Mazda speed 6 Technical Training, SPEED6 User manual

Mazda speed 6 Technical Training, SPEED6 User manual
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1
00 GENERAL INFORMATION
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2
00 GENERAL INFORMATION
CONTENTS
01 ENGINE .................................................................................................7
Engine Modifications.......................................................................9
Direct Injection ..............................................................................10
Low Pressure Fuel Pump .............................................................11
High Pressure Fuel Pump.............................................................13
Turbocharger ................................................................................17
Waste Gate Control ......................................................................22
Diagnosis ......................................................................................26
Lubrication & Cooling Circuits.......................................................29
Octane ..........................................................................................30
02 SUSPENSION .....................................................................................31
Suspension Modifications ............................................................31
03 DRIVELINE / AXLE .............................................................................33
All Wheel Drive (AWD) .................................................................34
Electronic Control Coupling ..........................................................38
Tochigi-Fuji Limited Slip Differential (LSD) ...................................41
04 BRAKES .............................................................................................45
Braking System Modifications.......................................................46
DSC ..............................................................................................47
ABS/EBD Application ....................................................................52
DSC: Oversteer Correction ...........................................................53
DSC: Understeer Correction .........................................................54
TCS: Wheel Slip Correction ..........................................................55
05 TRANSAXLE.......................................................................................57
06 STEERING ..........................................................................................59
07 HVAC...................................................................................................61
08 RESTRAINTS......................................................................................63
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES ...................................................................65
Power Windows ............................................................................66
Advanced Keyless System ..........................................................69
Immobilizer (iPATS) .....................................................................73
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Headlights ..................................74
Wiper ............................................................................................75
Audio.............................................................................................76
NAVI (DVD Satellite Navigation System) ......................................78
Chassis Stiffening to Improve Body Rigidity .................................79
Body Exterior ................................................................................80
Body Interior .................................................................................81
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00 GENERAL INFORMATION
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4
00 GENERAL INFORMATION
Mazdaspeed6 Vehicle Walk Around
Exterior
1. Hood scoop for intercooler concealed inside hood
2. Grill
3. Front bumper with fog lights
4. Dark finish headlight housings
5. HID headlights (3-position leveling)
6. Side sills
7. Rear lip spoiler
8. Rear bumper and exhaust diffusers
9. Dark finish tail light housings
10. Silver painted calipers larger rotors front and rear
11. 18” X 7” alloy wheels with 215/45/18 summer radials
Interior
1. Stainless steel scuff plates
2. Alloy pedals
3. Front sport seats with longer seat bottom and enlarged side bolsters
4. Unique meter treatment
5. Unique center console finish
6. Rear seat headrests and rear seat does not fold due to structural cross bracing
7. Auto A/C
8. Power windows with one-touch up & down for all windows and anti-pinch
9. Keyless Entry (operates power windows)
10. Available Advanced Keyless Entry & Starting (operates power windows & trunk)
11. Immobilizer (iPATS)
12. BOSE Modular Audio (2-tweeters, 4-speakers and a trunk mounted sub-woofer
13. Available DVD NAVIgation System (no voice command), removable remote, DVD unit
under passenger front seat
14. Illuminated steering wheel audio and cruise control buttons
15. Speed sensing windshield wipers
Under Hood
1. 2.3L (L3T) Direct Injected Turbo, VVT: 274 hp 280 ftlbsf torque
2. Turbo control similar to Mazdaspeed Miata
3. 1885 PSI DISI- Direct Injection Spark Ignition
4. 15.6 lbs boost 9.5:1 compression
5. DSC: ABS, EBD, BAC, TCS
6. 6-speed Manual transmission
7. All Wheel Drive
8. Water cooled transfer unit
9. Electronic coupling control engages AWD at the rear differential
10. Tochigi-Fuji LSD similar to RX-8
5
00 GENERAL INFORMATION
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00-6
01 ENGINE
Objectives
After completing this section, you will be able to:
•
Explain DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition
•
Explain turbocharger controls and operation
7
01 ENGINE
L3T: 2.3L DISI, VVT, Turbo
The engine block is the same Mazda L3 engine family used since 2001:
2001 B2300
2003 MAZDA6
2004 MAZDA3 (2.0L & 2.3L)
2005 Tribute
2006 MX-5 (2.0L)
2006 MAZDASPEED6
Increased power
274 hp*
280 ft-lb Torque*
*approximate with 93 Octane fuel
•
•
•
•
8
9.5:1 compression ratio (non-turbo engines are 9.7:1)
DISI Direct Injection Spark Ignition
15.6 psi turbocharger boost
VVT Variable Valve Timing
01 ENGINE
Engine Modifications To Handle The Increased Power
•
New precision engine block and cylinder head casting process
•
Forged steel crankshaft and connecting rods
•
4-layer metal head gasket
•
Aluminum alloy dished pistons for heat dissipation and lower compression
•
Large diameter full floating wrist pins
•
Roller timing chain
•
Oil jets added to lubricate and cool pistons
•
Optimized piston skirts and connecting rods due to addition of oil jets
•
Increased lubricant volume and pressure
•
Water-cooled engine oil cooler
•
Intake manifold and valve cover changed to aluminum for better heat and
pressure characteristics
9
01 ENGINE
Direct Injection
Diesels were the first engines to use direct injection, but they use compression ignition
rather than spark ignition. Direct injection works just like PFI Port Fuel Injection. The
main differences are:
1. Fuel injectors are mounted inside the combustion chamber like spark plugs
2. Fuel is injected directly into the cylinders
3. Fuel pressure is much higher: 410 to 1885 psi
4. Fuel atomizes completely into a stratified charge
DISI
•
•
•
•
•
10
2 fuel pumps
In-tank electric pump 60-71 psi
Camshaft driven mechanical pump 410-1885 psi
Direct injection allows complete atomization and the fuel vapor
provides a cooling effect, improving the loading efficiency of the fuel
mixture
Allows a high compression ratio of 9.5:1, while resisting knock even
with turbocharging
Ignition timing is delayed without misfire, decreasing exhaust
temperatures below NOX production temperatures
Catalyst lights off quicker: within 40-seconds of starting, the HC
conversion of the catalyst is nearly 100%
01 ENGINE
DISI Fuel System
Fuel pressure from the in-tank pump is controlled at two voltages; low voltage for idle
when less fuel volume is required and high voltage for high volume required during
higher engine speeds. Voltage and volume change but pressure is constant.
