type if
known).
b. Route of flight including a STAR/RNAV
STAR/FMSP and STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP transition, if appropriate. Assign a STAR/RNAV
STAR/FMSP and STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP transition to any aircraft in lieu of other routes; e.g.,
airways or preferential arrival routes when the
routings are the same. The clearance must include the
name and transition, if necessary, of the STAR/RNAV
STAR/FMSP to be flown.
TERMINAL: When the STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP
transition is designed to provide course guidance to
multiple runways, the facility must state intended
runway number on initial contact, or as soon as
practical. If the runway assignment, or any
subsequent runway change, is not issued prior to
10 NM from the runway transition waypoint, radar
vectors to final must be provided.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP name and number) ARRIVAL.
(STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP name and number) ARRIVAL,
(transition name) TRANSITION.
CHANGE/AMEND TRANSITION TO (runway number).
CHANGE/AMEND TRANSITION TO (runway number)
TURN LEFT/RIGHT or HEADING (heading) FOR
VECTOR TO FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
2. Arrival procedure descriptive text contained within
parentheses (for example, “Devine One (RNAV) Arrival”)
are not included in arrival clearance phraseology.
c. Altitude instructions, as follows:
1. Assigned altitude; or
2. Instructions to vertically navigate on the
STAR/FMSP or STAR/FMSP transition.
EXAMPLE−
“Bayview Three Arrival, Helen Transition, maintain Flight
Level Three Three Zero.”
“Descend via the Civit One Arrival.”
“Descend via the Lendy One Arrival, Runway 22 left.”
“Cross JCT at Flight Level Two Four Zero.”
“Descend via the Coast Two Arrival.”
“Civit One Arrival, Descend and Maintain Flight Level
Two Four Zero.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−7, Altitude Information.
AIM, Para 5−4−1, Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR), Area Navigation
(RNAV) STAR, and Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP) for
Arrivals.
d. Issue holding instructions, EFC, and additional
delay information as required.
e. Instructions regarding further communications
as appropriate.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−17, Radio Communications Transfer.
4−7−2. ADVANCE DESCENT CLEARANCE
EN ROUTE
Take the following action when exercising control of
aircraft landing at an airport located in an adjacent
center’s control area near the common boundary:
a. Coordinate with the receiving facility for a
lower altitude and issue a clearance to the aircraft as
appropriate.
EXAMPLE−
“Rosewood One arrival.”
“Rosewood One arrival, Delta transition.”
“Change transition to Runway 09 right.”
“Amend transition to Runway 22 left, turn right heading
180 for vector to final approach course.”
b. Initiate this action at a distance sufficient from
destination to allow for normal descent and speed
reduction.
NOTE−
1. If a civil pilot does not wish to use a STAR issued in an
ATC clearance or any other STAR published for that
location, the pilot is expected to advise ATC.
TERMINAL
Arrival Procedures
4−7−3. SINGLE FREQUENCY
APPROACHES (SFA)
Where SFA procedures for military single-piloted
turbojet aircraft on an IFR flight plan are contained in
4−7−1
JO 7110.65W
a letter of agreement, do not require a radio frequency
change after the aircraft begins approach or after
initial contact during an en route descent until a
landing or low approach has been completed except
under the following conditions:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4, Special Operations, Para 9−3−6, Single Frequency
Approach (SFA).
P/CG Term− Single-Piloted Aircraft.
a. During daylight hours while the aircraft is in
VFR conditions.
b. On pilot request.
12/10/15
c. If practicable, use a frequency common to both
the GCA unit and approach control to minimize
frequency changes.
d. When a GCA unit is not able to communicate on
a common frequency, a change to a GCA frequency
may be authorized.
e. When a nonradar approach will be made,
aircraft may be instructed to change to tower
frequency when:
1. The reported ceiling is at or above 1,500 feet
and visibility is 5 statute miles or more.
c. When pilot cancels IFR flight plan.
2. The aircraft reports able to proceed by visual
reference to the surface.
d. In an emergency situation.
3. The aircraft requests and is cleared for a
contact approach.
e. When aircraft is cleared for visual approach.
4−7−4. RADIO FREQUENCY AND RADAR
BEACON CHANGES FOR MILITARY
AIRCRAFT
When military single-piloted turbojet aircraft will
conduct an approach wholly or partly in IFR
conditions or at night, take the following action:
NOTE−
It is known that the mental distraction and the inadvertent
movement of aircraft controls resulting from the pilot’s
turning, reaching, or leaning to change frequencies can
induce spatial disorientation (vertigo).
a. Avoid radio frequency and radar beacon
changes to the maximum extent that communications
capabilities and traffic will permit. However, when
changes are required:
1. Give instructions early enough to allow the
change before the aircraft reaches the approach fix or
handoff point.
2. Keep frequency/radar beacon changes to a
minimum below 2,500 feet above the surface.
3. Avoid requiring frequency/radar beacon
changes during the time the aircraft is making a turn.
b. When traffic volume requires, a frequency
other than the one used by aircraft making approaches
may be assigned for use in transferring control to the
approach control facility.
TERMINAL
4−7−2
4. The aircraft is cleared for a visual approach.
f. Avoid making frequency/radar beacon changes
after an aircraft begins a high altitude approach.
g. In the event of a missed approach, do not require
a frequency/radar beacon change before the aircraft
reaches the missed approach altitude, the MEA, or the
MVA.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−6, Function Code Assignments.
4−7−5. MILITARY TURBOJET EN ROUTE
DESCENT
Provide military turbojet aircraft the same arrival
procedures that are provided for nonmilitary turbojet
aircraft except:
NOTE−
It is the responsibility of the pilot to request a high altitude
approach if he/she does not want normal arrival handling.
a. An en route descent may be used in a nonradar
environment; however, radar capability should exist
which will permit the aircraft to be vectored to the
final approach course of a published high altitude
instrument approach procedure or PAR/ASR
approach. Do not use this procedure if other than
normal vectoring delays are anticipated.
b. Prior to issuance of a descent clearance below
the highest initial approach fix altitude established for
any high altitude instrument approach procedure for
the destination airport inform the aircraft:
1. Type of approach to expect.
EXAMPLE−
“Expect V−O−R approach to runway three two.”
Arrival Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
2. Radar vectors will be provided to the final
approach course.
Class E surface area and any altitude restrictions that
were issued; or
EXAMPLE−
“Expect surveillance/precision approach to runway one
seven; radar vectors to final approach course.”
6. For aircraft executing a contact approach the
position of the aircraft.
3. Current weather whenever the ceiling is
below 1,000 feet (USAF: 1,500 feet) or the highest
circling minimum whichever is greater, or when the
visibility is less than 3 miles.
EXAMPLE−
“Expect ILS/MLS approach to runway eight; radar vectors
to localizer/azimuth course. Weather (reported weather).”
c. If ATIS is provided and the pilot advises he/she
has received the current ATIS broadcast before the
descent clearance in subpara b is issued, omit those
items in subpara b that are contained in the broadcast.
NOTE−
Specific time requirements are usually stated in a letter of
agreement.
b. Forward the following information to approach
control facilities before transfer of control
jurisdiction:
NOTE−
Transfer points are usually specified in a letter of
agreement.
1. Aircraft identification.
2. Type of aircraft and appropriate aircraft
equipment suffix.
d. To avoid requiring an aircraft to fly at low
altitudes for an excessive distance, descent clearance
should be issued at a point determined by adding 10
to the first two digits of the flight level.
3. ETA or actual time, and proposed or actual
altitude over clearance limit. The ETA need not be
given if the arrival information is being forwarded
during a radar handoff.
EXAMPLE−
For FL 370, 37 ) 10 = 47 miles.
4. Clearance limit (when other than the
destination airport) and EFC issued to the aircraft.
Clearance limit may be omitted when provided for in
a letter of agreement.
NOTE−
Turbojet en route descents are based on a rate of descent
of 4,000 to 6,000 feet per minute.
e. Do not terminate the en route descent of an
aircraft without the consent of the pilot except as
required by radar outage or an emergency situation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−8−4, Altitude Assignment for Military High
Altitude Instrument Approaches.
4−7−6. ARRIVAL INFORMATION
EN ROUTE
a. Forward the following information to nonapproach control towers soon enough to permit
adjustment of the traffic flow or to FSSs soon enough
to provide local airport advisory where applicable:
5. Time, fix, or altitude when control responsibility is transferred to the approach control facility.
This information may be omitted when provided for
in a letter of agreement.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification), (type of aircraft), ESTIMATED/OVER
(clearance limit), (time), (altitude), EFC (time).
If required,
YOUR CONTROL,
or
YOUR CONTROL AT (time, fix or altitude).
1. Aircraft identification.
4−7−7. WEATHER INFORMATION
2. Type of aircraft.
EN ROUTE
3. ETA.
When an available official weather report indicates
weather conditions are below a 1,000−foot
(USAF: 1,500−foot) ceiling or below the highest
circling minimum, whichever is higher, or less than
three-miles visibility for the airport concerned,
transmit the weather report and changes classified as
4. Type of instrument approach procedure the
aircraft will execute; or
5. For SVFR, the direction from which the
aircraft will enter Class B, Class C, Class D, or
Arrival Procedures
4−7−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
special weather observations to an arriving aircraft
prior to or as part of the approach clearance when:
the clearance limit does not indicate which will be
used.
a. It is transmitted directly to the pilot via center
controller-to-pilot communications.
2. Runway if different from that to which the
instrument approach is made.
3. Surface wind.
b. It is relayed through a communications station
other than an air carrier company radio or through a
nonapproach control facility. You may do this by
telling the station or nonapproach control facility to
issue current weather.
4. Ceiling and visibility if the reported ceiling at
the airport of intended landing is below 1,000 feet or
below the highest circling minimum, whichever is
greater, or the visibility is less than 3 miles.
4−7−8. BELOW MINIMA REPORT BY PILOT
5. Altimeter setting for the airport of intended
landing.
If an arriving aircraft reports weather conditions are
below his/her landing minima:
NOTE−
Determination that existing weather/visibility is adequate
for approach/landing is the responsibility of the
pilot/aircraft operator.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 2, Section 7, Altimeter Settings.
b. Upon pilot request, controllers must inform
pilots of the frequency where automated weather data
may be obtained and, if appropriate, that airport
weather is not available.
a. Issue appropriate instructions to the aircraft to
hold or proceed to another airport.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Airport) AWOS/ASOS WEATHER AVAILABLE ON
(frequency).
b. Adjust, as necessary, the position in the landing
sequence of any other aircraft desiring to make
approaches and issue approach clearances accordingly.
1. ASOS/AWOS must be set to provide one
minute weather at uncontrolled airports that are
without ground−to−air weather broadcast capability
by a CWO, NWS or FSS observer.
4−7−9. TRANSFER OF JURISDICTION
Transfer radio communications and control responsibility early enough to allow the receiving facility to
clear an aircraft beyond the clearance limit before the
aircraft reaches it.
4−7−10. APPROACH INFORMATION
a. Both en route and terminal approach control
sectors must provide current approach information to
aircraft destined to airports for which they provide
approach control services. This information must be
provided on initial contact or as soon as possible
thereafter. Approach information contained in the
ATIS broadcast may be omitted if the pilot states the
appropriate ATIS code. For pilots destined to an
airport without ATIS, items 3−5 below may be
omitted after the pilot advises receipt of the
automated weather; otherwise, issue approach
information by including the following:
1. Approach clearance or type approach to be
expected if two or more approaches are published and
4−7−4
2. Controllers will consider the long−line
disseminated weather from an automated weather
system at an uncontrolled airport as trend information
only and must rely on the pilot for the current weather
information for that airport.
3. Controllers must issue the last long−line
disseminated weather to the pilot if the pilot is unable
to receive the ASOS/AWOS broadcast.
NOTE−
Aircraft destined to uncontrolled airports, which have
automated weather data with broadcast capability, should
monitor the ASOS/AWOS frequency to ascertain the
current weather at the airport. The pilot should advise the
controller when he/she has received the broadcast weather
and state his/her intentions.
c. Issue any known changes classified as special
weather observations as soon as possible. Special
weather observations need not be issued after they are
included in the ATIS broadcast and the pilot states the
appropriate ATIS code.
d. Advise pilots when the ILS/MLS on the runway
in use is not operational if that ILS/MLS is on the
same frequency as an operational ILS/MLS serving
another runway.
Arrival Procedures
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
“Expect visual approach runway two five right,
runway two five right I−L−S not operational.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−7−2, Altimeter Setting Issuance Below
Lowest Usable FL.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−2, Approach Information.
14 CFR Section 91.129 Operations in Class D Airspace,
Subpara (d)(2).
e. TERMINAL: If multiple runway transitions are
depicted on a STAR procedure, advise pilots of the
runway assignment on initial contact or as soon as
possible thereafter.
4−7−11. ARRIVAL INFORMATION BY
APPROACH CONTROL FACILITIES
TERMINAL
a. Forward the following information to nonapproach control towers soon enough to permit
adjustment of the traffic flow or to FSSs soon enough
to provide local airport advisory where applicable:
1. Aircraft identification.
2. Type of aircraft.
3. ETA.
4. Type of instrument approach procedure the
aircraft will execute; or
5. For SVFR, the direction from which the
aircraft will enter Class B, Class C, Class D, or
Class E surface area and any altitude restrictions that
were issued; or
6. For aircraft executing a contact approach, the
position of the aircraft.
NOTE−
Specific time requirements are usually stated in a letter of
agreement.
b. Forward the following information to the tower
when the tower and TRACON are part of the same
facility:
1. Aircraft identification.
2. Type aircraft if required for separation
purposes.
3. Type of instrument approach procedure
and/or runway if differing from that in use.
NOTE−
The local controller has the responsibility to determine
whether or not conditions are adequate for the use of ATTS
Arrival Procedures
JO 7110.65W
data on the CTRD where a facility directive authorizes its
use for the transfer of arrival data.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 11−2−4, Use of Modify and Quick Look
Functions.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 11−8−4, Use of STARS Quick Look Functions.
c. Where the collocated or satellite tower has
ATTS data displayed on its CTRD, the ATTS modify
or quick look functions may be used to forward
arrival data provided that a facility directive at the
collocated tower or a letter of agreement with the
satellite tower exists which outlines procedures for
using ATTS for transferring this data.
d. Forward the following information to centers:
1. Where two or more instrument approach
procedures are published for the airport, the
particular procedure which an aircraft can expect or
that it will be vectored toward the airport for a visual
approach.
2. Highest altitude being used by the approach
control facility at the holding fix.
3. Average time interval between successive
approaches.
4. Arrival time of aircraft over the holding fix or,
if control has been transferred to you before an
aircraft has reached the fix, a statement or other
indication acknowledging receipt of control
responsibility.
5. Revised EFC if different by 10 minutes or
more from that issued by the center.
6. Missed approaches if they affect center
operations.
7. Information relating to an unreported or
overdue aircraft.
4−7−12. AIRPORT CONDITIONS
a. EN ROUTE. Before issuing an approach
clearance or en route descent, and subsequently as
changes occur, inform an aircraft of any abnormal
operation of approach and landing aids and of
destination airport conditions that you know of which
might restrict an approach or landing.
NOTE−
1. Airport conditions information, in the provision of en
route approach control service, does not include
information pertaining to the airport surface environment
other than the landing area(s) or obstruction information
for aircraft that will be cleared for an instrument approach.
4−7−5
JO 7110.65W
Accordingly, D NOTAMs that contain the keywords
TAXIWAY (TWY), RAMP, APRON, or SERVICE (SVC) are
not required to be issued. Additionally, Obstruction
NOTAMs (OBST) are not required to be issued if an aircraft
will be cleared for an instrument approach.
2. When advised of special use airspace (SUA) or military
training route (MTR) activation, appropriate action is
taken to separate nonparticipating IFR aircraft from those
activities when required, and/or to issue applicable
advisories as warranted. When meeting this requirement,
there is no requirement for controllers to additionally issue
the associated D NOTAM activating that SUA or MTR to
the pilot. Accordingly, D NOTAMs for SUA that contain the
accountability codes SUAE, SUAC, and SUAW are not
required to be issued.
b. TERMINAL. On first contact or as soon as
possible thereafter, and subsequently as changes
occur, inform an aircraft of any abnormal operation
of approach and landing aids and of destination
airport conditions that you know of which might
restrict an approach or landing. This information may
be omitted if it is contained in the ATIS broadcast and
the pilot states the appropriate ATIS code.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 3, Section 3, Airport Conditions.
c. TERMINAL. Where RCRs are provided, transmit this information to USAF and ANG aircraft in
accordance with one of the following. Issue the RCR
to other aircraft upon pilot request.
4−7−6
12/10/15
1. Before or when an approach clearance is
issued.
2. Before an en route descent clearance is
issued.
3. Prior to departure.
4. As soon as possible after receipt of any
subsequent changes in previously issued RCR
information.
NOTE−
1. USAF has established RCR procedures for determining
the average deceleration readings of runways under
conditions of water, slush, ice, or snow. The use of RCR
code is dependent upon the pilot having a “stopping
capability chart” specifically applicable to his/her
aircraft.
2. USAF offices furnish RCR information at airports
serving USAF and ANG aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−1, Landing Area Condition.
4−7−13. SWITCHING ILS/MLS RUNWAYS
TERMINAL
When a change is made from one ILS to another or
from one MLS to another at airports equipped with
multiple systems which are not used simultaneously,
coordinate with the facilities which use the fixes
formed by reference to these NAVAIDs.
Arrival Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 8. Approach Clearance Procedures
4−8−1. APPROACH CLEARANCE
a. Clear aircraft for “standard” or “special”
instrument approach procedures only.
1. To require an aircraft to execute a particular
instrument approach procedure, specify in the
approach clearance the name of the approach as
published on the approach chart. Where more than
one procedure is published on a single chart and a
specific procedure is to be flown, amend the approach
clearance to specify execution of the specific
approach to be flown. If only one instrument
approach of a particular type is published, the
approach needs not be identified by the runway
reference.
2. An aircraft conducting an ILS or LDA
approach must be advised at the time an approach
clearance is issued when the glideslope is reported out
of service, unless the title of the published approach
procedure allows (for example, ILS or LOC Rwy 05).
3. Standard instrument approach procedures
(SIAP) must begin at an initial approach fix (IAF) or
an intermediate fix (IF) if there is not an IAF.
4. Where adequate radar coverage exists, radar
facilities may vector aircraft to the final approach
course in accordance with Paragraph 5-9-1, Vectors
to Final Approach Course, and Paragraph 5-9-2, Final
Approach Course Interception.
5. Where adequate radar coverage exists, radar
facilities may clear an aircraft to any fix 3 NM or more
prior to the FAF, along the final approach course, at
an intercept angle not greater than 30 degrees.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED (type) APPROACH.
(To authorize a pilot to execute his/her choice of instrument
approach),
CLEARED APPROACH.
(Where more than one procedure is published on a single
chart and a specific procedure is to be flown),
CLEARED (specific procedure to be flown) APPROACH.
(To authorize a pilot to execute an ILS or an LDA approach
when the glideslope is out of service)
Approach Clearance Procedures
CLEARED (ILS/LDA) APPROACH, GLIDESLOPE
UNUSABLE.
(When the title of the approach procedure contains “or
LOC”)
CLEARED LOCALIZER APPROACH
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared Approach.”
“Cleared (V-O-R/I-L-S/Localizer) Approach.”
“Cleared L-D-A Runway Three-Six Approach.”
“Cleared Localizer Back Course Runway One-Three
Approach.”
“Cleared (GPS/RNAV Z) Runway Two-Two Approach.”
“Cleared BRANCH ONE Arrival and (ILS/RNAV) Runway
One-Three Approach.”
“Cleared I-L-S Runway Three-Six Approach, glideslope
unusable.”
“Cleared S-D-F Approach.”
“Cleared G-L-S Approach.”
NOTE−
1. Clearances authorizing instrument approaches are
issued on the basis that, if visual contact with the ground
is made before the approach is completed, the entire
approach procedure will be followed unless the pilot
receives approval for a contact approach, is cleared for a
visual approach, or cancels their IFR flight plan.
2. Approach clearances are issued based on known traffic.
The receipt of an approach clearance does not relieve the
pilot of his/her responsibility to comply with applicable
Parts of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations and the
notations on instrument approach charts which levy on the
pilot the responsibility to comply with or act on an
instruction; for example, “Straight-in minima not
authorized at night,” “Procedure not authorized when
glideslope/glidepath not used,” “Use of procedure limited
to aircraft authorized to use airport,” or “Procedure not
authorized at night.”
3. In some cases, the name of the approach, as published,
is used to identify the approach, even though a component
of the approach aid, other than the localizer on an ILS is
inoperative.
4. Where more than one procedure to the same runway is
published on a single chart, each must adhere to all final
approach guidance contained on that chart, even though
each procedure will be treated as a separate entity when
authorized by ATC.
5. The use of alphabetical identifiers in the approach
name with a letter from the end of the alphabet; for
4−8−1
JO 7110.65W
example, X, Y, Z, such as “HI TACAN Z Rwy 6L or
RNAV(GPS) Y Rwy 04”, denotes multiple straight-in
approaches to the same runway that use the same approach
aid.
12/10/15
FIG 4−8−1
Approach Clearance Example
6. Alphabetical suffixes with a letter from the beginning of
the alphabet; for example, A, B, C, denote a procedure that
does not meet the criteria for straight-in landing minimums
authorization.
7. 14 CFR Section 91.175(j) requires a pilot to receive a
clearance to conduct a procedure turn when vectored to a
final approach course or fix, conducting a timed approach,
or when the procedure specifies “NO PT.”
8. An aircraft which has been cleared to a holding fix and
prior to reaching that fix is issued a clearance for an
approach, but not issued a revised routing; that is,
“proceed direct to....” may be expected to proceed via the
last assigned route, a feeder route (if one is published on the
approach chart), and then to commence the approach as
published. If, by following the route of flight to the holding
fix, the aircraft would overfly an IAF or the fix associated\
with the beginning of a feeder route to be used, the aircraft
is expected to commence the approach using the published
feeder route to the IAF or from the IAF as appropriate; that
is, the aircraft would not be expected to overfly and return
to the IAF or feeder route.
9. Approach name items contained within parenthesis; for
example, RNAV (GPS) Rwy 04, are not included in
approach clearance phraseology.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument
Procedures (TERPS).
b. For aircraft operating on unpublished routes,
issue the approach clearance only after the aircraft is:
1. Established on a segment of a published route
or instrument approach procedure, or (See FIG
4−8−1)
2. Assigned an altitude to maintain until the
aircraft is established on a segment of a published
route or instrument approach procedure. (See FIG
4-8-2.)
EXAMPLE−
Aircraft 1 is cleared direct LEFTT. The MVA in the area is
3,000 feet, and the aircraft is at 4,000 feet. “Cross LEFTT
at or above three thousand five hundred, cleared RNAV
Runway One Eight Approach.”
The MVA in the area is 3,000 feet and Aircraft 2 is at 3,000
feet. “Cleared direct LEFTT direct CENTR, maintain three
thousand until CENTR, cleared straight-in RNAV Runway
One Eight Approach.”
FIG 4−8−2
Approach Clearance Example
EXAMPLE−
The aircraft is established on a segment of a published
route at 5,000 feet. “Cleared V-O-R Runway Three Four
Approach.”
4−8−2
Approach Clearance Procedures
12/10/15
NOTE−
1. The altitude assigned must assure IFR obstruction
clearance from the point at which the approach clearance
is issued until established on a segment of a published route
or instrument approach procedure.
JO 7110.65W
AIM, Paragraph 5-4-9, Procedure Turn and Hold-in-lieu of Procedure
Turn
FIG 4−8−3
Approach Clearance Example
For Aircraft On a Conventional Approach
2. If the altitude assignment is VFR-on-top, it is
conceivable that the pilot may elect to remain high until
arrival over the final approach fix which may require the
pilot to circle to descend so as to cross the final approach
fix at an altitude that would permit landing.
3. An aircraft is not established on an approach until at or
above an altitude published on that segment of the
approach.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 8260.3 United States Standard for Terminal Instrument
Procedures (TERPS), Para 10-2
c. Except for visual approaches, do not clear an
aircraft direct to the FAF unless it is also an IAF,
wherein the aircraft is expected to execute the
depicted procedure turn or hold-in-lieu of procedure
turn.
d. Intercept angles greater than 90 degrees may be
used when a procedure turn, a hold-in-lieu of
procedure turn pattern, or arrival holding is depicted
and the pilot will execute the procedure.
e. If a procedure turn, hold-in-lieu of procedure
turn, or arrival holding pattern is depicted and the
angle of intercept is 90 degrees or less, the aircraft
must be instructed to conduct a straight-in approach
if ATC does not want the pilot to execute a procedure
turn or hold-in-lieu of procedure turn. (See
FIG 4−8−3)
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED STRAIGHT-IN (type) APPROACH
NOTE−
1. Restate “cleared straight-in” in the approach clearance even if the pilot was advised earlier to expect a
straight-in approach.
2. Some approach charts have an arrival holding pattern
depicted at the IAF using a “thin line” holding symbol. It
is charted where holding is frequently required prior to
starting the approach procedure so that detailed holding
instructions are not required. The arrival holding pattern
is not authorized unless assigned by ATC.
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared direct SECND, maintain at or above three
thousand until SECND, cleared straight-in ILS Runway
One-Eight approach.”
REFERENCE−
AIM, Paragraph 5-4-5, Instrument Approach Procedure Charts
Approach Clearance Procedures
EXAMPLE−
Aircraft 1 can be cleared direct to XYZ VORTAC, or
SECND because the intercept angle is 90 degrees or less.
Aircraft 2 cannot be cleared to XYZ VORTAC because the
intercept angle is greater than 90 degrees.
Aircraft 2 can be cleared to SECND if allowed to execute
the hold-in-lieu of procedure turn pattern.
f. Except when applying radar procedures, timed
or visual approaches, clear an aircraft for an approach
to an airport when the preceding aircraft has landed
or canceled IFR flight plan.
g. Where instrument approaches require radar
monitoring and radar services are not available, do
not use the phraseology “cleared approach,” which
allows the pilot his/her choice of instrument
approaches.
RNAV APPLICATION
h. For RNAV−equipped aircraft operating on
unpublished routes, issue approach clearance for
conventional or RNAV SIAP including approaches
4−8−3
JO 7110.65W
with RF legs only after the aircraft is: (See FIG
4−8−4).
1. Established on a heading or course direct to
the IAF at an intercept angle not greater than 90
degrees and is assigned an altitude in accordance with
b2. Radar monitoring is required to the IAF for
RNAV (RNP) approaches when no hold−in−lieu of
procedure turn is executed.
EXAMPLE−
Aircraft 1 can be cleared direct to CENTR. The intercept
angle at that IAF is 90 degrees or less. The minimum
altitude for IFR operations (14 CFR, section 91.177) along
the flight path to the IAF is 3,000 feet. If a hold in lieu of
procedure turn pattern is depicted at an IAF and a TAA is
not defined, the aircraft must be instructed to conduct a
straight-in approach if ATC does not want the pilot to
execute a hold-in-lieu procedure turn. “Cleared direct
CENTR, maintain at or above three thousand until CENTR,
cleared straight-in RNAV Runway One-Eight Approach.”
12/10/15
greater than 30 degrees and must be cleared to an altitude
that will allow a normal descent to the FAF. “Cleared direct
SHANN, cross SHANN at or above three thousand, cleared
RNAV Runway One-Eight Approach.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO 7110.65, Par 5-6-2, Methods
FAAO 7110.65, Chapter 5, Section 9, Radar Arrivals
FIG 4−8−4
Approach Clearance Example
For RNAV Aircraft
2. Established on a heading or course direct to
the IF at an angle not greater than 90 degrees,
provided the following conditions are met:
(a) Assign an altitude in accordance with b2
that will permit a normal descent to the FAF.
NOTE−
Controllers should expect aircraft to descend at
approximately 150-300 feet per nautical mile when
applying guidance in subpara d2(a).
(b) Radar monitoring is provided to the IF.
(c) The SIAP must identify the intermediate
fix with the letters “IF.”
(d) For procedures where an IAF is published, the pilot is advised to expect clearance to the
IF at least 5 miles from the fix.
EXAMPLE−
“Expect direct CENTR for RNAV Runway One-Eight
Approach.”
3. Established on a heading or course direct to a
fix between the IF and FAF, at an intercept angle not
greater than 30 degrees, and assigned an altitude in
accordance with b2.
EXAMPLE−
Aircraft 1 is more than 5 miles from SHANN. The minimum
altitude for IFR operations (14 CFR Section 91.177) along
the flight path to SHANN is 3,000 feet. SHANN is a step
down fix between the IF/IAF (CENTR) and the FAF. To
clear Aircraft 1 to SHANN, ATC must ensure the intercept
angle for the intermediate segment at SHANN is not
4−8−4
EXAMPLE−
Aircraft 2 cannot be cleared direct to CENTR unless the
aircraft is allowed to execute the hold-in-lieu of procedure
turn. The intercept angle at that IF/IAF is greater than
90 degrees. The minimum altitude for IFR operations
(14 CFR Section 91.177) along the flight path to the IAF is
3,000 feet. “Cleared direct CENTR, maintain at or above
three thousand until CENTR, cleared RNAV Runway
One-Eight approach.” The pilot is expected to proceed
direct CENTR and execute the hold-in-lieu of procedure
turn.
Aircraft 2 can be cleared direct LEFTT. The intercept angle
at that IAF is 90 degrees or less. The minimum altitude for
IFR operations (14 CFR Section 91.177) along the flight
path to the IAF is 3,000 feet. “Cleared direct LEFTT,
maintain at or above three thousand until LEFTT, cleared
RNAV Runway One-Eight Approach.” The pilot does not
have to be cleared for a straight-in approach since no
hold-in-lieu of procedure turn pattern is depicted at
LEFTT.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 5, Section 9, Radar Arrivals
Approach Clearance Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
i. Clear RNAV−equipped aircraft conducting
RNAV instrument approach procedures that contain
radius to fix (RF) legs:
1. Via published transitions, or
2. In accordance with paragraph d.
3. Do not clear aircraft direct to any waypoint
beginning or within an RF leg.
4. Do not assign fix/waypoint crossing speeds in
excess of charted speed restrictions.
NOTE−
1. RNAV approaches (containing RF legs) that commence
at 10,000 feet or above require special procedures that will
be site specific and specified in a facility directive.
2. An RF leg is defined as a curved segment indicating a
constant radius circular path about a defined turn center
that begins at a waypoint. RF legs may have maximum
airspeeds charted for procedural containment that must be
followed.
j. Where a terminal arrival area (TAA) has been
established to support RNAV approaches, use the
procedures under subpara b1 and b2 above. (See FIG
4−8−6.)
EXAMPLE−
Aircraft 1: The aircraft has crossed the TAA boundary and
is therefore established on a segment of the approach.
“Cleared R-NAV Runway One-Eight Approach.”
Aircraft 2: The aircraft is inbound to the CHARR IAF on an
unpublished direct route at 7,000 feet. The minimum IFR
altitude for IFR operations (14 CFR Section 91.177) along
this flight path to the IAF is 5,000 feet. “Cleared direct
CHARR, maintain at or above five thousand until entering
the TAA, cleared RNAV Runway One-Eight Approach.”
FIG 4−8−6
Basic “T” and TAA Design
3. If an aircraft is vectored off the procedure, expect the
aircraft to request a return to an IAF.
FIG 4−8−5
Radius to Fix (RF) and Track to Fix (TF)
k. When GPS TESTING NOTAMs are published
and testing is actually occurring, inform pilots
requesting or cleared for a RNAV approach that GPS
may not be available and request intentions. Do not
resume RNAV approach operations until certain that
GPS interference is no longer a factor or such GPS
testing exercise has ceased.
NOTE−
1. The segment between THIRD and FORTH in FIG
4-8-5 is an RF leg.
2. The straight segments between waypoints in FIG 4-8-5
are TF legs.
Approach Clearance Procedures
l. During times when pilots report GPS anomalies,
request the pilot’s intentions and/or clear that aircraft
for an alternative approach, if available and
operational. Announce to other aircraft requesting an
RNAV approach that GPS is reported unavailable and
request intentions.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−10, NAVAID Malfunctions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−12, Airport Conditions.
4−8−5
JO 7110.65W
m. When clearing an aircraft for an RNAV
approach, and a GPS NOTAM is published (a WAAS
NOTAM is not issued), both GPS and WAAS may
become unavailable. Therefore, when a GPS
anomaly is reported, request the pilot’s intentions.
NOTE−
WAAS UNAVAILABLE NOTAMs are published to indicate
a failure of a WAAS system component. Airborne
GPS/WAAS equipment may revert to GPS−only operation
which satisfies the requirements for basic RNAV (GPS)
approaches to the airport of intended landing or filed
alternate airport, if airborne equipment is approved for
such operations.
12/10/15
4−8−5. SPECIFYING ALTITUDE
Specify in the approach clearance the altitude shown
in the approach procedures when adherence to that
altitude is required for separation. When vertical
separation will be provided from other aircraft by
pilot adherence to the prescribed maximum,
minimum, or mandatory altitudes, the controller may
omit specifying the altitude in the approach
clearance.
NOTE−
Use FAA or NGA instrument approach procedures charts
appropriate for the aircraft executing the approach.
4−8−6. CIRCLING APPROACH
4−8−2. CLEARANCE LIMIT
Issue approach or other clearances, as required,
specifying the destination airport as the clearance
limit if airport traffic control service is not provided
even though this is a repetition of the initial clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (destination) AIRPORT
4−8−3. RELAYED APPROACH CLEARANCE
TERMINAL
Include the weather report, when it is required and
available, when an approach clearance is relayed
through a communication station other than an air
carrier company radio. You may do this by telling the
station to issue current weather.
4−8−4. ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENT FOR
MILITARY HIGH ALTITUDE INSTRUMENT
APPROACHES
Altitudes above those shown on the high altitude
instrument approach procedures chart may be
specified when required for separation.
NOTE−
To preclude the possibility of aircraft exceeding
rate-of-descent or airspeed limitations, the maximum
altitudes which may be assigned for any portion of the high
altitude instrument approach procedure will be determined
through coordination between the ATC facility concerned
and the military authority which originated the high
altitude instrument approach procedure.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−5, Military Turbojet En Route Descent.
4−8−6
a. Circling approach instructions may only be
given for aircraft landing at airports with operational
control towers.
b. Include in the approach clearance instructions
to circle to the runway in use if landing will be made
on a runway other than that aligned with the direction
of instrument approach. When the direction of the
circling maneuver in relation to the airport/runway is
required, state the direction (eight cardinal compass
points) and specify a left or right base/downwind leg
as appropriate.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CIRCLE TO RUNWAY (number),
or
CIRCLE (direction using eight cardinal compass points)
OF THE AIRPORT/RUNWAY FOR A LEFT/RIGHT
BASE/DOWNWIND TO RUNWAY (number).
NOTE−
Where standard instrument approach procedures (SIAPs)
authorize circling approaches, they provide a basic
minimum of 300 feet of obstacle clearance at the MDA
within the circling area considered. The dimensions of
these areas, expressed in distances from the runways, vary
for the different approach categories of aircraft. In some
cases a SIAP may otherwise restrict circling approach
maneuvers.
c. Do not issue clearances, such as “extend
downwind leg,” which might cause an aircraft to
exceed the circling approach area distance from the
runways within which required circling approach
obstacle clearance is assured.
4−8−7. SIDE−STEP MANEUVER
TERMINAL
Approach Clearance Procedures
12/10/15
Side-step Maneuver. When authorized by an instrument approach procedure, you may clear an aircraft
for an approach to one runway and inform the aircraft
that landing will be made on a parallel runway.
JO 7110.65W
FAAO 8260.19, Flight Procedures and Airspace, Paras 404 and 815.
FAAO 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument
Procedures (TERPS), Paras 275, 278, 943, 957, and 997.
4−8−10. APPROACH INFORMATION
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared I−L−S Runway seven left approach. Side-step to
runway seven right.”
Specify the following in the approach clearance when
the pilot says he/she is unfamiliar with the procedure:
NOTE−
Side-step maneuvers require higher weather minima/
MDA. These higher minima/MDA are published on the
instrument approach charts.
b. Direction and distance from the holding fix
within which procedure turn is to be completed.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−3−2, Closed/Unsafe Runway Information.
P/CG Term− Side−step Maneuver.
4−8−8. COMMUNICATIONS RELEASE
If an IFR aircraft intends to land at an airport not
served by a tower or FSS, approve a change to the
advisory service frequency when you no longer
require direct communications.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CHANGE TO ADVISORY FREQUENCY APPROVED.
NOTE−
An expeditious frequency change permits the aircraft to
receive timely local airport traffic information in
accordance with AC 90−42, Traffic Advisory Practices at
Airports Without Operating Control Towers.
4−8−9. MISSED APPROACH
Except in the case of a VFR aircraft practicing an
instrument approach, an approach clearance automatically authorizes the aircraft to execute the missed
approach procedure depicted for the instrument
approach being flown. An alternate missed approach
procedure as published on the appropriate FAA
Form 8260 or appropriate military form may be
assigned when necessary. Once an aircraft commences a missed approach, it may be radar vectored.
NOTE−
1. Alternate missed approach procedures are published on
the appropriate FAA Form 8260 or appropriate military
form and require a detailed clearance when they are issued
to the pilot.
2. In the event of a missed approach involving a turn,
unless otherwise cleared, the pilot will proceed to the
missed approach point before starting that turn.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−8−11, Practice Approaches.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−3, Vectors Below Minimum Altitude.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−8−3, Successive or Simultaneous
Departures.
Approach Clearance Procedures
a. Initial approach altitude.
c. Altitude at which the procedure turn is to be
made.
d. Final approach course and altitude.
e. Missed approach procedures if considered
necessary.
PHRASEOLOGY−
INITIAL APPROACH AT (altitude), PROCEDURE TURN
AT (altitude), (number) MINUTES/MILES (direction),
FINAL APPROACH ON (name of NAVAID) (specified)
COURSE/RADIAL/AZIMUTH AT (altitude).
4−8−11. PRACTICE APPROACHES
Except for military aircraft operating at military
airfields, ensure that neither VFR nor IFR practice
approaches disrupt the flow of other arriving and
departing IFR or VFR aircraft. Authorize, withdraw
authorization, or refuse to authorize practice
approaches as traffic conditions require. Normally,
approaches in progress should not be terminated.
NOTE−
The priority afforded other aircraft over practice
instrument approaches is not intended to be so rigidly
applied that it causes grossly inefficient application of
services.
a. Separation.
1. IFR aircraft practicing instrument approaches must be afforded approved separation in
accordance with Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5,
Chapter 6, and Chapter 7 minima until:
(a) The aircraft lands, and the flight is
terminated, or
(b) The pilot cancels the flight plan.
2. Where procedures require application of IFR
separation to VFR aircraft practicing instrument
approaches, IFR separation in accordance with
Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, and
Chapter 7 must be provided. Controller responsibility
4−8−7
JO 7110.65W
for separation begins at the point where the approach
clearance becomes effective. Except for super or
heavy aircraft, 500 feet vertical separation may be
applied between VFR aircraft and between a VFR
and an IFR aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 6−4−4, Practice Instrument Approaches.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−4−5, Practice Instrument Approaches.
3. Where separation services are not provided to
VFR aircraft practicing instrument approaches, the
controller must;
(a) Instruct the pilot to maintain VFR.
(b) Advise the pilot that separation services
are not provided.
PHRASEOLOGY−
“(Aircraft identification) MAINTAIN VFR, PRACTICE
APPROACH APPROVED, NO SEPARATION SERVICES
PROVIDED.”
(c) Provide traffic information or advise the
pilot to contact the appropriate facility.
4. If an altitude is assigned, including at or
above/below altitudes, the altitude specified must
meet MVA, minimum safe altitude, or minimum IFR
altitude criteria.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−5, Altitude Assignments.
5. All VFR aircraft must be instructed to
maintain VFR on initial contact or as soon as possible
thereafter.
NOTE−
This advisory is intended to remind the pilot that even
though ATC is providing IFR-type instructions, the pilot is
responsible for compliance with the applicable parts of the
CFR governing VFR flight.
b. Missed Approaches.
1. Unless alternate instructions have been
issued, IFR aircraft are automatically authorized to
4−8−8
12/10/15
execute the missed approach depicted for the
instrument approach being flown.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−8−9, Missed Approach.
2. VFR aircraft are not automatically authorized
to execute the missed approach procedure. This
authorization must be specifically requested by the
pilot and approved by the controller. When a missed
approach has been approved, separation must be
provided throughout the missed approach.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
4−8−12. LOW APPROACH AND TOUCHAND-GO
Consider an aircraft cleared for a touch-and-go, low
approach, or practice approach as an arriving aircraft
until that aircraft touches down or crosses the landing
threshold; thereafter, consider the aircraft as a
departing aircraft. Before the aircraft begins its final
descent, issue the appropriate departure instructions
the pilot is to follow upon completion of the approach
(in accordance with para 4−3−2, Departure Clearances). Climb-out instructions must include a
specific heading or a route of flight and altitude,
except when the aircraft will maintain VFR and
contact the tower.
EXAMPLE−
“After completing low approach, climb and maintain six
thousand. Turn right, heading three six zero.”
“Maintain VFR, contact tower.”
(Issue other instructions as appropriate.)
NOTE−
Climb-out instructions may be omitted after the first
approach if instructions remain the same.
Approach Clearance Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 5. Radar
Section 1. General
5−1−1. PRESENTATION AND EQUIPMENT
PERFORMANCE
Provide radar service only if you are personally
satisfied that the radar presentation and equipment
performance is adequate for the service being
provided.
NOTE−
The provision of radar service is not limited to the distance
and altitude parameters obtained during the commissioning flight check.
5−1−2. ALIGNMENT ACCURACY CHECK
During relief briefing, or as soon as possible after
assuming responsibility for a control position, check
the operating equipment for alignment accuracy and
display acceptability. Recheck periodically throughout the watch.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 3, Chapter 8, Chapter 9, Chapter 10, and
Chapter 11.
Comparable Military Directives.
TERMINAL
a. Check the alignment of the radar video display
by assuring that the video/digital map or overlay is
properly aligned with a permanent target of known
range and azimuth on the radar display. Where
possible, check one permanent target per quadrant.
b. Accuracy of the radar video display must be
verified for digitized radar systems by using the
moving target indicator (MTI) reflectors, fixed
location beacon transponders (Parrots), beacon
real−time quality control (RTQC) symbols or
calibration performance monitor equipment (CPME)
beacon targets.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−8−1, Tolerance for Radar Fix Accuracy.
c. In Digital Terminal Automation Systems
(DTAS) conducts continuous self−monitoring of
alignment accuracy; therefore, controller alignment
checks are not required.
General
EN ROUTE
d. Radar Data Processing (RDP) alignment
checking is accomplished by the operational program
as part of the certification procedures for system
startup and then on a real−time basis during
operational hours.
e. Ensure the situation display center and altitude
limits for the system are appropriate for the operating
position.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−14−5, Selected Altitude Limits.
5−1−3. RADAR USE
Use radar information derived from primary and
secondary radar systems.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−4, Beacon Range Accuracy.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−15, Inoperative or Malfunctioning
Interrogator.
a. Secondary radar may be used as the sole display
source as follows:
1. In Class A airspace.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−16, Failed Transponder in Class A
Airspace.
14 CFR Section 91.135, Operations in Class A Airspace.
2. Outside Class A airspace, or where mix of
Class A airspace/non−Class A airspace exists, only
when:
(a) Additional coverage is provided by
secondary radar beyond that of the primary radar, or
(b) The primary radar is temporarily unusable
or out of service. Advise pilots when these conditions
exist, or
PHRASEOLOGY−
PRIMARY RADAR UNAVAILABLE (describe location).
RADAR SERVICES AVAILABLE ON TRANSPONDER
EQUIPPED AIRCRAFT ONLY.
NOTE−
1. Advisory may be omitted when provided on ATIS and
pilot indicates having ATIS information.
2. This provision is to authorize secondary radar only
operations where there is no primary radar available and
the condition is temporary.
5−1−1
JO 7110.65W
(c) A secondary radar system is the only
source of radar data for the area of service. When the
system is used for separation, beacon range accuracy
is assured, as provided in para 5−1−4, Beacon Range
Accuracy. TERMINAL. Advise pilots when these
conditions exist.
NOTE−
Advisory may be omitted when provided on ATIS or by
other appropriate notice to pilots.
b. TERMINAL. Do not use secondary radar only
to conduct surveillance (ASR) final approaches
unless an emergency exists and the pilot concurs.
5−1−4. BEACON RANGE ACCURACY
a. You may use beacon targets for separation
purposes if beacon range accuracy is verified by one
of the following methods:
12/10/15
5−1−5. ELECTRONIC ATTACK (EA)
ACTIVITY
a. Refer all EA activity requests to the appropriate
center supervisor.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4, Chapter 2, Section 7, Electronic Attack (EA) and
Testing Coordination.
NOTE−
EA activity can subsequently result in a request to apply
EA videos to the radar system which may necessitate the
decertification of the narrowband search radar. The
Systems Engineer should be consulted concerning the
effect of EA on the operational use of the narrowband radar
prior to approving/disapproving requests to conduct
EA activity.
b. When EA activity interferes with the operational use of radar:
1. EN ROUTE. Request the responsible military unit or aircraft, if initial request was received
directly from pilot, to suspend the activity.
NOTE−
1. The check for verification of beacon range accuracy
accomplished by correlation of beacon and primary radar
targets of the same aircraft is not a check of display
accuracy. Therefore, it is not necessary that it be done using
the same display with which separation is being provided,
nor the same targets being separated.
2. TERMINAL. Request suspension of the
activity through the ARTCC. If immediate cessation
of the activity is required, broadcast the request
directly to the EA aircraft on the emergency
frequency. Notify the ARTCC of direct broadcast as
soon as possible.
2. Narrowband and Full Digital Automation Systems:
Technical operations personnel verify beacon range
accuracy for automated narrowband display equipment
and Full Digital Terminal Automation Systems. Consequently, further verification by the controller is
unnecessary.
c. When previously suspended activity will no
longer interfere:
1. Correlate beacon and primary targets of the
same aircraft (not necessarily the one being provided
separation) to assure that they coincide.
2. When beacon and primary targets of the same
aircraft do not coincide, correlate them to assure that
any beacon displacement agrees with the specified
distance and direction for that particular radar
system.
3. Refer to beacon range monitoring equipment
where so installed.
b. If beacon range accuracy cannot be verified,
you may use beacon targets only for traffic
information.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−3, Radar Use.
5−1−2
1. EN ROUTE. Inform the NORAD unit or
aircraft that it may be resumed.
2. TERMINAL. Inform the ARTCC or aircraft
that it may be resumed. Obtain approval from the
ARTCC prior to broadcasting a resume clearance
directly to the aircraft.
d. In each stop request, include your facility name,
type of EA activity (chaff dispensing−
“stream”/“burst” or electronic jamming− “buzzer”),
radar band affected and, when feasible, expected
duration of suspension.
PHRASEOLOGY−
BIG PHOTO (identification, if known) (name)
CENTER/TOWER/APPROACH CONTROL.
To stop EA activity:
STOP STREAM/BURST IN AREA (area name) (degree and
distance from facility),
or
General
12/10/15
STOP BUZZER ON (frequency band or channel).
To resume EA activity:
RESUME STREAM/BURST,
or
RESUME BUZZER ON (frequency band or channel).
5−1−6. SERVICE LIMITATIONS
a. When radar mapping is not available, limit
radar services to:
1. Separating identified aircraft targets.
2. Vectoring aircraft to intercept a PAR final
approach course.
