01128

01128
Final
Remedial Investigation1
Feasibility Study
Sampling and Analysis Plan
for Operable Unit No. 10
(Site 35)
Refkrence:
Contract
N612470-89-D-4814
[email protected]
December
1993
Marine Corps Base
Camp Lejeune, North Carolina
Prepared For:
Department of the Navy
Atlantic Division
Naval Facilities
Engineering Command
Norfolk, Virginia
Under the
LANTDIV
CLEAN Program
Comprehensive Long-Term
Environmental Action Navy
FOSTER
@)
FOSTER
WREELBR
WHEELI
E”YIAESWWSE.
WC.
SECTION
I
FINAL
REMEDIAL
INVESTIGATION/
FEASIBILITY
STUDY
FIELD SAMPLING
AND ANALYSIS
PLAN
FOR OPERABLE
UNIT NO. 10
(SITE 35)
CAMP
MARINE
LEJEUNE,
CONTRACT
CORPS BASE
NORTH CAROLINA
TASK
ORDER
0160
Prepared For:
.::
DEPARTMENT
OF THE NAVY
ATLANTIC
DIVISION
NAVAL
FACILITIES
ENGINEERING
COMMAND
Norfolk, Virginia
Under:
LANTDIV
Contract
CLEAN Program
N62470-89-D-4814
Prepared
BAKER
by:
ENVIRONMENTAL,
Coraopolis, Pennsylvania
DECEMBER
1993
INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0
...................................................
INTRODUCTION
Site Description and Setting .....................................
1.1
1.1.1 Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune ........................
1.1.2 Site 35 . Camp Geiger Area Fuel Farm ....................
..............................
Evaluation of Existing Information
1.2
1.2.1 Types and Volumes of Waste and Impacted Media Present ...
1.2.2 Potential Migration and Exposure Pathways ...............
1.2.3 Preliminary Public Health and
Environmental Health Impacts ...........................
............................
1.2.4 Present Database Limitations
.....................................
QUALITY OBJECTIVES
Stage 1 . Identification of Decision Types .........................
Stage 2 . Identification of Data Needs .............................
Stage 3 - Design Data Collection Program .........................
2.0
DATA
2.1
2.2
2.3
3.0
......................
SAMPLING LOCATIONS AND FREQUENCY
Soil and Groundwater Sample Screening .........................
3.1
..............................................
3.2
Soil Investigation
3.2.1 Surface Soil Sampling ...................................
3.2.2 Subsurface Soil Sampling ................................
...........................................
3.2.3 Soil Analysis
......................................
Groundwater Investigation
3.3
3.3.1 Shallow Groundwater Wells ..............................
3.3.2 Deep Groundwater Wells ................................
3.3.3 Groundwater Sampling and Analysis .....................
3.3.4 Water Level Measurements ..............................
...........................
Surface Water/Sediment Investigation
3.4
3.5
Aquatic/Ecological Survey ......................................
3.6
QA/QC Samples ................................................
DESIGNATION
. . . . . . . . . ..*.......................*...*...
4.0
SAMPLE
5.0
..................................
INVESTIGATIVE
PROCEDURES
Soil Sample Collection ..........................................
5.1
5.1.1 Soil Borings Advanced by Hand Auger ....................
5.1.2 Soil Borings and Monitoring Well Boreholes ...............
5.2
Monitoring Well Installation and Well Development ...............
........................................
5.2.1 Well Installation
Groundwater Sample Collection .................................
5.3
5.4
Surface Water Sample Collection ................................
5.5
Sediment Sample Collection .....................................
5.6
Biological and Fish Sample Collection ............................
5.6.1 Biological Sample Collection .............................
5.6.2 Fish Collection ..........................................
5.7
Decontamination Procedures ....................................
.................
5.7.1 Field Measurement Sampling Equipment
.........................
5.7.2 Large Machinery and Equipment
ii
l-l
1-2
l-2
1-12
‘L-18
:L-18
:L-19
l-20
1-20
2- 1
2-l
2-3
2-5
3-l
3-l
3-4
3-4
3-6
3-8
3-9
3-9
s-11
3-11
38-13
3-13
3-13
3-14
4-3
5-1
5-l
5-l
5-l
5-4
5,-4
5-14
5-15
5”17
5-18
5-18
5-22
5-24
5-24
5-28
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(CONTENTS)
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
Surveying .....................................................
Handling of Site Investigation Generated Wastes ..................
.........................................
59.1
Responsibilities
5.9.2 Sources of Investigation Derived Wastes (IDW) ............
5.9.3 Designation of Potentially Hazardous and Nonhazardous IDW
5.9.4 Labeling ...............................................
5.9.5 Container Log ..........................................
5.9.6 Container Storage .......................................
5.9.7 Container Disposition ...................................
5.9.8 Disposal of Contaminated Materials
......................
Water Level Measurements .....................................
Soil Gas Survey ................................................
5.11.1 Soil Gas Sampling Procedure .............................
5.11.2 Analytical Procedures ...................................
5.11.3 QA/QC Procedures ......................................
Drive-Point Groundwater Field Screening (Geoprobe”) ............
5-30
5-31
5-31
5-32
5-32
5-33
5-34
5,-34
5-35
5-35
5-36
5-36
5-36
5-39
5-41
5-46
6.0
SAMPLING HANDLING AND ANALYSIS
..........................
6.1
Sample Program Operations .....................................
6.2
Chain-of-Custody ...............................................
6.3
Logbooks and Field Forms .......................................
6,-l
6,-l
6-l
6-l
7.0
..............................................
SITE MANAGEMENT
7.1
Field Team Responsibilities
.....................................
7.2
Reporting Requirements ........................................
7-l
7-l
7-l
8.0
REFERENCES
8-,l
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~..
.. .
111
LIST OF FIGURES
Number
iPap;e
l-3
1-4
Camp Lejeune and Site 35 Location Map ................................
Generalized Hydrogeologic Cross Section
Jones and Onslow Counties, North Carolina
............................
SitePlan-S&35-CampGeigerAreaFuelFarm
.......................
Existing Monitoring Wells and Sampling Location .......................
3-1
3-2
Proposed Soil Gas and Groundwater Sample Screening Locations
Proposed Sampling Locations ..........................................
5-l
Typical Above Grade Shallow (Type I) Groundwater
Monitoring Well Construction Diagram ................................
Typical Above Grade Shallow (T’ype II) Groundwater Monitoring
Well Construction Diagram ...........................................
Typical Above Grade Deep Groundwater Monitoring
Well Construction Diagram ......................
.....................
l-1
1-2
5-2
5-3
6-l
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
l-4
l-7
l-13
l-17
;3-3
3-5
.........
5-7
5-11
5-13
Chain-of-Custody .....................................................
Example Custody Seal ..... ..k ........................................
Example Sample Label ................................................
TestPitRecord
.......................................................
Test Boring and Well Construction Record ..............................
Field Well Construction Log ...........................................
6-5
6-6
6-i’
6-9
6t-10
6-11
LIST OF TABLES
l-1
Geologic and Hydrogeologic Units in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina
2-1
2-2
Conceptual Site Model and RI/FS Objectives for Operable Unit No. 10 .....
Summary of Data Types and Data Quality Levels ........................
2-2
26
6-1
Summary of Sampling and Analytical
6-2
Programs at Site 35
...............
LIST OF APPENDICES
A
Justification
Criteria For Use Of PVC As Well Casing Material
iv
___-.____
.,,,--_.- .---_-
._...
--
_.
1-6
LIST OF ACRONYMS
AND ABBREVIATIONS
ARARs
AST
ATEC
AWQC
Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements
aboveground storage tanks
ATEC Associates, Inc.
Ambient Water Quality Criteria
Baker
ks
BOD
BRA
BTEX
Baker Environmental, Inc.
below ground surface
biological oxygen demand
Baseline Risk Assessment
benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes
CERCLA
CLEAN
CLP
COD
COPC
CRP
cs
CSA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act
Comprehensive Long-Term Environmental Action Navy
Contract Laboratory Program
chemical oxygen demand
contaminants of potential concern
Community Relations Plan
Confirmation Study
Comprehensive Site Assessment
1,2-DCE
1,2-Dichloroethene
DON
D&OS
Department of the Navy
data quality objectives
EDB
EPA
ESE
ethylene dibromide
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc.
FSAP
FFA
FFS
FS
Field Sampling and Analysis Plan
Federal Facilities Agreement
Focused Feasibility Study
Feasibility Study
GC
gas chromatograph
IAS
Initial Assessment Study
LANTDIV
LAW
Atlantic Division, Naval Facilities Engineering Command
Law Engineering, Inc.
MCB
MCL
msl
MTBE
Marine Corps Base
Maximum Contaminant Level
mean sea level
methyl tertiary butyl ether
NCDEHNR
North Carolina Department of Environment,
Health and Natural Resources
North Carolina Water Quality Standard
NCWQS
V
““-,
NPL
National Priorities List
ou
Operable Unit
ppb
parts per billion
QAPP
QA/QC
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Quality Assurance Project Plan
RA
RCRA
RI/FS
Risk Assessment
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Remedial Investigation/Feasibility
Study
SARA
svocs
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Semivolatile Organic Compounds
TAL
TCE
TCL
TCLP
TDS
TSS
TOC
TPH
TRC
Target Analyte List
trichloroethylene
Target Compound List
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
total dissolved solids
total suspended solids
total organic carbon
total petroleum hydrocarbons
Technical Review Committee
USEPA
USGS
UST
United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Geological Survey
underground storage tank
vocs
volatile organic compounds
WAR
Water and Air Research, Inc.
vi
Act
1.0
INTRODUCTION
Marine Corps Base (MCB), Camp Lejeune was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation,
and Liability
Act (CERCLA),
National
Priorities
effective November 4,1989 (54 Federal Register 41015, October 4,1989).
listing, the United States Environmental
Carolina Department of Environment,
United States Department
investigated
Subsequent to this
Protection Agency (USEPA) RegionIV,
Health and Natural
the North
Resources (NCDEHNR),
of the Navy (DON) entered into a Federal Facilities
(FFA) for MCB, Camp Lejeune. The primary
environmental
List (NPL)
and the
Agreement
purpose of the FFA was to ensure that
impacts associated with past and present activities at the MCB are thoroughly
and appropriate
CERCLA response/Resource Conservation
(RCRA) corrective action alternatives
are developed and implemented as necessary to protect
the public health, welfare and the environment
(FFA, 1989).
The scope of the FFA included the implementation
Study (RI/FS) at 23 sites throughout
and Recove,ry Act
of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility
MCB, Camp Lejeune.
Remedial investigations
will be
implemented at these sites to determine fully the nature and extent of the threat to the public
health and welfare, or to the environment
hazardous substances, pollutants,
caused by the release and threatened
contaminants
or constituents
at the site and to establish
requirements for the performance of feasibility
studies. Feasibility
to identify,
for the appropriate
evaluate, and select alternatives
prevent, mitigate,
or abate the release or threatened
pollutants, contaminants,
release of
studies will be coniducted
CERCLA
responses to
release of hazardous
substances,
or constituents at the site in accordance with CERCLABuperfund
Amendments and Reauthorization
Act (SARA) and applicable state law (FFA, 1989).
This Field Sampling and Analysis Plan (FSAP) describes the proposed RI field activities
that
are to be conducted at Operable Unit No. 10: Site 35 - Camp Geiger Area Fuel Farm at MCB,
Camp Lejeune.
The primary purpose of the FSAP is to provide guidance for all field activities by describing in
detail the sampling and data collection methods to be used to implement
the various field
tasks identified in the RI/FS Work Plan for Operable Unit No. 10 (Baker, 1993). The guidance
also helps to ensure that sampling and data collection activities are carried out in accordance
with EPA Region IV and Navy Energy
and Environmental
practices so that data obtained during the field investigation
quality to evaluate the nature and magnitude of contamination
l-l
Support
Activity
are of sufficient
(NEESA)
quantity
and
in various media, estimate
human health
and environmental
risks,
and to evaluate
potential
technologies
for
remediation of contaminated media.
The remaining portion of this section presents the background and setting of each of the sites.
Section 2.0 identifies the Data Quality
Objectives (DQOs) for each of the field sampling
programs described in the RI/FS Work Plan. The media, number and types of samples, and the
frequency of sampling are discussed in Section 3.0 (Sampling Locations
Section 4.0 (Sample Designation)
identifying
groundwater
and tracking
describes the sample numbering
the samples.
sampling, decontamination,
The investigative
and Frequency).
scheme to be followed for
procedures
(e.g., drilling,
etc.) are presented in Section 5.0 (Investigative
Procedures). Sample handling and analysis is described in Section 6.0 (Sample Handling
Analysis).
Section 7.0 (Site Management) focuses on the organization
and responsibilities
and
of
personnel associated with the field sampling events.
In addition,
background
documents
associated with
Operable Unit
No. 10 have been
summarized in the RI/FS Work Plan that is associated with this document.
1.1
Site Description
and Setting
This section briefly describes the description and setting of Operable Unit No. 10. A more
detailed description is provided in Section 2.0 in the RhFS Work Plan associated with this
document.
1.1.1
Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune
This section provides an overview of the physical
features associated with MCB, Camp
Lejeune.