In-Tank Low Pressure Fuel Pump Operation: Low voltage Idle operation
11
01 ENGINE
In-Tank Low Pressure Fuel Pump Operation: Battery Voltage Off Idle
Fuel pressure is inspected in the traditional manner in the engine compartment
before the high pressure pump and should be approximately 65 psi. You can also
use WDS to monitor the high pressure fuel rail pressure sensor before the engine
is cranked. Key on engine off, the in-tank fuel pump pressure is displayed. The fuel
pump resistor is located in front of the drivers side strut tower.
12
01 ENGINE
High Pressure Fuel Rail
High Pressure
pump
Fuel Rail
Pressure Sensor
High Pressure Fuel Pump
The PCM maintains pressure by monitoring the fuel rail pressure sensor
• Pressure is modified by opening the spill control solenoid
• Fuel pressure on the high pressure rail can only be inspected using WDS or
equivalent to monitor the fuel rail pressure sensor
• The PCM energizes the spill control solenoid to control fuel pressure
• High pressure fuel is dangerous. Fuel pressure must be released prior to
service by removing the fuel pump relay and cranking the engine
Spill
Control
Solenoid
Pump
Low fuel
pressure
return line
from rail
High
pressure
outlet to
fuel rail
13
01 ENGINE
High Pressure Fuel Rail
The fuel rail supplies fuel to the injectors. The fuel rail pressure sensor supplies
pressure information to the PCM. A pressure relief valve inside the low pressure
return line allows pressure over 1885 psi to return to the low pressure side of the
high pressure fuel pump.
Low pressure
fuel return to
pump (internal
pressure relief)
Fuel pressure
sensor
In from high
pressure pump
Fuel rail
High Pressure Pump Internal Construction
A trochoid drive on the camshaft at the rear of the cylinder head drives the high
pressure pump. When the PCM energizes the spill control solenoid fuel enters
the pump chamber. When the spill solenoid is commanded off, the high pressure
chamber is isolated and can build high pressure. The one way check valve assures
high pressure can only go one direction, into the rail.
Spill control
solenoid
Pump chamber
Valve
Plunger
Pulsation
damper
Low
pressure
from tank
14
One-way
check valve
High
pressure
to rail
Trochoid pump
drive
01 ENGINE
Injector Driver Module
The PCM fires the injectors with the injector driver module. Because the fuel system
is running at up to 1885 PSI, it requires more energy to open the fuel injectors. The
injector driver module turns the injectors on with +100 volts. The injector is then held
open with +12 volts. The injector driver module then closes the injectors with -100
volts. The injector driver module is located at the rear of the drive strut tower.
High Pressure Fuel Injectors
• Removal requires a special tool similar to O2 sensor socket, fuel pressure
must be released and intake manifold must be removed. The tool is rocked
left to right to loosen any carbon holding the injector.
15
01 ENGINE
The #3 injector requires cutting the corner off of the PCV catch tank to allow more
clearance.
16
01 ENGINE
Turbocharger
The main components of the turbocharging system are:
•
Air ducts and charge air cooler (Intercooler)
•
Turbocharger
Waste gate
Waste gate actuator
•
Boost control:
Waste gate control solenoid
Air bypass valve
17
01 ENGINE
Air Ducts and Charge Air Cooler
Air cleaner to turbo inlet (low pressure/low temperature)
Turbo outlet to charge air cooler (high pressure/high
temperature)
Charge air cooler to throttle body/intake manifold (high
pressure/low temperature)
Air bypass valve to turbo inlet
18
01 ENGINE
Turbo
Compressed
air to charge
air cooler/
intercooler
Out to
exhaust
Air from air
cleaner
Exhaust pressure
to spin turbine from
exhaust manifold
Turbochargers consist of a housing, a blade assembly, inlet ducts for low pressure
air and outlet ducts for high pressure air, an intercooler, oil inlet and return, coolant
inlet and return, and boost control circuits.
The turbine blade is on the exhaust side of the turbocharger and the compressor
blade is on the intake side of the turbocharger. The turbine blade is spun by exhaust
pressure.The compressor blade spins and pressurizes the intake air.
The hot/high pressure air coming out of the turbo is sent to the intercooler to cool it
and make it denser.
The shaft between the turbocharger’s blades rides on bearing surfaces and a thin
film of oil. The turbo’s center upper housing has an oil feed line that connects to the
engines lubrication system to provide pressurized oil. On the bottom of the turbo
housing is an oil drain line to return oil back to the engines crankcase.
