sg247038
IBM
Front cover
Effective System Management
Using the IBM Hardware
Management Console for
pSeries
Using service-related functions on
the HMC
Planning and implementing a
secure network
Exploiting HMC
commands
Keigo Matsubara
Matt Robbins
Ron Barker
Theeraphong Thitayanun
ibm.com/redbooks
International Technical Support Organization
Effective System Management Using the IBM
Hardware Management Console for pSeries
August 2003
SG24-7038-00
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in
“Notices” on page xix.
First Edition (August 2003)
This edition applies to Release 3, Version 2 of the software (program number 5639-N47) installed
on the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2003. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP
Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
The team that wrote this redbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 What is the HMC? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 HMC at a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Supported managed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.1 pSeries 690 and pSeries 670 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2.2 pSeries 655 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.3 pSeries 650 Model 6M2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.4 pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.5 pSeries 615 models 6C3 and 6E3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.6 RS-422 serial connection to the 7040-W42 system rack . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3 HMC architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.4 HMC connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.4.1 Serial connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.4.2 Remote connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.5 HMC order information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5.1 Supported number of managed systems and partitions . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.5.2 HMC software release numbering scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.5.3 Ethernet adapter configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.5.4 Asynchronous serial adapter configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.1 Login and logout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2 HMC graphical user interface at a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2.1 Navigation area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.2.2 Contents area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2.3 Menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2.4 Tool bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
iii
2.2.5 Status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.3 HMC application overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.4 Server and Partition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4.1 Connect and disconnect managed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.4.2 Server Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.4.3 Server Management menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.5 Virtual terminal window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.5.1 Virtual terminal window concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.5.2 Virtual terminal window in the Full System Partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.5.3 Partition virtual terminal windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.6 Open xterm to access remote system using telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.1 Viewing properties of the managed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.1.1 Machine property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.1.2 Processor property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.1.3 Policy property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.1.4 I/O Slot property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.1.5 Memory property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.2 Power on the managed system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.2.1 Operation states of a managed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.2.2 Rebuild the managed system in the HMC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.3 Activate partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.3.1 Change the default partition profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.3.2 Activate a specific partition profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.3.3 Activate partitions without selecting a specific partition profile . . . . . 66
3.3.4 Reactivating a partition with a different partition profile. . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.3.5 Partition operating states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.4 Shut down the operating system in a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.5 Reset the operating system in a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.6 Power off the managed system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.7 Operating the managed system with the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.7.1 Operator panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.7.2 Power button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.7.3 Reset button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.1 HMC Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.1.1 User role descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.1.2 User Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.2 HMC Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.2.1 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.2.2 Customize Console Date/Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
4.2.3 View Console Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.2.4 Customize Network Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.2.5 Test Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.2.6 Scheduled Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.2.7 Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.2.8 Configure Serial Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.2.9 Enable/Disable Remote Virtual Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.2.10 Change Current Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Chapter 5. Managing partition profile data on the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
5.1 Managing profile data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.1.1 Back up profile data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5.1.2 Restore profile data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.1.3 Initialize profile data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.1.4 Remove profile data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.1 Software Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.1.1 Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.1.2 HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.1.3 Microcode Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
6.2 Install, recover, and upgrade strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
6.2.1 Refresh Install using the recovery CD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
6.2.2 Recovery install using the critical console data backup . . . . . . . . . 120
6.2.3 Upgrade install using the save upgrade data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.1 System Manager Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
7.1.1 Configuration steps to set up secure system manager server . . . . 127
7.1.2 Certificate Authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
7.1.3 Server Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
7.1.4 Overview and Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
7.1.5 Object Manager Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
7.2 Remote client setup on a Windows system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
7.2.1 Install a remote client on a Windows system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
7.2.2 Uninstall a remote client from a Windows system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
7.2.3 Install remote client security on a Windows system . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
7.2.4 Uninstall remote client security from a Windows system . . . . . . . . 145
7.3 Remote client setup on a Linux system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
7.3.1 Install a remote client on a Linux system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
7.3.2 Uninstall a remote client from a Linux system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
7.3.3 Install remote client security on a Linux system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
7.3.4 Uninstall remote client security from a Linux system . . . . . . . . . . . 148
7.4 Remote access to the HMC graphical user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Contents
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7.4.1 Using the remote client on Windows systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
7.4.2 Using the remote client on AIX systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment . . . . . . . . . 155
8.1 Networking in a partitioned environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
8.2 Network paths in a partitioned environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
8.2.1 HMC to partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
8.2.2 Administrative workstation to HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
8.2.3 Administrative workstation to partition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
8.2.4 HMC access to the enterprise network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
8.3 Providing security to the HMC and partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
8.3.1 Securing the HMC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
8.3.2 Separating partitions from the others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
8.4 A sample implementation of port filtering rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
8.4.1 Between the HMC and partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
8.4.2 Between the administrative workstation and HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
8.4.3 Between the administrative workstation and partitions . . . . . . . . . . 172
8.5 Service Agent and security concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
8.5.1 Firewall and Service Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.1 Secure remote connection to the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
9.1.1 Setting up OpenSSH on AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
9.2 Syntax and common HMC command line flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
9.2.1 The -m flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
9.2.2 The -r flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
9.2.3 The -n flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
9.2.4 The -o flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
9.2.5 The -p flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
9.2.6 The -f flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
9.2.7 The -F flag. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
9.2.8 The --help flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
9.3 HMC commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
9.3.1 Commands to manage HMC itself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
9.3.2 Commands to manage users on the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
9.3.3 Commands for CUoD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
9.3.4 Commands to manage system configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
9.3.5 Commands to back up and restore partition profile data . . . . . . . . 203
9.3.6 Commands to manage hardware resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
9.3.7 Commands for virtual terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
9.3.8 Commands used in recovery situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
9.3.9 Commands used for other purposes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
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10.1 Frequently asked questions and HMC commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
10.1.1 What is the managed system name? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
10.1.2 What is my managed system’s MT-MDL*S/N? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
10.1.3 What is my frame name? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
10.1.4 Is my managed system CUoD-capable?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
10.1.5 How many affinity partitions are defined or running? . . . . . . . . . . 220
10.1.6 Which partitions are DLPAR capable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
10.1.7 How many processors are allocated to each partition? . . . . . . . . 221
10.1.8 How many processors are free? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
10.1.9 How much memory is allocated to each partition now? . . . . . . . . 222
10.1.10 How much memory is free now? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
10.1.11 Display empty I/O slots allocation status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
10.1.12 Which partition currently has CD/DVD assigned to it? . . . . . . . . 224
10.1.13 Is the system attention LED light on? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
10.1.14 How can I turn off the system attention LED?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
10.1.15 When was the critical console data backup performed? . . . . . . . 225
10.1.16 When did I do the profile data backup?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
10.1.17 Display the operator panel while managed system boots . . . . . . 226
10.1.18 Display the operator panel when the partition is activated . . . . . 226
10.2 Basic command line samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
10.2.1 Power on the managed system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
10.2.2 Activate a partition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
10.2.3 Shut down the operating system in a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
10.2.4 Reboot the operating system in a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
10.2.5 Reset the operating system in a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
10.2.6 Hard reset a partition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
10.2.7 Power off the managed system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
10.2.8 Create a partition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
10.2.9 Create a partition profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
10.2.10 Automate adding users to HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
10.2.11 Record all partition/profile configurations for printing . . . . . . . . . 237
10.2.12 Record current HMC information before upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
11.1 Service Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
11.2 Inventory Scout Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
11.2.1 Inventory Scout Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
11.2.2 Collect VPD Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
11.2.3 Restart Inventory Scout Daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
11.3 Service Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
11.3.1 Service Agent UI - registration/customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
11.3.2 Stop Service Agent UI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
11.3.3 Change Service Agent mode (server/client) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
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11.3.4 Start Service Agent processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
11.3.5 Stop Service Agent processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
11.4 Service Focal Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
11.4.1 Service Focal Point Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
11.4.2 Select Serviceable Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
11.4.3 Hardware Service Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
11.5 Microcode Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Chapter 12. Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC . . . . . . . 281
12.1 Configuring the Service Agent dialer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
12.2 Testing the dialer settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
12.3 Registering your HMC with IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
12.4 Sending VPD to IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
12.5 Define Service Agent clients on a gateway server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Appendix A. Configuring asynchronous adapters on the HMC . . . . . . . 295
Hardware setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Add an 8-port asynchronous adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Add a 128-port asynchronous adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Set the RAN node number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Configure Serial Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
8-port asynchronous adapter configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
128-port asynchronous adapter configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Configuring RS-422 ports on an 8-port asynchronous adapter. . . . . . . . . 305
Verifying asynchronous adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Adapter status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Ports status (8-port asynchronous adapter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
RANs status (128-port asynchronous adapter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Removing an asynchronous adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Appendix B. Recommended network configuration in a partitioned
environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Appropriate network configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Trouble-free network planning rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Diagnosing communication problems between the HMC and partitions . . . . 314
Appendix C. A brief introduction to VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Historical networking review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
What is a switch? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
What is VLAN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Several VLAN technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Port-based VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Layer 2 VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Policy-based VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
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802.1Q VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
AIX VLAN support (802.1Q VLAN interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Vendor-specific VLAN technologies (Cisco). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Private VLAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
VLAN ACL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
IBM Redpapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
pSeries hardware publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
AIX official publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
CSM for AIX official publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
CSM for Linux official publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
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7135-C02 rear view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Communication between the HMC and the service processor . . . . . . . . 5
pSeries 670 and pSeries 690 CEC rear view (primary I/O book) . . . . . . 8
Rear view of pSeries 655 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Rear view of pSeries 650 Model 6M2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Views of pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Views of pSeries 615 models 6C3 and 6E3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
RS-422 serial cable connection from HMC to 7040-W42 system rack . 15
HMC software architecture overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Serial connectivity option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Remote connectivity option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8-port fanout box with a connector cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Connecting with an 8-port asynchronous adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Connecting with a 128-port asynchronous adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
128-port asynchronous adapter card edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Enhanced Remote Asynchronous Node 16-port (FC 8137) . . . . . . . . . 28
Distance solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
HMC graphical user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Reload button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Details, Tree, Tree-Details buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Detailed view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Tree view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Tree-Details view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Status bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
HMC application folders in the Navigation area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Object hierarchy for the Server Management application . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Server Management (one managed system). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Server Management (three pSeries 655 servers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Server Management (four managed systems). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Server Management options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Virtual terminal window on the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Virtual terminal window on the remote WebSM client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
System properties: Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
System properties: Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
System properties: Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
System properties: I/O Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
System properties: Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Power On Modes panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
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Activate a partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Partition activation failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Read Boot Error Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Operating System shutdown or reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Operating System shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Operating system reset options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Hardware Management Console operator panel codes . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
HMC Management, Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Adding a new user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
System Configuration application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Date/Time Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
View Console Events logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Network Configuration: IP Address tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Network Configuration: Name Services tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Network Configuration: Hosts tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Host Entries window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Network Configuration: Routing tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Routing Entries window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Network Configuration: Device Attributes tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Ping Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Customize Scheduled Operations window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Set up a Scheduled Operation: Date and time tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Set up a Scheduled Operation: Repeat tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Remote Execution Options window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Enable Remote Virtual Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Change Locale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Profile Data submenus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Four partition data locations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Profile Data Backup window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Profile Data Restore window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Profile Data Remove window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Software Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Software Maintenance: Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Software Maintenance: HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Backup Critical Console Data (insert DVD-RAM media) . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Save Upgrade Data (Hard drive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Save Upgrade Data (warning) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Install Corrective Service window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Format Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Software Maintenance: Microcode Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Install/Recovery or Upgrade selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
System Manager Security folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Warning window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
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Certificate Authority (after being configured) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Define Internal Certificate Authority wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Organization name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Certificate expiration date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Entering password for the CA key ring file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
CA configured message. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Certificate Authority Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Entering certificate authority password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Generate Servers’ Private Key Ring Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Copy CA Public Key to Diskette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Server Security (after being configured) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Server Security Properties (Server Certificate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Install Private Key Ring file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Configure System Manager Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Overview and Status (after being configured) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Object Manager Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Configure Object Manager Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Remote client install image download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Remote client security install image download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Web-based Sysyem Manager Windows client Log On dialog box . . . 149
File Chooser dialogue box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Web-based System Manager Windows client managing the HMC . . . 151
The locked keypad icon (SSL connection). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Web-based System Manager on AIX 5L Version 5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Add a host dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Remote HMC is shown in the Navigation Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Managing HMC from the Web-based System Manager on AIX . . . . . 154
Network paths in a partitioned environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Possible attacks from compromised partitions or rogue users . . . . . . 165
Multiple security zones for partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Primary network interface must be IP-reachable from all partitions. . . 166
Sample firewall placement (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Sample firewall placement (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Service Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Error reporting and consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Inventory Scout Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Inventory Scout Configuration Assistant (select managed system) . . . 251
Inventory Scout Configuration Assistant (select partitions) . . . . . . . . . 252
Initiate Inventory Scout Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Inventory Scout: VPD Capture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Service Agent on the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Service Agent on the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Service Agent client/server configuration on multiple HMCs . . . . . . . . 258
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11-19
11-20
11-21
11-22
11-23
11-24
11-25
11-26
11-27
11-28
11-29
11-30
12-1
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-5
12-6
12-7
12-8
12-9
12-10
12-11
12-12
12-13
12-14
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-6
A-7
A-8
A-9
xiv
Change Service Agent mode (server/client) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Service Focal Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Service Focal Point Settings: CEC Call Home. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Service Focal Point Settings: Surveillance Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Service Focal Point Settings: Surveillance Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Select Serviceable Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Serviceable Event Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Serviceable event details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Hardware Service Functions overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
FRU LED Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
FRU LED Management: manual changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Umber LED flashing in a PCI slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Mechanism of the Microcode Updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Download and Apply Microcode Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Select Repository Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Microcode License Agreement Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Microcode Survey Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Microcode Installation - Device Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Confirmation message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Microcode Updates Finished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Service Agent – Enter the Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Service Agent - blank dialer configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Service Agent - select dialer location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Service Agent: configured dialer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Service Agent: testing the dialer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Registration information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Service Agent: registering HMC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Service Agent Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Service Agent: VPD tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Service Agent: VPD collection status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Service Agent - VPD Collection Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Service Agent: VPD transmittal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Network, Add, Child, Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Defining an Service Agent client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
RAN front view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Configure Serial Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
configAsync window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Specify number of adapters and adapter type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Specify total number of ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Specify number of RANs and wiring scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Specify bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Adapter status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Port status for 8-port asynchronous adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
A-10
C-1
C-2
C-3
C-4
C-5
C-6
C-7
Successful microcode download to RAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
OSI seven-layered networking reference model and TCP/IP model . . 318
VLAN concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Port-based VLAN concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Overlapping port definition based on the port-based VLAN. . . . . . . . . 322
VLAN-tagged Ethernet frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
802.1Q VLAN concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Private VLAN concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Figures
xv
xvi
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Tables
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
2-1
2-2
3-1
3-2
3-3
4-1
6-1
7-1
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-6
11-1
11-2
11-3
11-4
B-1
Supported managed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Maximum number of processors, memory size, and partitions . . . . . . . . 6
Description of components in the primary I/O book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Previous Hardware Management Console feature code or MT-MDL . . 23
Elements in the HMC graphical user interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
HMC application folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Properties of the managed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Operating states of managed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Operating states of partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Tasks in the System Configuration application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Applications in the Software Maintenance folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
System Manager Security applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Network paths in a partitioned environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Required TCP and UDP ports (HMC to partitions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Required TCP ports (Administrative workstation to HMC) . . . . . . . . . . 160
TCP ports (an administrative workstation to a partition) . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Command groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Values for affinity_capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Values for cec_capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Values for runtime_capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Values for mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Values for BootMode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Service Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Inventory Scout Services tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Service Agent tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Service Focal Point tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Authentication process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
xvii
xviii
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Notices
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
xix
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The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,
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The following terms are trademarks of other companies:
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xx
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Preface
The IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries (hereafter referred to as
HMC) is a tool used for administering and managing IBM Eserver pSeries™
servers. It was first announced in late 2001 with the IBM Eserver pSeries 690
Model 681, the first partitioning-capable pSeries server model, then has been
supporting the other partitioning-capable pSeries server models in conjunction
with several software release level updates.
The major function provided by the HMC is partitioning management, which is
well covered by several publications, including the sibling redbook The Complete
Partitioning Guide for IBM Eserver pSeries Servers, SG24-7039. This IBM
Redbook, designed to be used as a deskside reference for systems
administrators who manage partitioning-capable pSeries servers using the HMC,
is meant to complement other publications by covering the following topics:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Configuring the HMC
Managing software levels on the HMC
Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
Secure networking in a partitioned environment
Service functions on the HMC
In addition, this book covers the basic usage of the HMC graphical user interface.
New HMC commands, available with the HMC software Release 3, Version 2,
are fully exploited in Chapter 9, “HMC command line interface” and Chapter 10,
“Advanced HMC command examples”.
The team that wrote this redbook
This book was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working
at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center.
Keigo Matsubara is an advisory IT specialist at the International Technical
Support Organization (ITSO), Austin Center. Before joining the ITSO, he worked
in the System and Web Solution Center in Japan as a Field Technical Support
Specialist (FTSS) for pSeries. He has worked for IBM for 11 years.
Matt Robbins is a pSeries Technical Sales Specialist in Dallas, Texas. He has
more than eight years of experience working with pSeries systems and AIX®. His
areas of expertise include UNIX, TCP/IP, and designing e-business solutions for
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
xxi
Internet security and Web traffic. He attended the University of North Texas as a
student of computer science.
Ron Barker is a Consulting IT Specialist for pSeries Advanced Technical
Support in the Americas. He has 16 years of experience in AIX and RISC-based
systems. He has worked at IBM for 20 years. His areas of expertise include
mid-range and high-end pSeries hardware, logical partitioning, AIX systems
management, and AIX Workload Manager.
Theeraphong Thitayanun is a Certified Consulting IT Specialist for IBM
Thailand. His main responsibility is to provide billable services and support in all
areas of high-end pSeries products. His areas of expertise include PSSP,
HACMP, and DB2® Universal Database™. He holds a Bachelors degree in
Computer Engineering from Chulalongkorn University and, as a Monbusho
student, a Masters degree in Information Technology from Nagoya Institute of
Technology, Japan.
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center
Scott Vetter and Betsy Thaggard
IBM Austin
Bob Minns, Andy McLaughlin, Bob Foster, Christine Trinh, Christine Wang,
Christopher Chan, Dave Willoughby, Eric Marshall, Stephanie Jensen, Minh
Nguyen, Quan Wang, Richard Cutler, Trish Pierce, Truc Nguyen, and Walter Lipp
IBM Endicott
Scott Nettleship and Lenny Nichols
IBM Japan
Tomoyuki Niijima and Yuan Zong
IBM Poughkeepsie
Michael Schmidt and Anthony Pioli
IBM U.K.
Dave Williams
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xxii
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
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Preface
xxiii
xxiv
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
1
Chapter 1.
Introduction to the HMC
This chapter introduce the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries by
providing the following sections:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
“What is the HMC?” on page 2
“Supported managed systems” on page 6
“HMC architecture” on page 16
“HMC connectivity” on page 18
“HMC order information” on page 23
For the detailed information about the HMC, refer to the following publications:
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Maintenance Guide,
SA38-0603
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations
Guide, SA38-0590
You can access the soft copy of these publications, by accessing the IBM
Eserver pSeries Information Center, found at:
http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/infocenter/base/index.htm
Click Hardware documentation → Hardware Management Console for
pSeries.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 What is the HMC?
The HMC is a dedicated desktop PC workstation that provides several functions
for configuring and operating pSeries servers functioning either partitioned or in
the Full System Partition, using the graphical user interface1(GUI) or command
line interface2 (CLI). The functions provided by HMC include:
򐂰 Logical partitioning management
The HMC provides a set of tasks that are necessary to manage logical
partitions. These tasks include:
– Starting, stopping, resetting, and shutting down a partition.
We explain these tasks in sections 3.3, “Activate partitions” on page 65
through 3.5, “Reset the operating system in a partition” on page 70.
– Opening a virtual console for each partition or connected pSeries server
system.
We explain this task in sections 2.5, “Virtual terminal window” on page 49
through 3.5, “Reset the operating system in a partition” on page 70.
– Creating partition profiles that define the processor, memory, and I/O
resources allocated to an individual partition.
This book does not contain detailed information about these tasks except
for the advanced command line interface examples explained in
Chapter 10, “Advanced HMC command examples” on page 217. Refer to
these publications for this subject:
•
•
IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and
Operations Guide, SA38-0590
The Complete Partitioning Guide for IBM Eserver pSeries Servers,
SG24-7039
– Performing DLPAR operations that dynamically change the resource
allocation (such as processor, memory, and I/O) for the specified partition.
This task is not also covered by this book. Refer to the publications listed
above for this subject:
򐂰 Displaying system resources and status.
We explain these tasks in 3.1, “Viewing properties of the managed system” on
page 56.
򐂰 Booting, starting, and stopping the connected pSeries server systems.
We explain these tasks in 3.2, “Power on the managed system” on page 61.
1
2
2
See Chapter 2, “HMC graphical user interface” on page 31.
See Chapter 9, “HMC command line interface” on page 175.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Note: A pSeries server managed by HMC is also referred to as a managed
system.
򐂰 Configuring the HMC itself
We explain these tasks in 4.2, “HMC Maintenance” on page 80.
򐂰 Managing the HMC software level
We explain these tasks in Chapter 6, “Managing software levels on the HMC”
on page 107.
򐂰 A service focal point that gives you tools for problem determination and
service support such as call-home and error log notification through an
analog phone line
We explain these tasks in Chapter 11, “Service functions on the HMC” on
page 247.
1.1.1 HMC at a glance
Figure 1-1 on page 4 shows the rear view of 7135-C02, which is the current
HMC. It features one DVD-RAM drive, one Ethernet port, two native serial ports,
six USB ports, as well as other ports.
Note: IBM may adopt newer PC hardware models to be used as the HMC in
the future.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
3
Figure 1-1 7135-C02 rear view3
Numbers shown in Figure 1-1 represents the following connectors:
1. Power connector
2. Mouse connector
3. Serial connector (S2)
4. Parallel connector
5. Ethernet connector
6. Audio line in connector
7. PCI slots (three available)
8. AGP slot (not used)
9. Audio line out connector (not used)
10.Microphone connector (not used)
11.USB connectors
12.VGA monitor connector
13.Serial connector (S1)
3
4
Two USB connectors are located in the front.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
14.USB connectors
15.Keyboard connector
The HMC provides two native serial ports. One serial port should be used to
attach a modem for the Service Agent. The second port can be used to attach a
server. If multiple servers are attached to the HMC, additional serial ports are
necessary. The ports can be provided by adding asynchronous adapters.4
The HMC also provides an Ethernet port to connect to partitions on its managed
systems. The network connection is mandatory for the support of the following
functions as well as the system management purpose on those partitions:
򐂰 Dynamic logical partitioning
򐂰 Service functions (for example, Microcode Updates and Service Focal Point)
Figure 1-2 illustrates a simple but typical network configuration in a partitioned
environment that is composed of an HMC and its managed system running two
partitions. We explain the technical detail of the network configuration in a
partitioned environment in Chapter 8, “Secure networking in a partitioned
environment” on page 155 and Appendix B, “Recommended network
configuration in a partitioned environment” on page 309.
IP Network
AIX 5.1
Partition 1
AIX 5.2
Unassigned
Resources
Partition 2
Non-Volatile RAM
Boot Firmware / RTAS / Hypervisor
Processors
Mem Regions
I/O Slots
Service
Processor
LPAR
Allocation
Tables
RS/232C
HMC
Managed System
Figure 1-2 Communication between the HMC and the service processor
4
See 1.5.4, “Asynchronous serial adapter configurations” on page 25 for the detailed information.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
5
1.2 Supported managed systems
At the time of writing, the following IBM Eserver pSeries server models shown
in Table 1-1 can be managed by HMC.
Table 1-1 Supported managed systems
Official product model name
Short product name
MT-MDL
Relevant section
IBM Eserver pSeries 690 Model 681
pSeries 690
7040-681
IBM Eserver pSeries 670 Model 671
pSeries 670
7040-671
1.2.1, “pSeries 690
and pSeries 670” on
page 7
IBM Eserver pSeries 655
pSeries 655
7039-651
1.2.2, “pSeries 655”
on page 9
IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2
pSeries 650 Model 6M2
7038-6M2
1.2.3, “pSeries 650
Model 6M2” on
page 10
IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4
pSeries 630 Model 6C4
7028-6C4
IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6E4
pSeries 630 Model 6E4
7028-6E4
1.2.4, “pSeries 630
models 6C4 and
6E4” on page 11
IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6C3
pSeries 615 Model 6C3
7029-6C3
IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6E3
pSeries 615 Model 6E3
7029-6E3
1.2.5, “pSeries 615
models 6C3 and
6E3” on page 13
Note: Hereafter, short product names are used throughout this book.
The logical partitioning concept and required tasks are basically similar on these
partitioning-capable pSeries server models. However, there is a substantial
difference when assigning I/O resources to partitions depending on the models.
For the hardware model-specific information about the I/O resource assignment,
refer to the appropriate publications listed in the following sections.
The maximum number of partitions, which depends on the supported number of
processors, is shown in Table 1-2.
Table 1-2 Maximum number of processors, memory size, and partitions
6
Short product
name
Maximum
number of
processors
Maximum
memory size
in GB
Maximum
number of I/O
drawers
Maximum
number of
partitions
pSeries 690
321
512
8
32
pSeries 670
16
256
3
16
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Short product
name
Maximum
number of
processors
Maximum
memory size
in GB
Maximum
number of I/O
drawers
Maximum
number of
partitions
pSeries 655
8
32
1
2
pSeries 650
Model 6M2
8
64
8
82
pSeries 630
Model 6C4
4
32
2
43
pSeries 630
Model 6E4
4
32
0
2
1. The High Performance Computing (HPC) feature of pSeries 690 is equipped with
up to 16 processors.
2. Needs external disk subsystems for the boot disk.
3. When equipped with I/O drawers.
Note: pSeries 615 models 6C3 and 6E3 do not support partitioning.
1.2.1 pSeries 690 and pSeries 670
The high-end pSeries 690 and the mid-range pSeries 670 are both
partitioning-capable pSeries server models that share the same physical
component design. Several hardware components, Bulk Power Assembly (BPA),
Central Electronics Complex (CEC), media drawer, and I/O drawers, as well as
optional internal battery features (IBFs) are combined in one or two 7040-61R
system racks.5
The pSeries 690 and pSeries 670 are equipped with two HMC ports (HMC1 and
HMC2) in the primary I/O book, which is plugged into the rear of CEC, as shown
in Figure 1-3 on page 8.
5
The pSeries 690 supports up to two system racks, whereas the pSeries 670 supports only one.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
7
Figure 1-3 pSeries 670 and pSeries 690 CEC rear view (primary I/O book)
Table 1-3 explains numbers shown in Figure 1-3.
Table 1-3 Description of components in the primary I/O book
8
Number
Description
1
Primary I/O book, GX slot 0 (U1.18-P1-H2)
4
I/O port 0 (A0) (U1.18-P1-H2/Q1)
5
I/O port 0 (A1) (U1.18-P1-H2/Q2)
6
Operator panel (U1.18-P1-H2/Q7)
7
BPC Y-cable connector1
8
I/O port 1 (B0) (U1.18-P1-H2/Q3)
9
I/O port 1 (B1) (U1.18-P1-H2/Q4)
10
Diskette Drive (U1.18-P1-H2/Q10)
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Number
Description
11
HMC port 1 (U1.18-P1-H2/S3)
12
HMC port 2 (U1.18-P1-H2/S4)
13
Serial port 1 (U1.18-P1-H2/S1)
14
Serial port 2 (U1.18-P1-H2/S2)
15
SPCN 0 (manufacturing use only)
16
SPCN 1 (manufacturing use only)
17
Debug (manufacturing use only)
24
Indicator LEDs
26
Camming latches
1. The Y-cable that attaches to this connector, terminates at BPC-A connector
U1.35-P1-X4/Q10 and BPC-B connector U1.35-P2-X4/Q10.
For further detailed information about these models, refer to the following
publications:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
IBM Eserver pSeries 670 and pSeries 690 System Handbook, SG24-7040
IBM Eserver pSeries 670 Service Guide, SA38-0615
IBM Eserver pSeries 670 User’s Guide, SA38-0614
IBM Eserver pSeries 670 Installation Guide, SA38-0613
IBM Eserver pSeries 690 Service Guide, SA38-0589
IBM Eserver pSeries 690 User’s Guide, SA38-0588
IBM Eserver pSeries 690 Installation Guide, SA38-0587
1.2.2 pSeries 655
The mid-range pSeries 655 is a partitioning-capable pSeries server model. The
pSeries 655 is designed as a building block of clusters, especially for the
high-performance computing (HPC) area, therefore multiple pSeries 655 servers
can be accommodated in a single 7040-W42 system rack. The 7040-W42
system rack shares the same physical form factor with 7040-R61 used for
pSeries 670 or pSeries 690, but the BPA of 7040-W42 must be connected to
HMC using RS-422.6
The pSeries 655 is equipped with two HMC ports (HMC1 and HMC2) on the rear
side as shown in Figure 1-4 on page 23.
6
See 1.2.6, “RS-422 serial connection to the 7040-W42 system rack” on page 14 for the detailed
information about the RS-422 connection between the HMC and 7040-W42.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
9
Note: The pSeries 655 has no native serial or parallel port.
PCI slots
1
Second processor subsystem
RIO connectors
Ethernet Debug
connectors connector
2
3
First processor subsystem
HMC connector 2
HMC connector 1
Figure 1-4 Rear view of pSeries
6557
For further detailed information about the pSeries 655, refer to the following
publications:
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 655 Installation Guide, SA38-0616
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 655 Service Guide, SA38-0618
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 655 User’s Guide, SA38-0617
1.2.3 pSeries 650 Model 6M2
The mid-range pSeries 650 Model 6M2 is a partitioning-capable pSeries server
model. It is a rack mount server that can be accommodated in an industry
standard 19-inch rack.
The pSeries 650 Model 6M2 is equipped with two HMC ports (HMC1 and HMC2)
on the rear side as shown in Figure 1-5 on page 11.
7
10
Two pSeries 655 processor systems are contained in a single frame cage in a rack drawer position.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
PCI-X slots
1
2
3
4
5
GX slots
SCSI
6
7
ETH
Rack
Indicator
1
2
MOUSE
reserved reserved
OP PNL
SPCN 1
SPCN 0
DEBUG
KBD
SER 2
SER 1
HMC 1
SER 4
SER 3
HMC 2
Power
supply 1
Fan 1
Power
supply 2
Fan 2
Figure 1-5 Rear view of pSeries 650 Model 6M2
For further detailed information about the pSeries 650 Model 6M2, refer to the
following technical white paper and publications:
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2 Technical Overview and Introduction,
REDP0194, available at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpapers/pdfs/redp0194.pdf
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2 Installation Guide, SA38-0610
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2 User’s Guide, SA38-0611
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2 Service Guide, SA38-0612
1.2.4 pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4
The low-end pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4 are both partitioning-capable
pSeries server models. The pSeries 630 Model 6C4 is a rack mount server that
can be accommodated in an industry standard 19 inch rack, whereas the pSeries
630 Model 6E4 is a deskside-type server.
The pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4 are equipped with two HMC ports (HMC1
and HMC2) on the rear side as shown in Figure 1-6 on page 12.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
11
Processor card #1
Processor card cooling fan bays 1 and 2
Operator panel
Processor card #2
s
to r
ica
s
nd
tor
i
ica
ED
ind
ly L
D
p
LE
up
ly
rs
pp
we
su
Po
er
w
Po
Power supply #1
Power supply #2
Front serial connector
Six PCI-X slots
4-pack disk backplane and
disks
Media bay #2
Media bay #1
Six PCI-X slots
Operator panel
PCI cooling fan bays 1 and 2
Media bay #2
Media bay #1
4-pack disk backplane and
disks
Keyboard and mouse ports
Serial ports 1, 2, and 3
Power supply LED indicators
Power supply #2
Power supply #1
Parallel port
Ethernet ports
Power
supply #2
HMC port 1
SPCN ports
Rack
indicator
HMC port 2
Power
supply #1
SPCN port
blanks
Six PCI-X slots
Serial ports 1, 2, and 3 Ethernet ports
Keyboard and mouse ports
RIO ports
HMC port 2
HMC port 1
Model 6C4
Parallel port
Model 6E4
Figure 1-6 Views of pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E48
For further detailed information about the pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4,
refer to the following technical white paper and publications:
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Models 6C4 and 6E4 Technical Overview and
Introduction, REDP0195, available at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpapers/pdfs/redp0195.pdf
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4 and 6E4 Installation Guide,
SA38-0605
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4 and 6E4 User’s Guide, SA38-0606
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4 and 6E4 Service Guide, SA38-0604
8
This figure shows the views of latest pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4 (POWER4™+ system with six PCI-X slots).
12
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
1.2.5 pSeries 615 models 6C3 and 6E3
The low-end pSeries 615 models 6C3 and 6E3 are both non partitioning-capable
pSeries server models. The pSeries 615 Model 6C3 is a rack mount server that
can be accommodated in an industry standard 19-inch rack, whereas the
pSeries 615 Model 6E3 is a deskside-type server.
The pSeries 615 Model 6C3 can be used as a building block of the IBM cluster
product IBM Eserver Cluster 1600, so multiple pSeries 615 Model 6C3 servers
can be incorporated into the cluster, which is managed by Cluster Systems
Management (CSM).9
The pSeries 615 models 6C3 and 6E3 are equipped with two HMC ports (HMC1
and HMC2) on the rear side as shown in Figure 1-7.
Power supply LED indicators
CSP and I/O ports card
Model 6C3
Model 6E3
Operator panel
!
Front view
Six PCI-X slots
Full height media bay
Two slim line
media bays
#1
#2
#3
gf
olin
Co
Hot-swap disk drives
s
an
Power supply #2 (default)
Hot-swap disk drives
Operator panel
Power supply #1 (redundant option)
Two slim line media bays
Rear view
Full height media bay
Front view
HMC port 1
HMC port 2
Operator panel
Keyboard & Mouse
Keyboard & Mouse
10/100 Ethernet
Test port (only MFG)
Serial port 3
Parallel port
Serial port 2
Power supply
connector #2
(Base power supply)
10/100/1000 Ethernet
Rear view
Power supply
connector #1
Rack indicator
Power supply
connector #1
Power supply
connector #2
(Base power
supply)
Parallel port
Serial port 3
Serial port 2
Test port
(only MFG)
Serial port 1
Six PCI-X slots
HMC port 1
HMC port 2
10/100 Ethernet
10/100/1000 Ethernet
Serial port 1
Rack indicator
Figure 1-7 Views of pSeries 615 models 6C3 and 6E3
9
Refer to the publications listed in “CSM for AIX official publications” on page 335 for detailed
information about CSM.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
13
If a pSeries 615 Model 6C3 or pSeries 615 Model 6E3 is managed by CSM, an
HMC must be attached to an HMC port of these models for power management.
For further detailed information about the pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4,
refer to the following technical white paper and publications:
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Models 6C3 and 6E3 Technical Overview and
Introduction, REDP0160, available at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpapers/pdfs/redp0160.pdf
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6C3 and 6E3 Installation Guide,
SA38-0628
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6C3 and 6E3 User’s Guide, SA38-0630
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6C3 and 6E3 Service Guide, SA38-0629
1.2.6 RS-422 serial connection to the 7040-W42 system rack
If the 7040-W42 system rack is used to accommodate hardware components,
such as pSeries 655 servers, the BPA of the rack must be connected to an HMC
using RS-422, as shown in Figure 1-8 on page 15.
14
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
BPC (A side) cable connector
(front of rack)
BPC (B side) cable connector
(rear of rack)
BPC cable route
at rear of rack
BPC cable route
at front of rack
Processor or
I/O subsystems
Processor or
I/O subsystems
8-port connector box
RS-422
cable
Figure 1-8 RS-422 serial cable connection from HMC to 7040-W42 system rack10
A BPA contains two Bulk Power Controllers (BPCs) in its front and rear sides. An
RS-422 connection is required for each BPC; thus two RS-422 connections are
needed per 7040-W42 system rack.
10
The RS-422 cable shown in Figure 1-8 is connected to the 8-port asynchronous adapter of the HMC.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
15
Note: If the 8-port asynchronous adapter (FC 2943) is used to connect the
HMC to the BPCs of 7040-W42, the corresponding serial ports must be
explicitly set to the RS-422 mode (see Appendix , “Configuring RS-422 ports
on an 8-port asynchronous adapter” on page 305).
1.3 HMC architecture
The HMC provides a graphical user interface for configuring and operating single
or multiple managed systems. It consists of a 32-bit Intel-based desktop PC with
a DVD-RAM drive and running the Linux operating system. The application
environment, with a set of hardware management applications for configuration
and partitioning, is written in Java. The applications are based on the
object-oriented schema using the Common Information Model (CIM), an industry
standard sponsored by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF). A CIM
Object Manager acts as repository and database look-up for all managed
objects.
The DMTF Standards web site can be a good starting point to learn these
technologies, found at:
http://www.dmtf.org/standards/standard_cim.php
The graphical user interface is based on the AIX 5L™ Version 5.2 Web-based
System Manager, which allows the management integration of other HMCs or
pSeries systems running AIX 5L Version 5.1 and 5.2. Except for IBM customer
engineers and debugging purposes, the native Linux interfaces are hidden from
the user and are not accessible. No Linux skills are required to operate the HMC.
The graphical user interface can display dynamic events and static information
from pSeries machines running AIX as well as from partitions on any
partitioning-capable pSeries servers.
Figure 1-9 on page 17 shows an overview of the HMC software architecture.
򐂰 A user who logs in to the HMC from the local console is accessing the
application using the Web-based System Manager graphical user interface as
represented in the big upper arrow.
򐂰 The HMC communicates with the service processor on the managed system
using the serial communication.
򐂰 If configured, the Service Agent communicates with the modem using the
serial communication.
򐂰 The Resource Monitoring and Control (RMC) subsystem on the HMC
connects the RMC subsystem on remote nodes, such as partitions, over the
TCP/IP network (shown as A in Figure 1-9 on page 17).
16
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
򐂰 A remote user can access the HMC using either the ssh or rexec facility over
the TCP/IP network (shown as B).
򐂰 A user who logs in to the HMC from the local console can access to the
remote Web-based System Manager server on remote nodes, such as AIX
partitions over the TCP/IP network (shown as C).
򐂰 A user using the remote Web-based System Manager client can access the
HMC over the TCP/IP network (shown as D).
Further detailed information about the remote connection over the TCP/IP
network is provided in 8.1, “Networking in a partitioned environment” on
page 156.
Graphical User Interface
Remote WebSM server
C
Remote WebSM clients
D
WebSM client
HMC
Service Agent
WebSM server
CIM
Object
Manager
Resource managers
HMC commands
Communication
Interface
RMC
sshd/rexecd
B
A
Modem
RMC on remote node
ssh/rexec client
Service Processor
Internal software components
Serial connection
TCP/IP connection
Figure 1-9 HMC software architecture overview11
11
The figure does not show all communication paths and software components. For example,
remote virtual terminal access is not shown to avoid unnecessary complexity.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
17
1.4 HMC connectivity
In this section, we explain several HMC connectivity configurations. We group
these configurations into two categories: 1.4.1, “Serial connectivity” on page 18
and 1.4.2, “Remote connectivity” on page 21.
Note: You should not confuse the managed system name with the host name.
Because multiple operating system instances can run concurrently on a single
partitioning-capable pSeries server, you cannot use the host name, which
usually depends on the IP address, to distinguish multiple partitioning-capable
pSeries servers. The managed system name is a label used for this purpose.
1.4.1 Serial connectivity
A managed system has to be connected by at least one HMC using a serial
connection. To connect a serial line between an HMC and a managed system,
use one of the serial ports on the HMC and one of two dedicated serial ports
(HMC1 and HMC2) on the managed system.
As long as at least one serial connection is configured, you can configure the
following serial connectivity options:
򐂰 Redundant HMC configuration
For redundancy of the system management control point, you can configure a
redundant HMC configuration, as shown in Figure 1-10 on page 19. In this
case, both serial ports have one HMC connected.
For further information about redundant HMC configuration, see “Redundant
HMC configuration consideration” on page 19.
򐂰 Multiple managed system configuration
To save space and to centralize multiple system management control points,
you can configure multiple managed systems using a single HMC, as shown
in Figure 1-10 on page 19. If more than two managed systems are connected
with one HMC, asynchronous adapters must be configured on the HMC.12
The information is considered as objects in the HMC applications. Because
the serial connection is relatively slow (19200 bps), the HMC applications run
slower as the number of objects increases.
The performance of the HMC applications are affected by three factors:
– Number of the managed systems
– Number of the equipped I/O devices on each managed system
– Number of defined partitions defined on each managed system
12
18
See 1.4.1, “Serial connectivity” on page 18 for the detailed information.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Note: The HMC gathers all of the objects from managed systems on every
power cycle. Therefore if the connected multiple managed systems reboot at
the same time, it can take longer for HMC to discover all of the information
from the managed systems.
HMC 1
HMC 2
HMC1
HMC2
Managed
System 1
Redundant HMC
Configuration
HMC1
Managed
System 1
HMC1
Managed
System 2
HMC
HMC1
Managed
System 3
HMC1
Managed
System 4
Multiple ManagedSystem Configuration
Figure 1-10 Serial connectivity option
Redundant HMC configuration consideration
In a redundant HMC configuration, both HMCs are fully active and accessible at
all times, enabling you to perform management tasks from either HMC at any
time. There is no primary or backup designation.
Because both HMCs can be used concurrently, you have to consider the
following points:
򐂰 Because authorized users can be defined independently for each HMC,
determine whether the users of one HMC should be authorized on the other.
If so, the user authorization must be set up separately on each HMC.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
19
򐂰 Because both HMCs provide Service Focal Point and Service Agent
functions, connect a modem and phone line to only one of the HMCs and
enable its Service Agent. To prevent redundant service calls, do not enable
the Service Agent on both HMCs.
򐂰 Perform software maintenance separately on each HMC, at separate times,
so that there is no interruption in accessing HMC function. This allows one
HMC to run at the new fix level, while the other HMC can continue to run at
the previous fix level. However, the best practice is to upgrade both HMCs to
the same fix level as soon as possible.
The basic design of HMC eliminates the possible operation conflicts issued from
two HMCs in the redundant HMC configuration. A locking mechanism provided
by the service processor allows inter-operation in a parallel environment. This
allows an HMC to temporarily take exclusive control of the interface, effectively
locking out the other HMC. Usually, this locking is held only for the short duration
of time it takes to complete an operation, after which the interface is available for
further commands.
Both HMCs are automatically notified of any changes that occur in the managed
systems, so the results of commands issued by one HMC are visible in the other.
For example, if you choose to activate a partition from one HMC, you will observe
the partition going to the Starting and Running states on both HMCs.
The locking between HMCs does not prevent users from running commands that
might seem to be in conflict with each other. For example, if the user on one HMC
activates a partition, and a short time later a user on the other HMC selects to
power the system off, the system will power off. Effectively, any sequence of
commands that you can do from a single HMC is also permitted when it comes
from redundant HMCs. For this reason, it is important to consider carefully how to
use this redundant capability to avoid such conflicts. You might choose to use
them in a primary and backup role, even though the HMCs are not restricted in
that way. The interface locking between two HMCs is automatic, usually of short
duration, and most console operations wait for the lock to release without
requiring user intervention. However, if one HMC experiences a problem while in
the middle of an operation, it may be necessary to manually release the lock.13
Connect and disconnect managed systems
Because the HMC is not required for managed systems to properly function, you
can connect or disconnect them from the HMC without service interruption of
managed systems. For further details about connecting or disconnecting
managed systems to or from the HMC, see 2.4.1, “Connect and disconnect
managed systems” on page 45.
13
20
See “Release Console Lock” on page 48.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Note: If your managed system is connected to only one HMC, you cannot
perform several administration tasks, such as partition management and
DLPAR operation, while the HMC is disconnected from the managed system.
1.4.2 Remote connectivity
Depending on what communication method or protocols are used, there are
several options in the remote connectivity of HMC, as illustrated in Figure 1-11 on
page 22. In this figure, we assume the following points:
򐂰 The dashed lines between HMCs and managed systems are serial
connections.
򐂰 The solid lines connecting HMCs and other systems are Ethernet
connections. These systems have appropriate TCP/IP configuration, so they
can communicate using various TCP/IP protocols supported by the HMC.
򐂰 We exclude the possible connection to the AIX systems managed by
Web-based System Manager from the HMC to avoid complexity in
Figure 1-11 on page 22. You can also manage these AIX systems from the
HMC, even if the AIX system is running in a partition.
򐂰 We assume that the HMC1 shown in Figure 1-11 on page 22 is a server ; all
connections are made to HMC1 from the other systems, and some operations
are executed on it, such as configuring a partition or powering on the
managed system.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
21
Any TCP/IP
Capable
System
2
HMC 1
Linux WebSM
Client
Managed
System 1
1-B
1-A
HMC 2
Windows
WebSM Client
Serial
Connection
Serial
Connection
Managed
System 2
1-C
Figure 1-11 Remote connectivity option
Figure 1-11 shows two categories of remote connectivity options explained in the
following sections: remote access to the HMC graphical user interface, as shown
by 1-A, 1-B, and 1-C (using the dotted line), and the remote execution of
command line function, as shown by 2 (using the dotted line).
Remote access to the HMC graphical user interface
The HMC allows remote access to the graphical user interface from the
Web-based System Manager client installed on the following operating systems:
򐂰 AIX
򐂰 Linux14
򐂰 Windows
For installation and usage of the remote client, see 7.2, “Remote client setup on
a Windows system” on page 141 and 7.3, “Remote client setup on a Linux
system” on page 145.
14
22
Only the Linux operating system for the IA-32 architecture is supported.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Remote execution of command line functions
The HMC provides a set of commands in order to be used for many management
tasks; however, those commands are only accessible from the remote system,
not from the HMC local console. This remote connectivity option is shown as 2 in
Figure 1-11 on page 22, and any TCP/IP-capable system that supports rexec or
ssh can use the remote execution of command line functions.
Note: We recommend that you use ssh instead of rexec, because the rexec
method transports a non-secure clear text copy of the password across the
network.
For further information about the command line interface on the HMC, see
Chapter 9, “HMC command line interface” on page 175.
1.5 HMC order information
In order to configure and administer a partitioning-capable pSeries server, you
must attach at least one IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries (HMC)
to the system. Depending on the partitioning-capable pSeries server model, the
HMC is ordered as a feature code or a separate orderable product, as shown in
Table 1-4.
Note: Currently, only the 7315-C02 is orderable. The 7316 and 7315-C01 are
shown only for reference purposes.
Table 1-4 Previous Hardware Management Console feature code or MT-MDL
Short product name
HMC FC or MT-MDL
Note
pSeries 690
FC 7316
1
pSeries 670
FC 7316
1
pSeries 655
MT-MDL 7315-C01
1
pSeries 650 Model 6M2
MT-MDL 7315-C01
2
pSeries 630 Model 6C4
MT-MDL 7315-C01
2
pSeries 630 Model 6E4
MT-MDL 7315-C01
2
1. The HMC is required regardless of whether the system is partitioned or running in
the Full System Partition.
2. The HMC is required if the system is partitioned. If the system is running in the Full
System Partition, the HMC is not required.
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
23
To place an order of a new HMC (7315-C02), use the IBM Configurator for
e-business (e-config). The redbook IBM Eserver pSeries 670 and pSeries 690
System Handbook, SG24-7040, can be used as a good example of how to use
this application.
1.5.1 Supported number of managed systems and partitions
One HMC is capable of controlling multiple pSeries servers. As this publication is
being written, an HMC can control any of the following:
򐂰 12 pSeries 670 and pSeries 690 servers with 64 partitions
򐂰 16 pSeries 655 servers with up to 32 partitions
򐂰 16 pSeries 630 models 6C4 and 6E4 or pSeries 650 Model 6M2 servers with
up to 64 partitions
򐂰 16 pSeries servers and 64 partitions in a mixed server environment
A mixed server environment can contain a combined maximum of eight
pSeries 670 or pSeries 690 servers.
1.5.2 HMC software release numbering scheme
The latest HMC software release (program number 5639-N47) is preloaded on
the HMC upon product shipment.
Although many IBM software products follow the release numbering scheme
known as V.R.M.F (version, release, maintenance, and fix), the current HMC
uses a different scheme, represented as R.V.M.F (release, version, maintenance,
and fix). Therefore, the latest release available at the time of writing this book is
represented as Release 3, Version 2.2, not Version 3, Release 2.2.
1.5.3 Ethernet adapter configuration
The HMC can be equipped with an optional Ethernet adapter in addition to the
built-in Ethernet port. To use the second Ethernet port, the following feature must
be configured:
򐂰 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI adapter II (FC 4962)
The second Ethernet port typically is used when the HMC is incorporated into a
cluster complex that is managed by CSM.
24
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
1.5.4 Asynchronous serial adapter configurations
The HMC can be equipped with none, one, or both of these asynchronous
adapters:
򐂰 8-port asynchronous adapter (FC 2943)
򐂰 128-port asynchronous adapter (FC 2944)
Note:
򐂰 To ensure that the asynchronous adapter is installed in the HMC and not in
the server, make sure that the adapter is configured as a feature of the
HMC at the time of order.
򐂰 A combination of an FC 2943 and an FC 2944 is supported; however, the
total number of asynchronous adapters cannot exceed two.
Use these adapters if more than two serial ports are required on your HMC. To
configure these adapters, see Appendix A, “Configuring asynchronous adapters
on the HMC” on page 295.
Using 8-port asynchronous adapters
FC 2943 is composed of the following:
򐂰 A PCI adapter card with a physical port
򐂰 A cable with a breakout box that has eight DB-25 connectors (see
Figure 1-12)
Figure 1-12 8-port fanout box with a connector cable
To connect between an FC 2943 port and one of the HMC ports on a managed
system, the following cables are used:
FC 8120
FC 8121
Attachment Cable, HMC to Host, 6 meters
Attachment Cable, HMC to Host, 15 meters
To connect between an FC 2943 port and one of the BPC RS-422 ports on the
7040-W42 system rack, the following cables are used:
FC 8122
Attachment Cable, HMC to 7040-W42, 6 meters
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
25
FC 8123
Attachment Cable, HMC to 7040-W42, 15 meters
Figure 1-13 illustrates the relationship of these cabling configurations.