3. Providing radar service in areas that ensure no
confliction with traffic on airways, other ATC areas
of jurisdiction, restricted or prohibited areas, terrain,
etc.
b. EN ROUTE. When the position symbol
associated with the data block falls more than one
history behind the actual aircraft target or there is no
target symbol displayed, the Mode C information in
the data block must not be used for the purpose of
determining separation.
c. Report radar malfunctions immediately for
corrective action and for dispatch of a Notice to
Airmen. Advise adjacent ATC facilities when
appropriate.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−9, Reporting Essential Flight
Information.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 3, Chapter 7, Chapter 10 Section 5, and
Chapter 11 Section 2.
5−1−7. ELECTRONIC CURSOR
TERMINAL
a. An electronic cursor may be used to aid in
identifying and vectoring an aircraft and to give finer
delineation to a video map. Do not use it as a
substitute for a video map or map overlay; e.g., to
form intersections, airway boundaries, final approach
courses, etc.
General
JO 7110.65W
b. Fixed electronic cursors may be used to form
the final approach course for surveillance approaches
conducted by military operated mobile radar
facilities.
5−1−8. MERGING TARGET PROCEDURES
a. Except while they are established in a holding
pattern, apply merging target procedures to all radar
identified:
1. Aircraft at 10,000 feet and above.
2. Turbojet aircraft regardless of altitude.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Turbojet Aircraft.
3. Presidential aircraft regardless of altitude.
b. Issue traffic information to those aircraft listed
in subpara a whose targets appear likely to merge
unless the aircraft are separated by more than the
appropriate vertical separation minima.
EXAMPLE−
“Traffic twelve o’clock, seven miles, eastbound, MD−80, at
one seven thousand.”
“United Sixteen and American Twenty-five, traffic
twelve o’clock, one zero miles, opposite direction,
eastbound seven twenty seven at flight level three three
zero, westbound MD−Eighty at flight level three one zero.”
c. When both aircraft in subpara b are in RVSM
airspace, and vertically separated by 1,000 feet, if
either pilot reports they are unable to maintain RVSM
due to turbulence or mountain wave, vector either
aircraft to avoid merging with the target of the other
aircraft.
EXAMPLE−
“Delta One Twenty Three, fly heading two niner zero,
vector for traffic. Traffic twelve o’clock, one zero miles,
opposite direction, MD−80 eastbound at flight level three
two zero.”
d. If the pilot requests, vector his/her aircraft to
avoid merging with the target of previously issued
traffic.
NOTE−
Aircraft closure rates are so rapid that when applying
merging target procedures, controller issuance of traffic
must be commenced in ample time for the pilot to decide if
a vector is necessary.
5−1−3
JO 7110.65W
e. If unable to provide vector service, inform the
pilot.
NOTE−
The phraseology “Unable RVSM due turbulence (or
mountain wave)” is only intended for severe turbulence or
other weather encounters with altitude deviations of
approximately 200 feet or more.
5−1−9. HOLDING PATTERN
SURVEILLANCE
Provide radar surveillance of outer fix holding pattern
airspace areas, or any portions thereof, shown on your
radar scope (displayed on the video map or scribed on
the map overlay) whenever aircraft are holding there.
Attempt to detect any aircraft that stray outside the
area. If you detect an aircraft straying outside the area,
assist it to return to the assigned airspace.
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 6−1−6, Flight Progress Strip Usage.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−1−8, Flight Progress Strip Usage.
5−1−12. POSITION REPORTING
If necessary, you may request an aircraft to provide an
estimate or report over a specific fix. After an aircraft
receives the statement “radar contact” from ATC, it
discontinues reporting over compulsory reporting
points. It resumes normal position reporting when
ATC informs it “radar contact lost” or “radar service
terminated.”
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Radar Contact.
a. When required, inform an aircraft of its position
with respect to a fix or airway.
PHRASEOLOGY−
OVER/PASSING (fix).
(Number of miles) MILES FROM (fix).
5−1−10. DEVIATION ADVISORIES
Inform an aircraft when it is observed in a position
and on a track which will obviously cause the aircraft
to deviate from its protected airspace area. If
necessary, help the aircraft to return to the assigned
protected airspace.
NOTE−
1. RNAV ATS routes have a width of 8 miles and laterally
protected airspace of 4 miles on each side of the route
centerline
2. Navigation system performance requirements for
operations on RNAV ATS routes require the aircraft system
be capable of remaining within 2 miles of the route
centerline. Aircraft approaching this limit may be
experiencing a navigation system error or failure.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−5, Route or Altitude Amendments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−3, Methods.
FAAO 7400.2, Para 20-5-3. Lateral Protected Airspace Criteria for
RNAV En Route Segments
AC90-100A, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV)
Operations, Para 8a. Navigation System Accuracy
5−1−11. RADAR FIX POSTING
EN ROUTE
A controller is required to manually record at least
once the observed or reported time over a fix for each
controlled aircraft in their sector of responsibility
only when the flight progress recording components
of the EAS FDP are not operational.
5−1−4
(Number of miles) MILES (direction) OF (fix, airway, or
location).
CROSSING/JOINING/DEPARTING (airway or route).
INTERCEPTING/CROSSING (name of NAVAID)
(specified) RADIAL.
5−1−13. RADAR SERVICE TERMINATION
a. Inform aircraft when radar service is
terminated.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED (nonradar routing if
required).
b. Radar service is automatically terminated and
the aircraft needs not be advised of termination when:
NOTE−
1. Termination of radar monitoring when conducting
simultaneous ILS/MLS approaches is prescribed in
para 5−9−7, Simultaneous Independent ILS/MLS
Approaches− Dual & Triple.
2. Termination of radar monitoring where PAR equipment
is used to monitor approaches is prescribed in
para 5−13−3, Monitor Information.
1. An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except
within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, TRSA, or
where basic radar service is provided.
2. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual,
or contact approach has landed or has been instructed
to change to advisory frequency.
General
12/10/15
3. At tower-controlled airports where radar
coverage does not exist to within 1/2 mile of the end
of the runway, arriving aircraft must be informed
when radar service is terminated.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−5−6, Radar Tolerances.
JO 7110.65W
5. TERMINAL. An aircraft completes a radar
approach.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−12, Service Provided When Tower is
Inoperative.
4. TERMINAL. An arriving VFR aircraft receiving radar service to a tower-controlled airport
within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, TRSA, or
where basic radar service is provided has landed, or
to all other airports, is instructed to change to tower
or advisory frequency.
General
5−1−5
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Beacon Systems
5−2−1. ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA
a. General.
1. Mode 3/A is designated as the common
military/civil mode for air traffic control use.
2. When an IFR aircraft, or a VFR aircraft that has been
assigned a beacon code by the ARTCC computer and
whose flight plan will terminate in another facility’s area,
cancels ATC service or does not activate the flight plan,
ensure that appropriate action is taken to remove strips (RS
message) on that aircraft.
2. Make radar beacon code assignments to only
Mode 3/A transponder-equipped aircraft.
b. Make handoffs to other positions/sectors on the
computer-assigned code.
b. Unless otherwise specified in a directive or a
letter of agreement, make code assignments to
departing, en route, and arrival aircraft in accordance
with the procedures specified in this section for the
radar beacon code environment in which you are
providing ATC service. Give first preference to the
use of discrete beacon codes.
c. Coastal facilities accepting “over” traffic that
will subsequently be handed-off to an oceanic
ARTCC must reassign a new discrete beacon code to
an aircraft when it first enters the receiving facility’s
airspace. The code reassignment must be accomplished by inputting an appropriate message into the
computer and issued to the pilot while operating in the
first sector/position in the receiving facility’s
airspace.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SQUAWK THREE/ALFA (code),
or
SQUAWK (code).
NOTE−
A code environment is determined by an operating
position’s/sector’s equipment capability to decode radar
beacon targets using either the first and second or all
four digits of a beacon code.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−2. DISCRETE ENVIRONMENT
a. Issue discrete beacon codes assigned by the
computer. Computer-assigned codes may be modified as required.
1. TERMINAL. Aircraft that will remain within
the terminal facility’s delegated airspace must be
assigned a code from the code subset allocated to the
terminal facility.
2. TERMINAL. Unless otherwise specified in a
facility directive or a letter of agreement, aircraft that
will enter an adjacent ATTS facility’s delegated
airspace must be assigned a beacon code assigned by
the ARTCC computer.
NOTE−
1. This will provide the adjacent facility advance
information on the aircraft and will cause auto-acquisition
of the aircraft prior to handoff.
Beacon Systems
NOTE−
Per an agreement between FAA and the Department of
Defense, 17 Code subsets in the NBCAP have been
reserved for exclusive military use outside NBCAP
airspace. To maximize the use of these subsets, they have
been allocated to ARTCC’s underlying NBCAP airspace
that do not abut an oceanic ARTCC’s area. To preclude a
potential situation where two aircraft might be in the same
airspace at the same time on the same discrete code, it is
necessary to reassign an aircraft another code as specified
in subpara c.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−4, Mixed Environment.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−9, VFR Code Assignments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−3. NONDISCRETE ENVIRONMENT
a. Assign appropriate nondiscrete beacon codes
from the function codes specified in para 5−2−6,
Function Code Assignments.
b. Unless otherwise coordinated at the time of
handoff, make handoffs to other positions/sectors on
an appropriate nondiscrete function code.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−4, Mixed Environment.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−9, VFR Code Assignments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−4. MIXED ENVIRONMENT
a. When discrete beacon code capability does not
exist in your area of responsibility, comply with the
5−2−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
procedures specified in para 5−2−3, Nondiscrete
Environment.
3. For handoffs from terminal facilities when so
specified in a letter of agreement as follows:
NOTE−
In a mixed code environment, a situation may exist where
a discrete-equipped position/sector exchanges control of
aircraft with nondiscrete-equipped facilities or vice versa.
(a) Within NBCAP airspace− Code 0100 to
Code 0400 inclusive or any other code authorized by
the appropriate service area office.
b. When discrete beacon code capability exists in
your area of responsibility:
1. Comply with the procedures specified in
para 5−2−2, Discrete Environment, and
2. Unless otherwise coordinated at the time of
handoff, assign aircraft that will enter the area of
responsibility of a nondiscrete-equipped position/
sector an appropriate nondiscrete function code from
the codes specified in para 5−2−6, Function Code
Assignments, prior to initiating a handoff.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−8, IFR-VFR and VFR-IFR Flights.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−9, VFR Code Assignments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−5. RADAR BEACON CODE CHANGES
Unless otherwise specified in a directive or a letter of
agreement or coordinated at the time of handoff, do
not request an aircraft to change from the code it was
squawking in the transferring facility’s area until the
aircraft is within your area of responsibility.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−8, IFR-VFR and VFR-IFR Flights.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
(b) Outside NBCAP airspace− Code 1000 or
one of the codes from 0100 to 0700 inclusive or any
other code authorized by the appropriate service area
office.
b. Assign codes to en route IFR aircraft as follows:
NOTE−
1. FL 180 may be used in lieu of FL 240 where the base of
Class A airspace and the base of the operating sector are
at FL 180, and for inter-facility handoff the receiving
sector is also stratified at FL 180.
2. The provisions of subparas b2(b) and (c) may be
modified by facility directive or letter of agreement when
operational complexities or simplified sectorization
indicate. Letters of agreement are mandatory when the
operating sectors of two facilities are not stratified at
identical levels. The general concept of utilizing
Codes 2100 through 2500 within Class A airspace should
be adhered to.
1. Aircraft operating below FL 240 or when
control is transferred to a controller whose area
includes the stratum involved.
(a) Code 1000 may be assigned to aircraft
changing altitudes.
5−2−6. FUNCTION CODE ASSIGNMENTS
(b) Code 1100 to an aircraft operating at an
assigned altitude below FL 240. Should an additional
code be operationally desirable, Code 1300 must be
assigned.
Unless otherwise specified by a directive or a letter of
agreement, make nondiscrete code assignments from
the following categories:
2. Aircraft operating at or above FL 240 or when
control is transferred to a controller whose area
includes the stratum involved.
a. Assign codes to departing IFR aircraft as
follows:
(a) Code 2300 may be assigned to aircraft
changing altitudes.
1. Code 2000 to an aircraft which will climb to
FL 240 or above or to an aircraft which will climb to
FL 180 or above where the base of Class A airspace
and the base of the operating sector are at FL 180, and
for inter-facility handoff the receiving sector is also
stratified at FL 180. The en route code must not be
assigned until the aircraft is established in the high
altitude sector.
(b) Code 2100 to an aircraft operating at an
assigned altitude from FL 240 to FL 330 inclusive.
Should an additional code be operationally desirable,
Code 2200 must be assigned.
(c) Code 2400 to an aircraft operating at an
assigned altitude from FL 350 to FL 600 inclusive.
Should an additional code be operationally desirable,
Code 2500 must be assigned.
2. Code 1100 to an aircraft which will remain
below FL 240 or below FL 180 as above.
3. Code 4000 when aircraft are operating on a
flight plan specifying frequent or rapid changes in
5−2−2
Beacon Systems
12/10/15
assigned altitude in more than one stratum or other
conditions of flight not compatible with a stratified
code assignment.
NOTE−
1. Categories of flight that can be assigned Code 4000
include certain flight test aircraft, MTR missions, aerial
refueling operation requiring descent involving more than
one stratum, ALTRVs where continuous monitoring of ATC
communications facilities is not required and frequent
altitude changes are approved, and other aircraft
operating on flight plans requiring special handling by
ATC.
2. Military aircraft operating VFR or IFR in restricted/
warning areas or VFR on VR routes will adjust their
transponders to reply on Code 4000 unless another code
has been assigned by ATC or coordinated, if possible, with
ATC.
c. Assign the following codes to arriving IFR
aircraft, except military turbojet aircraft as specified
in para 4−7−4, Radio Frequency and Radar Beacon
Changes for Military Aircraft:
NOTE−
FL 180 may be used in lieu of FL 240 where the base of
Class A airspace and the base of the operating sector are
at FL 180, and for inter-facility handoff the receiving
sector is also stratified at FL 180.
1. Code 2300 may be assigned for descents
while above FL 240.
2. Code 1500 may be assigned for descents into
and while within the strata below FL 240, or with
prior coordination the specific code utilized by the
destination controller, or the code currently assigned
when descent clearance is issued.
3. The applicable en route code for the holding
altitude if holding is necessary before entering the
terminal area and the appropriate code in subparas 1
or 2.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−8, IFR-VFR and VFR-IFR Flights.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−3, Nondiscrete Environment.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−4, Mixed Environment.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−9, VFR Code Assignments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
SQUAWK MAYDAY ON 7700.
b. After radio and radar contact have been
established, you may request other than singlepiloted helicopters and single-piloted turbojet aircraft
to change from Code 7700 to another code
appropriate for your radar beacon code environment.
NOTE−
1. The code change, based on pilot concurrence, the
nature of the emergency, and current flight conditions will
signify to other radar facilities that the aircraft in distress
is identified and under ATC control.
2. Pilots of single-piloted helicopters and single-piloted
turbojet aircraft may be unable to reposition transponder
controls during the emergency.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RADAR CONTACT (position). IF FEASIBLE, SQUAWK
(code).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
c. The following must be accomplished on a
Mode C equipped VFR aircraft which is in
emergency but no longer requires the assignment of
Code 7700:
1. TERMINAL. Assign a beacon code that will
permit terminal minimum safe altitude warning
(MSAW) alarm processing.
2. EN ROUTE. An appropriate keyboard entry
must be made to ensure en route MSAW (EMSAW)
alarm processing.
5−2−8. RADIO FAILURE
When you observe a Code 7600 display, apply the
procedures in para 10−4−4, Communications Failure.
NOTE−
Should a transponder-equipped aircraft experience a loss
of two-way radio communications capability, the pilot can
be expected to adjust his/her transponder to Code 7600.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−7. EMERGENCY CODE ASSIGNMENT
5−2−9. VFR CODE ASSIGNMENTS
Assign codes to emergency aircraft as follows:
a. For VFR aircraft receiving radar advisories,
assign an appropriate function code or computerassigned code for the code environment in which you
are providing service.
a. Code 7700 when the pilot declares an
emergency and the aircraft is not radar identified.
Beacon Systems
5−2−3
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
1. Para 5−2−2, Discrete Environment; para 5−2−3,
Nondiscrete Environment, and para 5−2−4, Mixed
Environment, specify code assignment procedures to
follow for the three code environments.
2. Para 5−2−6, Function Code Assignments, specifies the
function code allocation from which an appropriate code
for the aircraft indicated in subpara a should be selected.
In the terminal environment, additional function codes may
be authorized by the appropriate service area office.
1. If the aircraft is outside of your area of
responsibility and an operational benefit will be
gained by retaining the aircraft on your frequency for
the purpose of providing services, ensure that
coordination has been effected:
(a) As soon as possible after positive
identification, and
(b) Prior to issuing a control instruction or
providing a service other than a safety alert/traffic
advisory.
NOTE−
Safety alerts/traffic advisories may be issued to an aircraft
prior to coordination if an imminent situation may be
averted by such action. Coordination should be effected as
soon as possible thereafter.
b. Instruct IFR aircraft which cancel an IFR flight
plan and are not requesting radar advisory service and
VFR aircraft for which radar advisory service is being
terminated to squawk the VFR code.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SQUAWK VFR.
or
SQUAWK 1200.
NOTE−
1. Aircraft not in contact with an ATC facility may squawk
1255 in lieu of 1200 while en route to/from or within the
designated fire fighting area(s).
2. VFR aircraft which fly authorized SAR missions for the
USAF or USCG may be advised to squawk 1277 in lieu of
1200 while en route to/from or within the designated search
area.
3. Gliders not in contact with an ATC facility should
squawk 1202 in lieu of 1200. Gliders operate under some
flight and maneuvering limitations. They may go from
essentially stationary targets while climbing and thermaling to moving targets very quickly. They can be expected to
make radical changes in flight direction to find lift and
cannot hold altitude in a response to an ATC request.
5−2−4
12/10/15
Gliders may congregate together for short periods of time
to climb together in thermals and may cruise together in
loose formations while traveling between thermals.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 7110.66, National Beacon Code Allocation Plan.
c. When an aircraft changes from VFR to IFR, the
controller must assign a beacon code to Mode C
equipped aircraft that will allow MSAW alarms.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−10. BEACON CODE FOR PRESSURE
SUIT FLIGHTS AND FLIGHTS ABOVE
FL 600
a. Mode 3/A, Code 4400, and discrete Codes
4440 through 4465 are reserved for use by R−71,
F−12, U−2, B−57, pressure suit flights, and aircraft
operations above FL 600.
NOTE−
The specific allocation of the special use codes in
subset 4400 is in FAAO 7110.66, National Beacon Code
Allocation Plan.
b. Ensure that aircraft remain on Code 4400 or one
of the special use discrete codes in the 4400 subset if
filed as part of the flight plan. Except when
unforeseen events, such as weather deviations,
equipment failure, etc., cause more than one aircraft
with same Mode 3/A discrete beacon codes to be in
the same or adjacent ARTCC’s airspace at the same
time, a controller may request the pilot to make a code
change, squawk standby, or to stop squawk as
appropriate.
NOTE−
Due to the inaccessibility of certain equipment to the flight
crews, Code 4400 or a discrete code from the 4400 subset
is preset on the ground and will be used throughout the
flight profile including operations below FL 600.
Controllers should be cognizant that not all aircraft may be
able to accept the transponder changes identified in the
exception. Emergency Code 7700, however, can be
activated.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−11. AIR DEFENSE EXERCISE BEACON
CODE ASSIGNMENT
EN ROUTE
Ensure exercise FAKER aircraft remain on the
exercise flight plan filed discrete beacon code.
NOTE−
1. NORAD will ensure exercise FAKER aircraft flight
Beacon Systems
12/10/15
plans are filed containing discrete beacon codes from the
Department of Defense code allocation specified in FAA
Order JO 7610.4, Special Operations, Appendix 6.
2. NORAD will ensure that those FAKER aircraft assigned
the same discrete beacon code are not flight planned in the
same or any adjacent ARTCC’s airspace at the same time.
(Simultaneous assignment of codes will only occur when
operational requirements necessitate.)
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−12. STANDBY OR LOW SENSITIVITY
OPERATION
You may instruct an aircraft operating on an assigned
code to change transponder to “standby” or “low
sensitivity” position:
NOTE−
National standards no longer require improved transponder to be equipped with the low sensitivity feature.
Therefore, aircraft with late model transponders will be
unable to respond to a request to “squawk low.”
a. When approximately 15 miles from its
destination and you no longer desire operation of the
transponder.
b. When necessary to reduce clutter in a
multi-target area, or to reduce “ring-around” or other
phenomena, provided you instruct the aircraft to
return to “normal sensitivity” position as soon as
possible thereafter.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SQUAWK STANDBY,
or
SQUAWK LOW/NORMAL.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−13. CODE MONITOR
Continuously monitor the Mode 3/A radar beacon
codes assigned for use by aircraft operating within
your area of responsibility when nonautomated
beacon decoding equipment (e.g., 10−channel
decoder) is used to display the target symbol.
JO 7110.65W
systems are equipped with automatic beacon decoders.
Therefore, in facilities where the automatic beacon
decoders are providing the control slash video, there is no
requirement to have the non−automated decoding
equipment operating simultaneously.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−7−4, Monitoring of Mode 3/A Radar Beacon
Codes.
a. This includes the appropriate IFR code actually
assigned and, additionally, Code 1200, Code 1202,
Code 1255, and Code 1277 unless your area of
responsibility includes only Class A airspace. During
periods when ring-around or excessive VFR target
presentations derogate the separation of IFR traffic,
the monitoring of VFR Code 1200, Code 1202, Code
1255, and Code 1277 may be temporarily discontinued.
b. Positions of operation which contain a
restricted or warning area or VR route within or
immediately adjacent to their area of jurisdiction
must monitor Code 4000 and any other code used in
lieu of 4000 within the warning/restricted area or
VR route. If by local coordination with the
restricted/warning area or VR route user a code other
than 4000 is to be exclusively used, then this code
must be monitored.
c. If a normally assigned beacon code disappears,
check for a response on the following codes in the
order listed and take appropriate action:
NOTE−
When Codes 7500 and/or 7600 have been preselected, it
will be necessary for the ID−SEL−OFF switches for these
codes to be left in the off position so that beacon target for
an aircraft changing to one of these codes will disappear,
thereby alerting the controller to make the check. This
check will not be required if automatic alerting capability
exists.
1. Code 7500 (hijack code).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−2−6, Hijacked Aircraft.
2. Code 7600 (loss of radio communications
code).
5−2−14. FAILURE TO DISPLAY ASSIGNED
BEACON CODE OR INOPERATIVE/
MALFUNCTIONING TRANSPONDER
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−6, Function Code Assignments.
a. Inform an aircraft with an operable transponder
that the assigned beacon code is not being displayed.
NOTE−
In addition to alphanumeric and control symbology
processing enhancements, the MEARTS and STARS
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification) RESET TRANSPONDER, SQUAWK
(appropriate code).
Beacon Systems
5−2−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
b. Inform an aircraft when its transponder appears
to be inoperative or malfunctioning.
1. It varies less than 300 feet from the pilot
reported altitude, or
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Identification) YOUR TRANSPONDER APPEARS
INOPERATIVE/MALFUNCTIONING, RESET, SQUAWK
(appropriate code).
PHRASEOLOGY−
(If aircraft is known to be operating below the lowest
useable flight level),
c. Ensure that the subsequent control position in
the facility or the next facility, as applicable, is
notified when an aircraft transponder is malfunctioning/inoperative.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
SAY ALTITUDE.
or
(If aircraft is known to be operating at or above the lowest
useable flight level),
SAY FLIGHT LEVEL.
5−2−15. INOPERATIVE OR
MALFUNCTIONING INTERROGATOR
Inform aircraft concerned when the ground interrogator appears to be inoperative or malfunctioning.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Name of facility or control function) BEACON
INTERROGATOR INOPERATIVE/MALFUNCTIONING.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−3, Radar Use.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−16. FAILED TRANSPONDER IN CLASS
A AIRSPACE
Disapprove a request or withdraw previously issued
approval to operate in Class A airspace with a failed
transponder solely on the basis of traffic conditions or
other operational factors.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−3, Radar Use.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−17. VALIDATION OF MODE C
READOUT
Ensure that Mode C altitude readouts are valid after
accepting an interfacility handoff, initial track start,
track start from coast/suspend tabular list, missing, or
unreasonable Mode C readouts. When an X is
displayed adjacent to the Mode C, the Mode C
altitude readout must be validated after the X is no
longer displayed in the data block. (CTRD equipped
tower cabs are not required to validate Mode C
readouts after receiving interfacility handoffs from
TRACONs according to the procedures in Para 5-4-3,
Methods, subpara a4.)
a. Consider an altitude readout valid when:
5−2−6
2. You receive a continuous readout from an
aircraft on the airport and the readout varies by less
than 300 feet from the field elevation, or
NOTE−
A continuous readout exists only when the altitude filter
limits are set to include the field elevation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−23, Altitude Filters.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−14−5, Selected Altitude Limits.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 11−2−3 , Display Data.
3. You have correlated the altitude information
in your data block with the validated information in
a data block generated in another facility (by verbally
coordinating with the other controller) and your
readout is exactly the same as the readout in the other
data block.
b. When unable to validate the readout, do not use
the Mode C altitude information for separation.
c. Whenever you observe an invalid Mode C
readout below FL 180:
1. Issue the correct altimeter setting and confirm
the pilot has accurately reported the altitude.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Location) ALTIMETER (appropriate altimeter), VERIFY
ALTITUDE.
2. If the altitude readout continues to be invalid:
(a) Instruct the pilot to turn off the altitudereporting part of his/her transponder and include the
reason; and
(b) Notify the operations supervisor-incharge of the aircraft call sign.
PHRASEOLOGY−
STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK. ALTITUDE DIFFERS BY
(number of feet) FEET.
Beacon Systems
12/10/15
d. Whenever you observe an invalid Mode C
readout at or above FL 180, unless the aircraft is
descending below Class A airspace:
1. Verify that the pilot is using 29.92 inches of
mercury as the altimeter setting and has accurately
reported the altitude.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VERIFY USING TWO NINER NINER TWO AS YOUR
ALTIMETER SETTING.
(If aircraft is known to be operating at or above the lowest
useable flight level),
VERIFY FLIGHT LEVEL.
2. If the Mode C readout continues to be invalid:
(a) Instruct the pilot to turn off the altitudereporting part of his/her transponder and include the
reason; and
(b) Notify the operational supervisor-incharge of the aircraft call sign.
PHRASEOLOGY−
STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK. ALTITUDE DIFFERS BY
(number of feet) FEET.
e. Whenever possible, inhibit altitude readouts on
all consoles when a malfunction of the ground
equipment causes repeated invalid readouts.
5−2−18. ALTITUDE CONFIRMATION−
MODE C
Request a pilot to confirm assigned altitude on initial
contact unless:
NOTE−
For the purpose of this paragraph, “initial contact” means
a pilot’s first radio contact with each sector/position.
a. The pilot states the assigned altitude, or
b. You assign a new altitude to a climbing or a
descending aircraft, or
c. The Mode C readout is valid and indicates that
the aircraft is established at the assigned altitude, or
d. TERMINAL. The aircraft was transferred to
you from another sector/position within your facility
(intrafacility).
PHRASEOLOGY−
(In level flight situations),VERIFY AT (altitude/flight
level).
Beacon Systems
JO 7110.65W
(In climbing/descending situations),
(if aircraft has been assigned an altitude below the lowest
useable flight level),
VERIFY ASSIGNED ALTITUDE (altitude).
or
(If aircraft has been assigned a flight level at or above the
lowest useable flight level),
VERIFY ASSIGNED FLIGHT LEVEL (flight level).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−19. ALTITUDE CONFIRMATION−
NON−MODE C
a. Request a pilot to confirm assigned altitude on
initial contact unless:
NOTE−
For the purpose of this paragraph, “initial contact” means
a pilot’s first radio contact with each sector/position.
1. The pilot states the assigned altitude, or
2. You assign a new altitude to a climbing or a
descending aircraft, or
3. TERMINAL. The aircraft was transferred to
you from another sector/position within your facility
(intrafacility).
PHRASEOLOGY−
(In level flight situations),VERIFY AT (altitude/flight
level).
(In climbing/descending situations),VERIFY ASSIGNED
ALTITUDE/FLIGHT LEVEL (altitude/flight level).
b. USA. Reconfirm all pilot altitude read backs.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(If the altitude read back is correct),
AFFIRMATIVE (altitude).
(If the altitude read back is not correct),
NEGATIVE. CLIMB/DESCEND AND MAINTAIN
(altitude),
or
NEGATIVE. MAINTAIN (altitude).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−7
JO 7110.65W
5−2−20. AUTOMATIC ALTITUDE
REPORTING
Inform an aircraft when you want it to turn on/off the
automatic altitude reporting feature of its
transponder.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SQUAWK ALTITUDE,
or
STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK.
NOTE−
Controllers should be aware that not all aircraft have a
capability to disengage the altitude squawk independently
from the beacon code squawk. On some aircraft both
functions are controlled by the same switch.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−17, Validation of Mode C Readout.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
P/CG Term− Automatic Altitude Report.
5−2−21. INFLIGHT DEVIATIONS FROM
TRANSPONDER/MODE C REQUIREMENTS
BETWEEN 10,000 FEET AND 18,000 FEET
Apply the following procedures to requests to deviate
from the Mode C transponder requirement by aircraft
operating in the airspace of the 48 contiguous states
and the District of Columbia at and above 10,000 feet
MSL and below 18,000 feet MSL, excluding the
airspace at and below 2,500 feet AGL.
NOTE−
1. 14 CFR Section 91.215(b) provides, in part, that all U.S.
registered civil aircraft must be equipped with an operable,
coded radar beacon transponder when operating in the
altitude stratum listed above. Such transponders must have
a Mode 3/A 4096 code capability, replying to Mode 3/A
interrogation with the code specified by ATC, or a Mode S
capability, replying to Mode 3/A interrogations with the
code specified by ATC. The aircraft must also be equipped
with automatic pressure altitude reporting equipment
having a Mode C capability that automatically replies to
Mode C interrogations by transmitting pressure altitude
information in 100−foot increments.
2. The exception to 14 CFR Section 91.215 (b) is 14 CFR
Section 91.215(b)(5) which states: except balloons,
gliders, and aircraft without engine−driven electrical
systems.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 19 , Temporary Flight Restrictions.
5−2−8
12/10/15
a. Except in an emergency, do not approve inflight
requests for authorization to deviate from 14 CFR
Section 91.215(b)(5)(i) requirements originated by
aircraft without transponder equipment installed.
b. Approve or disapprove other inflight deviation
requests, or withdraw approval previously issued to
such flights, solely on the basis of traffic conditions
and other operational factors.
c. Adhere to the following sequence of action
when an inflight VFR deviation request is received
from an aircraft with an inoperative transponder or
Mode C, or is not Mode C equipped:
1. Suggest that the aircraft conduct its flight in
airspace unaffected by the CFRs.
2. Suggest that the aircraft file an IFR flight
plan.
3. Suggest that the aircraft provide a VFR route
of flight and maintain radio contact with ATC.
d. Do not approve an inflight deviation unless the
aircraft has filed an IFR flight plan or a VFR route of
flight is provided and radio contact with ATC is
maintained.
e. You may approve an inflight deviation request
which includes airspace outside your jurisdiction
without the prior approval of the adjacent ATC
sector/facility providing a transponder/Mode C status
report is forwarded prior to control transfer.
f. Approve or disapprove inflight deviation
requests within a reasonable period of time or advise
when approval/disapproval can be expected.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
5−2−22. BEACON TERMINATION
Inform an aircraft when you want it to turn off its
transponder.
PHRASEOLOGY−
STOP SQUAWK.
(For a military aircraft when you do not know if the military
service requires that it continue operating on another
mode),
STOP SQUAWK (mode in use).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification Methods.
Beacon Systems
12/10/15
5−2−23. ALTITUDE FILTERS
TERMINAL
Set altitude filters to display Mode C altitude readouts
to encompass all altitudes within the controller’s
jurisdiction. Set the upper limits no lower than
1,000 feet above the highest altitude for which the
controller is responsible. In those stratified positions,
set the lower limit to 1,000 feet or more below the
lowest altitude for which the controller is responsible.
When the position’s area of responsibility includes
down to an airport field elevation, the facility will
normally set the lower altitude filter limit to
encompass the field elevation so that provisions of
para 2−1−6, Safety Alert, and para 5−2−17, Valida-
Beacon Systems
JO 7110.65W
tion of Mode C Readout, subpara a2 may be applied.
Air traffic managers may authorize temporary
suspension of this requirement when target clutter is
excessive.
5−2−24. INOPERATIVE OR
MALFUNCTIONING ADS-B TRANSMITTER
TERMINALInform an aircraft when the ADS-B transmitter
appears to be inoperative or malfunctioning.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft ID) YOUR ADS-B TRANSMITTER APPEARS
TO BE INOPERATIVE / MALFUCTIONING.
5−2−9
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 3. Radar Identification
5−3−1. APPLICATION
Before you provide radar service, establish and
maintain radar identification of the aircraft involved,
except as provided in Paragraph 5-5-1, Application,
subparagraphs b2, b3 and in Paragraph 8-5-5, Radar
Identification Application.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-1-9, Use of Tower Radar Displays.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-1-1, Presentation and Equipment
Performance.
5−3−2. PRIMARY RADAR IDENTIFICATION
METHODS
Identify a primary or radar beacon target by using one
of the following methods:
a. Observing a departing aircraft target within
1 mile of the takeoff runway end at airports with an
operating control tower, provided one of the
following methods of coordination is accomplished.
1. A verbal rolling/boundary notification is
issued for each departure, or
2. A nonverbal rolling/boundary notification is
used for each departure aircraft.
NOTE−
Nonverbal notification can be accomplished via the use of
a manual or electronic “drop tube” or automation.
b. Observing a target whose position with respect
to a fix (displayed on the video map, scribed on the
map overlay, or displayed as a permanent echo) or a
visual reporting point (whose range and azimuth from
the radar antenna has been accurately determined and
made available to the controller) corresponds with a
direct position report received from an aircraft, and
the observed track is consistent with the reported
heading or route of flight. If a TACAN/VORTAC is
located within 6,000 feet of the radar antenna, the
TACAN/VORTAC may be used as a reference fix for
radar identification without being displayed on the
video map or map overlay.
NOTE−
1. Establishment of radar identification through use of
DME position information can be complicated by the fact
that some military TACANs are not collocated with
frequency−paired VORs and might be separated from them
by as much as 31 miles.
Radar Identification
2. Visual reporting points used for RADAR identification
are limited to those most used by pilots and whose range
and azimuth have been determined by supervisory
personnel.
c. Observing a target make an identifying turn or
turns of 30 degrees or more, provided the following
conditions are met:
NOTE−
Use of identifying turns or headings which would cause the
aircraft to follow normal IFR routes or known VFR flight
paths might result in misidentification. When these
circumstances cannot be avoided, additional methods of
identification may be necessary.
1. Except in the case of a lost aircraft, a pilot
position report is received which assures you that the
aircraft is within radar coverage and within the area
being displayed.
2. Only one aircraft is observed making these
turns.
3. For aircraft operating in accordance with an
IFR clearance, you either issue a heading away from
an area which will require an increased minimum IFR
altitude or have the aircraft climb to the highest
minimum altitude in your area of jurisdiction before
you issue a heading.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−9, Use of Tower Radar Displays.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−11, Surveillance Unusable.
5−3−3. BEACON IDENTIFICATION
METHODS
When using only Mode 3/A radar beacon to identify
a target, use one of the following methods:
a. Request the aircraft to activate the “IDENT”
feature of the transponder and then observe the
identification display.
NOTE−
1. At facilities where the single-slash “IDENT” modification is installed or other decoder modifications have been
made which increase the number of “blooming” target
displays, it will be necessary to exercise additional care to
preclude the possibility of misidentification.
2. TERMINAL. When automated displays are operated in
the analog mode, the “IDENT” return is displayed as a
double slash and the emergency return as a single bloomer
whenever the beacon control head is in the “fail” position.
5−3−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
PHRASEOLOGY−
IDENT.
SQUAWK (code) AND IDENT.
1. The radar or beacon identification procedures
have been used to confirm the identity of the tagged
target.
b. Request the aircraft to change to a specific
discrete or nondiscrete code, as appropriate, and then
observe the target or code display change. If a code
change is required in accordance with Section 2,
Beacon Systems, of this chapter, use the codes
specified therein.
2. The aircraft is being handed off using a NAS
automated system and one of the following does not
appear in the data block: “CST”, “NAT”, “NT”,
“AMB”, “OLD”, “NB”, “TU”, “AM”, “OL”, or
“TRK”.
c. Request the aircraft to change transponder to
“standby.” After you observe the target disappear for
sufficient scans to assure that loss of target resulted
from placing the transponder in “standby” position,
request the aircraft to return transponder to normal
operation and then observe the reappearance of the
target.
c. A displaced data block must be updated at all
times.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SQUAWK STANDBY,
then
SQUAWK NORMAL.
d. EN ROUTE. An aircraft may be considered
identified when the full data block is automatically
associated with the beacon target symbol of an
aircraft that is squawking a discrete code assigned by
the computer.
NOTE−
Paired LDBs in ERAM do not display a beacon code.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SQUAWK (4 digit discrete code), AND IF YOUR
ALTITUDE REPORTING EQUIPMENT IS TURNED
OFF, SQUAWK ALTITUDE.
NOTE−
The AIM informs pilots to adjust Mode C transponders with
altitude reporting capability activated unless deactivation
is requested by ATC. Squawk altitude is included to provide
applicable phraseology.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−9, Use of Tower Radar Displays.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−6, Position Information.
5−3−4. TERMINAL AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
IDENTIFICATION METHODS
TERMINAL
a. Consider an auto-acquired aircraft as identified
when the data block is displayed and is visible to you,
and one of the following conditions exist:
5−3−2
b. Use the data block to maintain target identity
unless it is in a coast status or displaced from the
appropriate target.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−9, Use of Tower Radar Displays.
5−3−5. QUESTIONABLE IDENTIFICATION
a. Use more than one method of identification
when proximity of targets, duplication of observed
action, or any other circumstances cause doubt as to
target identification.
b. If identification is questionable for any reason,
take immediate action to reidentify the aircraft or
terminate radar service. Identify the aircraft as
follows:
1. As described in para 5−3−2, Primary Radar
Identification Methods, or para 5−3−3, Beacon
Identification Methods.
2. En route. Ensure that all primary targets are
displayed when radar identification is lost or is
questionable.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−3, Methods.
5−3−6. POSITION INFORMATION
Inform an aircraft of its position whenever radar
identification is established by means of identifying
turns or by any of the beacon identification methods
outlined in para 5−3−3, Beacon Identification
Methods. Position information need not be given
when identification is established by position
correlation or when a departing aircraft is identified
within 1 mile of the takeoff runway end.
5−3−7. IDENTIFICATION STATUS
a. Inform an aircraft of radar contact when:
Radar Identification
12/10/15
1. Initial radar identification in the ATC system
is established.
2. Subsequent to loss of radar contact or
terminating radar service, radar identification is
reestablished.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RADAR CONTACT (position if required).
b. Inform an aircraft when radar contact is lost.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RADAR CONTACT LOST (alternative instructions when
required).
5−3−8. TARGET MARKERS
EN ROUTE
Retain data blocks that are associated with the
appropriate target symbol in order to maintain
continuous identity of aircraft. Retain the data block
until the aircraft has exited the sector or delegated
airspace, and all potential conflicts have been
resolved; including an aircraft that is a point out. The
data block must display flight identification and
altitude information, as a minimum. The displayed
altitude may be assigned, interim, or reported.
ERAM: When you have separation responsibility for
an aircraft and a paired track exists, display a full data
block (FDB).
Radar Identification
JO 7110.65W
5−3−9. TARGET MARKERS
TERMINAL
a. Retain data blocks that are associated with the
appropriate target symbol in order to maintain
continuous identity of aircraft. Retain the data block
until the aircraft has exited the sector or delegated
airspace, and all potential conflicts have been
resolved; including an aircraft that is a point out. The
data block must display flight identification and
altitude information, as a minimum.
NOTE−
Where delegated airspace extends beyond Class B and/or
Class C airspace, the following will apply: If a VFR
aircraft is clear of Class B and Class C airspace and radar
services have been terminated then retention of the data
block is no longer required.
b. During prearranged coordination procedures,
the controllers who penetrate another controller’s
airspace must display data block information of that
controller’s aircraft which must contain, at a
minimum, the position symbol and altitude
information.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−14, Coordinate Use of Airspace.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−3, Methods.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−8, Automated Information Transfer
(AIT).
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−10, Prearranged Coordination.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−7−7, Prearranged Coordination.
5−3−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 4. Transfer of Radar Identification
5−4−1. APPLICATION
1. In response to a handoff or point out;
To provide continuous radar service to an aircraft and
facilitate a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of
traffic, it is often necessary to transfer radar
identification of an aircraft from one controller to
another. This section describes the terms, methods,
and responsibilities associated with this task.
Interfacility and intrafacility transfers of radar
identification must be accomplished in all areas of
radar surveillance except where it is not operationally
feasible. Where such constraints exist, they must be:
2. In anticipation of a handoff or point out; or
a. Covered in letters of agreement which clearly
state that control will not be based upon a radar
handoff, or
b. Coordinated by the transferring and receiving
controllers for a specified period of time.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−3−8, Coordination with Receiving Facility.
5−4−2. TERMS
a. Handoff. An action taken to transfer the radar
identification of an aircraft from one controller to
another controller if the aircraft will enter the
receiving controller’s airspace and radio communications with the aircraft will be transferred.
b. Radar Contact. The term used to inform the
controller initiating a handoff that the aircraft is
identified and approval is granted for the aircraft to
enter the receiving controller’s airspace.
c. Point Out. An action taken by a controller to
transfer the radar identification of an aircraft to
another controller and radio communications will not
be transferred.
d. Point Out Approved. The term used to inform
the controller initiating a point out that the aircraft is
identified and that approval is granted for the aircraft
to enter the receiving controller’s airspace, as
coordinated, without a communications transfer or
the appropriate automated system response.
e. Traffic. A term used to transfer radar
identification of an aircraft to another controller for
the purpose of coordinating separation action. Traffic
is normally issued:
Transfer of Radar Identification
3. In conjunction with a request for control of an
aircraft.
f. Traffic Observed. The term used to inform the
controller issuing the traffic restrictions that the
traffic is identified and that the restrictions issued are
understood and will be complied with.
5−4−3. METHODS
a. Transfer the radar identification of an aircraft by
at least one of the following methods:
1. Physically point to the target on the receiving
controller’s display.
2. Use landline voice communications.
3. Use automation capabilities.
NOTE−
Automated handoff capabilities are only available when
FDP is operational.
4. TERMINAL. Use the “Modify” or “Quick
Look” functions for data transfer between the
TRACON and tower cab only if specific procedures
are established in a facility directive. The local
controller has the responsibility to determine whether
or not conditions are adequate for the use of
ARTS/STARS data on the BRITE/DBRITE/TDW.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 11−2−4, Use of Modify and Quick Look
Functions.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 11−8−4, Use of Stars Quick Look Functions.
b. When making a handoff, point-out, or issuing
traffic restrictions, relay information to the receiving
controller in the following order:
1. The position of the target relative to a fix, map
symbol, or radar target known and displayed by both
the receiving and transferring controller. Mileage
from the reference point may be omitted when
relaying the position of a target if a full data block
associated with the target has been forced on the
receiving controller’s radar display.
EXAMPLE−
“Point out, Southwest of Richmond VOR . . ..”
2. The aircraft identification, as follows:
(a) The aircraft call sign, or
5−4−1
JO 7110.65W
(b) The discrete beacon code of the aircraft
during interfacility point-outs only, if both the
receiving and the transferring controllers agree.
NOTE−
Acceptance of a point-out using the discrete beacon code
as the aircraft’s identification constitutes agreement.
3. The assigned altitude, appropriate
restrictions, and information that the aircraft is
climbing or descending, if applicable, except when
inter/intrafacility directives ensure that the altitude
information will be known by the receiving
controller.
NOTE−
When physically pointing to the target, you do not have to
state the aircraft position.
4. Advise the receiving controller of pertinent
information not contained in the data block or
available flight data unless covered in an LOA or
facility directive. Pertinent information may include:
(a) Assigned heading.
(b) Speed/altitude restrictions.
(c) Observed track or deviation from the last
route clearance.
(d) Any other pertinent information.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HANDOFF/POINT-OUT/TRAFFIC (aircraft position)
(aircraft ID),
or
(discrete beacon code point-out only) (altitude,
restrictions, and other pertinent information, if
applicable).
c. When receiving a handoff, point-out, or traffic
restrictions, respond to the transferring controller as
follows:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft ID) (restrictions, if applicable) RADAR
CONTACT,
or
(aircraft ID or discrete beacon code) (restrictions, if
applicable) POINT-OUT APPROVED,
or
TRAFFIC OBSERVED,
5−4−2
12/10/15
or
UNABLE (appropriate information, as required).
d. If any doubt as to target identification exists
after attempting confirmation in accordance with this
section, apply the provisions of para 5−3−5,
Questionable Identification.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−17, Validation of Mode C Readout.
5−4−4. TRAFFIC
a. When using the term “traffic” for coordinating
separation, the controller issuing traffic must issue
appropriate restrictions.
b. The controller accepting the restrictions must
be responsible to ensure that approved separation is
maintained between the involved aircraft.
5−4−5. TRANSFERRING CONTROLLER
HANDOFF
The transferring controller must:
a. Complete a radar handoff prior to an aircraft’s
entering the airspace delegated to the receiving
controller.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−14, Coordinate Use of Airspace.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−15, Control Transfer.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−6, Receiving Controller Handoff.
b. Verbally obtain the receiving controller’s
approval prior to making any changes to an aircraft’s
flight path, altitude, speed, or data block information
while the handoff is being initiated or after
acceptance, unless otherwise specified by a LOA or
a facility directive.
c. Ensure that,
communications:
prior
to
transferring
1. Potential violations of adjacent airspace and
potential conflicts between aircraft in their own area
of jurisdiction are resolved.
2. Coordination has been accomplished with all
controllers through whose area of jurisdiction the
aircraft will pass prior to entering the receiving
controller’s area of jurisdiction unless otherwise
specified by a LOA or a facility directive.
3. Restrictions issued to ensure separation are
passed to the receiving controller.
d. After transferring communications, continue to
comply with the requirements of subparas c1 and 2.
Transfer of Radar Identification
12/10/15
e. Comply with restrictions issued by the receiving
controller unless otherwise coordinated.
f. Comply with the provisions of para 2−1−17,
Radio Communications Transfer, subparas a and b.
To the extent possible, transfer communications
when the transfer of radar identification has been
accepted.
NOTE−
Before the ARTS/STARS “modify/quick look” function is
used to transfer radar identification, a facility directive
which specifies communication transfer points is required.
g. Advise the receiving controller of pertinent
information not contained in the data block or flight
progress strip unless covered in a LOA or facility
directive. Pertinent information includes:
1. Assigned heading.
2. Air speed restrictions.
3. Altitude information issued.
4. Observed track or deviation from the last
route clearance.
5. The beacon code if different from that
normally used or previously coordinated.
6. Any other pertinent information.
h. Ensure that the data block is associated with the
appropriate target.
i. Initiate verbal coordination to verify the position
of primary or nondiscrete targets when using the
automated handoff functions except for intrafacility
handoffs using single-sensor systems or multisensor
systems operating in a mosaic RDP mode.
j. Initiate verbal coordination before transferring
control of a track when “CST,” “FAIL,” “NONE,”
“NB,” “NX,” “IF,” “NT”, or “TRK” is displayed in
the data block.
k. Advise the receiving controller if radar
monitoring is required.
l. Issue restrictions to the receiving controller
which are necessary to maintain separation from
other aircraft within your area of jurisdiction before
releasing control of the aircraft.
m. Consider the target being transferred as
identified on the receiving controller’s display when
the receiving controller acknowledges receipt
verbally or has accepted an automated handoff.