19
01 ENGINE
Turbocharger Inlet and Outlet Pressures and Temperatures
Exhaust to spin the
turbine
High pressure hot air
to intercooler
Waste Gate
Solenoid
Exhaust bypassing
turbine when the
waste gate opens
Compressor
blade
20
Low pressure
air from air
cleaner
Turbine
blade
01 ENGINE
Waste Gate
The waste gate is a valve that allows exhaust pressure to bypass the turbocharger
turbine and dump directly into the exhaust. The waste gate valve actuator controls
the waste gate. When the waste gate opens, the turbine spins slower.
Waste gate
valve open
Waste Gate Actuator
The waste gate actuator consists of a control rod connected to the waste gate valve
and a spring and diaphragm that hold the waste gate valve closed. The actuator
pops open to allow the exhaust to bypass the turbocharger turbine and dump directly
into the exhaust.
Waste Gate
Actuator Rod
Spring
and
diaphragm
21
01 ENGINE
Waste Gate Regulator Solenoid
An intake manifold connection to the waste gate actuator opens the waste gate. The
waste gate regulator solenoid regulates boost pressure from the intake to bleed off
pressure, preventing the waste gate from opening too early when maximum boost is
needed.
There are three operating modes for the Waste Gate Actuator solenoid:
1. Solenoid off, waste gate closed, building boost
2. Solenoid off, waste gate open, releasing boost
3. Solenoid on, waste gate closed, building maximum boost
1. Solenoid off, waste gate closed, building boost
Waste Gate
Solenoid
Waste Gate is closed
Cool Fresh Air
High Pressure Hot Air
Exhaust Gasses
22
01 ENGINE
2. Solenoid off, waste gate open, releasing boost
When boost pressure is high in the intake, the boost pressure from the intake
manifold acts on the waste gate actuator to open the waste gate, slow down the
turbine, and prevent an over-boost condition.
Cool Fresh Air
High Pressure Hot Air
Exhaust Gasses
23
01 ENGINE
3. Solenoid on, waste gate closed, building maximum boost
Apply pressure is bled
off from the wastegate
actuator back to the
turbocharger inlet
Waste gate is
Closed
The waste gate regulator solenoid tunes the opening rate of the waste gate to help
build maximum boost when needed. The solenoid controls the line from the intake
manifold to the waste gate actuator. When the solenoid is energized, it bleeds off
pressure routed from the intake manifold to the waste gate actuator. The solenoid
bleeds this pressure back into the turbocharger inlet.
Cool Fresh Air
High Pressure Hot Air
Exhaust Gasses
24
01 ENGINE
Air Bypass Valve
The air bypass valve protects the intake manifold air ducts, passages, and sealing
gaskets from damage due to over-boost. Over-boost can occur when accelerating
the vehicle and closing the throttle suddenly. When the throttle closes suddenly and
boost pressure is present in the intake manifold, this valve pops open and vents the
pressure back to the inlet side of the turbocharger.
Air Bypass Valve - Closed (throttle open)
WASTE GATE
SOLENOID
Throttle open and
high boost
TURBO
Air Bypass Valve - Open (throttle closed)
WASTE GATE
Manifold
vacuum
Valve is open
SOLENOID
Throttle closed
and high boost
Cool Fresh Air
TURBO
High Pressure Hot Air
Manifold Vacuum
Cool Dense Air
25
01 ENGINE
Turbocharger Diagnosis
Black Smoke
Dirty air filter system
Suction and pressure line distorted or leaking
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/leakage
upstream of turbine
Fuel system/injection feed system defective or incorrectly
adjusted
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Boost pressure control swing valve/poppet valve does not
close
Turbocharger bearing damage
Foreign body damage on compressor or turbine
Engine air collector cracked/missing or loose gaskets
Turbine housing/flap damaged
Insufficient oil supply of turbocharger
Lack of Power/Boost Pressure Low
Dirty air filter system
Suction and pressure line distorted or leaking
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Fuel system/injection feed system defective or incorrectly
adjusted
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Boost pressure control swing valve/poppet valve does not
close
Pipe assy. to swing valve/poppet valve defective
Turbocharger bearing damage
Foreign body damage on compressor or turbine
Engine air collector cracked/missing or loose gaskets
Turbine housing/flap damaged
Insufficient oil supply of turbocharger
Boost Pressure Too High
Fuel system/injection feed system defective or incorrectly
adjusted
Boost pressure control swing valve/poppet valve does not
open
Pipe assy. to swing valve/poppet valve defective
Compressor/Turbine Wheel Failure
Turbocharger bearing damage
Foreign body damage on compressor or turbine
Turbine housing/flap damaged
Insufficient oil supply of turbocharger
High Oil Consumption
Dirty air filter system
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Oil feed and drain lines clogged, leaking or distorted
Crankcase ventilation clogged and distorted
Coke and sludge in turbocharger center housing
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Piston ring sealing defective
Turbocharger bearing damage
Blue Smoke
Dirty air filter system
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Oil feed and drain lines clogged, leaking or distorted
Crankcase ventilation clogged and distorted
Coke and sludge in turbocharger center housing
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Piston ring sealing defective
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black and Blue Smoke
Dirty air filter system
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Turbocharger bearing damage
Oil Leakage at Turbine
Oil feed and drain lines clogged, leaking or distorted
Crankcase ventilation clogged and distorted
Coke and sludge in turbocharger center housing
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Piston ring sealing defective
Turbocharger bearing damage
Turbocharger noise
Suction and pressure line distorted or leaking
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Turbocharger bearing damage
Foreign body damage on compressor or turbine
Exhaust gas leakage between turbine outlet and exhaust
pipe
Engine air collector cracked/missing or loose gaskets
