Magnavox Essence HR1784 Technical data

Magnavox Essence HR1784 Technical data
TO 1-1-8
BASIC AND ALL CHANGES HAVE BEEN MERGED
TO MAKE THIS A COMPLETE PUBLICATION
TECHNICAL MANUAL
APPLICATION AND REMOVAL OF
ORGANIC COATINGS,
AEROSPACE AND NON-AEROSPACE
EQUIPMENT
F09603-87-D-2264
FA8501-05-D-0002
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A - Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited (WR-ALC/PA Public Affairs Certificate Number
PA05-0758). Other requests for this document shall be referred to 584 CBSS/GBHDE, Robins AFB, GA 31098. Questions concerning technical
content shall be referred to AFRL/MLS-OLR.
Published Under Authority of the Secretary of the Air Force
15 FEBRUARY 2006
CHANGE 3 -
30 JANUARY 2008
TO 1-1-8
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.
NOTE
The portion of the text affected by the changes is indicated by a vertical line in the outer margin of
the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by shaded or screened areas, or by miniature
pointing hands.
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original. . . . . .0. . . . . .15 February 2006
Change . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . 14 February 2007
Change. . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 14 July 2007
Change. . . . . . . . .3. . . . .30 January 2008
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 170 CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
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7-6 Blank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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A-1 - A-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-4 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-1 - B-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-11 - B-12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-1 - C-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary 2 - Glossary 4. . . . . . . .
Glossary 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary 6 Blank. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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A
Change 3
USAF
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vii
SAFETY SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xi
1 INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL DISCUSSION OF COATING MATERIALS
AND TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
1.2
1-1
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ORGANIC COATINGS . . . . . . . . .
Coatings Systems For Metal Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Protective Finish Systems .
ORGANIC COATING . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-1
1-1
2 ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEM REMOVAL . .
2-1
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.6.5
2.7
2.8
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREPARATION FOR PAINT REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEM REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEMS
FROM METAL SUBRATES . . .
CHEMICAL REMOVERS . . . . . .
Deleted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remover For Epoxy and Polyurethane Primers and Epoxy and
Polyurethane Top-Coats Over Epoxy or Polyurethane Primers . . .
Remover For Polysulfide Primer
With A Polyurethane Topcoat . . .
Removers For Environmental Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemical Remover Selection For
Depot Removal Operations . . . .
GENERAL OVERALL CHEMICAL
REMOVAL PROCEDURES . . .
CHEMICAL REMOVAL PROCEDURES FOR CONFINED LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-1
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-11
Chapter
Page
2.9
MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF
ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEMS .
2.10
MECHANICAL REMOVAL METHODS OTHER THAN PLASTIC
MEDIA OR MEDIUM PRESSURE WATER BLASTING FOR
METAL SUBSTRATES . . . . . .
2.10.1 Abrasive Blasting . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10.2 Hand or Motor-Driven Abrasive Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10.3 Hand Held Abrasive Removal . . . .
2.10.4 Motor Driven Abrasive Removal . .
2.10.5 Stainless Steel (CRES) and Nickel
Based Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10.6 Dust Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11
PMB REMOVAL METHOD . . . . .
2.11.1 Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.2 Media Authorized for Air Force
Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.3 Operational Parameters for Metallic
Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.4 Usage Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.5 Operational Parameters for NonMetallic (Composite) Surfaces . .
2.11.6 Operation Safety Requirements . . .
2.11.7 Personnel Qualifications . . . . . . . .
2.11.8 Pre-blast Preparation . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.9 Postblast Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.10 Specific Technical Data and Work
Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.11 Disposal of Plastic Media Used in
Paint Removal Operations . . . . .
2.11.12 Contamination Testing of Plastic
Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12
MPW REMOVAL METHOD . . . . .
2.12.1 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.2 Paint Removal Operations . . . . . . .
2.12.3 Post-Paint Removal Cleaning . . . . .
2.12.4 Operational Safety Requirements . .
2.12.5 Personnel Qualification . . . . . . . . .
2.13
REMOVAL OF THERMOPLASTIC
POWDER COATING . . . . . . . .
2.13.1 Removal Procedures . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14
PAINT REMOVAL ON NONMETALLICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.1 Removal Requirements . . . . . . . . .
2.14.2 Mechanical Paint Removal on Fiber
Glass, Arranged Fiber (Kevlar)/
Epoxy, and Graphite or Boron
Fiber/Epoxy Composite Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 3
2-12
2-13
2-13
2-13
2-14
2-14
2-14
2-14
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-20
2-20
2-22
2-22
2-22
2-23
2-23
2-23
2-23
2-25
2-25
2-26
2-26
2-26
2-27
2-27
2-27
2-27
2-27
2-28
i
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
Page
3 SURFACE PREPARATION AND CHEMICAL PREPAINT SURFACE TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.1.7
3.1.8
3.1.9
3.1.10
3.1.11
3.1.12
3.1.13
3.1.14
3.1.15
3.1.16
3.1.17
3.1.18
3.1.19
3.1.20
3.1.21
3.1.22
3.1.23
ii
SURFACE PREPARATION FOR
PAINTING AND CHEMICAL
PREPAINT SURFACE TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation For Painting . .
Surface Preparation For Repair or
Over Coating of Damaged Organic Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scuff Sanding For Overspraying Existing Coating Systems On Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solvent Wiping For Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation For MIL-C27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 Integral Fuel Cell Coating . . . . . . .
Reactivation of Newly Applied
Primer or Tiecoat . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation, Unpainted Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Removal, Chemical and
Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation for Prepaint Treatment,
Unpainted Surfaces . . . . . . . . . .
Water Break Inspection . . . . . . . . .
Evidence of Inadequate Cleaning . .
Corrosion Removal Prepaint Compound, Aluminum . . . . . . . . . .
Prepaint Chemical Corrosion Removal Materials . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of MIL-C-38334/SAE
AMS-1640 Solution/Not LOX
Compatible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Treatment Materials For
Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Touch-Up of Damaged Aluminum
Surface Treatment MIL-DTL5541 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No-Rinse Process For Surface Treatment of Aluminum . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706 Solution . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of MIL-C-81706/MILDTL-81706 Solutions . . . . . . . .
Alternate Surface Preparations For
Aluminum Surfaces (PreKote
SP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of PreKote SP . . . . . . .
Use of PreKote SP on Exterior Surfaces Where Paint and Primer
Have Been Removed During
Scuff Sand, Touch-up or Repair .
Corrosion Removal Solution For
Magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 3
Chapter
3.1.24
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-3
Surface Treatment Process For Magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation For Steel . . . . .
Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tack Ragging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-15
3-16
3-16
3-17
4 PAINTING APPLICATION METHODS . . .
4-1
3.1.25
3.1.26
3.1.27
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.3
3-8
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8
4.3.9
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.5
3-8
4.6
3-5
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-9
3-11
3-11
3-13
3-13
3-15
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPRAY METHODS . . . . . . . . . . .
HVLP Spray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot Spray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Airless Spray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air-Assisted Airless Spray . . . . . . .
Electrostatic Spray . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPRAY PAINTING EQUIPMENT,
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HVLP Spraying Systems . . . . . . . .
Spray Gun, General . . . . . . . . . . .
Classes of Spray Guns . . . . . . . . .
Material Containers . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Regulators or Transformers . . .
Air Condensers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPRAY PAINTING . . . . . . . . . . .
Gun Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gun Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Painting Difficulties and Remedies .
CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MECHANICAL PAINT GUN
WASHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 PAINTING OPERATIONS FOR AIRCRAFT
AND EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.3
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.5
5.5.1
3-14
Page
5.5.2
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAFETY AND HEALTH ASPECTS
OF PAINTING . . . . . . . . . . . .
Respiratory Protection . . . . . . . . . .
SPRAY BOOTHS AND PAINTING
AREAS, GENERAL . . . . . . . . .
PAINT BOOTH TYPES . . . . . . . .
Dry-Type Booth . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air-Water Wash Type Booth . . . . .
Cleaning and Maintenance . . . . . . .
Part and Equipment Painting Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT PAINTING OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depot Level Aircraft Painting Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field Level Aircraft Painting Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-11
4-12
4-22
4-23
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
5-4
5-4
5-5
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
5.5.6
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.6.5
5.6.6
5.6.7
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.8
5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.5
5.8.6
5.8.7
5.8.8
Electrostatic Aircraft Painting . . . . .
Atmospheric Conditions For Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Material Requirements, General . . .
THE AIRCRAFT PAINTING PROCESS SEQUENCE OF
EVENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Paint Application Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overspraying Existing Coating Systems On Aircraft and Aerospace
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curing of Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coating Thickness Measurements . .
Allowable Coating Thickness . . . . .
Inspection Control . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Barrier Coating . . . . . . . . . . .
INTERIOR FINISHING PROCEDURES AND OPERATIONS . .
Preparation For Coating . . . . . . . .
Coating Application . . . . . . . . . . .
Refinishing of Fiber Glass Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAINTENANCE PAINTING . . . .
Epoxy or Polyurethane Primer/Polyurethane Topcoat . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer and Polyurethane Touch Up .
Aerosol Touchup . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brush/Roller Touchup . . . . . . . . . .
Brush Application . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roller Application . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary Protection . . . . . . . . . .
Powder Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 USAF STANDARD COATING SYSTEMS
FOR AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT . . .
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.7
6.7.1
6.7.2
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC
COATINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONSTITUENTS OF ORGANIC
COATINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PIGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VEHICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREPARATION OF COATING MATERIALS FOR USE, GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIXING AND THINNING OF
COATING MATERIALS, GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Method of Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SOLVENTS, DILUENTS AND
THINNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volatility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page
Chapter
5-5
6.7.3
6.8
6.9
6.9.1
6.9.2
6.9.3
6.9.4
6.9.5
6.9.6
6.9.7
6.10
6.11
6.12
5-6
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-11
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-13
6.12.1
6.12.2
6.12.3
6.12.4
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-15
5-16
5-16
5-16
6.12.5
6.12.6
6.12.7
6.12.8
6.12.9
6.12.10
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6.12.11
6.12.12
6.12.13
6.12.14
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
6-4
6.12.15
6.12.16
6.12.17
Page
Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLUSHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alkyds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acrylics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vinyls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phenolics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silicones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Epoxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polyurethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADHESION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIMERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COATINGS AND COATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USAF Standard Polyurethane Aircraft Coating System . . . . . . . .
Primer Coating, Epoxy, For Aircraft
Application, Specification MILPRF-23377 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer Coating, Epoxy, VOC Complaint, Chemical and Solvent Resistant, MIL-PRF-85582 . . . . . .
Primer Coating, Polyurethane, TT-P2760 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer Coating, Elastomeric,
Polysulfide Corrosion Inhibiting,
PR-1432GV . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tiecoat, Non-Chromated . . . . . . . .
Polyurethane Topcoat, High Solids
(MIL-PRF-85285, Type I) . . . . .
Curing of Complete Polyurethane
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coating Compound (Wash Primer),
Metal Pretreatment, Resin-Acid,
Specification MIL-C-8514 . . . . .
Primer, Coating, Inorganic, Zinc
Dust Pigmented, Self-Curing, For
Steel Surfaces, Specification MILP-38336/SAE AMS-P-38336 . . .
Primer Coating For Steel Surfaces,
Specification MIL-PRF-26915 . .
Paint, Aluminum, Heat Resisting
(1200° F) TT-P-28 . . . . . . . . . .
Enamel, Alkyd, Gloss, Low VOC
Content, TT-E-489 . . . . . . . . . .
Enamel, Heat Resistant (204° C or
400° F), A-A-3054 . . . . . . . . . .
Coating, Sprayable, Strippable, Protective, MIL-PRF-6799 . . . . . . .
Resin Coating, Unpigmented, For
Engine Components and Metal
Parts, MIL-PRF-3043 . . . . . . . .
Coating Kit, Epoxy, For Interior of
Steel Fuel Tanks, MIL-PRF4556 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 3
6-4
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-6
6-6
6-6
6-6
6-6
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-13
6-13
6-16
6-17
6-18
6-18
6-18
6-18
6-19
6-19
iii
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
Page
6.12.18 Coating, Corrosion Preventive, For
Aircraft Integral Tanks, MIL-C27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 . . . . .
6.12.19 Coating Compound, Nonslip (For
Walkways), A-A-59166 . . . . . . .
6.12.20 Coatings, Polyurethane, Rain Erosion Resistant For Exterior Aircraft and Missile Parts, MIL-C83231/SAE AMS-C-83231 . . . . .
6.12.21 Coating System, Polyurethane, NonYellowing White, Rain Erosion
Resistant, Thermally Reflective,
MIL-C-83445/SAE AMS-C83445 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.12.22 Leading Edge Polyurethane Rain
Erosion Resistant Tape . . . . . . .
7 APPLICATION AND REMOVAL OF DECALS AND SILK SCREENING . . . . . .
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.7.1
7.8
7.8.1
7.9
7.9.1
7.9.2
7.10
7.10.1
7.10.2
7.10.3
DECALS - GENERAL . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Procedures For Decals
and Colored Marking Stripes . . .
SMALL DECALS AND MARKING
STRIPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decals Up To 12 inches x 2 inches .
Film For Striping . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LARGE EMBLEMS AND LETTERS USING HINGE APPLICATION METHOD . . . . . . . . . . .
DECALS APPLIED USING APPLICATION TAPE . . . . . . . . . . . .
EDGE SEALING . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPLICATION OF PREMASKED
DECALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DECAL REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Removal . . . . . . . . . .
APPLICATION OF MARKINGS
WITH SILKSCREEN . . . . . . . .
Materials and Equipment for Silkscreening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SURFACE PREPARATION . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Topcoat Application . . . . . . . . . . .
APPLICATION OF MARKINGS
USING STENCILS . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting Stencil . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Painting of Stencils . . . . . . . . . . .
8 EXTERIOR FINISHES, INSIGNIA AND
MARKINGS, APPLICABLE TO USAF
AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-20
6-22
6-23
Chapter
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.1.4
8.1.5
8.1.6
8.1.7
8.1.8
6-23
6-23
7-1
8.1.9
8.1.10
8.1.11
8.1.12
8.1.13
8.1.14
8.2
7-1
7-1
7-1
8.2.1
8.2.2
7-1
7-1
7-1
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.2.5
8.2.6
7-2
8.2.7
7-3
7-3
8.3
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
8-1
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.3.6
8.3.7
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.4.3
8.4.4
8.4.5
8.4.6
8.4.7
8.4.8
8.1
iv
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 1
8-1
Page
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance and Application . . . . .
Major Command Instructions . . . . .
Authorized Deviations . . . . . . . . .
Paint Scheme and Marking Approval
Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89th AW, 201AS, and the 1st Helicopter Squadron . . . . . . . . . . . .
U.S. Air Force Aerial Demonstration
Squadron The Thunderbirds . . . .
76TH Airlift Squadron . . . . . . . . .
Low Observable Aircraft . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Received From Other Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applicable References . . . . . . . . .
STANDARD EXTERIOR FINISHES MARKINGS AND INSIGNIA FOR USAF AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal Exterior Finishes . . . . . . . . .
Titanium and Corrosion Resistant
Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treatment of Metal Exteriors . . . . .
Policy Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camouflage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Purpose Exterior Solar Resistant Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint Facility/Finish Identification
Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markings and Insignia for USAF
Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USAF Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
American Flag Marking . . . . . . . .
United States of America Marking .
Aircraft Radio Call Numbers . . . . .
AMC Standard Radio Call Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACC Standard Radio Call Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organization Insignia or Emblems .
Outstanding Unit Award Marking . .
Crew Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local Station Numbers and Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Propeller Markings . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopter Main Rotor Blade Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopter Tail Rotor Blade Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identification Markings of Jettisonable Aircraft Components . . . . .
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-6
8-6
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
8.4.9
8.4.10
8.4.11
8.4.12
8.4.13
8.4.14
8.4.15
8.4.16
8.4.17
8.4.18
8.4.19
Page
Markings for Servicing, Ground
Handling and Hazard Warning . .
Markings for Engine Compartment
Fire Access Panel . . . . . . . . . . .
Ejection Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identification of Ballistic Hose Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markings for Tank Filler Areas . . . .
Marking of Emergency Lighting
(Flashlight) for Cargo &Transport
Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markings for Walkways and Steps .
Markings for Composite/Honeycomb
Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removable Escape Panels . . . . . . .
Markings for Unmanned aerial Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conspicuity Markings . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter
8-6
8-6
Arctic Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Establishing Requirements for Mission Activity, Crew Accomplishment, and Esprit de Corps Insignia and Markings . . . . . . . . . . .
8-8
8-6
8-7
APPENDIX A SHELF-LIFE EXTENSION
PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-1
APPENDIX B STANDARD AIR FORCE
AIRCRAFT MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . .
B-1
APPENDIX C RESPIRATOR PROTECTION EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-1
8-6
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8.4.20
8.5
Page
8-7
GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Glossary-1
Change 1
v
TO 1-1-8
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
6-1
7-1
Title
Page
Nozzle Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . .
Simple Spray System Setup . . . . . . . .
Airless Spray System . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Spray System . . . . . . . . . . .
Sectional View of Spray Gun . . . . . . .
Proper Installation of Air Compressor,
Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Right and Wrong Methods of Spraying .
Fifty Percent Overlap . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cross Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spray Gun Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . .
Excessive Spray Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint Leaks From Spray Gun . . . . . . .
Gun Sputters Constantly . . . . . . . . . . .
Orange Peel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sandpaper Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wrinkling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Blistering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fish Eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pitting or Cupping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sempen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sempen Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sempen Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spray Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zahn Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Small Decal. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-12
4-13
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-20
4-20
4-21
4-21
4-21
4-21
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-15
6-4
7-1
Figure
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-11
B-1
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
B-8
B-9
B-10
B-11
B-12
Title
Applying Marking Stripe . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Large Emblems (Step 1) . . . .
Applying Large Emblems (Step 2) . . . .
Applying Large Emblems (Step 3) . . . .
Applying Large Emblems (Step 4) . . . .
Use of Application Tape (Step 1) . . . . .
Use of Application Tape (Step 2) . . . . .
Use of Application Tape (Step 3) . . . . .
Use of Application Tape (Step 4) . . . . .
Edge Sealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edge Sealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Star Insignia on Swept Wings .
Form of Letters and Numerals . . . . . . .
Typical Marking For Paint
Facility/Finish Identification Block . .
“UNITED STATES OF AMERICA”
AND AMC Standard Marking
Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distinctive Unit, Serial Number and
ACC Standard Sample . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Markings, Servicing and
Precautioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ground Here, International Symbol . . .
Markings For Fire Access Panel . . . . .
Helicopter Tail Boom Markings . . . . . .
Typical Emergency Instruction
Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Emergency Entry Markings . . .
Page
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-3
7-3
7-3
7-4
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
B-8
B-10
B-10
B-11
B-11
B-12
LIST OF TABLES
Table
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
3-1
3-2
4-1
5-1
5-2
vi
Title
Hand Held Abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor Driven Abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abrasive Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommended Controls and PPE for
Abrasive Blasting Operationsa . . . . . .
Recommended Controls and PPE for
Surface Preparation Operationsa . . . . .
Wipe Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes,
and Remedies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum Recommended Controls and
PPE for Priming and Painting
Operationsa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allowable Coating Thickness for
Production Level Finishing (Depot,
Original Manufacture, Field) . . . . . . .
Change 1
Page
Table
2-15
2-16
2-17
5-3
6-1
2-18
6-2
8-1
8-2
3-4
3-5
8-3
4-13
8-4
5-2
A-1
C-1
5-11
Title
Gloss Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning Ratio (Volume) for Wash Primer
MIL-C-8514 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leading Edge Tape Materials/Tools . . . . .
Standard Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Authorized American Flag
Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Authorized United States of
America Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Authorized Multi-Colored Blade
Tip Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viscosity and Pot Life . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Respirator Protection Equipment . . . . . . .
Page
5-12
6-15
6-24
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-6
A-3
C-2
TO 1-1-8
FOREWORD
1
PURPOSE.
The purpose of this technical order is to prescribe standard
procedures for the removal, application, and maintenance of
coating systems on Air Force systems and equipment. Its
applicability is generally imposed by reference in system or
item technical data. It also should be used where there is an
absence of paint process requirements in system or item
technical data. System and item (SM/IM) management activities have an obligation to require the use of this technical
order to the maximum practical extent. It reflects the use of
standard materials and procedures that meet Defense Standardization Program, AF Corrosion Prevention and Control
Program, and Air Force policy (AFI 21-105) requirements.
SM/IM offices should modify standard requirements or
specify alternate requirements only as needed to support the
specific requirements of their systems and equipment as
stated in TO 00-5-1. Where there is a conflict between this
general TO and the weapon system specific TO, the weapon
system specific TO will take precedence. Such departures
from standard should also be coordinated with all applicable
Office of Coordinating Responsibilities (OCRs) (e.g., Corrosion Control, Ground Safety, Bioenvironmental Engineering,
Environmental Management).
2
SCOPE.
This technical manual specifies procedures, materials, and
equipment for preparing surfaces and correctly applying
effective finishes to interiors and exteriors of Air Force
aircraft, missiles, and associated equipment. Painting techniques are suggested and common difficulties discussed.
Procedures for applying complete coating systems are given.
Some basic discussion of paint technology is included and a
glossary of painting terms appended.
3
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS.
The following nonstandard abbreviations are used in this
manual. For definition of standard abbreviations and acronyms, refer to ASME 14.38.
ACGIH
ALC
BCE
BES
CFM
CID
CRES
DR
EAID
American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists
Air Logistic Center
Base Civil Engineer
Base Environmental Services
Cubic Feet per Minute
Commercial Item Description
Corrosion Resistant Steel
Drum
Equipment Authorization Inventory
Data
EPA
FSC
GL
gm
HAZMAT
HDI
HVLP
ID
IPB
IPI
LEL
LOX
MEK
ml
moh
MPW
MSDS
NATO
NDI
No.
NSN
OCR
OSHA
Environmental Protection Agency
Federal Stock Classes
Gallon
Grams
Hazardous Materials
Hexamethylene Diisocyanate
High Volume Low Pressure
Inside Diameter
Illustrated Parts Breakdown
In-Process Inspection
Lower Explosive Limit
Liquid Oxygen
Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone
milliliter
Measure of Hardness
Medium Pressure Water
Material Safety Data Sheets
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Non-Destructive Inspection
Number
National Stock Number
Office of Coordinating Responsibilities
Occupational Safety and Health Act
PAPR
PCBTF
PD
PMB
PN
PPE
PPM
PSI
PSIG
PVC
QPL
SG
SLED
SM/IM
SPD
SPO
TNP
UAV
UV
Powered Air-Purifying Respirator
Parachlorobenzotrifluoride
Purchase Description
Plastic Media Blasting
Part Number
Personal Protective Equipment
Parts per Million
Pound-force per square inch
Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge
Polyvinyl Chloride
Qualified Products List
Specific Gravity
Shelf-Life Extension Data
System Manager/Item Manager
Systems Program Director
System Program Office
Touch-N-Prep
Unmanned aerial Vehicle
Ultra Violet
Change 3
vii
TO 1-1-8
Volatile Organic
Compound
VOC
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
CID A-A-3054
4
LIST OF RELATED PUBLICATIONS.
The following publications are to be used for reference.
Maintain only those publications required to perform assigned mission. This list is not all inclusive. This list also
includes general information TOs pertaining to inspection,
maintenance, storage, and use of personal flying and survival
equipment.
List of Related Publications
Number
ASTM D 1153
ASTM D 13
ASTM D 304
ASTM D 329
ASTM D 330
ASTM D 740
CCC-C-440
CID A-A- 857
CID A-A-1043
CID A-A-1044
CID A-A-1047
CID A-A-1800
CID A-A-2522
CID A-A-3003
CID A-A-3007
viii
Change 3
Title
Methyl-Isobutyl-Ketone
(Repl. TT-M-268)
Spirits of Turpentine (Repl.
TT-T-801)
n-Butyl Alcohol (Butanol)
(Repl. TT-B-846)
Acetone, Technical (Repl.
O-A-51)
Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl
Ether (2-Butoxyethanol)
(Repl. TT-E-776)
Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone (Repl.
TT-M-261)
Cloth, Cheese, Cotton,
Bleached and Unbleached
Thinner, Dope and Lacquer
(Cellulose Nitrate) (Repl.
MIL-T-19544)
Wool, Steel (Repl. FF-W1825 steel type)
Wool, Metallic (Copper and
Aluminum) (Repl. FF-W1825 aluminum type)
Paper, Abrasive, Silicon
Carbide, Waterproof
(Repl. by ANSI B74.18)
Varnish, Oil, Spar (Repl.
TT-V-119)
Rags, Wiping (Cotton and
Cotton Synthetic)
Lacquer, Spraying, Clear
and Pigmented, for Interior Use (Repl. TT-L-58)
Thinner for PhenolFormaldehyde and Medium Oil and Styrenated
Alkyd Paints and Varnishes (Repl. TT-T-306)
CID A-A-3118
CID A-A-3164
CID A-A-341
CID A-A-55827
CID A-A-58054
CID A-A-58060
CID A-A-59105
CID A-A-59106
CID A-A-59107
CID A-A-59124
CID A-A-59133
CID A-A-59146
CID A-A-59166
CID A-A-59281
CID A-A-59282
CID A-A-59485
DOD-P-15328
Title
Paint, Heat Resisting (204°
C) (Repl. TT-E-496)
Brush, Plater’s, Hand
(Curved Handle Type)
(Repl. H-B-178)
Synthetic Lacquer, Camouflage, Exterior, VOC
Compliant (Repl. TT-L20)
Pigment, Aluminum, Powder and Paste (Repl. TTP-320)
Chromium Trioxide, Technical (Repl. O-C-303)
Abrasive Mats, NonWoven, Non-Metallic
(Repl. MIL-A-9962)
Fluorocarbons and Other
Refrigerants
Nitric Acid, Technical
Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl
Ether, Technical (Repl.
TT-E-781)
Toluene, Technical (Repl.
TT-T-548)
Deck Covering, Lightweight, Non-Slip (Repl.
MIL-W-5044)
Cleaning Compound, High
Pressure (Steam) Cleaning (Repl. MIL-C-5543)
Cleaning Compound, Alkali, Boiling Vat (Soak)
or Hydrosteam (Repl.
P-C-436)
Coating Compound, NonSlip, for Walkways (Repl.
MIL-W-5044)
Cleaning Compound, Solvent Mixtures (Repl.
MIL-C-38736)
Alcohol, Ethyl (Repl. O-E760)
Plastic Material, Pressure
Sensitive, for Aerospace
Identification and Marking (Repl. MIL-P-38477)
Primer (Wash), Pretreatment, (Formula No. 117
for Metals)
TO 1-1-8
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
GGG-C-520
Title
Cloth and Disks, Abrasive,
Open-Mesh, Waterproof
(Repl. by ANSI B74.18)
MIL-A-8625
Anodic Coatings for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
MIL-B-23958
Brush, Cleaning, Aircraft,
Metal Brightening
MIL-C-16555
Coating Compound, Strippable, Sprayable
MIL-DTL-5541
Chemical Conversion Coatings for Aluminum and
Aluminum Alloys
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTLChemical Conversion Mate81706
rials, for Coating Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
MIL-DTL-85054
Corrosion Preventive Compound, Water Displacing,
Clear (AMLGUARD)
MIL-C-8514
Coating Compound, Metal
Pretreatment, Resin-Acid
MIL-C-8779
Color, Interior, Aircraft,
Requirements for
MIL-DTL-24441
Paint, Epoxy-Polyamide,
General Specification for
MIL-P-15930
Primer Coating, Shipboard,
Vinyl-Zinc Chromate
MIL-PRF-23377
Primer Coatings, Epoxy,
High Solids
MIL-P-38336/SAE AMS-P- Primer Coating, Inorganic
38336
Zinc Dust Pigmented,
Self Curing, for Steel
Surfaces
MIL-P-85891
Plastic Media for Removal
of Organic Coatings
MIL-PRF-121
Barrier Material, Grease
Proof, Water Proof, Flexible
MIL-PRF-131
Barrier Material, Water Vapor Proof, Grease Proof,
Flexible
MIL-PRF-22750
Coating, Epoxy, High Solids
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
MIL-PRF-26915
MIL-PRF-3043
MIL-PRF-4556
MIL-PRF-6799
MIL-PRF-680
MIL-PRF-83936
MIL-PRF-85285
MIL-PRF-85570
MIL-PRF-85582
MIL-PRF-87937
MIL-PRF-87978
MIL-STD-7179
MIL-T-81772
SAE AMS-1640
SAE AMS-3002
Title
Primer Coating for Steel
Surfaces
Resin Coating, Permanent,
for Engine Components
and Metal Parts
Coating Kit, Epoxy, for
Interior of Steel Fuel
Tanks
Coating, Sprayable, Strippable, Protective, Water
Emulsion
Degreasing Solvent (Repl.
P-D-680)
Remover, Paint, Tank type;
for Aircraft Wheels,
Landing Gear Components, and Other Aircraft
and Support Equipment
Coating, Polyurethane,
High-Solids
Cleaning Compound, Aircraft Exterior
Primer Coatings, Epoxy,
Waterborne
Cleaning Compound, Aerospace Equipment
Remover, Paint, Epoxy and
Polyurethane Systems,
Tank Type, Ambient temperature, for Aircraft
Wheels and Landing
Gear Components
Finishes, Coatings, and
Sealants for Protection of
Aerospace Weapon Systems (Repl. MIL-F-7179)
Thinner, Aircraft Coating
Corrosion Removing Compound, for Aircraft Surfaces (Repl. MIL-C38334)
Alcohol, Ethyl, Specially
Denatured (Repl. MIL-A6091)
Change 3
ix
TO 1-1-8
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
SAE AMS-3819
SAE AMS-C-27725
SAE AMS-C-83231
SAE AMS-C-83445
SAE AMS-M-3171
SAE AMS-T-21595
SAE AMS-T-23397
SAE AS-22805
TT-E-751
TT-I-735
TT-N-95
TT-P-1757
TT-P-2760
TT-P-28
VV-P-236
TO 00-25-172
x
Title
Cloths, Cleaning
Coating, Corrosion Preventive, Polyurethane, for
Aircraft Integral Fuel
Tanks (to 250° F) (Repl.
MIL-C-27725)
Coating, Polyurethane, Rain
Erosion Resistant, for
Exterior Aircraft and
Missile Plastic Parts
(Repl. MIL-C-83231)
Coating System, Polyurethane, Non-Yellowing
White, Rain Erosion Resistant, Thermally Reflective (Repl. MIL-C-83445)
Magnesium Alloy, Processes for Corrosion Protection (Repl. MIL-M3171)
Tapes, Pressure-Sensitive
Adhesive, Masking, NonStaining-for Aircraft
Painting Applications
(Repl. MIL-T-21595)
Tapes, Pressure Sensitive
Adhesive, for Masking
During Paint Removal
Operations (Repl. MIL-T23397)
Spray Kit, Self Pressurized
(Repl. MIL-S-22805)
Ethyl Acetate, Technical
Isopropyl Alcohol
Naphtha, Aliphatic
Primer Coating, Alkyd
Base, One Component
Primer Coating, Polyurethane, Elastomeric, High
Solids
Paint, Aluminum, Heat Resisting (1200° F)
Petrolatum, Technical
Ground Servicing of Aircraft and Static Grounding/Bonding
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
TO 00-25-4
TO 00-5-1
TO 1-1-24
TO 1-1-24-1
TO 1-1-689 Volumes I, III,
and V
TO 1-1-690
TO 1-1-691
TO 31-1-221
TO 35-1-3
TO 42B1-1-15
TO 42C2-1-7
Title
Depot Maintenance of
Aerospace Vehicles and
Training Equipment
Air Force Technical Systems
Maintenance, Repair, and
Electrical Requirements
for Fiberglass Airborne
Radomes
Supplementary Manual -Maintenance, Repair, and
Electrical Requirements
for Fiberglass Airborne
Radomes
Cleaning and Corrosion
Control, Avionics and
Electronics
General Advanced Composite Repair Manual
Aircraft Weapon Systems
Cleaning and Corrosion
Control
Field Instructions for Painting and Preserving Electronics Command Equipment
Corrosion Prevention,
Painting, and Marking of
USAF Support Equipment (SE)
Cross Reference - NATO/
ASCC Interchangeability
of Aviation Fuels, Lubricants and Allied Products
Process Instructions-Metal
Treatments, Electro deposition of Metals, and
Metal Surface Treatments
Meet Air Force Maintenance Requirements
TO 1-1-8
SAFETY SUMMARY
1
GENERAL SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS.
This manual describes physical and chemical processes,
which may cause injury or death to personnel, or damage to
equipment if not properly followed. This safety summary
includes general safety precautions and instructions that must
be understood and applied during operation and maintenance
to ensure personnel safety and protection of equipment. Prior
to performing any task, the WARNINGs, CAUTIONs, and
NOTEs included in the task shall be reviewed and understood.
2
Highlights an essential operating or maintenance
procedure, practice, condition, statement, etc.
which if not strictly observed, could result in
damage to, or destruction of, equipment or loss of
mission effectiveness.
NOTE
Highlights an essential operating or maintenance
procedure, condition, or statement.
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES.
WARNING, CAUTION, and NOTE statements have been
strategically placed throughout this text prior to operating or
maintenance procedures, practices or conditions considered
essential to the protection of personnel (WARNING) or
equipment and property (CAUTION), or when essential to
highlight a practice (NOTE). A WARNING, CAUTION or
NOTE will apply each time the step to which it refers is
repeated. Prior to starting any task, the WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, and NOTES for that task will be reviewed and
understood. Refer to the materials list table at the beginning
of the appropriate work package for material used during
maintenance of this equipment. The detailed warnings for
hazardous materials are listed separately in the safety summary in the Hazardous Materials paragraph. Other warnings,
cautions, and notes which appear in this manual are not listed
separately in this safety summary, and are defined as follows:
3
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS.
Hazardous Material Warnings are provided through use of
Hazard Symbols listed below. Consult the HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS DESCRIPTION below or MSDS OSHA Form
20 or equivalent for specific information on hazards, effects
and protective equipment requirements. If you do not have an
MSDS for the material involved, contact your supervisor, or
base Safety or Bioenvironmental Engineering Offices.
Highlights an essential operating or maintenance
procedure, practice, condition, statement, etc.,
which, if not strictly observed, could result in
injury to, or death of, personnel or long term
health hazards.
xi/(xii blank)
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL DISCUSSION OF COATING
MATERIALS AND TERMS
1.1
INTRODUCTION.
NOTE
See Chapter 8 for Air Force policy on determining when individual aircraft are to be repainted or
touched up.
The surfaces of aircraft, missiles, and associated equipment
are subjected to hostile environments both natural and manmade. Inadequate control or prevention of metal corrosion or
other forms of surface deterioration is costly and can shorten
weapon or equipment life, hinder mission accomplishment, or
endanger personnel or equipment. To add to their ability to
resist detrimental environments, surfaces are coated in various ways with a variety of materials. Coatings are divided
into two main groups: inorganic and organic. The principal
and most versatile means of protection is organic coating, or
“paint”. In general, a suitable organic coating system, properly applied, offers greater protection against corrosion on
metals than an inorganic finish (such as a metallic plating)
alone and is more easily maintained. This technical manual
also covers some inorganic materials, insofar as they are
applied in surface preparation for painting by personnel
involved with paint removal and painting operations.
1.2 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ORGANIC COATINGS.
NOTE
Precautionary measures shall be taken to prevent
paint and paint removal waste from contaminating air, water, or soil. Some of the chemicals
utilized for painting and paint removal require
treatment or other special control prior to disposal. Disposal of materials shall be accomplished under the direction of the Base Safety
Office, Base Civil Engineer, Bioenvironmental
Engineer, and Environmental Management in
accordance with applicable directives and in a
manner that will not result in violation of local,
state, or federal pollution criteria. Detailed information for disposal is cited in AFI 32-1067, AFI
32-7041, AFI 32-7042, AFPAM 32-7043, AFI
32-7045, AFI 32-7080, AFI 32-7086, and
AFOSH STD 91-501.
To provide optimum protection from deterioration and corrosion, the proper coating systems (combination of pretreatment, primer, and topcoat) must be selected for a specific
application. The selection of the proper coating system
depends on the material to be coated, the environment to
which the item will be subjected, and the service life
requirement of the coating. No single coating or coating
system can perform adequately on all types of surfaces under
all conditions to which Air Force equipment is subjected. For
example, a coating paint conforming to Specification MILC-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 is good for fuel immersion
service, but is inadequate for exposure to an industrial
atmosphere or high humidity conditions. Many primers and
topcoats can be used in various combinations; however, some
primers are specifically formulated for a particular type
topcoat. One Component, Alkyd Base Primers are for use
under enamels. Use of this primer under epoxy or polyurethane coatings will result in premature failure of the coating
system.
1.2.1 Coatings Systems For Metal Surfaces. Unless
protected, metals surfaces (with the exception of stainless
steel, titanium and some of the more exotic metals) react with
oxygen and various contaminants in the atmosphere, particularly in the presence of moisture, to form rust or other
corrosion products. The most common method of preserving
metals is by applying organic coatings.
1.2.1.1 Polishing, buffing, and waxing of aircraft and parts
is prohibited unless authorized and directed by the MAJCOM
Senior Logistics Official.
1.2.2 Aircraft Protective Finish Systems. MIL-STD7179 covers the general requirements for protective finishes
and coatings on aerospace weapon system structures and
parts. (It does not necessarily govern coatings on aeronautical
equipment such as propellers or power plants, nor those on
accessories such as motors, generators, instruments, etc.) The
level of coating protection is specified depending on the
environment to which the weapon system is to be subjected.
1.3
ORGANIC COATING.
An organic coating or paint may be defined as a carbon based
liquid or semi-liquid material which is applied to a surface by
some mechanical means and which, when dried or cured, will
provide an adherent film of certain desired characteristics.
Organic coatings are variously classed as paints, enamels,
varnishes and lacquers. As these classifications are not always
practical, due to modern formulations, and because the
coating materials dealt with in this technical manual are
almost exclusively organic in chemical structure, the preferred term “organic coating” is used to designate finishing
materials in general. For the purposes of this technical
manual the term is extended to include some heavy elastoChange 3
1-1
TO 1-1-8
meric materials which are not truly “paints,” and also certain
chemical surface-treating materials which are not truly organic. These materials may or may not be applied by painters,
1-2
but are closely associated with painting operations. Also, the
term “to paint” will continue to be used to signify the
application of organic coatings by painters.
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 2
ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEM REMOVAL
2.1
INTRODUCTION.
The most important factor in removal of organic finish
systems (coatings/paints) is complete removal without damaging surfaces on which they are applied. A variety of
materials and either chemical or mechanical methods can
remove finish systems. In choosing a material and a method,
a compromise between maximum removal power and maximum protection for the equipment being stripped must be
made. Accessibility of areas to be stripped can dictate the
types of materials and methods to be used. For these reasons,
only those materials and methods described in this chapter,
subject to noted restrictions, are authorized for general use in
organic finish system removal from Air Force equipment.
Adherence to removal procedures and their sequence of
performance in this chapter is mandatory. Other removal
materials and methods can be authorized for limited and
specific applications, but only when specifically approved
and defined in system peculiar aircraft and/or equipment
technical orders. The term “Depot Level” in this chapter
refers to organizations and facilities which are involved in
complete aircraft stripping operations on a routine, if not
daily basis. This includes the Air Logistic Centers (ALCs)
and contract stripping operations. It does not include fieldlevel maintenance facilities.
NOTE
National Stock Numbers (NSNs), if assigned, for
chemical removers, abrasives, and other materials and equipment authorized in this chapter are
in Federal Stock Classes (FSC) 5345/50, 6850,
and 8135 and FSC 7500, 7900, and 8000. Consult
the current FED LOG and GSA Catalog and/or
the D043 System to convert specification and part
numbers to NSNs and for ordering and pricing
information and shelf life codes.
2.2
GENERAL.
NOTE
Each time an aircraft is completely depainted, the
following information shall be documented in the
aircraft historical record, AFTO Form 95: 1. Type
of paint removal process used, 2. Where accomplished, and 3. Date accomplished.
Organic finish systems shall be removed from Air Force
aircraft and equipment only when the condition of deterioration of the system indicates the need for removal or when
required in a system peculiar technical order to perform a
specified inspection of the underlying structure. This applies
to stripping of components and small areas of aircraft and
equipment as well as to the entire surface of aircraft or
equipment. Removal of the entire exterior organic finish
system from aircraft shall be accomplished in accordance
with the criteria specified in Chapter 8 of this manual and the
Aircraft System Program Manager’s Service Life Paint Plan.
Prior to any organic finish system removal, the following
steps shall be taken in all cases:
a. Ensure that the facility to be used for finish system
removal operations meets all the safety, fire precaution,
health promotion, and environmental requirements in
applicable AFOSH and NFPA standards. Precautionary
measures shall be taken to prevent paint and paint
removal waste from contaminating air, water, or soil.
Prior to performance of finish system removal operations, all personnel must be trained on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) as required in AFOSH STD
48-137 and 91-501. Personnel who are not wearing
appropriate PPE shall not perform finish system removal
operations.
b. Ensure that the facility to be used for finish system
removal operations provides the proper precautionary
measures for disposal of finish system removal waste
products as required by AFI 32-7041, AFI 32-7080, and
AFI 32-7086 to prevent contamination of lakes, rivers,
and streams. Many chemicals used in finish system
removal operations and finish system residues require
special treatment and control prior to disposal. Disposal
shall be accomplished under the direction of the Base
Safety Office, the Base Civil and Bioenvironmental
Engineers, and the Environmental Management Office
in a manner which will not violate local, state, and
federal pollution regulations. Consult AFI 32-1067, AFI
32-7041, AFI 32-7042, AF PAM 32-7043, AFI 32-7045,
AFI 32-7080, AFI 32-7086, and AFOSH STD 91-501
for detailed information on disposal of finish system
removal waste.
c. Determine the type of organic finish system to be
removed so that the proper material and method for
removal can be chosen from those listed in this chapter.
Consult aircraft and/or equipment system peculiar technical orders and drawings, component drawings, aircraft
historical records (AFTO Form 95), and/or the aircraft
exterior finish identification marking on the aircraft
(reference Chapter 8) to help in this determination. If the
finish system cannot be determined from these documents or they are not available, determine the finish
system as follows:
(1) Rub a small area on the surface from which the finish
system is to be removed vigorously with a cotton rag
wet with ASTM D 329 acetone. If the finish system
2-1
TO 1-1-8
is removed, it is a lacquer or alkyd enamel coating. If
it is not removed, or very little is removed, it is a
polyurethane or an epoxy coating.
(2) For polyurethane and epoxy coatings, scrape off the
topcoat from a small area down to the primer coating
with a knife blade or razor blade. If the primer is
rubbery and a tan-gray color, it is a polysulfide
primer. If the primer is hard and either a yellow, light
brown, or dark green (olive drab) color, it is either an
epoxy or a polyurethane primer.
d. As a last step, study the removal operation to be
performed and determine the most logical and efficient
process for the job. If confined areas are involved, they
shall be protected during a general overall removal
operation, and shall be stripped using the special procedures in this chapter for these areas. If fiberglass, kevlar,
or other composites are involved, they shall be stripped
using the special procedures outlined later in this technical order. For extensive removal operations, such as
removal of the entire exterior finish system on aircraft
and large pieces of equipment, a detailed sequential
step-by-step process specification confirming to all of
the requirements in this chapter shall be prepared and
followed. All personnel involved with finish system
removal shall be trained in and thoroughly familiar with
all requirements of this chapter.
2.3
PREPARATION FOR PAINT REMOVAL.
All aircraft will be de-energized per AFOSH STD 91-17,
support equipment or components must be properly prepared
for paint removal operations. Additionally, it is essential that
all facilities and equipment for paint removal operations meet
the safety and environmental requirements for the processes
to be employed. Once the process for paint removal has been
selected, use the following preparation requirements to prepare the aircraft, support equipment or component.
a. Inspect all surfaces to be stripped for grease, oil, and
dirt. These materials act as a barrier between the finish
system and the chemical or abrasive removers and will
contaminate recoverable air-driven abrasives. This can
cause excessive man-hour expenditures, longer flow
times, and additional waste generation during removal
operations. Small amounts of these contaminants do not
cause a problem; but if surfaces are exceptionally dirty,
oily, or greasy, they shall be washed in accordance with
TO 1-1-691 prior to removal operations. After washing,
surfaces shall be either wiped dry, or sufficient time shall
be allowed for them to air dry prior to removal operations. Small areas or components may be cleaned using
a solvent wipe per Chapter 3 of this manual.
2-2
b. Position the aircraft, equipment, or component from
which the finish system is to be removed in a covered
facility. If chemical removal methods are to be used, this
facility shall be capable of maintaining the ambient air
temperature within the range of 50° F to 100° F. In
addition, the item from which the finish system is to be
chemically removed shall be placed in the facility for a
length of time sufficient to allow its surface temperature
to reach 50° F to 90° F prior to application of the
remover. While chemical removal can be accomplished
within the ambient air temperature range of 50° F to
100° F, severe difficulties will be encountered outside a
temperature range of 70° F to 90° F. Below 70° F,
chemical removal is very inefficient because the action
of chemical removers is extremely slow; so the flow
time, man-hours, and amount of remover required for
chemical removal operations will be increased significantly. Above 90° F, the solvents in chemical removers
evaporate so rapidly that removal efficiency is severely
reduced and its drying on the surface makes it severely
difficult to clean the finish system and remover residue
from surfaces. This too will cause a significant increase
in flow time, man-hours, and amount of remover required for chemical removal operations.
c. Protect all special areas, equipment, and materials by
masking or other specified protective devices. For
chemical removal operations, masking shall be accomplished with MIL-PRF-131, Class 1, barrier material
and MIL-T-23397/SAE AMS-T-23397, Type II, (72hour protection) aluminum backed, pressure sensitive
tape. For extensive stripping operations such as depot
level complete exterior finish system removal from
aircraft and large pieces of equipment, use only 3M Co.
Part Number (PN) 425 tape (3M Co. Address: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing, Industrial Tape Div.,
3M Center, St. Paul MN 55101). This is the only tape
which will provide adequate protection for the extended
time period involved with this type of operation. The
engineering support activity for this technical order
evaluates and approves tapes for this source control
listing using the latest issue of MIL-T-23397/SAE
AMS-T-23397. Chemical stripper CeeBee R-256 is used
as the testing agent for stripper resistance. Make sure
that the plastic coated side of the MIL-PRF-131, Class
1, barrier material is toward the surface being protected
or the plastic will be deteriorated by chemical removers.
NOTE
Specific 3M Co. PN 425 Tape NSNs can be found
using the following part number “425 + * ⁄ * +
in” in Fed Log Supply System.
TO 1-1-8
d. For air and water-driven abrasive removal operations
unless otherwise noted, the same materials listed for
chemical removal operations shall be used for masking
of areas which will not be exposed to direct impingement of the abrasive media to prevent abrasive media
intrusion. Impact stripping tape shall be applied with hot
glue to mask areas which will be exposed to direct
impingement of the bicarbonate of soda and water and
plastic blast media as an alternate for masking for
Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) subject to the restrictions
following.
Materials:
Hot Glue Gun - Polygun PC Applicator 3M Co.
PN 99302 or
PN AIS 7000K, 4940-01-512-7768
Hot Glue - 3M Co.
PN 3748 TC, 8040-01-390-9728 or
PN AIS 5050, 6850-01-512-7763
Cotton Rope
Caulking Cord - More - Tite Putty
Impact Stripping Tape
80 mils thick, 20 oz/in peel strength, 250% to 300%
elongation, Shore A hardness 70-80
Anchor Continental BT-100 or
3M Co. PN 500 Series (ex. 500, 506, 528, etc.)
Impact Stripping Tapes 500 are available in 30 feet
long rolls under NSNs:
9390-01-359-7367 (1 in wide/9 rolls per box)
9390-01-359-7368 (2 in wide/6 rolls per box)
9390-01-359-7369 (3 in wide/3 rolls per box)
These are rubberized tapes capable of withstanding a
direct nozzle blast from PMB or bicarbonate of
soda and water blast equipment for a maximum of
two seconds.
2.3.1 Application. Hot glue is used to seal seams, covers
and access panel gaps less than 3/16 inch and to seal seams
and edges of impact tape for added protection. Fluid wicks
fabricated from cotton rope are sealed in place using this
material, and are installed at saturated seams prior to sealing
with hot glue. Caulking cord is used to fill seams and gaps in
excess of 3/16 inch. Impact tape is used to protect areas not
to be blasted.
2.3.2
Procedures.
Media intrusion into engines, gun assemblies,
avionics, or actuators can severely damage these
components. Extreme care must be exercised to
mask every possible intrusion site.
Cover all antennas with impact tape. When masking off large
areas, such as vents, use hard cardboard, sheet metal or
equivalent, reinforced with impact tape over the side that will
be exposed to PMB or bicarbonate of soda and water blast
media. When placing cover in position, use impact tape to
hold in place, and apply hot glue to seal edges. Seal all edges
of all impact tape with hot glue to eliminate possibility of tape
peeling. In seams or protrusions where slow hydraulic leaks
compromise masking integrity, install a fluid wick (cotton
rope) with a minimum four inch length and seal in place with
hot glue. Aircraft mold line drain holes shall be plugged with
rubber stoppers or equivalent and sealed with hot glue.
2.3.2.1 A detailed step-by-step checklist specifying the
masking procedure shall be prepared for all finish system
removal operations. This checklist shall be used to ensure that
all required masking is accomplished prior to removal operations and that all masking is removed afterwards. The
following areas shall be masked and/or otherwise protected
for chemical and air or water driven abrasive finish system
removal operations:
a. Close all windows, doors, and hatches on aircraft or
equipment; and mask gaps between the structure and
these components. For air or water driven abrasive
removal operations, these gaps may be stuffed full with
sheets of MIL-PRF-131, Class 1, barrier material or
heavy duty (0.004 inch thick) polyethylene or vinyl
plastic film sheet to prevent abrasive media intrusion.
b. Mask all transparent plastic and glass surfaces such as
windows, canopies, and blisters; because they will be
crazed, frosted, or lose transparency if exposed to
chemical removers or if air or water-driven abrasive
media strikes them. For air or water-driven abrasive
removal operations, optional form-fitting metal or wood
shields may be fabricated for canopies and blisters in
conjunction with 3M Co. PN 510, 3M Co. 500, 510, or
Bron Tape, PN 818 material cut to the exact size for
windows. These tapes are available in 30-foot long rolls
under NSNs 7510-01-300-2124 (1 in), 7510-01-3002125 (2 in), 7510-01-300-2126 (3 in), 7510-01-3002127 (4 in), up to 30 in (special order).
Care must be taken to prevent hot glue from
dripping on skin or into eyes. Wear safety
goggles.
2-3
TO 1-1-8
NOTE
For extensive chemical removal operations such
as entire aircraft exterior finish system, some
residual stripping will be required. For this limited stripping, it may be more efficient and
practical to strip those areas of the finish system
which will be covered by masking tape by the
hand residual finish system removal procedures
in this chapter prior to masking for the over all
media removal operation. This is authorized as
long as extreme care is taken to prevent damage
to areas which require protection by masking, all
remover and open finish system residue is thoroughly removed from the stripped areas and areas
around them, and surfaces on which masking tape
will be applied are solvent wiped with a cotton
rag wetted with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol followed by wiping dry with a clean cotton rag
before the alcohol evaporates.
Care should be taken when cutting and trimming
of the barrier/tape to prevent damage to the
transparent plastic and glass surfaces.
c. Mask all radomes, antennas, fiber glass and/or composite structure, and rubber boots and/or all other rubber or
elastomer surfaces to prevent chemical removers and air
or water driven abrasive media from damaging these
materials and/or components. (See Paragraph 2.14 for
composite paint stripping procedure).
d. Mask all engine intake and exhaust openings and all
openings or ports leading to interior cavities of structure
to prevent entrapment of chemical removers and abrasive media. When masking aircraft pitot static ports and
probes, the probe and port openings shall be covered
with a disk of barrier material or paper prior to application of pressure sensitive tape to prevent tape adhesive
from contaminating the interior and the openings of
these probes and ports. The tape shall cover the barrier
material or paper completely and overlap onto the
aircraft surface approximately one-half inch past the
outside diameter of the pitot static port circular hole
pattern.
e. Mask all seams of removable inspection and equipment
access panels and personnel doors for chemical removal
operations to prevent seepage of the remover into joints.
f. Mask all edges, repairs, and loose fasteners on honeycomb and metal-to-metal adhesively bonded panels and
doors for chemical removal operations to prevent
chemical removers from damaging adhesives and disbonding adhesively bonded structure.
g. Fabric covered control surfaces (rudders, elevators,
ailerons, etc.), shall be either completely masked or
removed from the aircraft prior to any paint removal
operations in the area of these components. Fabric can
be damaged by chemical removers and air or water
driven abrasive media.
h. Sometimes, replacements for very detailed or highly
specialized decals are very difficult to obtain. Mask
these types of decals using barrier material over the
decal if directed to save them.
i. Mask all other areas specified in and as directed by
system peculiar aircraft or equipment technical orders,
such as aircraft -23 corrosion technical orders.
2-4
2.4
ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEM REMOVAL.
There are two methods for removal of organic finishing
systems; chemical and mechanical. Each method has its own
set of procedures, precautions, restrictions, and limitations;
and therefore, each will be explained separately. If confined
areas or non-metallic structural materials are involved in the
removal operation, specific procedures for these areas are
presented in this chapter and shall be used.
2.5 CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF ORGANIC FINISH
SYSTEMS FROM METAL SUBRATES.
Chemical removal procedures and their sequence of performance are essentially the same for all types of organic finish
systems, all types of chemical removers, and either limited or
extensive removal operations. However, the type of chemical
remover used depends on the type of organic finish system to
be removed.
2.6
CHEMICAL REMOVERS.
The type of chemical remover used to remove an organic
finish system varies according to the type of system to be
removed: alkyd base primer, lacquer or alkyd enamel topcoats over alkyd base primer, epoxy and polyurethane primers, epoxy and polyurethane topcoats over epoxy or polyurethane primers, or polyurethane topcoat over polysulfide
primer. The approved types of chemical removers which shall
be used to remove each of these organic finish systems are
identified below along with precautions to be used for each
type:
TO 1-1-8
NOTE
All chemical removers have a shelf life of six
months from the date of manufacture unless
otherwise specified, if they are stored and maintained under the proper conditions. They should
be ordered in quantities and by intervals which
allow all chemical removers on-hand to be used
prior to the shelf life expiration date. Chemical
removers shall be stored in a protected area (out
of direct sunlight) capable of maintaining a temperature of 40° F to 100° F to prevent them from
freezing or being exposed to excessively high
temperatures. Chemical removers rapidly deteriorate at temperatures exceeding 100° F, and many
of them become corrosive. Exposure to freezing
temperatures causes them to separate in such a
way that the components cannot be remixed to a
homogeneous solution. In either case, they become totally ineffective. While not necessarily
unsatisfactory after six months of age, chemical
removers do deteriorate and lose removal efficiency on aging beyond six months; and some
start to become corrosive. A definite age control
program shall be established for chemical removers by the using activity, and any material which
is questionable due to improper storage and/or
exceeding its shelf life shall be laboratory tested
and updated in accordance with AFM 23-110
prior to use. Particular attention shall be given to
the corrosivity of chemical removers during
testing.
2.6.1
competition. These removers are heavy bodied or very
viscous liquids, usually yellow or brown in color, designed to
remove these finish systems by solvent action. These removers shall be applied full strength with no dilution in a smooth
even coat by either a brush or a non-atomizing type sprayer.
Removers authorized to remove epoxy and polyurethane
finish systems from USAF aircraft, missiles, and equipment
metal surfaces are identified by PN and source of supply.
2.6.2.1 Phenolic Type Removers, NSN 8010-01-023-0343
(55 GL DR), 6850-01-512-6620 CeeBee R-256 (8 oz),
6850-01-555-9124 Crest Stripper #18 (8 oz).
Part Number
B&B 1567 &
9500
CeeBee R-256
PR-3500
5292 & 5351
Deleted.
2.6.2 Remover For Epoxy and Polyurethane Primers
and Epoxy and Polyurethane Top-Coats Over Epoxy
or Polyurethane Primers. There are no USAF approved
specification removers for these finish systems, but proprietary removers of two different types, phenolic and nonphenolic/non-cresylic, have been tested and approved by the
Air Force Corrosion Prevention and Control Office for use on
USAF aircraft, missile or equipment metal surfaces. Each
remover is chemically unique and not necessarily interchangeable with others for a particular task. Production
variables affecting the choice of removers include the brand
and age of the finish system, type of surface to which it is
applied (metal type, large/small area, horizontal/vertical surface), local climate, capabilities of local industrial waste
treatment facilities, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
and local environmental restrictions on remover and paint
residue disposal, and local medical and bioenvironmental
authority concerns for worker contact with the more reactive
type products. Phenolic type removers are much more efficient than the non-phenolic/non-cresylic type removers for
removal of these finish systems, but they present waste
disposal problems and require treatment facilities capable of
handling them. Each activity is authorized and encouraged to
service test the listed removers to evaluate effectiveness for
their own particular situation and to select a preferred
remover and one or two alternates, if possible, to promote
Stripper #18
Source of Supply
B&B Tritech, Inc.