Transfer of Radar Identification
JO 7110.65W
n. Accomplish the necessary coordination with
any intervening controllers whose area of jurisdiction
is affected by the receiving controller’s delay in the
climb or the descent of an aircraft through the vertical
limits of your area of jurisdiction when the receiving
controller advises you of that delay before accepting
the transfer of radar identification unless otherwise
specified by a LOA or a facility directive.
5−4−6. RECEIVING CONTROLLER
HANDOFF
The receiving controller must:
a. Ensure that the target position corresponds with
the position given by the transferring controller or
that there is an appropriate association between an
automated data block and the target being transferred
before accepting a handoff.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−14, Coordinate Use of Airspace.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−15, Control Transfer.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−5, Transferring Controller Handoff.
b. Issue restrictions that are needed for the aircraft
to enter your sector safely before accepting the
handoff.
c. Comply with restrictions issued by the
transferring controller unless otherwise coordinated.
d. After accepting a handoff from another
controller, confirm the identity of primary target by
advising the aircraft of its position, and of a beacon
target by observing a code change, an “ident” reply,
or a “standby” squawk unless one of these was used
during handoff. These provisions do not apply at
those towers and GCAs which have been delegated
the responsibility for providing radar separation
within designated areas by the parent approach
control facility and the aircraft identification is
assured by sequencing or positioning prior to the
handoff.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−5, Approach Separation Responsibility.
e. When using appropriate equipment, consider a
discrete beacon target’s identity to be confirmed
when:
1. The data block associated with the target
being handed off indicates the computer assigned
discrete beacon code is being received, or
2. You observe the deletion of a discrete code
that was displayed in the data block, or
5−4−3
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
When the aircraft generated discrete beacon code does not
match the computer assigned beacon code, the code
generated will be displayed in the data block. When the
aircraft changes to the assigned discrete code, the code
disappears from the data block. In this instance, the
observance of code removal from the data block satisfies
confirmation requirements.
3. You observe the numeric display of a discrete
code that an aircraft has been instructed to squawk or
reports squawking.
f. Initiate verbal coordination prior to accepting
control of a track when “CST,” “NAT,” “NT,”
“NONE,” “NB,” “NX,” “OLD,” “OL,” “AMB,”
“AM,” “TU”, or “TRK” is displayed in the data
block.
1. When an automated interfacility handoff
action is initiated and “AMB” or “AM” is displayed
in the full data block, advise the other facility that a
disparity exists between the position declared by their
computer and that declared by your system.
2. When an automated inter−facility handoff
action is initiated and “NAT,” “NT,” “TU”, or “TRK”
is displayed in the full data block, advise the other
facility if a disparity exists between the position
declared by their computer and the actual target
position.
g. Advise the transferring controller, prior to
accepting the transfer of radar identification, that you
will delay the climb or the descent of an aircraft
through the vertical limits of the transferring
controller’s area of jurisdiction, unless otherwise
specified in a LOA or a facility directive.
NOTE−
Those en route facilities using HOST software that
provides capability for passing interim altitude must
include the specific operations and procedures for use of
this procedure in a LOA between the appropriate facilities.
h. If you decide, after accepting the transfer of
radar identification, to delay the aircraft’s climb or
descent through the vertical limits of the transferring
controller’s area of jurisdiction, advise the
transferring controller of that decision as soon as
possible.
NOTE−
Those en route facilities using HOST software that
provides capability for passing interim altitude must
include the specific operations and procedures for use of
this procedure in a LOA between the appropriate facilities.
5−4−4
12/10/15
5−4−7. POINT OUT
a. The transferring controller must:
1. Obtain verbal approval before permitting an
aircraft to enter the receiving controller’s delegated
airspace. TERMINAL. Automated approval may be
utilized in lieu of verbal, provided the appropriate
automation software is operational (automated point
out function), and the procedures are specified in a
facility directive/LOA.
2. Obtain the receiving controller’s approval
before making any changes to an aircraft’s flight path,
altitude, speed, or data block information after the
point out has been approved.
3. Comply with restrictions issued by the
receiving controller unless otherwise coordinated.
4. Be responsible for subsequent radar handoffs
and communications transfer, including flight data
revisions and coordination, unless otherwise agreed
to by the receiving controller or as specified in a LOA.
b. The receiving controller must:
1. Ensure that the target position corresponds
with the position given by the transferring controller
or that there is an association between a computer
data block and the target being transferred prior to
approving a point out.
2. Be responsible for separation between point
out aircraft and other aircraft for which he/she has
separation responsibility.
3. Issue restrictions necessary to provide
separation from other aircraft within his/her area of
jurisdiction.
5−4−8. AUTOMATED INFORMATION
TRANSFER (AIT)
Transfer radar identification, altitude control, and/or
en route fourth line control information, without
verbal coordination under the following conditions:
a. During radar handoff; and
b. Via information displayed in full data blocks;
and
c. Within the same facility, except as provided in
Paragraph 5−4−9, Interfacility Automated
Information Transfer; and
d. When following procedures specified in your
facility AIT directive.
Transfer of Radar Identification
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−11, En Route Fourth Line Data Block
Usage.
5−4−9. INTERFACILITY AUTOMATED
INFORMATION TRANSFER
EN ROUTE
Transfer radar identification without verbal
coordination under the following conditions:
a. During radar handoff; and
b. Via information displayed in full data blocks;
and
c. On aircraft at assigned altitude in level flight;
and
d. Only the first sector within the receiving facility
must utilize the procedure; and
e. When following procedures specified in your
facility AIT directive and LOA.
5−4−10. PREARRANGED COORDINATION
Prearranged coordination allowing aircraft under
your control to enter another controller’s area of
jurisdiction may only be approved provided
procedures are established and published in a facility
directive/LOA in accordance with FAAO JO 7210.3,
Paragraph 3−6−7, Prearranged Coordination.
NOTE−
Under no circumstances may one controller permit an
aircraft to enter another’s airspace without proper
coordination. Coordination can be accomplished by
several means; i.e., radar handoff, automated information
transfer, verbal, point−out, and by prearranged
coordination procedures identified in a facility directive
that clearly describe the correct application. Airspace
boundaries should not be permitted to become barriers to
the efficient movement of traffic. In addition, complete
coordination, awareness of traffic flow, and understanding
of each position’s responsibility concerning penetration of
another’s airspace cannot be overemphasized.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−14, Coordinate Use of Airspace.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−3, Methods.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−8, Automated Information Transfer
(AIT).
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−6−7, Prearranged Coordination.
Transfer of Radar Identification
JO 7110.65W
5−4−11. EN ROUTE FOURTH LINE DATA
BLOCK USAGE
a. The fourth line of the data block must be
displayed. When used for forwarding control
information, only the specified messages listed in this
section may be used. Any additional control
information must be forwarded via other
communications methods. Free text may be used by
individual sector teams for recording information the
team deems appropriate for managing the sector, but
must be removed prior to initiation of identification
transfer.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−5, Transferring Controller Handoff,
subpara b.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−8, Automated Information Transfer
(AIT).
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−9, Interfacility Automated Information
Transfer.
b. The en route fourth line data block area must be
used for coordination purposes only in association
with radar identified aircraft.
c. When automated information transfer (AIT)
procedures are applied, en route fourth line usage for
transfer of control information must be specifically
defined within facility AIT directive.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−8, Automated Information Transfer
(AIT).
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−8, Automated Information Transfer (AIT).
d. Coordination format for assigned headings
must use the designation character “H” preceding a
three−digit number.
EXAMPLE−
H080, H270
e. Aircraft assigned a heading until receiving a fix
or joining a published route must be designated with
assigned heading format followed by the fix or route.
EXAMPLE−
H080/ALB, 080/J121, PH/ALB
NOTE−
1. The notation “PH” may be used to denote present
heading.
2. The character “H” may be omitted as a prefix to the
heading assignment only if necessary due to character field
limitations, and it does not impede understanding.
f. Coordination format for weather deviations
must use the designated characters:
D-deviation
L-left
R-right
5−4−5
JO 7110.65W
N-north
E-east
S-south
W-west
/F – direct next NAVAID/waypoint
D+2 headings – deviate between.
NOTE−
1. Two digits specify turns in degrees and must include
direction character(s). Three digits specify heading(s).
2. The inclusion of a /NAVAID, /waypoint, or /F indicates
that the pilot has been authorized to deviate for weather
and must rejoin the route at the next NAVAID, waypoint, or
fix in the route of flight in accordance with the phraseology
in paragraph 2-6-4.
EXAMPLE−
D90/ATL, DL/KD75U, D090/F
3. The absence of a NAVAID, waypoint, or /F indicates that
the pilot has been authorized to deviate for weather only,
and the receiving controller must provide a clearance to
rejoin the route in accordance with paragraph 2-1-15c.
EXAMPLE−
DN, D20L, D30R, D080+120
g. Coordination format for assigned airspeeds
must use the designation character “S” preceding a
three−digit number.
NOTE−
A “+” notation may be added to denote an assigned speed
at or greater than the displayed value. A “−” notation may
be added to denote an assigned speed at or less than the
displayed value.
EXAMPLE−
S210, S250, S250+, S280−
h. Aircraft assigned a Mach number must use the
designation “M” preceding the two−digit assigned
value.
5−4−6
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
M80, M80+, M80−
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−11, En Route Fourth Line Data Block
Usage, subpara gNOTE.
i. Aircraft authorized to conduct celestial
navigation training within 30 NM of the route
centerline specified within the en route clearance.
EXAMPLE−
CELNAV
j. Coordination format for aircraft requesting an
altitude change must use the designation characters
“RQ” preceding a three−digit number.
EXAMPLE−
RQ170, RQ410
k. Coordination format for aircraft requesting a
route change must use the designation “RQ/”
preceding a specific fix identifier.
EXAMPLE−
RQ/LAX, RQ/NEUTO
l. The acceptance of a handoff by the receiving
controller must constitute receipt of the information
contained within the en route fourth line data block.
This information must not be modified outside of the
controller’s area of jurisdiction unless verbally
coordinated or specified in a Letter of Agreement or
Facility Directive. It is the responsibility of the
receiving controller to advise the transferring
controller if any information is not understood, or
needs to be revised.
NOTE−
Due to system and character limitations the usage of these
standardized entries may require additional support via
facility directive in order to provide complete coordination.
m. All other control information must be
coordinated via other methods.
Transfer of Radar Identification
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 5. Radar Separation
5−5−1. APPLICATION
a. Radar separation must be applied to all RNAV
aircraft operating at and below FL450 on Q routes or
random RNAV routes, excluding oceanic airspace.
EXCEPTION. GNSS-equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S,
and /V not on a random impromptu route.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.5, Para 2­3­8, Aircraft Equipment Suffixes.
FAAO JO 7110.5, TBL 2­3­10, Aircraft Equipment Suffixes
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4­4­1, Route Use.
AIM, Para 5­1­8d., Area Navigation (RNAV).
AIM, Para 5­3­4a.3. Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes.
P/CG Term ­ Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)[ICAO].
P/CG Term ­ Global Positioning Satellite/ Wide Area Augmentation
Minimum En Route IFR Altitude (GPS/WAAS MEA).
P/CG Term – Parallel Offset Route.
AC 90­101A, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV)
Operations, Para 8a, Navigation System Accuracy.
b. Radar separation may be applied between:
1. Radar identified aircraft.
2. An aircraft taking off and another radar
identified aircraft when the aircraft taking off will be
radar-identified within 1 mile of the runway end.
3. A radar-identified aircraft and one not
radar-identified when either is cleared to climb/
descend through the altitude of the other provided:
(a) The performance of the radar system is
adequate and, as a minimum, primary radar targets or
ASR−9/Full Digital Radar Primary Symbol targets
are being displayed on the display being used within
the airspace within which radar separation is being
applied; and
(b) Flight data on the aircraft not radaridentified indicate it is a type which can be expected
to give adequate primary/ASR−9/Full Digital Radar
Primary Symbol return in the area where separation
is applied; and
(c) The airspace within which radar separation is applied is not less than the following number
of miles from the edge of the radar display:
(1) When less than 40 miles from the
antenna− 6 miles;
(2) When 40 miles or more from the
antenna− 10 miles;
Radar Separation
(3) Narrowband
10 miles; and
radar
operations−
(d) Radar separation is maintained between
the radar-identified aircraft and all observed primary,
ASR−9/Full Digital Radar Primary Symbol, and
secondary radar targets until nonradar separation is
established from the aircraft not radar identified; and
(e) When the aircraft involved are on the same
relative heading, the radar-identified aircraft is
vectored a sufficient distance from the route of the
aircraft not radar identified to assure the targets are
not superimposed prior to issuing the clearance to
climb/descend.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−1−2, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−4−1, Route Use.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−3−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−8, Additional Separation for Formation
Flights.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−5, Approach Separation Responsibility.
4. A radar-identified aircraft and one not
radar-identified that is in transit from oceanic
airspace or non-radar offshore airspace into an area of
known radar coverage where radar separation is
applied as specified in Paragraph 8-5-5, Radar
Identification Application, until the transiting aircraft
is radar-identified or the controller establishes other
approved separation in the event of a delay or
inability to establish radar identification of the
transiting aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-2-6, IFR Flight Progress Data.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-1-1, Presentation and Equipment
Performance.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-3-1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 8-1-8, Use of Control Estimates.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 8-5-5, Radar Separation.
5−5−2. TARGET SEPARATION
Apply radar separation:
a. Between the centers of primary radar targets;
however, do not allow a primary target to touch
another primary target or a beacon control slash.
b. Between the ends of beacon control slashes.
c. Between the end of a beacon control slash and
the center of a primary target.
5−5−1
JO 7110.65W
d. All−digital displays. Between the centers of
digitized targets. Do not allow digitized targets to
touch.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−7, Simultaneous Independent
Approaches− Dual & Triple.
5−5−3. TARGET RESOLUTION
a. A process to ensure that correlated radar targets
or digitized targets do not touch.
b. Mandatory traffic advisories and safety alerts
must be issued when this procedure is used.
NOTE−
This procedure must not be provided utilizing mosaic radar
systems.
c. Target resolution must be applied as follows:
1. Between the edges of two primary targets or
the edges of primary digitized targets.
2. Between the end of the beacon control slash
and the edge of a primary target or primary digitized
target.
3. Between the ends of two beacon control
slashes.
5−5−4. MINIMA
Separate aircraft by the following minima:
a. TERMINAL. Single Sensor ASR or Digital
Terminal Automation System (DTAS):
NOTE−
Includes single sensor long range radar mode.
1. When less than 40 miles from the antenna−
3 miles.
2. When 40 miles or more from the antenna−
5 miles.
3. For single sensor ASR−9 with Mode S, when
less than 60 miles from the antenna− 3 miles.
4. For single sensor ASR−11 MSSR Beacon,
when less than 60 miles from the antenna− 3 miles.
NOTE−
Wake turbulence procedures specify increased separation
minima required for certain classes of aircraft because of
the possible effects of wake turbulence.
b. TERMINAL. FUSION:
5−5−2
12/10/15
1. Fusion target symbol – 3 miles.
2. When displaying ISR in the data block- 5
miles.
NOTE−
In the event of an unexpected ISR on one or more aircraft,
the ATCS working that aircraft must transition from 3-mile
to 5-mile separation, or establish some other form of
approved separation (visual or vertical) as soon as
feasible. This action must be timely, but taken in a
reasonable fashion, using the controller’s best judgment,
as not to reduce safety or the integrity of the traffic
situation. For example, if ISR appears when an aircraft is
established on final with another aircraft on short final, it
would be beneficial from a safety perspective to allow the
trailing aircraft to continue the approach and land rather
than terminate a stabilized approach.
3. If TRK appears in the data block, handle in
accordance with Paragraph 5-3-7, Identification
Status, subparagraph b, and take appropriate steps to
establish non-radar separation.
4. ADS-B may be integrated as an additional
surveillance source when operating in FUSION
mode. The display of ADS-B targets is permitted and
does not require radar reinforcement.
NOTE−
ADS-B surveillance must only be used when operating in
FUSION.
5. The use of ADS-B only information may be
used to support all radar requirements associated with
any published instrument procedure that is annotated
“Radar Required”.
6. The ADS-B Computer Human Interface
(CHI) may be implemented by facilities on a sector by
sector or facility wide basis when the determination
is made that utilization of the ADS-B CHI provides
an operational advantage to the controller.
c. EBUS, Terminal Mosaic/Multi-Sensor Mode
NOTE−
Mosaic/Multi−Sensor Mode combines radar input from 2
to 16 sites into a single picture utilizing a mosaic grid
composed of radar sort boxes.
1. Below FL 600− 5 miles.
2. At or above FL 600− 10 miles.
3. Facility directives may specify 3 miles for
areas meeting all of the following conditions:
(a) Radar site adaptation is set to single
sensor.
Radar Separation
12/10/15
(b) Significant operational advantages can be
obtained.
(c) Within 40 miles of the antenna.
(d) Up to and including FL 230.
(e) Facility directives specifically define the
area where the separation can be applied and define
the requirements for displaying the area on the
controller’s display.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 8-2-1, Three Mile Airspace Operations
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 11-8-15, Single Site Coverage ATTS
Operations
4. When transitioning from terminal to en route
control, 3 miles increasing to 5 miles or greater,
provided:
(a) The aircraft are on diverging routes/
courses, and/or
(b) The leading aircraft is and will remain
faster than the following aircraft; and
(c) Separation constantly increasing and the
first center controller will establish 5 NM or other
appropriate form of separation prior to the aircraft
departing the first center sector; and
(d) The procedure is covered by a letter of
agreement between the facilities involved and limited
to specified routes and/or sectors/positions.
d. ERAM:
1. Below FL 600- 5 miles.
2. At or above FL 600- 10 miles
3. Below FL 230 where all the following
conditions are met – 3 miles:
(a) Significant operational advantages can be
obtained.
(b) Within 40 miles of the preferred sensor,
and within the 3 NM separation area.
(c) The preferred sensor is providing reliable
beacon targets.
(d) Facility directives specifically define the
3 NM separation area.
JO 7110.65W
4. When transitioning from terminal to en route
control, 3 miles increasing to 5 miles or greater,
provided:
(a) The aircraft are on diverging routes/
courses, and/or
(b) The leading aircraft is and will remain
faster than the following aircraft; and
(c) Separation constantly increasing and the
first center controller will establish 5 NM or other
appropriate form of separation prior to the aircraft
departing the first center sector; and
(d) The procedure is covered by a letter of
agreement between the facilities involved and limited
to specified routes and/or sectors/positions.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 8-2-1, Three Mile Airspace Operations
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 11-8-15, Single Site Coverage ATTS
Operations
e. MEARTS Mosaic Mode:
1. Below FL 600- 5 miles.
2. At or above FL 600- 10 miles.
3. For areas meeting all of the following
conditions – 3 miles:
mode.
(a) Radar site adaptation is set to single sensor
NOTE−
1. Single Sensor Mode displays information from the
radar input of a single site.
2. Procedures to convert MEARTS Mosaic Mode to
MEARTS Single Sensor Mode at each PVD/MDM will be
established by facility directive.
(b) Significant operational advantages can be
obtained.
(c) Within 40 miles of the antenna.
(d) Below FL 180.
(e) Facility directives specifically define the
area where the separation can be applied and define
the requirements for displaying the area on the
controller’s PVD/MDM.
(e) The 3 NM separation area is displayable
on the video map.
4. MEARTS Mosaic Mode Utilizing Single
Source Polygon (San Juan CERAP and Honolulu
Control Facility only) when meeting all of the
following conditions– 3 miles:
(f) Involved aircraft are displayed using the 3
NM target symbol.
(a) Less than 40 miles from the antenna,
below FL180, and targets are from the adapted sensor.
Radar Separation
5−5−3
JO 7110.65W
(b) The single source polygon must be
displayed on the controller’s PVD/MDM.
(c) Significant operational advantages can be
obtained.
(d) Facility directives specifically define the
single source polygon area where the separation can
be applied and specify procedures to be used.
(e) Controller must commence a transition to
achieve either vertical separation or 5 mile lateral
separation in the event that either target is not from
the adapted sensor.
f. STARS Multi−Sensor Mode:
NOTE−
1. In Multi−Sensor Mode, STARS displays targets as filled
and unfilled boxes, depending upon the target’s distance
from the radar site providing the data. Since there is
presently no way to identify which specific site is providing
data for any given target, utilize separation standards for
targets 40 or more miles from the antenna.
2. When operating in STARS Single Sensor Mode, if TRK
appears in the data block, handle in accordance with
para 5−3−7, Identification Status, subpara b, and take
appropriate steps to establish nonradar separation.
3. TRK appears in the data block whenever the aircraft is
being tracked by a radar site other than the radar currently
selected. Current equipment limitations preclude a target
from being displayed in the single sensor mode; however,
a position symbol and data block, including altitude
information, will still be displayed. Therefore, low altitude
alerts must be provided in accordance with para 2−1−6,
Safety Alert.
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
g. Separate aircraft operating directly behind or
following an aircraft conducting an instrument
approach by the minima specified and in accordance
with the following:
NOTE−
Consider parallel runways less than 2,500 feet apart as a
single runway because of the possible effects of wake
turbulence.
1. When operating within 2,500 feet of the flight
path of the leading aircraft over the surface of the
earth and less than 1,000 feet below:
(a) TERMINAL. Behind super:
(1) Heavy - 6 miles.
(2) Large - 7 miles.
5−5−4
12/10/15
(3) Small - 8 miles.
(b) EN ROUTE. Behind super - 5 miles,
unless the super is operating at or below FL240 and
below 250 knots, then:
(1) Heavy - 6 miles.
(2) Large - 7 miles.
(3) Small - 8 miles.
(c) Behind heavy:
(1) Heavy - 4 miles.
(2) Large or small - 5 miles.
2. Separate small aircraft behind a B757 by 4
miles when operating within 2,500 feet of the flight
path of the leading aircraft over the surface of the
earth and/or less than 500 feet below.
3. TERMINAL. When departing parallel
runways separated by less than 2,500 feet, the 2,500
feet requirement in subparagraph 2 is not required
when a small departs the parallel runway behind a
B757. Issue a wake turbulence cautionary advisory
and instructions that will establish lateral separation
in accordance with subparagraph 2. Do not issue
instructions that will allow the small to pass behind
the B757.
NOTE−
The application of paragraph 5-8-3, Successive or
Simultaneous Departures, satisfies this requirement when
an initial heading is issued with the take-off clearance.
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
h. In addition to subpara g, separate an aircraft
landing behind another aircraft on the same runway,
or one making a touch-and-go, stop-and-go, or low
approach by ensuring the following minima will exist
at the time the preceding aircraft is over the landing
threshold:
NOTE−
Consider parallel runways less than 2,500 feet apart as a
single runway because of the possible effects of wake
turbulence.
1. Small behind large− 4 miles.
2. Small behind heavy− 6 miles.
If the landing threshold cannot be determined, apply
the above minima as constant or increasing at the
closest point that can be determined prior to the
landing threshold.
Radar Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
i. TERMINAL. When NOWGT is displayed in an
aircraft data block, provide 10 miles separation
behind the preceding aircraft and 10 miles separation
to the succeeding aircraft.
b. Assign an altitude to an aircraft after the aircraft
previously at that altitude has been issued a
climb/descent clearance and is observed (valid
Mode C), or reports leaving the altitude.
j. TERMINAL. 2.5 nautical miles (NM) separation is authorized between aircraft established on the
final approach course within 10 NM of the landing
runway when operating in single sensor slant range
mode and aircraft remains within 40 miles of the
antenna and:
NOTE−
1. Consider known aircraft performance characteristics,
pilot furnished and/or Mode C detected information which
indicate that climb/descent will not be consistent with the
rates recommended in the AIM.
1. The leading aircraft’s weight class is the same
or less than the trailing aircraft;
2. Super and heavy aircraft are permitted to
participate in the separation reduction as the trailing
aircraft only;
3. An average runway occupancy time of
50 seconds or less is documented;
4. CTRDs are operational and used for quick
glance references;
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−9, Use of Tower Radar Displays.
5. Turnoff points are visible from the control
tower.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−19, Wake Turbulence.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−6, Same Runway Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−7, Passing or Diverging.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−9, Separation from Obstructions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−8−3, Successive or Simultaneous
Departures.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−5, Approach Separation Responsibility.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−7, Sequencing.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65 Para 7−8−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−4−11 , Reduced Separation on Final.
5−5−5. VERTICAL APPLICATION
Aircraft not laterally separated, may be vertically
separated by one of the following methods:
a. Assign altitudes to aircraft, provided valid
Mode C altitude information is monitored and the
applicable separation minima is maintained at all
times.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−1, Vertical Separation Minima.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−17, Validation of Mode C Readout.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−8−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−4, Separation.
Radar Separation
2. It is possible that the separation minima described in
para 4−5−1, Vertical Separation Minima, para 7−7−3,
Separation, para 7−8−3 , Separation, or para 7−9−4 ,
Separation, might not always be maintained using
subpara b. However, correct application of this procedure
will ensure that aircraft are safely separated because the
first aircraft must have already vacated the altitude prior
to the assignment of that altitude to the second aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−3, Procedural Preference.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−1, Vertical Separation Minima.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−17, Validation of Mode C Readout.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−6−1, Application.
5−5−6. EXCEPTIONS
a. Do not use Mode C to effect vertical separation
with an aircraft on a cruise clearance, contact
approach, or as specified in para 5−15−4, System
Requirements, subpara e3.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−6−2, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−6, Contact Approach.
P/CG Term− Cruise.
b. Assign an altitude to an aircraft only after the
aircraft previously at that altitude is observed at or
passing through another altitude separated from the
first by the appropriate minima when:
1. Severe turbulence is reported.
2. Aircraft are conducting military aerial
refueling.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−13, Military Aerial Refueling.
3. The aircraft previously at that altitude has
been issued a climb/descent at pilot’s discretion.
5−5−7. PASSING OR DIVERGING
a. TERMINAL. In accordance with the following
criteria, all other approved separation may be
discontinued and passing or diverging separation
applied when:
1. Single Site ASR or FUSION Mode
5−5−5
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
(a) Aircraft are on opposite/reciprocal
courses and you have observed that they have passed
each other; or aircraft are on same or crossing
courses/assigned radar vectors and one aircraft has
crossed the projected course of the other, and the
angular difference between their courses/assigned
radar vectors is at least 15 degrees.
opposite courses as defined in para 1−2−2, Course
Definitions; and
NOTE−
Two aircraft, both assigned radar vectors with an angular
difference of at least 15 degrees, is considered a correct
application of this paragraph.
3. One pilot reports having seen the other
aircraft and that the aircraft have passed each other;
and
(b) The tracks are monitored to ensure that the
primary targets, beacon control slashes, FUSION
target symbols, or full digital terminal system
primary and/or beacon target symbols will not touch.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 1-2-2 , Course Definitions.
2. Single Site ARSR or FUSION Mode when
target refresh is only from an ARSR or when in
FUSION Mode − ISR is displayed.
(a) Aircraft are on opposite/reciprocal
courses and you have observed that they have passed
each other; or aircraft are on same or crossing
courses/assigned radar vectors and one aircraft has
crossed the projected course of the other, and the
angular difference between their courses/assigned
radar vectors is at least 45 degrees.
NOTE−
Two aircraft, both assigned radar vectors with an angular
difference of at least 45 degrees, is considered a correct
application of this paragraph.
(b) The tracks are monitored to ensure that the
primary targets, beacon control slashes, FUSION
target symbols, or full digital terminal system
primary and/or beacon target symbols will not touch.
3. Although approved separation may be
discontinued, the requirements of Para 5-5-4,
Minima, subparagraph g must be applied when wake
turbulence separation is required.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 1−2−2 , Course Definitions.
NOTE−
Apply en route separation rules when using multi−sensor
mode.
b. EN ROUTE. Vertical separation between
aircraft may be discontinued when they are on
5−5−6
1. You are in communications with both aircraft
involved; and
2. You tell the pilot of one aircraft about the
other aircraft, including position, direction, type; and
4. You have observed that the radar targets have
passed each other; and
5. You have advised the pilots if either aircraft
is classified as a super or heavy aircraft.
6. Although vertical separation may be discontinued, the requirements of Para 5−5−4, Minima,
subparagraph g must be applied when wake
turbulence separation is required.
EXAMPLE−
“Traffic, twelve o’clock, Boeing Seven Twenty Seven,
opposite direction. Do you have it in sight?”
(If the answer is in the affirmative):
“Report passing the traffic.”
(When pilot reports passing the traffic and the radar
targets confirm that the traffic has passed, issue
appropriate control instructions.)
5−5−8. ADDITIONAL SEPARATION FOR
FORMATION FLIGHTS
Because of the distance allowed between formation
aircraft and lead aircraft, additional separation is
necessary to ensure the periphery of the formation is
adequately separated from other aircraft, adjacent
airspace, or obstructions. Provide supplemental
separation for formation flights as follows:
a. Separate a standard formation flight by adding
1 mile to the appropriate radar separation minima.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−13, Formation Flights.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−3, Separation.
P/CG Term− Formation Flight.
b. Separate two standard formation flights from
each other by adding 2 miles to the appropriate
separation minima.
Radar Separation
12/10/15
c. Separate a nonstandard formation flight by
applying the appropriate separation minima to the
perimeter of the airspace encompassing the
nonstandard formation or from the outermost aircraft
of the nonstandard formation whichever applies.
d. If necessary for separation between a
nonstandard formation and other aircraft, assign an
appropriate beacon code to each aircraft in the
formation or to the first and last aircraft in-trail.
NOTE−
The additional separation provided in Paragraph 5−5−8,
Additional Separation for Formation Flights, is not
normally added to wake turbulence separation when a
formation is following a heavier aircraft since none of the
formation aircraft are likely to be closer to the heavier
aircraft than the lead aircraft (to which the prescribed
wake turbulence separation has been applied).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−13, Military Aerial Refueling.
5−5−9. SEPARATION FROM
OBSTRUCTIONS
a. TERMINAL. Separate aircraft from obstructions depicted on the radar display by the following
minima:
JO 7110.65W
3. EAS:
(a) Below Flight Level 600− 2 1/2 miles.
(b) Flight Level 600 and above− 5 miles.
b. Separate radar-controlled aircraft from the
boundary of airspace in which nonradar separation is
being used by the following minima:
1. When less than 40 miles from the antenna−
3 miles.
2. When 40 miles or more from the antenna−
5 miles.
3. EAS:
(a) Below Flight Level 600− 5 miles.
(b) Flight Level 600 and above− 10 miles.
c. The provisions of subparas a and b do not apply
to VFR aircraft being provided Class B, Class C, or
TRSA services. Ensure that the targets of these
aircraft do not touch the boundary of adjacent
airspace.
b. TERMINAL. Vertical separation of aircraft
above an obstruction depicted on the radar display
may be discontinued after the aircraft has passed it.
d. VFR aircraft approaching Class B, Class C,
Class D, or TRSA airspace which is under the
control jurisdiction of another air traffic control
facility should either be provided with a radar handoff
or be advised that radar service is terminated, given
their position in relation to the Class B, Class C,
Class D, or TRSA airspace, and the ATC frequency,
if known, for the airspace to be entered. These actions
should be accomplished in sufficient time for the pilot
to obtain the required ATC approval prior to entering
the airspace involved, or to avoid the airspace.
c. EAS. Apply the radar separation minima
specified in Para 5-5-4, Minima.
5−5−11. EDGE OF SCOPE
1. When less than 40 miles from the antenna−
3 miles.
2. When 40 miles or more from the antenna−
5 miles.
5−5−10. ADJACENT AIRSPACE
a. If coordination between the controllers
concerned has not been effected, separate
radar-controlled aircraft from the boundary of
adjacent airspace in which radar separation is also
being used by the following minima:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−14, Coordinate Use of Airspace.
1. When less than 40 miles from the antenna−
1 1/2 miles.
2. When 40 miles or more from the antenna−
2 1/2 miles.
Radar Separation
Separate a radar-controlled aircraft climbing or
descending through the altitude of an aircraft that has
been tracked to the edge of the scope/display by the
following minima until nonradar separation has been
established:
a. When less than 40 miles from the antenna−
3 miles from edge of scope.
b. When 40 miles or more from the antenna−
5 miles from edge of scope.
c. EAS:
1. Below Flight Level 600− 5 miles.
2. Flight Level 600 and above− 10 miles.
5−5−7
JO 7110.65W
5−5−12. BEACON TARGET
DISPLACEMENT
When using a radar target display with a previously
specified beacon target displacement to separate a
beacon target from a primary target, adjacent
airspace, obstructions, or terrain, add a 1 mile
5−5−8
12/10/15
correction factor to the applicable minima. The
maximum allowable beacon target displacement
which may be specified by the facility air traffic
manager is 1/2 mile.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−7−4, Monitoring of Mode 3/A Radar Beacon
Codes.
Radar Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 6. Vectoring
5−6−1. APPLICATION
Vector aircraft:
a. In controlled airspace for separation, safety,
noise abatement, operational advantage, confidence
maneuver, or when a pilot requests.
b. In Class G airspace only upon pilot request and
as an additional service.
c. At or above the MVA or the minimum IFR
altitude except as authorized for radar approaches,
special VFR, VFR operations, or by para 5−6−3,
Vectors Below Minimum Altitude.
NOTE−
VFR aircraft not at an altitude assigned by ATC may be
vectored at any altitude. It is the responsibility of the pilot
to comply with the applicable parts of CFR Title 14.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−6, Minimum En Route Altitudes.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−5−2, Priority.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−5−4, Altitude Assignment.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−5, Altitude Assignments.
14 CFR Section 91.119, Minimum Safe Altitudes: General.
d. In airspace for which you have control
jurisdiction, unless otherwise coordinated.
e. So as to permit it to resume its own navigation
within radar coverage.
f. Operating special VFR only within Class B,
Class C, Class D, or Class E surface areas.
g. Operating VFR at those locations where a
special program is established, or when a pilot
requests, or you suggest and the pilot concurs.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−4−1, Route Use.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−5−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−4−4, Separation Minima.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 11, Section 1, Terminal VFR Radar
Services.
5−6−2. METHODS
FLY HEADING (degrees).
FLY PRESENT HEADING.
DEPART (fix) HEADING (degrees).
2. The number of degrees, in group form, to turn
and the direction of turn, or
PHRASEOLOGY−
TURN (number of degrees) DEGREES LEFT/RIGHT.
3. For NO-GYRO procedures, the type of
vector, direction of turn, and when to stop turn.
PHRASEOLOGY−
THIS WILL BE A NO-GYRO VECTOR,
TURN LEFT/RIGHT.
STOP TURN.
b. When initiating a vector, advise the pilot of the
purpose.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VECTOR TO (fix or airway).
VECTOR TO INTERCEPT (name of NAVAID) (specified)
RADIAL.
VECTOR FOR SPACING.
VECTOR TO FINAL APPROACH COURSE,
or if the pilot does not have knowledge of the type of
approach,
VECTOR TO (approach name) FINAL APPROACH
COURSE.
NOTE−
Determine optimum routing based on factors such as wind,
weather, traffic, pilot requests, noise abatement, adjacent
sector requirement, and letters of agreement.
c. Issue with the vector an altitude to maintain and
all appropriate altitude restrictions when:
1. Direction of turn, if appropriate, and
magnetic heading to be flown, or
1. The vector will take the aircraft off an
assigned procedure which contains altitude instructions, i.e., instrument approach, nonradar SID, FMSP,
etc.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TURN LEFT/RIGHT HEADING (degrees).
2. The previously issued clearance included
crossing restrictions.
a. Vector aircraft by specifying:
Vectoring
5−6−1
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−2−5, Route or Altitude Amendments.
d. If appropriate, advise the pilot what to expect
when the vector is completed.
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT TO RESUME (Route, SID, STAR, FMSP, etc.).
NOTE−
You must ensure that the pilot is made aware if he/she is
expected to resume a previously issued route procedure.
e. Provide radar navigational guidance until the
aircraft is:
1. Established within the airspace to be
protected for the nonradar route to be flown, or
12/10/15
h. When flight data processing is available, update
the route of flight in the computer unless an
operational advantage is gained and coordination is
accomplished.
i. Inform the pilot when a vector will take the
aircraft across a previously assigned nonradar route.
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT VECTOR ACROSS (NAVAID radial)
(airway/route/course) FOR (purpose).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−1, Application.
2. On a heading that will, within a reasonable
distance, intercept the nonradar route to be flown, and
5−6−3. VECTORS BELOW MINIMUM
ALTITUDE
3. Informed of its position unless the aircraft is
RNAV, FMS, or DME equipped and being vectored
toward a VORTAC/TACAN or waypoint and within
the service volume of the NAVAID.
Except in en route automated environments in areas
where more than 3 miles separation minima is
required, you may vector a departing IFR aircraft, or
one executing a missed approach, within 40 miles of
the radar antenna and before it reaches the minimum
altitude for IFR operations if separation from
prominent obstacles shown on the radar scope is
applied in accordance with the following:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Position with respect to course/fix along route),
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION,
or
FLY HEADING (degrees). WHEN ABLE, PROCEED
DIRECT (name of fix),
or
RESUME ( name/number FMSP/SID/transition/STAR/
procedure).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 4, Section 1, NAVAID Use Limitations.
f. Aircraft instructed to resume a procedure which
contains restrictions (SID/STAR/FMSP, etc.) must be
issued/reissued all applicable restrictions or must be
advised to comply with those restrictions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RESUME ( name/number FMSP/SID/transition/STAR),
COMPLY WITH RESTRICTIONS.
EXAMPLE−
“Resume the Mudde One Arrival, comply with
restrictions.”
“Cleared direct Luxor, resume the Ksino One arrival,
comply with restrictions.”
g. Aircraft vectored off an RNAV route must be
recleared to the next waypoint or as requested by the
pilot.
5−6−2
a. If the flight path is 3 miles or more from the
obstacle and the aircraft is climbing to an altitude at
least 1,000 feet above the obstacle, vector the aircraft
to maintain at least 3 miles separation from the
obstacle until the aircraft reports leaving an altitude
above the obstacle.
b. If the flight path is less than 3 miles from the
obstacle and the aircraft is climbing to an altitude at
least 1,000 feet above the obstacle, vector the aircraft
to increase lateral separation from the obstacle until
the 3 mile minimum is achieved or until the aircraft
reports leaving an altitude above the obstacle.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term − Obstacle.
P/CG Term − Obstruction.
P/CG Term − Prominent Obstacle.
c. At those locations where diverse vector areas
(DVA) have been established, terminal radar
facilities may vector aircraft below the MVA/MIA
within those areas and along those routes described in
facility directives.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3−9−5, Establishing Diverse Vector Area/s
(DVA).
Vectoring
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 7. Speed Adjustment
5−7−1. APPLICATION
Keep speed adjustments to the minimum necessary to
achieve or maintain required or desired spacing.
Avoid adjustments requiring alternate decreases and
increases. Terminate speed adjustments when no
longer needed.
NOTE−
It is the pilot’s responsibility and prerogative to refuse
speed adjustment that he/she considers excessive or
contrary to the aircraft’s operating specifications.
a. Consider the following when applying speed
control:
1. Determine the interval required and the point
at which the interval is to be accomplished.
(d) Ensure that aircraft are allowed to operate
in a clean configuration as long as circumstances
permit.
(e) Keep the number of speed adjustments per
aircraft to the minimum required to achieve and
maintain spacing.
b. Do not assign speed adjustment to aircraft:
1. At or above FL 390 without pilot consent.
2. Executing a published high altitude instrument approach procedure.
3. In a holding pattern.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−6−4, Holding Instructions.
2. Implement speed adjustment based on the
following principles.
4. Inside the final approach fix on final or a point
5 miles from the runway, whichever is closer to the
runway.
(a) Priority of speed adjustment instructions
is determined by the relative speed and position of the
aircraft involved and the spacing requirement.
c. At the time approach clearance is issued,
previously issued speed adjustments must be restated
if required.
(b) Speed adjustments are not achieved
instantaneously. Aircraft configuration, altitudes,
and speed determine the time and distance required to
accomplish the adjustment.
d. Approach clearances cancel any previously
assigned speed adjustment. Pilots are expected to
make their own speed adjustments to complete the
approach unless the adjustments are restated.
3. Use the following techniques in speed control
situations:
e. If feasible, when issuing speed adjustments to
aircraft cleared along a route or procedure that has
published speed restrictions, advise aircraft where to
resume published speed.
(a) Compensate for compression when
assigning air speed adjustment in an in-trail situation
by using one of the following techniques:
(1) Reduce the trailing aircraft first.
(2) Increase the leading aircraft first.
(b) Assign a specific airspeed if required to
maintain spacing.
(c) Allow increased time and distance to
achieve speed adjustments in the following
situations:
f. Express speed adjustments in terms of knots
based on indicated airspeed (IAS) in 10−knot
increments. At or above FL 240, speeds may be
expressed in terms of Mach numbers in 0.01 increments for turbojet aircraft with Mach meters
(i.e., Mach 0.69, 0.70, 0.71, etc.).
NOTE−
1. Pilots complying with speed adjustment instructions
should maintain a speed within plus or minus 10 knots or
0.02 Mach number of the specified speed.
(2) Greater speed.
2. When assigning speeds to achieve spacing between
aircraft at different altitudes, consider that ground speed
may vary with altitude. Further speed adjustment may be
necessary to attain the desired spacing.
(3) Clean configurations.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−7−2, Methods.
(1) Higher altitudes.
Speed Adjustment
5−7−1
JO 7110.65W
5−7−2. METHODS
a. Instruct aircraft to:
1. Maintain present/specific speed.
2. Maintain specified speed or greater/less.
3. Maintain the highest/lowest practical speed.
4. Increase or reduce to a specified speed or by
a specified number of knots.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SAY AIRSPEED.
SAY MACH NUMBER.
MAINTAIN PRESENT SPEED.
MAINTAIN (specific speed) KNOTS.
12/10/15
U.S. Flight Information Region, in offshore Class E
airspace below 10,000 feet MSL. However, in airspace
underlying a Class B airspace area designated for an
airport, or in a VFR corridor designated through such as
a Class B airspace area, pilots are expected to comply with
the 200 knot speed limit specified in 14 CFR
Section 91.117(c). (See 14 CFR Sections 91.117(c) and
91.703.)
3. The phrases “maintain maximum forward speed” and
“maintain slowest practical speed” are primarily intended
for use when sequencing a group of aircraft. As the
sequencing plan develops, it may be necessary to
determine the specific speed and/or make specific speed
assignments.
b. To obtain pilot concurrence for a speed
adjustment at or above FL 390, as required by
para 5−7−1, Application, use the following
phraseology.
MAINTAIN (specific speed) KNOTS OR GREATER.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Speed adjustment), IF UNABLE ADVISE.
DO NOT EXCEED (speed) KNOTS.
EXAMPLE−
“Reduce speed to one niner zero, if unable advise.”
MAINTAIN MAXIMUM FORWARD SPEED.
MAINTAIN SLOWEST PRACTICAL SPEED.
INCREASE/REDUCE SPEED:
TO (specified speed in knots),
or
TO MACH (Mach number),
or
(number of knots) KNOTS.
c. Simultaneous speed reduction and descent can
be extremely difficult, particularly for turbojet
aircraft. Specifying which action is to be accomplished first removes any doubt the pilot may have as
to controller intent or priority. Specify which action is
expected first when combining speed reduction with
a descent clearance.
1. Speed reductions prior to descent.
PHRASEOLOGY−
REDUCE SPEED:
TO (specified speed),
EXAMPLE−
“Increase speed to Mach point seven two.”
“Reduce speed to two five zero.”
“Reduce speed twenty knots.”
“Maintain two eight zero knots.”
“Maintain maximum forward speed.”
or
NOTE−
1. A pilot operating at or above 10,000 feet MSL on an
assigned speed adjustment greater than 250 knots is
expected to comply with 14 CFR Section 91.117(a) when
cleared below 10,000 feet MSL, within domestic airspace,
without notifying ATC. Pilots are expected to comply with
the other provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.117 without
notification.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (altitude).
2. Speed restrictions of 250 knots do not apply to aircraft
operating beyond 12 NM from the coastline within the
5−7−2
(number of knots) KNOTS.
THEN, DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (altitude).
2. Speed reduction following descent.
THEN, REDUCE SPEED:
TO (specified speed in knots),
or
Speed Adjustment
12/10/15
TO MACH (Mach number),
or
(number of knots) KNOTS.
NOTE−
When specifying descent prior to speed reduction, consider
the maximum speed requirements specified in 14 CFR
Section 91.117. It may be necessary for the pilot to level off
temporarily and reduce speed prior to descending below
10,000 feet MSL.
d. Specify combined speed/altitude fix crossing
restrictions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CROSS (fix) AT AND MAINTAIN (altitude) AT (specified
speed) KNOTS.
EXAMPLE−
“Cross Robinsville at and maintain six thousand at
two three zero knots.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−17, Numbers Usage.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−7, Altitude Information.
e. When issuing speed adjustments to aircraft
cleared on procedures with published speed
restrictions specify the point at which the issued
restriction begins, ends, or changes the published
restrictions.
JO 7110.65W
varying locations along cleared routes or procedures that
contain published speed restrictions.
3. Issuing speed adjustments to aircraft flying procedures
with published speed restrictions may impact the pilot’s
ability to fly the intended flight profile of the procedure.
EXAMPLE−
1. “Cross Alisa at two two zero knots, then climb via the
TIMMY One departure.”
NOTE−
The aircraft will maintain the ATC assigned speed until
Alisa waypoint and will then comply with the speed
restrictions on the TIMMY One departure
EXAMPLE−
2. “Cross Alisa at one zero thousand, then climb via the
TIMMY One departure, except maintain two two zero
knots.”
NOTE−
The aircraft will maintain the ATC assigned speed of two
two zero knots and will not meet any published speed
restrictions. Aircraft will meet all published altitude
restrictions after Alisa.
EXAMPLE−
3. “Maintain two two zero knots until BALTR then resume
published speed.”
NOTE−
The ATC assigned speed assignment of two two zero knots
would apply until BALTR. The aircraft would then comply
with the published speed restrictions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CROSS (fix/waypoint) AT (speed).
EXAMPLE−
4. “Descend via the KEPEC Two arrival, except after
NIPZO maintain one eight zero knots.”
MAINTAIN (speed) UNTIL (fix/waypoint),
NOTE−
The aircraft will comply with all published restrictions.
After NIPZO, the aircraft will continue to comply with
altitude restrictions, but will comply with the ATC assigned
speed adjustment.
THEN (additional instructions).
RESUME PUBLISHED SPEED.
EXCEPT (if required)
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2­4­17, Numbers Usage
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4­5­7, Altitude Information
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5­7­1, Application
DELETE SPEED RESTRICTIONS.
5−7−3. MINIMA
CLIMB/DESCEND VIA (SID/STAR name and number)
(transition if required.)
When assigning airspeeds, use the following
recommended minima:
NOTE−
1. Aircraft will meet all published speed restrictions when
on any route or procedure with published speed restrictions
regardless of climb via or descend via clearance.
a. To aircraft operating between FL 280 and
10,000 feet, a speed not less than 250 knots or the
equivalent Mach number.
COMPLY WITH SPEED RESTRICTIONS.
2. Due to variations of aircraft types, Flight Management
Systems, and environmental conditions, ATC should
anticipate that aircraft will begin speed adjustments at
Speed Adjustment
NOTE−
1. On a standard day the Mach numbers equivalent to
250 knots CAS (subject to minor variations) are:
FL 240−0.6
5−7−3
JO 7110.65W
FL 250−0.61
FL 260−0.62
FL 270−0.64
FL 280−0.65
FL 290−0.66.