1.1.1.1
Location and Setting
MCB, Camp Lejeune is located within
County, North Carolina.
the Coastal Plain Physiographic
The facility covers approximately
Province in Onslow
170 square miles and is bisected
by the New River, which flows in a southeasterly direction and forms a large estuary before
entering the Atlantic Ocean.
l-2
The eastern border of MCB, Camp Lejeune is the Atlantic
northwestern
Jacksonville,
Ocean shoreline.
The western and
boundaries are U.S. Route 17 and State Route 24, respectively.
The City of
North Carolina, borders MCB, Camp Lejeune to the north. MCB, Camp Lejeune
is depicted in Figure l-l.
1.1.1.2
Construction
History
of MCB, Camp Lejeune began in 1941 with the objective of develolping the
‘Worlds Most Complete Amphibious
Training
Base.”
Construction
of the Base started at
Hadnot Point, where the major functions of the Base are centered. Development at the Camp
Lejeune complex is primarily
Command.
in five geographical locations under the jurisdiction
of the Base
These areas include Camp Geiger, Montford Point, Courthouse Bay, Mainside,
and the Rifle Range Area.
Site 35 is located in the Camp Geiger Area in the northwest
quadrant of the Base.
1.1.1.3
Topographv and Surface Drainage
The generally flat topography of MCB, Camp Lejeune is typical of the seaward portions of the
North Carolina Coastal Plain.
Elevations on the Base vary from sea level to 72 feet above
mean sea level (msl); however, the elevation of most of Camp Lejeune is between 20 and 40
feet above msl.
Drainage at Camp Lejeune is generally toward the New River, except in areas near the coast
which drain through the Intracoastal
Waterway.
In developed areas, natural
drainage has
been altered by asphalt cover, storm sewers, and drainage ditches. Approximately
of Camp Lejeune is in broad, flat interstream
70 percent
areas. Drainage is poor in these areas and the
soils are often wet (Water and Air Research, 1983).
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has mapped the limits of loo-year
floodplain
alt Camp
Lejeune at 7.0 feet above msl in the upper reaches of the New River (Water and Air Research,
1983); this increases downstream to 11 feet above msl near the coastal area (Water and Air
Research, 1983). Site 35 does not lie within the loo-year floodplain of the New River.
l-3
1.1.1.4
Regional Geology
MCB, Camp Lejeune is located in the Atlantic
sediments of the Atlantic
Coastal Plain physiographic
province.
The
Coastal Plain consist of interbedded sands, clays, calcareous clays,
shell beds, sandstone, and limestone.
These sediments lay in interfingering
beds and lenses
that gently dip and thicken to the southeast (ESE, 1991). These sediments were deposited in
marine or near-marine
environments
and range in age from early Cretaceous to Quaternary
time and overlie igneous and metamorphic basement rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. Talble l-l
presents a generalized stratigraphic
1.1.1.5
column for this area (ESE, 1991).
Regional Hvdrogeoloay
United States Geological Survey (USGS) studies at MCB Camp Lejeune indicate that the Base
is underlain by seven sand and limestone aquifers separated by confining units of silt and clay.
These include the water table tsurficial),
Castle Hayne, Beaufort, Peedee, Black Creek, and
upper and lower Cape Fear aquifers.
The combined thickness
approximately
of these sediments
1,500 feet. Less permeable clay and silt beds function as confining
is
units or
semi-confining units which separate the aquifers and impede the flow of groundwater between
aquifers.
A generalized hydrogeologic
which illustrates
the relationship
cross-section of this area is presented in Figure l-2
between the aquifers in this area (ESE, 1992).
The surficial aquifer is a series of sediments, primarily
to depths of 50 to 100 feet. No laterally
in this interval
sand and clay, which commonly extend
extensive clay confining units have been encountered
during previous subsurface investigations.
This unit is not used for water
supply in this part of the Base. In some areas, the surficial aquifer is reported to contain water
contaminated
by waste disposal practices, particularly
in the northern
and north-central
developed areas of the Base (USGS, 1989).
The principal water-supply
aquifer for the Base is the series of sand and limestone beds that
occur between 50 and 300 feet below land surface. This series of sediments generally is known
as the Castle Hayne aquifer.
The Castle Hayne aquifer is about 150 to 350 feet thick in the
area and is the most productive
investigations
aquifer
in North
Carolina
(USGS, 1989).
Previous
in this area indicate that the Castle Hayne aquifer (defined as deeper than 50 to
100 feet) and the surficial
aquifer (defined as less than 50 to 100 feet) are in hydraulic
communication.
l-5
APPROXIMATE LOCATION
OF HADNOT POINT INDUSTRIAL AREA
NORTH
JONES COUNTY
--zuu
SEA LEVEL
200
I
’ ONSLOW COUNM
I
SURFICIAL
AQUIFER
t
CASTLE HAYNE AQUIFER
----_
\
. . ..rn
400
600
BLACK CREEK AQUIFER
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
10 KILOMETERS
1,600
_
VERTICAL
SCALE
GREATLY EXAGGERATED
1,800
SECTION LOCATED IN FIGURE 4
2.000
60-515
FIGURE l-2
GENERALIZED HYD,ROGEOLOGICCROSS-SECT!ON
JONES AND ONSLOW COUNTIES, NORTH CAROLINA
REMEDIAL INVESTIGATION CTO-0160
SOURCE: HARNED, et. al.,
1989
MARINE CORPS BASE, CAMP LEJEUNE
NORTH CAROLINA
SOUTH
r
.-\
Onslow County and Camp Lejeune lie in an area where the Castle Hayne aquifer contains
freshwater, although the proximity
of saltwater in deeper layers just below this aquifer and in
the New River estuary is of concern in managing water withdrawals
from the aquifer since
overpumping of the deeper parts of the aquifer could cause saltwater intrusion.
presently contains water having less than 250 mg/L (milligrams
The aquifer
per liter) chloride throughout
the area of the Base (USGS, 1989).
The aquifers that lie below the Castle Hayne consist of a thick sequence of sand and clay.
Although some of these aquifers are used for water supply elsewhere in the Coastal Plai.n, they
contain saltwater in the Camp Lejeune area (USGS, 1989).
Rainfall that occurs in the Camp Lejeune area (and does not exit the site as surface runoff)
enters the ground in recharge areas, infiltrates
the soil, and moves downward until it reaches
the water table, which is the top of the saturated zone. In the saturated zone, ground water
flows in the direction of lower hydraulic
like the New River and its tributaries
,i--.
head, moving through the system to discharge areas
or the ocean (USGS, 1989).
Water levels in wells tapping the surficial
aquifer vary seasonally.
The surticial
aquifer
receives more recharge in the winter than in the summer when much of the precipitation
evaporates or is transpired by plants before it can reach the water table. Therefore, the water
table generally
is highest
in the winter
months and lowest in summer
or ear’ly fall
(USGS, 1989).
1.1.1.6
Surface Water Hvdrologv
The dominant surface water feature at MCB Camp Lejeune is the New River.
It receives
drainage from most of the base. The New River is short, with a course of approximately
miles on the central coastal plain of North Carolina.
confined to a relatively
South of Jacksonville,
50
Over most of its course, the New River is
narrow channel entrenched in the Eocene and Oligocene limestones.
the river widens dramatically
as it flows across less resistant sands,
clays, and marls. At MCB Camp Lejeune, the New River flows in a southerly direction and
empties into the Atlantic
Ocean through the New River Inlet.
Several small coastal creeks
drain the area of MCB Camp Lejeune that is not drained by the New River and its tribu.taries.
These creeks flow into the Intracoastal Waterway, which is connected to the Atlantic
/-m.
Bear Inlet, Brown’s Inlet, and the New River Inlet. (WAR, 1983).
l-8
Ocean by
/P-Y,
1.1.1.7
Climatology
MCB Camp Lejeune is located within
Carolina.
the Coastal Plain physiographic
division
of North
Coastal Plain elevations range from 200 feet above msl at the western boundary to
generally 30 feet or less in areas of tidal influence to the east. The tidal portion of the (Coastal
Plain, where Camp Lejeune is situated, is generally flat and swampy.
Although
coastal North Carolina lacks distinct wet and dry seasons, there is some seasonal
variation
in average precipitation.
July tends to receive the most precipitation
and rainfall
amounts during summer are generally the greatest. Daily showers during the summer are not
uncommon, nor are periods of one or two weeks without
thunderstorms
contribute
to the variability
of precipitation
October tends to receive the least amount of precipitation,
and spring months precipitation
rain.
occurs primarily
during
effectively reduces the average daily fluctuation
the summer months.
in the form of migratory
Coastal Plain temperatures are moderated by the proximity
showers and
on average. Throughout
storms. Camp Lejeune’s average yearly rainfall is approximately
,/.--.
Convective
low pressure
52 inches.
of the Atlantic
of temperature.
the winter
Ocean. The ocean
Lying 50 miles offshore at its
nearest point, the Gulf Stream tends to have little direct effect on coastal temperatures.
The
southern reaches of the cold Labrador Current offsets any warming effect the Gulf Stream
might otherwise provide.
Camp Lejeune experiences hot and humid summers; however, ocean breezes frequently
produce a cooling effect. The winter months tend to be mild, with occasional brief cold spells.
Average daily temperatures range from 38” F to 58” F in January and 72” F to 86” F in July.
The average relative humidity,
between 75 and 85 percent, does not vary greatly from season
to season.
Observations of sky conditions indicate yearly averages of approximately
112 days clear,
105 partly cloudy, and 148 cloudy. Measurable amounts of rainfall occur 120 days per year, on
the average. Prevailing
winds are generally from the south-southwest
and from the north-northwest
10 months of the year,
during September and October. The average wind speed for
MCAS New River is 6.9 m.p.h.
1-9
1.1.1.8
Natural Resources and Ecological Features
The Camp Lejeune complex is predominantly
(shortleaf, longleaf, pond, and primarily
species. Approximately
management.
tree-covered, with large amounts of softwood
loblolly pines) and substantial
stands of hardwood
60,000 of the 112,000 acres of Camp Lejeune are under forestry
Timber producing areas are under even-aged management with the exception
of those areas along streams and swamps. These areas are managed to provide both wildlife
habitat and erosion control.
Forest management provides wood production, increased wildlife
populations, enhancement of natural beauty, soil protection, prevention of stream pollution,
and protection of endangered species (WAR, 1983).
Upland game species including
black bear, whitetail
deer, gray squirrel, fox squirrel,, quail,
turkey, and migratory waterfowl are abundant and are considered in the wildlife management
programs (WAR, 1983).
Aquatic ecosystems on MCB Camp Lejeune consist of small lakes, the New River estuary,
numerous tributaries,
creeks, and part of the Intracoastal
Waterway.
A wide variety
of
freshwater and saltwater fish species exist here. Freshwater ponds are under management to
produce optimum yields and ensure continued harvest of desirable fish species. Freshwater
fish in the streams and ponds include largemouth
bass, redbreast sunfish, bluegill,
chain
pickerel, yellow perch, and catfish. Reptiles include alligators, turtles, and snakes (including
venomous) (WAR, 1983).
Wetland ecosystems at MCB Camp Lejeune can be categorized into five habitat types: pond
pine or pocosin; sweet gum/water oakcypress and tupelo; sweet bay/swamp black gum and red
maple; tidal marshes; and coastal beaches. Pocosins provide excellent habitat for bear and
deer because these areas are seldom disturbed by humans.
habitat at Camp Lejeune is primarily
The presence of pocosin type
responsible for the continued existence of black bear in
the area, Many of the pocosins are overgrown with brush and pine species that would :not be
profitable to harvest.
Sweet gum/water oak/cypress and tupelo habitat is found in the rich,
moist bottomlands along streams and rivers.
Dear, bear, turkey, and waterfowl
This habitat extends to the marine shorehnes.
are commonly found in this type of habitat.
Sweet
bay/swamp black gum and red maple habitat exist in the floodplain areas of Camp Lejeune.
Fauna including waterfowl, mink, otter, raccoon, deer, bear, and gray squirrel frequent this
habitat.
The tidal marsh at the mouth of the New River is one of the few remaining
Carolina coastal areas relatively
free from filling
l-10
North
or other manmade changes. This habitat,
which consists of marsh and aquatic plants such as algae, cattails,
bulrush,
and spikerush,
alligators,
provides wildlife
raccoons, and river
with
food and cover.
otter exist in this habitat.
saltgrass,
Migratory
cordgrass,
waterfowl,
Coastal beaches along the
intracoastal waterway and along the outer banks of Camp Lejeune are used for recreation and
to house a small military
command unit. Basic assault training maneuvers are also conducted
along these beaches. Training
regulations
ecological sensitive coastal barrier dunes.
presently restrict activities
that would impact
The coastal beaches provide habitat
for many
shorebirds (WAR, 1983).
The Natural Resources and Environmental
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Affairs (NREA) Division of MCB Camp Lejeune,
Service, and the North Carolina Wildlife
Resource Commission
have entered into an agreement for the protection of endangered and threatened species that
might inhabit MCB Camp Lejeune. Habitats are maintained at MCB Camp Lejeune for the
preservation
and protection of rare and endangered species through the base’s forest and
wildlife management programs. Full protection is provided to such species and critical habitat
is designated in management plans to prevent or mitigate adverse effects of base activities.
Special emphasis is placed on habitat and sightings of alligators, osprey, bald eagles, cougars,
dusky seaside sparrows, and red-cockaded woodpeckers (WAR, 1983).