Cage Code: 21361
875 W 20th St
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
CeeBee Div., McGean-Rocho, Inc.
Cage Code: 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
Eldorado Chemical Co., Inc.
Cage Code: 55208
11611 N Meridian ST, STE 600
Carmel, IN 46032-7118
Turco Products Inc. Henkel Surface
Tech
Cage Code: 1N6B3
32100 Stephenson HWY
Madison Heights, MI 48071
Crest Industrial Chemicals, Inc.
Cage Code: 77513
1737 County RD 57
Rosharon, TX 77583
2.6.2.2
Non-Phenolic/Non-Cresylic Type Removers,
8010-01-261-6874 (55 GL DR), 8010-00-348-7716 (5 GL),
8010-01-167-9692 (1 GL).
Part Number
B&B 4411
PR-3400
Inland AP-599
Source of Supply
B&B Tritech, Inc.
Cage Code: 21316
875 W 20th St
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
Eldorado Chemical Co., Inc.
Cage Code: 55208
11611 N Meridian ST, STE 600
Carmel, IN 46032-7118
Inland Chemical Corp.
Cage Code: None
1810 Magnavox Way
Fort Wayne, IN 46804
Change 3
2-5
TO 1-1-8
Part Number
Intex 857
CeeBee A-292
Source of Supply
EZE Products Inc, Intex Chemical
Div
Cage Code: 8Z357
603 High Tech CT
Greer, SC 29650
CeeBee Div.; McGean-Rocho, Inc.
Cage Code 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
2.6.3 Remover For Polysulfide Primer With A Polyurethane Topcoat. There are no USAF approved specification removers for this finish system, but proprietary removers of two different types, phenolic and non-phenolic/noncresylic, have been tested and approved by the Air Force
Corrosion Prevention and Control Office for use on USAF
aircraft, missile, and equipment metal surfaces. While they
will remove military specification polyurethane topcoats, it is
much more efficient to remove polyurethane topcoats with
one of the removers listed for epoxy and polyurethane finish
systems first and then to remove the polysulfide primer with
one of the removers listed in this paragraph. This method is
highly recommended to avoid excessive use of materials,
man-hours, and flow time in removal of this finish system.
These removers are heavy bodied or very viscous liquids
designed to remove polysulfide primer with a polyurethane
topcoat by solvent action; preferably after the polyurethane
topcoat has been removed with one of the removers listed for
epoxy and polyurethane finish systems. These removers shall
be applied full strength, with no dilution, in a smooth even
coat by either a brush or a non-atomizing type sprayer. The
removers authorized to remove polysulfide primer with a
polyurethane top-coat from USAF aircraft, missiles, and
equipment metal surfaces are identified below by PN and
source of supply, 8010-01-270-3637 (55 GL DR).
The maximum shelf life of PN B&B 5151A
Remover is three months. This remover shall
not be used if it is older than three months
from the date of manufacture.
Part Number
B&B 5151A &
9500
CeeBee R-458
2-6
Change 3
Source of Supply
B&B Tritech, Inc.
Cage Code: 21316
875 W 20th St
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
CeeBee Div., McGean-Rocho, Inc.
Cage Code: 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
2.6.4 Removers For Environmental Compliance. In
addition to removers listed in preceding paragraphs, removers
based on benzyl alcohol and alternate alkaline materials have
been tested and approved for use on USAF aircraft, missile,
or equipment metal surfaces by the Air Force Corrosion
Prevention and Control Office. These products offer the
advantage of reduced hazardous waste generation and contain
ingredients not currently listed as hazardous materials for
occupational health or environmental contamination. However, skin and eye protection is still required. Consult the
local bioenvironmental engineer for minimum personal protection requirements and the local environmental coordinator
to establish proper handling and disposal procedures for the
removers and the process waste. These products have flash
points ranging from 150° F to over 200° F so they are not
classified as flammable materials, but as combustible materials. Their use should be coordinated with the local fire
department. These products do not afford the same production
rates as the traditional methylene chloride and phenolic type
removers, and removal efficiency on each type of coating
varies for each product. They are chemically unique and not
necessarily interchangeable for a particular task. The products
are generally effective for topcoat removal but have differing
degrees of effectiveness with primers. The following removers are authorized to remove organic finishes from USAF
aircraft, missiles and equipment metal surfaces:
2.6.4.1
Removers for epoxy/polyurethane primer and
polyurethane topcoats 6850-01-495-0236 (55 GL DR), 685001-495-0135 (5 GL), 6850-01-495-0148 (1 GL), 6850-01523-0007 (8 oz).
Part Number
CeeBee E-1092A,
E-2000,
E-2002A &
E-2012
Source of Supply
CeeBee Div, McGean-Rohco Inc.
Cage Code: 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
PR-3131/PR-3133 Eldorado Solutions, Inc.
Cage Code: 55208
11611 N Meridian ST, STE 600
Carmel, IN 46032
DBA of Eldorado Chemical CO Inc.
6813, 6813E, &
Turco Products Inc. Henkel Surface
6840S
Tech
Cage Code: 1N6B3
32100 Stephenson HWY
Madison Heights, MI 48701
B&B 9400 & 9575 B&B Tritech, Inc.
Cage Code: 21361
875 W 20th St
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
TO 1-1-8
2.6.4.2 Removers for polysulfide primers 6850-01-4950150 (55 GL DR), 6850-01-495-0149 (5 GL), 6850-01-4950235 (1 GL).
Part Number
CeeBee E-1058 &
E-1058A
Source of Supply
CeeBee Div, McGean-Rohco Inc.
Cage Code: 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
SR-125A, SR-145, Eldorado Solutions, Inc.
& PR-3133
Cage Code: 55208
11611 N Meridian ST, STE 600
Carmel, IN 46032
DBA of Eldorado Chemical CO Inc.
5151B
B&B Tritech, Inc.
Cage Code: 21361
875 W 20th St
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
D-Zolve GL-15-33 Solvent Kleene, Inc
Cage Code: 0L8C9
119 Foster St, Bldg 6
Peabody, MA 01960
2.6.5 Chemical Remover Selection For Depot Removal Operations.
Each Air Logistics Center (ALC),
either alone or in concert with other ALC’s shall prepare a
purchase description (PD) with a qualified products list
(QPL). This QPL will establish testing and qualification
procedures for removers authorized for use in their facilities
from among those listed in Paragraph 2.6.2.1, Paragraph
2.6.2.2, Paragraph 2.6.4.1, Paragraph 2.6.3, and Paragraph
2.6.4.2. Testing for removers in Paragraph 2.6.2.1, Paragraph
2.6.2.2, and Paragraph 2.6.4.1 shall include removal efficiency tests from test panels with one coat of epoxy or
polyurethane primer and two coats of epoxy or polyurethane
topcoat air dried for seven days at room temperature and then
baked for 4 days in an oven at 210° F (± 10° F). Efficiency
tests from removers in Paragraph 2.6.3 and Paragraph 2.6.4.2
will be conducted on test panels with one coat of polysulfide
primer (PR-1432GV) and two coats of polyurethane topcoat
air dried for seven days at room temperature and then bake
for 4 days in an oven at 210° F (± 10° F). Criteria for passage
of the test shall be complete removal to bare metal in 15
minutes maximum for phenolic removers, one hour for
nonphenolic/non-cresylic removers, and one hour using just
removers listed in Paragraph 2.6.3 and Paragraph 2.6.4.2.
Criteria for polysulfide primer is complete removal to bare
metal in 30 minutes maximum using these same removers
after the topcoat is removed using a removers listed for epoxy
and polyurethane finish systems. It should be understood that
removal time for a finish system which has been in service for
several years is somewhat longer than for removal of the
same finish system from test panels prepared as noted above.
Removal time is also dependent on the number of overcoats
present on the surface and environmental conditions in the
removal facility.
Change 3
2-7
TO 1-1-8
2.7 GENERAL OVERALL CHEMICAL REMOVAL
PROCEDURES.
Chemical removal of organic finish systems shall be performed in accordance with the following sequential steps:
Chemical removers are toxic to skin, eyes, and
respiratory tract. Skin and eye protection required. Contact Bioenvironmental Engineering
for determination of need for and selection of
proper respiratory protection.
a. Ensure that all facility safety, health, and disposal
requirements and all personnel safety and health requirements in Paragraph 2.2 step a and step b are met.
b. Determine the type of organic finish to be removed in
accordance with Paragraph 2.2 step c. Select and obtain
the proper chemical remover for the finish system
involved in accordance with Paragraph 2.6.2, Paragraph
2.6.3, or Paragraph 2.6.4.
c. Ensure that the removal operation has been properly
planned and that all personnel understand the operation
as required by Paragraph 2.2 step d.
d. Ensure that the aircraft, equipment or component has
been properly cleaned, dried, and masked in accordance
with Paragraph 2.3 through Paragraph 2.3.2.1 step i.
e. Ensure that the aircraft, equipment, or component has a
surface temperature within the specified range and is
located within a covered facility having an ambient air
temperature within the specified range defined in Paragraph 2.3 step b.
f. Mix the chemical remover well with a mechanical mixer
or a wooden paddle immediately before use as chemical
removers tend to separate on standing. Do not mix by
rolling a drum of chemical remover as this will not mix
the material adequately.
g. Apply a light to medium thick, uniform coat of chemical
remover to the area of the aircraft, equipment, or
component from which the finish system is to be
removed with a long handled, non-metallic brush, specification MIL-B-23958, (type and style are optional) or a
non-atomizing type sprayer wand fitted to a barrel
pump. Never use an atomized spray to apply chemical
removers. Do not apply thick coats of chemical removers as this actually slows down the removal rate, creates
a more extensive waste disposal operation, and wastes
expensive chemical removers. Efficient removal requires maintaining a wet film of remover on the surface.
Active ingredients in chemical removers listed in Paragraph 2.6.2 are highly volatile and evaporate rapidly; so
after about one hour dwell time, they begin to dry out
and no longer react on the finish system as most of the
active ingredients have evaporated. Environmentally
compliant removers listed in Paragraph 2.6.4. have a
maximum dwell time of 24 hours before they become
non-reactive. For an effective removal operation chemical removers must be applied progressively and in a
planned logical sequence. Apply removers to areas no
larger than can be effectively worked by the personnel
on hand to perform the operation. Removers should not
be applied to a second area prior to completion of the
removal operation in an area being worked. This is
particularly important for extensive removal operations
such as removal of the entire exterior finish system from
an aircraft. Preferably, application of chemical removers
should begin at the highest point of a vertical or sloping
surface to prevent removers from running down onto
surfaces from which the finish system has already been
removed; but this is an optional decision to be made by
local management.
h. Allow a chemical remover listed in Paragraph 2.6.2 to
dwell on the surface undisturbed for 15 minutes, and one
listed in Paragraph 2.6.3 and Paragraph 2.6.4 for 4 hours
and then agitate several spots on the surface with
A-A-58054, Type I, Grade C abrasive mat, or a MILB-23958, Type I or III brush to determine if the finish
system has been loosened down to bare metal. If the
finish system has loosened down to bare metal at this
point, proceed to next step; if not, repeat the 15 minute
or 4 hour dwell and spot agitation procedure until
loosening of the finish system down to bare metal is
indicated or a maximum of one hour or 24 hour dwell
time has elapsed and then proceed to the next step.
i. When the finish system has loosened to bare metal or
exceeds a reasonable dwell time, thoroughly agitate the
entire area on which the chemical remover has been
applied with a MIL-B-23958, Type I or III brush while
exerting as much pressure with the brush as possible.
2-8
Change 1
TO 1-1-8
NOTE
• Never allow a chemical remover to dry on the
surface to which it is applied as it is extremely
difficult to remove after it dries.
• Never rinse surfaces with water between
chemical remover applications as this stops
the removal action and tends to set up the
remaining finish system on the surface making
it very difficult to remove. Schedule removal
operations so that once started on an area, they
proceed without interruption through the entire sequence to complete removal to bare
metal. If the operation must be interrupted due
to some scheduling problem or the workday
ending, scrape off all chemical remover with a
rubber bladed squeegee and rinse the area with
water as directed below prior to stopping
work. When a chemical removal operation is
interrupted in this fashion, extreme difficulty
will be encountered in removal of the remaining finish system from the area where work
was stopped requiring increased amounts and
applications of chemical removers, increased
man-hours for the operation, and significant
flow time delays. If the area is exposed to
direct sunlight during the interruption, even
more difficulty will be experienced in removal
of the remaining finish system. Never restart
chemical remover application until the area is
completely dry.
A MIL-B-23958, Type I, Style 1, brush is available through GSA under NSN 7920-00-054-7768
(round, nylon bristles). A MIL-B-23958, Type III,
Style 1, brush is available through GSA under
NSN 7920-00-051-4384 (round, nylon, and
tampico bristles).
j. Immediately after agitation, scrape all loosened finish
system residue and chemical remover from the surface
with a rubber bladed squeegee; and immediately reapply
fresh chemical remover per Paragraph 2.7, step g, on
spots where the finish system has not been removed
down to bare metal in the area being worked, and repeat
Paragraph 2.7, step h and Paragraph 2.7, step i.
2-9
TO 1-1-8
NOTE
Only those aluminum wools and brushes specified shall be used to agitate metallic surfaces
during finish system removal operations. Other
types of metallic wools and brushes, such as
steel, copper, brass, beryllium copper, etc., shall
not be used as they will either embed in or smear
on the metallic surface and cause severe galvanic
corrosion problems.
NOTE
If a polysulfide primer/polyurethane topcoat finish system is being removed and the first application of chemical remover takes off the topcoat
but not the primer, the second and subsequent
applications shall be with one of the chemical
removers specified in this manual for removing
polysulfide primer.
k. Repeat the removal sequence, Paragraph 2.7, step g
through Paragraph 2.7, step j, in the area being worked
as necessary to remove the finish system down to bare
metal up to a maximum of three times. For the second
and all subsequent applications of chemical remover
agitate the surface with A-A-58054, Type I, Grade C
nylon abrasive mat; A-A-1044, Type II, Class 1, Form
A, aluminum wool; and/or A-A-3118, Type I, Class A7
aluminum wire brushes to assist in the removal operation.
NOTE
• A-A-58054, Type I, nylon abrasive mat is
avai1ab1e under NSN 5350-00-967-5092 for
10 sheets of Grade C (medium) material.
• A-A-1044, Type II, Class 1, Form A, (PN
AA1044-B-1-A), aluminum wool is available
under NSN 5350-00-286-4851 for a one
pound roll or 5350-00-312-6129 for 25 one
pound rolls.
• A-A-3118, Type I, Class 7, (PN A-A-3118/A7)
aluminum wire brushes are available under
NSN 7920-01-067-6192 for one brush.
l. As soon as the finish system has been removed down to
bare metal or the final attempt at overall chemical
removal has been completed and the chemical remover
and finish system residue has been scraped from the
surface with a rubber bladed squeegee in the area being
worked, flush the area thoroughly with hot water at a
temperature of 100° F to 120° F and a pressure of
150-250 PSI. Start at the lowest point and work upward
using care to keep the water off adjacent areas from
which the finish system will be removed.
2-10
• If hot water is not available, fresh tap water at
hydrant pressure may be used for the flush
operation. However, it should be well understood that this will make the final cleaning/
washing step much more difficult and require
additional man-hours and flow time to accomplish, because cold water tends to gel waxy
compounds used in chemical removers and
redeposit them on the surface.
• With prior written aircraft Systems Program
Director (SPD) approval, Medium Pressure
Water (MPW) methods in Paragraph 2.12
(water only-no baking soda) may be used
instead of Paragraph 2.7 step i through step l
to enhance paint removal with environmentally compliant removers in Paragraph 2.6.4
after their required dwell time is reached.
• When removing alkyd base primer having no
topcoat, flush the area with water as soon as
possible after it has been loosened by the
chemical remover and scraped from the surface as it tends to readily redeposit on the
surface if the surface becomes dry thus requiring another application of chemical remover.
m. After the area being worked has been thoroughly flushed
with water, remove tape used for masking within the
area by hand; or, as an alternate, remove it with the hot
water at the same time the area is being flushed.
n. Remove any residual finish system from very stubborn
spots and areas covered with tape during the general
removal operation using care to prevent chemical removal materials from entering into and becoming entrapped in confined areas and/or causing damage to
structure, components or materials. Apply either the
same chemical removers used for the general removal
operation, or specification MIL-T-81772, Type I or II
thinner, and/or specification TT-E-751 ethyl acetate by
dabbing them on the spots with a small non-metallic
bristle brush. Agitate the spots with the same materials
listed for agitation during the general removal operation
and/or nonmetallic/plastic scrapers while the chemical
remover or solvent is on the surface. Wipe the loosened
finish system and chemical remover off the surface with
a cotton rag; and if necessary, abrade the remaining
finish system off the surface in accordance with the
mechanical removal procedures in Paragraph 2.9 with
materials in Table 2-1, Table 2-2, and Table 2-3. Wipe
the area from which the finish system was removed with
a cotton rag wetted with fresh water, and then dry with
a clean cotton rag.
o. If the area just completed is the final area from which
the finish system is to be removed, proceed directly to
TO 1-1-8
the next step. If other areas are to be worked, repeat
Paragraph 2.7 step g through step n on the next area.
Application of chemical remover on a new area may
begin as soon as the flushing operation is completed and
while the residual finish system removal operation is in
progress on an area being worked as long as enough
personnel are on hand to work both areas effectively.
p. Immediately after finishing the chemical removal operation on the last area from which the finish system is
being removed, thoroughly wash all areas of the aircraft,
equipment or component from which the finish system
has been removed and those adjacent areas which may
have been exposed to or contaminated with chemical
remover in accordance with TO 1-1-691, the aircraft -23
technical order, and/or the equipment system specific
technical order. Inspect all areas where chemical remover may have become entrapped, and clean these
areas as required. The aircraft, equipment or component
shall not be removed from the coating removal facility
until this washing operation is completed.
2.8 CHEMICAL REMOVAL
CONFINED LOCATIONS.
PROCEDURES
FOR
When use of the chemical removers, listed in Paragraph 2.6.2
through Paragraph 2.6.4, of this manual is impractical because of assembly complexities and/or rinsing difficulties,
remove the finish system from metal surfaces using specification MIL-T-81722, Type I or II thinner, or specification
TT-E-751 ethyl acetate in accordance with the following
procedures:
Do not allow these materials to spread to adjacent
areas not being worked or to splash, overspray, or
spill onto adjacent rubber, synthetic rubber, plastic, or composite materials, or components as
damage to the finish system on adjacent areas and
these materials and components will result.
a. Apply a solvent selected from the list above to the area
from which the finish system is to be removed with a
small non-metallic bristle brush or a clean cotton rag.
b. Allow the solvent to dwell on the surface until all the
finish system to be removed has softened and/or lifted
from the surface. It may be necessary to keep a rag
saturated with solvent on the surface in order to keep the
surface wet for the time required to lift the finish system.
c. Agitate the surface at frequent intervals using the same
abrasive materials and scrapers listed for agitation and
residual finish system removal in Paragraph 2.7 step k
and Paragraph 2.7 step n. Wipe loosened finish system
residue from the surface with clean cotton rags wetted
with the same solvent being used for removal.
d. Repeat Paragraph 2.8 step a through Paragraph 2.8 step
c as necessary until all finish system and residue have
been removed from the metal surface, including recesses around rivets, bolts, etc.
e. Wipe the area clean with a clean cotton rag wetted with
fresh tap water, and then wipe the area dry with a clean
cotton rag.
NOTE
• Specifications MIL-T-81772, Type I or II thinner, and TT-E-751 ethyl acetate are flammable. Avoid all sources of ignition.
If this chemical method does not remove the
finish system, proceed to one of the mechanical
methods in this technical order.
• Chemical removers are toxic to skin, eyes, and
respiratory tract. Skin and eye protection required. Contact Bioenvironmental Engineering for determination of need for respiratory
protection and selection of proper type when
required.
• Use extreme caution when using specifications
MIL-T-81772, Type I or II thinner, or TT-E751 ethyl acetate in areas where liquid oxygen
storage and transfer equipment are located.
Never use these materials on valves, flanges or
other components where they may come in
direct contact with liquid oxygen or pure
oxygen vapor.
Change 1
2-11
TO 1-1-8
2.9 MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF ORGANIC FINISH
SYSTEMS.
• Reference Table 3-1 for the minimum recommended PPE for paint removal operations
using hand held or motor driven abrasives
(sanding and grinding). Reference Table 2-4
for the minimum recommended PPE for abrasive blasting paint removal operations.
• Abrasive blasting, motor-driven wire brush
and motor-driven abrasive disc operations create airborne particles that are hazardous to the
eyes, skin, respiratory tract. Do not stand
above, below or directly next to other workers.
Avoid being “downwind” from others using
mechanical sanders and grinders. Do not use
compressed air to remove dust.
• The dust created by either of these methods is
hazardous to the respiratory tract, and noise
produced by abrasive blasting is hazardous to
the hearing. Coveralls with full-length sleeves
and gloves with gauntlets shall be worn by
personnel performing either of these removal
methods. Protective clothing should be removed prior to leaving the work area. Personnel using motor-driven abrasives shall wear
dust/particulate type respirators, goggles,
and/or full face shields. Personnel performing
dry abrasive blasting shall wear an abrasive
blasting airline/hood respirator meeting the
requirements of AFOSH STD 48-137 and
hearing protection. Hoods or helmets should
be cleaned prior to storage in dust-free environment. Contact the Base Bioenvironmental
Engineer for specifics on required protective
equipment.
2-12
• Dust generated from abrasive, metal, and finish system particles during dry abrasive blasting, motor-driven wire brush, or motor-driven
abrasive disc finish system removal operations
creates the potential for a dust explosion. Use
only pneumatic type motor-driven equipment.
Properly electrically ground all motor driven
equipment, abrasive blasting equipment, work
stands, and work pieces when engaged in
these operations. Avoid all sources of ignition
where these operations are in progress, and
provide adequate ventilation in the area.
• Dry abrasive blasting, motor-driven wire
brush, or motor-driven abrasive disc finish
system removal on steel and titanium alloy
surfaces may cause sparking. Perform these
operations in a well ventilated area, and take
proper fire safety precautions. If these methods are being used in a large operation involving other types of metals, remove the finish
system from the steel and titanium surfaces
first; and then proceed to the other areas.
• Low-carbon steel brushes shall not be used on
aluminum, magnesium, copper, stainless steel,
or titanium alloy surfaces as steel particles will
embed in these surfaces and later rust or cause
galvanic corrosion of these surfaces. Copper,
brass, or beryllium copper brushes shall not be
used on aluminum, magnesium, steel, stainless
steel, or titanium alloy surfaces as they will
smear on these surfaces and cause galvanic
corrosion.
• Mechanical methods shall be used only long
enough to remove the finish system and not
abrade the underlying metal surface. Speed of
removal is not the most important factor.
Removal without damage to the surface or
creating a condition which can lead to future
corrosion damage and providing a surface
suitable for finish system reapplication are the
most important factors.
TO 1-1-8
• Plastic media blasting (PMB) may be used on
composite materials in accordance with procedures in Paragraph 2.11, providing its use
has been approved by the specific aircraft’s
SPD. In all cases, use PMB to remove only the
topcoat from composite surfaces. The underlying primer must be used as a “flag” to signal
the PMB operator that the topcoat has been
removed. When the primer begins to show
during the stripping operation as the topcoat is
slowly removed, the PMB blast should be
directed elsewhere on the surface being
stripped. This technique is essential to avoid
damaging the composite material.
• When using mechanical methods, abrasive
blast media and pieces of broken brushes and
discs can escape from the work area. These
methods shall not be used in areas under
conditions that allow escaped particles to enter
into and damage or contaminate any system,
engine, or other component. Barriers shall be
erected around the work area and masking of
the surrounding area and masking or plugging
of all holes leading to the interior of systems
and equipment shall be accomplished to prevent damage and contamination of systems
and equipment by dust, abrasive blast media,
and pieces of broken brushes and discs. The
system specific aircraft corrosion manual (-23)
or the specific equipment manual shall be
consulted for proper masking requirements.
Mechanical removal methods include the use of hand-held
wire brushes, bonded abrasive papers or cloths, and abrasive
mats; motor-driven wire brushes, bonded abrasive paper or
cloth discs, and abrasive mat discs and flap brushes; and
abrasive blasting. Mechanical removal is recommended when
use of chemical removers is impractical due to structural
complexities and/or rinsing difficulties in an area being
worked and/or local environmental restrictions. While these
methods are very effective for finish system removal, they can
cause severe damage to structure and equipment in a very
short time if improperly used. Consult with weapons system
specific TOs prior to performing work in fracture critical/
no-work areas.
2.10 MECHANICAL REMOVAL METHODS OTHER
THAN PLASTIC MEDIA OR MEDIUM PRESSURE WATER BLASTING FOR METAL SUBSTRATES.
Protective clothing worn during abrasive blasting
operations shall remain in the work area and shall
not be taken home for cleaning.
For any and all mechanical finish system removal operations,
approval for the operation shall be obtained from the responsible ALC as directed in Paragraph 2.9. The area involved in
the operation shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove all oil,
grease, and hydraulic fluid per TO 1-1-691. Masking shall be
accomplished per instruction in Paragraph 2.3 step c and the
applicable system or equipment specific manual prior to
starting the operation. Precautions listed in the cautions and
warnings in this manual, the applicable system or equipment
specific manual, and TO 1-1-691 shall be strictly followed.
Mechanical removal methods consist of hand abrasive or
motor-driven abrasive removal of organic coatings from
various substrate materials and abrasive blasting.
2.10.1 Abrasive Blasting. Iron and Steel Alloys (Other
than Stainless Steel) may be abrasive blasted with aluminum
oxide grit, steel grit, or sand at a maximum air pressure of 40
PSI for a pressure type machine to remove paint. This is very
effective on low-carbon steels and iron as it also removes
rust/corrosion leaving a bright metal surface. Use TO 1-1-691
as control for this type of abrasive blasting, and never use on
steel less than 0.0625 inches thick.
2.10.2 Hand or Motor-Driven Abrasive Removal.
These methods for mechanical removal of a finish system are
basically the same for all substrates. The primary difference is
the type of abrasives used, which vary depending on the
Change 1
2-13
TO 1-1-8
underlying surface. Table 2-1, Table 2-2, and Table 2-3 shall
be used to determine the abrasive material to be used for
topcoat or primer removal and the substrate metal it may be
used on.
2.10.3
Hand Held Abrasive Removal.
• Damage to clad/Alclad or anodize surfaces
will reduce the corrosion protection in those
areas.
• Motor-driven wire brushes and discs and abrasive blasting shall not be used on flexible,
braided copper wire, cables, hoses, and lines
as these methods can cause severe damage to
these components.
• Magnesium particles, powder, or dust are
extreme fire hazards. Motor-driven wire
brushes and abrasive flap brushes and abrasive
blast media other than those listed in Table
2-1, Table 2-2, and Table 2-3 shall not be used
for finish system removal from magnesium
alloy surfaces. Keep work area clean. Do not
permit flammable materials or any source of
ignition into the area.
• Finish system removal using motor-driven
abrasives can generate airborne particles that
are hazardous to the skin, or respiratory tract.
Work pieces and motorized equipment shall be
properly electrically grounded, and personnel
shall wear dust/particulate respirators,
goggles, gloves, and full sleeved shirts when
using motor-driven abrasives. Do not stand
above, below or directly next to other workers
performing these operations. Avoid being
“downwind” from others using mechanical
sanders. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering Services for respiratory and ventilation
requirements.
Abrade the finish system topcoat from the surface down to the
primer with hand-held metallic wool, abrasive mat, abrasive
cloth, or wire brushes as specified in Table 2-1 and Table 2-3.
If required, change the abrasive being used and abrade the
primer from the substrate material, taking care not to damage
the metal substrate.
2-14
2.10.4
Motor Driven Abrasive Removal.
Do not mount an abrasive on a motor driven tool
having an operational speed higher than the
maximum RPM rating of the abrasive. This can
result in disintegration of the abrasive and can
cause injury to personnel.
Abrade the finish system topcoat from the surface down to the
primer with motor driven wire brushes, or either a random
orbital tool or pneumatic drill motor fitted with a Roloc™ or
hook and loop mounted surface conditioning disc, a disc
fabricated from an abrasive cloth sheet, a Roloc™ Bristle
disc, or Radial Bristle disc. Select the abrasive for use per
Table 2-2 and Table 2-3. Use sanders and grinders attached to
high efficiency vacuum systems for dust recovery. Use of a
random orbital sander or a pneumatic drill motor fitted with
the surface conditioning disc is preferable. This method
provides the fastest removal rate with the least possibility of
damage to the metal substrate and the longest abrasive life
due to the non-loading characteristics of this type of disc.
Keep sander heads flush against the surfaces being sanded
and apply the least amount of pressure necessary to effectively remove the finish system topcoat and not go through
the primer and gouge or abrade the metal substrate. Abrade
the primer from the surface with the same methods used for
the topcoat, but with finer grade abrasives per Table 2-2 and
Table 2-3. Again, the motor-driven surface conditioning disc
is preferred, and only enough pressure to remove the primer
without gouging and abrading the metal substrate shall be
applied. Always use high efficiency vacuum systems attached
to the tools for dust recovery.
2.10.5 Stainless Steel (CRES) and Nickel Based Alloys. After completing mechanical removal using materials per Table 2-1, Table 2-2, and Table 2-3, polish the surface
with hand held aluminum oxide/nylon mesh abrasive mat
(very fine) or either a random orbital tool or pneumatic drill
motor (12,000 RPM max) fitted with a (very fine) grade
“Scotch-Brite” aluminum oxide/nylon mesh roloc or hook
and loop mounted surface conditioning disc.
2.10.6 Dust Removal. After the finish system has been
removed, use HEPA vacuums with appropriate attachments to
vacuum dust from aircraft and facility floors. Do not use
compressed air unless absolutely necessary to remove dust
from very narrow cracks and crevices.
TO 1-1-8
Table 2-1.
Hand Held Abrasives
Abrasive Cloth
120 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C-520, Type II, Class 1
240 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C-520, Type II, Class 1
Abrasive Paper
120 grit ANSI B74.18/A-A-1047 silicon carbide
paper
240 grit ANSI B74.18/A-A-1047 silicon carbide
paper
Metallic Wool
A-A-1043, Type I, Class 1, low carbon steel wool
A-A-1043, Type I, Class 1, stainless steel wool
A-A-1044, Type I, Class 1, Form A, copper wool
A-A-1044, Type II, Class 1, Form A, aluminum
wool
Abrasive Mats
A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade A (very fine)
aluminum oxide/nylon mesh
A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade B (fine) aluminum oxide/nylon mesh
A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade C (medium)
aluminum oxide/nylon mesh
Wire Brushes
Aluminum wire brushes (1)
Brass wire brushes (2)
Copper wire brushes (2)
Low carbon steel wire brushes (2)
Stainless steel wire brushes (1)
Fiber Glass, Arranged Fiber (Kevlar) ⁄
Epoxy and Graphite or Boron Fiber ⁄
Epoxy Composite Surfaces
Titanium Alloys
Copper and Cop
per Based Alloys
Stainless Steel (CRES)
and Nickel Based Alloys
Iron and Steel Alloys
(Other Than Stainless Steel)
Magnesium Alloys
Non-Clad and Unanodized
Aluminum Alloys
Clad ⁄ Alclad and Anodized
Aluminum Alloys
Hand Held Abrasives
T
P
T
P
T
P
TP
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
T
T
T
TP
T
T
T
T
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
TP
TP
TP
TP
T
T
T
TP
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
T For topcoat removal
P For primer removal
(1) Stainless steel or aluminum wire brushes shall be used on non-clad and unanodized aluminum alloys only
when the structure is 0.0625 in. thick or greater.
(2) Never use brass, copper, or low carbon steel brushes on any aluminum or magnesium alloys.
2-15
TO 1-1-8
Roloc™ or hook and loop mounted surface conditioning discs
Very fine grade “Scotch-Brite” aluminum
oxide/nylon mesh
Fine grade “Scotch-Brite” aluminum oxide/
P
P
nylon mesh
Medium grade “Scotch-Brite” aluminum
T
T
oxide/nylon mesh
Roloc™ Bristle discs and Radial Bristle
TP
TP
discs Grade 120
Abrasive Flap Brush/Wheels
Aluminum oxide coated nylon mesh
T
TP
Abrasive Disks
120 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C-520, Type
T
T
II, Class 1
240 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C-520, Type
P
P
II, Class 1
Wire Brushes
Aluminum wire brushes (1)
TP
Brass wire brushes (2)
Copper wire brushes (2)
Low carbon steel wire brushes (2)
Stainless steel wire brushes (1)
TP
Titanium Alloys
Copper and Copper Based Alloys
Iron and Steel Alloys (Other Than
Stainless Steel)
Magnesium Alloys
Non-Clad and Unanodized Aluminum
Alloys
Clad ⁄ Aiclad and Anodized Aluminum
Alloys
Motor Driven Abrasives
Fiber Glass, Arranged Fiber
(Kevlar) ⁄ Epoxy and Graphite or Boron
Fiber ⁄ Epoxy Composite Surfaces
Motor Driven Abrasives
Stainless Steel (CRES) and Nickel Based Alloys
Table 2-2.
TP
P
P
P
P
P
P
T
TP
T
T
T
T
TP
TP
TP
T
TP
T
TP
T
T
TP
T
TP
T
T
T
T
P
P
P
P
P
P
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
T For topcoat removal
P For primer removal
(1) Stainless steel or aluminum wire brushes shall be used on non-clad and unanodized aluminum alloys only
when the structure is 0.0625 in. thick or greater.
(2) Never use brass, copper, or low carbon steel brushes on any aluminum or magnesium alloys.
2-16
TO 1-1-8
Table 2-3.
Item
Roloc Plastic Holder
Roloc Plastic Holder
Roloc Bristle Disk
Roloc Bristle Disk
Roloc Bristle Disk
Surface Conditioning Disk
Surface Conditioning Disk
Metallic Wool
Metallic Wool
Metallic Wool
Metallic Wool
Metallic Wool
Abrasive Mat
carbon steel
stain. steel
aluminum
aluminum
copper
Abrasive Materials
Specification
Roloc #1 Plastic Holder
Roloc #7 Plastic Holder
Roloc Bristle Disk 2” x 5/8 tapered
Roloc Bristle Disk 3” x 5/8 tapered
Radial Bristle Disk (Thick Bristle 3”
Scotch-Brite Surface Conditioning
Disk 2”
Scotch-Brite Surface Conditioning
Disk 3”
A-A-1043, Type III, Class 1
A-A-1043, Type IV, Class 1
A-A-1044 Type II, Class 1 Form A
A-A-1044 Type II, Class 3 Form A
A-A-1044, Type I, Class 1, Form A
A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade A
NSN
3460-01-509-1784
3460-01-509-1812
5345-01-432-3027
5345-01-432-3292
3460-01-509-1789
5345-01-367-7680
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Box
5345-01-397-5256
Box
5350-00-242-4404
5350-00-440-5035
5350-00-286-4851
5350-00-312-6129
5350-00-255-7736
5350-00-967-5089
1 each, 1 lb roll
1 each, 1 lb roll
1 each, 1 lb roll
1 each, 1 lb rolls
1 each, 1 lb roll
10 each, 9 in x 11in
sheets
10 each, 9 in x 11in
sheets
10 each, 9 in x 11in
sheets
25 each, 9 in x 11in
sheets
25 each, 9 in x 11insheets
50 each, 9 in x 11in
sheets 5
50 each, 9 in x 11in
sheets
Abrasive Mat
A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade B 5350-00-967-5093
Abrasive Mat
A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade C 5350-00-967-5092
Abrasive Cloth silicone carbide
5350-00-865-5689
Abrasive Paper silicone car
120 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C- 520,
Type II, Class 1
240 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C, 520,
Type II, Class 1
120 grit ANSI B74.18/A-A-1047
Abrasive Paper silicone car
240 grit ANSI B74.18/A-A-1047
5350-00-224-7207
Abrasive Cloth flint/emery
Unit of Issue
5350-00-174-0999
5350-00-721-8115
2-17
2-18
Change 1
d
c
b
a
Blasting helmet
with suppliedair
None
None
HEPA vacuum
HEPA vacuum
Abrasive blast
enclosure
None
Leather and disposable nitrile
gloves
None
Leather and disposable nitrile
gloves
None
None
Ear Plugsd
Ear Plugsd
Tyvek or cotton
coveralls
Tyvek or cotton
coveralls
Personal Protective Equipment
Ear
Eye
Body
None
None
Noneb
Safety goggles or Tyvek or cotton
Noneb
faceshield
coveralls
Ear Plugs
None
Tyvek or cotton
coveralls;
leather shoulder
coverc
Ear Plugs
None
Tyvek or cotton
coveralls
Local Bioenvironmental Engineer may recommend more or less restrictive controls
Hearing protection may be required in locations where hazardous noise is produced
A Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) with hood is the best choice
Not required if a full-facepiece or hooded respirator is worn
Dust removal
(compressed
air)
Dust removal
(vacuum)
Media clean-up
Blasting helmet
with suppliedair
None
None
Hand
Recommended Controls and PPE for Abrasive Blasting Operationsa
Engineering Controls
Respiratory
None
None
None
None
Masking
Refilling of blast
media
Abrasive blasting Abrasive blast
enclosure
Operation
Table 2-4.
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Foot
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
TO 1-1-8
TO 1-1-8
2.11
PMB REMOVAL METHOD.
PMB is an excellent and rapid method for finish system
removal, but it can cause severe damage to structure and
injury to personnel if not done properly with the right type of
equipment in the an approved facility. In addition, proper
waste management must be ensured for economic and environmental reasons. Some types of materials and material
thicknesses cannot be plastic media blasted under any circumstances. Therefore, PMB is authorized at depot and field
level operations contingent upon SPD approval of facilities,
personnel training, and processes as specified in system or
item specific technical data. These instructions are not intended to be all inclusive, but are general requirements to be
used in conjunction with additional instructions in applicable
system peculiar aircraft or equipment manuals. All PMB
finish removal operations shall conform to the following
requirements:
2.11.1 Media Type.
Media used in PMB shall be
fabricated from plastic stocks which are free from highdensity particle contamination and other impurities. The
plastics used shall be of a specific, non-changing chemical
composition as specified in MIL-P-85891, Plastic Media, For
Removal of Organic Coatings, and paragraphs below. Media
used shall have a particle size of U.S. screen 20 to 40 mesh;
however, 12 to 16 mesh may be added as make up media. The
media shall have a particle shape which is irregular with
sharp, angular edges and corners. Plastic media is classified
by type which specifies the hardness and plastic and, therefore, the performance characteristics. The following are the
definitions of media types as specified by MIL-P-85891:
2.11.1.1 Type I. A polyester plastic with a 3.0 MOH (34
to 42 Barcol) hardness and the least damaging of all media
types. This media is recommended for use on aerospace
equipment and shall be used if a 1/2 square foot per minute
strip rate can be maintained under the aerospace stripping
parameters listed in Paragraph 2.11.3.
2.11.1.2
Type II.
The Type II media is more aggressive than the
Type I media and will induce greater residual
stresses in the underlying metals if used improperly. Increased residual stresses can cause warping and increased crack growth rates in aircraft
skin materials and ground equipment enclosures.
A Urea Formaldehyde based plastic with a 3.5 MOH (54 to
62 Barcol) hardness. This media may be used on aerospace
equipment if and only if the Type I material produces less
than a 1/2 square foot per minute strip rate under the
parameters listed in Paragraph 2.11.3. Parameters for the
proper use of Type II media on aerospace structures are also
listed in Paragraph 2.11.3. Type II media is recommended for
use on non-aerospace equipment such as SE. For nonaerospace use blast pressure shall not exceed 50 PSI on
materials at least 0.040 inches thick. The nozzle shall be held
at least 12 inches from the material to be stripped.
2.11.1.3 Type III.
A Melamine Formaldehyde Plastic
with a 4.0 MOH (64 to 74 Barcol) hardness. This Type III
media is not authorized for use in stripping aerospace
structures. Type III media is very aggressive and is recommended only for stripping iron based equipment where
residual stress problems will have no consequences. This
material is authorized for use on SE and other non-aerospace
applications where the metal is at least 0.0625 inches thick.
Blasting pressure should not exceed 40 PSI at the nozzle. The
nozzle shall be held at least 12 inches from the material to be
stripped.
2.11.1.4 Type IV. A Phenol Formaldehyde Plastic with a
3.5 MOH (54 to 62 Barcol) hardness. Type IV is not
authorized for blasting of aerospace structures. Type IV may
be used on SE and on other non-aerospace equipment. Blast
parameters are the same as for Type II.
2.11.1.5 Type V. An Acrylic Plastic with a hardness of
3.5 MOH (46 to 54 Barcol) hardness. This media is authorized for use on aerospace systems as well as non-aerospace
applications. Blasting parameters: pressure 25-40 PSI; standoff distance 12 in - 24 in; angle (alclad and composites) 0 - 60
degrees; angle (nonclad) 30 - 90 degrees.
2.11.1.6 Type VII. A Starch-g-Acrylic with a hardness
of 72 to 79 (Shore D hardness). This material is authorized for
use on aerospace systems and non-aerospace equipment
applications. Blasting parameters: nozzle pressure 45 PSI;
standoff distance 12 in - 24 in; angle 0 - 60. This media is
very moisture sensitive and the air flow shall be dry and oil
free.
2.11.2 Media Authorized for Air Force Use. Plastic
media (PMB), while meeting the military specification criteria, can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The Air
Force Corrosion Prevention and Control Office (AFCPCO)
maintains a current list of manufacturers that have been tested
and meet Air Force requirements and first article requirements of MIL-P-85891. These materials are authorized for
use on aerospace and non-aerospace structures (where authorized by the SPD). Contact the Air Force Corrosion Prevention and Control Office (AFCPCO), 325 Richard Ray Blvd,
Bldg 165, Robins AFB, GA 31098, DSN 468-3284, email
[email protected] to obtain a current list of qualified PMB
manufacturers.
2.11.2.1 All media shall be tested for contamination per
Paragraph 2.11.3.
2.11.3 Operational Parameters for Metallic Surfaces.
All PMB operations on metallic surfaces shall
conform to the following parameters:
Change 3
2-19
TO 1-1-8
2.11.3.1 Pressure shall be within the range of 40 to 60 PSI
at the blast nozzle for 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I), 25
to 40 PSI at the nozzle for 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type
V), and 20 to 30 PSI at the nozzle for 3.5 MOH hardness
media (Type II). See Paragraph 2.11.1 for recommended
parameters for stripping AGE and vehicles.
2.11.3.2
The blast nozzle tip to work surface standoff
distance shall be within the range of 12 to 24 inches for 3.0
MOH hardness media (Type I), 12 to 24 inches for 3.5 MOH
hardness media (Type V), and 18 to 30 inches for 3.5 MOH
hardness media (Type II). See Paragraph 2.11.1 for recommended parameters for SE and vehicles.
2.11.3.3 The angle of incidence between the blast nozzle
and the work surface shall be within the range of 30 to 90
degrees for 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I), 30 to 90
degrees for 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type V), and 0 to 60
degrees for 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type II). SE and
vehicles may be stripped at any angle.
2.11.4 Usage Restrictions. PMB shall not be used on
metal structures having a thickness less than 0.016 inch for
3.0 MOH and 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type I and V) and
0.032 inch for 3.5 MOH hardness media. See Paragraph
2.11.1 for portions pertaining to SE and vehicles.
2-20
Change 3
NOTE
When blasting close to masking on the work
surface, the nozzle shall be held as close as
possible to 90 degrees with the work surface to
prevent undercutting of the masking materials.
2.11.5 Operational Parameters for Non-Metallic
(Composite) Surfaces.
All PMB operations on nonmetallic surfaces (fiberglass, kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy,
boron/epoxy, etc.) shall conform to the following parameters:
2.11.5.1 Pressure shall be within the range of 30 to 60 PSI
at the blast nozzle for the 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I)
and 25 to 40 PSI for the 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type II
and V).
2.11.5.2
The blast nozzle tip to work surface standoff
distance shall be within the range of 12 to 24 inches.
2.11.5.3 The angle of incidence between the blast nozzle
and the work surface shall be within the range of 40 to 60
degrees.
TO 1-1-8
U.S. Technology Corporation
Poly V (Type V)
1446 West Tuscarawas Street
Canton, OH 44702-2038
Cage Code: 1AM56
Composition Materials Co., Inc.
125 Old Gate Lane
Milford, CT 06460-3611
Cage Code: 98231
Mac’ants Abrasives Limited
Todwick Road
Dinnington, Sheffield
England, S25 3SE
Cage Code: Unknown
Abrasive Supply Co., Inc./Zirocblast
SDN.BHD
Acrylic (Type V)
25240 State Route 172
Minerva, OH 44657
Cage Code: Unknown
Type VII
Manufacturer
Archer Daniel Midland
E-Strip GP (Type VII)
995 Mill Street
Montreal, Quebec H3C 1Y5
Cage Code: Unknown
Phone: 514-846-8516
2.11.2.1 All media shall be tested for contamination per
Paragraph 2.11.3.
2.11.3 Operational Parameters for Metallic Surfaces.
All PMB operations on metallic surfaces shall
conform to the following parameters:
2.11.3.1 Pressure shall be within the range of 40 to 60 PSI
at the blast nozzle for 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I), 25
to 40 PSI at the nozzle for 3.2 MOH hardness media (Type
V), and 20 to 30 PSI at the nozzle for 3.5 MOH hardness
media (Type II). See Paragraph 2.11.1 for recommended
parameters for stripping AGE and vehicles.
2.11.3.2
The blast nozzle tip to work surface standoff
distance shall be within the range of 12 to 24 inches for 3.0
MOH hardness media (Type I), 12 to 24 inches for 3.2 MOH
hardness media (Type V), and 18 to 30 inches for 3.5 MOH
hardness media (Type II). See Paragraph 2.11.1 for recommended parameters for SE and vehicles.
2.11.3.3 The angle of incidence between the blast nozzle
and the work surface shall be within the range of 30 to 90
degrees for 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I), 30 to 90
degrees for 3.2 MOH hardness media (Type V), and 0 to 60
degrees for 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type II). SE and
vehicles may be stripped at any angle.
2.11.4 Usage Restrictions. PMB shall not be used on
metal structures having a thickness less than 0.016 inch for
3.0 MOH and 3.2 MOH hardness media (Type I and V) and
0.032 inch for 3.5 MOH hardness media. See Paragraph
2.11.1 for portions pertaining to SE and vehicles.
NOTE
When blasting close to masking on the work
surface, the nozzle shall be held as close as
possible to 90 degrees with the work surface to
prevent undercutting of the masking materials.
2.11.5 Operational Parameters for Non-Metallic
(Composite) Surfaces.
All PMB operations on nonmetallic surfaces (fiberglass, kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy,
boron/epoxy, etc.) shall conform to the following parameters:
2.11.5.1 Pressure shall be within the range of 30 to 60 PSI
at the blast nozzle for the 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I)
and 25 to 40 PSI for the 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type II)
and the 3.2 MOH hardness media (Type V).
2.11.5.2
The blast nozzle tip to work surface standoff
distance shall be within the range of 12 to 24 inches.
2.11.5.3 The angle of incidence between the blast nozzle
and the work surface shall be within the range of 40 to 60
degrees.
2-21
TO 1-1-8
Facility Reference Guide on the Air Force Corrosion
Prevention and Control office’s website.
• When using the PMB method of paint removal
on non-metal (composite) surfaces, it is important to limit the amount of time the surface
is exposed to the PMB blast. To limit this
“dwell time” and still allow paint to be removed, operators should use the primer coat
as a “flag.” That is, when the primer begins to
become visible, the PMB blast should be
aimed at another section of the surface to be
stripped. This results in all paint being removed and only a portion of the primer. Most
importantly, limiting the dwell time prevents
damage to the composite material being
stripped.
• To minimize dwell time, avoid “low pressurelong standoff distance-shallow angle” combination of parameters.
2.11.5.4 To maintain a constant removal rate and limit the
amount of time which the PMB blast impinges on any given
surface (dwell time), the following relationships are important to remember:
2.11.5.5 As stand off distance increases (decreases), pressure should increase (decrease) to maintain a constant removal rate.
2.11.5.6 As the angle of incidence decreases towards 0°
(increases towards 90°), the pressure should increase (decrease) to maintain a constant removal rate.
2.11.6 Operation Safety Requirements.
follows.
g. Blast nozzle operators shall never direct a nozzle at
other personnel. If more than one blast nozzle operator
is involved in an operation at the same time, they shall
be located on opposite sides and/or ends of the aircraft
or equipment being blasted to ensure safe separation of
personnel.
h. Dust and media residue generated during PMB operations create very slippery conditions. Walking on top of
aircraft or equipment during PMB operations shall be
avoided if at all possible, and shall be done with extreme
caution by personnel wearing fall protection devices if it
is absolutely required by the operation. All work stands
shall be equipped with guard rails to prevent falls.
Proceed as
a. Keep all sources of ignition a minimum of 50 feet away
from the area when PMB is in progress.
b. All blasting equipment, work stands, and the aircraft,
equipment, or components being blasted shall be properly electrically grounded per TO 00-25-172 and the
applicable aircraft or equipment manual during the
entire PMB operation.
c. All power shall be removed from the aircraft or equipment while PMB is in progress.
d. Titanium and steel alloy surfaces will spark when
subjected to PMB. When a PMB operation involves a
combination of these and other metals, the titanium and
steel alloy surfaces shall be blasted first and then the
other metal surfaces.
e. The facility used for PMB shall have adequate air flow
and ventilation to prevent build up of an explosive dust
mixture. The Base Bioenvironmental Engineer shall be
consulted for proper ventilation requirements. For additional reference criteria, see the Air Force Corrosion
2-22
f. Personnel involved in PMB shall wear coveralls with
full length sleeves, gloves with gauntlets, and full air
supplied respirator type hoods and hearing protection
which meet AFOSH STD 48-137 requirements. Hoods
shall be put on prior to entering the blasting area and
shall not be removed until after exiting the blasting area.
Hoods shall be stored in a clean dust free area and shall
be cleaned to remove all dust accumulations on them
prior to storage after use. All personnel entering the
blasting area while PMB is in progress, even though not
involved in the operation, shall comply with these
personnel protection requirements. The Base Bioenvironmental Engineer and Base Fire Department will
define the PMB blasting area when the PMB equipment
is located within a larger facility and is not segregated
from other areas. Protective clothing worn during PMB
shall remain in the work area and shall not be taken
home for cleaning.
2.11.7 Personnel Qualifications.
PMB shall be performed only be personnel thoroughly trained in the operation
of PMB equipment and thoroughly indoctrinated in PMB
requirements and techniques specified in this technical order
and any other system peculiar aircraft or equipment technical
order applicable to the job to be performed.
2.11.8
Pre-blast Preparation.
Proceed as follows.
a. Prior to masking for PMB, thoroughly clean the aircraft,
equipment, or component per TO 1-1-691 to remove all
grease, oil, hydraulic fluid, and dirt from surfaces to be
blasted. Every effort shall be made to stop all fluid leaks
noted at this time. Surfaces shall be allowed to fully dry
prior to masking and input of the item into the blasting
facility. Water and other fluids contaminate blasting
media and may damage separation equipment.
b. Prior to starting PMB, properly mask the aircraft,
equipment, or component to prevent blast media and
dust from penetrating into interior areas and causing
contamination or damage to equipment, systems, or
structure susceptible to damage by media impingement.
Masking shall be accomplished in accordance with
TO 1-1-8
instruction in Paragraph 2.3 step d of this technical order
and the applicable system specific aircraft or equipment
technical order for the item being blasted such as the
aircraft system specific -23 manual.
2.11.9 Postblast Cleaning. When the finish system has
been completely removed by PMB, thoroughly vacuum all
surfaces of the aircraft, equipment, or component with a
heavy duty, pneumatic type, wet/dry HEPA filtered vacuum
cleaner to remove all finish system dust and media residue.
As an alternative, compressed air or water wash may be used
to remove dust and media residue. However, avoid the use of
compressed air to remove dust and media residue, unless
absolutely necessary. Masking shall be removed, and interior
areas and crevices which were masked or plugged to prevent
dust and media entry shall be inspected for presence of dust
and media particles and vacuumed clean as necessary.
components. Media found to have a high-density particle
contamination level greater than that specified in Paragraph
2.11.12.1 shall be purged from the system and replaced with
new media. Testing at the ALCs shall be accomplished in the
physical sciences laboratory (XX-ALC/MAD). Testing at
contractor and field level activities shall be accomplished
locally in a designated area adequately equipped to run the
test for contamination. Organizations using PMB coatings
removal processes in small walk-in or cabinet-type booths are
given an option to either test media as specified in the
paragraphs that follow, or forego PMB testing and purge the
used media and replace it with new media at intervals not to
exceed 80 hours of equipment operation when used on
aircraft components, or 800 hours of operation when used on
non-aerospace equipment. This option is not applicable to
large-scale PMB coatings removal operations where entire
aircraft or large subassemblies, such as wings or horizontal/
vertical stabilizers, are completely stripped.
NOTE
PMB media has an anti-static additive that tends
to contaminate the blasted surface and inhibit
paint adhesion. Solvent wiping is required in
addition to washing to completely remove this
residue.
2.11.10 Specific Technical Data and Work Directives. Prior to initiating any PMB finish system removal
operation on any aircraft, component, or piece of equipment,
each aircraft SPD or equipment item manager (XX-ALC/XX)
shall prepare detailed work specifications or project directives
that outline masking instructions and blasting instructions.
These instructions shall conform to all requirements in this
TO and the applicable system specific aircraft or equipment
TO. Finally, a detailed step by step process order or work
control document that complies with all the technical data and
work specification or project directive requirements shall be
prepared by the maintenance organization or contractor for
each separate PMB finish system removal operation.
2.11.11 Disposal of Plastic Media Used in Paint Removal Operations.
Disposal of used media must be
coordinated with the proper local base agency due to the
contamination of the media. The resulting contamination
from most paint removal operations makes the plastic media
a hazardous waste that must be disposed of properly.
2.11.12 Contamination Testing of Plastic Media.
Plastic media shall be tested for contaminates as specified in
the following paragraphs. The media used in PMB equipment
for paint removal of aircraft and aircraft components shall be
sampled and tested every 80 hours of equipment operation
time or after each aircraft or large piece of aerospace
equipment is blasted (whichever is longer). Non-aerospace
equipment such as SE and vehicles are less sensitive to
damage from media contamination, so media used to strip
these items shall be tested for contamination every 800 hours
of equipment operation. Plastic media that is being used to
blast steel/ferrous items for paint removal or other coatings
removal shall not be used on aluminum aircraft surfaces or
2.11.12.1
Equipment and Materials Recommended:
One 500 milliliter separatory funnel
Rod stand, for separatory funnel
Holding rings, for funnels
Perfluorohexane, (SG 1.68), 3M Company PN PF5060TM or equivalent
ASTM D1836 N-Hexane (Adhesive Thinner), NSN
8040-00-853-8913 for a 1 gallon can (SG 0.66)
One glass funnel, 3 inch nominal diameter
One glass powder (large stem) funnel, 4-inch nominal diameter
Whatman number 42 (or equal) filter paper, 12.5
cm, to fit above funnel
Scales, 1000 grams capacity, 0.1 gram sensitivity
such as:
Ohaus E4000, 0 - 4000g, 0.1g
Sartorius U3600, 0 - 3600g, 0.1g
Ohaus GT2100, 0 - 2100g, 0.01g
Analytical balance, 100 grams capacity, 0.001 gram
sensitivity such as:
Ohaus E120G, 0 - 120g/0.001g,
Sartorius H120, 0 - 120g/0.001g
Metler AB-160, 0 - 160g/0.0001g
Metler PM200, 0 - 210g/0.001g
Metler AT200, 0 - 205g/0.0001g
Special dual range balances offering bulk weighing
and precision weighing in a single instrument
may be substituted for the above instruments, but
usually they have limited capacity and significantly higher prices. Two are:
Metler PM480 DeltaRange, 80g/0.001g, 410g/
0.01g
Melter AT460 DeltaRange, 62g/0.0001g, 405g/
0.001g
500-600 ml tall form Pyrex beaker
Change 3
2-23
TO 1-1-8
250 ml Pyrex beaker
500-ml graduated glass cylinder
Two jug-type glass storage bottles, gal, with screw
caps
Hydrometer, 1.60 - 1.80 specific gravity
Pyrex watch glass, 75 - 90mm dia
Nalgene polyethylene wash bottles, 250 ml
Bar magnet
Spatula, stainless steel
Glass stirring rods, 10 inch
Neoprene gloves, size as required such as: Playtex
neoprene.