2. If a pilot is unable to comply with the speed assignment,
the pilot will advise.
b. When an operational advantage will be
realized, speeds lower than the recommended
minima may be applied.
c. To arrival aircraft operating below 10,000 feet:
1. Turbojet aircraft. A speed not less than
210 knots; except when the aircraft is within 20 flying
miles of the runway threshold of the airport of
intended landing, a speed not less than 170 knots.
2. Reciprocating engine and turboprop aircraft.
A speed not less than 200 knots; except when the
aircraft is within 20 flying miles of the runway
threshold of the airport of intended landing, a speed
not less than 150 knots.
d. Departures:
12/10/15
PHRASEOLOGY−
RESUME NORMAL SPEED.
NOTE−
“Resume normal speed” is only used where there is no
underlying published speed restriction. It does not delete
speed restrictions on upcoming segments of flight and does
not relieve the pilot of those speed restrictions which are
applicable to 14 CFR Section 91.117.
b. Instruct aircraft to “comply with speed
restrictions” applicable to the charted procedure or
route being flown.
PHRASEOLOGY−
COMPLY WITH SPEED RESTRICTIONS
NOTE−
The phraseology “comply with restrictions” requires
compliance with all altitude and/or speed restrictions
depicted on the procedure.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-6-2, Methods
c. Advise aircraft to “resume published speed”
when aircraft have been assigned an unpublished
speed and ATC wants aircraft to meet subsequent
published speed restrictions on the route or
procedure.
1. Turbojet aircraft. A speed not less than
230 knots.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RESUME PUBLISHED SPEED
2. Reciprocating engine and turboprop aircraft.
A speed not less than 150 knots.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-5-7, Altitude Information
e. Helicopters. A speed not less than 60 knots.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−7−2, Methods.
5−7−4. TERMINATION
Advise aircraft when speed adjustments are no longer
needed.
a. Advise aircraft to “resume normal speed” when
ATC-assigned speed adjustments are no longer
required and no published speed restrictions apply.
5−7−4
d. Advise aircraft when either ATC assigned speed
adjustments or published speed restrictions are no
longer required.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DELETE SPEED RESTRICTIONS
NOTE−
When deleting published restrictions, ATC must ensure
obstacle clearance until aircraft are established on a route
where no published restrictions apply. This does not relieve
the pilot of those speed restrictions which are applicable to
14 CFR Section 91.117.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-7-1, Application
Speed Adjustment
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 8. Radar Departures
5−8−1. PROCEDURES
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-3-2, Departure Clearances
AIM, Para 5−2−7. Departure Control
Use standard departure routes and channelized
altitudes whenever practical to reduce coordination.
Do not, however, assign these routes solely to provide
for possible radar or communication failure.
5−8−3. SUCCESSIVE OR SIMULTANEOUS
DEPARTURES
5−8−2. INITIAL HEADING
a. Before departure, assign the initial heading to be
flown if a departing aircraft is to be vectored
immediately after takeoff.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FLY RUNWAY HEADING.
TURN LEFT/RIGHT, HEADING (degrees).
NOTE−
TERMINAL. A purpose for the heading is not necessary,
since pilots operating in a radar environment associate
assigned headings with vectors to their planned route of
flight.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−3−2, Departure Clearances.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−3, Vectors Below Minimum Altitude.
b. When conducting simultaneous parallel runway departures utilizing RNAV SIDs, advise aircraft
of the initial fix/waypoint on the RNAV route.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RNAV to (fix/waypoint), RUNWAY (number), CLEARED
FOR TAKEOFF.
EXAMPLE−
“RNAV to MPASS, Runway Two−Six Left, cleared for
takeoff.”
NOTE−
1. TERMINAL. A purpose for an initial waypoint advisory
is not necessary since pilots associate this advisory with the
flight path to their planned route of flight. Pilots must
immediately advise ATC if a different RNAV SID is entered
in the aircraft FMS.
2. The SID transition is not restated as it is contained in the
ATC clearance.
3. Aircraft cleared via RNAV SIDs designed to begin with
a vector to the initial waypoint are assigned a heading
before departure.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-9, Takeoff Clearance
Radar Departures
TERMINAL
Separate aircraft departing from the same airport/
heliport or adjacent airports/heliports in accordance
with the following minima provided radar identification with the aircraft will be established within 1 mile
of the takeoff runway end/helipad and courses will
diverge by 15 degrees or more.
NOTE−
1. FAAO 8260.46, Departure Procedure (DP) Program,
and FAAO 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal
Instrument Procedures (TERPS), Volume 4, establishes
guidelines for IFR departure turning procedures which
assumes a climb to 400 feet above the departure end of
runway (DER) elevation before a turn is commenced.
TERPS criteria ensures obstacle clearance with a climb
gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile from the DER.
“Immediately after departure” is considered to be any turn
that provides at least 15 degrees of divergence that
commences no later than 2 miles from the DER.
2. Consider known aircraft performance characteristics
when applying initial separation to successive departing
aircraft.
3. When one or both of the departure surfaces is a helipad,
use the takeoff course of the helicopter as a reference,
comparable to the centerline of a runway and the helipad
center as the threshold.
a. Between aircraft departing the same runway/
helipad or parallel runways/helicopter takeoff
courses separated by less than 2,500 feet− 1 mile if
courses diverge by 15 degrees or more immediately
after departure or 10 degrees or more when both
aircraft are departing the same runway and both are
flying an RNAV SID. (See FIG 5−8−1, FIG 5−8−2,
and FIG 5−8−3.)
NOTE−
RNAV SIDs specific to this paragraph are those SIDs
constructed with a specific lateral path that begins at the
DER.
5−8−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 5−8−1
Successive Departures
b. Between aircraft departing from diverging
runways:
1. Nonintersecting runways. Authorize simultaneous takeoffs if runways diverge by 15 degrees or
more. (See FIG 5−8−4.)
FIG 5−8−4
Nonintersecting Runway Departures
FIG 5−8−2
Simultaneous Departures
FIG 5−8−3
Simultaneous Departures
2. Intersecting runways and/or helicopter
takeoff courses which diverge by 15 degrees or
more. Authorize takeoff of a succeeding aircraft
when the preceding aircraft has passed the point of
runway and/or takeoff course intersection. When
applicable, apply the procedure in para 3−9−5,
Anticipating Separation. (See FIG 5−8−5 and
FIG 5−8−6.)
FIG 5−8−5
Intersecting Runway Departures
NOTE−
This procedure does not apply when wake turbulence
separation is required.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−7, Wake Turbulence Separation for
Intersection Departures.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−9−8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting
Flight Path Operations.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−4, Minima.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5­5­4, Minima, Subparagraph g.
5−8−2
NOTE−
This procedure does not apply when wake turbulence
separation is required.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.
Radar Departures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
FIG 5−8−6
FIG 5−8−8
Intersecting Helicopter Course Departures
Parallel Helicopter Course Departures
5−8−4. DEPARTURE AND ARRIVAL
c. Between aircraft departing in the same direction
from parallel runways/helicopter takeoff courses.
Authorize simultaneous takeoffs if the centerlines/
takeoff courses are separated by at least 2,500 feet and
courses diverge by 15 degrees or more immediately
after departure or 10 degrees or more when both
aircraft are flying an RNAV SID. (See FIG 5−8−7 and
FIG 5−8−8.)
NOTE−
RNAV SIDs specific to this paragraph are those SIDs
constructed with a specific lateral path that begins at the
DER.
FIG 5−8−7
Parallel Runway Departures
TERMINAL. Except as provided in para 5−8−5,
Departures and Arrivals on Parallel or Nonintersecting Diverging Runways, separate a departing aircraft
from an arriving aircraft on final approach by a
minimum of 2 miles if separation will increase to a
minimum of 3 miles (5 miles when 40 miles or more
from the antenna) within 1 minute after takeoff.
NOTE−
1. This procedure permits a departing aircraft to be
released so long as an arriving aircraft is no closer than
2 miles from the runway at the time. This separation is
determined at the time the departing aircraft commences
takeoff roll.
2. Consider the effect surface conditions, such as ice,
snow, and other precipitation, may have on known aircraft
performance characteristics, and the influence these
conditions may have on the pilot’s ability to commence
takeoff roll in a timely manner.
5−8−5. DEPARTURES AND ARRIVALS ON
PARALLEL OR NONINTERSECTING
DIVERGING RUNWAYS
TERMINAL. Authorize simultaneous operations
between an aircraft departing on a runway and an
aircraft on final approach to another parallel or
nonintersecting diverging runway if the departure
course diverges immediately by at least 30 degrees
from the missed approach course until separation is
applied and provided one of the following conditions
are met:
NOTE−
When one or both of the takeoff/landing surfaces is a
helipad, consider the helicopter takeoff course as the
runway centerline and the helipad center as the threshold.
Radar Departures
5−8−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
a. When parallel runway thresholds are even, the
runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet apart.
(See FIG 5−8−9 and FIG 5−8−10.)
FIG 5−8−11
Parallel Thresholds are Staggered
FIG 5−8−9
Parallel Thresholds are Even
FIG 5−8−12
Parallel Thresholds are Staggered
FIG 5−8−10
Parallel Thresholds are Even
b. When parallel runway thresholds are staggered
and:
1. The arriving aircraft is approaching the
nearer runway: the centerlines are at least 1,000 feet
apart and the landing thresholds are staggered at least
500 feet for each 100 feet less than 2,500 the
centerlines are separated. (See FIG 5−8−11 and
FIG 5−8−12.)
5−8−4
NOTE−
In the event of a missed approach by an aircraft requiring
wake turbulence separation behind it, apply the procedures
in Para 3-9-6, Same Runway Separation, Para 3-9-8,
Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight Path Operations,
ensure that the larger aircraft does not overtake or cross in
front of an aircraft departing from the adjacent parallel
runway.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph f.
2. The arriving aircraft is approaching the
farther runway: the runway centerlines separation
exceeds 2,500 feet by at least 100 feet for each
Radar Departures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
500 feet the landing thresholds are staggered.
(See FIG 5−8−13.)
FIG 5−8−14
Diverging Nonintersecting Runways
FIG 5−8−13
Parallel Thresholds are Staggered
c. When nonintersecting runways diverge by
15 degrees or more and runway edges do not touch.
(See FIG 5−8−14.)
Radar Departures
d. When the aircraft on takeoff is a helicopter, hold
the helicopter until visual separation is possible or
apply the separation criteria in subparas a, b, or c.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−8−4, Departure and Arrival.
5−8−5
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 9. Radar Arrivals
5−9−1. VECTORS TO FINAL APPROACH
COURSE
Except as provided in para 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual
Approach, vector arriving aircraft to intercept the
final approach course:
a. At least 2 miles outside the approach gate unless
one of the following exists:
1. When the reported ceiling is at least 500 feet
above the MVA/MIA and the visibility is at least
3 miles (report may be a PIREP if no weather is
reported for the airport), aircraft may be vectored to
intercept the final approach course closer than 2 miles
outside the approach gate but no closer than the
approach gate.
2. If specifically requested by the pilot, aircraft
may be vectored to intercept the final approach
course inside the approach gate but no closer than the
final approach fix.
EXCEPTION. Conditions 1 and 2 above do not
apply to RNAV aircraft being vectored for a GPS or
RNAV approach.
b. Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical
separation between aircraft on opposite base legs
unless another form of approved separation is
established during turn-on to final approach.
c. For a precision approach, at an altitude not
above the glideslope/glidepath or below the
minimum glideslope intercept altitude specified on
the approach procedure chart.
d. For a nonprecision approach, at an altitude
which will allow descent in accordance with the
published procedure.
NOTE−
A pilot request for an “evaluation approach,” or a
“coupled approach,” or use of a similar term, indicates the
pilot desires the application of subparas a and b.
e. EN ROUTE. The following provisions are
required before an aircraft may be vectored to the
final approach course:
1. The approach gate and a line (solid or
broken), depicting the final approach course starting
at or passing through the approach gate and extending
away from the airport, be displayed on the radar
Radar Arrivals
scope; for a precision approach, the line length must
extend at least the maximum range of the localizer;
for a nonprecision approach, the line length must
extend at least 10NM outside the approach gate; and
2. The maximum range selected on the radar
display is 150 NM; or
3. An adjacent radar display is set at 125 NM or
less, configured for the approach in use, and is
utilized for the vector to the final approach course.
4. If unable to comply with subparas 1, 2, or 3
above, issue the clearance in accordance with
para 4−8−1, Approach Clearance.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−8−1, Approach Clearance.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
5−9−2. FINAL APPROACH COURSE
INTERCEPTION
a. Assign headings that will permit final approach
course interception on a track that does not exceed the
interception angles specified in TBL 5−9−1.
TBL 5−9−1
Approach Course Interception Angle
Distance from interception
point to approach gate
Maximum interception
angle
Less than 2 miles or triple
simultaneous ILS/MLS
approaches in use
20 degrees
2 miles or more
30 degrees
(45 degrees for helicopters)
b. If deviations from the final approach course are
observed after initial course interception, apply the
following:
1. Outside the approach gate: apply procedures
in accordance with subpara a, if necessary, vector the
aircraft for another approach.
2. Inside the approach gate: inform the pilot of
the aircraft’s position and ask intentions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Ident) (distance) MILE(S) FROM THE AIRPORT,
(distance) MILE(S) RIGHT/LEFT OF COURSE, SAY
INTENTIONS.
NOTE−
The intent is to provide for a track course intercept angle
judged by the controller to be no greater than specified by
this procedure.
5−9−1
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 5, Section 9, Radar Arrivals, and
Section 10, Radar Approaches− Terminal.
c. EN ROUTE. When using a radar scope range
above 125 NM, the controller must solicit and receive
a pilot report that the aircraft is established on the
final approach course. If the pilot has not reported
established by the final approach gate, inform the
pilot of his/her observed position and ask intentions.
12/10/15
1. Established on a segment of a published route
or instrument approach procedure, or see FIG 5−9−1
Example 1.
FIG 5−9−1
Arrival Instructions
NOTE−
It may be difficult to accurately determine small distances
when using very large range settings.
5−9−3. VECTORS ACROSS FINAL
APPROACH COURSE
Inform the aircraft whenever a vector will take it
across the final approach course and state the reason
for such action.
NOTE−
In the event you are unable to so inform the aircraft, the
pilot is not expected to turn inbound on the final approach
course unless approach clearance has been issued.
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT VECTORS ACROSS FINAL FOR (purpose).
EXAMPLE−
“EXPECT VECTORS ACROSS FINAL FOR SPACING.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
5−9−4. ARRIVAL INSTRUCTIONS
Issue all of the following to an aircraft before it
reaches the approach gate:
a. Position relative to a fix on the final approach
course. If none is portrayed on the radar display or if
none is prescribed in the procedure, issue position
information relative to the navigation aid which
provides final approach guidance or relative to the
airport.
b. Vector to intercept the final approach course if
required.
c. Approach clearance except when conducting a
radar approach. Issue approach clearance only after
the aircraft is:
5−9−2
Radar Arrivals
12/10/15
EXAMPLE−
1. Aircraft 1 was vectored to the final approach course but
clearance was withheld. It is now at 4,000 feet and
established on a segment of the instrument approach
procedure. “Seven miles from X-RAY. Cleared I−L−S
runway three six approach.” (See FIG 5−9−1.)
JO 7110.65W
FIG 5−9−2
Arrival Instructions
2. Aircraft 2 is being vectored to a published segment of
the final approach course, 4 miles from LIMA at 2,000 feet.
The MVA for this area is 2,000 feet. “Four miles from
LIMA. Turn right heading three four zero. Maintain
two thousand until established on the localizer. Cleared
I−L−Srunway three six approach.” (See FIG 5−9−1.)
3. Aircraft 3 is being vectored to intercept the final
approach course beyond the approach segments, 5 miles
from Alpha at 5,000 feet. the MVA for this area is 4,000 feet.
“Five miles from Alpha. Turn right heading three three
zero. Cross Alpha at or above four thousand. Cleared
I−L−Srunway three six approach.” (See FIG 5−9−1.)
4. Aircraft 4 is established on the final approach course
beyond the approach segments, 8 miles from Alpha at
6,000 feet. The MVA for this area is 4,000 feet. “Eight miles
from Alpha. Cross Alpha at or above four thousand.
Cleared I−L−S runway three six approach.”
(See FIG 5−9−1.)
2. Assigned an altitude to maintain until the
aircraft is established on a segment of a published
route or instrument approach procedure.
(See FIG 5−9−2 thru FIG 5−9−4.)
EXAMPLE−
The aircraft is being vectored to a published segment of the
MLS final approach course, 3 miles from Alpha at
4,000 feet. The MVA for this area is 4,000 feet.
“Three miles from Alpha. Turn left heading two one zero.
Maintain four thousand until established on the azimuth
course. Cleared M−L−S runway one eight approach.”
(See FIG 5−9−2.)
Radar Arrivals
5−9−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 5−9−3
FIG 5−9−5
Arrival Instructions
Arrival Instructions
EXAMPLE−
The aircraft is en route to Delta waypoint at 6,000 feet. The
MVA for this area is 4,000 feet. “Cross Delta at or above
four thousand. Cleared M−L−S runway one eight
approach.” (See FIG 5−9−3.)
FIG 5−9−4
Arrival Instructions
EXAMPLE−
The aircraft is being vectored to the intermediate fix
FORRE for an RNAV approach. “Seven miles from
FOORE, cleared direct FORRE, cross FORRE at or above
four thousand, cleared RNAV runway one eight
approach.”
NOTE−
1. The altitude assigned must assure IFR obstruction
clearance from the point at which the approach clearance
is issued until established on a segment of a published route
or instrument approach procedure.
EXAMPLE−
The aircraft is being vectored to an MLS curved approach,
3 miles from X-ray at 3,000 feet. “Three miles from X-ray.
Turn right heading three three zero. Maintain
three thousand until established on the azimuth course.
Cleared M−L−S runway one eight approach.”
(See FIG 5−9−4.)
5−9−4
2. If the altitude assignment is VFR-on-top, it is
conceivable that the pilot may elect to remain high until
arrival over the final approach fix which may require the
pilot to circle to descend so as to cross the final approach
fix at an altitude that would permit landing.
3. Aircraft being vectored to the intermediate fix in
FIG 5−9−5 must meet all the provisions described in
subpara 4−8−1b4.
Radar Arrivals
12/10/15
d. Instructions to do one of the following:
NOTE−
The principal purpose of this paragraph is to ensure that
frequency changes are made prior to passing the final
approach fix. However, at times it will be desirable to retain
an aircraft on the approach control frequency to provide a
single-frequency approach or other radar services. When
this occurs, it will be necessary to relay tower clearances
or instructions to preclude changing frequencies prior to
landing or approach termination.
JO 7110.65W
2. Aircraft 2: The aircraft is in the left base area of the
TAA. “One five miles from LEFTT, Cleared R­NAV
Runway One Eight Approach.”
3. Aircraft 3: The aircraft is in the right base area of the
TAA. “Four miles from RIGHT, Cleared R­NAV Runway
One Eight Approach.”
FIG 5−9−6
Basic “T” Design
1. Monitor local control frequency, reporting to
the tower when over the approach fix.
2. Contact the tower on local control frequency.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−8−8, Communications Release.
3. Contact the final controller on the appropriate
frequency if radar service will be provided on final on
a different frequency.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−8, Final Controller Changeover.
4. When radar is used to establish the final
approach fix, inform the pilot that after being advised
that he/she is over the fix he/she is to contact the tower
on local control frequency.
EXAMPLE−
“Three miles from final approach fix. Turn left heading
zero one zero. Maintain two thousand until established on
the localizer. Cleared I−L−S runway three six approach. I
will advise when over the fix.”
“Over final approach fix. Contact tower one one eight
point one.”
NOTE−
ARSR may be used for establishment of initial approach
and intermediate approach fixes only. ASR must be used to
establish the final approach fix.
5−9−5. APPROACH SEPARATION
RESPONSIBILITY
e. Where a Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) has been
established to support RNAV approaches, inform the
aircraft of its position relative to the appropriate IAF
and issue the approach clearance. (See FIG 5−9−6.)
a. The radar controller performing the approach
control function is responsible for separation of radar
arrivals unless visual separation is provided by the
tower, or a letter of agreement/facility directive
authorizes otherwise. Radar final controllers ensure
that established separation is maintained between
aircraft under their control and other aircraft
established on the same final approach course.
EXAMPLE−
1. Aircraft 1: The aircraft is in the straight in area of the
TAA. “Seven miles from CENTR, Cleared R−NAV Runway
One Eight Approach.”
NOTE−
The radar controller may be a controller in an ARTCC, a
terminal facility, or a tower controller when authorized to
perform the approach control function in a terminal area.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−7, Simultaneous Independent ILS/MLS
Approaches− Dual & Triple.
Radar Arrivals
5−9−5
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−19, Wake Turbulence.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Section 5, Radar Separation, Para 5−5−1,
Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−4, Minima.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2−1−15, Authorization for Separation Services
by Towers.
b. When timed approaches are being conducted,
the radar controller must maintain the radar
separation specified in para 6−7−5, Interval Minima,
until the aircraft is observed to have passed the final
approach fix inbound (nonprecision approaches) or
the OM or the fix used in lieu of the outer marker
(precision approaches) and is within 5 miles of the
runway on the final approach course or until visual
separation can be provided by the tower.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−4−6, Receiving Controller Handoff.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−6, Parallel Dependent ILS/MLS
Approaches.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−7−2, Approach Sequence.
5−9−6. SIMULTANEOUS DEPENDENT
APPROACHES
12/10/15
FIG 5−9−7
Simultaneous Dependent Approaches
EXAMPLE−
In FIG 5−9−7, Aircraft 2 is 1.0 mile from Aircraft 1.
Approved radar separation must be maintained between
Aircraft 1 and Aircraft 3.
3. Provide a minimum of 1.5 miles radar
separation diagonally between successive aircraft on
adjacent final approach courses when runway
centerlines are more than 3,600 feet but no more than
4,300 feet apart.
FIG 5−9−8
Simultaneous Dependent Approaches
TERMINAL
a. Apply the following minimum separation when
conducting simultaneous dependent approaches:
1. Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or
a minimum of 3 miles radar separation between
aircraft during turn on.
2. Provide a minimum of 1 mile radar separation
diagonally between successive aircraft on adjacent
final approach courses when runway centerlines are
at least 2,500 feet but no more than 3,600 feet apart.
5−9−6
Radar Arrivals
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
EXAMPLE−
In FIG 5−9−8, Aircraft 2 is 1.5 miles from Aircraft 1, and
Aircraft 3 is 1.5 miles or more from Aircraft 2. Approved
radar separation must be maintained between aircraft on
the same final.
4. Provide a minimum of 2 miles radar
separation diagonally between successive aircraft on
adjacent final approach courses where runway
centerlines are more than 4,300 feet but no more than
9,000 feet apart.
FIG 5−9−9
Simultaneous Dependent Approaches
2. Simultaneous dependent approaches may only be
conducted where instrument approach charts specifically
authorize simultaneous approaches to adjacent runways.
1. Apply this separation standard only after
aircraft are established on the parallel final approach
course.
2. Straight-in landings will be made.
3. Missed approach procedures do not conflict.
4. Aircraft are informed that approaches to both
runways are in use. This information may be provided
through the ATIS.
5. Approach control must have the interphone
capability of communicating directly with the local
controller at locations where separation
responsibility has not been delegated to the tower.
NOTE−
The interphone capability is an integral part of this
procedure when approach control has the sole separation
responsibility.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−5, Approach Separation Responsibility.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2−1−15, Authorization for Separation Services
by Towers.
EXAMPLE−
In FIG 5−9−9, Aircraft 2 is 2 miles from heavy Aircraft 1.
Aircraft 3 is a small aircraft and is 6 miles from Aircraft 1.
*The resultant separation between Aircraft 2 and 3 is at
least 4.2 miles.
5. Provide the minimum approved radar separation between aircraft on the same final approach
course.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Section 5, Radar Separation, Para 5−5−4, Minima.
b. The following conditions are required when
applying the minimum radar separation on adjacent
final approach courses allowed in subparagraph a:
NOTE−
1. Simultaneous dependent approaches involving an
RNAV approach may only be conducted when (GPS)
appears in the approach title or a chart note states that
GPS is required.
Radar Arrivals
c. Consideration should be given to known factors
that may in any way affect the safety of the instrument
approach phase of flight, such as surface wind
direction and velocity, wind shear alerts/reports,
severe weather activity, etc. Closely monitor weather
activity that could impact the final approach course.
Weather conditions in the vicinity of the final
approach course may dictate a change of approach in
use.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
5−9−7. SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT
APPROACHES− DUAL & TRIPLE
TERMINAL
a. Apply the following minimum separation when
conducting simultaneous independent approaches:
1. Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or
a minimum of 3 miles radar separation between
aircraft during turn-on to parallel final approach.
NOTE−
1. During triple parallel approaches, no two aircraft will
be assigned the same altitude during turn-on. All
three aircraft will be assigned altitudes which differ by a
minimum of 1,000 feet. Example: 3,000, 4,000, 5,000;
7,000, 8,000, 9,000.
5−9−7
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
2. Communications transfer to the tower controller’s
frequency must be completed prior to losing vertical
separation between aircraft.
c. FUSION must be discontinued on the FMA
displays and set to a single-sensor, when conducting
final monitoring activities.
2. Dual parallel runway centerlines are at least
3,600 feet apart, or dual parallel runway centerlines
are at least 3,000 feet apart with a 2.5_ to 3.0_ offset
approach to either runway and the airport field
elevation is 2,000 feet MSL or less.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−4, Minima.
NOTE−
Airport field elevation requirement does not apply to dual
parallel runways that are 4,300 feet or more apart.
NOTE−
Simultaneous independent approaches may only be
conducted where instrument approach charts specifically
authorize simultaneous approaches.
3. Triple parallel approaches may be conducted
under one of the following conditions:
(a) Parallel runway centerlines are at least
3,900 feet apart and the airport field elevation is 2,000
feet MSL or less; or
(b) Parallel runway centerlines are at least
3,000 feet apart, a 2.5_ to 3.0_ offset approach to both
outside runways, and the airport field elevation is
2,000 feet MSL or less; or
(c) Parallel runway centerlines are at least
3,000 feet apart, a single 2.5_ to 3.0_ offset approach
to either outside runway while parallel approaches to
the remaining two runways are separated by at least
3,900 feet, and the airport field elevation is 2,000 feet
MSL or less.
4. Provide the minimum applicable radar
separation between aircraft on the same final
approach course.
b. A high-resolution color monitor with alert
algorithms, such as the final monitor aid or that
required in the precision runway monitor program
must be used to monitor approaches where:
d. The following conditions must be met when
conducting dual or triple simultaneous independent
approaches:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-4-6, Simultaneous Approaches
(Dependent/Independent)
1. Straight-in landings will be made.
2. All appropriate communication, navigation,
and surveillance systems are operating normally.
3. Inform aircraft that simultaneous
independent approaches are in use, or when runway
centerlines are less than 4,300 feet PRM approaches
are in use, prior to aircraft departing an outer fix. This
information may be provided through the ATIS.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) System.
4. Clear the aircraft to descend to the
appropriate glideslope/glidepath intercept altitude
soon enough to provide a period of level flight to
dissipate excess speed. Provide at least 1 mile of
straight flight prior to the final approach course
intercept.
NOTE−
Not applicable to approaches with RF legs.
2. Triple parallel runway centerlines are at least
3,000 but less than 5,000 feet apart and the airport
field elevation is 2,000 feet MSL or less.
5. An NTZ at least 2,000 feet wide is established
an equal distance between extended runway final
approach courses and must be depicted on the
monitor display. The primary responsibility for
navigation on the final approach course rests with the
pilot. Control instructions and information are issued
only to ensure separation between aircraft and to
prevent aircraft from penetrating the NTZ.
3. Triple parallel approaches to airports where
the airport field elevation is more than 2,000 feet
MSL require use of the FMA system and an approved
FAA aeronautical study.
6. Monitor all approaches regardless of weather.
Monitor local control frequency to receive any
aircraft transmission. Issue control instructions as
necessary to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ.
NOTE−
FMA is not required to monitor the NTZ for runway
centerlines greater than 4,300 feet for dual runways, and
5,000 feet or greater for triple operations.
NOTE−
1. Separate monitor controllers, each with transmit/
receive and override capability on the local control
frequency, must ensure aircraft do not penetrate the
1. Dual parallel runway centerlines are at least
3,000 and no more than 4,300 feet apart.
5−9−8
Radar Arrivals
12/10/15
depicted NTZ. Facility directives must define responsibility
for providing the minimum applicable longitudinal
separation between aircraft on the same final approach
course.
2. The aircraft is considered the center of the primary
radar return for that aircraft, or, if an FMA or other color
final monitor aid is used, the center of the digitized target
of that aircraft, for the purposes of ensuring an aircraft
does not penetrate the NTZ. The provisions of para 5−5−2,
Target Separation, apply also.
e. The following procedures must be used by the
final monitor controllers:
1. Instruct the aircraft to return to the correct
final approach course when aircraft are observed to
overshoot the turn-on or to continue on a track which
will penetrate the NTZ.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU HAVE CROSSED THE FINAL APPROACH
COURSE. TURN (left/right) IMMEDIATELY AND
RETURN TO THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE,
or
TURN (left/right) AND RETURN TO THE FINAL
APPROACH COURSE.
2. Instruct aircraft on the adjacent final
approach course to alter course to avoid the deviating
aircraft when an aircraft is observed penetrating or in
your judgment will penetrate the NTZ.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC ALERT, (call sign), TURN (right/left)
IMMEDIATELY HEADING (degrees), CLIMB AND
MAINTAIN (altitude).
3. Terminate radar monitoring when one of the
following occurs:
(a) Visual separation is applied.
(b) The aircraft reports the approach lights or
runway in sight.
(c) The aircraft is 1 mile or less from the
runway threshold, if procedurally required and
contained in facility directives.
4. Do not inform the aircraft when radar
monitoring is terminated.
JO 7110.65W
independent approaches are being conducted to
parallel runways. Factors include, but are not limited
to, wind direction/velocity, windshear alerts/reports,
severe weather activity, etc. Closely monitor weather
activity that could impact the final approach course.
Weather conditions in the vicinity of the final
approach course may dictate a change of approach in
use.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−13, Radar Service Termination.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
5−9−8. SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT
CLOSE PARALLEL APPROACHES –PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM)
APPROACHES
TERMINAL
a. PRM approaches may only be conducted when
charted in the approach title, and where instrument
approach charts specifically authorize simultaneous
approaches.
REFERENCE−
P/CG- Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) System
P/CG-Simultaneous Close Parallel Approaches
b. PRM approaches must be assigned when
conducting instrument approaches to dual and triple
parallel runways with runway centerlines separated
by less than 4,300 feet.
c. Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a
minimum of 3 miles radar separation between aircraft
during turn-on to parallel or offset final approach.
NOTE−
Communications transfer to the tower controller’s
frequency must be completed prior to losing vertical
separation between aircraft.
d. Provide the minimum applicable radar separation between aircraft on the same final approach
course.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−4, Minima.
e. The following conditions must be met when
conducting dual and triple PRM approaches:
1. Straight-in landings will be made.
5. Do not apply the provisions of Paragraph
5-13-1, Monitor on PAR Equipment, for simultaneous independent approaches.
2. All appropriate communication, navigation,
and surveillance systems are operating normally.
f. Consideration should be given to known factors
that may in any way affect the safety of the instrument
approach phase of flight when simultaneous
3. Inform aircraft that PRM approaches are in
use prior to aircraft departing an outer fix. This
information may be provided through the ATIS.
Radar Arrivals
5−9−9
JO 7110.65W
4. Clear the aircraft to descend to the
appropriate glideslope/glidepath intercept altitude
soon enough to provide a period of level flight to
dissipate excess speed. Provide at least 1 mile of
straight flight prior to the final approach course
intercept.
NOTE−
Not applicable to approaches with RF legs.
5. An NTZ at least 2,000 feet wide is established
an equal distance between extended runway final
approach courses and must be depicted on the
monitor display. The primary responsibility for
navigation on the final approach course rests with the
pilot. Control instructions and information are issued
only to ensure separation between aircraft and to
prevent aircraft from penetrating the NTZ.
6. Monitor all approaches regardless of weather.
Monitor local control frequency to receive any
aircraft transmission. Issue control instructions as
necessary to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ.
7. Separate monitor controllers, each with
transmit/receive and override capability on the local
control frequency, must ensure aircraft do not
penetrate the depicted NTZ. Facility directives must
define the responsibility for providing the minimum
applicable longitudinal separation between aircraft
on the same final approach course.
NOTE−
The aircraft is considered the center of the digitized target
for the purposes of ensuring an aircraft does not penetrate
the NTZ.
f. The following procedures must be used by the
final monitor controllers:
1. Provide position information to an aircraft
that is (left/right) of the depicted final approach
course centerline, and in your judgment is continuing
on a track that may penetrate the NTZ.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft call sign) I SHOW YOU (left/right) OF THE
FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
2. Instruct the aircraft to return immediately to
the correct final approach course when aircraft are
observed to overshoot the turn-on or continue on a
track which will penetrate the NTZ.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU HAVE CROSSED THE FINAL APPROACH
COURSE. TURN (left/right) IMMEDIATELY AND
RETURN TO THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
5−9−10
12/10/15
or
TURN (left/right) AND RETURN TO THE FINAL
APPROACH COURSE.
3. Instruct aircraft on the adjacent final
approach course to alter course to avoid the deviating
aircraft when an aircraft is observed penetrating or in
your judgment will penetrate the NTZ.
NOTE−
An instruction that may include a descent to avoid the
deviating aircraft should only be used when there is no
other reasonable option available to the controller. In such
a case, the descent must not put the aircraft below the MVA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC ALERT, (call sign), TURN (left/right)
IMMEDIATELY HEADING (DEGREES), CLIMB AND
MAINTAIN (altitude).
4. Terminate radar monitoring when one of the
following occurs:
(a) Visual separation is applied.
(b) The aircraft reports the approach lights or
runway in sight.
(c) The aircraft is 1 mile or less from the
runway threshold, if procedurally required, and
contained in facility directives.
5. Do not inform the aircraft when radar
monitoring is terminated.
6. Do not apply the provisions of Paragraph
5-13-1, Monitor on PAR Equipment, for PRM
approaches.
g. Consideration should be given to known factors
that may in any way affect the safety of the instrument
approach phase of flight when PRM approaches are
being conducted to parallel runways. Factors include,
but are not limited to, wind direction/velocity,
windshear alerts/reports, severe weather activity, etc.
Closely monitor weather activity that could impact
the final approach course. Weather conditions in the
vicinity of the final approach course may dictate a
change of the approach in use.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−13, Radar Service Termination.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
5−9−9. SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET
INSTRUMENT APPROACHES (SOIA)− HIGH
UPDATE RADAR
TERMINAL
a. Simultaneous offset independent approaches
(SOIA) may be conducted at FAA designated
Radar Arrivals
12/10/15
airports that have an authorization issued by the
Director, Operations-Headquarters, AJT-2, in coordination with AFS with parallel runways that have
centerlines separated by less than 3,000 feet with one
final approach course offset by 2.5 to 3.0 degrees
using a high update rate surveillance system with a
1.0−second radar update; and
1. Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or
a minimum of 3 miles radar separation between
aircraft during turn−on to final approaches.
NOTE−
Communications transfer to the tower controller’s
frequency must be completed prior to losing vertical
separation between aircraft.
2. Provide the minimum applicable radar
separation between aircraft on the same final
approach course.
3. Provide the minimum applicable radar
separation between the trailing offset aircraft of a
leading SOIA pair and the lead straight-in aircraft in
the subsequent SOIA pair when the parallel runways
have centerlines separated by less than 2,500 feet.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−4, Minima.
b. The following conditions are required when
applying the minimum separation between lead
straight-in and offset trailing approaches with
glideslope courses or vertical navigation authorized
in subparagraph a above:
1. Straight−in landings will be made.
2. All appropriate communication, navigation,
and surveillance systems are operating normally.
3. Inform aircraft that PRM approaches are in
use prior to aircraft departing an outer fix. This
information may be provided through the ATIS.
4. Clear the aircraft to descend to the
appropriate glideslope/glidepath intercept altitude
soon enough to provide a period of level flight to
dissipate excess speed. Provide at least 1 mile of
straight flight prior to the final approach course
intercept.
NOTE−
Not applicable to approaches with RF legs.
5. A No Transgression Zone (NTZ) at least
2,000 feet wide is established an equal distance
between extended runway final approach courses and
must be depicted on the monitor display. The NTZ
Radar Arrivals
JO 7110.65W
begins prior to the point where adjacent inbound
aircraft first lose vertical separation and extends to a
point coincident with the location of the offset
approach MAP. The primary responsibility for
navigation on the final approach course rests with the
pilot. Control instructions and information are issued
only to ensure separation between aircraft and to
prevent aircraft from penetrating the NTZ.
6. Monitor all approaches regardless of weather.
Monitor local control frequency to receive any
aircraft transmission. Issue control instructions as
necessary to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ.
7. Separate monitor controllers, each with
transmit/receive and override capability on the local
control frequency, must ensure aircraft do not
penetrate the depicted NTZ. Facility directives must
define the responsibility for providing the minimum
applicable longitudinal separation between aircraft
on the same final approach course and the minimum
applicable longitudinal separation between the
trailing offset aircraft of a leading SOIA pair and the
lead straight in aircraft in the subsequent SOIA pair
when the parallel runways have centerlines separated
by less than 2,500 feet.
NOTE−
The aircraft is considered the center of the digitized target
for that aircraft for the purposes of ensuring an aircraft
does not penetrate the NTZ.
c. The following procedures must be used by the
final monitor controllers:
1. Provide position information to an aircraft
that is (left/right) of the depicted final approach
course centerline, and in your judgment is continuing
on a track that may penetrate the NTZ.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft call sign) I SHOW YOU (left/right) OF THE
FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
2. Instruct the aircraft to return immediately to
the correct final approach course when aircraft are
observed to overshoot the turn−on or continue on a
track which will penetrate the NTZ.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU HAVE CROSSED THE FINAL APPROACH
COURSE. TURN (left/right) IMMEDIATELY AND
RETURN TO FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
or
TURN (left/right) AND RETURN TO THE FINAL
APPROACH COURSE.
5−9−11
JO 7110.65W
3. Instruct aircraft on the adjacent final
approach course to alter course to avoid the deviating
aircraft when an aircraft is observed penetrating or in
your judgment will penetrate the NTZ.
NOTE−
An instruction that may include a descent to avoid the
deviating aircraft should only be used when there is no
other reasonable option available to the controller. In such
a case, the descent must not put the aircraft below the MVA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC ALERT, (call sign), TURN (left/right)
IMMEDIATELY HEADING (DEGREES), CLIMB AND
MAINTAIN (altitude).
4. Terminate radar monitoring when one of the
following occurs:
(a) The lead straight in aircraft passes the end
of the NTZ nearest the runway threshold.
(b) The trailing offset aircraft passes the end
of the NTZ nearest the runway threshold and has
reported the lead straight in aircraft in sight.
12/10/15
that the flight crew can remain separated from that
traffic visually from the offset approach MAP to the
runway threshold.
NOTE−
After accepting a clearance for an offset PRM approach,
pilots must remain on the offset approach course until
passing the offset approach MAP prior to alignment with
the runway centerline. Between the offset approach MAP
and the runway threshold, the pilot of the offset approach
aircraft assumes visual separation responsibility from the
aircraft on the straight-in approach, which means
maneuvering the aircraft as necessary to avoid the straight
in approach traffic until landing, and providing wake
turbulence avoidance, if necessary.
f. In the visual segment between the offset
approach MAP and the runway threshold, if the pilot
of the trailing offset aircraft loses visual contact with
the lead straight-in traffic, the pilot must advise ATC
as soon as practical and follow the published missed
approach procedure. If necessary, issue alternate
missed approach instructions.
5. Do not inform the aircraft when radar
monitoring is terminated.
g. Wake turbulence requirements between aircraft
on adjacent final approach courses inside the offset
approach MAP are as follows (standard in-trail wake
separation must be applied between aircraft on the
same approach course):
6. Do not apply the provisions of paragraph
5-13-1, Monitor on PAR Equipment, for simultaneous approaches.
1. When runways are at least 2,500 feet apart,
there are no wake turbulence requirements between
aircraft on adjacent final approach courses.
d. Advise the pilot of the trailing offset aircraft of
traffic on the adjacent lead straight-in approach
course, if that traffic will be a factor in the visual
segment of the approach. The provisions of
Paragraphs 7-2-1, Visual Separation, subparagraph
a2, concerning visual separation between aircraft
being provided by the tower must not be applied to
aircraft conducting SOIAs.
2. For runways less than 2,500 feet apart,
whenever the ceiling is greater than or equal to
500 feet above the MVA, wake vortex spacing
between aircraft on adjacent final approach courses
need not be applied.
(c) The aircraft begins the visual segment of
the approach.
NOTE−
Once advised, the pilot is authorized to continue past the
offset approach MAP if all of the following conditions are
met: The pilot has the straight-in approach traffic in sight
and expects the traffic to remain in sight; the pilot advises
ATC that the traffic is in sight; and the pilot has the runway
environment in sight. Otherwise, it is the pilot’s
responsibility to execute a missed approach at the offset
approach MAP.
e. Ensure that the trailing offset aircraft is
positioned to facilitate the flight crew’s ability to see
the lead straight in traffic from the nominal
clear-of-clouds point to the offset approach MAP so
5−9−12
3. For runways less than 2,500 feet apart,
whenever the ceiling is less than 500 feet above the
MVA, wake vortex spacing between aircraft on
adjacent final approach courses, as described in Para
5−5−4, Minima, must be applied unless acceptable
mitigating techniques and operational procedures
have been documented and verified by an AFS safety
assessment and authorized by the Director, Operations-Headquarters, AJT-2. The wake turbulence
mitigation techniques employed will be based on
each airport’s specific runway geometry and
meteorological conditions and implemented through
local facility directives.
4. Issue all applicable wake turbulence
advisories.
Radar Arrivals
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 8260.49, Para 13.0, Wake Turbulence Requirements.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−4−6, Simultaneous ILS/MLS Approaches.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−20, Wake Turbulence Cautionary
Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−5−4, Minima.
h. Consideration should be given to known factors
that may in any way affect the safety of the instrument
approach phase of flight when conducting SOIA to
parallel runways. Factors include but are not limited
to wind direction/velocity, wind−shear alerts/reports,
severe weather activity, etc. Closely monitor weather
activity that could impact the final approach course.
Weather conditions in the vicinity of the final
approach course may dictate a change of the approach
in use.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−13, Radar Service Termination.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
5−9−10. SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT
APPROACHES TO WIDELY-SPACED
PARALLEL RUNWAYS WITHOUT FINAL
MONITORS
a. Simultaneous independent approaches to
widely-spaced parallel runways may only be
conducted where instrument approach charts specifically authorize simultaneous approaches.
b. Apply the following minimum separation when
conducting simultaneous independent approaches to
runway centerlines that are separated by more than
9,000 feet with a field elevation at or below 5,000 feet
MSL, or 9,200 feet between runway centerlines with
a field elevation above 5,000 feet MSL:
1. Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or
a minimum of 3 miles radar separation between
aircraft during turn-on to parallel final approach.
2. Provide the minimum applicable radar
separation between aircraft on the same final
approach course.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, para 5-5-4, Minima.
c. The following conditions are required when
applying the minimum separation on widely−spaced
parallel courses allowed in subpara b:
1. Straight-in landings will be made.
2. The approach system, radar, and appropriate
frequencies are operating normally.
Radar Arrivals
JO 7110.65W
3. Inform aircraft that simultaneous approaches
are in use prior to aircraft departing an outer fix. This
information may be provided through the ATIS.
4. Clear an aircraft to descend to the appropriate
glideslope/glidepath intercept altitude soon enough
to provide a period of level flight to dissipate excess
speed. Provide at least 1 mile of straight flight prior
to the final approach course intercept.
NOTE−
Not applicable to approaches with RF legs.
5. Separate final and local controllers are
required for each final. Aircraft on the final must be
on the appropriate final controller frequency for that
runway.
6. Transfer of communication and monitor
responsibility to the tower controller’s frequency
must be specified in a facility directive and/or Letter
of Agreement.
d. The following procedures must be used by the
final approach controllers:
NOTE−
There is no requirement for establishment of a NTZ.
1. Instruct the aircraft to return to the correct
final approach course when that aircraft is observed
to overshoot the turn-on or continue on a track which
deviates from the final approach course in the
direction of the adjacent approach course.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU HAVE CROSSED THE FINAL APPROACH
COURSE. TURN (left/right) IMMEDIATELY AND
RETURN TO THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE,
or
TURN (left/right) AND RETURN TO THE FINAL
APPROACH COURSE.
2. Instruct aircraft on adjacent final approach
course to alter course to avoid the deviating aircraft
when an aircraft is observed, or in the controller’s
judgment, has deviated from the final approach
course in the direction of the adjacent approach
course.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC ALERT, (call sign), TURN (left/right)
IMMEDIATELY HEADING (degrees), CLIMB AND
MAINTAIN (altitude)
3. Do not inform the aircraft when radar
monitoring is terminated.
e. Consideration should be given to known factors
that may in any way affect the safety of the instrument
5−9−13
JO 7110.65W
approach phase of flight when simultaneous
approaches are being conducted to parallel runways.
Factors include, but are not limited to, wind
direction/velocity, wind-shear alerts/reports, severe
weather activity, etc. Closely monitor weather
activity that could impact the final approach course.
Weather conditions in the vicinity of the final
approach course may dictate a change of approach in
use.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-9-2, Final Approach Course Interception.
5−9−11. TRANSITIONAL PROCEDURE
When aircraft are conducting simultaneous
5−9−14
12/10/15
dependent, independent, or any approaches allowing
for reduced separation, and one of the aircraft
executes a go-around or has its approach clearance
terminated and prior to losing the approved reduced
separation, control instructions must be expeditiously
issued to increase separation between the applicable
aircraft. These control instructions must establish
approved separation (for example, altitude and/or
lateral separation via divergence). In addition, wake
turbulence cautionary advisories must be issued in
accordance with FAAO JO 7110.65, Paragraph
2-1-20, Wake Turbulence Cautionary Advisories.
Radar Arrivals
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 10. Radar Approaches− Terminal
5−10−1. APPLICATION
a. Provide radar approaches in accordance with
standard or special instrument approach procedures.
b. A radar approach may be given to any aircraft
upon request and may be offered to aircraft in distress
regardless of weather conditions or to expedite
traffic.
NOTE−
Acceptance of a radar approach by a pilot does not waive
the prescribed weather minima for the airport or for the
particular aircraft operator concerned. The pilot is
responsible for determining if the approach and landing
are authorized under the existing weather minima.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−2. APPROACH INFORMATION
a. Issue the following information to an aircraft
that will conduct a radar approach. Current approach
information contained in the ATIS broadcast may be
omitted if the pilot states the appropriate ATIS
broadcast code. All items listed below, except for
subpara 3 may be omitted after the first approach if
repeated approaches are made and no change has
occurred. Transmissions with aircraft in this phase of
the approach should occur approximately every
minute.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−7−10, Approach Information.
1. Altimeter setting.
2. If available, ceiling and visibility if the
ceiling at the airport of intended landing is reported
below 1,000 feet or below the highest circling
minimum, whichever is greater, or if the visibility is
less than 3 miles. Advise pilots when weather
information is available via the Automated Weather
Observing System (AWOS)/Automated Surface
Observing System (ASOS) and, if requested, issue
the appropriate frequency.
NOTE−
Automated weather observing systems may be set to
provide one minute updates. This one minute data may be
useful to the pilot for possible weather trends. Controllers
provide service based solely on official weather, i.e., hourly
and special observations.