Within 15 miles of Camp Lejeune are three publicly owned forests: Croatan National Forest;
Hofmann Forest; and Camp Davis Forest. The remaining land surrounding
primarily
used for agriculture.
Camp Lejeune is
Typical crops include soybeans, small grains, and tobacco
(WAR, 1983).
1.1.1.9
Land Use
Camp Lejeune presently covers an area of approximately
civilian population is approximately
a training
170 square miles.
Military
and
60,000. During World War II, Camp Lejeune was used as
area to prepare Marines for combat. This has been a continuing
function of the
facility during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the recent Gulf War (i.e., Desert Storm).
Toward the end of World War II, the camp was designated as a home base for the Second
Marine Division,
Since that time, Fleet Marine Force (FMF) units also have been stationed
here as tenant commands.
l-11
1.1.1.10
Water Supple
MCB Camp Lejeune water is supplied entirely from groundwater.
from approximately
90 water supply wells and treated.
Groundwater
is obtained
There are eight water treatment
plants with a total capacity of 15.821 million gallons per day (MGD). Groundwater
‘usage is
estimated at over 7 MGD (USGS, 1989).
The water supply wells are all located within the boundaries of the Base. The average water
supply well at the base has a depth of 162 feet, a casing diameter of 8 inches, and yields 174
gpm (USGS, 1989).
All of the water supply wells utilize the Castle Hayne aquifer. The Castle Hayne aquifer is a
highly permeable, semiconfined aquifer that is capable of yielding
gallons per minute in municipal
and industrial
several hundred to 1,000
wells in the Camp Lejeune area. The water
retrieved is typically a hard, calcium bicarbonate type.
1.1.2
Site 35 - Camp Geiger Area Fuel Farm
This section addresses the background
previous investigations
1.1.2.1
and setting of Site 35. In addition,
is presented.
Site Location and Setting
Camp Geiger is located at the extreme northwest
County.
a summary of
corner of MCB, Camp Lejeune, Cnslow
The main entrance to Camp Geiger is off U.S. Route 17, approximately
southeast of the City of Jacksonville,
Farm refers primarily
North Carolina.
to five, X,000-gallon
3.5 miles
Site 35, the Camp Geiger Area Fuel
aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), a pump house,
and a fuel unloading pad situated within Camp Geiger just north of the intersection of Fourth
and “G” Streets. Previous environmental
fuel distribution
investigations
at the site identified
underground
piping that connect the ASTs to existing and former underground
storage
tanks (USTs) and expanded the area referred to as Site 35. To date, the Site 35 study area has
been roughly bounded on the west by D Street, on the north by Second Street, on the east by
Brinson Creek, and on the south by Fourth Street and Building No. TC-4’74 (see Figure l-3).
The ASTs at Site 35 are used to dispense gasoline, diesel and kerosene to government vehicles
and to supply USTs in use at Camp Geiger and the nearby New River Marine
l-12
Corps Air
Station.
The ASTs are supplied by commercial carrier trucks which deliver product to fill
ports located on the fuel unloading
(120 feet maximum), underground
from the unloading
pad at the southern end of the facility.
fuel lines are currently
pad to the ASTs.
Six, sb.ort-run
utilized to distribute
the product
Product is dispensed from the ASTs via trucks and
underground piping.
The site is underlain by layers of silty sand with interbedded layers of clayey sand, coarse sand
and gravel. Investigations
performed to date have provided subsurface stratigraphic
data to a
depth of 44.5 feet. Shallow groundwater is encountered at 8 to 10 feet bgs. Surface topography
is characterized as generally flat with a gentle slope to the northeast toward Brinson Crmeek.
1.1.2.2
Construction
Site Historv
of Camp Geiger was completed in 1945, four years after construction
Camp Lejeune was initiated.
Originally,
Available
of MCB,
drawings date Site 35 back to at least July 1941.
the ASTs were used for the storage of No. 6 fuel oil, but, were later converted (date
unknown) for storage of other petroleum products including unleaded gasoline, diesel fuel, and
kerosene. The ASTs currently in use at the site are reported to be the original tanks.
Formerly, the ASTs at Site 35 supplied a gasoline filling
station which was located on the
northeast corner of the intersection of “F” and Fourth Streets. A leak in the underground
line
from the ASTs to the dispensing island was reportedly responsible for the loss of roughly 30
gallons per day of gasoline over an unspecified period (Law, 19921. The leaking line was
subsequently sealed and replaced.
Reports of a Mogas release in an underground distribution
to 1957-58 (ESE, 19901. Apparently,
line near one of the ASTs date back
the leak occurred as the result of damage to a dispensing
pump. At that time the Camp Lejeune Fire Department estimated that thousands of gallons of
fuel were released although records of the incident have since been destroyed.
The fuel
migrated to the east and northeast into Brinson Creek. Interceptor trenches were excavated
and the captured fuel was ignited and burned as was the product which discharged
into
Brinson Creek.
Another abandoned underground distribution
line extended from the ASTs to the former Mess
Hall Heating Plant, located adjacent to “D” Street, between Third and Fourth Streets.
The
underground line dispensed No. 6 Fuel Oil to an UST which fueled the Mess Hall boiler. The
l-14
Mess Hall, located across “D” Street to the west, is believed to have been demolished along
with its Heating Plant in the 1960’s.
1.1.2.3
Site Geoloav and Hvdrogeology
The following information
has been excerpted from Comprehensive Site Assessment (CSA)
Report (Law, 1992). Selected portions of this report are included in Appendix A of the Work
Plan for reference.
The soil and stratigraphic
borings drilled to date have penetrated three distinctive
first unit is a fine- to medium-grained,
from 15 to 30 feet. Law Engineering
size distribution,
units. The
unconsolidated sand. The thickness of this unit ranges
selected two samples of this unit to be analyzed for grain-
including samples from MW-23, collected from a depth of 8.5 to 10.5 feet, and
from MW-24, collected from a depth of 13.5 to 15.5 feet. These analyses revealed that the
samples generally contain 96 percent sand and 4 percent silt and clay.
The second unit is an oolitic, fossiliferous limestone which ranges in thickness from 6.5 to 20
feet. The fossils consist of fragments of mollusks; the matrix consists of fine-grained
sand,
fine-grained phosphate grains and lime mud. Under the Folk classification (Blatt et al,, 1972),
this unit is a biosparite.
The third unit is an unconsolidated,
dark gray to black silty, clayey sand. Because this unit
may be a confining unit separating the surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers, Law Engineering
did not attempt to completely penetrate this clayey sand, and therefore, the thickness is not
known. This unit was sampled in SB-1, SB-2, SB-3 and MW-19 and where it was observed to
be up to 4 feet thick in SB-2. Grain-size analysis of a sample from this unit revealed that the
sample contained 79 percent fine sand, 9 percent silt and 12 percent clay.
This clayey sand is probably the same described by Harned, et al (1989) as one of the confining
units occurring in the surficial
aquifer and the Castle Hayne.
Baker’s experience at Camp
Lejeune sites east of the New River is that this unit is not a confining unit in that area because
it is thin and discontinuous.
This report noted, however, that the unit appears to be thicker
and more continuous in the northwestern
Law Engineering
to its relatively
part of Camp Lejeune, where the Site 35 is located.
believes that this clayey sand acts as a confining unit in the study area due
high percentage of silt and clay. It is believed that this unit separates the
surficial aquifer from the underlying
Castle Hayne aquifer.
l-15
Groundwater in the surfmial aquifer generally flows cross the project site to the east, towards
Brinson
Creek.
September 3,199l
As indicated
by comparing
between “shallow”
water
level
elevations
and “deep” screened intervals,
surficial aquifer generally moves laterally
recorded
on
ground water in the
across the project site with no significant
vertical
gradient.
The rate or~:average linear velocity of groundwater
function of the hydraulic
conductivity
movement across the project site is a
(K) of the aquifer medium, the effective porosity (n) of
the aquifer medium and the hydraulic gradient (dh/dl) that exists in the suficial
hydraulic conductivity
to be approximately
aquifer. The
of the unconsolidated sands within the surficial aquifer was calculated
28 feet/day.
Law calculated a range of average, linear
velocities
of
between 0.99 feet/day (n=25 percent) and 1.66 feet/day (n = 15 percent) using values for
effective porosity of 15 percent to 25 percent for fine sand, as estimated by Walton (1984).
1.1.2.4
Results of Previous Investigations
Previous investigations
performed at Site 35 include the following:
o
Initial Assessment Study (IAS) by Water and Air Research, Inc. (WAR), dated 1983;
l
Confirmation
Study (CS) by Engineering
Science and Environmental,
Inc. (ESE),
dated 1990;
l
Focused Feasibility
Study (FSS) by NUS Corporation (NUS), dated 1990;
a
Comprehensive Site Assessment (CSA) by Law Engineering,
Inc. (LAW), dated 1992;
and,
l
Addendum to the CSA by Law, dated 1993.
The locations of various data points (i.e., monitoring
investigations
are depicted in Figure l-4.
l-16
wells,soil borings, etc.) from previous
I
’
(‘INrn)
I
FIGURE l-l
CAMP LEJEUNE AND Sl:TE 35
LOCATION MAP
MARlNE CORPS l3ASE, CAMP LEJEUNE
NORTH ,CAROLINA
MONITORING
WELL INSTALLED
SOIL BORING
SURFACE
DRILLED
UNDER
UNDER
CS (1983)
CS (1984)
WATER AND SEDIMENT
BY ESE.
BY ESE. GROLJNDWATER SAMPLE
SAMPLING
LOCATIONS
MONITORING
WELL INSTALLED
BY NUS (1990).
MONITORING
WELL INSTALLED
UNDER CSA (1991)
MONITORING
WELL INSTALLED
UNDER
UNDER CS (1964)
SOIL BORING
HP-15MW-13
*
8
SOIL BORING DRILLED
UST INVESTIGATION
DRfLLED
HAND-AUGERED
*HYDROPUNCH”
EXISTING
(1992)
BY ATEC.
SAMPLING
IL
I
THIRD STREET
HP-
\
I
Koo
-GAL.
e
i
UNDER
CSA (1991)
BY LAW.
POINT UNDER
CSA (1991)
BY IAW
(EXPOSED
/
MW-3
0
I
i
,--
OF FLOW FOR BRINSON
POTEHTIAL
OIL AND FUEL CONTAMINATION
POTENTIAL
HALOGENATED
POTENTIAL
OIL.
ORGANIC
DRAIN (POTENTIAL
SOURCE)
SOURCE
CONTAMINATION
/
PARKING
AREA
SOURCE
ORGANIC
HALOGENATED
i
CONTAMINATION
SOURCE
ORGANIC
\
/
\
/
I
MW-S
MESS HALL
HEATlhG PLANT
r
CREEK
FUEL AND HALOGENATED
I
NC. 6 FUEL
3lL UST
FOUNDATION)
DIRECTION
DIESEL AST
(A~AN~~NEJ)
BY LAW.
STRUCTURE
BURItiD STORM
CONTAMINATION
EMW-I
CSA (1991)
(1993)
BY LAW.
CSA (1991)
BORING DRILLED
FORMER STRUCTURE
+
UNDER
UNDER
BY ESE.
BY LAW.
MONlrORlNG
WELL INSTALLED UNDER CSM FOLLOW-UP
INVESTIGATION
BY uw.
(NOTE: Pw-28
REFERS TO A PUMPING TEST WELL.)
STRATIGRAPHIC
OBTAINED.
t
FOURTH STREET
\
m
*
/
,
UW-26
8
VEHICLE
a
uw-10
MAlNTENAhCE
FORMER
GAS STATION I
c
L
FOOTBALL
\
FI:-D
I
7
‘WAREHOUSE
WAREHOUSE
r
1
Ii
I-
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i
i
/‘,
I
FIFTH STREET
\
l
h
I
80’
DRAWN WJH/REL
S.O.#
i
’
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’
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II
NORTH
1
II
REMEDIALINVESTIGATION/FEASIBILITYSTUDY CTO-0160
MARINE
CORPS BASE, CAMP
NORTH CAROLINA
LEJEUNE
REVIEWED DLB
’
‘1
\
‘1
nis5;IONED
DATE OCTOBER 1993
SCALE l”=
WAREHOUSE
5
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II
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WAREHOUSE
\
19160-43-SRN
CADD# 160515SP
BAKER ENVIROTu‘MENTAL,Inc.
Coraopolis,
Pennsylvania
EXISTING MONITORING WELLS AND
SAMPLING LOCATIONS
- CAMP GEIGER AREA FUEL FARM
l”=
80’
DATE
OCTOBER
1993
FIGURE No.
The results of the investigations
hydrocarbon
constituents
performed to date identify
in both soil and groundwater
areas of elevated petroleum
at Site 35.
The petroleum
hydrocarbons encountered in these media are the result of past operations and uncontrolled
releases of oil and fuel at the site. In addition to petroleum hydrocarbons, elevated levels of
halogenated organics were encountered in shallow groundwater
samples at the site.
The
origin of these contaminants has not been determined to date. Soil samples from Site 35 were
not analyzed for halogenated organic constituents
The extent of contaminated
under any of the previous investigation.
soil and groundwater
based on data obtained
to date was
identified in the CSA (Law, 1992). This data is attached to the RIDS Work Plan for Site 35
(Baker, 1993) in Appendix B.