Turbine housing/flap damaged
Insufficient oil supply of turbocharger
Oil Leakage at Compressor
Dirty air filter system
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Oil feed and drain lines clogged, leaking or distorted
Crankcase ventilation clogged and distorted
Coke and sludge in turbocharger center housing
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Piston ring sealing defective
Turbocharger bearing damage
26
01 ENGINE
Black
Blue Smoke
Compressor/Turbine Wheel Failure
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
High Oil Consumption
Compressor/Turbine Wheel Failure
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
High Oil Consumption
Dirty air filter system
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
Insufficient power
Dirty air filter system
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
Oil Leak at Compressor
Dirty air filter system
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
Oil Leak at Turbine
Valve guide, piston rings, engine or cylinder liners worn/
increased blow by
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
Noisy Turbocharger
Excessive flow resistance in exhaust system/ leakage
upstream of turbine
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
High Oil Consumption
Compressor/Turbine Wheel Failure
Insufficient Power
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
High Oil Consumption
Compressor/Turbine Wheel Failure
Insufficient Power
Oil Leak at Compressor
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
High Oil Consumption
Compressor/Turbine Wheel Failure
Insufficient Power
Oil Leak at Compressor
Oil Leak at Turbine
Turbocharger generates noise
Turbocharger bearing damage
Black
Blue Smoke
High Oil Consumption
Compressor/Turbine Wheel Failure
Insufficient Power
Oil Leak at Compressor
Oil Leak at Turbine
Turbocharger bearing damage
27
01 ENGINE
Turbocharger Diagnosis by Symptom
Symptoms
Outlet duct distorted or leaking
Overfilled crankcase
PCV plugged or lines distorted
Turbo oil inlet line plugged or
distorted
Turbo oil inlet line leaking
Turbo oil drain line plugged or
distorted
Turbo oil drain line leaking
Low engine compression: valve
guides, piston rings, cylinders worn/
increased blow by
Excessive flow resistance/
backpressure in exhaust system or
leakage upstream of turbine
Fuel system problem
Dirty compressor or charge air cooler
Waste gate control valve does not
close
Turbocharger bearing damage
Foreign body damage to
compressor or turbine
Engine air collector cracked or loose
gaskets
Turbine housing/flap damaged
Insufficient oil supply to turbocharger
Coke and sludge in turbocharger
center housing
Waste gate control valve defective
Exhaust gas leakage between
turbine outlet and exhaust pipe
28
Turbocharger noisy
Oil leak into turbine
Low power/low boost
pressure
Oil leak into
compressor
High oil consumption
Compressor/ turbine
wheel damage
High Boost Pressure
Blue smoke
Inlet duct distorted or leaking
Black smoke
Possible Cause
Dirty air filter
01 ENGINE
Lubrication Routing Diagram
Coolant Routing Diagram
The coolant lines run from the cylinder head to the EGR valve and turbocharger.
29
01 ENGINE
Fuel Octane
The MZR 2.3L L3T engine has a high compression ratio for a turbocharged vehicle
of 9.5:1. Typically turbocharged engine compression ratios are in the range of 7.5:1
to 8.5:1. This engine also has high boost pressure from the turbocharger 15.6 psi.
Typical turbochargers boost from 5 to 12 psi . When you combine a high compression
ratio and high boost, the result is a higher compression engine, somewhere in the
range of 11:1. Higher compression engines require higher octane fuel.
Using lower than 91 octane fuel is not recommended. Lower octane fuel must be
injected and ignited earlier. Less timing advance results in lower power and more heat.
This engine should be run with 91 to 93 octane, 93 is ideal for its compression ratio.
There are several disadvantages to lower octane fuels, less power, more heat, lower
fuel economy, more carbon deposits. 89 octane should only be used in an emergency
if 91 octane is not available.
The engine management system is able to seemlessly modify the ignition timing and
fuel delivery for the entire range of fuel octane from 89 to 93 without detonation. It is
also designed to protect the engine from damage due to lower octane fuel. When low
octane fuel is used, the fuel delivery and ignition timing are retarded and power output
is reduced. Continued operation with low octane fuel can result in increased engine
intake air temperatures, when temperatures exceed safe levels, the PCM commands
the turbochargers waste gate regulator solenoid off at 4200 rpm. With the wastegate
regulator solenoid off, the wastegate opens earlier to reduce heat. A customer using
low octane fuel in hot climates may describe this as a loss of power over 4000 rpm.
30
02 SUSPENSION
Suspension Modifications
•
18” X 7” Alloy wheels with 215/45/18
•
Vehicle overall height reduced 0.4”
•
Shock dampers tuned
•
Spring rates increased:
Front- 25%
Rear- 37%
•
Stabilizer bar thickness increased:
Front- 23 to 24mm
Rear- 21 to 23mm
31
02 SUSPENSION
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32
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
Objectives
After completing this section, you will be able to:
•
Explain Active Torque Control AWD
33
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
All Wheel Drive (AWD)
•
Front/rear wheel torque varies between 100/0 and 50/50 through an electronic
torque coupling mounted in front of the rear differential
•
100/0 is only used when the hand brake is applied or at low speeds during
tight turns (parking lot maneuvers)
•
Many AWD systems in FWD cars require front wheel slip (viscous couplings)
before power is transferred to the rear, MAZDASPEED6 has a strong rear
wheel bias in most driving conditions
•
Almost constant torque to the rear requires a water cooled transfer unit
Water cooled
transfer unit
Electronic
Control Coupling
3-piece steel
drive shaft
Tochigi-Fuji
Limited Slip
Differential
34
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
The 4WD ECU uses real-time data to manage torque.