HMC
8-port Async
Adapter #1
Fanout box
76543210
FC 8120 or 8121
Managed
System
FC 8122 or 8123
7040-W42
Frame
Figure 1-13 Connecting with an 8-port asynchronous adapter
Using 128-port asynchronous adapters
Unlike FC 2943, FC 2944 is a PCI adapter card that has two physical connectors.
In order to use this adapter, the following features must be ordered:
򐂰 At least one of the following features:
FC 8131
FC 8132
128-port asynchronous controller cable, 4.5 meters
128-port asynchronous controller cable, 23 cm
򐂰 At least one FC 8137 Enhanced Remote Asynchronous Node 16-port
FC 8131 or 8132 is connected to one of the connectors of the 128-port
asynchronous adapter card and is also connected to the IN port of the first
Remote Asynchronous Node (RAN). Up to four RANs can be daisy-chained, as
shown in Figure 1-14 on page 27.
26
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
HMC
128-port Async
Adapter #1
Connector #2
Connector #1
FC 8131 or 8132
FC 8120 or 8121
IN
RAN #1
OUT 15
0
FC 8133
Managed
System
FC 8131 or 8132
IN
RAN #2
OUT 15
T
0
7040-W42
Frame
FC 8133
FC 8122 or 8123
Figure 1-14 Connecting with a 128-port asynchronous adapter
Note the following:
򐂰 If up to four RANs are connected to a 128-port asynchronous adapter, FC
8131 or 8132 must be connected to the first connector of the adapter (see
Figure 1-15).
򐂰 If five to eight RANs are connected to a 128-port asynchronous adapter, FC
8131 or 8132 must be also connected to the second connector of the adapter.
򐂰 FC 8131 and 8132 are also used to connect one RAN to another.
First connector
Second connector
Figure 1-15 128-port asynchronous adapter card edge
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
27
Enhanced Remote Asynchronous Node 16-port (FC 8137)
The RAN is a separate box that has the following ports (see Figure 1-16):
򐂰 An IN connector
򐂰 An OUT connector
򐂰 16 RJ-45 asynchronous ports
The IN and OUT connectors are used to connect an RAN with the 128-port
asynchronous adapter or another RAN.
Note: If the RAN is the last in a daisy chain, the OUT port must be terminated.
Figure 1-16 Enhanced Remote Asynchronous Node 16-port (FC 8137)
The 16 RJ-45 ports are connected to managed systems or BPC ports on the
7040-W42 system rack.
To connect between a port on an RAN and one of the HMC ports on a managed
system, the following cables are used:
FC 8120
FC 8121
FC 8133
Attachment Cable, HMC to Host, 6 meters
Attachment Cable, HMC to Host, 15 meters
RJ-45 to DB-25 Converter cable
To connect between a port on an RAN and one of the BPC RS-422 ports on the
7040-W42 frame, the following cables are used:
FC 8122
28
Attachment Cable, HMC to 7040-W42, 6 meters
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
FC 8123
FC 8133
Attachment Cable, HMC to 7040-W42, 15 meters
RJ-45 to DB-25 Converter cable
Note: Ports on RAN use the RJ-45 connector while FC 8120, 8121, 8122, and
8123 use the DB-25 connector. Use FC 8133 to connect these cables to a port
on RAN.
Two 128-port asynchronous adapter and 16 RANs
If two 128-port asynchronous adapters and 16 RANs are used, the maximum of
256 serial ports is supported on an HMC (2 x 128 = 256). However, the actual
usable and supported number of serial ports on an HMC is much smaller than
this number, as explained in 1.5.1, “Supported number of managed systems and
partitions” on page 24.
Distance solution
When the 128-port asynchronous adapter is used, the distance between the
adapter and the last RAN can be extended up to 300 meters (see Figure 1-17). If
the distance is longer than 4.5 meters, which is the length provided by FC 8131,
you must purchase an RS-422 based compatible cable from another cable
manufacturer, because IBM does not sell such a long cable.
If FC 8121 is used to connect the RAN and a managed system, the maximum
distance between the HMC and the managed system can be up to 315 meters.
HMC
Connector #2
Connector #1
128-port Async
Adapter #1
Customer supplied RS-422 based long cable
(compatible with FC 8131 or 8132)
FC 8121
IN
OUT 15
T
Last RAN
0
FC 8133
Managed
System
Up to 300 meters
15 meters
Figure 1-17 Distance solution
Chapter 1. Introduction to the HMC
29
Note: The distance shown as “Up to 300 meters” in Figure 1-17 means that
the distance between the 128-port asynchronous adapter and the last RAN in
the daisy chain; therefore, if multiple RANs exist, the distance between the
adapter and the first RAN in the daisy chain is shorter than 300 meters.
30
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
2
Chapter 2.
HMC graphical user
interface
This chapter describes the HMC graphical user interface by providing the
following sections:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
“Login and logout” on page 32
“HMC graphical user interface at a glance” on page 32
“HMC application overview” on page 40
“Server and Partition” on page 41
“Virtual terminal window” on page 49
“Open xterm to access remote system using telnet” on page 52
Before proceeding to following chapters, you should be familiar with the terms
and concepts used in the HMC graphical user interface explained in this chapter.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
31
2.1 Login and logout
After power-on, the HMC shows the graphical login panel prompting for the user
ID and the password. The HMC is supplied with a predefined user ID hscroot
and the default password abc123. Both the user ID and password are case
sensitive and must be typed exactly as shown. After the successful login, the
HMC graphical user interface opens, as shown in Figure 2-1 on page 33.
To log out from the HMC graphical user interface, do the following:
1. From the menu bar, select Console → Exit.
At this point, you can choose to save the state of the console for the next
session by selecting the check box next to the option.
2. Select Exit Now.
3. When you exit from your HMC session, you have to choose from the following
three logout modes:1
Shutdown Console
Powers off the HMC system.
Reboot Console
Shuts down the HMC system and then reboots it to the
login prompt.
Logout
Returns the user to the login prompt without shutting
down the HMC system.
In either mode, the managed systems are not affected by these operations.
2.2 HMC graphical user interface at a glance
The HMC graphical user interface has the same appearance, key concepts, and
basic tasks and tools as the AIX 5L Version 5.2 Web-based System Manager.
For further information about the Web-based System Manager, refer to AIX 5L
Version 5.2 System Management Guide: AIX 5L Version 5.2 Web-based System
Manager Administration Guide, available at:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/library
1
You can also use the hmcshutdown command to shut down or reboot your HMC (see “hmcshutdown”
on page 190).
32
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
The HMC graphical user interface is composed of several elements, as shown in
Figure 2-1.
Tool bar
Menu bar
Navigation area
Contents area (Management Environment)
Status bar
Figure 2-1 HMC graphical user interface
Table 2-1 shows the relevant section number for each element indicated in
Figure 2-1.
Table 2-1 Elements in the HMC graphical user interface
Element
Relevant section number
Navigation area
2.2.1
Contents area
2.2.2
Menu bar
2.2.3
Tool bar
2.2.4
Status bar
2.2.5
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
33
2.2.1 Navigation area
The left side of the HMC graphical user interface is the Navigation area. It
displays a hierarchy of items ordered in a tree structure. The root of the tree is
the Management Environment. It contains the name of the HMC that you are
currently logged in to. For example, you can see the icon with the host name
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com in the Navigation area in Figure 2-1 on page 33. It is
the host name of the HMC from which this panel image has been taken. In this
example, there is only one host system, the HMC itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com.
The Management Environment is a set of host systems that can be managed
from the HMC. The host systems can be the HMC into which you are currently
logged, the other remote HMCs, and also AIX systems managed by their
Web-based System Manager interface.
To add a host system under the Management Environment, do the following:
1. From the menu bar, select Console → Add → Hosts.
You have two options here: you can add a single host or multiple hosts. For a
single host, add the host name of the system that you want to add; for multiple
hosts, provide the path name of the file that contains the hosts to be added.
You also have the option to verify whether the hosts added are on the network
by selecting the option provided to you.
To remove a host system under the Management Environment, do the following2:
1. From the menu bar, select Console → Remove.
2. Select the host name from the displayed list that you want to remove, and
then confirm in the next panel that you want to remove the designated host.
Note: The managed system itself never appears in the Navigation area unless
you manage AIX instances running in partitions managed by the Web-based
System Manager.
Every folder contains different HMC applications used in the specific
management task, such as Server and Partition or Software Maintenance, as
shown in the Navigation area in Figure 2-1 on page 33. If you choose one of
these HMC applications, it provides its own submenus and objects in the
Contents area determined by the application context.
2
34
This remove operation does not affect the managed system deleted from the HMC application.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
2.2.2 Contents area
The right side of the panel is the Contents area. It displays managed objects and
related tasks. You can choose different views in the Contents area: large icons,
small icons, or details in the form of a list.
Note: The label of the Contents area is changed depending on the application
context. For example, if you select Management Environment in the
Navigation area, the label is changed to Management Environment, as shown
in Figure 2-1 on page 33.
2.2.3 Menu bar
The following six menu items are provided in the menu bar:
Console
The Console menu contains choices that control the
console. It enables you to add and remove managed
systems, other HMCs, or other AIX systems managed by
Web-based System Manager from the management
environment. It also enables you to change themes on the
desktop, change font sizes, open an outbound Telnet
terminal session using an IP address or a host name, and
exit the console.
Object
The title of the Object menu changes to indicate the type
of resource managed by the current HMC application. For
example, when the Server Management application is
selected, the Object menu title becomes Server
Management. The Object menu contains general choices
and actions for a HMC application that do not require the
selection of specific objects to act on. The find function is
also located in the Object menu. The contents of the
Object menu are updated when a new HMC application is
selected. In the case where you are managing an AIX
system remotely, the AIX 5L Version 5.2 Web-based
System Manager applications appear here.
Selected
The Selected menu contains the set of actions that are
applicable to the object selected in the Contents pane.
The contents of the Selected menu are updated based on
which object you select. It is disabled when Overview and
Launch applications are loaded. The open tab in the
Selected menu expands the view of a managed system in
the Navigation area.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
35
View
The View menu contains choices for navigating, such as
Back, Forward, and Up One Level. It also includes
choices for customizing the console in the Show
submenu. For example, you can select to show or hide
the tool bar and status bar. This menu also includes
options that control how objects are presented. For
example, if the Contents area content provides a choice of
views, such as Large Icon, Small Icon, Details, and Tree,
these choices are listed here. If the content has only a
single view, no view choices are listed. When the content
displays an icon or Details view, the View menu includes
choices for sorting and filtering the container.
Window
The Window menu contains actions for managing
subpanels in the console workspace. The new virtual
terminal creates a new console subpanel in the
workspace. Other choices control how all console
subpanels are placed. For example, you can choose to
have the panels completely cover the workspace-like tiles,
or have them stacked in a cascade style.
Help
The Help menu lists user assistance choices. Different
options enable you to view help contents, search for help
on a particular topic, and view help information about
shortcut keys.
2.2.4 Tool bar
The tool bar lists commonly used actions that are available when the current
plug-in application is loaded. It includes navigation controls, Find and View
choices (if available), and a refresh option of the HMC graphical user interface.
The tool bar also provides tool tip help when the pointer remains over a tool bar
icon for a few seconds.
Reload button
The HMC graphical user interface provides the Reload button in the tool bar as
shown in Figure 2-2.3 If the HMC does not display the operation task result
correctly, you can click this button to reload the latest information.
Figure 2-2 Reload button
3
36
The function can be also selected from View → Reload or pressing the F5 key on the keyboard.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Details, Tree, Tree-Details buttons
The HMC graphical user interface provides the Details, Tree, and Tree-Details
buttons in the tool bar as shown in Figure 2-3.4 Once one of these buttons are
selected, the selected view is preserved across the power recycle of HMC.
Figure 2-3 Details, Tree, Tree-Details buttons
For example, if you click the Details button while a managed system is selected
in the Server Management application, the Contents area will show the detailed
information about the selected managed system itself, as shown in Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-4 Detailed view
If you click the Tree button, the Contents area will show a tree that represents
objects belonging to the managed system, as shown in Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5 Tree view
If you click the Tree-Details button, the Contents area will show a tree that
represents objects belonging to the managed system as well as the detailed
information for each object as shown in Figure 2-6 on page 38.
4
Same functions are available in the View menu.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
37
Figure 2-6 Tree-Details view
Note: It is recommended to select this view while you are managing partitions.
2.2.5 Status bar
The status bar displays at the lower edge of a console panel (see Figure 2-7).
1
2
3
4
5
Figure 2-7 Status bar
It has the following five fields ordered from left to right for displaying status
information:
1. Padlock icon
The padlock icon is open when secure communications are not active. When
locked, the padlock icon indicates that the Web-based System Manager client
on the HMC is running in secure mode. In this case, the communication
between the Web-based System Manager client on the HMC and the
connected Web-based System Manager server on the other system is
encrypted using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). A Web-based System Manager
server is always running on the HMC itself, and can be running on the
following remote systems:
– The other remote HMCs
– AIX systems (including on partitions)
38
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
The padlock icon indicates whether the Web-based System Manager client
on the HMC is running in secure mode. It does not indicate whether the
Web-based System Manager server on the HMC is running in secure mode.
Therefore, while you are logging in to your HMC from its local console, the
padlock icon is locked only when:
– You are accessing to other manageable systems, including the other
HMCs.
– A public key ring file that was generated on the remote system has been
already copied onto the local HMC.5
2. Plug-in loading status
When a plug-in application is loaded, the text Ready is present. When an
application is in the process of loading, a graphic bounce bar is displayed.
3. Number of objects visible in the Contents area
Objects can be present on the managed system but hidden from the view by
the view filter.
4. Number of objects selected in the Contents area
5. Security context (user name and host name)
This displays the administrator user name and the HMC host name for the
currently active HMC.
The status bar can be hidden or shown by clearing or checking the Status Bar
option in the Show submenu under View.
The HMC also provides a pop-up menu (it is also called context menu) for quick
access to menu choices. To use pop-up menus with a mouse, point to an object,
and then right-click. The pop-up menu lists the actions found in the Selected and
Object menus for the current object or objects.
Reset the current HMC graphical user interface session
If your HMC graphical user interface session hangs, it means that even if you wait
10 minutes after an operation, and the pointer is still a clock-shaped icon, you
can restart the X server to reset the session. You can reset your hung session by
pressing the Ctrl+Alt+Backspace key combination. The X server restarts and
displays the HMC login prompt. All messages and panels regarding the hung
session will be lost.
5
This operation is performed by the “Copy another Certificate Authority’s Public Key Ring File from
diskette” task, which is shown in Figure 7-3 on page 129.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
39
2.3 HMC application overview
As shown in Figure 2-8, seven application folders are provided in the Navigation
area in the HMC graphical user interface.
Figure 2-8 HMC application folders in the Navigation area
These folders contain several applications to be used for different system
management tasks on the HMC and managed systems as shown in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2 HMC application folders
Folder name
Description
Relevant
section
number
System Manager Security
This folder contains several applications that enable a secure
network connection from other Web-based System Manager
clients for the remote control of an HMC in client/server mode.
7.1
Server and Partition
This folder contains only one application, Server Management,
which provides all partition-related tasks. It is used to create,
maintain, activate, and delete logical partitions and affinity
partitions.
2.4
Software Maintenance
This folder contains three applications (Frame, HMC, and
Software Maintenance) that enable you to perform software
level management tasks on a frame as well as on an HMC. The
available tasks for the HMC are: save and back up important
HMC-related information, format removable media, save
upgrade data, and install corrective fixes.
6.1
HMC Management
This folder contains only one application, Users, which controls
user access to the HMC and enables the user to perform
different tasks in the HMC environment depending on the
different roles assigned to each user you create.
4.1
40
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Folder name
Description
Relevant
section
number
HMC Maintenance
This folder contains several applications that enable you to set
the console’s date and time, modify and view HMC network
information, view console events, and schedule routine
backups. It is also used to enable and disable remote command
execution and secure shell access, change the language
locale, and configure the serial adapter.
4.2
Service Applications
This folder contains several applications to be used for
service-related tasks, such as Inventory Scout, Service Agent,
and Service Focal Point.
11.1
2.4 Server and Partition
The Server and Partition folder contains only the Server Management
application, which provides all partition-related tasks.
It is important to understand how to select the managed system that you are
going to manage using the Server Management application. If this application is
selected, you will see the object hierarchy illustrated in Figure 2-9 on page 42 in
the content area.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
41
System profile A1_s1
System profile A1_s2
Frame A
Managed system A1
System Profiles
Managed system A2
Partitions
Managed system A3
Frame B
Partition profile A1_p1_a
Partition A1_p2
Partition profile A1_p1_b
Partition A1_p3
Partition profile A1_p1_c
PartitionB2_p1
Partition profile B2_p1_a
PartitionB2_p2
Partition profile B2_p1_b
Managed system B1
Managed system B2
System Profiles
Partitions
Frame C
Partition A1_p1
Managed system C1
Default profile for the partition
Figure 2-9 Object hierarchy for the Server Management application
The object hierarchy is summarized as follows:
򐂰 Multiple frames can exist in the content area.
򐂰 A frame can contain multiple managed systems.
򐂰 A partitioning-capable managed system always has two branch nodes:
– System Profiles
– Partitions
򐂰 The System Profiles branch node can contain multiple system profiles.
򐂰 The Partitions branch node can contain multiple partitions.
򐂰 A partition can contain multiple partition profiles.
򐂰 One of partition profiles is designated as the default profile for the partition; if
a partition has only one partition profile, that profile is always treated as the
default partition profile.
For example, a frame icon (7040-61R*021767A) is shown in the content area in
Figure 2-10 on page 43, where 7040-61R is the machine type and model for the
24” system frame for pSeries 690, pSeries 670, and pSeries 655. In this frame,
there is only one managed system ITSO_p690 is shown, which has two branch
nodes: System Profiles and Partitions.
42
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Under the Partitions branch node, nine partitions are shown, including the Full
System Partition. While the lpar02 partition has two partition profiles, lpar01 has
only one; therefore aix51_64 is the default profile for lpar01.
Figure 2-10 Server Management (one managed system)
As more complex examples for the graphical user interface on the HMC that
manages multiple managed systems:
򐂰 Figure 2-11 on page 44 shows a frame (7040-61R*1234567) in the content
area that contains three managed systems (three pSeries 655 servers).
򐂰 Figure 2-12 on page 44 shows four frames in the content area. The first frame
contains a pSeries 670 whereas the other frames contain pSeries 630 Model
6C4 each.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
43
1234567
IH_hmc
Figure 2-11 Server Management (three pSeries 655 servers)6
hmcdallas
Figure 2-12 Server Management (four managed systems)7
6 This screen shot is taken from an HMC that manages three pSeries 655 nodes being used for the
internal test purpose. Therefore, the HMC host name is purposely hidden.
7
The frame icon descriptions start with F, not from MT-MDL in Figure 2-12, since those systems are
installed with V3.0 system firmware.
44
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Note:
򐂰 A single 7040-61R frame can accommodate only one pSeries 670 or
pSeries 690 server.
򐂰 A single 7040-61R frame can accommodate multiple pSeries 655 servers.
򐂰 Although multiple pSeries 650 Model 6M2 server, and pSeries 630 models
6C4 and 6E4 servers can be physically accommodated in a single 19-inch
rack, those servers always appear in separate frames in the content area
of Server Management.
2.4.1 Connect and disconnect managed systems
You can connect or disconnect managed systems on the HMC using the
following procedures.
Connect to the managed systems
The first time you connect a managed system to the HMC, a predefined name of
the managed system appears in the Contents area of Partition Management. You
can change this name by selecting the managed system in the Contents area,
selecting the Select option in the menu bar, and clicking the Properties menu
option.8
Disconnect from the managed systems
You can delete managed systems from the HMC graphical user interface if you
no longer want to manage a particular system.
Note: Do not physically disconnect the serial connection before performing
the procedures explained here.
To delete the managed system from the Contents area, do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
In the Contents area, select the managed system.
From the menu bar, choose Selected → Delete.
Click Yes to delete the managed system from the Contents area.
Pull out the serial cable from the managed system.
2.4.2 Server Management
The Server Management application is used to create, maintain, activate, and
delete logical partitions and affinity partitions. It is also used to power on and
power off the managed system and partitions, open and close virtual terminal
8
The properties panel is shown in Figure 3-1 on page 57.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
45
windows for the partitions, view properties of the managed system, perform
backups, restore profile data, and rebuild the managed system.9 For more
information about the use of this application, see the following sections:
򐂰 2.4.3, “Server Management menus” on page 46
򐂰 Chapter 3, “Basic managed system operation tasks” on page 55
For further detailed information how to create and manage partitions and
partition profiles, refer to the following publications:
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations
Guide, SA38-0590
򐂰 The Complete Partitioning Guide for IBM Eserver pSeries Servers,
SG24-7039
2.4.3 Server Management menus
As shown in Figure 2-13 on page 47, the following 10 menus are available in this
application if you select a managed system.
9 You can create, view, and remove partitions (including affinity partitions), system profiles, and
partition profiles using the mksyscfg, lssyscfg, and rmsyscfg commands. The chsyscfg command
can be also used to modify those already created objects. See 9.3.4, “Commands to manage system
configuration” on page 195 for the detailed information about these commands.
46
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 2-13 Server Management options
Properties
This menu enables you to see the properties of the managed system. The
application queries several attributes and capabilities and displays them in the
machine, processors, memory, I/O slot, and policy attributes in the property
window (see 3.1, “Viewing properties of the managed system” on page 56).
Delete
This menu enables a user with System Administrator role10, such as hscroot, to
delete a selected managed system that is controlled from this HMC.
Create
This menu enables a user with System Administrator role, for example hscroot, to
create logical partitions or system profiles. The system profile option is dimmed
on a system that has no logical partition profiles defined.
10
See 4.1.1, “User role descriptions” on page 77.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
47
Affinity Logical Partitions
This menu is used to set up partitions that have a predefined affinity for
processors and memory. You can set up these affinity logical partitions with
either a four-way processor MCM configuration or with an eight-way processor
MCM configuration. The application setup wizard automatically defines the
number of affinity partitions that can be defined based on the systems processor
configuration. Affinity partitions cannot run with normal partitions on a single
managed system at the same time.
Note: This menu is only available on the pSeries 670 and pSeries 690.
Power On and Off
This menu enables the user to toggle the power states of the managed system.
Only one option is available based on the state of the managed system. If the
state is powered on, the Power Off option is available, and if the state is powered
off, the Power On option is available.
We explain this menu in 3.2, “Power on the managed system” on page 61 and
3.6, “Power off the managed system” on page 72.
Release Console Lock
This menu provides a way to manually override the HMC operations lock held in
the service processor on a managed system, which coordinates activities
between two HMCs.
To release an HMC lock, do the following:11
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu bar, choose Selected → Release Console Lock.
Note: This menu should normally only be needed if there have been HMC
failures that left the lock on.
Profile Data
This menu enables the hscroot user to restore, initialize, back up, and remove
profile data. We explain this menu in Chapter 5, “Managing partition profile data
on the HMC” on page 99.
11
48
The rmsplock command can be also used to remove leftover locks (see “rmsplock” on page 211).
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Open Terminal Window
This menu enables the opening of a virtual terminal window to the partition. This
connection is necessary to define the default console and the network interface
for the partition when it is created.
Close Terminal Connection
This menu enables the closing of the virtual terminal window to the partition.
Note: Clicking the X at the top-right of the opened virtual terminal window is
not enough to close the terminal connection. You must explicitly select this
menu in order to close the opened virtual terminal connection.
Rebuild managed system
This menu instructs the HMC to retrieve the information from the NVRAM in the
managed system and then refresh the graphical user interface using the
retrieved information.12
2.5 Virtual terminal window
AIX needs a console for installation and some service activities. The native serial
ports on the managed system are only assignable together to one partition. The
virtual terminal window provides virtual terminal console access to every partition
without a physical device assigned.
2.5.1 Virtual terminal window concept
A virtual terminal window is available for each partition or Full System Partition of
the managed system. Some functions are limited, and the performance cannot
be guaranteed because of the limited bandwidth of the serial connection
between the HMC and the managed system.
To open the virtual terminal window, do the following:13
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Expand the System and Partition folder in the navigation area.
Select the Server Management application.
Select the frame in which the target managed system resides.
Select the managed system on which the target partition is running.
Expand the Partitions tree.
12
The chsysstate command can be also used to rebuild the managed system (see “chsysstate” on
page 213).
13
The mkvterm and rmvterm commands can be also used to open and close a virtual terminal to the
specified partition (see 9.3.7, “Commands for virtual terminals” on page 209).
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
49
6. Select the target partition and right-click on it.
7. Select the Open Terminal menu.
If you have done this operation on the HMC local console, you will see the virtual
terminal window shown in Figure 2-14.
Figure 2-14 Virtual terminal window on the HMC
If you have done this operation on the remote Web-based System Manager
client, you will see the virtual terminal window shown in Figure 2-15 on page 51.
50
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 2-15 Virtual terminal window on the remote WebSM client
Note: In Figure 2-14 and Figure 2-15, the title bar displays the machine type
and model name (7040-681), the serial number of the pSeries 690 (021768A),
and the partition name (lpar02) to which the virtual terminal window is
connected.
The virtual terminal window should only be used for installation and service
purposes. For AIX configuration and management, we recommend you use a
network adapter assigned to the partition exclusively. The virtual terminal window
does not support:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Printing to a virtual terminal
Transparent print services
Modem connection for the virtual console port
Real-time applications
The virtual terminal window supports the AIX smitty and other curses-driven
applications. The virtual terminal window emulates a VT320 terminal. To set the
terminal type on a virtual terminal window session, you can use the AIX export
TERM=vt320 command on the Korn shell prompt.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
51
The following operations are available for the virtual terminal window:
򐂰 Open a virtual terminal window
From the HMC graphical user interface, select a partition or the Full System
Partition in the Contents area using Partition Management, right-click, and
select Open Terminal Window.
򐂰 Close a virtual terminal window
To close a virtual terminal window, click the X in the top-right corner of the
panel. To force a virtual terminal window to close, select the partition,
right-click, and then select Close Terminal Connection.
2.5.2 Virtual terminal window in the Full System Partition
When you open a virtual terminal window to the Full System Partition, the output
of the native S1 serial port is redirected to the virtual terminal window. Then, the
output of any command is directed from the serial port S1 to the virtual terminal
window. After closing the virtual terminal window, the serial port S1 is normally
accessible.
In the No Power state, you can access the service processor of a managed
system with a virtual terminal window.
2.5.3 Partition virtual terminal windows
You can open a virtual terminal window at any time, regardless of the state of a
partition, but only one per partition. The virtual terminal window is blank until the
partition is activated. After you activate one of partitions, you cannot connect a
virtual terminal window to the service processor of the managed system. In a
partitioned environment, the native serial port S1 is not redirected to the virtual
terminal of that partition.
2.6 Open xterm to access remote system using telnet
You can open xterm windows to connect to the other hosts14 using telnet over
the network in order to access the other hosts, including partitions.
To use this function, do the following from the HMC graphical user interface:
1. From the menu bar, select Console → Open Terminal.
2. Enter the host name or the IP address, then click OK.
14
52
Except for the HMC itself.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
To access to a partition using this function, the partition has to be assigned at
least one network adapter, and the adapter has to be configured with an IP
address that can be accessible from the HMC.
Note: The Open Terminal menu is available only on the local HMC console.
Chapter 2. HMC graphical user interface
53
54
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
3
Chapter 3.
Basic managed system
operation tasks
This chapter explains in the following sections how to start, stop, and reset an
operating system on a managed system in both a partitioned environment and
Full System Partition using the Server Management application:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
“Viewing properties of the managed system” on page 56
“Power on the managed system” on page 61
“Activate partitions” on page 65
“Shut down the operating system in a partition” on page 68
“Reset the operating system in a partition” on page 70
“Power off the managed system” on page 72
“Operating the managed system with the HMC” on page 72
In addition, the Contents area of the Server Management application provides
status information about the managed system and the partitions and displays the
operator panel value of the managed system and the partitions.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
55
3.1 Viewing properties of the managed system
To view the properties of your managed system, select the managed system in
the Contents area, and from the menu bar choose Selected → Properties. Or
select the managed system in the Contents area, right-click, and select
Properties. The property panel shown in Figure 3-1 on page 57 opens.
The properties panel includes the five property tabs of the managed system
shown in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1 Properties of the managed system
56
Property name
Figure number
Machine
Figure 3-1 on page 57
Processor
Figure 3-2 on page 58
Policy
Figure 3-3 on page 59
I/O Slot
Figure 3-4 on page 60
Memory
Figure 3-5 on page 61
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
3.1.1 Machine property
The Machine property tab displays the following information, as shown in
Figure 3-1:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Capability
Runtime Capability
State
Serial Number
Model/Type
Service Processor Version
Figure 3-1 System properties: Machine1
Note: The Service Processor Version field (highlighted in Figure 3-1) shows
the system firmware version on your managed system.
1
The same information can be obtained using the lssyscfg command (see Example 9-3 on
page 196).
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
57
3.1.2 Processor property
The Processor property tab displays information about the installed processors,
identified by their processor ID2 and their assignment to partitions, as shown in
Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2 System properties: Processor3
Processor 21 is not assigned to any partitions in Figure 3-2.
2
3
58
This is the physical processor ID.
The same information can be obtained using the lshwres command (see “lshwres” on page 206).
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
3.1.3 Policy property
In the Policy tab, you can choose to switch these two options on or off, as shown
in Figure 3-3:
򐂰 Power off the system after all the logical partitions are powered off.
򐂰 Service Processor Surveillance Policy.
The Service Processor Surveillance Policy is a program that monitors the
managed system. If the managed system is not responding, and the Service
Processor Surveillance Policy is set, the state of the managed system changes
from Ready to No Connection on the HMC graphical user interface.
Figure 3-3 System properties: Policy4
4
Figure 3-3 shows the default setting.
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
59
3.1.4 I/O Slot property
The I/O Slot property tab displays the assignment of I/O slots to partitions and
the adapter-type information grouped by drawers, as shown in Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-4 System properties: I/O Slot5
Note: ISA devices are not supported by DLPAR operations. The I/O slot
Slot_1/U1.18-P1-H2 in Figure 3-4 represents a group of ISA devices, such as
the diskette drive and native serial ports, on the pSeries 670 and pSeries 690.
5
60
The same information can be obtained using the lshwres command (see “lshwres” on page 206).
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
3.1.5 Memory property
The Memory property tab displays the assigned memory amount to partitions
and the page table usage information, as shown in Figure 3-5. It also shows the
total installed physical memory size.
Figure 3-5 System properties: Memory6
3.2 Power on the managed system
To power on the managed system, open the Server Management application
from the Server Management folder and select the managed system in the
Contents area. From the menu bar choose Selected → Power On. A panel
opens that offers the four power-on modes shown in Figure 3-6 on page 62:
System Profile, Full System Partition, Partition Standby, and Auto Start
Partitions.7
6
The same information can be obtained using the lshwres command (see “lshwres” on page 206).
The chsysstate command can be also used to power on and off the managed systems (see
“chsysstate” on page 213).
7
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
61
Figure 3-6 Power On Modes panel
The following modes are available:
System Profile
The managed system activates partition profiles in the
order listed in the given system profiles.
Full System Partition Only one AIX operating system image is activated that
has access to all resources of the managed system. The
operator panel on the media drawer displays all progress
codes during the boot process. The Full System Partition
has predefined profiles, as shown in Figure 3-6. You
cannot change, add, or delete them. The predefined
profiles are as follows:
Power On Normal
Boots an operating system from the designated boot
device.
Power On Diagnostic Stored Boot List
Causes the system to perform a service mode boot
using the service mode boot list saved on the managed
system. If the system boots AIX from the disk drive, and
AIX diagnostics are loaded on the disk drive, AIX boots
to the diagnostics menu. Using this option to boot the
system is the preferred way to run online diagnostics.
Power On SMS
Boots to the System Management Services (SMS)
menus. The SMS menus include Password Utilities,
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Display Error Log, Remote Initial Program Load Setup,
SCSI Utilities, Select Console, MultiBoot, Select
Language, and the OK Prompt.
Power On Diagnostic Default Boot List
Similar to Power On Diagnostic Stored Boot List Profile,
except the system boots using the Default Boot List that
is stored in the system firmware. This is normally used to
try to boot diagnostics from the CD-ROM drive. Using
this option to boot the system is the preferred way to run
stand-alone diagnostics.
Power On Open Firmware OK Prompt
Used only by service personnel to obtain additional
debug information. When this selection is enabled, the
system boots to the Open Firmware prompt.
Partition Standby
This power-on mode provides two actions:
– Creating partitions
– Activation of individual partitions
When the Partition Standby power-on is completed, the
operator panel on the managed system displays LPAR…,
indicating that the managed system is ready for you to
use the HMC to partition its resources or to activate
configured partitions.
In Partition Standby power-on mode, the state of the Full
System Partition is shown as Not Available.
Auto Start Partitions8 Powers on the managed system to partition standby
mode and then activates all partitions that have been
powered on by the HMC at least once. For example, if
you create a partition with four processors, use DLPAR
operation to remove one processor, then shut down the
system, the Auto Start Partitions power-on mode
activates this partition with three processors. This is
because the three-processor configuration was the last
configuration used, and the HMC ignores whatever you
have specified in the partition’s profile. Using this option,
the activated partitions boot the operating system using a
normal mode boot, even if the default profile for the
partition specifies the other modes, such as boot to SMS.
8
This power-on mode is available on the HMC software release beginning with Release 3, Version 2.
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
63
3.2.1 Operation states of a managed system
This attribute of the managed system is displayed in the content area of the HMC
window under the State label (see Table 3-2).
Table 3-2 Operating states of managed systems9
State
Description
Initializing
The managed system is powered on and is initializing. The
initialization time may vary depending on the hardware and
partition configuration of the managed system.
Ready
The managed system is powered on and is operating
normally.
No Power
The managed system is powered off.
Error
The operating system or the hardware of the managed
system is experiencing errors.
Incomplete
The HMC cannot gather complete partition, profile, or
resource information from the managed system. To rebuild
the managed system, see 3.2.2, “Rebuild the managed
system in the HMC” on page 64.
No Connection
The HMC cannot contact the managed system. Check the
serial cable or delete and configure the managed system
again.
Recovery
The partition and profile data stored in the managed system
must be refreshed. To initialize the data, see 5.1.3, “Initialize
profile data” on page 105.
Version Mismatch
The managed system’s service processor level is later than
the code level of the HMC.
CUOD CTA
You must accept the CUoD license.
3.2.2 Rebuild the managed system in the HMC
The Rebuild managed system function downloads the data stored in the NVRAM
of the managed system to the HMC. The NVRAM contains the properties of the
managed system, the partition, system profile information, and the current
states. Rebuilding the managed system is useful when the operating state
9
As for the recovery and imcomplete status, see 5.1, “Managing profile data” on page 100 for further
detailed information.
64
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
indicator of a managed system in the Contents area is shown as Incomplete.
This operation is different from performing a reload of the local HMC panel. In
this operation, the HMC reloads from the information that is stored on the local
database on the HMC.
To rebuild the managed system, select the managed system in the Contents
area, and from the menu bar choose Selected → Rebuild managed system.
When the operation finishes, the current system information of the managed
system appears.
3.3 Activate partitions
If you activate a partition, you are virtually powering on the partition. To activate a
partition, select the partition name and select activate by right-clicking. This
opens a window that enables you to choose the profile that you want to activate
for this partition. If the minimum and required resources you specified when you
created the partition profile exceeds the amount of available resources, this
partition will not be activated with the selected profile. Available resources are all
resources currently not being used by other active partitions. It is important that
you keep track of your system’s resources at all times.
3.3.1 Change the default partition profile
When a partition is created, a profile also has to be created by default to define
the resources associated with this partition. The application requires that you
create at least one profile when a partition is created. The first profile created is
the default profile. Additionally, the default partition profile is marked with an icon.
The default partition profile can be changed at any time. To change the default
partition profile, select the partition profile name in the Contents area, from the
menu bar choose Selected → Change Default Profile, and select the profile
name from the list that you want to make the default. This operation can also be
completed by selecting the profile name, right-clicking, and following the menus.
The default profile can be changed even when the partition is in the active state
with the profile running.
3.3.2 Activate a specific partition profile
To activate a partition profile, select one of the partition profiles you created, and
from the menu bar choose Selected → Activate. The profile name is highlighted.
Click OK to activate the partition using this partition profile. If you want to activate
using the other partition profiles, select another profile in the list and then click
OK. This operation can also be accomplished by selecting the desired profile
name, right-clicking, and selecting the Activate option.
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
65
3.3.3 Activate partitions without selecting a specific partition profile
To activate a partition without selecting a specific partition profile, select the
partition in the Contents area, and from the menu bar choose Selected →
Activate. The default profile name is highlighted as shown in Figure 3-7. Then,
click OK.
Figure 3-7 Activate a partition
If you select the Open terminal check box (highlighted in Figure 3-7), a virtual
terminal window opens upon activation of the partition.
3.3.4 Reactivating a partition with a different partition profile
To reactivate a partition with a different profile, select the partition for which you
want to change profiles in the Contents area. Open a virtual terminal window for
that partition to log in to the operating system, and then issue an appropriate
operating system shutdown command.10 The system shuts down the operating
system, and the partition’s state changes from Running to Ready in the Contents
area. In the Contents area, select the new partition profile you want to activate for
that partition. From the menu bar choose Selected → Activate, or select the
profile that you want to activate, right-click, and then select the Activate option.
10 As we will explain in 3.4, “Shut down the operating system in a partition” on page 68, the HMC
software level Release 3, Version 2 provides the operating system shutdown menu, if the target
partition is installed with AIX 5L Version 5.2 and 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance Level and
later.
66
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
3.3.5 Partition operating states
In the column to the right of the names of the partitions in the Contents area, the
HMC indicates the operating status of the partitions. Table 3-3 lists all possible
partition operating states.
Table 3-3 Operating states of partitions
Operating state
Description
Ready
The partition is not active, but is ready to be activated.
Starting
The partition is activated and is undergoing booting routines.
Running
The partition has finished its booting routines. The operating
system can be performing its booting routines or is in its normal
running state.
Error
Activation of this partition failed due to a hardware or operating
system error.
Not available
This partition is not available for use. Reasons can include:
Open Firmware
򐂰
The managed system is powered off.
򐂰
The Full System Partition is not available when the managed
system is powered on with the Partition Standby power-on
option.
򐂰
Partitions are not available when the managed system is
powered on with the Full System Partition power-on option.
򐂰
Affinity partitions are not available when the managed
system is powered on and the non-affinity partitions are
activated first.
򐂰
Non-affinity partitions are not available when the managed
system is powered on and affinity partitions are powered on
first.
The partition was activated by a profile that specified an
OPEN_FIRMWARE boot mode.
If the partition operation state is Error after you attempt to activate it, you can
select Read Boot Error Value to understand why the partition gets an error
during the boot.
For example, if you have set the service authority to more than one partition and
tried to activate the second partition with the authority, then the activation would
fail with the Error state as shown in Figure 3-8 on page 68.
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
67
Figure 3-8 Partition activation failure
In this case, the boot error message shown in Figure 3-9 explains the reason for
the failure of this partition activation.
Figure 3-9 Read Boot Error Values
3.4 Shut down the operating system in a partition
To shut down the operating system in a partition, do the following:
1. In the Contents area, select the partition you want to shut down.
2. From the menu bar choose Selected → Operating System → Shutdown.
This function is available when the following requirements are met:
򐂰 HMC is installed with software Release 3, Version 2 and later.11
11
68
The menu does not exist on the HMC installed with software Release 3, Version 1 and before.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
򐂰 The target partition is installed with AIX 5L Version 5.2 plus 5200-01
Recommended Maintenance Level and later.12
You can also perform this operation by selecting the partition name and
right-clicking to display the window shown Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-10 Operating System shutdown or reset
A dialog box shown in Figure 3-11 on page 70 will appear. Select the partition
name and click OK to shut down the operating system in the selected partition.
You may select the following options in the dialog box before clicking OK:
򐂰 Restart the operating system after shutting it down via reboot.
򐂰 Bring the operating system down as quickly as possible.
12
If the partition is not installed with AIX 5L Version 5.2 plus 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance
Level and later, the Shutdown menu selection is grayed out and unselectable.
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
69
Figure 3-11 Operating System shutdown
3.5 Reset the operating system in a partition
When an operating system in a partition stalls, you can use the HMC to restart
the operating system.
Important: This operation may corrupt data on the resetting partition. Perform
this procedure only after you have attempted to restart the operating system
manually.
In the Contents area, select the partition you want to reset. From the menu bar
choose Selected → Operating System → Reset. You can also perform this
operation by selecting the partition name and right-clicking to display the window
shown in Figure 3-10 on page 69.
A dialog box opens that offers two reset options, as shown in Figure 3-12 on
page 71.
70
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 3-12 Operating system reset options
The following operating system reset options are available:
Soft Reset
The actions of the operating system after a soft reset are
determined by its policy settings. Depending on how you have
configured these settings, the operating system may perform a
dump of system information or will restart automatically. For more
information about configuring your operating system’s policy
settings, refer to its supporting documentation.
Hard Reset A hard reset acts as a virtual powering off of the partition, not the
managed system. Issuing a hard reset forces termination and can
corrupt information. Use this option only if the operating system is
disrupted and cannot send or receive commands.
If you explicitly set the “Power off the system after all the logical partitions are
powered off” policy shown in Figure 3-3 on page 59, and if you deactivate the last
partition in the system (no partition is activated in the system), the managed
system is powered off. The status of the managed system is changed from LPAR…
to No Power.
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
71
3.6 Power off the managed system
Before powering off the managed system, ensure that all partitions or the Full
System Partition have been shut down and their states have changed from
Running to Ready. To shut down a partition, you can use a virtual terminal window
to run the shutdown command or Telnet into the partition and issue the shutdown
command.
To power off the managed system, select the managed system in the Contents
area, and from the menu bar choose Selected → Power Off. If you attempt to
power off a system that has active partitions, you will receive a warning to that
effect, but you will still be able to power off the managed system.
3.7 Operating the managed system with the HMC
Although the managed system is designed not to put any dependency on the
HMC, except the specific system management operation, you should not plan to
run the managed system without an HMC. The HMC is required for the
operations, such as to set up or change the partition configurations, and is also a
key element in configuring the Service Applications. Without an HMC, the
Service Applications will not be able to provide the extended RAS capabilities
that are available on the partitioning-capable pSeries servers. The call home
feature available with Service Focal Point provides this function through the
HMC.
Without an HMC, it is still possible to bring up a managed system in its last
configured partition state, including a boot of defined partitions, by pressing the
power button on the operator panel. However, running partitions can be rebooted
and restarted using the shutdown command, even if the HMC is not present.
3.7.1 Operator panel
The operator panel13 is used to track the progress of the system unit’s self tests
and configuration program, to display codes when the operating system comes to
an abnormal end, and to display system messages. In a logical partitioned
environment, the operator panel displays an error code for most hardware or
firmware problems, but you need the HMC to display any error information written
to a partition’s virtual operator panel. The operator panel values of the partitions
are displayed in the HMC main menu for every partition, as shown in Figure 3-13
on page 73.
13
72
The operator panel is physically located in the media drawer in the pSeries 670 and pSeries 690.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 3-13 Hardware Management Console operator panel codes
Note: AIX 5L Version 5.2 displays a detailed description and a four-digit LED
value at the operating system boot phase, as highlighted in Figure 3-13.
3.7.2 Power button
The white power button in the operator panel acts in a logical partitioned
environment and in Full System Partition, such as in a conventional pSeries
machine. The managed system will come back up in the same mode in which it
was previously booted. If the managed system was previously booted in a
Partition Standby mode, all partitions will automatically start and run. To power
off the whole system, press the button twice: once to indicate action, the second
time to confirm. We recommend you shut down the operating system instances
in the partitions before powering off the system.
3.7.3 Reset button
The reset button functions only in the Full System Partition mode. In Partition
Standby mode, the reset button is not active. To reset a partition, use the
operating system reset function of the HMC.
Chapter 3. Basic managed system operation tasks
73
74
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
4
Chapter 4.
Configuring the HMC
In this chapter, we describe the administration and management tasks that you
can perform from the Hardware Management Console (HMC) graphical user
interface. We assume that you have system administrator authority on the HMC.
The management tasks are described in the following sections:
򐂰 “HMC Management” on page 76
򐂰 “HMC Maintenance” on page 80
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
75
4.1 HMC Management
An HMC system administrator can manage users and assign roles with the
Users application in the HMC Management folder (see Figure 4-1).
Figure 4-1 HMC Management, Users
To use the Users application, first determine who will use the HMC. After
designating the user name, assign a role to that user based on the level of
access that you want to grant that user. For example, you can create general
users and assign operator roles to them so that they can perform basic HMC
tasks.
Note: You must create a user named hscpe for your software support
representative so that they have access to perform fixes on the HMC code.
This user name is reserved for your support representative and is considered
a predefined role. Do not assign the hscpe user name to any of your users. For
more information about creating users and assigning roles, see Chapter 12,
“User Management,” in the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Installation and Operations Guide, SA38-0590.
76
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
4.1.1 User role descriptions
Each defined user on the HMC can have one of six different roles that enable the
user to access different parts of the HMC. The user roles specified by the HMC
are as follows:
򐂰 System Administrator
The System Administrator acts as the root user, or manager, of the HMC
system. The System Administrator has unrestricted authority to access and
modify most of the HMC system.
Note: The hscroot user is a just predefined user with the System
Administrator role. If needed, you can delete hscroot after defining the
other users with the System Administrator role on your HMC.
򐂰 Advanced Operator
An Advanced Operator can perform some partition-related tasks (for example,
creating partition profiles, saving profile data, and resetting partitions) in
addition to some system administration tasks on the HMC (for example,
performing the “Backup Critical Console Data” or “Save Upgrade Data” task).
򐂰 Service Representative
The Service Representative role is reserved for IBM service representatives
who install, repair, or do problem determination tasks on systems at your
location. Only the hscpe user should be given this role, which is not defined
by default.
򐂰 Operator
An Operator is responsible for daily system operation.
򐂰 User Administrator
A User Administrator can perform user-management tasks but cannot
perform any other HMC functions.
򐂰 Viewer
A Viewer can view HMC information, but cannot change any configuration
information.
Refer to Chapter 12, “User Management,” in the IBM Hardware Management
Console for pSeries Installation and Operations Guide, SA38-0590 for more
information.
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
77
4.1.2 User Management
The user management tasks are performed with the Users application and are
described in the following sections.1
Creating a user
This process enables you to create a new user on the HMC by doing the
following:
1. Log in to the HMC using either the System Administrator or User
Administrator role.
2. In the Navigation area, expand the HMC Management folder.
3. In the Contents area, click the Users application.
4. Select Users → New → User. This opens the Add New User window shown
in Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-2 Adding a new user
5. Enter the following information:
– Login name
– Full name
– User role
6. Click OK. The Change User Password window opens.
1 You can list, create, and remove users on your HMC using the lshmcusr, mkhmcusr, and rmhmcusr
commands. The chhmcusr command can be also used to modify the already created users’
properties. See 9.3.2, “Commands to manage users on the HMC” on page 191 for detailed
information about these commands.
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7. In the Change User Password window, type the user’s password twice. Click
OK.
Deleting a user
This process enables you to delete a user on the HMC. To delete a user from the
system, do the following:
1. Log in to the HMC using either the System Administrator or User
Administrator role.
2. In the Navigation area, expand the HMC Management folder.
3. In the Contents area, select the Users application.
4. In the Contents area, right-click the appropriate user icon.
5. Select Delete, and then click OK to confirm that you want to delete this user.
Changing a user’s properties
This process enables you to modify a user’s properties on the HMC. To change a
user’s properties, do the following:
1. Log in to the HMC using either the System Administrator or User
Administrator role.
2. In the Navigation area, click the HMC Management folder.
3. In the Contents area, double-click the Users application.
4. In the Contents area, right-click the appropriate user icon.
5. Select Properties.
6. Edit the user’s base information (Login name, Full name, and User role).
7. Click OK. The Change User Password window opens.
8. Type the user’s password twice.
9. Click OK.
Changing a user’s password
This process enables you to change a user’s password on the HMC. To change a
user’s password, do the following:
1. Log in to the HMC using either the System Administrator or User
Administrator role.
2. In the Navigation area, expand the HMC Management folder.
3. In the Contents area, double-click the Users application.
4. In the Contents area, right-click the appropriate user icon.
5. Select Change Password.
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
79
6. Type the new password in the first field. Confirm the new password by typing it
again in the Retype new password field.
7. Click OK.
Important: Never change the password for hscroot using the passwd
command after remote login to the HMC.
4.2 HMC Maintenance
The HMC Maintenance folder contains an application called System
Configuration, as shown in Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3 System Configuration application
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4.2.1 System Configuration
The System Configuration application is used to modify and set several
configuration options that are available on the HMC. The application enables you
to configure the environmental variables, network connectivity, logging, hardware
configurations, and backup and recovery.
As shown in Figure 4-3 on page 80, the System Configuration application
contains the nine tasks shown in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1 Tasks in the System Configuration application
Task
Relevant section number
Customize Console Date/Time
4.2.2
View Console Events
4.2.3
Customize Network Settings
4.2.4
Test Network Connectivity
4.2.5
Scheduled Operations
4.2.6
Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution
4.2.7
Configure Serial Adapter
4.2.8
Enable/Disable Remote Virtual Terminal
4.2.9
Change Current Locale
4.2.10
4.2.2 Customize Console Date/Time
This task allows you to set the data, time, and time zone for the HMC. To
increase or decrease any value for date and time, just highlight the field you want
to change and then press the down or up arrows.
For time zone, click on the down arrow in the grey field and it will bring up a
dialog box to scroll through with all the available time zones.
Changing any of these fields is automatically applied and does not require an
HMC reboot.
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
81
Figure 4-4 Date/Time Properties
4.2.3 View Console Events
This task shows the console event logs on the HMC. Console events can be
tracked by periodically viewing the console event logs to address any error
conditions that could be experienced during the operation of the system.2
Figure 4-5 on page 83 shows an example of console event logs.
2
The lssvcevents command along with the -t console option can be also used to view the HMC
console events (see “lssvcevents” on page 214).