1.2
Evaluation
of Existing
Information
This section describes the types and volume of known wastes and impacted media at Site 35,
potential
migration
impacts, preliminary
and exposure pathways, preliminary
ARARs (Applicable
or Relevant
public health and environmental
and Appropriate
Requirements)
applicable to the site, potential remedial technologies, and data limitations.
1.2.1
Types and Volumes of Waste and Impacted
Information
available from previous investigations
Media Present
indicates that Site 35 has been impacted
by past releases of oils and fuels associated with the site and by halogenated
compounds from a source(s) that has yet to be determined.
organic
No records are availalble
to
document quantities; however, a release of thousands of gallons of gasoline was reported. in the
late 1950s. More recently, there was a report that a buried fuel line released 30 gallons per
day over an unspecified period of time.
Based on the results of the investigations
performed to date it is estimated that 35,.000 to
60,000 cubic yards of oil and fuel impacted soil are present at the site.
Shallow groundwater plumes impacted with halogenated and non-halogenated compounds are
known to extend over an area of approximately
investigation
is
needed to define the vertical and horizontal extent of halogenated organic contamination
in
organic groundwater
c
,.s--.
16 acres. The source of the halogenated
shallow groundwater
contamination
has yet to be determined.
and attempt a source delineation.
organic shallow groundwater contamination
Additional
The source of the non-halogenated
has been determined to be past site operations at
1-18
the fuel farm.
The horizontal
contamination
has been adequately
Additional
1.2.2
extent of the non-halogenated
organic shallow groundwater
defined via the results
of previous
investigation.
data is required to define the vertical extent of this contamination.
Potential
Migration
and Exposure
Pathways
Based on the evaluation of existing conditions at Site 35, the following potential contaminant
migration and exposure pathways have been identified.
Transport Pathways
l
Overland surface soil runoff to drainage ditches.
l
Leaching of contaminants in subsurface soil to groundwater.
l
Groundwater
tributaries
l
discharge to nearby drainage ditches/springs
or streams (unnamed
to Brinson Creek, Brinson Creek, and the New River).
Groundwater infiltration
from shallow aquifer to deep aquifer.
Exposure Pathways
a
Current military
personnel and civilian base employees traversing through t,he area
could be exposed to surface soil, sediments, and standing water.
l
Future human residential
exposure by incidental soil ingestion.
l
Future human residential
dermal exposure by direct contact with soil.
l
Future potential use of shallow and deep groundwater (shallow impacted groundwater
in this area is not currently used as a potable water supply).
l
Wildlife
(deer, mammals), fish and fowl exposure to surface and subsurface Isoil and
surface water. (Note: Hunting is prohibited in this area.)
1-19
l
Benthic and pelagic populations on the unnamed tributaries
and the New River could
be exposed to contaminants.
1.2.3
Preliminary
A preliminary
Public
Health and Environmental
risk evaluation of Site 35 has concluded that there may be potential human and
ecological risk to receptors due to the contamination
and civilian
Health Impacts
contractors have been identified
detected at this site. Military
personnel
as the probable human receptors.
Th.e non-
human population of receptors includes, but is not limited to, small mammals such as raccoon
and fox, deer, birds, reptiles, and aquatic organisms, such as fish.
1.2.4
Present Database Limitations
The purpose of this section is to define data limitations
the site, assessing human health and environmental
technologies.
with respect to either characterizing
risks, or evaluating
potential
feasible
Site-specific RUFS objectives and sampling strategies for resolving these data
deficiencies are subsequently identified in Sections 4.0 and 5.0 of this RI/FS Work Plan.
Site Characterization
1.2.4.1
A review of the data obtained under previous investigations
gaps which do not afford a full characterization
of the nature and extent of contamina.tion
the site. The data gaps include lack of definition
halogenated
organic contamination
source(s) of this contamination,
information
of the vertical
in groundwater,
and definition
organic groundwater contamination.
indicates the presence (of data
and horizontal
and identification
of the vertical
Existing monitoring
at
extent of
of the possible
extent of non-halogenated
wells and sampling locations, the
from which have led to a present site understanding,
are depicted on Figure l-4.
Other data gaps include those associated with site soil, surface water, and sediment. The data
gaps for each media are discussed below.
Groundwater
Additional
groundwater data is required in the vicinity
of monitoring
southwest corner of Fourth and “E” Streets) and monitoring
southeast of the ASTs and northeast of Building
identified halogenated organic contamination.
wells MW-10 (near the
wells EM-7 and MW-19 (located
TC474) to identify the extent of previously
In the case of MW-10, where elevated levels of
l-20
TCE were reported (Law 19921, there is no data available to assess whether a plume extends to
the east, south, or west. Similarly,
the extent of the TCE plume was not identified south, east,
or north of wells EM-7 and MW-19. No data is available to assess the vertical limits of the
TCE plume since elevated levels of TCE were identified
at several of the deepest wells
(i.e., base of well screens set as deep as 35 feet bgs) previously
installed
including
wells
MW-10, MW-19, and EM-7.
Additional
data is required in the vicinity
of monitoring
wells MW-2 (at former Mess Hall
Heating Plant), MW-21 and MW-25 to assess the vertical extent of non-halogenated
shallow groundwater
contamination.
organic
BTEX compounds were detected in samples obtained
from the deepest wells previously installed at these locations. In general, sufficient data has
been obtained to date to characterize the horizontal
contamination
organic
in the shallow groundwater.
Groundwater Contamination
Additional
extent of the non-halogenated
Sources
soil and groundwater
halogenated organic groundwater
data is required to identify
contamination.
and assess the source of the
Possible sources include: Building
TC474
where vehicle maintenance was performed as late as 1988; the former Mess Hall Heating
Plant where solvents may have been used for maintenance; the storm drain conduit system
along Fourth Street that may have served as a conveyance system for solvents generated at an
unknown off-site location; and any of the past or present buildings whose complete histories of
use are not known, but, could have included the handling and storage of solvents.
The horizontal extent of oil and fuel impacted soils has, for the most part, been sufficiently
defined under previous investigations
performed at the site. Additional
data is required, along
the drainage channels that extend from “F” Street and the ASTs to Brinson Creek. This data
will be obtained under the Interim RUFS the focus of which will be the oil and fuel im:pacted
soils at this site. The project plans for the Interim RID’S are being prepared separately under
this Contract Task Order.
No soil samples obtained to date at Site 35 have been analyzed for halogenated
compounds. As a consequence, there is no data pertaining
to the possible presence of these
compounds at areas where these compounds have been identified
1-21
organic
in shallow groundwater.
Additional
soil sampling is required to identify the presence, if any, and extent of halogenated
organic compounds in vadose zone soil in the vicinity
of the shallow groundwater
impacted with these contaminants under previous investigations.
under the Interim RI/FS at areas where contaminated
under previous investigations.
Additional
identified as
This data will be obtained
groundwater
and soil was identified
soil samples obtained in areas not investigated
to
date will be analyzed for halogenated organic compounds.
Surface Water and Sediment
To date only two surface water and sediment samples have been obtained from Brinson Creek.
These samples were analyzed for lead, EDB, and oil and grease. Laboratory
results of the
surface water samples indicated no detections while lead and oil and grease were detected in
sediment samples. Additional
surface water and sediment samples are needed along Elrinson
Creek at locations upgradient, downgradient,
and adjacent to Site 35, to support the b,aseline
risk assessment.
Risk Assessment
1.2.4.2
No previous investigation
performed to date has included the performance of a quantitative
baseline human health and ecological risk assessment (RA). The chemical characteristics
surface soil, surface water, and sediment samples obtained from throughout
principal
data needed to support the baseline human health RA.
Site 35 are the
Additional
selected existing groundwater wells is also needed to provide analytical
of
samp’ling of
results for full TAL
organics and TCL inorganic parameters across the site. Fish and benthic samples are .needed
from various locations along Brinson Creek for use in the ecological RA.
1.2.4.3
Engineering
Typically,
Entineering
data is used to support the evaluation
this data refers to the engineering
particle size distribution
of remedial alternatives
characteristics
under the FS.
of subsurface
soils such as
or the hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface aquifer (pump test
data). This type of data has been provided in previous reports (Law, 1992 and 1993) prepared
for Site 35.
Additional
engineering
data required includes information
used directly
in the design of
groundwater treatment systems such as, but not limited to, BOD (biological oxygen de:mand),
1-22
COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspended solids), TDS (total dissolved solids), and
TOC (total organic carbon).
1-23
2.0
DATA QUALITY
OBJECTIVES
Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are qualitative
data of known and appropriate quality
and quantitative
statements that ensure that
are obtained during the RI and FS and will support
remedial decisions (EPA, 198’7). DQOs associated with each field collection program
are
discussed and presented in this Section. DQOs were developed using the following three stage
process:
l
Stage 1 - Identify decision types
l
Stage 2 - Identify data needs
l
Stage 3 - Design data collection program
Stage 1 of the DQO process takes place during the scoping of the RUFS. This stage ilnvolves
the evaluation
of existing information,
development of a conceptual model for the site to
identify contaminant transport and exposure pathways, and the development of objectives for
further data collection efforts.
Stage 2 of the DQO process involves definition
of the quality and quantity
of data that will be
required to meet the objectives established in Stage 1.
Stage 3 involves design of a data collection program to meet the requirements
identified
in
Stage 2.
The remaining portions of this Section document the establishment of DQOs for the RI/FS at
Operable Unit No. 10.
2.1
Stage 1 - Identification
of Decision Types
As part of the Stage 1 DQO process, available information
from previous site investigations
and other sources (e.g., USGS) were reviewed in order to describe the current site conditions,
evaluate existing data, and assess the adequacy of the data. This review has been documented
in Section 2.0 of the RI/l% Work Plan and summarized in Sections 1.1, and 1.2 of this FSAP.
From this review and evaluation,
identifying
a conceptual site model was developed for Site 35 by
the potential sources of contamination,
the contaminant migration pathwa:ys, and
potential receptors. A conceptual site model for Site 35 is presented in Table 2-l. Based. on the
conceptual contaminant transport/migration
model for this site, specific RI/F’S objectives have
2-l
B
TA
ifi 2-1
)
CONCEPTIJALSITEMODELANDRUFSOBJEC!lTlVESFOROPERABLEUNlTNO.10
MCBCAMPLEJEUNE,NORTHCAROLINA
Site
Potential Exposure and Migration Pathways
Medium or Area of Concern
35
Soil
Camp Geiger Fuel Farm
l
l
l
Groundwater
Camp Geiger Fuel Farm
Site-Specific RI/FS Objectives
Surface soil runoff from Site 35 to Brinson
Creek
Direct contact with surface soils by humans
and animals
Direct contact with subsurface soils by
burrowing animals
l
l
l
l
Migration/leaching of contaminants in the
fuel farm area to the soil
a
Human exposure from future potential
groundwater ingestion or dermal contact
l
Migration/Leaching of contaminants in the
fuel farm area to the groundwater
l
Assess the nature and extent of shallow
aquifer contamination
l
Vertical groundwater migration to the deep
aquifer (1)
l
Evaluate groundwater quality in the deep
aquifer (1)
Identify physical properties of the aquifers
and their physical relationship between one
another
Evaluate off-site groundwater quality in the
shallow aquifer
Determine the nature and extent of
contamination in surface water/sediment in
Brinson Creek
Assess groundwater quality near the fuel
farm area
Assess the level and nature of contamination
in surface water/sediment
Assess the level and nature of contamination
in sediment and surface water
Assess the level and nature of contamination
in surface water/sediment near this portion
of Site 35
Characterize surface water quality
l
l
l
l
Surface Water/Sediment
Camp Geiger Fuel Farm
l
OR-site groundwater migration
l
l
Migration/Leaching of contaminants from
the fuel farm to the surface water
l
l
Groundwater discharge to surface water
(Brinson Creek)
l
l
e
l
I
Assess the horizontal extent of surface soil
contamination near the fuel farm area
Assess the level and nature of contamination
in surface soils at and near the fuel farm area
Assess the level and nature of contamination
in subsurface soils at and near the fuel farm
area
Assess the vertical extent of soil
contamination within the fuel farm area
Identify physical properties of soil
Assess the nature and extent of shallow
aquifer contamination
Terrestrial wildlife - dermal exposure to
contaminants in surface water and sediment
Direct contact with surface water/sediment
by humans and animals
e
l
-1 due to
I-Iuman exposure to -VWLs
l
volatilization from surface water
._.-- ..lte: (1)The “Deep Aquifer“ refers to the substratum below the clay layer identified in borings SB-1, SB-2, and SB-3 (Law, 1992) at depths ranging from
35 to 43 feet bgs. This clay layer may represent the confining aquitard that separates the shallow water table aquifer from the regionally significant
Castle-Hayne Formation (seeWork Plan Section 5.3.4).
0
1
been developed to (1) determine the nature and extent of the threat posed by the release or
potential release of hazardous substances, (2) assess human health and environmental
and (3) identify and evaluate remedial alternatives.
The identification
risks,
of these objectives,
which are also presented in Table 2-1, is the first step toward the development of a program for
collection of sufficient data for decision making.
The following
section identifies
the data requirements
to meet the site-specific! RI/FS
objectives.