• PCM: VSS, RPM, TP angle, neutral switch, brake pedal position, selector
lever position
• DSC: 4-wheel speed sensors, parking brake switch, ABS activated, steering
wheel angle, brake fluid pressure, back-up light, coupling torque request, yaw
rate, and lateral G-force
• Rear Differential: oil temperature
35
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
Transfer Unit
Water Cooling
36
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
Torque always goes to the front wheels and the rear drive shaft.
37
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
Electronic Control Coupling
The electronic control coupling switches power to the rear wheels the rear
differential.
Internal Components
38
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
Electromagnetic Clutch OFF
• Electromagnetic solenoid off, pilot clutch released
• No power to rear differential and the rear wheels are turning at same rate as
front
The ball is centered in the pilot cam so no pressure is exerted on the main clutch
and no torque is transmitted to the rear differential.
39
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
Power to Electromagnetic Clutch
• Electromagnetic solenoid energized, pilot clutch applied
• A slight difference in speed between the front and rear wheels
When the electromagnetic coil is energized and the front wheels rotate at a
different rate than the rear wheels, the ball separates the main cam and the pilot
cam. This exerts force on the main clutch and torque is transmitted from the
driveshaft to the rear differential.
40
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
Tochigi-Fuji Limited Slip Differential (LSD)
41
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
Differential Effect
LSD Effect
42
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
LSD Torque Transfer
43
03 DRIVELINE/AXLE
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44
04 BRAKES
Objectives
After completing this section, you will be able to:
•
Explain Brake Assist Control
•
Explain Oversteer and Understeer
•
Explain Dynamic Stability Control
•
Explain Traction Control.
45
04 BRAKES
Braking System Modifications
•
Larger brakes:
Front- 12.6” (vs 11.8”) ventilated discs
Rear-12.4” (vs 10”) solid discs
ABS
Anti-lock
Braking
System
EBD
Electronic
Brake Force
Distribution
BAC
Brake Assist
Control
DSC
Dynamic
Stability
Control
TCS
Traction
Control
System
Maintains steering control by preventing wheels from
locking during braking
Prevents rear wheel lockup by maintaining optimal
distribution of braking force front to rear
Monitors build of brake pressure with a pressure
sensor inside the HU/CM. During hard braking it
assists braking by building additional pressure using
the ABS pump
Monitors vehicle speed, steering angle, G-force and
Yaw and adjust braking on individual wheels to help
maintain the vehicle on the correct line through turns
Detects drive wheel spin and maintains traction
by cutting engine torque or applying braking to the
slipping wheel
ABS and EBD have been around and BAC is simple to understand. However, DSC
and TCS are relatively new so we will cover these functions in detail.
With DSC and TCS, the HU/CM determines the direction the vehicle is headed
and reduces engine torque and applies the brakes individually to keep the vehicle
moving in the correct direction.
46
04 BRAKES
DSC
DSC is designed to help correct understeer and oversteer.
Understeer
Is described by drivers as plowing or pushing. Understeer occurs when the vehicle
moves further to the outside of a turn than the driver intended and the driver must
slow the vehicle and increase the steering angle to correct the vehicle direction.
Oversteer
Is described by drivers as fishtailing or spinning out. Oversteer occurs when
the vehicle moves further to the inside of a turn than the driver intended and the
driver must slow the vehicle and decrease the steering angle to correct the vehicle
direction.
Direction of travel is determined by inputs from the steering angle sensor and the
combined sensor. The combined sensor measures yaw angle, and forward and
lateral G-forces.
•
Yaw Angle = the angle of a vehicle’s travel compared to its heading angle.
•
Heading Angle = angle by which the longitudinal axis of a moving vehicle
deviates from its true direction of travel.
47
04 BRAKES
↕
↔
48
Forward G-force
Lateral G-force
Yaw Angle
04 BRAKES
Combined Sensor
All combined sensor readings (yaw, forward and lateral G-force) read 2.5 volts
while the vehicle is at rest. The voltage of each sensor in the combined sensor will
increase or decrease as the direction of vehicle travel changes.
49
04 BRAKES
Part name
Function
Pressureretention solenoid
valve
Adjusts the fluid pressure in each brake system according
to DSC HU/CM signals.
Stability control
solenoid valve
Brake fluid
pressure sensor
Switches the brake hydraulic circuits during and according
to normal braking, ABS and EBD control, TCS control and
DSC control.
Monitors brake fluid pressure build up to determine hard
braking to use ABS pump for assist
Normal
Position
OFF =
Open
OFF =
Closed
Not
applicable
Reservoir
Temporarily stores brake fluid from the caliper piston to
ensure smooth pressure reduction during ABS and EBD
control, TCS control and DSC control.
Not
applicable
Pressurereduction
solenoid valve
Adjusts the fluid pressure in each brake system according
to DSC HU/CM signals.
OFF =
Closed
Traction switching
solenoid valve
Switches the brake hydraulic circuits during and according
to normal braking, ABS and EBD control, TCS control and
DSC control.
OFF =
Open
Operates the pump according to DSC HU/CM signals.
Returns the brake fluid stored in the reservoir to the master
cylinder during ABS and DSC control.