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Figure 4-5 View Console Events logs
Note: For Figure 4-5, we purposely did not insert the media into the
DVD-RAM drive on the HMC in order to cause the error HSCE2066.
4.2.4 Customize Network Settings
This task enables you to configure the following settings on the HMC:3
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
IP Address
Name Services
Hosts
Routing
Device Attributes
3
The configured information can be viewed using the lshmc command and altered later using the
chhmc command except for the /etc/hosts file management (see 9.3.1, “Commands to manage HMC
itself” on page 184).
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
83
Note: Before configuring or changing the host name and IP address assigned
to each network interface on the HMC, it is recommended to carefully plan
your network and follow the rules explained in Appendix , “Trouble-free
network planning rules” on page 312.
To configure these settings, do the following:
1. In the Navigation area, expand HMC Maintenance and click the System
Configuration icon.
2. In the Contents area, click the Customize Network Settings icon. The
Network Configuration window opens, as shown in Figure 4-6.
Figure 4-6 Network Configuration: IP Address tab
These tasks’ names are shown on the tab in the Network Configuration window.
IP Address
To set the IP address and subnet mask of Ethernet adapters on the HMC:
1. Select the IP Address tab in the Network Configuration window.
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2. Enter the IP address and network mask of the first Ethernet adapter in the
TCP/IP interface 0 fields. If the HMC is equipped with two Ethernet adapters,
then enter necessary information in the TCP/IP interface 1 fields, as shown in
Figure 4-6 on page 84.
3. Enter the default route address in the Default Gateway field.
4. Click OK.
Note: You must reboot the HMC for this change to take effect.
Name Services
To configure DNS on the HMC, do the following:
1. Select the Name Services tab in the Network Configuration window, as
shown in Figure 4-7 on page 86.
2. If you are using DNS in your network, select DNS Enable and specify the
following information:
– Domain
– DNS Server Search Order
– Domain Suffix Search Order
If you are not using DNS, do not select DNS Enable.
3. Click OK.
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
85
Figure 4-7 Network Configuration: Name Services tab
The LAN Interface drop-down list on the Name Services tab tells the HMC which
interface on the HMC should be considered as the host name of the HMC for
RMC communication purposes. The host name that RMC writes to the NVRAM
of the managed system for use by partitions (as described in step 1 of Table B-1
on page 310) is determined by the IP address configured on the adapter
specified in this selection box; it is not the result of the hostname command on the
HMC.
Hosts
If you are not using DNS, all host names must be locally resolved on the HMC. To
manage the /etc/hosts file on the HMC:
1. Select the Hosts tab in the Network Configuration window, as shown in
Figure 4-8 on page 87.
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Figure 4-8 Network Configuration: Hosts tab
2. Enter the host name of your HMC in the Host name field, as shown in
Figure 4-8.
Note: You must enter this information regardless of the use of DNS.
3. If you want to add, modify, or delete an host entry in the /etc/hosts file on the
HMC, do the following:
– To add a host entry, click New. The Host Entries window opens, as shown
in Figure 4-9 on page 88. Enter the IP address and host name, then click
OK.
– To modify a host entry, select the entry and click Change. The Host
Entries window with the specified entry opens. Modify the IP address and
host name accordingly, then click OK.
– To delete a host entry, select the entry and click Delete.
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
87
Figure 4-9 Host Entries window
Note:
򐂰 If you use DNS in your network, you must specify the long host name
(fully qualified domain name or FQDN) first, followed by the short host
name in the Host name(s) field.
򐂰 FQDN cannot be more than 100 bytes in length.
4. After you have confirmed that all of the required host entries are appropriately
inserted, click OK.
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Routing
If you need additional static route entries besides the default gateway, or your
network is using dynamic routing advertised by the Routing Information Protocol
(RIP) Version 1, do the following:
1. Select the Routing tab in the Network Configuration window, as shown in
Figure 4-10.
Figure 4-10 Network Configuration: Routing tab
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
89
2. If there are additional static routing entries to be defined, click New. The
Routing Entries window opens, as shown in Figure 4-11. Enter the
corresponding information for the static routing entry, and then click OK.
Figure 4-11 Routing Entries window
3. If dynamic routing is used in your network, select either of the following:
– Export default gateway4
– Silent5
Note: Do not enter the default gateway information using the window shown in
Figure 4-10 on page 89. Use the Default Gateway field shown in Figure 4-6 on
page 84.
Device Attributes
The HMC usually automatically detects Ethernet device settings. However, if you
encounter some network connection problems, you may be able to avoid the
problem by specifying the device attributes in the Network Configuration window,
as shown in Figure 4-12 on page 91.
4
5
90
This selection specifies the -s (supply) option of the routed daemon on the HMC.
This selection specifies the -q (quiet) option of the routed daemon on the HMC.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 4-12 Network Configuration: Device Attributes tab
This setting defaults to autodetection, but it is advisable that the HMC
administrator manually configure this screen to the setting he knows his network
will have. If set on Autodetection, it is possible that the HMC could throttle to a
mode lower than what is capable by the hardware resulting in a performance
degradation.
4.2.5 Test Network Connectivity
This task is used to determine whether the target host can be IP-reachable by
sending ICMP ECHO requests6. The target host can be specified by either IP
address or host name as shown in Figure 4-13 on page 92.
6
ICMP (Internet Connection Management Protocol) ECHO requests are usually sent by the ping
command to determine whether the target host is IP-reachable.
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
91
Figure 4-13 Ping Utility
To test the network connectivity, click OK after specifying the target host in the
Ping Utility window.
򐂰 If the test succeeds, a success message similar to the following example is
displayed in the window:
123.123.123.123 is alive
򐂰 If the test fails, a failed message similar to the following example is displayed
in the window:
123.123.123.123 is unreachable
4.2.6 Scheduled Operations
This task enables you to schedule the time and dates for backing up critical
console data. When you schedule a backup operation, the data is saved on a
formatted DVD-RAM media on your HMC. Each time this data is saved, old data
is replaced with the more recent data. If you do not want older data overwritten,
insert a new DVD-RAM media in the HMC drive each time you perform a backup.
While backing up your critical console data after every migration or code update
is a good idea, you also might consider scheduling a monthly or weekly backup
of the critical console data. In the event that you suffer an unplanned outage of
your HMC, the last backup that was performed after your last migration may not
contain all of the data you need to get back up and running. Scheduling a regular
backup of the HMC data could save you time and effort in recovering from
unplanned outages.
The scheduled backup can be configured to run as a one-time backup or on a
repeated schedule. You must provide the time and date that you want the
operation to occur. If the operation is scheduled to repeat, you must select how
you want this backup to repeat (daily, weekly, or monthly).
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Note: A DVD-RAM media can hold one generation of backup data only. Every
time you perform this task using the same media, previous backup on the
media will be overwritten by the latest backup. A DVD-RAM disk has two
sides; each side should be considered separate media.
To customize schedule operations, do the following:
1. Expand the HMC Maintenance folder, then select the System Configuration
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Scheduled Operations task in the Contents area. The Customize
Schedule Operations window opens, as shown in Figure 4-14.
Figure 4-14 Customize Scheduled Operations window
3. Select Options → New Backup → Critical Console Data. The Set up a
Scheduled Operation window opens, as shown in Figure 4-15 on page 94.
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
93
Figure 4-15 Set up a Scheduled Operation: Date and time tab
4. Under the Date and time tab, specify the date and time to invoke the critical
console data backup.
5. Select the Repeat tab. Choose Set up a single scheduled operation or Set
up a repeated scheduled operation, as shown in Figure 4-16 on page 95. If
you select a repeated scheduled operation, specify the Interval and Days of
the week fields accordingly. Click OK.
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Figure 4-16 Set up a Scheduled Operation: Repeat tab
Verifying critical console data backup
The backed-up DVD contains a complete backup of all important data, such as:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
User-preference files
User information
HMC platform configuration files
HMC log files
Service Focal Point configuration files
Inventory Scout data
The Backup Critical Console Data function saves the HMC data stored on your
HMC hard disk to the DVD-RAM and is critical to support HMC operations. You
must always back up the HMC after you have made changes to the HMC or to
the information associated with logical partitions.
To confirm the backup operation, the user should review the log entries under the
System Configuration application of View Console Events. For an example of
this, see Figure 4-5 on page 83 where the log event for the failed critical console
data backup has a red circle around it.
4.2.7 Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution
The Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution task is used to enable or
disable the remote command line interface access to the HMC using the rexec or
ssh facility.7
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
95
To perform this task, do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
In the Navigation area, select System Configuration.
In the Contents area, select Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution.
Select the appropriate check box in the window shown in Figure 4-17.
Click OK.
Figure 4-17 Remote Execution Options window
Once the rexec facility is enabled on the HMC, you can connect to it using the
rexec command from a remote host. Upon the authentication, the command
prompts you for the user name (hscroot) and the password; the information for
the authentication is transmitted over the network without being encrypted. If
necessary, you can create the $HOME/.netrc file on the remote host, which
includes the remote host name (HMC’s host name), remote user name (hscroot),
and the password, in order to remote-login to the HMC without having a
password prompt.
Therefore, it is discouraged to enable the rexec facility on your HMC.
For detailed information about accessing the HMC using the ssh facility, see 9.1,
“Secure remote connection to the HMC” on page 176.
4.2.8 Configure Serial Adapter
The Configure Serial Adapter task is used to configure asynchronous adapters,
FC 2943 and 2944, on the HMC. For the detailed information about the task, see
Appendix A, “Configuring asynchronous adapters on the HMC” on page 295.
7
The configured information can be viewed using the lshmc command and altered later using the
chhmc command except for the /etc/hosts file management (see 9.3.1, “Commands to manage HMC
itself” on page 184).
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4.2.9 Enable/Disable Remote Virtual Terminal
The Enable/Disable Remote Virtual Terminal task is used to enable or disable
remote virtual terminal access to the HMC from the remote Web-based System
Manager client..
Note: The remote virtual terminal access is disabled by default.
To perform this task, do the following:
1. Expand the HMC Management folder, then select the System Configuration
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Enable/Disable Remote Virtual Terminal task in the Contents area
to open the Enable Remote Virtual Terminal window in Figure 4-18.
3. Select the check box in the window, then click OK.
Figure 4-18 Enable Remote Virtual Terminal
4.2.10 Change Current Locale
The Change Current Locale task changes language settings on the HMC.
To perform this task, do the following:
1. Expand the HMC Management folder, then select the System Configuration
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Change Current Locale task in the Contents area to open the
Change Locale window shown in Figure 4-19 on page 98.
3. Select appropriate locale in the Locale field. Click OK.
Chapter 4. Configuring the HMC
97
Figure 4-19 Change Locale
Note: To take effect this setting change, the HMC must be rebooted.
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5
Chapter 5.
Managing partition profile
data on the HMC
This short chapter focuses on the following four operations provided by the HMC
and the situations in which these operations should be performed:
Backup
Reads the profile data from the CIM Object Manager on
the HMC and writes it to a backup file on the HMC.
Restore
Reads the profile data from the previously backed-up file
on the HMC and loads this data to the NVRAM on the
managed system. Once loaded successfully, the HMC
reconstructs its copy on the CIM Object Manager. There
are several options to tell the HMC which data is honored.
Initialize
Initializes the profile data on the HMC and the NVRAM on
the managed system.
Remove
Removes the previously backed-up file on the HMC.
These operations can be selected from the Selected → Profile Data menu as
shown in Figure 5-1 on page 101.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
99
5.1 Managing profile data
The profile data for partitions of a managed system is stored in at least the
following three locations at any given time:
򐂰 NVRAM of the managed system
򐂰 CIM Object Manager on the HMC
򐂰 Profile data backup file(s) under the /var/hsc/profile/MT-MDL*S/N directory on
the HMC
Note: The data stored on the NVRAM acts as the primary copy. The
information stored in the NVRAM is always honored, unless it is determined
corrupted.
In addition to these three locations, if the Save Upgrade Data task is performed,
then a special disk partition1 on the HMC can be also used to store the profile
data.
The HMC provides four operations, backup, restore, initialize, and remove, to
manage profile data. To perform these operations, do the following:
1. Log in to the HMC using either the System Administrator, Advanced Operator,
or Service Representative role.
2. In the Navigation area, select the Server and Management icon.
3. In the Contents area, select the managed system to perform the operation.
4. Choose Selected → Profile Data.
5. Select the appropriate operation in the submenu, as shown Figure 5-1 on
page 101.
1
The special disk partition is mounted and accessible only when the “Save Upgrade Data” task (see
“Save Upgrade Data” on page 113) or the “Upgrade of the HMC software” operation is performed
(see 6.2.3, “Upgrade install using the save upgrade data” on page 121).
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Figure 5-1 Profile Data submenus
Figure 5-2 illustrates the relationship of these locations and relevant tasks.
Managed system
Store data in the NVRAM
CIM Object
Manager
NVRAM
Read data from the NVRAM
(populated in the CIM Object Manager)
Profile Data "Back Up"
Profile Data "Restore"
Save Upgrade Data
/var/hsc/profile/MTMDL*S/N
/mnt/upgrade
(special disk
partition)
Figure 5-2 Four partition data locations
Chapter 5. Managing partition profile data on the HMC
101
The following list explains the relationship between the components and
operations shown in the previous figure:
򐂰 If a user issues some requests that require a reference to the partitioning
configuration data, the data will be read from the NVRAM on the managed
system first, then populated in the CIM Object Manager on the HMC. The CIM
Object Manager acts as a broker of this information to its clients: local and
remote Web-based System Manager clients and HMC commands are the
user interface to the CIM Object Manager clients.
򐂰 When changes are made to the partitioning configuration data of a managed
system, changes are validated on the HMC first, then stored on the NVRAM
of the managed system. For consistency between the data stored on the
NVRAM and its copy on the HMC, a lock mechanism is used.
򐂰 The partitioning configuration data can be backed up if the backup2 operation
is performed. This operation reads all the data from the NVRAM and stores it
in a file under the /var/hsc/profile/MT-MDL*SN directory. If multiple backup
operations are performed, each backup file may contain different partitioning
configuration data that reflects the data when the backup operation was
performed.
򐂰 The default backup file, /var/hsc/profile/MT-MDL*SN/backupFile, always
exists and gets updated whenever changes are made to the partitioning
configuration. This file is automatically created when the HMC is first
connected to its managed system and the data gets written to the file from the
NVRAM. If the default backup file does not exist, it will be created with the
data from the NVRAM upon the next HMC reboot.
򐂰 Upon the managed system’s reboot, the HMC performs the following
operations:
a. It first verifies the check sum value of the default backup file and the data
stored on the managed system’s NVRAM.
b. If the data stored on the NVRAM is determined corrupted, the HMC will
display the Recovery state for this managed system (see Table 3-2 on
page 64). The Recovery state indicates that either restore3 or initialize4
operation is required against the managed system.
c. If the data stored on the NVRAM is determined not corrupted, the HMC
reads the data from the managed system’s NVRAM and populates it in the
CIM Object Manager. The default backup file is also updated using this
data.
d. If the communication between the HMC and the service processor on the
managed system did not successfully complete because of some
2
See 5.1.1, “Back up profile data” on page 103
See 5.1.2, “Restore profile data” on page 104.
4 See 5.1.3, “Initialize profile data” on page 105.
3
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communication failure, the HMC will display the Incomplete state for this
managed system (see Table 3-2 on page 64). The Incomplete state
indicates that rebuild operation is required against the managed system.
򐂰 The partitioning configuration data can be restored from the backup file if the
restore operation is performed. This operation first reads and verifies all of the
data from the specified backup file, then loads the data into the NVRAM on
the managed system. Once successfully loaded, the HMC reconstructs its
copy on the CIM Object Manager from the NVRAM.
5.1.1 Back up profile data
To back up profile data5, do the following:
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu bar, choose Selected → Profile Data → Backup to open the
Profile Data Backup window shown in Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3 Profile Data Backup window
3. Type the file name in the Backup file name field, then click OK.
The backup file is saved in the /var/hsc/profiles/MT-MDL*S/N directory on the
HMC, as shown in the following example:
[[email protected]_host]$ ssh -l hscroot itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
[[email protected]]$ cd /var/hsc/profiles/7040-681*021768A
[[email protected] 7040-681*021768A]$ ls -l
total 40
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
20464 Nov 27 12:00 backupFile
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
20464 Nov 27 12:18 ITSO_p690
MT, MDL, and S/N are the system machine type, model, and serial number.
Note: To delete created backup files, use the Delete option explained in 5.1.4,
“Remove profile data” on page 105.
5
The bkprofdata command can be also used to perform this operation (see “bkprofdata” on
page 203).
Chapter 5. Managing partition profile data on the HMC
103
5.1.2 Restore profile data
To restore profile data, do the following:6
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu bar, choose Selected → Profile Data → Restore. This opens
the Profile Data Restore window shown in Figure 5-4.
Figure 5-4 Profile Data Restore window
3. Select the backup file name you want to restore from the list.
4. Select one of the following options:
– Full restore from the selected backup file
Restores all profile data using only your backup file. Profile modifications
performed after the selected backup file was created will be lost.
Note: Select this option for a managed system in the Recovery state.
– Backup priority – merge current profile and backup
Merges the stored backup with recent profile activity. If information
conflicts, the stored backup data is restored over the recent profile activity.
6
The rstprofdata command can be also used to perform this operation (see “rstprofdata” on
page 204).
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– Managed system priority – merge current profile and backup
Merges recent profile activity with the stored backup. If information
conflicts, the recent profile activity is restored over the stored backup data.
Click OK.
5.1.3 Initialize profile data
To initialize profile data, do the following:
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu bar, choose Selected → Profile Data → Initialize.
3. A warning message window opens. If you are sure you want to initialize the
profile data, click Yes.
Warning: This operation wipes out all partition profile data, not only from the
CIM Object Manager on the HMC, but also from NVRAM on the managed
system. Use this function with care.
5.1.4 Remove profile data
To remove profile data stored on the HMC, do the following:
1. In the Contents area, select the managed system.
2. From the menu bar, choose Selected → Profile Data → Remove to open the
Profile Data Remove window shown in Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-5 Profile Data Remove window
3. Select the backup file name you want to remove from the list, then click OK.
Chapter 5. Managing partition profile data on the HMC
105
Note: This operation simply removes the specified backup file that was
already created using the Backup profile data operation (see 5.1.1, “Back up
profile data” on page 103). The removal of the backup file does not affect the
partitioning configuration data currently in use on the managed system and its
copy held by the CIM Object Manager on the HMC.
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6
Chapter 6.
Managing software levels on
the HMC
This chapter explains how to install, recover, and upgrade the HMC software in
the following sections:
򐂰 “Software Maintenance” on page 108
򐂰 “Install, recover, and upgrade strategies” on page 118
For further information about these tasks, refer to the following publications:
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations
Guide, SA38-0590
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Maintenance Guide,
SA38-0603
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
107
6.1 Software Maintenance
As shown in Figure 6-1, the Software Maintenance folder contains the three
applications listed in Table 6-1.
Figure 6-1 Software Maintenance
Table 6-1 Applications in the Software Maintenance folder
Application
Relevant section number
Frame
6.1.1
HMC
6.1.2
Microcode Updates
6.1.3
6.1.1 Frame
This application is provided to receive and install corrective service onto all of the
hardware components, including multiple managed systems, accommodated in
the 7040-W42 frame at one time. Therefore the effect of this application can be
considered as if multiple Microcode Updates tasks are performed on those
hardware components in a single operation.
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Note: In order for this application to function, the BPA of the frame must be
connected to one of the serial ports on the HMC using RS-422.
These tasks are provided in the Frame application, as shown in Figure 6.1.2:
򐂰 Receive Corrective Services
򐂰 Install Corrective Services
For further information about the use of this application, refer to the IBM
Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations Guide,
SA38-0590.
Figure 6-2 Software Maintenance: Frame
6.1.2 HMC
The HMC application is used for creating backups, installing corrective service,
and formatting removable media on the HMC through the following four tasks, as
shown in Figure 6-3 on page 110.
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Backup Critical Console Data
Save Upgrade Data
Install Corrective Services
Format Removable Media
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC
109
Figure 6-3 Software Maintenance: HMC
Difference between two backup tasks
The two backup-related tasks, Backup Critical Console Data and Save Upgrade
Data, are provided for different purposes:
򐂰 Backup Critical Console Data
Backs up all HMC configuration data to a DVD-RAM media, capturing any and
all changes made to the HMC after initial installation from the recovery CD.
The following data is included in the backup DVD-RAM media:
– User configuration
– User preferences, including each user’s home directory
– HMC configuration files that record the following customizing:
110
•
TCP/IP
•
Rexec/ssh facility setting
•
Remote virtual terminal setting
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
•
Time zone setting
– HMC log files located in the /var/log directory
– Service functions settings, such as Inventory Scout, Service Agent, and
Service Focal Point
– Partition profile data backup
Note: The partition profile data must be backed up before performing
the “Backup Critical Console Data” task as explained in 5.1.1, “Back up
profile data” on page 103. The task simply backs up files in the
/var/hsc/profiles/MT-MDL*S/N directory, if they already exist.
This task should be performed each time configuration changes are made to
the system or the HMC. You might even schedule the “Backup Critical
Console Data” task explained in 4.2.6, “Scheduled Operations” on page 92.
Note:
򐂰 The backup DVD-RAM created using this task is only used for the
system recovery situation explained in 6.2.1, “Refresh Install using the
recovery CD” on page 119. When updating from an HMC software level
to another, the backup DVD-RAM media is not used.
򐂰 The DVD-RAM media has two sides. Each side should be considered
as a separate media.
򐂰 Each side of a DVD-RAM media must be formatted beforehand. To
format the media, see “Format Removable Media” on page 116.
򐂰 Each side of a DVD-RAM media can hold only one generation of the
backup; if you performed this task multiple times, only the last backup
would be preserved.
򐂰 Save Upgrade Data
Creates several archive files for the following configuration information, then
saves those archive files in the special disk partition on the HMC:
– User configuration
– User preferences, including each user’s home directory
– HMC configuration files that record the following customizing:
•
TCP/IP
•
Rexec/ssh facility setting
•
Remote virtual terminal setting
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC
111
•
Time zone setting
– HMC log files located in the /var/log directory
– Service functions settings, such as Inventory Scout, Service Agent, and
Service Focal Point
– Partition profile data backup
Note: The partition profile data must be backed up before performing
the “Save Upgrade Data” task explained in 5.1.1, “Back up profile data”
on page 103. The task simply backs up files in the
/var/hsc/profiles/MT-MDL*S/N directory, if they already exist.
Perform this task just before the HMC software update operation only.
Note:
򐂰 The saved data in the special disk partition is used only when updating
the HMC software level as explained in 6.2.3, “Upgrade install using the
save upgrade data” on page 121. When recovering the HMC using the
recovery CD, this data is not used.
򐂰 If you format the disk drive on the HMC, the saved data in the special
disk partition will be lost. This means that if you performed either of the
following operations once, then the saved data would be lost:
– 6.2.1, “Refresh Install using the recovery CD” on page 119
– 6.2.2, “Recovery install using the critical console data backup” on
page 120
Backup Critical Console Data
The Backup Critical Console Data task is used to back up the HMC configuration
and profile data to the formatted DVD-RAM media. The backup DVD-RAM media
is used only when recovering the HMC from the software or hardware problem.
To perform the Backup Critical Console Data task, do the following:
1. Expand the Software Maintenance folder, then select the HMC application in
the Navigation area.
2. Select the Backup Critical Console Data task in the content area.
3. An information window opens that prompts you to insert a formatted
DVD-RAM media into the drive, as shown in Figure 6-4 on page 113. Insert
the media and click Continue.
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Figure 6-4 Backup Critical Console Data (insert DVD-RAM media)
4. When the task is complete, an information window opens with this message:
HSCP0001 The Backup Critical Console Data request completed successfully.
5. Once confirmed, click OK to close the information window. Remove the media
from the drive, if necessary.
Note: The task may take considerable time depending on the data on the
HMC system. On our HMC, which is frequently reinstalled for test purposes, it
usually takes up to 15 minutes.
Save Upgrade Data
The Save Upgrade Data task is used to save the current HMC configuration in
the special disk partition on the HMC. This task is used before you migrate the
current HMC software level to the new version (for example, before migrating the
level from Release 2 to Release 3).
Note: The special disk partition can hold only one generation of backup data.
Every time you perform this task, previous backup will be overwritten by the
latest backup.
To perform the Save Upgrade Data task, do the following:
1. Expand the Software Maintenance folder, then select the HMC application in
the Navigation area.
2. Select the Save Upgrade Data task in the content area.
3. An information window opens that prompts you to select the media (Hard
drive or DVD), as shown in Figure 6-5 on page 114. Click Continue.
Note: The DVD media selection is available for the hscpe user only.
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC
113
Figure 6-5 Save Upgrade Data (Hard drive)
4. Another information window opens as shown in Figure 6-6. When ready, click
Continue.
Figure 6-6 Save Upgrade Data (warning)
5. When the task is complete, an information window opens with this message:
HSCP0020 The Save Upgrade Data request completed successfully.
6. Click OK to confirm and close the information window.
Install Corrective Services
The Install Corrective Services task updates software packages on the HMC in
order to fix known problems or enhance functionality with the HMC software.
Note: Use this task to update the HMC software level using the corrective
service only. For example, update the level from Release 3, Version 2.0 to
Release 3, Version 2.2.
To perform this task, do the following:
1. Expand the Software Maintenance folder, then select the HMC application in
the Navigation area.
2. Select the Install Corrective Services task in the content area. This opens the
Install Corrective Services window shown in Figure 6-7 on page 115.
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Figure 6-7 Install Corrective Service window
3. If you want to download the fix from a remote site and have the necessary
information from your support representative, select the highlighted option
and complete the following fields, and then click OK:
– Remote Site
– Patch file
– User ID
– Password
You can find information about the HMC corrective services at:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/hmc
For example, the HMC corrective service Release 3, Version 2.1 can be
downloaded and installed onto the HMC using the following information:
Remote Site
ftp://techsupport.services.ibm.com
Patch file
/eserver/pseries/hmc/fixes/HMC_Update_R3V2.1.zip
User ID
anonymous
Password
Your e-mail address
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC
115
Note: If newer versions of the corrective service are released for Release
3, Version 2 in the future, this information might become obsolete.
4. If you cannot directly download the corrective services on your HMC from the
Internet, you can install them by using the following method:
a. Download the corrective service file on your PC.
Note: The downloaded corrective service file is an archive file using tar
and gzip. Do not unarchive the file before burning the CD-R media.
b. Burn the downloaded file on a CD-R media.
c. Insert the media into the DVD-RAM drive on the HMC.
d. Select the Apply corrective service from removal media option in the
Install Corrective Service window. Click OK.
After applying the corrective services, you must reboot the HMC manually.
Format Removable Media
The Format Removable Media task enables you to format DVD-RAM or diskette
media.
Note: Previously stored data on the DVD-RAM or diskette media will be lost
after it is formatted.
To perform this task, do the following:
5. Expand the Software Maintenance folder, then select the HMC application in
the Navigation area.
6. Select the Format Removable Media task in the content area. This opens the
Format Media window shown in Figure 6-8.
Figure 6-8 Format Media
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7. Select the appropriate media type, insert the media into the drive on the
HMC, then click OK. Another information window opens to confirm that the
appropriate media is available. Click OK.
8. When the task is complete, an information window opens with this message:
HSCP0010 The Format Removable Media request completed successfully.
9. Click OK to confirm and close the information window. Remove the media
from the drive, if necessary.
6.1.3 Microcode Updates
The Microcode Updates application1 provides only one task, Microcode Updates
(see Figure 6-9). This task is used for the following management purposes on the
managed systems:
򐂰 Conduct microcode level surveys
򐂰 Install microcode updates
Note: The Microcode Updates task does not perform any management tasks
against the HMC itself.
Figure 6-9 Software Maintenance: Microcode Updates
1
The Microcode Updates application is available on the HMC loaded with the software level Release
3, Version 2 and later.
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC
117
Although the Microcode Updates application is provided in the Software
Maintenance folder, we explain this application in 11.5, “Microcode Updates” on
page 272 because it does not relate to any management tasks on the HMC itself.
6.2 Install, recover, and upgrade strategies
There are three operations for installing, recovering, or upgrading the HMC
software:
򐂰 Refresh Install using the recovery CD
Used to perform overwrite and install the newer version of HMC software on
the HMC (path A in Figure 6-10 on page 119). If all customizing and partition
configurations are properly recorded, this operation can be also used to
recover from system failure. To record the information, see “Recording the
current HMC configuration information” on page 122.
Note: This operation formats the disk drive on the HMC.
򐂰 Recovery install using the critical console data backup
Recovers the HMC in case of system failure, such as disk drive replacement
(path B in Figure 6-10 on page 119).
You need to have the backup DVD-RAM media created beforehand with the
“Backup Critical Console Data” task explained in “Backup Critical Console
Data” on page 112.
Note: This operation formats the disk drive on the HMC.
򐂰 Upgrade install using the save upgrade data
Used to update the HMC software from an older version to a newer one (path
C in Figure 6-10 on page 119).
You need to perform the “Save Upgrade Data” task beforehand, as explained
in “Save Upgrade Data” on page 113.
Note: The disk drive on the HMC will not be formatted in this operation.
Figure 6-10 on page 119 illustrates the process flow of these operations.
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START
Install/Recovery
Press F8 key
Initial
Screen
Install from
the Recovery CD
Insert
DVD-RAM
media?
Upgrade
Press F1 key
Install from the newer
version of recovery CD
Y
Recovery from
Special Disk Partition
Recovery from Critical
N
A
Console Data Backup
B
C
Figure 6-10 Install/Recovery or Upgrade selection
6.2.1 Refresh Install using the recovery CD
To refresh install the HMC software onto the HMC as indicated by A in
Figure 6-10, do the following:
1. Shut down and power off the HMC.
2. Power on the HMC console and insert the HMC recovery CD media. The
HMC should boot from the media and display the text shown in Example 6-1
on page 120.
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC
119
Example 6-1 Initial selection screen on the HMC
YOU HAVE REQUESTED TO INSTALL/UPGRADE YOUR HMC HARD DISK FROM THE BASE
CODE CD-ROM. PLEASE SELECT ONE OF THE BELOW OPTIONS (OR ESC TO EXIT):
WARNING: CONTINUING WITH THIS TASK WILL RESULT IN THE DESTRUCTION OF
INFORMATION CURRENTLY ON YOUR HMC HARD DISK.
1 - INSTALL/RECOVERY:
CHOOSE THIS OPTION WHEN YOU ARE INSTALLING FOR THE FIRST TIME OR IF
YOU WISH TO RELOAD THE HMC HARD DISK USING THE BASE CODE CD-ROM.
YOU WILL HAVE THE OPTION TO INSERT THE DVD-RAM MEDIA TO RESTORE
PREVIOUSLY BACKED UP CRITICAL DATA.
SELECT F8 TO CONTINUE WITH THIS PROCESS.
2 - UPGRADE:
CHOOSE THIS OPTION WHEN YOU ARE UPGRADING YOUR HMC HARD DISK TO A NEW
CODE LEVEL. THIS OPTION WILL PRESERVE PREVIOUSLY SAVED UPGARDE DATA
ON DISK, AND RESTORE THAT DATA AFTER THE UPGRADE HAS BEEN COMPLETED.
SELECT F1 TO CONTINUE WITH THIS PROCESS.
3. Press F8 to select the “1 - Install/Recover” option.
4. When the following message is displayed, press F1 to confirm that you wish
to continue:
PRESS F1 TO CONTINUE WITH THE RESTORE / PRELOAD PROCESS.
PRESS ESC TO EXIT THE PROCESS
5. When the installation from the CD media finishes, the following message
displays to prompt you to insert the DVD-RAM media for the critical console
data backup:
REMOVE THE CD-ROM AND PLACE THE BACKUP DVD-RAM CARTRIDGE IN THE DRIVE.
WHEN THE BACKUP DVD-RAM CARTRIDGE IS IN THE PLACE,
PRESS ENTER AND THE HARDWARE MANAGEMENT CONSOLE WILL REBOOT.
6. Remove the CD media from the drive and do not insert the DVD-RAM media.
Type Enter to reboot the HMC.
7. After the HMC reboot, the Kudzu screen is displayed to confirm the removal
and addition of hardware resources on the HMC. Select the option as
instructed in the screen.
8. In a few minutes, the HMC logon panel displays.
6.2.2 Recovery install using the critical console data backup
To recover install the HMC software onto your HMC as indicated by B in
Figure 6-10 on page 119, do the following:
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Note: For this operation, you must have the backup DVD-RAM media created
using the “Backup Critical Console Data” task.
1. Shut down and power off the HMC.
2. Power on the HMC console and insert the HMC recovery CD media. The
HMC should boot from the media and display the screen shown in
Example 6-1 on page 120.
3. Press F8 to select the “1 - Install/Recover” option.
4. When the following message is displayed, press F1 to confirm that you wish
to continue:
PRESS F1 TO CONTINUE WITH THE RESTORE / PRELOAD PROCESS.
PRESS ESC TO EXIT THE PROCESS
5. When the installation from the CD media finishes, the following message is
displayed to prompt you to insert the DVD-RAM media for the critical console
data backup:
REMOVE THE CD-ROM AND PLACE THE BACKUP DVD-RAM CARTRIDGE IN THE DRIVE.
WHEN THE BACKUP DVD-RAM CARTRIDGE IS IN THE PLACE,
PRESS ENTER AND THE HARDWARE MANAGEMENT CONSOLE WILL REBOOT.
6. Remove the CD media from the drive and insert the DVD-RAM media. Type
Enter to reboot the HMC.
7. After the HMC reboot, the Kudzu screen is displayed to confirm the removal
and addition of hardware resources on the HMC. Select the option as
instructed onscreen.
8. The HMC logon panel will be displayed in a couple of minutes.
6.2.3 Upgrade install using the save upgrade data
Note:
򐂰 You must perform the “Save Upgrade Data” task before for this operation.
򐂰 This operation can be only used when upgrading the software release from
N to N+1, such as from the HMC software level Release 2 to Release 3. If
you need to upgrade the HMC software more than one level, for example
from Release 1 to Release 3, then you must record the current HMC
configuration information, then install the newest HMC software level using
the product recovery CD, then apply all recorded configuration information.
To record the HMC configuration information, see “Recording the current
HMC configuration information” on page 122.
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC
121
To upgrade install the HMC software onto your HMC as indicated by C in
Figure 6-10 on page 119, do the following:
1. Perform the Save Upgrade Data task on the HMC (see “Save Upgrade Data”
on page 113).
2. Power off the HMC.
3. Power on the HMC console, and insert the HMC installation/update CD
media. The HMC should boot from the CD and display the screen shown in
Example 6-1 on page 120.
4. Press F1 to begin the upgrade process and F1 again to confirm that you wish
to begin the migration.
5. When the HMC finishes installing the new software code it will prompt you to
remove the HMC recovery media. Remove the CD, close the DVD tray, and
type Enter to reboot the HMC.
6. After the HMC reboot, the Kudzu screen is displayed to confirm the removal
and addition of hardware resources on the HMC. Select the option as
instructed in the screen.
7. The HMC logon panel will be displayed in a couple of minutes.
To verify that the upgrade is successfully performed, do the following:
1. Expand the Software Maintenance folder then select HMC in the navigation
area.
2. The HMC software level is shown highlighted in Figure 6-3 on page 110.
Recording the current HMC configuration information
To record the current HMC configuration information, do the following:
1. Expand the HMC Maintenance folder then click the System Configuration
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Scheduled Operations task in the Content area. The Scheduled
Operations window opens.
3. Select Sort → By Object.
4. Select each object. Record the following information:
– Object Name
– Schedule Date
– Operation Time (displayed in 24-hour format)
– Repetitive. If repetitive is YES, do the following:
i. Select View → Schedule Details.
ii. Record the interval information.
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iii. Close the Scheduled Operations window.
5. Repeat the previous step for each scheduled operation.
6. Close the Scheduled Operations window.
7. Expand the Server and Partition folder then click the Server Management
application in the Navigation area.
8. Right-click the managed system in the Content area, then select Profile
Data → Backup.
9. Type a backup file name and record this information.
10.Click OK.
11.Repeat steps 12 - 14 for each managed system.
12.Expand the Server and Partition folder then click the System Configuration
application in the Navigation area.
13.Select the Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution task in the Content
area.
14.Record the settings of the following options:
– Enable remote command execution using the rexec facility
– Enable remote command execution using the ssh facility
15.Select the Enable/Disable Remote Virtual Terminal task in the Content area.
16.Record the setting.
Note: Except for the recording of scheduled operations, you can use the steps
explained in 10.2.12, “Record current HMC information before upgrade” on
page 244 to record the current HMC configuration information.
Chapter 6. Managing software levels on the HMC
123
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7
Chapter 7.
Secure remote GUI access
to the HMC
The HMC supports remote access to the graphical user interface from the
Web-based System Manager client installed on the AIX, Linux, and Windows
operating systems. However, care must be taken to secure the connection
between the remote client and the HMC.
This chapter contains the following sections:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
“System Manager Security” on page 126
“Remote client setup on a Windows system” on page 141
“Remote client setup on a Linux system” on page 145
“Remote access to the HMC graphical user interface” on page 148
Note: Several applications and tasks, such as System Manager Security,
configuring asynchronous adapters, and Service Agent cannot be performed
using the remote Web-based System Manager client.
For further information about the System Manager Security and the remote
Web-based System Manager client, refer to IBM Hardware Management
Console for pSeries Installation and Operations Guide, SA38-0590.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
125
7.1 System Manager Security
The systems administrator has the option of configuring the HMC to use the
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol when communicating with remote
Web-based System Manager clients. This protocol provides server
authentication, data encryption, and data integrity.
Configuration is accomplished by the applications in the System Manager
Security folder, as shown in Figure 7-1.
Figure 7-1 System Manager Security folder
If the folder is selected, it contains the applications shown in Table 7-1 in the
Navigation area.
Table 7-1 System Manager Security applications
Application
Relevant section number
Certificate Authority
7.1.2
Server Security
7.1.3
Overview and Status
7.1.4
Object Manager Security
7.1.5
Note: To use the applications, the user must be a member of the System
Administrator role.
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If you access applications in the System Manager Security folder from the
remote Web-based System Manager client, you will be notified that the access is
prohibited as shown in Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-2 Warning window
7.1.1 Configuration steps to set up secure system manager server
To set up the secure system manager server on your HMC, which means the
Web-based System Manager server uses the private key ring file to establish the
secure network connection using SSL, the following steps must be followed:
1. Configure Certificate Authority on your HMC.
This step is done using the “Configure this system as a System Manager
Certificate Authority” task (see “Configuring CA on your HMC” on page 129).
2. Generate a pair of private and public key ring files on your HMC.
This step is done using the “Generate Servers’ Private Key Ring Files” task
(see “Generating private key ring files for the HMC” on page 133).
3. Install the private key file on your HMC.
This step is done using the “Install the private key ring file for this server” task
(see “Install the private key ring file for this server” on page 137).
4. Select the security connection mode on your HMC.
This step is done using the “Configure this system as a Secure System
Manager Server” task (see “Configure this system as a Secure System
Manager Server” on page 138).
5. Copy the public key file to the formatted diskette media.
This step is done using the “Copy this Certificate Authority’s Public Key Ring
File to diskette” task (see “Copy the public key ring file to diskette” on
page 134).
6. Distribute the public key file to remote Web-based System Manager clients.
This step is done using the diskette created in the previous step (see 7.4,
“Remote access to the HMC graphical user interface” on page 148).
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
127
7.1.2 Certificate Authority
The Certificate Authority application contains the following seven tasks (see the
content area shown in Figure 7-3 on page 129).
Note: If a Certificate Authority (CA) is not configured on the HMC, all tasks
except for the following are grayed out and not selectable until the CA is
configured:
򐂰 Configure this system as a System Manager Certificate Authority
򐂰 Copy another Certificate Authority’s Public Key Ring File from diskette
򐂰 Configure this system as a System Manager Certificate Authority
Use this task to configure your HMC as a Certificate Authority (CA). Once CA
is configured on your HMC, this task is grayed out and not selectable unless
the “Unconfigure Certificate Authority” task is performed.
See “Configuring CA on your HMC” on page 129 for how to use this task.
򐂰 Properties
Use this task to display the current CA configuration on the HMC.
See “Viewing security configuration properties” on page 132 for using this
task.
򐂰 Unconfigure Certificate Authority
Use this task to unconfigure the CA on your HMC.
򐂰 Generate Servers’ Private Key Ring Files
Use this task to generate a pair of private and public key ring files on your
HMC. To perform this task, the CA must be configured on the HMC
beforehand.
See “Generating private key ring files for the HMC” on page 133 for how to
use this task.
򐂰 Copy Servers’ Private Key Ring Files to diskette
Use this task to back up the generated private key ring file to diskette. Place
the backup media in a safe place.
򐂰 Copy this Certificate Authority’s Public Key Ring File to diskette
Use this task to copy the generated public key ring file to diskette. The
diskette is used for distributing the public key ring file to remote Web-based
System Manager clients.
See “Copy the public key ring file to diskette” on page 134 for how to use this
task.
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򐂰 Copy another Certificate Authority’s Public Key Ring File from diskette
Use this task if you need to access the other HMCs or AIX systems from the
HMC to which you are currently logging in using SSL.
Figure 7-3 Certificate Authority (after being configured)
Note: Before the Certificated Authority is configured, the three status lines
highlighted in Figure 7-3 show Not Configured.
Configuring CA on your HMC
To configure CA on your HMC, do the following:
1. Expand the System Manager Security folder, then select the Certificate
Authority application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Configure this system as a System Manager Certificate Authority
task.
3. The Define Internal Certificate Authority wizard window opens, as shown in
Figure 7-4 on page 130. Click Next.
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
129
Figure 7-4 Define Internal Certificate Authority wizard
4. The wizard prompts you to enter the organization name as highlighted in
Figure 7-5. Type the appropriate organization name in the field and click Next.
Figure 7-5 Organization name
5. The wizard displays the expiration date of the certificate that you are going to
create, as shown in Figure 7-6 on page 131. Verify the date (the default
expiration period is set to four years), then click Next.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 7-6 Certificate expiration date
6. The wizard prompts you to enter the password for the CA’s key ring file as
shown in Figure 7-7. Type the appropriate password twice, and click Next.
Figure 7-7 Entering password for the CA key ring file
7. The wizard shows the information message shown in Figure 7-8 on page 132.
Click Finish to close the window.
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
131
Figure 7-8 CA configured message
Viewing security configuration properties
To confirm server security property, do the following:
1. Expand the System Manager Security folder, then select the Certificate
Authority application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Properties task. A window opens that prompts you to enter the
password that was used for creating the private key on the HMC (see
Figure 7-7 on page 131). Enter the password, then click OK.
3. When the password is verified, the System Security Properties window
opens, as shown in Figure 7-9.
Figure 7-9 Certificate Authority Status
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Generating private key ring files for the HMC
To generate private key ring files for the HMC, do the following:
Note: Before selecting this task, a CA is must be configured on the HMC.
1. Expand the System Manager Security folder, then select the Certificate
Authority application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Generate Servers’ Private Key Ring Files task.
3. The window shown in Figure 7-10 opens and prompts you to enter the
password that was used for creating the private key on the HMC (see
Figure 7-7 on page 131). Enter the password, then click OK.
Figure 7-10 Entering certificate authority password
4. The window shown in Figure 7-11 opens. Verify whether the HMC host name
is shown correctly in the field indicated by A in Figure 7-11, then click Add.
A
C
B
Figure 7-11 Generate Servers’ Private Key Ring Files
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
133
5. Select the check box indicated by B in Example 7-11 on page 133. Again, you
will be prompted to enter the password that was used for creating the private
key on the HMC. Enter the password twice.
6. Type the appropriate organization name in the field indicated by C in
Figure 7-11 on page 133, then click OK.
7. An information window is displayed when the key generation has been
completed. Click OK to close the information window.
Copy the public key ring file to diskette
To copy the public key ring file to the formatted diskette media on the HMC, do
the following:
Note: Before selecting this task, the pair of private and public key ring files
must be generated on the HMC.
1. Expand the System Manager Security folder, then select the Certificate
Authority application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Copy this Certificate Authority’s Public Key Ring File to diskette
task.
Figure 7-12 Copy CA Public Key to Diskette
3. The Copy CA Public Key to Diskette window shown in Figure 7-12 opens.
– If you are going to use the diskette to distribute the public key ring file for
remote Web-based System Manager clients on HMC or AIX systems,
insert a diskette media. The media does not have to be formatted.
– If you are going to use the diskette to distribute the public key ring file for
remote Web-based System Manager clients on Windows-based PC
systems, insert the formatted diskette media.
To format the diskette media, see “Format Removable Media” on
page 116.
4. When you have inserted the diskette media, choose the appropriate selection
in Figure 7-12, then click OK.
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5. An information window is displayed when the copy has been completed. Click
OK to close the information window.
The public key ring file, SM.pubkr, is now copied from the System Manager
Certificate Authority menu to a diskette.
򐂰 If you selected “HMC or AIX Client” in step 3, the diskette contains only one
file, SM.pubkr, in the tar archive format.
򐂰 If you selected “PC Client” in step 3, the diskette contains only one file,
SM.pubkr, in the DOS format.
Important: Do not copy the public key file to a network-accessible place, such
as on an anonymous ftp server. If a malicious user steals the file, the security
mechanism provided by HMC does not block the access from this user.
7.1.3 Server Security
The Server Security application contains the following three tasks (see the
Content area shown in Figure 7-13 on page 136).
򐂰 View properties for this server
Use this task to view the security configuration properties on your HMC. See
“Viewing security configuration properties” on page 136 to use this task.
򐂰 Install the private key ring file for this server
Use this task to install the private key ring file on your HMC. See “Install the
private key ring file for this server” on page 137 to use this task.
򐂰 Configure this system as a Secure System Manager Server
Use this task to configure the Web-based System Manager server to use the
private key ring file to establish a secure network connection using SSL.
See “Configure this system as a Secure System Manager Server” on
page 138 to use this task.
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
135
Figure 7-13 Server Security (after being configured)
Note: Before the Server Security is configured, the two status lines highlighted
in Figure 7-13 show Not Configured and Not installed respectively.
Viewing security configuration properties
To confirm server security property, do the following:
1. Expand the System Manager Security folder, then select the Server Security
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the View properties for this server task. The System Security
Properties window opens as shown in Figure 7-14 on page 137.
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Figure 7-14 Server Security Properties (Server Certificate)
3. Once you have confirmed the properties, click Close to close the window.
Install the private key ring file for this server
Note: Before selecting this task, the pair of private and public key ring files
must be generated on the HMC.
To install the private key ring file on the HMC, do the following:
1. Expand the System Manager Security folder, then select the Server Security
application in the Navigation area.
Figure 7-15 Install Private Key Ring file
2. Select the Install the private key ring file for this server task. The Install
Private Key Ring File window opens as shown in Figure 7-15.
– If you have just generated the pair of private and public key ring files on
your HMC (“Generating private key ring files for the HMC” on page 133),
select the Directory option, then click OK.
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
137
– If the private key ring file is stored in a tar archive on the HMC, select the
tar file option, and click OK. Specify the file name location.
– If you have the backup diskette media that stores the server private key
ring file1, select the tar diskette option, and click OK.
3. A window shown in Figure 7-10 on page 133 opens that prompts you to enter
a password that was used for creating the private key on the HMC (see
Figure 7-7 on page 131). Enter the password, then click OK.
4. An information window is displayed once the server configuration has been
completed. Click OK to close the information window.
Configure this system as a Secure System Manager Server
Note: Before selecting this task, the private key ring file must be installed on
the HMC.
To configure your HMC as a secure system manager server, do the following:
1. Expand the System Manager Security folder, then select the Server Security
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Configure this system as a Secure System Manager Server task.
3. The Configure System Manager Security wizard window opens. Click Next.
4. The wizard prompts you to select either of the following options, as shown in
Figure 7-16 on page 139:
– Always use a secure connection
Select this option if you wish to disallow unsecure connection from remote
Web-based System Manager clients to the HMC.
– Allow the user to chose secure or unsecure connections
Select this option if you have decided to let users select either secure or
unsecure connection from their from remote Web-based System Manager
clients to the HMC.
1
You can back up the server private key file using the “Copy Servers’ Private Key Ring Files to
diskette” task provided in the Certificate Authority application.
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Figure 7-16 Configure System Manager Security
5. Select the appropriate option depending on the security requirement in your
network environment, and click Next.
6. An information window is displayed when the security configuration change
has completed. Click OK to close the information window.
7.1.4 Overview and Status
The Overview and Status application does not contain any task.s. If the
application is selected, it simply displays the current security configuration as
highlighted in Figure 7-17.
Figure 7-17 Overview and Status (after being configured)
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
139
Note: Before configuration, the three status lines highlighted in Figure 7-17 on
page 139 show Not Configured, Not Installed, and Not Configured.
7.1.5 Object Manager Security
The Object Manager Security application contains only one task, Configure
Object Manager Security, which is used to select the Object Manager security
mode between the HMC and a CSM2 managing server (see Figure 7-18).
Figure 7-18 Object Manager Security
If the task is selected, another window shown in Figure 7-19 opens to select the
Object Manager security mode. Select one of the security modes, then click OK
to close the window.
Figure 7-19 Configure Object Manager Security
2
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Note: After changing the security mode, the HMC must be rebooted for the
change to take effect.
For further information about CSM, refer to the following publications:
򐂰 IBM Cluster Systems Management for AIX 5L, Planning and Installation
Guide, SA22-7919
򐂰 IBM Cluster Systems Management for AIX 5L, Administration Guide,
SA22-7918
7.2 Remote client setup on a Windows system
The remote Web-based System Manager client3 can be installed from the HMC
by accessing specific URLs4 using a Web browser on your Windows-based PC.
If you are planning to use the remote client on a PC with Microsoft Windows
installed, the OS must be one of the following operating systems:
򐂰 Microsoft Windows NT
򐂰 Microsoft Windows 2000
򐂰 Microsoft Windows XP
In addition, the PC should have the following hardware resources:
򐂰 150 MB of free disk space on the default drive for temporary use during the
installation procedure
򐂰 150 MB of free disk space on the drive that you plan to use to install the
remote client
򐂰 PC processor speed of at least 800 MHz
򐂰 A minimum of 256 MB of memory (512 MB recommended)
It is strongly recommended that you configure a secure network connection
between your remote clients and the HMC using the SSL protocol. To configure
the security configuration on the HMC, see 7.1.1, “Configuration steps to set up
secure system manager server” on page 127.