Radar Approaches− Terminal
3. Issue any known changes classified as special
weather observations as soon as possible. Special
weather observations need not be issued after they are
included in the ATIS broadcast and the pilot states the
appropriate ATIS broadcast code.
4. Pertinent information on known airport
conditions if they are considered necessary to the safe
operation of the aircraft concerned.
5. Lost communication procedures as specified
in para 5−10−4, Lost Communications.
b. Before starting final approach:
NOTE−
1. ASR approach procedures may be prescribed for
specific runways, for an airport/heliport, and for
helicopters only to a “point-in-space,“ i.e., a MAP from
which a helicopter must be able to proceed to the landing
area by visual reference to a prescribed surface route.
2. Occasionally, helicopter PAR approaches are available
to runways where conventional PAR approaches have been
established. In those instances where the two PAR
approaches serve the same runway, the helicopter
approach will have a steeper glide slope and a lower
decision height. By the controllers designating the
approach to be flown, the helicopter pilot understands
which of the two approaches he/she has been vectored for
and which set of minima apply.
1. Inform the aircraft of the type of approach,
runway, airport, heliport, or other point, as
appropriate, to which the approach will be made.
Specify the airport name when the approach is to a
secondary airport.
PHRASEOLOGY−
THIS WILL BE A P−A−R/SURVEILLANCE APPROACH
TO:
RUNWAY (runway number),
or
(airport name) AIRPORT, RUNWAY (runway number),
or
(airport name) AIRPORT/HELIPORT.
THIS WILL BE A COPTER P−A−R APPROACH TO:
RUNWAY (runway number),
5−10−1
JO 7110.65W
or
(airport name) AIRPORT, RUNWAY (runway number),
or
(airport name) AIRPORT/HELIPORT.
2. For surveillance approaches, specify the
location of the MAP in relation to the runway/airport/
heliport.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MISSED APPROACH POINT IS (distance) MILE(S)
FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/HELIPORT,
or for a point-in-space approach,
A MISSED APPROACH POINT (distance) MILE(S)
(direction from landing area) OF (airport name)
AIRPORT/HELIPORT.
EXAMPLE−
Helicopter point-in-space approach:
“Army copter Zulu Two, this will be a surveillance
approach to a missed approach point, three point five miles
south of Creedon Heliport.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
c. Inform an aircraft making an approach to an
airport not served by a tower that no traffic or landing
runway information is available for that airport.
PHRASEOLOGY−
NO TRAFFIC OR LANDING RUNWAY INFORMATION
AVAILABLE FOR THE AIRPORT.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−7−2, Altimeter Setting Issuance Below
Lowest Usable FL.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
5−10−3. NO-GYRO APPROACH
When an aircraft will make a no-gyro surveillance or
a PAR approach:
a. Before issuing a vector, inform the aircraft of
the type of approach.
PHRASEOLOGY−
THIS WILL BE A NO-GYRO SURVEILLANCE/P−A−R
APPROACH.
b. Instruct the aircraft when to start and stop turn.
5−10−2
12/10/15
PHRASEOLOGY−
TURN LEFT/RIGHT. STOP TURN.
c. After turn on to final approach has been made
and prior to the aircraft reaching the approach gate,
instruct the aircraft to make half-standard rate turns.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAKE HALF-STANDARD RATE TURNS.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−4. LOST COMMUNICATIONS
When weather reports indicate that an aircraft will
likely encounter IFR weather conditions during the
approach, take the following action as soon as
possible after establishing radar identification and
radio communications (may be omitted after the first
approach when successive approaches are made and
the instructions remain the same):
NOTE−
Air traffic control facilities at U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force
installations are not required to transmit lost communications instructions to military aircraft. All military facilities
will issue specific lost communications instructions to civil
aircraft when required.
a. If lost communications instructions will require
the aircraft to fly on an unpublished route, issue an
appropriate altitude to the pilot. If the lost
communications instructions are the same for both
pattern and final, the pattern/vector controller must
issue both. Advise the pilot that if radio communications are lost for a specified time interval (not more
than 1 minute) on vector to final approach, 15 seconds
on a surveillance final approach, or 5 seconds on a
PAR final approach to:
1. Attempt contact on a secondary or a tower
frequency.
2. Proceed in accordance with visual flight rules
if possible.
3. Proceed with an approved nonradar
approach, or execute the specific lost communications procedure for the radar approach being used.
NOTE−
The approved procedures are those published on the FAA
Forms 8260 or applicable military document.
Radar Approaches− Terminal
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
IF NO TRANSMISSIONS ARE RECEIVED FOR (time
interval) IN THE PATTERN OR FIVE/FIFTEEN
SECONDS ON FINAL APPROACH, ATTEMPT
CONTACT ON (frequency), AND
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−2, Approach Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
if the possibility exists,
If radar contact is lost during an approach and the
aircraft has not started final approach, clear the
aircraft to an appropriate NAVAID/fix for an
instrument approach.
PROCEED VFR. IF UNABLE:
if approved,
PROCEED WITH (nonradar approach), MAINTAIN
(altitude) UNTIL ESTABLISHED ON/OVER FIX/
NAVAID/APPROACH PROCEDURE,
or
(alternative instructions).
PHRASEOLOGY−
USN. For ACLS operations using Mode I, IA, and II,
IF NO TRANSMISSIONS ARE RECEIVED FOR
FIVE SECONDS AFTER LOSS OF DATA LINK,
ATTEMPT CONTACT ON (frequency), AND
if the possibility exists,
PROCEED VFR. IF UNABLE:
if approved,
PROCEED WITH (nonradar approach), MAINTAIN
(altitude) UNTIL ESTABLISHED ON/OVER FIX/
NAVAID/APPROACH PROCEDURE,
or
(alternative instructions).
b. If the final approach lost communications
instructions are changed, differ from those for the
pattern, or are not issued by the pattern controller,
they must be issued by the final controller.
c. If the pilot states that he/she cannot accept a lost
communications procedure due to weather conditions or other reasons, request the pilot’s intention.
NOTE−
The pilot is responsible for determining the adequacy of
lost communications procedures with respect to aircraft
performance, equipment capability, or reported weather.
Radar Approaches− Terminal
5−10−5. RADAR CONTACT LOST
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−14, Final Approach Abnormalities.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−6. LANDING CHECK
USA/USN. Advise the pilot to perform landing
check while the aircraft is on downwind leg and in
time to complete it before turning base leg. If an
incomplete pattern is used, issue this before handoff
to the final controller for a PAR approach, or before
starting descent on final approach for surveillance
approach.
PHRASEOLOGY−
PERFORM LANDING CHECK.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−7. POSITION INFORMATION
Inform the aircraft of its position at least once before
starting final approach.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Number) MILES (direction) OF (airport name)
AIRPORT,
or
(number) MILES (direction) OF (airport name) AIRPORT
ON DOWNWIND/BASE LEG.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−8. FINAL CONTROLLER
CHANGEOVER
When instructing the aircraft to change frequency for
final approach guidance, include the name of the
facility.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTACT (name of facility) FINAL CONTROLLER ON
(frequency).
5−10−3
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−17, Radio Communications Transfer.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−4, Arrival Instructions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−9. COMMUNICATIONS CHECK
On initial contact with the final controller, ask the
aircraft for a communication check.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft call sign), (name of facility) FINAL
CONTROLLER. HOW DO YOU HEAR ME?
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−10. TRANSMISSION
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
12/10/15
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−12. LOW APPROACH AND TOUCHAND-GO
Before an aircraft which plans to execute a low
approach or touch-and-go begins final descent, issue
appropriate departure instructions to be followed
upon completion of the approach. Climb-out
instructions must include a specific heading and
altitude except when the aircraft will maintain VFR
and contact the tower.
PHRASEOLOGY−
AFTER COMPLETING LOW APPROACH/TOUCH AND
GO:
CLIMB AND MAINTAIN (altitude).
After contact has been established with the final
controller and while on the final approach course,
instruct the aircraft not to acknowledge further
transmissions.
TURN (right or left) HEADING (degrees)/FLY RUNWAY
HEADING,
PHRASEOLOGY−
DO NOT ACKNOWLEDGE FURTHER TRANSMISSIONS.
MAINTAIN VFR, CONTACT TOWER,
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−11. MISSED APPROACH
Before an aircraft starts final descent for a full stop
landing and weather reports indicate that any portion
of the final approach will be conducted in IFR
conditions, issue a specific missed approach
procedure approved for the radar approach being
conducted.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOUR MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE IS (missed
approach procedure).
NOTE−
1. The specific missed approach procedure is published on
FAA Form 8260−4 or applicable military document.
2. USAF. At locations where missed approach instructions are published in base flying regulations, controllers
need not issue missed approach instructions to locally
assigned/attached aircraft.
5−10−4
or
or
(other instructions as appropriate).
NOTE−
This may be omitted after the first approach if instructions
remain the same.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−13. TOWER CLEARANCE
a. When an aircraft is on final approach to an
airport served by a tower, obtain a clearance to land,
touch-and-go, or make low approach. Issue the
clearance and the surface wind to the aircraft.
b. If the clearance is not obtained or is canceled,
inform the aircraft and issue alternative instructions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TOWER CLEARANCE CANCELED/NOT RECEIVED
(alternative instructions).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
Radar Approaches− Terminal
12/10/15
5−10−14. FINAL APPROACH
ABNORMALITIES
Instruct the aircraft if runway environment not in
sight, execute a missed approach if previously given;
or climb to or maintain a specified altitude and fly a
specified course whenever the completion of a safe
approach is questionable because one or more of the
following conditions exists. The conditions in
subparas a, b, and c do not apply after the aircraft
passes decision height on a PAR approach.
EXAMPLE−
Typical reasons for issuing missed approach instructions:
“Radar contact lost.”
“Too high/low for safe approach.”
“Too far right/left for safe approach.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−7, Position Advisories.
a. Safety limits are exceeded or radical target
deviations are observed.
b. Position or identification of the aircraft is in
doubt.
c. Radar contact is lost or a malfunctioning radar
is suspected.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Reason) IF RUNWAY/APPROACH LIGHTS/RUNWAY
LIGHTS NOT IN SIGHT, EXECUTE MISSED
APPROACH/(alternative instructions).
NOTE−
If the pilot requests, approval may be granted to proceed
with the approach via ILS or another navigational
aid/approach aid.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−5, Radar Contact Lost.
d. Airport conditions or traffic preclude approach
completion.
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH/(alternative instructions), (reason).
Radar Approaches− Terminal
JO 7110.65W
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
5−10−15. MILITARY SINGLE FREQUENCY
APPROACHES
a. Utilize single frequency approach procedures
as contained in a letter of agreement.
b. Do not require a frequency change from aircraft
on a single frequency approach after the approach has
begun unless:
1. Landing or low approach has been
completed.
2. The aircraft is in visual flight rules (VFR)
conditions during daylight hours.
3. The pilot requests the frequency change.
4. An emergency situation exists.
5. The aircraft is cleared for a visual approach.
6. The pilot cancels instrument flight rules
(IFR).
c. Accomplish the following steps to complete
communications transfer on single frequency
approaches after completion of a handoff:
1. Transferring controller: Position transmitter
selectors to preclude further transmissions on the
special use frequencies.
2. Receiving controller: Position transmitter
and receiver selectors to enable communications on
the special use frequencies.
3. Do not require or expect the flight to check on
frequency unless an actual frequency change is
transmitted to the pilot.
5−10−5
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 11. Surveillance Approaches− Terminal
5−11−1. ALTITUDE INFORMATION
Provide recommended altitudes on final approach if
the pilot requests. If recommended altitudes are
requested, inform the pilot that recommended
altitudes which are at or above the published MDA
will be given for each mile on final.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−5−7, Recommended Altitudes for
Surveillance Approaches.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−11−5, Final Approach Guidance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RECOMMENDED ALTITUDES WILL BE PROVIDED
FOR EACH MILE ON FINAL TO MINIMUM DESCENT
ALTITUDE/CIRCLING MINIMUM DESCENT
ALTITUDE.
5−11−2. VISUAL REFERENCE REPORT
Aircraft may be requested to report the runway,
approach/runway lights, or airport in sight. Helicopters making a “point-in-space” approach may be
requested to report when able to proceed to the
landing area by visual reference to a prescribed
surface route.
PHRASEOLOGY−
REPORT (runway, approach/runway lights or airport) IN
SIGHT.
REPORT WHEN ABLE TO PROCEED VISUALLY TO
AIRPORT/HELIPORT.
5−11−3. DESCENT NOTIFICATION
a. Issue advance notice of where descent will
begin and issue the straight-in MDA prior to issuing
final descent for the approaches.
NOTE−
The point at which descent to the minimum descent altitude
is authorized is the final approach fix unless an altitude
limiting stepdown-fix is prescribed.
b. When it is determined that the surveillance
approach will terminate in a circle to land maneuver,
request the aircraft approach category from the pilot.
After receiving the aircraft approach category,
provide him/her with the applicable circling MDA
prior to issuing final descent for the approach.
Surveillance Approaches− Terminal
NOTE−
Pilots are normally expected to furnish the aircraft
approach category to the controller when it is determined
that the surveillance approach will terminate in a circle to
land maneuver. If this information is not voluntarily given,
solicit the aircraft approach category from the pilot, and
then issue him/her the applicable circling MDA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
PREPARE TO DESCEND IN (number) MILE(S).
for straight-in approaches,
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE (altitude).
for circling approaches,
REQUEST YOUR AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY.
(Upon receipt of aircraft approach category),
PUBLISHED CIRCLING MINIMUM DESCENT
ALTITUDE (altitude).
5−11−4. DESCENT INSTRUCTIONS
When an aircraft reaches the descent point, issue one
of the following as appropriate:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−10, Elevation Failure.
a. Unless a descent restriction exists, advise the
aircraft to descend to the MDA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Number) MILES FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/
HELIPORT. DESCEND TO YOUR MINIMUM DESCENT
ALTITUDE.
b. When a descent restriction exists, specify the
prescribed restriction altitude. When the aircraft has
passed the altitude limiting point, advise to continue
descent to MDA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Number) MILES FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/
HELIPORT. DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (restriction
altitude).
DESCEND TO YOUR MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.
5−11−5. FINAL APPROACH GUIDANCE
a. Issue course guidance, inform the aircraft when
it is on course, and frequently inform the aircraft of
any deviation from course. Transmissions with
aircraft on surveillance final approach should occur
approximately every 15 seconds.
5−11−1
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
HEADING (heading),
ON COURSE,
or
SLIGHTLY/WELL LEFT/RIGHT OF COURSE.
NOTE−
Controllers should not key the radio transmitter
continuously during radar approaches to preclude a
lengthy communications block. The decision on how often
transmitters are unkeyed is the controller’s prerogative.
b. Issue trend information, as required, to indicate
target position with respect to the extended runway
centerline and to describe the target movement as
appropriate corrections are issued. Trend information
may be modified by the terms “RAPIDLY” and
“SLOWLY” as appropriate.
EXAMPLE−
“Going left/right of course.”
“Left/right of course and holding/correcting.”
c. Inform the aircraft of its distance from the
runway, airport/heliport, or MAP, as appropriate,
each mile on final.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Number) MILE(S) FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/
HELIPORT OR MISSED APPROACH POINT.
d. Recommended altitudes must be furnished, if
requested, in accordance with para 5−11−1, Altitude
Information.
PHRASEOLOGY−
If requested,
ALTITUDE SHOULD BE (altitude).
5−11−6. APPROACH GUIDANCE
TERMINATION
a. Discontinue surveillance approach guidance
when:
1. Requested by the pilot.
2. In your opinion, continuation of a safe
approach to the MAP is questionable.
3. The aircraft is over the MAP.
b. Surveillance approach guidance may be
discontinued when the pilot reports the runway or
approach/runway lights in sight or if a “point-
5−11−2
12/10/15
in-space” approach, he/she reports able to proceed to
the landing area by visual reference to a prescribed
surface route.
c. When approach guidance is discontinued in
accordance with subpara a and the aircraft has
reported the runway or approach/runway lights in
sight, advise the aircraft of its position and to proceed
visually.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Distance) MILE(S) FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/
HELIPORT,
or
OVER MISSED APPROACH POINT.
PROCEED VISUALLY (additional instructions/clearance
as required.)
d. When approach guidance is discontinued in
accordance with subpara a above and the aircraft has
not reported the runway or approach/runway lights in
sight, advise the aircraft of its position and to execute
a missed approach unless the runway or approach/
runway lights are in sight or, if a “point-in-space”
approach, unless able to proceed visually.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Distance) MILE(S) FROM RUNWAY,
or
OVER MISSED APPROACH POINT.
IF RUNWAY,
or
APPROACH/RUNWAY LIGHTS NOT IN SIGHT,
EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH/(missed approach
instructions). (Additional instructions/clearance, as
required.)
(Distance and direction) FROM AIRPORT/HELIPORT/
MISSED APPROACH POINT.
IF UNABLE TO PROCEED VISUALLY, EXECUTE
MISSED APPROACH. (Additional instructions/clearance, if required.)
NOTE−
Terminal instrument approach procedures and flight
inspection criteria require establishment of a MAP for each
procedure including the point to which satisfactory radar
guidance can be provided.
Surveillance Approaches− Terminal
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 12. PAR Approaches− Terminal
5−12−1. GLIDEPATH NOTIFICATION
Inform the aircraft when it is approaching glidepath
(approximately 10 to 30 seconds before final
descent).
PHRASEOLOGY−
APPROACHING GLIDEPATH.
b. Issue trend information as required, to indicate
target position with respect to the azimuth and
elevation cursors and to describe target movement as
appropriate corrections are issued. Trend information
may be modified by the terms “RAPIDLY” or
“SLOWLY,” as appropriate.
Provide the DH to any pilot who requests it.
EXAMPLE−
“Going above/below glidepath.”
“Going right/left of course.”
“Above/below glidepath and coming down/up.”
“Above/below glidepath and holding.”
“Left/right of course and holding/correcting.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
DECISION HEIGHT (number of feet).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−7, Position Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−13−3, Monitor Information.
5−12−3. DESCENT INSTRUCTION
5−12−5. DISTANCE FROM TOUCHDOWN
When an aircraft reaches the point where final
descent is to start, instruct it to begin descent.
Inform the aircraft of its distance from touchdown at
least once each mile on final approach.
PHRASEOLOGY−
BEGIN DESCENT.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Number of miles) MILES FROM TOUCHDOWN.
5−12−4. GLIDEPATH AND COURSE
INFORMATION
5−12−6. DECISION HEIGHT
5−12−2. DECISION HEIGHT (DH)
NOTIFICATION
a. Issue course guidance and inform the aircraft
when it is on glidepath and on course, and frequently
inform the aircraft of any deviation from glidepath or
course. Transmissions with aircraft on precision final
approach should occur approximately every
5 seconds.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HEADING (heading).
ON GLIDEPATH.
ON COURSE,
or
SLIGHTLY/WELL ABOVE/BELOW GLIDEPATH.
SLIGHTLY/WELL LEFT/RIGHT OF COURSE.
NOTE−
Controllers should not key the radio transmitter
continuously during radar approaches to preclude a
lengthy communications block. The decision on how often
transmitters are unkeyed is the controller’s prerogative.
PAR Approaches− Terminal
Inform the aircraft when it reaches the published
decision height.
PHRASEOLOGY−
AT DECISION HEIGHT.
5−12−7. POSITION ADVISORIES
a. Continue to provide glidepath and course
information prescribed in para 5−12−4, Glidepath
and Course Information, subparas a and b, until the
aircraft passes over threshold.
NOTE−
Glidepath and course information provided below decision
height is advisory only. 14 CFR Section 91.175 outlines
pilot responsibilities for descent below decision height.
b. Inform the aircraft when it is passing over the
approach lights.
PHRASEOLOGY−
OVER APPROACH LIGHTS.
c. Inform the aircraft when it is passing over the
landing threshold and inform it of its position with
respect to the final approach course.
5−12−1
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
OVER LANDING THRESHOLD, (position with respect to
course).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−14, Final Approach Abnormalities.
5−12−8. APPROACH GUIDANCE
TERMINATION
a. Discontinue precision approach guidance
when:
1. Requested by the pilot.
2. In your opinion, continuation of a safe
approach to the landing threshold is questionable.
3. The aircraft passes over landing threshold.
4. The pilot reports the runway/approach lights
in sight and requests to or advises that he/she will
proceed visually.
NOTE−
A pilot’s report of “runway in sight” or “visual” is not a
request to proceed visually.
b. When precision approach guidance is discontinued in accordance with subpara a, advise the
aircraft of its position and to proceed visually.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Distance) MILE(S) FROM TOUCHDOWN, PROCEED
VISUALLY (additional instructions/clearance as
required).
c. After a pilot has reported the runway/approach
lights in sight and requested to or advised that he/she
will proceed visually, and has been instructed to
proceed visually, all PAR approach procedures must
be discontinued.
d. Continue to monitor final approach and
frequency. Pilots must remain on final controller’s
frequency until touchdown or otherwise instructed.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−14, Final Approach Abnormalities.
5−12−9. COMMUNICATION TRANSFER
12/10/15
NOTE−
Communications transfer instructions should be delayed
slightly until the aircraft is on the landing roll-out to
preclude diversion of the pilot’s attention during transition
and touchdown.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−17, Radio Communications Transfer.
5−12−10. ELEVATION FAILURE
a. If the elevation portion of PAR equipment fails
during a precision approach:
1. Discontinue PAR instructions and tell the
aircraft to take over visually or if unable, to execute
a missed approach. If the aircraft executes a missed
approach, apply subpara 2 below.
PHRASEOLOGY−
NO GLIDEPATH INFORMATION AVAILABLE. IF
RUNWAY, APPROACH/RUNWAY LIGHTS, NOT IN
SIGHT, EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH/(alternative
instructions).
2. If a surveillance approach, ASR or PAR
without glide slope, is established for the same
runway, inform the aircraft that a surveillance
approach can be given. Use ASR or the azimuth
portion of the PAR to conduct the approach and apply
Chapter 5, Radar, Section 11, Surveillance
Approaches− Terminal. When the PAR azimuth is
used, inform the pilot that mileage information will
be from touchdown, and at those runways where
specific minima have been established for PAR
without glideslope, inform the pilot that the PAR
azimuth will be used for the approach.
EXAMPLE−
1. Approach information when PAR azimuth used:
“This will be a surveillance approach to runway three six.
Mileages will be from touchdown.”
or
“This will be a surveillance approach to runway three six
using P−A−R azimuth. Mileages will be from touchdown.”
2. Descent Instructions:
“Five miles from touchdown, descend to your minimum
descent altitude/minimum altitude.”
Issue communications transfer instructions.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−10−2, Approach Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−11−4, Descent Instructions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTACT (terminal control function) (frequency, if
required) AFTER LANDING.
b. If the elevation portion of the PAR equipment is
inoperative before starting a precision approach,
apply subpara a2.
5−12−2
PAR Approaches− Terminal
12/10/15
5−12−11. SURVEILLANCE UNUSABLE
PAR approaches may be conducted when the ASR is
unusable provided a nonradar instrument approach
will position the aircraft over a navigational aid or
DME fix within the precision radar coverage, or an
adjacent radar facility can provide a direct radar
handoff to the PAR controller.
PAR Approaches− Terminal
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
The display of the NAVAID or DME fix in accordance with
para 5−3−2, Primary Radar Identification Methods, is not
required provided the NAVAID or DME fix can be
correlated on a PAR scope.
5−12−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 13. Use of PAR for Approach
Monitoring− Terminal
5−13−1. MONITOR ON PAR EQUIPMENT
USAF not applicable. Aircraft conducting precision
or nonprecision approaches must be monitored by
PAR equipment if the PAR final approach course
coincides with the NAVAID final approach course
from the final approach fix to the runway and one of
the following conditions exists:
NOTE−
1. The provisions of this section do not apply to monitoring
simultaneous ILS, MLS, or ILS and MLS approaches.
2. This procedure is used in PAR facilities operated by the
FAA and other military services at joint-use civil/military
locations and military installations during the operational
hours of the PAR.
a. The reported weather is below basic VFR
minima.
b. USA Not applicable. At night.
c. Upon request of the pilot.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−7, Simultaneous Independent ILS/MLS
Approaches− Dual & Triple.
5−13−2. MONITOR AVAILABILITY
a. Inform the aircraft of the frequency on which
monitoring information will be transmitted if it will
not be the same as the communication frequency used
for the approach.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RADAR MONITORING ON LOCALIZER VOICE
(frequency),
and if applicable,
CONTACT (terminal control function) (frequency, if
required) AFTER LANDING.
b. If the approach is not monitored, inform the
aircraft that radar monitoring is not available.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RADAR MONITORING NOT AVAILABLE.
c. If conditions prevent continued monitor after
the aircraft is on final approach, advise the pilot. State
the reason and issue alternate procedures as
appropriate.
Use of PAR for Approach Monitoring− Terminal
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Reason), RADAR MONITORING NOT AVAILABLE,
(alternative instructions).
NOTE−
Approach monitoring is a vital service, but during the
approach, the controller acts primarily as a safety observer
and does not actually guide the aircraft. Loss of the radar
monitoring capability (and thus availability) is no reason
to terminate an otherwise good instrument approach.
Advise the pilot that radar contact has been lost (or other
reason as appropriate), that radar monitoring is not
available, and of actions for the pilot to take in either
proceeding with or breaking off the approach; i.e., contact
tower, remain on PAR frequency, etc.
5−13−3. MONITOR INFORMATION
When approaches are monitored, take the following
action:
a. Advise the pilot executing a nonprecision
approach that glidepath advisories are not provided.
Do this prior to the pilot beginning the final descent.
PHRASEOLOGY−
GLIDEPATH ADVISORIES WILL NOT BE PROVIDED.
b. Inform the aircraft when passing the final
approach fix (nonprecision approaches) or when
passing the outer marker or the fix used in lieu of the
outer marker (precision approaches).
PHRASEOLOGY−
PASSING (FIX).
c. Advise the pilot of glidepath trend information
(precision approaches) and course trend information
to indicate target position and movement with respect
to the elevation or azimuth cursor when the aircraft
target corresponds to a position of well above/below
the glidepath or well left/right of course and
whenever the aircraft exceeds the radar safety limits.
Repeat if no correction is observed.
EXAMPLE−
Course trend information:
“(Ident), well right/left of P−A−R course, drifting further
right/left.”
Glidepath trend information:
“(Ident), well above/below P−A−R glidepath.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−12−4, Glidepath and Course Information.
5−13−1
JO 7110.65W
d. If, after repeated advisories, the aircraft is
observed proceeding outside the safety limits or a
radical target deviation is observed, advise the
aircraft if unable to proceed visually, to execute a
missed approach. Issue a specific altitude and
heading if a procedure other than the published
missed approach is to be executed.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Position with respect to course or glidepath). IF NOT
VISUAL, ADVISE YOU EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH
(alternative instructions).
5−13−2
12/10/15
e. Provide monitor information until the aircraft is
over the landing threshold or commences a circling
approach.
f. Provide azimuth monitoring only at locations
where the MLS glidepath and the PAR glidepath are
not coincidental.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−13, Radar Service Termination.
Use of PAR for Approach Monitoring− Terminal
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 14. Automation− En Route
5−14−1. CONFLICT ALERT (CA) AND
MODE C INTRUDER (MCI) ALERT
a. When a CA or MCI alert is displayed, evaluate
the reason for the alert without delay and take
appropriate action.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−6, Safety Alert.
b. If another controller is involved in the alert,
initiate coordination to ensure an effective course of
action. Coordination is not required when immediate
action is dictated.
c. Suppressing/Inhibiting CA/MCI alert.
1. The controller may suppress the display of a
CA/MCI alert from a control position with the
application of one of the following suppress/inhibit
computer functions:
(a) The Conflict Suppress (CO) function may
be used to suppress the CA/MCI display between
specific aircraft for a specific alert.
NOTE−
See NAS−MD−678 for the EARTS conflict suppress
message.
(b) The Group Suppression (SG) function
must be applied exclusively to inhibit the displaying
of alerts among military aircraft engaged in special
military operations where standard en route separation criteria does not apply.
NOTE−
Special military operations where the SG function would
typically apply involve those activities where military
aircraft routinely operate in proximities to each other that
are less than standard en route separation criteria; i.e., air
refueling operations, ADC practice intercept operations,
etc.
2. The computer entry of a message suppressing
a CA/MCI alert constitutes acknowledgment for the
alert and signifies that appropriate action has or will
be taken.
Automation− En Route
3. The CA/MCI alert may not be suppressed or
inhibited at or for another control position without
being coordinated.
5−14−2. EN ROUTE MINIMUM SAFE
ALTITUDE WARNING (E-MSAW)
a. When an E-MSAW alert is displayed, immediately analyze the situation and take the appropriate
action to resolve the alert.
NOTE−
Caution should be exercised when issuing a clearance to an
aircraft in reaction to an E-MSAW alert to ensure that
adjacent MIA areas are not a factor.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−6, Safety Alert.
b. The controller may suppress the display of an
E-MSAW alert from his/her control position with the
application of one of the following suppress/inhibit
computer functions:
1. The specific alert suppression message may
be used to inhibit the E-MSAW alerting display on a
single flight for a specific alert.
2. The indefinite alert suppression message
must be used exclusively to inhibit the display of
E-MSAW alerts on aircraft known to be flying at an
altitude that will activate the alert feature of one or
more MIA areas within an ARTCC.
NOTE−
1. The indefinite alert suppression message will remain in
effect for the duration of the referenced flight’s active status
within the ARTCC unless modified by controller action.
2. The indefinite alert suppression message would
typically apply to military flights with clearance to fly
low-level type routes that routinely require altitudes below
established minimum IFR altitudes.
c. The computer entry of a message suppressing or
inhibiting E-MSAW alerts constitutes acknowledgment for the alert and indicates that appropriate action
has or will be taken to resolve the situation.
5−14−1
JO 7110.65W
5−14−3. COMPUTER ENTRY OF FLIGHT
PLAN INFORMATION
a. Altitude
1. The altitude field(s) of the data block must
always reflect the current status of the aircraft unless
otherwise specified in an appropriate facility
directive.
NOTE−
As it applies to altitude, the current status of the aircraft,
for the transferring controller, indicates the clearance
given by air traffic control, directly to and read back by an
aircraft. This ensures the aircraft has received the
clearance and is expected to comply with the instructions.
The current status of the aircraft, for the receiving
controller, indicates the specific verbally coordinated
altitude, if that differs from the altitude coordinated by
automated means.
2. Assigned and Interim altitude information
must not be modified outside of the controller’s area
of jurisdiction unless verbally coordinated or
specified in a Letter of Agreement or Facility
Directive.
12/10/15
coordinated or specified in a Letter of Agreement or
Facility Directive.
5−14−4. ENTRY OF REPORTED ALTITUDE
Whenever Mode C altitude information is either not
available or is unreliable, enter reported altitudes into
the computer as follows:
NOTE−
Altitude updates are required to assure maximum accuracy
in applying slant range correction formulas.
a. When an aircraft reaches the assigned altitude.
b. When an aircraft at an assigned altitude is issued
a clearance to climb or descend.
c. A minimum of each 10,000 feet during climb to
or descent from FL 180 and above.
5−14−5. SELECTED ALTITUDE LIMITS
3. Whenever an aircraft is cleared to maintain an
altitude different from that in the flight plan database,
enter into the computer one of the following:
The display of Mode C targets and limited data blocks
is necessary for application of Merging Target
Procedures. Sectors must ensure the display of
Mode C targets and data blocks by entering
appropriate altitude limits and display filters to
include, as a minimum, the altitude stratum of the
sector plus:
(a) The new assigned altitude if the aircraft
will (climb or descend to and) maintain the new
altitude, or
a. 1,200 feet above the highest and below the
lowest altitude or flight level of the sector where
1,000 feet vertical separation is applicable; and
(b) An interim altitude if the aircraft will
(climb or descend to and) maintain the new altitude
for a short period of time and subsequently be
recleared to the altitude in the flight plan database or
a new altitude or a new interim altitude, or
b. 2,200 feet above the highest and below the
lowest flight level of the sector where 2,000 feet
vertical separation is applicable.
(c) A Local Interim Altitude (LIA), entered
by the transferring controller when the assigned
altitude differs from the coordinated altitude unless
verbally coordinated or specified in a Letter of
Agreement or Facility Directive.
NOTE−
A facility directive may be published, in accordance with
JO 7210.3, Paragraph 8-2-7, Waiver to Interim Altitude
Requirements, deleting the interim altitude computer entry
requirements of subpara 3(b).
b. Flight Plan Route Data
This information must not be modified outside of the
controller’s area of jurisdiction unless verbally
5−14−2
NOTE−
1. The data block, for purposes of this paragraph, must
contain the Mode C altitude and call sign or beacon code
at a minimum.
2. Exception to these requirements may be authorized for
specific altitudes in certain ARTCC sectors if defined in
appropriate facility directives and approved by the
En Route and Oceanic Operations Area Director.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−2, Alignment Accuracy Check.
5−14−6. SECTOR ELIGIBILITY
The use of the OK function is allowed to override
sector eligibility only when one of the following
conditions is met:
a. Prior coordination is effected.
Automation− En Route
12/10/15
b. The flight is within the control jurisdiction of
the sector.
5−14−7. COAST TRACKS
Do not use coast tracks in the application of either
radar or nonradar separation criteria.
5−14−8. CONTROLLER INITIATED COAST
TRACKS
a. Initiate coast tracks only in Flight Plan Aided
Tracking (FLAT) mode, except “free” coast tracking
may be used as a reminder that aircraft without
corresponding computer-stored flight plan information are under your control.
NOTE−
1. To ensure tracks are started in FLAT mode, perform a
start track function at the aircraft’s most current reported
position, then immediately “force” the track into coast
tracking by performing another start function with “CT”
option in field 64. Making amendments to the stored route
with trackball entry when the aircraft is rerouted, and
repositioning the data block to coincide with the aircraft’s
position reports are methods of maintaining a coast track
in FLAT mode.
2. EBUS does not have the capability to initiate coast
tracks.
b. Prior to initiating a coast track, ensure that a
departure message or progress report corresponding
with the aircraft’s current position is entered into the
computer.
c. As soon as practicable after the aircraft is in
radar surveillance, initiate action to cause radar
tracking to begin on the aircraft.
5−14−9. ERAM COMPUTER ENTRY OF
HOLD INFORMATION
a. When an aircraft is issued holding instructions,
the delay is ATC initiated, and the EFC is other than
“no delay expected:”
Automation− En Route
JO 7110.65W
1. Enter a hold message.
2. Maintain a paired track.
3. Enter an EFC time via a hold message, the
Hold Data Menu, or the Hold View.
4. Enter non-published holding instructions via
a hold message or the Hold Data Menu.
NOTE−
The ERAM hold message allows automatic calculation and
reporting of aggregate delays.
b. Unless otherwise specified in a facility
directive, verbally coordinate non-published holding
instructions when handing off an aircraft in hold
status to another ERAM sector.
c. An EFC time entered into the Hold Data Menu,
Hold View, or the hold message constitutes
coordination of the EFC between ERAM sectors.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 8-2-9, ERAM Hold Information Facility
Directive Requirements
5−14−10. ERAM VISUAL INDICATOR OF
SPECIAL ACTIVITY AIRSPACE (SAA)
STATUS
Sector controllers shall ensure the situation display
accurately reflects the status of all SAAs that impact
their area of control responsibility. When “SAA
DOWN” is displayed in the Outage View, manually
create visual indicators on the situation display to
reflect changes to airspace status.
NOTE−
The “SAA DOWN” message in the Outage View means that
SAA status is no longer being updated. The status of each
SAA at the time of the failure, whether “on” or “off”, will
continue to be displayed. Status changes will not be
automatically updated on the display until the outage is
resolved.
5−14−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 15. Common Automated Radar
Terminal Systems (CARTS) & Standard
Terminal Automation Replacement System
(STARS)−Terminal
5−15−1. APPLICATION
CARTS/STARS may be used for identifying aircraft
assigned a discrete beacon code, maintaining identity
of targets, and performing handoffs of these targets
between controllers. All procedures for the terminal
domain related to air traffic control services using
CARTS or STARS apply to the FUSION target.
5−15−2. RESPONSIBILITY
This equipment does not relieve the controller of the
responsibility to ensure proper identification, maintenance of identity, handoff of the correct target
associated with the alphanumeric data, and separation of aircraft.
5−15−3. FUNCTIONAL USE
In addition to other uses specified herein, terminal
automation may be used for the following functions:
a. Tracking.
b. Tagging.
c. Handoff.
d. Altitude information.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−2−23, Altitude Filters.
e. Coordination.
f. Ground speed.
g. Identification.
a. Inform all appropriate positions before terminating or reinstating use of the terminal automation
system at a control position. When terminating the
use of terminal automation systems, all pertinent
flight data of that position must be transferred or
terminated.
b. Inform other interfaced facilities of scheduled
and unscheduled shutdowns.
c. Initiate a track/tag on all aircraft to the
maximum extent possible. As a minimum, aircraft
identification should be entered, and automated
handoff functions should be used.
d. Assigned altitude, if displayed, must be kept
current at all times. Climb and descent arrows, where
available, must be used to indicate other than level
flight.
e. When operating in FUSION mode, the assigned
or pilot reported altitude must be displayed and kept
current when the aircraft is in level flight.
f. The automatic altitude readout of an aircraft
under another controller’s jurisdiction may be used
for vertical separation purposes without verbal
coordination provided:
1. Operation is conducted using single-site
radar coverage or when operating in FUSION mode.
2. Prearranged coordination procedures are
contained in a facility directive in accordance with
para 5−4−10, Prearranged Coordination, and
FAAO 7210.3, para 3−7−7, Prearranged Coordination.
5−15−4. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
3. Do not use Mode C to effect vertical
separation within a Mosaic radar configuration.
Use terminal automation systems as follows:
5−15−5. INFORMATION DISPLAYED
NOTE−
Locally developed procedures, operating instructions, and
training material are required because of differences in
equipment capability. Such locally developed procedures
must be supplemental to those contained in this section and
must be designed to make maximum use of the ARTS
equipment.
a. Two-letter ICAO designators or three-letter
designators, as appropriate, must be used unless
program limitations dictate the use of a single letter
alpha prefix.
b. Use of the inhibit/select functions to remove
displayed information no longer required must be in
Common Automated Radar Terminal Systems (CARTS) & Standard Terminal Automation
Replacement System (STARS)−Terminal
5−15−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
accordance with local directives, which should
ensure maximum required use of the equipment.
alert and signifies that appropriate action has or will
be taken.
c. Information displayed must be in accordance
with national orders and specified in local directives.
4. CA/MCI alert may not be suppressed or
inhibited at or for another control position without
being coordinated.
5−15−6. CA/MCI
a. When a CA or MCI alert is displayed, evaluate
the reason for the alert without delay and take
appropriate action.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−6, Safety Alert.
b. If another controller is involved in the alert,
initiate coordination to ensure an effective course of
action. Coordination is not required when immediate
action is dictated.
c. Suppressing/Inhibiting CA/MCI alert.
1. The suppress function may be used to
suppress the display of a specific CA/MCI alert.
2. The inhibit function must only be used to
inhibit the display of CA for aircraft routinely
engaged in operations where approved separation
criteria do not apply.
NOTE−
Examples of operations where approved separation
criteria do not apply are ADC practice intercept operations
and air shows.
3. Computer entry of a message suppressing a
CA/MCI alert constitutes acknowledgment for the
5−15−2
5−15−7. INHIBITING MINIMUM SAFE
ALTITUDE WARNING (MSAW)
a. Inhibit MSAW processing of VFR aircraft and
aircraft that cancel instrument flight rules (IFR) flight
plans unless the pilot specifically requests otherwise.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−2−7, VFR Aircraft in Weather Difficulty.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−2−8, Radar Assistance to VFR Aircraft in
Weather Difficulty.
b. A low altitude alert may be suppressed from the
control position. Computer entry of the suppress
message constitutes an acknowledgment for the alert
and indicates that appropriate action has or will be
taken.
5−15−8. TRACK SUSPEND FUNCTION
Use the track suspend function only when data block
overlap in holding patterns or in proximity of the final
approach create an unworkable situation. If necessary
to suspend tracks, those which are not displaying
automatic altitude readouts must be suspended. If the
condition still exists, those displaying automatic
altitude readouts may then be suspended.
Common Automated Radar Terminal Systems (CARTS) & Standard Terminal Automation
Replacement System (STARS)−Terminal
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 6. Nonradar
Section 1. General
6−1−1. DISTANCE
FIG 6−1−1
Adjacent Airport Operation −− Arrival
Use mileage−based (DME and/or ATD) procedures and
minima only when direct pilot/controller communications are maintained.
6−1−2. NONRECEIPT OF POSITION
REPORT
When a position report affecting separation is not
received, take action to obtain the report no later than
5 minutes after the aircraft was estimated over the fix.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−7, IFR Military Training Routes.
FIG 6−1−2
Adjacent Airport Operation −− Departure
6−1−3. DUPLICATE POSITION REPORTS
Do not require an aircraft to make the same position
report to more than one facility.
6−1−4. ADJACENT AIRPORT OPERATION
TERMINAL
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
The ATC facility having control jurisdiction at
adjacent airports must separate arriving or departing
IFR aircraft on a course that will cross the flight path
of an aircraft requiring wake turbulence separation in
accordance with the following:
a. Heavy, large, or small behind super − 3 minutes.
b. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 2
minutes.
c. Small behind B757 - 2 minutes.
General
6−1−5. ARRIVAL MINIMA
TERMINAL
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
a. Separate IFR aircraft landing behind an arriving
aircraft to the same runway:
1. Behind super:
(a) Heavy or large − 3 minutes.
(b) Small − 4 minutes.
2. Behind heavy:
(a) Heavy or large − 2 minutes.
(b) Small − 3 minutes.
3. Small behind B757 − 3 minutes.
b. Separate IFR aircraft landing behind an arriving
aircraft to a parallel runway separated by less than
6−1−1
JO 7110.65W
2,500 feet, or a crossing runway if projected flight
paths will cross:
1. Heavy, large, or small behind super − 3
minutes.
12/10/15
FIG 6−1−3
Arrival Minima Landing Behind an Arriving
Aircraft Requiring Wake Turbulence Separation
2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy − 2
minutes.
3. Small behind B757 − 2 minutes.
6−1−2
General
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Initial Separation of Successive
Departing Aircraft
6−2−1. MINIMA ON DIVERGING COURSES
Separate aircraft that will fly courses diverging by
45 degrees or more after departing the same or
adjacent airports by use of one of the following
minima:
2. Within 5 minutes after takeoff− 2 minutes
until courses diverge. (See FIG 6−2−2.)
FIG 6−2−2
Minima on Diverging Courses
NOTE−
1. Consider known aircraft performance characteristics
when applying initial separation to successive departing
aircraft.
2. When one or both of the departure surfaces is a helipad,
use the takeoff course of the helicopter as a reference,
comparable to the centerline of a runway and the helipad
center as the threshold.
a. When aircraft will fly diverging courses:
1. Immediately after takeoff − 1 minute until
courses diverge. (See FIG 6−2−1.)
FIG 6−2−1
3. Within 13 miles DME/ATD after takeoff −
3 miles until courses diverge. (See FIG 6−2−3.)
Minima on Diverging Courses
FIG 6−2−3
Minima on Diverging Courses
Initial Separation of Successive Departing Aircraft
6−2−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
b. TERMINAL. Between aircraft departing in the
same direction from different runways whose
centerlines are parallel and separated by at least
3,500 feet, authorize simultaneous takeoffs when the
aircraft will fly diverging courses immediately after
takeoff. (See FIG 6−2−4.)
FIG 6−2−5
Minima on Diverging Courses
FIG 6−2−4
Minima on Diverging Courses
2. Intersecting runways. Authorize takeoff of a
succeeding aircraft when the preceding aircraft has
passed the point of runway intersection, and
(a) The runways diverge by 30 degrees or
more. (See FIG 6−2−6.)
c. TERMINAL. Between aircraft that will fly
diverging courses immediately after takeoff from
diverging runways: (See FIG 6−2−5.)
FIG 6−2−6
Minima on Diverging Courses
1. Nonintersecting runways. Authorize simultaneous takeoffs when either of the following
conditions exist:
more.
(a) The runways diverge by 30 degrees or
(b) The distance between runway centerlines
at and beyond the points where takeoffs begin is at
least:
(1) 2,000 feet and the runways diverge by
15 to 29 degrees inclusive.
(2) 3,500 feet and the runways diverge by
less than 15 degrees.
6−2−2
Initial Separation of Successive Departing Aircraft
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
(b) The runways diverge by 15 to 29 degrees
inclusive and the preceding aircraft has commenced
a turn. (See FIG 6−2−7.)
FIG 6−2−7
10,000 feet or below or outside of 10 miles from the
DME NAVAID. (See FIG 6−2−8 and FIG 6−2−9.)
FIG 6−2−8
Minima on Same Course
Minima on Diverging Courses
FIG 6−2−9
Minima on Same Course
6−2−2. MINIMA ON SAME COURSE
Separate aircraft that will fly the same course when
the following aircraft will climb through the altitude
assigned to the leading aircraft by using a minimum
of 3 minutes until the following aircraft passes
through the assigned altitude of the leading aircraft;
or 5 miles between DME equipped aircraft; RNAV
equipped aircraft using ATD; and between DME and
ATD aircraft provided the DME aircraft is either
Initial Separation of Successive Departing Aircraft
6−2−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 3. Initial Separation of Departing
and Arriving Aircraft
6−3−1. SEPARATION MINIMA
a. Separate a departing aircraft from an arriving
aircraft making an instrument approach to the same
airport by using one of the following minima until
vertical or lateral separation is achieved:
b. TERMINAL. When takeoff direction differs by
at least 45 degrees from the reciprocal of the final
approach course, the departing aircraft takes off
before the arriving aircraft leaves a fix inbound not
less than 4 miles from the airport.
f. When takeoff direction is other than in
subpara d, the departing aircraft takes off so that it is
established on a course diverging by at least
45 degrees from the reciprocal of the final approach
course 5 minutes before the arriving aircraft is
estimated at the airport or before it starts procedure
turn. (See FIG 6−3−2 and FIG 6−3−3.)
FIG 6−3−2
Separation Minima
c. TERMINAL. When takeoff direction is other
than in subpara a, the departing aircraft takes off so
that it is established on a course diverging by at least
45 degrees from the reciprocal of the final approach
course before the arriving aircraft leaves a fix
inbound not less than 4 miles from the airport.
d. TERMINAL. When the absence of an appropriate fix precludes the application of subparas b or c and
at airports where approach control service is not
provided, the separation in subparas e or f must be
applied.
e. When takeoff direction differs by at least
45 degrees from the reciprocal of the final approach
course, the departing aircraft takes off 3 minutes
before the arriving aircraft is estimated at the airport.
(See FIG 6−3−1.)
FIG 6−3−3
Separation Minima
FIG 6−3−1
Separation Minima
Initial Separation of Departing and Arriving Aircraft
6−3−1
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 4. Longitudinal Separation
6−4−1. APPLICATION
Separate aircraft longitudinally by requiring them to
do one of the following, as appropriate:
a. Depart at a specified time.
b. Arrive at a fix at a specified time.
1. A departing aircraft follows a preceding
aircraft which has taken off from the same or adjacent
airport. (See FIG 6−4−1.)
FIG 6−4−1
Minima on Same Course
44 Knots or More Separation
PHRASEOLOGY−
CROSS (fix) AT OR BEFORE (time).
CROSS (fix) AT OR AFTER (time).
c. Hold at a fix until a specified time.
d. Change altitude at a specified time or fix.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−7, Altitude Information.