Increases brake fluid pressure and sends brake fluid to
each caliper piston during TCS control and DSC control.
Stopped
Pump motor
Pump
50
Not
applicable
04 BRAKES
Normal Braking
Fluid pressure passes from the master cylinder through all HU/CM solenoids directly
to the front and rear brake calipers.
The following happens at the same time:
• Right Front Brake Applies
• Left Rear Brake Applies
• Right Rear Brake Applies
• Left Front Brake Applies
Solenoid Valve Operation Table
Traction
switching
solenoid valve
LF - RR RF-LR
OFF (Open)
Stability control
solenoid valve
LF - RR
RF-LR
OFF (Closed)
Pressure-retention
solenoid valve
LF
RF
OFF (Open)
LR
RR
Pressure-reduction
solenoid valve
LF
RF
LR
OFF (Closed)
Pump motor
RR
Stopped
51
04 BRAKES
ABS/EBD Application
•
Right Front Pressure Increases
•
Left Front Pressure Maintains
•
Both Rear Wheels Pressure Decreases. During pressure reduction, bledoff pressure is stored in the accumulators
•
After pressure reduction, the pump returns unused pressure from the
accumulators back to the brake master cylinder
Traction
switching
solenoid
Stability
control
solenoid
LF - RR
RF-LR
LF - RR
RF-LR
LF-RF-LR-RR
LF-RF-LR-RR
Pressure
Increase
OFF
(Open)
OFF (Closed)
ON (Closed)
OFF (Closed)
Stopped
Pressure
Maintain
OFF
(Open)
OFF (Closed)
ON (Closed)
OFF (Closed)
Stopped
Pressure
Reduction
OFF
(Open)
OFF (Closed)
ON (Closed)
ON (Open)
Operating
52
Pressure-retention
solenoid
Pressure-reduction
solenoid
Pump
motor
04 BRAKES
DSC: Oversteer Correction
• Left turn, the right front wheel is slipping, resulting in oversteer
•
The pump, traction switching and stability control solenoids are
energized
•
Brake pressure is applied to the slipping outer front wheel or slipping
drive wheel
•
The inlet solenoid of the inner rear wheel is energized, closing its
hydraulic circuit
•
The right front wheel is slowed to correct oversteer
•
Additional pressure charges the accumulator/reservoir
Solenoid operation during a left turn to control right front wheel spin
Traction switching
solenoid
LF - RR
RF-LR
Pressure
Increase
OFF
(Open)
ON
(Closed)
Pressure
Maintain
OFF
(Open)
ON
(Closed)
Pressure
Reduction
OFF
(Open)
ON
(Closed)
Stability
control
solenoid
LF
RF- RR
LR
OFF (Closed)
Pressure-retention solenoid
LF
RF
OFF (Closed)
Pressure-reduction solenoid
LR
RR
On
(Closed)
OFF
(Open)
OFF (Closed)
Operating
OFF (Closed)
Stopped
OFF (Closed)
OFF
(Open)
On (Closed)
OFF
(Open)
OFF (Closed)
OFF
(Open)
On (Closed)
OFF
(Open)
LF
OFF
(Closed)
RF
On
(Open)
LR
Pump
motor
RR
OFF
(Closed)
Operating
53
04 BRAKES
DSC: Understeer Correction
•
Left turn
•
Understeer is detected
•
DSC applies ABS pump, traction switching and stability control
solenoids to slow the left rear wheel to correct
•
•
The ABS pump also charges the accumulator
Left rear wheel is slowed
Solenoid operation during a left turn to obtain target wheel speed
Traction switching
solenoid
Pressure
Increase
Pressure
Maintain
Pressure
Reduction
54
LF - RR
RF-LR
OFF
(Open)
OFF
(Open)
OFF
(Open)
ON
(Closed)
ON
(Closed)
ON
(Closed)
Stability
control
solenoid
LFRFRR
LR
OFF
(Closed)
OFF
(Closed)
OFF
(Closed)
Pressure-retention solenoid valve
Pressure-reduction solenoid
Pump
motor
LF
OFF
(Open)
OFF
(Open)
OFF
(Open)
RF
On
(Closed)
LR
On (Closed)
On (Closed)
RR
OFF (Open)
LF
RF
LR
RR
OFF (Closed)
OFF(Open)
OFF (Closed)
OFF (Open)
ON
(Open)
OFF (Closed)
Operating
Stopped
OFF
(Closed)
Operating
04 BRAKES
TCS
TCS will back off the electronic throttle to brake engine torque and prevent wheel
slip, which is a uniform correction to all wheels simultaneously.
TCS can also command the HU/CM to apply the brakes of individual wheels to
make localized corrections to one or more slipping wheels.
55
04 BRAKES
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56
05 TRANSAXLE
Manual Transaxle Changes
•
A26 MX-R
•
6-Speed Manual Transmission
•
Compact 3-shaft design keeps overall length the same as the 5-speed
manual transmission
•
Triple-cone synchronizers for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th gears
•
Double-cone synchronizers for 5th, 6th and Reverse
•
Wide gear ratios to exploit the engine’s power band
1st = 3.53
2nd = 2.23
3rd = 1.53
4th = 1.17
5th = 1.08
6th = 0.85
Rev = 3.83
57
05 TRANSAXLE
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58
06 STEERING
Steering System Changes
The steering rack stroke has been increased from 135.4 to 141.6mm to accommodate
the 18 inch wheels. This also increase the distance form lock to lock from 2.54 to 2.65
turns.