Note: To use SSL with the remote client, you must install the remote client
security package in addition to the Web-based System Manager client.
3
The Web-based System Manager client package contains the Java runtime environment.
While the web server process is always running on the HMC, access to the TCP port 80 is denied in
all cases except for access to the specific URLs.
4
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
141
7.2.1 Install a remote client on a Windows system
To install a remote client on a Microsoft Windows system:
1. Uninstall any previous version of Web-based System Manager remote client.
For more information, see 7.2.2, “Uninstall a remote client from a Windows
system” on page 143.
2. Type the following address in your machine’s Web browser:
http://host_name/remote_client.html
Where host_name is the host name of the HMC. You will see the remote client
install image download page as shown in Figure 7-20.
Figure 7-20 Remote client install image download
3. Click the Windows NT/2000/XP link shown in Figure 7-20 to download the
setup.exe file to your machine.
4. Run the setup.exe file to begin the installation process.
5. When the Remote Client Installer panel opens, click Next to continue.
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6. To install using the default location, click Next. Otherwise, type the desired
location and click Next.
7. A confirmation panel opens, showing you the installation location, the
package being installed, and the approximate size of the installation package.
Click Next to start the installation. If any of the information shown is incorrect,
click Back to make corrections.
8. A status panel displays a message that says that the installation completed
successfully or error messages if errors occurred during the installation. Click
Finish to close the panel.
7.2.2 Uninstall a remote client from a Windows system
To uninstall a remote client from a Microsoft Windows system, do the following:
1. From the taskbar, select Start → Settings → Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel, double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon. Select
Web-based System Manager Remote Client from the list of programs on
the Install/Uninstall tab, then click Add/Remove to start the Uninstall wizard.
3. Click Next in the initial panel.
4. Click Next in the Confirmation panel to uninstall the remote client.
A status panel opens showing either that the uninstallation completed
successfully or error messages if errors occurred during the uninstallation.
Click Finish to close the panel.
7.2.3 Install remote client security on a Windows system
Note: The Web-based System Manager client must be installed before
installing remote client security.
To install remote client security on the Microsoft Windows system, do the
following:
1. Type the following Web address into your machine’s Web browser:
http://host_name/remote_client_security.html
Where host_name is the host name of the HMC. You will see the remote client
security install image download page, as shown in Figure 7-21 on page 144.
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
143
Figure 7-21 Remote client security install image download
2. Click the Windows NT/2000/XP link shown in Figure 7-21 to download the
setupsec.exe file to your machine.
3. Run the setupsec.exe file to begin the installation process.
4. When the Remote Client Security Installer panel opens, click Next to
continue.
5. To install using the default location, click Next. Otherwise, type the desired
location and click Next.
Note: The location you select in this step must be the same location you
selected in 7.2.1, “Install a remote client on a Windows system” on
page 142.
6. A confirmation panel opens showing the installation location, the package
being installed, and the approximate size of the installation package. Click
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Next to start the installation. If any of the information shown is incorrect, click
b to make corrections.
A status panel displays a message that says that the installation completed
successfully or showing error messages if an error occurred during the
installation. Click Finish to close the panel.
7.2.4 Uninstall remote client security from a Windows system
To uninstall remote client from a Microsoft Windows system, do the following:
1. From the taskbar, select Start → Settings → Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon.
3. Select Remote Client Security from the list of programs on the
Install/Uninstall tab, then click Add/Remove to start the Uninstall wizard.
4. Click Next in the initial panel.
5. Click Next in the Confirmation panel to uninstall remote client security.
A status panel opens showing either that the installation completed
successfully or any messages if errors occurred during the installation. Click
Finish to close the panel.
7.3 Remote client setup on a Linux system
The remote Web-based System Manager client5 can be installed from the HMC
by accessing specific URLs6 using a Web browser on your Linux-based PC.
If you are planning to use the remote client on a PC installed with Linux, one of
the following operating systems must be installed on your PC:
򐂰 Red Hat Release 7.2
򐂰 Red Hat Release 7.3
In addition, the PC should have the following hardware resources:
򐂰 150 MB of free disk space on the default drive for temporary use during the
installation procedure
򐂰 150 MB of free disk space on the drive that you plan to use to install the
remote client
򐂰 PC processor speed of at least 800 MHz
5
The Web-based System Manager client package contains the Java runtime environment.
While the Web server process is always running on the HMC, access to the TCP port 80 is denied
in all cases except for access to the specific URLs.
6
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
145
򐂰 A minimum of 256 MB of memory (512 MB recommended)
It is strongly recommended to configure a secure network connection between
your remote clients and the HMC using the SSL protocol. To configure the
security configuration on the HMC, see 7.1, “System Manager Security” on
page 126.
Note: To use SSL with the remote client, you must install the remote client
security package in addition to the Web-based System Manager client.
7.3.1 Install a remote client on a Linux system
To install a remote client on a Linux system, do the following:
1. Uninstall any previous version of the remote client on your machine. For more
information, see 7.3.2, “Uninstall a remote client from a Linux system” on
page 147.
2. Type the following address in your machine’s Web browser:
http://host_name/remote_client.html
Where host_name is the host name of the HMC. You will see the remote client
install image download page as shown in Figure 7-20 on page 142.
3. Click the Linux link shown in Figure 7-20 on page 142 to download the
wsmlinuxclient.exe file to your machine.
4. Run the wsmlinuxclient.exe file to begin the installation process. If the file
does not run, modify the permissions on the file so that you have execute
permissions. At a command prompt, type the following:
# chmod 755 wsmlinuxclient.exe
5. When the Remote Client Installer panel opens, click Next to continue.
6. To install using the default location, click Next. Otherwise, type the desired
location and click Next.
7. A confirmation panel opens showing the installation location, the package
being installed, and the approximate size of the installation package. Click
Next to start the installation. If any of the information shown is incorrect, click
Back to make corrections.
A status panel displays either a message that says that the installation
completed successfully or error messages if errors occurred during the
installation. Click Finish to close the panel.
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Note: If changes do not take effect immediately, either log out of your current
session and log in again, or read the /etc/profile file again by issuing:
# . /etc/profile
7.3.2 Uninstall a remote client from a Linux system
To uninstall a remote client from a Linux system, run the following command:
installdir/_uninst/uninstall
Where installdir is the name of the directory in which your remote client resides.
7.3.3 Install remote client security on a Linux system
To install remote client security on a Linux system, do the following:
Note: The Web-based System Manager client must be installed before
installing the remote client security.
1. Uninstall any previous version of remote client security on your machine. For
more information, see 7.3.2, “Uninstall a remote client from a Linux system”
on page 147.
2. Type the following address in your machine’s Web browser:
http://host_name/remote_client_security.html
Where host_name is the host name of the HMC.
3. Click the Linux link shown in Figure 7-21 on page 144 to download the
setupsecl.exe file to your machine.
4. Run the setupsecl.exe file to begin the installation process. If the file does not
run, modify the permissions on the file so that you have execute permissions.
At a command prompt, type the following:
chmod 755 setupsecl.exe
5. When the Remote Client Security Installer panel opens, click Next to
continue.
6. To install using the default location, click Next. Otherwise, type the desired
location and click Next.
Note: Be sure that the location you designate is the same location you
selected in 7.3.1, “Install a remote client on a Linux system” on page 146.
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
147
7. A confirmation panel opens showing the installation location, the package
being installed, and the approximate size of the installation package. Click
Next to start the installation. If any of the information shown is incorrect, click
Back to make corrections.
A status panel displays a message that either says that the installation
completed successfully or shows error messages if errors occurred during the
installation. Click Finish to close the panel.
Note: If changes do not take effect immediately, either log out of your
current session and log in again, or read the /etc/profile file by issuing:
# . /etc/profile
7.3.4 Uninstall remote client security from a Linux system
To uninstall the remote client security from a Linux system, run the following
command:
installdir/_uninstssl/uninstallssl
Where installdir is the name of the directory in which your remote client resides.
7.4 Remote access to the HMC graphical user interface
This section explains how to use the remote client on Windows and AIX systems
to remotely access the HMC graphical user interface.
To secure the connection between client and server, you should configure the
secure communication using the HMC System Manager Security application on
the HMC (see 7.1, “System Manager Security” on page 126). It provides the
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encrypted communication path between the client
and the server.
Note: While using the remote Web-based System Manager client, the menu
(Help → About) tells you the software version of the Web-based System
Manager client software you are using currently, not the software release level
on the HMC. To use the remote Web-based System Manager client to confirm
the software release level on the HMC, select Software Maintenance →
HMC (see Figure 6-3 on page 110).
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7.4.1 Using the remote client on Windows systems
To access the remote HMC using the Web-based System Manager client
installed on Windows systems, do the following:
1. To connect to the HMC using SSL, copy the public key ring file (SM.pubkr)
into the C:\Program Files\WebSM\codebase directory using the diskette
media.
Note: The public key ring file must be created and copied to the diskette
media on the HMC beforehand (see “Copy the public key ring file to
diskette” on page 134.
2. Invoke the Web-based System Manager client application by double-clicking
the following icon on the desktop.
If the Web-based System Manager client application is successfully invoked,
you will see the Log On dialog box shown in Figure 7-22.
Figure 7-22 Web-based Sysyem Manager Windows client Log On dialog box
3. Enter the host name or the IP address in the text field highlighted in
Figure 7-22, and press the Tab key to move the cursor to the User name field.
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
149
4. Select the “Enable secure communication” check box in Figure 7-22 on
page 149, if you wish to connect to the HMC using SSL. This check box is
selectable only if the following are satisfied:
– The target HMC is configured for the SSL communication.
– The remote client security package is already installed on your client
workstation.
5. After the host name has been validated, enter the user name (hscroot) and
password in the Log On dialog box. Click Log On.
6. If you select the “Enable secure communication” check box the first time, you
are prompted to specify the public key ring file path name as in Figure 7-23.
Figure 7-23 File Chooser dialogue box
Note: This dialog appears only in the first SSL connection attempt to the HMC.
When the user name and password you supplied is authenticated by the HMC,
the connection is established successfully. You see the HMC graphical user
interface in the Web-based System Manager client application with the HMC host
name displayed in the window title, Navigation area, and the status bar, as
highlighted in Figure 7-24 on page 151.
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Figure 7-24 Web-based System Manager Windows client managing the HMC
If you have connected with SSL, the padlock icon at the bottom-left corner in
Figure 7-24 will be locked as shown in Figure 7-25.
Figure 7-25 The locked keypad icon (SSL connection)
7.4.2 Using the remote client on AIX systems
On AIX, if the system is equipped with a graphics adapter, the Web-based
System Manager is installed by default. For information about the configuration of
Web-based System Manager, refer to AIX 5L Version 5.2 System Management
Guide: AIX 5L Version 5.2 Web-based System Manager Administration Guide.
Note:
򐂰 To use the Web-based System Manager client installed on an AIX system,
the X window process must be running on the system.
򐂰 The step in this section does not explain how to configure and use the
Web-based System Manager with SSL on AIX.
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151
To access the remote HMC using the Web-based System Manager client
installed on AIX systems, do the following:
1. Type wsm at the command prompt to launch the Web-based System Manager
managing the AIX system, as shown in Figure 7-26.
Figure 7-26 Web-based System Manager on AIX 5L Version 5.2
2. Select Console → Add → Hosts… from the menu bar to open the dialog box
shown in Figure 7-27.
Figure 7-27 Add a host dialog box
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3. Type the HMC host name or IP address in the text field. Click Add.
4. The added HMC will be shown in the Navigation Area of Web-based System
Manager as shown in Figure 7-28.
Figure 7-28 Remote HMC is shown in the Navigation Area
5. Click the icon representing the HMC to open the Log On dialog box.
6. Enter the host name or the IP address in the text field.
7. After the host name has been validated, enter the User name (hscroot) and
Password in the Log On dialog box. Click Log On.
When the user name and password you supplied is authenticated by the HMC,
the connection is established successfully and you see the HMC graphical user
interface in the Web-based System Manager client application shown in
Figure 7-29 on page 154. The HMC host name will be displayed in the window
title, Navigation area, and the status bar, as highlighted in Figure 7-29 on
page 154.
Chapter 7. Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
153
Figure 7-29 Managing HMC from the Web-based System Manager on AIX
Using command line options of wsm
The wsm command on AIX has the following command line syntax:
$ wsm -?
USAGE: wsm
[-host
[-port
[-profile
[-user
<host name of managing machine>]
<inetd port>]
<pathname of wconsole.pref file>]
<login name>]
Therefore, you can quickly connect to the HMC if you invoke this command:
$ wsm -host host_name -user hscroot
Use your HMC’s host name or IP address for host_name.
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8
Chapter 8.
Secure networking in a
partitioned environment
This chapter discusses how to plan and implement a secure network in a
partitioned environment where your HMC and managed systems are installed. It
includes the following sections:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
“Networking in a partitioned environment” on page 156
“Network paths in a partitioned environment” on page 157
“Providing security to the HMC and partitions” on page 163
“A sample implementation of port filtering rules” on page 167
“Service Agent and security concerns” on page 172
Note: Throughout this chapter, the host name resolution for the network
interfaces of the HMC and partition follows the network planning rules
explained in Appendix , “Trouble-free network planning rules” on page 312.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
155
8.1 Networking in a partitioned environment
Unlike the IBM RS/6000® SP™ control workstation, an HMC does not have to be
in the same broadcast domain as the partitions that it manages. This is because
the HMC, as opposed to the control workstation, does not participate in the
network boot process.1
An HMC does not even have to be on the same network segment as a partition
that it manages, as long as they can reach each other via IP routing. A partition
must be IP-accessible for the following functions to be supported:
򐂰 DLPAR operations
For detailed information about the DLPAR operations, refer to The Complete
Partitioning Guide for IBM Eserver pSeries Servers, SG24-7039.
򐂰 Service functions, such as Service Focal Point and Inventory Scout
See Chapter 11, “Service functions on the HMC” on page 247.
These operations and services rely on the secure and reliable connection
channel, which is established and provided by Resource Monitoring and Control
(RMC) over the TCP/IP network between the HMC and partitions.
The HMC performs many of its management functions using the serial network
connecting it to the service processors on its managed systems. This usually
means that the HMC is physically located within 15 meters (50 feet) of the
servers it manages. Most often, the HMC will be located in a machine room,
possibly with restricted access. This can make systems management at the HMC
itself somewhat inconvenient.
Note: If the distance solution (see “Distance solution” on page 29) is used, the
distance from the HMC to the managed system can be extended up to 315
meters (1050 feet).
The physical placement of the HMC becomes irrelevant if the systems
administrator is using a remote user interfaces, such as the Web-based System
Manager client (see Chapter 7, “Secure remote GUI access to the HMC” on
page 125) or the secure shell (see 9.1, “Secure remote connection to the HMC”
on page 176). In the following sections, we describe how to implement a secure
network configuration in a partitioned environment.
1
The network boot process using the BOOTP protocol is used when AIX is installed over the network
using Network Installation Manager (NIM).
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8.2 Network paths in a partitioned environment
There are many possible network configurations in a partitioned environment, but
in our discussion we focus on those shown in Table 8-1 and address their various
security requirements.
Table 8-1 Network paths in a partitioned environment
Path name (notation in Figure 8-1)
Relevant section number
HMC to partitions (A)
8.2.1
Administrative workstation to HMC (B)
8.2.2
Administrative workstation to partition (C)
8.2.3
HMC access to the enterprise network (D)
8.2.4
Partition access to the enterprise network (E)
Note
Note: A customer will need to determine how much access is appropriate between a
partition and a corporate enterprise network or the Internet. However, that topic and the
network connection shown as E in Figure 8-1 is not discussed in this book.
The administrative workstation is defined as a workstation that is installed with
both the secure shell and remote Web-based System Manager clients. The
operating system2 of the administrative workstation can be AIX, Linux, or
Microsoft Windows.
HMC
A
B
D
Administrative
workstation(s)
Partitions
C
E
Customer enterprise network(s)
Figure 8-1 Network paths in a partitioned environment
2
See Chapter 7, “Secure remote GUI access to the HMC” on page 125, for the operating systems
that support the remote Web-based System Manager client.
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
157
8.2.1 HMC to partitions
The network connectivity allowed between an HMC and its managed partitions is
a customer decision, but it is desirable to have network access restricted for most
production partitions. Port filtering through an IP router is one way to restrict
network access between those partitions and the HMC to protect it against
attack. At a minimum, for DLPAR operations and Service Applications to work,
bidirectional TCP and UDP traffic must be open on port 657. If there are security
concerns, all other TCP and UDP traffic could be disallowed without affecting the
HMC’s function.
Table 8-2 shows the ports that should be open on the network path indicated by
A in Figure 8-1 on page 157.
Note: We are assuming that remote access to partitions for the system
administration purpose will be made from the administrative workstation, not
from the HMC as we will explain in 8.2.3, “Administrative workstation to
partition” on page 161.
Table 8-2 Required TCP and UDP ports (HMC to partitions)
From
Source port
number/protoc
ol
To host
Destination port
number/protoco
l
Application
HMC
657/TCP
Partitions
657/TCP
Resource Monitoring and Control1
HMC
657/UDP
Partitions
657/UDP
Resource Monitoring and Control
Partitions
657/TCP
HMC
657/TCP
Resource Monitoring and Control1
Partitions
657/UDP
HMC
657/UDP
Resource Monitoring and Control
HMC
1024-65535/
TCP
Partitions
808/TCP
Inventory Scout2
The following notes apply to Table 8-2:
1. If the HMC software Release 3, Version 2 or later is used, the HMC tries to
establish a Resource Monitoring and Control connection path with AIX
partitions using the UDP 657 port. If the target AIX partition does not support
the UDP 657 port, the TCP 657 port is used. Resource Monitoring and
Control support UDP 657 on the following operating systems and software
release levels:
– AIX 5L Version 5.1 with 5100-03 Recommended Maintenance Level and
later
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– AIX 5L Version 5.2 with 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance Level and
later
– If the HMC software Release 3, Version 1 and earlier is used, the HMC
always uses TCP 657 port to communicate with AIX partitions
2. On systems installed with earlier software levels, Inventory Scout required
that TCP port 808 be open. If an AIX partition supports the Inventory Scout
automatic configuration, then the TCP port 808 does not have to be open (see
11.2.1, “Inventory Scout Configuration” on page 250 for the required software
levels to support the Inventory Scout automatic configuration).
Note: It is recommended that the latest maintenance level be applied for each
AIX version being used in a partition.
8.2.2 Administrative workstation to HMC
The HMC supports the following three remote access methods:
Access from remote Web-based System Manager clients
As explained in 7.4, “Remote access to the HMC graphical user interface” on
page 148, remote Web-based System Manager clients can connect to the HMC.
The connection process is explained as follows:
1. On the HMC, the Web-based System Manager server process (wsmserver)
listens on TCP port 9090 for a connection request from a remote client.
2. Before establishing a session, wsmserver opens two TCP ports, one for
receiving and another for sending data between the client and itself. The
source TCP ports on the client are randomly selected.
On the HMC loaded with the software level Release 3 Version 2 and later,
only 10 ports within the port range of 30000-30009 are used for wsmserver,
therefore the number of concurrent remote client sessions is limited to five.3
Note: The same process is performed regardless of the use of the SSL
protocol.
Remote access to the virtual terminal
You can access the virtual terminal from the remote Web-based System
Manager client, if it is enabled as explained in 4.2.9, “Enable/Disable Remote
Virtual Terminal” on page 97.
3
If HMC software earlier than Release 3 Version 2 is being used, this restriction does not apply.
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
159
Although it is convenient for the system administration purpose, we have decided
to not enable this method to implement a secure network configuration in a
partitioned environment, since a typed user password is transmitted over the
network without being encrypted.
Remote access using either rexec or ssh facility
You can access the command line interface from remote clients using either the
rexec facility or the ssh facility, if it is enabled as explained in 4.2.7,
“Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution” on page 95.
򐂰 The rexec facility
Because the rexec facility transmits data unencrypted over the network and
its authentication mechanism is widely considered weak, we have decided not
to enable this facility.
򐂰 The ssh facility
If enabled, the sshd daemon process listens on TCP port 22 on the HMC. See
9.1, “Secure remote connection to the HMC” on page 176 for detailed
information.
Table 8-3 shows the ports that should be open on the network path indicated by
B in Figure 8-1 on page 157.
Table 8-3 Required TCP ports (Administrative workstation to HMC)
From
Source port
number/protocol
To
Destination port
number/protocol
Application
Admin
WS
1024-65535
/TCP
HMC
22/TCP
secure shell
Admin
WS
1024-65535
/TCP
HMC
9090/TCP
Web-based System Manager
initial connection
Admin
WS
1024-65535
/TCP
HMC
30000-30009/TCP
Web-based System Manager
communication
Admin
WS
1024-65535
/TCP
HMC
80/TCP
Web server
Note: The web server process running on the HMC refuses all the connection
requests except for the specific URLs to be used for the Web-based System
Manager client image download purpose. To confirm these URLs, see the
following sections:
򐂰 7.2, “Remote client setup on a Windows system” on page 141
򐂰 7.3, “Remote client setup on a Linux system” on page 145
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8.2.3 Administrative workstation to partition
In our secure network planning, it is assumed that all remote access to partitions
for system administration purposes are made from an administrative workstation.
An administrative workstation is a separate computer system other than the HMC
or partitions installed in a partitioned environment. Although the administrative
workstation can be placed on the same network segment as the HMC, it should
be placed on a separate network segment to have more secure network
configuration.
The system administration tasks on AIX partitions include the following:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Hardware problem determination, diagnostics
Software maintenance
User management
Necessary user intervention before and after the DLPAR operation for I/O
resources
To satisfy the requirement, the following remote access methods should be
enabled on AIX partitions from the administrative workstation:
򐂰 Secure shell
򐂰 Remote Web-based System Manager access
Note: It is recommended that you configure the secure system manager
on AIX partitions.
Table 8-4 shows the TCP ports that should be open on the network path
indicated by C in Figure 8-1 on page 157.
Table 8-4 TCP ports (an administrative workstation to a partition)
From
Source port
number/protocol
To
Destination port
number/protocol
Application
Admin
WS
1024-65535
/TCP
HMC
22/TCP
Secure shell
Admin
WS
1024-65535
/TCP
HMC
9090/TCP
Web-based System Manager
initial connection
Admin
WS
1024-65535
/TCP
HMC
30000-30009/TCP
Web-based System Manager
communication
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
161
Note: For some application requirements on the administrative workstation
and AIX partitions, more ports should be open. For example, if the CSM
management server is defined on the administrative workstation and AIX
partitions are participated in the same management domain, the TCP and
UDP ports 657 must be open on the network path between them.
Specifying a port range for remote WebSM access on AIX
Unlike the HMC, the Web-based System Manager server process (wsmserver)
on AIX partitions has no default port range restrictions. To enable wsmserver on
an AIX partition, type the following command as the root user:
/usr/websm/bin/wsmserver -enable
To specify the connection port range, find the following line in /etc/inetd.conf on
the partition:
wsmserver stream tcp nowait root /usr/websm/bin/wsmserver wsmserver -start
Append the options highlighted in the following example, replacing range_start
and range_end with the appropriate port numbers:
wsmserver stream tcp nowait root /usr/websm/bin/wsmserver wsmserver -start
-portstart range_start -portend range_end
Note: These two example lines must be a single line in the /etc/inetd.conf file.
After saving this file, issue refresh -s inetd on the partition.
By making this change, more secure port filtering rules can be implemented as
explained in 8.2.2, “Administrative workstation to HMC” on page 159.
For further information about the configuration of the Web-based System
Manager server process, refer to AIX 5L Version 5.2 System Management
Guide: AIX 5L Version 5.2 Web-based System Manager Administration Guide.
8.2.4 HMC access to the enterprise network
It becomes necessary occasionally for the HMC to access the Internet to obtain
corrective service and microcode updates. If the HMC does not have direct
access, it needs to access a server on the corporate backbone that can be used
to stage these updates before loading them on the HMC. These updates can be
obtained from IBM Web sites by either HTTP or FTP. While the HMC cannot be
an FTP server, it can be an FTP client. 4
4
Firewalls or application proxy gateways are most likely deployed between the enterprise network
and the Internet. The security of the enterprise network is not discussed in this book.
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HMC software includes a Web browser that can be launched from the HMC
console by clicking a button in the task bar located at the bottom of screen.
However, only registered Web addresses provided by IBM for technical support
can be accessed using the browser.
8.3 Providing security to the HMC and partitions
Our security objectives in the partitioned environment are twofold:
򐂰 Protecting the HMC itself
򐂰 Protecting partitions in a secure zone from those that are less secure
These objects can be achieved using either port filtering (see 8.4, “A sample
implementation of port filtering rules” on page 167), or vendor-specific advanced
VLAN technologies (see Appendix , “Vendor-specific VLAN technologies (Cisco)”
on page 326).
8.3.1 Securing the HMC
The HMC is designed to be a dedicate system — an appliance — for the control
of managed systems. The software installed on HMC is based on the Linux
operating system, but it has been customized to increase security and
discourage uses other than those intended.
As explained in 8.2.2, “Administrative workstation to HMC” on page 159, there
are a few accessible services available on the HMC. Popular services on
UNIX-based operating systems, such as telnet, FTP, SMTP, and rsh, are disabled
on the HMC.
No additional third-party applications should be installed on the HMC. Neither
should systems administrators store scripts on the HMC, as they could be lost
during software maintenance.
Because of its central role in managing multiple partitions, it is imperative that the
HMC remain secure.
Controlling access on the HMC
Functions on the HMC are performed by the hscroot user or one created with the
System Administrator role.5 Although the root user exists on the HMC, its uses
are restricted to certain problem determination, system security, and code
maintenance purposes.
5
See 4.1.1, “User role descriptions” on page 77 for the detailed information about roles on the HMC.
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
163
No one may log in remotely to the HMC using the root user ID, either through the
Web-based System Manager or the secure shell. In order to log in as root, a user
would have to be at the HMC console. However, a remote user could become
root after logging in as hscroot and supplying the necessary passwords. For this
reason, the hscroot and root passwords should be very closely guarded.
In some companies, concern over root access has led to the installation of
third-party programs that monitor root logins and audit activity. IBM does not
support such programs; be sure they do not interfere with HMC functioning. If a
customer installs such a security application, IBM software support may require
that it be deinstalled before doing troubleshooting and problem determination.
Secure remote access facilities
If the secure shell and the secure Web-based System Manager are used, data
crossing the network from the HMC will be encrypted and secure. This will
protect against unauthorized snooping by other users on the network.
However, it is advisable to disable the remote virtual terminal facility, even from
the secure Web-based System Manager clients. This is because text entered in
the virtual terminal windows is not encrypted.
Protecting the HMC from malicious attacks
In addition to closely managing passwords and providing physical security for the
HMC, specific steps can be taken to protect it in a networked environment. As
shown in Figure 8-2 on page 165, the HMC must be protected from malicious
users’ attacks, while it must provide the minimum network services explained in
8.2.1, “HMC to partitions” on page 158 and 8.2.2, “Administrative workstation to
HMC” on page 159.
The most obvious solution is to put an IP router with port filtering on each
network path, as explained in 8.2, “Network paths in a partitioned environment”
on page 157.
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HMC
Network infrastructure
Partitions
Administrative
workstation
Compromised partition
Malicious network
user workstation
Figure 8-2 Possible attacks from compromised partitions or rogue users
8.3.2 Separating partitions from the others
If all partitions on the same managed system share the same network, this
means there is only one security zone. This network environment is not desirable
for protecting partitions from others.
Therefore, partitions on the same managed system sometimes must be placed in
different security zones, as shown in Figure 8-3 on page 166. For example, one
partition might be accessible on the Internet, while another is a back-end
database server. The latter should be protected, even if security on the former
gets compromised.
The solution is to put the partitions on different security zones and ensure that
they are all reachable from the HMC via an IP router with port filtering capability.
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
165
HMC
Network infrastructure
Partitions
Partitions
Security zone #1
Partitions
Security zone #2
Partitions
Security zone #3
Security zone #N
Figure 8-3 Multiple security zones for partitions
Using the second Ethernet interface on the HMC
Because the HMC supports two Ethernet interfaces, it is possible to have two
network segments to separate partitions, as shown in Figure 8-4.
A: IP forwarding enabled on the HMC
Primary network interface
Production network
Development network
eth1
HMC
eth0
Partitions
Partitions
(development)
(production)
R
B: Accessing to the primary interface via IP router
Figure 8-4 Primary network interface must be IP-reachable from all partitions
Note: the primary network interface shown in Figure 8-4 is determined by the
Host Name field in the Hosts tab of the “Network Configuration” application
(see Figure 4-8 on page 87).
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However, the primary network interface on the HMC must be IP accessible from
all partitions regardless of the subnet on which they are connected. This can be
achieved by either allowing IP forwarding on the HMC6 (shown as A in Figure 8-4
on page 166), or by having an IP router between two segments (B).
Unfortunately, the first method (A) does not provide secure separation between
the two segments because the HMC does not have the port filtering capability.
In the second method (B), using the port filtering rule explained in 8.2.1, “HMC to
partitions” on page 158, the two segments are considered securely separated.
8.4 A sample implementation of port filtering rules
Many IP router and firewall devices on the market implement port filtering. We
use a PC workstation loaded with the Red Hat Linux Version 7.3 for the port
filtering test in a partitioned environment because the port filtering mechanism
provided by the current Linux, called IP tables, is the best way to illustrate how
the port filtering rules should be defined.
On the Linux kernel release 2.4.X, IP tables are built on IP chains, the original
Linux firewall facility. The ipchains command establishes a chain consisting of a
series of processing steps that incoming or outgoing packets must traverse.
The main IP chains are INPUT, FORWARD, and OUTPUT. The IP tables facility
has six chains organized in three tables; the iptables command is used to set
port filtering rules.7 We will discuss only one of those, the filter table, in this book.
Of special interest to us is the FORWARD chain, because it is used to send IP
packets from one network to another.
For an extensive explanation about the IP tables, refer to the following:
򐂰 The netfilter Web site:
http://www.netfilter.org/
򐂰 Red Hat Linux Firewalls by Bill McCarty; John Wiley & Sons, 2002, ISBN
0764524631.
Note: The Linux PC workstation used for the port filtering between networks is
hereafter referred to the firewall system throughout this chapter.
6
To enable IP forwarding on the HMC, select the IP Forwarding Enabled check box in the Network
Configuration application shown in Figure 4-6 on page 84.
7 To execute the iptables command, the root authority is required.
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
167
8.4.1 Between the HMC and partitions
To show how IP filtering can be set up between the HMC and partitions, we have
configured a sample network configuration, as shown in Figure 8-5.
Two security zones are implemented in this configuration. Security zone #2 is
separated from Security zone #1 and the HMC by a firewall. The firewall has two
network interfaces, eth0 and eth1, on both network segments 9.3.4.0/23 and
10.0.1.0/24.8
Security zone #1
HMC
eth0
9.3.4.30
Security zone #2
Partitions
Partitions
10.0.1.0/24
9.3.4.0/23
eth0
9.3.4.172
Firewall
eth1
10.0.1.1
Figure 8-5 Sample firewall placement (1)
To create this network configuration, we did the following:
1. Create the /etc/hosts file on the HMC and propagate it to all partitions for
consistent host name resolution.
2. Set a network route on the HMC so that it can reach the network 10.0.1.0/24
through the firewall. Example 8-1 shows the netstat -rn command output on
the HMC (the emphasized line is added using the routing tab of the Network
Configuration application shown in Figure 4-10 on page 89).
Example 8-1 netstat -rn output on the HMC
$ netstat -rn
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
10.0.1.0
9.3.4.172
9.3.4.0
0.0.0.0
127.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
9.3.4.41
Genmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.254.0
255.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Flags
UG
U
U
UG
MSS
40
40
40
40
Window irtt Iface
0
0 eth0
0
0 eth0
0
0 lo
0
0 eth0
8
The network address representation 9.3.4.0/23 means the network address 9.3.4.0 with the 23-bit
subnet mask.
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3. Set a host type network route on the partitions in Security zone #2 so that
they can reach the HMC through the firewall. Example 8-2 shows the netstat
-rn command output on one of the partitions on Security zone #2. (The
emphasized line is the added host route entry.)
Example 8-2 netstat -rn output on a partition in security zone #2
# netstat -rn
Routing tables
Destination
Gateway
Flags
Refs
Route Tree for Protocol Family 2 (Internet):
9.3.4.30
10.0.1.1
UGH
1
10.0.1/24
10.0.1.8
U
1
127/8
127.0.0.1
U
5
Route Tree for Protocol Family 24 (Internet v6):
::1
::1
UH
0
Use If
20 en0
1115 en0
27604 lo0
PMTU Exp Groups
-
-
0 lo0 16896
-
4. Enable IP forwarding on the firewall by inserting the following line in the
/etc/sysctl.conf file and then rebooting the system:
net.ipv4.ip_foward = 1
Note: the /etc/sysctl.conf file is read by the sysctl command upon reboot
on the Linux operating system.
5. Issue the following set of commands to set up necessary port filtering on the
firewall. These commands can be included in the /etc/sysconfig/firewall file in
order to execute upon the firewall reboot.
a. The following commands clear any existing port filtering rules and to set
the default rule action to allow packets to pass:
iptables
iptables
iptables
iptables
iptables
-F
-X
-P INPUT ACCEPT
-P OUTPUT ACCEPT
-P FORWARD ACCEPT
b. The following command blocks all packets from the hosts on the 10.0.1.0
network from being forwarded outside that network:
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -s 10.0.1.0/24 -j REJECT
This effectively isolates the partitions on Security zone #2 from both the
HMC and other partitions on Security zone #1. However, it also cuts off the
RMC communication between the HMC and those partitions, which is
required for DLPAR operations and service functions.
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
169
c. To address the RMC requirement, the following commands must be
executed:
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -p tcp --sport 657 -s 10.0.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -p udp --sport 657 -s 10.0.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT
This firewall configuration blocks all the traffic between the HMC and the
partitions on the security zone #2, except for the RMC connection. The HMC
cannot even receive ICMP echo replies if it sends ICMP echo requests to the
partitions using the ping command.
8.4.2 Between the administrative workstation and HMC
To show how IP filtering can be set up between the administrative workstation
and HMC, we have configured the sample network configuration in Figure 8-6.
MAC address: 00:D0:59:CC:6E:46
HMC
eth0
9.3.4.30
Partitions
10.0.1.2
Administrative
Workstation
9.3.4.0/23
10.0.1.0/24
eth0
9.3.4.172
Firewall
eth1
10.0.1.1
Figure 8-6 Sample firewall placement (2)
The 10.0.1.0/24 network, where the administrative workstation is connected, is
separated from the 9.3.4.0/23 network, where the HMC and partitions are
hooked up, by the firewall. The firewall has two network interfaces, eth0 and eth1,
on network segments 9.3.4.0/23 and 10.0.1.0/24 respectively.
The administrative workstation needs to access the HMC via the secure shell
and the Web-based System Manager.
Note: The MAC address of the administrative workstation is also used in order
to restrict the access to the 9.3.4.0/23 network.
To configure this network, we have set up the following:
1. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 4 explained in 8.4.1, “Between the HMC and
partitions” on page 168.
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2. Issue the following a set of commands to set up necessary port filtering on the
firewall. These commands can be included in the /etc/sysconfig/firewall file in
order to execute upon the firewall reboot.
a. Execute the following command on the firewall in order to open the
appropriate port to allow secure shell traffic between the administrative
workstation and HMC:
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -p tcp --dport 22 -s 10.0.1.2 \
--sport 1024:65535 -j ACCEPT
The destination port for the secure shell on the HMC is port 22, and that
the request can come from any port in the range 1024 to 65535 on the
administrative workstation. The IP address of the administrative
workstation is 10.0.1.2. This rule allows a secure shell session from the
workstation to the HMC.
Note: The port filtering rules above do not allow the administrative
workstation to access the HMC via the remote Web-based System
Manager.
b. Execute the following command on the firewall in order to open the
appropriate ports to allow Web-based System Manager traffic between the
administrative workstation and HMC:
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -p tcp -s 10.0.1.2 -d 9.3.4.30 -j ACCEPT
Note: The current IP tables implementation on the Linux operating
system does not allow you to specify a port number larger than 65535.
Therefore, this configuration, unfortunately, allows all TCP connection
requests from the source IP address 10.0.1.2 to the destination IP
address 9.3.4.30. However, it is possible to restrict this access using the
other IP filtering function implementations on some IP router and
firewall products currently available in the market.
c. Execute the following command on the firewall in order to block all
connection requests to the IP address 9.3.4.30, except for the IP packets
sent from the MAC address 00:D0:59:CC:6E:46, which is the MAC
address of the Ethernet adapter on the administrative workstation in our
test environment:
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -m --mac-source 00:D0:59:CC:6E:46 \
-d 9.3.4.30 -j ACCEPT
This firewall configuration blocks all traffic from the 10.0.1.0/24 network to the the
HMC, except for the TCP connection requests from the administrative
workstation.
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
171
8.4.3 Between the administrative workstation and partitions
To demonstrate IP filtering between an administrative workstation and production
partitions, we again used the network described in Figure 8-6 on page 170. This
configuration illustrates the ability of a systems administrator to perform work on
production systems located on the other side of a firewall.
Note that it is important for a systems administrator to have access to a
production partition, not only for day-to-day administration but also to facilitate
moving PCI adapters using dynamic logical partitioning. The two preferred
access methods are the secure shell and the Web-based System Manager.
To configure this access, we did the following:
1. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 4 explained in 8.4.1, “Between the HMC and
partitions” on page 168.
2. Assuming the production partition had an IP address of 9.3.4.117, this rule
would enable both the secure shell and the Web-based System Manager:
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -p tcp -s 10.0.1.0 -d 9.3.4.117 -j ACCEPT
Note: Before the Web-based System Manager could be started on the
partition, the wsmserver commands referenced in 8.2.3, “Administrative
workstation to partition” on page 161 have to be issued.
8.5 Service Agent and security concerns
The Service Agent application that runs on the HMC is an integral part of the IBM
service strategy for partitioning-capable pSeries server. One of the most valuable
features of Service Agent is its ability to call IBM Service and report hardware
failures, often providing specifics as to which Field Replaceable Unit needs to be
installed by the IBM service representatives.
Despite the value of this capability, some customers are wary of configuring a
modem in a server room. If they have several HMCs supporting multiple
managed systems, the concern spreads to having several modems and the need
to support multiple phone lines.
These concerns are summarized into the following questions:
򐂰 Could an enterprise’ proprietary data be transferred over the dial-up
connection?
The answer is No.
The data sent to IBM by Service Agent contains no customer proprietary
information. It reports the date and time of specific hardware errors on
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
specific servers, and it includes diagnostic information that can be used to fix
a hardware problem. It is used to identify a part that needs to be replaced.
򐂰 Can the modem be used to dial into the HMC and therefore provide an entry
point to the customer’s networks?
The answer is No.
Service Agent uses the modem in dial-out mode only. Confirmation that a
message has been received by IBM comes through a phone call to a
customer contact specified in Service Agent. The 7852-400 modem9 supplied
by IBM is configured for dial-out only by flipping a switch located at the front of
modem. Also, the serial port used by Service Agent does not have a getty
process running on it, so there can be no inbound connection.
The detailed information about how to configure Service Agent is provided in
Chapter 12, “Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC” on page 281.
8.5.1 Firewall and Service Agent
An HMC can be configured to run Service Agent in client or server (gateway)
mode. The HMC with the modem attached is the gateway system. One that
forwards its service events over the network to a gateway machine is a client.
The gateway HMC has the dialer configured and runs the Electronic Server
System (ESS) process. ESS runs only on the gateway. It handles all requests for
data input and retrieval from the centralized database. The On Demand Server
(ODS) process runs on all HMCs running Service Agent, and it handles all
Service Agent communication activities for that host. ODS sends data to the ESS
process as necessary.
ESS listens on the TCP port 1199 for incoming communication requests. When a
remote ODS has contacted ESS and is authenticated, ESS tells a new port
number to ODS in order to establish the session between the ESS and that
remote ODS. The new port number is unpredictable and chosen above port
number 1024 on both the source and destination nodes.
Therefore, if you have multiple HMCs and one serves as a gateway, those HMCs
should not be separated by firewalls.10
9
IBM does not supply modems for the pSeries 615 models 6C3 and 6E3, pSeries 630 models 6C4
and 6E4, and pSeries 650 Model 6M2.
10 This limiitation is anticipated to be relaxed in future HMC software releases.
Chapter 8. Secure networking in a partitioned environment
173
To configure the Service Agent in this client/server configuration on multiple
HMCs, see the following sections:
򐂰 11.3.3, “Change Service Agent mode (server/client)” on page 257
򐂰 12.5, “Define Service Agent clients on a gateway server” on page 292
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9
Chapter 9.
HMC command line interface
This chapter provides information about using the command line interface on the
IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries (HMC). The command line
interface is especially useful in the following two situations:
򐂰 Consistent results are required.
If you have to administer several managed systems, you can achieve
consistent results by using the command line interface. The command
sequence can be stored in scripts and executed remotely.
򐂰 Automated operations are required.
After you have developed a consistent way to manage your managed
systems, you can automate the operations by invoking the scripts from batch
processing applications, such as the cron daemon, from other systems.
Note: Avoid copying any files onto the HMC other than those detailed in IBM
publications, as this can interfere with problem determination by IBM support
personnel. Therefore, from remote systems, all supported commands should
be executed via either the rexec or ssh facility. We suggest you store such files
as administrative scripts on systems other than the HMC.
For further information about the command line interface on the HMC, refer to
IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations
Guide, SA38-0590.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
175
9.1 Secure remote connection to the HMC
HMCs typically are placed inside the machine room where managed systems are
located, so you might not be allowed to physically access the HMC. In this case,
you can remotely access it using either the remote Web-based System Manager
client (see Chapter 7, “Secure remote GUI access to the HMC” on page 125) or
the remote command line interface. The HMC supports two facilities, secure shell
(ssh) and rexec, to execute commands remotely.
Note: As explained in 4.2.7, “Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution”
on page 95, either ssh or rexec facility must be explicitly enabled on the HMC
beforehand in order to remotely execute commands.
Throughout this book, we assume that you use OpenSSH to securely connect
between AIX systems (including partitions) and the HMC. You have two ways to
remotely execute the command line interface on the HMC using OpenSSH:
򐂰 Execute commands remotely.
The following sample shows that the /opt/hsc/bin/lshmc -r command is
remotely executed using the ssh command. In this example, a remote user on
a remote AIX system is executing the /opt/hsc/bin/lshmc -r command as
the hscroot user on the HMC (itsohmc). You will be prompted to enter the
login password of the hscroot user, and then the command will list the status
of the remote command execution configuration:1
$ ssh [email protected] /opt/hsc/bin/lshmc -r
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
Remote Command Execution Configuration:
Remote command execution using the rexec facility: disabled
Remote command execution using the ssh facility:
enabled
򐂰 Execute commands after logging in to the HMC.
The following sample shows that the lshmc -r command is executed on the
HMC after logging in to the HMC as the hscroot user:
$ ssh [email protected]
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
Last login: Mon May 26 14:32:13 2003 from lpar03.itsc.austin.ibm.com
[[email protected] hscroot]$ lshmc -r
Remote Command Execution Configuration:
Remote command execution using the rexec facility: disabled
Remote command execution using the ssh facility:
enabled
1
This configuration can also be verified and changed using the graphical user interface on the HMC
(see 4.2.7, “Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution” on page 95).
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
9.1.1 Setting up OpenSSH on AIX
To use OpenSSH on AIX, the tasks described in this section must be performed.
Note: Starting in April 2002, IBM offers OpenSSH in the updated Bonus Pack
CD-ROM media as several AIX standard install packages (installp format) on
AIX 5L Version 5.1 and later.
The OpenSSH program contained in the Bonus Pack CD-ROM media is
offered as is and is licensed under the terms and conditions of the IBM
International Program License Agreement (IPLA) for Non-Warranted Programs.
For further information about setting up OpenSSH on AIX, refer to Chapter 4:
Secure network connection on AIX in Managing AIX Server Farms, SG24-6606.
Installing OpenSSH packages
OpenSSH is offered as several AIX standard installp packages in the Bonus Pack
CD-ROM media or in several RPM format packages provided in the AIX toolbox
for Linux applications.
You can also download the latest OpenSSH packages from the OpenSSH on AIX
site, found at:
http://oss.software.ibm.com/developerworks/projects/opensshi
To install OpenSSH on AIX 5L Version 5.2:
1. Use SMIT to install the openssl package from the AIX toolbox for Linux CD.
Install the openssl package first as it is a prerequisite for OpenSSH.
2. Verify that openssl is installed:
# rpm -qa|grep openssl
openssl-0.9.6e-2
3. Use SMIT to install the following filesets:
– openssh.base.client
– openssh.base.server
– openssh.license
– openssh.msg.en_US
4. Verify that all filesets are installed, as shown in Example 9-1 on page 178.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
177
Example 9-1 lslpp -L openssh.*
# lslpp -L openssh.*
Fileset
Level State Type Description (Uninstaller)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------openssh.base.client
3.4.0.5200
C
F
Open Secure Shell Commands
openssh.base.server
3.4.0.5200
C
F
Open Secure Shell Server
openssh.license
3.4.0.5200
C
F
Open Secure Shell License
openssh.msg.en_US
3.4.0.5200
C
F
Open Secure Shell Messages U.S. English
Configure the OpenSSH client
To configure the OpenSSH client on AIX systems, the steps explained in this
section must be performed. The following configuration is used:
OpenSSH client system host name: murumuru.itsc.austin.ibm.com
User name on the client: koa
OpenSSH server system host name (HMC): itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
User name on the server: hscroot
1. Log in to the client system as the user to use ssh:
AIX Version 5
(C) Copyrights by IBM and by others 1982, 2002.
login: koa
koa's Password: XXXXXX
2. Generate the user public and private key files:
/home/koa ) ssh-keygen -t dsa
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/koa/.ssh/id_dsa):
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): YYYYYY
Enter same passphrase again: YYYYYY
Your identification has been saved in /home/koa/.ssh/id_dsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/koa/.ssh/id_dsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
cf:3a:6a:e8:d0:14:5a:a4:8d:55:7e:98:c0:78:b7:d7
[email protected]
/home/koa ) ls -al .ssh
total 7
drwx-----2 koa
staff
512 Jun 19 17:26 .
drwxr-xr-x
3 koa
staff
512 Jun 19 17:22 ..
-rw------1 koa
staff
744 Jun 19 17:26 id_dsa
-rw-r--r-1 koa
staff
622 Jun 19 17:26 id_dsa.pub
-rw-r--r-1 koa
staff
226 Jun 19 17:22 known_hosts
Note: Do not forget the pass phrase; otherwise you must generate new key
files and distribute the public key file again.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
3. Confirm whether there is a public key ring file (authorized_keys22) in the .ssh
directory under the remote user’s home directory on the HMC:
/home/koa ) ssh [email protected] ls -l .ssh
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
If the file exists, the command returns output similar to the following example:
total 24
-rw-r--r--rw-------rw-r--r--rw-r--r--
1
1
1
1
hscroot
hscroot
hscroot
hscroot
HSC_Sys_
HSC_Sys_
HSC_Sys_
HSC_Sys_
2352
736
625
7372
Jul
Jun
Jun
Jun
30
2
2
17
14:49
06:41
06:41
16:38
authorized_keys2
id_dsa
id_dsa.pub
known_hosts
Then proceed to the next step. Otherwise, do the following and skip to step 7:
/home/koa ) cp .ssh/id_dsa.pub /tmp/authorized_keys2
4. Copy the public key file on the HMC to the local host:
/home/koa ) scp -p [email protected]:/home/hscroot/.ssh/authorized_keys2 /tmp
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
authorized_keys2
100% |*****************************| 2352
00:00
5. Concatenate the local user’s public key file to the one you have just copied:
/home/koa ) cat .ssh/id_dsa.pub >> /tmp/authorized_keys2
Note: You must use >> instead of > for the concatenation.
6. If the remote user already has the .ssh directory under his home directory,
skip to the next step. Otherwise create the .ssh directory under his home
directory:
/home/koa ) ssh [email protected] ls -ld .ssh
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
drwx-----2 hscroot HSC_Sys_
4096 Jun 9 10:32 .ssh
7. Copy back the public key ring file iton the .ssh directory under the remote
user’s home directory on the HMC:
/home/koa ) scp -p /tmp/authorized_keys2 [email protected]:/home/hscroot/.ssh
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
authorized_keys2
100% |*****************************| 2974
00:00
When your public key file is appended to the hscroot user’s public key ring file
(authorized_keys2), enter your pass phrase instead of the login password in
order to log in to the HMC using OpenSSH.
2
The authorized_keys2 public key ring file can store the public keys generated by both RSA and
DSA in the protocol version 2, while authorized_keys can only store the keys generated by DSA.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
179
Configure OpenSSH server
To access to an AIX 5L Version 5.2 system using OpenSSH, in other words, to
configure an AIX system as an OpenSSH server, the PAM3 configuration file
/etc/pam.conf4 (see Example 9-2) must be created on the AIX system.
Example 9-2 /etc/pam.conf on AIX 5L Version 5.2
#
# PAM configuration for OpenSSH
#
sshd
auth
required
OTHER auth
required
/usr/lib/security/pam_aix
/usr/lib/security/pam_aix
sshd
OTHER
account
account
required
required
/usr/lib/security/pam_aix
/usr/lib/security/pam_aix
sshd
OTHER
password
password
required
required
/usr/lib/security/pam_aix
/usr/lib/security/pam_aix
sshd
OTHER
session
session
required
required
/usr/lib/security/pam_aix
/usr/lib/security/pam_aix
The /etc/pam.conf file must have the following permission mode:
# ls -l /etc/pam.conf
-rw-r--r-1 root
system
473 May 14 2003 /etc/pam.conf
9.2 Syntax and common HMC command line flags
This section covers the syntax used to describe the HMC commands and some
of the commonly used command line flags shared by many HMC commands.
To explain the common syntax, we use the lshwres command5 as an example:
lshwres -m <managed-system> -r {ALL|cpu|mem|slot|led}
[-p <partition-name>| --all] [-y <led-type>] [-F <format>] [--help]
The following conventions are used:
򐂰 Items representing variables that must be replaced by a value are enclosed in
brackets: <>. For example, <partition-name> specifies that this is a variable
that should be replaced by a partition name.