6−4−2. MINIMA ON SAME, CONVERGING,
OR CROSSING COURSES
Separate aircraft on the same, converging, or crossing
courses by an interval expressed in time or distance,
using the following minima:
2. A departing aircraft follows a preceding
en route aircraft which has reported over a fix serving
the departure airport. (See FIG 6−4−2.)
FIG 6−4−2
Minima on Converging Courses
44 Knots or More Separation
a. When the leading aircraft maintains a speed at
least 44 knots faster than the following aircraft −
5 miles between DME equipped aircraft; RNAV
equipped aircraft using ATD; and between DME and
ATD aircraft provided the DME aircraft is either
10,000 feet or below or outside of 10 miles from the
DME NAVAID, or 3 minutes between other aircraft
if, in either case, one of the following conditions is
met:
Longitudinal Separation
6−4−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
3. An en route aircraft follows a preceding en
route aircraft which has reported over the same fix.
(See FIG 6−4−3.)
FIG 6−4−3
Minima on Crossing Courses
44 Knots or More Separation
b. When the leading aircraft maintains a speed at
least 22 knots faster than the following aircraft −
10 miles between DME equipped aircraft; RNAV
equipped aircraft using ATD; and between DME and
ATD aircraft provided the DME aircraft is either
10,000 feet or below or outside of 10 miles from the
DME NAVAID; or 5 minutes between other aircraft
if, in either case, one of the following conditions
exists:
2. A departing aircraft follows a preceding
en route aircraft which has reported over a fix serving
the departure airport. (See FIG 6−4−5.)
FIG 6−4−5
Minima on Converging Courses
22 Knots or More Separation
3. An en route aircraft follows a preceding
en route aircraft which has reported over the same fix.
(See FIG 6−4−6.)
FIG 6−4−6
Minima on Crossing Courses
22 Knots or More Separation
1. A departing aircraft follows a preceding
aircraft which has taken off from the same or an
adjacent airport. (See FIG 6−4−4.)
FIG 6−4−4
Minima on Same Course
22 Knots or More Separation
6−4−2
Longitudinal Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
c. When an aircraft is climbing or descending
through the altitude of another aircraft:
1. Between DME equipped aircraft; RNAV
equipped aircraft using ATD; and between DME and
ATD aircraft provided the DME aircraft is either
10,000 feet or below or outside of 10 miles from the
DME NAVAID− 10 miles, if the descending aircraft
is leading or the climbing aircraft is following.
(See FIG 6−4−7 and FIG 6−4−8.)
FIG 6−4−7
Descending Through Another Aircraft’s
Altitude DME Separation
3. Between RNAV aircraft that are operating
along an RNAV route that is eight miles or less in
width− 10 miles provided the following conditions
are met:
(a) The descending aircraft is leading or the
climbing aircraft is following.
(b) The aircraft were separated by not more
than 4,000 feet when the altitude change started.
FIG 6−4−9
Descending Through Another
Aircraft’s Altitude Timed Separation
FIG 6−4−8
Climbing Through Another Aircraft’s
Altitude DME Separation
FIG 6−4−10
Climbing Through Another
Aircraft’s Altitude Timed Separation
2. Between other aircraft− 5 minutes, if all of the
following conditions are met:
(See FIG 6−4−9 and FIG 6−4−10.)
(a) The descending aircraft is leading or
climbing aircraft is following.
(b) The aircraft are separated by not more
than 4,000 feet when the altitude change started.
(c) The change is started within 10 minutes
after a following aircraft reports over a fix reported
over by the leading aircraft or has acknowledged a
clearance specifying the time to cross the same fix.
Longitudinal Separation
6−4−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
d. When the conditions of subparas a, b, or c
cannot be met− 20 miles between DME equipped
aircraft; RNAV equipped aircraft using ATD; and
between DME and ATD aircraft provided the DME
aircraft is either 10,000 feet or below or outside of
10 miles from the DME NAVAID; or 10 minutes
between other aircraft.
(See FIG 6−4−11, FIG 6−4−12, FIG 6−4−13,
FIG 6−4−14, FIG 6−4−15, and FIG 6−4−16.)
FIG 6−4−14
Minima for Crossing Courses Separation
FIG 6−4−11
Minima for Same Course Separation
FIG 6−4−15
Climbing Through Another
Aircraft’s Altitude Separation
FIG 6−4−12
Minima for Crossing Courses Separation
FIG 6−4−16
Descending Through Another
Aircraft’s Altitude Separation
FIG 6−4−13
Minima for Same Course Separation
6−4−4
Longitudinal Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
e. Between aircraft, when one aircraft is using
DME/ATD and the other is not− 30 miles if both the
following conditions are met:
(See FIG 6−4−17 and FIG 6−4−18.)
FIG 6−4−19
Minima for Opposite Courses Separation
FIG 6−4−17
Minima for Same Course Separation
NOTE−
RNAV route segments that have been expanded in the
proximity to reference facilities for slant-range effect are
not to be considered “expanded” for purposes of applying
separation criteria in this paragraph.
FIG 6−4−18
Minima for Crossing Courses Separation
a. Both aircraft have reported passing NAVAIDs,
DME fixes, or waypoints indicating they have passed
each other. (See FIG 6−4−20.)
FIG 6−4−20
Minima for Opposite Courses Separation
1. The aircraft using DME/ATD derives distance information by reference to the same NAVAID
or waypoint over which the aircraft not using
DME/ATD has reported.
2. The aircraft not using DME/ATD is within
15 minutes of the NAVAID.
NOTE−
It is not intended to limit application of this procedure only
to aircraft operating in opposite directions along the same
airway or radial. This procedure may also be applied to
aircraft established on diverging airways or radials of the
same NAVAID.
6−4−3. MINIMA ON OPPOSITE COURSES
b. Both aircraft have reported passing the same
intersection/waypoint and they are at least 3 minutes
apart.
Separate aircraft traveling opposite courses by
assigning different altitudes consistent with the
approved vertical separation from 10 minutes before,
until 10 minutes after they are estimated to pass.
Vertical separation may be discontinued after one of
the following conditions is met: (See FIG 6−4−19.)
c. Two RNAV aircraft have reported passing the
same position and are at least 8 miles apart if
operating along a route that is 8 miles or less in width;
or 18 miles apart if operating along an expanded
route; except that 30 miles must be applied if
operating along that portion of any route segment
Longitudinal Separation
6−4−5
JO 7110.65W
defined by a navigation station requiring extended
usable distance limitations beyond 130 miles.
d. An aircraft utilizing RNAV and an aircraft
utilizing VOR have reported passing the same
position and the RNAV aircraft is at least 4 miles
beyond the reported position when operating along a
route that is 8 miles or less in width; 9 miles beyond
the point when operating along an expanded route;
except that 15 miles must be applied if operating
along that portion of any route segment defined by a
navigation station requiring extended usable distance
limitation beyond 130 miles; or 3 minutes apart
whichever is greater.
NOTE−
Except for GNSS-equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S, and /V, not on
a random impromptu route, Paragraph 5-5-1, Application,
requires radar separation be provided to RNAV aircraft
operating at and below FL450 on Q routes or random
RNAV routes, excluding oceanic airspace.
6−4−4. SEPARATION BY PILOTS
When pilots of aircraft on the same course in direct
6−4−6
12/10/15
radio communication with each other concur, you
may authorize the following aircraft to maintain
longitudinal separation of 10 minutes; or 20 miles
between DME equipped aircraft; RNAV equipped
aircraft using ATD; and between DME and ATD
aircraft provided the DME aircraft is either
10,000 feet or below or outside of 10 miles from the
DME NAVAID.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN AT LEAST ONE ZERO MINUTES/
TWO ZERO MILES SEPARATION FROM (ident).
6−4−5. RNAV AIRCRAFT ALONG VOR
AIRWAYS/ROUTES
Advise the pilot to use DME distances when applying
DME separation to an RNAV aircraft operating along
VOR airways/routes.
PHRASEOLOGY−
USE DME DISTANCES.
NOTE−
ATD derived from area navigation devices having
slant-range correction will not coincide with the direct
DME readout.
Longitudinal Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 5. Lateral Separation
6−5−1. SEPARATION METHODS
Separate aircraft by one of the following methods:
a. Clear aircraft on different airways or routes
whose widths or protected airspace do not overlap.
b. Clear aircraft below 18,000 to proceed to and
report over or hold at different geographical locations
determined visually or by reference to NAVAIDs.
c. Clear aircraft to hold over different fixes whose
holding pattern airspace areas do not overlap each
other or other airspace to be protected.
separation until reaching the 6−mile point. Reversing
direction, the same aircraft would require vertical
separation before passing the 6−mile point. Due to the
nature of GPS equipment, issue crossing restrictions in
reference to the next waypoint, since the pilot receives
tracking “to” data rather than tracking “from” the last
waypoint.
b. Use TBL 6−5−1 and TBL 6−5−2 to determine
the distance required for various divergence angles to
clear the airspace to be protected. For divergence that
falls between two values, use the lesser divergence
value to obtain the distance.
d. Clear departing aircraft to fly specified
headings which diverge by at least 45 degrees.
6−5−2. MINIMA ON DIVERGING RADIALS
a. Consider separation to exist between aircraft:
1. Established on radials of the same NAVAID
that diverge by at least 15 degrees when either aircraft
is clear of the airspace to be protected for the other
aircraft.
2. With non−VOR/DME based navigational
equipment established on tracks of the same
waypoint that diverge by at least 15 degrees when
either aircraft is clear of the airspace to be protected
for the other aircraft.
TBL 6−5−1
Non−DME Divergence
Distance Minima
Divergence (Degrees)
Distance (NM)
15
16
20
12
25
10
30
8
35
7
45
6
55
5
90
4
NOTE: This table is for non−DME application only.
TBL 6−5−2
FIG 6−5−1
Divergence
Distance Minima
Minima on Diverging Radials
Divergence
(Degrees)
Distance (NM)
Below FL 180
NOTE−
The procedure may be applied to converging as well as
diverging aircraft. (See FIG 6−5−1.) The aircraft depicted
6 miles from the NAVAID/waypoint would require vertical
Lateral Separation
Fl 180 through
FL 450
15
17
18
20
13
15
25
11
13
30
9
11
35
8
11
45
7
11
55
6
11
90
5
11
NOTE: This table is for DME application and
compensates for DME slant-range error.
6−5−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
NOTE−
For altitudes of 3,000 feet or less above the elevation of the
NAVAID, DME slant-range error is negligible and the
values in TBL 6−5−1 may be used.
NOTE−
The other airspace to be protected may be a MOA, a
holding pattern, airway or route, ATCAA, Warning Area,
Restricted Area, Prohibited Area, etc.
6−5−3. DME ARC MINIMA
1. At 35 miles or less from the NAVAID−
5 miles.
Apply lateral DME separation by requiring aircraft
using DME to fly an arc about a NAVAID at a
specified distance using the following minima:
(See FIG 6−5−2.)
FIG 6−5−2
DME Arc Minima
2. More than 35 miles from the NAVAID−
10 miles.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VIA (number of miles) MILE ARC (direction) OF (name of
DME NAVAID).
6−5−4. MINIMA ALONG OTHER THAN
ESTABLISHED AIRWAYS OR ROUTES
Protect airspace along other than established airways
or routes as follows: (See FIG 6−5−4.)
FIG 6−5−4
Minima Along Other Than
Established Airways or Routes
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−5−2, NAVAID Terms.
a. Between different arcs about a NAVAID
regardless of direction of flight:
1. At 35 miles or less from the NAVAID−
10 miles.
2. More than 35 miles from the NAVAID−
20 miles.
b. Between an arc about a NAVAID and other
airspace to be protected: (See FIG 6−5−3.)
FIG 6−5−3
DME Arc Minima
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Airway.
P/CG Term− Route.
a. Direct courses and course changes of 15 degrees
or less:
1. Via NAVAIDs or radials FL 600 and below−
4 miles on each side of the route to a point 51 miles
from the NAVAID, then increasing in width on a
4 1/2 degree angle to a width of 10 miles on each side
of the route at a distance of 130 miles from the
NAVAID.
2. Via degree-distance fixes for aircraft authorized under para 4−4−3, Degree−Distance Route
Definition for Military Operations.
route.
6−5−2
(a) Below FL 180− 4 miles on each side of the
Lateral Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
(b) FL 180 to FL 600 inclusive− 10 miles on
each side of the route.
projected along the route of flight, then issue a clearance.
“Verify when you are established on the XYZ to ABC route
segment at or above 6,000 feet.”
3. Via degree-distance fixes for RNAV flights
above FL 450− 10 miles on each side of the route.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-4-2, Route Structure Transitions
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-1, Application
NOTE−
Except for GNSS-equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S, and /V, not on
a random impromptu route, Paragraph 5-5-1, Application,
requires radar separation be provided to RNAV aircraft
operating at and below FL450 on Q routes or random
RNAV routes, excluding oceanic airspace.
b. When course change is 16 degrees through
90 degrees, protect the airspace on the overflown side
beginning at the point where the course changes as
follows: (See FIG 6−5−5.)
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-4-2, Route Structure Transitions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-1, Application.
P/CG Term - Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)[ICAO].
FIG 6−5−5
Overflown Side Minima
16 to 90 Degrees
4. GNSS-equipped RNAV aircraft provided
non-radar separation on random RNAV routes must
be cleared via or reported to be established on
point-to-point route segments.
(a) The points must be published NAVAIDs,
waypoints, fixes, or airports recallable from the
aircraft’s navigation database. The points must be
displayed on controller video maps or depicted on the
controller chart displayed at the control position. The
maximum distance between points must not exceed
500 miles.
(b) Protect 4 miles either side of the route
centerline.
(c) Assigned altitudes must be at or above the
highest MIA along the projected route segment being
flown, including the protected airspace of that route
segment.
(d) When the GNSS aircraft is being provided
radar service and is transitioning to non-radar
airspace, provide clearance direct to the named point
in non-radar airspace in accordance with subparagraphs a4(a) through (c).
EXAMPLE−
A pilot has filed a point-to-point route from XYZ to ABC at
13,000 feet. Departure procedures from the originating
airport place the aircraft a significant distance from XYZ;
however, the aircraft can establish itself along the route
segment from XYZ to ABC. Ascertain when the pilot is
established on the point-to-point route segment and at an
altitude, which meets or exceeds the highest MVA/MIA
Lateral Separation
1. Below FL 180− same as subparas a1 or 2.
2. FL 180 to FL 230 inclusive− 14 miles.
3. Above FL 230 to FL 600 inclusive− 17 miles.
c. When course change is 91 degrees through
180 degrees, protect the airspace on the overflown
side beginning at the point where the course changes
as follows: (See FIG 6−5−6.)
1. Below FL 180− same as subparas a1 or 2.
2. FL 180 to FL 230 inclusive− 28 miles.
3. Above FL 230 to FL 600 inclusive− 34 miles.
6−5−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 6−5−6
FIG 6−5−7
Overflown Side Minima
91 to 180 Degrees
RNAV Minima
d. After the course changes specified in subparas b or c have been completed and the aircraft is
back on course, the appropriate minima in subpara a
may be used.
6−5−5. RNAV MINIMA− DIVERGING/
CROSSING COURSES
Consider lateral separation to exist when an RNAV
aircraft is beyond the point where the lateral protected
airspace of that aircraft has ceased to overlap the
lateral protected airspace of another by at least:
(See FIG 6−5−7 and FIG 6−5−8.)
6−5−4
a. When operating along a route that is 8 miles or
less in width− 4 miles.
b. When operating along an expanded route−
9 miles, except that 15 miles must be applied along
that portion of any route segment requiring extended
usable distance limitation beyond 130 miles of the
reference facility.
NOTE−
Except for GNSS-equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S, and /V, not on
a random impromptu route, Paragraph 5-5-1, Application,
requires radar separation be provided to RNAV aircraft
operating at and below FL450 on Q routes or random
RNAV routes, excluding oceanic airspace.
FIG 6−5−8
RNAV Minima
Lateral Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 6. Vertical Separation
6−6−1. APPLICATION
6−6−2. EXCEPTIONS
Assign an altitude to an aircraft after the aircraft
previously at that altitude has reported leaving the
altitude.
Assign an altitude to an aircraft only after the aircraft
previously at that altitude has reported at or passing
through another altitude separated from the first by
the appropriate minimum when:
PHRASEOLOGY−
REPORT LEAVING/REACHING (altitude/flight level).
a. Severe turbulence is reported.
REPORT LEAVING ODD/EVEN ALTITUDES/FLIGHT
LEVELS.
b. Aircraft are conducting military aerial
refueling.
(If aircraft is known to be operating below the lowest
useable flight level),
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−13, Military Aerial Refueling.
SAY ALTITUDE.
or
(If aircraft is known to be operating at or above the lowest
useable flight level),
SAY FLIGHT LEVEL.
or
If aircraft’s position relative to the lowest useable flight
level is unknown),
SAY ALTITUDE OR FLIGHT LEVEL.
NOTE−
Consider known aircraft performance characteristics,
pilot furnished and/or Mode C detected information which
indicate that climb/descent will not be consistent with the
rates recommended in the AIM.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−3, Procedural Preference.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−1, Vertical Separation Minima.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−8−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−4, Separation.
Vertical Separation
c. The aircraft previously at the altitude has been:
1. Issued a clearance permitting climb/descent
at pilot’s discretion.
2. Cleared to CRUISE (altitude). However, do
not use Mode C to effect separation with an aircraft
on a cruise clearance.
NOTE−
An aircraft assigned a cruise clearance is assigned a block
of airspace from the minimum IFR altitude up to and
including the assigned cruising altitude, and climb/descent
within the block is at pilot’s discretion. When the pilot
verbally reports leaving an altitude in descent, he/she may
not return to that altitude.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Cruise.
6−6−3. SEPARATION BY PILOTS
When pilots of aircraft in direct radio communication
with each other during climb and descent concur, you
may authorize the lower aircraft, if climbing, or the
upper aircraft, if descending, to maintain vertical
separation.
6−6−1
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 7. Timed Approaches
6−7−1. APPLICATION
Timed approaches using either nonradar procedures
or radar vectors to the final approach course may be
used at airports served by a tower if the following
conditions are met:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−5, Approach Separation Responsibility.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−7−4, Level Flight Restriction.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−7−7, Missed Approaches.
1. Hold at a fix located on the approach course or to be
radar vectored to the final approach course for a
straight-in approach in accordance with the minima
specified in para 6−7−5, Interval Minima.
a. Clear the succeeding aircraft for approach, to
descend to the altitude vacated by the preceding
aircraft, and to leave the final approach fix inbound
(nonprecision approach) or the outer marker or the fix
used in lieu of the outer marker inbound (precision
approach) at a specified time; or when using radar to
sequence and position aircraft on the final approach
course, vector aircraft to cross the final approach
fix/outer marker or the fix used in lieu of the outer
marker in compliance with para 6−7−5, Interval
Minima.
2. Proceed in the direction of the airport along the
approach course crossing the holding/approach fix at a
specified altitude if required.
Timed Approach Procedures
Using ILS and Longitudinal Separation Only
NOTE−
These procedures require NAVAIDs and standard/special
instrument approach procedures or adequate radar
coverage which permit an aircraft to:
FIG 6−7−1
3. Continue descent for an approach to destination
airport.
a. Direct communication is maintained with the
aircraft until the pilot is instructed to contact the
tower.
b. If more than one missed approach procedure is
available, none require course reversal.
c. If only one missed approach procedure is
available, the following conditions are met:
1. Course reversal is not required.
2. Reported ceiling and visibility are equal to or
greater than the highest prescribed circling minimums for the instrument approach procedure in use.
NOTE−
Determination of whether or not an existing ceiling meets
minima is accomplished by comparing MDA (MSL) with
ceiling (AGL) plus the airport elevation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−7−2, Approach Sequence.
6−7−2. APPROACH SEQUENCE
When an aircraft passes the final approach fix
inbound (nonprecision approach) or the outer marker
or the fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound
(precision approach), issue clearances for a succeeding timed approach in accordance with the following:
Timed Approaches
NOTE−
FIG 6−7−1 depicts the application of timed approach
procedures using an ILS and applying longitudinal
separation only. Using an interval of 2 minutes between
successive approaches, the #1 and #2 aircraft have already
passed the outer locator (LOM) on final approach, and the
#3 aircraft has been cleared for approach and to depart the
LOM 2 minutes after the #2 aircraft reported leaving the
LOM inbound on final approach. After aircraft in the
approach sequence depart the holding/approach fix
(LOM) inbound, vertical separation is no longer provided
and longitudinal separation is utilized.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−2, Final Approach Course Interception.
6−7−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
b. If an alternative missed approach procedure is
not available and weather conditions are less than
required by para 6−7−1, Application, subpara c, clear
the succeeding aircraft for an approach when the
preceding aircraft has landed or canceled its IFR
flight plan.
FIG 6−7−2
Timed Approach Procedures Using a Bearing on an
NDB and Longitudinal and Vertical Separation
when para 6−7−2, Approach Sequence, subpara b is
applied, clear the second aircraft for an approach
early enough to allow at least 1 minute of level flight
before crossing the final approach fix/outer marker or
the fix used in lieu of the outer marker.
6−7−5. INTERVAL MINIMA
Use the following time or radar interval as the
minimum interval between successive approaches:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−5, Approach Separation Responsibility.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−7−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 6−7−2, Approach Sequence.
a. Behind super:
1. Heavy − 3 minutes or 6 miles.
2. Large − 3 minutes or 7 miles.
3. Small − 4 minutes or 8 miles.
b. Behind heavy:
1. Heavy − 2 minutes or 4 miles.
2. Large − 2 minutes or 5 miles.
NOTE−
FIG 6−7−2 depicts the application of timed approach
procedures using a holding/approach fix on a bearing of an
NDB and applying a combination of longitudinal and
vertical separation. The #3 aircraft has been instructed to
descend to 2,000 after the #2 aircraft has reported
departing the holding/approach fix inbound and leaving
2,000 at point A. The #2 aircraft has departed the
holding/approach fix inbound at the designated time,
maintaining 2,000 until cleared for approach at point A.
The #1 aircraft has been sighted, enabling the controller to
issue approach clearance to the #2 aircraft at point A.
3. Small − 3 minutes or 6 miles.
c. Small behind B757 − 2 minutes or 4 miles.
d. Increase the interval, as necessary, taking into
account the:
1. Relative speeds of the aircraft concerned.
2. Existing weather conditions.
3. Distance between the approach fix and the
airport.
4. Type of approach being made.
c. Release the aircraft to the tower before it reaches
the final approach fix.
6−7−6. TIME CHECK
6−7−3. SEQUENCE INTERRUPTION
Issue a time check to an aircraft before specifying a
time to leave the approach fix inbound unless the
aircraft is vectored to the final approach course.
Interrupt the established timed approach sequence if
necessary to allow an aircraft to execute a different
type of approach.
6−7−7. MISSED APPROACHES
6−7−4. LEVEL FLIGHT RESTRICTION
a. If weather conditions are such that an aircraft
will likely miss an approach, issue an alternative
missed approach procedure to the next aircraft.
If the weather report indicates an aircraft will be in
IFR conditions over the final approach fix
(nonprecision approach) or the outer marker or the fix
used in lieu of the outer marker (precision approach)
b. If an aircraft misses an approach, allow the next
aircraft to continue the approach if it has been
assigned an alternative missed approach procedure.
Retain radar control or hold any remaining aircraft at
6−7−2
Timed Approaches
12/10/15
assigned altitudes until traffic conditions permit the
issuance of approach clearances.
c. When para 6−7−2, Approach Sequence, subpara b is applied and the first aircraft misses an
approach, retain radar control or clear the second
aircraft to maintain the last assigned altitude
(minimum holding altitude) and return to the
Timed Approaches
JO 7110.65W
holding/approach fix to hold until traffic conditions
permit the issuance of approach clearances.
6−7−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 7. Visual
Section 1. General
7−1−1. CLASS A AIRSPACE
RESTRICTIONS
7−1−3. APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE
FOR VFR ARRIVING AIRCRAFT
Do not apply visual separation or issue VFR or
“VFR-on-top” clearances in Class A airspace.
Issue the following where procedures have been
established for arriving VFR aircraft to contact
approach control for landing information:
7−1−2. VFR CONDITIONS
a. Wind, runway, and altimeter setting at the
airport of intended landing. This information may be
omitted if contained in the ATIS broadcast and the
pilot states the appropriate ATIS code or if the pilot
uses the phrase, “have numbers.”
a. You may clear aircraft to maintain “VFR
conditions” if one of the following conditions exists:
1. The pilot of an aircraft on an IFR flight plan
requests a VFR climb/descent.
2. TERMINAL. The clearance will result in
noise abatement benefits where part of the IFR
departure route does not conform to an FAAapproved noise abatement route or altitude.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN VFR CONDITIONS.
MAINTAIN VFR CONDITIONS UNTIL (time or fix).
MAINTAIN VFR CONDITIONS ABOVE/BELOW
(altitude).
CLIMB/DESCEND VFR,
and if required,
BETWEEN (altitude) AND (altitude)
or
ABOVE/BELOW (altitude).
b. When, in your judgment, there is reason to
believe that flight in VFR conditions may become
impractical, issue an alternative clearance which will
ensure separation from all other aircraft for which
you have separation responsibility.
PHRASEOLOGY−
IF UNABLE, (alternative procedure), AND ADVISE.
General
NOTE−
Pilot use of “have numbers” does not indicate receipt of the
ATIS broadcast.
b. Traffic information on a workload permitting
basis.
c. Time or place at which the aircraft is to contact
the tower on local control frequency for further
landing information.
d. An aircraft may be instructed to contact
approach control for landing and traffic information
upon initial contact with the tower.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−2, Service Availability.
7−1−4. VISUAL HOLDING OF VFR
AIRCRAFT
TERMINAL
When it becomes necessary to hold VFR aircraft at
visual holding fixes, take the following actions:
a. Clear aircraft to hold at selected, prominent
geographical fixes which can be easily recognized
from the air, preferably those depicted on sectional
charts.
NOTE−
At some locations, VFR checkpoints are depicted on
Sectional Aeronautical and Terminal Area Charts. In
selecting geographical fixes, depicted VFR checkpoints
are preferred unless the pilot exhibits a familiarity with the
local area.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−6−5, Visual Holding Points.
7−1−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
b. Issue traffic information to aircraft cleared to
hold at the same fix.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD AT (location) UNTIL (time or other condition),
TRAFFIC (description) HOLDING AT (fix, altitude if
known),
or
PROCEEDING TO (fix) FROM (direction or fix).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−5, Holding.
7−1−2
General
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Visual Separation
7−2−1. VISUAL SEPARATION
Aircraft may be separated by visual means, as
provided in this paragraph, when other approved
separation is assured before and after the application
of visual separation. To ensure that other separation
will exist, consider aircraft performance, wake
turbulence, closure rate, routes of flight, and known
weather conditions. Reported weather conditions
must allow the aircraft to remain within sight until
other separation exists. Do not apply visual
separation between successive departures when
departure routes and/or aircraft performance preclude maintaining separation. Visual separation is not
authorized when the lead aircraft is a super.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−20, Wake Turbulence Cautionary
Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−9, Use of Tower Radar Displays.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−5, Approach Separation Responsibility.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−1, Visual Approach.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual Approach.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−4, Approaches to Multiple Runways.
P/CG Term− Visual Approach.
P/CG Term− Visual Separation.
a. TERMINAL. Visual separation may be applied
between aircraft up to but not including FL180 under
the following conditions:
1. Tower-applied visual separation.
(a) Maintain communication with at least one
of the aircraft involved or ensure there is an ability to
communicate immediately as prescribed in paragraph 3-9-3, Departure Control Instructions,
subparagraph a2.
(b) The tower visually observes the aircraft,
issues timely traffic advisories, and maintains visual
separation between the aircraft. The use of
tower-applied visual separation is not authorized
when wake turbulence separation is required.
2. Pilot-applied visual separation.
(a) Maintain communication with at least one
of the aircraft involved and ensure there is an ability
to communicate with the other aircraft.
(b) The pilot sees another aircraft and is
instructed to maintain visual separation from the
aircraft as follows:
(1) Tell the pilot about the other aircraft.
Include position, direction, and, unless it is obvious,
the other aircraft’s intention.
(2) Obtain acknowledgment from the pilot
that the other aircraft is in sight.
(3) Instruct the pilot to maintain visual
separation from that aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC, (clock position and distance), (direction)
BOUND, (type of aircraft), (intentions and other relevant
information).
DO YOU HAVE IT IN SIGHT?
If the answer is in the affirmative,
MAINTAIN VISUAL SEPARATION.
(c) If the pilot advises he/she has the traffic in
sight and will maintain visual separation from it (the
pilot must use that entire phrase), the controller need
only “approve” the operation instead of restating the
instructions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
APPROVED.
NOTE−
Pilot-applied visual separation between aircraft is
achieved when the controller has instructed the pilot to
maintain visual separation and the pilot acknowledges or
when the controller has approved pilot-initiated visual
separation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-4-5, Transferring Controller Handoff
(c) Issue subsequent control instructions as
necessary to ensure continued separation between the
applicable aircraft.
(d) If the aircraft are on converging courses,
inform the other aircraft of the traffic and that visual
separation is being applied.
NOTE−
Adjacent airports with operating ATCTs are not authorized
to apply visual separation between their traffic and the
other ATCT’s traffic.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC, (clock position and distance), (direction)
BOUND, (type of aircraft), HAS YOU IN SIGHT AND
WILL MAINTAIN VISUAL SEPARATION.
Visual Separation
7−2−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
(e) Advise the pilots if the radar targets appear
likely to merge.
only “approve” the operation instead of restating the
instructions.
NOTE−
Issue this advisory in conjunction with the instruction to
maintain visual separation, the advisory to the other
aircraft of the converging course, or thereafter if the
controller subsequently becomes aware that the targets are
merging.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC, (clock position and distance),
(direction)−BOUND, (type of aircraft), (intentions and
other relevant information).
EXAMPLE−
“Radar targets appear likely to merge.”
b. TERMINAL. Control of aircraft maintaining
visual separation may be transferred to an adjacent
position/sector/facility. Coordination procedures
must be specified in an LOA or facility directive.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4-3-1, Letters of Agreement
c. EN ROUTE. Visual separation may be used up
to but not including FL 180 when the following
conditions are met:
1. Direct communication is maintained with one
of the aircraft involved and there is an ability to
communicate with the other.
2. A pilot sees another aircraft and is instructed
to maintain visual separation from it as follows:
(a) Tell the pilot about the other aircraft
including position, direction and unless it is obvious,
the other aircraft’s intentions.
(b) Obtain acknowledgment from the pilot
that the other aircraft is in sight.
(c) Instruct the pilot to maintain visual
separation from that aircraft.
(d) Advise the pilot if the radar targets appear
likely to converge.
(e) If the aircraft are on converging courses,
inform the other aircraft of the traffic and that visual
separation is being applied.
heavy.
(f) Advise the pilots if either aircraft is a
(g) Traffic advisories and wake turbulence
cautionary advisories must be issued in accordance
with para 2−1−20, Wake Turbulence Cautionary
Advisories, and para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
(h) If the pilot advises he/she has the traffic in
sight and will maintain visual separation from it (the
pilot must use that entire phrase), the controller need
7−2−2
If applicable,
ON CONVERGING COURSE.
DO YOU HAVE IT IN SIGHT?
If the answer is in the affirmative,
MAINTAIN VISUAL SEPARATION.
If the pilot advises he/she has the traffic in sight and will
maintain visual separation from it (pilot must use that
entire phrase):
(Call Sign) APPROVED.
If aircraft are on converging courses, advise the other
aircraft:
TRAFFIC, (clock position and distance),
(direction)−BOUND, (type of aircraft), HAS YOU IN
SIGHT AND WILL MAINTAIN VISUAL SEPARATION.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−1, Visual Approach.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual Approach.
d. Nonapproach control towers may be authorized
to provide visual separation between aircraft within
surface areas or designated areas provided other
separation is assured before and after the application
of visual separation. This may be applied by the
nonapproach control tower providing the separation
or by a pilot visually observing another aircraft and
being instructed to maintain visual separation with
that aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VISUAL SEPARATION APPROVED BETWEEN
(identification) AND (identification),
and for departing aircraft,
(departing/succeeding aircraft) RELEASED YOUR
DISCRETION.
NOTE−
Separation of IFR aircraft before and after application of
visual separation is an IFR control function (Approach/
Departure/En Route). A nonapproach control tower by
Visual Separation
12/10/15
accepting authorization for visual separation becomes
responsible for ensuring that separation. Separation
requirements also apply to VFR aircraft when IFR,
Class B, Class C or TRSA separation is prescribed.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−8−11, Practice Approaches.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual Approach.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−2, Issuance of EFC.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−4, Helicopter Traffic.
Visual Separation
JO 7110.65W
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−5, Altitude Assignments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−6, Approach Interval.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−7, TRSA Departure Information.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−8−2, Class C Services.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−8−3, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−8−4, Establishing Two−Way
Communications.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−8−5, Altitude Assignments.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−8−6, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−3, Methods.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−4, Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−6, Helicopter Traffic.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−9−7, Altitude Assignments.
7−2−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 3. VFR-On-Top
7−3−1. VFR-ON-TOP
a. You may clear an aircraft to maintain
“VFR-on-top” if the pilot of an aircraft on an IFR
flight plan requests the clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN VFR-ON-TOP.
NOTE−
1. When an aircraft has been cleared to maintain
“VFR-on-top,” the pilot is responsible to fly at an
appropriate VFR altitude, comply with VFR visibility and
distance from cloud criteria, and to be vigilant so as to see
and avoid other aircraft. The pilot is also responsible to
comply with instrument flight rules applicable to the flight
(e.g., adherence to ATC clearances).
2. Although IFR separation is not applied, controllers
must continue to provide traffic advisories and safety
alerts, and apply merging target procedures to aircraft
operating VFR-on-top.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−6, Safety Alert.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−8, Merging Target Procedures.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−1−1, Class A Airspace Restrictions.
AIM, Para 5−5−13, VFR−on−top.
14 CFR Section 91.157, Special VFR Weather Minimums.
14 CFR Section 91.159, VFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level.
b. You may clear an aircraft to climb through
clouds, smoke, haze, or other meteorological
formations and then to maintain “VFR-on-top” if the
following conditions are met:
1. The pilot requests the clearance.
2. You inform the pilot of the reported height of
the tops of the meteorological formation, or
3. You inform the pilot that no top report is
available.
4. When necessary, you ensure separation from
all other traffic for which you have separation
responsibility by issuing an alternative clearance.
5. When an aircraft is climbing to and reports
reaching “VFR-on-top,” reclear the aircraft to
maintain “VFR-on-top.”
VFR-On-Top
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB TO AND REPORT REACHING VFR-ON-TOP,
and
TOPS REPORTED (altitude),
or
NO TOPS REPORTS.
IF NOT ON TOP AT (altitude), MAINTAIN (altitude), AND
ADVISE.
MAINTAIN VFR-ON-TOP.
c. Do not clear an aircraft to maintain “VFR-ontop” between sunset and sunrise to separate holding
aircraft from each other or from en route aircraft
unless restrictions are applied to ensure the
appropriate IFR vertical separation.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN VFR-ON-TOP AT OR ABOVE/BELOW/
BETWEEN (altitudes).
EXAMPLE−
“Maintain VFR-on-top at or above one three thousand
five hundred.”
“Maintain VFR-on-top at or below one two thousand
five hundred.”
“Maintain VFR-on-top at or between six thousand and
one zero thousand.”
d. When, in your judgment, there is reason to
believe that flight in VFR conditions may become
impractical, issue an alternative clearance which will
ensure separation from all other aircraft for which
you have separation responsibility.
PHRASEOLOGY−
IF UNABLE, (alternative procedure), AND ADVISE.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 9−3−3, VFR-on-top.
7−3−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
7−3−2. ALTITUDE FOR DIRECTION OF
FLIGHT
Magnetic courses 0−179− odd cardinal altitudes plus
500 feet; e.g., 3,500, 5,500.
Inform an aircraft maintaining “VFR-on-top” when
a report indicates the pilot is not complying with
14 CFR Section 91.159(a).
Magnetic courses 180−359− even cardinal altitudes plus
500 feet; e.g., 4,500, 8,500.
NOTE−
As required by 14 CFR Section 91.159(a), the appropriate
VFR altitudes for aircraft (not in a holding pattern of
2 minutes or less, or turning) operating more than
3,000 feet above the surface to and including 18,000 feet
MSL:
7−3−2
PHRASEOLOGY−
VFR-ON-TOP CRUISING LEVELS FOR YOUR
DIRECTION OF FLIGHT ARE:
more than 3,000 feet above the surface to FL 180:
ODD/EVEN ALTITUDES/FLIGHT LEVELS PLUS
FIVE HUNDRED FEET.
VFR-On-Top
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 4. Approaches
7−4−1. VISUAL APPROACH
7−4−3. CLEARANCE FOR VISUAL
APPROACH
A visual approach is an ATC authorization for an
aircraft on an IFR flight plan to proceed visually to the
airport of intended landing; it is not an instrument
approach procedure. Also, there is no missed
approach segment. An aircraft unable to complete a
visual approach must be handled as any go-around
and appropriate separation must be provided.
ARTCCs and approach controls may clear aircraft for
visual approaches using the following procedures:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−20, Wake Turbulence Cautionary
Advisories.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−10−2, Forwarding Approach Information
by Nonapproach Control Facilities.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−4, Approaches to Multiple Runways.
NOTE−
Towers may exercise this authority when authorized by a
LOA with the facility that provides the IFR service, or by
a facility directive at collocated facilities.
a. Controllers may initiate, or pilots may request,
a visual approach even when an aircraft is being
vectored for an instrument approach and the pilot
subsequently reports:
1. The airport or the runway in sight at airports
with operating control towers.
2. The airport in sight at airports without a
control tower.
7−4−2. VECTORS FOR VISUAL APPROACH
A vector for a visual approach may be initiated if the
reported ceiling at the airport of intended landing is
at least 500 feet above the MVA/MIA and the
visibility is 3 miles or greater. At airports without
weather reporting service there must be reasonable
assurance (e.g. area weather reports, PIREPs, etc.)
that descent and flight to the airport can be made
visually, and the pilot must be informed that weather
information is not available.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Ident) FLY HEADING OR TURN RIGHT/LEFT
HEADING (degrees) VECTOR FOR VISUAL
APPROACH TO (airport name).
(If appropriate)
WEATHER NOT AVAILABLE.
NOTE−
At airports where weather information is not available, a
pilot request for a visual approach indicates that descent
and flight to the airport can be made visually and clear of
clouds.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−9−1, Vectors to Final Approach Course.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−3, Clearance for Visual Approach.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−4, Approaches to Multiple Runways.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−7, Sequencing.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−3, Separation.
Approaches
b. Resolve potential conflicts with all other
aircraft, advise an overtaking aircraft of the distance
to the preceding aircraft and speed difference, and
ensure that weather conditions at the airport are VFR
or that the pilot has been informed that weather is not
available for the destination airport. Upon pilot
request, advise the pilot of the frequency to receive
weather information where AWOS/ASOS is available.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Call sign) (control instructions as required) CLEARED
VISUAL APPROACH RUNWAY (number);
or
(Call sign) (control instructions as required) CLEARED
VISUAL APPROACH TO (airport name)
(and if appropriate)
WEATHER NOT AVAILABLE OR VERIFY THAT YOU
HAVE THE (airport) WEATHER.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
c. Clear an aircraft for a visual approach when:
1. The aircraft is number one in the approach
sequence, or
2. The aircraft is to follow a preceding aircraft
and the pilot reports the preceding aircraft in sight and
is instructed to follow it, or
7−4−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
NOTE−
The pilot need not report the airport/runway in sight.
converging runways. This may be accomplished
through use of the ATIS.
3. The pilot reports the airport or runway in sight
but not the preceding aircraft. Radar separation must
be maintained until visual separation is provided.
b. When conducting visual approaches to multiple
runways ensure the following:
d. All aircraft following a heavy, or a small aircraft
following a B757, must be informed of the airplane
manufacturer and/or model.
EXAMPLE−
“Cessna Three Four Juliet, following a Boeing 757, 12
o’clock, six miles.”
or
“Cessna Three Four Juliet, following a Seven fifty seven,
12 o’clock, six miles.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para.2−4−21, Description of Aircraft Types.
NOTE−
Visual separation is not authorized when the lead aircraft
is a super.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7-2-1.
e. Inform the tower of the aircraft’s position prior
to communications transfer at controlled airports.
ARTS/STARS functions may be used provided a
facility directive or LOA specifies control and
communication transfer points.
f. In addition to the requirements of para 7−4−2,
Vectors for Visual Approach, and subparas a, b, c, d,
and e, ensure that the location of the destination
airport is provided when the pilot is asked to report
the destination airport in sight.
g. In those instances where airports are located in
close proximity, also provide the location of the
airport that may cause the confusion.
EXAMPLE−
“Cessna Five Six November, Cleveland Burke Lakefront
Airport is at 12 o’clock, 5 miles. Cleveland Hopkins
Airport is at 1 o’clock 12 miles. Report Cleveland Hopkins
in sight.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−4, Approaches to Multiple Runways.
7−4−4. APPROACHES TO MULTIPLE
RUNWAYS
a. All aircraft must be informed that approaches
are being conducted to parallel, intersecting, or
7−4−2
1. Do not permit the respective aircrafts’
primary radar targets to touch unless visual
separation is being applied.
2. When the aircraft flight paths intersect,
ensure approved separation is maintained until visual
separation is provided.
c. In addition to the requirements in para 7−2−1,
Visual Separation, para 7−4−1, Visual Approach,
para 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual Approach, and
para 7−4−3, Clearance for Visual Approach, the
following conditions apply to visual approaches
being conducted simultaneously to parallel, intersecting, and converging runways, as appropriate:
1. Parallel runways separated by less than 2,500
feet. Unless approved separation is provided by ATC,
an aircraft must report sighting a preceding aircraft
making an approach (instrument or visual) to the
adjacent parallel runway. When an aircraft reports
another aircraft in sight on the adjacent final approach
course and visual separation is applied, controllers
must advise the succeeding aircraft to maintain visual
separation. However, do not permit a super or heavy
aircraft to overtake another aircraft. Do not permit a
B757 or other large aircraft to overtake a small
aircraft.
2. Parallel runways separated by at least
2,500 feet, but less than 4,300 feet.
(a) Approved separation is provided until the
aircraft are established on a heading which will
intercept the extended centerline of the runway at an
angle not greater than 30 degrees, each aircraft has
been issued, and one pilot has acknowledged receipt
of, the visual approach clearance and the other pilot
has acknowledged receipt of the visual or instrument
approach clearance.
NOTE−
1. The intent of the 30 degree intercept angle is to reduce
the potential for overshoots of the extended centerline of
the runway and preclude side-by-side operations with one
or both aircraft in a “belly-up” configuration during the
turn. Aircraft performance, speed, and the number of
degrees of the turn are factors to be considered when
vectoring aircraft to parallel runways.
2. Variances between heading assigned to intercept the
extended centerline of the runway and aircraft ground
Approaches
12/10/15
track are expected due to the effect of wind and course
corrections after completion of the turn and pilot
acknowledgment of a visual approach clearance.
REFERENCE−
FAA Publication, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge,
Chapter 15 “Effect of Wind.”
(b) Visual approaches may be conducted to
one runway while visual or instrument approaches
are conducted simultaneously to other runways,
provided the conditions of subpara (a) are met.
(c) Provided aircraft flight paths do not
intersect, and when the provisions of subparas (a) and
(b) are met, it is not necessary to apply any other type
of separation with aircraft on the adjacent final
approach course.
3. Parallel runways separated by 4,300 feet or
more.
(a) When aircraft flight paths do not intersect,
visual approaches may be conducted simultaneously,
provided approved separation is maintained until one
of the aircraft has been issued and the pilot has
acknowledged receipt of the visual approach
clearance.
(b) Visual approaches may be conducted to
one runway while visual or instrument approaches
are conducted simultaneously to other runways,
provided the conditions of subpara (a) are met.
(c) Provided the aircraft flight paths do not
intersect, when the provisions of subparas (a) and (b)
are met, it is not necessary to apply any other type of
separation with aircraft on the adjacent final approach
course.
(d) Each aircraft must be assigned headings
which will allow the aircraft to intercept the extended
centerline of the runway at an angle not greater than
30 degrees.
NOTE−
1. The intent of the 30 degree intercept angle is to reduce
the potential for overshoots of the extended centerline of
the runway and preclude side-by-side operations with one
or both aircraft in a “belly-up” configuration during the
turn. Aircraft performance, speed, and the number of
degrees of the turn are factors to be considered when
vectoring aircraft to parallel runways.
2. Variances between heading assigned to intercept the
extended centerline of the runway and aircraft ground
track are expected due to the effect of wind and course
Approaches
JO 7110.65W
corrections after completion of the turn and pilot
acknowledgment of a visual approach clearance.
REFERENCE−
FAA Publication, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge,
Chapter 15 “Effect of Wind.”
4. Intersecting and converging runways. Visual
approaches may be conducted simultaneously with
visual or instrument approaches to other runways,
provided:
(a) Approved separation is maintained until
the aircraft conducting the visual approach has been
issued, and the pilot has acknowledged receipt of, the
visual approach clearance.
(b) When aircraft flight paths intersect,
approved separation must be maintained until visual
separation is provided.
NOTE−
Although simultaneous approaches may be conducted to
intersecting runways, staggered approaches may be
necessary to meet the airport separation requirements
specified in Para 3−10−4, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight Path Separation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 7110.79, Charted Visual Flight Procedures.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−4−5, Charted Visual Flight Procedures
(CVFP). USA/USN Not Applicable.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−7−3, Separation.
7−4−5. CHARTED VISUAL FLIGHT
PROCEDURES (CVFP). USA/USN NOT
APPLICABLE
Clear an aircraft for a CVFP only when the following
conditions are met:
a. There is an operating control tower.
b. The published name of the CVFP and the
landing runway are specified in the approach
clearance, the reported ceiling at the airport of
intended landing is at least 500 feet above the
MVA/MIA, and the visibility is 3 miles or more,
unless higher minimums are published for the
particular CVFP.
c. When using parallel or intersecting/converging
runways, the criteria specified in Para 7−4−4,
Approaches to Multiple Runways, are applied.
d. An aircraft not following another aircraft on the
approach reports sighting a charted visual landmark,
or reports sighting a preceding aircraft landing on the
same runway and has been instructed to follow that
aircraft.
7−4−3
JO 7110.65W
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Ident) CLEARED (name of CVFP) APPROACH.
7−4−6. CONTACT APPROACH
Clear an aircraft for a contact approach only if the
following conditions are met:
a. The pilot has requested it.
NOTE−
When executing a contact approach, the pilot is
responsible for maintaining the required flight visibility,
cloud clearance, and terrain/obstruction clearance.
Unless otherwise restricted, the pilot may find it necessary
to descend, climb, and/or fly a circuitous route to the
airport to maintain cloud clearance and/or terrain/
obstruction clearance. It is not in any way intended that
controllers will initiate or suggest a contact approach to a
pilot.
b. The reported ground visibility is at least
1 statute mile.
c. A standard or special instrument approach
procedure has been published and is functioning for
the airport of intended landing.
d. Approved separation is applied between
aircraft so cleared and other IFR or SVFR aircraft.
When applying vertical separation, do not assign a
7−4−4
12/10/15
fixed altitude but clear the aircraft at or below an
altitude which is at least 1,000 feet below any IFR
traffic but not below the minimum safe altitude
prescribed in 14 CFR Section 91.119.
NOTE−
14 CFR Section 91.119 specifies the minimum safe altitude
to be flown:
(a) Anywhere.
(b) Over congested areas.
(c) Other than congested areas. To provide for an
emergency landing in the event of power failure and
without undue hazard to persons or property on the
surface.