NOTE
Laboratory equipment may be purchased
from national laboratory supply firms
such as Fisher Scientific, VWR Scientific,
Curtin Matheson Scientific, or from local
laboratory supply firms found in most
large cities.
2.11.12.2 Sampling Procedure. Collect approximately
two liters of used media, preferably from the blast pot or
hose.
2.11.12.2.1 Used Media.
The best representative
sample is obtained by collecting media directly from the blast
nozzle; but if this is not feasible, collect the sample from
media hoppers located after separation equipment in recovery/reclamation system.
2.11.12.3
follows
Contamination Test Procedure.
Proceed as
a. Ensure all glassware is clean and dry.
Keep solvents away from heat and open flame.
Keep containers closed. Use only with adequate
ventilation. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact
with skin and swallowing.
2-24
b. Prepare a mixture of 95% by volume Perfluorohexane
(SG 1.68), 3M Company PN PF-5060TM, and 5% by
volume ASTM D1836 N-Hexane (SG 0.66). To make
mixing easier, pour the N-Hexane into the container
first, and then add the PF-5060TM fluid. Using a
hydrometer, measure the specific gravity (SG) of the
mixture to ensure it is within the range of 1.60 to 1.66.
If the SG is below 1.60 add a small amount of
PF-5060TM until the SG is within range; if the SG is
above 1.66, add very small amounts of N-Hexane until
the SG is within range. This fluid mixture is to be used
in testing for high density particle contamination of used
media. The SG of this fluid mixture is high enough to
float the light plastic media particles while allowing
high density particles to separate and settle out. A
quantity of this test fluid mix may be prepared in
advance and stored until needed in small necked, tightly
capped bottles marked with the value of the SG of the
fluid they contain.
c. Add approximately 300-350 ml (bulk dry volume) of
sample media to 500 ml beaker. Weigh beaker and
media to the nearest tenth gram (0.1 gm) and record
(Weight #1) gross weight. Pour media into 500 ml
separatory funnel (stopcock closed) and ensure there is
no spillage. Obtain tare weight of 500 ml beaker and
record (Weight #2) to the nearest tenth gram (0.1 gm).
d. Add the fluid to separatory funnel leaving some air
space in the funnel for ease of agitation. Swirl the
mixture. A swirling motion is better than shaking to
reduce entrainment of air and suspension of particles
due to energy of motion of the moving fluid. Media
samples may contain some dust-sized particles, which
may be suspended in the fluid after agitation and adhere
to the sides. Tapping the side of the funnel should
dislodge any particles adhering to the sides. Place the
separatory funnel on the rod stand using the holding
ring. Allow 10 minutes for the suspended dust to settle
or rise. Higher density particles will accumulate in the
bottom of the separatory funnel on top of the stopcock.
e. Fold the filter paper in a standard filter fold and place it
in a funnel. Position the funnel in a holding ring on the
rod stand beneath the separatory funnel and place a
beaker beneath this funnel to catch the test fluid. Use
short duration opening of stopcock in order to drain
higher density particles settled out in the bottom of
separatory funnel (on top of stopcock) into filter funnel.
TO 1-1-8
Tapping the side of the separatory funnel may help to
remove the high-density particles. Do not allow fluid
level to get too low, because it might allow some
floating media to be deposited with the high-density
contaminants. Additional fluid may be added to separatory funnel taking care not to agitate mixture. If agitation occurs, allow 10 minutes for suspended dust particles to float/settle prior to continuation. To separate all
of the high-density particles, the process has to be
repeated until no particles will separate out of the plastic
media. One attempt will not extract them all.
f. Place the filter and filtrate in a vented, dust free location
(preferably, a laboratory hood) to dry for one hour.
Weigh the filter paper and filtrate to 0.001 gm precision.
Allow the filter paper to dry an additional 30 minutes
and reweigh. If there is a change greater than 0.001 gm,
continue to dry the sample, checking the weight every
30 minutes until the weight between intervals does not
change. Obtain the tare weight of a watch glass, or on an
electronic balance so equipped, and reset the balance to
0 with the watch glass on the pan. Carefully remove the
filtrate from the filter paper onto the watch glass by
tapping. Unfold the filter paper and remove the remaining particles with a hard instrument, such as a metal
spatula, until no visible sign of particles remain. Do not
use a brush. Fine particles or dust may have impregnated
the filter paper. This residue is not a major concern and
may be disregarded because fine particles (less than 80
mesh, US Standard Sieve) are not damaging to aircraft
materials or structure. Depending upon the balance
used, weigh or calculate the weight of the dense
particles to 0.001 gm precision and record as Weight #3.
(Gross weight minus weight of watch glass). After
weighing use a magnet to determine if any steel/ferrous
material is in the dense particles. This information may
help in determining the source of the contamination and
facilitate process troubleshooting. However, the 0.02%
dense particle contamination level in Paragraph
2.11.12.3 (i) is the basis for acceptance or rejection of
the media regardless of the contamination composition.
g. Filter the used test fluid mixture through a funnel with
clean filter paper, and retain for reuse. Store in a
separate, small-neck, tightly closed and properly labeled
container. Recheck specific gravity with a hydrometer to
assure it is in the proper range prior to reuse.
h. Calculations: Gross weight of media and 500 ml beaker
(Weight #1) minus tare weight of 500 ml beaker (Weight
#2) equals net weight of media, and weight #3 is the
dense particle weight. The dense particle weight divided
by the media weight equals the weight fraction of dense
particles in the sample. Multiply the weight fraction by
100 to find the weight percent of dense particles in the
sample.
Dense Particles Wt
Media Weight
× 100 = Percent
i. Sand, concrete, and glass particles tend to cause pitting
and the most fatigue life degradation while steel/ferrous
particles will pit and embed in softer aluminum and
magnesium substrates. The high density particle contaminant level shall not exceed 0.02% for all used media
employed in aerospace equipment stripping operations.
For non-aerospace equipment (SE, vehicles, etc.) stripping operations, the high density particle contamination
level shall not exceed 2.0% for used media.
2.12
MPW REMOVAL METHOD.
This removal method requires the use of a medium-pressure
water and bicarbonate of soda injection system with control,
hoses, and handheld nozzles of various configurations. The
injection system shall consist of a positive feed control
system, such as an auger/computer controlled system. This
MPW removal system, with or without abrasives is an
excellent method for finish system removal, but can cause
severe damage to structure and injury to personnel, if not
done properly. MPW paint removal is authorized at depot and
field-level operations subject to SPD approval of facilities,
equipment, personnel training, and technical data. These
instructions are not intended to be all inclusive, but are
general, necessary guidelines to be used in conjunction with
additional instructions in applicable system-peculiar aircraft
or equipment manuals and a definitive process order. All
MPW removal operations shall conform to the following
requirements:
NOTE
Only the equipment and supplies listed below
have been approved for Air Force use. The
medium-pressure-water equipment are the E25M
Electric Unit, NSN 4940-01-413-5627/4940-01395-9471; the D44 Diesel Unit, NSN 4940-01411-9826/4920-01-413-5629, and the B-25 Electric Unit (least expensive basic unit), NSN 494001-451-0020, all without rotating gun. For a
portable unit, a trailer NSN 4940-01-413-5602
can be used. It is recommended that the repair kit
Model 900-005, NSN 4940-01-411-9829 be
bought with the blast equipment. The bicarbonate
of soda blasting media is available in 40-pound
bags under NSN 5350-01-414-1894.
2.12.1
Preparation.
Proceed as follows.
a. Prior to masking for MPW paint removal, the aircraft
and other equipment shall be defueled and purged. In
addition, if deemed necessary, the aircraft or extremely
contaminated areas on the aircraft shall be washed in
accordance with TO 1-1-691.
b. Before starting the MPW paint removal operations, the
aircraft, equipment, or component shall be properly
masked and sealed to prevent water or bicarbonate of
soda blast media from penetrating into interior areas and
2-25
TO 1-1-8
causing contamination or damage to equipment, systems, or structure. All surfaces where tape is to be
applied shall be wiped down with isopropyl alcohol,
TT-I-735 or acetone, O-A51/ASTM D 329. The solvent
used during the wipe down operation shall not be
allowed to evaporate from the surface, but shall be
wiped from the surface with a dry, clean cloth. Masking
shall be accomplished according to instructions in Paragraph 2.3 step c and step d of this technical order and the
applicable system-peculiar aircraft or equipment technical order for the item being stripped, such as the aircraft
system-peculiar -23 corrosion manual or the definitive
process order. In addition to masking and sealing such
areas as fiberglass components, windows, radomes, and
composite structures, drain holes shall be plugged prior
to stripping.
c. Areas which are covered by the barrier tape may be
hand stripped with an environmentally compliant
chemical remover prior to masking for the complete
paint removal operation provided the procedures in this
technical order are strictly followed. Narrow seams
around emergency doors, hatches, entry doors, and other
doors on the aircraft shall be protected from the blast
stream.
2.12.2 Paint Removal Operations.
All MPW paint
removal shall conform to the following parameters:
• Bicarbonate of soda blast media shall not
exceed one half pound per minute on the
exterior of any aircraft.
• It is very important to prevent intrusion of the
bicarbonate of soda blast media in areas where
it can become entrapped in the aircraft structure. It may become corrosive if left within the
aircraft structure. A thorough inspection for
media intrusion shall be performed and a
thorough rinsing with hot water after blasting
shall be accomplished to prevent media from
being retained in the aircraft.
a. The MPW equipment shall have the following operating
parameters: water pressure of 15,000 PSI; water flow
rate of 3 GPM, bicarbonate of soda blast media flow rate
1/4 to 1/2 lb per minute.
b. The nozzle stand-off distance shall be within the range
of 2 to 4 inches from the tip of the nozzle to the working
surface.
c. The angle of incidence between the nozzle and the work
surface shall be within the range of 40 to 60 degrees
(measured from the surface being stripped).
2-26
d. In order to limit the amount of time the medium pressure
water and abrasive strikes or hits any given surface
(dwell time) and prevent possible damage, the nozzle
shall be moved across the surface at a minimum rate of
4 inches every second.
2.12.3
lows.
Post-Paint Removal Cleaning.
Proceed as fol-
a. When the finish system has been completely removed
by the MPW method, all surfaces of the aircraft,
equipment or component shall be rinsed with hot water
(not to exceed 140° F) to remove all media residue.
b. Remove masking and sealing materials and, if necessary, hand clean protected areas. Allow entire area to
thoroughly dry. Open and flush all covers and/or crevices to eliminate media residue. The aircraft, equipment,
or component shall be thoroughly washed in accordance
with TO 1-1-691.
2.12.4 Operational Safety Requirements.
lowing is required for safety.
The fol-
a. All sources of ignition shall be kept a minimum of 50
feet away from the area when MPW paint removal is in
progress.
b. All MPW equipment, work stands, and the aircraft,
equipment, or components being stripped shall be electrically grounded per TO 00-25-172 and the applicable
aircraft or equipment manual during the entire paint
removal operation.
c. All power shall be removed from the aircraft or equipment while MPW paint removal is in progress.
d. The facility used for MPW paint removal shall have
adequate air flow/ventilation. The Base Bioenvironmental Engineer shall be consulted for proper ventilation
requirements.
e. Personnel involved in MPW paint removal shall wear
ear plugs, ear muffs, goggles, or full face shield,
wet-weather suit, water-resistant hoods, chemicalresistant boots, and shin and instep guard assemblies.
The shin and instep guard assembly shall be puncture
resistant aluminum with a 5 inch wide by 6 inch long
instep section attached by a hinge assembly to a shin
section of at least 20 inches in length. Ellwood Safety
Appliance Co. Model No. 3235P is one product that
meets these requirements. All personnel entering the
removal area while MPW stripping is in progress, even
though not involved in the operation, shall also comply
with these personnel protection requirements. The local
base Bioenvironmental Engineer shall define the MPW
paint removal area when the MPW equipment is located
within a larger facility and is not segregated from other
TO 1-1-8
areas. Protective clothing worn during water stripping
shall remain in the work area and shall not be taken
home for cleaning.
f. MPW nozzle operators shall never direct a nozzle at
other personnel. If more than one MPW nozzle operator
is involved in an operation at the same time, they shall
be located on opposite sides and/or ends of the aircraft
or equipment being stripped to ensure safe separation of
personnel.
g. Water and media residue generated during paint removal
operations can create a slippery condition. Walking on
top of aircraft or equipment during paint removal
operations shall be avoided, if at all possible, and shall
be done with extreme caution by personnel wearing fall
protection devices. All work stands shall be equipped
with guardrails to prevent falls.
2.12.5 Personnel Qualification.
Several methods of
training may be used for initial and follow on MPW training.
2.12.5.1 Equipment manufacturer’s training.
This
training may consist of on-site training or video training.
Regardless of the method, it is essential the individual
receives and understands the training given through a practical, locally developed certification method.
2.12.5.2 Air Force supplied local training. A unit level
training program can be developed to include general instructional information on operation and safety. This should be
followed by hands on practical training in performing MPW
using all appropriate safety equipment. This would be the
minimum requirements for operator certification.
2.13 REMOVAL OF THERMOPLASTIC POWDER
COATING.
2.13.1 Removal Procedures. Thermal spray coating
resins are difficult to remove by medium pressure abrasive
grit blasting; but grit blasting, scrapers, and other manual
tools may be used to remove coating that have deteriorated or
are substantially crosslinked. Intentionally inducing crosslinking by overheating the powder coating during application
or degrading by excessive heating after coating application
results in easier removal. Conventional abrasive blasting at
60 PSI will remove these coatings. For areas requiring
nondestructive inspections on bare metal, brush a release
agent (NSN 9150-00-349-9290) on the specific NDI site after
each inspection prior to coating or re-coating. When removal
is required, carefully score the site and peel the coating off.
Reapply the release agent after the inspection cleanup before
re-coating. Small areas may also be reheated with a hot air
gun or small propane torch to soften the thermoplastic and
then manually scrape the area requiring removal while the
coating is still soft. For coatings that are still serviceable with
a low degree of cross-linking, or if induced cross-linking is
not feasible, MPW blasting per Paragraph 2.12 is an effective
method for removal. MPW blasting augmented with sodium
bicarbonate is more effective in removing the powder coatings.
2.14
PAINT REMOVAL ON NON-METALLICS.
2.14.1 Removal Requirements. Non-metallics are defined as Fabric Covered Surfaces, Fiber Glass, Arranged
Fiber (“Kevlar”) ⁄ Epoxy, and Graphite or Boron Fiber/Epoxy
Composite Surfaces. Non-metallics are susceptible to severe
damage by any of the paint removal processes, if improperly
used. Therefore, these limited and specific procedures for
removal of organic coatings shall be used only when the
responsible Air Logistics Center (ALC), Aircraft System
Program Director (SPD) or Equipment or Component Item
Manager, with the full knowledge of the ALC Corrosion
Program Manager, approves the procedure to be used.
• Chemical removers used for finish system
removal from metal surfaces shall not be used
on any non-metallics identified in this section,
unless approved within weapon system specific technical orders.
• Sharp-edged and sharp-cornered tools shall
not be used as scrapers for removal of the
finish system from fabric covered surfaces, as
they can easily puncture or tear the fabric.
Scrapers shall not be pushed across the surface, but shall be held with the blade angled
away from the body and pulled across the
surface toward the body to prevent gouging of
the fabric.
2.14.1.1 PMB per Paragraph 2.11.5 may be used for paint
removal on Fiber Glass, Arranged Fiber (“Kevlar”)/Epoxy,
and Graphite or Boron Fiber/Epoxy Composite Surfaces; but
if unavailable or unauthorized, use the mechanical methods in
Paragraph 2.14.2 step a, step b, and step c below. If repairs
require the total removal of the topcoat and primer, refer to
TO 1-1-690 for additional procedures and precautions.
Chemical removal of coatings from composite surfaces is not
authorized. Refer to mechanical removal procedures for these
components.
2-27
TO 1-1-8
2.14.2 Mechanical Paint Removal on Fiber Glass,
Arranged Fiber (“Kevlar”)/Epoxy, and Graphite or Boron Fiber/Epoxy Composite Surfaces.
Do not mount an abrasive on a motor driven tool
having an operational speed higher than the
maximum RPM rating of the abrasive. This can
result in disintegration of the abrasive and can
cause injury to personnel.
NOTE
The following procedures are not applicable to
radomes. Finish system removal from radomes
shall be accomplished per instructions in TO
1-1-24.
a. Abrade the finish system topcoat from the surface down
to the primer with hand held abrasives per Table 2-1 and
Table 2-3 or either a random orbital tool or pneumatic
drill motor (12,000 RPM max) fitted with a roloc or
hook and loop mounted surface conditioning disc or a
cloth abrasive disc per Table 2-2 and Table 2-3. Use
sanders attached to high efficiency vacuum systems for
dust recovery. Use of a random orbital tool or a
pneumatic drill motor fitted with the “Scotch-Brite”
medium grade, aluminum oxide, surface conditioning
disc (3M Co.) is preferable. This method provides the
fastest removal rate with the least possibility of damage
to the composite substrate and the longest abrasive life
due to the non-loading characteristics of this type of
disc. Keep sander heads flush against the surfaces being
sanded and apply the least amount of pressure necessary
to effectively remove the finish system topcoat and not
go through the primer and gouge or abrade the composite substrate.
2-28
b. Abrade the primer from the surface using the same
methods as used for the topcoat but with finer grade
abrasives per Table 2-1 and Table 2-3 using the same
methods as specified for the topcoat in paragraph above.
Extreme caution is to be used to avoid any damage to
the composite materials. Re-coating of exposed composite materials should be accomplished at the earliest
opportunity as composite materials degrade when exposed to ultra violet (UV) light.
c. After all topcoat has been removed, use HEPA vacuums
with appropriate attachments to vacuum dust from
aircraft and facility floors. Do not use compressed air
unless absolutely necessary to remove dust from very
narrow cracks and crevices.
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 3
SURFACE PREPARATION AND CHEMICAL PREPAINT
SURFACE TREATMENT
3.1 SURFACE PREPARATION FOR PAINTING AND
CHEMICAL PREPAINT SURFACE TREATMENT.
The life of an organic coating system, its effectiveness and the
appearance of organic finishes depend more on the condition
of surfaces receiving them than any other factor. Most
surfaces can be expected to present adverse painting conditions due to either the inherent nature of the material, the
environment in the presence of foreign materials, contamination, or corrosion. Presence of any of these factors will
require treatment or removal action to make possible the
proper application of organic coatings. The life and effectiveness of organic coatings are an integral part of corrosion
prevention and control for aerospace equipment. These procedures are for preparation of interior or exterior surfaces that
have existing coating systems to be re-coated or repaired.
These procedures are also for surface preparation after
complete depainting prior to the complete repainting of an
aircraft. All Technical Order requirements and procedures for
prepaint preparation of metal surfaces other than aluminum
and magnesium, which may be used on aircraft exterior
surfaces, shall be complied with in addition to requirements
of this manual.
3.1.1
Surface Preparation For Painting.
• Refer to Table 3-1 for minimum personal
protective equipment required for all paint
preparation operations.
• Provide adequate ventilation when using solvents. Avoid prolonged breathing of vapors
and avoid skin contact. Use appropriate protective gloves and eye protection. Contact
Bioenvironmental Engineering to determine
need for respiratory protection.
Surface preparation for painting is the most important requirement for insuring proper adherence and performance of
a paint system. For the purposes this manual, there are two
types of surfaces requiring preparation for painting; bare
unpainted surfaces (metal or composite material) and surfaces
with organic coatings currently applied. In either case, an
exceptionally clean surface is necessary whether painting
over an existing paint system, painting newly fabricated
aircraft or components, or after complete removal of an
existing paint system or to overcoat an existing paint system
must be thoroughly prepared before the re-application of new
organic coatings.
3.1.2 Surface Preparation For Repair or Over Coating of Damaged Organic Coating.
Closely inspect
candidate areas for the extent of damage and maintenance
painting required. If inspection reveals major paint failure or
damage, such as chipped or peeled paint from the center of a
skin panel, the involved skin section should be prepared and
maintenance painted from seam to seam. If only minor
damage is found, i.e., paint chipped or missing from screw/
rivet heads and on outer edges of skin panel(s) the specific
area may be prepared and maintenance painted. Prepare
damaged area(s) as follows:
3.1.2.1 Thoroughly clean the area to be prepared per TO
1-1-691 or using solvent wipe procedures per Paragraph
3.1.4.
• Sanding of finish systems using motor driven
abrasives can generate airborne particles and
toxic dust that can injure personnel and create
a possible dust explosion from paint and
abrasive material dust. Work pieces and motorized equipment shall be properly electrically grounded. When using motor driven
abrasives the minimum required personnel
protective equipment shall be dust/particulate
respirator, goggles/face shield, disposable nitrile rubber gloves, and cloth coveralls with
paint sock or hooded Tyvek coveralls and
non-slip rubberized foot coverings. Do not
stand above, below or directly next to other
workers. Avoid being “downwind” from others using mechanical sanders. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering Services for respiratory and ventilation requirements.
• Do not mount an abrasive on a motor driven
tool having an operational speed higher than
the maximum RPM rating of the abrasive.
This can result in disintegration of the abrasive
and can cause injury to personnel.
3.1.2.2 Feather the edges of damaged coating adjacent to
the peeled section. Use 120 grit or finer abrasive paper or
nylon abrasive matting material Specification A-A-58054
medium grade or finer for sanding. When using the coarser
grit sizes down to 120 use care not to score the metal surfaces.
Sanding to feather-out the damaged coatings may be done by
hand or with the use of either a random orbital tool or
pneumatic drill motor (12,000 RPM max) fitted with a roloc
3-1
TO 1-1-8
or hook and loop mounted surface conditioning disc, or a disc
fabricated from an abrasive cloth sheet. Use sanders and
grinders attached to high efficiency vacuum systems for dust
recovery. Keep sander heads approximately flush against the
surfaces being sanded and apply the least amount of pressure
necessary to accomplish feathering of the paint.
NOTE
It is essential that a formal maintenance/repair
schedule be instituted for the high efficiency
vacuum units. Replace bags in vacuum units after
each aircraft or large part has been sanded. Do
not use vacuums when the hoses have holes or
tears. Use the minimum length of hose attached
to vacuum units to ensure the highest airflow
rates through the vacuum. Use the vacuum at the
manufacture’s recalls compressed air pressure.
3.1.2.3 Scuff-sand the surface of other area(s) adjacent to
the damaged coatings that are to be coated using abrasive
paper no coarser than 120 grit, 3M Corp medium grade
aluminum oxide surface conditioning disc, or A-A-58054,
Type I, Class 1, Grade C abrasive mat. Use of a random
orbital sander or a pneumatic drill motor fitted with the
surface conditioning disc is preferred.
3.1.2.4 After the finish system has been sanded, use HEPA
vacuums with appropriate attachments to vacuum dust from
aircraft and facility floors. Do not use compressed air unless
absolutely necessary to remove dust from very narrow cracks
and crevices.
3.1.3 Scuff Sanding For Overspraying Existing Coating Systems On Aircraft. It is always better to start a paint
system from bare metal, however, when authorized in Chapter 8, it is feasible to overspray existing paint systems.
NOTE
Adhesion failure between coatings will require
complete removal of the non-adhering coating.
When intercoat adhesion failure occurs over large
areas, overcoating shall not be accomplished and
complete strip/repaint is required.
3.1.3.1 Aircraft exterior painted surfaces shall initially be
cleaned in accordance with TO 1-1-691 and thoroughly
inspected to determine the soundness the paint film. Areas of
severely deteriorated paint as indicated by loose or peeling
paint, contamination from hydraulic oil, engine oil, fuel or
other fluids, or where bare metal is showing, shall be stripped
per Chapter 2 of this manual.
3.1.3.2 Mask all areas which may be damaged by entry of
fluids or paint dust generated during the cleaning and scuff
sanding operations per Chapter 2 of this manual.
3.1.3.3
Prepare the surface for overcoating by scuff
sanding as follows:
3-2
• Sanding of finish systems using motor-driven
abrasives can generate airborne particles and
toxic dust that can injure personnel and create
a possible dust explosion from paint and
abrasive material dust. Work pieces and motorized equipment shall be properly electrically grounded. When using motor driven
abrasives the minimum required personnel
protective equipment shall be dust/particulate
respirator, goggles/face shield, disposable nitrile rubber gloves, and cloth coveralls with
paint sock or hooded Tyvek coveralls and
non-slip rubberized foot coverings. Do not
stand above, below or directly next to other
workers. Avoid being “downwind” from others using mechanical sanders. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering Services for respiratory and ventilation requirements.
• Do not mount an abrasive on a motor driven
tool having an operational speed higher than
the maximum RPM rating of the abrasive.
This can result in disintegration of the abrasive
and can cause injury to personnel
NOTE
Requirements for vacuuming of sanding dusts
may be waived by local Bioenvironmental Engineering, Industrial Hygienists, or the OPR for
corporate safety/health only after approval of
alternative measures for personnel protection.
3.1.3.3.1 Completely scuff-sand the entire exterior surface
of the aircraft, excluding bare metal areas, using abrasive
paper no coarser than 120 grit, 3M Corp medium grade
aluminum oxide surface conditioning disc, or A-A-58054,
Type I, Class 1, Grade C abrasive mat. Scuff sanding shall
include roughing up 100% of the painted surface, removal of
oxidized paint, and feather-edging of all flaked paint. It is not
intended to remove a sound paint system. Light scuffing is
sufficient for adhesion of the primer tie-coat to a sound
topcoat. Do not sand through to bare metal as damage to the
aircraft may occur. All areas where the paint system is nicked,
scratched, or chipped and any edges of the paint system
around areas where paint removal was done are to be
feathered-out (blended smooth) during the sanding operation
per Paragraph 3.1.2. All sanding operations should be accomplished using either a random orbital tool or pneumatic drill
motor (12,000 RPM max) fitted with a roloc or hook and loop
mounted surface conditioning disc, or a disc fabricated from
an abrasive cloth sheet. Use sanders and grinders attached to
high efficiency vacuum systems for dust recovery. Keep
sander heads approximately flush against the surfaces being
sanded and apply the least amount of pressure necessary to
accomplish feathering of the paint.
TO 1-1-8
NOTE
It is essential that a formal maintenance/repair
schedule be instituted for the high efficiency
vacuum units. Replace bags in vacuum units after
each aircraft or large part has been sanded. Do
not use vacuums when the hoses have holes or
tears. Use the minimum length of hose attached
to vacuum units to ensure the highest airflow
rates through the vacuum. Use the vacuum at the
manufacture’s recommended compressed air
pressure.
3.1.3.3.2 After the finish system has been sanded, use
HEPA vacuums with appropriate attachments to vacuum dust
from aircraft and facility floors. Do not use compressed air
unless absolutely necessary to remove dust from very narrow
cracks and crevices.
3.1.3.3.3 Complete all remaining operations for preparation of the aircraft for painting as required in Chapter 4 of this
manual.
3.1.4 Solvent Wiping For Surface Preparation. Solvent wiping may be used for general cleaning prior to surface
preparation or for final cleaning prior to coating application.
A clean surface is one of the most critical process requirements that must be met to ensure coating adhesion. Depending on the process requirement, solvent selection should be
made from the approved solvents in Table 3-2. The necessity
for having an exceptionally clean surface to receive the new
paint system requires that a solvent wipe be done: 1) if the
surface becomes contaminated after chemical treatment, 2)
after all scuff sanding operations, and 3) if required for
reactivation of coating. Given these requirements, a hand
solvent wipe shall be performed each time the coating
sequence of an aircraft is broken and the surface has been
vulnerable to the accumulation of soils such as dust, shop dirt,
fingerprints, overspray, leaks, etc., either after conversion
coating application, priming, or between topcoats. This will
be accomplished immediately prior to application of further
paint coats to assure cleanliness and the adhesion of the paint
film to the surface. The hand solvent wipe-down shall be
accomplished using materials per Table 3-2. The solvent will
be applied and the surface wiped using wiping cloths. Wiping
cloth (CID A-A-59323) shall be lint free, 100 percent cotton
cloth conforming to A-A-2522, Grade A, color 1: cotton
gauze/cheese cloth conforming to CCC-C-440, Type II or III,
which are unbleached or white cleaning cloths conforming to
AMS 3819A, Class 2, Grade A, and have not been exposed to
any other chemical solution. When accomplishing the solvent
wipe, always pour fresh solvent onto the cloth and dispose of
them as they accumulate soils. The solvent wipe must be
performed in this manner in order to prevent simply smearing
soils or transferring them back to the surface from a pail of
contaminated solvent. This operation must be accomplished
when required and always just prior to application of the
primer or subsequent paint topcoats.
3-3
3-4
Change 1
f
e
d
c
b
a
General dilution
ventilation
Air-purifying
with OV cartridgesf
Engineering Controls
Respiratory
None
None
General dilution Air-purifying
ventilation
with HEPA
filter
General dilution Air-purifying
ventilation
with HEPA
filter
General dilution None
ventilation
General dilution None
ventilation
HEPA-ventilated Air-purifying
sander
with OV/HEPA
cartridgese
HEPA vacuum
None
Disposable nitrile Ear plugsc
gloves
Disposable nitrile Noneb
gloves
None
Tyvek or cotton
coveralls
Safety goggles or Tyvek or cotton
faceshieldd
coveralls
None
Safety goggles or Tyvek or cotton
faceshield
coveralls
Safety gogglesd
Tyvek or cotton
coveralls
None
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Ear plugsc
Safety goggles or Rain suit
faceshieldd
Foot
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Personal Protective Equipment
Ear
Eye
Body
None
None
Noneb
Safety goggles or Rain suit
Ear plugsc
faceshieldd
Disposable nitrile Noneb
gloves
Disposable nitrile Noneb
gloves
Disposable nitrile Ear plugs
gloves
Butyl rubber
gloves
None
Butyl rubber
gloves
Hand
Recommended Controls and PPE for Surface Preparation Operationsa
Local Bioenvironmental Engineer may recommend more or less restrictive controls or PPE based on exposure monitoring
Hearing protection may be required in locations where hazardous noise is produced from other sources
When noise levels exceed 85dBA
Not required if a full-facepiece or hooded respirator is worn
A powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) with hood is the best choice for scuff sanding
When chemical exposure levels exceed occupational exposure limits
Solvent wiping
Dust removal
Alodine “wipeon/blot-off”
Sanding
Alodine Sempen
Masking
Corrosion removal (acid
etch)
Conversion coating (alodine)
Operation
Table 3-1.
TO 1-1-8
TO 1-1-8
3.1.5 Surface Preparation For MIL-C-27725/SAE
AMS-C-27725 Integral Fuel Cell Coating.
These solvents should not be used on polycarbonates or acrylics. These solvents will cause most
rubber products to swell; however, the rubber will
return to its original shape when the solvent
evaporates.
• A-A-59281 is flammable and toxic to eyes,
skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required. Good general ventilation is
normally adequate.
NOTE
Low vapor pressure NESHAP compliant solvents
are slow to evaporate and must be wiped dry
before paint application. These are the preferred
solvents.
• MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 is toxic to
eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin
protection required. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering Services to determine need for
respiratory and ventilation requirements.
3.1.4.1 Solvent-Wipe, Aircraft Prepaint for Environmental
Compliance. Environmental requirements have placed restrictions on use of some solvents. When using any solvents
that are being restricted by environmental regulations, minimize consumption by using only a small amount of solvent on
a wiping cloth; do not saturate the cloth. Wipe the surface
being cleaned and then wipe with a dry wiping cloth. When
the cloth becomes soiled, dispose of it in a closed container.
This operation must be accomplished when the surface to be
painted has become contaminated and always just prior to
application of primers or subsequent topcoats. Always check
with the local base Environmental authorities for restrictions
and full compliance requirements. Table 3-2 lists approved
alternative solvents that will meet many environmental regulatory requirements.
Surface to be Cleaned
Alcohols
Ethyl alcohol, denatured FL 4
Isopropyl alcohol FL 4
G
GF
G
GF
G
G
G
G
Napthas/Petroleum Distillates
P-D-680, Type II, III, Dry Cleaning Sol.
TT-N-95, Aliphatic Naptha
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
NESHAP Exempt FL 3
Meets Requirements of NESHAP FL 2
Regulated By NESHAP FL 1
Metals
Organic Coatings FL 6
Coated Solvent Resistant Finishes FL 6
Solvent Selection
Reactivation of Painted Surface
Wipe Solvents
Composite Materials
Table 3-2.
The integrity of fuel tank coatings is critical to all aircraft,
and surface preparation requirements are specific and not to
be wavered from. Clean surfaces to be coated with MIL-C27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 using only A-A-59281, Type I
Cleaning compound. A-A-59281, Type I is a solvent blend
designed for this application. Apply A-A-59281, Type I to a
lint-free cleaning cloth. Wipe Dry. Do not allow the solvent to
evaporate. Change cleaning cloths regularly as required to
ensure soils are not spread or transferred. Immediately follow
the solvent wipe with application of conversion coating
conforming to Specification MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706
per Paragraph 3.1.19.
Compliance
X
X
X FL 5
X FL 5
3-5
TO 1-1-8
A-A-2904, Mineral Spirits
G
Ketones
Acetone
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
Methyl Propyl Ketone (MPK)
GF
F
GF
Specialty Solvents
Parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF)
G
Solvent Blends
MIL-T-81772, Type II
1:1 MEK Toluene
1:1 MEK Acetone
1:1 MPK Naptha
1:1 Acetone: PCBTF
A-A-59231
DS-104, Dynamold Solvents, Inc
DS-108, Dynamold Solvents, Inc
SD 1291, Brulin Corp.
Super 140, LPS Industries
GF
F
GF
G
GF
F
GF
GF
G
G
Terpenes
Citra Safe, Inland Technology
De-Solv-It , Orange-Sol, Inc.
GF
G
Surface to be Cleaned
G
G
F
F
G
NESHAP Exempt FL 3
Meets Requirements of NESHAP FL 2
Regulated By NESHAP FL 1
Metals
Organic Coatings FL 6
Coated Solvent Resistant Finishes FL 6
Solvent Selection
Reactivation of Painted Surface
Wipe Solvents - Continued
Composite Materials
Table 3-2.
Compliance
X FL 5
GF
F
GF
GF
F
GF
X
X
X
G
G
X
F
GF
G
GF
F
GF
G
GF
X
X
X
X
X#
X
X
X
X#
X#
X
X
X
GF
GF
GF
GF
G
G
GF
GF
G
G
X
X
X
X
*
*
*
*
GF
G
GF
G
X*
X*
G = Use for General Cleaning in surface preparation for painting (General cleaners not approved for Final Cleaning leave a residue and must be followed by Final Cleaning before painting.)
F = Use for Final Cleaning before paint.
FL 1 = If the requirements of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) must be
complied with, these solvents maybe restricted from use or have very specific limitations applied to their use.
FL 2 = These solvents meet the requirements of the NESHAP for compliance. This only applies where the requirements of the NESHAP are being enforced.
# = These solvents have a vapor pressure not exceeding 45 mm Hg (24.1 in H2O) at 20° C (68° F) and will have
reporting and other requirements under the NESHAP.
3-6
TO 1-1-8
* = These solvents are composed of a mixture of photochemically reactive hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons and have a maximum vapor pressure of 7 mm Hg at 20° C (3.75 in H2O at 68° F). There are no reporting requirements or containment controls on the use of these solvents. NOTE: These solvents evaporate
slowly and must be completely dried prior to application of paint.
FL 3 = These solvents are exempt from any reporting and controls under the NESHAP. Not all local state authorities have granted these exemptions.
FL 4 = Alcohol’s are not compatible with polyurethane’s. Make sure they are totally removed before applying
polyurethane’s.
FL 5 = Most vendor’s products which meet specifications are NESHAP compliant, but some are not. Check vendor’s MSDS to determine if composite vapor pressure is 45 mm Hg or less and therefore compliant.
FL 6 = See Glossary for definitions of “Organic Coatings” and “Solvent Resistant Coatings”.
3.1.6 Reactivation of Newly Applied Primer or
Tiecoat. All standard organic coating systems consist of an
approved primer and topcoat or tiecoat and topcoat. In the
application process, many times it is critical that topcoats be
applied to the primer before the primer completely cures.
Specific coating cure times are listed in Chapter 6. When the
cure time is exceeded, the primer or tiecoat must be reactivated to assure adhesion of the topcoat. Reactivation may be
accomplished either through a solvent wipe or by scuff
sanding. Solvent wipe for reactivation is normally allowed
within a specified window during the curing process and is
not effective for fully cured coatings. When solvent wipe is
permitted, wipe the entire aircraft surface with a white
lint-free, cotton cloth (CID A-A-59323) conforming to A-A2522, Grade A, color 1 (PN AA 522-A1) or cotton gauze/
cheese cloth conforming to CCC-C-440, Type II or III wetted
with one of the solvents approved for this process in Table
3-2. Ensure surfaces are completely wetted to soften the
coating and promote reaction between the solvents and
binders in the topcoat with the primer or tiecoat for adhesion.
Scuff sanding for reactivation shall be accomplished using
320 or 400 grit sandpaper, A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade
B abrasive mat, or hook and loop or roloc mounted surface
condition discs “very fine” grade (3M Co.) to reactivate the
primer or tiecoat for adhesion of the topcoat. Surfaces shall
be scuff sanded 100% using procedures in Paragraph 3.1.3
followed by a solvent wipe per Paragraph 3.1.4.
3.1.7 Surface Preparation, Unpainted Surfaces. The
final step in surface preparation for coatings application is the
inspection and treatment of unpainted metal surfaces, i.e.;
areas of peeled or damaged coatings; depainted surfaces; or
new repairs or fabricated components. A thorough inspection
for corrosion shall be conducted over the entire surface to be
painted. All areas requiring mechanical and chemical corrosion removal will be identified and marked.
3.1.8 Corrosion Removal, Chemical and Mechanical. All chemical and mechanical corrosion removal required for treatment of corrosion damage shall be accomplished in accordance with the System Specific Corrosion
Control technical Order and TO 1-1-691. All corrosion
removal and treatment shall be accomplished prior to performing prepaint processes in this manual.
NOTE
All work requirements, repairs, mechanical corrosion removal, and sealing requirements (sealant
cured completely) shall be completed, inspected
and have all defects corrected prior to prepaint
cleaning and surface preparation. Failure to comply with the above requirement will cause paint
adhesion problems and severe delays in painting
operations.
3.1.9 Preparation for Prepaint Treatment, Unpainted
Surfaces. Prior to application of corrosion removal compounds on aluminum or magnesium, all surfaces to be treated
shall be thoroughly cleaned of dirt, grease, and contamination. Immediately prior to prepaint treatment evaluate surfaces and clean as follows:
3.1.9.1 Conduct a thorough inspection over the complete
surface to be treated to ensure all foreign matter that may
have been retained in seams, or oily deposits that may have
accumulated during or after cleaning, have been removed.
Also, all corrosion that is to be chemically treated during the
prepaint surface preparation must be identified.
3.1.9.2 All surfaces shall be regarded as dirty even if there
is no visible dirt. Carefully wash the aircraft or surfaces to be
treated per TO 1-1-691 and spot clean using solvent wipe per
Paragraph 3.1.4.
3.1.9.3 Water break tests shall be conducted on representative areas to be treated immediately prior to application of
corrosion removal prepaint solutions.
3.1.10 Water Break Inspection. The following procedures shall be used to comply with the water break inspection. A Water Break Free Kit (NSN 6850-01-524-8291) is
available, which contains all the items needed to complete the
test. A mist of distilled or clean tap water is atomized on the
surface to be coated employing any convenient small atomizing spray device. If the water gathers into discrete (separate) droplets within 25 seconds, that is, if the surface shows
a water break within this time, the surface shall be considered
as failing the test. If the water forms a continuous film by
3-7
TO 1-1-8
flashing out suddenly over a large area, it shall be considered
as evidence of impurities on the surface such as free alkali,
residual detergents, etc., and the surface shall also be considered as failing the cleanliness test. If the water drops coalesce
(go together) into a continuous film of water without a sudden
flash out and form a lens, then the surface shall be considered
as having satisfactorily passed the water break test. Any areas
that fail the test shall be cleaned per TO 1-1-691, and
reinspected.
3.1.11 Evidence of Inadequate Cleaning. During prepaint operations of acid-etch and chromate conversion coatings, surfaces should also be monitored for evidence of
undetected soiled areas. When accomplishing the rinse of
etch or conversion coating solution and a rapid flash off or
breaking of the rinse water occurs, this indicates an unsatisfactorily cleaned area not detected during the random sample
of the water break test. Areas that show evidence of inadequate cleaning during rinsing require recleaning and reaccomplishment of prepaint surface preparation.
3.1.12 Corrosion Removal Prepaint Compound, Aluminum.
• Exposure of magnesium surfaces to aluminum
prepaint chemicals will initiate corrosion
which will continue even under a new paint
system and ultimately cause severe damage.
• All magnesium surfaces, steel/high strength
steel and cadmium plated surfaces shall be
protected from MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640
solutions.
Masking of all lap joints, hinges, faying surfaces, access
doors, air scoops and other openings that would allow
MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640 to enter or be entrapped is
required prior to beginning the require prepaint process. Also,
masking of unprotected magnesium, steel and cadmiumplated components shall be done at this time. Masking will be
accomplished per Chapter 2, using masking procedures for
chemical paint removal.
3.1.13 Prepaint Chemical Corrosion Removal Materials. Corrosion removal compound, prepaint specification
MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640, is used for removing oxidation and corrosion products from aluminum alloys which are
not required to be Liquid Oxygen (LOX) compatible. MILC-38334/SAE AMS-1640 is available in two types.
3.1.13.1 Type I, liquid concentrate, which is diluted with
an equal amount of water before use.
3.1.13.2 Type II, powdered concentrate kit, materials will
be dissolved in the volume of water specified on the kit.
3-8
Change 3
3.1.14 Application of MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640
Solution/Not LOX Compatible.
MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640 is moderately
toxic to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection is required. Good general
ventilation is normally adequate.
Apply solution by flowing, mopping, sponging, brushing or
wiping. The solution is more effective if applied warm (130°
F ±10° F), followed by vigorous agitation with a nonmetallic, acid-resistant brush or aluminum-oxide-abrasive,
nylon mat (A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A). When applying the
solution to large areas, start at the lowest surface working
upward. Applying the solution with a circular motion to
disturb the surface film will assure proper coverage. Allow
the solution to remain on the surface approximately 12
minutes, then rinse away with potable water. Corroded areas
identified for treatment during the prepaint process may
require additional agitation beyond that specified above.
Corroded areas being treated during the prepaint may also
require more than one application and rinse. Examine the
areas being treated with a 4 to 10 power magnifying glass to
determine if another application is required. MIL-DTL-5541/
MIL-PRF-81706/MIL-C-81706 chromate conversion coating
shall be applied immediately after the final rinse, and before
the surface dries.
NOTE
When a large area/aircraft is being treated with
MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640 start applying solution to lowest point first and work upward.
3.1.15 Surface Treatment Materials For Aluminum.
There are two specifications which cover formation of Chromate Conversion Coatings with its attendant process application and the Chemical Conversion Materials. These two
specifications and their scope are as follows:
NOTE
Chromate Conversion coating specification MILDTL-5541 should be applied after the manufacture of new aluminum alloy repair parts.
3.1.15.1 Chromate Conversion coating specification MILDTL-5541 covers two classes of chemical conversion coatings formed by the reaction of chemical conversion materials
and the surfaces of aluminum and aluminum alloys. It is
designed to provide corrosion protection and better paint
adhesion than uncoated aluminum. It is used on aluminum
alloys as a prepaint treatment for most approved paint
systems; repair of damaged anodic coatings; and treatment of
TO 1-1-8
corrosion rework areas on clad and unclad aluminum alloys.
This specification covers the preparation and application of
chemical conversion materials, and film formation or consistency. These coatings are not as abrasion-resistant as anodized coatings conforming to specification MIL-A-8625, even
though they do provide an effective means for re-establishing
the corrosion resistance of mechanically damaged anodic
coatings in the field. Specification MIL-DTL-5541 covers
two classes of films as follows:
3.1.15.1.1
corrosion.
Class 1A - For maximum protection against
3.1.15.1.2
Class 3 - For protection against corrosion
where low electrical resistance is required.
3.1.15.2
Specification MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706,
Chemical Conversion Materials for Coating Aluminum and
Aluminum Alloys, covers the chemicals used in the formation
of conversion coatings. These are available under this specification in three forms:
Form I Form II Form III -
Concentrated Liquid
Powder
Premixed liquid (ready for use touch-up
brush application)
3.1.15.3
Each form of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706
can be applied by spray, brush or immersion. Materials for
Class 1A chemical films are available in iridescent yellow or
light brown, or dyed in specific colors. The prepaint treatment
of aircraft surfaces prior to repainting will be accomplished
using specification MIL-DTL-5541, Class 1A coatings, using
specification MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706, color iridescent yellow.
3.1.16 Touch-Up of Damaged Aluminum Surface
Treatment MIL-DTL-5541.
The touch-up of damaged
MIL-DTL-5541 coatings due to maintenance or surface
preparation for maintenance painting can be accomplished
using one of three methods:
3.1.16.1
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706, mixed (if required) per Paragraph 3.1.18 and applying to affected areas
per Paragraph 3.1.19.
3.1.16.2
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706, mixed (if required) per Paragraph 3.1.18 and applying to affected areas
per the “NO-RINSE PROCESS” in Paragraph 3.1.17.
3.1.16.3
Touch-N-Prep™ (TNP) Pens (Alodine 1132).
NSN 8030-01-460-0246, for minor repair of damaged MILDTL-5541 chemical conversion coatings on aluminum alloys
can also be accomplished by applying Alodine 1132 using the
TNP pens. These pens also conform to MIL-C-81706/MILDTL-81706, Class 1A, Form VI, Method D. The solution
applied with TNP pens doesn’t require rinsing or wiping off
following application, thus minimizing hazardous waste generation. Empty pens can be returned to manufacturer for
disposal. However, check with Bioenvironmental Engineering and Environmental Management for proper disposal of
used applicators. To use the TNP pen, remove the cap and
charge the tip by pressing the tip against a flat surface for 10
to 15 seconds. The conversion coating solution will saturate
the tip. Do not oversaturate the tip. Refresh solution often
during use in a similar fashion.
NOTE
Acrylic tip of TNP pen can be modified or altered
to form any shape to allow touching up hard to
reach areas.
a. It is necessary to ensure the surface to be treated is
thoroughly cleaned before application. Immediately following cleaning, use the TNP pen to apply a chemical
conversion coating solution in overlapping parallel
strokes. Do not over apply the solution which would
allow puddles, drips, or runs to form.
b. Apply one coat of solution and allow coating to dry for
5-10 minutes before next application.
c. Apply a second coat perpendicular to the first coat and
allow it to dry. The treated surface does not require
rinsing or wiping off, and it can be air dried at ambient
temperature or force air dried with hot air. Once
completely dried, the coating is ready for priming and/or
painting.
d. Use of TNP pen will be limited to 1 square foot.
3.1.16.4 After processing, if bare surface areas still exist
repeat steps a through c. Also, if the treated surface does not
turn to an iridescent yellow color shortly following application, re-clean the surface and reapply per steps a through c.
3.1.17 “No-Rinse Process” For Surface Treatment of
Aluminum. This process is for applying conversion coating using a “wipe-on and blot-off” method. This procedure
can be used in order to minimize hazardous waste water
generated from the application of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706 solutions. This process is for use on repaired areas and
where coatings have been damaged or removed. Application
of this process is not to exceed 4 sq. ft. per occurrence.
a. Apply corrosion removal solution (MIL-C-38334/SAE
AMS-1640, diluted with an equal amount of water) by
sponging, brushing, or wiping. The solution is more
effective if applied warm (130° F ± 10° F), followed by
vigorous agitation with a non-metallic, acid-resistant
brush or aluminum-oxide-abrasive, nylon mat (A-A58054, Type I, Grade A), or scouring pads. Applying the
solution with a circular motion will disturb the surface
film and assure proper coverage. Allow the solution to
remain on the surface approximately 12 minutes. Keep
the surface wet during the entire 12 minutes. Rinse,
using a clean cloth dampened with cold potable water.
After rinsing with cold water, allow the water to
evaporate until a thin film of water exists on the surface.
Corroded areas identified for treatment during the preChange 3
3-9
TO 1-1-8
paint may require more than one application and rinse.
Examine suspect areas being treated with a 4 to 10
power magnifying glass to determine if another application is required.
b. All requirements of Paragraph 3.1.18 through Paragraph
3.1.18 step b shall be complied with prior to the
“wipe-on and blot-off” method.
c. MIL-DTL-5541/MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 chromate conversion coating shall be applied immediately
after the evaporation period. After allowing the aluminum part to dry to a damp surface, dampen a white
cotton wiping rag with MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706,
Class 1A, Form III, corrosion conversion coating.
Dampen the rag by slowly pouring the liquid onto the
rag (this will keep the material uncontaminated and
minimize the amount of material being used. The rag
will have a yellowish color.
d. Wipe-on the conversion coating to the still wet aluminum part. Apply the coating in a manner such that
streaking is minimized and a thin uniform coat is
developed. On areas where difficulty is experienced in
getting the conversion coating to react with the aluminum, light abrading with a very fine or fine aluminum
oxide nylon abrasive mat, specification A-A-58054,
dampened with MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 will
help overcome the difficulty. If dark brown spots or
streaking occurs, lightly rub the area with fingers of your
glove.
e. Allow the conversion coating to react with the aluminum until the aluminum turns a brassy iridescent yellowish tint. The reaction time should be at least 3
minutes, but not longer than 5 minutes.
f. Dampen a white rag in clean water and hand ring out the
rag so it is not dripping with water. Blot all of the areas
3-10
Change 3
that have been conversion coated with the clean wet rag.
The rag should become contaminated with the conversion coating, giving the rag a yellowish color. Repeat
this procedure (starting with a clean rag) at least two
more times so the surface has been blotted off at least
three times. No visible coating residue (yellowish color)
should be on the rag after the last blotting action.
g. Areas not properly coated (including those that are
powdery shall be recoated by reapplying fresh coating
solution allowing it to react with aluminum until the
aluminum turns a brassy iridescent yellowish tint.
h. Contaminated rags, abrasive mats, and other materials
shall be disposed of by placing them in an appropriate
hazardous waste container.
i. The coating should be allowed to air dry for 2 hours
minimum or, if required, force dried by blowing dry
with warm, clean air (140° F maximum) for 1 hour prior
to overcoating with primer coating.
NOTE
Check with Bioenvironmental Engineering and
Environmental Management for proper disposal
of excess solution.
j. The final protective primer or primer/topcoat system
shall be applied only on a completely dry surface and
within 48 hours after completion of the MIL-C-81706/
MIL-DTL-81706 conversion coating application. The
reapplication of MIL-C-38334/SAE-AMS-1640 corrosion removal compound and MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706 chromate conversion coating is mandatory if
more than 48 hours has elapsed since the previous
application.
TO 1-1-8
3.1.18 Mixing MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 Solution. The use of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 requires
that the following precautions be observed.
• MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 conversion
coating materials are toxic and require the use
of rubber gloves and eye protection (goggles
and face shield) by personnel mixing or applying. If the material (which is an acid)
accidentally contacts the skin or eyes, flush
immediately with plenty of clean water. Report to dispensary and/or consult a physician if
eyes are effected or skin is burned.
• Mixing and application shall be done in an
adequately ventilated area. Avoid prolonged
breathing of vapors.
• Do not permit specification MIL-C-81706/
MIL-DTL-81706 materials to come into contact with paint thinner, acetone, or other combustible material; fire may result. Also, any
absorbent materials, i.e., rags, sponges, paper
or nylon matting, etc., used in or exposed to
these materials shall be rinsed in water before
discarding. They are an extreme fire hazard if
allowed to dry otherwise.
• Do not use MIL-DTL-5541 or MIL-C-81706/
MIL-DTL-81706 treatment on magnesium alloy, high strength steel, or on cadmium or zinc
plated surfaces. If these materials are present
in adjacent areas, they must be protected.
• Conversion coating material should not be
allowed to enter faying surface areas or other
areas where the solution can not be adequately
removed by rinsing.
NOTE
• The solution will usually turn green during
application if dirt or corrosion is present on the
surface. The color green will not have the
iridescent quality that a properly applied and
dried solution will display.
• Select an area for mixing so spillage or splatter
from solution will not cause damage to other
equipment. Use only a stainless steel, plastic
or rubber container to mix solution in. Mix
only enough solution to coincide with the
immediate job requirements in order that fresh
materials will be available for each use.
a. If specification MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706, Form
II - Powder, is being used and it is not finely divided,
crush by rolling on a clean piece of paper. This will
improve mixing efficiency.
Nitric acid is highly toxic to skin, eyes, and
respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection is required. Use only in a well-ventilated area. In case
of eye or skin contact, flush immediately with
water and report to dispensary.
b. Preparation and use of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706,
Form II - Powder, will be done in accordance with
vendors technical instructions. This solution should be
analyzed prior to use for pH value and hexavalent
chromium content by the base chemical laboratory at
depot facilities. Solutions used in field operations can be
analyzed using pH paper or a pH meter and visual
performance characteristics. Solution matter should be
retested every five days and the chemical laboratory
should be consulted should difficulties arise. Field
operations prepare solutions as per vendors instructions
and test per example below. Mix three ounces of
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 powder to one gallon
of clean water in an approved container. Add nitric acid,
Federal Specification O-N-350 and check pH for range
of 1.6 - 1.9. Five ml will usually adjust pH to this range
however, it could require up to 15 ml. Mix solution well
with a clean plastic or aluminum paddle. Check the time
it takes to form an iridescent yellow to brown color on
a sample of the same alloy the solution will be used on.
If the time is more than 5 minutes, retest the pH and
make the following adjustments:
(1) A pH greater than 1.9 will require addition of 2 ml
portions of nitric acid until desired pH is achieved.
(2) A pH less than 1.6 will require addition of 2 ml
portions of ammonium hydroxide until the desired
pH is achieved. After pH adjustment the solution
reaction time should fall within the range of 1 to 5
minutes.
c. If powder material is being used, allow the solution to
stand approximately 1 hour prior to application. A small
amount of powder may not dissolve; however, this is not
objectionable.
3.1.19 Application of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706
Solutions.
a. Apply the coating solution with a fiber brush, clean rag,
sponge, applicator bottle (plastic), or low pressure
stream (flow-on, do not atomize). The method used for
application should be selected depending on the specific
job requirement. If pumping is required, pumps, valves,
and fittings shall be manufactured from 18-8 stainless
steel, polypropylene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Flow
Change 3
3-11
TO 1-1-8
on MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 solution immediately after rinsing the MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640
compound from aircraft surfaces which are to be painted
and while these surfaces are still wet. Allow the gross
amount of rinse water to run off the aircraft, but do not
wait for completed drying before applying MIL-C81706/MIL-DTL-81706 solution. The oxide film just
removed by MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640 compound
will reform during this time period and prevent a proper
formation of the MIL-DTL-5541 conversion coating
from the MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 solution.
b. Wet or flood the surface to be treated and keep the
surface completely wet with the solution until coating is
formed. This will take from 1 to 5 minutes depending on
the surface condition, the particular manufacturer’s
product being used, and the temperature. Begin application at the lowest surface then apply sideways and
upward to prevent streaking.
c. On areas where difficulty is experienced in getting the
coating to take (coating formation), light abrading with
a very fine or fine aluminum oxide nylon abrasive mat,
specification A-A-58054, Type I, Grade B, soaked with
the solution will help overcome the difficulty. If the
surface is dirty, remove the dirt with the nylon mat or
sponge. The mat or sponge used to remove the dirt
should be rinsed in clean water and squeezed almost dry
before wetting with stock coating solution for reapplication.
d. It will be noted during the initial coating application that
there will be a tendency for dark (brown) spots to form
on some areas. The formation of these spots can be
prevented to some extent by lightly rubbing with the
fingers (gloves on). If the spots are allowed to form, the
applicable areas shall be abraded with the nylon mat to
remove the stain, and a fresh coating shall be reapplied.
e. After controlling the stain formation, discontinue agitation, apply additional solution to keep all surfaces wet
and observe the aluminum surface for a color change.
The aluminum will turn a brassy, yellow or iridescent
greenish tint, which is easily detected through the
overlying solution.
f. Do not let the coating over-develop, or surface powdering will be experienced. Disturb such areas by rubbing
with fingers (gloves on) or nonabrasive nylon mat as
necessary.
3-12
Change 3
g. When coating formation shows on all areas, stop the
reaction by rinsing or flooding the area with fresh clean
water. The reaction of the solution is stopped by diluting
the acid component. Be careful not to flush the solution
into areas where it cannot be removed or further diluted
by water. Accidental spills in confined areas can be
neutralized using baking soda followed by rinsing with
clean water.
h. Allow the surface to drain or pick-up the excess water
by absorbing in a sponge by blotting action; do not rub.