Stage 2 - Identification
2.2
of Data Needs
In Stage 2 of the DQO process, the data quality and quantity
objectives developed during Stage 1 are identified.
required to support the RUFS
Data collected during the RI/FS for Site 35
will be used for: human ecological risk assessment; site characterization;
evaluating
alternatives;
screening
and
and remedial design. With respect to the RUFS objectives identified
in the previous section, data will be required to address the following:
l
The extent of surface and subsurface soil contamination
within
reported disposal
areas.
l
The extent of surface soil contamination
due to surface runoff.
a
The physical properties of the soil to evaluate migration
potentials
and remedial
technologies.
l
The chemical properties of soil to assess potential human health and environmental
risks, and to evaluate remedial technologies.
l
The chemical properties associated with disposal and treatment requirements.
Groundwater
l
The extent and nature of on site and off-site groundwater
and/or deep aquifers.
2-3
contamination
in shallow
l
The physical properties of the aquifers and their physical relationship.
l
The flow direction and discharge patterns of the aquifers.
l
The chemical properties to assess potential human health risks.
l
The chemical properties to evaluate compliance with State and Federal drinking
water standards.
The chemical/physical
l
properties that may affect the treatability
of the groundwater.
Sediments
The extent and nature of sediment contamination
l
in drainage
areas pote,ntially
impacted by site runoff, groundwater discharge, or tidal effects.
The chemical properties to assess human health and environmental
l
risks due to
exposure.
l
Evaluate physical/chemical
stress to fish or benthic aquatic communities.
Surface Water
l
The extent
and nature
of surface water potentially
impacted
by site runoff,
groundwater discharge, or tidal effects.
l
The chemical properties to assess human health and environmental
risks.
AST Fuel Farm Area
l
The extent of subsurface soil contamination
l
The chemical/physical
at suspected source areas.
properties to assess disposal and treatment requirements.
2-4
Halogenated Organic Source Area
l
The extent of subsurface soil contamination
l
The chemical/physical
at suspected source areas.
properties to assess disposal and treatment requirements.
The type of data and the quality of data to meet the criteria listed above are summarized on
Table 2-2. The data quality levels differ with respect to the end use of the data. Level IV data
quality
are generally required in risk assessments, characterizing
contamination,
and to support the record of decision (ROD).
appropriate for evaluating
treatment
alternatives.
field screening (i.e., geophysical investigations,
the nature and extent of
Level III data quality
Level II data quality
is appropriate
is
for
soil gas). Level I data is appropriate for field
measurements such as dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and pH.
The analytical
method also differs with respect to the end use of the data. For purposes of
assessing health risks and to compare contaminant
levels against Federal or State standards,
it will be necessary to obtain lower detection levels for selected parameters such as volatile
organics.
For this RI/F’S, Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) methods and Contract
Laboratory Program (CLP) protocols will be used when applicable.
The quantity
of samples collected is based on obtaining
characterize the nature and extent of contamination,
risks, and develop and evaluate remedial alternatives.
a representative
measure
to
assess human health and environnnental
For the various field investigations
for
Operable Unit No. 10, the number and location of samples was determined based on best
engineering
estimates,
visual
evaluation
of the sites, and a review and evaluation
of
background information.
2.3
Stage 3 -Design Data Collection
Program
The data collection programs for Operable Unit No. 10 have been designed to meet the
objectives identified
in Table 2-1. Section 5.3 of the RI/FS Work Plan provides a general
description of the various sampling programs for Site 35. Sections 3.0 through
FSAP provide the specific details of these sampling programs.
2-5
5.0 of this
TABLE 2-2
SUMMARY OF DATA TYPES AND DATA QUALITY LEVELS
OPERABLE UNIT NO. 10, MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
Medium
Sampling Criteria/Purpose
soil
l
l
Groundwater
l
Identify physical properties of soil to evaluate migration potentials and
remedial technologies
l
Identify chemical properties of soil to assesspotential human health and
environmental risks, and to evaluate remedial technologies
l
Identify chemical properties associated with disposal and treatment
requirements
l
Assess extent and nature of onsite and offsite groundwater
contamination in shallow and/or deep aquifers
l
*
Note:
Assess extent of surface and subsurface soil contamination within
reported impacted areas
Assess extent of surface soil contamination due to surface runoff
Identify physical properties of the aquifers and their physical
relationship between one another
(1) Existing information will be reviewed (USGS publications)
Data Types
TCL VOAs and SVOAs
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
TCL VOAs and SVOAs
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
Atterburg Limits
Grain Size
Constant Head permeability
TOC
Microbial Enumeration
Phosphorous
Nitrogen
TCL VOAs and SVOAs
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
TPH
Total TCLP
Reactivity
Corrosivity
Ignitability
Volatiles (EPA 601/602)
TCL SVOAs
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
Surface Features
(lithologic samples)
Water Level Elevations
(static)
Hydraulic Conductivity(l)
w..,
“--:-A-‘++)
~larillAwJaLvlby
Data Quality
Level
E
E
III
III
III
III
III
III
III
E
II
III
III
III
III
:v”
Iv
II
II
II
ii
TABLE 2-2 (Continued)
SUMMARY OF DATA TYPES AND DATA QUALITY LEVELS
OPERABLE UNIT NO. 10, MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
Medium
Sampling Criteria/Purpose
Groundwater
(continued)
l
o
Identify chemical properties to assesspotential human health risks
l
Identify chemical properties to evaluate compliance with State or
Federal drinking water standards
Identify chemical/physical properties that may affect treatment
l
Sediment
o
l
Identify flow direction and discharge patterns of the aquifers
Assess extent and nature of sediment contamination in surface water
bodies potentially impacted by site runoff, groundwater discharge, or
tidal effects
Identify chemical properties to assesshuman health and environmental
risks due to exposure
Data Types
Data Quality
Level
Surface Features
(lithologic samples)
Water Level Elevations
(static and pumping)
Hydraulic Conductivity
Transmissivity
Volatiles (EPA 601/602)
TCL SVOAS
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
Volatiles (EPA 601/602)
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
Total Suspended Solids
Biological Oxygen Demand
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Total Dissolved Solids
Temperature
Specific Conductance
PH
Microbial Enumeration
Phosphorous
Nitrogen
TOC
Alkalinity
TCL Organics
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
:;
TCL Organics
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
IV
IV
II
II
II
II
IV
i-T
Iv
Iv
III
III
III
III
I
I
I:1
III
III
III
III
TABLE 2-2 (Continued)
SUMMARY OF DATA TYPES AND DATA QUALITY LEVELS
OPERABLE UNIT NO. 10, MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
Medium
Sampling Criteria/Purpose
Surface Water
l
l
l
Waste
r
00
Notes:
TCL
TAL
TOC
TcLI?
-
Assess extent and nature of surface water potentially impacted by site
runoff, groundwater discharge, or tidal effects
Identify chemical properties to assesshuman health and environmental
risks
Identify physical/chemical properties to assesspotential impacts to
aquatic life
l
Assess extent of subsurface soil contamination at former disposal areas
l
Identify chemical/physical properties to assessdisposal and treatment
requirements
Target Compound List
Target Analyte List
Total Organic Carbon
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
Data Types
TCL Organics
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
TCL Organics
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
Dissolved Oxygen
Specific Conductance
Temperature
PH
TCL Organics
TAL Inorganics (Metals)
Total TCLF’
Reactivity
Ignitability
Corrosivity
Data Quality
Level
E
it
:
I
I
Iv
IV
III
III
III
III
3.0
SAMPLING
LOCATIONS
AND FREQUENCY
This section identifies each sample matrix to be collected and the constituents to be analyzed
under this RI/FS. The media from which samples will be obtained include soil, groundwater,
surface water, sediment, benthics and fish.
(Note:
Table 6-l provides a summary of the
sampling and analyses to be conducted at Site 35 under this RIiFS.1
3.1
Soil and Groundwater
Sample Screening
The effort to determine the source, nature and extent of halogenated organic groundwater
contamination
will be initiated
screening refers to the utilization
Geoprobe) groundwater
approximate
via soil gas and groundwater sample screening. In this case
of soil gas and drive-point (e.g., tradenames Hydropunch
sampling techniques.
or
These techniques can be calibrated to provide
results regarding the presence or absence of a variety of chemical com.pounds.
Both techniques are restricted primarily
to the measurement of VOAs.
Soil gas and groundwater samples will both be obtained by driving a small diameter stainless
, *m--“1*,
steel rod into the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively. Groundwater samples will be
obtained in the saturated zone at or near the shallow groundwater surface. Soil gas samples
will be obtained in the unsaturated zone just above the groundwater
gas and groundwater
surface. Collected soil
samples will be analyzed on site using a portable gas chromatograph
(GC). Benzene and TCE will be used as the indicator compounds for analysis.
Sampling
procedures for each technique are detailed in Section 5.0.
The purpose of screening using these techniques is to provide data to afford the optimal
placement
of soil borings/monitoring
wells from which additional
soil and groundwater
samples can be obtained and shipped off site for analysis. These techniques are referred to as
“screening”
methods because the level of QA/QC is significantly
standard laboratory
analytical
methods.
less than that applied to
Therefore, the results provided by screening are
considered approximate only and subject to laboratory verification.
Soil gas analysis shall be
performed by an experienced chemist under controlled conditions (i.e., mobile laboratory)
in
accordance with Data Quality Level II.
The focus of the soil and groundwater sample screening will be the areas in the vicinity
1) monitoring
of:
well MW-10 and the storm drain conduit along Fourth Street; 2) monitoring
wells EMW-7 and MW-19, and Building m-474, and 3) the area surrounding the former Mess
3-1
Hall Hearing Plant. A total of 55 locations will be sampled from the three areas combined, as
shown on Figure 3-1 and as discussed below.
The largest area of soil gas and groundwater sample screening sampling points (35SG-13
through
35SG-34) is located south of Fourth Street from Building
Building
TC-460, including the storm drain conduit along Fourth Street, and north
Street in the vicinity
G533 extending
of
east to
Fourth
of the former gas station (see Figure 3-1, sample locations 13 through
34), The concentration
of sampling points south of Fourth Street was deemed necessary
because, unlike the area north of Fourth Street, very little data was obtained under previous
Previous
investigations.
sampling
in this area indicated
elevated
concentrations
of
halogenated organic compounds, including TCE, in groundwater
samples collected from MW-
10, MW-14, and EMW-3 (see Figure l-4 for existing monitoring
well locations).
and groundwater
contamination
screening in this area is designed to delineate the horizontal
The soil gas
extent of this
south of Fourth Street as well as the source, if possible. Additional
sample
locations may be selected in this area based on the results of the initial sampling.
The second largest concentration
concentration,
Building
of sampling points will be used to identify the presence and
if any, of contaminants
of concern in soil and groundwater
in the vicinity
TC-474, monitoring wells EMW-7 and MW-19, and Brinson Creek. Building
of
TC-474
is a warehouse and former auto maintenance facility that is suspected of being the potential
source of halogenated organic contamination
19. The initial
detected in monitoring
wells EMW-7 and MW-
soil gas and groundwater sampling grid for this area will consist of 21 sampling
locations (35 through 55) spaced as shown on Figure 3-l. Additional
sample locations may be
selected in this area based on the results of the initial sampling.
The third sampling grid will be placed in the vicinity
because halogenated
maintenance.
of the former Mess Hall Heating Plant
solvents may have been used at this facility
as part of routine
Elevated concentrations of non-halogenated organic compounds were detected
in soil samples collected from boring B-4, adjacent to the abandoned No. 6 fuel oil UST. The
initial
sampling grid for this area will consist of 12 sampling locations (1 through 12) spaced as
shown on Figure 3-1. Additional
sample locations may be selected in this area basedi on the
results of the initial sampling.
As indicated above, additional
soil gas and groundwater
based on the results of the initial
screening samples will he olbtained
sampling until the limits of the impacted areas can be
determined.
3-2
The results of the soil and groundwater
screening will be mapped and used as the basis for
placement of soil boring and monitoring wells, as discussed in the following sections.
3.2
Soil Investigation
Soil sampling at Site 35 will be comprised of two elements including:
surface soil sampling
across the site to provide data to support the baseline risk assessment; and subsurface soil
sampling at soil boring and shallow groundwater
monitoring
well locations determined via
soil gas and groundwater field screening and at deep groundwater monitoring
well locations.
Each of these elements is discussed below:
3.2.1
Surface Soil Sampling
A total of 14 surface soil samples (SS-1 through SS-141, including
two background samples
(SS-1 and SS-2) will be obtained from the locations depicted on Figure 3-2.
samples are defined as those obtained from the interval
Surface soil
between the ground surface and 12
inches below the ground surface (bgs). The sampling locations were selected based on the
limits
of soil and groundwater
investigations
contamination
established
via the results
of previous
(Law, 1992 and ATEC, 1993). Background samples SS-1 and SS-2 are located
topographically
upslope
contamination.
and hydrogeologically
The area of contamination
upgradient
of previously
identified
nearest to the background sample locations is
associated with the former Mess Hall Heating Plant situated roughly 150 feet and 350 feet
southeast of SS-1 and SS-2, respectively.
The remaining
groundwater
surface soil samples are located within
and/or soils have been identified.
areas where contaminated
Surface soil samples SS-3 and SS4 are
situated in the area of the former Mess Hall Heating
Plant where elevated petroleum
hydrocarbons were detected in subsurface soil and shallow groundwater
(Law, 1992 and
ATEC, 1993).
Surface soil samples SS-5 and SS-6 are located at the southwest
corner of Fourth and “E”
Streets where elevated levels of halogenated organics were detected at a monitoring
(MW-10) installed in 1991 by Law.