򐂰 Items that are not enclosed in brackets must be entered literally.
3
Pluggable Authentication Module
The /etc/pam.conf file does not exist by default.
5 The lshwres command is explained in “lshwres” on page 206.
4
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
򐂰 Parameters enclosed in square brackets, [], are optional.
򐂰 Parameters enclosed in braces, {}, are required.
򐂰 A vertical bar signifies that you choose only one parameter. For example,
{ALL | cpu | mem | slot | led} indicates that you have to choose one of these:
ALL, cpu, mem, slot, or led.
Besides the syntax, you must also pay attention to:
򐂰 You must insert a blank between the flag and the parameter. The following
sample shows that, without a blank between the flag, -r, and the parameter,
ALL, the command will fail:
$ lssyscfg -r ALL
Name
FrameNum
7040-61R*021767A 0
...
... omitted lines ...
...
$ lssyscfg -rALL
Access denied. Please check
parameters particularly the
try again.
IsReal PortNums Frame Type
No
2
to see you have included all required
managed system and partition parameters. Please
򐂰 If, before sending to it HMC for final execution, the supplied parameter or
value contains spaces or other special characters that may be interpreted by
the local shell, it should be enclosed in double quotes or in some other way
prevent the shell misinterpretation.
9.2.1 The -m flag
The -m flag specifies the managed system on which you wish to perform
operations. Although this flag can be seen as an unnecessary flag in a simple,
but typical, configuration where only one managed system is connected to an
HMC, it is required to explicitly specify the target managed system, because
multiple managed systems can be connected to a single HMC.
The -m flag must be used with either of the following arguments:
򐂰 The managed system name
In our example, ITSO_p690 is the managed system name. Therefore, the flag
can be specified as -m ITSO_p690.
To confirm the managed system name, see 10.1.1, “What is the managed
system name?” on page 218.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
181
򐂰 The machine type, model, and serial number of the managed system in the
form of MT-MDL*S/N
In our example the argument is expressed as 7040-681*021768A, where:
– 7040 is the machine type (MT) of our test system.
– 681 is the model number (MDL) of our test system.
– 021768A is the serial number (S/N) of our test system.
Therefore, the flag also can be specified as -m 7040-681*021768A.
To confirm this information, see 10.1.2, “What is my managed system’s
MT-MDL*S/N?” on page 219.
9.2.2 The -r flag
The -r flag specifies the resource of the managed system on which you wish to
perform operations. Depending on the context in which the command is used, the
-r flag can be specified with the following arguments:
cpu
mem
slot
led
alpar
lpar
prof
sysprof
sys
frame
ALL
CPU
Memory
Adapter slot
LED6
Affinity partition
Logical partition
Partition profile
System profile
Managed system
Frame7
Specifies all possible types of the resources
9.2.3 The -n flag
The -n flag specifies the name of the specific object on which you wish to perform
operations.
In the listing context (e.g. lsXXXX command), the --all flag can also be used in
place of -n to specify that all objects are to be listed.
9.2.4 The -o flag
The -o flag specifies the operation that we want to perform on the resource. For
example, when you wish to perform dynamic logical partitioning (DLPAR)
6
7
182
We also must use the -y flag to specify whether it is the system attention LED or identify LED.
See 10.1.3, “What is my frame name?” on page 219
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
operations using the chhwres command, one of the following arguments must be
specified:
-o a
-o r
-o m
-o s
Add a resource.
Remove a resource.
Move a resource.
Set a value8.
When it is used with the chsysstate command, one of the following arguments
must be specified:
-o on
Power on the managed system or activate a partition.
-o off
Power off the managed system or perform a hard reset on
a partition.
-o reset
Reset the managed system (works only in Full System
Partition) or perform a soft reset on a partition.
-o osreset
Reboot a partition.
-o osshutdown
Shut down a partition.
-o rebuild
Rebuild the managed system.
9.2.5 The -p flag
The -p flag specifies the partition on which you wish to perform the operation.
For the DLPAR move operation, the -p flag specifies the source partition.
9.2.6 The -f flag
The -f flag is generally used to specify a file name.
When the flag is used with the bkprofdata or rstprofdata command, it specifies
the profile data file name to be used as the output or input for the backup and
restore operation, respectively.
When the flag is used with the mksyscfg or chsyscfg command, it specifies the
configuration data file name to be used as the input for the operation.
9.2.7 The -F flag
The -F flag specifies which formatted fields will be used when displaying the
output from the lsXXXX command.
8
The set operation can be used only with the LED resource.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
183
For example, the following use of the -F flag instructs the lshwres command to
display the partition_name, min, allocated, and max fields only.
$ lshwres -m ITSO_p690 -r cpu --all -F partition_name:min:allocated:max
9.2.8 The --help flag
The --help flag is used to display the syntax and sample use of the command.
9.3 HMC commands
In this section, we have classified the supported HMC commands from the
system administrators’ view into the groups shown in Table 9-1.
Table 9-1 Command groups
Command classification
Relevant section number
Commands to manage HMC itself
9.3.1
Commands to manage users on the HMC
9.3.2
Commands for CUoD
9.3.3
Commands to manage system configuration
9.3.4
Commands to back up and restore partition profile
data
9.3.5
Commands to manage hardware resources
9.3.6
Commands for virtual terminals
9.3.7
Commands used in recovery situations
9.3.8
Commands used for other purposes
9.3.9
Unless otherwise specified, all commands used in the examples sections are
issued by the hscroot user on the HMC.
9.3.1 Commands to manage HMC itself
The following commands are used to manage HMC itself. This group of
commands interacts only with the HMC so the -m flag, which is used to specify
the managed system, is not needed:
lshmc
184
Lists the HMC network or remote command configuration.
It also can be used to show VPD data for the HMC.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
chhmc
Changes the HMC network configuration or
enables/disables the remote command.
hmcshutdown
Shuts down or reboots the HMC.
lshmc
This command is used to list HMC network configuration, remote command
configuration, and VPD data.
Syntax
lshmc [-n][-r][-v][-F <format>][--help]
-n
Lists HMC network configuration.
-r
Lists HMC remote command configuration.
-v
Lists HMC VPD data.
-F
Specifies the formatted fields to list. Valid values are
hostname, domain, nameserver, domainsuffix, gateway,
ipaddr, networkmask, rexec, and ssh.
Example
To list the HMC network configuration:
$ lshmc -n
Network Configuration:
Host Name:
TCP/IP Interface 0 Address:
TCP/IP Interface 0 Network Mask:
Default Gateway:
Domain Name:
DNS Server Search Order:
Domain Suffix Search Order:
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.30
255.255.254.0
9.3.4.41
itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.2
itsc.austin.ibm.com
austin.ibm.com
To list the HMC remote command configuration:
$ lshmc -r
Remote Command Execution Configuration:
Remote command execution using the rexec facility: disabled
Remote command execution using the ssh facility:
enabled
To list the VPD information for the HMC:
$ lshmc -v
Vital Product Data Information:
*FC ????????
*VC 20.0
*N2 Mon Jun 09 10:09:02 EDT 2003
*FC ????????
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
185
*DS
*TM
*SE
*MN
*PN
*SZ
*OS
*NA
*FC
*DS
*RM
pSeries Hardware Management Console
6578-D5U
233DX2C
IBM
S38DEX62ECA
525402112
Linux 2.4.18-27.7.x
9.3.4.30
????????
Platform Firmware
R3V2.2
The highlighted fields shown in this output mean:
6576-D5U
233DX2C
IBM
S38DEX62ECA
525402112
2.4.18-27.7.x
9.3.4.30
R3V2.2
The machine type and model for the HMC
The serial number of the HMC
Manufactured by IBM
The motherboard serial number
Equipped memory size in bytes (512 MB)
The Linux operating system level on the HMC
The IP address of the HMC
The HMC software level (Release 3, Version 2.2)
chhmc
This command is used to change the HMC network configuration or to enable
and disable remote command execution.
Important: After you change the HMC host name or IP address, be sure that
other necessary changes also are made to other related subsystems such as
RMC, Service Agent, Service Focal Point, and so on.
Syntax
chhmc -c {network|ssh|rexec} -s {enable|disable|add|modify|remove}
[-i {eth0|eth1} -a <IP-address> -nm <network-mask>]
[-d <domain-name>]
[-h <hostname>]
[-g <gateway>]
[-ns <DNS-server>]
[-ds <domain-suffix>]
[--help]
186
-c
Specifies the type of configuration to modify.
-s
Specifies the new state of configuration. When the type is ssh
or rexec, the valid values are enable and disable. When the
type is network, the valid values are add, modify, and remove.
Add and remove are valid only when specifying -ns or -ds.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
-i
Specifies the interface to configure.
-a
Specifies the IP address. Can be used only with -i flag.
-nm
Specifies the network mask. Can be used only with -i flag.
-d
Specifies the domain name. Can be used only with -s modify.
-h
Specifies the new host name. Can be used only with -s modify.
-g
Specifies the gateway IP address or host name. Can be used
only with -s modify.
-ns
Specifies the DNS server. Can be used only with -s add or -s
remove.
-ds
Specifies the domain suffix. Can be used only with -s add or -s
remove.
Example
To add another DNS server of IP address 1.1.1.1:
$ lshmc -n
Network Configuration:
Host Name:
TCP/IP Interface 0 Address:
TCP/IP Interface 0 Network Mask:
TCP/IP Interface 1 Address:
TCP/IP Interface 1 Network Mask:
Default Gateway:
Domain Name:
DNS Server Search Order:
Domain Suffix Search Order:
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.30
255.255.254.0
10.0.1.1
255.255.255.0
9.3.4.41
itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.2
itsc.austin.ibm.com
austin.ibm.com
$ chhmc -c network -s add -ns 1.1.1.1
$ lshmc -n
Network Configuration:
Host Name:
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
TCP/IP Interface 0 Address:
9.3.4.30
TCP/IP Interface 0 Network Mask: 255.255.254.0
TCP/IP Interface 1 Address:
10.0.1.1
TCP/IP Interface 1 Network Mask: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway:
9.3.4.41
Domain Name:
itsc.austin.ibm.com
DNS Server Search Order:
9.3.4.2
1.1.1.1
Domain Suffix Search Order:
itsc.austin.ibm.com
austin.ibm.com
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
187
To add another domain suffix search order th.ibm.com:
$ lshmc -n
Network Configuration:
Host Name:
TCP/IP Interface 0 Address:
TCP/IP Interface 0 Network Mask:
TCP/IP Interface 1 Address:
TCP/IP Interface 1 Network Mask:
Default Gateway:
Domain Name:
DNS Server Search Order:
Domain Suffix Search Order:
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.30
255.255.254.0
10.0.1.1
255.255.255.0
9.3.4.41
itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.2
itsc.austin.ibm.com
austin.ibm.com
$ chhmc -c network -s add -ds th.ibm.com
$ lshmc -n
Network Configuration:
Host Name:
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
TCP/IP Interface 0 Address:
9.3.4.30
TCP/IP Interface 0 Network Mask: 255.255.254.0
TCP/IP Interface 1 Address:
10.0.1.1
TCP/IP Interface 1 Network Mask: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway:
9.3.4.41
Domain Name:
itsc.austin.ibm.com
DNS Server Search Order:
9.3.4.2
Domain Suffix Search Order:
itsc.austin.ibm.com
austin.ibm.com
th.ibm.com
To change the gateway to king.th.ibm.com:
$ lshmc -n
Network Configuration:
Host Name:
TCP/IP Interface 0 Address:
TCP/IP Interface 0 Network Mask:
TCP/IP Interface 1 Address:
TCP/IP Interface 1 Network Mask:
Default Gateway:
Domain Name:
DNS Server Search Order:
Domain Suffix Search Order:
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.30
255.255.254.0
10.0.1.1
255.255.255.0
9.3.4.41
itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.2
itsc.austin.ibm.com
austin.ibm.com
th.ibm.com
$ chhmc -c network -s modify -g king.th.ibm.com
$ lshmc -n
Network Configuration:
Host Name:
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
TCP/IP Interface 0 Address:
9.3.4.30
TCP/IP Interface 0 Network Mask: 255.255.254.0
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
TCP/IP Interface 1 Address:
TCP/IP Interface 1 Network Mask:
Default Gateway:
Domain Name:
DNS Server Search Order:
Domain Suffix Search Order:
10.0.1.1
255.255.255.0
king.th.ibm.com
itsc.austin.ibm.com
9.3.4.2
itsc.austin.ibm.com
austin.ibm.com
th.ibm.com
To disable the rexec facility:
$ lshmc -r
Remote Command Execution Configuration:
Remote command execution using the rexec facility:
Remote command execution using the ssh facility:
$ chhmc -c rexec -s disable
$ lshmc -r
Remote Command Execution Configuration:
Remote command execution using the rexec facility:
Remote command execution using the ssh facility:
enabled
enabled
disabled
enabled
To enable the ssh facility:
$ lshmc -r
Remote Command
Remote command
Remote command
$ chhmc -c ssh
$ lshmc -r
Remote Command
Remote command
Remote command
Execution Configuration:
execution using the rexec facility: disabled
execution using the ssh facility:
disabled
-s enable
Execution Configuration:
execution using the rexec facility: disabled
execution using the ssh facility:
enabled
Additional information
When you enable the ssh facility, the main sshd daemon process starts to accept
the connection via the TCP port 22. For each ssh client connecting in, a new
sshd process is spawned to service the client.
When you disable the ssh facility, the main sshd daemon is terminated, without
terminating all other child sshd daemon processes. As each ssh client starts to
log out, these processes will go away eventually. During that period, no new ssh
client connections will be allowed.
However, if you do not wait, but try to disable the ssh facility twice from the same
ssh session, the sshd daemon process that serves that client will be also
terminated, therefore immediately terminating the current ssh session.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
189
hmcshutdown
This command is used to shut down or reboot the HMC. Before it is shut down,
console surveillance will be disabled. Console surveillance is the process by
which the service processor continuously monitors for the presence of the HMC.
If the HMC goes down unexpectedly while the surveillance policy flag is set, the
system attention light is turned on; disabling this flag prevents this light from
being turned on during graceful shutdown.
Note: Do not use the /sbin/shutdown command to shut down or reboot the
HMC, because it does not disable console surveillance. If you use the
graphical user interface to shut down or reboot the HMC, console surveillance
is turned off automatically.
Syntax
hmcshutdown -t {<minutes>|now} [-r][--help]
-t
Specifies the number of minutes to wait before shutdown.
Adding now begins shutdown immediately (same as using
-t 0).
-r
Reboots the HMC.
Example
To reboot HMC in one minute:
$ hmcshutdown -t 1 -r
Broadcast message from root Mon Jun 9 12:31:36 2003...
The system is going DOWN for reboot in 1 minute !!
Broadcast message from root Mon Jun 9 12:32:36 2003...
The system is going down for reboot NOW !!
To halt HMC immediately:
$ hmcshutdown -t now
$
Broadcast message from root Mon Jun 9 12:55:00 2003...
The system is going down for system halt NOW !!
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
9.3.2 Commands to manage users on the HMC
The following commands are used to manage users on the HMC. This group of
commands operates on the user data in the HMC so the -m flag, which is used to
specify the managed system, is not needed:
lshmcusr
Lists the property (name, role and description) of HMC
user(s).
mkhmcusr
Creates an HMC user.
chhmcusr
Changes the name, role, description, or password of an
HMC user.
rmhmcusr
Removes an HMC user.
lshmcusr
This command is used to list the property of the HMC user specified by the -u
flag.
Syntax
lshmcusr -u {<user-name>|ALL} [-F format][--help]
-u
Specifies the user to be listed. Use -u ALL to list all users.
-F
Specifies the formatted fields to list. Valid values are
name, access, and description.
Example
$ lshmcusr -u hscroot
User Name Roles
hscroot
System Administrator
$ lshmcusr
User Name
stu4
hscroot
stu3
stu5
stu1
stu2
stu6
-u ALL
Roles
User Administrator
System Administrator
System Administrator
Service Representative
Operator
Advanced Operator
Viewer
Full Name
HSC Super User
Full Name
Student_4
HSC Super User
Student_3
Student_5
Student_1
Student_2
Student_6
mkhmcusr
This command is used to create an HMC user.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
191
syntax
mkhmcusr -u <user-name> -a <access-name> [-d <description>][--help]
-u
Specifies the user to be created.
-a
Specifies the access group name. Valid values are viewer,
op, advop, usradmin, sysadmin, and svcrep.
-d
Specifies the description associated with the user.
Example
To add the hscpe user with the mkhmcusr command, do the following:
$ lshmcusr -u hscpe
User hscpe does not exist or is not an HMC user. Please retry the command.
$ mkhmcusr -u hscpe -a svcrep -d "IBM Service Representatives userid"
Enter the new password for user hscpe: XXXXXX
Retype the new password for user hscpe: XXXXXX
$ lshmcusr -u hscpe
User Name Roles
Full Name
hscpe
Service Representative IBM Service Representatives userid
As highlighted in the example output, you type the password for the hscpe user
twice. If you need to add many HMC users, see 10.2.10, “Automate adding users
to HMC” on page 234.
chhmcusr
This command is used to change the name, role, description, or password of an
HMC user.
Syntax
chhmcusr -u <user-name> -t {name|access|desc|passwd} -v <new-value> [--help]
-u
Specifies the user to be modified.
-t
Specifies the property to change:
-v
192
name
Changes the user name.
access
Changes the user role.
desc
Changes the user description.
passwd
Changes the user password.
Specifies the value. The valid values for access are
viewer, op, advop, usradmin, sysadmin, and svcrep. When
changing the password, if no value is specified, the
command prompts the user to enter the password.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Example
To rename user leaf to leaves:
$ lshmcusr -u leaf
User Name Roles Full Name
leaf
Viewer Leaf user
$ chhmcusr -u leaf -t name -v leaves
$ lshmcusr -u leaf
User leaf does not exist or is not an HMC user.
$ lshmcusr -u leaves
User Name Roles Full Name
leaves
Viewer Leaf user
Please retry the command.
To change the description for user leaves:
$ chhmcusr
$ lshmcusr
User Name
leaves
-u leaves -t desc -v "leaves user..."
-u leaves
Roles Full Name
Viewer leaves user...
To change the access group for user leaves:
$ chhmcusr
$ lshmcusr
User Name
leaves
-u leaves -t access -v sysadmin
-u leaves
Roles
Full Name
System Administrator leaves user...
To change the password for user leaves to leaves2root:
$ chhmcusr -u leaves -t passwd -v leaves2root
rmhmcusr
This command is used to remove an HMC user.
Syntax
rmhmcusr -u <user-name> [--help]
-u
Specifies the HMC user to be removed.
Example
$ lshmcusr -u leaves
User Name Roles
Full Name
leaves
System Administrator leaves user...
$ rmhmcusr -u leaves
$ lshmcusr -u leaves
User leaves does not exist or is not an HMC user.
Please retry the command.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
193
9.3.3 Commands for CUoD
The following commands are used to manage Capacity Upgrade on Demand
(CUoD) operations on the HMC:
lscuod
chcuod
Lists the information related to CUoD.
Changes a CUoD attribute.
For further information about CUoD, refer to IBM Eserver pSeries 670 and
pSeries 690 System Handbook, SG24-7040.
lscuod
This command is used to list the information related to CUoD.
Syntax
lscuod -m <managed-system> -r {cpu|mem} -t {reg|order} [-F <format>][--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-r
Specifies the resource to query the information.
-t
Specifies the type of listing to display. Valid values are reg
(regular CUoD resource information) and order (for CUoD
resource order information).
Example
򐂰 If your system is not processor CUoD-capable:
$ lscuod -m ITSO_p690 -r cpu -t reg
The managed system is not CUoD capable at the present time.
򐂰 If your system is not memory CUoD-capable:
$ lscuod -m ITSO_p690 -r mem -t reg
The managed system is not CUoD capable at the present time.
Additional information
Your system can be any of the following:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Processor and memory CUoD-capable
Processor CUoD-capable but memory CUoD-incapable
Memory CUoD-capable but CPU CUoD-incapable
Processor and memory CUoD-incapable
chcuod
This command is used to activate the key for CUoD, or to enable/disable Trial
CoD9.
9
194
Trial Capacity on Demand
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Syntax
chcuod -m <managed-system> -o {e|d|s} -k <activation-key> -r {cpu|mem}
-q <quantity> [--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-o
Specifies the operation to perform:
e
Enables Trial CoD.
d
Disables Trial CoD.
s
Sets activation key.
-k
Specifies the activation key for the managed system.
-r
Specifies the resource to query the information.
-q
Specifies the quantity of processors or memory to enable
Trial CoD. For memory, the unit used is GB, not LMB.
9.3.4 Commands to manage system configuration
The following commands are used to manage the system configuration (frame,
managed system, partition, and partition profiles):
lssyscfg
mksyscfg
chsyscfg
rmsyscfg
Lists the hardware resource configuration.
Creates the hardware resource configuration.
Changes the hardware resource configuration.
Removes the hardware resource configuration.
lssyscfg
This command is used to list the attributes of the frame, managed system, affinity
partition, partition, system profile, and profile.
Syntax
lssyscfg -r {ALL|frame|sys|alpar|lpar|prof|sysprof} {-n <object-name>|--all}
[-m <managed-system>][-p <partition-name>][-F <format>|-z][--help]
-r
Specifies the resource type to query.
-n
Specifies the name of the object. Use --all to query all
objects of that type.
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-p
Specifies the partition name. Use only with -r prof.
-F
Specifies the formatted fields to list. Valid values are:
affinity_capability, boot_mode, cage_number,
cec_capability, cuod_capability, csp_surveillance_policy,
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
195
csp_version, default_profile, desired_cpu, desired_io,
desired_mem, lmb_size, maximum_cpu, maximum_mem,
minimum_cpu, minimum_mem, mode, model, name,
op_panel_value, op_panel_window_count,
partition_profile, power_off_policy, required_io,
runtime_capability, serial_number, service_authority,
sfp_surveillance, small_rmo, sni_config_mode,
sni_device_id, sni_windows, state, and type.
-z
Mutually exclusive with the -F flag; if this flag is specified,
attributes will be displayed per line in the form attr=value.
Example
򐂰 To list all frames, see Example 10-4 on page 219.
򐂰 To list all managed systems, see Example 10-2 on page 218.
򐂰 To list the detail of a managed system, see Example 9-3.
Example 9-3 List the detailed information of managed systems
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all -z
name=ITSO_p690
state=Ready
model=7040-681
serial_number=021768A
affinity_capability=6
cec_capability=195
runtime_capability=24
cuod_capability=0
power_off_policy=false
cage_number=
csp_surveillance_policy=20
csp_version=V4.0
mode=255
lmb_size=256
op_panel_value=LPAR...
In Example 9-3, affinity_capability equals 6 (2 + 4), which means that
ITSO_p690 is both 4-way and 8-way ALPAR capable, as explained in
Table 9-2.
Table 9-2 Values for affinity_capability
196
Value
Meaning
null
ALPAR incapable
2
4-way ALPAR capable
4
8-way ALPAR capable
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
In Example 9-3 on page 196, cec_capability equals 195 (1 + 2 + 64 + 128),
meaning that ITSO_p690 is Multi interface version capable, External BPA
communication possible, LPAR capable, and SMP capable, as explained in
Table 9-3.
Table 9-3 Values for cec_capability
Value
Meaning
1
SMP capable
2
LPAR capable
4
NUMA capable
64
External BPA communication possible
128
Multi interface version capable
In Example 9-3 on page 196, runtime_capability=24 (8 + 16) indicates that
ITSO_p690 is ALPAR- and DLPAR-capable, as explained in Table 9-4.
Table 9-4 Values for runtime_capability
Value
Meaning
8
ALAPR-capable
16
DLPAR-capable
32
Message-passing-capable
64
CUoD-capable
In Example 9-3 on page 196, mode=255 indicates that ITSO_p690 is
partitioned, as explained in Table 9-5.
Table 9-5 Values for mode
Value
Meaning
0
The managed system is running Full
System Partition.
255
The managed system is partitioned.
򐂰 To list all affinity partitions, see Example 10-6 on page 220.
򐂰 To list all partitions, see Example 10-7 on page 221.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
197
򐂰 To list all system profiles:
$ lssyscfg -r sysprof -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name
Profile
Up5200-01Before5100-04 aix51_64/lpar01, aix52_64/lpar05, aix51_64/lpar02,
aix52_64/lpar04, aix52_64/lpar08, aix52_64/lpar03, aix52_64/lpar06,
aix52_64/lpar07
򐂰 To list all profiles for the partition lpar05:
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU
aix52_64 1
2
SMS
3
2
-p lpar05 --all
DesiredMEM MaxCPU MaxMEM
2048
6
8192
8
8
16
MinCPU MinMEM
1
2048
1
4
Table 9-6 shows the meaning of the BootMode column.
Table 9-6 Values for BootMode
Value
Meaning
1
Power on normal
2
Power on diagnostic default boot list
3
Power on SMS
4
Power on open firmware OK prompt
5
Power on diagnostic stored boot list
mksyscfg
This command is used to create affinity partition, partition, system profile, and
profile. You can create them by either specifying the attributes in a configuration
file specified with the -f flag, or on the command line specified with the -i flag.
Syntax
mksyscfg -r {alpar|lpar|prof|sysprof} -m <managed-system>
[-p <partition-name>]
{-f <config-file> | -i <attr1=value1> <atr2=value2> ...}
[--help]
198
-r
Specifies the resource type to create.
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-p
Specifies the partition name. Use only with -r prof.
-f
Specifies the file containing the configuration information.
-i
Specifies the value of each parameter directly on the
command line; for example, -i name=NightProfile.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
򐂰 To create affinity partitions:
– You must create an input configuration file.
– Use a partition_type attribute as the first line of the file:
•
partition_type=2 creates a 4-way affinity partition
•
partition_type=3 creates a 8-way affinity partition
– Use <RECSP> as a record separator between each partition.
– The minimum required attributes are name and profile_name.
Other attributes that can be specified are: desired_io, required_io,
service_authority (0-off, 1-on), sfp_surveillance (0-off, 1-on),
sni_config_mode, sni_windows, sni_device_id, small_rmo (1-off, 2-on), and
boot_mode (norm, dd, sms, of, ds).
Note: A partitioning-capable pSeries server can have only one set of
affinity partitions at any given time.
򐂰 To create a partition, the minimum required attributes are name,
profile_name, minimum_cpu, desired_cpu, maximum_cpu, minimum_mem,
desired_mem, and maximum_mem.
Other attributes that can be specified are: desired_io, required_io,
service_authority (0-off 1-on), sfp_surveillance (0-off, 1-on),
sni_config_mode, sni_device_id, sni_windows, small_rmo (1-off, 2-on), and
boot_mode (norm, dd, sms, of, ds).
򐂰 To create a system profile, the minimum required attributes are name,
partitions, and profile_names.
򐂰 To create a profile, the minimum required attributes are name, minimum_cpu,
desired_cpu, maximum_cpu, minimum_mem, desired_mem, and
maximum_mem.
Other attributes that can be specified are: desired_io, required_io,
service_authority (0-off 1-on), sfp_surveillance (0-off 1-on), sni_config_mode,
sni_device_id, sni_windows, sni_windows, sni_device_id, small_rmo (1-off,
2-on), and boot_mode (norm, dd, sms, of, ds).
Note: The minimum required attributes are the minimum that you must specify
in order for the command to work. However, you will not be able to activate and
boot the partition if you do not specify any I/O slot that contains a bootable
disk. Therefore, most likely you should specify the boot disk adapter, such as:
required_io=’U1.9-P1/Z1’…
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
199
Example
To create system profile Up5200-01Before5100-04:
$ cat /tmp/mksysprof.Up5200-01Before5100-04
name=Up5200-01Before5100-04
partitions=lpar05,lpar06,lpar07,lpar08,lpar04,lpar03,lpar02,lpar01
profile_names=aix52_64,aix52_64,aix52_64,aix52_64,aix52_64,aix52_64,aix51_64,ai
x51_64
$ mksyscfg -r sysprof -m ITSO_p690 -f /tmp/mksysprof.Up5200-01Before5100-04
$ lssyscfg -r sysprof -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name
Profile
Up5200-01Before5100-04 aix51_64/lpar01, aix52_64/lpar05, aix51_64/lpar02,
aix52_64/lpar04, aix52_64/lpar08, aix52_64/lpar03, aix52_64/lpar06,
aix52_64/lpar07
See other examples using the mksyscfg command to create affinity partitions,
partitions, and profiles in 10.2, “Basic command line samples” on page 227.
chsyscfg
This command is used to change the attribute of the affinity partition, partition,
system profile, and profile.
Syntax
chsyscfg -r {alpar|lpar|prof|sysprof} -n <object-name> -m <managed-system>
[-p <partition-name>]
[-f <config-file> | -i <attr1=value1> <atr2=value2> ...]
[--help]
-r
Specifies the resource type of the object to change.
-n
Specifies the object to change.
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-p
Specifies the partition name. Use only with -r prof.
-f
Specifies the file containing the configuration information.
See the attributes that can be specified in the syntax
section of the mksyscfg command above.
-i
Specifies the value of each parameter directly on the
command line, for example, -i name=NightProfile. See the
attributes that can be specified in the syntax section of the
mksyscfg command above.
Example
To change profile SMS for the lpar05 partition to boot in the SMS mode and to set
min:required:max memory values to 4:8:16 LMBs:
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 --all
200
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU
aix52_64 1
2
SMS
1
2
$ chsyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690
desired_mem=8 maximum_mem=16
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU
aix52_64 1
2
SMS
3
2
DesiredMEM MaxCPU
2048
6
2
8
-p lpar05 -n SMS -i
MaxMEM MinCPU MinMEM
8192
1
2048
8
1
1
boot_mode=sms minimum_mem=4
-p lpar05 --all
DesiredMEM MaxCPU MaxMEM
2048
6
8192
8
8
16
MinCPU MinMEM
1
2048
1
4
Note: An LMB (logical memory block) is a minimum memory size that is
allocatable to a partition. On the current partitioning-capable pSeries servers,
an LMB is 256 MB.
To change the name of the SMS profile to SMS_prof:
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 --all
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU DesiredMEM MaxCPU
SMS
3
2
8
8
aix52_64 1
2
2048
6
$ chsyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 -n SMS -i
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 --all
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU DesiredMEM MaxCPU
SMS_prof 3
2
8
8
aix52_64 1
2
2048
6
MaxMEM MinCPU MinMEM
16
1
4
8192
1
2048
name=SMS_prof
MaxMEM
16
8192
MinCPU MinMEM
1
4
1
2048
To add two more slots to the desired I/O of test_prof profile of partition test:
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p test -n test_profile \
-F name:desired_io:required_io
test_profile::U1.5-P1/Z1:
$ chsyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p test -n test_profile \
-i required_io+='U1.5-P1/Z2,U1.5-P2/Z1'
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p test -n test_profile \
-F name:desired_io:required_io
test_profile::U1.5-P1/Z1, U1.5-P2/Z1, U1.5-P1/Z2:
The += syntax highlighted in the example above instructs the chsyscfg command
to add these two slots to the current value of the required_io attribute.
Another syntax, -=, also can be used to instruct the chsyscfg command to
remove the values following it from the current value of the specified attribute.
rmsyscfg
This command is used to remove the managed system, partition, system profile,
and profile.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
201
Syntax
rmsyscfg -r {sys|lpar|prof|sysprof} -n <object-name>
[-m <managed-system>]
[-p <partition-name>]
[--help]
Example
To remove all of the defined affinity partitions:
$ lssyscfg
Name id
aaa
011
a
009
aaaa 012
aa
010
$ rmsyscfg
$ lssyscfg
No results
-r alpar -m ITSO_p690
DLPAR State
0
Not Available
0
Not Available
0
Not Available
0
Not Available
-r alpar -m ITSO_p690
-r alpar -m ITSO_p690
were found.
--all
Profile
aaa
a
aaaa
aa
--all
--all
OpPanel
To remove the partition test:
$ rmsyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n test
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n test
The partition entered was not found. Please check your entry and retry the
command.
To remove the system profile Up5200-01Before5100-04:
$ lssyscfg -r sysprof -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name
Profile
Up5200-01Before5100-04 aix52_64/lpar03, aix52_64/lpar06, aix52_64/lpar07,
aix51_64/lpar01, aix51_64/lpar02, aix52_64/lpar05, aix52_64/lpar04,
aix52_64/lpar08
$ rmsyscfg -r sysprof -m ITSO_p690 -n Up5200-01Before5100-04
$ lssyscfg -r sysprof -m ITSO_p690 --all
No results were found.
To remove profile OF for lpar05:
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 -n OF
Name BootMode DesiredCPU DesiredMEM MaxCPU MaxMEM MinCPU MinMEM
OF
4
2
2
8
8
1
1
$ rmsyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 -n OF
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 -n OF
The profile entered was not found. Please check your entry and retry the
command.
202
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
9.3.5 Commands to back up and restore partition profile data
The following commands are used to back up and restore partition profile data:
bkprofdata
rstprofdata
Back up partition profile data to a file.
Restore partition profile data from a file.
bkprofdata
This command backs up the partition profile data to a file.
Syntax
bkprofdata -m <managed-system> -f <output-file> [--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-f
Specifies the file to contain the backup profile data. If you
do not specify the full path for the file, it is stored in
/var/hsc/profiles/<MT-MDL*S/N>.
Note: Do not use the output file name, backupFile because it is used by the
automatic back-up mechanism to save the most current partition profile data.
Whenever a change is made to any profile data, backupFile gets updated.
Example
To back up profile data to the ITSO_p690_2 file in the default location:
$ bkprofdata -m ITSO_p690 -f ITSO_p690_2
$ cd /var/hsc/profiles/7040-681*021768A; ls -alrt
total 68
drwxr-xr-x
3 root
root
4096 Jun 1
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
20464 Jun 16
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
20464 Jun 16
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
20464 Jun 17
drwxr-xr-x
2 root
root
4096 Jun 17
12:18
12:43
15:56
10:54
10:54
..
ITSO_690
backupFile
ITSO_p690_2
.
To back up profile data to the file /tmp/profdata.09Jun2003:
$ ls -al /tmp/profdata.09Jun2003
ls: /tmp/profdata.09Jun2003: No such file or directory
$ bkprofdata -m ITSO_p690 -f /tmp/profdata.09Jun2003
$ ls -al /tmp/profdata.09Jun2003
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
20464 Jun 9 18:05 /tmp/profdata.09Jun2003
Additional information
When you perform the Save Upgrade Data operation (see “Save Upgrade Data”
on page 113), it merely gathers the files under the directory /var/hsc/profiles on
the HMC then archives them in the special disk partition; it does not perform any
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
203
profile data backup by itself. Therefore, you must either use the graphical user
interface or back up profile data using bkprofdata before performing the Save
Upgrade Data operation.
rstprofdata
This command restores the partition profile data from a file.
Syntax
rstprofdata -m <managed-system> -f <backup-file> -l {1|2|3} [--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-f
Specifies the file containing the backup profile data. You
need to specify the full path name.
-l
Specifies the restore priority:
1
Full restore of data from the file.
2
Merge current/backup with backup priority.
3
Merge current/backup with current priority.
Example
To restore profile data from the file ITSO_p690_2, giving priority to the data in the
backup file over the current configuration:
$ rstprofdata -m ITSO_p690 -f /var/hsc/profiles/7040-681*021768A/ITSO_p690_2 -l
2
Additional information
򐂰 To list your backup files, use the following command on the HMC10:
ls -al /var/hsc/profiles/<MT-MDL*S/N>
򐂰 Do not restore the backupFile; you would not see any changes because it is
used internally by HMC to cache the current image of the profile data.
򐂰 A full restore is not permitted when there are logical partitions in the Running
state. A full restore can only be issued when the managed system was
powered on with the Partition Standby state and there are no partitions
running, booting, or in the open firmware state.
Note: HMC uses the LparID as the criteria to decide whether the partition
is the same. If the same LparID is used for different partition names in the
backup and the current configuration, the result of the restore operation
varies depending on the specified priority.
10
204
See 10.1.2, “What is my managed system’s MT-MDL*S/N?” on page 219.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
9.3.6 Commands to manage hardware resources
The following commands are used to manage hardware resources:
lshwinfo
lshwres
chhwres
Displays the temperature of the managed system.
Lists the hardware resource configuration.
Changes the hardware resource configuration.
lshwinfo
This command displays hardware information, such as temperature, of the
specified managed system.
Note: The lshwinfo command works for managed systems that are
accommodated in the 7040-W42 frame managed by the HMC. (The BPC for
the frame must be connected to the HMC via RS-422.)
Syntax
lshwinfo -e <frame-name> -r sys [-n <object-name>|--all] [-F <format>] [--help]
-e
Specifies the frame name.
-n
Specifies the object name in the frame. Use --all to list all
objects.
-F
Specifies the formatted fields to list. Currently,
temperature is the only valid value.
Example
In the following example, the managed system 7039-651*020032, which is
pSeries 655, shows that the temperature is 28 degrees centigrade.
$ lssyscfg -r frame --all
Name
FrameNum IsReal PortNums
7040-61R*1234567 0
-505
$ lshwinfo -e 7040-61R*1234567 -r sys --all
cec_mtms
temperature
7039-651*0200032 28
If the command is issued against a managed system other than pSeries 655, the
following error message will be displayed:
$ lssyscfg -r frame --all
Name
FrameNum IsReal PortNums Frame Type
7040-61R*021767A 0
No
2
$ lshwinfo -r sys -e '7040-61R*021767A' --all
Either the connection to the bulk power assembly was lost, or there is no bulk
power assembly. Retry the operation.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
205
lshwres
This command is used to list hardware resources for the managed system.
Specify the -p flag to list hardware resources in the partition.
Syntax
lshwres -m <managed-system> -r {ALL|cpu|mem|slot|led}
[-p <partition-name> | --all] [-y {sys|ident}] [-F <format>] [--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-r
Specifies the resource to list. Use -r ALL to list all
resources (cpu, memory, slot, and LED).
-p
Specifies the partition to list the resource. Use --all to list
resources for all partitions.
-y
Specifies the LED type: sys (system attention LED) or
ident (identify LED).
-F
Specifies the formatted fields to list. Valid values are:
name, state, status, id, parent, location, classcode,
assigned_to, system, index, location_code, max, min,
allocated, free, lmb_size, drawer_id, slot_id, slot_type,
partition, partition_name, and phys_loc.
Example
To list all processors in the managed system ITSO_p690, use the lshwres
command as follows:
$ lshwres -m ITSO_p690 -r
id Status
22 Configured by System
23 Configured by System
3
Configured by System
2
Configured by System
1
Configured by System
16 Configured by System
17 Configured by System
5
Configured by System
0
Configured by System
20 Configured by System
21 Configured by System
6
Configured by System
7
Configured by System
18 Configured by System
19 Configured by System
4
Configured by System
206
cpu
partition
003*7040-681*021768A
002*7040-681*021768A
008*7040-681*021768A
007*7040-681*021768A
005*7040-681*021768A
004*7040-681*021768A
003*7040-681*021768A
004*7040-681*021768A
005*7040-681*021768A
assigned_to
lpar03
lpar02
lpar08
lpar07
lpar05
lpar04
lpar03
lpar04
lpar05
006*7040-681*021768A
008*7040-681*021768A
001*7040-681*021768A
007*7040-681*021768A
008*7040-681*021768A
lpar06
lpar08
lpar01
lpar07
lpar08
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
In this example output, you can see that there are 16 processors, and two
(physical processor ID 20 and 21) are not allocated to any partition.
To list the memory resource for partition lpar06, use the lshwres command as
follows:
$ lshwres -m ITSO_p690 -r mem -p lpar06
allocated free lmb_size max min partition
system
partition_name
8
193 256
12 4
006*7040-681*021768A ITSO_p690 lpar06
This output shows that lpar06 is allocated eight LMBs and the LMB size
(lmb_size) is 256 MB; therefore, it is allocated the memory size of 2048 MB,
while the managed system still has 48.25 GB free memory (193 LMBs times
256 MB) in total.
To check whether the system attention LED is on, see 10.1.13, “Is the system
attention LED light on?” on page 224.
chhwres
This command is used to make changes (add, remove, move) to the resources
(CPU, memory, slot) of the partitions. It performs dynamic logical partitioning
(DLPAR) to reconfigure the partition resources dynamically.
It can also be used to set and reset various LEDs on the managed system.
Syntax
chhwres -m <managed-system> -o {a|r|m|s} -r {cpu|mem|slot|led}
[-p <partition-name>]
[-t <target-partition-name>]
[-q <quantity>]
[-i <drawer-id> -s <slot-id> | -l <location-code>]
[-y {sys|ident} -x <LED-index> -v <LED-setting>]
[-w <timeout>]
[-d <detail-level>]
[--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-o
Specifies the operation to perform:
a
r
m
s
-r
11
Add
Remove
Move
Set11
Specifies the resource to perform the operation.
Set is the only operation valid for the LED resource type.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
207
-p
Specifies the partition to perform the operation or the
source partition (for move operation).
-t
Specifies the target partition (for move operation).
-q
Specifies the quantity of CPUs or of LMBs for memory.
-i
Specifies the drawer ID.
-s
Specifies the slot ID.
-l
Specifies the physical location code.
-y
Specifies the LED type: sys (system attention LED) or
ident (identify LED).
-x
Specifies the LED index.
-v
Specifies the LED setting. Valid values are on and off.
-w
Specifies the timeout for the operation. Default is 0 (zero),
which means no timeout (that is, the operation can take
as much time as it needs).
-d
Specifies the detail level for the drmgr12 command. Valid
values are 0 to 5.
Example
To add two processors to lpar05:
$ ssh [email protected] lsdev -Cc processor
proc0 Available 00-00 Processor
proc1 Available 00-01 Processor
$ chhwres -m ITSO_p690 -o a -r cpu -q 2 -p lpar05
$ ssh [email protected] lsdev -Cc processor
proc0 Available 00-00 Processor
proc1 Available 00-01 Processor
proc20 Available 00-20 Processor
proc21 Available 00-21 Processor
To remove 1 GB (four LMBs) from lpar06:
$ ssh [email protected] lsattr -El mem0
goodsize 2048 Amount of usable physical memory in Mbytes
size
2048 Total amount of physical memory in Mbytes
$ chhwres -m ITSO_p690 -o r -r mem -q 4 -p lpar06
$ ssh [email protected] lsattr -El mem0
goodsize 1024 Amount of usable physical memory in Mbytes
size
1024 Total amount of physical memory in Mbytes
False
False
False
False
12
The drmgr command is invoked on an AIX partition if a DLPAR operation is requested from the
HMC.
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To move one processor from lpar05 to lpar06:
$ ssh [email protected] lsdev -Cc processor
proc0 Available 00-00 Processor
proc1 Available 00-01 Processor
proc20 Available 00-20 Processor
proc21 Available 00-21 Processor
$ ssh [email protected] lsdev -Cc processor
proc6 Available 00-06 Processor
$ chhwres -m ITSO_p690 -o m -r cpu -q 1 -p lpar05 -t lpar06
$ ssh [email protected] lsdev -Cc processor
proc1 Available 00-01 Processor
proc20 Available 00-20 Processor
proc21 Available 00-21 Processor
[[email protected] hscroot]$ ssh [email protected] lsdev -Cc processor
proc0 Available 00-00 Processor
proc6 Available 00-06 Processor
To turn off the system attention LED, see 10.1.14, “How can I turn off the system
attention LED?” on page 225.
9.3.7 Commands for virtual terminals
The following commands are used to manage virtual terminals:
mkvterm
rmvterm
Open a virtual terminal.
Close a virtual terminal.
mkvterm
This command opens a virtual terminal. The virtual terminal is opened in the
same window that you issue the mkvterm command.
The recommended approach to open a virtual terminal is to log on to HMC by
using ssh (for example, ssh -l hscroot itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com), then use the
mkvterm command to open the virtual terminal.
To close the opened virtual terminal session, do either of the following:
򐂰 Issue the rmvterm command from another ssh session.
򐂰 In the virtual terminal window, type a tilde and a period (~.).
A message “Terminate session? [y/n]” appears. Reply y to close the virtual
terminal.
Note: If the virtual terminal shows the AIX login or password prompt line,
you may need to type the key sequence several times to close the virtual
terminal.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
209
Syntax
mkvterm -m <managed-system> [-p <partition-name>][--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-p
Specifies the partition to open the virtual terminal session.
If omitted, opens the virtual terminal on the Full System
Partition.
Example
[[email protected] hscroot]$ mkvterm -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05
NVTS itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com 9734 005*7040-681*021768A 1
005*7040-681*021768A _VT_
...
... omitted blank lines ...
...
AIX Version 5
(C) Copyrights by IBM and by others 1982, 2002.
Console login:
Note: When the managed system is powered off, you can use mkvterm -m
<managed-system> to open a virtual terminal to access the service processor
menu.
rmvterm
This command closes a virtual terminal.
Syntax
rmvterm -m <managed-system> [-p <partition-name>][--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-p
Specifies the partition to close the virtual terminal
session. If omitted, closes the virtual terminal on the Full
System Partition.
Example
$ rmvterm -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05
After the message Connection has closed appears on the opened virtual
terminal, press Enter to return to the prompt.
[email protected]:/ [581] #
Connection has closed
/opt/hsc/bin/command/mkvterm: line 40:
675 Broken pipe
/opt/hsc/bin/vxterm $s
[[email protected] hscroot]$ [[email protected] hscroot]$
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Note: Currently, besides trying to open a virtual terminal to the partition, there
is no better way to check which partition’s virtual terminal is currently opened.
Additional information
Processes named [mkvterm] and vxterm can remain on the system even though
no virtual terminal is active. To clean up these processes, use the kill command
as the root user.
9.3.8 Commands used in recovery situations
The following commands are used in recovery situations:
rmsplock
rsthwres
Removes the lock set in the service processor.
Restores the hardware resource configuration.
rmsplock
This command removes the lock set in the service processor in the redundant
HMC configuration. In a very rare situation, HMC might fail to remove the lock set
in the service processor on a managed system. This command removes all
leftover locks.
Syntax
rmsplock -m <managed-system> [--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
Example
To remove any leftover lock on the managed system ITSO_p690:
$ rmsplock -m ITSO_p690; echo $?
rsthwres
This command restores the hardware resource configuration to a consistent
state. Use it when a DLPAR operation fails to complete successfully, thus leaving
the hardware resource assignment in NVRAM on the managed system and, on
AIX, inconsistent.
If you have a failed DLPAR operation, run this command before continuing to
perform any DLPAR operation.
Syntax
rsthwres -m <managed-system> -r {cpu|mem|slot} [-p <partition-name>][-u
<processor-id>][-i <drawer-id> -s <slot-id>|-l <location-code>][--help]
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
211
-m
-r
-p
-u
-i
-s
-l
Specifies the managed system.
Specifies the resource to restore.
Specifies the partition to restore.
Specifies the processor ID to restore.
Specifies the drawer ID to restore.
Specifies the slot ID to restore.
Specifies the physical location code to restore.
Example
To restore the CPU configuration after a failed DLPAR operation:
$ rsthwres -m ITSO_p690 -r cpu
If there is no inconsistency for the CPU resource assignment on the managed
system, the command displays the following message:
$ rsthwres -m ITSO_p690 -r cpu
There are no recoverable processor resources in the system.
To restore the memory configuration after a failed DR operation:
$ rsthwres -m ITSO_p690 -r mem
To restore the I/O device configuration after a failed DLPAR operation:
$ rsthwres -m ITSO_p690 -r slot
If there is no inconsistency for the I/O resource assignment on the managed
system, the command displays one of the following messages:
$ rsthwres -m ITSO_p690 -r slot
The I/O device with the slot ID and drawer ID entered is not a recoverable
resource.
$ rsthwres -m ITSO_p690 -r slot -l U1.5-P1-I5
The I/O device with the physical location code entered is not a recoverable
resource.
$ rsthwres -m ITSO_p690 -r slot -i '7040-61D*021766A-P2' -s 5
The I/O device with the slot ID and drawer ID entered is not a recoverable
resource.
9.3.9 Commands used for other purposes
The following commands are used for purposes not explained in the other
subsections of 9.3, “HMC commands” on page 184:
chsysstate
lssvcevents
212
Change system state.
List the HMC events
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
chsysstate
This command is used to change system state. By changing the system state,
you can perform various operations on the managed system and partitions, such
as: power on, power off, reset, activate, shutdown, and so on.
Syntax
chsysstate -m <managed-system> -o {on|off|reset|osreset|osshutdown|rebuild}
-r {sys|lpar|sysprof}
[-n <object-name>]
[-f <profile-name>]
[-c {full|lpar}]
[-b {norm|dd|sms|of|ds|std|auto}]
[--help]
-m
Specifies the managed system.
-o
Specifies the operation to perform:
on
Power on the managed system or
activate a partition.
off
Power off the managed system or
perform a hard reset on a partition.
reset
Reset the managed system (works
only in Full System Partition) or
perform a soft reset on a partition.
osreset
Reboot a partition.
osshutdown Shut down a partition.
rebuild
Rebuild the manage system.
-r
Specifies the resource type of the object to perform the
operation.
-n
Specifies the object to perform the operation.
-f
Specifies the partition profile to use.
-c
Specifies the mode to power on the managed system:
-b
full
Full System Partition
lpar
Logical partition
Specifies the boot mode:
norm
Normal
dd
Diagnostic default boot list
sms
SMS
of
Open firmware OK prompt
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
213
ds
Diagnostic stored boot list
std
Partition standby
auto
Automatically start partitions
Example
To rebuild a managed system:
$ chsysstate -o rebuild -r sys -n ITSO_p690
This chsysstate command has more uses; for example, you can use it to
activate, shut down, reboot, soft reset, and hard reset a partition, or to power on,
reset, and power off a managed system. More example uses are provided in
10.2, “Basic command line samples” on page 227.
lssvcevents
This command is used to display hardware-serviceable events or HMC console
events.
Syntax
lssvcevents -t {hardware|console}[-d <#days-to-go-back>]
[-m <managed-system> -s {sp|lpar|ALL} [-p <partition-name>]][--help]
-t
Specifies the type of event to query.
-d
Specifies the number of days to go back and query for the
events. Default is seven days. The maximum for hardware
event is 90 days.
-m
Specifies the managed system (required only for -t
hardware).
-s
Specifies the source of events to query (required only for
-t hardware):
-p
sp
Query from the Service Processor
lpar
Query from the partitions
ALL
Query all above events
Specifies the partition to query (optional for -t hardware).