(d) Helicopters. May be operated at less than the
minimums prescribed in paras (b) and (c) above if the
operation is conducted without hazard to persons or
property on the surface.
e. An alternative clearance is issued when weather
conditions are such that a contact approach may be
impracticable.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED CONTACT APPROACH,
And if required,
AT OR BELOW (altitude) (routing).
IF NOT POSSIBLE, (alternative procedures), AND
ADVISE.
Approaches
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 5. Special VFR (SVFR)
7−5−1. AUTHORIZATION
a. SVFR operations in weather conditions less
than basic VFR minima are authorized:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
1. At any location not prohibited by 14 CFR
Part 91, Appendix D or when an exemption to
14 CFR Part 91 has been granted and an associated
LOA established. 14 CFR Part 91 does not prohibit
SVFR helicopter operations.
2. Only within the lateral boundaries of Class B,
Class C, Class D, or Class E surface areas, below
10,000 feet MSL.
3. Only when requested by the pilot.
4. On the basis of weather conditions reported at
the airport of intended landing/departure.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−5−6, Climb to VFR.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−5−7, Ground Visibility Below One Mile.
5. When weather conditions are not reported at
the airport of intended landing/departure and the pilot
advises that VFR cannot be maintained and requests
SVFR.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO ENTER/OUT OF/THROUGH, (name)
SURFACE AREA
and if required,
(direction) OF (name) AIRPORT (specified routing),
and
MAINTAIN SPECIAL V−F−R CONDITIONS,
and if required,
AT OR BELOW (altitude below 10,000 feet MSL)
or as applicable under an exemption from 14 CFR
Part 91,
CLEARED FOR (coded arrival or departure procedure)
ARRIVAL/DEPARTURE, (additional instructions as
required).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−22, Airspace Classes.
Special VFR (SVFR)
b. SVFR operations may be authorized for aircraft
operating in or transiting a Class B, Class C, Class D,
or Class E surface area when the primary airport is
reporting VFR but the pilot advises that basic VFR
cannot be maintained.
NOTE−
The basic requirements for issuance of a SVFR clearance
in subpara a apply with the obvious exception that weather
conditions at the controlling airport are not required to be
less than basic VFR minima.
7−5−2. PRIORITY
a. SVFR flights may be approved only if arriving
and departing IFR aircraft are not delayed.
EXAMPLE−
1. A SVFR aircraft has been cleared to enter a Class B,
Class C, Class D, or Class E surface area and subsequently
an IFR aircraft is ready to depart or is in position to begin
an approach. Less overall delay might accrue to the IFR
aircraft if the SVFR aircraft is allowed to proceed to the
airport and land, rather than leave, a Class B, Class C,
Class D, or Class E surface area or be repositioned to
provide IFR priority.
2. A SVFR aircraft is number one for takeoff and located
in such a position that the number two aircraft, an IFR
flight, cannot taxi past to gain access to the runway. Less
overall delay might accrue to the IFR aircraft by releasing
the SVFR departure rather than by having the aircraft taxi
down the runway to a turnoff point so the IFR aircraft could
be released first.
NOTE−
The priority afforded IFR aircraft over SVFR aircraft is not
intended to be so rigidly applied that inefficient use of
airspace results. The controller has the prerogative of
permitting completion of a SVFR operation already in
progress when an IFR aircraft becomes a factor if better
overall efficiency will result.
b. Inform an aircraft of the anticipated delay when
a SVFR clearance cannot be granted because of IFR
traffic. Do not issue an EFC or expected departure
time.
PHRASEOLOGY−
EXPECT (number) MINUTES DELAY, (additional
instructions as necessary).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−1, Application.
7−5−1
JO 7110.65W
7−5−3. SEPARATION
a. Apply non-radar or visual separation between:
1. SVFR fixed wing aircraft.
2. SVFR fixed-wing aircraft and SVFR
Helicopters.
3. SVFR fixed-wing aircraft and IFR aircraft.
NOTE−
1. Vertical separation is authorized between SVFR fixed
wing aircraft and IFR aircraft as prescribed in FAA
JO 7110.65, Paragraph 7-5-4 Altitude Assignments
2. Due to the requirements for SVFR fixed-wing aircraft to
maintain 1-mile flight visibility and to remain clear of
clouds, radar separation is not authorized during SVFR
fixed-wing operations. Radar vectors are authorized, as
prescribed in para 5-6-1, Application, subparagraph f, to
expedite the entrance, exit, and transition of SVFR
fixed-wing aircraft through the appropriate surface area.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 6, Nonradar
FAAO JO 7110.65, para 7-2-1 Visual Separation
FAAO JO 7110.65, para 7-5-4 Altitude Assignment
b. Apply non-radar, visual, or IFR radar
separation between:
1. SVFR Helicopters.
2. SVFR Helicopters and IFR aircraft.
NOTE−
1. Vertical separation is authorized between SVFR
helicopters and IFR aircraft as prescribed in FAA
JO 7110.65, Paragraph 7-5-4 Altitude Assignments
2. Radar separation as prescribed in Chapter 5 may be
applied provided that the facility conducting the operation
is authorized to provide radar separation services in
accordance with FAAO 7210.3, paragraph 10-5-3,
Functional Use of Certified Tower Radar Displays
(CTRD), subparagraph b5, and subparagraph d. Facilities
that are not delegated airspace or separation responsibility must use CTRDs in accordance with FAAO 7110.65,
paragraph 3-1-9, Use of Tower Radar Displays,
subparagraph b.
c. Alternate SVFR helicopter separation minima
may be established when warranted by the volume
and/or complexity of local helicopter operations.
Alternate SVFR helicopter separation minima must
be established with an LOA with the helicopter
operator which must specify, as a minimum, that
SVFR helicopters are to maintain visual reference to
7−5−2
12/10/15
the surface and adhere to the following aircraft
separation minima:
1. Between a SVFR helicopter and an arriving
or departing IFR aircraft:
(a) 1/2 mile. If the IFR aircraft is less than
1 mile from the landing airport.
(b) 1 mile. If the IFR aircraft is 1 mile or
more from the airport.
2. 1 mile between SVFR helicopters. This
separation may be reduced to 200 feet if:
(a) Both helicopters are departing simultaneously on courses that diverge by at least 30 degrees
and:
(1) The tower can determine this separation
by reference to surface markings; or
(2) One of the departing helicopters is
instructed to remain at least 200 feet from the other.
NOTE−
1. Vertical separation is authorized between SVFR
helicopters and IFR aircraft as prescribed in FAAO
7110.65, 7-5-4, Altitude Assignments.
2. Radar separation as prescribed in Chapter 5 may be
applied provided that the facility conducting the operation
is authorized to provide radar separation services in
accordance with FAAO 7210.3, paragraph 10-5-3,
Functional Use of Certified Tower Radar Displays
(CTRD), subparagraph b5, and subparagraph d. Facilities
that are not delegated airspace or separation responsibility must use CTRDs in accordance with FAAO 7110.65,
paragraph 3-1-9, Use of Tower Radar Displays,
subparagraph b.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO JO 7110.65, para 7-2-1, Visual Separation
FAAO JO 7110.65, para 7-5-4 Altitude Separation
FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 6, Nonradar
FAAO JO 7210.3, para 10-5-3, Functional Use of Certified Tower
Radar Displays
7−5−4. ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENT
Do not assign a fixed altitude when applying vertical
separation, but clear the SVFR aircraft at or below an
altitude which is at least 500 feet below any
conflicting IFR traffic but not below the MSA
prescribed in 14 CFR Section 91.119.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN SPECIAL V−F−R CONDITIONS AT OR
BELOW (altitude).
NOTE−
1. SVFR aircraft are not assigned fixed altitudes to
Special VFR (SVFR)
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
maintain because of the clearance from clouds
requirement.
7−5−7. GROUND VISIBILITY BELOW ONE
MILE
2. The MSAs are:
(a) Over congested areas, an altitude at least 1,000 feet
above the highest obstacle, and
(b) Over other than congested areas, an altitude at least
500 feet above the surface.
(c) Helicopters may be operated at less than the
minimum altitudes prescribed in (a) and (b) above.
14 CFR Part 91 does not prohibit helicopter SVFR
flight when the visibility is less than 1 mile. Treat
requests for SVFR fixed wing operations as follows
when the ground visibility is officially reported at an
airport as less than 1 mile:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−1, Application.
14 CFR Section 91.119, Minimum Safe Altitudes: General.
7−5−5. LOCAL OPERATIONS
a. Authorize local SVFR operations for a specified
period (series of landings and takeoffs, etc.) upon
request if the aircraft can be recalled when traffic or
weather conditions require. Where warranted, LOAs
may be consummated.
PHRASEOLOGY−
LOCAL SPECIAL V−F−R OPERATIONS IN THE
IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF (name) AIRPORT ARE
AUTHORIZED UNTIL (time). MAINTAIN SPECIAL
V−F−RCONDITIONS.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−2, Appropriate Subjects.
b. Control facilities may also authorize an FSS to
transmit SVFR clearances so that only one aircraft at
a time operates in the Class B, Class C, Class D, or
Class E surface areas unless pilots agree that they
will maintain visual separation with other aircraft
operating in the Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E
surface areas. Such authorization concerning visual
separation by pilots must be contained in a LOA
between the control facility and the FSS.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4−3−3, Developing LOA.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
7−5−6. CLIMB TO VFR
Authorize an aircraft to climb to VFR upon request if
the only weather limitation is restricted visibility.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLIMB TO V−F−R WITHIN (name) SURFACE
AREA/WITHIN (a specified distance) MILES FROM
(airport name) AIRPORT, MAINTAIN SPECIAL V−F−R
CONDITIONS UNTIL REACHING V−F−R.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−22, Airspace Classes.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−5−1, Authorization.
Special VFR (SVFR)
a. Inform departing aircraft that ground visibility
is less than 1 mile and that a clearance cannot be
issued.
b. Inform arriving aircraft, operating outside of a
Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E surface area, that
ground visibility is less than 1 mile and that, unless an
emergency exists, a clearance cannot be issued.
c. Inform arriving aircraft, operating VFR/SVFR
within a Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E surface
area, that ground visibility is less than 1 mile and
request the pilot to advise intentions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Name of airport) VISIBILITY LESS THAN ONE MILE.
ADVISE INTENTIONS.
NOTE−
Clear an aircraft to land at an airport with an operating
control tower, traffic permitting, if the pilot reports the
airport in sight. The pilot is responsible to continue to the
airport or exit the surface area. 14 CFR Section 91.157
prohibits VFR aircraft (other than helicopters) from
landing at any airport within a surface area when ground
visibility is less than 1 mile. A pilot could inadvertently
encounter conditions that are below SVFR minimums after
entering a surface area due to rapidly changing weather.
The pilot is best suited to determine the action to be taken
since pilots operating under SVFR between sunrise and
sunset are not required to be instrument rated, and the
possibility exists that flight visibility may not be the same
as ground visibility. 14 CFR Section 91.3 authorizes a pilot
encountering an inflight emergency requiring immediate
action to deviate from any rule of 14 CFR Part 91 to the
extent required to meet that emergency. Flight into adverse
weather conditions may require the pilot to execute the
emergency authority granted in 14 CFR Section 91.3 and
continue inbound to land.
d. Authorize scheduled air carrier aircraft in the
U.S. to conduct operations if ground visibility is not
less than 1/2 statute mile.
NOTE−
14 CFR Part 121 permits landing or takeoff by domestic
scheduled air carriers where a local surface restriction to
visibility is not less than 1/2 statute mile, provided all turns
after takeoff or before landing and all flights beyond
1 statute mile from the airport boundary can be
7−5−3
JO 7110.65W
accomplished above or outside the area so restricted. The
pilot is solely responsible for determining if the nature of
the visibility restriction will permit compliance with the
provisions of 14 CFR Part 121.
e. Clear an aircraft to fly through the Class B,
Class C, Class D, or Class E surface area if the
aircraft reports flight visibility is at least 1 statute
mile.
12/10/15
a clearance cannot be issued unless an emergency
exists.
c. Request the intentions of an arriving aircraft
operating within a Class B, Class C, Class D, or
Class E surface area.
a. Inform departing aircraft that a clearance cannot
be issued.
NOTE−
Clear an aircraft to land at an airport with an operating
control tower, traffic permitting, if the pilot reports the
airport in sight. The pilot is responsible to continue to the
airport or exit the surface area. 14 CFR Section 91.157
prohibits VFR aircraft (other than helicopters) from
landing at any airport within a surface area when flight
visibility is less than 1 mile. A pilot could inadvertently
encounter conditions that are below SVFR minimums after
entering a surface area due to rapidly changing weather.
The pilot is best suited to determine the action to be taken
since pilots operating under SVFR between sunrise and
sunset are not required to be instrument rated, and the
possibility exists that flight visibility may not be the same
as ground visibility. 14 CFR Section 91.3 authorizes a pilot
encountering an inflight emergency requiring immediate
action to deviate from any rule of 14 CFR Part 91 to the
extent required to meet that emergency. Flight into adverse
weather conditions may require the pilot to execute the
emergency authority granted in 14 CFR Section 91.3 and
continue inbound to land.
b. Inform arriving aircraft operating outside of a
Class B, Class C, Class D or Class E surface area that
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−5−1, Authorization.
7−5−8. FLIGHT VISIBILITY BELOW ONE
MILE
Treat requests for SVFR fixed-wing operations as
follows when weather conditions are not reported at
an airport and the pilot advises the flight visibility is
less than 1 mile:
NOTE−
14 CFR Part 91 prescribes the visibility for basic VFR and
SVFR operations as the official reported ground visibility
at airports where provided and landing or takeoff “flight
visibility” where there is no official reported ground
visibility.
7−5−4
Special VFR (SVFR)
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 6. Basic Radar Service
to VFR Aircraft− Terminal
7−6−1. APPLICATION
a. Basic radar services for VFR aircraft must
include:
requested. Arriving aircraft are assumed to want
radar service unless the pilot states “Negative radar
service,” or makes a similar comment.
1. Safety alerts.
7−6−3. INITIAL CONTACT
2. Traffic advisories.
An aircraft sighted by the local controller at the time
of first radio contact may be positioned in the landing
sequence after coordination with approach control.
3. Limited radar vectoring when requested by
the pilot.
4. Sequencing at locations where procedures
have been established for this purpose and/or when
covered by a LOA.
b. Apply the procedures contained in para 7−1−3,
Approach Control Service for VFR Arriving Aircraft,
when arriving VFR aircraft are handled by approach
control and provide vectoring service in accordance
with Chapter 5, Radar, Section 7, Speed Adjustment,
in addition to the radar services prescribed in
para 5−6−1, Application, and para 5−6−2, Methods.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−16, Surface Areas.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−6−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 11, Section 1, Terminal VFR Radar
Services.
AIM, Para 4−1−18, Terminal Radar Services for VFR Aircraft.
7−6−2. SERVICE AVAILABILITY
a. Inform aircraft on initial contact whenever this
service cannot be provided because of radar outage
and apply para 7−1−3, Approach Control Service for
VFR Arriving Aircraft.
b. Provide the service, to the extent possible using
an available frequency, if an aircraft desires the
service but cannot communicate on the appropriate
frequencies. Aircraft which do not desire radar
service may be fitted into the landing sequence by the
tower. Coordination of these aircraft must be
accomplished with the approach control unless a
facility directive/LOA prescribes otherwise. Nonparticipating aircraft must, to the extent possible, be
given the same landing sequence they would have
received had they been sequenced by radar vectors.
c. Radar sequencing to the primary airport, when
local procedures have been developed, must be
provided unless the pilot states that the service is not
Basic Radar Service to VFR Aircraft− Terminal
7−6−4. IDENTIFICATION
Identify the aircraft before taking action to position it
in the approach sequence.
7−6−5. HOLDING
Hold VFR aircraft over the initial reporting fix or a fix
near the airport when holding is required to establish
an approach sequence.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−1−4, Visual Holding of VFR Aircraft.
7−6−6. APPROACH SEQUENCE
Do not assign landing sequence numbers, when
establishing aircraft in the approach sequence, unless
this responsibility has been delegated in a LOA or
facility directive.
NOTE−
The landing sequence is ordinarily established by the
tower.
7−6−7. SEQUENCING
a. Establish radar contact before instructing a VFR
aircraft to enter the traffic pattern at a specified point
or vectoring the aircraft to a position in the approach
sequence. Inform the pilot of the aircraft to follow
when the integrity of the approach sequence is
dependent on following a preceding aircraft. Ensure
visual contact is established with the aircraft to follow
and provide instruction to follow that aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FOLLOW (description) (position, if necessary).
b. Direct a VFR aircraft to a point near the airport
to hold when a position is not available in the
approach sequence for the runway in use. The aircraft
7−6−1
JO 7110.65W
may be vectored to another runway after coordination
with the tower.
c. Apply the following procedures to a VFR
aircraft being radar sequenced:
1. The provisions of Paragraph 5-5-4, Minima,
subparagraphs f and g.
2. When parallel runways are less than 2,500
feet apart, do not permit a super or heavy aircraft to
overtake any aircraft, nor a B757 or other large
aircraft to overtake a small aircraft established on
final within the facility’s area of responsibility.
7−6−8. CONTROL TRANSFER
a. Inform the tower of the aircraft’s position and
then instruct the pilot to contact the tower.
b. The aircraft may be instructed to contact the
tower prior to the tower being advised of the aircraft’s
position provided:
1. The tower advises the aircraft is in sight, and
2. Space is available in the landing sequence.
c. Instruct the pilot to contact the tower at the
appropriate point when the approach control
ARTS/STARS track data is being displayed on the
tower’s BRITE/DBRITE/TDW display, the aircraft
is tagged by ARTS/STARS, and a facility directive
specifies change of communications and control
jurisdiction points.
NOTE−
The point at which an aircraft is instructed to contact the
tower is determined by prior coordination between the
tower and approach control and will vary, depending on
the runway in use, weather, etc. The transfer of
communications ordinarily occurs at least 5 miles from the
runway. The point for the transfer of communications
should be a sufficient distance from the airport to permit
the tower to properly sequence the aircraft, but not at a
distance that could derogate the provision of radar traffic
information service.
7−6−2
12/10/15
7−6−9. ABANDONED APPROACH
Instruct the aircraft to change to approach control for
sequencing when an aircraft, under tower control,
abandons the approach and coordination with
approach control reveals no immediate space in the
approach sequence.
7−6−10. VFR DEPARTURE INFORMATION
Inform departing VFR aircraft who request radar
traffic advisories when to contact departure control
and the frequency to use. Provide traffic advisories in
accordance with para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories,
after the departure is radar identified.
NOTE−
Departing aircraft desiring traffic information are
expected to request the service and to state their proposed
direction of flight upon initial contact with ground control.
7−6−11. TERMINATION OF SERVICE
Basic radar services should be provided to the extent
possible, workload permitting. Terminate radar
service to aircraft landing at airports other than those
where sequencing service is provided at a sufficient
distance from the airport to permit the pilot to change
to the appropriate frequency for traffic and airport
information.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED, SQUAWK ONE TWO
ZERO ZERO,
or
SQUAWK VFR,
then
CHANGE TO ADVISORY FREQUENCY APPROVED,
or
CONTACT (frequency identification),
or
FREQUENCY CHANGE APPROVED.
Basic Radar Service to VFR Aircraft− Terminal
12/10/15
7−6−12. SERVICE PROVIDED WHEN
TOWER IS INOPERATIVE
a. Provide the following services during hours
when the tower is not in operation:
1. Wind direction and velocity.
NOTE−
Issue information provided from the FSS or WSO.
Otherwise, inform the pilot that wind information is not
available.
Basic Radar Service to VFR Aircraft− Terminal
JO 7110.65W
2. Traffic information.
3. Inform aircraft when radar service is
terminated.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−13, Radar Service Termination.
b. Do not assign landing sequence.
7−6−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 7. Terminal Radar Service
Area (TRSA)− Terminal
7−7−1. APPLICATION
7−7−5. ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENTS
Apply TRSA procedures within the designated
TRSA in addition to the basic services described in
Chapter 7, Visual, Section 6, Basic Radar Service to
VFR Aircraft− Terminal.
a. Altitude information contained in a clearance,
instruction, or advisory to VFR aircraft must meet
MVA, MSA, or minimum IFR altitude criteria.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
7−7−2. ISSUANCE OF EFC
Inform the pilot when to expect further clearance
when VFR aircraft are held either inside or outside the
TRSA.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
7−7−3. SEPARATION
Separate VFR aircraft from VFR/IFR aircraft by any
one of the following:
a. Visual separation, as specified in para 7−2−1,
Visual Separation, para 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual
Approach, and para 7−6−7, Sequencing.
NOTE−
Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories in accordance with para 2−1−20, Wake Turbulence Cautionary
Advisories.
b. 500 feet vertical separation.
c. Target resolution, except when ISR is being
displayed.
NOTE−
Apply the provisions of Paragraph 5-5-4, Minima,
subparagraphs f and g, when wake turbulence separation
is required.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−2, Flight Direction.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−3, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−6, Minimum En Route Altitudes.
b. If required, issue altitude assignments, consistent with the provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.119.
NOTE−
The MSAs are:
1. Over congested areas, an altitude at least 1,000 feet
above the highest obstacle; and
2. Over other than congested areas, an altitude at least
500 feet above the surface.
c. When necessary to assign an altitude for
separation purposes to VFR aircraft contrary to
14 CFR Section 91.159, advise the aircraft to resume
altitudes appropriate for the direction of flight when
the altitude assignment is no longer needed for
separation or when leaving the TRSA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RESUME APPROPRIATE VFR ALTITUDES.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−8−11, Practice Approaches.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−6−1, Application.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
7−7−6. APPROACH INTERVAL
The tower must specify the approach interval.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
7−7−7. TRSA DEPARTURE INFORMATION
7−7−4. HELICOPTER TRAFFIC
Helicopters need not be separated from other
helicopters. Traffic information must be exchanged,
as necessary.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)− Terminal
a. At controlled airports within the TRSA, inform
a departing aircraft proposing to operate within the
TRSA when to contact departure control and the
frequency to use. If the aircraft is properly equipped,
ground control or clearance delivery must issue the
appropriate beacon code.
7−7−1
JO 7110.65W
NOTE−
Departing aircraft are assumed to want TRSA service
unless the pilot states, “negative TRSA service,” or makes
a similar comment. Pilots are expected to inform the
controller of intended destination and/or route of flight and
altitude.
b. Provide separation until the aircraft leaves the
TRSA.
c. Inform VFR participating aircraft when leaving
the TRSA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
LEAVING THE (name) TRSA,
12/10/15
d. Aircraft departing satellite controlled airports
that will penetrate the TRSA should be provided the
same service as those aircraft departing the primary
airport. Procedures for handling this situation must be
covered in a letter of agreement or facility directives,
as appropriate.
e. Procedures for handling aircraft departing
uncontrolled satellite airports must be advertised in a
facility bulletin and service provided accordingly.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
and as appropriate,
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION, REMAIN THIS
FREQUENCY FOR TRAFFIC ADVISORIES, RADAR
SERVICE TERMINATED, SQUAWK ONE TWO ZERO
ZERO.
7−7−2
Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)− Terminal
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 8. Class C Service− Terminal
7−8−1. APPLICATION
7−8−3. SEPARATION
Apply Class C service procedures within the
designated Class C airspace and the associated outer
area. Class C services are designed to keep ATC
informed of all aircraft within Class C airspace, not
to exclude operations. Two-way radio communications and operational transponder are normally
required for operations within Class C airspace, but
operations without radio communications or
transponder can be conducted by LOA, facility
directive, or special arrangement with Class C
airspace controlling facility.
Separate VFR aircraft from IFR aircraft by any one of
the following:
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
14 CFR Section 91.215, ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting
Equipment and Use.
7−8−2. CLASS C SERVICES
a. Class C services include the following:
1. Sequencing of all aircraft to the primary
airport.
2. Standard IFR services to IFR aircraft.
3. Separation, traffic advisories, and safety
alerts between IFR and VFR aircraft.
4. Mandatory traffic advisories and safety alerts
between VFR aircraft.
a. Visual separation as specified in para 7−2−1,
Visual Separation, para 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual
Approach, and para 7−6−7, Sequencing.
NOTE−
Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories in accordance with para 2−1−20, Wake Turbulence Cautionary
Advisories.
b. 500 feet vertical separation;
c. Target resolution, except when ISR is being
displayed.
NOTE−
Apply the provisions of Paragraph 5-5-4, Minima,
subparagraphs f and g, when wake turbulence separation
is required.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
7−8−4. ESTABLISHING TWO-WAY
COMMUNICATIONS
d. Aircraft should not normally be held. However,
if holding is necessary, inform the pilot of the
expected length of delay.
Class C service requires pilots to establish two-way
radio communications before entering Class C
airspace. If the controller responds to a radio call
with, “(a/c call sign) standby,” radio communications
have been established and the pilot can enter Class C
airspace. If workload or traffic conditions prevent
immediate provision of Class C services, inform the
pilot to remain outside Class C airspace until
conditions permit the services to be provided.
e. When a radar outage occurs, advise aircraft that
Class C services are not available and, if appropriate,
when to contact the tower.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(A/c call sign) REMAIN OUTSIDE CHARLIE AIRSPACE
AND STANDBY.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
b. Provide Class C services to all aircraft operating
within Class C airspace.
c. Provide Class C services to all participating
aircraft in the outer area.
Class C Service− Terminal
7−8−1
JO 7110.65W
7−8−5. ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENTS
a. When necessary to assign altitudes to VFR
aircraft, assign altitudes that meet the MVA, MSA, or
minimum IFR altitude criteria.
b. Aircraft assigned altitudes which are contrary to
14 CFR Section 91.159 must be advised to resume
altitudes appropriate for the direction of flight when
the altitude is no longer needed for separation, when
leaving the outer area, or when terminating Class C
service.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RESUME APPROPRIATE VFR ALTITUDES.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7−2−1, Visual Separation.
7−8−6. EXCEPTIONS
a. VFR helicopters need not be separated from
IFR helicopters. Traffic information and safety alerts
must be issued as appropriate.
b. Hot air balloons need not be separated from IFR
aircraft. Traffic information and safety alerts must be
issued as appropriate.
7−8−2
12/10/15
7−8−7. ADJACENT AIRPORT OPERATIONS
a. Aircraft that will penetrate Class C airspace
after departing controlled airports within or adjacent
to Class C airspace must be provided the same
services as those aircraft departing the primary
airport. Procedures for handling this situation must be
covered in a LOA or a facility directive, as
appropriate.
b. Aircraft departing uncontrolled airports within
Class C airspace must be handled using procedures
advertised in a Letter to Airmen.
7−8−8. TERMINATION OF SERVICE
Unless aircraft are landing at secondary airports or
have requested termination of service while in the
outer area, provide services until the aircraft departs
the associated outer area. Terminate Class C service
to aircraft landing at other than the primary airport at
a sufficient distance from the airport to allow the pilot
to change to the appropriate frequency for traffic and
airport information.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CHANGE TO ADVISORY FREQUENCY APPROVED,
or
CONTACT (facility identification).
Class C Service− Terminal
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 9. Class B Service Area− Terminal
7−9−1. APPLICATION
Apply Class B services and procedures within the
designated Class B airspace.
a. No person may operate an aircraft within
Class B airspace unless:
1. The aircraft has an operable two-way radio
capable of communications with ATC on appropriate
frequencies for that Class B airspace.
2. The aircraft is equipped with the applicable
operating transponder and automatic altitude reporting equipment specified in para (a) of 14 CFR
Section 91.215, except as provided in para (d) of that
section.
7−9−2. VFR AIRCRAFT IN CLASS B
AIRSPACE
a. VFR aircraft must obtain an ATC clearance to
operate in Class B airspace.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−18, Operational Requests.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−4−22, Airspace Classes.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED THROUGH/TO ENTER/OUT OF BRAVO
AIRSPACE,
and as appropriate,
VIA (route). MAINTAIN (altitude) WHILE IN BRAVO
AIRSPACE.
or
CLEARED AS REQUESTED.
(Additional instructions, as necessary.)
REMAIN OUTSIDE BRAVO AIRSPACE. (When
necessary, reason and/or additional instructions.)
NOTE−
1. Assignment of radar headings, routes, or altitudes is
based on the provision that a pilot operating in accordance
with VFR is expected to advise ATC if compliance will
cause violation of any part of the CFR.
2. Separation and sequencing for VFR aircraft is
dependent upon radar. Efforts should be made to segregate
Class B Service Area− Terminal
VFR traffic from IFR traffic flows when a radar outage
occurs.
b. Approve/deny requests from VFR aircraft to
operate in Class B airspace based on workload,
operational limitations and traffic conditions.
c. Inform the pilot when to expect further
clearance when VFR aircraft are held either inside or
outside Class B airspace.
d. Inform VFR aircraft when leaving Class B
airspace.
PHRASEOLOGY−
LEAVING (name) BRAVO AIRSPACE,
and as appropriate,
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION, REMAIN THIS
FREQUENCY FOR TRAFFIC ADVISORIES, RADAR
SERVICE TERMINATED, SQUAWK ONE TWO ZERO
ZERO.
7−9−3. METHODS
a. To the extent practical, clear large turbine
engine-powered airplanes to/from the primary airport
using altitudes and routes that avoid VFR corridors
and airspace below the Class B airspace floor where
VFR aircraft are operating.
NOTE−
Pilots operating in accordance with VFR are expected to
advise ATC if compliance with assigned altitudes,
headings, or routes will cause violation of any part of the
CFR.
b. Vector aircraft to remain in Class B airspace
after entry. Inform the aircraft when leaving and
reentering Class B airspace if it becomes necessary to
extend the flight path outside Class B airspace for
spacing.
NOTE−
14 CFR Section 91.131 states that “Unless otherwise
authorized by ATC, each person operating a large turbine
engine-powered airplane to or from a primary airport for
which a Class B airspace area is designated must operate
at or above the designated floors of the Class B airspace
area while within the lateral limits of that area.” Such
authorization should be the exception rather than the rule.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5−1−10, Deviation Advisories.
7−9−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
c. Aircraft departing controlled airports within
Class B airspace will be provided the same services
as those aircraft departing the primary airport.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−18, Operational Requests.
NOTE−
Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories in accordance with para 2−1−20, Wake Turbulence Cautionary
Advisories.
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term− Lateral Separation.
P/CG Term− Radar Separation.
P/CG Term− Target Resolution.
P/CG Term− Visual Separation.
7−9−4. SEPARATION
a. Standard IFR services to IFR aircraft.
b. VFR aircraft must be separated from VFR/IFR
aircraft/ helicopter/rotorcraft that weigh more than
19,000 pounds and turbojets by no less than:
1. 1 1/2 miles separation, or
NOTE−
When ISR is being displayed, discontinue 1
separation.
7−9−5. TRAFFIC ADVISORIES
a. Provide mandatory traffic advisories and safety
alerts, between all aircraft.
b. Apply merging target procedures in accordance
with para 5−1−8, Merging Target Procedures.
1/2 −NM
2. 500 feet vertical separation, or
NOTE−
Apply the provisions of paragraph 5−5−4, Minima, when
wake turbulence separation is required.
3. Visual separation, as specified in
paragraph 7−2−1,
Visual
Separation,
paragraph 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual Approach, and
paragraph 7−6−7, Sequencing.
NOTE−
Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories in accordance with paragraph 2−1−20, Wake Turbulence
Cautionary Advisories.
c. For the application of Class Bravo airspace
separation requirements, the V-22 Osprey must be
treated as a helicopter/rotorcraft.
d. VFR aircraft must be separated from all
VFR/IFR aircraft which weigh 19,000 pounds or less
by a minimum of:
1. Target resolution, except when ISR is being
displayed, or
2. 500 feet vertical separation, or
NOTE−
1. Apply the provisions of para 5−5−4, Minima, when
wake turbulence separation is required.
7−9−6. HELICOPTER TRAFFIC
VFR helicopters need not be separated from VFR or
IFR helicopters. Traffic advisories and safety alerts
must be issued as appropriate.
7−9−7. ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENTS
a. Altitude information contained in a clearance,
instruction, or advisory to VFR aircraft must meet
MVA, MSA, or minimum IFR altitude criteria.
b. Issue altitude assignments, if required, consistent with the provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.119.
NOTE−
The MSAs are:
1. Over congested areas, an altitude at least 1,000 feet
above the highest obstacle,
2. Over other than congested areas, an altitude at least
500 feet above the surface.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−2, Flight Direction.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−3, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−6, Minimum En Route Altitudes.
c. Aircraft assigned altitudes which are contrary to
14 CFR Section 91.159 must be advised to resume
altitudes appropriate for the direction of flight when
the altitude assignment is no longer required or when
leaving Class B airspace.
2. Aircraft weighing 19,000 pounds or less include all
aircraft in SRS Categories I and II plus G73, STAR, S601,
BE30, SW3, B190 and C212.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RESUME APPROPRIATE VFR ALTITUDES.
3. Visual separation, as specified in para 7−2−1,
Visual Separation, para 7−4−2, Vectors for Visual
Approach, and para 7−6−7, Sequencing.
7−9−8. APPROACH INTERVAL
7−9−2
The tower must specify the approach interval.
Class B Service Area− Terminal
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 8. Offshore/Oceanic Procedures
Section 1. General
8−1−1. ATC SERVICE
Provide air traffic control service in oceanic
controlled airspace in accordance with the procedures
in this chapter except when other procedures/minima
are prescribed in a directive or a letter of agreement.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Procedural Letters of Agreement, Para 1−1−9.
d. Radar separation, as specified in Chapter 5,
Radar, where radar coverage is adequate.
8−1−5. ALTIMETER SETTING
Within oceanic control areas, unless directed and/or
charted otherwise, altitude assignment must be based
on flight levels and a standard altimeter setting of
29.92 inches Hg.
8−1−2. OPERATIONS IN OFFSHORE
AIRSPACE AREAS
8−1−6. RECEIPT OF POSITION REPORTS
Provide air traffic control service in offshore airspace
areas in accordance with procedures and minima in
this chapter. For those situations not covered by this
chapter, the provisions in this Order must apply.
When a position report affecting separation is not
received, take action to obtain the report no later than
10 minutes after the control estimate, unless
otherwise specified.
8−1−3. VFR FLIGHT PLANS
8−1−7. OCEANIC ERROR REPORT
PROCEDURES
VFR flights in Oceanic FIRs may be conducted in
meteorological conditions equal to or greater than
those specified in 14 CFR Section 91.155, Basic VFR
weather minimums. Operations on a VFR flight plan
are permitted only between sunrise and sunset and
only within:
a. Miami, Houston, and San Juan Oceanic Control
Areas (CTAs) below FL 180.
b. Within the Oakland FIR when operating less
than 100 NM seaward from the shoreline within
controlled airspace.
c. All Oceanic FIR airspace below the Oceanic
CTAs.
8−1−4. TYPES OF SEPARATION
Separation must consist of at least one of the
following:
FAAO 7110.82 establishes procedures for reporting
Gross Navigation Errors (GNE), height errors,
time(longitudinal) errors, intervention, and Special
Area of Operations (SAO) verification in oceanic
airspace. This data is needed for risk modeling
activities to support separation standard reductions.
8−1−8. USE OF CONTROL ESTIMATES
Control estimates are the estimated position of
aircraft, with reference to time as determined by the
ATC automation system in use or calculated by the
controller using known wind patterns, previous
aircraft transit times, pilot progress reports, and pilot
estimates. These estimates may be updated through
the receipt of automated position reports and/or
manually updated by the controller. Control estimates
must be used when applying time−based separation
minima.
a. Vertical separation;
8−1−9. RVSM OPERATIONS
b. Horizontal separation, either;
Controller responsibilities for non−RVSM aircraft
operating in RVSM airspace must include but not be
limited to the following:
1. Longitudinal; or
2. Lateral;
c. Composite separation;
General
a. Ensure non−RVSM aircraft are not permitted in
RVSM airspace unless they meet the criteria of
8−1−1
JO 7110.65W
excepted aircraft and are previously approved by the
operations supervisor/CIC.
b. In addition to those aircraft listed in Chapter 2,
Section 1, Paragraph 2-1-28 RVSM Operations in this
order, the following aircraft operating within oceanic
airspace or transiting to/from oceanic airspace are
excepted:
1. Aircraft being initially delivered to the State
of Registry or Operator;
2. Aircraft that was formerly RVSM approved
but has experienced an equipment failure and is being
flown to a maintenance facility for repair in order to
meet RVSM requirements and/or obtain approval;
8−1−2
12/10/15
3. Aircraft being utilized for mercy or
humanitarian purposes;
4. Within the Oakland, Anchorage, and Arctic
FIR’s, an aircraft transporting a spare engine
mounted under the wing.
(a) These exceptions are accommodated on a
workload or traffic-permitting basis.
(b) All other requirements contained in
paragraph 2-1-28 are applicable to this section.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-1-28, RVSM Operations
General
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Coordination
8−2−1. GENERAL
ARTCCs must:
a. Forward to appropriate ATS facilities, as a flight
progresses, current flight plan and control
information.
b. Coordinate flight plan and control information
in sufficient time to permit the receiving facility to
analyze the data and to effect any necessary
additional coordination. This may be specified in a
letter of agreement.
c. Coordinate with adjacent ATS facilities when
airspace to be protected will overlap the common
boundary.
d. Forward revisions of estimates of 3 minutes or
more to the appropriate ATS facility.
e. Coordinate with adjacent facilities on IFR and
VFR flights to ensure the continuation of appropriate
air traffic services.
8−2−2. TRANSFER OF CONTROL AND
COMMUNICATIONS
a. Only one air traffic control unit must control an
aircraft at any given time.
b. The control of an aircraft must be transferred
from one control unit to another at the time the aircraft
Coordination
is estimated to cross the control boundary or at such
other point or time agreed upon by the two units.
c. The transferring unit must forward to the
accepting unit any changed flight plan or control data
which are pertinent to the transfer.
d. The accepting unit must notify the transferring
unit if it is unable to accept control under the terms
specified, or it must specify the changes or conditions
required so that the aircraft can be accepted.
e. The accepting unit must not alter the clearance
of an aircraft that has not yet reached the transfer of
control point without the prior approval of the
transferring unit.
f. Where nonradar separation minima are being
applied, the transfer of air-ground communications
with an aircraft must be made 5 minutes before the
time at which the aircraft is estimated to reach the
boundary unless otherwise agreed to by the control
and/or communication units concerned.
8−2−3. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
INTERFACILITY DATA COMMUNICATIONS
(AIDC)
Where interfacility data communications capability
has been implemented, its use for ATC coordination
should be accomplished in accordance with regional
Interface Control Documents, and supported by
letters of agreement between the facilities concerned.
8−2−1
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 3. Longitudinal Separation
8−3−1. APPLICATION
FIG 8−3−1
Same Courses
a. Longitudinal separation must be applied so that
the spacing between the estimated positions of the
aircraft being separated is never less than a prescribed
minimum.
NOTE−
Consider separation to exist when the estimated positions
of the aircraft being separated are never less than a
prescribed minimum.
b. In situations where one aircraft requires a
different time−based longitudinal standard than
another, apply the larger of the two standards between
the aircraft concerned.
c. Longitudinal separation expressed in distance
may be applied as prescribed in Chapter 6, Nonradar.
d. In situations where an update to a control
estimate indicates that the minimum being applied no
longer exists, controllers must ensure that separation
is reestablished. Issue traffic information as
necessary.
2. Crossing tracks. Ensure that the estimated
spacing at the point of intersection is not less than the
applicable minimum required. (See FIG 8−3−2.)
FIG 8−3−2
Crossing Courses
8−3−2. SEPARATION METHODS
a. For the purpose of application of longitudinal
separation, the terms same track must be considered
identical to same course, reciprocal tracks must be
considered identical to reciprocal courses, and
crossing tracks, must be considered identical to
crossing courses.
NOTE−
Refer to para 1−2−2, Course Definitions.
b. Separate aircraft longitudinally in accordance
with the following:
1. Same track. Ensure that the estimated
spacing between aircraft is not less than the
applicable minimum required. (See FIG 8−3−1.)
Longitudinal Separation
8−3−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
3. Reciprocal tracks:
(a) Ensure that aircraft are vertically separated for a time interval equal to the applicable
minimum required before and after the aircraft are
estimated to pass. (See FIG 8−3−3.)
FIG 8−3−3
Reciprocal Courses
(b) Vertical separation may be discontinued
after one of the following conditions are met:
(1) Both aircraft have reported passing a
significant point and the aircraft are separated by at
least the applicable minimum required for the same
direction longitudinal spacing; (See FIG 8−3−4.) or
FIG 8−3−4
Vertical Separation
b. Routes:
1. The aircraft follow the same track or
continuously diverging tracks, and
2. The aircraft concerned have reported over a
common point; or
3. If the aircraft have not reported over a
common point, the appropriate time interval being
applied between aircraft exists and will exist at the
common point; or,
4. If a common point does not exist, the
appropriate time interval being applied between
aircraft exists and will exist at significant points along
each track.
c. Altitudes: The aircraft concerned are in level,
climbing or descending flight.
d. Mach Number Assignment:
1. A Mach number (or, when appropriate, a
range of Mach numbers) must be issued to each
aircraft unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of
ICAO regional agreement.
NOTE−
1. The application of Mach number technique requires
pilots to strictly adhere to the last assigned Mach number
(or range of Mach numbers), even during climbs and
descents, unless revised by ATC. Turbojet aircraft must
request ATC approval before making any changes. If it is
essential to make an immediate temporary change in the
Mach number (e.g., due to turbulence), ATC must be
notified as soon as possible that such a change has been
made.
2. When it is necessary to issue crossing restrictions to
ensure the appropriate time interval, it may be impossible
for an aircraft to comply with both the clearance to meet the
crossing restrictions and the clearance to maintain a
single, specific Mach number.
REFERENCE−
ICAO DOC 9426−AN/924, Part II, Section 2, Para 2.3.4, Para 2.4.7,
and Para 2.5.3.
(2) Both aircraft have reported passing
ground-based NAVAIDs or DME fixes indicating
that they have passed each other.
EXAMPLE−
“Maintain Mach point eight four or greater.”
“Maintain Mach point eight three or less.”
“Maintain Mach point eight two or greater; do not exceed
Mach point eight four.”
8−3−3. MACH NUMBER TECHNIQUE
e. Longitudinal Minima:
When the Mach number technique is applied,
minimum longitudinal separation must be:
1. 10 minutes, provided that:
(a) The preceding aircraft maintains a Mach
number equal to, or greater than that maintained by
the following aircraft; or
The use of Mach number technique allows for the
application of reduced longitudinal separation
minima. The following conditions must be met when
the Mach number technique is being applied:
a. Aircraft Types: Turbojet aircraft only.
8−3−2
Longitudinal Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
(b) When the following aircraft is faster than
the preceding aircraft, at least 10 minutes exists until
another form of separation is achieved; or
2. Between 9 and 5 minutes inclusive, provided
that the preceding aircraft is maintaining a Mach
number greater than the following aircraft in
accordance with the following:
(a) 9 minutes, if the preceding aircraft is
Mach 0.02 faster than the following aircraft;
(b) 8 minutes, if the preceding aircraft is
Mach 0.03 faster than the following aircraft;
(c) 7 minutes, if the preceding aircraft is
Mach 0.04 faster than the following aircraft;
(d) 6 minutes, if the preceding aircraft is
Mach 0.05 faster than the following aircraft;
(e) 5 minutes, if the preceding aircraft is
Mach 0.06 faster than the following aircraft.
NOTE−
A “rule−of−thumb” may be applied to assist in providing
the required estimated spacing over the oceanic exit point
when either conflict probe is not in use or when requested
by another facility. This rule−of−thumb can be stated as
follows: For each 600 NM in distance between the entry
and exit points of the area where the Mach Number
Technique is used, add 1 minute for each 0.01 difference in
Mach number for the two aircraft concerned to compensate
for the fact that the second aircraft is overtaking the first
aircraft. (See TBL 8−3−1.)
TBL 8−3−1
Application of the Mach Number Technique When the Following Aircraft is Faster
Distance to Fly and Separation (in Minutes) Required at Entry Point
Difference in
Mach
001−600 NM
601−1200 NM
1201−1800 NM
1801−2400 NM
2401−3000 NM
0.01 . . . . . . . . . .
0.02 . . . . . . . . . .
0.03 . . . . . . . . . .
0.04 . . . . . . . . . .
0.05 . . . . . . . . . .
0.06 . . . . . . . . . .
0.07 . . . . . . . . . .
0.08 . . . . . . . . . .
0.09 . . . . . . . . . .
0.10 . . . . . . . . . .
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
14
18
22
26
30
34
38
42
46
50
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
Longitudinal Separation
8−3−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 4. Lateral Separation
8−4−1. APPLICATION
Separate aircraft by assigning different flight paths
whose widths or protected airspace do not overlap.
Within that portion of the Gulf of Mexico Low
Offshore airspace, use 12 NM between aircraft whose
flight paths are defined by published Grid System
waypoints.
2. When reduced route protected airspace is
applicable, and the protected airspace of the flight
paths do not overlap; or (See FIG 8−4−2.)
FIG 8−4−2
Separation Methods
NOTE−
1. The Grid System is defined as those waypoints
contained within the Gulf of Mexico Low Offshore airspace
and published on the IFR Vertical Flight Reference Chart.
2. Lateral separation minima is contained in:
Section 7, North Atlantic ICAO Region.
Section 8, Caribbean ICAO Region.
Section 9, Pacific ICAO Region.
Section 10, North American ICAO Region−
Arctic CTA.
8−4−2. SEPARATION METHODS
Lateral separation exists for:
a. Nonintersecting flight paths:
1. When the required distance is maintained
between the flight paths; or (See FIG 8−4−1.)
3. When aircraft are crossing an oceanic
boundary and are entering an airspace with a larger
lateral minimum than the airspace being exited; and
(a) The smaller separation exists at the
boundary; and
(b) Flight paths diverge by 15_ or more until
the larger minimum is established. (See FIG 8−4−3.)
FIG 8−4−3
Separation Methods
FIG 8−4−1
Separation Methods
Lateral Separation
8−4−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
b. Intersecting flight paths with constant and same
width protected airspace when either aircraft is at or
beyond a distance equal to the applicable lateral
separation minimum measured perpendicular to the
flight path of the other aircraft. (See FIG 8−4−4.)
FIG 8−4−4
Separation Methods
d. Intersecting flight paths with variable width
protected airspace when either aircraft is at or beyond
a distance equal to the sum of the protected airspace
of both flight paths measured perpendicular to the
flight path of the other aircraft. Measure protected
airspace for each aircraft perpendicular to its flight
path at the first point or the last point, as applicable,
of protected airspace overlap.
NOTE−
In FIG 8−4−5, the protected airspace for westbound
flight A is distance “a” (50 miles), and for southwestbound
flight B, distance “b” (10 miles). Therefore, the sum of
distances “a” and “b”; i.e., the protected airspace of
Aircrafts A and B, establishes the lateral separation
minimum (60 miles) applicable for either flight relevant to
the other.
FIG 8−4−6
Separation Methods
c. Intersecting flight paths with constant but
different width protected airspace when either
aircraft is at or beyond a distance equal to the sum of
the protected airspace of both flight paths measured
perpendicular to the flight path of the other aircraft.
(See FIG 8−4−5.)
FIG 8−4−5
Separation Methods
NOTE−
(See FIG 8−4−6.) At the first point of protected airspace
overlap, the protected airspace for westbound flight A is
distance “a” (50 miles), and for southbound flight B,
distance “b” (40 miles). The sum of distances “a” and “b”
(90 miles) establishes the lateral separation minimum
applicable in this example for either flight as it approaches
the intersection. For example, Aircraft B should be
vertically separated from Aircraft A by the time it reaches
point “p.”