3-4
well
Surface soil samples SS-7 and SS-8 are located north of Fourth Street. SS-7 is situated between
“F” Street and the parking lot for building TC480 while SS-8 is situated near monitori:ng well
MW-25.
The locations of these surface soil samples are within
an area where el.evated
petroleum hydrocarbons were previously detected in subsurface soil and shallow groundwater
samples (Law, 1992).
Surface soil samples SS-9 and SS-10 are located north of Fourth Street and between “F” Street
and the Fuel Farm (TC362 and STC369).
The results of previous
sampling and analysis in this area identified
shallow
groundwater
elevated levels of halogenated organics (Law,
1992).
Surface soil samples SS-11 and SS-12 are situated in the vicinity
of the Fuel Farm (TC362 and
STC369) located north of the corner of Fourth and “G” Streets. Elevated levels of petroleum
hydrocarbons were detected in shallow groundwater
area. Past reported leaks from underground
samples previously
obtained from this
lines in this area make them the primary
suspected source of contamination.
Soil samples SS-13 and SS-14 are located east of “G” Street. Sample SS-13 is situated in an
area where elevated levels of halogenated organics were detected previously
groundwater
samples (MW-19 and EMW-7).
wall of building
TC474 which previously
Sample SS-14 is situated adjacent to the east
served as a vehicle maintenance facility
suspected source of the groundwater contamination
Additional
in shallow
and is a
in this area.
samples may be obtained based on the results of soil gas and groundwater sample
screening which is being conducted as a tool to aid in defining the limits of the halogenated
organic contamination
previously
detected in shallow groundwater.
samples, if required, will be established in the field.
additional
The locations of these
It is assumed that approximately
five
surface soil samples (SS-15 through SS-191 will be needed. These additional
five
surface soil samples will be obtained from five of the 13 subsurface soil borings (B-7 through B19) to be drilled under this RI/l% as described in the following subsection.
3.2.2
Subsurface
Soil Sampling
Subsurface soil samples will be obtained from 28 soil borings drilled under this RVFS. This
includes 13 soil borings drilled exclusively
for the purpose of obtaining
subsurface soil data
and 15 soil borings to be completed as monitoring wells. [Note: seven additional
3-6
soil borings
(PSB-29 through PSB-35) are to be drilled under the Interim Remedial Action RI/FS to provide
subsurface soil data at areas where petroleum-based contamination
and/or groundwater under a previous investigation.
provided in the Interim
It h.as been
soil borings (B-7 through B-19: Borings B-l through B-6 were
installed by Law in 1991), five additional
(MW-29A,B
in soil
The detailed rationale for these borings is
Remedial Action RVFS Project Plan (Baker, 1993)l.
assumed that 13 additional
locations
was identified
through
two-well cluster shallow groundwater
MW-33A,B:
monitoring
wells MW-1 through
monitoring
MW-27 and
pumping well PW-28 were installed by Law in 1991 and 1992) and five deep groundwater
monitoring
wells (GWD-1 through GWD-5) will be included under this RI/FS. Only the deep
well locations are depicted on Figure 3-2 because the soil boring and shallow monitoring
cluster locations will be determined by the results of the soil gas and groundwater
well
sample
screening.
The locations of the 13 soil borings and five two-well cluster shallow groundwater monitoring
well locations will be determined based on the resultsof the soil gas and groundwater
Sample screening results
screening.
contamination
indicative
sample
of both the presence and absence of
will be used. That is, it is anticipated that several borings and wells will be
positioned in areas where positive soil gas and/or groundwater sampling results are obtained
to confirm the presence or absence of contamination
in these areas. Several borings and wells
will also be positioned in areas where no positive soil gas and/or groundwater sampling results
are obtained to confirm the presence or absence of contamination
and establish the perimeter
of the unimpacted area.
Each subsurface soil boring will be drilled to the top of the shallow groundwater
surface
(assumed to be 8 to 10 feet bgs based on measurements from existing wells) and sampled at
continuous
2-foot intervals
via split-spoon using ASTM Method 1586-84.
One subsurface
sample for laboratory analysis will be obtained from each of the 13 soil borings that will not be
completed as monitoring wells. Upon opening the split-spoon sampler, each soil sample will be
field screened for volatile
organic emissions via photoionization
vapor analyzer (OVA). The soil sample exhibiting
selected for laboratory analysis.
visually
contaminated
detector (PID) or organic
the highest PID or OVA reading will be
The field geologist can exercise discretion and substitute
sample for the sample exhibiting
a
the highest PID or OVA reading.
Five of the 13 soil borings will be selected to provide surface soil (0 to 12 inches bgs) samples
for laboratory analysis.
The selection of the borings to provide these samples will be at the
discretion of the field geologist.
3-7
f-7-a.
Additional
subsurface soil samples will be collected at each of the five shallow and five deep
groundwater
monitoring
the unsaturated
rationale
soil interval located immediately above the static groundwater surface. The
for obtaining
contamination
exhibiting
well locations. These subsurface soil samples will be obtained from
these samples is that it can provide a correlation
and groundwater
contamination
between soil
and is likely to be, along with the sample
the highest PID or OVA reading, the most contaminated sample in the borehole.
Additional
soil borings and shallow groundwater monitoring wells may be required based on
the results of the soil gas and groundwater sample screening.
3.2.3
Soil Analysis
All surface soil samples obtained under this RUFS will be analyzed for TCL VOAs and SVOAs,
and TAL Metals.
The data from these samples will be used to support the baseline risk
assessment.
Subsurface soil samples obtained from soil borings to be completed as deep groundwater
/+-v
monitoring
wells (GWD-1 through GWD-5) will be analyzed for TCL VOAs and SVOAs, and
TAL metals. The data from these samples, which will be obtained from areas of previously
identified
contamination
and from areas not previously investigated,
the baseline risk assessment and to provide additional
will be used to support
data pertaining
to the presence or
absence and vertical extent of soil contamination.
Subsurface soil samples obtained from soil borings (B-7 through B-19) and shallow monitoring
well borings (MW-29A,B through MW-33A,B) designed to delineate the nature and e:xtent of
the previously
identified
halogenated organic groundwater
contamination
will be analyzed
only for TCL VOAs.
One undisturbed
subsurface soil sample (ASTM D1587-83) will
background deep groundwater
parameters
including
monitoring
particle
size distribution
representative
corresponding
of a confining aquitard.
from the
well boring GWD-1 and analyzed for engineering
(ASTM D4943-89), and constant head permeability
obtained from the interval
be obtained
(ASTM
D422-631, Atterberg
Limits
(ASTM D2435-68). The soil sample will be
with the underlying
clay layer that may be
It is preferred that the sample be obtained from the
background well to ensure an unimpacted sample is sent to the geotechnical laboratory.
The
performance of the above physical analyses will aid in the classification of the material which,
3-8
in turn, will afford an empirical estimate of the hydraulic conductivity
compared to the results of the permeability
test.
One subsurface soil sample will be obtained from deep groundwater
GWD-3 and analyzed for RCRA hazardous characteristics
ignitability,
contamination
reactivity).
of this zone tha.t may be
monitoring
well boring
(i.e., full TCLP, corrosivity,
This well is located in an area where halogenated
was previously detected in shallow groundwater.
organic
In addition, subsurface soil
samples will be collected for the evaluation of other engineering parameters including TOC,
phosphorous, nitrogen, and microbial enumeration.
3.3
Groundwater
Investigation
The groundwater investigation
to be conducted under this RIFS will include the installation
of both shallow and deep groundwater monitoring wells. The rationale for the installation
of
these wells is presented below.
3.3.1
Shallow Groundwater
Wells
Five two-well cluster shallow groundwater
monitoring
well locations (MW-29A,B through
MW-29A,B: MW-1 through -27 and pumping well PW-28 were installed by Law in 1’991 and
1992) will be installed under this RI/FS to define the horizontal
organic contamination
identified
(Law, 1992). Specifically,
in groundwater
extent of the halogenated
samples obtained under previous studies
the extent of this contamination
has not been defined south of
Fourth Street where elevated levels were encountered at monitoring
vicinity
well MW-10 or in the
of building TC474 where nearby wells MW-19 and EMW-7 exhibited elevated l.evels of
TCE.
The locations of the shallow monitoring
well clusters will be determined based on the results
of soil gas and groundwater sample screening. Several of the well clusters will be positioned to
confirm the presence or absence of shallow groundwater
positive screening results were obtained.
contamination
at areas where
Conversely, a couple of the shallow wells will be
positioned in areas where no positive screening results were obtained so as to delineate the
limits of the shallow groundwater contamination.
Five two-well
shallow groundwater
monitoring
clusters (MW-29A,B through
MW..33A,B:
MW-1 through -27 and pumping well PW-28 were installed by Law in 1991 and 1992) will be
3-9
installed
under this RI/L% to define the horizontal
contamination
identified
1992). Specifically,
in groundwater
extent
of the halogenated
organic
samples obtained under previous studies (Law,
the extent of this contamination
has not been defkd
Street where elevated levels were encountered at monitoring
south of Fourth
well MW-10 or in the vicinity
of
building TC474 where nearby wells MW-19 and EMW-7 exhibited elevated levels of TCE.
The locations of the shallow monitoring
well clusters will be determined in the field based on
the results of soil gas and groundwater sample screening. Several of the well clusters will be
positioned to confirm the presence or absence of shallow groundwater contamination
where positive screening results were obtained.
<atareas
Conversely, a couple of the shallow well
clusters will be positioned in areas where negative screening results were obtained so as to
delineate the limits of the shallow groundwater contamination.
At each shallow monitoring well cluster location, two X-inch diameter, schedule 40 PVC wells
will be installed.
obtaining
underlying
The purpose of the two-well cluster concept is to provide the means for
groundwater
data at the shallow groundwater surface and immediately
ablove the
confining layer. These intervals are monitored by existing double-nested shallow
wells previously
installed
by Law.
According to the results of previous investigations
conducted by Law, the shallow groundwater surface can be expected to be encountered across
the topographically
flatter portions of the site at 8 to 10 feet bgs. Data provided lby Law
indicates the top of the confining layer is located from 35 to 43 feet bgs.
Each well in the two-well clusters will be provided with either an “A” or “B” designation (e.g.,
MW-29A and MW-29B). The “A” will identify the well screened at the groundwater surface,
whereas “B” will identify the well screened at the top of the underlying
confining layer. Each
well will be constructed with 2-inch diameter, schedule 40 PVC casings and No. 10 slot, Z-inch
diameter PVC screens. The groundwater
surface monitoring
well screened interval
will be
10 feet long while a B-foot long screen will be set in the deeper shallow groundwater
drilled to just above the confining
layer.
Detailed well construction
information
well
and well
installation
procedures are provided in Section 5.0
Additional
wells may be required based on the results of the soil gas and groundwater field
screening.
3-10
3.3.2
Deep Groundwater
Five deep groundwater
Wells
wells (GWD-1 through GWD-5) are to be installed under this RUFS
below the clay layer identified in borings SB-1, SB-2, and SB-3 (Law, 1992) at depths, ranging
from 35 to 43 feet bgs. This clay layer may represent the confining aquitard that separates the
shallow water table aquifer from the regionally
significant
Castle Hayne formation.
The
proposed locations are shown on Figure 3-2. The deep well screens will be set immediately
below the clay layer. In effect, the screens for these deep wells would be set only a few feet
deeper than the deeper shallow groundwater monitoring wells and would be separated only by
the underlying
clay confining layer.
The purpose of the deep wells is to provide data to define the vertical extent of contamination
in areas where analytical
investigations
results of shallow groundwater
have identified
samples obtained under previous
elevated levels of organic contaminants.
One of the five deep
wells (GWD-1) will be installed in an area suspected to not have been impacted (i.e., at the
northwest corner of the intersection
Two of the remaining
of Third and “D” Streets) to provide background data.
four deep wells (GWD-3 and GWD-5) are located adjacent to existing
double-nested wells MW-10 and MW-19 previously
installed
by law.
Elevated levels of
halogenated organics were detected in the lower portions of these double-nested wells that are
screened from 25.5 feet to 29.5 feet and from 22.5 feet to 24.5 feet, respectively.
The other two
deep wells (GWD-2 and GWD-4) are located near wells MW-2 at the former Mess Hall Heating
Plant and MW-25 located north of the Fuel Farm (buildings TC362 and STC369). Both of
these wells are located in areas where elevated levels of petroleum
hydrocarbons
were
identified in previous studies (ATEC, 1993 and Law, 1992).
The deep wells will be constructed of 2-inch diameter, schedule 40, PVC casings. Well screens
will be 5 feet in length and will be constructed of No. 10 slotted PVC. It is assumed that all of
the deep wells will be constructed with stick-up (2 to 3 feet) steel casings, locking ca.ps, and
protective bollards.
Detailed well construction information
and well installation
pro’cedures
are provided in Section 5.0.
3.3.3
Groundwater
Sampling
and Analysis
One round of groundwater samples will be collected from each well installed under this RI/FS.
This will result in 10 samples from newly installed shallow monitoring wells and five samples
from the deep wells.
3-11
Samples from four of the five shallow
groundwater
cluster wells (MW-29A,B
MW-32A,B) will be analyzed for VOAs via EPA Method 6Ol/602 including
tertiary
through
MTBE (methyl
butyl ether)as these wells will be installed to provide data regarding the source and
extent of the previously identified
halogenated organic shallow groundwater contamination.