Example
To view HMC console events for the past week:
$ lssvcevents -t console
Earliest Timestamp
Description
06/10/03 02:45:20 PM HSCE2156 DLPAR: Completed moving cpus.
06/10/03 02:45:20 PM HSCE2156 DLPAR: Completed moving cpus.
06/10/03 02:45:16 PM HSCE2072 DLPAR: Processor ID 0 was added to partition 6.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
06/10/03 02:45:16 PM HSCE2071 DLPAR: Processor ID 0 was removed from partition
5.
06/10/03 02:39:06 PM HSCE2158 DLPAR: Completed removing memory from the
partition.
06/10/03 02:39:06 PM HSCE2158 DLPAR: Completed removing memory from the
partition.
06/10/03 02:39:02 PM HSCE2073 DLPAR: 1024 MB of memory was removed from
partition 6.
06/10/03 02:38:39 PM HSCE2154 DLPAR: Completed adding cpus to the partition.
06/10/03 02:38:12 PM HSCE2072 DLPAR: Processor ID 21 was added to partition 5.
06/10/03 02:38:11 PM HSCE2072 DLPAR: Processor ID 20 was added to partition 5.
...
... omitted lines ...
...
06/03/03 05:44:09 AM HSCE2155 DLPAR: Completed removing cpus from the
partition
.
06/03/03 05:44:07 AM HSCE2071 DLPAR: Processor ID 2 was removed from partition
7.
06/03/03 05:42:44 AM HSCE2072 DLPAR: Processor ID 19 was added to partition 7.
06/03/03 05:29:34 AM HSCE2167 User hscroot: Forced Virtual Terminal Session on
logical partition lpar08 in managed system ITSO_p690 to close
06/03/03 05:23:27 AM HSCE2014 UserName hscroot Virtual terminal has been open
on partition lpar08 of lpar id 008*7040-681*021768A of managed system
ITSO_p690;
To view any hardware-serviceable events from the service processor:
$ lssvcevents -t hardware -d 90 -m DEV -s sp
Managed System Earliest Timestamp Call Home Called Home Error Class
Description
DEV
05/27/2003 11:15:37 Yes
Yes
CECCSP
Bootfailuredetected
To view hardware-serviceable events from lpar05 during the past month:
$ lssvcevents -t hardware -d 30 -m ITSO_p690 -s lpar -p lpar05
Managed System Earliest Timestamp Call Home Called Home Error Class
Description
ITSO_p690
05/14/2003 17:55:53 Yes
Yes
OS
The
drive cannot be started.
ITSO_p690
05/14/2003 17:47:50 Yes
Yes
OS
Error
log analysis indicates a hardware failure.
ITSO_p690
06/03/2003 17:56:56 No
No
SURVALNC
Communications to the SFP component on partition lpar08 are unavailable.
To view the time when critical console data was performed, see Example 10-16
on page 225.
Chapter 9. HMC command line interface
215
To view the time partition profile data backup was performed, see Example 10-17
on page 225.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
10
Chapter 10.
Advanced HMC command
examples
This chapter provides more-advanced information about using the command line
interface on the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries (HMC).
The first section describes how we can use the commands to answer many
simple questions that the system administrators would like to know.
Next, we describe the use of the command line to do the tasks that are
traditionally done by the GUI. We also include a few examples of Perl scripts for
the advanced usage of the command line interface.
Note: Avoid copying any files onto the HMC other than those detailed in IBM
publications, as this can interfere with problem determination by IBM support
personnel. Therefore, all supported commands should be executed via either
the rexec or ssh facility from remote systems. We suggest you store such files
as administrative scripts on systems other than the HMC.
For further information about the command line interface on the HMC, refer to
IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations
Guide, SA38-0590.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
217
10.1 Frequently asked questions and HMC commands
This section shows how HMC command line interface can be used to answer
some frequently asked questions from administrators or managers of the
managed system.
10.1.1 What is the managed system name?
All but a few HMC commands require either the managed system name or
machine type, model, serial number as the parameter for the -m flag.
To get the currently attached and operating managed system name on your
HMC, use the lssyscfg command with the -r sys option, as in Example 10-1. The
managed system system name appears under the Name column. If multiple
managed systems are attached to your HMC, the command displays a line for
each managed system under the header line.
Example 10-1 Display managed system information1
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all
Name
CageNum LMBSize
ITSO_p690
256
Mode State CSPVersion
255 Ready V4.0
Model
OpPanel S/N
7040-681 LPAR... 021768A
If a managed system is completely powered off, the command does not display
any information for that managed system. However, if the managed system is
hooked up to the wall power outlet, some of columns will be displayed depending
on the booting-up process of the managed system, because the service
processor on the managed system is still supplied power.
If you intend to get the managed system names only, add the -F flag as shown in
Example 10-2. The managed system name is the first output field. (Here we
include the machine type, model and serial number so that it is easier to identify
the managed system.)
Example 10-2 Display managed system names
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all -F name:model:serial_number
ITSO_p690:7040-681:021768A:
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all -F name:model:serial_number
regatta00:7040-671:022967A:
cler02:7028-6C4:106B69A:
cler01:7028-6C4:106B64A:
cler03:7028-6C4:106B65A:
1
The value in the Mode column specifies the system partitioning status: 0 =Full System Partition; 255 =Partitioned.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
10.1.2 What is my managed system’s MT-MDL*S/N?
To get the MT-MDL*S/N2 information for a managed system, use the lssyscfg
command with the -r sys option and -F flag as shown in Example 10-3.
Here, we use Perl to concatenate the model and serial number strings together
with the asterisk character (*).
Example 10-3 Display MT-MDL*S/N of a managed system
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all -F name:model:serial_number|perl -F: -ane 'print "The MT-MDL*S/N of
$F[0] is $F[1]*$F[2]\n"'
The MT-MDL*S/N of ITSO_p690 is 7040-681*021768A
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all -F
$F[0] is $F[1]*$F[2]\n"'
The MT-MDL*S/N of regatta00
The MT-MDL*S/N of cler02 is
The MT-MDL*S/N of cler01 is
The MT-MDL*S/N of cler03 is
name:model:serial_number|perl -F: -ane 'print "The MT-MDL*S/N of
is 7040-671*022967A
7028-6C4*106B69A
7028-6C4*106B64A
7028-6C4*106B65A
10.1.3 What is my frame name?
To get the frame name, use the lssyscfg command with the -r frame option as
shown in Example 10-4.
Example 10-4 Display frame name
$ lssyscfg -r frame --all -F name
7040-61R*021767A
10.1.4 Is my managed system CUoD-capable?
To verify whether your managed system is processor CUoD capable, use the
lscuod command with the -r cpu option. To verify whether your managed system
is memory CUoD capable or not, use the lscuod command with -r mem option.
Example 10-5 shows an output example when the command is executed on a
CUoD non-capable system; ITSO_p690 is neither processor CUoD capable nor
memory CUoD capable in this example.
Example 10-5 Verify CUoD capabilities
$ lscuod -m ITSO_p690 -r cpu -t reg
The managed system is not CUoD capable at the present time.
2
MT-MDL*S/N: machine type, model, and serial number
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples
219
$ lscuod -m ITSO_p690 -r mem -t reg
The managed system is not CUoD capable at the present time.
10.1.5 How many affinity partitions are defined or running?
To check the affinity partitions, use the lssyscfg command with the -r alpar
option as shown in Example 10-6.
Example 10-6 Display all affinity partitions3
$ lssyscfg -r alpar -m regatta00 --all
No results were found.
$ lssyscfg -r alpar -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name id DLPAR State
Profile OpPanel
aaa
011 0
Running aaa
a
009 0
Running a
aaaa 012 0
Running aaaa
aa
010 0
Running aa
$ lssyscfg
Name id
aaa
011
a
009
aaaa 012
aa
010
-r alpar -m ITSO_p690
DLPAR State
0
Not Available
0
Not Available
0
Not Available
0
Not Available
--all
Profile
aaa
a
aaaa
aa
OpPanel
If the output of the lssyscfg command with -r alpar option is No results were
found, this managed system does not have any defined affinity partitions.
Notice that if the affinity partitions are running, the regular partitions will not be
available. The same is true vice versa.
10.1.6 Which partitions are DLPAR capable?
For the list of DLPAR capable partitions using the Web-based System Manager,
select each partition and right-click on it. If the pop-up menu does not contain
Dynamic Logical Partitioning, then the partition is not DLPAR capable.
If the Dynamic Logical Partitioning entry appears on the pop-up menu, move the
mouse to the entry to see whether its submenu (Adapters, Processors, Memory)
is enabled. If it is grayed out, the partition is not DLPAR capable.
3
The id column shown in the output represents the partition ID, which is used internally in the HMC
software to uniquely identify each partition.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
This information also can be obtained by using the lssyscfg command with the -r
lpar option as shown in Example 10-7.
Example 10-7 Display all logical partitions
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name
id DLPAR State
lpar06
006 15
Running
lpar03
003 15
Running
FullSystemPartition 000 0
Not Available
lpar07
007 15
Running
lpar04
004 15
Running
lpar01
001 0
Running
lpar08
008 15
Running
lpar05
005 15
Running
lpar02
002 0
Running
Profile
OpPanel
aix52_64
aix52_64
PowerOnNormalProfile
aix52_64
aix52_64
aix51_64
aix52_64
aix52_64
aix51_64
If the value in the DLPAR column is 15, the partition is DLPAR capable4.
10.1.7 How many processors are allocated to each partition?
To display the number of processors allocated to each partition, use the lshwres
command with the -r cpu option and -F flag as shown in Example 10-8.
Example 10-8 Display CPU allocated to each partition
$ lshwres -r cpu -m ITSO_p690 --all -F partition_name:allocated
lpar06:1
lpar03:2
FullSystemPartition:null
lpar07:2
lpar04:2
lpar01:1
lpar08:2
lpar05:2
lpar02:1
Notice that you must specify the --all flag to tell the lshwres command to list the
information for all partitions.
4
In the future HMC software release, the value is anticipated to be changed to YES for DLPAR
capable and NO for DLPAR incapable.
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples
221
10.1.8 How many processors are free?
To display the number of free processors (processors that are not assigned to
any partition), use the lshwres command with the -r cpu option and -F flag as
shown in Example 10-9.
Example 10-9 Display the number of free CPUs
$ lshwres -r cpu -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar01 -F free
3
Notice that you can specify any partition name, including the one that is not
currently active, for the -p flag.
10.1.9 How much memory is allocated to each partition now?
To display the amount of memory allocated to each partition, use the lshwres
command with the -r mem option and -F flag as shown in Example 10-10.
Here, we use Perl to multiply the lmb_size and allocated to get the size of
memory allocated in MB.
Example 10-10 Display memory allocated to each partition
$ lshwres -r mem -m ITSO_p690 --all -F partition_name:lmb_size:allocated|grep -v null|perl -F:
-ane '$mem=$F[1]*$F[2]; print "Partition $F[0] has $mem MB allocated..\n"'
Partition lpar06 has 2048 MB allocated..
Partition lpar03 has 3072 MB allocated..
Partition lpar07 has 2048 MB allocated..
Partition lpar04 has 1024 MB allocated..
Partition lpar01 has 1024 MB allocated..
Partition lpar08 has 2048 MB allocated..
Partition lpar05 has 2048 MB allocated..
Notice that you must specify the --all flag to tell the lshwres command to list the
information on all partitions.
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Note: The amount of memory allocated to each partition above is the amount
that each partition ‘sees.’ It does not include the page_table overhead.
To get the total amount of memory including page_table overhead, use the
following command:
$ lshwres -r mem -m ITSO_p690
allocated page_table partition
2112
64
006*7040-681*021768A
3584
512
003*7040-681*021768A
2112
64
007*7040-681*021768A
1088
64
004*7040-681*021768A
1088
64
001*7040-681*021768A
2176
128
008*7040-681*021768A
2176
128
005*7040-681*021768A
1088
64
002*7040-681*021768A
assigned_to
lpar06
lpar03
lpar07
lpar04
lpar01
lpar08
lpar05
lpar02
The allocated column is the total amount of memory.
10.1.10 How much memory is free now?
To display the amount of free memory, use the lshwres command with the -r
mem option and -F flag as shown in Example 10-11.
Here, we use Perl to multiply the lmb_size and free to get the number of MB
free.
Example 10-11 Display free memory
$ lshwres -r mem -m ITSO_p690 -p test -F lmb_size:free|perl -F: -ane '$mem=$F[0]*$F[1]; print
"There is $mem MB free..\n"'
There is 50432 MB free..
Notice that you can specify any partition name, including the one that is not
currently active, for the -p flag.
10.1.11 Display empty I/O slots allocation status
To display the list of I/O slots that are empty and whether they are allocated to
any partition, use the lshwres command with the -r slot option and -F flag as
shown in Example 10-12.
Example 10-12 Display empty I/O slots and their allocation status
$ lshwres -r slot -m ITSO_p690 -F phys_loc:slot_type:assigned_to|grep 'Empty'
U1.9-P1-I3:Empty:lpar01
U1.9-P1-I9:Empty:lpar02
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223
U1.9-P1-I5:Empty:lpar02
U1.9-P1-I8:Empty:lpar02
U1.9-P1-I4:Empty:lpar01
U1.5-P2-I5:Empty:null
U1.5-P2-I8:Empty:lpar08
U1.5-P2-I1:Empty:lpar07
U1.5-P2-I4:Empty:lpar07
U1.5-P2-I3:Empty:null
U1.5-P2-I9:Empty:lpar08
U1.5-P1-I4:Empty:lpar05
U1.5-P1-I3:Empty:lpar05
U1.9-P2-I4:Empty:lpar03
U1.9-P2-I3:Empty:lpar03
U1.9-P2-I5:Empty:lpar04
U1.9-P2-I8:Empty:lpar04
Note: If the assigned_to field is null, then the slot is not allocated.
10.1.12 Which partition currently has CD/DVD assigned to it?
To display the partition to which the CD/DVD device is assigned, use the lshwres
command withthe -r slot option and -F flag as shown in Example 10-13.
Example 10-13 Display the partition that has the CD-DVD allocated to it
$ lshwres -r slot -m ITSO_p690 -F phys_loc:slot_type:assigned_to|grep 'U1.9-P1-I10'
U1.9-P1-I10:SCSI bus controller:lpar05
Note: This example shows that the CD/DVD device is connected to the SCSI
adapter in the U1.9-P1-I10 PCI slot on the pSeries 690 or pSeries 670.
10.1.13 Is the system attention LED light on?
To check whether the system attention LED is on, use the lshwres command with
the -r led -y sys option as shown in Example 10-14.
Example 10-14 Display the system attention LED
$ lshwres -m ITSO_p690 -r led -y sys
index State location_code
884737 on
U1.18
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10.1.14 How can I turn off the system attention LED?
To turn off the system attention LED, use the chhwres command with the -o s
option as shown in Example 10-14 on page 224.
Example 10-15 Turn off the system attention LED - p690
$ lshwres -m ITSO_p690 -r led -y sys
index State location_code
884737 on
U1.18
$ chhwres -m ITSO_p690 -o s -r led -y sys -x 884737 -v off
$ lshwres -m ITSO_p690 -r led -y sys
index State location_code
884737 off
U1.18
To specify the -x flag, you must get the index value for the specific physical
location code using the lshwres command.
10.1.15 When was the critical console data backup performed?
To display the date and time of the critical console data backup, use the
lssvcevents command with the -t console option as shown in Example 10-16.
Example 10-16 Display the date and time when critical console data backup was performed
$ lssvcevents -t console -d 9999|grep 'backup of critical'
05/23/03 05:25:39 PM HSCE2062 A backup of critical console
05/21/03 09:44:17 AM HSCE2062 A backup of critical console
05/20/03 03:22:32 PM HSCE2062 A backup of critical console
05/15/03 11:01:23 PM HSCE2062 A backup of critical console
05/15/03 05:48:52 AM HSCE2062 A backup of critical console
data
data
data
data
data
was
was
was
was
was
performed.
performed.
performed.
performed.
performed.
Notice that you can use the -d flag to specify how far back in time (number of
days) you want to go for the list of events. Default is 7 (seven) days.
10.1.16 When did I do the profile data backup?
To display the date and time that the profile data backup was performed, use the
lssvcevents command withthe -t console option as shown in Example 10-17.
Example 10-17 Display the date and time when profile data backup was performed
$ lssvcevents -t console -d 9999|grep 'Profile data'
05/20/03 02:44:32 PM HSCE2004 UserName hscroot Profile data of managed system ITSO_p690 has
been backup to file /var/hsc/profiles/7040-681*021768A/Theeraphong;
05/20/03 01:44:55 PM HSCE2004 UserName hscroot Profile data of managed system ITSO_p690 has
been backup to file /var/hsc/profiles/7040-681*021768A/Theeraphong;
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225
05/20/03 12:05:41 PM HSCE2004 UserName hscroot Profile data of managed system ITSO_p690 has
been backup to file /var/hsc/profiles/7040-681*021768A/KoaTest;
Notice that you can use the -d flag to specify how far back in time (number of
days) you want to go for the list of events. Default is 7 (seven) days.
10.1.17 Display the operator panel while managed system boots
Use the lssyscfg command with the -r sys option and -F flag as shown in
Example 10-18.
Example 10-18 Display the operator panel when powering on
$ while true; do lssyscfg -r sys -n ITSO_p690 -F name:state:op_panel_value; sleep 3; done
ITSO_p690:No Power:OK:
ITSO_p690:No Power:OK:
ITSO_p690:No Power:OK:
ITSO_p690:No Power:OK:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:90FD:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:90FD:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:9105:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:9107:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:9108:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:9302:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:96C4:
...
... omitted lines ...
...
ITSO_p690:Initializing:E50A:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:E709 U1.9:
ITSO_p690:Initializing:E150:
ITSO_p690:Ready:E701 U1.18-P1-M6:
ITSO_p690:Ready:E701 U1.18-P1-M6:
ITSO_p690:Ready:E701 U1.18-P1-M6:
ITSO_p690:Ready:LPAR...:
ITSO_p690:Ready:LPAR...:
10.1.18 Display the operator panel when the partition is activated
Use the lssyscfg command with the -r lpar option and -F flag as shown in
Example 10-19.
Example 10-19 Display the operator panel during the partition activation
$ while true; do lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar05 -F name:state:op_panel_value; sleep 1;
done
lpar05:Ready: :
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lpar05:Ready: :
lpar05:Starting:E1FA
lpar05:Starting:E1FA
lpar05:Starting:E1FA
lpar05:Starting:E1FB:
lpar05:Starting:E1FA
lpar05:Starting:E1FA
lpar05:Starting:E1F1:
lpar05:Running:AIX is
lpar05:Running:2520
lpar05:Running:2520
lpar05:Running:0517
lpar05:Running:2520
lpar05:Running:0c33:
lpar05:Running: :
lpar05:Running: :
1,7:
7,2:
c,2:
3,6:
a,1:
starting.:
U1.5-P1/Z1:
U1.5-P1/Z1:
SYNCVG ROOTVG:
U1.5-P1/Z1:
10.2 Basic command line samples
In this section, we describe some tasks that were documented in Chapter 3,
“Basic managed system operation tasks” on page 55. Here, we perform the tasks
using the command line interface instead of the GUI.
We also include scripts for some tasks that may be tedious or error-prone when
performed on the GUI, such as adding many HMC users, creating partitions and
profiles, and documenting the configurations of all partitions and profiles.
10.2.1 Power on the managed system
There are many options for powering on the managed system; for example:
򐂰 To power on the managed system into partition standby mode, see
Example 10-20.
򐂰 To power on the managed system and start system profile, see
Example 10-20 and Example 10-21 on page 228.
򐂰 To power on the managed system and autostart all partitions, see
Example 10-22 on page 229.
Example 10-20 Power on the managed system: partition standby mode
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all
Name
CageNum LMBSize Mode State
CSPVersion Model
OpPanel S/N
ITSO_p690
256
255 No Power V4.0
7040-681 OK
021768A
$ chsysstate -o on -r sys -n ITSO_p690
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227
The command entered is either missing a required parameter or a parameter value is invalid. The
required parameters for this command are -n, -r, -o, and -c. Please check your entry and retry
the command.
$ chsysstate -o on -r sys -n ITSO_p690 -c lpar
...
...
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all
Name
CageNum LMBSize Mode State CSPVersion Model
OpPanel S/N
ITSO_p690
256
255 Ready V4.0
7040-681 LPAR... 021768A
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile
OpPanel
lpar06
006 0
Ready
aix52_64
lpar03
003 0
Ready
aix52_64
FullSystemPartition 000 0
Not Available PowerOnNormalProfile
lpar07
007 0
Ready
aix52_64
lpar04
004 0
Ready
aix52_64
lpar01
001 0
Ready
aix51_64
test
013 0
Ready
test_profile
lpar08
008 0
Ready
aix52_64
lpar05
005 0
Ready
aix52_64
lpar02
002 0
Ready
aix51_64
The -c flag for the chsysstate command is needed to specify whether to power
on the managed system with the Full System Partition (-c full) or the partition
ready (-c lpar).
After powering on the managed system into partition standby mode, you can
choose to activate selected partitions or many partitions according to the order in
the system profile. Example 10-21 shows how to activate a system profile.
Example 10-21 Activate a system profile
$ lssyscfg -r sysprof -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name
Profile
Up5200-01Before5100-04 aix52_64/lpar04, aix52_64/lpar05, aix52_64/lpar06, aix52_64/lpar03,
aix51_64/lpar01, aix52_64/lpar08, aix52_64/lpar07, aix51_64/lpar02
$ chsysstate -o on -r sysprof -m ITSO_p690 -n Up5200-01Before5100-04
...
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile
OpPanel
lpar06
006 15
Running
aix52_64
lpar03
003 15
Running
aix52_64
FullSystemPartition 000 0
Not Available PowerOnNormalProfile
lpar07
007 0
Running
aix52_64
lpar04
004 15
Running
aix52_64
lpar01
001 0
Running
aix51_64
test
013 0
Ready
test_profile
lpar08
008 0
Running
aix52_64
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
lpar05
lpar02
005 15
002 0
Running
Running
aix52_64
aix52_64
The test partition is not started, as it is not included in the system profile
Up5200-01Before5100-04.
Example 10-22 shows how to power on the managed system and autostart all
partitions with a single chsysstate command invocation with the -b auto option.
Example 10-22 Power on the managed system and start all partitions
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all
Name
CageNum LMBSize Mode State
CSPVersion Model
OpPanel S/N
ITSO_p690
256
255 No Power V4.0
7040-681 OK
021768A
$ chsysstate -r sys -o on -n ITSO_p690 -c lpar -b auto
...
...
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all
Name
CageNum LMBSize Mode State CSPVersion Model
OpPanel S/N
ITSO_p690
256
255 Ready V4.0
7040-681 LPAR... 021768A
[[email protected] hscroot]$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 --all
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile
OpPanel
lpar06
006 15
Running
aix52_64
lpar03
003 15
Running
aix52_64
FullSystemPartition 000 0
Not Available PowerOnNormalProfile
lpar07
007 0
Running
aix52_64
lpar04
004 15
Running
aix52_64
lpar01
001 0
Running
aix51_64
test
013 0
Error
test_profile
20EE000B
lpar08
008 0
Running
aix52_64
lpar05
005 15
Running
aix52_64
lpar02
002 0
Running
aix52_64
Notice that all partitions are activated. However, partition test cannot be
activated, as it has some conflict with other partitions on the boot disk.
Note: With the -b auto option, partitions are activated in order of partition ID.
10.2.2 Activate a partition
To activate a partition, use the chsysstate command with -o on option as shown
in Example 10-23.
Example 10-23 Activate a partition
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar05
Name
id DLPAR State Profile OpPanel
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229
lpar05 005 0
Ready aix52_64
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 --all
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU DesiredMEM MaxCPU MaxMEM
SMS_prof 3
2
8
8
16
aix52_64 1
2
2048
6
8192
$ chsysstate -r lpar -o on -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar05
...
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar05
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile OpPanel
lpar05 005 15
Running aix52_64
MinCPU MinMEM
1
4
1
2048
10.2.3 Shut down the operating system in a partition
To be able to issue the shutdown command from HMC to the partition, the HMC
must be at Release 3, Version 2 or later, and the partition must have AIX 5L
Version 5.2 plus 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance Level or later.
To shut down AIX in a partition, use the chsysstate command with the -o
osshutdown option as shown in Example 10-24. Note that there is a one-minute
grace period before the shutdown.
Example 10-24 Shut down AIX in a partition
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar06
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile OpPanel
lpar06 006 0
Running aix52_64
$ chsysstate -m ITSO_p690 -o osshutdown -r lpar -n lpar06
...
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar06
Name
id DLPAR State Profile OpPanel
lpar06 006 0
Ready aix52_64
10.2.4 Reboot the operating system in a partition
This may seem a bit unintuitive for an AIX user, but to reboot a partition, use the
chsysstate command with the -o osreset option as shown in Example 10-25.
Example 10-25 Reboot AIX in a partition
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar03
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile OpPanel
lpar03 003 15
Running aix52_64
$ chsysstate -m ITSO_p690 -o osreset -r lpar -n lpar03
...
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar03
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile OpPanel
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lpar03 003
0
Running
aix52_64 0517
MOUNT ROOT
10.2.5 Reset the operating system in a partition
To perform the reset or soft reset of AIX in a partition, use the chsysstate
command with the -o reset option as shown in Example 10-26.
When the partition is reset, AIX will force a kernel dump and then reboot5.
Example 10-26 Soft reset a partition
$ chsysstate -m ITSO_p690 -o reset -r lpar -n lpar03
...
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar03
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile
OpPanel
lpar03 003 0
Starting aix52_64 00c2
6619136
...
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar03
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile OpPanel
lpar03 003 15
Running aix52_64
10.2.6 Hard reset a partition
To perform the hard reset or power off the partition, use the chsysstate
command with the -o off option as shown in Example 10-27.
Example 10-27 Hard reset a partition
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar04
Name
id DLPAR State
Profile OpPanel
lpar04 004 15
Running aix52_64
$ chsysstate -m ITSO_p690 -o off -r lpar -n lpar04
...
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n lpar04
Name
id DLPAR State Profile OpPanel
lpar04 004 15
Ready aix52_64
Note: You should always try to shut down or perform a soft reset to the
partition first. Use the hard reset as the last resort.
5
The autorestart parameter of AIX, which is used to specify whether to automatically reboot the
system after a crash, is not supported in a partitioned environment. Thus, AIX always reboots after
system crash on a partition.
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231
10.2.7 Power off the managed system
To power off the managed system, use the chsysstate command with the -o off
option as shown in Example 10-28.
Example 10-28 Power off the managed system
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all
Name
CageNum LMBSize Mode State CSPVersion Model
OpPanel S/N
ITSO_p690
256
255 Ready V4.0
7040-681 LPAR... 021768A
$ chsysstate -o off -r sys -n ITSO_p690
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all
Name
CageNum LMBSize Mode State CSPVersion Model
OpPanel S/N
ITSO_p690
256
255
Ready V4.0
7040-681 B0FF
021768A
...
$ lssyscfg -r sys --all
Name
CageNum LMBSize Mode State
CSPVersion Model
OpPanel S/N
ITSO_p690
256
255 No Power V4.0
7040-681 OK
021768A
Note: You should shut down all partitions before powering off the managed
system.
10.2.8 Create a partition
To create a partition called test:
򐂰 Create a configuration file containing the attributes of the partition.
򐂰 Use the mksyscfg command with the -r lpar option shown in Example 10-29.
Example 10-29 Create a logical partition
$ cat /tmp/mklpar.test
name=test
profile_name=test_profile
minimum_cpu=1
desired_cpu=2
maximum_cpu=3
minimum_mem=4
desired_mem=5
maximum_mem=6
$ mksyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -f /tmp/mklpar.test
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -n test
Name id DLPAR State Profile
OpPanel
test 013 0
Ready test_profile
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p test --all
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU DesiredMEM MaxCPU MaxMEM
test_profile 1
2
5
3
6
232
MinCPU MinMEM
1
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
We intentionally include only the minimum attributes required by the mksyscfg
command. In real-life use, you must specify at least the required_io attribute that
points to the slot for the boot disk (and maybe a network adapter) for the
partition.
Note: Within the input file, the attributes for only one partition can be specified.
If you try to create more than one partition with an input file, the command
displays the following error message:
$ mksyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 -f ./mklpar.many
There cannot be any duplicate attributes entered. Please retry command.
10.2.9 Create a partition profile
To create a partition profile for lpar05 called SMS:
򐂰 Create a configuration file containing the attributes of the profile.
򐂰 Use the mksyscfg command with -r prof option as shown in Example 10-30.
Example 10-30 Create a partition profile
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU
aix52_64 1
2
$ cat /tmp/mkprof_lpar05.SMS
name=SMS
minimum_cpu=1
desired_cpu=2
maximum_cpu=8
minimum_mem=1
desired_mem=2
maximum_mem=8
$ mksyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690
Name
BootMode DesiredCPU
aix52_64 1
2
SMS
1
2
-p lpar05 --all
DesiredMEM MaxCPU MaxMEM
2048
6
8192
MinCPU MinMEM
1
2048
-p lpar05 -f /tmp/mkprof_lpar05.SMS
-p lpar05 --all
DesiredMEM MaxCPU MaxMEM MinCPU MinMEM
2048
6
8192
1
2048
2
8
8
1
1
Restriction: Within the input file, you can specify the attributes for only one
profile. If you try to create many profiles with one input file, you will receive this
message:
$ mksyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar07 -f ./mkprof_lpar07.many
There cannot be any duplicate attributes entered. Please retry command.
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233
10.2.10 Automate adding users to HMC
The current mkhmcusr command has a restriction: the password cannot be
specified as a parameter on the command line but must be explicitly entered and
re-entered to confirm it. As a result, if we create a simple shell or Perl script, it
requires human intervention to enter and re-enter the password.
The addhmcusers script in Example 10-31 written in Perl along with the Expect
module can be used to fully automate the tasks of adding users on the HMC.
When executed, the script spawns a child process to run the ssh command that
remotely invokes mkhmcusr. It then waits (expect) for the password prompt from
the mkhmcusr command and then automatically supplies (send) the password
(which is stored in an input configuration file together with other information),
eliminating the need to enter the password manually.
Example 10-31 addhmcusers
#!/usr/bin/perl
#
use Expect;
#
# The only parameter is a file name in a format of "user role description password".
# Please use _ instead of blank in the description field.
#
$hmc_cmd_dir=”/opt/hsc/bin/”;
$file=$ARGV[0];
open(IN,$file) || die "Cannot open input $file:$!";
while (<IN>) {
($user,$role,$desc,$pass)=split;
$e=Expect->spawn("ssh hscroot\@itsohmc ${hmc_cmd_dir}mkhmcusr -u $user -a $role -d $desc");
#
# Wait for "Enter the new password for user xxx:" prompt
#
&timeout unless $e->expect(10,"-re","Enter the new password for user .*:\r\n");
#
# Send "$pass" as the password
#
$e->stty("-echo");
$e->send("$pass\r");
$e->stty("echo");
#
# Wait for "Retype the new password for user xxx:" prompt
#
&timeout unless $e->expect(10,"-re","Retype the new password for user .*:\r\n");
#
# Send "$pass" again
#
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$e->stty("-echo");
$e->send("$pass\r");
$e->stty("echo");
#
# End the process
#
$e->soft_close();
print "\n";
}
exit 0;
sub timeout {
sleep 1;
$e->hard_close();
printf "Timeout has occurred!\n";
exit 1;
}
Before using this addhmcusers script, make sure that the following tasks have
been done on the machine you want to run this script:
򐂰 Install OpenSSH packages:
Refer to 9.1.1, “Setting up OpenSSH on AIX” on page 177.
򐂰 Configure OpenSSH client:
Refer to 9.1.1, “Setting up OpenSSH on AIX” on page 177.
򐂰 Install necessary modules for Perl/Expect:
For further information about how to set up Perl/Expect, refer to Section 3.3.1
Install Perl/Expect of Managing AIX Server Farms, SG24-6606.
The following shows the sample execution of this script:
[email protected]:/home/tt $ ssh-agent $SHELL
[email protected]:/home/tt $ ssh-add
Enter passphrase for /home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa: YYYYY
Identity added: /home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa (/home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa)
[email protected]:/home/tt $ ssh [email protected] /opt/hsc/bin/lshmcusr -u ALL
User Name
Roles
Full Name
user_admin
User Administrator
User Administrator ID
hscroot
System Administrator
HSC Super User
mrobbins
System Administrator
Matt Robbins
alt_sysadmin System Administrator
Alternate System Administrator ID
tt
Service Representative Theeraphong Thitayanun
adv_op
Advanced Operator
Advanced Operator ID
hscpe
Service Representative
[email protected]:/home/tt $ cd perl
[email protected]:/home/tt/perl $ cat userlist
stu1
op
Student_1
stu1stu
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples
235
stu2
advop
Student_2
stu3
sysadmin
Student_3
stu4
usradmin
Student_4
stu5
svcrep
Student_5
stu6
viewer
Student_6
[email protected]:/home/tt/perl $ addhmcusers
Enter the new password for user stu1:
Retype the new password for user stu1:
stu2stu
stu3stu
stu4stu
stu5stu
stu6stu
userlist
Enter the new password for user stu2:
Retype the new password for user stu2:
Enter the new password for user stu3:
Retype the new password for user stu3:
Enter the new password for user stu4:
Retype the new password for user stu4:
Enter the new password for user stu5:
Retype the new password for user stu5:
Enter the new password for user stu6:
Retype the new password for user stu6:
[email protected]:/home/tt $ ssh [email protected] /opt/hsc/bin/lshmcusr -u ALL
User Name
Roles
Full Name
user_admin
User Administrator
User Administrator ID
stu4
User Administrator
Student_4
hscroot
System Administrator
HSC Super User
mrobbins
System Administrator
Matt Robbins
alt_sysadmin System Administrator
Alternate System Administrator ID
stu3
System Administrator
Student_3
tt
Service Representative Theeraphong Thitayanun
stu5
Service Representative Student_5
stu1
Operator
Student_1
adv_op
Advanced Operator
Advanced Operator ID
stu2
Advanced Operator
Student_2
hscpe
Service Representative
stu6
Viewer
Student_6
Notice that since we do not want to enter the password for hscroot user every
time the ssh command runs, in the beginning, we invoke the ssh-agent and
ssh-add commands to help us.
For further information about ssh-agent, refer to Managing AIX Server Farms,
SG24-6606.
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10.2.11 Record all partition/profile configurations for printing
Formerly, when we wanted to document the partition and profile configuration,
we had to use the GUI, click on the lpar or profile, select Properties, and record
what we saw. This was quite a boring and time-consuming task.
Thanks to the lssyscfg command with -r lpar and -r prof options and -z flag, now
the task of documenting the configuration is easier.
To document all partitions:
$ lssyscfg -r lpar -m ITSO_p690 --all -z
...
name=FullSystemPartition
id=000
dlpar_capability=0
default_profile=PowerOnNormalProfile
activated_profile=
state=Not Available
type=0
op_panel_value=
...
name=test
id=013
dlpar_capability=0
default_profile=test_profile
activated_profile=
state=Error
type=1
op_panel_value=20EE000B
...
name=lpar05
id=005
dlpar_capability=15
default_profile=aix52_64
activated_profile=aix52_64
state=Running
type=1
op_panel_value=
...
Note: The affinity partitions will not be listed with the -r lpar option. You need
to use the -r alpar option to list the affinity partitions.
To record all profiles for a partition:
$ lssyscfg -r prof -m ITSO_p690 -p lpar05 --all -z
name=SMS_prof
maximum_cpu=8
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples
237
maximum_mem=16
minimum_cpu=1
minimum_mem=4
desired_cpu=2
desired_mem=8
service_authority=0
sfp_surveillance=1
small_rmo=0
sni_config_mode=0
sni_device_id=
sni_windows=
desired_io=
required_io=
name=aix52_64
maximum_cpu=6
maximum_mem=8192
minimum_cpu=1
minimum_mem=2048
desired_cpu=2
desired_mem=2048
service_authority=1
sfp_surveillance=1
small_rmo=2
sni_config_mode=0
sni_device_id=
sni_windows=
desired_io=U1.5-P1-I3, U1.5-P1-I4, U1.9-P1-I10
required_io=U1.5-P1-I1, U1.5-P1-I2, U1.5-P1/Z1
Because there is no option in the lssyscfg command that lists all profiles for all
partitions in a managed system, the listallconfig script in Example 10-32 was
created to help with this task.
Given an HMC name, the script lists all profiles for all partitions in all managed
systems controlled by that HMC.
Two output files in a print-ready format are produced per managed system:
򐂰 /tmp/<hmcname>_<managedsystemname>_lpar.report contains information
about all partitions on that managed system.
򐂰 /tmp/<hmcname>_<managedsystemname>_profile.report contains
information about all profiles on that managed system.
Example 10-32 listallconfig
#!/usr/bin/perl
#
# This program will list all lpar/profile information
# for all managed systems controlling by a given HMC.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
#
# Usage: listallconfig <hmc-name>
#
# The only input parameter needed is the name of the HMC
# There will be 2 output files generated per a managed system
# 1. /tmp/<hmcname>_<managedsystemname>_lpar.report
#
contains the information about all partitions on the managed system.
# 2. /tmp/<hmcname>_<managedsystemname>_profile.report
#
contains the information about all profiles on the managed system.
#
$hmc_cmd_dir=”/opt/hsc/bin/”;
@lpartype=(“Full system”,”lpar”,”4-way alpar”,”8-way alpar”);
($ARGV[0] eq ““) ? ($hmc=”itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com”) : ($hmc=$ARGV[0]);
print “\tGetting the managed system name from $hmc...\n”;
@sys=‘ssh hscroot\@$hmc ${hmc_cmd_dir}lssyscfg -r sys --all -F name‘;
foreach $sys (@sys) {
chomp $sys;
open(LPAR, ”>>/tmp/${hmc}_${sys}_lpar.report”);
open(PROFILE, ”>>/tmp/${hmc}_${sys}_profile.report”);
print “\tGetting partition information for $sys...\n”;
@lpar =‘ssh hscroot\@$hmc ${hmc_cmd_dir}lssyscfg -r lpar -m $sys --all -F
name:id:default_profile:type‘;
foreach (sort @lpar) {
chomp;
($lpar, $id, $defprof, $type) = (split /:/);
$lpartype = $lpartype[$type];
write(LPAR);
next if ($lpar eq “FullSystemPartition”);
print “\t\tGetting profile information for $lpar...\n”;
@profile = ‘ssh hscroot\@$hmc ${hmc_cmd_dir}lssyscfg -r prof -m $sys -p $lpar --all -F
name:minimum_cpu:desired_cpu:maximum_cpu:minimum_mem:desired_mem:maximum_mem:required_io:desire
d_io:service_authority:sfp_surveillance:small_rmo‘;
foreach (sort @profile) {
chomp;
($profile, $mincpu, $decpu, $maxcpu, $minmem
, $demem, $maxmem, $reqio, $deio, $serv, $sfp, $rmo) = (split /:/);
($serv == 1) ? ($serv = ”Yes”) : ($serv = ”No”);
($sfp == 1) ? ($sfp = ”Yes”) : ($sfp = ”No”);
($rmo == 2) ? ($rmo = ”Yes”) : ($rmo = ”No”);
write(PROFILE);
}
}
close(PROFILE);
close(LPAR);
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples
239
}
exit 0;
format LPAR_TOP =
Managed system: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$sys
HMC: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$hmc
[email protected]<
$%
==============================================================================
Lpar name
Lpar ID
Default profile
Partition type
==============================================================================
.
format LPAR =
@<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$lpar
$id
.
format PROFILE_TOP =
@##
@<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$defprof
$lpartype
Managed system: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$sys
@<<<<<<<<<<<
[email protected]<
$%
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------.
format PROFILE =
Partition: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Profile name: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$lpar
$profile
Minimum CPU:
@#
Desired CPU:
@#
Maximum CPU:
@#
$mincpu
$decpu
$maxcpu
Minimum mem: @####
Desired mem: @####
Maximum mem: @####
$minmem
$demem
$maxmem
Required IO: ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$reqio
~
^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$reqio
~
^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$reqio
~
^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$reqio
Desired IO: ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$deio
~
^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$deio
~
^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$deio
~
^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
$deio
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Service Authority: @<< SFP Surveillance: @<<
$serv
$sfp
Small RMO: @<<
$rmo
.
Before using this listallconfig script, make sure that the following tasks have been
done on the machine you want to run this script:
򐂰 Install OpenSSH packages:
Refer to 9.1.1, “Setting up OpenSSH on AIX” on page 177.
򐂰 Configure OpenSSH client:
Refer to 9.1.1, “Setting up OpenSSH on AIX” on page 177.
The following shows the sample execution of this script:
[email protected]:/home/tt/perl $ ssh-agent $SHELL
[email protected]:/home/tt/perl $ ssh-add
Enter passphrase for /home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa: YYYYYY
Identity added: /home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa (/home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa)
[email protected]:/home/tt/perl $ ./listallconfig
Getting the managed system name from itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com...
Getting partition information for ITSO_p690...
Getting profile information for lpar01...
Getting profile information for lpar02...
Getting profile information for lpar03...
Getting profile information for lpar04...
Getting profile information for lpar05...
Getting profile information for lpar06...
Getting profile information for lpar07...
Getting profile information for lpar08...
Getting profile information for test...
We invoked the ssh-agent and ssh-add commands at the start so we do not have
to enter the password for hscroot user every time the ssh command runs.
For further information about ssh-agent, refer to Managing AIX Server Farms,
SG24-6606.
Example 10-33 shows the partition configuration output file, lpar.report:
Example 10-33 lpar.report sample
Managed system: ITSO_p690
HMC: itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm
P.1
==============================================================================
Lpar name
Lpar ID
Default profile
Partition type
==============================================================================
FullSystemPartition
0
PowerOnNormalProfile
Full system
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples
241
lpar01
1
aix51_64
lpar
lpar02
2
aix51_64
lpar
lpar03
3
aix52_64
lpar
lpar04
4
aix52_64
lpar
lpar05
5
aix52_64
lpar
lpar06
6
aix52_64
lpar
lpar07
7
aix52_64
lpar
lpar08
8
aix52_64
lpar
test_profile
lpar
test
13
Example 10-34 shows the profile configuration output file, profile.report:
Example 10-34 profile.report sample
Managed system: ITSO_p690
P.1
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Partition: lpar01
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem: 1024
Required IO: U1.9-P1-I1,
Desired IO: U1.9-P1-I3,
Service Authority: No
Profile name: aix51_64
Desired CPU:
1
Maximum CPU:
4
Desired mem: 1024
Maximum mem: 4096
U1.9-P1-I2, U1.9-P1/Z1
U1.9-P1-I4, U1.9-P1-I10
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: No
Partition: lpar02
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem: 1024
Required IO: U1.9-P1-I6,
Desired IO: U1.9-P1-I5,
Service Authority: No
Profile name: aix51_64
Desired CPU:
1
Maximum CPU:
3
Desired mem: 1024
Maximum mem: 3072
U1.9-P1-I7, U1.9-P1/Z2
U1.9-P1-I8, U1.9-P1-I9, U1.9-P1-I10
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: No
Partition: lpar02
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem: 1024
Required IO: U1.9-P1-I6,
Desired IO: U1.9-P1-I5,
Service Authority: No
Profile name: aix52_64
Desired CPU:
1
Maximum CPU:
3
Desired mem: 1024
Maximum mem: 3072
U1.9-P1-I7, U1.9-P1/Z2
U1.9-P1-I8, U1.9-P1-I9, U1.9-P1-I10
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: No
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Partition: lpar03
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem: 1024
Required IO: U1.9-P2-I1,
Desired IO: U1.9-P2-I3,
Service Authority: No
Profile name: aix52_64
Desired CPU:
2
Maximum CPU:
8
Desired mem: 3072
Maximum mem: 32768
U1.9-P2-I2, U1.9-P2/Z1
U1.9-P2-I4, U1.9-P1-I10
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: Yes
Partition: lpar04
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem: 1024
Required IO: U1.9-P2-I6,
Desired IO: U1.9-P2-I5,
Service Authority: No
Profile name: aix52_64
Desired CPU:
2
Maximum CPU:
3
Desired mem: 1024
Maximum mem: 3072
U1.9-P2-I7, U1.9-P2/Z2
U1.9-P2-I8, U1.9-P2-I9, U1.9-P1-I10
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: Yes
Partition: lpar05
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem:
4
Required IO:
Desired IO:
Service Authority: No
Profile name: SMS_prof
Desired CPU:
2
Maximum CPU:
Desired mem:
8
Maximum mem:
Partition: lpar05
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem: 2048
Required IO: U1.5-P1-I1,
Desired IO: U1.5-P1-I3,
Service Authority: Yes
Profile name: aix52_64
Desired CPU:
2
Maximum CPU:
6
Desired mem: 2048
Maximum mem: 8192
U1.5-P1-I2, U1.5-P1/Z1
U1.5-P1-I4, U1.9-P1-I10
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: Yes
Partition: lpar06
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem: 1024
Required IO: U1.5-P1-I5,
Desired IO: U1.5-P1-I7,
Service Authority: No
Profile name: aix52_64
Desired CPU:
1
Maximum CPU:
4
Desired mem: 2048
Maximum mem: 3072
U1.5-P1-I6, U1.5-P1/Z2
U1.5-P1-I8, U1.5-P1-I9, U1.5-P1-I10, U1.9-P1-I10
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: Yes
SFP Surveillance: Yes
8
16
Small RMO: No
Managed system: ITSO_p690
P.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Partition: lpar07
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem: 1024
Required IO: U1.5-P2-I1,
Desired IO: U1.5-P2-I3,
Service Authority: No
Profile name: aix52_64
Desired CPU:
2
Maximum CPU:
6
Desired mem: 2048
Maximum mem: 3072
U1.5-P2-I2, U1.5-P2/Z1
U1.5-P2-I4, U1.9-P1-I10
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: Yes
Partition: lpar08
Minimum CPU:
Profile name: aix52_64
Desired CPU:
2
Maximum CPU:
1
3
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples
243
Minimum mem: 1024
Desired mem: 2048
Maximum mem: 5120
Required IO: U1.5-P2-I6, U1.5-P2-I7, U1.5-P2-I8, U1.5-P2-I9, U1.5-P2-I10,
U1.5-P2/Z2
Desired IO: U1.9-P1-I10
Service Authority: No
SFP Surveillance: Yes
Small RMO: Yes
Partition: test
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem:
1
Required IO:
Desired IO:
Service Authority: No
Profile name: OF_profile
Desired CPU:
2
Maximum CPU:
Desired mem:
2
Maximum mem:
Partition: test
Minimum CPU:
1
Minimum mem:
4
Required IO: U1.5-P1/Z1,
Desired IO:
Service Authority: No
Profile name: test_profile
Desired CPU:
2
Maximum CPU:
Desired mem:
5
Maximum mem:
U1.5-P2/Z1, U1.5-P1/Z2
SFP Surveillance: Yes
SFP Surveillance: Yes
8
8
Small RMO: No
3
6
Small RMO: No
10.2.12 Record current HMC information before upgrade
Before you upgrade the HMC software from one release to another, one of the
tasks that you must perform is the Save Upgrade Data task.
However, if your HMC software level is earlier than Release 3, Save Upgrade
Data task may not perform correctly in some situations. Thus, it is recommended
that you perform the following tasks manually:
򐂰 Document the scheduled operation.
򐂰 Back up profile data for all managed systems.
򐂰 Document the HMC remote command execution configuration.
The saveHMCconfig script shown in Example 10-35 helps automate these tasks.
Example 10-35 saveHMCconfig
#!/usr/bin/perl
#
# This script automates the task of saving/recording the HMC information
# before performing the Save Upgrade Data task.
#
# The only input parameter needed is the name of the HMC
# The output is a file named /tmp/$hmc.rcmd on localhost
#
$hmc_cmd_dir=”/opt/hsc/bin/”;
$dayofyear=(localtime)[7];
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
($ARGV[0] eq "") ? ($hmc="itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com") : ($hmc=$ARGV[0]);
$outfile="/tmp/$hmc.rcmd";
print "\tGetting the managed system name from $hmc...\n";
@sys=`ssh hscroot\@$hmc ${hmc_cmd_dir}lssyscfg -r sys --all -F name`;
foreach $sys (@sys) {
chomp $sys;
print "\tBackup profile data for $sys to $sys.profdata.$dayofyear..\n";
system "ssh hscroot\@$hmc ${hmc_cmd_dir}bkprofdata -m $sys -f $sys.profda
ta.$dayofyear";
}
print "\tRecording HMC remote command execution config to $outfile..\n";
system "ssh hscroot\@$hmc ${hmc_cmd_dir}lshmc -r > $outfile";
Before using this saveHMCconfig script, ensure that the following tasks have
been done on the machine you want to run this script:
򐂰 Install OpenSSH packages:
Refer to 9.1.1, “Setting up OpenSSH on AIX” on page 177.
򐂰 Configure OpenSSH client:
Refer to 9.1.1, “Setting up OpenSSH on AIX” on page 177
The following shows the sample execution of this script:
[email protected] $ ssh-agent $SHELL
[email protected] $ ssh-add
Enter passphrase for /home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa: YYYYY
Identity added: /home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa (/home/tt/.ssh/id_dsa)
[email protected] $ ls -al /tmp/*.rcmd
ls: 0653-341 The file /tmp/*.rcmd does not exist.
[email protected] $ ./saveHMCconfig itsohmc
Getting the managed system name from itsohmc...
Backup profile data for ITSO_p690 to ITSO_p690.profdata.167..
Recording HMC remote command execution config to /tmp/itsohmc.rcmd..
[email protected] $ ssh [email protected] ls -al /var/hsc/profiles/*/*profdata*
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
20464 Jun 17 17:53
/var/hsc/profiles/7040-681*021768A/ITSO_p690.profdata.167
[email protected] $ ls -al /tmp/*.rcmd
-rw-r--r-1 tt
system
161 Jun 17 17:55 /tmp/itsohmc.rcmd
[email protected] $ cat /tmp/*.rcmd
Remote Command Execution Configuration:
Remote command execution using the rexec facility: disabled
Remote command execution using the ssh facility:
enabled
[email protected] $
Chapter 10. Advanced HMC command examples
245
Notice that since we do not want to enter the password for hscroot user every
time the ssh command runs, we invoke the ssh-agent and ssh-add command at
the start.
For further information about ssh-agent, refer to Managing AIX Server Farms,
SG24-6606.