Excess rubbing will remove the coating since it is soft.
i. Areas not properly coated (including those that are
powdery) shall be recoated by reapplying fresh coating
solution, abrading lightly with a nylon mat (nonabrasive
or fine abrasive), allowing normal time for coating to
develop, rinsing, and drying.
j. The coating should be allowed to air dry for 2 hours
minimum or, if required, speed dried by blowing dry
with warm clean air (140° F maximum) for 1 hour prior
to using a part or painting.
NOTE
• Check with Bioenvironmental Engineer and
Environmental management for proper disposal of excessive solution.
• The final protective paint system or primer
shall be applied only on a completely dry
surface and shall be applied within 48 hours
after application of MIL-DTL-5541/MIL-C81706/MIL-DTL-81706 conversion coating.
The reapplication of MIL-C-38334/SAE
AMS-1640 corrosion removal compound and
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706
chromate
conversion coating is mandatory if more than
48 hrs has elapsed since the previous
application.
TO 1-1-8
3.1.20 Alternate Surface Preparations For Aluminum
Surfaces (PreKote SP).
Avoid excessive pressure or repeated passing
over the same area while sanding. Excess sanding
can cause damage to the surface of the aircraft.
PreKote SP is for exterior mold line applications
only.
NOTE
• PreKote SP requires specific System Program
Office (SPO) approval prior to use.
• PreKote SP will only be used with chromated
primers.
• PreKote SP is not a direct drop-in replacement
for current chromated conversion coating processes. Unlike the application process for
MIL-DTL-5541/MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706, which produces a visible indication
that the chromate conversion film has formed,
PreKote SP does not provide any type of
visible indicators. Therefore, it is absolutely
critical that all steps of the PreKote SP application process be precisely followed.
PreKote SP is a non-chromic, non-hazardous and non-toxic
alternative to chromate conversion coatings for surface painting preparation operations. The PreKote SP formulation is a
non-chromic alkali soap with a saline adhesion promoter and
inorganic inhibitor package. The PreKote SP application
cleans the surface and deposits a very thin layer of adhesionpromoting organic molecules on the surface of the substrate.
3.1.20.1 Surface Preparation. Preparation for aircraft
cleaning shall be accomplished in accordance with TO
1-1-691 and any weapon system specific cleaning instructions. Rinse exterior of aircraft with hot water (100-120°
F/38-49° C) to remove any residue left in seams or on
surface.
Finish system removal using motor driven abrasives may generate airborne particles and toxic
dust, which may injure personnel and create a
possible dust explosion. All aerospace and motorized ground equipment shall be properly electrically grounded. Personnel shall wear dust particle masks, goggles, gloves and long sleeved
shirts when using motor driven abrasives. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering Services for
respiratory and ventilation requirements.
NOTE
Some residual amounts of old coating system
may be left after stripping (i.e., fastener heads,
seams, hinges, surface porosity, etc.). These areas
are acceptable as long as they are feathered into
the surrounding surface.
a. Lightly sand aircraft and feather sand the rough areas of
the aircraft with 240-grit sandpaper.
b. Remove all tape adhesive residue using solvent, denatured alcohol or isopropyl alcohol.
NOTE
If rinse facilities are not available, solvent wipe
using denatured (O-E-760/MIL-A-6090, Type
III) or isopropyl (TT-I-735) alcohol on clean
lint-free cotton rags (CID A-A-59323) is an
acceptable substitute process.
3.1.21
Application of PreKote SP.
Personnel shall wear full rain gear, face shield
and rubber gloves to remain dry during the
application of PreKote SP.
PreKote SP shall only be applied when temperature is maintained between 65° F/18 C and 110°
F/43 C, and humidity is between 10% and 90%.
Coating system failure may result if these conditions are not met.
a. Mask aircraft IAW the any weapons system requirements for preparation of surfaces prior to painting.
PreKote SP SP may be applied by pressure sprayer,
spray bottle or fluid feed attached to sander. Use 180-grit
scrub pads (A-A-58054 Type 1, Class 1, Grade B
abrasive mat) attached to pneumatic sander to agitate.
Change 3
3-13
TO 1-1-8
b. Apply and agitate first coat of PreKote SP in small
sections (approximately 16 square feet per person working an area).
NOTE
Do not allow PreKote SP to dry prior to rinse.
c. Rinse area with water.
d. Repeat Paragraph 3.1.21 step a and Paragraph 3.1.21 b
until entire area to be painted has been covered.
m. Let the surface of the aircraft static air dry.
3.1.22 Use of PreKote SP on Exterior Surfaces
Where Paint and Primer Have Been Removed During
Scuff Sand, Touch-up or Repair. PreKote SP may be
used on exterior aluminum parts as an alternative surface
preparation for MIL-DTL-5541 chemical conversion coating,
and corrosion removal treatment requirements (MIL-M-3171,
SAE-AMS-M-3171, MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640 prior to
prime and paint.
a. Prepare exterior surfaces per Paragraph 3.1.21.
e. Apply the second coat of PreKote SP with pressure
sprayer or spray bottle. Area of application should not be
so large as to allow the PreKote SP to dry prior to
scrubbing.
f. Scrub with 180-grit scrub pads on sanding poles until a
rich lather is formed.
g. Let the second coat of PreKote SP static air dry on the
aircraft surface.
h. Spray the third coat of PreKote SP with a pressure
sprayer or spray bottle. Area of application should not be
so large as to allow the PreKote SP to dry prior to
scrubbing.
Finish system removal using motor driven abrasives may generate airborne particles and toxic
dust, which may injure personnel and create a
possible dust explosion. All aerospace and motorized ground equipment shall be properly electrically grounded. Personnel shall wear dust particle masks, goggles, gloves and long sleeved
shirts when using motor driven abrasives. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering Services for
respiratory and ventilation requirements.
i. Scrub aircraft with sanding poles and 180-grit scrub
pads.
It is important that the entire third coat be
completely removed. Coating failure may result
if this application of PreKote SP is not completely removed.
j. Thoroughly rinse the surface of the aircraft with deionized water. Rinsing shall immediately follow scrubbing.
Scrubbed areas shall not be allowed to dry prior to use.
k. Remove all masking.
NOTE
Deionized water is preferred for this final wipe/
rinse but not mandatory.
l. Thoroughly rinse aircraft for second time.
Maximum time allowed prior to repaint is 48
hours. Excess time prior to paint application will
cause degradation of surface condition. To avoid
damage to the PreKote SP and surface of the
aircraft, all personnel shall wear cotton booties
when on aircraft from this point forward.
3-14
Change 3
Avoid excessive pressure or repeated passing
over the same area while sanding. Excess sanding
can cause damage to the surface of the aircraft.
NOTE
Some residual amounts of old coating system
may be left after stripping (i.e., fastener heads,
seams, hinges, surface porosity, etc.). These areas
are acceptable as long as they are feathered into
the surrounding surface.
b. If area to be prepared is adjacent to old paint system,
lightly sand entire bare metal area and feather edges
where required using 240-grit sandpaper.
c. Solvent wipe sanded area with denatured alcohol (O-E760/MIL-A-6090, Type III) or isopropyl alcohol (17-1735).
d. Mask area where PreKote SP is to be applied so as to
avoid contact with surrounding paint. Masking should
extend to the outside edges of the feathered area or to
the edge of the part being treated.
TO 1-1-8
NOTE
• PreKote SP may be applied by pressure
sprayer, spray bottle or fluid feed attached to
sander.
• The first coat of PreKote SP may be hand or
pneumatic scrubbed using 180-grit scrub pads.
• All coats of PreKote SP may be removed
using a clean, lint-free cotton rag moistened
with isopropyl or denatured alcohol, instead of
rinse with water.
e. Follow procedures outlined in application of PreKote
SP, Paragraph 3.1.20.
3.1.23
sium.
Corrosion Removal Solution For Magne-
• Do not allow rags, brushes, abrasive mats, or
any other item soaked with A-A-55827 chromic acid or the chromic acid pickle solution
prepared with it to come in contact with any
organic solvent (MEK, acetone, paint thinner,
A-A-59601/MIL-PRF-680 dry cleaning solvent, etc.); fire will result.
• A-A-55827 chromic acid and the chromic acid
pickle solution prepared with it are highly
toxic to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract.
Chemical splash proof goggles and/or face
shield, chemical resistant rubber gloves and
apron are required. Good general ventilation is
usually adequate. Assure this operation has
been reviewed by local Bioenvironmental Engineer. In case of eye or skin contact, flush
with water immediately and report to the base
medical facility.
Chromic acid pickle solution which is a mixture of A-A55827 chromic acid in water may be used to remove surface
oxidation and light corrosion from magnesium alloy surfaces.
It is not adequate for removal of deep pitting, heavy corrosion, sand or other blast media residue, or the effects of
blasting which will require use of one of the mechanical
methods described in this chapter. If properly used, this
chemical method removes much less metal causing much less
reduction of sectional thickness than mechanical methods,
but it shall not be used on parts containing copper or steel
inserts unless they are completely masked off. Do not allow
excessive amounts of anions such as chlorides, sulfates, or
fluorides to build up in the solution; they tend to coat or etch
the metal surface rather than removing corrosion products.
Do not reuse old solutions; prepare fresh solutions for each
separate removal operation.
a. Mix 24 ounces of A-A-55827 chromium trioxide in
enough water to make one gallon for each gallon of
solution being prepared in a container fabricated from
lead lined steel (any alloy), stainless steel (any CRES
alloy), or 1100 aluminum alloy. For depot level operations only, a removable part that is being treated can be
completely immersed in the solution with an immersion
time ranging from one to 15 minutes at an operating
temperature ranging from 190° F to 202° F (88° C to 94°
C). For hand application with the solution at room
temperature, the dwell time for the solution on the
surface is 15 minutes minimum to 30 minutes maximum. Paragraph 3.1.21 step b through Paragraph 3.1.21
step d are for hand application. Paragraph 3.1.21 step e
through Paragraph 3.1.21 step f apply to both the
immersion and hand application methods.
b. Mask off the surrounding areas, in particular to include
all nearby operating mechanisms, joints, crevices, copper and/or steel inserts, and plated steel to keep the
solution from attacking them.
c. Apply the chromic acid pickle solution carefully to the
corroded area with an A-A-289 acid brush.
d. Allow the solution to remain on the surface for approximately 15 minutes for a solution at room temperature.
Agitate the area with an A-A-289 acid brush having half
the bristle length cut off or a A-A-58054, Type I, Grade
B or C abrasive mat.
e. Thoroughly rinse the solution from the surface with
plenty of fresh tap water.
f. Repeat the preceding sequence as necessary until all
corrosion products have been removed and the metal is
a bright metallic color.
3.1.24
sium.
Surface Treatment Process For Magne-
Chromic acid solution is highly toxic to the skin,
eyes and respiratory tract. Avoid all contact. Skin
and eye protection and vapor controls are required. Assure this operation has been reviewed
by local Bioenvironmental Engineer.
Chemical pretreatment solution provides a passive surface
layer with an inhibitive characteristic that resists corrosive
attack and also provides a bond for subsequent coatings. The
solution consists of the following materials and must be
mixed in the ratio specified:
Change 3
3-15
TO 1-1-8
Water to make
1 gal
Chromic Acid Solution (Also known as Dow 19)
Chromium Trioxide (A-A-5587 1 1/3 oz
Type III) (99.5% pure)
Calcium Sulfate
1 oz
(CaSo44•2H2O)
Operating Temperature
70° F to 90° F
Container
Stainless steel, Aluminum, vinyl
Polyurethane or
rubber
Rubber gloves, acid apron, and eye protection
shall be worn by personnel during all mixing
operations.
3.1.25 Surface Preparation For Steel. It is essential to
remove rust, scale, oil or other contaminants from steel
surfaces to be painted. The Organic or Inorganic Zinc Rich
primers require good electrical contact with the steel (these
primers provide galvanic protection). To enable this, the steel
surfaces shall be solvent cleaned per Table 3-2, phosphoric
acid treated (Reference TO 1-1-691), or sandblasted. Sandblasting to white metal is preferred. Where sandblasting is not
practicable or possible, clean surfaces by means of powered
wire brushes, disc-sanders, grinding wheels or needle scalers.
(Reference TO 1-1-691). Grind sharp edges to a rounded
contour. Remove dust, sand, or grit by vacuuming with a
HEPA filtered vacuum. Follow this with a solvent wipe per
Table 3-2. Clean galvanized surfaces with power tools.
3.1.26 Masking. Masking off areas is almost invariably
required in painting operations on large assemblies or structures either for protective reasons, as in the precautionary
note below, or for purposes of delineation. In spray application of coatings, masking operations may consume more
man-hours than the actual painting.
NOTE
a. Add chemicals to the water in the order shown, stirring
the solution vigorously, either mechanically or by air
agitation for at least 15 minutes.
b. Apply the solution to a properly prepared surface using
a brush, clean rag, sponge, applicator bottle, or a low
pressure stream (flow-on, do not atomize). Apply the
solution to the surfaces treated with the acid pickle
solution while these surfaces are still wet. Allow the
gross amount of rinse water to run off the aircraft, but do
not wait for complete drying before applying Chromic
Acid Solution, as the oxide film just removed by the acid
pickle solution will reform during this time period and
prevent a proper formation of the conversion coating.
When applying solution to large areas start at the lowest
surface working upward, applying the solution with a
circular motion to disturb the surface film and assure
proper coverage. Agitation shall be accomplished using
a non-metallic acid resistant brush or aluminum oxide
abrasive nylon mat (A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade
A). Solution works best when applied at 70° F or above.
Leave solution on the surface one to 20 minutes, until a
dark brown coating is produced. Rinse with cold running water while insuring complete flushing of any
residual materials.
3-16
To prevent overspray or paint drift of one color or
material onto another, untreated Kraft paper may
be used to mask or cover areas not specifically
described below where protection of an area
against overspray is the prime consideration.
3.1.26.1 Mask areas such as windows, canopies and large
openings with combinations of tapes and barrier materials:
•
•
Specification MIL-PRF-121, usually a treated paper
which is oil and moisture resistant.
Specification MIL-PRF-131, usually a laminated foil
and cloth or foil and paper with good water vapor
resistance.
NOTE
Both types above are heat sealable.
3.1.26.2 Pressure-sensitive masking tape conforming to
SAE AMS-T-21595 (formerly MIL-T-21595), Types I
(creped paper backing), II (flat paper backing), and III (plastic
backing).
TO 1-1-8
Care should be taken when cutting and trimming
of the barrier/tape to prevent damage to any
transparent plastic and glass surfaces.
NOTE
For general large area masking use either Type I
or Type II. For operations involving sharp, fine
line color separation such as aircraft markings
and two tone gloss color schemes, use Type III
tape only. This tape is designed to prevent edge
bleeding and is more flexible for masking shapes,
curves, etc.
e. Use only approved masking paper for large area masking. Coating solvents may dissolve and deposit printing
ink from newspapers, etc., on surface of the area being
masked.
f. When spray painting, mask or cover surfaces at a
distance from the area being painted which might
receive overspray or paint drift.
g. Masking tapes should be removed as soon as possible
after coating application to allow edges of coating to
heal and draw down as much as possible.
h. Press tape firmly when applying it to prevent paint
bleeding under it by capillary action.
3.1.27
Tack Ragging.
a. Cover small or irregular shaped parts with tape alone.
Use pressure-sensitive masking tape conforming to SAE
AMS-T-21595 (formerly MIL-T-21595), Types I and II.
b. In repetitive spraying of the same or similar structures it
is advisable to have available predesigned bandages,
socks, etc., of barrier paper or cloth. Locally manufactured foam plugs or inserts may be used to protect
aircraft inlet areas (e.g., scoops, air intakes, engine
intakes, etc.) from painting as a replacement for masking and barrier paper. It is recommended that MIL-PRF26514, protective ion material, be used in the making of
foam plugs/inserts. One side of the plug should be
covered in replaceable plastic or barrier material for
easy cleanup.
Exercise extreme caution in applying protective
finishes to parts and equipment which may contact propellants directly or by accidental spillage.
Critical areas may have to be masked. The
guidance of applicable equipment technical
manuals or engineering drawings shall be followed concerning use of protective finishes on
parts or equipment used in or near propellant
storage and transfer systems.
NOTE
Care should be taken to ensure that paint is not
applied to certain surfaces where paint will interfere with a function. The following should be
masked or otherwise protected during painting:
Machined surfaces that move with respect each
other such as threads, bearing contacts and gear
teeth; electrical parts, such as contacts, relays,
insulators, sockets, plugs, connectors, wiring and
terminals; plastic and rubber (natural and synthetic) mounts, spacers, etc., and lubrication fittings, cups, oil holes, etc.
c. Avoid using tape in such a way as to leave a paint edge
on aerodynamic surface unless feathering by sanding
can safely be done.
d. Use only approved masking tapes in varying widths
required by the job. A complex curved area is better
masked initially at the paint edges with narrow (1/4 or
1/2 inch) tape. Wider tape may then be applied over the
narrow, if required.
Commercial rental wiping cloths, laundered shop
cloths, or disposable fiber or chemically treated
paper wiping materials shall not be used.
To ensure that all primed surfaces are free from foreign
matter, they should be tack-ragged immediately before applying the topcoat. Do not tack-rag an entire large structure at
one time. Each area to be painted should be tack-ragged
immediately prior to the application of finishing material to
that area. Surfaces are gently wiped with the tack-rag,
removing accumulations of dust and other foreign matter.
One form of tack rag in common use to A-A-2522, Grade A,
Color 1 dampened with an approved solvent per Table 3-2.
Other commercially available forms of tack rag which are
designed for the purpose of removing surface contamination
from an area receiving paint may also be used. Do not use a
tack-rag to clean more than 10 square feet at a time to prevent
spreading any contaminants on the rag over a large surface.
3-17/(3-18 blank)
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 4
PAINTING APPLICATION METHODS
4.1
GENERAL.
Spray application is the standard for painting Air Force
aircraft and most other equipment. It is fast, and in the hands
of skilled operators, produces films of good uniformity and
quality. When application is described in this technical
manual without specifying the method, High Volume Low
Pressure (HVLP) spray application is implied. Methods other
than spraying are useful in special cases, particularly in
non-aeronautical or less critical applications. Brush or roller
applications have their place and should be considered as
alternate methods when used with suitable materials. The
painters discretionary use of brush or roller for painting
aerospace equipment should be based on local circumstances
such as health or fire hazards. Additionally, there are some
requirements which demand brush application, such as painting porous surfaces which require brushing-in for adequate
coverage and penetration.
4.2
SPRAY METHODS.
The Air Force uses several hand-operated spray methods: hot
spray, cold and/or hot airless, air assisted airless, HVLP spray,
and any of these methods in conjunction with electrostatics.
The HVLP method is now the standard spray method used in
the Air Force and meets the requirements of environmental
regulations.
4.2.1 HVLP Spray. In this method, the coating material
is atomized by a high volume of low pressure air through the
spray gun nozzle. The HVLP spray equipment generally
utilizes low pressure (below 20 PSIG) gun cups to assist in
delivery of the coating material to the gun nozzle. Low
pressure air between 1.0 and 10 PSIG is used to atomize the
coating material at the spray head. A high volume of air is
used to push the coating material and form a very soft,
low-velocity pattern. This soft spray generally provides more
consistent coverage and a better overall finish. The HVLP
gun should be held closer to the surface (6 to 10 inches) than
a conventional air spray gun because of the lower speed of the
paint particles. The film thickness generated in a single coat
is often greater than that of conventional air spray systems.
This equipment shall not be used above 10 PSIG at the
nozzle. Pressure should be checked regularly with a nozzle
pressure gauge (see Figure 4-1).
Figure 4-1.
Nozzle Pressure Gauge
4.2.1.1 HVLP Touch-Up Spray Gun.
For minor
touch-up and application of insignias and markings, a small
HVLP spray gun may be used. While designed for applying
quantities less than a quart, it has all of the advantages of the
full size HVLP. It is also preferred over other aerosol power
pack spray units for touch-up if an air source is available.
4.2.2 Hot Spray.
Hot spraying is the application of
coatings with HVLP, or airless spraying equipment, using
heat as a substitute for all or a portion of the thinner ordinarily
used to reduce coating materials to spraying viscosity. Hot
spray is most frequently and effectively used with the airless
spray system. Also, the hot paint, while cooled rapidly when
atomized, retains sufficient heat to still be close to the ambient
air temperature when it reaches the work surface. This
reduces the possibility of blushing due to moisture condensation and allows spraying under conditions of relatively high
humidity. However, a disadvantage is that heating the paint
reduces its pot life.
Change 2
4-1
TO 1-1-8
4.2.3 Airless Spray. The term airless comes from the
fact that no air pressure is used with this paint application
method. Instead, hydraulic pressure is used to deliver the
coating material, heated or unheated, to the gun head and
atomize it by ejecting it from special spray nozzles. These
nozzles increase the pressure by a factor of approximately
100. Atomization of the coating material and formation of the
spray pattern are created by the gun nozzle. The droplets
move toward the work surface by their momentum and are
appreciably slowed down by air resistance. There is less
bounce of the coating material on arrival at the work surface,
and, therefore, less overspray. The cooling effect of expanding air associated with conventional spray is not present, so
the only heat loss in the cold airless method is through solvent
evaporation. In the hot airless method the material arrives at
the work surface warmer than with other methods of spraying, usually at or above ambient air temperatures.
4.2.4 Air-Assisted Airless Spray. In this method the
coating material is atomized by hydraulic pressure the same
as airless spray but at a much lower pressure. Low pressure
air is added at the gun head and directed at the paint mist to
control and form the spray pattern. While the coating can be
atomized at lower hydraulic pressure through the spray
nozzle, proper spray pattern formation requires the assistance
of the low pressure air through jets at the nozzle. This allows
the operator control of the atomized coating pattern that
cannot be done with standard airless. It offers almost equivalent advantages in spraying as the airless spray method, while
being safer and requiring lower maintenance on pumps.
These advantages are due to the lower hydraulic pressures
used. In addition, the appearance of coatings applied by this
method is better as the tendency to orange peel is lessened.
4.2.5
Electrostatic Spray.
Electrostatic spray painting of JP-8 fueled aircraft
constitutes a significant hazard when the onboard fuel temperature exceeds 100° F.
This method is a variation of the spray methods previously
described which adds the feature of electrostatic charging
(60,000 volts at about 200 microamps) of the paint material
which is then attracted to the grounded workpiece. Charging
of paint material can occur either inside the gun or at a fine
metal probe at the gun nozzle exit (the most common
method). Typically, this requires specially designed paint
guns as most HVLP, airless, or air assisted airless guns cannot
be modified to add this feature. This method is more effective
with airless or air-assisted airless as the combination of
low-particle velocity of the airless spray and the electrostatic
attraction to the workpiece produces an excellent transfer
efficiency rate. Electrostatic spray painting equipment can be
powered by an external electrical source or a self-generating
electrical source contained within the spray gun. Overspray is
greatly reduced and hard-to-coat areas such as edges or
geometric shapes are more effectively painted. The workpiece
4-2
(aircraft, etc.) is not charged electrically, but is grounded as in
normal painting practices. This method has limited effectivity
in coating interior corners, crevices, and cavities due to the
Faraday effect, that causes charged paint particles to be
repelled from the deepest points, and on some aircraft
exterior surfaces, due to aluminum components being insulated by anodize, or due to composite materials that cannot be
grounded. The safety precautions, operational parameters,
and equipment maintenance for this method in Paragraph
5.5.3 must be strictly followed.
4.3
SPRAY PAINTING EQUIPMENT, GENERAL.
4.3.1 HVLP Spraying Systems. All HVLP spray systems have certain basic components necessary for their
efficient operation. There must be an adequate source of
compressed air, a supply of the finishing material from a
reservoir or feed tank, a spray gun, and a device for
controlling the combination of air and finishing material.
Other refinements, such as an air-pressure transformer (regulator), air filter, water drain, hose cleaner, etc., are incorporated in the system to provide more efficient and satisfactory
results. Figure 4-2, Figure 4-3, and Figure 4-4 are diagrams of
complete spray systems.
4.3.2 Spray Gun, General. Spray guns are mechanical
devices for atomizing or breaking-up coating materials into a
spray and applying it under control, to a surface to form a
continuous film. Figure 4-5 illustrates in sectional view of a
typical spray gun. It is a precision instrument and must be
treated as such. Its daily care and maintenance determine the
effectiveness of spray painting. It should not be used by
untrained personnel.
4.3.3 Classes of Spray Guns. HVLP spray guns are
classed in three general types: suction feed, gravity feed and
pressure feed. Each type is further subdivided by having
either external or internal mix air caps. For the most part, the
Air Force uses the external mix type.
4.3.3.1 The suction feed (or siphon) cup gun is usually
fitted with a fluid cup. Its nozzle assembly is designed to feed
paint into the air-stream by the vacuum created from the air
flowing past the fluid tip which protrudes into the air stream
beyond the air cap. The amount of spraying at one time is
limited to the contents of the cup. This gun is most commonly
used in painting smaller areas, usually within the confines of
a spray booth. (Figure 4-2, Detail B, illustrates suction feed
hookup.)
4.3.3.2 The pressure feed gun is designed to fluid feed to
the gun under pressure from an external tank through a hose.
The air cap and fluid tip are flush with each other, and no
siphoning effect is necessary. It is suitable for high volume
painting. (Figure 4-2, Detail A, illustrates pressure feed
hook-up.)
4.3.3.3 The gravity feed gun is designed with the cup
located on the top of the spray gun. This allows paint to
TO 1-1-8
completely drain, minimizing paint waste. Gravity feed guns
supply paint to the orifice solely by means of gravity. The air
pressure at the orifice of these guns is typically 40 to 50 psi.
4.3.4 Material Containers.
Two types of containers
serve as material reservoirs for spray guns, the cup and the
tank. Both cups and tanks are available with agitators to
provide constant mixing to keep materials in suspension
during application. Agitators are mechanically operated by
either an air or an electrical powered motor. See Chapter 6 to
determine which coatings require agitators.
with a small vent on top of the container through which
atmospheric pressure operates to force material up to the fluid
tip when a compressed air stream creates a vacuum at the
spray opening.
4.3.4.2
Pressure feed tanks are used for high volume
painting. Pressure feed tanks are tightly closed metal containers of varying size (2 to 120 gallons) that provide material at
a uniform pressure and a constant rate of flow. Compressed
air is directed into the tank to force the material out. Air
pressure must be increased or decreased to change the rate of
flow.
4.3.4.1 Cup containers are used when small quantities of
paint are to be sprayed. They are generally of the suction type
4-3
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-2.
4-4
Simple Spray System Setup
TO 1-1-8
air. A condenser is usually equipped with pressure gages, but
may be found without gages where a regulated supply of air
is available.
NOTE
Air condensers and transformers shall be drained
at least daily and more frequently in humid
weather.
4.3.8 Air Supply. Figure 4-6 illustrates proper installation of an air supply for paint spraying.
4.3.9
Hose.
Hoses shall always be thoroughly cleaned by
flushing with solvent appropriate for the coating
material used. When the material is a catalyzed
(two component) system (epoxy or polyurethane), this must be done immediately after use to
prevent the material from curing in the hose.
Figure 4-3.
Airless Spray System
4.3.5 Air Compressors.
Air compressors provide a
continuous supply of compressed air at a predetermined
maximum pressure and a minimum volume in cubic feet per
minute. There are two general types of air compressors,
single stage and two stage. These can be further subdivided
into many types such as portable or stationary, electric motor
or gas engine driven, unloader or pressure switch controlled,
and air or water cooled.
4.3.6 Air Regulators or Transformers. A regulator is a
device equipped with indicator gages which reduces the main
line air pressure to a lower regulated pressure. It also provides
outlets to which spray guns and other air operated equipment
may be connected. It must be capable of providing 15 cfm of
air at 80 PSI (supply line pressure) with a maximum pressure
drop of 10 PSI.
4.3.7 Air Condensers. An air condenser is similar to
the air transformer and separates oil and moisture from the
Because of friction losses in hose, it is essential that the
proper size and length be used. Do not use hoses longer than
50 feet. High-pressure air hose leading from the air source to
the regulator or tank which may be a maximum of 150 feet if
required to reach the tail surfaces of exceptionally large
aircraft. Extra lengths of hose may be attached for this use but
shall be removed as soon as no longer needed. The highpressure air hose shall have a minimum inside diameter (ID)
of 7/16 inch. The fluid hose from the tank to the gun shall be
no less than 3/8 inch ID and the air hose from the regulator to
the tank and from the tank to the gun shall be no less than
5/16 inch ID. Any reduction in size or increase in length may
produce unsatisfactory results. Air and paint hoses are furnished in various standard lengths.
4.4
SPRAY PAINTING.
4.4.1 Gun Techniques. Spray guns are designed to be
used with certain spraying techniques. The quality of finish
that is applied will depend on how well these techniques are
used by the painter. Spraying techniques include the following:
4-5
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-4.
4-6
Complete Spray System
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-5.
Sectional View of Spray Gun
4.4.1.1 Distance.
Distance depends on the desired
width of the paint fan and the type of gun used (Figure 4-7,
Detail A). When all adjustments to the spray gun are correct
and the spray gun is held at too great a distance from the
surface, it will result in a dry spray (dusting) and excessive
overspray. Conversely, if the spray gun is too close to the
surface, it will result in too heavy a coating with a tendency
for sags or runs to develop.
4.4.1.2 Stroking. The essence of proper stroking is to
maintain as near as possible the same distance to the work,
the same speed, and the same perpendicularity of the gun to
the surface throughout the pass. The natural tendency for
spray painters, particularly when fatigued or in an uncomfortable position is to arc or wave the gun (Figure 4-7, Detail
B). This practice must be avoided at all costs. In general,
wrist movement must be eliminated in stroking as almost
inevitably, it causes the gun to describe a curve instead of
remaining perpendicular to the surface. This results in a
thicker coating in the middle of the stroke than at the end. An
exception to the rule is spotting in for touch-up. In this case
it is permissible to fan the gun to produce an area which is
thinner at the edges in order to blend into the surrounding
painted area. When applying coating materials with poor flow
characteristics (such as vinyl paints), special efforts must be
taken to hold the gun perpendicular to all surfaces (flat or
contoured). If this is not done, the irregular spray pattern
formed will produce an uneven thickness and cause uneven
drying. Protrusions such as screw heads, etc., present surfaces
that will require facing the gun in several directions to
completely coat them. It may be advisable to spot paint these
in advance. The rate of the stroke should be uniform to
produce a full wet coat of material. Stroking should be in
parallel passes with each stroke aimed for a 50 percent
overlap, or so that the middle of the spray pattern strikes the
wet bottom edge of the previous stroke (Figure 4-8). In order
to ensure good coating integrity and coverage, the technique
of cross coating is best (Figure 4-9). Cross coating should
always be used when applying multiple coats of a coating
system. This is done by applying each layer using the 50
percent overlap and cross coating with each alternate layer of
the coating system, usually after a drying or curing period
between coats. The cross-coating technique is also the standard for applying a single-coat finish system by applying a
thin, wet-coat followed immediately with another thin crosscoat to obtain one full wet coat. When applying high solids
primers and topcoats, with HVLP, airless, or air assisted
airless equipment, a single coat using 50 percent overlap
4-7
TO 1-1-8
without a cross coat may be used. The process control must
be adequate to prevent holidays or other finish defects that
may result from a single heavy application.
4.4.1.3 Triggering.
Proper triggering of the gun is
difficult to learn. The variations of triggering technique which
may be called for in special situations can only be developed
by practice. It is a matter of judgment and experience. In
general, the painter should begin his stroke before triggering
the gun and release the trigger before stopping the stroke. It
can be compared to the follow-through in swinging a golf
club. This tends to feather out the end of a stroke so that the
end of a succeeding overlapping stroke blends into it.
Examples of correct techniques are shown in Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-6.
4-8
NOTE
• A reasonable amount of care will maintain
spray guns and spray equipment in top operating condition and prevent a majority of
spraying difficulties. Thorough cleaning immediately after use and appropriate lubrication
are essential.
• This manual provides only general spray gun
information. See specific manufacturer’s
booklet or manual for detailed operating and
maintenance instructions.
Proper Installation of Air Compressor, Piping
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-7.
Right and Wrong Methods of Spraying
4-9
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-8.
Fifty Percent Overlap
Figure 4-9.
4-10
Cross Coating
TO 1-1-8
4.4.2 Gun Adjustments. The flow of air and fluid at the
gun must be adjusted or balanced to obtain proper atomization and other desired spraying characteristics.
4.4.2.1 The first consideration in obtaining this balance is
the proper combination of air cap and fluid tip for the
particular material being sprayed as recommended by the
equipment manufacturer and the coating material manufacturer.
4.4.2.2 After the air cap and fluid tip have been selected,
there are several adjustments which may be made with the
gun controls to properly adjust the air and fluid relationship.
These adjustments are necessary to obtain proper atomization
and other desired spraying characteristics required for the job
and conditions. The fluid adjusting screw on the gun (Figure
4-10, B) permits restriction of fluid flow relative to the
volume of air being used, but is limited since it puts
additional tension on the gun trigger and tends to discourage
feathering at the beginning and end of the stroke.
4.4.2.3 For pressure feed spraying, adjustment of tank
pressure and adjustment of the atomization air supply to the
gun is more effective for obtaining the proper air to fluid
balance.
4.4.2.5 The correct atomizing pressure depends on the
type of coating and the length and diameter of the air line
from the regulator to the gun. The pressure must be sufficient
to completely atomize the material being sprayed but no
greater. For HVLP paint guns, the regulator pressure shall be
adjusted to a lower level to ensure the nozzle pressure does
not exceed a maximum of 10 PSI per Paragraph 4.2.1. An
excessive amount of air may give a split pattern in which the
material deposited is light in the middle of the pattern; too
little air may give a heavy centered pattern. Pressure on the
paint pot is usually adjusted to a range of 25 to 40 PSI but
may vary more widely, depending on the density of the paint
and the elevation of the surface being painted above the
pressure tank. In normal operation, the wings on the nozzle
are in the horizontal position which provides a vertical
fan-shaped pattern for maximum coverage as the gun is
moved back and forth parallel to the surface being painted.
The spray pattern is variable from round to flat with all
patterns in between and can be adjusted to obtain the pattern
which produces the best results.
NOTE
As the width of the spray is increased, more paint
must be allowed to pass through the gun to get
the same coverage.
4.4.2.4 The air adjustment screw (Figure 4-10, A) can be
changed to spread the atomized fluid out over a greater area,
which, in combination with the increased air flow, is equivalent to reducing the flow of fluid.
NOTE
Do not thin the paint excessively to increase the
flow of fluid.
Figure 4-10.
Spray Gun Adjustments
4-11
TO 1-1-8
4.4.3 Painting Difficulties and Remedies.
Coating
troubles may be divided into five groups: (1) Inadequate
surface preparation, (2) Incorrect methods or techniques of
application, (3) Unusual climatic or atmospheric conditions,
(4) Unsuitable equipment, and (5) Faulty finishing material.
Inadequate surface preparation is self-explanatory and is
discussed in Chapter 3. Incorrect methods of application
should be discontinued upon discovery of the discrepancy.
Remedying incorrect techniques of application, however,
calls for training. The practice of allowing inadequately
trained personnel to apply coatings, particularly to aeronautical surfaces, is unauthorized and dangerous. Conditions
such as adverse weather and humidity may cause the application method chosen to be unworkable. Unusual climatic
and atmospheric condition can to some extent be remedied or
compensated for by temperature and humidity controls,
shielding from elements, etc. Consideration should always be
given to alternative methods such as hot spraying or even
brushing and roller coating on certain surfaces. Unsuitable or
faulty equipment can only be remedied by obtaining proper
equipment or repair. An experienced painter may be capable
of compensating for faulty materials to obtain proper results,
but this is an emergency measure only and must be with the
cognizance and authority of the quality control facility. Table
4-1 and Figure 4-14 through 4-22 lists common troubles of
spray coating operations with suggested remedies or methods
of avoidance.
Figure 4-11.
4-12
Excessive Spray Fog
Figure 4-12.
Paint Leaks From Spray Gun
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-13.
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Sags and Runs
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies
Possible Causes
1.
2.
3.
Streaks
Gun Sputters Constantly
Dirty air cap and fluid tip (distorted spray
pattern).
Gun stroked too close to the surface.
Preventive Measures Or Remedies
1.
2.
4.
Trigger not released at end of stroke (when 3.
stroke does not go beyond object).
Gun stroked at wrong angle to surface.
4.
5.
6.
Coating material too cold.
Coating applied on too heavily.
5.
6.
7.
Coating material thinned excessively.
7.
1.
1.
4.
Dirty air cap and fluid tip (distorted spray
pattern).
Insufficient or incorrect overlapping of
strokes.
Gun stroked too rapidly (dusting of the
paint).
Gun stroked at wrong angle to surface.
5.
Stroking too far from surface.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Too much air pressure.
Split spray.
Coating material too cold.
6.
7.
8.
2.
3.
2.
3.
4.
Remove air cap and clean tip and air cap
carefully.
Maintain 6 to 10 inches for HVLP gun
distance from surface.
Release the trigger after every stroke.
Keep gun at right angle (perpendicular) to
surface during stroke.
Heat material by approved methods.
Develop ability to apply correct thicknesses by panel practice.
Add the correct amount of solvent by
measure or determine by viscosity test.
Remove air cap and clean tip and air cap
carefully.
Follow the previous stroke accurately. Deposit a wet coat.
Avoid whipping. Make deliberate, slow
strokes.
Keep gun at right angle (perpendicular) to
surface during stroke.
Maintain 6 to 10 inches for HVLP gun
from surface.
Use least air pressure necessary.
Clean the fluid tip and air cap.
Heat material to get good flow-out.
Change 2
4-13
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Paint will not
come from
Spray Gun
Possible Causes
Out of paint (gun begins to sputter).
1.
Add paint, correctly thinned out and
strained.
2.
3.
Settled, cake pigment blocking gun tip.
Grit, dirt, paint skins, etc., blocking gun
tip, fluid coatvalve or strainer.
2.
3.
Remove obstruction, stir paint thoroughly.
Clean spray gun thoroughly and strain the
coating material. Always strain materials
before using.
Lack of proper air pressure in the pressure
tank.
1.
Check for leaks or lack of air entry. Set
correct pressure.
2.
3.
Air intake opening inside of pressure tank
lid, clogged by dried-up material.
Leaking gaskets on tank cover.
3.
This is a common trouble. Clean the opening periodically.
Replace with a new gasket.
1.
Dirty fluid tip and air cap.
1.
Remove air cap and clean tip and air cap
carefully.
2.
3.
4.
Clogged air vent on cup cover.
Using wrong air cap.
Leaky connections on fluid tube or nozzle.
2.
3.
4.
Remove the obstruction.
Ascertain and use correct set-up.
Check for leaks under water and repair.
Not triggering the gun at each stroke.
1.
2.
Stroking at wrong angle to surface.
2.
3.
Stroking gun too far from the surface.
3.
4.
5.
Wrong air cap or fluid tip.
Depositing a film of irregular thickness.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Air pressure too high.
Fluid pressure too high.
6.
7.
8.
Coating material too cold.
8.
It should be a habit to release trigger after
every stroke and retrigger to begin the
next stroke.
Gun should be stroked at right angles to
surface and the stroke parallel to the
surface.
Stroke the gun 6 to 10 inches for HVLP
gun from the surface.
Ascertain and use correct set-up.
Learn to calculate the depth of wet film of
finish and develop control. Measure wet
film thickness.
Use the least amount of air necessary.
Reduce pressure. If pressure keeps climbing, clean regulator on pressure tank.
Heat to enable reduced air pressure.
1.
Too high air pressure.
1.
Use the least amount of air pressure necessary.
2.
3.
4.
Spraying past surface of the product.
Wrong air cap or fluid tip.
Gun stroked too far from the surface.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Material thinned out too much.
5.
Release trigger when gun passes target.
Ascertain and use correct set-up.
Stroke the gun 6 to 10 inches for HVLP
gun from surface.
Add the correct amount of solvent by
measure or test.
Excessive Material 1.
Loss
Excessive Spray
Fog (Figure
4-11)
4-14
Change 2
Preventive Measures Or Remedies
1.
Paint will not
1.
come from Pressure Tank
2.
Paint will not
come from Suction Cup
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
Possible Causes
Preventive Measures Or Remedies
Paint Leaks from 1.
Spray Gun (Figure 4-12)
2.
3.
4.
Fluid needle packing nut too tight.
1.
Loosen nut, lubricate packing.
Packing for fluid needle dry.
Foreign particle blocks fluid tip.
Damaged fluid tip or needle.
2.
3.
4.
Lubricate this part daily.
Remove tip and clean.
Replace both tip and needle.
Gun Sputters Con- 1.
stantly (Figure
4-13)
2.
Fluid nozzle not tightened to the spray gun. 1.
Tighten securely, using a good gasket.
Leaking connection of fluid tube or needle
packing (suction cup).
Fluid pipe not tightened to the pressure
tank lid.
2.
Tighten connections; lubricate packing.
3.
Tighten. Check for defective threads.
1.
2.
3.
Coating material not thinned out sufficiently.
Coating material too cold.
Insufficient air pressure.
2.
3.
4.
Using wrong air cap or fluid nozzle.
4.
5.
Gun stroked too far from the surface.
5.
6.
Overspray striking a previously sprayed
surface.
6.
Add the correct amount of solvent by
measure or viscosity test.
Heat material to get flow-out.
Increase air pressure or reduce fluid pressure.
Select correct air cap and nozzle for the
material and feed.
Stroke the gun 6 to 10 inches for HVLP
gun from surface.
Spray detail parts first. End with a wet
coat.
1.
Unsatisfactory wash primer or primer.
1.
2.
3.
Excessive dirt contamination from painting 2.
area.
Insufficient scuff-sanding of primer.
3.
4.
5.
Improperly cleaned paint lines.
Dried overspray, gun too far from surface.
3.
Orange Peel (Figure 4-14)
Sandpaper Finish
(Figure 4-15)
Wrinkling (Figure
4-16)
1.
Caused by applying too thick a coating,
this prevents uniform drying of the coat
and thus results in formation of ridges
and furrows.
4.
5.
Laboratory analysis to verify acceptability
of the material; check wash primer and
primer application procedures.
Provide cleaner painting areas.
Scuff-sand primer using No. 320 and No.
400 wet or dry sandpaper.
Flush paint lines frequently with solvent.
Sand the complete finish until smooth to
the fingertips. Stroke gun 6 to 10 inches
for HVLP gun from the surface.
Material should be applied in thin uniform
coats. If a thick coating is necessary, it
should be applied by spraying several
thin coats until the desired thickness is
obtained. Allow each coat to set before
applying the next.
Change 2
4-15
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
Possible Causes
Crazing, Mud
1.
Cracking,
Checking (Figure 4-17 and
Figure 4-18).
These three defects 2.
are all very
similar in that
they all consist
of surface cracks
in varying degrees. Crazing is
a fine surface
crack while
cracking and
checking often
extend to the
metal surface.
3.
4.
Preventive Measures Or Remedies
Painting over a hard glossy coat. A base
1.
coat of this condition offers a poor surface adhesion of subsequent coats. In
drying, the topcoat slides over the base
coat, breaking out in cracks.
Excessive amount of catalyst in paint caus- 2.
ing brittleness.
Remove all previous coats of paint using
paint remover or scuff sand, solvent
wipe, and apply a primer tiecoat before
overcoating.
Excessive heat employed in drying operation.
3.
Insufficient drying times between coats.
4.
Exercise caution in placement of heat
lamps to assure uniform heat distribution over the entire painted area.
Allow sufficient drying times.
Drier should be used only as recommended by manufacturer of material
being used.
Slow drying of
Wash Primer
Check mix, using smaller quantities of same
Accidental addition of A-A-857 thinner;
batch, apply to test panel; modify the type
excessive butyl alcohol addition; high
and/or quantity of thinner added and compare
humidity conditions, excessive thickness;
drying times under actual painting conditions;
denaturants in the alcohol such as oils,
incorporate use of small test panel adjacent to
high boilers, etc., introduced by the acciall aircraft during complete painting procedental use of the wrong alcohol to clean
dure, using such panel for thickness measurethe surface.
ments also.
Pinhole Cavities,
Solvent Pop
Improper surface treatment or lack of surface treatment; entrapped oils and/or solvents; insufficient primer drying times;
excessive alcohol additions to wash
primer; use of improper thinner.
Apply manual surface treatment and ensure complete coverage with surface
chemical film, before wash primer
and/or primer application; check mixing
instructions to eliminate use of improper
thinners.
Excessive Blushing of Topcoats.
Excessive humidity; insufficient quantity of
Specification blush-retardant thinner
ASTM D330.
Check humidity control equipment where
employed and/or increase quantity thinner ASTM D330.
Peeling
Failure to remove moisture, oil or grease
from the surface before the finish is applied.
Refinish surface.
Blistering (Figure
4-19)
4-16
1.
2.
3.
Oil or grease on surface.
Moisture in lines.
Trapped solvents.
1.
2.
3.
Strip and clean; or sand down and repaint.
Drain lines periodically.
Use proper thinner.
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Possible Causes
Inconsistent Coloring
Defective Spray
Patterns (Heavy
Center)
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
Pigment not evenly distributed as a result
of settling or insufficient mixing.
Apply additional coats after thoroughly
mixing the finish material.
1.
Setting too low on fan adjustment.
1.
Adjust fan adjusting valve.
2.
Air cap; atomizing pressure too low.
2.
Adjust atomizing pressure.
3.
Pressure feed: Fluid pressure too high for
normal capacity of air cap.
Nozzle too large for fluid used.
3.
Adjust fluid pressure.
4.
Replace nozzle with correct size.
4.
Defective Spray
Patterns (Split
Spray)
Air and fluid feeds not properly balanced.
Defective Spray
1.
Patterns (Heavy
Top or Bottom)
(Heavy Right or
Left)
2.
Horn holes partially clogged. Obstruction
on top or bottom side of nozzle.
Starving the Spray 1.
Gun
Insufficient air because of waste filter in
transformer too tightly packed or
clogged.
Aircocks, hose or pipelines too small.
Inadequate air supplies from too small a
compressor or a break in the system.
2.
3.
Failure of Wet
Tape Test
Preventive Measures Or Remedies
Reduce width of spray pattern by means
of the spreader adjusting valve, and if
condition is not remedied, increase fluid
pressure. The latter increases rate of
material flow. Readjust atomizing pressure, fluid pressure, and spray width
until desired spray is obtained.
1.
Dirt on air-cap seat or nozzle fluid tip seat. 2.
Insufficient drying time for wash primer
and/or primer; insufficiently cleaned surface; cleaning compound residue, etc. Oil
seepage through inspection doors or fasteners; entrapped oils and soil in shop
applied temporary primer; insufficient
removal of shop primer and/or previous
coatings; use of final finishes incorporating wax ingredients; use of laundered
rags instead of new lint free cotton rags;
seepage of water containing cleaning in
compound residues from between faying
surfaces.
Determine location of obstruction by rotating air cap one-half turn and spray a
new pattern. If defect is reversed, obstruction is in air cap; if not reversed, it
is on the nozzle of fluid tip.
Clean. Check for burrs and dried paint in
opening.
1.
Repack or replace filter.
2.
3.
Replace with units of adequate size.
Obtain a compressor of adequate size or
repair leakage.
Employ solvent wipe down, per Chapter
2; remove any shop primers to provide a
clean aluminum surface prior to any
painting; employ solvent-dampened
cloths in lieu of dry cloths for removal
of oil contamination (especially along
jet engine inspection doors); conduct
laboratory analysis to determine primer
a ceptability; allow aircraft to stand for
sufficient time to permit drainage of effluent before final cleaning; note the
type of failure, such as to bare metal
intercoat failure, and select the applicable remedy according to the cause of
failure.
4-17
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
Possible Causes
Fish-Eyes and
Poor Wetting,
Crawling, Poor
Flowout. (Figure
4-20)
Preventive Measures Or Remedies
Use of waxes or sealants and adhesives
containing silicones. Presence of other
types of oils, greases, or hydraulic fluids
on the surface.
Solvent clean with silicone-removing compounds.
NOTE
Minute quantities of silicones can
cause this film.
Lifting (Figure
4-21)
1.
Absorption of solvents by previous partially dried film.
1.
2.
2.
3.
Second coats apt to lift if surface is poorly
prepared.
Use of lacquer over enamel.
4.
Use of lacquer thinner in enamel.
4.
Rust under surface.
Oil or grease on surface.
Moisture in lines.
Trapped solvents.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pitting or Cupping 1.
(Figure 4-22)
2.
3.
4.
4-18
3.
Allow coats to dry/cure for the proper dry
to over-coat time before recoating for
epoxies, polyurethanes, and lacquers;
with enamels either allow first coats to
dry completely, or apply second coats
immediately.
Begin with properly prepared surface.
Use compatible coatings and thinners.
Enamel may be applied over lacquer but
lacquer may not be applied over enamel.
Use compatible coatings and thinners.
Enamel may be applied over lacquer but
lacquer may not be applied over enamel.
Strip and clean; or sand down and repaint.
Strip and clean; or sand down and repaint.
Drain lines periodically.
Use proper thinner proportions and allow
proper cure times.
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-14.
Orange Peel
Figure 4-15.
Sandpaper Finish
4-19
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-16.
Wrinkling
Figure 4-18.
Figure 4-17.
4-20
Crazing
Cracking
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-19.
Blistering
Figure 4-20.
Fish Eyes
Figure 4-21.
Figure 4-22.
Lifting
Pitting or Cupping
4-21
TO 1-1-8
4.5
CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE.
Proper maintenance of spray guns is necessary to preserve the
life of the gun and ensure high quality results. The gun
requires little other maintenance if kept clean.
a. Basic maintenance consists of occasional lubrication.
The packing surrounding the air valve stem shall receive
a few drops of light oil to maintain easy movement of
the air valve. The packing enclosed in the packing nut
around the fluid needle shall be lubricated for easy
movement of the fluid needle assembly. The spring for
the fluid needle assembly shall be coated with petrolatum per VV-P-236 (Vaseline®). In addition to lubrication, parts that experience wear, such as air nozzles,
fluid nozzles, and needle assemblies, should be periodically replaced.
Abrasive materials and chemical strippers shall
not be used to clean spray gun parts, as damage to
the gun will result.
(3) Fill a quarter of the clean container/cup with the
same type of thinner or solvent (fresh/unused) used
to clean it.
(4) Remove the air nozzle and carefully lower it into the
container/cup of thinner or solvent.
(5) Using a nonmetallic bristle brush, clean the fluid
nozzle openings and other parts of the gun that are
difficult to reach, such as around the packing nuts
and controls.
NOTE
Excessive tightening of the packing nut will
damage the packing and the needle valve
assembly.
b. After each paint job, the gun shall be thoroughly cleaned
with thinners/solvents listed in Paragraph 4.6. If cleaning is delayed, the time needed to clean the gun is
greater, and there is a potential for damage to the
equipment.
When using solvents, keep away from heat and
open flame, keep container closed, use only with
adequate ventilation, and use gloves to avoid skin
contact.
(1) To clean a siphon-feed gun, unscrew the air cap and
release the paint cup from around the siphon tube at
least a distance of 1 or 2 inches. Hold a cloth over the
air cap and trigger the gun. Air will be sent into the
passageways, forcing any excess paint back down
the siphon tube and into the loosened paint cup.
(2) Remove the paint container and clean the inside
using MIL-T-81772, Type I or II thinner or TT-T2935 purging thinner or one of the lower vapor
pressure solvents listed as preferred alternatives for
these in Paragraph 4.6.
4-22
Do not submerge the gun in thinner or solvent as
they can dry out the packing around the fluid and
air stems.
(6) Dampen a rag with thinner or solvent and wipe the
entire gun and cup until they are free of paint.
(7) Using the bristle brush clean the air nozzle and its
openings.
(8) Put the gun back together, and spray clean MIL-T81772, Type I thinner only through the gun until a
fan of clear thinner is produced. Do not use the lower
vapor pressure solvents listed in Paragraph 4.6 for
this final flushing procedure for the same reasons
noted in the CAUTION in Paragraph 4.6.
(9) Remove any excessive thinner, and wipe the cup and
gun with a clean dry rag.
NOTE
A spray gun contains parts that must work together. Dismantling a spray gun after each paint
operation will cause excessive damage to the gun
and its seals. A spray gun should only be dismantled when a proper spray pattern cannot be
produced.
TO 1-1-8
4.6
MECHANICAL PAINT GUN WASHER.
When lower vapor pressure solvents are used to
clean paint guns and their paint supply lines/
hoses, the paint guns must be blown out with
clean, compressed air and the lines/hoses must be
flushed with MIL-T-81772, Type I thinner immediately after they are removed from the paint gun
washer and prior to use to eliminate all traces of
these solvents from the guns and lines/hoses.
These solvents are not compatible with the paints
and primers used on Air Force equipment, and
failure to remove them will contaminate the next
paint system applied with the paint gun and
supply lines/hoses and cause fish eyes and other
paint curing problems.
NOTE
It is highly recommended that an initial hazardous waste collection container be located as near
as possible to the paint gun cleaner so that any
contaminated sludge, solvents, and filters may be
immediately placed in the container without having to transport the waste to the collection
container.
The most effective method for cleaning paint spray guns,
paint fluid hoses, and paint pots/cups is by using a mechanical
paint gun washer. These washers use either MIL-T-81772,
Type I or II thinner, TT-T-2935 Parachlorobenzotrifluoride
(PCBTF), purging thinner, or other low vapor pressure
solvents, that contain some VOCs but no HAPs. The solvents
are contained in a closed-loop system, consisting of a cover,
reservoir, sump, pneumatic pump, spray nozzles, pneumatic
controls, and either a filtration or a distillation system. The
container has devices installed inside of it for connecting
paint guns for cleaning of internal as well as external
surfaces. Since these washers are closed loop systems, their
use reduces hazardous waste, volatile organic compound
emissions, solvents required to manually clean the paint
equipment, and hazards to the personnel. Use of paint gun
washers is required to comply with NESHAP rules when
applicable.
a. Equipment fitted with a filtration system reutilizes the
solvent until it is so soiled that it must then be replaced,
and it also requires periodic change out of the filters.
These units are recommended for paint shops with a
medium to low production rate and a high personnel
turnover rate such as many field level maintenance
organizations. The filtration type paint gun cleaners are
relatively simple to operate and require only a minimum
amount of personnel training for safe and effective
operation. There should be at least two people in each
paint shop that are proficient in the operation of the
shop’s paint gun cleaner so that personnel turnover will
not result in a situation where there are no trained
operators present in the shop. Operation of this equipment shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
NOTE
• For proper disposal of contaminated solvent,
contact local civil engineering authorities for
instructions.
• Solvent replacement shall be done in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.
• Contaminated filters are considered hazardous
waste and shall be placed in a hazardous waste
collection container immediately after removal from the paint gun cleaner.
b. Equipment fitted with a distiller recycles the solvent and
separates out the waste and does not require solvent
disposal. These units are recommended for paint shops
with a medium to high production rate and a relatively
stable work force such as found in most depot level
maintenance organizations. The distillation type paint
gun cleaners are relatively difficult to operate and
require a higher degree of personnel training than the
filtration type units for their safe and effective operation.
There should be at least two people in each paint shop
that are proficient in the operation of the shop’s paint
gun cleaner so that personnel turnover will not result in
a situation where there are no trained operators present
in the shop. Operation of this equipment shall be in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
4-23/(4-24 blank)
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 5
PAINTING OPERATIONS FOR AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT
5.1
GENERAL.
This chapter describes coating application procedures for
aircraft and equipment used by the Air Force. Except when
otherwise directed by this technical order or by local requirements or limitations, protective organic coatings may be
applied by spraying, brushing, or any other approved method
which results in continuous adherent films. The method
selected or directed for application of coatings to aerodynamic surfaces shall be developed and adjusted to provide
film integrity, optimum adherence, smoothness and good
appearance. Achieving acceptable finishes on airframe surfaces requires trained personnel plus certain disciplines of
operation. Pre-planning for painting is an absolute requirement to provide a logical schedule of operations, arrange for
a cleared working area, and have available painting aids such
as scaffolding and cleanup materials and equipment, etc.
Correctly preparing coating materials and maintaining painting equipment in good operating condition are as important as
knowing the techniques of applying coatings.
5.2
SAFETY AND HEALTH ASPECTS OF PAINTING.
Measures shall be taken to prevent paint waste
from contaminating air, water, or soil. Some of
the chemicals used in painting require treatment
or other special control prior to disposal. Disposal
of materials shall be accomplished under the
direction of the Base Civil Engineer, Safety
Office, Bioenvironmental Engineer, and Environmental Management Office in a manner that will
not result in violation of local, state, or federal
pollution criteria. Detailed information for disposal is cited in AFI 32-7040, AFI 32-7041, AFI
32-7042, AF PAM 32-7043, AFI 32-7080, and
AFI 32-7086.