59
06 STEERING
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60
07 HVAC
HVAC Changes
Auto AC
This has been available on MAZDA6 since 2003. Changes include combining
the condenser and receiver drier together. In defrost mode, the air mode door is
automatically switched to fresh air and the AC is switched on. Weight was reduced
by integrating the cooling and heater units.
61
07 HVAC
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62
08 RESTRAINTS
Restraint System Changes
This system is the same as MAZDA6 and MAZDASPEED6 both receive the
following DTCs:
DTC
Flash Code
Malfunction Location
B1317
None
SAS control module power supply voltage increases
(16.1 V or more)
B1318
None
SAS control module power supply voltage
decreases (less than 9 V)
B1884
18
Passenger air bag deactivation (PAD) indicator
open or short to body ground
B1890
18
Passenger air bag deactivation (PAD) indicator
circuit short to power supply
B2477
54
Configuration error
63
08 RESTRAINTS
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64
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Objectives
After completing this section, you will be able to:
Explain the following body and electrical changes:
•
Power Windows
•
Advanced Keyless Entry
•
High Intensity Discharge Headlights (HID)
•
Windshield Wipers
•
Audio System
•
NAVI
•
Chassis
•
Exterior
•
Interior
65
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Power Windows
One touch operation
All power windows have one touch up and down capability from the master switch
and the sub-switches.
Anti-pinch
To protect hands from injury during power window closing, all power windows will
automatically stop and reverse direction when an object is caught between the
window and upper door frame. Internal circuitry senses the amperage draw of the
motor and engages auto reverse when necessary.
Automatic opening and closing functions:
Opening
Transmitter
Advanced
keyless request
switch
Driver door key
cylinder
66
Hold unlock for more than
1.5-seconds all windows
automatically open, (press
the button a second time to
stop the windows)
Closing
No applicable
Hold drivers door advanced
keyless request switch for
more than 1.5 seconds until all
Not applicable
windows close (windows will
halt closing when the button is
released)
Hold driver Key cylinder in
lock until all windows close
Hold the driver key cylinder
in the unlock position until all completely (windows will halt the
windows open
close function when the key is
released)
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Power window initialize procedure
Any time battery power to the power window circuit is lost several power window
automatic features will not function.
•
passsenger power windows will not function from the driver switch
•
one-touch up and one touch down will not operate
•
anti-pinch stops functioning,
•
power window functions are disabled from the remote, the key in the driver door
lock cylinder and the advanced keyless request switch.
If battery power is lost to any of the passenger door switches, then just the affected
door will loose the functions listed above.
If only one window is affected, perform this procedure on the affected window. If all
windows are affected perform this procedure on all windows:
1. Roll the drivers window down
2. Roll the drivers window up
3. Hold the power window switch in the up position for more than 2-seconds
4. Repeat step 1 thru 3 at the power window sub-switch of each door
5. Verify all power window functions operate properly
I
67
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Power Window Main Switch
Power Window Sub Switches
68
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Advanced Keyless System
This system allows a customer to enter and start the vehicle without using a
transmitter button or key.
System components:
• Advanced keyless control module
•
6-antennas (driver, passenger, interior front, interior middle, interior rear,
trunk)
•
Keyless receiver
•
3-request switches (driver, passenger, trunk)
•
2-indicator lights (red and green) in the Instrument Cluster (IC)
•
Keyless buzzer (in driver door)
•
Start knob push button switch
•
Up to 6 transmitters
69
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Reception Range
Transmitter
Auxiliary Key
Start Knob
Red indicator light
Advanced Keyless Back-up
If the transmitter battery fails, the advanced keyless system fails or the battery dies,
you can still access the vehicle and start the vehicle. There is an auxiliary key
hidden inside the advanced keyless transmitter. This key will unlock the mechanical
key cylinders/locks on the driver door, trunk, and glove box. This vehicle is also
equipped with an auxiliary ignition cylinder. Remove the start knob by pressing the
release buttons on each side of the start knob while pulling. Insert the key and turn.
70
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Advanced Keyless System Operation
Driver Request Switch (person must have the transmitter)
Entering the vehicle
Exiting the vehicle
• Press once to unlock just the driver
• Press once to lock all doors
door*
• If you continue to hold the
• Press twice to unlock all doors
button in, all windows roll up
• Press a third time to lock all doors
Passenger Request Switch (person must have the transmitter)
Entering the vehicle
Exiting the vehicle
• Press once to unlock just the
• Press once to lock all doors
(hold the button in to roll all
passenger door*
windows up)
• Press twice to unlock all doors
• Press a third time to lock all doors
*Each time a request switch is pressed, a programed remotes indicator light
will flash
Trunk Request Switch (person must have the transmitter)
• Press once to unlock the trunk and all doors
• Press a second time to lock the trunk and all doors
Or
• Press and hold until the trunk lock actuates to lock or unlock the trunk
Advanced Keyless System Buzzer and Warning Lights
When the start knob is pressed and held, the
green “KEY” light illuminates for up to 2.5
seconds
Note: if the green “KEY” light flashes, replace the
remote batteries.
Transmitter recognized
After the door is opened and when the transmitter
is inside the vehicle a red light on the upper corner
of the transmitter will flash approximately every 3
seconds
When the start knob is pressed, the red “KEY”
Transmitter not recognized
light flashes
Advanced Keyless
The power door locks will not lock
transmitter left inside vehicle
Ignition left on (Advanced
The buzzer inside the driver door sounds 3-times
Keyless transmitter removed
and the red security light flashes
from vehicle)
71
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Automatic Relocking
If the keyless transmitter moves outside the reception zone, all doors will
automatically re-lock after 2-seconds. If no doors are opened (even if the transmitter
is in the reception zone), the doors will re-lock after 30-seconds. This functions are
turned off when the vehicle arrives and must be switched on using WDS.