Note: It is our intention to automate the tasks as much as possible;
unfortunately, we could not automate the “Document the scheduled operation”
task. This is because the scheduled operation is performed by root user on the
HMC and is not supported for remote login to the HMC as the root user.
Therefore, the scheduled operation task must be recorded by using the
graphical user interface on your HMC.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
11
Chapter 11.
Service functions on the
HMC
This chapter explains the following applications that are provided in the Service
Applications folder on the HMC:
򐂰 Inventory Scout Services
򐂰 Service Agent
򐂰 Service Focal Point
These applications are provided to increase the serviceability of managed
systems attached to the HMC and for an easy-to-use interface for servicing
managed systems.
In addition to the applications in the Service Applications folder, we explain the
Microcode Updates application provided in the Software Maintenance folder in
this chapter. It is used for the following purposes for the managed systems:
򐂰 Conduct microcode level surveys
򐂰 Install Microcode Updates
For further information about the use of these applications, refer to IBM
Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations Guide,
SA38-0590.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
247
11.1 Service Applications
The service functions on the partitioning-capable pSeries servers are centralized
on the HMC and are provided under the Service Applications folder as shown in
Figure 11-1.
Figure 11-1 Service Applications
The folder contains the applications shown in Table 11-1.
Table 11-1 Service Applications
Service application
Relevant section number
Problem Determination
N/A (The Problem Determination application is only
available for the product support engineers.)
Inventory Scout Services
11.2
Service Agent
11.3
Service Focal Point
11.4
Figure 11-2 on page 249 illustrates the relationship between the components
that implement these services.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
CEC
Service Processor
Cycles continuously
looking for faults
AIX Error Log
Input/Output
No
(R ti fi e
S/
23 s
2C
)
AIX device drivers
provide error
information to the
AIX error log
or
s
IBM.ServiceRM in AIX
Partition
Notifies error
information to
the HMC
No
tif
Mo
nit
ie
fra
s
m
ew
or
k)
Central
repository
for all
system
errors
HMC
Service
Focal Point
On-board in the CEC.
Runs asynchronously.
Does not degrade CEC
performance.
(R
M
C
Processors
Memory
Power
Thermal
Blowers/Fans
IBM Support Center
Initiates maintenance
action with the parts
required to fix the real
problem
Figure 11-2 Error reporting and consolidation
11.2 Inventory Scout Services
Inventory Scout is a tool that performs the following two functions on pSeries
systems that are not managed by HMC:
򐂰 Microcode Discovery Service
Generates a real-time comparison report showing subsystems that may need
to be upgraded. For further information about Microcode Discovery Service,
visit:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/aix.invscoutMDS
򐂰 VPD Capture Service
Transmits your server’s vital product data (VPD) information to IBM. For
further information about VPD Capture Service, visit:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/aix.invscoutVPD
On the systems managed by HMC, these functions are provided by the Inventory
Scout Services application in the Service Applications folder, which contains
tasks shown in Table 11-2 on page 250 and the content area in Figure 11-3 on
page 250.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
249
Table 11-2 Inventory Scout Services tasks
Task
Relevant section number
Inventory Scout Configuration
11.2.1
Collect VPD Information
11.2.2
Restart Inventory Scout Daemon
11.2.3
Figure 11-3 Inventory Scout Services1
11.2.1 Inventory Scout Configuration
Each partition must be in automatic configuration status to be able to send the
VPD to the HMC. These conditions are required for the automatic configuration:
򐂰 The system microcode Version 3.0 or higher is installed on managed
systems.
򐂰 The software level of HMC is Release 3, Version 1 or higher.
1 On the HMC loaded with software level earlier than Release 3, Version 2, there was another task called Conduct
Microcode Survey in the Inventory Scout Services application. This task has been removed in HMC software level
Release 3, Version 2 because the new Microcode Updates application provides the same function as well as the new
function to upgrade microcode on the managed systems.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
򐂰 The partition is installed with either of the following:
– AIX 5L Version 5.1 with 5100-03 Recommended Maintenance Level or
higher
– AIX 5L Version 5.2 or higher
Otherwise, Inventory Scout uses its own authentication method between the
partition and the HMC in order to talk to the Inventory Scout daemon (invscoutd)
on AIX. Therefore, it requires the following additional setup on AIX in a partition:
򐂰 A user, invscout, must be defined on the partition.
򐂰 A password (for example, invscout) must be set for the invscout user.
To manually configure Inventory Scout on partitions:
1. Expand the Service Applications folder, then select the Inventory Scout
Services application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Inventory Scout Configuration task in the Contents area . The
Inventory Scout Configuration Assistant window opens as in Figure 11-4.
Figure 11-4 Inventory Scout Configuration Assistant (select managed system)
3. Select the managed system to configure and click Next.
4. A list of partitions, along with each partition’s configuration status, is displayed
as shown in Figure 11-5 on page 252.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
251
Figure 11-5 Inventory Scout Configuration Assistant (select partitions)
If one of the active partitions shows automatically configured, then the
partition is already configured. If one of the active partitions shows not
configured, you must manually configure the Inventory Scout service for that
partition. To configure, select the partition and click Next, then enter the following
information (the host name or IP address of the partition is filled in automatically):
򐂰 The password of the invscout user on that partition
򐂰 The listening port of invscoutd (default value is 808)
11.2.2 Collect VPD Information
This option enables you to collect VPD for a managed system and save it to the
formatted diskette media:
1. Expand the Service Applications folder, then select the Inventory Scout
Services application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Collect VPD Information task in the Contents area. The Inventory
Scout Data Collection window opens and displays all managed systems
attached to the HMC, as shown in Figure 11-6 on page 253.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 11-6 Initiate Inventory Scout Data Collection
3. Select the managed system to collect the VPD information, then click Next.
4. As shown in Figure 11-7, you will be prompted to insert the formatted diskette
into the diskette drive on the HMC. (To format the diskette, see “Format
Removable Media” on page 116.) Once you have inserted the diskette into
the drive, click Finish.
Figure 11-7 Inventory Scout: VPD Capture
The HMC starts to collect VPD from the managed system, which is collected into
a file created on the diskette. The file has the extension .vup, and the first seven
characters of its name are the serial number of the managed system. Therefore,
you can pull the data from multiple managed systems onto the same media
without overwriting data for other systems. The .vup file can be sent to an IBM
service representative via e-mail or can be viewed with any text file viewer.
11.2.3 Restart Inventory Scout Daemon
The Restart Inventory Scout Daemon task restarts the Inventory Scout daemon
on the HMC; it does not restart that daemon on partitions. The Inventory Scout
daemon on the HMC only needs to run if you are going to connect to the HMC
from the web applet to conduct surveys.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
253
Note: If you use the Microcode Update application on the HMC (explained in
11.5, “Microcode Updates” on page 272) to conduct surveys, the Inventory
Scout daemon does not have to be running on the HMC.
11.3 Service Agent
Electronic Service Agent™ (or simply Service Agent) is an application program
that runs on either AIX or Linux2 to monitor the system for hardware errors. On
pSeries systems managed by the HMC, the primary path for system hardware
error detection and analysis consists of the diagnostics function provided by AIX,
the service processor, and the Service Focal Point (see “Service Agent” on
page 254). Service Agent provides the transport facility to IBM.
Service Agent can execute several tasks, including:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Automatic problem analysis
Problem-definable threshold levels for error reporting
Automatic problem reporting
Automatic customer notification
Visualize hardware error logs
Although there are several scenarios available for the Service Agent network
configuration, we only explain the configuration, which is used on the HMC with
managed systems and shown in Figure 11-8.
pSeries 670 or pSeries 690 in a partitioned environment
partition
(AIX)
HMC (Linux)
Service Focal Point
GUI
partition
(AIX)
IBM.ServiceRM
Service Agent
gateway process
Dial-up
connection
Mode
m
IBM
Support
Center
IBM.ServiceRM resource manager running on AIX in a partition
Figure 11-8 Service Agent on the HMC
2
254
Service Agent supports the Linux operating system on HMC only.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
In this configuration, the Service Agent gateway process running on the HMC
places service calls to the IBM support center via a dial-up connection with the
attached modem, if necessary.
Note: No human intervention is required for this process.
By utilizing Service Agent, managed systems can reduce the amount of
downtime experienced in the event of a system component failure by giving the
service provider the ability to view the error report entry and, if needed, order any
necessary replacement parts prior to arriving on site. The opportunity for human
misinterpretation or miscommunication in problem determination is therefore
mitigated.
The Service Agent application contains tasks shown in Table 11-3 and in the
Content area in Figure 11-9 on page 256.
Table 11-3 Service Agent tasks
Task
Relevant section number
Service Agent UI - registration/customization
11.3.1
Stop Service Agent UI
11.3.2
Change Service Agent mode (server/client)
11.3.3
Start Service Agent processes
11.3.4
Stop Service Agent processes
11.3.5
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
255
Figure 11-9 Service Agent on the HMC
For more information about the Service Agent, refer to the following publications:
򐂰 Electronic Service Agent for pSeries and RS/6000 User’s Guide, available at:
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/service_agent_code/AIX/svcUG.pdf
򐂰 Electronic Service Agent for pSeries Hardware Management Console User’s
Guide, SC38-7107, available at:
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/service_agent_code/HMC/HMCSAUG.pdf
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations
Guide, SA38-0590
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
11.3.1 Service Agent UI - registration/customization
If the Service Agent UI - registration/customization task is selected, a Service
Agent window opens after prompting for password input.
From the Service Agent window, you can:
򐂰 Configure the Service Agent dialer.
򐂰 Test the dialer.
򐂰 Register the HMC with IBM.
Several basic usage examples of the Service Agent window are provided in
Chapter 12, “Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC” on page 281.
11.3.2 Stop Service Agent UI
The “Stop Service Agent UI” task closes the Service Agent window if it is already
opened.
11.3.3 Change Service Agent mode (server/client)
If you are using multiple HMCs, you may wish to have one HMC be a focal point
for all Service Agent dialing. Setting up one HMC as the Service Agent server
(gateway) and all other HMCs as Service Agent clients can eliminate the need to
have each and every individual HMC hooked up with a phone line (see
Figure 11-10 on page 258).
Each client HMC must define a primary gateway. Secondary and tertiary
gateways can be defined as well. When the On Demand Server (ODS) process
on an Service Agent client seeks to send a message to the IBM Support Center,
it will first contact the primary gateway that is running the Electronic Server
System (ESS) process. If it is unavailable (for example, if the modem is busy on
another outbound call), ODS will try the secondary server, and then the tertiary.
Note: At the time of writing this book, the Service Agent ODS process running
on HMC cannot communicate with the Service Agent ESS processes running
on AIX systems.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
257
IBM Support Center
Public Shared Telephony Network
HMC 1
ESS
HMC 2
ESS
M
ODS
HMC 3
ESS
M
ODS
A
HMC 4
ODS
B
HMC 5
M
ODS
ODS
C
Ethernet network
ESS
Electronic Server System (ESS) process
ODS
On Demand Server (ODS) process
M
Modem
Figure 11-10 Service Agent client/server configuration on multiple HMCs
In Figure 11-10, HMC 3 has three gateways defined: HMC 1 is defined as the
primary gateway, HMC 2 is the secondary, and HMC 4 is the tertiary. Not all
clients are required to define multiple gateways; HMC 5 has only the primary
gateway defined.
To change the Service Agent client/server mode, do the following:
1. Expand the Service Applications folder, then select the Service Agent
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Change Service Agent mode (server/client) task in the Content
area. The Change Service Agent mode (server/client) window opens as
shown in Figure 11-11 on page 259.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 11-11 Change Service Agent mode (server/client)
3. To change the Service Agent mode to:
– Client
•
Specify the primary Service Agent gateway server host name in the
Gateway hostname field. This is a mandatory field.
•
Specify the secondary and tertiary Service Agent gateway server host
names in the second and tertiary gateway fields. These are optional
fields.
•
Confirm that the host name in the Client hostname field is accurate.
This is a mandatory field.
Note: In the client mode, the gateway server host names must be
different from the client host name.
– Server
•
Confirm that the host names in the Gateway hostname and Client
hostname fields are same.
•
Confirm that the secondary and tertiary gateway fields are blank.
4. Click OK.
5. Stop the Service Agent processes then restart them on the HMC for the mode
change to take effect. (See Section 11.3.5, “Stop Service Agent processes”
on page 260 and Section 11.3.4, “Start Service Agent processes” on
page 260.)
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
259
Note: This task only switches the mode on the Service Agent client side. To
connect to the Service Agent server (gateway), all clients must be defined on
the gateway as explained in Section 12.5, “Define Service Agent clients on a
gateway server” on page 292.
11.3.4 Start Service Agent processes
This task is used to start or restart Service Agent processes on the HMC. If
processes are started, the status lines show running as highlighted in
Figure 11-9 on page 256.
11.3.5 Stop Service Agent processes
This task is used to stop Service Agent processes on the HMC. If processes are
stopped, the status lines show stopped in the highlighted area in Figure 11-9 on
page 256.
11.4 Service Focal Point
Traditional service strategies become more complicated in a partitioned
environment. Each partition runs on its own, unaware that other partitions exist
on the same system. If one partition reports an error for a shared resource, such
as a managed system power supply, other active partitions report the same error.
To enable service representatives to avoid long lists of repetitive call-home
information, the HMC provides the Service Focal Point application. Service Focal
Point recognizes that these errors repeat, and it filters them into one serviceable
event for the service representative to review.
The Service Focal Point is a system infrastructure on the HMC that manages
serviceable event information for the system building blocks. It includes resource
managers that monitor and record information about different objects in the
system. It is designed to filter and correlate events from the resource managers
and initiate a call to the service provider when appropriate. It also provides a user
interface that enables a user to view the events and perform problem
determination (see Figure 11-2 on page 249).
Note: Service Focal Point only collects hardware errors, such as
PERMANENT errors from AIX (marked as P) and NON BOOT errors from the
service processor.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Upon hardware failure events, the corresponding error entry is notified from the
partition to the HMC, as shown in Figure 11-2 on page 249. The IBM.ServiceRM
subsystem is in charge of this notification. The AIX diagnostic function creates a
serviceable event through IBM.ServiceRM when a hardware problem is
determined, and events are notified to the HMC using the Resource Monitoring
and Control (RMC) framework.
The IBM.ServiceRM is running as the IBM.ServiceRMd daemon and packaged
in the devices.chrp.base.ServiceRM fileset in AIX:
# lssrc -g rsct_rm | head -1; lssrc -g rsct_rm | grep ServiceRM
Subsystem
Group
PID
Status
IBM.ServiceRM
rsct_rm
307354
active
# ps -ef | head -1; ps -ef | grep ServiceRM | grep -v grep
UID
PID PPID
C
STIME
TTY TIME CMD
root 307354 122982 0 Sep 11
- 0:31 /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/IBM.ServiceRMd
# lslpp -w /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/IBM.ServiceRMd
File
Fileset
Type
---------------------------------------------------------------------------/usr/sbin/rsct/bin/IBM.ServiceRMd
devices.chrp.base.ServiceRM
File
# lslpp -L devices.chrp.base.ServiceRM
Fileset
Level State Type Description (Uninstaller)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------devices.chrp.base.ServiceRM
1.2.0.0
C
F
RSCT Service Resource
Manager
From the Service Focal Point interface, you can execute maintenance
procedures such as examining the error log history, checking for components
requiring replacement, and performing a Field Replaceable Unit (FRU)
replacement. If Service Agent is configured on the HMC, the serviceable events
are automatically sent to IBM (call-home support) for automatic generation of a
maintenance request.
The Service Focal Point application contains tasks shown in Table 11-4 and in
the Content area in Figure 11-12 on page 262.
Table 11-4 Service Focal Point tasks
Task
Relevant section number
Service Focal Point Settings
11.4.1
Select Serviceable Event
11.4.2
Hardware Service Functions
11.4.3
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
261
Figure 11-12 Service Focal Point
For further information about Service Focal Point, refer to Appendix A, “Service
Focal Point”, IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Maintenance
Guide, SA38-0603.
11.4.1 Service Focal Point Settings
The task opens the Service Focal Point Settings window, which has the following
tabs:
򐂰 CEC Call Home
Enable/disable call home for managed systems
򐂰 Surveillance Setup
Set surveillance parameters for managed systems
򐂰 Surveillance Notification
Enable/disable surveillance notification to managed systems
Customization of these settings can enable the HMC administrator to perform
system tests, maintenance, and parts replacement without alerting IBM to each
and every individual change on managed systems.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
CEC Call Home
In the event that changes are to be made on a managed system that would
normally alert Service Focal Point, but you do not want Service Focal Point
alerted, it can be disabled and then re-enabled from the CEC Call Home tab in
the Service Focal Point Settings window.
Figure 11-13 Service Focal Point Settings: CEC Call Home
1. Select the managed system for which you want to enable/disable Service
Focal Point.
2. Click either Enable or Disable, then click OK.
Surveillance Setup
From this tab in the Service Focal Point Settings window, you can:
򐂰 Specify the number of minutes you want Service Focal Point to wait before
reporting any given outage.
򐂰 Specify the number of minutes you want Service Focal Point to wait before
considering any given operating state a recovery.
򐂰 Specify the number of minutes between outages before reporting a new
incident.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
263
Customization of these settings allows for leeway in reporting outages and
recoveries, and can be used to help prevent the Service Focal Point from
over-reporting these events.
Figure 11-14 Service Focal Point Settings: Surveillance Setup
Surveillance Notification
This tab in the Service Focal Point Settings settings window allows you to enable
or disable notification of serviceable events to managed systems. This window
can be used to prevent the HMC from reporting back to managed systems that it
has recorded a serviceable event on that managed system.3
3
The lssvcevents command with the -t hardware option also can be used to view serviceable vents
on the specified managed system. (See “lssvcevents” on page 214.)
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 11-15 Service Focal Point Settings: Surveillance Notification
11.4.2 Select Serviceable Event
This task enables you to view a log of serviceable events and perform actions on
events that have happened on managed systems attached to the HMC.
1. Select the Select Serviceable Event task in the Content area. The Select
Serviceable Event window opens as shown in Figure 11-16 on page 266.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
265
Figure 11-16 Select Serviceable Event
2. To view all events on all managed systems leave all settings at default and
click OK. The selection boxes provided in the window shown in Figure 11-16
can be used to filter the serviceable events so that only a subset of events can
be retrieved.
3. The Serviceable Event Overview window appears when the search is done.
Click on an event to be viewed and click Event Details, as shown in
Figure 11-17 on page 267.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 11-17 Serviceable Event Overview
4. From the Serviceable Event Details window (see Figure 11-18 on page 268 ),
you can:
– Get partition information on the event.
– Get field replaceable unit (FRU) information on the event.
– Add comments.
– Initiate a call home to IBM for the event.
– Save extended error (EE) data to DVD-RAM or diskette.
Note: To save extended error data on a DVD-RAM or diskette, you must use
formatted media. See “Format Removable Media” on page 116.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
267
Figure 11-18 Serviceable event details
11.4.3 Hardware Service Functions
The “Hardware Service Functions” task allows you either to just identify a frame
when you have several frames connected to your HMC, or to turn off the rack
indicator light. You are also able to get a Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) list when
the rack indicator light is lit and check which component has problems. When a
component is shown here with the LED state ON, it is much easier to identify the
failing component.
To use this task, do the following:
1. Expand the Service Applications folder, then select the Service Focal Point
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Hardware Service Functions task in the Content area.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
3. You will see the Hardware Service Management: Overview window, as shown
in Figure 11-19. Select the managed system on which you want to check the
LED state, then click List FRUs.
Figure 11-19 Hardware Service Functions overview
Note: As highlighted in Figure 11-19, the managed system ITSO_p690’s
attention LED is flashed.
4. You will see the FRU LED Management window (Figure 11-20 on page 270).
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
269
Figure 11-20 FRU LED Management
If any of the LEDs are ON, it would mean that the system has a problem with the
indicated component. If the Service Agent is configured to notify IBM of the
errors, then IBM customer service representatives will be informed of the
problem.4
However, another function within this screen is to manually activate and
deactivate the LEDs on the system. In the event you wanted to install an adapter
in a specific port per the PCI Adapter Placement References, SA38-0538, you
could use this screen to activate the LED for the slot you wanted to add the
adapter to.
Select the PCI slot you want to change, and click Activate LED. As shown in
Figure 11-21 on page 271, the screen will refresh and show you which slot has
an active LED.
4
In order to dispatch IBM customer service representatives, you need the maintenance agreement
(MA) for this system.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 11-21 FRU LED Management: manual changes
You can then go to the back of the 7040-61D drawer and easily locate the PCI
slot you want by looking for the slot with a blinking umber LED as shown in
Figure 11-22 on page 272.
Note: Activate LED only one slot at a time because it is difficult to distinguish
two blinking slots.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
271
Umber LED
flashing
Figure 11-22 Umber LED flashing in a PCI slot
As you can see, the fourth slot from the left has the bottom umber LED active
when we set its condition to On in the FRU LED Management window.
The organization of location codes varies from system to system. To understand
about the physical location of I/O slots, refer to the following publications:
򐂰 Appendix F, “System Records,” in IBM Eserver pSeries 690 Installation
Guide, SA38-0587
򐂰 Appendix F, “System Records,” in IBM Eserver pSeries 670 Installation
Guide, SA38-0613
򐂰 Chapter 1, “Reference Materials,“ in IBM Eserver pSeries 655 Installation
Guide, SA38-0616
򐂰 Chapter 1, “Reference Materials,“ in IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2
Installation Guide, SA38-0610
򐂰 Chapter 1, “Reference Materials,“ in IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4
and 6E4 Installation Guide, SA38-0605
There is an excellent example of how physical location codes map to AIX location
codes in Appendix A of The Complete Partitioning Guide for IBM Eserver
pSeries Servers, SG24-7039.
11.5 Microcode Updates
There are several aspects to the overall microcode management strategy that
include the survey, distribution, and installation of microcodes. In the past, it
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
required an IBM service representitive to go to the customer’s site to survey and
update the microcode. With the Microcode Updates function available in the
HMC and AIX, the customer can now manage their microcode management
without IBM service representitives’ help.
Furthermore, IBM has recently introduced the Customer Managed Microcode
method of updating microcode on pSeries systems. Using CMM a customer can
survey and update microcode for a standalone pSeries system that is not
managed by HMC, as well as the pSeries system managed by HMC.
For more information about the CMM method, vist the following URL:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/mdownload
Although this method can be used to update the microcode on individual AIX
partitions, the Microcode Updates application is a more centralized and
convenient function for performing the same task for all the hardware
components that are allocated to multiple partitions on a managed system.
Figure 11-23 on page 274 shows how the mechanism of the microcode update
works from a standalone AIX server and from an HMC.
The application is able to survey and report the existing and latest microcode
levels and provide suggested actions for each device. It also provides the
capability for installation of microcodes and warns the user before a reboot or
installation of back level codes. With this, the customer is able to keep current on
the microcode levels at their convenience.
Note: In order to have the Microcode Updates function, the following
conditions must be satisfied:
򐂰 AIX
– AIX 5L Version 5.1 plus 5100-04 Recommended Maintenance Level or
later
– AIX 5L Version 5.2 plus 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance Level or
later.
򐂰 The HMC software must be Release 3, Version 2.1 or later.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
273
HMC
WebSM GUI
AIX
Standalone
WebSM GUI
WebSM Server
WebSM Server
Switches
DCA
BPA
Inventory
Scout
Device
Firmware
Inventory
Scout
RMC
Partition
Service
Partition
Partition
Inv Scout
Inv Scout
Inv Scout
Device
Firmware
Device
Firmware
Device
Firmware
System
Firmware
System Firmware
Figure 11-23 Mechanism of the Microcode Updates
Here are the steps to survey and install the latest microcode levels from the
HMC:
1. Expand the Software Maintenance folder, then select the Microcode Updates
applicaiton in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Microcode Updates task in the Content area. The Download and
Apply Microcode Update window opens as shown in Figure 11-24 on
page 275.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 11-24 Download and Apply Microcode Updates
3. Click Change Location if you wish to change from the default Web site
Service location. The Select Repositry Location window opens as shown in
Figure 11-25. Specify the required information depending on the selected
location in the window, then click OK.
Figure 11-25 Select Repository Location
Note: If your HMC can access the Internet, select Service Website. If not,
select either CD-ROM or FTP site. In either case, you need to prepare the
repositry by yourself.
4. After confirming the location, select the systems that you wish to survey, then
click Survey in the Download and Apply Microcode Update window
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
275
(Figure 11-24 on page 275). The Microcode License Agreement Message
window opens as shown in Figure 11-26.
Figure 11-26 Microcode License Agreement Message
5. Once you have accepted the license agreement, click I Accept this license
Agreement. Then the microcode survey process starts on the selected
managed systems.
6. When the survey is completed, a summary of all the devices, their current and
latest microcode levels, effects of the updates, and suggested actions will be
displayed as shown in Figure 11-27 on page 277.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Figure 11-27 Microcode Survey Results
For any selected devices, the Effect column includes:
Take Offline
Reboot
The user must take devices offline prior the update of
the microcode; otherwise the update will fail.
The user must confirm that he understands that the
system will reboot as a result of the Microcode
Updates. Applications should be stopped, all users
should be notified, and the non-service partitions
should be shut down.
7. It is also possible to view the details for each device. Select the device to be
viewed and click View Information. The details of the device will be shown as
in Figure 11-28 on page 278.
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
277
Figure 11-28 Microcode Installation - Device Information
Note: Only one device at a time can be selected when you click View
Information.
8. Update some or all of the devices by selecting Install check boxes on the
device line(s) and clicking Apply in the Microcode Survey Results window.
The confirmation message shown in Figure 11-29 on page 279 appears. You
can either proceed with the update by selecting OK or abort the update by
selecting Cancel.
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Figure 11-29 Confirmation message
9. When the microcode update is completed, the window in Figure 11-30
appears. The system will automatically reboot if required.
Figure 11-30 Microcode Updates Finished
Chapter 11. Service functions on the HMC
279
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12
Chapter 12.
Sample Service Agent
configurations on the HMC
This chapter briefly explains examples of configuring Service Agent on the HMC
by providing the following sections:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
“Configuring the Service Agent dialer” on page 282
“Testing the dialer settings” on page 286
“Registering your HMC with IBM” on page 287
“Sending VPD to IBM” on page 290
These subsections are organized to show the logical task flow when you
configure Service Agent on the HMC.
The following sections are provided to explain optional tasks for configuring
Service Agent on the HMC:
򐂰 “Sending VPD to IBM” on page 290
򐂰 “Define Service Agent clients on a gateway server” on page 292
For further information about Service Agent on the HMC, refer to Electronic
Service Agent for pSeries HMC User’s Guide.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
281
12.1 Configuring the Service Agent dialer
For the Service Agent to perform any of its call home functions the dialer must
first be properly configured.
Note: The following steps can be performed from the local HMC console only.
To configure the Service Agent dialer, do the following:
10.Expand the Service Applications folder in theNavigation area, then click
Service Agent.
11.Click Service Agent UI - registration/customization as shown in
Figure 11-9 on page 256.
12.When prompted to enter a password as shown in Figure 12-1, type the default
password (password), then click OK.
Figure 12-1 Service Agent – Enter the Password
13.AThe Electronic Service Agent for pSeries - Hardware Management Console
window opens.
Note: Hereafter this window is referred to as the Service Agent window.
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14.As shown in Figure 12-2, click Network in the Navigation area (number 1 in
the figure), click the icon representing your HMC (number 2), then click Dialer
(number 3).
1
2
4
3
Figure 12-2 Service Agent - blank dialer configuration
15.In the right pane in Figure 12-2, click the box containing the ellipsis (…) next
to the field labeled Location (number 4 in the figure). The IGN Phone List
window opens as shown in Figure 12-3 on page 284.
Chapter 12. Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC
283
16.Choose your country, state (or province), and city in this window, then click
Select.
Figure 12-3 Service Agent - select dialer location
17.In the right pane in Figure 12-2 on page 283, click the … next to the field
labeled Secondary Location. Select the secondary phone number in the IGN
Phone List window.
Note: If necessary, modify the primary and secondary phone numbers. For
example, if your phone system requires a dial-out extension number, such
as 9, modify the phone numbers to 9-1-512-691-4485.
18.Now all of the Service Agent dialer configuration fields should be
automatically filled out as shown in Figure 12-4 on page 285. Click OK and
the dialer should be properly configured.
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A
B
Figure 12-4 Service Agent: configured dialer
Note:
򐂰 Fields indicated by A in Figure 12-4 on page 285 should not be
modified, unless you are instructed to do so by IBM Support.
򐂰 As indicated by B in Figure 12-4, specify the following value in the TTY#
field depending on the serial port to which the modem is connected on
your HMC:
ttyS0
ttyS1
First serial port (S1)
Second serial port (S2)
Chapter 12. Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC
285
12.2 Testing the dialer settings
Note: To test the dialer setting, your modem must be powered on and properly
connected to the phone line jack and the serial port on the HMC.
To test the dialer settings, do the following:
1. Click Manual Tools in the Navigation area in the Service Agent window
(number 1 in Figure 12-5), then click Connect (number 2).
2. The window shows Connect and Disconnect buttons in the right pane as
shown in Figure 12-5. Click the Connect button (3 in Figure 12-5).
3
1
2
Figure 12-5 Service Agent: testing the dialer
3. At this point the modem should begin dialing out. To verify whether the
dial-out is successfully completed, click CallLog in the Navigation area. In the
CallLog, the log entry similar to the following should be found:
2003/06/09 15:22:... | TEST Connection (Success:1, Fail: 0);
4. If you get Dialer not configured errors in your CallLog, do the following:
– Check your modem cabling and power.
– Check your modem dip-switch settings.
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– Review the configuration steps explained in 12.1, “Configuring the Service
Agent dialer” on page 282.
Note: Along with the entry in the CallLog, you will receive a phone call from an
IBM service representative to notify you that the test connection has been
successfully completed at the phone number specified in the location fields
shown in Figure 12-6 on page 288.
12.3 Registering your HMC with IBM
Note: Before registering your HMC with IBM, you must first properly configure
the dialer (see 12.1, “Configuring the Service Agent dialer” on page 282).
To register your HMC with IBM, do the following:
1. In the Navigation area on the Service Agent window, click Network.
Chapter 12. Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC
287
2. The Service Agent window shows many fields to be filled out, as shown in
Figure 12-6. All fields beginning with ‘!’ are mandatory, such as Name, Phone
Number, and Email. For the Queue Country / Region field, click the down
arrow and select the appropriate region. All other fields are optional.
Figure 12-6 Registration information
3. In the Navigation area on the Service Agent window, expand Administration
(A in Figure 12-7 on page 289) and click Register (B).
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D
A
B
C
Figure 12-7 Service Agent: registering HMC
4. Select the HMC to be registered from the right pane, then click Register as
indicated by C.
5. When prompted to connect to IBM as shown in Figure 12-8, select Yes or No.
If Yes is selected, then the modem should start dialing out within a minute; if
No is selected it should start within 15 to 20 minutes.
Figure 12-8 Service Agent Registration
6. After the modem has finished dialing out, click CallLog as indicated by D in
Figure 12-7 in order to confirm whether the registration has successfully
completed. If it succeeded, this or a similar log entry should be found:
2003/06/09 15:47:... | LICENSE (Success: 1, Fail: 0);
Chapter 12. Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC
289
12.4 Sending VPD to IBM
In the event an IBM representative asks you to submit VPD for one of your
managed systems, you can transmit the data to IBM using the Service Agent as
follows:
1. In the navigation area under Manual Tools click VPD. This will open a menu of
managed systems for which VPD tasks are accessible, shown in Figure 12-9.
Figure 12-9 Service Agent: VPD tasks
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This window has four buttons in the right pane:
– Click Open to show a list of known information for a specific managed
system, including the system’s primary HMC, IP address, and other
pertinent data.
– Click Collect VPD to collect VPD for the managed systems connected to
this HMC.
– Clicking Send VPD to IBM automatically sends VPD for the managed
systems connected to this HMC to IBM.
– Click Save VPD Data to File to save VPD data into a file on the HMC hard
drive.
2. To send VPD to IBM, VPD must be collected first onto one of the HMCs.
Select the HMC on which you want to perform this task, then click Collect
VPD. The Service Agent should start gathering VPD information and will
display the status screen shown in Figure 12-10.
Figure 12-10 Service Agent: VPD collection status
3. When it is finished, the information window in Figure 12-11 is displayed.
This shows the number of successful VPD collection attempts or the number
of failures. If the VPD collection attempt failed, see 11.2, “Inventory Scout
Services” on page 249.
Figure 12-11 Service Agent - VPD Collection Results
Note: Before proceeding to send your VPD to IBM, ensure that the HMC from
which you gathered VPD is registered with IBM. See 12.3, “Registering your
HMC with IBM” on page 287.
Chapter 12. Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC
291
4. Click Send VPD to IBM. The confirmation window in Figure 12-12 opens.
Click either Yes or No.
Figure 12-12 Service Agent: VPD transmittal
5. After the modem has finished dialing out, click CallLog as indicated by D in
Figure 12-7 on page 289 to confirm whether the VPD has been transmitted
successfully to IBM.
6. Once the VPD is transmitted to IBM, click CallLog under Network in the
Navigation area. If it succeeded, the log entry similar to the following example
should be found:
2003/06/09 17:42:... | VPD (Success: 1, Fail: 0);
12.5 Define Service Agent clients on a gateway server
To define an HMC as a Service Agent client on the HMC that works as a Service
Agent gateway, do the following:
1. In the Navigation area on the Service Agent window, click Network.
2. From the menu located at the bottom left of the window, select Add →
Child → Machine as shown in Figure 12-13.
Figure 12-13 Network, Add, Child, Machine
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3. A window opens to define the Service Agent client on the gateway as shown
in Figure 12-14.
Figure 12-14 Defining an Service Agent client
4. Complete the required fields for the HMC by providing the host name and IP
address (all fields starting with a ‘!’ are mandatory), then click OK to save the
information.
Chapter 12. Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC
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A
Appendix A.
Configuring asynchronous
adapters on the HMC
This appendix explains how to configure the following asynchronous adapters on
the HMC:
FC 2943
FC 2944
8-port asynchronous adapter EIA-232/RS-422, PCI bus
128-port asynchronous adapter, PCI bus
For further detailed information about the tasks explained in this appendix, refer
to the following publications:
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Maintenance Guide,
SA38-0603
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 Asynchronous Communications Guide
򐂰 8-Port Asynchronous PCI Adapter Installation and User’s Guide, SA23-2562
򐂰 128-Port Asynchronous PCI Adapter Installation and User’s Guide,
SA23-2563
򐂰 Adapter, Devices, and Cable Information for Multiple Bus Systems,
SA38-0516
Note: All the tasks explained in this appendix must be performed by a user
with System Administrator authority, such as the hscroot user, who logs in to
the HMC locally.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
295
Hardware setup
Before configuring asynchronous adapters in the HMC graphical user interface,
the adapter and related hardware must be set up as explained in this section.
Add an 8-port asynchronous adapter
To add an 8-port asynchronous adapter on the HMC:
1. Power off the HMC.
2. Insert the 8-port asynchronous adapter into one of the available PCI slots.
3. Connect the 8-port fanout box cable to the adapter (see “Using 8-port
asynchronous adapters” on page 25).
4. Power on the HMC. The Linux kernel should detect the adapter, and the
Kudzu1 configuration screens will be displayed on the HMC. Confirm the
addition of the asynchronous adapter.
Note: If the Linux kernel detects the 128-port asynchronous adapter, it
displays a message in the boot phase similar to the following:
epca: IBM 8-Port Async (PCI) I/O = 0xfea00000, Mem = 0xfe800000 Ports = 8
Add a 128-port asynchronous adapter
To add a 128-port asynchronous adapter on the HMC:
1. Power off the HMC.
2. Insert the 128-port asynchronous adapter into one of the available PCI slots.
3. Connect RANs to the adapter appropriately (see “Using 128-port
asynchronous adapters” on page 26).
4. Power on the RANs.
5. Program the RAN node number on each RAN as explained in , “Set the RAN
node number” on page 297.
6. Power on the HMC. The Linux kernel should detect the adapter, and the
Kudzu configuration screens will be displayed on the HMC. Confirm the
addition of the asynchronous adapter.
1
Kudzu is a hardware probing tool that automatically detects and configures devices on the IA-32
architecture Linux operating system.
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Note: If the Linux kernel detects the 128-port asynchronous adapter, it
displays a message in the boot phase similar to the following:
epca:IBM 128-Port Async (PCI) I/O = 0xfea0000 0, Mem = 0xfe800000 Ports = 32
Set the RAN node number
To set the RAN node number, do the following:
1. Turn on the RAN and wait for the power-on self-test (POST) to complete.
2. When P1 is displayed on the front panel seven-segment LED display, press
the Left Arrow button once (see Figure A-1). The current node number is
displayed (for example, 1n for node 1).
Figure A-1 RAN front view
3. Press the Right Arrow button to advance the node number through the eight
possible settings (1n-8n).
4. When the desired node number is displayed, press the Left Arrow button
again to select the number. The display should now read Pn (indicating a
pass condition). If there was an error, the display reads En.
In the case of duplicate node numbers, the RAN farthest from the host adapter
displays En, instead of AC, when the system is started.
Configure Serial Adapter
To configure asynchronous adapters on the HMC, use the Configure Serial
Adapter task as follows:
1. Expand the HMC Maintenance folder, then select the System Configuration
application in the Navigation area.
2. Select the Configure Serial Adapter task in the Content area as shown in
Figure A-2 on page 298.
Appendix A. Configuring asynchronous adapters on the HMC
297
Figure A-2 Configure Serial Adapter
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3. This opens the configAsync window, shown in Figure A-3, which offers the
following options:
– 1. Configure a serial adapter.
– 2. Configure RS422 ports on an 8-port serial adapter.
– 3. Query all configured adapters on the HMC.
To select an option, type the corresponding number and press Enter. To close
this window when you have finished using it, type 0 (zero) and press Enter.
Figure A-3 configAsync window
8-port asynchronous adapter configuration
To configure 8-port asynchronous adapters on the HMC:
1. Select option 1 from the configAsync window menu shown in Figure A-3.
2. The following message is displayed in the window, as indicated by A in
Figure A-4 on page 300:
How many boards would like to install? (1-12)
Type the number of adapters to be configured and press Enter.
Note: If an asynchronous adapter is already configured on the HMC and
you are going to configure another, type 2, not 1, then press Enter.
Appendix A. Configuring asynchronous adapters on the HMC
299
3. The following message is displayed in the window, as indicated by B in
Figure A-4:
What type of board is this? (‘L’ for list) (1-16)
Type 15 and press Enter. If you type L, the selection list will be displayed.
A
B
Figure A-4 Specify number of adapters and adapter type
4. The following message is displayed in the window:
Do you want to set Altpin on this board? (‘y’ or ‘n’)
Type n and press Enter.
5. Depending on the number you have specified in step 2, do the following:
– If you specified 1, the configuration tool displays the main menu shown in
Figure A-3 on page 299. Type 0 and press Enter to close the window.
– If you specified 2, the configuration tool will continue the process to
configure another adapter. Depending on the type of the second adapter,
follow one of these sections:
300
•
, “8-port asynchronous adapter configuration” on page 299
•
, “128-port asynchronous adapter configuration” on page 301
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When the second adapter is configured, the configuration tool displays the
main menu shown in Figure A-3 on page 299. Type 0 and press Enter to
close the window.
Note: Reboot the HMC for this configuration change to take effect.
128-port asynchronous adapter configuration
To configure 128-port asynchronous adapters on the HMC complete the
following steps:
Note: The information you supply to the configuration tool in these steps is
used to generate the correct microcode image to be downloaded on RANs
upon the HMC reboot. If the information does not match with the actual
adapter and RAN configuration, RANs will not display AC (ready to operate)
on their LED.
1. Select option 1 from the configAsync window menu shown in Figure A-3 on
page 299.
2. The following message is displayed in the window as indicated by A in
Figure A-4 on page 300:
How many boards would like to install? (1-12)
Type the number of adapters to be configured and press Enter.
Note: If an asynchronous adapter is already configured on the HMC and
you are going to configure another, type 2, not 1, then press Enter.
3. The following message is displayed in the window, as indicated by B in
Figure A-4 on page 300:
What type of board is this? (‘L’ for list) (1-16)
Type 16 and press Enter. If you type L, the selection list will be displayed.
4. The window displays the following message, highlighted in Figure A-5 on
page 302:
How many ports? (1-16)
Count the number of RANs that are attached to the adapter and multiply by
two for the number to enter on the command line. For example, if you have
two RANs (2 multiplied by 2 equals 4), type 4 and press Enter to inform the
configuration tool that 32 ports are connected to the adapter via two RANs.
Appendix A. Configuring asynchronous adapters on the HMC
301
Figure A-5 Specify total number of ports
5. The following message is displayed in the window:
Do you want to set Altpin on this board? (‘y’ or ‘n’)
Type n, then press Enter.
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6. The window displays the following message, as indicated by C in Figure A-6:
How many C/CON’s are connected to card1, line 1?
Count the number of RANs connected to connector 1 of the adapter, then
type that number and press Enter.
Note: The term C/CON is used to refer to RAN in this configuration tool.
C
D
Figure A-6 Specify number of RANs and wiring scheme
7. The window displays the following message, as indicated by D in Figure A-6:
What type of wiring scheme are you going to use for card 1, line 1?
Type A and press Enter.
Appendix A. Configuring asynchronous adapters on the HMC
303
8. The window displays the following message, as highlighted in Figure A-7:
Enter the communication mode to use on line 1 (Type ‘L’ for a list) [14]:
Type 14 and press Enter.
9. The window displays the following message:
How many ports does this C/CON (RAN) support?
Type 16 and press Enter.
Figure A-7 Specify bit rate
10.To specify the appropriate settings for line 2, the configuration tool repeats
steps 6 through 9.
11.Depending on the number you have specified in step 2, do the following:
– If you specified 1, the configuration tool will display the main menu shown
in Figure A-3 on page 299. Type 0 and press Enter to close the window.
– If you specified 2, the configuration tool will continue the process to
configure another adapter. Depending on the type of the second adapter,
follow one of these sections:
304
•
, “8-port asynchronous adapter configuration” on page 299
•
, “128-port asynchronous adapter configuration” on page 301
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When the second adapter is configured, the configuration tool displays the
main menu shown in Figure A-3 on page 299. Type 0 and press Enter to
close the window.
Note: Reboot the HMC for this configuration change to take effect.
Configuring RS-422 ports on an 8-port asynchronous adapter
This task enables you to switch a port on the 8-port asynchronous adapter from
RS-232 to RS-422.
Note: Use RS-422 for the ports that are connected to the BPC in 7040-42W
frame.
To configure RS-422 ports on an 8-port asynchronous adapter on the HMC:
1. Select option 2 from the configAsync window menu shown in Figure A-3 on
page 299.
2. From the list, select the 8-port adapter on which you wish to change the
configuration.
3. From the menu bar, select the port change.
Verifying asynchronous adapters
To verify whether the asynchronous adapters are configured correctly on your
HMC, use option 3, Query a Serial Adapter, in the configAsync window main
menu (see Figure A-3 on page 299).
Appendix A. Configuring asynchronous adapters on the HMC
305
Adapter status
If the State column of adapters shows OK as in Figure A-8, the adapters are
correctly configured and recognized by the Linux kernel.
Figure A-8 Adapter status
Ports status (8-port asynchronous adapter)
If you select the 8-port asynchronous adapter from Figure A-8, the window
shows the status of one of the ports. For example, the first port status is shown in
Figure A-9 on page 307. Press the right or left arrow key to display the status of
other ports on the adapter.
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Figure A-9 Port status for 8-port asynchronous adapter
Note: If the port is connected to one of the HMC ports on the managed
system, the CTS (Clear To Send) signal should be raised, as highlighted in
Figure A-10 on page 308.
Appendix A. Configuring asynchronous adapters on the HMC
307
RANs status (128-port asynchronous adapter)
If you select the 128-port asynchronous adapter from Figure A-8 on page 306,
the window shows the status of one of the RANs. For example, the first RAN
status is shown in Figure A-10.
If the RAN does not correctly download the microcode from the adapter, it shows
DN in the highlighted area in Figure A-10.
Figure A-10 Successful microcode download to RAN
Removing an asynchronous adapter
After you remove an asynchronous adapter, take the following steps:
1. Log in with the ID hscpe and open a command prompt window.
2. Type su -, then log in with the root password.
3. At the command prompt, type /usr/sbin/digiConf.
4. When prompted, set the configuration to the correct number of adapters in the
HMC.
Note: These steps are supposed to be done by IBM service representitives.
The passwords for hscpe and root must be provided by the customer.
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B
Appendix B.
Recommended network
configuration in a
partitioned environment
The Ethernet adapter and TCP/IP configuration on the HMC and the partitions
must be configured appropriately so that they can communicate with each other
as explained in this appendix.
To configure the network settings on the HMC, see 4.2.4, “Customize Network
Settings” on page 83.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
309
Appropriate network configuration
To prevent problems with DLPAR operations on the HMC, as well as the
Inventory Scout, Service Agent, and Service Focal Point, you should view the
Ethernet network between the HMC and partitions as a mandatory administrative
network used for these purposes. This network can be considered equivalent to
the SP Ethernet network used in the RS/6000 SP environment.
With careful network planning, you should not have any problems using these
applications; however, if an AIX administrator mistakenly changes the TCP/IP
configuration on a partition without notifying the HMC administrator, it might
result in severe communication problems.
Authentication mechanism
The Service Focal Point and DLPAR functions rely on the Resource Monitoring
and Control (RMC) framework between the HMC and partitions. The RMC
framework performs not only session management, but also authentication
between network peers.
The ctcas subsystem, also known as the cluster authentication daemon, is in
charge of this authentication mechanism. It is running as the ctcasd daemon and
is packaged in the rsct.core.sec fileset in AIX, as shown in the following:
# lssrc -g rsct
Subsystem
Group
PID
Status
ctrmc
rsct
299204
active
ctcas
rsct
188658
active
# ps -ef | head -1; ps -ef | grep ctcas | grep -v grep
UID
PID PPID
C
STIME
TTY TIME CMD
root 188658 139350
0
Sep 11
- 0:03 /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/ctcasd
# lslpp -w /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/ctcasd
File
Fileset
Type
---------------------------------------------------------------------------/usr/sbin/rsct/bin/ctcasd
rsct.core.sec
File
The configuration process of authentication between the HMC and partitions is
briefly summarized in Table B-1.
Table B-1 Authentication process
Sequence
On the HMC
1
The DMSRM resource manager places
the secret key and the HMC host name
in the NVRAM of the managed system.
For every reboot of the HMC, it places
a new secret key.
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On an AIX partition
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Sequence
On the HMC
On an AIX partition
2
The IBM.CSMAgentRM resource manager
reads the secret key and the HMC host name
from NVRAM using an RTAS call. The NVRAM is
checked every five minutes to detect any new
HMCs, key changes, or both. An existing HMC
with a changed key causes the registration
process (the next two steps) to be performed
again.
3
After the HMC and partition have authenticated
each other using the secret key and have
exchanged some information about each other
(for example, public keys), IBM.CSMAgentRM
grants the HMC permission to access the
necessary resource classes on the partition.
Without proper permission on AIX, the HMC will
be able to establish a session with the partition
but will not be able to query for the operating
system information, such as DLPAR capabilities,
or execute DLPAR operation commands
afterward.
4
The last part of the registration process is the
creation of an IBM.ManagedNode resource with
a Hostname attribute set to the partition's host
name on the HMC.
Then, an IBM.ManagementServer resource is
created with a Hostname attribute set to the
HMC host name on the partition.
5
After the ManagedNode resource is
created and authenticated, the
ServiceRM and LparCmdRM resource
managers establish a session with the
partition for DLPAR operation and
receive serviceable events.a
a. Beginning with HMC Release 3, Version 2, resource managers request RMC to establish sessions
between the HMC and partitions instead of establishing by themselves. This reduced the number of
communication problems between the HMC and partitions explained in , “Diagnosing communication
problems between the HMC and partitions” on page 314.
Note: The current implementation of the authentication mechanism used in
the RMC framework is called UNIX hostname authentication. The RMC, and
therefore the HMC, may implement new authentication mechanisms in
accordance with the future development plan of RMC.
Appendix B. Recommended network configuration in a partitioned environment
311
Trouble-free network planning rules
To avoid unnecessary configuration errors in DLPAR operations, you must
understand the following rules:
򐂰 All combinations of a host name and an IP address must be unique.
򐂰 All network interfaces on the HMC and partitions must be assigned different
host names and, therefore, different IP addresses.
򐂰 The assigned IP address must be consistently resolved regardless of the
location (on the HMC or partitions). If some name services, such as NIS,
DNS, and LDAP, are used, they must be reliable and return consistent results.
򐂰 The network interface on the HMC, which is resolved to the node name (the
string returned from the hostname command), must be reachable from all of
the partitions.
The following examples show inappropriate network configurations:
򐂰 Duplicate IP addresses
Two partitions have different host names but the same IP address on their
network interface.
򐂰 Unresolvable host name
A partition does not have the valid DNS configuration, while the HMC uses
DNS for the name resolution. The partition cannot resolve the HMC host
name to an IP address (unresolvable).
򐂰 Inconsistent name resolution
The HMC is assigned the fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com for both the node name and the host name for
eth0 interface. An AIX partition uses DNS for the name resolution, but there
are the following files on the partition:
# cat /etc/netsvc.conf
hosts=local,bind
# grep itsohmc /etc/hosts
9.3.4.30
itsohmc
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
Therefore, the same IP address 9.3.4.30 is resolved as:
On the HMC
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
On the partition
itsohmc
򐂰 Unreachable network interface
The HMC has two network interfaces, eth0 and eth1. Although the FQDN
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com is assigned for both the node name and the host
name for the eth0 interface, all partitions can reach the eth1 interface only.
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We strongly suggest that you do the following before doing any recovery
activities:
1. Issue the hostname command on the HMC and all partitions. To issue the
hostname command on the HMC, you can use OpenSSH, as shown in the
following example:
$ whence ssh
/usr/bin/ssh
$ ssh -l hscroot itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com hostname
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
For further information about how to use OpenSSH on AIX, refer to Managing
AIX Server Farms, SG24-6606.