Painting operations are hazardous and require control or
preventive measures. Vapors produced, particularly in spray
painting, are usually highly flammable, as are the accumulated dried coating materials deposited on walls, floors, and
equipment in the painting area. Also, coating materials and
their thinners very often contain toxic substances which are
injurious to health by inhalation and, to a lesser degree, by
skin contact. Painting operations also involve hazards of
physical injury due to improper use of work stands, ladders,
hoists, etc. As directed by the local Safety and the Bioenvironmental Engineers, all painting personnel shall observe all
safety precautions regarding toxicity, other health, and flammability hazards specified by existing instructions and regulations. AFOSH STD 48-8 and 48-137; AFPD 91-3; AFOSH
STD 91-17, 91-25, 91-68, 91-119, and 91-501; AFI 91-301
and 91-302; and NFPA 10, 13, 33, and 91 apply, and all safety
precautions in these documents regarding personnel health,
fire prevention, ventilation, handling of equipment, electrical
grounding, storage of coating materials, area preparation, use
of vapor-proof lights, etc., are mandatory. Refer to Table 5-1
for the minimum recommended personal protective equipment. The following measures are minimum required practices for personal safety:
a. Wear approved respiratory protective devices.
b. Wear protective clothing to prevent contamination of
ordinary clothing. When painting, use cloth coveralls
with a head covering (sock hat) or hooded Tyvek
coveralls, disposable rubber gloves, and non-slip foot
coverings for walking on aircraft. Do not store protective clothing in the painting area. Store protective
clothing in ventilated metal lockers in some other
convenient location.
c. After painting, wash hands thoroughly before eating. Do
not carry food into spraying areas.
d. Spray paint only in areas approved by Fire, Safety, and
Bioenvironmental Engineering.
Spray gun nozzles are sources of very high
pressure. During operation and cleaning of paint
spray guns, the nozzle shall never be pointed
towards any person in close proximity.
e. Spray painting equipment presents hazards of which
painters should be aware. Consult manufacturers’ instructions for proper handling, cleaning, operation, and
precautionary procedures.
5-1
5-2
d
c
b
a
None
None
Disposable Nitrile Noneb
gloves
Local Bioenvironmental Engineer may recommend more restrictive controls or PPE based on exposure monitoring
Hearing protection may be required in locations where hazardous noise is produced from other sources
A powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) with hood is the best choice for spray paint application
Not required if a full-facepiece or hooded respirator is worn
None
Noneb
None
None
Personal Protective Equipment
Hand
Ear
Eye
Body
Safety goggles or Tyvek or cotton
Disposable Nitrile Noneb
faceshield
coveralls
gloves
Safety goggles or Tyvek or cotton
Disposable Nitrile Noneb
faceshield
coveralls
gloves
Disposable Nitrile Noneb
Safety gogglesd
Tyvek or cotton
gloves
coveralls
Minimum Recommended Controls and PPE for Priming and Painting Operationsa
Engineering Controls
Respiratory
Mixing
General dilution None
ventilation
Thinning
General dilution None
ventilation
Spray application Paint spray
Air-purifying
booth/facility
with OV/N95
cartridgesc
Curing
General dilution None
ventilation
Sempen usage
General dilution None
ventilation
Operation
Table 5-1.
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Foot
Safety toe boots
TO 1-1-8
TO 1-1-8
5.2.1 Respiratory Protection. Many toxic materials are
found in spray painting shops which may impair the health of
personnel if control measures are not provided. Harmful
concentrations of these materials may be reduced to a safe
level by an efficient mechanical exhaust system supplemented
with personal respiratory protection. At a minimum, it is
recommended that powered air purifying respirators with
hood be used (see Table C-1); however, always contact
Bioenvironmental Engineering for selection of proper respiratory protection. It should be understood that a respirator is
not a substitute for a proper exhaust system, but is a
supplement to existing ventilation methods (refer to NFPA
91; and AFOSH 48-8, and 48-137).
switching shall be explosion proof. Spray room surfaces shall
be cleaned frequently to ensure good housekeeping.
NOTE
Two types of paint spray booths are in general use, the dry
type and the air-water wash type. Traditional spray booths are
generally effective at removing particulate matter such as
solid and liquid particles of overspray, but they do not remove
solvent vapors from exhaust air. Removal of solvent vapors
for air quality emissions compliance requires supplemental
equipment to collect the organic vapors on activated charcoal
filters or to destroy them by combustion or catalytic reaction.
These special process capabilities are matters to be addressed
by local civil engineering and environmental planning functions.
This manual provides only general information
for respiratory safety devices. See the manufacturer’s technical data for detailed operating and
maintenance instructions. See the DO43 System
for NSNs) and to convert specification and part
numbers to NSNs. Equipment Authorization Inventory Data (EAID) authorization for equipment
type items must be established in accordance
with AFMAN 23-110, Volume 2, Part 2, Chapter
22.
5.3 SPRAY BOOTHS AND PAINTING AREAS, GENERAL.
Spray painting shall be conducted in a properly ventilated
spray area such as in a spray booth which confines and
exhausts vapors and mists and overspray during painting
operations. Paint booths are available in various sizes for
small parts painting, or for larger wheeled equipment, and can
be large enough for complete aircraft. Air flow design shall
provide adequate velocity at the face of the booth. Basic
airflow criteria for a specific type paint booth is available
from the Bioenvironmental Engineer. Also, see NFPA 91;
“Industrial Ventilation, A manual of Recommended Practices” published by the American Conference of Government
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and AFOSH STD 91-17. For
additional reference criteria, see the Air Force Corrosion
Facility Reference Guide on the Air Force Corrosion Prevention and Control office’s website. Doors and windows in the
area should be kept closed to exclude dust and dirt. Air should
enter a booth at a rate which will not cause turbulence or
excessive air currents but be sufficient to keep dried overspray from settling on surfaces which have been painted and
are still tacky. Humidity and temperature indicators shall be
installed and kept in proper operation so that the temperature
and humidity for correct spraying can be checked and
maintained. Lighting shall amply illuminate all surfaces
being painted, and all lighting and connecting electrical
5.4
PAINT BOOTH TYPES.
Prior to spraying of paint, rigidly comply with all
safety regulations regarding to electrical grounding, fire prevention, vapor and explosion-proof
lights, etc.
5.4.1 Dry-Type Booth.
Dry-type spray booths draw
contaminated air through a series of baffles or filters before
exhausting it to the outside. Care should be taken to minimize
air currents in the spray booth that will interfere with removal
of spray dust or with the health and comfort of personnel.
These booths are available with varying types of filter
material, and local environmental regulations may specify the
numbers of filter banks required. In most cases, the filter
material will be considered a hazardous waste; and disposal
should be coordinated with local civil engineering and
environmental management.
5.4.2 Air-Water Wash Type Booth. In addition to the
baffles used in the dry-type booth, this type of spray booth has
a series of water curtains to trap and remove overspray solids
and liquids from contaminated air before it is exhausted. An
air-water wash type booth will remove up to 95 percent of
paint residue before it is exhausted when working properly.
Many areas today have greater restrictions than 95% efficiency. Fire hazards are greatly reduced when the air-water
wash booth is used. A deflocculating material or water wash
compound is added to the water to prevent residue from
adhering to the working portion of the booth, and also serves
to prevent rusting. A paint sludge removal system may be
installed in these booths to decrease the frequency of changing the water. Disposal of paint sludge may be considered a
hazardous waste and should be coordinated with local civil
engineering and environmental management.
Change 1
5-3
TO 1-1-8
5.4.3 Cleaning and Maintenance. A suitable coating
should be applied to all dry interior surfaces of a booth to
facilitate cleaning. Paint residue which floats on the surface
of the water should be removed each day to prevent it from
settling to the bottom of the tank. Spray booths should be
coated with an approved fireproof material. The applicable
equipment manual should be consulted for complete information on paint spray booths. It is very important to keep the
spray booth and its immediate vicinity as free from dirt and
dust as possible. The strong suction created by the exhaust fan
can pull dust from outside into the booth and may deposit it
on sprayed surfaces.
5.4.4 Part and Equipment Painting Operations. All
parts and equipment painted in spray booths shall be properly
positioned in the booth. This is necessary to ensure the painter
is not improperly exposed during the painting operation. The
parts shall be placed on roll around tables or hung from roll
around racks to allow for their repositioning in the paint
booth during the painting operation. The painter shall spray
into the face of the booth with the air flow from the painters
back. When painting complex parts, change the position of
the part being painted so that the painter is never spraying
into the air flow. Painted parts shall be removed from the
spray booth as soon as possible after the spraying has been
completed and the vapors have been removed. When painting
large equipment, the painter shall begin at the front or exhaust
end of the booth and work toward the back or air supply end.
This is to ensure the painter remains out of the flow of the
paint overspray.
5.5
AIRCRAFT PAINTING OPERATIONS.
a. Base Fire, Safety, Bioenvironmental, and Environmental Management Offices shall approve locations for
spray painting aircraft. Painting of fueled aircraft must
be approved by the AFMC and the responsible ALC Fire
Protection Engineering Offices, and is authorized only if
the following precautions are taken. Aircraft containing
JP-5, or JP8 fuel may be electrostatically painted during
depot level operations, providing the on-board fuel
temperature is below the flash point of 100° F before
and during electrostatic painting operations. The aircraft
being electrostatically painted must be grounded in two
locations to prevent accidental electrical discharge from
the electrostatic spray equipment. Each base is responsible for establishing procedures to ensure that the
temperature of on-board fuel is below 100° F before and
during electrostatic painting applications.
b. The ventilation system must provide sufficient exhaust
to remove the solvent vapors generated by the process.
The exhaust stream shall be maintained below 20
percent of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) with no
more than 500 ppm total solvent vapor concentration as
defined in OSHA Standard 1910.94. The paint hangar
facility shall be equipped with an audible alarm system
which activates if the ventilation system fails. Personnel
shall wear proper respiratory protection in addition to
the ventilation as specified by Bioenvironmental Engineering.
c. The painting equipment must be used only in the paint
hangar and shall be of the HVLP, Airless or AirAssisted-Airless Type and may employ electrostatic
capabilities in accordance with EPA requirements.
5.5.1 Depot Level Aircraft Painting Operations. Depot painting of aircraft shall conform to the following safety
and health protection precautions:
d. Painters shall be trained in the hazards associated with
painting fueled and unfueled aircraft, and the fire and
safety problems associated with the process.
NOTE
e. All safety and regulating features on associated spray
painting equipment and safety equipment shall be operational.
Painting of entire aircraft will necessarily be
accomplished in a variety of locations including
interior areas not primarily designed for painting
operations and out-of-doors. Insofar as applicable, all safety precautions and directions on
environmental and materials controls pertain in
these areas also. Painting in maintenance hangars
shall be restricted to the minimum necessary to
maintain the integrity of the coating system and
shall always be under cognizance of local safety,
fire and medical service representatives. Painting
in maintenance hangar will be done IAW AFOSH
STD 91-17.
5-4
Change 3
f. No unauthorized personnel are allowed in the paint
hangar during fueled aircraft painting operations.
g. Any personnel involved in operations in the paint
hangar, even those not associated with the painting
process, shall be briefed on the hazards of static on
ungrounded objects and provided with the appropriate
safeguards.
TO 1-1-8
h. All aircraft, equipment, work stands, solvents containers/buckets, people, and adjacent equipment shall be
grounded prior to using the painting equipment.
i. Prior to cleaning electrostatic paint guns, the operators
shall ensure that they and the gun are grounded, and that
the equipment is de-energized. All spray nozzles and
auxiliary equipment being cleaned with flammable solvents shall be done inside the paint hangar facility with
the ventilation system operating.
j. The manufacturers operational/safety procedural criteria
is used as a supplement to these procedures.
k. All electrical equipment within the paint hangar facility
must be approved for explosion proof environments.
The painting equipment used for this process must have
been tested and approved by a recognized laboratory for
NFPA70 Class I, Division I, Groups C and D locations.
l. When painting fueled aircraft, the paint hangar facility
and aircraft shall be protected with by a fire suppression
system. The fire suppression system must be fully
operational prior to the start of electrostatic painting.
Facility fire suppression required for electrostatic painting is outlined in MIL-STD-3007, ETL 02-15, and ETL
98-8.
m. Supervisory personnel must ensure all fire/safety precautions have been implemented prior to the start of the
painting operation.
n. LEL readings in the fuel vent areas must be taken prior
to the painting of each aircraft. LEL readings must be
maintained at or below 20 percent.
5.5.2 Field Level Aircraft Painting Operations. Field
level painting of aircraft shall conform to the following safety
and health protection precautions:
Electrostatic spray painting of JP-8 fueled aircraft
constitutes a significant hazard when the onboard fuel temperature exceeds 100° F.
a. Painting of aircraft at field level shall be limited to only
maintenance painting operations. Maintenance painting
is permitted in designated paint areas identified and
approved per requirements in AFOSH STD 91-17 and
approved by the Base Fire, Safety, Bioenvironmental,
and Environmental Management Offices. Aircraft containing JP-5, JP-8, or equivalent fuel may be electrostatically painted at field level organizations, providing
the on-board fuel temperature is below the flash point of
100° F before electrostatic painting operations begin.
b. The requirements for aircraft painting in AFOSH STD
91-17 shall be strictly followed.
c. Personnel involved in painting operations of both unfueled and fueled aircraft shall be trained in the fire/safety
and environmental hazards associated with the processes.
d. All safety and regulating features on associated spray
painting equipment and safety equipment shall be operational.
e. Unauthorized personnel will not be allowed in designated paint areas during painting operations.
f. Prior to starting a paint operation, ground all aircraft,
metal solvent containers, flammable waste containers,
airless and air-assisted airless paint spray equipment,
and adjacent equipment as deemed necessary by the
Base Safety Office.
g. Supervisory personnel must make sure all fire/safety
precautions have been implemented prior to the start of
the painting operations.
h. LEL readings at the fuel vent areas must be taken prior
to the painting of each aircraft and maintained at or
below 20 percent LEL as defined in OSHA Standard
1910.94.
i. Painting equipment shall be the HVLP or electrostatic
type in accordance with EPA NESHAP requirements.
5.5.3 Electrostatic Aircraft Painting.
Electrostatic
painting of aircraft shall conform to the following safety and
health protection precautions:
Electrostatic spray painting of JP-8 fueled aircraft
constitutes a significant hazard when the onboard fuel temperature exceeds 100° F.
a. Aircraft to be electrostatically painted shall be defueled
and purged. Exceptions: Aircraft fueled only with JP-5
and/or JP-8 are authorized to be painted with electrostatic airless spray equipment approved in SA 480
without being defueled and purged, providing fuel
temperature remains below 100° F. Electrostatic spray
painting of JP-5 or JP-8 fueled aircraft can only be
performed in designated paint hangars that are approved
for this function by the local base Fire, Safety, Bioenvironmental, and Environmental Management Offices.
The aircraft being electrostatically painted must be
grounded in two locations to prevent accidental electrical discharge from the electrostatic spray equipment.
Each base is responsible for establishing procedures to
ensure that the temperature of on-board fuel is below
100° F before and during electrostatic painting applications.
Change 3
5-5
TO 1-1-8
b. Electrostatic coating application equipment shall be
used only in paint hangars or other areas designated and
approved by the local base Fire, Safety, Bioenvironmental, and Environmental Office.
c. The ventilation system is on and operating and must also
provide sufficient exhaust to remove the solvent vapors
generated by the process. The ventilation shall be
sufficient to limit vapor concentration to 500 part per
million or 20 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower as
defined in OSHA Standard 1910.94. Electrostatic painting equipment powered by an external electrical source
requires an interlock system to ensure that equipment
can only be operated if the ventilation system is operational. An interlock system is not required for pneumatically operated equipment; however, the paint hangar
facility shall be equipped with an audible alarm system
which activates in the event of a ventilation system
failure.
d. All painters using the electrostatic equipment shall be
trained in its use, the hazards associated with electrostatic painting, and the fire/safety problems associated
with the process.
e. All safety and regulating features on all equipment are
operational.
f. No unauthorized personnel are allowed in the paint
hanger during electrostatic painting operations.
g. Any personnel involved in concurrent operation in the
paint hangar, not associated with the electrostatic painting process shall be briefed on the hazards of static on
ungrounded objects and provided the appropriate safeguards.
h. All aircraft, the electrostatic equipment, work stands,
solvent containers/buckets, people, and adjacent equipment shall be grounded prior to using the electrostatic
painting equipment.
i. Prior to cleaning electrostatic paint guns, the operators
shall ensure that they and the gun are grounded, and that
the equipment is de-energized.
j. The manufacturer’s operational/safety procedures are
used to supplement these procedures.
k. All electrical equipment within the paint hangar facility
must be approved for explosion-proof environments.
The electrostatic painting equipment used for this process must have been tested and approved by a recognized laboratory for Class I, Division I, Groups C and D
locations.
5-6
Change 3
l. When painting aircraft fueled with JP-5, and JP-8, the
paint hangar facility and aircraft shall be protected by a
fire suppression system. The fire suppression system
must be fully operational prior to the start of electrostatic painting. Facility fire suppression required for
electrostatic painting of fueled aircraft is outlined in
MIL-STD-3007, ETL 02-15, and ETL 98-8.
m. Supervisory personnel must ensure all fire/safety countermeasures have been implemented prior to the start of
the painting operation.
n. LEL readings in the fuel vent area must be taken prior to
the painting of each aircraft. LEL readings must be
maintained at or below 20 percent.
5.5.4 Atmospheric Conditions For Painting.
Normally, coatings should not be applied under unfavorable
atmospheric conditions such as high humidity, strong drafts
or extremes of temperature. Painting should be accomplished
whenever possible in an environmentally controlled facility
capable of maintaining a range of 30 to 80 percent relative
humidity and 60° F to 90° F. Some coatings may be applied
outside these ranges without significant adverse effects, but
paint personnel should always watch for adverse effects when
applying paint outside of these ranges and develop painting
decisions based upon local experiences for the particular
types of coatings used and the local climate. Factors to be
considered are:
5.5.4.1 The temperature of surfaces being painted should
be considered in any painting decision since it is a major
factor in the drying or cure of coatings.
5.5.4.2 Low humidity retards the cure of moisture curing
coatings.
5.5.4.3 High humidity can cause blushing of lacquers and
also may result in condensation on the coating if the temperature of the coating drops to the dew point.
5.5.4.4
Low temperatures cause slow drying, or cure,
longer tack time, and sometimes incomplete cure. If the
temperature is 50° F or lower, painting operations should be
suspended.
5.5.4.5 High temperatures cause too rapid an evaporation
of solvent which leads to premature skinning, pinholes or
solvent pop, blisters, cracked finish, or excessive dry spray. If
the temperature exceeds 95° F, painting operations should be
suspended.
TO 1-1-8
5.5.4.6 The aircraft skin temperature must be at least 60°
F prior to any application of coatings. During extremely cold
weather, this may require placing the aircraft in a heated paint
facility several days in advance to ensure proper skin temperature.
5.5.5 Test Panels. To test suitability of materials, conditions, etc., spray test panels prior to beginning operations.
The suitability shall be determined experimentally on a panel
approximately 10 x 32 inches in size coated under prevailing
conditions with the finish system that is to be applied. If the
finish system applied to the experimental panel is satisfactory,
then full scale operations may begin. Defects found in the
experimental application such as blushing, poor adhesion,
excessive orange peel, sagging, etc., shall be corrected prior
to large scale application. Application of catalyzed (2component) coatings having a long drying time usually
cannot await inspection of completely cured and dry films, so
use the best information available from the test panels at the
beginning of the application. Test panels are not required for
component/part or maintenance painting (touch-up).
5.5.6 Material Requirements, General. Materials used
on Air Force aircraft and equipment should normally conform
to Military or Federal Specifications and shall be applied as
directed in this technical manual and other pertinent technical
publications.
NOTE
Unauthorized material shall not be used by Air
Force activities on aircraft and associated
equipment.
5.5.6.1 Proprietary non-specification materials may exist
on aircraft and equipment as supplied by the manufacturer,
and the maintenance of these may offer special difficulties.
Normally, the repair and maintenance of proprietary coatings
should be with the same material. However, if a material cited
in this technical order is determined by the ALC corrosion
manager or the weapon/item manager engineering function to
be compatible with the proprietary coating, use the cited
material for touch-up. In case of complete unit stripping and
recoating, only Air Force authorized specification materials
shall be used.
5.6 THE AIRCRAFT PAINTING
QUENCE OF EVENTS.
PROCESS
SE-
a. Clean and mask the aircraft per Chapter 3 of this
technical order.
b. Apply conversion coating to bare aluminum surfaces per
Chapter 3 of this technical order.
c. Allow at least 2 hours for the conversion coating to dry
and set up. Then, move the aircraft (if required) to the
paint hangar, with no delay in the outside environment.
d. After the aircraft is situated in the paint facility, begin
application of the primer after 2 hours minimum to 48
hours maximum has elapsed since applying the conversion coating to the aircraft.
NOTE
If the aircraft was not prepared in the paint
hangar and was moved to the paint hangar the
aircraft must be allowed to dry (if necessary) and
the aircraft skin to warm to room temperature and
solvent wipe the entire aircraft surface per Paragraph 3.1.4. of the technical order.
e. Allow the primer to cure for the time specified in
Chapter 3, but no more than 8 hours, and apply 2 coats
of the required topcoat in the appropriate paint scheme
per Chapter 8 of this manual, aircraft drawings, or -23
manual or equivalent manual. If more than 8 hours
elapse (not to exceed 24 hours) between priming and
topcoating, the primer must be solvent wiped for reactivation per Paragraph 3.1.6 or scuff sanded with 320 or
400 grit sandpaper or A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A,
abrasive mat per Paragraph 3.1.3 to reactivate the primer
for adhesion of the topcoat. If the primer is scuff sanded,
solvent wipe per Paragraph 3.1.4 must be reaccomplished prior to topcoat application. If 24 hours elapse
between priming and topcoating, solvent wipe only for
reactivation is not permitted and scuff sanding is mandatory.
NOTE
Avoid the possibility of incompatibility of materials under the same specification but of different
manufacture by not mixing them. Primers of
different manufacture but under the same specification shall not to be mixed in the same area,
but may be applied separately to areas which are
to be overcoated. Every effort shall be made;
however, to assure that an entire topcoat is
restricted to the product of a single manufacturer
and, where possible, to the same batch in order to
maintain uniformity of color, gloss, etc.
Change 3
5-7
TO 1-1-8
5.6.1
Aircraft Paint Application Sequence.
• Aircraft shall be primed and painted so painter’s exposure to the spray mist or cloud is
minimized.
• Always spray with painter’s back or side
upwind, and never direct spray upwind.
• Two or more painters spraying at the same
time shall never spray directly at each other
and shall be positioned as far apart as possible
or on opposite sides of the aircraft.
• When priming, start at the end of the aircraft
near the exhaust filter bank and move toward
the air supply.
Application of coatings on aircraft by spraying methods is
best accomplished by at least two painters supported by
helpers to handle lines, stands, etc., as required. Four painters
may be required on larger aircraft. Recommended painting
sequences are as follows:
5.6.1.1
Small aircraft-tail toward hanger/insert exhaust.
a. Priming
(1) For “T” tail aircraft, apply a full wet coat of primer
to the horizontal stabilizer upper surface starting at
the center moving outboard to the tip with a stroke
perpendicular to the leading edge. Using this same
technique, prime the horizontal stabilizer lower surface and then apply a full wet coat of primer to the
outboard edge of the tip and the front of the leading
edge working from the tip to the junction with the
vertical stabilizer. Apply a full wet coat of primer to
each side of the vertical stabilizer(s) starting at the
top and leading edge moving down and aft with a
vertical stroke. Finally, apply a full wet coat of
primer to the front of the vertical stabilizer(s) leading
edge starting at the top moving down. For bottom
mounted horizontal stabilizer aircraft prime using the
same techniques as for a “T” tail aircraft except
prime the vertical stabilizer first. Prime vertical
stabilizer mounted engine nacelles using the same
techniques at this time.
(2) Apply a full wet coat of primer to the aft section of
the fuselage starting at the aft end and the top moving
forward and down to the junction with the wing
trailing edge with a vertical stroke. Prime any aft
fuselage mounted engine nacelles using the same
techniques at this time.
(3) Apply a full wet coat of primer to the lower surface
of the wings starting at the tip moving inboard to the
wing root with a stroke perpendicular to the leading
5-8
edge. Prime all wing mounted pylons, tanks, and
nacelles, all main landing gear pods and doors, lower
fuselage between the wings on low wing aircraft, the
side of the fuselage beneath the wings, and the lower
fuselage on high wing aircraft using the same techniques at this time.
(4) Apply a full wet coat of primer to the upper surface
of the wings starting at the tip moving inboard
toward the fuselage with a stroke perpendicular to
the leading edge. Apply a full wet coat of primer to
the wing tip outboard edge and the front of the
leading edge starting at the tip and moving inboard.
For low wing aircraft, prime the fuselage side above
the wing and the top of the fuselage using the same
techniques at this time.
(5) Apply a full wet coat of primer to the forward section
of the fuselage starting at the wing leading edge and
the top moving down and forward to the nose with a
vertical stroke.
b. Topcoating
(1) Topcoats are applied in either a one coat or a two
coat system. For a one coat system, apply a mist coat
of the topcoat with a stroke in one direction followed
immediately be a full wet crosscoat with a stroke
perpendicular to the stroke of the mist coat working
small areas at a time. For a two coat system, apply
the first coat with a stroke in one direction and the
second coat with a stroke perpendicular to the first
coat, but after the first coat “time to overcoat”
specified for the coating system has elapsed.
(2) Apply topcoat to the fuselage forward section starting at the nose and leading edge with the initial
stroke perpendicular to the fuselage length. Apply
the criteria in Paragraph 5.6.1.1 step b (1).
(3) Apply topcoat to the upper surface of the wings
starting at the tip and moving inboard toward the
fuselage with the initial stroke perpendicular to the
leading edge. Apply the criteria in Paragraph 5.6.1.1
step b (1). For lower wing aircraft coat the fuselage
section above the wings using the same technique at
this time.
(4) Apply topcoat to the lower surface of the wings
starting at the tip moving inboard toward the fuselage
with the initial stroke perpendicular to the leading
edge. Apply the criteria in Paragraph 5.6.1.1 step b
(1). Apply topcoat to all wing mounted pylons, tanks,
and nacelles, all main landing gear pods and doors,
lower fuselage between the wings on low wing
aircraft, and the side of the fuselage on high wing
aircraft using the same techniques at this time.
Finally, apply topcoat to the outboard edge of the tip
and front of the leading edge starting at the tip and
moving inboard toward the fuselage.
TO 1-1-8
(5) Apply topcoat to the fuselage aft section starting at
the wing trailing edge and the top moving aft and
down to the aft end with the initial stroke perpendicular to the aircraft length. Apply the criteria in
Paragraph 5.6.1.1 step b (1). Topcoat any aft fuselage
mounted engine nacelles using the same techniques
at this time.
(6) Apply topcoat to the horizontal stabilizer upper
surface on “T” tail aircraft starting at the center and
moving toward the tip with the initial stroke perpendicular to the leading edge, and then topcoat the
horizontal stabilizer lower surface starting at the tip
moving inboard to the junction with the vertical
stabilizer. Topcoat each side of the vertical stabilizer(s) on “T” tail aircraft next starting at the top and
the leading edge moving down and aft to the junction
with the fuselage with the initial stroke in a vertical
direction. Topcoat the front of the leading edge of the
vertical stabilizer(s) starting at the top moving downward. Topcoat any vertical stabilizer mounted engine
nacelles using the same techniques at this time.
Apply the criteria in Paragraph 5.6.1.1 step b (1).
Bottom mounted horizontal stabilizer aircraft are
topcoated using the same techniques except the
vertical stabilizer(s) are topcoated first.
5.6.1.2
Large aircraft-nose toward hanger exhaust.
a. Priming. Apply primer using the same techniques as for
small aircraft with tail toward the exhaust except reverse
the order of areas being primed, i.e. prime from the nose
working toward the tail.
b. Topcoating. Apply topcoat using the same techniques as
for small aircraft with tail toward the exhaust except
reverse the order of areas being topcoated, i.e. topcoat
from the tail working toward the nose.
5.6.1.3 Walkway Coatings.
Specialty walkway coatings applied to the upper wing main gear pods, upper
fuselage, and horizontal stabilizer: surfaces should be applied
before topcoating the aircraft. Any masking for walkway
areas should then be removed and the aircraft should then be
topcoated while the walkway coating is curing. If any
anti-slip grit is added to the topcoat material for application to
walkway areas, the above does not apply; and the walkway
areas should be coated with topcoat material to which
anti-slip grit is added as the second topcoat for these areas.
5.6.2 Overspraying Existing Coating Systems On
Aircraft and Aerospace Equipment. It is always better to
start a paint system from bare metal; however, it is feasible to
overspray existing paint systems. For aircraft, this must be
authorized by Chapter 8 of this manual or the weapon system
specific technical orders.
NOTE
Adhesion failure between coatings requires complete removal of the nonadhering coating. When
intercoat adhesion failure occurs over large areas,
overcoating shall not be accomplished, and complete strip/repaint is required. Refer to Chapter 2
of this technical order for removal.
a. Clean, mask, scuff sand, and vacuum surface to be
overcoated per Paragraph 3.1.3 of this technical order.
b. Apply conversion coating to repair bare aluminum
surfaces per Chapter 3 of this technical order.
c. Allow at least 2 hours for the conversion coating to dry
and set up. Aircraft requiring movement to a paint
hangar must be moved with minimal delay in the outside
environment.
d. After the aircraft or equipment is situated in the paint
facility, or after 2 hours minimum has elapsed since
applying the conversion coating to the aircraft, solvent
wipe the entire aircraft surface per Paragraph 3.1.4 of
this technical order.
NOTE
If the aircraft was not prepared in the paint
hangar and was moved to the paint hangar after
scuff sanding, the aircraft must be allowed to dry
(if necessary) and the aircraft skin to warm to
room temperature before final solvent wipe and
before conversion coating application if not already done.
5-9
TO 1-1-8
e. Begin overcoating within 48 hours after scuff sanding
and conversion coating operations and immediately
after solvent wipe down. Apply one thin/mist coat of
MIL-PRF-23377 Type I, Class C1 or C2 (one full wet
coat per Table 5-2, to large bare metal areas) to the entire
aircraft or equipment exterior painted surface per instructions in Paragraph 5.6. Allow 5 hours at 75° F for
the primer to dry, but no more than 8 hours, and apply
2 coats of the required topcoat MIL-PRF-85285 and
appropriate paint scheme per Chapter 8 of this manual,
aircraft drawings, -23 manual, or equipment manual. If
more than 8 hours elapse (not to exceed 24 hours)
between priming and topcoat, the primer must be
solvent wiped for reactivation per Paragraph 3.1.6 or
scuff sanded with 320 or 400 grit sandpaper per Paragraph 3.1.3 to reactivate the primer for adhesion of the
topcoat. If the primer is scuff sanded, solvent wipe per
Paragraph 3.1.4 must be reaccomplished prior to topcoat
application. If 24 hours elapses between priming and
topcoating, solvent wipe for reactivation is not permitted and scuff sanding is mandatory.
f. A non-chromated tiecoat/Primer (Class N) may be used
for overcoating of existing coating systems after scuff
sanding. This is an alternative to MIL-PRF-23377 Type
I, Class C1 or C2. All bare metal areas must have primer
applied using MIL-PRF-23377 Type I Class C1 or C2
before application of the tiecoat. Allow 2 hours for the
primer to dry, but not more than 8 hours prior to
application of the tiecoat. Apply the tiecoat and topcoat
per Paragraph 5.6.2 for MIL-PRF-23377 Type I, Class
C1 or C2 and MIL-PRF-85285.
NOTE
These primers do not provide adequate corrosion
protection and shall not be applied over bare
metal areas.
5.6.3 Curing of Finishes. After painting, allow aircraft
finish system to cure in a dust-free temperature controlled
atmosphere for a sufficient time prior to placing in service. In
the absence of accelerated curing, the aircraft shall not be
flown for at least 72 hours after painting. In general, all
painted aircraft should be handled, taxied, etc., as little as
possible during the first week after painting.
5.6.4 Coating Thickness Measurements. Wet and dry
film gauges are available as local purchase items from various
laboratory supply houses. If paint film thickness measuring
instruments are not available, small (2 x 6 inches) anodized
aluminum panels will be used for measurement of the paint
thickness after drying. Apply these panels to each side of the
fuselage with a section of one inch wide masking tape
5-10
Change 3
doubled back on itself with adhesive contacting the panel and
the aircraft surface prior to the painting operation. Mask one
end of the panel with tape for a distance of approximately 2
inches to provide a comparison of the original panel thickness
and the thickness after painting. Remove the panel after
application of the primer so that immediate maintenance
painting can be used to cover those areas previously protected
by the panel. This procedure will also permit locating other
panels on various portions of the same aircraft to provide a
good indication of the overall paint thickness. The location of
panels depends upon inspection procedures and may vary
throughout the aircraft. Each aircraft should use a set of
panels for each different operation employed on the aircraft
identified by the name of the painter, aircraft model, and the
date of painting, to provide follow-on data during any
subsequent service evaluation. Slight errors in paint thickness
measurements can be expected when using this method due to
thickness tolerances for the basic aluminum sheet. Measure
the paint thickness with an ordinary micrometer possessing
flat contact surfaces. Micrometers with pointed or rounded
contact surfaces are not recommended. At least 6 readings
shall be taken on both painted and unpainted portions of each
panel to provide an average paint thickness measurement.
When using a wet film gauge or an Electronic Dry Film
Gauge, a minimum of 6 readings shall also be taken. Take
readings in a 1 square foot area that is representative of the
entire area bring painted. Rejection is only if the average of
the 6 readings falls outside of the thickness range for that
particular paint system.
5.6.5 Allowable Coating Thickness.
Because of the
greatly reduced corrosion protection for a dried film thickness
of less than 0.3 mils (0.0003 inch), solitary primer films
below this thickness shall be avoided. Attaining proper
coating thickness by spraying is a matter of technique plus
checking. There is a limit to the thickness that can be applied
in one pass because of protracted drying time or possible
sagging of the film. This must be considered in obtaining the
total desired thickness. Also, there is a tendency with coating
materials of good hiding power to increase the spreading rate
as the work progresses and this must be curbed. Operator
fatigue may alter the speed of working, but this should not be
allowed to result in applying more or less material to the
surface. Changing atmospheric conditions during operations
may have to be compensated for in order to continue applying
a uniform film. Frequent checks with a wet film thickness
gauge shall be made during painting to ascertain and control
film thickness. Thickness cannot be gaged accurately without
instruments, but lacking these, the best assurance of consistent films is in correct adjustment of the gun for the material
being applied and the use of good judgement. See Table 5-2
for dry film thickness ranges of various primers and topcoats.
TO 1-1-8
Table 5-2.
Allowable Coating Thickness for Production Level Finishing (Depot, Original Manufacture, Field)
Dry Film
Coating Specification
MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF-85582
Epoxy Primers
TT-P-2760 Elastomeric Polyurethane
Primer
MIL-PRF-85285 High Solids Polyurethane Coating
MIL-PRF-22750 Topcoat
MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 Fuel
Tank Coating
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Number of Coats
Thickness Range (inches)(1)
Minimum(2)
Maximum(2)
One coat
0.0006
0.0009
To Be Reactivated(3)
Mist, “Light Dust Coat” Activation
After Reactivation, Total
Two coats
One coat
0.0004
0.0002
0.0006
0.0008
0.0010
0.0013
0.0005
0.0009
0.0020
0.0015
Two coats
One coat (without cross coat)
0.0012
0.0017
0.0025
0.0023
One or two coats (with cross coat)
Three to four coats(4)
One coat
Two coats
Two coats
0.0016
0.0048
0.0008
0.0016
0.0008
0.0050
0.0070
0.0020
0.0040
0.0012
In most cases the desired coating thickness should be the low to nominal for the range specified unless there is a
requirement for thicker coatings. The higher end of the range is not intended to be the mean or average of thickness
measurements (unless it is required) but to allow for overlaps, etc., that occur in localized areas or sections of a part
or surface. Measurements should not be taken around edges or holes and considerations must be allowed where
overlap occurs such as in angles and on irregular surfaces.
Lower end of thickness range is expected when painting detail parts and small assemblies. Mid to high end of thickness
range is often needed when finishing large areas such as the exterior of aircraft.
A single coat which is to be reactivated with a ″light dust coat″ before topcoat application after scuff sanding.
This coating thickness is intended for use only in specific areas where wear or abrasion are a factor, such as leading
edges. These unique requirements should be specified in finish documents.
5.6.6 Inspection Control. Inspection shall enforce the
requirements of this technical manual.
5.6.6.1 Certain physical tests shall be made before, during,
or after coating operations:
a. Proper and adequate equipment shall be used at all
times.
5.6.6.1.1
Water Break Test (refer to Paragraph 3.1.9).
5.6.6.1.2
Spray Test Panel (refer to Paragraph 5.5.4).
b. Materials shall be thoroughly mixed with thinners and
catalysts properly proportioned.
5.6.6.1.3 Coating Thickness Measurement (refer to Paragraph 5.6.2).
c. Ensure that thorough cleaning and proper preparations
are taken prior to application of each coat, proper drying
times are observed before recoating, and coatings are
applied at the proper thickness.
5.6.6.1.4 Adhesion (Wet) Tape Test. This method covers a
procedure suitable for establishing acceptability of intercoat
and total surface adhesion of an organic coating system.
d. Ensure the general appearance, texture, color, and gloss
are acceptable. No sand paper finish to exceed approximately 320 grit coarseness, wrinkling, crazing, blistering, fisheye, lifting, or pitting/cupping as defined in this
technical order is permissible. To exceed limits of
Paragraph 5.6.6.2.6.
5.6.6.1.4.1 Adhesion tests shall be made on the completed
exterior finish system after drying for a period of at least 48
hours in a sufficient number of selected areas to ensure a
satisfactory level of adhesion for the overall finish system.
5.6.6.1.4.2 To perform this test, wet a piece of cloth/gauze
pad with either tap or distilled water and cover with plastic
Change 3
5-11
TO 1-1-8
sheet taped on the area under inspection. The test area shall be
soaked for a 24 hours minimum, and shall have a minimum
diameter of 3 inches.
5.6.6.1.4.3 Remove the wet cloth and plastic sheet and
blot up the surface water. Immediately apply a 1 inch strip of
tape, PN 250, manufactured by 3M Company, (NSN 751000-283-0612), age of tape not to exceed 3 years, adhesive
side down. Press the tape down, using two passes of a 4 1/2
pound rubber covered roller or employ firm pressure with the
hand.
This tape is the only approved tape (no alternatives or substitutes).
5.6.6.1.4.4 Remove the tape in one abrupt motion, and
examine the test area for any paint damage such as removal
of one of the layers of the finish system or removal of the
entire system from metal. Any removal constitutes failure of
the wet tape test.
5.6.6.1.4.5 Gloss shall be measured in accordance with
the general procedures described in Federal Test Method
Standard 141, Method 6101 and 6103, except that the
measurements will be made on flat or approximately flat
surfaces of the aircraft instead of a test panel. The test shall
be made on the complete exterior finish after drying for a
period of at least 24 hours in a sufficient number of areas to
assure that the required gloss has been obtained. See Table
5-3.
Gloss Meter
Degrees
60
60
60
60
60 and 85*
(both)
*
Gloss Requirements
Paint System
Reading
Semi-gloss
High-gloss
Gloss
Camouflage
Gunship*
Unit
35-45
90 Min
80 Min
7 Max
3 Max
Both Meters Required
5.6.6.2 Evaluation and classification of discrepancies for
complete aircraft painting.
5.6.6.2.1 The paint system, pattern, and markings shall be
in accordance with weapon system specific TO’s, aircraft
drawings, or other applicable directives, and Chapter 8 of this
manual.
5.6.6.2.2
Colors of camouflage pattern shall fade and
blend into each other with irregular lines of demarcation, with
no straight or sharp lines.
5-12
5.6.6.2.4 No more than 2 minor sags or runs per 50 square
feet of surface is allowed (a minor run is one which does not
exceed two inches in length).
NOTE
NOTE
Table 5-3.
5.6.6.2.3 No color variation in any single color area of the
camouflage pattern or paint scheme when the surface is
viewed with the unaided eye from a distance of 50 feet is
allowed. Touch-up of the paint system to correct minor
discrepancies by the paint activity will produce some minor
color variation and is acceptable.
Slight orange peel appearance is inherent with the
PR-1434 GV polysulfide primer/MIL-PRF85285, Type I polyurethane paint system and is
acceptable.
5.6.6.2.5 The paint system shall pass the paint adhesion
wet tape test. Candidate test areas shall include the following
(where applicable): Upper center wing, left and right upper
inboard and outboard wing, left and right lower wing surface
(inboard and outboard), left and right horizontal stabilizer
surface (upper and lower), left or right side of vertical
stabilizer, cargo door, MLG pod, engine pylon, engine
nacelle, left and right side of fuselage forward and aft, lower
fuselage or belly (multiple sites shall be selected for this
area). Failure of this test includes peeling of topcoat to primer
as well as primer to bare metal.
5.6.6.2.6 Fifteen or more individual discrepancies, any
combination of discrepancies with a total area of 15 or more
square feet, or any one discrepancy with an area of 5 or more
square feet wrinkling, crazing, blistering, lifting, or pitting/
cupping as defined in this technical order or peeling of
topcoat to primer or primer to bare metal shall be reported as
a major defect. List all these discrepancies by number found
and type, area of each, and total area of all discrepancies.
NOTE
Failure of 25 percent of the wet tape adhesion
tests prescribed here shall be reported as major
defect. List all failures of this test by location on
the aircraft.
5.6.6.3 Frequency of Inspection. The quality control
plan and frequency of inspection shall be decided by local
quality control authority. For large surface painting (e.g., the
partial or complete repaint of an aircraft), a predetermined
number of tests may be applied to sampled areas of each item.
For subassembly and component painting, inspection of paint
shop workmanship may be covered by in-process inspection
or inspections of representative samples items according to a
sampling plan either on a time basis or production count
basis. Testing shall be kept to the minimum necessary to
determine acceptability of the finished work. System and
Item Managers have the option to specify a frequency of test
in technical orders or work specifications on their equipment.
TO 1-1-8
5.6.7 Soil Barrier Coating.
If approved by weapon
system technical order, this coating may be applied to all
newly painted aircraft in the jet engine exhaust, APU exhaust,
and gun/rocket blast exhaust areas to protect the newly
painted surfaces. If left unprotected, the above areas will be
very difficult to clean after exposure to the aforementioned
exhausts. This material and application procedures are called
out in TO 1-1-691. If used, the soil barrier coating shall be
applied after the topcoat cures at least 24 hours and prior to
engine run-up.
5.7 INTERIOR FINISHING PROCEDURES AND OPERATIONS.
5.7.1 Preparation For Coating. Cleaning and anodizing (new parts) or chemical surface treatment of metals and
metal parts per Chapter 3 is a necessary prerequisite on all
interior surfaces prior to priming and painting operations.
5.7.2 Coating Application.
Where wash primer per
MIL-C-8514 or DOD-P-15328 is required for interior surfaces, follow with TT-P-1757, Type II, Class C both applied
in the same manner and with the same precautions and
restrictions prescribed for external finishing in this technical
order. Other interior surfaces, where wash primer is not a
specific requirement, shall be finished with MIL-PRF-23377
Type I, Class C1 or C2 epoxy primer applied directly on
treated metal. Interior surfaces painted with TT-P-1757 may
be touched up using TT-P-1757 or MIL-PRF-85582 Type I,
Class C1 or C2. The MIL-PRF-85582 Type I, Class C1 or C2
waterborne epoxy primer shall be used to touch-up areas
where TT-P-1757 alkyd primer is present, as solvents in
MIL-PRF-23377 may cause the TT-P-1757 to soften and
flake off. If appearance is of concern, either epoxy primer
may be topcoated. Primer application shall be in conformance
with this section. For areas specified to be a particular color,
Sherwin Williams DTM Gloss Latex Enamel, or MIL-PRF85285 Type I polyurethane, shall be applied over the primer
in the desired color and in the same manner and with the same
precautions and restrictions as are prescribed for exterior
finishing in this technical order. For aircraft subject to
spillage or leakage of diester oil or diester grease, the
MIL-PRF-23377, Type 1, Class C1 or C2/MIL-PRF-85285,
Type 1 system is mandatory on the interior surfaces subject to
this contamination such as the wheel wells and their doors,
speed brakes, engine access doors, and main landing gear
doors, in the color specified in the technical data. The interior
colors prescribed by Specification MIL-C-8779 shall be
applied in the locations called out in that specification, the
aircraft drawings, or the aircraft -23 manual.
5.7.3 Refinishing of Fiber Glass Components.
ceed as follows.
a. Remove the topcoat per Chapter 2.
b. Thoroughly solvent clean per Chapter 3.
Pro-
c. On the epoxy-primed surface:
(1) Sand the surface with 280 grit abrasive paper and
solvent clean. Do not sand through the primer.
(2) Reactivate the surface per Chapter 3.
(3) Apply 1 coat of MIL-PRF-23377 Type I, Class C1 or
C2 epoxy primer.
(4) Apply 2 coats of MIL-PRF-85285, Type I polyurethane topcoat.
5.8
MAINTENANCE PAINTING.
Closely inspect candidate areas for extent of damage and
maintenance painting required. If inspection reveals major
paint failure or damage, such as chipped or peeled paint from
the center of a skin panel, the involved skin section should be
prepared and maintenance painted from seam to seam. If only
minor damage is found, i.e., paint chipped or missing from
screw/rivet heads and on outer edges of skin panel(s) the
specific area may be prepared and maintenance painted.
Prepare damaged area(s) and paint as follows:
5.8.1 Epoxy or Polyurethane Primer/Polyurethane
Topcoat. Proceed as follows.
a. Thoroughly clean area to be repainted.
b. Feather edges of coating adjacent to peeled section and
scuff sand the other area(s) to be coated per Chapter 3.
Use 180 grit paper or nylon abrasive matting material
A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A or B, very fine or fine for
scuff sanding. Grit size down to 120 may be used as long
as care is taken not to score the metal surfaces.
c. Wipe scuffed or sanded areas with approved solvent per
Paragraph 3.1.4. Repair damaged conversion coatings
per Paragraph 3.1.16 and Paragraph 3.1.17.
5.8.2
5.8.2.1
Primer and Polyurethane Touch Up.
Brush or Spray.
Proceed as follows:
a. Apply (brush or spray) one thin coat of epoxy primer
Specification MIL-PRF-23377 Type I, Class C1 or C2,
MIL-PRF-85582 Type I, Class C1 or C2, or Polyurethane Primer TT-P-2760 Type I, Class C to area being
touched up. Thoroughly mix the primer materials per
instructions in Chapter 6 before use, but the viscosity
need not be checked.
b. Apply one full wet coat of MIL-PRF-85285, Type I
polyurethane topcoat in the required color. If required,
apply a second coat after allowing 1-4 hours curing
period for the first coat.
5.8.2.2
Touch-up Pen.
Proceed as follows:
Change 3
5-13
TO 1-1-8
a. Touch-up using MIL-PRF-23377 Type I, Class C1 or C2
or MIL-PRF-85582 Type I, Class C1 or C2 epoxy
primer and MIL-PRF-85285 Type I high solids polyurethane in the touch up applicator pen. These self contained touch up applicators are available by national
stock number under the coating specification.
After mixing, remove the brush cap and press the
applicator against a test article to bleed off any
internal pressure that may have formed during
storage.
Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-1.
Sempen
b. The applicator provides two-component pre-measured
materials which are separated by a barrier, Figure 5-1.
To mix the materials for use, displace the barrier
separating the materials by sliding the tube collar all the
way to the back of the applicator, Figure 5-2. Shake the
applicator vigorously by hand until the materials are
thoroughly mixed (approximately one minute).
c. Apply the primer by pressing the applicator brush
against the work surface. This opens the spring-loaded
valve which allows the coating material to flow when
the tube is gently squeezed, Figure 5-3. Use the brush to
distribute primer onto the work surface as required.
Replace the brush cap when the applicator is not being
used.
d. Apply one full wet coat of MIL-PRF-85285, Type I
mixed polyurethane topcoat with a touch-up pen in the
same manner. If required, apply a second coat after
allowing 1-4 hours curing period for the first coat.
5.8.3
Figure 5-2.
Sempen Mixing
NOTE
The brush cap must remain in place while
mixing.
5-14
Change 3
Sempen Application
Aerosol Touchup.
a. Power Pak Spray Unit NSN 4940-00-803-6444, Specification MIL-S-22805/SAE-AS-22805, Type I, Class
134A (PN M22805-1-134A) may be valuable aid in
accomplishing field maintenance painting. (See Figure
5-4). The kit is designed to be disposable and intended
for use in isolated areas when air spray guns cannot be
used or are not available. Replacement propellant HFC/
Type R134A propellant cans may be obtained under
A-A-58060,
Type
R134A,
(PN
AA58060R134AW034).
b. Preval Spray Unit, 8020-01-501-3127, (Preval Sprayer
Kit with Power Unit and Glass Bottle), or 8020-01-496-
TO 1-1-8
5.8.4.9 PPE is limited to chemical type gloves and eye
protection (face shield or chemical type goggles).
5.8.5 Brush Application.
It is very difficult to get a
smooth professional appearance without brush strokes with
the brush touch-up method on metal surfaces. Therefore,
brush touch-up should be limited to areas of one square foot
or less and preferably to areas of one square inch or less such
as fastener heads. Use a fine, flat nylon or nylon/polyester
blend bristle brush with a chiseled tip or a triangular tip foam
brush having a width appropriate for the job at hand. The
application procedure is as follows:
a. Scuff-sand and solvent wipe the touch-up area per
Chapter 3.
Figure 5-4.
Spray Tool
2473, (Preval Power Unit Only). Each power unit is
capable of spraying up to 16 oz. of liquid.
5.8.4
Brush/Roller Touchup.
NOTE
Aerosol spraying is limited in application and
shall be held to a minimum. Using only approved
coatings, it is permitted for touch-up of scratches,
etc., and areas not exceeding one-half square foot
in area.
5.8.4.1 Paint brushes and rollers can be used effectively
for touch-up and maintenance painting, but they will not
produce the esthetic results of a spray application. Some
advantages of brush and roller touch-up over spray application are:
5.8.4.2 Masking is minimized, and in most cases, is not
required at all.
5.8.4.3 More economical for small area and low volume
painting because much less paint is required.
5.8.4.4
More efficient for application of stencil type
markings and grit containing anti-slip walkway coatings.
5.8.4.5
Requirements for solvent thinners is very limited.
5.8.4.6 Coating transfer efficiency is almost 100% with no
over spray and very little air pollution that is generated by a
small amount of solvent evaporation.
5.8.4.7 Hazardous and non-hazardous waste is minimized
and limited to used brushes or roller covers and small
amounts of excess primer or paint.
5.8.4.8 Can be performed in standard maintenance facilities without specialized ventilation and air filtering while
other maintenance is being performed.
b. Mix and thin the primer or paint for brush application
per Chapter 6 and the manufacturer’s instructions. Mix
the least amount possible for the job at hand.
NOTE
Pint quantities are more economical than quart or
larger quantities to avoid waste of the unused
portions when doing small touch-up jobs.
c. Dip the brush to 1/2 its bristle length into the paint or
primer and no more. Remove the brush, and press it
lightly against the inside of the container to distribute
the liquid throughout the thickness of the brush and
eliminate any excess. Do not drag the brush over the
container rim as this will form bubbles in liquid in the
container.
d. Grasp the brush at the bottom of the handle as if holding
a pencil at a 60° angle to the surface. Start the brush
stroke on one side of the touch-up area with light
pressure in the “feathered” paint area, heavier pressure
in the bare area, and light pressure again in the opposite
“feathered” paint area.
e. If the area is completely covered, blend the paint into all
the “feathered” edges using just the brush tip stroked at
several different angles across the initial stroke; and
proceed to the next area.
f. If the area is not completely covered, begin the next
stroke parallel to the first stroke with an over lap of
about 1/4 of the brush width using the same pressure
methods as in step (4) and replenishing the paint or
primer on the brush per step (3) as needed. When the
entire area is covered blend the paint or primer as in step
(5).
g. If primer was applied, allow the proper cure time; then
apply the topcoat using the same brush techniques as in
steps (1) through (6).
5-15
TO 1-1-8
5.8.6 Roller Application. While not as good as sprayers
for metal surfaces, rollers do provide a smoother and more
professional appearance than brushes. Therefore, rollers may
be used to touch-up large areas. The most effective roller
covers for application of primer are manufactured from
ultra-high density sponge. The most effective roller covers for
topcoat are manufactured from lint-free, extra-density, highquality soft-woven fabric, with a maximum nap length of ¼
inch. The core roller center should be resistant to water and
solvent. Choose a handle of the proper length and a roller of
the right width (3 to 9 inches) for the job at hand, and use one
with a splatter shield to prevent the coating from splattering
on personnel and other surfaces not being coated. For large
areas, power or automatic feed rollers are more efficient and
their use eliminates the possibility of spillage from open
containers. To minimize spillage when using manual rollers,
use coating container grids. Move the roller across the grid to
eliminate excess coating material. Polyurethanes and epoxy
coatings require a little more paint on the roller during
application to achieve a smooth surface and a second crosscoat may be required. The application procedure is as
follows:
a. Scuff-sand and solvent wipe the touch-up area per
Chapter 3.
b. Mix and thin the primer or paint for roller application
per Chapter 6 and the manufacturer’s instructions. Mix
the least amount possible for the job at hand. Insert the
vertical, portable, metal grid into the container; or pour
the liquid into the power/automatic feed roller reservoir.
c. Dip the roller fully into the primer or paint. Withdraw
the roller, and move the roller across the vertical metal
grid to distribute the liquid throughout the roller pile and
eliminate any excess. For power or automatic feed
rollers, depress the feed trigger until the roller is full of
liquid; and move the roller across a vertical, portable
metal grid mounted in an empty container after the
initial filling only to distribute the liquid throughout the
pile evenly.
d. Always start application in a corner of the area being
touched-up. The maximum area of coverage should be
about 9 square feet before moving to an adjacent area.
Place the free end of the roller about 3 feet away from
where the roller stroke will end so that it covers a small
portion of the left or right “feathered” edge of the area
being touched-up completely and with the roller at an
angle to this edge. For horizontal surfaces, always make
the first stroke away from you; and without lifting the
roller from the surface, make alternate strokes toward
and away from you to form a “W” pattern. For vertical
surfaces, always make the first stroke upward; and
without lifting the roller from the surface, make alternate up and down strokes to form an “M” pattern. Fill in
the gaps in the “W” or “M” patterns with crisscrossing
strokes of the roller moving back across the “W” or “M”
pattern and still not lifting the roller from the surface.
Make sure that the entire section is completely covered,
including its “feathered” edges, before moving to an
adjacent section or finishing the touch-up of an area less
5-16
than 9 square feet. Always use even pressure on the
roller to prevent bubbles and blotches in the primer or
paint.
e. If the touch-up area is not entirely covered, touch-up a
section adjacent to the first section making sure it over
laps the first section about 2 inches. Application is by the
same techniques as in step (4).
f. If primer was applied; allow the proper cure time, and
then apply the topcoat using the same roller techniques
as in steps (1) through (5).
5.8.6.1 Based on the final report for a Roller Application
of Aerospace Coatings project that is posted on the AFCPCO
web site, the following general vendor information is supplied for rollers tested during the project that were capable of
applying aerospace coatings within the film thickness ranges
listed in this manual. Commercial and NSN info will be
posted on the AFCPCO web site as it becomes available.
5.8.6.2 Primer application rollers can be purchased commercially from any vendor who handles the Whizz-Roller
System, “premium sponge” product line.
5.8.6.3
Topcoat application rollers can be purchased
commercially from any Sherwin-Williams distributor/supplier handling the “contractor series” soft-woven roller ¼
inch nap line of products.
NOTE
Other similar or equivalent rollers are authorized.
5.8.7 Temporary Protection. When polyurethane is not
available, repair of paint systems with MIL-DTL-85054,
Type I or II, CPC sprayed on or brushed on bare metal areas
for protection until polyurethane is available is permissible.
(See TO 1-1-691) Complete painting of aircraft with other
than polyurethane MIL-PRF-85285, Type I, is not authorized.
5.8.8 Powder Coating. New support equipment is being delivered coated with thermoplastic or themoset powder
coatings. Thermoplastic powder coatings are generally applied to a surface that has been preheated to a temperature
significantly higher than melting point of the powder,
whereas thermoset powders contain a heat-activated catalyst
and are generally applied to a surface at ambient temperature.
The surface and the powder are then heated and as the
temperature rises past the melt temperature of the powder, it
melts to the surface.