8−4−2
Lateral Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
FIG 8−4−7
FIG 8−4−8
Separation Methods
Reduction of Route Protected Airspace
NOTE−
(See FIG 8−4−7.) Distance “a” (50 miles) and “b”
(30 miles) are determined at the last point of protected
airspace overlap. The sum of the distances “a” and “b”
(80 miles) establishes the lateral separation minima
applicable for either flight after it passes beyond the
intersection. For example, Aircraft B could be cleared to,
or through, Aircraft A’s altitude after passing point “r.”
b. At and above FL 240, reduce the width of the
protected airspace to 10 miles on each side of the
route centerline to a distance of 114.29 miles from the
NAVAID, then increasing in width on a 5_ angle from
the route centerline, as measured at the NAVAID, to
the maximum width allowable within the lateral
minima; for example, 60 miles of protected airspace
on each side of the centerline; i.e., a lateral separation
minimum of 120 miles. (See FIG 8−4−9.)
FIG 8−4−9
Reduction of Route Protected Airspace
8−4−3. REDUCTION OF ROUTE
PROTECTED AIRSPACE
When routes have been satisfactorily flight checked
and notice has been given to users, reduction in route
protected airspace may be made as follows:
a. Below FL 240, reduce the width of the protected
airspace to 5 miles on each side of the route centerline
to a distance of 57.14 miles from the NAVAID, then
increasing in width on a 5_ angle from the route
centerline, measured at the NAVAID, to the
maximum width allowable within the lateral minima;
for example, 50 miles of protected airspace on each
side of centerline; i.e., a lateral minimum of
100 miles. (See FIG 8−4−8.)
Lateral Separation
8−4−3
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
8−4−4. TRACK SEPARATION
2. NDB:
Apply track separation between aircraft by requiring
aircraft to fly specified tracks or radials and with
specified spacings as follows:
a. Same NAVAID:
1. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN. Consider separation to exist between aircraft established on radials of
the same NAVAID that diverge by at least 15 degrees
when either aircraft is clear of the airspace to be
protected for the other aircraft. Use TBL 8−4−1 to
determine the flight distance required for various
divergence angles and altitudes to clear the airspace
to be protected. (See FIG 8−4−10.)
TBL 8−4−1
Distance (mile)
Divergence (degrees)
Distance (mile)
FL 230 and
below
TBL 8−4−2
Divergence-Distance Minima (NDB)
Divergence-Distance Minima
VOR/VORTAC/TACAN
Divergence (degrees)
(a) Consider separation to exist between
aircraft established on tracks of the same NAVAID
that diverge by at least 30 degrees and one aircraft is
at least 15 miles from the NAVAID. This separation
must not be used when one or both aircraft are
inbound to the aid unless the distance of the aircraft
from the facility can be readily determined by
reference to the NAVAID. Use TBL 8−4−2 to
determine the flight distance required for various
divergence angles to clear the airspace to be
protected. For divergence that falls between
two values, use the lesser value to obtain the distance.
(See FIG 8−4−11.)
Fl 240
through
FL 450
15−25
17
18
26−35
11
13
36−90
8
11
Note: This table compensates for DME slant range
error.
FL 230 and
below
FL 240
through
FL 450
30
15
17
45
13
14
60
9
10
75
7
8
90
6
7
Note: This table compensates for DME slant range
error.
FIG 8−4−11
FIG 8−4−10
Track Separation VOR
8−4−4
Track Separation NDB
Lateral Separation
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
(b) Clear aircraft navigating on NDB facilities in accordance with para 2−5−2, NAVAID Terms.
b. Different NAVAIDs: Separate aircraft using
different navigation aids by assigning tracks so that
their protected airspace does not overlap.
(See FIG 8−4−12.)
FIG 8−4−12
Track Separation
Different NAVAIDs
Lateral Separation
c. Dead Reckoning (DR):
1. Consider separation to exist between aircraft
established on tracks that diverge by at least
45 degrees when one aircraft is at least 15 miles from
the point of intersection of the tracks. This point may
be determined either visually or by reference to a
ground−based navigation aid. (See FIG 8−4−13.)
FIG 8−4−13
Track Separation
Dead Reckoning
8−4−5
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 5. Offshore/Oceanic Transition Procedures
8−5−1. ALTITUDE/FLIGHT LEVEL
TRANSITION
When vertical separation is applied between aircraft
crossing the offshore/oceanic airspace boundary
below FL 180, control action must be taken to ensure
that differences between the standard altimeter
setting (QNE) and local altimeter setting (QNH) do
not compromise separation. (See FIG 8−5−1.)
FIG 8−5−1
Standard and Local Altimeter Setting Differences
b. The aircraft are horizontally radar separated and
separation is increasing at the edge of known radar
coverage.
8−5−3. OPPOSITE DIRECTION
When transitioning from an offshore airspace area to
oceanic airspace, an aircraft may climb through
opposite direction oceanic traffic provided vertical
separation above that traffic is established:
a. Before the outbound crosses the offshore/
oceanic boundary; and
b. 15 minutes before the aircraft are estimated to
pass. (See FIG 8−5−2.)
FIG 8−5−2
Transitioning From Offshore to Oceanic Airspace
Opposite Direction
8−5−2. COURSE DIVERGENCE
When aircraft are entering oceanic airspace,
separation will exist in oceanic airspace when:
a. Aircraft are established on courses that diverge
by at least 15 degrees until oceanic lateral separation
is established, and
Offshore/Oceanic Transition Procedures
8−5−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
8−5−4. SAME DIRECTION
When transitioning from an offshore airspace area to
oceanic airspace or while within oceanic airspace,
apply 5 minutes minimum separation when a
following aircraft on the same course is climbing
through the altitude of the preceding aircraft if the
following conditions are met:
a. The preceding aircraft is level at the assigned
altitude and is maintaining a speed equal to or greater
than the following aircraft; and
b. The minimum of 5 minutes is maintained
between the preceding and following aircraft; and
c. The following aircraft is separated by not more
than 4,000 feet from the preceding aircraft when the
climb clearance is issued; and
d. The following aircraft commences climb within
10 minutes after passing:
1. An exact reporting point (DME fix or
intersection formed from NAVAIDs) which the
preceding aircraft has reported; or
2. A radar observed position over which the
preceding aircraft has been observed; and
e. The following aircraft is in direct
communication with air traffic control until vertical
separation is established. (See FIG 8−5−3.)
FIG 8−5−3
Transitioning From Offshore to Oceanic Airspace
Same Direction
8−5−5. RADAR IDENTIFICATION
APPLICATION
Radar separation standards may be applied between
radar identified aircraft and another aircraft not yet
identified that is in transit from oceanic airspace or
non-radar offshore airspace into an area of known
radar coverage where radar separation is applied
provided:
a. Direct radio communications is maintained
with one of the aircraft involved and there is an ability
to communicate with the other;
b. The transiting aircraft is RNAV equipped;
c. The performance of the radar/system is
adequate;
REFERENCE−
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-1-1, Presentation and Equipment
Performance
d. Flight data on the aircraft that has not been radar
identified indicate that it is equipped with a standard
transponder and there is no known information that
the transponder is not operating;
e. Radar separation standards are maintained
between the radar identified aircraft and any other
observed targets until the transitioning aircraft is
radar identified or non-radar separation is established;
f. The facility has identified areas of known radar
coverage, incorporated those areas into facility
standard operating procedures (SOP), and provided
training to the controllers.
g. This procedure is also applicable to aircraft in
transit from oceanic airspace into Guam Control Area
(CTA), San Juan CTA and Honolulu CTA radar
coverage areas.
h. EXCEPTION: This procedure is not authorized
if there is insufficient time for the controller to
establish other approved separation in the event of a
delay or inability to establish radar identification of
the transiting aircraft taking into consideration
factors such as aircraft performance characteristics,
type, and speed; weather, traffic conditions;
workload; frequency congestion; etc.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-2-6,IFR Flight Progreass Data,
Subpara2-2-6.b.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para8-1-8, use of Control Estimates
8−5−2
Offshore/Oceanic Transition Procedures
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 6. Separation from Airspace Reservations
8−6−1. TEMPORARY STATIONARY
AIRSPACE RESERVATIONS
Separate aircraft from a temporary stationary
reservation by one of two methods:
FIG 8−6−2
Temporary Stationary Airspace Reservations
Vertical Separation
a. Laterally: Clear aircraft so that the protected
airspace along the route of flight does not overlap the
geographical area of the stationary reservation.
(See FIG 8−6−1.)
FIG 8−6−1
Temporary Stationary Airspace Reservations
Lateral Separation
8−6−2. REFUSAL OF AVOIDANCE
CLEARANCE
If a pilot refuses to accept a clearance to avoid a
reservation, inform him/her of the potential hazard,
advise him/her that services will not be provided
while the flight is within the reservation and, if
possible, inform the appropriate using agency.
b. Vertically: Clear aircraft so that vertical
separation exists while the aircraft is within a
geographical area defined as the stationary reservation plus a buffer around the perimeter equivalent to
one-half the lateral separation minimum.
(See FIG 8−6−2.)
Separation from Airspace Reservations
8−6−3. TEMPORARY MOVING AIRSPACE
RESERVATIONS
Separate aircraft from a temporary moving airspace
reservation by one of the following methods:
a. Laterally: Clear aircraft so that the protected
airspace along the route of flight does not overlap the
(time-dependent) geographical area of the moving
airspace reservation.
b. Longitudinally: Clear aircraft so that the
appropriate longitudinal minimum exists ahead of the
first or behind the last aircraft operating within the
reservation.
c. Vertically: Clear aircraft so that vertical
separation exists while the aircraft is within a
(time-dependent) geographical area defined as the
moving airspace reservation plus a buffer around the
perimeter equivalent to one-half the lateral separation
minimum.
8−6−1
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 7. North Atlantic ICAO Region
8−7−1. APPLICATION
Provide air traffic control services in the North
Atlantic ICAO Region with the procedures and
minima contained in this section except when noted
otherwise.
8−7−2. VERTICAL SEPARATION
Provide vertical separation in accordance with
Chapter 4, IFR, Section 5, Altitude Assignment and
Verification.
8−7−3. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION
In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic
Procedures, Section 3, Longitudinal Separation,
apply the following:
a. Supersonic flight:
1. 10 minutes provided that:
(a) both aircraft are in level flight at the same
Mach number or the aircraft are of the same type and
are both operating in cruise climb, and one of the
following;
(1) The aircraft concerned have reported
over a common point; or,
(2) If the aircraft have not reported over a
common point, the appropriate time interval being
applied between aircraft exists and will exist at the
common point; or,
(3) If a common point does not exist, the
appropriate time interval being applied between
aircraft exists and will exist at significant points along
each track.
2. 15 minutes between aircraft in supersonic
flight not covered in subpara a1 above.
b. Turbojet operations (subsonic flight):
(a) At least 10 minutes longitudinal separation exists at the point where the tracks diverge; and
(b) At least 5 minutes longitudinal separation
will exist where minimum lateral separation is
achieved (whichever is estimated to occur first);
(1) At or before the next significant point
(normally within ten degrees of longitude along
track(s)), or
(2) Within 90 minutes of the time the
following aircraft passes the common point, or
(3) Within 600 NM of the common point.
3. Apply 15 minutes between all other turbojet
aircraft.
c. Nonturbojet operations:
1. Apply 20 minutes between aircraft operating
in the West Atlantic Route System (WATRS), or
2. Apply 30 minutes between aircraft operating
outside of the WATRS.
NOTE−
The WATRS area is defined as beginning at a point
27_00’N/77_00’W direct to 20_00’N/67_00’W direct to
18_00’N/62_00’W direct to 18_00’N/60_00’W direct to
38_30’N/60_00’W direct to 38_30’N/69_15’W, thence
counterclockwise along the New York Oceanic CTA/FIR
boundary to the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR boundary,
thence southbound along the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR
boundary to the point of beginning.
d. Minima based on distance using Automatic
Dependent Surveillance – Contract (ADS-C):
1. Apply the minima as specified in TBL 8-7-1
between aircraft on the same track within airspace
designated for Required Navigation Performance
(RNP), provided:
1. Apply the prescribed minima in accordance
with para 8−3−3, Mach Number Technique; or
(a) Direct controller/pilot communication via
voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications
(CPDLC) is established, and
2. Where tracks diverge from the common point
and the following aircraft is maintaining a greater
Mach Number than the preceding aircraft:
(b) The required ADS-C periodic reports are
maintained and monitored by an automated flight
data processor (for example, Ocean21).
North Atlantic ICAO Region
8−7−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
FIG 8−7−1
ADS−C Criteria
Minima
RNP
50 NM
50 NM
30 NM
10
4
4
Maximum ADS-C
Periodic Reporting
Interval
27 minutes
32 minutes
10 minutes
2. Aircraft on reciprocal tracks may be cleared
to climb or descend to or through the altitude(s)
occupied by another aircraft provided:
(a) An ADS-C position report on at least one
of the aircraft has been received beyond the passing
point, and
NOTE−
This reduced lateral separation must not be used if
track−keeping capability of the aircraft has been reduced
for any reason.
c. 60 NM or 1 degree latitude between:
1. Supersonic aircraft operating above FL 275.
2. Aircraft which meet the MNPS and which:
(a) Operate within MNPS airspace; or
or
(b) Are in transit to or from MNPS airspace;
(c) Operate for part of their flight within,
above, or below MNPS airspace.
(b) The aircraft have passed each other by the
applicable separation minimum.
NOTE−
This reduced lateral separation must not be used if
track−keeping capability of the aircraft has been reduced
for any reason.
NOTE−
Ocean21 has been designed to check for the above criteria
prior to allowing the minima to be provided.
d. 90 NM or 1 and 1/2 degrees latitude between
aircraft not approved for RNP 4 or RNP 10 and
which:
3. When an ADS-C periodic or waypoint
change event report is overdue by 3 minutes, the
controller must take action to obtain an ADS-C
report.
1. Operate on routes or in areas within WATRS,
the San Juan CTA/FIR or the Atlantic portion of the
Miami CTA/FIR;
4. If no report is received within 6 minutes of the
time the original report was due, the controller must
take action to apply another form of separation.
8−7−4. LATERAL SEPARATION
In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic
Procedures, Section 4, Lateral Separation, apply the
following:
a. 30 NM to RNP-4 approved aircraft operating
within airspace designated for RNP-4 when direct
controller/pilot communications, via voice or
Controller Pilot Data Link Communications
(CPDLC), and the required ADS-C contracts are
maintained and monitored by an automated flight
data processor (e.g., Ocean21).
b. 50 NM between Required Navigation Performance (RNP 4 or RNP 10) approved aircraft which:
1. Operate on routes or in areas within WATRS,
the San Juan CTA/FIR or the Atlantic portion of the
Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR; or
2. Operate in the New York Oceanic CTA/FIR
outside of WATRS.
8−7−2
2. Operate between points in the U.S. or
Canada, and Bermuda;
3. Operate west of 55_ West between the U.S.,
Canada, or Bermuda and points in the Caribbean
ICAO Region.
e. 120 NM or 2 degrees latitude between aircraft
not covered by subparas a, c or d above.
NOTE−
Tracks may be spaced with reference to their difference in
latitude, provided that in any interval of 10 degrees of
longitude the change in latitude of at least one of the tracks
does not exceed 3 degrees when operating south of
58_North.
8−7−5. PROCEDURES FOR WEATHER
DEVIATIONS IN NORTH ATLANTIC (NAT)
AIRSPACE
Aircraft must request an ATC clearance to deviate.
Since aircraft will not fly into known areas of
weather, weather deviation requests should take
priority over routine requests. If there is no traffic in
the horizontal dimension, ATC must issue clearance
to deviate from track; or if there is conflicting traffic
in the horizontal dimension, ATC separates aircraft
North Atlantic ICAO Region
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
by establishing vertical separation. If there is
conflicting traffic and ATC is unable to establish the
required separation, ATC must:
PHRASEOLOGY−
UNABLE (requested deviation), TRAFFIC IS (call sign,
position, altitude, direction), ADVISE INTENTIONS.
a. Advise the pilot unable to issue clearance for
requested deviation;
NOTE−
1. The pilot will advise ATC of intentions by the most
expeditious means available.
b. Advise the pilot of conflicting traffic; and
c. Request pilot’s intentions.
North Atlantic ICAO Region
2. In the event that pilot/controller communications
cannot be established or a revised ATC clearance is not
available, pilots will follow the procedures outlined in the
Regional Supplementary Procedures, ICAO Doc. 7030.
8−7−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 8. Caribbean ICAO Region
8−8−1. APPLICATION
Provide air traffic control services in the Caribbean
ICAO Region with the procedures and minima
contained in this section except when noted
otherwise.
8−8−2. VERTICAL SEPARATION
Provide vertical separation in accordance with
Chapter 4, IFR, Section 5, Altitude Assignment and
Verification.
8−8−3. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION
Provide longitudinal separation between aircraft as
follows:
a. Supersonic flight:
1. 10 minutes provided both aircraft are in level
flight at the same Mach number or the aircraft are of
the same type and are both operating in cruise climb,
and one of the following;
(a) Both aircraft have reported over a
common point; or,
(b) If both aircraft have not reported over a
common point, the appropriate time interval being
applied between aircraft exists and will exist at the
common point; or,
(c) If a common point does not exist, the
appropriate time interval being applied between
aircraft exists and will exist at significant points along
each track.
2. 15 minutes between all other aircraft.
b. Turbojet operations at or above FL 200 in the
Miami Oceanic, Houston Oceanic and San Juan
CTAs/FIRs and all altitudes in the West Atlantic
Route System (WATRS) and New York Oceanic
CTA/FIR (subsonic flight):
1. Apply the prescribed minima in accordance
with para 8−3−3, Mach Number Technique; or
2. In the New York CTA/FIR, where tracks
diverge from the common point and the following
aircraft is maintaining a greater Mach number than
the preceding aircraft:
Caribbean ICAO Region
(a) At least 10 minutes longitudinal separation exists at the point where the tracks diverge; and
(b) At least 5 minutes longitudinal separation
will exist where minimum lateral separation is
achieved (whichever is estimated to occur first);
(1) At or before the next significant point
(normally within ten degrees of longitude along
track(s)), or
(2) Within 90 minutes of the time the
following aircraft passes the common point, or
(3) Within 600 NM of the common point; or
3. Apply 15 minutes between all other turbojet
aircraft.
c. Turbojet operations below FL 200 (subsonic
flight):
Apply 20 minutes between turbojet aircraft operating
below FL 200 in the San Juan Oceanic (outside the
WATRS area), Miami Oceanic and Houston Oceanic
CTAs/FIRs.
d. Nonturbojet operations.
1. Apply 20 minutes between aircraft operating
in the WATRS; or
2. Apply 20 minutes between aircraft operating
below FL 200 in the Miami Oceanic, Houston
Oceanic and San Juan CTAs/FIRs; or
3. Apply 30 minutes between aircraft operating
outside of the WATRS in the New York CTA/FIR.
NOTE−
The WATRS area is defined as beginning at a point
27_00’N/77_00’W direct to 20_00’N/67_00’W direct to
18_00’N/62_00’W direct to 18_00’N/60_00’W direct to
38_30’N/60_00’W direct to 38_30’N/69_15’W, thence
counterclockwise along the New York Oceanic CTA/FIR
boundary to the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR boundary,
thence southbound along the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR
boundary to the point of beginning.
e. Minima based on distance using Automatic
Dependent Surveillance – Contract (ADS-C):
1. Apply the minima as specified in TBL 8-8-1
between aircraft on the same track within airspace
designated for Required Navigation Performance
(RNP), provided:
(a) Direct controller/pilot communication via
voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications
(CPDLC) is established, and
8−8−1
JO 7110.65W
12/10/15
(b) The required ADS-C periodic reports are
maintained and monitored by an automated flight
data processor (for example, Ocean21).
1. Operate on routes or in areas within WATRS,
the San Juan CTA/FIR or the Atlantic portion of the
Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR; or
FIG 8−8−1
2. Operate in the New York Oceanic CTA/FIR
outside of WATRS; or
ADS−C Criteria
Minima
RNP
50 NM
50 NM
30 NM
10
4
4
Maximum ADS-C
Periodic Reporting
Interval
27 minutes
32 minutes
10 minutes
2. Aircraft on reciprocal tracks may be cleared
to climb or descend to or through the altitude(s)
occupied by another aircraft provided:
(a) An ADS-C position report on at least one
of the aircraft has been received beyond the passing
point, and
(b) The aircraft have passed each other by the
applicable separation minimum.
NOTE−
Ocean21 has been designed to check for the above criteria
prior to allowing the minima to be provided.
3. When an ADS-C periodic or waypoint
change event report is overdue by 3 minutes, the
controller must take action to obtain an ADS-C
report.
4. If no report is received within 6 minutes of the
time the original report was due, the controller must
take action to apply another form of separation.
8−8−4. LATERAL SEPARATION
In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic
Procedures, Section 4, Lateral Separation, apply the
following:
a. 30 NM to RNP-4 approved aircraft operating
within airspace designated for RNP-4 when direct
controller/pilot communications, via voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC),
and the required ADS-C contracts are maintained and
monitored by an automated flight data processor
(e.g., Ocean21).
b. 50 NM between Required Navigation Performance (RNP 4 or RNP 10) approved aircraft which:
8−8−2
3. Operate in the Houston Oceanic CTA/FIR or
the Gulf of Mexico portion of the Miami CTA/FIR.
NOTE−
This reduced lateral separation must not be used if
track−keeping capability of the aircraft has been reduced
for any reason.
c. 60 NM between:
1. Supersonic aircraft operating above FL 275
within the New York oceanic CTA/FIR.
2. Supersonic aircraft operating at or above
FL 450 not covered in subpara 1 above.
3. Aircraft which meet the MNPS and which:
(a) Operate within MNPS airspace; or
or
(b) Are in transit to or from MNPS airspace;
(c) Operate for part of their flight within,
above, or below MNPS airspace.
NOTE−
This reduced lateral separation must not be used if
track−keeping capability of the aircraft has been reduced
for any reason.
d. 90 NM between aircraft not approved for RNP 4
or RNP 10 and which:
1. Operate within WATRS; or
2. Operate west of 55_ West between the U.S.,
Canada, or Bermuda and points in the Caribbean
ICAO Region.
e. 100 NM between aircraft operating west of
55_West not covered by subparas a, c or d above.
f. 120 NM between aircraft operating east of
55_West.
8−8−5. VFR CLIMB AND DESCENT
a. In the Houston, Miami, and San Juan CTAs, IFR
flights may be cleared to climb and descend in VFR
conditions only:
1. When requested by the pilot; and
2. Between sunrise and sunset.
Caribbean ICAO Region
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
b. Apply the following when the flight is cleared:
1. If there is a possibility that VFR conditions
may become impractical, issue alternative
instructions.
2. Issue traffic information to aircraft that are
not separated in accordance with the minima in this
section.
Caribbean ICAO Region
8−8−3
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 9. Pacific ICAO Region
8−9−1. APPLICATION
Provide air traffic control services in the Pacific
ICAO Region with the procedures and minima
contained in this section except when noted
otherwise.
(b) The required ADS−C periodic reports are
maintained and monitored by an automated flight
data processor (e.g., Ocean21);
TBL 8−9−1
ADS−C Criteria
Minima
RNP
Maximum ADS−C
Periodic Reporting
Interval
50 NM
50 NM
30 NM
10
4
4
27 minutes
32 minutes
14 minutes
8−9−2. VERTICAL SEPARATION
Provide vertical separation in accordance with
Chapter 4, IFR, Section 5, Altitude Assignment and
Verification, except when aircraft operate within
airspace where composite separation and procedures
are authorized, apply the minima specified in
para 8−9−5, Composite Separation Minima.
8−9−3. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION
In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic
Procedures, Section 3, Longitudinal Separation,
apply the following:
a. Minima based on time:
1. 15 minutes between aircraft; or
2. 10 minutes between turbojet aircraft whether
in level, climbing or descending flight, provided that
the aircraft concerned follow the same track or
continuously diverging tracks until some other form
of separation is provided; or
3. The prescribed minima in accordance with
para 8−3−3, Mach Number Technique.
4. Reciprocal track aircraft − Where lateral
separation is not provided, vertical separation must
be provided at least 10 minutes before and after the
time the aircraft are estimated to pass or are estimated
to have passed.
b. Minima based on distance using Automatic
Dependent Surveillance − Contract (ADS−C):
1. Apply the minima as specified in TBL 8−9−1,
ADS−C Criteria, between aircraft on the same track
within airspace designated for Required Navigation
Performance (RNP), provided:
(a) Direct controller/pilot communication via
voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications
(CPDLC) is established, and
Pacific ICAO Region
2. Aircraft on reciprocal tracks may be cleared
to climb or descend to or through the altitude(s)
occupied by another aircraft provided that:
(a) An ADS−C position report on at least one
of the aircraft has been received beyond the passing
point, and
(b) The aircraft have passed each other by the
applicable separation minimum.
NOTE−
Ocean21 has been designed to check for the above criteria
prior to allowing the minima to be provided.
3. When an ADS−C periodic or waypoint
change event report is overdue by 3 minutes, the
controller must take action to obtain an ADS−C
report.
4. If no report is received within 6 minutes of the
time the original report was due, the controller must
take action to apply another form of separation.
c. Minima based on distance without ADS−C:
1. Apply 50 NM between aircraft cruising,
climbing or descending on the same track or
reciprocal track that meet the requirements for and
are operating within airspace designated for RNP−10
operations provided:
(a) Direct controller/pilot communication via
voice or CPDLC is maintained; and
(b) Separation is established by ensuring that
at least 50 NM longitudinal separation minima exists
between aircraft positions as reported by reference to
the same waypoint.
(1) Same track aircraft − whenever possible ahead of both; or
8−9−1
JO 7110.65W
(2) Reciprocal track aircraft − provided
that it has been positively established that the aircraft
have passed each other.
2. Distance verification must be obtained from
each aircraft at least every 24 minutes to verify that
separation is maintained.
3. If an aircraft fails to report its position within
3 minutes after the expected time, the controller must
take action to establish communication. If communication is not established within 8 minutes after the
time the report should have been received, the
controller must take action to apply another form of
separation.
NOTE−
When same track aircraft are at, or are expected to reduce
to, the minima, speed control techniques should be applied
in order to maintain the required separation.
d. Minima based on DME/RNAV:
Apply the following DME/RNAV minima in
Control 1234H, Control 1487H and the Norton
Sound High Control areas to turbojet aircraft
established on or transitioning to the North Pacific
(NOPAC) Route System.
1. 30 NM between aircraft when DME reports or
radar observations are used to establish the distance,
otherwise at least 40 NM based on RNAV must be
applied; and
2. Unless both aircraft are radar identified, both
aircraft must provide DME/RNAV distance reports
via direct voice that indicates the appropriate
separation exists; and
3. Application of DME/RNAV separation
without direct voice communications may not
continue for more than 90 minutes; and
4. The preceding aircraft is assigned the same
or greater Mach number than the following aircraft;
and
5. Both aircraft must be advised of the other
aircraft involved, including the distance relative to
the flights.
EXAMPLE−
“Maintain Mach point eight four, same direction traffic,
twelve o’clock, three five miles.”
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−21, Traffic Advisories.
8−9−2
12/10/15
8−9−4. LATERAL SEPARATION
In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic
Procedures, Section 4, Lateral Separation, apply the
following:
a. Within areas where Required Navigation
Performance 10 (RNP−10) separation and procedures are authorized, apply 50 NM to RNP−10
approved aircraft.
b. Apply 30 NM to RNP−4 approved aircraft
operating within airspace designated for RNP−4
when direct controller/pilot communications, via
voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications
(CPDLC), and the required ADS−C contracts are
maintained and monitored by an automated flight
data processor (e.g., Ocean21).
c. When aircraft operate within airspace where
composite separation and procedures are authorized,
apply the minimum specified in para 8−9−5,
Composite Separation Minima.
d. Apply 100 NM to aircraft not covered by
subparas a, b or c.
8−9−5. COMPOSITE SEPARATION MINIMA
Provide composite separation within the Central East
Pacific (CEP) and North Pacific (NOPAC) composite
route systems and where designated by facility
directive in the Pacific Organized Track System
(PACOTS) at and above FL 290 as follows:
a. 1,000 feet vertical separation; and
b. 50 NM lateral separation.
8−9−6. COMPOSITE SEPARATION
ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENT
a. Aircraft operating at or above FL 300 in a
composite route system may be cleared at even flight
levels. Additionally, aircraft may be cleared at even
flight levels while joining, crossing, or leaving a
composite route system provided such aircraft
leaving the system are cleared to an appropriate odd
cardinal flight level when noncomposite vertical or
lateral separation is achieved.
b. Aircraft (operating at or above FL 300) leaving
a composite route system at an even cardinal flight
level do not have to be assigned an odd cardinal flight
level provided:
Pacific ICAO Region
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
1. The aircraft is being provided radar service;
aircraft is established on the route to which it is
proceeding; and
2. The aircraft will be cleared for descent and
approach to an airport within the facility’s domestic
FIR; and
2. Longitudinal or noncomposite vertical separation exists between that aircraft and any other
aircraft on the route to which that aircraft is
proceeding; and
and
3. There is an operational advantage.
c. Aircraft operating on unidirectional routes or
traffic flows may be assigned altitudes other than the
appropriate altitude for direction of flight provided
that 2,000 feet vertical separation is maintained
between aircraft operating on the same route.
8−9−7. COMPOSITE SEPARATION
APPLICATION
Provide composite separation in the CEP and the
North Pacific (NOPAC) composite route systems and
where designated by facility directive in the Pacific
Organized Track System (PACOTS) as follows:
a. Clear an aircraft to join an outer route of the
composite route system at other than the normal entry
point provided:
1. Longitudinal or noncomposite vertical separation exists between that aircraft and any other
aircraft on that route; and
2. Composite separation exists between that
aircraft and any other aircraft on the next adjacent
route.
b. Clear an aircraft to leave an outer route of the
composite route system at other than the normal exit
point provided its course diverges so that lateral
spacing from the route system increases until
noncomposite separation exists between that aircraft
and any other aircraft in the composite route system.
c. Clear an aircraft to change from one route to an
adjacent route within the composite route system
provided:
1. Longitudinal or noncomposite vertical separation is maintained between that aircraft and any
other aircraft on the route being vacated until that
Pacific ICAO Region
3. Composite separation exists between that
aircraft and any other aircraft on the next adjacent
route.
d. Clear an aircraft to cross the composite route
system provided longitudinal or noncomposite
vertical or lateral separation exists between that
aircraft and any other aircraft in the composite route
system.
e. Clear aircraft to transition to or from the
composite route system from an Oceanic Transition
Route (OTR) provided:
and
1. The OTR is charted on aeronautical charts;
2. Composite separation is maintained between
that aircraft and any other aircraft within the
composite route system; and
NOTE−
An aircraft is within the confines of a composite route
system when the aircraft joins or crosses the outer route of
the composite route system or passes a composite route
entry point.
3. Composite separation is maintained between
that aircraft and any other aircraft on adjacent OTRs.
f. Clear an aircraft to change altitude on a route if
noncomposite separation exists between that aircraft
and others operating on that route regardless of other
aircraft operating on adjacent routes in the system.
Pilot’s discretion climbs and descents are not
authorized when applying composite separation.
NOTE−
Although composite separation is not applied between
aircraft on different tracks at FL 280 and FL 290, this
paragraph applies to climbs and descents between FL 280
and altitudes within the composite altitude stratum
(FL 300 and above).
8−9−3
JO 7110.65W
8−9−8. PROCEDURES FOR WEATHER
DEVIATIONS AND OTHER
CONTINGENCIES IN OCEANIC
CONTROLLED AIRSPACE
Aircraft must request an ATC clearance to deviate.
Since aircraft will not fly into known areas of
weather, weather deviation requests should take
priority over routine requests. If there is no traffic in
the horizontal dimension, ATC must issue clearance
to deviate from track; or if there is conflicting traffic
in the horizontal dimension, ATC separates aircraft
by establishing vertical separation. If there is
conflicting traffic and ATC is unable to establish
approved separation, ATC must:
8−9−4
12/10/15
a. Advise the pilot unable to issue clearance for
requested deviation;
b. Advise the pilot of conflicting traffic; and
c. Request pilot’s intentions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
UNABLE (requested deviation), TRAFFIC IS (call sign,
position, altitude, direction), SAY INTENTIONS.
NOTE−
1. The pilot will advise ATC of intentions by the most
expeditious means available.
2. In the event that pilot/controller communications
cannot be established or a revised AT clearance is not
available, pilots will follow the procedures outlined in the
Regional Supplementary Procedures, ICAO Doc 7030 and
Chart Supplements.
Pacific ICAO Region
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 10. North American ICAO Region
8−10−1. APPLICATION
TBL 8−10−1
ADS−C Criteria
Provide air traffic control services in the North
American ICAO Region with the procedures and
minima contained in this section.
Minima
RNP
Maximum ADS−C
Periodic Reporting
Interval
8−10−2. VERTICAL SEPARATION
50 NM
10
27 minutes
50 NM
4
32 minutes
30 NM
4
10 minutes
Provide vertical separation in accordance with:
a. Chapter 4, IFR, Section 5, Altitude Assignment
and Verification; and
b. Facility directives depicting the transition
between flight levels and metric altitudes.
8−10−3. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION
In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic
Procedures, Section 3, Longitudinal Separation,
apply the following:
a. Minima based on time:
1. 15 minutes between turbojet aircraft.
2. The prescribed minima in accordance with
Paragraph 8−3−3, Mach Number Technique.
3. 20 minutes between other aircraft.
b. Minima based on distance using Automatic
Dependent Surveillance – Contract (ADS-C) in the
Anchorage Oceanic and Anchorage Continental
CTAs only:
NOTE−
The minima described in this paragraph are not applicable
within airspace in the Anchorage Arctic CTA.
1. Apply the minima as specified in TBL 8-10-1
between aircraft on the same track within airspace in
the Anchorage Oceanic and Anchorage Continental
CTAs designated for Required Navigation
Performance (RNP), provided:
(a) Direct controller/pilot communication via
voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications
(CPDLC) is established, and
(b) The required ADS-C periodic reports are
maintained and monitored by an automated flight
data processor (for example, Ocean21).
North American ICAO Region
2. Aircraft on reciprocal tracks in the
Anchorage Oceanic and Anchorage Continental
CTAs may be cleared to climb or descend to or
through the altitude(s) occupied by another aircraft
provided:
(a) (a) An ADS-C position report on at least
one of the aircraft has been received beyond the
passing point, and
(b) (b) The aircraft have passed each other by
the applicable separation minimum.
NOTE−
Ocean21 has been designed to check for the above criteria
prior to allowing the minima to be provided.
3. When an ADS-C periodic or waypoint
change event report is overdue by 3 minutes, the
controller must take action to obtain an ADS-C
report.
4. If no report is received within 6 minutes of the
time the original report was due, the controller must
take action to apply another form of separation.
8−10−4. LATERAL SEPARATION
In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic
Procedures, Section 4, Lateral Separation, apply the
following:
a. 50 NM to RNP−10 approved aircraft within
areas where RNP−10 separation and procedures are
authorized,
b. 30 NM to RNP−4 approved aircraft operating
within the Anchorage Oceanic CTA and Anchorage
Continental CTA when direct controller/pilot
communications, via voice or Controller Pilot Data
Link Communications (CPDLC), and the required
ADS−C contracts are maintained and monitored by
8−10−1
JO 7110.65W
an automated flight data processor (for example,
Ocean21).
12/10/15
c. 90 NM to aircraft not covered by subparagraphs
a or b.
NOTE−
The minimum described in subparagraph b is not
applicable within airspace in the Anchorage Arctic CTA.
8−10−2
North American ICAO Region
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Chapter 9. Special Flights
Section 1. General
9−1−1. GENERAL
Provide aircraft engaged in the flight inspection of
NAVAIDs with maximum assistance. Unless otherwise agreed to, maintain direct contact with the pilot
and exchange information regarding known traffic in
the area and his/her intentions.
NOTE−
1. Many flight inspections are accomplished using
automatic recording equipment, and an uninterrupted
flight is necessary for successful completion of the mission.
The workload for the limited number of aircraft engaged in
these activities requires strict adherence to a schedule.
2. Flight inspection operations which require special
participation of ground personnel, specific communications, or radar operation capabilities are considered to
require special handling. These flights are coordinated
with appropriate facilities before departure.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 8200.1, United States Standard Flight Inspection Manual.
FAAO 8240.41, Flight Inspection/Air Traffic On−Site Coordination
Requirements.
9−1−2. SPECIAL HANDLING
a. Clear the aircraft according to pilot request as
soon as practicable. Do not ask the pilot to deviate
from his/her planned action except to preclude an
emergency situation.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 8240.41, Flight Inspection/Air Traffic On−Site Coordination
Requirements, Appendix 1, describes certain flight inspection
maneuvers in detail.
b. Issue radar advisories to the flight inspection
aircraft where adequate coverage exists and to the
extent permitted by workload.
c. Suggest flight path adjustments, as required, for
any aircraft which will enter or penetrate an area in
which a flight inspection function is being performed.
d. Provide special handling, as required, to FAA
aircraft conducting flight inspections using the call
sign “Flight Check.” The call sign “Flight Check (Nr)
General
recorded” indicates automated flight inspections are
in progress in terminal areas.
NOTE−
FAA flight inspection aircraft will file flight plans using the
call sign “FLIGHT CHECK” during flight inspections or
when inbound to conduct flight inspections. Flight plan
remarks may indicate type NAVAID inspection to be
accomplished; e.g. “FC OKC P.”
9−1−3. FLIGHT CHECK AIRCRAFT
a. Provide special handling, as required, to
expedite flight inspection of NAVAIDs and RADAR
by flight check aircraft.
NOTE−
Certain flight inspection maneuvers require operations in
close proximity to the surface. These maneuvers can only
be performed during daylight visual meteorological
conditions. Preplanned automatic flight places the
following limitations on the capability of the pilot to adhere
to normal ATC clearances:
1. Route of flight − orbital from 6 nautical miles to a
maximum of 40 nautical miles from the facility depending
on the type of inspection. During commissioning flight
checks all SIDs, STARs, airways, DME fixes, and
approaches must be flown.
2. Altitude assignment − from 1,000 feet above the
antenna site up to the minimum en route altitude (MEA).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO 8240.41, Flight Inspection/Air Traffic On−Site Coordination
Requirements, Appendix 1, describes certain flight inspection
maneuvers in detail.
b. Avoid changes in the route or altitude from that
filed by the pilot in the initial flight plan.
c. Do not impose air traffic control delays in the
flight except to preclude emergency situations.
d. Do not change the previously assigned discrete
beacon code of special radar accuracy flight check
aircraft.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 7−1−2, Special Radar Accuracy Checks.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10−5−4, ASR Performance Checks.
9−1−1
12/10/15
JO 7110.65W
Section 2. Special Operations
9−2−1. AIRCRAFT CARRYING
DANGEROUS MATERIALS
a. Provide the following special handling to
military aircraft or military contracted aircraft
carrying dangerous materials when:
1. The words “dangerous cargo,” or “inert
devices,” or both are contained in the remarks section
of the filed flight plan, or
NOTE−
1. Certain types of military flights carrying dangerous
materials require strict adherence to military regulations
and flight planning along carefully selected routes. These
flights must avoid heavily populated areas.
2. “Inert devices” are devices containing no dangerous
materials but closely resembling nuclear or explosive items
that are classified as dangerous and could be easily
mistaken for their dangerous counterparts.
2. The pilot uses these words in radio
communication.
b. If it becomes necessary to issue a clearance to
amend the route/altitude, advise the pilot:
1. Of the proposed change, and
2. The amount of delay to expect if it is
necessary to maintain the present route/altitude.
c. When it becomes necessary for the pilot to
refuse a clearance amending his/her route/altitude,
he/she will advise if the traffic delay is acceptable or
if an alternate route/altitude is desired. In such cases,
offer all possible assistance.
d. When the aircraft is provided an en route
descent, do not vector the aircraft from the planned
route unless the pilot concurs.
NOTE−
An ATC clearance must be obtained by the pilot before
discontinuing conventional navigation to begin celestial
navigation training. The pilot will advise when discontinuing celestial navigation and resuming conventional
navigation. Celestial navigation training will be conducted
within 30 NM of the route centerline specified in the
en route clearance unless otherwise authorized by ATC.
During celestial navigation training, the pilot will advise
ATC before initiating any heading changes which exceed
20 degrees.
b. Within conterminous U.S. airspace, limit
celestial navigation training to transponder-equipped
aircraft within areas of ARTCC radar coverage.
c. Prior to control transfer, ensure that the
receiving controller is informed of the nature of the
celestial navigation training leg.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−2−6, IFR Flight Progress Data.
9−2−3. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE)
SPECIAL FLIGHTS
a. Provide notification of possible route or altitude
changes as far in advance as possible for “RAC”
flights. The pilot will indicate if the proposed change
is acceptable or if alternate routing or altitude will be
requested.
NOTE−
DOE contracts for civil pilots to operate public aircraft to
transport radioactive or high explosive materials within
the conterminous U.S. These flights operate on an IFR
flight plan but principally during daylight hours and VFR
conditions. These flights require flight along carefully
selected routes and, in some instances, pilots will refuse
clearances that require reroute or altitude changes that
would derogate their objective.
e. Use special patterns and routings in areas where
they have been developed for these flights. If special
patterns and routings have not been developed,
employ normal procedures.
b. EN ROUTE. Approve pilot requests to leave
center frequency for operational purposes as traffic
conditions permit.
9−2−2. CELESTIAL NAVIGATION TRAINING
c. Notify a supervisor in the event any of the
following occurs with “RAC” aircraft:
EN ROUTE
1. Loss of radio contact.
a. Approve flight plans specifying celestial
navigation only when it is requested for USAF or
USN aircraft.
2. Loss of radar contact.
Special Operations
3. The flight is overdue at the destination.
9−2−1
JO 7110.65W
d. If you receive information that a “RAC” aircraft
is involved in an accident, secure as much
information as possible, particularly with respect to
location, and immediately notify the ARTCC
supervisory traffic management coordinator−in−
charge.
NOTE−
There is a possibility of an explosive or radiation hazard of
an “RAC” aircraft involved in an accident.
9−2−4. EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT
OPERATIONS
a. When notified that an experimental aircraft
requires special handling:
NOTE−
14 CFR Section 91.319(d)(3) requires that each person
operating an aircraft with an experimental certificate must
notify the control tower of the experimental nature of the
aircraft when operating into or out of airports with
operating control towers.
1. Clear the aircraft according to pilot requests
as traffic permits and if not contrary to ATC
procedures.
2. Once approved, do not ask the pilot to deviate
from a planned action except to preclude an
emergency situation.
b. At locations where volume or complexity of
experimental aircraft operations warrant, a letter of
agreement may be consummated between the facility
and operator.
9−2−5. FAA RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT FLIGHTS
When coordinated in advance and traffic permits,
approve requests for special flight procedures from
aircraft participating in FAA research and development test activities. These special procedures must be
applied to participating aircraft/vehicles.
NOTE−
Special flight procedures for FAA research and development test activities must be approved by the facility air
traffic manager prior to their use.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 5−2−4, Research and Development Flights.
9−2−2
12/10/15
9−2−6. FLYNET
Provide expeditious handling for U.S. Government,
civil or military aircraft using the code name
“FLYNET.” Relay the code name as an element in the
remarks position of the flight plan.
NOTE−
The code name “FLYNET” indicates that an aircraft is
transporting a nuclear emergency team or a disaster
control team to the location of a potential or actual nuclear
accident or an accident involving chemical agents or
hazardous materials. It is in the public interest that they
reach their destination as rapidly as possible.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2−1−4, Operational Priority.
FAAO JO 7610.4, Para 12−4−1, “FLYNET” Flights, Nuclear
Emergency Teams.
9−2−7. IFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES
a. Except for aircraft operating in the same altitude
reservation, clear aircraft into an MTR provided
separation will be applied between successive aircraft
unless otherwise covered in a letter of agreement
between the military scheduling activity and the
concerned ATC facility.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED INTO IR (designator).
MAINTAIN (altitude),
or
MAINTAIN IR (designator) ALTITUDE(S),
or
MAINTAIN AT OR BELOW (altitude),
or
CRUISE (altitude),
and if required,
CROSS (fix) AT OR LATER THAN (time).
b. Unless otherwise covered in a letter of
agreement between the military scheduling activity
and the concerned FAA facility, clear aircraft to exit
an MTR.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CLEARED TO (destination/clearance limit) FROM IR
(designator/exit fix) VIA (route).
MAINTAIN (altitude).
Special Operations
12/10/15
c. If the provisions of subpara a above cannot be
accomplished, MTRs may be designated for MARSA
operations. To preclude an inadvertent compromise
of MARSA standards by ATC, appropriate MARSA
application for such routes must be covered in a letter
of agreement with the military scheduling activity.
Establish separation between aircraft as soon as
practicable after operation on the designated
MARSA route is ended.
NOTE−
For designated MARSA routes, the military assumes
responsibility for separation for MTR aircraft that have
passed the primary/alternate entry fix until separation is
established by ATC after operations on the MARSA route
are completed.
d. The lateral airspace to be protected along an
MTR is the designated width of the route.
e. Prior to an aircraft entering an MTR, request the
pilot’s estimate for the route’s exit/alternate exit fix,
the pilot’s requested altitude after exiting and, if
applicable, the number of reentries on a Strategic
Training Range (STR).
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Call sign) VERIFY YOUR EXIT FIX ESTIMATE AND
REQUESTED ALTITUDE AFTER EXIT,
and if applicable,
THE NUMBER OF REENTRIES.
f. Forward estimates for exit/alternate exit fixes,
requested altitude after exit, and, if applicable, the
number of reentries on the STR.
g. Apply the procedures of para 6−1−2, Nonreceipt of Position Report, based upon the pilot’s
estimate for the route exit fix.
h. Clearance may be issued to amend or restrict
operations on a route for ATC considerations. Where
a route has been designated MARSA in accordance
with subpara c, ATC must not amend or restrict
operations in such a manner as to compromise
MARSA provisions.
NOTE−
When MARSA is provided through route scheduling and
circumstances prevent the pilot from entering the route
within established time limits, it must be the responsibility
of the pilot to inform the ATC facility and advise his/her
intentions.
Special Operations
JO 7110.65W
i. If an aircraft on an IR experiences a two-way
radio communications failure and you are unable to
determine if the aircraft is proceeding VFR in
accordance with 14 CFR Section 91.185(b) or the
aircraft has not been positively radar identified:
1. Provide separation to the destination airport
based on the aircraft complying with the following:
(a) Maintain to the exit/alternate exit fix the
higher of the following altitudes:
(1) The minimum IFR altitude for each of
the remaining route segment(s) remaining on the
route.
(2) The highest altitude assigned in the last
ATC clearance.
(b) Depart the exit/alternate exit fix at the
appropriate altitude specified in subpara (a) above,
then climb/descend to the altitude filed in the flight
plan for the remainder of the flight, or
NOTE−
In the event of a two-way communications failure, ATC will
be based on the following anticipated pilot action at the exit
fix. Unless otherwise covered in a letter of agreement, and
if the pilot is unable to comply with the VFR provisions of
14 CFR Section 91.185/FLIP IFR Supplement, the pilot
will exercise his/her emergency authority, squawk
transponder Code 7700, depart the exit/alternate exit fix
and climb/descend (continuing to squawk 7700) to the
altitude filed in the flight plan. Subsequent transponder
operations will be in accordance with para 10−4−4,
Communications Failure. Air traffic controller action from
the exit fix is as prescribed in para 10−1−1, Emergency
Determinations.
(c) Proceed in accordance with the lost
communication procedure contained in letters of
agreement.
2. Continue to monitor the last ATC assigned
discrete code