2. Issue the host command against all of the network interfaces on the HMC and
all of the partitions:
a. Confirm how many interfaces are available:
$ ssh -l hscroot itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com\
“/sbin/ifconfig -l | grep Link”
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:02:55:13:85:2E
lo
Link encap:Local Loopback
b. Confirm the IP address of eth0:
$ ssh -l hscroot itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com /sbin/ifconfig eth0
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:02:55:13:85:2E
inet addr:9.3.4.30 Bcast:9.3.5.255 Mask:255.255.254.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1256676 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:7
TX packets:1381966 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:13
collisions:404844 txqueuelen:100
RX bytes:132305448 (126.1 Mb) TX bytes:1048151698 (999.5 Mb)
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x5000
c. Confirm both the reverse and regular name resolutions:
# ssh -l hscroot itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com host 9.3.4.30
[email protected]'s password: XXXXXX
30.4.3.9.in-addr.arpa. domain name pointer itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com.
# ssh -l hscroot itsohmc.austin.ibm.com host itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com
[email protected]'s password:
itsohmc.itsc.austin.ibm.com. has address 9.3.4.30
For further information about the RMC framework and its resource managers,
refer to the following publications:
򐂰 A Practical Guide for Resource Monitoring and Control, SG24-6615
Appendix B. Recommended network configuration in a partitioned environment
313
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for AIX 5L: Messages, GA22-7891
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for AIX 5L: RSCT Guide and
Reference, SA22-7889
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for AIX 5L: Technical Reference,
SA22-7890
Note: It is highly recommended to use fully qualified host names when you
configure the network interfaces. This setup is critical because dynamic logical
partitioning operations, Service Focal Point, and Inventory Scout rely on the
networking between the HMC and the logical partitions being set up correctly.
Diagnosing communication problems between the HMC
and partitions
Prior to the HMC software Release 3, Version 2, there were cases
communication problems occurred between the HMC and partitions:
If the host name resolution in the environment was carefully planned and
implemented as explained in , “Trouble-free network planning rules” on
page 312, those problems most likely did not occur. If not, or the host names for
the HMC and partitions were changed after the initial configuration, the
communication problems arose, then they were sometimes very difficult to solve.
In this case, not only for DLPAR operations, but also most service functions were
affected and unable to be used until the problem was resolved.
Beginning with the following software levels, the communication and
authentication mechanism between the HMC and partitions become more robust
in terms of the host name resolution, therefore the communication problem
hardly occurs in the configuration where these software levels are used:
򐂰 HMC software Release 3, Version 2 and later
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.1 plus 5100-03 Recommended Maintenance Level and later
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 and later
Once the problem occurs, you can use the DiagnoseHMC command on the HMC
and the AIX partition that has the problem in order to verify the communication
and authentication mechanism between the HMC and the partition is correctly
configured.
If the DiagnoseHMC command is executed on an AIX partition (AIX 5L Version 5.2
plus 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance Level), the command prints the
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
message shown in Example B-1 that verifies no configuration problem exists on
the partition.
Example: B-1 DiagnoseHMC output
# /opt/csm/csmbin/diagnostics/DiagnoseHMC
- Check local RMC subsystem.
- Get the installed versions of RMC packages.
- Check the primary hostname of the local machine.
- Check the amount of free space in /var.
- Check that the RSCT registry data is not corrupted.
- Check node ID information.
Checking resources of class AuditLog: ok
Checking resources of class AuditLogTemplate: ok
Checking resources of class ManagementServer: ok
- Check that the CT security files look ok.
checking /var/ct/cfg/ct_has.pkf: ok
checking /var/ct/cfg/ct_has.qkf: ok
checking /var/ct/cfg/ct_has.thl: ok
- Check local RSCT daemons.
- Check the ctrmc subsystem.
- Check the ctcasd subsystem.
ctcas is not running.
------------------------ Findings ---------------------------(1) ctcas is not running. Ensure that /usr/sbin/rsct/bin/ctcasd is present and
executable.
Try to start ctcas by running:
startsrc -s ctcas
------------------------------------------------------
The ctcas subsystem is started on-demand basis by the RMC, if the
/usr/sbin/rsct/bin/ctstrtcasd command exists. Therefore, you can ignore the
warning message regarding the ctsasd subsystem on AIX partitions installed
with AIX 5L Version 5.2 plus 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance Level and
later.
The DiagnoseHMC is installed in the /opt/csm/csmbin/diagnostics directory on both
AIX and HMC. On AIX, it is included in the csm.core fileset, which is installed by
default. On HMC, the command requires the root authority.
# oslevel -r
5200-01
# lslpp -w /opt/csm/csmbin/diagnostics/DiagnoseHMC
File
Fileset
Type
---------------------------------------------------------------------------/opt/csm/csmbin/diagnostics/DiagnoseHMC
csm.core
File
# lslpp -L csm.core
Fileset
Level State Type Description (Uninstaller)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appendix B. Recommended network configuration in a partitioned environment
315
csm.core
316
1.3.1.0
C
F
Cluster Systems Management
Core
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
C
Appendix C.
A brief introduction to VLAN
This appendix gives you a brief introduction of the VLAN (Virtual LAN)
technology, which is commonly found on today’s switching devices, by providing
the following sections:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
“Historical networking review” on page 318
“What is a switch?” on page 319
“What is VLAN?” on page 320
“Several VLAN technologies” on page 321
“AIX VLAN support (802.1Q VLAN interface)” on page 325
“Vendor-specific VLAN technologies (Cisco)” on page 326
The last section contains useful information to implement a secure network
configuration in a partitioned environment.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
317
Historical networking review
Historically, the concept of TCP/IP was easy to understand, as shown in
Figure C-1. A network administrator who understood the concept could use the
same methodology to administer the network regardless of the underlying
physical network media technologies (Ethernet, token-ring, FDDI). This simplicity
contributed to TCP/IP, which today dominates the Internet.
Layer 7: Application layer
Layer 6: Presentation layer
Application layer
Layer 5: Session layer
Layer 4: Transport layer
UDP/TCP layer
Layer 3: Network layer
IP layer
Layer 2: Datalink layer
Datalink layer
Layer 1: Physical layer
Physical media layer
OSI reference model
UDP port, TCP port
IP address
MAC address
TCP/IP networking model
Figure C-1 OSI seven-layered networking reference model and TCP/IP model
If Ethernet was chosen as the physical network media for the TCP/IP network,
these network devices could be used depending on the purpose and appropriate
network layer.
IP router
IP routers work with the IP layer and use the IP address
information to determine how IP packets are transmitted
over networks. Although IP routers work with the IP layer,
they commonly support the IP filtering function, which can
be used to filter out undesirable network accesses, based
on UDP or TCP port numbers.
Note: Firewall devices can be seen as IP router devices that are exclusively
developed for their IP filtering capability and intentionally used in the network
to shut out undesirable network invasions.
Ethernet bridge
318
Ethernet bridges work with the datalink layer and use the
MAC address information to determine how Ethernet
frames are transmitted over networks.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Ethernet hub1
An Ethernet hub, typically used for the 10 BASE-T
Ethernet network, provided a single broadcast domain for
all of the nodes connected to its ports. Because those
Ethernet hubs did not have an intelligent processing unit
inside, sometimes they were referred to as unintelligent or
dumb hubs.
When the 100 BASE-TX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet)
technology was evolved, limited processing capabilities
were added to some Ethernet hub devices in order to
support half- and full-duplex 100 Mbps Ethernet. These
types of Ethernet hub devices are actually bridges rather
than traditional (repeater type) hubs, therefore they are
sometimes referred to as intelligent hubs.
What is a switch?
In the past, typical IP routers used processors designed for general purposes
and ran with software that supported many functions, such as IP forwarding, IP
filtering, and security policies. Therefore, those IP routers were usually slower
than bridges but provided more functions. Also bridges were slow and seldom
supported the actual wire-speed operations between any two given ports.
During the 1990s, several network hardware vendors developed high-speed
bridges and marketed Ethernet switches (or simply switches) that were designed
to use ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) and advanced memory
technology in order to improve performance. This type of switch is now known as
an L2 switch.
Current L2 switches generally provide the following capabilities, as well as higher
network traffic speed compared to the bridges in the past:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Separate access domains
Network segmentation
Extended distance limitations
Increased aggregate capacity
Data rate flexibility
After L2 switches had dominated the network hardware market, several network
hardware vendors coined a new term, L3 switch, to advertise their high-speed IP
router products that were designed using hardware components and concepts
similar to the L2 switches.
1
If 10 BASE2 or 10 BASE5 Ethernet was used as the physical network media, repeaters were used
instead of hubs.
Appendix C. A brief introduction to VLAN
319
Unlike L2 switches that operate using MAC address information, L3 switches
operate using IP address information, as IP routers do.
Many L3 switch products also support a function very similar to the IP filtering
function found on traditional IP routers; a switch product that supports this
function is commonly referred to as an L4 switch and can be used to filter out
undesirable network access based on UDP or TCP port numbers.
Some network switch products support L2 switching only, while others support L3
or L4 switching, depending on the product range and configuration; it is not rare
that an L2 switch product that supports L3/L4 switching capabilities by plugging
in hardware modules.
To configure L2, L3, or L4 switches, most products provide several methods to
access their operating system, such as:
򐂰 Serial port access
򐂰 Telnet access
򐂰 Web browser based access
򐂰 SNMP MIB-based access2
򐂰 Proprietary application access connected to switches either over the serial
line or using the management network port
Enterprise networks nowadays commonly are based on switching technology.
Those networks are composed of different kinds of network switch devices and
can be very complex. In fact, every network device used for LAN can be a switch.
Therefore, it is important to understand the switching technologies in order to
share the switching world with your network administrators, so that your pSeries
servers can perform more efficiently and securely.
What is VLAN?
VLAN is a technology used for establishing virtual network segments on top of
physical switch devices. If configured appropriately, a VLAN definition can
straddle multiple switches. Typically, a VLAN is a broadcast domain that enables
all nodes in the VLAN to communicate each other without any L3 routing or
inter-VLAN bridging. (There are exceptions explained in the following sections.)
For example, two VLANs (VLAN 1 and 2) are defined on three switches (Switch
A, B, and C) in Figure C-2 on page 321. Although nodes C-1 and C-2 are
physically connected to the same switch C, traffic between two nodes can be
2
SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. MIB stands for Management Information
Base.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
blocked. To enable communication between VLAN 1 and 2, L3 routing or
inter-VLAN bridging should be established between them; this is typically
provided by an L3 device.
VLAN 1
Switch A
Node A-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
16
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Switch B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
16
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Node B-1
Node B-2
Node B-3
Switch C
Node A-2
VLAN 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
16
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Node C-1
Node C-2
Figure C-2 VLAN concept
Thus, the use of VLAN provides the following advantage over traditional network
devices:
򐂰 Flexible network deployment
򐂰 LAN security
Several VLAN technologies
These technologies for implementing VLANs are explained in this section:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Port-based VLAN
Layer 2 VLAN
Policy-based VLAN
802.1Q VLAN
Appendix C. A brief introduction to VLAN
321
Support of these technologies varies from one switch product to another. In fact,
the difference in firmware versions, even for the same switch product, may affect
the support status. Therefore, it is recommended to carefully read the product
publications shipped with the switch product, that you are going to use.
Port-based VLAN
The port-based VLAN is the simplest way and is implemented on most switch
products. By instructing the switch operating system, a physical port can be
assigned to a VLAN. Figure C-3 illustrates the port-based VLAN concept:
physical ports 1, 6, and 13 belong to VLAN A, while 3, 12, and 15 belong to B.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
VLAN A
VLAN B
VLAN C
Unassigned
Figure C-3 Port-based VLAN concept
Although the VLAN standard enables defining overlapping VLAN ports based on
the port-based VLAN technology (see port 12 in Figure C-4), this configuration is
considered obsolete and is not implemented on most switch products available
on the market.
D
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
VLAN #A
B
VLAN #B
C
VLAN #C
Figure C-4 Overlapping port definition based on the port-based VLAN
Layer 2 VLAN
Instead of the physical port-basis assignment, the layer 2 VLAN technology uses
the MAC address information of connected devices to define VLANs. Because a
network device is usually connected to a physical port and it is less common to
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
reconnect the device to another port (except for in a port malfunction situation),
this is quite similar to the port-based VLAN in terms of VLAN security.
Policy-based VLAN
This is the most advanced VLAN technology and there are many possibilities for
implementing it, depending on the switch products.
The policy-based VLAN uses several information entities, such as subnets (on IP
networks) and protocols (on multi-protocol networks3) to differentiate network
traffics.
802.1Q VLAN
The 802.1Q VLAN uses additional information in the Ethernet frame to
differentiate network traffic. The additional information, called VLAN tag, is four
bytes long and, optionally, can be inserted into the Ethernet frame (see
Figure C-5).
Destination
address
6
2
2
2
Source
address
VLAN
Protocol
ID
Tag
Control
Info
Length/
Type
VLAN Protocol ID
= 0x8100
Bits
16
3
46 - 1500
CFI=0
6
Priority
Bytes
VLAN Identifier
1
12
Data
Figure C-5 VLAN-tagged Ethernet frame
Network nodes connected to the 802.1Q VLAN ports are expected to implement
virtual network interfaces in order to explicitly specify VLAN IDs (shown as VLAN
Identifier in Figure C-5). A VLAN ID is a digit number ranging from 1 to 4094 (the
VLAN ID 1 is used as the default value). An Ethernet frame that does not contain
the VLAN tag information (or contains the VLAN tag information with null VLAN
ID) is called an untagged frame. All untagged frames are grouped into a VLAN,
called the default VLAN, regardless of the source physical ports, MAC
addresses, or IP addresses.
3
A multi-protocol network uses multiple protocols, such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX, to convey network
traffics.
Appendix C. A brief introduction to VLAN
323
Figure C-6 illustrates the 802.1Q VLAN concept. On node A, in addition to the
base network interface, there are two VLAN interfaces defined; one is with VLAN
ID 2, another is with VLAN ID 3. On Node B, a VLAN interface with VLAN ID 2 is
defined. If IP addresses with different subnets are assigned on VLAN interfaces,
these VLANs can be seen as logically split subnets, even though a single
physical network adapter on the node is connected to a single physical port4.
Some switch products support the capability to set up a filtering rule on a
port-basis. If such a filter is set up appropriately, the switch can be configured to
discard all incoming frames from the specific port on which the filter is
configured, except for frames with the specific VLAN tag ID.
Ethernet switch
VLAN 0 for untagged frames
VLAN 2 for VLAN ID 2 frames
VLAN 3 for VLAN ID 3 frames
Node A
Node B
Node C
Physical port
Base network interface for untagged frame
VLAN network interface with VLAN ID 2
VLAN network interface with VLAN ID 3
Figure C-6 802.1Q VLAN concept
To use 802.1Q VLAN, the following must be understood:
򐂰 VLANs with associated VLAN tag IDs must be defined on switches.
򐂰 Although it is possible to define multiple VLAN interfaces on a single network
adapter, it is not always the best approach from the availability. Should the
adapter or port fail, all VLAN interfaces become unavailable.
4
324
A port that is used for multiple VLAN interfaces is generally called a trunk port.
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
AIX VLAN support (802.1Q VLAN interface)
Beginning with Version 5.1, AIX has been supporting 802.1Q VLAN. To define
VLAN interface, do the following after logging on to the system as the root user:
1. Select SMIT panels as follows:
# smit
Devices
Communication
VLAN
Add A VLAN
2. Select the base network adapter device (such as ent0) to define a VLAN
interface on top of it, then press Enter.
3. Specify the VLAN ID (1 - 4095) in the VLAN Tag ID field shown in
Example C-1, then press Enter:
Example: C-1 Add A VLAN SMIT panel
Add A VLAN
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
[Entry Fields]
ent0
[] #
VLAN Base Adapter
* VLAN Tag ID
4. Verify if the VLAN interface is configured successfully as follows:
# lsdev -Cc adapter | grep ent
ent0
Available 10-80
IBM 10/100
ent1
Available 10-88
IBM 10/100
ent2
Available
VLAN
# lsdev -Cc if | grep en
en0 Available 10-80 Standard Ethernet
en1 Defined
10-88 Standard Ethernet
en2 Defined
Standard Ethernet
Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter (23100020)
Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter (23100020)
Network Interface
Network Interface
Network Interface
In this example, the VLAN Ethernet interface en2 is configured on the VLAN
adapter object ent2.
5. Assign a unique IP address on en2, by selecting the following SMIT panels:
Communications Applications and Services → TCP/IP → Further
Configuration → Network Interfaces → Network Interface Selection →
Change / Show Characteristics of a Network Interface, then select en2.
To confirm what VLAN tag ID is associated, use the lsattr command as follows:
# lsattr -El ent2
Appendix C. A brief introduction to VLAN
325
base_adapter ent0 VLAN Base Adapter True
vlan_tag_id 10 VLAN Tag ID
True
Note: Currently, HMC does not support 802.1Q VLAN.
Vendor-specific VLAN technologies (Cisco)
As explained in the previous sections in this appendix, standard VLAN
technologies cannot be used to implement a secure network in a partitioned
environment, which is explained in 8.1, “Networking in a partitioned environment”
on page 156.
However, several network hardware vendors, such as Cisco, provide
vendor-specific advanced VLAN technologies in order to implement the secure
network in a partitioned environment.
Note: Before implementing the secure network in a partitioned environment
using the technologies explained in this section, we strongly recommend you
consult with your network hardware vendor or reseller to verify the detailed
information about the switch product you are going to install.
Private VLAN
The private VLAN technology, or PVLAN, enables you to define multiple
secondary VLANs in a single primary VLAN as shown in Figure C-7 on
page 327. The HMC belongs to the primary VLAN. The switch port to which the
HMC is connected is called a promiscuous port. Each partition (partition 1, 2, and
3) belongs to its own secondary VLAN; therefore there are three secondary
VLANs defined in total.
Although partitions can communicate with the HMC, they cannot communicate
with each other in this configuration. The ports belonging to the partitions are
called isolated ports.
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Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Partition 1
Promiscuous port
HMC
Partition 2
Secondary VLANs
Primary VLAN
Partition 3
Figure C-7 Private VLAN concept
PVLAN is only supported on the high-end Cisco Catalyst switch products, such
as Catalyst 6500 series and Catalyst 4500 series.
Most low-end switch products, for example Catalyst 2950, only support a subset
of the PVLAN function. On Catalyst 2950, there is a concept of protected or
non-protected ports instead of promiscuous and isolated ports.
The concept of protected ports is summarized as follows:
򐂰 A protected port can not forward any traffic (uni-cast, multicast, or broadcast)
to any other protected ports. Traffic cannot be forwarded between protected
ports at Layer 2; all traffic between protected ports must be forwarded through
an L3 device.
򐂰 A protected port can forward traffic to any non-protected ports within the
VLAN.
򐂰 By default, all ports on Catalyst 2950 are set to the non-protected port mode;
you must explicitly set the protected port mode on port-basis.
VLAN ACL
VLAN ACL (Access Control List) can be set on port-basis to control access for all
packets that are bridged within a VLAN or that are routed into or out of a VLAN.
The access control function found on conventional router devices, which is
configured only on routed interfaces, is applied only on routed packets. However,
VLAN ACLs are applied to all network frames and can be applied to any VLANs
or network interfaces.
Appendix C. A brief introduction to VLAN
327
Note: VLAN ACLs can be defined on protocol-basis (IP or IPX) or
MAC-address basis.
When you define a VLAN ACL and apply it to a VLAN, all packets entering the
VLAN are checked against this VLAN ACL. If you apply a VLAN ACL to the VLAN
and an ACL to a routed interface in the VLAN, a packet coming in to the VLAN is
first checked against the VLAN ACL; then, if permitted, it is checked against the
input ACL before it is handled by the routed interface. When the packet is routed
to another VLAN, it is first checked against the output ACL applied to the routed
interface; then, if permitted, it is checked against the VACL configured for the
destination VLAN. If a VLAN ACL is defined for a specific type of packets and a
packet does not match with the ACL, the default action is to deny.
Note: At the time of writing this book, most Cisco Catalyst products, except for
Catalyst 2950 Series, support the VLAN ACL function.
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Abbreviations and acronyms
ACL
Access Control List
DNS
Domain Name Service
AIX
Advanced Interactive
Executive
DoS
Denial of Service
DSA
Digital Signature Algorithm
ALPAR
Affinity Logical Partition
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment
APAR
Authorized Problem Analysis
Report
DVD
Digital Versatile Disk
DVD-RAM
DVD - Random Access Media
DVD-ROM
DVD - Read Only Media
American National Standard
Code for Information
Interchange
EIA
Electronic Industry
Association
ESS
Electronic Server System
BOS
Base Operating System
FC
Feature Code
BPA
Bulk Power Assembly
FDDI
BPC
Bulk Power Controller
Fibre Distributed Data
Interface
CA
Certified Authority
FQDN
Fully Qualified Domain Name
CD
Compact Disk
FRU
Field Replaceable Unit
CDE
Common Desktop
Environment
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
FTSS
CD-R
CD - Recordable
Field Technical Support
Specialist
CD-ROM
CD - Read Only Media
GB
Gigabyte
CEC
Central Electronics Complex
GID
Group Identification
CIM
Common Interface Method
GUI
Graphical User Interface
CMM
Customer Managed
Microcode
HACMP
Highly Available Cluster
Multiprocessing
CPU
Central Processing Unit
HMC
CSM
Cluster Systems
Management
IBM Hardware Management
Console for pSeries
HPC
High Performance Computing
CSP
Converged Service Processor
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language
CUoD
Capacity Upgrade on
Demand
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
IBF
Internal Battery Feature
DCE
Data Communication
Equipment
IBM
International Business
Machines Corporation
DLPAR
Dynamic logical partitioning
ICMP
DMTF
Desktop Management Task
Force
Internet Control Protocol
Message
ASIC
ASCII
Application-Specific
Integrated Circuit
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
329
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers
PCI
Peripheral Component
Interface
IHS
IBM HTTP Server
PID
Process ID
I/O
Input/Output
PMR
Problem Management Record
IP
Internet Protocol
POWER
ISO
International Organization for
Standardization
Performance Optimized with
Enhanced RISC
PMTU
Path Maximum Transfer Unit
IT
Information Technology
PPID
Parent Process ID
ITSO
International Technical
Support Organization
PSSP
Parallel System Support
Program
L2
Level 2
PTF
Program Temporary Fix
L3
Level 3
PVLAN
Private VLAN
L4
Level 4
RAN
Remote Access Node
LAN
Local Area Network
RAS
LDAP
Light Directory Access
Protocol
Reliability, Availability, and
Serviceability
RFC
Request for Comment
LED
Light Emitting Diode
RISC
LMB
Logical Memory Block
Reduced Instruction Set
Computer
LPAR
Logical Partition
RIP
Routing Information Protocol
LPP
Licensed Program Product
RMC
MA
Maintenance Agreement
Resource Monitoring and
Control
MAC
Media Access Control
RMO
Real Mode Offset
MB
Megabyte
RPM
Red Hat Package Manager
MT-MDL
Machine Type - Model
RS
Recommended Standard
MTU
Maximum Transfer Unit
RSA
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman
Algorithm
NFS
Network File System
RSCT
NIM
Network Installation Manager
Reliable Scalable Cluster
Technology
NIS
Network Information System
S/N
Serial Number
NVRAM
Non-volatile random access
memory
SCSI
Small Computer System
Interface
ODM
Object Database Manager
SFP
Service Focal Point
ODS
On-demand service
SMIT
OF
Open Firmware
System Management
Interface Tool
OS
Operating System
SMP
Symmetrical Multi-Processing
PAM
Pluggable Authentication
Module
SMS
Systems Management
Service
PC
Personal Computer
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
330
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
SNMP
Simple Network Management
Protocol
SP
Service Processor
SSH
Secure Shell
SSL
Secure Socket Layer
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TTY
Teletypewriter
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
UID
User Identification
URL
Universal Resource Locator
USB
Universal Serial Bus
VACL
VLAN ACL
VGA
Video Graphics Adapter
VLAN
Virtual LAN
VPD
Vital Product Data
WebSM
Web-based System Manager
Abbreviations and acronyms
331
332
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a
more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this book.
IBM Redbooks
For information about ordering these publications, see “How to get IBM
Redbooks” on page 337.
򐂰 A Practical Guide for Resource Monitoring and Control, SG24-6615
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 670 and pSeries 690 System Handbook, SG24-7040
򐂰 Linux Applications on pSeries, SA24-6033
򐂰 Managing AIX Server Farms, SG24-6606
򐂰 POWER4 Processor Introduction and Tuning Guide, SG24-7041
򐂰 The Complete Partitioning Guide for IBM Eserver pSeries Servers,
SG24-7039
IBM Redpapers
IBM Redpapers are available only in softcopy.
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Models 6C3 and 6E3 Technical Overview and
Introduction, REDP0160
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Models 6C4 and 6E4 Technical Overview and
Introduction, REDP0195
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2 Technical Overview and Introduction,
REDP0194
pSeries hardware publications
The following publications are shipped with the IBM Eserver pSeries servers.
These publications are also available through this Web site:
http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/infocenter/base/hardware.
htm
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
333
򐂰 128-Port Asynchronous PCI Adapter Installation and User’s Guide,
SA23-2563
򐂰 8-Port Asynchronous PCI Adapter Installation and User’s Guide, SA23-2562
򐂰 Adapter, Devices, and Cable Information for Multiple Bus Systems,
SA38-0516
򐂰 D10 I/O Drawer Installation Guide, SA23-1296
򐂰 D20 I/O Drawer Installation Guide, SA23-1295
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6C3 and 6E3 Installation Guide,
SA38-0628
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6C3 and 6E3 Service Guide, SA38-0629
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6C3 and 6E3 User’s Guide, SA38-0630
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4 and 6E4 Installation Guide,
SA38-0605
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4 and 6E4 Service Guide, SA38-0604
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4 and 6E4 User’s Guide, SA38-0606
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2 Installation Guide, SA38-0610
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2 Service Guide, SA38-0612
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2 User’s Guide, SA38-0611
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 655 Installation Guide, SA38-0616
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 655 Service Guide, SA38-0618
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 655 User’s Guide, SA38-0617
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 670 Installation Guide, SA38-0613
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 670 Service Guide, SA38-0615
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 670 User’s Guide, SA38-0614
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 690 Installation Guide, SA38-0587
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 690 Service Guide, SA38-0589
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 690 User’s Guide, SA38-0588
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries 7311 Model D10 and Model D20 Service Guide,
SA38-0627
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Maintenance Guide,
SA38-0603
򐂰 IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations
Guide, SA38-0590
򐂰 Installation Guide 61D I/O drawer 61R Second I/O Rack, SA23-1281
334
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
򐂰 PCI Adapter Placement References, SA38-0538
AIX official publications
The following publications are contained in the AIX 5L for POWER V 5.2
Documentation CD, 5765-E62, that is shipped as a part of the AIX 5L Version 5.2
CD-ROM media set. These publications are also available from this Web site:
http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/infocenter/base/aix.htm
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 Asynchronous Communications Guide
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 Installation Guide and Reference
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 Reference Documentation: Commands Reference
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 Security Guide
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 System Management Guide: AIX 5L Version 5.2
Web-based System Manager Administration Guide
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 System Management Guide: Communications and
Networks
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 System Management Guide: Operating System and
Devices
򐂰 AIX 5L Version 5.2 Understanding the Diagnostic Subsystem for AIX
򐂰 AIX Installation in a Partitioned Environment, SC23-4382
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for AIX 5L: Messages, SA22-7891
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for AIX 5L, RSCT Guide and
Reference, SA22-7889
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for AIX 5L, Technical Reference,
SA22-7890
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for AIX 5L and Linux, Group
Services Programming Guide and Reference, SA22-7888
CSM for AIX official publications
The following publications are contained in the Cluster Systems Management for
AIX 5L product (Program Number: 5765-F67). These publications are also
available at this Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/library/clusters/aix.html
򐂰 IBM Cluster Systems Management for AIX 5L, Administration Guide,
SA22-7918
Related publications
335
򐂰 IBM Cluster Systems Management for AIX 5L, Hardware Control Guide,
SA22-7920
򐂰 IBM Cluster Systems Management for AIX 5L, Planning and Installation
Guide, SA22-7919
CSM for Linux official publications
The following publications are contained in the Cluster Systems Management for
Linux product (Program Number: 5765-E88). These publications are also
available at this Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/clusters/library/linux.html
򐂰 IBM Cluster Systems Management for Linux, Administration Guide,
SA22-7873
򐂰 IBM Cluster Systems Management for Linux, Hardware Control Guide,
SA22-7856
򐂰 IBM Cluster Systems Management for Linux, Planning and Installation Guide,
SA22-7853
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for Linux, Mesages, SA22-7894
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for Linux, RSCT Guide and
Reference, SA22-7892
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for Linux, Technical Reference,
SA22-7893
򐂰 IBM Reliable Scalable Cluster Technology for AIX 5L and Linux, Group
Services Programming Guide and Reference, SA22-7888
Other publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 Bill McCarty, Red Hat Linux Firewalls, John Wiley & Sons, 2002, ISBN
0-764-52463-1.
򐂰 Rich Seifert, The Switch Book: The Complete Guide to LAN Switching
Technology, John Wiley & Sons, 2002, ISBN 0-471-34586-5
򐂰 Larry Wall, Programming Perl, O'Reilly & Associates, 2000, ISBN
0-596-00027-8
336
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Online resources
These Web sites are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 AIX toolkit for Linux applications
http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/download.html
򐂰 The DMTF Standards web site
http://www.dmtf.org/standards/standard_cim.php
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries Information Center
http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/infocenter/base/index.htm
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries & RS/6000 Microcode Updates
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/mdownload
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries Support Hardware Management Console
https://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/hmc?fetch=home.html
򐂰 Electronic Service Agent for pSeries and RS/6000 User’s Guide
ftp://service.software.ibm.com/aix/service_agent_code/AIX/svcUG.pdf
򐂰 Electronic Service Agent for pSeries HMC User’s Guide
ftp://service.software.ibm.com/aix/service_agent_code/HMC/HMCSAUG.pdf
򐂰 Microcode Discovery Service
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/aix.invscoutMDS
򐂰 OpenSSH Web site
http://www.openssh.com
򐂰 VPD Capture Service
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/aix.invscoutVPD
How to get IBM Redbooks
You can search for, view, or download Redbooks, Redpapers, Hints and Tips,
draft publications, and Additional materials, as well as order hardcopy Redbooks
or CD-ROMs, at this Web site:
ibm.com/redbooks
Related publications
337
338
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Index
Symbols
/etc/hosts 86, 312
/etc/inetd.conf 162
/etc/netsvc.conf 312
/etc/pam.conf 180
/etc/profile 147
/etc/sysctl.conf 169
/opt/csm/csmbin/diagnostics 315
/sbin/shutdown 190
/usr/sbin/digiConf 308
/var/hsc/profiles/MT-MDL*S/N 103
Numerics
10 BASE2 Ethernet 319
10 BASE5 Ethernet 319
10 BASE-T Ethernet 319
100 BASE-TX Ethernet 319
32-bit Intel-based desktop PC 16
A
System Manager Security 40
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit 319
ASIC 319
Authentication mechanism 310
Auto Start Partitions 63
automatic configuration 250
autorestart parameter 231
B
Backing up profile data 103
bkprofdata 203
Bonus Pack 177
BOOTP 156
BPA 7, 15
BPC 15
broadcast domain 156
Bulk Power Assembly 7
Bulk Power Controller 15
C
ACL 327
Activate partitions 65
Activating a specific partition profile 65
Adapter
10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI adapter II 24
128-port asynchronous adapter 25, 296
8-port asynchronous adapter 25, 296
addhmcusers script 234
administrative workstation 157
Advanced Operator 100
AIX 5L Version 5.2 Web-based System Manager
16, 32
AIX VLAN support 325
ALPAR capable 196
ALPAR incapable 196
anonymous 115
Application folder
HMC Maintenance 41, 80
HMC Management 40
Server and Partition 40
Service Applications 41, 248
Software Maintenance 40, 108
call home 267
Capacity Upgrade on Demand 194
CEC 7
CEC Call Home 263
Central Electronics Complex 7
Certificate Authority 128
Certificate Authority task
Configure this system as a System Manager
Certificate Authority 129
Copy this Certificate Authority’s Public Key Ring
File to diskette 134
Generate Servers’ Private Key Ring Files 133
Properties 132
Change
default partition profile 65
user properties 79
Change user’s password 79
chcuod 194
chhmc 186
chhmcusr 192
chhwres 207
chsyscfg 200
chsysstate 213
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
339
CIM 16
CIM Object Manager 16, 100
Cisco Catalyst switch products 327
Clear To Send 307
cluster authentication daemon 310
Cluster Systems Management 13
CMM 273
command
cat 312
head 310
host 313
Common flags
-F 183
-f 183
--help 184
-m 181
-n 182
-o 182
-p 183
-r 182
Common Information Model 16
Configuration steps to set up secure system manager server 127
Configure Serial Adapter
128-port asynchronous adapter configuration
301
8-port asynchronous adapter configuration 299
Configuring RS-422 ports on an 8-port asynchronous adapter 305
Configure this system as a Secure System Manager
Server 138
Configuring asynchronous adapters 295
Configuring CA on your HMC 129
Configuring the Service Agent dialer 282
Connect to the managed systems 45
Contents area 35
context menu 39
control workstation 156
Copy the public key ring file to diskette 134
Creating a user 78
cron 175
CSM 13
csm.core 315
ctcas 315
ctcas subsystem 310
ctcasd daemon 310
Ctrl+Alt+Backspace 39
CTS 307
ctstrtcasd 315
340
CUoD 194
CUoD-capable 197
curses-driven applications 51
Customer Managed Microcode 273
Customize Network Settings 83
D
DB-25 connector 29
default route address 85
Define Service Agent clients on a gateway server
292
Deleting a user 79
devices.chrp.base.ServiceRM fileset 261
DiagnoseHMC 314
Disconnect from the managed systems 45
Distributed Management Task Force 16
DLPAR operations 2, 310
DLPAR resource
I/O 2
memory 2
processor 2
DLPAR-capable 197
DMTF 16
DNS 187, 312
DNS Enable 85
DNS server 187
domain suffix 187
Duplicate IP address 312
DVD-RAM drive 16
DVD-RAM media 92
dynamic routing 89
E
e-config 24
Electronic Server System 173
Electronic Service Agent 254
e-mail address 115
ESS 173
Ethernet bridge 318
Ethernet hub 319
Ethernet port 3
Export default gateway 90
F
Fast Ethernet 319
FC
2943 25
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
2944 25
4962 24
7316 23
8120 25, 28
8121 25, 28
8122 25, 28
8123 26, 29
8131 26
8132 26
8133 28–29
8137 28
Firewall and Service Agent 173
firewall system 167
FQDN 312
Full System Partition 62
fully qualified domain name 312
G
Generating private key ring files for the HMC 133
grep 310, 312
group of ISA devices 60
gzip 116
H
Hard reset 71
hardware serviceable events 214
high-performance computing 9
HMC
command line interface 175
execute commands after logging in 176
execute commands remotely 176
functions overview 2
managing software levels 107
difference between two backup tasks 110
Backup Critical Console Data 110
Save Upgrade Data 111
install, recover, and upgrade strategies 118
N to N+1 121
Recovery install using the critical console
data backup 120
Refresh Install using the recovery CD
119
Upgrade install using the save upgrade
data 121
remote command line functions 23
user interface 16
HMC (application) task
Backup Critical Console Data 112
Format Removable Media 116
Install Corrective Services 114
Save Upgrade Data 113
HMC application
Certificate Authority 128
Configure Serial Adapter 297
Frame 108
HMC 109
Inventory Scout Services 248
Microcode Updates 117, 272
Object Manager Security 140
Overview and Status 139
Problem Determination 248
Server Management 41, 45
object hierarchy 42
Partitions 43
System Profiles 42
Server Security 135
Service Agent 248, 254
Service Focal Point 248, 260
System Configuration 80–81
User Management 78
HMC commands 184
advanced examples 217
Basic command line samples 227
Activate a partition 229
Automating adding users to HMC 234
Creating a partition 232
Creating a partition profile 233
Hard reset a partition 231
Power off the managed system 232
Power on the managed system 227
Reboot the operating system in a partition
230
Recording all partition/profile configurations
for printing 237
Recording current HMC information before
upgrade 244
Reset the operating system in a partition
231
Shutdown the operating system in a partition
230
Commands for CUoD 194
Commands for virtual terminals 209
Commands to backup/restore partition profile
data 203
Commands to manage hardware resources
205
Commands to manage HMC itself 184
Index
341
Commands to manage system configuration
195
Commands to manage users on the HMC 191
Commands used for other purposes 212
Commands used in recovery situations 211
Display empty I/O slots allocation status 223
Display the operator panel while the managed
system boots 226
Displaying the operator panel when the partition
is activated 226
Do I have a light on the system attention LED
224
Frequently asked questions and HMC commands 218
How can I turn off the system attention LED 225
How many affinity partitions are defined or running 220
How many processors are allocated to each partition 221
How many processors are free 222
How much memory are allocated to each partition now 222
How much memory is free now 223
Is the managed system CUoD capable 219
What is my frame name 219
What is my managed system name 218
What is my managed system’s MT-MDL*S/N
219
When did I do the profile data backup 225
When was the critical console data backup performed 225
Which partition currently has CD/DVD assigned
to it 224
Which partitions are DLPAR capable 220
HMC connectivity 18
remote 21
serial 18
HMC console events 214
HMC customize network setting
Device Attributes 90
Hosts 86
IP Address 84
Name Services 85
Routing 89
HMC graphical user interface
Contents area 35
login and logout 32
Menu bar 35
Navigation area 34
342
Status bar 38
Tool bar 36
HMC Maintenance 80
HMC menu
Console 35
Help 36
Object 35
Selected 35
View 36
Window 36
HMC native serial ports
S1 4
S2 4
HMC order information
Asynchronous serial adapter configurations 25
128-port asynchronous adapters 26
8-port asynchronous adapters 25
distance solution 29
Enhanced Remote Asynchronous Node 28
Ethernet adapter configuration 24
software release numbering scheme 24
supported number of managed systems and
partitions 24
HMC remote access
command line interface 23
Web-based System Manager 22
HMC software architecture overview 17
hmcshutdown 190
hostname 312
HPC 9
HSCE2066 83
hscpe 76
hscroot 32
default password 32
I
I/O drawers 7
I/O Slot property 60
IBF 7
IBM Configurator for e-business 24
IBM Eserver Cluster 1600 13
IBM Eserver pSeries 6
IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6C3
IBM Eserver pSeries 615 Model 6E3
IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6C4
IBM Eserver pSeries 630 Model 6E4
IBM Eserver pSeries 650 Model 6M2
IBM Eserver pSeries 655 Model 651
6
6
6
6
6
6
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
IBM Eserver pSeries 670 Model 671 6
IBM Eserver pSeries 690 Model 681 6
IBM Eserver pSeries Information Center 1
IBM International Program License Agreement 177
IBM RS/6000® SP 156
IBM.ManagedNode resource 311
IBM.ManagementServer resource 311
IBM.ServiceRM subsystem 261
ICMP 91
Inappropriate network configurations 312
Inconsistent name resolution 312
Initializing profile data 105
Install the private key ring file for this server 137
Installing a remote client on a Linux system 146
internal battery feature 7
Inventory Scout 310
Inventory Scout daemon 251
Inventory Scout Services 249
Inventory Scout Services task
Collect VPD Information 252
Inventory Scout Configuration 250
Restart Inventory Scout Daemon 253
Inventory Scout Services tasks
Collect VPD information 250
Inventory Scout profile configuration 250
Restart Inventory Scout Daemon 250
invscoutd 251
IP router 318
IP tables 167
ipchains 167
IPLA 177
iptables 167
isolated port 326
J
Java 16
K
Kudzu 296
Kudzu screen 121
L
L2 switch 319
L3 switch 319
L4 switch 320
language settings 97
LDAP 312
Linux operating system 16
Red Hat Release 7.2 145
Red Hat Release 7.3 145
listallconfig script 238
locking between HMC 20
Log On dialog box 149, 153
log out from the HMC 32
logout 32
LPAR capable 197
lscuod 194
lshmc 185
lshmcusr 191
lshwinfo 205
lshwres 206
lslpp 261, 310
lssrc 261, 310
lssvcevents 214
lssyscfg 195
M
MA 270
MAC address 171
Machine property 57
maintenance agreement 270
managed system 3, 34
managed system HMC ports
HMC1 18
HMC2 18
managed system name 18
managed system state
CUOD CTA 64
Error 64
Incomplete 64
Initializing 64
No Connection 64
No Power 64
Ready 64
Recovery 64
Version Mismatch 64
managed system status
Incomplete 103
Recovery 102
Management Environment 34
Managing profile data 100
operations 100
backup 100
initialize 100
remove 100
Index
343
restore 100
Maximum number of processors, memory size, and
partitions 6
media drawer 7
Memory property 61
Menu bar 35
Message-passing-capable 197
Microcode Discovery Service 249
mkhmcusr 191
mksyscfg 198
mkvterm 209
MT-MDL
7028-6C4 6
7028-6E4 6
7029-6C3 6
7029-6E3 6
7038-6M2 6
7039-651 6
7040-61R 7
7040-671 6
7040-681 6
7040-W42 9, 14
7135-C02 3
7315-C01 23
Multiple managed system configuration 18
N
name resolution 312
native serial ports 3
Navigation area 34
netstat 168
network boot process 156
Network Installation Manager 156
Network path
Administrative workstation to HMC 157, 159
Administrative workstation to partition 157, 161
HMC access to the enterprise network 157, 162
HMC to partitions 157–158
Partition access to the enterprise network 157
Network paths in a partitioned environment 157
NIM 156
NIS 312
node name 312
NON BOOT error 260
non-protected port 327
Non-Warranted Programs 177
NUMA capable 197
NVRAM 100
344
O
ODS 173
On Demand Server 173
OpenSSH 176, 313
openssl 177
Operating System Reset 68, 70
Operation states of a managed system 64
Operator panel 72
P
Padlock icon 38
padlock icon 151
PAM 180
partition operating states 67
Partition Standby 63
Partition state
Error 67
Not available 67
Open Firmware 67
Ready 67
Running 67
Starting 67
Partition virtual terminal windows 52
passwd 80
Perl with the Expect module 234
PERMANENT error 260
physical processor ID 58
Placing a firewall
between the administrative workstation and
HMC 170
between the administrative workstation and partitions 172
between the HMC and partitions 168
Pluggable Authentication Module 180
Plug-in loading status 39
Policy property 59
pop-up menu 39
Power button 73
Power off the managed system 72
Power On Diagnostic Default Boot List 63
Power On Diagnostic Stored Boot List 62
Power On Normal 62
Power On Open Firmware OK Prompt 63
Power On SMS 62
power on the managed system 61
primary I/O book 7
primary VLAN 326
Private VLAN 326
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
processor 2
Processor property 58
Program number
5639-N47 24
promiscuous port 326
protected port 327
Providing security to the HMC and partitions 163
ps 261, 310
pSeries 615 Model 6C3 6, 13
pSeries 615 Model 6E3 6, 13
pSeries 615 Models 6C3 and 6E3 13
pSeries 630 Model 6C4 6, 11
pSeries 630 Model 6E4 6, 11
pSeries 630 Models 6C4 and 6E4 11
pSeries 650 Model 6M2 6, 10
pSeries 655 9
pSeries 655 Model 651 6
pSeries 670 6–7
pSeries 690 6–7
PVLAN 326
R
R.V.M.F 24
rack indicator light 268
RAN 28
Read Boot Error Value 67
Reboot Console 32
Rebuild the managed system in the HMC 64
Redbooks Web site 337
Contact us xxiii
Redundant HMC configuration 18
Registering your HMC with IBM 287
Reload the HMC graphical user interface 36
Remote access to the HMC graphical user interface
22, 148
Remote Asynchronous Node 28
Remote client setup 141, 145
Remote client setup on a Windows system 141
Remote execution of command line functions 23
Removing an asynchronous adapter 308
Removing profile data 105
Reset button 73
Reset the current HMC graphical user interface session 39
Reset the operating system in a partition 70
resource manager
DMSRM 310
IBM.CSMAgentRM 311
LparCmdRM 311
ServiceRM 311
Resource Monitoring and Control 16, 156
resource monitoring and control 261
Restoring profile data 104
reverse and regular name resolutions 313
rexec 23, 95
$HOME/.netrc 96
RIP 89
RJ-45 connector 29
RMC 16, 156, 261
RMC framework 310
rmhmcusr 193
rmsplock 211
rmsyscfg 201
rmvterm 210
routed 90
Routing Information Protocol 89
RS/6000 SP environment 310
RS-422 9
RS-422 connection 15
rsct.core.sec 310
rsthwres 211
rstprofdata 204
S
Sample implementation of port filtering rules 167
Sample Service Agent configurations on the HMC
281
saveHMCconfig script 244
Scheduled Operations 92
secondary VLAN 326
secure network in a partitioned environment 155
Secure remote connection to HMC 176
Secure Sockets Layer 38
Securing the HMC 163
Controlling access on the HMC 163
Protecting the HMC from malicious attacks 164
Secure remote access facilities 164
Security context 39
Sending VPD to IBM 290
Separating partitions from the others 165
Using the second Ethernet interface on the HMC
166
Server and Partition 41
Server Management menu
Affinity logical partitions 48
Close Terminal Connection 49
Index
345
Create 47
Delete 47
Open Terminal Window 49
Power On/Off 48
Profile Data 48
Properties 47
Rebuild managed system 49
Release Console Lock 48
Server Security 135
Server Security task
Configure this system as a Secure System Manager Server 138
Install the private key ring file for this server 137
View properties for this server 136
Service Agent 254, 310
Service Agent and security concerns 172
Service Agent gateway process 255
Service Agent task
Change Service Agent mode - (server/client)
255
Change Service Agent mode (server/client) 257
Service Agent UI - registration/configuration
255
Service Agent UI - registration/customization
257
Start Service Agent processes 255, 260
Stop Service Agent processes 255, 260
Stop Service Agent UI 255, 257
Service Focal Point 260, 310
Service Focal Point task
Hardware Service Function 261
Hardware Service Functions 268
Select Serviceable Event 265
Select Serviceable Events 261
Service Focal Point Settings 261–262
Service Processor Surveillance Policy 59
Service Representative 100
Setting 177
Setting up OpenSSH on AIX 177
Configure OpenSSH client 178
Configure OpenSSH server 180
Installing OpenSSH packages 177
Shutdown Console 32
Silent 90
smitty 51
SMP capable 197
Soft reset 71
Software Maintenance 108
SP Ethernet 310
346
special disk partition 100
ssh 23, 95, 176
ssh-add 236, 241, 246
ssh-agent 236, 241, 246
SSL 38, 141, 146
static route entries 89
Status bar 38
Supported partitioning-capable pSeries servers 6
Surveillance Notification 264
Surveillance Setup 263
Switch 319
Syntax and common HMC command line flags 180
sysctl 169
system administrator authority 75
System Configuration task
Change Current Locale 97
Configure Serial Adapter 96
Customize Console Date/Time 81
Customize Network Settings 83
Enable/Disable Remote Command Execution
95
Enable/Disable Remote Virtual Terminal 97
Scheduled Operations 92
Test Network Connectivity 91
View Console Events 82
System Manager Security
Certificate Authority 126
Object Manager Security 126
Overview and Status 126
Server Security 126
System profile 62
T
tar 116
TERM=vt320 51
Testing the dialer settings 286
Tool bar 36
Trial Capacity on Demand 194
Trial CoD 194
Trouble-free network planning rules 312
two dedicated serial ports 18
U
UNIX hostname authentication 311
Unreachable network interface 312
Un-resolvable host name 312
USB ports 3
User management 78
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
User role
Advanced Operator 77
Operator 77
Service Representative 77
System Administrator 77
User Administrator 77
Viewer 77
User role descriptions 77
W
Web-based System Manager client application
149, 152
Windows 2000 141
Windows NT 141
Windows XP 141
wsm 152
wsmlinuxclient.exe 146
wsmserver 162
V
V.R.M.F 24
Vendor-specific VLAN technologies 326
Verify data backed-up during a scheduled backup
95
Verifying asynchronous adapters 305
Adapter status 306
Ports status (8-port asynchronous adapter) 306
RANs status (128-port asynchronous adapter)
308
View
Details 37
Tree 37
Tree-Details 37
View Console Events 82
Viewing properties of the managed system 56
Viewing security configuration properties 132, 136
Virtual LAN 317
virtual terminal
accessing to the service processor 52
close 52
on the HMC 50
on the remote Web-based System Manager client 51
open 52
to partitions 52
to the Full System Partition 52
VLAN 317, 320
A brief introduction 317
Historical networking review 318
VLAN ACL 327
VLAN ID 323
VLAN tag 323
VLAN technologies 321
802.1Q VLAN 323
Layer 2 VLAN 322
Policy based VLAN 323
Port-based VLAN 322
VPD Capture Service 249
X
X server 39
xterm 52
Index
347
348
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries
(0.5” spine)
0.475”<->0.875”
250 <-> 459 pages
Back cover
®
Effective System Management
Using the IBM Hardware
Management Console for
pSeries
Using
service-related
functions on
the HMC
Planning and
implementing a
secure network
Exploiting HMC
commands
The IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries (HMC) is
a tool used for administration and management of
IBM Eserver pSeries servers. It was first announced in
late 2001 with the IBM Eserver pSeries 690 Model 681,
the first partitioning-capable pSeries server model, and has
been supporting the other partitioning-capable pSeries server
models in conjunction with several software release level
updates.
The major function provided by the HMC is partitioning
management, which is well covered well by several other
publications. This IBM Redbook, designed to be used as a
deskside reference for systems administrators who manage
partitioning-capable pSeries servers using the HMC, is meant
to complement these other publications by covering the
following topics:
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Configuring the HMC
Managing software levels on the HMC
Secure remote GUI access to the HMC
Secure networking in a partitioned environment
Service functions on the HMC
In addition, this book covers the basic usage of the HMC
graphical user interface. New HMC commands, available with
the HMC software Release 3, Version 2, are detailed in
Chapter 9, “HMC command line interface” and Chapter 10,
“Advanced HMC command examples”
SG24-7038-00
ISBN 0738499714
INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL
SUPPORT
ORGANIZATION
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
IBM Redbooks are developed by
the IBM International Technical
Support Organization. Experts
from IBM, Customers and
Partners from around the world
create timely technical
information based on realistic
scenarios. Specific
recommendations are provided
to help you implement IT
solutions more effectively in
your environment.
For more information:
ibm.com/redbooks
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