5.8.8.1 Surface Preparation. In situations where complete removal of the thermoplastic/thermoset powder coatings
are required, they shall be stripped with PMB, Type II or Type
V, using procedures listed in Paragraph 2.11. Chemical paint
removal procedures listed in this TO are very ineffective at
removing these coating and, therefore, should not be used.
TO 1-1-8
5.8.8.2 Maintenance Painting. Maintenance painting
of thermoplastic/thermoset powder coatings shall be accomplished using epoxy or polyurethane topcoat procedures listed
in Paragraph 5.8.
5-17/(5-18 blank)
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 6
USAF STANDARD COATING SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT
6.1
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC COATINGS.
Customarily, finishing materials are classed as paints, enamels, lacquers, and special coatings such as epoxies and
polyurethanes. The word “paint” is loosely used to mean all
finishing materials. Modern coatings now include quite different components in combinations that do not fall into the
old categories. Coating materials used by the Air Force are
generally identified by the basic classifications above. General information on materials in these categories used by the
Air Force is presented here.
upon the metal that is to be protected, steel, aluminum,
magnesium, etc., and the environment to which it is to be
subjected.
NOTE
The theoretical function of a protective paint is to
physically exclude environment from the metal
surface; but, practically, it rarely succeeds entirely. All organic films are moisture permeable to
some degree. Also, tiny physical defects in a film
are usually present to some degree or develop in
time. General practice is to supplement the physical protective properties of coatings with materials that provide electrochemical protection either
by using surface conversion coating treatments
(refer to Chapter 3) or wash primers, or by
inclusion of corrosion-inhibiting pigments in the
primer coatings.
NOTE
• National Stock Numbers (NSNs) for specific
coatings and related materials are to be obtained from FSC (normally FSC 8000). Also,
see the current GSA Catalog and the DO43
System to convert specification and part numbers to NSNs.
• To determine the proper paint system for
specific equipment, refer to -23 TO’s, and
aircraft paint drawings, for aircraft; TO 35-1-3
for support equipment; or specific repair TO’s.
6.2
CONSTITUENTS OF ORGANIC COATINGS.
Modern paints may be a mixture of many things, but the
primary constituents are pigment, vehicle (the film former)
and solvents. Secondary components (although they may still
be of prime importance) may be extenders, driers, antioxidants, surfactants, light-filtering agents, and/or other additives. When special properties are required such as luminescence, fluorescence, fire retardant, etc., materials to
provide these are also added.
6.3
PIGMENTS.
Pigments are finely divided, substantially insoluble, and
usually opaque materials incorporated into paints to provide
color, hiding power, and specific qualities such as light and
heat reflectance (or heat absorption), corrosion-inhibition,
and certain flow characteristics. Pigments may be inorganic
or organic types and of either natural or synthetic origin.
Examples are the metallic compounds such as zinc oxide and
titanium dioxide in white and light tinted paints, zinc chromate in primers to give yellow coloration and act as a
corrosion inhibitor, chromium oxide for green, iron oxide for
red, etc. Synthetic agents or dyes are also widely used. A
limited number of pigments are used as corrosion inhibitors
in protective primers. The particular pigment used depends
6.4
VEHICLE.
The vehicle is the liquid portion of the coating. It is the most
significant part of the coating as it furnishes desired qualities
of adhesion, toughness, flexibility and resistance to various
environments. The vehicle consists of non-volatile and volatile portions. The non-volatile includes resins, drying oils and
plasticizers that become the binding agent in the cured film.
Upon evaporation of the volatile portion, the non-volatiles
form the actual film on the surface together with the pigment,
if one is present. Vehicles appear in a multitude of combinations, containing many materials. A varnish vehicle in enamels generally contains an oil-modified alkyd resin, thinners
and driers. A lacquer vehicle consists mainly of resins,
solvents and plasticizers.
6.5 PREPARATION OF COATING MATERIALS FOR
USE, GENERAL.
Containers of paint may develop internal pressure
during storage and should be opened with
caution.
Coating materials shall be prepared for application under
clean conditions with clean equipment. Paint shops shall be
equipped with mechanical paint agitators of suitable capacity.
The proper sequence for preparing packaged materials prior
to each use is as follows:
6-1
TO 1-1-8
a. Allow materials to come to room temperature.
b. Remove lids and inspect paint for skin-over, gelling,
lumps, etc. Skins, if present, shall be carefully removed
and discarded, retaining liquids which drain from them.
Gelled, lumpy, or otherwise deteriorated paints shall not
be used.
NOTE
Cans of pigmented paint with non-resealable lids
should not be opened and inspected until after the
original mechanical agitation.
c. Thoroughly agitate all pigmented paints, using a mechanical agitator prior to thinning and prior to and
during application.
d. Thinning shall be controlled by weight, volume, or
viscosity measurement to obtain and maintain proper
and uniform consistency. Thin according to manufacturer’s instructions or the specification for the material.
When the volatile organic compound (VOC) content of
coatings is regulated, thin only with exempt thinner or
solvent, and do not use non-VOC compliant thinners or
solvents such as MIL-T-81772 to reduce high solids
primers and topcoats. Reducing with non-VOC compliant thinners or solvents can cause high solids coatings to
exceed the maximum allowable VOC content in violation of air pollution regulations.
e. Reduction and/or catalyzation of coatings shall be in
accordance with Paragraph 6.6, Paragraph 6.7, and the
specific coating paragraph as well as the manufacturer’s
instructions. If this does not produce the proper spraying
viscosity, quality control personnel shall be consulted.
f. Strain all material to be used in spray equipment through
fine-mesh strainers or cheesecloth.
6.6 MIXING AND THINNING OF COATING MATERIALS, GENERAL.
problems with color, gloss, hiding power, film application
characteristics, adhesion, and curing can be expected if
materials are not adequately prepared. For two-component
materials, the components must be thoroughly mixed with
each other and in the exact specified proportions or curing
and adhesion problems will occur. Pigments, which give
color and other desirable characteristics to coatings, are
generally insoluble and heavier than the liquid portion of the
coating material, so they eventually settle out of suspension.
The consistency or viscosity of the liquid portion determines
the rate of settling; for example, pigments mixed with a
thinner alone would settle out in a few minutes; but in a paint
vehicle, it might take months. The practice of thinning too
much material at a time and pouring unused portions of the
material back into the original container with unthinned
material lowers the total consistency and increases the rate of
settling and should not be done. Settled material usually
re-disperses readily unless the material is over-aged or has
become exposed to the atmosphere. In some materials, such
as wash primers and some vinyl based materials, settling may
be accompanied by a change in chemical structure after
storage of only a few months. Such changes are not reversible; therefore, judgment should be employed whenever using
them.
NOTE
After a coating materials shelf life has expired,
thoroughly test material per Appendix A before
using it. If an aged material appears unsuitable
after appropriate attempts at mixing and reducing, it should be discarded. If the quantity involved is large, laboratory tests by Robins Science and Engineering Laboratory to determine its
continued conformance to specification requirements will be required before its use or its
disposal.
6.6.1 Method of Mixing. Mixing in containers shall be
done per the following methods:
a. Hand-mixing of single-component materials and the
catalyst component of two-component materials in cans
and drums, per the manufacturer’s instructions using
wooden or plastic paddles.
Mixing shall be done in controlled areas that are
well ventilated and away from any open flame or
other source of ignition and direct sunlight.
Forced air ventilation, preferable with air flow
from the back of personnel to an exhaust in front
of them. For two component materials, an organic
vapor type respirator shall be worn as a minimum, with the air supplied type being preferable.
Mixing of coating materials may seem too elementary to
require lengthy discussion, but it is a very common source of
trouble either through negligence or lack of knowledge. All
coating materials require preparation prior to application, and
6-2
b. Mixing of one-component materials and the base component only of two-component materials in containers
up to five gallons is best accomplished by using mechanical shakers that vibrate or shake the unopened
container.
c. Accomplish mixing of one-component materials and the
base and catalyst components of two-component materials with low speed mechanical paddles.
6.6.2 Mixing Test. A simple test of complete mixing is
to flow samples down an inclined piece of glass. Irregularities
TO 1-1-8
of color or flow will indicate incomplete mixing. Comparison
of materials from the bottom and top of a container may be
made by this method.
6.7
SOLVENTS, DILUENTS AND THINNERS.
At ordinary room temperatures, the consistency or viscosity
of mixtures of oils, pigments, and resins that make up coating
materials is too high to allow spreading them effectively over
surfaces in the desired thickness. Also, most resins are solids
and need to be dissolved in a liquid before they can be
dispersed. A solvent has the essential function of reducing the
viscosity of the vehicle portion of the material to the point
where it can be managed. Solvents do not react chemically
with coating constituents or dissolve pigments; and ultimately, they are lost from the coating by evaporation having
served their purpose. Most solvents are organic materials and
are classified by their chemical structure as alcohols, esters,
ketones, etc. In practice, they must be considered from the
standpoint of their powers of solvency as expressed in
reference to some material. A liquid may dissolve one
substance well, another poorly, and still others not at all.
There is no universal solvent in coating technology. A liquid
that does not actually dissolve a given substance may,
however, be used as a diluent or a thinner for that substance.
Solvents and diluents are frequently used together in coating
formulations, and the purpose of a liquid determines whether
it is “solvent” or “diluent”. For example, mineral spirits is a
solvent for linseed oil, but not for cellulose nitrate. But
solutions of cellulose nitrate in butyl acetate will tolerate
substantial amounts of mineral spirits and here the mineral
spirits is used as a diluent for the solution. Diluents and
thinners are normally less expensive than solvents. Generally,
the solvent portion of a coating is itself a blend of solvents,
each one chosen for its power to dissolve a particular
constituent of the coating, and each present in proper proportion to regulate evaporation to a rate that prevents premature
segregation of any single dissolved constituent.
NOTE
• Although in practice the terms solvent, diluent, and thinner are often used interchangeably
to describe a liquid, it should be understood
that, the words have different meanings; and
the mechanism of solvents and diluents or
thinners are different. For example, a solvent
will thin incidentally while performing its
prime purpose of dissolving something;
whereas a diluent or thinner is used to reduce
viscosity and/or regulate evaporation and is
not required to, and may be unable to, dissolve
any constituents of the coating concerned. Of
course, thinner must be compatible with the
coating. Compatibility is beyond determination in the field; hence, only authorized thinners specifically called out for use with a given
coating shall be used to thin it.
• To distinguish between “diluent” and “thinner”, the material added by the manufacturer
to adjust viscosity is called a “diluent”, while
the same material added by the painter for the
same purpose is called “thinner”.
6.7.1 Volatility. Volatility is the rate at which a solvent
evaporates, governs the length of time a paint film remains
fluid. Thus, it affects performance characteristics of the paint
film when deposited, such as smoothness of flow-out, time an
edge remains wet to enable blending of overlapped strokes of
6-3
TO 1-1-8
the spray gun or brush, tendency to sag or run, drying time,
etc. Volatility also largely governs the flash point of materials.
6.7.2
Thinners.
The very properties that make a substance a good
solvent for organic materials tend to make it
harmful to the body. Many are also hazardous due
to flammability. Use caution to avoid unnecessary
and continued exposure to the volatile constituents of paints either by inhalation or by skin
contact. Precautions must be taken at all times to
prevent accidental ignition.
Thinner is the material added to a coating material by the
painter to adjust its viscosity. The following specification
thinners are among those used in Air Force painting:
Figure 6-1.
Zahn Cup
6.7.2.2.3 Type III is for thinning, TT-P-1757 primer, or
other coatings as authorized.
6.7.3 Viscosity.
Viscosity is a measure of a liquid’s
resistance to flow. Very viscous or thick liquids such as
molasses flow very slowly, while low viscosity liquids such
as water flow very quickly. Maintaining the proper viscosity
is very important for proper spray application of primers and
paint coatings. Too high a viscosity produces poor spray
patterns and poor coverage, while too low a viscosity
produces a film that sags and runs easily. Many different
methods can be used to measure viscosity, but the easiest and
most frequently used methods for primers and paint coatings
are flow time measurements from either a No. 2 Zahn Cup or
a No. 4 Ford Cup. Therefore, the acceptable viscosity ranges
for each primer and paint coating discussed in this technical
order are given in flow time in No. 2 Zahn Cup and No. 4
Ford Cup seconds at 75° F. For any of these materials, the
viscosity will be somewhat higher at lower temperatures and
somewhat lower at higher temperatures. Viscosity is measured as follows:
6.7.2.3
Special purpose “thinners” are often added to
coating materials to provide good drying characteristics under
abnormal environmental conditions. High boiling point solvents such as diacetone alcohol (ASTM D2627) and butyl
alcohol (ASTM D304) are often added to prevent blushing.
6.7.3.1 No. 2 Zahn Cup. (See Figure 6-1) After the
primer or paint coating is properly mixed, fully immerse the
cup in the liquid so it is completely filled, and lift the cup out
of the liquid. Using a stop watch, measure the time in seconds
it takes the material to flow out of the hole in the bottom of
6.7.2.1 A-A-3007, is thinner for enamels such as TT-E489, for spray applications.
6.7.2.2
MIL-T-81772 Aircraft Coating Thinner covers
three types of thinners for reducing the standard aircraft
coatings. They are suited for, but are not necessarily limited
to, the following applications:
6.7.2.2.1
Type I is for thinning, MIL-PRF-85285 and
MIL-C-83231/SAE AMS-C-83231 polyurethane coatings, or
other coatings as authorized.
6.7.2.2.2 Type II is for thinning, MIL-PRF-23377 epoxy
primer, MIL-PRF-22750 epoxy coating, or other coatings as
authorized.
6-4
TO 1-1-8
NOTE
the cup from the moment the cup clears the liquid surface to
the point where the first break in the flow stream is noted.
This time is the viscosity in No. 2 Zahn seconds.
Slight blushing may sometimes be detected by
noting faint dissimilarities of appearance in the
film occurring over structural members underlying the surface such as bulkheads, ribs, etc. Skin
surfaces in contact with internal structures may
be lower in temperature than the surrounding
skin, and this may be reflected and outlined in
blushing.
NOTE
The No. 2 Zahn Cup doesn’t work well for
high-solids coatings. The No. 4 Ford Cup is
preferable for these high-Solids coatings.
6.7.3.2 No. 4 Ford Cup.
After the primer or paint
coating is properly mixed, pour the material into the cup
mounted in a stand while blocking the hole in the bottom of
the cup with a finger. Make sure the cup is completely filled,
and then scrape away any excess sliding a flat glass plate
across the rim of the cup. Leave the glass plate in place, and
remove the finger blocking the hole in the bottom of the cup.
Slide the plate horizontally to remove it from the top of the
cup. Using a stop watch, measure the time in seconds it takes
the material to flow out of the hole in the bottom of the cup
from the moment the plate is removed to the point where the
first break in the flow stream is noted. This time is the
viscosity in No. 4 Ford Cup seconds.
6.7.3.3 Adjustments. If the viscosity measured is not
within the specified range, thin the material per the thinning
instructions for the primer or paint coating listed in this
technical order, and remeasure the viscosity after cleaning the
cup with thinner. Repeat as necessary until the viscosity is
within the specified range.
6.8
BLUSHING.
Blushing of coatings is the result of moisture condensation
from the atmosphere within or on a drying organic film. It
occurs when the temperature of the work surface and/or the
coating material itself falls below the prevailing dew-point.
Always look for it in production coating operations whenever
high humidity conditions exist. It shows as a lighter-thannormal or whitish discoloration or increased opaqueness of
film. It may occur to the extent that a surface powder results
which can be removed by a fingernail or by light rubbing.
(Rubbing will not cure the condition.) It may also be almost
imperceptible, and blush-inducing conditions may escape
notice on test panels sprayed prior to production coating due
to their temperature differing from that of the actual work
surface. Blushing most often occurs with quick-drying coatings such as lacquers and only rarely with enamels. It is
detrimental in some degree to any coating material and will
affect adhesion of any overcoat. Any blushed areas must be
stripped and redone. Superficial blushing may occur at
borderline temperature and humidity conditions and subsequently disappear. This is not considered harmful, and may be
ignored.
6.9
RESINS.
Natural resins are solid organic substances of vegetable or
animal origin. Synthetic resins are man-made substances
physically similar to natural resins. Rosin and shellac are
examples of natural resins. Synthetic resins have largely
taken over in modern coating formulations, because they can
be made to order to furnish desired characteristics. Coating
materials described in this technical manual are almost
exclusively based on synthetics. The following are examples
of resins and their special characteristics:
6.9.1 Alkyds.
Alkyds are the backbone of modern
enamel in a great many combinations. Federal Specification
TT-E-489, is alkyd or modified alkyd enamel used by the Air
Force. Alkyd is characterized by toughness, flexibility and
durability, and is used in exterior and interior coatings for
utility and decorative purposes. It does not have good
chemical resistance.
6.9.2 Acrylics.
Acrylics have outstanding light resistance and outdoor weather durability, with moderate chemical
resistance. Used with nitrocellulose as a hardener, they have
better drying properties and increased hardness.
6.9.3 Vinyls.
Vinyls have limited aircraft application,
but where construction materials, such as metal and wood
must be protected from high humidity, acidic or caustic
environments, vinyls are used. An example is Specification
MIL-P-15930 vinyl-zinc chromate primer.
6.9.4 Phenolics. Phenolic resins are used in varnishes
and enamels requiring extra hardness and abrasion resistance.
Specification A-A-1800 spar varnish is an example.
6.9.5 Silicones. Silicone resins are used primarily in
heat resistant coatings. They are not particularly hard surfaced and may craze. They are usually baked to cure.
6.9.6 Epoxies. Epoxies have outstanding adhesion and
chemical resistance. In combination with other resins, they
become baking enamels. For air drying types, catalysts are
6-5
TO 1-1-8
mixed with a base material prior to application, starting a
chemical reaction that continues after application to develop
a film with good performance characteristics. The Air Force
uses Specification MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF-85582
primers.
6.9.7 Polyurethane. Polyurethane resins are also catalyzed coatings. The Air Force MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane
coating, is characterized by its very high gloss retention in
gloss finishes and its flatness in camouflage finishes, its
superior toughness and outdoor durability, and good chemical
resistance.
6.10
NOTE
ADHESION.
Good adhesion of organic coatings requires a surface that is
mechanically and chemically clean. A smooth or highly
polished surface will have very poor coating adhesion and
should be roughened to provide “tooth” for physical bonding.
Adhesion to smooth materials such as glass is difficult and
surface etching is essential. With plastics etching may be
augmented by solvent activation to obtain some degree of
fusion with the surface. Metal surfaces require an appropriate
surface preparation such as conversion coating for adequate
primer adhesion.
6.11
PRIMERS.
Primers are used to provide an adherent coating to which
subsequent coatings will firmly adhere and to provide corrosion protection for metals. The pigment portion of primers for
ferrous base metals usually consists of iron oxide, strontium
chromate, zinc chromate, zinc oxide, zinc dust, or a mixture
of these. Zinc or strontium chromate is the principal pigment
in primers used on aluminum, magnesium, and their alloys.
Primers are satisfactory for corrosion protection of metals,
but are generally not suitable as topcoats. Color, weathering
properties or physical durability may be unsatisfactory; and
for these reasons, primers require protection by topcoating.
6.12
COATINGS AND COATING SYSTEMS.
Some examples of specification coatings are as follows:
NOTE
Because of the large number of Military and
Federal Specifications approved for Air Force
use, no attempt has been made to discuss all of
them in this technical manual. In addition, many
items of Air Force equipment and components
are coated with proprietary materials making
logistic support of such equipment difficult. Every effort should be made by responsible personnel to select standard Air Force approved specification material for overcoating or replacing
these proprietary materials.
6-6
6.12.1 USAF Standard Polyurethane Aircraft Coating
System.
(See Chapter 8, aircraft -23 or other weapon
system specific TO’s, and paint drawings for schemes, colors,
and markings.) Optional standard polyurethane coating systems consist of epoxy primer MIL-PRF-23377, water reducible epoxy primer MIL-PRF-85582, polyurethane primer
TT-P-2760, or polysulfide primer PR-1432GV, topcoated
with high solids polyurethane coating MIL-PRF-85285, Type
I. Additionally, a light dust coat may be utilized for the
reapplication of MIL-PRF-85285, Type I over an existing
coating. Most coatings formulated for these specifications are
two-component materials intended for spray application.
• Before applying a material, spray it on an
aluminum panel to determine its suitability.
Observe the panel for blushing, sagging, or
other defects detectable during or shortly after
application. Correct the cause of any defect
found before continuing. This test panel is in
addition to the one coated simultaneously with
the aircraft and used as a check of the completed job.
• Epoxyies and polyurethanes cure (chemically
react) rather than dry by evaporation. Use only
clean equipment for mixing and applying the
system to prevent contamination of the materials. Clean the equipment immediately after
use with a suitable solvent before the coatings
set up.
• Cure accelerators are not authorized for use in
painting aircraft exterior surfaces as they make
coatings brittle.
• Inadequate mixing or mixing in the wrong
proportions causes poor adhesion, slow or
incomplete curing, and poor performance of
the coating.
6.12.2 Primer Coating, Epoxy, For Aircraft Application, Specification MIL-PRF-23377.
6.12.2.1 Characteristics. This is a two-component, low
VOC, solvent-borne, lead free corrosion inhibiting epoxy
primer particularly formulated for its adhesion properties. It
is compliant with the NESHAP VOC requirements of 340 g/l
(2.8 lbs/gal). It is very resistant to chemicals, lubricants, and
corrosive atmospheres; but it has only fair weathering characteristics. Because it is an epoxy, this primer is difficult to
remove with standard paint removers. This primer is available
in two different types each with two different classes.
Type I
Type II
Standard pigments (yellow).
Low infrared reflective pigments (dark
green).
TO 1-1-8
Class C1
Class C2
Class N
Barium chromate based corrosion inhibitors
Strontium chromate based corrosion inhibitors.
Non-chromate based corrosion inhibitors.
Class N shall not be substituted for Class C,
unless authorization is given by the engineering authority for the system or item on
which the primer is used.
6.12.2.2 Uses. A primer for MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat for the exterior of aircraft, components, and
other aerospace equipment, and as a stand alone primer on
interior surfaces of aircraft and components.
6.12.2.3 Mixing. Thoroughly agitate components (Epoxy Resin Base Component A and Polyamide and/or amine
resin curing agent Component B) preferably with a mechanical shaker prior to mixing and if required pour into separate
measuring or metering containers. Using manufacturer’s
directions, mix proper volumes of the components A and B by
pouring B into A and thoroughly agitating. Best mixing
results can be achieved with a mechanical shaker. Mix only
materials from the same manufacturer, and do not mix more
material than can be used in a 4-hour period. After mixing,
allow the primer to stand 30 minutes before applying. This
primer must be agitated continuously during spraying applications to prevent settlement of pigment and ensure uniformity of color. If in-line or in-head proportioning equipment is
used to mix base and catalyst (curing agent) as the paint is
being used, a 30-minute dwell time is not required before
application.
6.12.2.4
Thinning.
• MIL-T-81772 is flammable and moderately
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required.
• Parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF), NSN
6850-01-399-0676, is combustible and an irritant to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required. Disposable 8 mil
nitrile gloves, splash goggles, tyvek/cloth coveralls are the recommended PPE. Use in well
ventilated areas.
In areas where air quality regulations restrict
volatile emissions, do not add thinner MIL-T81772 to the primer coating as that addition may
raise the VOC content to greater than 340 g/L
(2.8 lbs/gal).
NOTE
PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676, is exempt as a
VOC or HAP by the EPA and by 48 states and
will not change compliance of high solids coatings to air quality regulations.
The viscosity of the unthinned primer may range up to a
maximum of 40 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (56 seconds in
a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Strain the primer through clean cheesecloth, per CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2 or a commercial paint
strainer. When required, adjust the viscosity by thinning to a
viscosity of 8 to 19 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (17 to 23
seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Use thinner per MIL-T-81772
Type II or PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676. Add MIL-T81772, Type II thinner as required to achieve the viscosity
range above. In areas where air quality regulations restrict
volatile emissions, thin with PCBTF using up to 10% by
volume as a recommended maximum for reduction of viscosity.
6.12.2.5 Application. Apply one coat of primer to a dry
film thickness of 0.6 to 0.9 mils, per Table 5-2. Allow a
minimum of five hours air dry at 75° F and ten hours at 60°
F before application of topcoat. After 8 hours at 75° F, solvent
wipe per Chapter 3 to reactivate before topcoating. Since this
epoxy primer has a very high solids content, cross coating
may not be required; and the spray gun must be kept moving
to prevent excessive film build-up with subsequent reduction
of adhesion. Apply a topcoat within 24 hours of primer
application. After 24 hours, scuff sand the entire primed
surface with A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A abrasive mat and
solvent wipe the area per Chapter 3 prior to topcoating.
Discard any of this primer mixed for longer than the four
hours pot life at 75° F. Higher or lower temperatures shorten
or lengthen the pot life proportionally.
6.12.2.6 Drying Time. The times given here are for 75°
F at 50% relative humidity. Lower temperatures and higher
relative humidity will increase these drying times while
higher temperatures and lower relative humidity will decrease
these drying times. Tack free - 5 hours; Dry hard - 8 hours;
Full cure - 48 hours.
6.12.3 Primer Coating, Epoxy, VOC Complaint,
Chemical and Solvent Resistant, MIL-PRF-85582.
Change 3
6-7
TO 1-1-8
6.12.3.1 Characteristics.
This is a two-component,
lead free, water-reducible corrosion inhibiting, epoxy primer
formulated to meet most local environmental pollution regulations. This primer is available in two different types each
with three different classes.
Type I
Type II
Class C1
Class C2
Class N
Standard pigments (yellow).
Low infrared reflective pigments (dark
green).
Barium chromate based corrosion inhibitors.
Strontium chromate based corrosion inhibitors
Non-chromate based corrosion inhibitors.
Class N shall not be substituted for Class C1
or Class C2, unless authorization is given by
the procuring activity or engineering authority for the system or item on which the
primer is used.
6.12.3.2 Uses. As a primer for MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat for aircraft and a stand alone primer on
interior surfaces of aircraft and components.
6.12.3.3 Mixing.
See manufacturer’s mixing instructions, as different manufacturers may have different mixing
ratios and methods.
6.12.3.4 Thinning. Thin with water per the manufacturer’s instructions as each manufacturer may have different
thinning ratios and methods. Application viscosity will be
approximately 14 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (20 seconds in
a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Allow the mixed and thinned primer to
stand 30 minutes prior to use.
NOTE
The volume of some primers may increase by
250% when properly thinned with water.
6.12.3.5 Application.
After thoroughly cleaning, surface treating, and solvent wiping the surface to be primed per
Chapter 3 and purging spraying equipment lines with a
mixture of 25% TT-I-735 isopropanol alcohol and 75% water,
apply the primer to a dry film thickness of 0.6 to 1.8 mils; see
Table 5-2 (2.5 to 3.8 mils wet film). Allow a minimum of two
hours air dry at 75° F or higher and 50% or less relative
humidity and four hours at lower temperatures and high
humidity to a maximum of eight hours before topcoating.
After eight hours, the primer shall be lightly scuff-sanded
with A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A abrasive mat, tack-ragged
and solvent wiped before topcoat application. Areas that are
not clean will not support the primer film, which will break
6-8
Change 3
into droplets; like a water break test. If this happens, the
primer can be blotted up, the area wiped clean with a clean
cloth dampened with solvent per Table 3-2, and the primer
reapplied.
6.12.3.6 Drying Time. The times given here are for 75°
F at 50% relative humidity. Lower temperatures and higher
relative humidity will increase these drying times while
higher temperatures and lower relative humidity will decrease
these drying times. Tack free - 1 hour; Dry hard - 6 hours;
Full cure - 48 hours.
6.12.4
Primer Coating, Polyurethane, TT-P-2760.
TT-P-2760 is moderately toxic to eyes, skin, and
respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering to
determine need for respiratory and ventilation
requirements.
6.12.4.1 Characteristics. This is a two component, low
VOC, solvent borne, highly flexible elastomeric polyurethane
primer. The maximum VOC content of the primer coating is
340 g/L (2.8 lbs/gal). It is available in two different types each
with two different classes.
Type I
Type II
Class C
Class N
Standard pigments (yellow or light
brown).
Low infrared reflective pigments (dark
green).
Strontium chromate based corrosion inhibitors.
Non-chromate based corrosion inhibitors.
NOTE
Class N shall not be substituted for Class C
unless authorization is given by the procuring
activity or engineering authority for the system or
item on which the primer is used.
6.12.4.2 Uses. As a primer for MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat. It is a suitable alternate for MIL-PRF23377 and MIL-PRF-85582 primers and can be used as a
touch-up primer for both MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF85582 on exterior surfaces. Because of this primer’s flexibility, it is recommended for high impact areas such as leading
edge slats, and the entire exterior surface on large, flexible
cargo and bomber aircraft.
6.12.4.3 Mixing. Shake the base material (component A)
for five minutes on a paint shaker and stir the catalyst
(component B) with a wooden paddle prior to mixing. Pour
one volume of catalyst into one volume of base, and mix the
TO 1-1-8
material thoroughly following manufacturer’s instructions.
Do not mix more material than can be used in four hours.
NOTE
Some materials are mixed in a three to one by
volume ratio.
6.12.4.4
Thinning.
• MIL-T-81772 is flammable and moderately
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required.
• PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676, is combustible and an irritant to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required.
Disposable 8 mil nitrile gloves, splash
goggles, tyvek/cloth coveralls are the recommended PPE. Use in well ventilated areas.
• All thinners used with this coating must be
“urethane grade” with a water content of less
than 0.05% by weight.
• In areas where air quality regulations restrict
volatile emissions, do not add thinner MIL-T81772 to the primer coating as that addition
may raise the VOC content to greater than 340
g/L (2.8 lbs/gal).
NOTE
PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676, is exempt as a
VOC or HAP by the EPA and by 48 states and
will not change compliance of high solids coatings to air quality regulations.
Thinning of this primer is not required, as viscosity as
manufactured should be correct for spray application. If
thinning is done, it shall be with MIL-T-81772, Type I or
PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676. Use thinner in the least
quantity necessary to get the proper viscosity. The application
viscosity will be approximately 14 seconds in a No. 4 Ford
Cup (20 seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup).
6.12.4.5 Application.
After thoroughly cleaning, surface treating and solvent cleaning the surface to be primed per
Chapter 3, apply one coat of primer to a dry film thickness of
1.0 to 1.5 mils (1.7 to 2.5 mils wet film) per Table 5-2. This
primer will not adhere to an improperly prepared or contaminated surface. Allow a minimum of two hours air dry at 75°
F and 50% relative humidity or four hours at 60° F and 50%
relative humidity before application of topcoat. The coating
must be applied in a relative humidity range of 30% to 80%.
If humidity is below 30%, add moisture to the air by wetting
the floor of the painting area or by equivalent methods. After
8 hours at 75° F, solvent wipe per Chapter 3 to reactivate
before topcoating. If the primer is not topcoated within 24
hours, reactivate the primer surface by light sanding or
scuffing with A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A abrasive mat and
solvent wiping per Chapter 3. Discard any primer mixed
longer than four hours.
6.12.4.6 Drying Time. The times given here are for 75°
F at 50% relative humidity. Lower temperatures and higher
relative humidity will increase these drying times while
higher temperatures and lower relative humidity will decrease
these drying times. Tack free - 5 hours; Dry hard - 8 hours;
Full cure - 48 hours.
6.12.5 Primer Coating, Elastomeric, Polysulfide Corrosion Inhibiting, PR-1432GV.
PR-1432GV is moderately toxic to eyes, skin,
and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection
required. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering
to determine need for respiratory and ventilation
requirements.
6.12.5.1 Characteristics.
This is a two component,
polysulfide primer, particularly formulated for its corrosion
resistance and flexibility. It is a superior material for protection of relatively flexible aircraft structures as it does not
crack or peel away from fasteners in highly stressed areas,
and it will not crack, peel, or rupture from lap and butt joints.
The physical properties of this primer on large flexible
aircraft structures will increase the longevity of the paint
system as well as decrease maintenance and corrosion rework
during the life cycle of the coating system.
6.12.5.2 Uses. As a primer for MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat on aircraft exterior surfaces. The Weapon
System Manager shall specify when this primer is to be used.
6.12.5.3 Mixing. Adequate curing of sealant and sealant
based coatings depend on proper and controlled component
mixing by weight. This ensures that the component ratio is as
close as possible to that specified by the manufacture. When
mixing partial kits, an accurate scale is required that will
weigh up to 2.6 kilograms to the nearest 0.1 of a gram. One
scale meeting these requirements is the Triple Beam 760-W
Balance made by Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc.; 316 N.E. First
St.; Pompano Beach FL 33060. Mix the base compound and
(component A) and the accelerator (component B) in the
6-9
TO 1-1-8
proportions of 15 to one by weight. Always properly mix in
the correct proportions by the manufacturer’s directions for
optimum results.
NOTE
The base compound has a tendency to settle out
in storage and should be thoroughly mixed prior
to adding the accelerator.
primer shall be applied to a wet film thickness of 3.0 to 4.0
mils which results in a dry thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 mils. The
polyurethane topcoat, MIL-PRF-85285, Type I can be applied
anytime after the polysulfide primer is tack free up to 24
hours if no moisture or dirt is on the aircraft, the aircraft is
kept in an environmentally controlled hangar, and no maintenance or walking has been done on the aircraft.
a. Shake the base compound on a standard paint shaker for
five minutes.
6.12.5.6 Drying Time. At 75° F, the tack free time is
approximately 6 hours, 3 hours at 90° F, and 12 hours at 60°
F; however, high humidity at time of application will shorten
the tack free time.
b. Mix the accelerator by stirring with a paddle and add to
the base compound.
NOTE
c. Replace the base compound container lid and shake for
two to three minutes in an upright position followed by
two to three minutes in an inverted position.
NOTE
Fast and longer mixing decreases application
time (pot life). High humidity (70% R.H. or
above) at time of mixing decreases application
time (pot life).
6.12.5.4 Thinning.
As supplied, this material is too
viscous to be easily sprayed and must be thinned prior to
application. Thinning of the material shall be accomplished
immediately after mixing of the two components. Transfer
the mixed material to a pressure pot, thin 50% by volume
with a ASTM D740 MEK and A-A-59107 Toluene blend, and
mix in the pressure pot for 2 minutes at 70 RPM. Use the
MEK/Toluene blend specified below for the following mixing
and application temperatures. After thinning, the viscosity of
the material shall be 8 to 22 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup
(17-29 seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup).
75° F - 50% (by volume) MEK and 50% (by volume)
Toluene.
85° F - 25% (by volume) MEK and 75% (by volume)
Toluene.
65° F - 75% (by volume) MEK and 25% (by volume)
Toluene.
6.12.5.5 Application.
The primer can be applied by
HVLP, airless spray, or air assisted airless spray. The primer
has a 2-hour pot life at 75° F temperature and 50% relative
humidity. For every 18° F rise in temperature, the application
time (pot-life) is reduced by half; and for every 18° F drop in
temperature, the application time is doubled. The polysulfide
6-10
Change 3
• The material shall be applied to test panels as
specified in Paragraph 5.5.5, so that any defects can be corrected prior to production
spray application. The correct line and pot
pressure can be determined at this time.
• Some orange peel appearance in the coating
system is inherent with this primer and is
acceptable.
• It is mandatory that spray equipment be
cleaned immediately after use.
6.12.6 Tiecoat, Non-Chromated. This coating differs
from MIL-PRF-23377 which has requirements directed toward the corrosion protection of and adhesion to bare metal.
The tiecoat purchase description requirements are only for
adhesion to other coatings. Tiecoats listed here meet all of the
requirements for MIL-PRF-23377 Type I, Class N, except for
the corrosion protection requirements and are an interim
authorization until completion of the purchase description.
All test results and certifications for meeting the MIL-PRF23377 Type I, Class N, with the exception of the corrosion
protection requirements must be submitted to AFRL/MLSOLR for inclusion in this technical order. The following
coatings are approved as tiecoats for overcoating existing
MIL-PRF-85285 paint systems:
8010-01-482-8620 Aeroglaze 9741 (light gray) U/I GL
8010-01-483-4363 Aeroglaze 9743 (red) U/I GL
8010-01-483-4365 Aeroglaze 9744 (dark gray) I/I GL
6.12.6.1 Characteristics.
This is a two-component,
VOC, solvent-borne, lead and chromate free epoxy coating
particularly formulated for its adhesion properties to other
coatings. It is compliant with the NESHAP VOC requirements of 340 g/l (2.8 lbs/gal). It is very resistant to chemicals
TO 1-1-8
and lubricants; but it has only fair weathering characteristics.
Because it is an epoxy, this coating is difficult to remove with
standard paint removers.
6.12.6.2 Uses. As a tiecoat over existing coating systems for the reapplication of MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane
topcoat on the exterior of painted aircraft and other aerospace
equipment.
6.12.6.3 Mixing. Thoroughly agitate components (Epoxy Resin Base Component A and Polyamide or amine resin
curing agent Component B) preferably with a mechanical
shaker prior to mixing. If required pour into separate measuring or metering containers. Using manufacturer’s directions, mix equal volumes of the components A and B by
pouring B into A and thoroughly agitating. Best mixing
results can be achieved with a mechanical shaker. Mix only
materials from the same manufacturer, and do not mix more
material than can be used in a 4-hour period. After mixing,
allow the primer to stand 30 minutes before applying. This
primer must be agitated continuously during spraying applications to prevent settlement of pigment and ensure uniformity of color. If in-1ine or in-head proportioning equipment
is used to mix base and catalyst (curing agent) as the paint is
being used, a 30 minute dwell time is not required before
application.
6.12.6.4
Thinning.
• MIL-T-81772 is flammable and moderately
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required.
• PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676, is combustible and an irritant to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required.
Disposable 8 mil nitrile gloves, splash
goggles, tyvek/cloth coveralls are the recommended PPE. Use in well ventilated areas.
In areas where air quality regulations restrict
volatile emissions, do not add thinner MIL-T81772 to the primer coating as that addition may
raise the VOC content to greater than 340 g/L
(2.8 lbs/gal).
NOTE
PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676 is exempt as a
VOC or HAP by the EPA and by 48 states and
will not change compliance of high solids coatings to air quality regulations.
The viscosity of the unthinned tiecoat may range up to a
maximum of 40 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (56 seconds in
a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Strain the tiecoat through clean cheesecloth, per CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2 or a commercial paint
strainer; and when required, adjust the viscosity by thinning
to a viscosity of 8 to 19 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (17 to
23 seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Use thinner per MIL-T81772 Type II or PCBTF (NSN 6850-01-399-0676) Add
MIL-T- 81772, Type II thinner as required to achieve the
viscosity range above. In areas where air quality regulations
restrict volatile emissions, thin with PCTBF using up to 10%
by volume as a recommended maximum for reduction of
viscosity.
6.12.6.5 Application. Apply one coat of tiecoat to a dry
film thickness of 0.6 to 1.8 mils, (0.9 to 2.6 mils wet film).
Allow a minimum of five hours air dry at 75° F and ten hours
at 60° F before application of topcoat. After 8 hours at 75° F,
solvent wipe per Chapter 3 to reactivate before topcoating.
Since this epoxy tiecoat has a very high solids content, cross
coating may not be required; and the spray gun must be kept
moving to prevent excessive film build-up with subsequent
reduction of adhesion. Apply a topcoat within 24 hours of
primer application. After 24 hours, scuff sand the entire
primed surface with A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A abrasive
mat and solvent wipe the area per Chapter 3 prior to
topcoating. Discard any of this tiecoat mixed for longer than
the four hours pot life at 75° F. Higher or lower temperatures
shorten or lengthen the pot life proportionally.
6.12.6.6 Drying Time. The times given here are for 75°
F at 50% relative humidity. Lower temperatures and higher
relative humidity will increase these drying times while
higher temperatures and lower relative humidity will decrease
these drying times. Tack free - 5 hours; Dry hard - 8 hours;
Full cure - 48 hours.
6.12.7 Polyurethane Topcoat, High Solids (MIL-PRF85285, Type I).
6.12.7.1 Characteristics.
This coating is a twocomponent high solids, polyurethane coating formulated for
compliance with air quality regulations with a 420 g/1 (3.5
lbs/gal) VOC content.
6.12.7.2 Uses. Type I is intended for use on aerospace
weapons systems and other applications. Type II is intended
for use on ground support equipment and shall not be used on
aircraft due to its very low flexibility.
6.12.7.3 Advanced Performance Coating (APC), qualified
to MIL-PRF-85285, Type I, also known as Extended Life
Topcoat (ELT) is a chemically cured two component polyurethane topcoat formulated with fluorinated polyol resin to
provide a protective coating with exterior durability and
cleaning efficiencies superior to conventional MIL-PRF85285 polyurethane coating. APC, when used over MILPRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582 epoxy primer, provides fade
6-11
TO 1-1-8
resistance superior to conventional polyurethane topcoats.
Although some degradation in fade resistance will occur if
APC is applied over PR-1422GV elestomeric polysulfide
primer, color retention still exceeds MIL-PRF-85285 requirements.
6.12.7.4
Mixing.
• The catalyst portion of polyurethane topcoat
contains a resin that may contain up to one
percent Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI).
This material is a sensitizing agent and in low
atmospheric concentrations is a strong respiratory and skin irritant. After the catalyst
portion containing HDI is mixed with the
polyester resin base component, the HDI reacts chemically with the resin base and the
potential for generation of HDI is significantly
reduced. Personnel mixing the isocyanate
catalyst component with the polyester resin
base component must avoid the vapors and
skin contact of these materials. Mixing shall
be done in exhaust ventilated booth or well
ventilated area.
• Personnel shall wear plastic or rubber gloves,
plastic apron, and a face shield. Requirement
for respiratory protection during mixture and
application procedures shall be determined by
Bioenvironmental Engineering.
• Even after the polyurethane components have
been mixed as noted below, painting with the
polyurethane paint, Specification MIL-PRF85285 still may result in a significant health
hazard to the painter. Respiratory protection
shall be specified by the local medical service
based upon the process evaluation by Bioenvironmental Engineering. Also, it is important
that all the precautions required for spray
painting as outlined in AFOSH STD 91-17 be
rigidly enforced. Personnel with histories of
allergies or asthma shall be cleared through
the base medical services before using any
material containing diisocyanates.
6-12
Since the polyurethane is sensitive to moisture,
ketones, and alcohols, use only clean, dry equipment for mixing and keep the mixed material in
closed containers. Use adequate oil and water
separators between the air supply and pressure
pot to exclude water. Water reacts with the
catalyst and liberates carbon dioxide, causing
bubbles and craters in freshly applied polyurethane paint. In addition, blow down air lines at
least every hour to remove water. Reaction of
catalyst with water is evident by an accelerated
rate of increase in viscosity.
Thoroughly agitate the resin component (preferably with a
mechanical shaker) and stir the catalyst with a wooden paddle
in an exhaust ventilated booth or a well ventilated area and
pour into separate metering containers. Mix three parts resin
(Component A) with one part catalyst (Component B) by
volume, unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer, and
agitate thoroughly. Induction time (dwell time) or a waiting
period is not required before applying the coating. Use only
catalyst and resin from the same manufacturer and the same
lot, and do not mix more material than will be used in a
4-hour period. It is preferable, however, that the amount of
material mixed at one time be limited to that usable in two
hours. This polyurethane coating requires continuous agitation during spraying application to prevent settlement of
pigment and ensure uniformity of color.
6.12.7.5 APC Mixing.
Paragraph 6.12.7.4.
Follow mixing instructions in
NOTE
Do not use catalyst (component B) from standard
MIL-PRF-85285 coatings or catalyst from other
APC colors.
TO 1-1-8
be greater than conventional MIL-PRF-85285, APC still
meets the requirements of the military specification.
6.12.7.6 Thinning.
PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676, is combustible
and an irritant to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract.
Eye and skin protection required. Disposable 8
mil nitrile gloves, splash goggles, tyvek/cloth
coveralls are the recommended PPE. Use in well
ventilated areas.
NOTE
PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676 is exempt as a
VOC or HAP by the EPA and by 48 states and
will not change compliance of high solids coatings to air quality regulations.
Cure accelerators are not authorized for use in polyurethane
when painting aircraft as they change the cured properties and
integrity of the coating. It can be thinned with PCBTF (NSN
6850-01-399-0676); using up to 10% by volume as a recommended maximum for reduction of viscosity. The expected
viscosity as thinned will be in the range of 8 to 29 seconds in
a No. 4 Ford Cup (17 to 23 seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup), but
it can be up to 30 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (39 seconds
in a No. 2 Zahn Cup) before thinning.
6.12.7.7 Application.
MIL-PRF-85285, Type I is for
application on properly prepared and primed substrates.
Surfaces shall be prepared per Chapter 2 and primed with
MIL-PRF-23377, Type I, Class C1 or C2; TT-P-2760, Type I,
Class C1 or C2; or MIL-PRF-85582, Type I, Class C1 or C2.
Steel surfaces shall be phosphate treated or coated with
MIL-C-8514 or DOD-P-15328 wash primer and primed with
the same primers listed above. Use Type II of these primers if
low IR reflectance is required. This coating may be applied by
airless, air assisted airless, HVLP, or electrostatic equipment
after proper mixing of the base and catalyst. Apply the
coating in one wet cross-coat or two coat with the second coat
applied crosswise to the first after cure time of 4 hours. The
dry film thickness shall be 1.7 to 2.3 mils each coat per Table
5-2. Air assisted airless is preferable. For air assisted airless,
use No. 617 tip for 12 inch fan and No. 517 tip for 10 inch
fan. Atomize at eight to ten PSI at the tip with the trigger
pulled to conform to the HVLP requirement of the NESHAP.
6.12.7.7.1 APC Application. Follow application procedures of Paragraph 6.12.7.5. In addition, maintain a wet edge
during each application. After the first coat, the coating
should be air dried 15-60 minutes at 75° F/ 24° C ±5° F/15°
C before application of the second coat. It is normal for
occurrences of mottling or “tiger striping”. This condition
typically disappears after coating has reached full cure.
Although the visible gloss of camouflage APC will appear to
6.12.7.7.2 Maintenance Painting. Maintenance painting (touch-up) of APC shall be accomplished using same
procedures as for conventional polyurethane coatings listed in
Chapter 5. Although APC and conventional MIL-PRF-85285
coating are compatible, it is recommended to use the same
material as the previously applied coating system for maintenance painting. If both materials are used, a significant
color mismatch will develop as the two coatings age due to
APC’s superior color retention.
6.12.8 Curing of Complete Polyurethane System.
The cure schedule for polyurethane coatings shall be followed. Aircraft shall not be operated until 72 hours has
elapsed at a temperature of 75° F or higher, after the topcoat
application is completed. If the temperature is less than 75° F
at anytime during the cure cycle, it is preferable to wait a full
seven days before flying the aircraft.
a. Cure time before handling, taping, masking etc., is 6
hours minimum. Time may be reduced to 4 hours if
temperature and humidity reach upper limit (90° F and
80% RH). Low temperature and low humidity (60° F
and 30% RH) retards cure rate to 12 hours minimum.
b. Curing time before movement from controlled hangar
environment at a temperature of 75° F or higher is 6
hours minimum after application of last paint coat.
Aircraft may then be moved to another location with a
controlled environment of 75° F or higher to continue its
72-hour cure.
c. Curing time before decal application, 8 hours minimum.
d. Curing time before engine run up, 30 hours minimum.
e. Curing time before wet tape test, 48 hours minimum.
f. Curing time before flight, 72 hours minimum.
g. Curing time for maintenance painting of polyurethane
system at 75° and 50% RH and higher: (Lower temperatures and relative humidity require longer cure times.)
(1) Complete leading edges (All), complete control surface (All), major skin panels 9 square feet and over,
and engine intake, 72 hours minimum.
(2) Skin panels less than 9 square feet, fasteners, rivet
heads, screw heads, and minor chipped and scratched
areas, less than 36 square inches, 30 hours minimum.
6.12.9 Coating Compound (Wash Primer), Metal Pretreatment, Resin-Acid, Specification MIL-C-8514.
6.12.9.1 Characteristics. The term “wash primer” designates a specific material which combines the properties of
Change 3
6-13
TO 1-1-8
inhibitive wash coat or metal conditioner with the properties
of the conventional anticorrosive primer. This coating is
furnished with a resin component and an acid component,
which are mixed just prior to use. The resin component
consists of an insoluble zinc chromate and magnesiumsilicate in a polyvinyl-butyral resin and alcohol vehicle. The
acid component is phosphoric acid, ethyl alcohol, butyl
alcohol, and water. Wash primers can be formulated that are
equally effective over iron, steel, aluminum, treated magnesium, copper, zinc and a wide variety of other metals. The
advantages of wash primers used by the Air Force are listed
below.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Apply easily and dry rapidly.
Useable over wide ranges of temperatures and humidity.
Can be applied to a variety of metals with good
results.
Provide temporary protection until protective coating
is applied.
Prevent or retard under-film corrosion.
Exhibit high degree of adhesion to metals.
Upgrade performance of subsequent protective coatings.
6.12.9.2 Uses. The primary purpose for wash primer is
as a intercoat between the base metal and the subsequently
applied primer coat. Primers that may be applied over wash
primer are MIL-PRF-23377, MIL-PRF-85582, TT-P-2760,
and TT-P-1757. This primer will not provide lasting protection. It is an alternate for MIL-DTL-5541, Class 1A conversion coating on aluminum alloys.
NOTE
Do not use wash primer over one year old
without first checking its quality.
6.12.9.3 Mixing. Thoroughly mix each of the two components using a mechanical shaker or approved equivalent to
reincorporate any settled portion. Slowly add one part (by
volume) acid component in small portions to four parts resin
component with constant stirring. Never add the resin component to the acid component.
MIL-C-8514 is flammable and moderately toxic
to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin
protection required. Good general ventilation is
normally adequate.
6-14
Change 3
NOTE
The acid component is not a thinner but a
necessary activator. Do not vary the ratio of acid
to resin. Too little acid content in the wash primer
will result in poor coating adhesion and an excess
of acid will cause serious brittleness.
6.12.9.4 The pigment portion of the resin component may
settle and develop a hard cake during prolonged storage.
When this condition is encountered, pour the top liquid into
a separate container and break the hard cake with a paddle.
Gradually add the poured-off liquid in small amounts with
continuous stirring until the cake is reincorporated.
6.12.9.5 Pot Life.
Polymerization starts immediately
when the acid and resin component are mixed, restricting the
pot life of the wash primer. If the temperature is below 90° F,
mix only the amount of wash primer that will be used in a
4-hour period. Limit the quantity to a 2-hour supply if the
temperature exceeds 90° F.
6.12.9.6 Thinning for Spraying.
To spray uniformly
thin films of wash primer and to lessen cobwebbing, the wash
primer may require thinning with ethyl alcohol conforming to
Specification A-A-59282 (NSN 6810-00-127-4532). The correct spraying viscosity is 19 to 24 seconds in a No. 4 Ford
Cup (24 to 31 seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Wash primer
material may be suitable for spraying without thinning and
can actually be sprayed without apparent difficulty. However,
sometimes this results in a rough appearance which transmits
through to the topcoat, necessitating light scuff sanding to
give satisfactory appearance. Also, it will be more difficult to
obtain the correct uniform dry film thickness without thinning.
6.12.9.6.1 Normal Atmospheric Conditions.
Under
normal weather conditions (35 to 70 percent relative humidity
and 50° F to 90° F), thin with ethyl alcohol or a mixture of 90
parts ethyl alcohol to 10 parts butyl alcohol. A volume of
diluent (thinner) equal to the volume of acid component is
generally sufficient to obtain a wash primer of adequate
spraying viscosity. Use the ethyl-butyl alcohol mixture diluent only at the high end of the humidity temperature range
within the normal atmospheric condition since butyl alcohol
increases drying time.
6.12.9.6.2 Low-Humidity Conditions.
Under lowhumidity conditions (less than 35 percent relative humidity)
and moderate temperatures (70° F to 80° F) prevalent in
heated areas during winter months, the normal dilution
specified above will result in poor intercoat and system
adhesion of subsequently applied topcoats. This difficulty
TO 1-1-8
may be minimized by thinning with one part by volume of
thinner to five parts by volume wash primer with a thinner
composed of two parts (by volume) of distilled or demineralized water and one part (by volume) of a 90:10 mixture of
ethyl alcohol: butyl alcohol. The above thinner composition is
a starting point and should be modified where local conditions warrant. Table 6-1 shows the amount of each component
generally necessary to furnish a satisfactory wash primer.
6.12.9.6.3 High Humidity Conditions. Blushing of the
reduced wash primer may occur under high humidity conditions (approximately 70 percent relative humidity or more).
Subsequently, applied topcoatings will not adhere to blushed
films. Blushing may frequently be eliminated by adding to or
substituting for the higher evaporation rate ethyl alcohol, a
lower evaporation rate blush-retardant solvent, such as
Table 6-1.
NOTE
Do not use lacquer thinner to reduce wash primer
since it will increase the drying time of the wash
primer and, in case of high humidity, may prevent
drying of the wash primer for a period of several
days.
6.12.9.7 Film Thickness. The proper dry film thickness
is 0.2 to 0.3 mil. (wet film 0.6 mil). The wet film thickness
may be measured with a Nordsen Wet Film Thickness Gauge
or similar gauge.
Thinning Ratio (Volume) for Wash Primer MIL-C-8514
Component
Resin
Acid
Distilled Water
Ethyl Alcohol
Butyl Alcohol
ASTM D2627, diactone alcohol, or butyl alcohol. The
diactone alcohol evaporates slowest and offers maximum
blush resistance.
Quantity
4 gallons
1 gallon
85 ounces
39 ounces
4 ounces
Quantity
1 gallon
1 quart
21 ounces
10 ounces
1 ounce
Quantity
4/5 gallon
1/5 gallon
17 ounces
1 ounce
1 ounce
NOTE
NOTE
Place a small test panel(s) adjacent to the item
being coated, and measure the film thickness on
the test panel to assure proper wash primer
thickness.
• Applying wash primer over oil residues results
in the dried wash primer having a shiny
appearance. Strip, reclean, and re-coat such
areas.
6.12.9.8 Application of Wash Primer.
Wash primer
may be applied by spraying, brushing, roller coating, or
swabbing on a clean metal surface. Spray the wash primer as
a thin film so that a continuous film may be obtained. A single
pass with the spray gun held 10 to 12 inches from the surface
is adequate. Do not attempt to get a full hiding coat as this
results in excessively thick coating. Too thick a coating is
undesirable because of poor adhesion of subsequent coatings
due to entrapped alcohol in the wash primer. Immediately
remove thick coatings with alcohol and reapply the coating
properly. Do not attempt to obtain a thin film by holding the
spray gun more than 12 inches from the surface as this results
in a dry, powdery film deposit that seriously impairs the
adhesion of the subsequent finish system.
• DOD-P-15328, Coating Pretreatment (Formula No. 117 for metals), covers a material
very similar to Specification MIL-C-8514 material. The main difference is the fineness of
grind of the pigment. It may be used as an
alternate for MIL-C-8514.
6.12.9.8.1 Low-Humidity Application.
Wash primer
applied under low humidity conditions (less than 35 percent)
has a generally good resistance to fingernail scratches, but
adhesion of subsequently applied primers or topcoats will be
poor. Check the temperatures and relative humidity frequently, and stop work when low relative humidity conditions
are encountered. If the relative humidity in the paint area
6-15
TO 1-1-8
cannot be raised, discard or set aside the wash primer being
used and mix and thin a new batch following the instructions
in Paragraph 6.12.5.3 and Paragraph 6.12.5.4.
NOTE
Isopropyl alcohol shall not be substituted for
ethyl alcohol in thinning wash primer as the
addition of water in the thinning process for low
humidity will cause the material to gel.
6.12.9.8.2 High-Humidity Application.
Wash primer
will blush, resulting in a whitish color caused by moisture
condensation in the film and be easily scratched with a
fingernail when applied under high relative humidity and high
temperature conditions. When blushing is encountered, discard or set aside the wash primer being used and mix and thin
a new batch following instructions in Paragraph 6.12.5.3 and
Paragraph 6.12.5.4.
6.12.9.9 Drying Time.
Wash primer dries to handle
within a few minutes, but, allow it to dry for at least 60
minutes but no more than 4 hours, depending on local
temperatures and humidity conditions, before topcoating. For
best results, apply the subsequent primer coat as soon after
the wash primer is tack free because intercoat adhesion
begins to degrade slowly on aging indoors and rapidly when
exposed to the sun. Best intercoat adhesion will generally be
obtained after 1 to 2 hours drying under normal conditions.
The actual drying time required can be determined for local
conditions by applying wash primer to several test panels and
performing the wet tape test on a primer film over the wash
primer after various drying periods. This test should be done
prior to wash primer application to the end item.
NOTE
Do not apply primer on any wash primer when it
has dried for more than 4 hours. Remove aged
wash primer, thoroughly clean metal, and apply
new wash primer coating before applying a
primer.