In addition, the samples from well MW-33A and MW-33B will be analyzed for full-scan TCL
organics and TAL inorganics.
Samples from four of the five newly-installed
deep groundwater monitoring
wells (GWD-1
through GWD-4) will be analyzed for VOAs via EPA Method 6011602 including MTBE, TCL
SVOAs, and TAL Metals.
A sample from well GWD-5 will be analyzed for full-scan TCL
organics and TAL inorganics.
This data will be used to support the baseline risk assessment
and to provide information regarding the vertical extent of groundwater contamination.
In addition to the groundwater
monitoring
samples obtained from the newly installed shallow and deep
wells, a single round of 21 groundwater samples will be obtained from a iselected
number (12) of existing shallow groundwater monitoring
wells to provide comparative data
and for use in the baseline risk assessment. The existing wells to be sampled include shallow
double-nested wells MW-2, -9, -10, -14, -16, -19, -21, -22, and -25, and single shallow wells
EMW-3, -5, and -7. The selection of these 12 wells was based on the results of previous
investigations
(Law, 1992 and ATEC, 1993). Six of the wells (MW-10, -14, and -19, and
EMW-3, -5, and 7) were identified
as the only wells exhibiting
halogenated organic compound TCE (trichloroethylene).
elevated levels of the
The remaining six wells (MW-2, -9,
-16, -21, -22, and -25) include wells where elevated levels of petroleum hydrocarbons were
detected. All of the selected shallow wells are double-nested wells except for EMW-3, -5, and
-7 which are single wells.
Each of the 21 samples obtained under this RUFS from the 12 existing groundwater
identified
above will be analyzed for VOAs via EPA Method 6011602 including
wells
MTBE, TCL
SVOAs, and TAL metals as this data will be used to support the baseline risk assessm8ent. In
addition, the sample obtained from double-nested well MW-21 will be analyzed for full-scan
TCL organics and TAL inorganics in lieu of the above methods and for various engineering
parameters including microbial enumeration, TOC, BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, ammonia nitrogen,
total phosphorous and alkalinity.
3-12
3.3.4
Water Level Measurements
Static water level measurements (minimum two rounds) will be collected from each existing
and newly installed
monitoring
well during the groundwater
measurements shall be collected from all of the wells within
investigation.
Water level
a four hour period, if possible.
This data will be used to evaluate groundwater flow direction.
3.4
Surface Water/Sediment
Investigation
Surface water and sediment investigations
will be conducted along Brinson Creek
possible impacts from Site 35 and to support the baseline risk assessment.
stations
will
be established
adjacent/downstream
along Brinson
Creek including
assess
Six sampling
one upstream
locations between the site and the New River.
ho
and five
The locations are
depicted and described on Figure 3-2. The exact sampling locations are to be determined in
the field and are to correspond roughly with aquatic/ecological
survey sampling locations.
One surface water and two sediment samples (near bank: 0 to 6 inches and 6 to 121inches
below the sediment surfaces) will be obtained from each location.
The surface water and
sediment samples will be analyzed for TCL organics and TAL metals.
3.5
Aquatic/Ecological
Aquatic/ecological
Survey
surveys will be conducted in Brinson Creek to evaluate the potential
ecological impacts from past activities at Site 35. The surveys will include the collection of
benthic macroinvertebrate
and fish samples to assess environmental
-To assess ecological stresses to the aquatic community
densities,
species richness,
macroinvertebrates
and
species diversity
at each sampling station.
stresses posed by Site 35.
posed by stream quality,
will
be determined
for
fauna1
benthic
Fish samples will be collected for each. of the
population statistics and subsequent laboratory analysis of whole body parts and fillets.
Crab
samples will be collected for subsequent analysis of edible body parts. Each fish sam.ple for
chemical analysis will represent different trophic levels, if possible, as follows: top carnivores,
forage fish, and bottom feeders. All fish and crab analytical
samples will be analyzed for TCL
organics and TAL metals.
Benthic macroinvertebrates
and fish samples will be collected from three 500-foot stretches
(i.e., sampling locations) along Brinson Creek; upgradient
3-13
of Site 35; roughly
adjacent to
i--
Site 35; and downgradient
of Site 35 (see Figure 3-2). The stations will be located to roughly
correspond to the surface water/sediment sampling locations.
Benthic macroinvertebrates
utilizing
will be collected with a Standard Ponar. Fish will be collected
electroshocking
procedures, seining,
or gill
nets and/or other fish collecting
techniques.
Specific sampling procedures are detailed in Section 5.0.
QA/QC Samples
3.6
QA/QC requirements
for this investigation
are presented in the Quality Assurance Project
Plan (QAPP) which is Section II of this SAP. The following QA/QC samples will be collected at
each of the three sites during field sampling activities:
l
Trip Blanks
Trip blanks are defined as samples which originate from analyte-free
/--=X
from the laboratory
volatile
to the sampling site and returned to the laboratory
organic analysis (VOA) samples.
cooler containing
water taken
with the
One trip blank should accompany each
samples for volatile organics analysis
Trip blanks shall only be
analyzed for volatile organics.
l
Equipment Rinsates
Equipment
rinsates
decontamination
are the final
analyte-free
water
rinse
from
equipment
procedures. Equipment rinsate blanks will be collected daily during
each sampling event. Initially,
samples from every other day should be analyzed. If
analytes pertinent to the project are found in the rinsate, the remaining samples must
be analyzed. The results from the blanks will be used to evaluate the decontamination
methods.
This comparison is made during data validation
analyzed for the same parameters as the related samples.
One equipment rinsate will be collected per day of field sampling.
3-14
and the rinsates are
Field Blanks
l
Field
blanks
consist of the source water
procedures. At a minimum,
one drilling
used in equipment
decontamination
one field blank for each event, each source of water and
fluid sample per event must be collected and analyzed for the same
parameters as the related samples. Information
regarding the type and source of other
well construction material (i.e., filter pack, grout, bentonite, etc.) must be recorded in
the field logbook.
Two field blanks (ambient condition blanks) will be prepared at the commencement of
each sampling event. The field blanks will be prepared by pouring organic-free water
brought to the field in sealed containers (used for decontamination
purposes) :into one
set of sample bottles and deionized water directly into an additional
set of sample
bottles.
o
Field Duplicates
Field duplicates for soil samples are collected, homogenized, and split.
All samples
except VOAs are homogenized and split. Volatiles are not mixed, but select segments
of soil are taken from the length of the core and placed in 40-ml. glass vials.
duplicates for water samples should be collected simultaneously.
The
The water samples
will not be composited.
Field duplicates will be collected at a frequency of 10 percent.
l
Matrix Spike/Matrix
Spike Duplicates (MWMSD)
MSLMSDs are not field sampling activities, they are laboratory derived.
MS/MSD samples are collected to evaluate the matrix effect of the sample upon the
analytical
methodology.
A matrix
spike and matrix
spike duplicate
performed for each group of samples of a similar matrix.
MS/MSD samples will be collected at a frequency of 5 percent.
3-15
must be
4.0
SAMPLE
DESIGNATION
All samples collected during this investigation,
including
&AI&C samples, will be designated
with a unique number. The number will serve to identify the investigation,
within
the site, the area
the site, the sample media, sampling location, the depth (soil) or round (groundwater)
of sample, and QA/QC qualifiers.
The sample designation format is as follows:
Site # - Media - Location - Depth/Round <&A/Q0
An explanation of each of these identifiers is given below.
Site #
This investigation
Media
SB
GW
MW=
EMW
SW
SD
WT
=
=
includes Site 35.
Soil Boring (soil sample from a boring)
Groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater
Surface Water
Sediment
Waste
=
=
=
=
Location
The location numbers identify the sampling location. This would
include station number for soil location or monitoring well numlber for
groundwater.
Each grid station will be identified with a unique
identification number.
Depth/Round
Depth indicators will be used for soil samples. The number will refer
to the depth of the top of the sampled interval. For example:
00 = top of sample at ground surface
01 = top of sample is 1 foot below surface
07 = top of sample is 7 feet below surface
Round indicator will be used for groundwater samples (round one and
round two). For example:
QNQC
- (FBI
03
(TB)
(ER)
=
=
=
=
Field Blank
Duplicate Sample
TripBlank
Equipment Rinsate
4-l
d----,
Under this sample designation format the sample number 35-GW3-OlD refers to:
g-GW-3-OlD
Site 35
35-GJ-3-OlD
Groundwater sample
35-GW-&OlD
Monitoring
35GW-3-OLD
Round 1
35-GW-3-OlD
Duplicate (QA/QC) sample
well #3
This sample designation format will be followed throughout
the project. Required deviations
to this format in response to field conditions will be documented.
4-2
5.0
INVESTIGATIVE
The investigative
procedures to be used for Operable Unit (OU) No. 10 (Site 35) will
discussed in the following
installation
PROCEDURES
sections.
This includes: soil sample collection, monitoring
(both shallow and deep), staff gauge installation,
procedures, surveying, handling of site investigation
water level measurements.
Branch
Standard
(ECBSOPQAM), February
American
sample collection,
generated wastes, and
Note that all of these procedures will follow the field methods
described in the USEPA, Region IV, Environmental
Compliance
well
groundwater sample collection,
surface water sample collection, sediment sample collection, fish/benthic
decontamination
be
Operating
Procedures
1, 1991. Additional
Society for Testing Materials
Services Division (ESDI, Environmental
and Qualitv
Assurance
Manual
guidance from other sources such :as the
(ASTM) may be used, but if the ASTM and ESD
methods are in conflict, the ESD procedure will be used.
5.1
Soil Sample Collection
Surface and subsurface soil samples will be collected throughout
OU No. 10. The majority of
the soil samples will be collected from borings advanced by a drilling
installation
rig and during
the
of monitoring wells. Soil samples may also be collected from borings advanced by
hand auger or power auger.
5.1.1
Soil Borings Advanced
by Hand Auger
Hand augering is the most common manual method used to collect subsurface samples.
Typically,
4-inch diameter bucket augers with cutting heads are pushed and twisted into the
ground and removed as the buckets are filled.
time. The practical depth of investigation
sampled. In this investigation,
The auger holes are advanced one bucket at a
using a hand auger is related to the material being
hand augers will be used to collect discrete grab samples of soil
from the 0 to la-inch intervals.
The bucket auger will be decontaminated between samples as outlined in Section 5.7.
5.1.2
Soil Borings and Monitoring
WeII Boreholes
Soil samples from soil borings advanced by a drilling
rig will be collected using a split-spoon
sampler. A split-spoon sampler is a steel tube, split in half lengthwise, with the halves held
5-l
together by threaded collars at either end of the tube.
unconsolidated
materials
This device can be driven
using a drive weight connected to the drilling
split-spoon sampler (used for performing
Standard Penetration
rig.
into
A standard
Tests) is two inches outer
diameter (O.D.) and l-3/8 inches inner diameter (I.D.). This standard spoon is available in two
common lengths providing
either 20-inch or 26-inch internal
obtaining M-inch or 24-inch long samples, respectively.
longitudinal
clearance
for
Split spoons capable of obtaining
24-
inch long samples will be utilized during this investigation.
Split-spoon samples will be collected continuously
water table in each soil boring.
wells (monitoring
from the ground surface to the ground
Soil borings that will be converted into shallow monitoring
well boreholes) will be advanced to the desired depth past the water table.
The physical characteristics
of the samples will be described by the site geologist. The soil in
the sampler will be classified according to the Unified Soil Classification
System (USCS). Soil
sample descriptions will be recorded in the field geologist’s notebook.
Selected split-spoon samples will be submitted to the laboratory for analysis.
In generai, soil
samples will be collected at a-foot intervals to the top of the water table. Surface soil samples
will not be collected using a split-spoon sampler because a suffmient quantity
of sample cannot
be retained from 0 to 6 inches using this sampling device. Hence, surface samples will be
collected using a stainless-steel spoon, hand auger, or by advancing the augers and retaining
the cuttings.
For borings only, split-spoon samples will be collected from approximately
foot bgs to the top of the water table; for borings advanced for monitoring
one
well installation,
split spoon samples will be collected from ground surface (no surface samples will be collected)
to the bottom of the borehole.
The following procedures for collecting soil samples in split-spoons will be used:
1. The surface sample will be collected by driving
the split-spoon with blows from a
140-pound hammer falling 30 inches in accordance with ASTM D1586-84, Standard
Penetration
Test.
Only the top 6 inches will be submitted
to the laboratory
for
analyses.
2. Advance the borehole to the desired depth using
techniques.
hollow
stem auger d.rilling
The split-spoon will be lowered into the borehole inside the hollow stem
auger (this will ensure that undisturbed material will be sampled).
5-2
3. Drive the split-spoon using procedures outlined in 1 above.
4. Repeat this operation until the borehole has been advanced to the selected depth.
5. Record in the field logbook the number of blows required to effect each six inches of
penetration or fraction thereof. The first six inches is considered to be a seating drive.
The sum of the number of blows required for the second and third
six inches of
penetration is termed the penetration resistance, N. If the sampler is driven less than
18 inches, the penetration resistance is that for the last one foot of penetration.
(If less
than one foot is penetrated, the logs shall state the number of blows and the fraction of
one foot penetrated.)