Advanced Keyless Diagnosis, Transmitter & Key Programming
All diagnosis and programming of up to six-transmitters for the advanced keyless
system is done with WDS or M-MDS and ESI or the new Mazda Service Support
System (MS3), the replacement for ESI, for In-Codes . You can program keys and
remotes separately.
•
•
•
Answer Back Buzzer (RKE): during lock/unlock (factory default is ON)
Automatic Locks (RKE): If the doors are unlocked and a door is not
opened within 30 seconds, all doors relock. If the doors are unlocked and
the transmitter leaves the 2.5 foot reception zone, the doors will relock
after 3-seconds (factory default is OFF)
Card Key Battery Low Warning: Green Key Light Flashes if the remote
battery is weak (factory default is ON)
To change these features:
1. ID the vehicle
2. Select: Toolbox
3. Select: Module Programming
4. Select: Programmable Parameters
5. Select: RKE
6. Select the function and change it to ON or OFF as desired
Perimeter Alarm
Standard perimeter alarm sounds the horn and flashes parking lights if any access
points are opened after locking (doors, hood and trunk). An accessory shock kit is
available as a dealer installed option.
Trunk Valet Function
All vehicles with advanced keyless come with tfive keys; two advanced keyless
remotes, two full access keys (one hidden inside each advanced keyless remote),
and 1 valet key with (grey plastic head). Pressing and holding the the trunk request
switch for 5 seconds allows you to enter and exit the valet mode. Valet mode
causes the trunk to stop locking and unlocking with the doors.
72
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Immobilizer (iPATS)
The PCM, ignition coil, and keys are the main components. When a key or
transmitter is recognized the engine will start. When a key or transmitter is not
recognized, the engine will not start. This system requires WDS or M-MDS for
diagnosis and key programming functions as well as access to ESI for In-Codes.
73
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Headlights
The high intensity discharge headlights are Xenon gas charged with 25,000 volts.
The driver can adjust the height of the headlights using a 4-position leveling switch.
Headlights will automatically shut off.
HID
HID Leveling
74
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Wiper Washer: Speed Sensing Wipers
In the intermittent position, the windshield wiper motor changes frequency of wipes
based on vehicle speed. The wiper motor receives wiper speed control from the
Body Control Module (BCM). The BCM receives vehicle speed information from the
DSC HU/CM.
75
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Audio
Standard BOSE® modular audio with:
• In-dash 6-CD changer
• 2-tweeters
• 4-speakers
• Trunk mounted subwoofer
• Sirius® satellite radio compatible
• Illuminated steering wheel audio and cruise controls
The in-dash 6-Disc CD changer can be swapped for an accessory option single CD
player capable of playing MP3 files.
Audio System
Removal
1. Remove the glove
box damper clip and
bend the stoppers
inward.
2. Remove the center
console.
3. Disconnect the
cigarette lighter,
illumination from the
ashtray and the NAVI
cradle
connector.
4. Remove the seat warmer
switch.
5. Disconnect the accessory
socket connector.
6. Remove the screws holding
the finisher.
76
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
7. Remove bolt hidden behind the
driver side of the dash (use protective
tape to
prevent cuts
from sharp metal edges).
8. Remove the center panel #5.
9. Disconnect the electrical connectors.
77
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
NAVI (DVD Satellite Navigation System)
78
•
Similar to MAZDA3 and RX-8 (does not support voice commands)
•
The remote control can be removed from the cradle for use by a passenger
•
Maps have 3-dimensional characteristics which help show road contour
•
The DVD-ROM drive which stores map data is under the front passenger seat
•
There are new searching options for customers such as searching by phone
number
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Chassis Stiffening to Improve Body Rigidity
•
Torsional rigidity has been improved by approximately 50% over MAZDA6
•
Local reinforcement on sub-assemblies to limit weight ,increase rigidity
•
Advantages include overall rigid feel, improved grip of rear suspension, and
steering response
•
Four angled diagonal brace members added behind the rear seats
(eliminating the fold down function)
•
The cross members atop the floor join the left and right sides of the cabin to
support the damper mounts
•
The strength of the suspension mounts at the rear of the body was increased
to support the greater damping force of the new rear dampers
•
Increased size of the reinforcements for the inside of the bumper section
strengthens the joint to the body
•
The cowl has been lengthened on both ends and connected directly to
stiffeners on the front damper mounts
•
The numbers of joints between the instrument panel members and body were
increased to create a stronger, more rigid assembly
•
The body mounts for the perimeter frame to which the front suspension and
engine are mounted were strengthened
•
Reinforcing gussets were added to strengthen the left and right roof rails and
header sections of the upper body
79
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Body Exterior
80
•
Hood
•
Grille
•
Side sills
•
Rear lip spoiler
•
Rear bumper with exhaust diffusers
•
Front fenders
•
Front bumper with fog lights
•
Dark finish headlight housings
•
Dark finish tail lights
•
Silver painted brake calipers
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
Body Interior
•
Stainless steel scuff plates
•
Alloy pedals
•
Front sport seats with longer seat
bottom and enlarged side bolsters
•
Unique meter treatment
•
Unique center console finish
•
Rear seat headrests
81
09 BODY & ACCESSORIES
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82
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