6.12.9.10 Sanding of Wash Primer Coating. To obtain the full gloss of exterior topcoat, lightly scuff sand with
dry 320 to 400 grit abrasive paper to remove over-spray and
smooth out nibs. Remove dust resulting from this operation
with a tack rag before applying the primer.
6.12.10 Primer, Coating, Inorganic, Zinc Dust Pigmented, Self-Curing, For Steel Surfaces, Specification
MIL-P-38336/SAE AMS-P-38336.
6-16
6.12.10.1 Characteristics. This is a ready-to-mix twocomponent, inorganic zinc, corrosion inhibitive primer consisting of a liquid inorganic vehicle and zinc dust pigment in
separate containers. It is intended for use on steel and
galvanized surfaces, above or below grade, that are subjected
to damp or wet environments, i.e., high humidity of 70% or
above, water condensate or splash, and marine or severe
weather environments. It has high resistance to hydrocarbon
solvents and withstands temperatures up to 750° F. It provides
galvanic protection to steel surfaces. Thorough cleaning is
required to remove rust, scale and oil from surfaces so the
primer can make intimate electrical contact with the steel.
6.12.10.2 Uses. The primer is for application directly to
steel surfaces with or without phosphoric acid treatment
(Reference TO 1-1-691) which have been roughened mechanically preferably by abrasive blasting. It may be applied
to damp, but not to wet surfaces, and may be used alone or
with a variety of proprietary items, applied in accordance
with vendor’s instructions. Inorganic zinc primer may appear
in versions requiring water as a diluent. Storage stability or
“Shelf Life” is one year in an unopened package. It is not for
use in direct contact with acids, alkalis or salts. MIL-P38336/SAE AMS-P-38336 inorganic zinc primer is the preferred primer for use in high humidity application.
6.12.10.3
Mixing.
Most inorganic primers contain flammable solvents. In confined areas, proper respiratory protection must be worn. Contact the Base Safety
Office and the Bioenvironmental Engineer for
specific details.
The primer is supplied as a two component kit. The liquid
vehicle container holds an amount which when mixed with
the zinc dust pigment provides the specified volume of
primer. Mix the component materials in the proportions
furnished as follows:
a. Mix the vehicle portion thoroughly until all solids are in
suspension using hand paddles, mechanical devices or
any powered stirrers available.
b. Sift the zinc dust pigment slowly into the mixed vehicle
while stirring continually. Use either hand paddles or a
small powered stirrer. Do NOT use a powered shaker
type paint agitator to disperse zinc dust in the vehicle.
TO 1-1-8
c. If it is required to mix batches smaller than the full unit
size, strictly maintain the proportions of vehicle and
pigment specified by the manufacturer.
NOTE
Proportions customarily are given by weight. If
mixing less than a full kit, it can be done by using
the volume of the vehicle and the weight of the
zinc pigment. Determine the fraction of the total
kit volume of the vehicle being used and multiply
the total weight of the zinc pigment in the kit by
this fraction, and weigh out that amount of zinc
pigment and mix with the volume of vehicle
being used. An accurate scale is required that will
weigh up to 2.6 kilograms to the nearest 0.1 of a
gram. A scale which meets these requirements is
the Triple Beam 760W Balance made by Paul N.
Gardner Co., Inc.; 316 NE First St.; Pompano
Beach FL 33060.
d. Stir until zinc pigment is thoroughly wetted and the
mixture is free of lumps. If small lumps persist, strain
the mixture through a 30 mesh wire screen or through
double or triple thickness of cheesecloth before using.
e. When application is by brush, stir moderately and often
to maintain a homogeneous mixture throughout application.
6.12.10.4
Thinning.
Use A-A-59282 (NSN-6810-00-127-4532) ethyl
alcohol only where no fire hazards exist. Within
enclosed areas and the missile silos use the
A-A-59106 ethylene glycol monoethyl ether.
Package viscosity is generally appropriate for brush application. Adjust the viscosity for spraying by thinning in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions using the following:
•
•
The proprietary thinner(s) called out by the manufacturer.
Either A-A-59282 ethyl alcohol, (NSN-6810-00-1274532) or A-A-59106 ethylene glycol monoethyl
ether.
6.12.10.5 Application. HVLP spray application is the
preferred method; however, the material can be applied by
brush. Airless spraying methods are not recommended, as the
higher pressure involved (1200-2200 PSI) can result in the
rapid packing of the zinc pigment at valves and orifices.
NOTE
• Materials can vary to some extent under the
controlling
MIL-P-38336/SAE
AMS-P38336. The specification requires inclusion of
mixing, thinning, application and curing instructions in the package. Where the manufacturer’s application instructions differ appreciably from these general supplementary
instructions, the manufacturer’s instructions
shall apply.
• It is difficult to impossible to measure viscosity of inorganic zinc primer using the standard
authorized measuring devices; therefore, it
will not be done. Use the proportions of
thinner recommended by the manufacturer,
adjusting further in small degrees to suit
special conditions using the painters judgment. Just prior to spraying, wet or damp
surfaces shall be wiped clear of moisture films
and, (where possible), then solvent wiped with
clean cloths wetted with A-A-59282 ethyl
alcohol (NSN 6810-00-127-4532) or TT-I-735
isopropyl alcohol. When using spraying technique, adjust material tank pressure as recommended by the manufacturer or, in absence of
this information, to 12-15 PSI, or less.
6.12.11 Primer Coating For Steel Surfaces, Specification MIL-PRF-26915.
This specification covers two
types of primer, each with two different classes for use on
steel surfaces. Both types and classes are compatible with
MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat material.
6.12.11.1 Characteristics. Traditionally, this has been
an organic zinc dust pigmented primer used for galvanic
protection of steel surfaces on ground support equipment.
This primer is furnished in two types and two classes: Type I,
non-water reducible, Type II (DEFT Corp., PN 44-GY-16,
CAGE 33461) water reducible, Class A maximum VOC
content of 340 g/L (2.5 lbs/gal), and Class B maximum VOC
content of 250 g/L (2.1 lbs/gal). This primer may come in
two, three, or four-component kits.
6.12.11.2 Use. The primer is used to provide galvanic
protection for steel ground support equipment surfaces. Use
two coats (4-6 mils dry film thickness) for severe exposure
such as on steel that is normally subjected to outside
exposure, condensing moisture, or corrosive atmospheres. If
color or finish texture is important, overcoat with one coat of
MIL-PRF-85285, Type I, II or III polyurethane.
6.12.11.3 Mixing. Mix in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. To prevent settling of the pigment, continuous agitation of the coating is necessary during application.
6.12.10.6 Drying Time. On dry surfaces at 75° F, it is
tack free in 30 min. and fully cured in 4 hours. On wet
surfaces at 75° F, it is tack free in 1 hour and fully cured in
6 hours.
6-17
TO 1-1-8
6.12.11.4 Thinning. Package viscosity is generally appropriate for brush application. Adjust viscosity of the primer
for spraying by thinning in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
6.12.11.5 Application.
Apply by spray (hot or cold
method) to solvent-cleaned, phosphoric acid treated or sandblasted steel. HVLP spray application is the preferred
method; however, the material can be applied by brush, but
only to small areas. Airless spray methods are not recommended, as the higher pressure involved (1200-2200 PSI) can
result in the rapid packing of the pigment at valves and
orifices.
NOTE
• Vendor’s materials can vary to some extent
under the controlling Specification MIL-PRF26915. The specification requires inclusion of
mixing, thinning, application, and curing instructions in the package.
• It is very difficult to measure viscosity of this
primer by means of the standard authorized
measuring devices; therefore, it will not be
done. Use the proportion of thinner given by
the manufacturer, adjusting further in small
degrees to suit special conditions in accordance with judgment of the painter.
6.12.11.6 Drying Time. At 75° F and 50% RH, it is tack
free in 1 hour and is fully cured in two hours. It can be
topcoated after 1 hour and up to 24 hours drying.
6.12.12 Paint, Aluminum, Heat Resisting (1200° F)
TT-P-28.
6.12.12.1 Characteristics. This is heat resistant aluminum paint capable of withstanding temperatures of 1200° F.
It is not intended to provide protection against corrosion as a
primary function. In high temperature areas on aircraft where
other paints will not survive, it will provide limited protection, primarily for steel components.
6.12.12.2 Uses.
Can be used on superheated steam
lines, boiler casings, boiler drums, superheated headers, other
similar high temperature applications, and areas on aircraft
where operating temperatures exceed 400° F.
6.12.12.3
turer.
Thinning.
6.12.13 Enamel, Alkyd, Gloss, Low VOC Content,
TT-E-489.
6.12.13.1 Characteristics.
This is a high-gloss, airdrying, alkyd enamel with excellent weather resistant properties. It is flexible and has satisfactory gloss and color
retention. It is lead and chromate free and VOC compliant
with a maximum of 420 g/L (3.5 lbs/gal).
6.12.13.2 Uses. It is used on properly pretreated and
primed exterior and interior metal and wood surfaces. Its
main use is for refinishing automobiles, construction equipment, machinery, gasoline pumps, trucks, buses, passenger
and freight railway cars, metal drums (exterior), metal signs,
metal railings and fences, and marine use (above water).
6.12.13.3 Thinning. Use enamel thinner conforming to
A-A-3007. Add one pint of Thinner per gallon of enamel or
the amount recommended by the manufacturer.
6.12.13.4 Application. Brush-apply as issued. Spray by
HVLP methods after thinning.
6.12.13.5 Drying Time. This enamel air dries tack-free
in two hours, hard in eight hours, and full cure in 48 hours. It
may be recoated after 24 hours. Times are listed for 75° F and
50% RH.
6.12.14 Enamel, Heat Resistant (204° C or 400° F),
A-A-3054.
6.12.14.1 Characteristics.
heat-resistant paint.
This is a one-component,
6.12.14.2 Uses. For coating metal surfaces subjected to
temperatures not higher than 400° F. Typical uses are steam
pipes, boiler fronts, automotive engine parts, and similar
applications.
6.12.14.3
turer.
Thinning.
As recommended by the manufac-
6.12.14.4 Application. Apply by brush method as issued or by HVLP spray methods after thinning as required.
As recommended by the manufac-
6.12.12.4 Mixing and Application.
Because the pigment settles out of suspension and cakes in the bottom of the
can, this coating requires thorough mixing on a mechanical
paint shaker before application. Apply by brush or by
spraying after thinning as recommended by the manufacturer.
6-18
6.12.12.5 Drying Time. When air drying at 75° F, it is
tack free in 1 hour, full hard in 3 hours, and fully cured in 24
hours. Baked at 400° F, it is fully cured in 1 hour.
6.12.14.5 Drying Time. At 75° F and 50% RH, this
enamel is tack free in two hours, and fully cured in 72 hours.
It can be recoated after air drying 24 hours.
6.12.15 Coating, Sprayable, Strippable, Protective,
MIL-PRF-6799.
TO 1-1-8
6.12.15.1 Characteristics.
This is a water emulsion,
protective, strippable, sprayable, multi-coat coating for application over metallic, painted, and plastic surfaces that comes
in one type with several classes.
Type
Type
Type
Type
II,
II,
II,
II,
Class
Class
Class
Class
1
5
6
7
Base coat (black)
Topcoat (white or olive drab)
Topcoat (white)
Topcoat brushable
6.12.15.2 Uses.
These materials are used to protect
equipment and aircraft during shipment and storage.
6.12.15.2.1 Type II, Class 1. This is a black material
intended for use as (1) a strippable, protective coating for
acrylic plastic bulk materials and assemblies containing
acrylic plastics when the protected item is shipped fully
covered or stored under cover, and (2) as a basecoat for Type
II, Class 5 and Class 6 materials.
Type II, Class 5
Type II, Class 6
Type II, Class 7
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
6.12.16 Resin Coating, Unpigmented, For Engine
Components and Metal Parts, MIL-PRF-3043.
6.12.16.1 Characteristics. This is a permanent thermosetting resin coating free from drying and non drying oils and
cellulose. The resin coating is baked on, and provides a
transparent green film on the surface.
6.12.16.2 Uses. The coating is used as a permanent
corrosion preventative, oil resistant coating for metallic
non-bearing surfaces of engine parts, airframe components,
magnesium parts, gun mounts, gear housings, and other
components. The material is specifically used on the interior
surfaces of droppable steel tanks and tubing of methylbromide or trifluorobromethane fire extinguishing systems.
6.12.15.2.2 Type II, Class 5. This is a white or olive
drab material intended to be used only as a topcoating for
Type II, Class 1 material. This combination protective system
serves as a sprayable, strippable, protective coating for
application on metallic, painted and plastic surfaces, such as
entire aircraft, missiles, rockets and transportation vehicles
during outdoor storage and overseas deck-loaded shipments.
This material should be applied to a dry film thickness of 3±1
mils.
6.12.16.3
turer.
6.12.15.2.3 Type II, Class 6. This is a white material
intended to be used only as a topcoating for Type II, Class 1
material. This combination protective system serves as a
sprayable, strippable, protective coating for applications on
metallic, painted and plastic surfaces, such as entire aircraft,
missiles, rockets, and transportation vehicles during outdoor
storage and overseas deck-loaded shipments. This material
should be applied to a dry film thickness of 6 ±1 mils.
6.12.16.5.1 Baking in oil. Air dry for 16 to 24 hours and
immerse in MIL-PRF-7808 hot lubricating oil for 15 minutes.
6.12.15.2.4 Type II, Class 7. This material is intended
as a brushable coating for patching or repairing damaged
Class 5 or Class 6 coatings.
6.12.17.1 Characteristics. This is a kit containing a
primer and a topcoat, each of which are two-component kits
of epoxy coatings. This coating is for protecting interior
surfaces of steel tanks used for transportation and storage of
fuels. It is lead and chromate free and has a maximum 340
g/L (2.8 lbs/gal) VOC content.
6.12.15.3 Thinning.
turer’s instructions.
Thin as required per the manufac-
6.12.15.4 Application. Apply by HVLP spray methods.
Class 5 material may be applied at 75 ±15° F and 50 ±10%
RH. Class 6 material may be applied within a temperature
range of 50° F to 115° F and 50 ±10% RH, but the pot life and
cure time will be much longer at the lower temperature and
much shorter at the higher temperature as compared to those
at 75° F.
6.12.15.5
Drying Time.
Type II, Class 1
Thinning.
6.12.16.4 Application.
temperature.
As recommended by the manufacApply by dip or spray at room
6.12.16.5 Drying Time. The coating air dries to handle
in 30 minutes at room temperature. Fully cure by baking in
oil or by oven baking.
6.12.16.5.2 Oven baking. Air dry for one hour followed by 30 minutes baking at 325° F.
6.12.17 Coating Kit, Epoxy, For Interior of Steel Fuel
Tanks, MIL-PRF-4556.
6.12.17.2 Uses. This coating is intended for protection
of sand blasted interior surfaces of mobile and stationary mild
steel tanks and auxiliary handling equipment used for the
storage and transportation of military fuels and oils.
6.12.17.3 Mixing. Thoroughly mix Component A, preferably using mechanical agitation, and then add one part
Component B to four parts by volume of Component A.
Air dry at 75° F and 50% RH:
3 hours
6.12.17.4 Thinning.
manufacturer.
Thin as recommended by the
6-19
TO 1-1-8
6.12.17.5 Application. Apply by HVLP spraying methods (hot or cold method) or as recommended by the manufacturer within the six hours at 75° F/24° C pot life of the
material.
6.12.17.6 Drying Time.
hard 18 hours.
Set-to-touch - 5 hours and dry
6.12.18 Coating, Corrosion Preventive, For Aircraft
Integral Tanks, MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725.
6.12.18.1 Characteristics. This is a polyurethane material available in two types each with two classes. It is fuel
resistant and is used to provide protection of aircraft fuel
tanks against corrosion from contaminants and water in fuels.
6-20
Type I
Type II
Class A
Class B
A one-part formulation polyurethane
coating.
A two-part formulation polyurethane
coating.
General use (does not comply to most
air pollution regulations, may be used
only where not prohibited).
Limited use (For areas requiring regulation of air pollution caused by emissions of certain solvents that produce
smog).
TO 1-1-8
6.12.18.2 Uses. This coating is intended for the protection of aircraft integral fuel tanks against corrosion in a
service temperature range of -65° F to +250° F.
6.12.18.3
Mixing.
• MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 is flammable and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory
tract. Eye and skin protection required. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering to determine proper respiratory and ventilation requirements.
• The coating material contains harmful solvents and free isocyanates. Inhalation of vapor
may cause irritation of the nose, throat, and
lungs, and may cause sensitization. Vapors or
liquid contact with the eyes or skin may cause
severe irritation.
• Safety and health procedures are mandatory
and no deviation will be permitted except by
written approval of the Office of Safety and/or
Bioenvironmental Engineer. It is the responsibility of the immediate supervisor to ensure
that all safety and health procedures are followed without deviation.
• Personnel applying the coating by spray or
brush or those required to reenter coated fuel
tanks before complete cure shall be protected
by wearing: full-face air supplied respirator
with air flowing before tank entry until exiting
the tank; white cotton coveralls; cotton booties
or cotton socks; rubber chemical resistant
gloves or surgical type gloves; and cotton head
covering.
• Place all material used to mop up spilled
coating or runs in coating into water immediately. A small container of water shall be
provided in the immediate area.
• Blowers, which are grounded and bonded to
the aircraft, shall be circulating air in the fuel
cells/tanks before and during entry of personnel to perform any operation such as cleaning.
Air shall flow so that vapor will be carried
away from the operator.
• MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 has a flash
point of 266° F open cup, therefore, can
present a fire hazard when heated or atomized.
Some materials used in this operation have
flash points as low as 20° F and will ignite if
exposed to a flame or spark.
• If MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 is
spilled in the repair area, evacuate the area and
call the Fire Department. Neutralize with
strong ammonia solution, then flush with
water.
NOTE
Do not mix more material than can be used in a
5-hour period.
Mix coating components within an approved ventilated paint
booth. If a booth is not available, personnel shall wear an
air-supplied respirator, and mixing shall be accomplished so
that vapors are exhausted to an area as approved by the
Bioenvironmental Engineer. Mix and blend the two components of the coating thoroughly for a minimum of 5 minutes.
Do not mix in contaminated containers. Stir the material with
• All clothing shall be washed after each use.
6-21
TO 1-1-8
a metal spatula. Keep empty containers and those containing
mixed and unmixed coating tightly closed when not in use.
6.12.18.4
Application.
The dry film thickness of this coating shall be
between 0.8 and 1.2 mils, see Table 5-2. Runs and
sags shall be mopped immediately to prevent
thick spots. Thicknesses over 1.2 mils result in
cracking, flaking and peeling of coating while
those less than 0.8 mils do not provide adequate
protection. Measure the wet film thickness with a
wet film gauge and control the wet film per the
manufacturer’s requirements.
After the tank surface is thoroughly dry and immediately
prior to application of the coating, gently clean the area to be
coated with lint-free cleaning cloth wet with MIL-C-38736/
A-A-59281 cleaner and wipe dry. Do not allow the cleaner to
air dry. Do not abrade the chemical conversion coating film.
Clean small areas starting from the top and farthest from the
access door and work down and out using clean lint-free
cloths/pads. The exception is, for large repair areas where
there must be alternately cleaning, sealing, and coating of an
area and then repeating in the next area while working toward
the access door. Use caution not to contaminate a previously
cleaned area, and reclean immediately if it occurs. Spray all
accessible areas when practical; areas that cannot be sprayed
shall be coated by brush application. Access doors and
removable parts shall be spray coated in a spray booth and
cured in an area with circulating fresh air. Personnel entering
the curing area shall follow all precautions stated in the
“warning” When spraying, apply a light double pass to cover
the surface. Take care to prevent runs and puddles; and if they
occur, remove them immediately.
6.12.18.4.1 Prior to starting application of MIL-C-27725/
SAE AMS-C-27725 and at each change of painters, spray or
brush a small strip of aluminum prepared in the same manner
as described above. Properly adjust the flow of material from
the spray nozzle to provide the proper coating thickness of
0.8 to 1.2 mils dry film.
6.12.18.4.2 Spray Application. Use a HVLP spray gun.
Use a pressure feed tank with 5 PSIG and an atomizing air
pressure of 35 PSIG. Pressure tanks shall be equipped with an
agitator to provide proper pigment suspension. Immediately
after use, the equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned with
MIL-T-81772, Type II.
6.12.18.4.3 Brush Coating. A fine camel hair or soft
hog bristle brush shall be used when applying this coating by
brush. The material shall be stirred with a metal spatula every
3-5 minutes.
6.12.18.5 Drying Time.
Curing MIL-C-27725/SAE
AMS-C-27725 coating will be tack free in 4 hours under
6-22
normal conditions (75° F and 50% humidity). Cure may be
accelerated after a minimum of 4 hours cure at 75° F by
adding heat up to 120° F. The state of cure can be tested by
rubbing a test spot with a gauze pad wet with MIL-T-81772,
Type II thinner. If bare metal is exposed after 50 double
strokes of the pad at moderate pressure, the coating is not
completely cured.
6.12.19 Coating Compound, Nonslip (For Walkways),
A-A-59166.
6.12.19.1 Characteristics. A nonslip compound formulated in a hand brushable consistency that is fuel and fluid
resistant. These coatings are available in several colors. This
material is compliant with the NESHAP VOC requirements
of 420 g/L (3.5lbs./gal).
Type I
Type II
This is a smooth coating without grit
formulated primarily for brush application.
This is a rough material formulated primarily for brush application containing
grit as an integral part of the coating.
6.12.19.2 Uses. A non-slip is used on aircraft exterior
walkway surfaces to protect personnel from falling while
walking on aircraft surfaces. May also be used on vehicles,
maintenance ramps, steps, ladders and similar areas.
Type I
Type II
Used along leading edges of aircraft that
fly less than 250 mph and on other
adjacent surfaces of aircraft where the
roughness of the Type II coating is
undesirable due to aerodynamic considerations.
Material used along trailing edges and
adjacent surfaces in cases where maximum non-slip qualities are essential
and aerodynamics are not affected.
6.12.19.3 Thinning.
If thinning is necessary, use the
solvent recommended by the manufacturer. Adjust the viscosity for spray application by thinning to 21 to 27 seconds in
a No. 2 Zahn Cup (16 to 21 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup).
6.12.19.4 Mixing and Application. Walkway coatings
are applied to primed surfaces, prior to application of final
topcoat of aircraft coating systems. The topcoat applied over
walkway coating shall be a single mist coat to reduce
distinctive difference in color while not causing loss of
non-slip features. Only the Type II (rough) coating shall be
used under the topcoat of aircraft coating system. Type II
TO 1-1-8
walkway coating need not be topcoated on interior walkways,
ramps, steps, and doorways in high traffic areas. Before
applying the non-slip coating, wipe primed surface with a
clean lint-free cloth with solvent per Table 3-2, if necessary.
Thoroughly mix the material, preferably with a mechanical
shaker. The coating will normally have the proper viscosity
for brush application. Application by brushing is recommended as the material is primarily formulated for this. Apply
quickly and avoid brushing previously coated areas that are
wet. Allow to dry at least 30 minutes but not more than 45
minutes between coats. Apply by spraying only when large
areas are involved. Apply the coating (Type I and II) to a dry
film thickness of 10 to 12 mils on aircraft exterior surfaces
which weights 15 to 20 ounces per square yard for a Type I
coating, and 20 to 25 ounces per square yard for a Type II
coating. A 30 to 40 mil thick coating is recommended for
non-aeronautical interior surfaces.
6.12.19.5 Drying Time. Type I and Type II coatings dry
tack free in 15 minutes, for re-coating in 30 minutes, through
in 6 hours, and to full hardness in 24 hours.
6.12.20 Coatings, Polyurethane, Rain Erosion Resistant For Exterior Aircraft and Missile Parts, MIL-C83231/SAE AMS-C-83231.
6.12.20.1 Characteristics. This material is available in
two types each with two classes. Type I is an electrically
nonconductive rain erosion resistant coating, and Type II is an
antistatic rain erosion resistant coating. Class A material is
not dependant on moisture or high relative humidity for
curing and Class B is dependent on them. Primer and topcoat
components are furnished together as a kit. Specific aircraft
directives specify the area to be coated and the materials to be
used.
6.12.20.2 Uses.
Classes A and B, Types I and II
coatings are intended for protection of exterior laminated
plastic parts of high-speed aircraft and missiles from rain
erosion while in flight. Classes A and B, Type II coatings also
discharge and dissipate static electricity, to prevent radio and
radar interference.
6.12.20.4 Application. Apply per TO 1-1-24 and/or as
recommended by the manufacturer.
6.12.20.5 Drying Times.
Drying times are per TO
1-1-24 and/or as recommended by the manufacturer.
6.12.21 Coating System, Polyurethane, NonYellowing White, Rain Erosion Resistant, Thermally
Reflective, MIL-C-83445/SAE AMS-C-83445.
6.12.21.1 Characteristics . This material is one type of
thermally reflective, non-yellowing, white rain erosion resistant polyurethane coating for glass fabric reinforced plastic
laminated and other plastic parts used as exterior surfaces of
aircraft and missiles.
6.12.21.2 Uses.
This coating is intended to protect
exterior laminated plastic parts of high speed aircraft and
missiles from rain erosion and thermal energy while in flight.
This coating cannot be used on radomes and other plastic
parts that have a requirement for protection against static
electrical charges, because it is not electrically conductive.
6.12.21.3 Thinning. Thin as recommended by manufacturer and/or TO 1-1-24.
6.12.21.4 Application. Apply as recommended by the
manufacturer and/or TO 1-1-24.
6.12.21.5 Drying Times. Drying times are as recommended by the manufacturer and/or TO 1-1-24.
6.12.22 Leading Edge Polyurethane Rain Erosion
Resistant Tape.
6.12.22.1 Description and Use. This tape is used to
provide rain erosion protection for the wing, vertical and
horizontal stabilizer, and any other leading edges aft of the
engine intakes.
6.12.22.2
Table 6-2.
Material and tools to be used are listed below in
6.12.20.3 Thinning. Thin as recommended by manufacturer and/or TO 1-1-24.
6-23
TO 1-1-8
6.12.22.3
Installation.
c. Mask using above marks as guides.
• The temperature during application shall be at
least 60° F. This may be accomplished with a
ground heater for small areas.
Final sanding with anything coarser than A-A58054 Type I, Grade A abrasive (very fine 240320 grit) will adversely affect bond of tape.
• Materials to make repairs or remove the tape
must be available in case of errors in application.
d. Abrade the masked off area to a smooth surface using
A-A-58054 Type I Grade B followed by Grade A
abrasive mat.
• Use only the tapes specified in Table 6-2 for
application on aircraft exterior surfaces.
e. Remove residue with cheesecloth moistened with TT-I735 isopropyl alcohol.
• Adhesion promoters in Table 6-2 can not be
substituted. If not available, do not apply tape.
• Pre-scored liner material is very critical for
proper installation. Without the slit liner, application is very difficult.
Do not use rented or polyester rags to apply
TT-I-735 alcohol as this may cause contamination of the surface.
• Do not apply tape to bare metal. Surfaces must
at least be primed before film is applied. Allow
primer to cure for 24 hours minimum before
tape application.
a. Feather, sand, prime, and paint the leading edge as
required. Feathering chipped/peeled areas is vital for a
quality installation. Recommend material be applied to
aircraft in conjunction with touch-up painting.
b. Using the template fabricated per Table 6-2, align its
centerline with the centerline of the leading edge. Mark
the location of the top and bottom of the tape every two
feet of the length on the leading edge component
receiving tape.
f. Fill all seams and fastener heads with MIL-PRF-81733,
Type I, Class 2, Grade A sealant to eliminate any
possible air pockets behind the film, trowel smooth/flush
with razor blade or other suitable tool, and allow to cure
before proceeding.
g. Use CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2 cheesecloth to apply
thin, but thorough coat of adhesion promoter per Table
6-2 to all application areas, including sealant, in the
masked off area used to smooth seams and fastener
heads.
h. Remove masking tape.
NOTE
Varying widths of tape can be used depending of
the amount on leading edge to be covered.
Table 6-2.
Leading Edge Tape Materials/Tools
Material
Tape-width and color to match erosion
area to be covered
Clear Tape
NSN 9330-01-338-9994
Adhesion Promoter
PN 86A (NSN 8040-01-448-4791,
Wipes 7’ x 7’) or (NSN 8040-01450-9187, Pint)
PN 70 0701-8275-6 (NSN 6850-01326-1607, Pint)
Edge Sealer
PN Epoweld 8173A Double bubble
NSN 8040-00-092-2816
6-24
Change 3
Source
Use
3M Industrial Specialties Division
Cage Code No. 52152
AF Supply
Leading edge rain erosion protection
3M Company
Promote tape adhesion
3M Company AF Supply
Seal tape edges and fill fastener head
and other voids
Leading edge rain erosion protection
TO 1-1-8
Table 6-2.
Leading Edge Tape Materials/Tools - Continued
Material
Tape, masking
MIL-T-21595/SAE AMS-T-21595,
Type I
Abrasive Mat
A-A-58054, Type I, Class A or B
Cheesecloth
CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2
Xacto knife or razor blade
Isopropyl alcohol
TT-I-735A
Pin or 22 gauge or finer syringe needle
Scraper, plastic
Template
Paper wipers
Adhesive remover
PN 8908, NSN 8040-01-318-3668
PN 35975, NSN 8040-01-545-7323, 6
Pints
PN 35976, NSN 8040-01-545-9129,
Gallon
Source
Use
AF Supply
Masking of application area
AF Supply
Smoothing and scuff sanding of area
as surface preparation
Cleaning of area and smoothing of
leading edge tape
Trimming tape
Cleaning
AF Supply
Commercial
AF Supply
AF Supply
Local Manufacture
Local manufacture from heavy paper
other suitable material (width: same
as tape. Length: same as leading
edge. Mark center-line for alignment
with leading edge center-line.)
3M Company
3M Company
i. Let adhesion promoter dry for 20 minutes.
j. Cut a length of tape to fit leading edge plus four inches.
Remove about three inches of the edge.
k. With about two inches of the excess against the inboard
edge of the component, align the film with the top
template line and rub down with a tightly folded piece of
CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2 cheesecloth.
Air removal
Tape removal
Mark area which leading edge tape
will be applied.
Cleaning
Adhesive removal
a. Scuff one inch on either side of all seams and edges
where possible.
b. Wipe area with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol and allow to
dry.
c. Apply heavy coat of edge sealer per Table 6-2 into
seams and trowel flush with a razor blade.
d. Apply edge sealer to all vertical edges exposed to air
stream with an acid brush.
e. Allow edged sealer to cure 24 hours before painting.
Ensure air bubbles do not build under film.
l. Remove another three inches of the top liner section and
rub film to surface.
m. Repeat process above removing the next liner section
and continue until film is completely bonded.
n. Inspect work for air bubbles. Pierce bubbles with a
needle or pin, and press air out before removing tool.
o. Trim excess at the beginning and end of chipstrip where
adhesion promoter was not applied.
6.12.22.4
follows.
Application of Edge Sealer.
6.12.22.5
lows.
Repair of damaged area.
Proceed as fol-
a. Measure two inches either side of damage and apply
masking tape along this line.
b. Trim loose film from damaged area. Cut new film to fit
area to be repaired.
c. Scuff entire area with an A-A-58054, Type I Grade A
nylon abrasive mat.
d. Wipe area thoroughly with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol.
Proceed as
Change 3
6-25
TO 1-1-8
e. Apply adhesive promoter per Table 6-2 to entire area.
Allow to dry for 20 minutes.
f. Apply film and rub thoroughly.
NOTE
Ensure air bubbles do not build under film.
g. Inspect repair for air bubbles. Try pressing air out,
allowing proper bonding. If not successful, insert needle
or pin into the air bubble, and press out air before
removing pin/needle.
6.12.22.6 Tape Removal.
following methods:
6.12.22.6.1
Remove tape by either of the
Removal Disc.
a. Using a pneumatic drill and 3M Adhesive Removal Disc
(NSN 3460-01-447-8021) remove both tape and adhesive from damaged area.
b. Trim edges as required.
c. Wipe work area with CCC-C-440 Type I, Class 2
cheesecloth moistened with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol,
turning cheesecloth frequently. Continue until cloth no
longer shows residue.
c. Mask work area.
d. Apply adhesive remover per manufacturer’s instructions.
e. Allow to dwell long enough to soften adhesive.
f. Remove old adhesive with plastic scraper. Repeat as
necessary.
g. Using an A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A abrasive mat
soaked with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol, scrub area to
remove all adhesive.
h. Wipe work area with CCC-C-440 Type I, Class 2
cheesecloth moistened with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol,
turning cheesecloth frequently. Continue until cloth no
longer shows residue.
6.12.22.7
Painting Instructions.
Proceed as follows.
a. Scuff tape surface with A-A-58054, Type I, Grade B
nylon abrasive mat.
b. Saturate a clean lint free, cotton rag with ASTM D 329
acetone, and lightly wipe the tape surface.
c. Wipe surface dry with a clean lint free, cotton cloth
before the acetone evaporates.
Scraping and solvent removal.
d. Paint tape surface with MIL-PRF-85285, Type I, color
to match area, per Chapter 3.
a. Remove the tape by peeling it off. For repairs, remove
tape 1/2 inch on either side of damage.
e. Air dry paint a minimum of 72 hours at 75° F before
flying the aircraft.
6.12.22.6.2
b. Remove residual edge sealer by chipping with a plastic
scraper.
6-26
Change 3
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 7
APPLICATION AND REMOVAL OF DECALS AND SILK SCREENING
7.1
DECALS - GENERAL.
NOTE
National Stock Numbers (NSN’s) for specific
decals and related materials are to be obtained
from Federal Supply Classes (FSC’s) 7690, 9330,
9905, and others as found in Illustrated Parts
Breakdowns (IPBs or -4 manuals) for specific
aircraft. Also, see the current FED Log and the
D043 System to convert specification and part
numbers to NSNs. See Chapter 8 for requisitioning procedures and other related decal
information.
Decals are specially prepared plastic film containing designs,
words, numerals or colored marking stripes, which may be
applied or attached to Air Force equipment as a method of
marking or identification. Decals can be used in lieu of paint
for internal and external markings and insignia as authorized
in Chapter 8. Decals shall conform to A-A-59485 or commercial equivalent and are available in solid or perforated
film. Decals with perforations shall only be applied over fully
painted surfaces. For application to pressurized areas on
aircraft exteriors, prepared (factory) perforated film shall be
used to prevent blistering due to leaking rivets, seams, etc.
Non-perforated, premasked decals, may be applied directly to
the primer prior to applying the topcoat. Decals applied prior
to the topcoat must be premasked with low tack translucent
application/mask tape, leaving a 1/16 inch uncovered lip
around the decal edge. This lip will allow the topcoat paint to
seal the edge of the decal, eliminating the need for edge
sealer. The mask is removed after the topcoat paint is allowed
to cure. Decals are not authorized on unpainted surfaces.
7.1.1
Surface Preparation.
a. Remove exceptionally oily or greasy contaminants using wipe solvents listed in Table 3-2.
b. In areas where the decal will be applied, buff very
lightly with very fine aluminum oxide abrasive mat per
A-A-58054, Type I Grade A.
c. Clean the entire application surface thoroughly with
alkaline cleaner MIL-PRF-87937, or MIL-PRF-85570,
in accordance with TO 1-1-691 on all old painted
surfaces. This is not required on newly painted surfaces.
d. Perform final cleaning of the application area with a lint
free cotton cloth wet with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol.
Wipe the area dry.
e. Optional use of a gloss MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane
clear-coat applied to the area to be covered by aircraft
decals for adhesion purposes on camouflage aircraft is
authorized.
7.1.2 Application Procedures For Decals and Colored Marking Stripes. Application of decals authorized
by Chapter 8 or system specific equipment or aircraft TO’s is
accomplished per the basic methods detailed below. These
methods refer generally to simple shapes of the approximate
sizes noted. Application of intricately cut shapes require the
use of detailed application instruction supplied with the decal.
7.2
SMALL DECALS AND MARKING STRIPES.
7.2.1 Decals Up To 12 inches x 2 inches. Remove
entire backing from adhesive, align decal and press on one
edge to surface with the finger. Hold the remainder of film
taut and slightly away from surface until pressed down with
plastic squeegee using firm, overlapping strokes (See Figure
7-1).
Do not apply decals when the temperature is
below 45° F as early failure or peeling will occur.
NOTE
If application of decals is required at temperatures of 45 to 60° F, the pressure sensitive
adhesive must be activated per instructions supplied by the manufacturer.
The integrity of a decal installation is largely dependent upon
proper preparation of the surface to which the decal is
applied. Therefore, the following must be accomplished prior
to application of decals to aircraft surfaces.
Figure 7-1.
Applying Small Decal.
7.2.2 Film For Striping. Pull off backing for approximately 12 inches, exposing the adhesive. Press-end in position and apply the striping as the backing is removed. Press
firmly to surface with a plastic squeegee. Be sure all edges are
firmly adhered (See Figure 7-2).
7-1
TO 1-1-8
Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-5.
Applying Large Emblems (Step 3)
Figure 7-6.
Applying Large Emblems (Step 4)
Applying Marking Stripe
Applying Large Emblems (Step 1)
7.3 LARGE EMBLEMS AND LETTERS USING HINGE
APPLICATION METHOD.
Apply these decals using a “Hinge” method as outlined
below.
a. Tape decal into position with small pieces of masking
tape (See Figure 7-3) as step 1.
b. Apply 1 inch or 2 inches wide tape over one edge to
serve as a hinge. Whenever possible, hinge narrow edge.
(See Figure 7-4). If the surface requires that the longer
edge be hinged, it may be necessary to use the carrier
method. Bending the decal back at the hinge, peel the
liner off of the decal. For large decals, it may be more
convenient to peel the liner back a few inches at a time
as the application progresses. (See Figure 7-5.) - Steps 2
and 3.
Figure 7-4.
7-2
Applying Large Emblems (Step 2)
c. Hinge back and squeegee or roll the emblem to surface
with firm, overlapping strokes. Hold sheeting away from
TO 1-1-8
the surface with one hand and allow adhesive to touch
only as pressure is applied. Be sure the edges are firmly
adhered. (See Figure 7-6.) - Step 4.
7.4
DECALS APPLIED USING APPLICATION TAPE.
This method is particularly useful with large or intricately
shaped emblems or for hot weather applications. Steps 1, 2,
and 3 under Figure 7-7, Figure 7-8, and Figure 7-9 are not
necessary when decals are supplied premasked (cut to same
shape as decal with application tape).
a. Place a piece of application tape with the adhesive side
up on a flat, rigid surface. (See Figure 7-7.)
Figure 7-9.
Use of Application Tape (Step 3)
Figure 7-10.
Use of Application Tape (Step 4)
b. Align emblem or letter with film side down and drop
onto the adhesive. (See Figure 7-8.)
c. Starting in the middle of the decal, squeegee to application tape with firm strokes of the plastic squeegee.
(See Figure 7-9.)
d. Tape into position and follow application steps under
hinge method.
e. Remove tape by pulling directly back upon itself at
180°. Re-squeegee decal, especially the edges. (See
Figure 7-10.)
7.5
EDGE SEALING.
Seal all edges of decals applied over the topcoat on the
exterior of the aircraft. Decals that have been applied premasked over primer coat and subsequently top coated do not
require edge sealing.
NOTE
Figure 7-7.
Use of Application Tape (Step 1)
Seal decal edges when required with 3M Co.
(Cage Code 34360) Edge Sealer, PN 4150 under
NSN 8030-00- 195-7660, or PN 3950 under NSN
8030-00-936-9940. Use of other edge sealers will
cause early failure of 4000 series decal ink and
A-A-59485 polyester film decals.
a. Use the felt wick applicator attached to screw top can or
use small narrow striping brush.
b. Apply sufficient sealer to effect a feather edging along
the entire decal edge. (See Figure 7-11).
Figure 7-8.
Use of Application Tape (Step 2)
7-3
TO 1-1-8
with adequate ventilation. Avoid prolonged or
repeated contact with skin. Avoid swallowing.
• Eye protection must always be used when
operating these tools. Power tools can cause
flying particles which can cause injury.
Figure 7-11.
7.6
Edge Sealing
APPLICATION OF PREMASKED DECALS.
Decals that have application tape (cut to the same shape as the
decal) applied to the film side are supplied specifically for
application on the primer coat (MIL-PRF-23377, MIL-PRF85582, or TT-P-2760 only).
a. Tape the decal into position and follow application steps
under “hinge method”. (Paragraph 7.3.)
b. After the paint topcoat has cured, remove the masking in
the same manner shown in Figure 7-10 except do not
re-squeegee.
7.7
DECAL REMOVAL.
Remove perforated decals, listed in Chapter 2, conforming to
A-A-59845, Type I, with paint remover. The film is a highly
solvent resistant polyester, so the paint remover must penetrate through the perforations to soften the adhesive. It may
be necessary to use repeated applications of remover to
remove the film from adhesive. Another application of
remover on the adhesive may then be required. Scrape off the
bulk of the softened adhesive with a non-metallic scraper.
Wipe off any remaining adhesive residue with thinner conforming to MIL-T-81772 on a cotton cloth. Non-perforated
A-A-59845 type film can only be removed by applying steam
or dry heat to the decal and physically removing film. Wipe
off any remaining adhesive with thinner conforming to
MIL-T-81772 on a cotton cloth.
7.7.1 Mechanical Removal. Use a pneumatic drill and
one of the Adhesive Removal Disc Systems to remove both
decal material and adhesive from the area. Non-perforated
decals can only be removed by mechanical methods listed
below or by applying steam or dry heat to the decal and
physically removing the film. Wipe off any remaining adhesive residue with thinner conforming to MIL-T-81772 on a
cotton cloth until cloth no longer shows residue.
• MIL-T-81772 thinner is flammable and toxic.
Keep away from heat and open flame. Keep
container closed when not in use. Use only
System
Part No./NSN
Description
Source of Supply
MBX Vinyl Zapper
Tool and Eraser
USSP-01-Blue
MBX Vinyl Zapper
Removal Tool
(Pneumatic)
Aerosafe Products, Inc
P.O. Box 4755
Marietta, GA 30061
888-666–7885/
770-590-8863
Cage Code:
1LPF0
USZU-010
3460-01-447-8021
Vinyl Decal Eraser
Wheel, Buffing
3M Aircraft
Adhesive and Decal
Removal Disk
7-4
Change 1
3M Center
Saint Paul, MN
55144-1000
Cage Code:
52152
TO 1-1-8
7.8 APPLICATION OF MARKINGS WITH SILKSCREEN.
This method can be used for painting internal and external
markings and insignias.
7.8.1
Materials and Equipment for Silkscreening.
Equipment:
Locally fabricated or commercially procured silkscreens are both authorized. Screen should be
polyester monofilament (220-280 mesh).
Silkscreen, squeegee, commercially procured.
Materials:
Colored marking paint, MIL-PRF-81352, Type I Acrylic, Type II - Alkyd, Type III - Polyurethane.
Thinner, MIL-T-81772, Type I and III.
Topcoat, MIL-PRF-81352, Type I, II, or III, clear.
7.9
SURFACE PREPARATION.
Prior to silk-screening, wipe area being marked with one of
the ketones or non-terpene solvent blends in Table 3-2.
Freshly painted surfaces require no cleaning.
7.9.1 Application. Mount the silkscreen securely on the
aircraft or equipment being marked.
MIL-PRF-81352 Types I, II, or III are flammable
and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required. Good general ventilation is normally adequate.
NOTE
• The silkscreen paint being used may be either
acrylic, alkyd, or polyurethane, unless otherwise specified in the system specific technical
order.
• If the silkscreened marking requires a clear
topcoat, ensure it is compatible with the silkscreen and the base paint materials.
a. Place just enough paint on the top of the silkscreen, just
above the design to completely cover the design when
drawn. Using a square edge squeegee, draw the paint
across the silkscreen design using firm constant pressure. When complete, remove the screen from equipment.
b. Clean screen, squeegee and other equipment using
applicable thinner.
7.9.2 Topcoat Application. Silkscreened markings applied over a basecoat of MIL-PRF-85285, Type I, polyurethane paint may also have a topcoat of clear MIL-PRF-85285
polyurethane, applied using an air spray gun, to improve the
abrasion resistance of the silkscreen design. To avoid blurring
of the silkscreen ink, apply a light coat of the clear polyurethane initially. Follow with heavier coats and allow to cure
dust- free.
7.10 APPLICATION OF MARKINGS USING STENCILS.
This method can be used for painting internal and external
markings and insignias. The use of locally fabricated or
commercially procured stencils are authorized. Use of stencils cut from a vinyl material on a computerized stencil
machine are preferable.
7.10.1 Surface Preparation. Prior to stenciling, wipe
area to be stenciled with one of the ketones or non-terpene
solvent blends in Table 3-2. Freshly painted surfaces require
no cleaning.
7.10.2 Mounting Stencil.
Stencil may be taped into
position using MIL-T-21595/SAE AMS-T-21595, Type 2,
Masking Tape or alternatively use 3M Co. (Cage Code
34360) Repositionable Spray Adhesive 75, PN 3M-75. This
adhesive will securely hold the stencil but will not leave any
residue when removed. The adhesive is sprayed on the back
of the stencil prior to mounting and will remain tacky enough
to be reused several times. For the vinyl stencil mask material
cut on the computerized Stencil machine, peel the protective
backing off the self adhesive side, mount on the surface being
marked, remove the cut out sections, and make sure all edges
are adhering to the surface. This stencil mask material is
easily peeled off the surface after stenciling and leaves no
residue.
7.10.3 Painting of Stencils. Stencils shall be applied by
using spray, brush or roller application methods. Use the
same type of paint as the topcoat.
Change 1
7-5/(7-6 blank)
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 8
EXTERIOR FINISHES, INSIGNIA AND MARKINGS,
APPLICABLE TO USAF AIRCRAFT
8.1
GENERAL.
8.1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to standardize the painting and marking and exterior configuration
of all Air Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard
aircraft. This chapter describes Air Force policy on the
painting, marking, and exterior configuration of aircraft. Also
described in this chapter are common internal markings and
standardized international markings. In the event of a technical conflict between this chapter and the weapon system
specific manuals shall take precedence. Conflicts concerning
safety, health or environmental issues shall be resolved
locally and through the MAJCOM headquarters. Only the
types of finishes and insignia described in this chapter shall
be applied to USAF aircraft. Refer to AFI 21-105 with
MAJCOM supplements, weapon system manuals and
weapon system drawings for specific paint schemes and
marking applications.
8.1.2 Responsibilities. 542 SEVSG/GBZAB is responsible for keeping this chapter current. HQ USAF/A4 is
responsible for coordinating Air Force painting and marking
policy with the various international organizations and is the
focal point for all Air Force painting and marking issues. The
MAJCOM logistics and maintenance function is responsible
for implementing the policy as described by USAF/A4.
System Program Directors (SPD) are responsible for maintaining accurate technical data depicting approved paint
schemes and markings for their assigned aircraft. SPDs shall
be responsible for assuring compliance with AFI 21-105 and
Air Force policy promulgated by USAF/A4.
8.1.3 Maintenance and Application. The MAJCOMs
and using organizations are responsible for the application
and maintenance of coatings and markings for all assigned
aircraft listed in TO 00-25-4. AFMC shall be responsible for
the overcoating or strip and repaint of aircraft listed in TO
00-25-4.
8.1.4 Major Command Instructions. Each major command shall prepare a supplement for AFI 21-105 pertaining to
painting and marking of aircraft. The supplement will be
limited to distinguishing insignia, markings and finishes as
authorized in this chapter and other Air Force directives.
8.1.6 Paint Scheme and Marking Approval Process. All changes to approved schemes and markings will
be submitted to the MAJCOM Aircraft Structural Manager/
Corrosion Manager. The ASM/CM will coordinate the
changes within the command structure and ensure survivability analysis is completed as necessary. The ASM/CM will
work with the SPD to ensure the applicable technical documents are changed and develop a method to implement the
changes. A copy of the approved change package will be
forwarded to HQ USAF/A4. USAF/A4 will acknowledge
receipt of the package and will retain the authority to require
changes to the package. Exceptions are as follows:
8.1.7 89th AW, 201AS, and the 1st Helicopter
Squadron. Deviations from standard paint schemes and
markings are authorized and shall be approved by HQ
USAF/A4.
8.1.8 U.S. Air Force Aerial Demonstration Squadron
“The Thunderbirds”. Paint schemes and markings shall be
approved by HQ USAF/A4.
8.1.9 76TH Airlift Squadron.
Aircraft assigned are
authorized radio call numbers on each side of the vertical
stabilizer, American flag and United States of America
markings with no other external USAF markings authorized
(i.e. USAF, stars and bars, organizational markings, fuel
grade markings under pilot’s window) Painting and marking
of these aircraft will be as specified by USAFE/CC. Information copies of all approved paint schemes and markings
will be forwarded to HQ USAF/A4.
8.1.10 Low Observable Aircraft. HQ ACC is responsible for developing paint schemes and markings for LO
aircraft.
8.1.11 Aircraft Received From Other Services. When
types and models of aircraft not previously in the Air Force
inventory are acquired from other military departments the
MAJCOM and SPD will develop paint schemes and markings
patterns for the aircraft. The SPD will be responsible for
developing special purpose markings for servicing and personnel safety.
8.1.5 Authorized Deviations. All requests for deviations from the standard exterior paint and marking configuration in this TO will be sent to HQ USAF/A4. HQ USAF/A4
will coordinate with HQ USAF/XO and maintain copies of
drawings and photographs.
Change 3
8-1
TO 1-1-8
8.1.12 Service Tests. Approved service test programs
will be implemented by coordinated effort, monitored by the
appropriate engineering function, SPD, AFRL, and the requesting MAJCOM.
8.1.13 Decals. Decals are special prepared film containing design, words, letters, or numerals and are intended to be
permanently affixed to the aircraft. Decals may be used in lieu
of paint for all external markings and insignia where the
contact surfaces are of sufficient smoothness to permit good
adhesion. Decals shall meet A-A-59484 or commercial
equivalent.
8.1.14 Applicable References.
The application of
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) code numbers
cited in TO 42B1-1-15 shall supplement the applicable
service points prescribed in this technical order. The codes
will be applied immediately adjacent to the symbol as
considered most practical. NATO code numbers may be
omitted when not reflected in TO 42B1-1-15 or may be
omitted on training type aircraft and other aircraft not subject
to being serviced at overseas location. Additional instructions
and directives applicable or allied to the application and
maintenance of the finishes and markings of aircraft are
contained in the following:
CENTO STANAG #3230
NATO STANAG #3109
NATO STANAG #3230
Emergency Marking on
Aircraft.
Servicing and Ground Handling Codes.
Emergency Marking on
Aircraft.
8.2 STANDARD EXTERIOR FINISHES MARKINGS
AND INSIGNIA FOR USAF AIRCRAFT.
Standard finishes are applied as either glossy or camouflage
topcoats. All topcoats, painted markings and painted insignia
will be applied using high-solid polyurethane, MIL-PRF85285.
8.2.1 Metal Exterior Finishes. Metal exterior finishes
other than titanium and CRES require surface protection from
corrosive elements and therefore will be painted.
8.2.2 Titanium and Corrosion Resistant Steel. These
materials usually make up a small portion of the exterior
surface. Titanium and CRES will be painted to match the rest
of the exterior of the aircraft providing temperatures permit.
8.2.3 Treatment of Metal Exteriors.
Treatment of
metal exteriors and corrosion control are specified in TO
1-1-691, and weapon system specific manuals.
8.2.4 Policy Guidance. It is a general policy that all Air
Force aircraft will be painted equally as a prime means of
8-2
corrosion protection and prevention, appearance and survivability. Painting for professional appearance is an integral
part of a well-managed corrosion control program (AFI
21-105). The requirement to paint must be tempered with
good judgment. Mission requirements, environmental concerns and resources must be considered prior to painting.
Aircraft will be painted in accordance with a service life
program. A coordinated paint/depaint program will be established and kept current for each weapon system. Where
possible a scoring system should be used to determine
painting requirements. The scoring system should account for
paint condition, local corrosion severity index (refer to TO
1-1-691) and calendar time. The MAJCOM and SPD will
determine when an aircraft is to be stripped and repainted.
Maintenance painting will be used to enhance and preserve
coating systems.
8.2.4.1
In determining the requirements for sectional
overcoating, total overcoating, or strip and repaint, the
following general technical criteria should be considered in
the development of the weapon system paint plan.
a. Sectional or total overcoat if the paint is oxidized,
discolored, stained, chipped, scratched, or peeled from
the primer and the primer remains adhered to the aircraft
surface. If the condition is extensive consider a total
overcoat.
b. Strip and repaint if the following defects or combination
of defects exists; areas which have been overcoated
(primer plus topcoat) at least three times, primer is not
adhering to the substrate, or the paint system is peeled to
the substrate.
8.2.4.2 When applying the above criteria to determine
painting requirements and a combination of defects for strip
and overcoating exists, the following general economic
guidelines should be considered in the development of the
weapon system paint plan.
a. When determining sectional or total overcoat and a
combination of defects exist, overcoating may be accomplished if the time or manhour requirements for
surface preparation (mask, sand or clean) do not exceed
70% of the time or man-hours for a complete strip/
repaint.
b. Sectional stripping may be required as determined by
deteriorated areas, on aircraft designated for complete
overcoat. Complete overcoating may be accomplished if
the combined time or man-hours for sectional stripping
and surface preparation for overcoat do not exceed 70%
of the time or man-hours required for complete strip/
repaint.
c. Complete strip/repaint should be accomplished in lieu of
overcoating whenever the time or man-hours for masking, sanding and cleaning for the total or sectional
overcoating exceed 70% of those to accomplish strip/
repaint.
TO 1-1-8
8.2.4.3 In the absence of a tailored weapon system paint
plan the above criteria will apply to all aircraft.
8.2.5 Camouflage. Camouflage is used for the purpose
of deception, to conceal material from undesired observation,
or to confuse and mislead observers as to the identity and
number of assets available. Camouflage may be either pattern
or non-pattern. Pattern camouflaging is based on optical
principals that dictate certain non-reflective colors, color
configurations and color portions. Arbitrary application of
markings and color schemes other that those approved will
defeat the purpose of the camouflage and is not authorized.
8.2.6 Special Purpose Exterior Solar Resistant Finishes. For the purpose of this manual, solar resistant finish
is defined as a white cap painted on the top surface of the
aircraft to reduce interior temperature. The solar resistant
finish is only authorized on aircraft used primarily as troop
carriers or those that carry heat sensitive equipment. In either
case the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 21-105 or equivalent
MAJCOM instruction will authorize the application of a solar
resistant finish.
8.2.7 Paint Facility/Finish Identification Block. (See
Figure B-4) All aircraft receiving a new paint finish will have
a contrasting color or black (color 37038) block of approximately 2 1/2 inches to 4 inches applied to the right side
fuselage on the underside even with the leading edge of the
horizontal stabilizer or wing by the activity that applied the
paint. Stencils or decals may be used for the paint block. The
block will contain:
•
•
•
•
The name of the activity, plus the Cage code.
Date of completion (DD, MMM, YY)
Identification by specification of all coatings used.
For non-standard or unique coatings, such as Advance Performance Coating (APC)/Extended Life
Topcoat (ELT), add manufacture product code.
NOTE
All full scuff-sanded and overcoated aircraft require an additional paint identification block for
each coating system applied (in addition to the
original paint identification block). It shall contain the same information as required in Paragraph 8.2.7 and will be placed adjacent to the
original paint identification block.
insignia will vary depending on the paint system being
applied and the MAJCOM to which the aircraft is assigned.
Standard Markings are as listed in Table 8-1. The above
standard insignia and markings will not be altered in location,
dimension, or configuration to accommodate any other insignia or marking.
8.3.1.1 National Star Insignia. The National Star will
be installed on all aircraft. Specific instructions for installing
the National Star and approximate dimensions are shown in
Figure B-1, and in Paragraph 8.3.1.3.
8.3.1.2 The National Star Insignia on Aircraft Fuselage. The star insignia will normally be applied to the
aircraft fuselage midway between the wing trailing edge and
the leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer.
8.3.1.3 The National Star Insignia on Aircraft
Wings. The star will be applied to the upper surface of the
left wing and the lower surface of the right wing. (See Figure
B-2)
8.3.1.4 The National Star Insignia on Helicopters.
The star shall be applied on the fuselage. The insignia shall be
located so that it is visible from each side, above and below.
Because of helicopter design configuration the insignia shall
be located so as to provide maximum identification. Such
locations shall be standardized on like MDS helicopters.
8.3.2 “USAF” Marking. The USAF marking shall be
applied to the lower surface of the left wing and upper surface
of the right wing. The height and location of the USAF will
correspond with the National Star insignia. The letters shall
be towards the leading edge of the wing.
8.3.3 American Flag Marking.
The display of the
American Flag on aircraft exteriors is intended for specific
uses, which have national significance or U.S. diplomatic
connotations. The use of the flag will be restricted and
approved only by HQ USAF/A4. Routine or occasional
overseas flight of aircraft, assignment of aircraft to foreign
soil, or intra-theater travel of overseas based aircraft are not
sufficient reasons for use of the American Flag marking. The
National Star insignia and USAF markings painted upon
aircraft exteriors will adequately identify USAF aircraft.
Table 8-2 lists all aircraft authorized the American Flag
marking.
8.3 MARKINGS AND INSIGNIA FOR USAF AIRCRAFT.
8.3.1 General. The markings and insignia contained in
the manual will be applied to all USAF aircraft. Markings and
Change 3
8-3
TO 1-1-8
Table 8-1.
Standard Markings
Item
General Location
National Star Insignia
“USAF” Marking
“U.S. AIR FORCE” Marking
Serial Number
Aircraft Radio Call Number
American Flag
Aircraft
Aircraft
Aircraft
Aircraft
Aircraft
Aircraft
Table 8-2.
Wing and Fuselage
Wings
Fuselage
Fuselage
Vertical Fin
Vertical Fin
Aircraft Authorized American Flag Markings
Air Attache
MAAG
USAF Mission
Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft, EC-135 (AFMC-ARIA) and NKC-135A S/N 53-3132 (BIG CROW)
89th Airlift Wing/201AS
Air Force Section Mission (U.S. Military Group Aircraft in Latin America)
AMC/ACC Airlift Forces Aircraft
76th Airlift Squadron USAFE
AFRC and ANG Airlift Aircraft for which ACC/AMC are the Gaining Command
EC/RC-135
E-4 Aircraft
All Transport and Tanker Aircraft
8.3.3.1 The American Flag shall have a height, width ratio
of 0.52 to 1, and be located on each side of the vertical fin
above all other markings of significance. The flag shall be
positioned horizontally such that the union shall be uppermost with the bars appearing to be trailing at all times. (See
Figure B-5)
8.3.3.2 The flag or emblem of other countries/(non-Air
Force) organizations shall not be displayed on USAF aircraft
for any reason.
8.3.4 United States of America Marking. The words
“UNITED STATES OF AMERICA” are authorized to be
painted on the fuselage exteriors of the following aircraft
authorized the American Flag. Table 8-3 list the aircraft
authorized “UNITED STATES OF AMERICA”.
8.3.4.1 When authorized, the marking “UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA” will be applied on both sides of the aircraft
fuselage, parallel to and above the top of the cabin windows.
(See Figure B-5) The fuselage marking “U.S. AIR FORCE”
shall be removed from the aircraft.
8.3.5 Aircraft Radio Call Numbers.
The radio call
number will be applied to each side of the vertical stabilizer.
8-4
On aircraft with multiple vertical stabilizers the radio call
number will be applied to the outboard side of the outer most
vertical stabilizer. AMC and ACC each use a different method
to mark the vertical stabilizer with the radio call number.
8.3.6 AMC Standard Radio Call Numbers. The radio
call number consists of five numbers usually derived from the
aircraft serial number. The first numeral of the contract
number and the hyphen will not be used (e.g., S/N 63545134A will be 35134 and 62-3467 will be 23467). (See
Figure B-5)
Table 8-3.
Aircraft Authorized United States of
America Markings
Air Attache
MAAG
AFMC-ARIA
USAF Mission
89th Airlift Wing
Air Force Section Mission (U.S. Military Group Aircraft in Latin America)
TO 1-1-8
Table 8-3. Aircraft Authorized United States of
America Markings - Continued
76th Airlift Squadron USAFE
E-4 Aircraft
8.3.6.1 In the event
radio call number will
contract year followed
provide five numerals
become 30023).
five numerals are not available the
include the second numeral of the
by a sufficient number of zeros to
(e.g., serial number 73-23A will
8.3.6.2 All radio call number placards within the aircraft,
including helicopters, shall reflect the same radio call number
as applied to the aircraft exterior.
8.3.7 ACC Standard Radio Call Numbers. ACC uses
a distinctive two place alphanumeric in conjunction with the
first two and last three numbers of the aircraft serial number.
When duplicate last three digits exist among aircraft with the
same distinctive unit designator, the last four numerals of the
serial number shall be used. (See Figure B-6)
8.3.7.1 Distinctive Unit Identifiers.
The identifier is
two numbers, two letters or one number and one letter. Any
MAJCOM may authorize the use of the identifier. HQ ACC
will be the approving authority and maintain a registry of the
identifiers. When the identifiers are no longer required the
respective command will notify HQ ACC. Distinctive identifiers shall not be removed or installed without the expressed
knowledge and approval of HQ ACC. Similarly, only ACC
may authorize changes in the identification code assignments.
8.4
8.4.2 Crew Names. The names of the pilot crew chief,
or other members of the flight or ground crew shall be applied
to the aircraft in accordance with the MAJCOM supplement
to the AFI 21-105 or equivalent MAJCOM instruction. The
MAJCOMs shall require crew markings be removed prior to
deployment to combat zones. Aircraft in combat zones are not
authorized to have any crew markings. Names shall be
reapplied as soon as practical following redeployment from
the combat zone.
8.4.3 Aircraft Names. All requests for applying aircraft
names to the exterior of aircraft shall be coordinated through
the appropriate MAJCOM/CC and forwarded to HQ USAF
for CV approval. Send justification to HQ USAF/A4. Information on approved names, colors, sizes, and locations shall
be included in the MAJCOM’s supplement to AFI 21-105 or
equivalent MAJCOM instruction.
8.4.4 Local Station Numbers and Markings. Where
aircraft may have a duplication of the last three digits of the
aircraft serial number or atmospheric conditions may hinder
visibility at a station the MAJCOM may authorize local
station numbers.
8.4.4.1 Station Numbers.
Station numbers shall be
located on the nose section of fixed wing aircraft and on the
deflector shields or other forward component of rotor wing
aircraft. Numerals will not be more than 8-inches tall and
proportionate to the aircraft size. Station numbers shall be
removed prior to transfer of the aircraft.
8.4.4.2 Tail Stripe. MAJCOMs may authorize a distinguishing colored horizontal strip for application to both sides
of the vertical fin. The stripes shall not be applied over apex
antenna.
ORGANIZATION INSIGNIA OR EMBLEMS.
All proposed organizational emblems and insignia will be in
accordance with the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 21-105 or
equivalent MAJCOM instruction. The MAJCOM or ANG
will be the approving authority for these insignia and emblems. Only ANG aircraft are authorized the state name and
ANG Minuteman emblem. Application location and size will
be in accordance to the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 21-105
or equivalent MAJCOM instruction. Standard markings/
insignia shall not be altered to accommodate any organizational markings/insignia. When the aircraft is being transferred the transferring unit will remove its markings and
insignia. Aircraft being processed for storage are exempt
from the requirement to remove markings/insignia.
8.4.1 Outstanding Unit Award Marking. A replica of
the “Outstanding Unit Award” ribbon earned by an organization may be installed on the sides of the fuselage in
accordance with the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 21-105 or
equivalent MAJCOM instruction. The marking shall not
exceed 12 inches in length. The size ratio shall be 4:1.
8.4.5 Propeller Markings. All Air Force propeller blade
tips will be painted in a contrasting color. All blades will be
checked for balance after application of blade markings. For
blades less than 15 feet in diameter (measured from the tip of
the blade to the hub center) the stripe will be 4 inches wide.
Larger diameter blades will have 6 inch strip.
8.4.5.1 Propeller tips may be marked with light reflective
yellow or a contrasting color when it is necessary to define
the blade track in the dark.
8.4.5.2 Aircraft whose primary mission is transportation
of VIPs are authorized to have red, white, and blue stripes
applied to the propeller tips. Approval authority for this
marking is the MAJCOM. The occasional transport of VIPs
in not sufficient justification for multi-colored blade tips.
Each blade will be painted red, white, and blue in this order
with red being the color closest to the blade tip. For blades 15
feet in diameter and less each stripe will be 1 1/2 inches wide.
Larger diameter blades will have a 2 inch stripe. Table 8-4
lists aircraft authorized multicolored blade tips.
Change 3
8-5
TO 1-1-8
Table 8-4.
Aircraft Authorized Multi-Colored Blade
Tip Markings
Air Attache
MAAG
USAF Mission
89th Airlift Wing
8.4.6 Helicopter Main Rotor Blade Markings. Classification numbers shall be stenciled on the inboard (butt end),
flat surface of the ground side of each main rotor blade by
facilities authorized to balance and alter the rotor blades.
Three numbers in decimal format shall be utilized: the first
shall be weight in pounds; the second shall reflect the distance
in inches from the center of rotation to the center of gravity
of the blade; and the third number shall be the distance in
inches from the leading edge of blade to the center of gravity
for the blade chord-wise. (e.g., 57.2-75.2-5.2 indicates the
blade weighs 57.2 pounds, with a center of gravity 75.2
inches from the center of rotation and chord-wise center of
gravity is 5.2 inches from the leading edge.) Contrasting
coloring stenciling shall be 3/4 inch in height. Color bands
installed by the contractor on the tip of the blade shall be
maintained along with matching colors on the housing.
Different colors are required on the blades for tracking
purposes.
8.4.7 Helicopter Tail Rotor Blade Markings. To promote safety all tail rotor blades except Sikorsky blades
utilizing B and B bonding or having vinyl plastic tape
installed shall be marked using MIL-PRF-85285 and a
compatible primer coat as follows:
a. Prime surface with a light coat of primer.
b. Apply a 6 inch band of red (color 31136) to the tail rotor
tip followed by a 6 inch band of white (color 37925)
followed by another 6 inch band of red (color 31136).
c. Following the second band of red apply a black band
(color 37038) to within 6 inches of the hub. Paint the
remaining 6 inches of the tail rotor red (color 31136).
d. Identifying color bands painted by the contractor shall
be maintained and an identifying dot, approximately 1/2
inch in diameter, of the same color as appears on the
housing shall be painted on the butt end of the blade for
matching purposes.
e. Balance the blades as necessary.
8.4.8 Identification Markings of Jettisonable Aircraft
Components. All jettisonable components will be stenciled using MIL-PRF-85285. The color will be selected to
provide the greatest contrast with the surrounding base color
of the component.
8-6
8.4.8.1 Canopies. The radio call number shall be stenciled in 1 inch letters 6 inches from the forward left-hand end,
on either the inside or outside of the canopy frame.
8.4.8.2 Ejection Seats. All ejection seats shall have the
radio call number stenciled on the seat back near the top edge.
If the aircraft is equipped with more than one seat the flight
crew position (i.e. pilot, NAV, GUNNER, and etc.) shall be
stenciled under the radio call number. The numbers and
letters shall be 1 inch high and positioned to avoid contact
with parachute gear.
8.4.8.3 Jettisonable Components. Where jettisonable
components such as external tanks are interchangeable and
are frequently removed, and create a problem of stockpiling
components for a specific aircraft, the base supply account
number contained in AFMAN 23-110 will be applied to the
component. The stencil will be 1 inch high and applied near
the component center on both sides.
8.4.9 Markings for Servicing, Ground Handling and
Hazard Warning. (See figures B-7 through B-13) The
markings shall be in contrasting colors. Lettering shall be in
accordance with the Appendix B. Symbols for the identification of service points, ground handling, and hazard warnings
shall be applied to the required locations on all USAF
aircraft. Location is dependent on the amount of available
space. The marking may be on or adjacent to the equipment
or service point. Symbols and markings may be applied using
paint or decals. Symbols shall be approximately 4 inches in
size but maybe smaller depending on the area or item being
marked. The markings provide:
•
•
•
•
Rapid identification of servicing points.
Identification of the type of ground servicing required.
Hazard warning or safety precautions, which will
prevent injury to personnel or damage to equipment.
Rapid exit from air vehicle under emergency conditions.
8.4.10 Markings for Engine Compartment Fire Access Panel. The fire access panel or doors in the engine
compartments shall have contrasting color boarder and identifying text.
8.4.11 Ejection Seats. A contrasting color equilateral
triangle with the sides up to nine inches long, with the apex
pointing downward shall be applied on each side of the
fuselage adjacent to the explosive device.
8.4.12 Identification of Ballistic Hose Assemblies.
Ballistic hose or tubing assemblies leading to the ejection seat
or catapults shall be marked for ground rescue purposes. The
area selected shall be easily visible and readily accessible and
as close as possible to the catapult (see appendix B).
TO 1-1-8
8.4.13 Markings for Tank Filler Areas. Fuel filler caps
shall be painted red. A red band, one inch wide, around and
two inches away from the fuel fill cap or over the cover door
is optional.
8.4.14 Marking of Emergency Lighting (Flashlight) for
Cargo &Transport Aircraft. Aircraft which have flashlights adjacent to natural or emergency exits will have a 1/2
inch yellow band around the base of the flashlight mount. The
band may be applied to the sides of the light holder if the
material cannot be applied around the base. The band may be
formed from 3M retro reflective or 6900 photo luminescent
paint (TT-P-54), or reflection tape (ASTM D4956).
8.4.15 Markings for Walkways and Steps. In cases
where walkways don’t contrast with surrounding areas, the
walkway will be bounded by a contrasting color line. The
word “WALKWAY” shall be stenciled at sufficient intervals.
Steps areas shall be indicated at all point on the aircraft.
8.4.16 Markings for Composite/Honeycomb Panels. Composite or honeycomb panels on upper surfaces
shall be distinctly marked by contrasting color 1 1/2 inch
wide hash marks. Each hash mark shall be 2 inches long and
separated by 2 inches. The marks shall slope 45 degrees.
8.4.17
Removable Escape Panels.
8.4.17.1 Internal Markings. Marking for the identification of escape hatches, doors, and exits on the interior of the
aircraft shall be painted orange-yellow (color 13538). Use
black (color 17038) on yellow surfaces. Use MIL-PRF85285, 3M retro reflective or 6900 photo luminescent paint
(TT-P-54), or reflection tape (ASTM D4956).
a. Apply an intermittent band to mark the periphery of the
personnel escape exit. The segments of the band will
have a minimum width of 1 inch and a length of 2
inches, divided equally, possible and practical between
the door mounting and the escape door itself. Where the
lining will cover the identification marking band inside
of the aircraft, continue the marking onto the lining.
b. The words EMERGENCY EXIT, shall be applied on the
escape hatch door or exit or any covering thereof in the
most readily visible location. Letters should be approximately 2 inches high.
c. Paint handles, releases, catches, and knobs for inside
hatches and exit doors. Where lettering or marking areas
are covered by lining, the lining shall also be appropriately marked. Suitable descriptive wording, readily
visible, shall be applied to the door or structure of the
aircraft, whichever is neared the emergency release, to
identify and explain its operation. This wording should
be approximately 1-inch high. Use Standard English
terminology such as PULL, TURN, SLIDE, or PUSH.
the aircraft shall be painted orange-yellow (color 13538) or a
contrasting color. Use MIL-PRF-85285. The words EMT
RELEASE, shall be applied on the outside of the aircraft to
facilitate quick identification. Suitable descriptive wording
shall be applied to the door or structure of the aircraft,
whichever is neared the emergency release, to identify and
explain its operation. This wording should be approximately
1-inch high. Use Standard English terminology such as
PULL, TURN, SLIDE, or PUSH. Letters should be approximately 2 inches high.
8.4.18
Markings for Unmanned aerial Vehicles.
8.4.18.1 Target Drones. Target drones for crew training, weapons evaluation and etc., shall be painted International Orange (color 12197) using MIL-PRF-85285.
8.4.18.2 Other Unmanned Arial Vehicles. All other
UAVs, RPVs, and drones may be painted with a color scheme
to suit the mission requirement. The schemes and markings
shall be approved in accordance with the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 21-105. MIL-PRF-85285 shall be the standard
topcoat.
8.4.19 Conspicuity Markings.
Conspicuity Markings
(MIL-PRF-85285, color 12197) may be used under special
conditions on non-camouflaged aircraft and are intended to
enhance air-to-air visual detection for safety purposes. Conspicuity markings will be approved by HQ USAF/A4 for
aircraft engaged in special missions.
8.4.19.1
•
•
•
Aircraft required to have conspicuity markings:
Aircraft used primarily as target
Aircraft specifically designated by the MAJCOM due
to special requirements of research and development.
Included may be director and drone aircraft.
Special conspicuity markings are authorized only
when 75% or more of the mission flying hours are
utilized enroute/on facility time.
8.4.20 Arctic Markings.
The use of arctic markings
(MIL-PRF-85285, color 12197) is intended to facilitate the
location of aircraft downed in regions covered by ice and
snow.
8.4.20.1 Arctic Marking Exemptions. Aircraft in the
following categories are exempt from compliance with arctic
markings:
•
•
•
Air Attache.
Aircraft scheduled for short periods of duty less than
180 days) in Arctic or Antarctic regions.
Active strike force and combat support aircraft assigned offensive missions for less than 180 days in
Arctic or Antarctic regions.
8.4.17.2 External Markings. Markings for the identification of escape hatches, doors, and exits on the exterior of
Change 3
8-7
TO 1-1-8
8.5 ESTABLISHING REQUIREMENTS FOR MISSION
ACTIVITY, CREW ACCOMPLISHMENT, AND ESPRIT
DE CORPS INSIGNIA AND MARKINGS.
Markings which reflect mission activity, crew accomplishment and esprit de corps are allowed at the discretion and
8-8
Change 3
final approval of the senior logistics official in each MAJCOM. A copy of all approved markings should be forwarded
to HQ USAF/A4.
TO 1-1-8
APPENDIX A
SHELF-LIFE EXTENSION PROCEDURES
A.1
GENERAL TESTING PROCEDURES.
WR-ALC/MXRE is the AF executive agent for the Shelf-Life
Extension Data (SLED) program, reference AFMAN 23-110.
The SLED program is managed by WR-ALC/MXRE at
Robins AFB, GA (HQ USAF/SLED; DSN 468-0464, COM
(478) 926-0464 or FAX (478) 926-0464 or FAX DSN
468-0464. Under their authority the following test procedures
are provided for the testing of the most commonly used
coatings in this technical order under the 8010 NSC.
a. These procedures are authorized for use to supplement
the test requirements of AFMAN 23-110 and the SLED
program for MIL-PRF-23377, TT-P-2760, MIL-PRF85582, and MIL-PRF-85285. When any of the above
materials have reached their established shelf-life they
must be tested per the requirements of AFMAN 23-110
at AFMC Laboratories, commercial laboratories or at
bases with the means to test these materials using the
procedures established here.
b. The information contained in the SLED program is
advisory in nature; however, it may be used to assist in
the management of shelf-life extension for MIL-PRF23377, TT-P-2760, MIL-PRF-85582, MIL-PRF-85285
(and other 80 FSG materials not discussed here, reference AFMAN 23-110). This information may be used to
extend the inspection and test date for material under the
same NSN and manufacturer’s batch and lot number.
Additionally, condemning material shall be per the
requirements of AFMAN 23-110 or results of testing of
local stocks, either by a laboratory or the tests provided
here.
c. Testing shall be accomplished on or before the initial
expiration date and on or before each extension expiration date. Initial shelf life extensions is for full period of
the original shelf-life (i.e. Original shelf-life one year,
initial extension one year). Subsequent shelf-life extensions will be for one-half of the original assigned
shelf-life (i.e. Original shelf-life one year, second and
subsequent shelf-life extensions will be for six months).
Reference AFMAN 23-110, Volume 7, Part 3, Chapter 1
for further instruction. This is the maximum allowable
update for each retest.
d. To perform base level tests where laboratories are not
available or sending the material for laboratory testing is
not economically feasible, the following are necessary:
an approved paint spray booth, disposable volume
measuring containers either fluid ounces or milliliters
(these may be available from medical organizations), a
powered stirring device of 140 RPM, and either No. 2
Zahn or No. 4 Ford viscosity measuring cup. Each
material must be accurately mixed and sprayed on test
panels to perform the test. Each coating must be
evaluated for its condition in the container, viscosity, pot
life, curing (drying) time, and surface appearance.
e. These materials chemically react when mixed, and they
are temperature sensitive. The coating components must
always be allowed to warm to room temperature for up
to 24 hours, as necessary. Tests shall not be performed at
temperatures below 70° F or above 80° F as the
temperature will impact viscosity, pot life and curing
time. The components must be mixed accurately. When
the manufacturer’s instructions are to mix by ratio, such
as 3 to 1 (3 parts component A to 1 part component B)
and the quantity to be mixed for testing is 16 fluid
ounces, mix 12 fluid ounces of part A to 4 fluid ounces
of part B. Manufacturer’s instructions for mixing ratios
of these materials is always by volume and not by
weight; therefore, quantities to be measured for mixing
can always be determined by using disposable measuring cups.
A.2
MIL-PRF-23377 EPOXY PRIMER.
A.2.1 Condition in the container. Using a kit of material from each batch or lot number to be tested, allow both
components A and B to stand until reaching room temperature, and open each container and examine. Mix each
component vigorously by hand (using a paddle) or with a
mechanical shaker. Each component shall be capable of being
mixed within 5 minutes. Each component shall be smooth,
homogenous, and pourable. The material shall be free of grit,
skins, seeds, lumps, abnormal thickening, or livering. In
addition, it will reincorporate into a smooth, homogeneous
state by mixing with a hand paddle without exhibiting
pigment flotation or excessive settling. The containers shall
not exhibit deformation due to internal pressure.
A.2.2 Viscosity and Pot Life. To test the viscosity and
pot life, mix an adequate quantity of the primer per the
manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component).
Check viscosity of the unthinned coating with either a No. 2
Zahn or No.. 4 Ford cup for conformance with the maximum
viscosity ratings given in Table A-1 at the times specified in
the table.
A.2.3 Drying Time. Mix an adequate quantity of the
coating for spray application of test panels per the manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component), and spray
the primer on the test panels. Test panels shall be aluminum
measuring approximately 3 in x 6 in. The primer coating shall
be set-to-touch (when touched, no material transfers to finger)
Change 3
A-1
TO 1-1-8
within five hours, and dry-hard (finger applied with reasonable force and turned with no deformation of coating) within
eight hours after spray application.
A.2.4 Surface Appearance. When sprayed on a vertical surface to a thickness of 0.0006 to 0.0018 inch, the primer
coating shall not sag, run, or streak, and shall dry to a smooth,
uniform surface free from grit, seeds, craters, blisters, and
other irregularities.
A.3 MIL-PRF-85582 WATERBORNE EPOXY
PRIMER.
A.3.1 Condition in the container. Using a kit of material from each batch or lot number to be tested, allow to stand
until reaching room temperature, and open each container and
examine components A and B. Mix each component by hand
or mechanical shaker. Each component shall be capable of
being mixed within 5 minutes. Each component shall be
smooth, homogenous, and pourable. The material shall be
free of grit, skins, seeds, lumps, abnormal thickening, or
livering. In addition, it will reincorporate into a smooth
homogeneous state by mixing with a hand paddle without
exhibiting pigment flotation or excessive settling. The containers shall not exhibit deformation due to internal pressure.
A.3.2 Viscosity and Pot Life. To test the viscosity and
pot life, mix an adequate quantity of the coating per the
manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component).
Thin the coating as required per the manufacturer’s instructions. When the mixed primer is diluted to application
viscosity with water, there shall be no evidence of incompatibility and the material shall be suitable for spray application.
Measure the viscosity and record the results. Place the mixed
coating in container and stir at 140 RPM ±30 RPM for 4
hours. After 4 hours the viscosity shall not increase more than
8 seconds through a No. 4 Ford cup or 9.5 seconds through a
No. 2 Zahn cup.
A.3.3 Drying Time. Mix an adequate quantity of the
coating for spray application of test panels per the manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component), and spray
the primer on the test panels. Test panels shall be aluminum
measuring approximately 3in x 6in. The primer coating shall
be set-to-touch (when touched, no material transfers to finger)
within one hour, and dry-hard (finger applied with reasonable
force and turned with no deformation of coating) within six
hours after spray application.
A.3.4 Surface Appearance. When sprayed on a vertical surface, to a thickness of 0.0006 to 0.0018 inch, the
primer coating shall not sag, run, or streak, and shall dry to a
smooth uniform surface free from grit, seeds, craters, blisters,
and other irregularities.
A.4
TT-P-2760 POLYURETHANE PRIMER.
A.4.1 Condition in the container. Using a kit of material from each batch or lot number to be tested, allow to stand
until reaching room temperature, and open each container and
A-2
Change 3
examine components A and B. Mix each component vigorously by hand (using a paddle) or with a mechanical shaker.
Each component shall be capable of being mixed within 5
minutes. Each component shall be smooth, homogenous, and
pourable. The material shall be free of grit, skins, seeds,
lumps, foreign contaminants, abnormal thickening, or livering. In addition, it will reincorporate into a smooth, homogeneous state by mixing with a hand paddle without exhibiting pigment flotation or excessive settling. The containers
shall not exhibit deformation due to internal pressure.
A.4.2 Viscosity and Pot Life. To test the viscosity and
pot life, mix an adequate quantity of the prime per the
manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component).
Check viscosity with either a No. 2 Zahn or No. 4 Ford cup
for conformance with the maximum viscosity ratings given in
Table A-1 at the times specified in the table.
A.4.3 Drying Time. Mix an adequate quantity of the
coating for spray application of test panels per the manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component), and spray
the primer on the test panels. Test panels shall be aluminum
measuring approximately 3 in x 6 in. The primer coating shall
be set-to-touch (when touched, no material transfers to finger)
within five hours, and dry-hard (finger applied with reasonable force and turned with no deformation of coating) within
eight hours after spray application.
A.4.4 Surface Appearance. When sprayed on a vertical surface to a thickness of 0.0012 to 0.0025 inch, the primer
coating shall not sag, run, or streak, and shall dry to a smooth,
uniform surface free from grit, seeds, craters, blisters, and
other irregularities.
A.5 MIL-PRF-85285 HIGH SOLIDS POLYURETHANE.
A.5.1 Condition in the container. Using a kit of material from each batch or lot number to be tested, allow to stand
until reaching room temperature, and open each container and
examine component A and B. Mix component A vigorously
by hand using a paddle or with a mechanical shaker. It shall
mix to be smooth, homogenous, and pourable condition. The
material shall be free of grit, seeds, lumps, abnormal thickening, or livering. In addition, it will not show pigment
flotation or excessive settling which cannot be easily reincorporated to a smooth, homogenous state. Component B shall
be homogeneous, clear, free from gelation or detectable
particulate matter either suspended in solution or settled on
the inner surface of the container.
A.5.2 Viscosity and Pot Life. To test the viscosity and
pot life, mix an adequate quantity of the coating per the
manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component).
Check viscosity with either a No. 2 Zahn or No. 4 Ford cup
for conformance with the maximum viscosity ratings given in
Table A-1.
A.5.3 Drying Time. Mix an adequate quantity of the
coating for spray application of test panels per the manufac-
TO 1-1-8
turer’s instructions (measuring each component), and spray
the coating on the test panels. Test panels shall be aluminum
measuring approximately 3 in x 6 in.
A.6
NOTE
For this coating test panels must be primed with
either MIL-PRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582
primer applied to a thickness of 0.0006 to 0.0009
inch. The coating shall be set-to-touch (when
touched, no material transfers to finger) within
four hours, and dry-hard (finger applied with
reasonable force and turned with no deformation
of coating) within twelve hours after spray
application.
Table A-1.
MIL-PRF-23377
TT-P-2760
MIL-PRF-85285
Type I
TOUCH-UP PENS.
(Sempens MIL-PRF-23377/MIL-PRF-85285).
A.5.4 Surface Appearance.
When sprayed on one
vertical and one primed horizontal mounted panel to a
thickness of 0.0017 to 0.0023 inch, the coating shall dry to a
Coating and Primer
smooth, uniform surface free from runs, sags, bubbles,
streaks, hazing, seeding, dusting, floating, mottling, or other
defects and irregularities.
A.6.1 Practical Test.
These materials only require a
practical test by the user. Prepare the applicator by sliding the
tube collar all the way to the back of the applicator. Shake the
applicator vigorously by hand until the materials are thoroughly mixed (approximately one minute). Brush material on
test surface and determine if it applies evenly. Allow to dry
and verify material meets drying time criteria in Paragraph
A.2 for MIL-PRF-23377 Epoxy Primer/Paragraph A.5 for
MIL-PRF-85285 High Solids Polyurethane. If either practical
test fails, dispose of the item.
Viscosity and Pot Life
Check Time After Mix (Minimum)
Initial
4 hours
Initial
4 hours
(closed container)
Initial
4 hours
8 hours
Maximum Time
No. 4 Ford Cup
No. 2 Zahn Cup
40
70
30
60
48
84
36
72
30
60
shall not gel
36
72
shall not gel
A-3/(A-4 blank)
TO 1-1-8
APPENDIX B
STANDARD AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT MARKINGS
B.1
NATIONAL STAR INSIGNIA.
(4) The National Star Insignia selected for the wing shall
not exceed a maximum diameter of 60 inches nor
have a minimum diameter of less than 20 inches
(excluding border). The diameter of the circumscribed circle will be the standard size closest to but
not exceeding 75% of the distance between the wing
leading edge and the moveable surface cut-out at the
point of application.
a. Dimensions. (Figure B-1.) The dimensions of the insignia shall be determined by the diameter of the circumscribed circle which is standardized in multiples of 5
inches.
(1) The width of each end of the rectangle shall equal 1/2
the radius of the circle; the length shall equal 1 radius
(excluding border).
(2) The width of the horizontally centered at each end of
the rectangle, shall equal 1/6 of the radius of the
circle (excluding border).
(3) The width of the insignia outer bar shall equal 1/8 the
radius of the circle (excluding border).
c. National Star Insignia on Aircraft Fuselage. The insignia
may be moved forward or aft the minimum distance
required to avoid transparent material, or areas exposed
to extreme heat or fluids which would scorch, deteriorate or otherwise damage the insignia. The insignia may
extend over doors and emergency exits, but the insignia
shall not extend over the window areas or other such
openings which would change the design of the insignia.
(4) Construction of the five pointed star may be accomplished by marking off five equal distant points on
the circumscribed circle and connecting each point to
the non-adjacent points.
NOTE
The insignia will be the standard size closest to,
but not exceeding, 75% of the fuselage height at
the point of application. The diameter of the blue
circle will not exceed 50 inches nor be less than
15 inches. Symmetry will be maintained when
applying the insignia on each side of the fuselage.
b. National Star Insignia on Aircraft Wings. Each insignia
will be positioned at a point inboard from each wing tip
equal to 1/3 the distance from the wing tip to the
wing-fuselage mating point. The border of the insignia
will be tangent to the movable control surface cut-out.
(1) The wing insignia may be moved in the minimum
required distance to avoid structures which would
alter the insignia pattern. However, symmetry will be
maintained with the USAF marking on the opposite
wing surface.
(2) Normally, the wing insignia shall be positioned so
that in normal flight attitude the top point of the star
points forward and a line through the center of the
insignia and the top star point is parallel to the
direction of flight.
(3) On swept wings or wings of variable sweep aircraft,
the National Star Insignia shall be positioned as
illustrated in Figure B-2. The insignia or any part
thereof shall not extend to movable flight control
surfaces. The insignia shall be applied so that the line
through the center and the top point of the star is
perpendicular to the constant 50% chord line of the
wing.
d. National Star Insignia on Helicopters. The National Star
Insignia will be applied on vertical surfaces so that in
normal flight attitude the top point of the star points
upward; on horizontal surfaces the top point of the star
will point forward in the direction of flight.
B.2
U.S. AIR FORCE MARKING.
a. Letter width shall be equal to 2/3 the letter height except
that the width of the letter “I shall be equal to 1/6 of the
letter height.”
b. Letter stroke and spaces shall be equal to 1/6 the height,
except that the space between “period” and “A” shall be
1/3 letter height.
c. The space between AIR and FORCE shall be one letter
width.
B-1
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-1.
B-2
Edge Sealing
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-2.
National Star Insignia on Swept Wings
B-3
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-3.
B-4
Form of Letters and Numerals
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-4.
Typical Marking For Paint Facility/Finish Identification Block
NOTE
For non-standard and unique coatings, such as APC, add manufacture product code.
B-5
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-5.
B-6
“UNITED STATES OF AMERICA” AND AMC Standard Marking Sample
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-6.
Distinctive Unit, Serial Number and ACC Standard Sample
B-7
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-7.
B-8
Aircraft Markings, Servicing and Precautioning (Sheet 1 of 2)
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-7.
Aircraft Markings, Servicing and Precautioning (Sheet 2)
B-9
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-8.
Figure B-9.
B-10
Ground Here, International Symbol
Markings For Fire Access Panel
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-10.
Figure B-11.
Helicopter Tail Boom Markings
Typical Emergency Instruction Markings
B-11
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-12.
B-12
Typical Emergency Entry Markings
TO 1-1-8
APPENDIX C
RESPIRATOR PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
C.1
INTRODUCTION.
Table C-1 provides a list of respirator equipment and related
materials for use in aircraft, missile, and equipment corrosion
prevention and control processes. This table provides only
general information for respiratory safety devices. See the
manufacturer’s technical data for detailed operating maintenance instructions. See the DO43 System for proper NSNs
and to convert part numbers to NSNs.
Change 1
C-1
C-2
Change 1
4240-01-247-8929
Open Purchase
4240-01-248-4634
4240-01-248-6435
4240-01-455-2787
Full Facepiece Respirator,
Air Filtering (w/o Cartridges or Retainers)
Full Facepiece Respirator,
Air Filtering (w/o Cartridges or Retainers)
Half Facepiece Respirator,
Air Filtering (w/o Cartridges or Retainers)
Filter Cartridges (Organic
Vapor/ P100 Type)
3M Co. (Cage Code
Respirator Lens Assembly
#50378)
for 3M Co. Full Facepiece
Respirators (With Plastic
PN 7884
Film Covers)
PN 6898
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
Lens Covers for 3M Co. Full
PN 7899-25
Facepiece Respirators
(Peel-Away Plastic Film)
PN 7899-100
PN 6885
2
3
4
5
6
7
4240-01-455-7353
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
PN 60921
4240-01-342-2852
4240-01-342-2853
4240-01-342-2854
4240-01-454-8531
4240-01-454-8535
4240-01-454-8538
4240-01-314-2780
4240-01-342-5239
4240-01-301-3200
PN 6100 (Small)
PN 6200 (Medium)
PN 6300 (Large)
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
PN 6700 (Small)
PN 6800 (Medium)
PN 6900 (Large)
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
PN 7800S-S (Small)
PN 7800S-M (Medium)
PN 7800S-L (Large)
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
4240-01-247-2348
1
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378) PN 8511
National Stock Number
Particulate Respirator (1/2
Facepiece Mask), Disposable Type
Specifications/Part Number
Nomenclature
Unit Issue
BX (25 EA)
BX (100 EA)
BX (100 EA)
BX (5 EA)
BX (5 EA)
BX (60 EA)
BX (24 EA)
BX (24 EA)
BX (24 EA)
BX (4 EA)
BX (4 EA)
BX (4 EA)
EA
EA
EA
BX (80 EA)
Respirator Protection Equipment
Item No.
Table C-1.
7800S Series Lens Covers
7800S Series Lens Covers
6800 Series Lens Covers
7800S Series Replacement Lens
6000 Series Replacement Lens
3M Co. half and full
Facepiece respirators
Personnel protection from inhalation of organic vapors, dust,
particulates and paint sprays in
non-confined areas during spraying, sanding, and grinding operations
Personnel protection from inhalation of organic vapors, dust,
particulates and paint sprays in
non-confined areas during spraying, sanding, and grinding operations
Personnel protection from inhalation of organic vapors, dust,
particulates, and paint spray in
non-confined areas during spraying, sanding, and grinding operations
Personnel protection from inhalation of dust particulates during
light sanding and grinding operations
Intended Use
TO 1-1-8
Pump/Compressor, Breathable Air, Pneumatic (Air
Motor) Driven, Portable
13
PN ADP-16/ADP-20
PN NF-1100
Bullard Co. (Cage Code
#09729)
Rhine Air, Inc. (Cage Code
#58501)
PN 504
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
4310-01-168-7302
4240-01-363-4699
4240-01-372-3078
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
12
4240-01-395-4128
PN 7925
11
Respirator Cleaning Wipes
(Alcohol-Free Towelettes)
4240-01-455-2346
Spectacle Kit for 3M Co.
Full Facepiece Respirators PN 6878
10
PN 7915-5
Tyvek™ Shroud for 3M Co.
Full Facepiece Respirators
4240-01-320-1957
9
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
4240-01-248-2608
4240-01-455-2809
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
Exhalation Valve for 3M Co.
Full Facepiece Respirators PN 7283
PN 6889
National Stock Number
Open Purchase
4240-01-455-2811
Specifications/Part Number
8
Nomenclature
EA
EA
BX (100 EA)
EA
EA
PG (5 EA)
BX (50 EA)
BX (10 EA)
BX (200 EA)
BX (200 EA)
Unit Issue
Respirator Protection Equipment - Continued
3M Co. (Cage Code
#50378)
Inhalation Valve for 3M Co.
Full Facepiece Respirators PN 7282
PN 6893
Item No.
Table C-1.
Used to supply breathable air to
hoods and full Facepiece respirators for abrasive blasting and
other corrosion removal operations. These small, air-driven,
portable compressors are very
convenient as they may be easily transported and set up almost
anywhere
Hygienic cleaning of respirators
and other personal protective
equipment
Frame & Retainer Clip 6000 Series Spectacle Kit
7800S Series Spectacle Kit
Used with full Facepiece respirators to protect the head and neck
from painting and/or abrasive
blasting overspray.
7800S Series Replacement Valves
6800 Series Replacement Valves
7800S Series Replacement Valves
6800 Series Replacement Valves
Intended Use
TO 1-1-8
Change 1
C-3
C-4
Nomenclature
Specifications/Part Number
NOTE
National Stock Number
Unit Issue
Respirator Protection Equipment - Continued
Intended Use
Change 1
Replacement Filter Cartridges for Breathable Air
Pumps
Compressed Air Inlet Hose
Assembly, 1/2 in ID Hose
Quick Disconnect Fittings
for Inlet Hose
Outlet Manifold, Quick Disconnect (Female Coupler
Assembly)
14
15
16
17
4240-01-251-8159
4240-01-251-8160
4240-01-084-0921
PN ED-06-430
Rhine Air, Inc (Cage Code
#58501)
Open Purchase
PN 3L25 (Male Plug)
4730-01-442-1809
PN 3R25 (Female Coupler) 4730-01-442-1808
Cage Code #73992
PN ED1313B-50 (50 ft L)
PN ED1313B-100 (100 ft
L)
Rhine Air, Inc (Cage Code
#58501)
PN CF8080
Rhine Air, Inc (Cage Code
#58501)
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
BX (10 EA)
Connects respirator air hose assemblies to the breathable air
pump. Can be used with both
Rhine Air and Bullard units
Replacement fittings for the Rhine
Air PN ED1313B inlet air hose
assemblies
Used only for supplying fresh,
breathable air to the air motor
on the breathable air pump unit
Rhine Air’s NF-1100 and NF 15–3
pumps
Use MIL-PRF-32033 oil (NSN 9150-00-231-6689/1 QT CN) or MIL-H-17672 hydraulic fluid/10 wt. oil equivalent (NSN 9150-00-9857231/1 QT CN) to fill in-line oiler of air motor after each use, as required, to maintain lubrication and prevent motor oxidation.
Item No.
Table C-1.
TO 1-1-8
TO 1-1-8
GLOSSARY
A
ACCELERATOR — A substance which speeds up the
polymerization of a synthetic resin.
ACRYLIC RESIN — Any of a group of transparent
thermo-plastic resins formed by polymerizing esters of
acrylic acid or methacrylic acid.
ALIPHATIC — An organic chemical whose carbon atoms
are not in a ring form. A straight-chain compound. Mineral
spirits, some naphthas, and kerosene are typical aliphatic
compounds.
ALKYD RESIN — One of the major synthetics formed by
polybasic acid reaction with polyhydric alcohols. Primarily
used in enamels but also in combinations in some other
types of coatings.
ALLIGATORING — A condition where cracks in the film
are caused by contraction of the coating when a sudden
change in temperature occurs during drying. It may also
occur because of insufficient drying time between lacquer
coats, or because of poor penetration or wetting, or when a
hard topcoat has been applied over a soft undercoat. These
cracks usually penetrate to the metal surface.
AMINE — An organic chemical containing carbon hydrogen and nitrogen. Certain amines may be used as convertors
for epoxy resins.
may occur when material is applied with unclean spraying
equipment or when a topcoat/second coat is applied too
soon.
BLISTERING (OR BUBBLING) — Blistering may occur
when there is poor air circulation during drying of the
coating. Unbalanced solvents in the structure of the coating
will also cause this effect. Temperature differences between
the part being sprayed and the coating will also cause air
pockets or blisters. Water in air lines can cause blistering,
and daily draining of the water filters on air lines will help
minimize this problem.
BLOOMING (OR HAZING) — The appearance of
blooming is similar to blushing, though the underlying
reasons are different. Blooming is the result of rubbing the
finish too soon after application, the use of too coarse an
abrasive or too hard a rubbing stroke. When blooming does
occur, it may be removed by washing with a mild soap
solution and warm water, followed by chamois skin. Properly dried and hardened surfaces will not bloom when
rubbed or polished.
BLUSHING — Commonly referred to as clouding or whitening, blushing is the result of moisture being present on the
film surface during the drying period. Although the fault
commonly lies in improper drainage of the air line during
finishing operations, the condition is also caused by high
humidity conditions within the finishing room. Improper
selection of solvents will also cause blushing.
ANHYDROUS — Containing no water.
BODY OF PAINT — The liquid portion without the volatile solvents and water.
AROMATIC — An organic chemical possessing the benzene ring structure. Benzene and toluene are typical aromatic hydrocarbons.
BODYING — See Gelling.
B
BAKING FINISH — Any paint or varnish which requires
temperatures in excess of 150° F for the development of
desired properties. The usual baking difficulties are the
result of over-baking or under-baking schedules. Overbaking will result in a hard, brittle film with less adhesion
than requirements demand. Proper correction of baking
faults demands strict adherence to the instructions of the
manufacturer.
BINDER — The non-volatile portion of a coating vehicle.
It generally consists of drying oils, resins, or combinations
thereof.
BROWN SPOTS — Spots which occur in a lacquer film
when oil is permitted to get into the material. As a
precautionary measure, drain the water and oil separators
daily.
BUBBLES — When improper quality or quantity of thinner
is used, bubbles often occur (also known as “solvent pop”).
To help prevent this defect, use correct proportions of
thinner at all times. Application of a topcoat before the
initial coat has cored properly or at too high a temperature
can also cause bubbles.
BUCKLING — A nitrocellulose lacquer film may shrink or
buckle when sprayed over an oil base undercoat. If necessary to overcoat oil paint with lacquer, make the first top
coat as light as possible.
BLEEDING — A condition caused by pigments or dyes in
the under surfaces floating up into the top coating. Bleeding
Change 3
Glossary 1
TO 1-1-8
C
CASE HARDENING — The formation of a hardened top
surface with a soft underbody. Proper relative humidity
conditions within the drying room will assist in eliminating
this condition.
CATALYST — A substance which changes the rate of a
chemical reaction without itself undergoing permanent
change in its composition.
CHALKING — Deterioration of an organic coating upon
exposure that results in a powdery, chalky residue on a
painted surface.
CHECKING — Slight breaks in the film which do not
penetrate to the underlying surface. It occurs when lacquer
coats are applied too heavily or without sufficient time
allowed for drying between coats.
COBWEBBING — Filaments of paint which appear as
cobwebs instead of fine droplets.
COLLOID — A very finely divided (but not molecular)
dispersion of a solid in a liquid. Colloidal dispersions do not
settle and the particles are too small to be observed by
ordinary microscope.
CONSISTENCY — Consistency is another word for viscosity of a wet material. The term may also be applied to the
resistance to deformation of a cured film.
CONVERTER — A substance which causes a resin to
polymerize or cure. Polyamides and amines are two examples of epoxy converters.
COVERAGE — The surface area which can be coated with
a given volume of coating applied at a given film thickness.
Coverage is usually expressed in square feet per gallon at
one mil dry film thickness. Coverage is not related to hiding
power.
CRACKING — Cracking occurs when the various components of a lacquer are not blended or mixed properly, or
when coatings not compatible with one another are used
together.
CRATERING — A defect in a coating resulting in craters
or fish eyes. Most often caused by the presence of grease,
oil, silicone polishes or other similar contaminants on the
surface.
Glossary 2
CRAWLING — The reverse of crazing, that is, a more
flexible coating is applied over a hard or brittle film.
CRAZING — When lacquer films expand and contract, a
series of fine hair line cracks (crazing) results. Crazing
frequently occurs when a very heavily pigmented surface
coat is applied over a more flexible undercoating. The
elastic coating of lower filler content will expand and
contract more easily than the heavily pigmented coating.
CRYSTAL LACQUERS — A decorative finish which is
achieved by re-cyrstallization of dissolved lacquer bases. It
occurs after the thinners have evaporated. Pearl essence or
mother of pearl finishes may be produced in this fashion.
CRYSTALLINE FINISH — A crystalline like, decorative
finish is accomplished by using certain gas checking oils
which on drying produce the pattern.
CURDLING — Curdling usually occurs when a high
evaporative but weak solvency thinner is used with a
lacquer or enamel. Control of solvency and evaporation rate
will prevent curdling.
D
DECAL — A plastic film with an adhesive on one side that
adheres to glass, wood, metal, etc, that transfers decorative
pictures or designs printed on the specially prepared film to
the surface.
DILUENT — A thinner blended with an organic coating
mixture to increase its volume and/or reduce its viscosity.
DISPERSION — An intimate mixture of finely divided
solid particles in a liquid substance. Paints are dispersions of
pigments in a vehicle.
DOUBLE COAT — A double application of paint. This
does not mean two consecutive passes of the spray gun. One
coat is applied by a double or cross pass of the gun followed
by a second similar application after the first coat has set up.
DRIER — A catalytic material which when added to a
drying oil or drying oil modified coating accelerates the rate
of drying. A substance which speeds the reaction of a binder
with oxygen. Naphthenates of cobalt and manganese are
common driers.
DRYING OIL — An oil which readily absorbs oxygen
from the air to form a durable film.
TO 1-1-8
DRYING TIME — The time required for a coating to
attain various stages of dryness. Three commonly referred
to drying times are: dry to touch, dry to handle and dry hard
(recoat). Drying time is greatly affected by temperature,
humidity, and air movement.
DUST COAT — a very light coat of a coating, which will
improve adhesion.
E
EMULSION — An intimate suspension of two or more
liquid substances which are not mutually soluble but which
do not ordinarily separate. Examples: milk (butterfat and
water), self-polishing floor waxes (wax, solvent, water),
vehicle for water-thinned latex paints.
ENAMEL — A coating characterized by an ability to form
an especially smooth finish film.
EPOXY RESIN — A synthetic resin produced by the
reaction of epichlorohydrin and bisphenol. Epoxy resins
may be used alone (unmodified) or modified with drying
oils (epoxy esters) for coating vehicles.
EXTENDER PIGMENTS — Pigments used to provide
texture, bulk or hardness to a coating. Also known as inert
pigments. Magnesium silicate and diatomaceous silica are
examples of extender pigments.
F
G
GELLING — The irreversible transformation of a liquid to
a solid without the loss of weight through evaporation.
GLOSS, SPECULAR — The luster, shininess, or reflective
ability of a surface; or the ability of a surface to reflect light
regularly when light strikes the surface at a 60 degree angle.
It is based upon the degree of optical smoothness of a
surface, variations in smoothness being microscopic. Values
above 90 are classified as high gloss, 80 to 90 as full gloss,
35 to 45 as semi-gloss, 5 to 7 as flat or camouflage and 3 or
less as gunship quality. Seven or less is also classified as
lusterless.
H
HIDING POWER — For an organic coating, it is either the
degree to which the base material has been obliterated from
view or the relative smoothness or surface leveling a coating
may produce.
HOLIDAY — An unintentional skipped area, missed while
applying a coating. Holidays can be avoided by using
contrasting colors for alternating coats.
HYGROSCOPIC — The ability to attract or absorb water.
I
INFRARED LAMP — A heat lamp commonly used in
paint drying operations that emits infrared light.
FERROUS — Magnetic metals derived from steel or iron.
FILLER — A material of pigmented composition used to
fill irregularities and undesirable depressions after a primer
coating is applied and prior to finish coating application.
FILLING POWER — The degree a filler material hides
irregularities of texture.
FLASH POINT — The minimum temperature at which the
vapors of a liquid will ignite. An indication of the flammability of a product; the higher the flash point, the safer the
product.
FLATTENING AGENT — A material added to a coating
to reduce the gloss of the cured film.
FLOODING — A change in color of a coating from the
time it is applied until the time it sets caused by fines in the
pigment portion floating to the surface. The result is a final
shade different from the original.
INHIBITOR — A substance which slows down a chemical
reaction.
INORGANIC — Chemical compounds based chiefly on
elements other than the carbon-hydrogen-oxygen group.
Inorganic compounds are divided into four classifications:
Acids — Materials such as sulfuric, hydrochloric (muriatic),
nitric, and phosphoric acids.
Alkalies — A base material such as sodium hydroxide
(caustic soda), potassium hydroxide (caustic potash), ammonium hydroxide (ammonia).
Salts — Materials produced by the reaction of an acid and
an alkali. Sodium chloride (table salt), magnesium sulfate
(epsom salt), calcium chloride, copper sulfate.
Oxides — A combination of a metal and oxygen such as
iron oxide (rust), zinc oxide, titanium dioxide (white pigment), silicone dioxide (sand and glass).
FORCE DRYING TEMPERATURE — A temperature
between room temperature and 175° F to which a coating is
exposed to accelerate curing.
Glossary 3
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INTERCOAT — A layer of paint that is “sandwiched”
between two others. Also refers to something occurring
between coats, as in “intercoat adhesion”.
L
LATEX — A water suspension of fine particles of rubber or
rubber-like materials.
LEVELING — The degree to which a film will smooth out
after application is its leveling ability. Improper solvent or
driers may prevent proper leveling.
LEAFING — The ability of an aluminum or gold bronze
paint to exhibit a brilliant or silvery appearance. This occurs
when the flat pigment particles align themselves parallel
with the coated surface so as to give the appearance of a
solid sheet of metal.
LIFTING — Separation of a coating film from a surface
when solvents from a topcoat penetrate an existing coating
which has not dried sufficiently to permit proper adhesion.
In all instances where one finish is applied over another it is
important that the undercoat be sufficiently dry; otherwise,
poor adhesion will result.
LIVERING — Gelling of a paint that occurs when the pH
of a paint is lowered, such as when acid-producing reactions
occur in the material. In many cases, this difficulty can be
remedied by slowly stirring into the livered material a very
slow evaporating paint reducer.
M
MIL — A unit of measurement for the thickness of a
coating film. One mil equals 1/1000 (0.001) inch.
N
NAPHTHA — The product of the distillation of the solvent
fractions obtained from the thermal decomposition (cracking) of coal or petroleum. A volatile, flammable fluid
consisting chiefly of mixed hydrocarbons. It can be aromatic
with a benzene ring structure or aliphatic with a linear
structure.
NITROCELLULOSE — A binder used in most lacquers;
principally air drying. It may be modified with resins and
plasticizers for improved gloss, adhesion and flexibility. An
ester of nitric acid and cellulose produced by the action of
nitric acid upon wood, cotton, or some other form of
cellulose in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid.
NON-FERROUS — A description of metals other than
iron.
NON-VOLATILE VEHICLE — The liquid portion of a
paint, enamel, varnish, or related products not including the
volatile thinners and water.
Glossary 4
O
ORANGE PEEL — Pebble effect appearance caused by
too high an air pressure during spraying, the spray gun being
held too close to the surface, or using a highly volatile
thinner which prevents the normal flow of lacquer solids.
ORGANIC — Chemical compounds chiefly composed of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a multitude of molecular
arrangements. The term organic was established when it
was thought that organic compounds could be produced
only by living organisms. Many organic compounds are
produced synthetically today. However, even these are
derived from former living plants and animals (coal and oil
are the chief sources of raw materials for organic chemicals). Examples of organic compounds: gasoline, alcohol,
sugar, fish oil, glycerin.
ORGANIC COATING — A finish/paint system such as a
lacquer or an enamel that cures/dries by solvent or volatile
component evaporation only and not by chemical reaction.
ORGANISOL — Finely divided or colloided dispersion of
a resin in a plasticizer with solvents or other materials.
OXIDATION — A chemical reaction involving the reaction of a substance with oxygen. Iron rusts by oxidation.
Oil-containing coatings dry or cure by oxidation.
P
PERMEABILITY — The extent to which a coating or
other film will allow air or water to pass through it.
pH — A term used to indicate acidity or alkalinity. The pH
scale runs from 0 to 14; pH 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acid,
7 to 14 is alkaline. The further the rating is from seven, the
greater the acidity or alkalinity.
PIGMENT — The solid particles used in the preparation of
paints, lacquers and enamels which are substantially insoluble in the vehicle and provide color, under film protection and special effects.
PITTING — A condition which occurs when a lacquer is
sprayed at high pressures and at temperatures below 65° F.
It will occur if a lacquer used in spraying has been stored in
a cool place and has not been allowed to attain room
temperature.
PLASTICIZER — Substances added to soften or otherwise modify the properties of a finished resin without
excessive sacrifice of strength and rigidity.
PLASTISOL — Colloidal dispersion of a resin in a plasticizer without solvent.
POCK MARKS — Marks caused by bursting of trapped air
bubbles in a porous film. Too high an air pressure or too
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thick a coating can result in pock marks. To overcome this
condition, apply thinner coatings, use less air pressure, and
use a high solvency thinner.
POLYMER — A substance composed of large molecules
formed by the combination of a number of simple molecules
with one another by chemical reaction.
PRIMER — A coating applied directly to the basic metal or
pretreated metal and upon which a subsequent coating or
topcoat is applied.
PSI — Pounds per square inch. A measure of pressure of
fluids and gasses.
R
RAISING — The appearance of wrinkles or blisters in a
film; often due to a reaction of lacquer solvents with
unoxidized oil films in oil base undercoats.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY — The ratio of the actual
amount of moisture in the air to the maximum amount it
could contain at the same temperature, expressed as a
percentage.
RESIN — A natural or synthetic substance usually organic
in composition, characterized by being amorphous (noncrystalline), isotropic (properties being the same in all
directions), plastic, often sticky and usually fusible and
soluble at some stage in its manufacture or processing.
RUNS — Rivulets in a coating caused by too much organic
coating material or thinner being applied to an area at one
time.
S
SOLVENT — Any liquid which will dissolve another substance. Solvent power of a liquid is specific, that is, it can
dissolve certain substances but not others.
SOLVENT RESISTANT COATING — A finish/paint
system such as an epoxy or a polyurethane that is catalyzed
and cures by chemical reaction in conjunction with solvent
evaporation. These coatings are highly resistant to solvents/
thinners after they completely cure.
SPRAY DUST — Paint dust that causes surface roughness
when a spray gun is held too far from the work, especially
when a highly volatile thinner is used. This is caused by
solid particles in the coating material drying up while
traveling from the nozzle to the surface being sprayed.
Insufficient thinning or too high air pressure may also cause
spray dust. Correct by spraying at lower air pressures,
adjusting distances to between 6 to 10 inches from the work,
and/or by increasing the thinner content.
STRIPPING — Removal of paint from a surface.
SURFACE TENSION — The property of a liquid by
which the surface film of a liquid tends to form into a
sphere. Surface tension affects the ability of a liquid to wet
a surface. The higher the surface tension, the poorer the
wetting.
T
TIECOAT — A two-component, VOC, solvent-borne, lead
and chromate free epoxy coating particularly formulated for
its adhesion properties to other coatings.
THIXOTROPY — The property of a coating which causes
it to undergo a gel-sol-gel transformation upon agitation and
subsequent rest. Upon agitation it becomes quite fluid but
readily falls back again to the semi-solid form after the
agitation is stopped.
TONER — Organic pigments which do not contain inorganic pigments or inorganic carrier bases.
V
VARNISH — A liquid resin material which after application converts to a transparent or translucent solid material.
VEHICLE — The liquid carrier portion of a paint/coating.
W
WET SPOTS — If metals are not thoroughly cleaned of
oils and greases before painting, those areas which retain the
foreign material become wet spots or fish-eyes. The condition is characterized by a sticky coating film which requires
extremely long drying time and often remains soft or
wrinkled. Stripping of the paint film, cleaning, and refinishing is required to correct this condition.
WRINKLE FINISH — In those cases where wrinkling is
undesirable, it is a defect caused by improper application,
usually of too heavy a coating, an abnormally high or too
rapid a rise in temperature, or high humidity. Avoid these
conditions by applying thinner films, allowing sufficient
drying time between coatings, and avoiding extremes of
temperatures and humidity.
Z
No. 2 ZAHN Cup/No. 4 Ford Cup — A small portable
viscosity measuring device.
Glossary 5/(Glossary 6 blank)
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