In cases where samples are driven 24 inches, the sum of second
and third 6-inch increments
will be used to calculate the penetration
(Refusal of the SPT will be noted as 50 blows over an interval
resistance.
equal to or less than
6 inches; the interval driven will be noted with the blow count.)
6. Bring the sampler to the surface and remove both ends and one half of the split,-spoon
such that the soil recovered rests in the remaining
/,-h‘.
recovery (length), composition, structure,
half of the barrel.
Describe the
consistency, color, condition,
etc., of the
recovered soil; then put into sample jars. Record the level of volatile emissions of each
sample via PID or OVA in the field logbook.
7. Split-spoon samplers shall be decontaminated
after each use and prior to the initial
use at a site according to procedures outlined in Section 5.6.
The following procedures are to be used for soil samples submitted to the laboratory:
1. After sample collection, remove the soil from the split-spoon sampler. Prior to filling
laboratory
containers, the soil sample should be mixed thoroughly
ensure that the sample is as representative
samples for volatile
as possible to
as possible of the sample interval.
organic compounds should &
be mixed.
Further,
Soil
sample
containers for volatile organic compounds analyses should be filled completely without
head space remaining in the container to minimize volatilization.
2. Record all pertinent sampling information
,/+--..
such as soil description, sample depth, PID
or OVA reading, sample number, sample location, and time of sample collection in the
5-3
field logbook. In addition, label, tag, and number the sample bottle(s) as outlined in
Section 6.0.
3. Pack the samples for shipping. Attach seal to the shipping package. Chain-of-Custody
Forms and Sample Request Forms will be properly filled out and enclosed or attached
(Section 6.0).
4. Decontaminate the split-spoon sample as described in Section 5.6. Replace disposable
latex gloves between sample stations to prevent cross-contamination
5.2
Monitoring
Well Installation
5.2.1
Well Installation
Shallow and deep monitoring
of samples,
and Well Development
wells will be installed
to monitor
the water-bearing
zones
located above and below a previously identified clay encountered 35 to 40 feet bgs. Shallow
wells will be installed in two-well clusters that include a groundwater surface well with a lofoot long well screen set to span the interval
from two feet above the groundwater
surface to
eight below the groundwater surface and a deeper well with a five-foot long well screen set just
above the underlying
clay layer.
The deep wells will be drilled
shallow wells to provide stratigraphic
underlying
data regarding
and installed
the location
before the
and thickness
of the
clay layer. The deep wells will be constructed with five-foot long well screens, the
tops of which will be set immediately below the base of the clay layer.
Procedures for the installation
and construction of shallow, groundwater
surface monitoring
wells are presented below:
l
Activity
personnel will approve all monitoring
free of underground or overhead utility
l
well locations. These locations will be
lines.
A borehole will be advanced by a drilling
rig using hollow stem augers. Initially,
the
boreholes will be advanced with 3-l/4 inch I.D. augers. After the borehole has been
advanced to its final depth, the borehole will be over-drilled with 10-l/4
augers (for well installation
only).
5-4
inch I.D.
l
Soil (split spoon) samples will be collected continuously
during borehole advancement.
Samples will be collected according to the procedures outlined in Section 5.1.2.
l
Upon completion of the borehole to the desired depth, monitoring
well construction
materials will be installed (inside the hollow stem augers).
l
PVC is the material selected for monitoring
well construction.
basis of its low cost, ease of use and flexibility.
EPA Region IV requires justification
using PVC. Appendix A is a project-specific justification
existing groundwater quality information)
It was selected on the
of
for use of PVC (based on
presented in the EPA Region IV required
format.
l
Ten feet of 2-inch I.D., Schedule 40, #lO slot (0.010~inch) screen with a bottom cap.
The top of the well screen will be connected to a threaded, flush-joint,
PVC riser. The
screen will extend two to three above the seasonal high static groundwater
surface. The riser will extend to approximately
l
table
six inches below the ground surface.
The annular space around the screen will be backfilled with a well-graded medium to
coarse sand (No. 1 or No. 2 Silica Sand) as the hollow-stem
withdrawn
augers are being
from the borehole. Sand shall be placed from the bottom of the boring to
approximately
two feet above the top of the screened interval.
A lesser distance above
the top of the screened interval may be packed with sand if the well is very shallow to
allow for placement of sealing materials.
l
A sodium bentonite seal at least 24-inch thick, unless shallow groundwater consditions
are encountered, will be placed above the sand pack. The bentonite shall be allowed to
hydrate for at least 2 hours before further completion of the well.
l
The depth intervals
of all backfill
materials
shall be measured with a weighted
measuring tape to the nearest 0.1 foot and recorded in the field logbook.
l
The monitoring wells will be completed at the surface. The aboveground section of the
PVC riser pipe will be protected by installation
of a 4-inch diameter, 5-foot long steel
casing (with locking cap and lock) into the cement grout. The bottom of the surface
casing will be placed at a minimum
ground surface, as space permits.
of 2-l/2, but not more than 3-l/2 feet below the
For very shallow wells, a steel casing of less than
5-5
5 feet in length may be used, as space permits.
The protective steel casing shlall not
fully penetrate the bentonite seal.
a
The top of each well will be protected with the installation
of four, 3-inch diameter,
&foot long steel pipes which will be installed around the outside of the concrete apron.
The steel pipes shall be embedded to a minimum depth of 2.5 feet in 3,000 psi concrete.
Each pipe shall also be filled with concrete. A concrete pad shall be placed at th.e same
time the pipes are installed.
The pad will be a minimum of 4-feet by 4-feet by 6-inches,
extending two feet below the ground surface in the annular space and set two inches
into the ground elsewhere. The protective casing and steel pipes will be painted with
day-glo yellow paint, or equivalent.
l
If necessary, in high-traffic
areas, the monitoring
well shall be completed at the
surface using a “flush’ man-hole type cover. If the well is installed through a paved or
concrete surface, the annular space shall be grouted to a depth of at least 2.5feet and
the well shall be finished with a concrete collar.
If the well has not been in.stalled
through a paved or concrete surface, the well shall be completed by construction
concrete pad, a minimum
of a
of 4-feet by g-inches, extending two feet below the ground
surface in the annular space and set two inches into the ground elsewhere. If water
table conditions prevent having a 24-inch bentonite seal and the concrete pad as
specified, the concrete pad depth should be decreased. Two weep holes will be drilled
into opposite sides of the protective casing just above the concrete pad. The concrete
shall be crowned to meet the finished grade of the surrounding pavement, as relquired.
If appropriate, the vault around the buried wellhead will have a water drain to the
surrounding soil and a watertight
l
cover.
All wells will have a locking cap connected to the protective casing. Each well will be
tagged which will contain general well construction information
and marked as “Test
Well - Not For Consumptive Use.”
Figure 5-1 is a typical above grade shallow (Type I) groundwater monitoring well.
Procedures for the installation
and construction of shallow monitoring
wells with screens set
below the groundwater surface and above the confining clay layer are presented below:
5-6
r
PROTECTIVE STEEL
SLEEVE WITH
LOCKING CAP
160525WP
CONCRETE PAD
3 PROTECTIVE STEEL
BOLLARDS (TYP.)
rlu,
GROUND SURFACE
7
CEMENT/BENTONITE
GROUT
THREADED PVC
CASING
BENTONITE PELLET
SEAL
..::
. .
.’
,.;
‘. .. .
:
f,.
.._
., 1..
.i
.,
.
,:
.!
:\:
THREADED PVC WELL
SCREEN-W/O.01
IN. SLOT
FILTER
SAND
PACK
-
,. ?:, ,,.
_
\ ,:...:
.‘.
_
<:::
__
.;‘.:.,~(‘
-
:1....
.
/THREADED
PVC..WELL
BOTTOM OF
BOREHOLE
TYPICAL
FIGURE 5- 1
ABOVE GRADE SHALLOW (TYPE I) GROUNDWATER
MONITORING WELL CONSTRUCTION DIAGRAM
SITE 35
MARINE CORPS BASE, CAMP LEJEUNE
NORTH CAROLINA
5-7
IPLUG
Activity
l
personnel will approve all monitoring well locations. These locations will be
installed free of underground or overhead utility
A borehole will be advanced initially
l
lines.
using hollow stem augers to just below the water
table (so that samples can be collected for laboratory analysis).
The augers, will be
nominal 3/4-inch I.D. Continuous 2-foot split-spoon samples will be collected while the
borehole is advanced. Samples will be collected according to the procedures outlined in
Section 5.1.2. After advancing the borehole to the desired depth, the borehole will be
overdrilled with 6-l/4 inch I.D. augers, prior to well installation.
Split-spoon samples will be collected continuously during borehole advancement until
l
the underlying
layer is encountered. The expected depth of the underlying
will be based primarily
on data obtained from previous investigations
clay layer
and the well
logs for deep wells GWD-1 through GWD-5 which will have already been completed.
Samples will be collected according to the procedures outlined in Section 5.1.2.
l
,,---_
PVC is the material selected for monitoring well construction.
basis of its low cost, ease of use and flexibility.
EPA Region IV requires justification
using PVC. Appendix A is a projected-specific justification
existing groundwater quality information)
It was selected on the
of
for use of PVC (based on
presented in the EPA Region IV required
format.
l
Five feet of 2-inch I.D., Schedule 40, # 10 slot (0.010 inch) screen with a bottom cap
will be installed.
the underlying
l
The base of the well screen will be set immediately above the top of
clay layer.
The annular space around the screen will be backfilled with a well-graded medium to
coarse sand as (No. 1 or No. 2 silica sand) as the hollow-stem augers are being
withdrawn
from the borehole. Sand shall be placed from the bottom of the b’oring to
approximately
two feet above the top of the screened interval.
A lesser distance above
the top of the screened interval may be packed with sand if the well is very shallow to
allow for placement of sealing materials.
Monitoring
wells greater than 50 feet deep
shall have the sand pack installed via tremie method.
l
A sodium bentonite seal (typically
bentonite pellets) at least 24-inch thick, unless
shallow groundwater conditions are encountered, will be placed above the sand pack.
5-8
The bentonite shall be allowed to hydrate for at least 2 hours before further completion
of the well.
l
The annular space above the bentonite seal will be backfilled with a cement-bentonite
grout consisting of either two parts sand per one part of cement and water, or three to
four percent bentonite powder (by dry weight) and seven gallons of potable water per
94 pound bag of portland cement. The bentonite seal shall be installed using a .tremie
pipe, if applicable depths are anticipated (i.e., greater than 25 feet).
a
The depth intervals
of all backfill
materials
shall be measured with a weighted
measuring tape to the nearest 0.1 foot and recorded in the field logbook.
l
The monitoring wells will be completed at the surface. The aboveground section of the
PVC riser pipe will be protected by installation
of a 4-inch diameter, 5-foot long steel
casing (with locking cap and lock) into the cement grout. The bottom of the surface
casing will be placed at a minimum of 2-l/2, but not more than 3-l/2 feet below the
ground surface, as space permits.
For very shallow wells, a steel casing of less than
5 feet in length may be used, as space permits.
The protective steel casing shall not
fully penetrate the bentonite seal.
l
The top of each well will be protected with the installation
5 foot long steel pipes which will be installed
of four, 3-inch diameter,
around the concrete apron.
The steel
pipes shall be embedded to a minimum depth of 2.5 feet in 3,000 psi concrete. Each
pipe shall also be filled with concrete. A concrete pad shall be placed at the same time
the pipes are installed.
The pad will be a minimum
of 4-feet by 4-feet by 6-inches,
extending two feet below the ground surface in the annular space and set two inches
into the ground elsewhere. The finished pad shall be sloped so that the drainage will
flow away from the protective casing and off the pad. The protective casing and steel
pipes will be painted with day-glo yellow paint, or equivalent.
l
If necessary, in high-traffic
areas, the monitoring
well shall be completed at the
surface using a “flush” man-hole type cover. If the well is installed through a paved or
concrete surface, the annular space shall be grouted to a depth of at least 2.5 feet and
the well shall be finished with a concrete collar.
If the well has not been irrstalled
through a paved or concrete surface, the well shall be completed by construction
of a
concrete pad, a minimum of 4-feet by 6-inches, extending two feet below the ground
5-9
surface in the annular space and set two inches into the ground elsewhere.
If water
table conditions prevent having a 24-inch bentonite seal and the concrete pad as
specified, the concrete pad depth should be decreased. Two weep holes will be (drilled
into opposite sides of the protective casing just above the concrete pad. The coincrete
shall be crowned to meet the finished grade of the surrounding
pavement, as required.
If appropriate, the vault around the buried wellhead will have a water drain to the
surrounding soil and a watertight
l
cover.
All wells will have a locking cap connected to the protective casing. Each well will be
tagged which will contain general well construction information
and marked as “Test
Well - Not for Consumptive Use.”
Figure
5-2 is a typical
above grade shallow
(Type II) groundwater
monitoring
well
construction diagram.
Procedures for the installation
and construction of deep wells are presented below. In general,
the borehole will be advanced and samples collected as described above. Additionally,
well
materials are the same as those described above.
l
If a clay layer (i.e., layer which exhibits a low enough hydraulic
may impede the vertical migration
advancement,
split-spoon
of contamination)
conductivity
which
is encountered during borehole
samples will be collected at continuous
intervals
to
determine the thickness of the layer.
l
If the clay layer is determined to have low enough hydraulic
conductivity
(based on
visual observations) and is at least two feet thick, then the well will be completed as a
deep well (also commonly referred to as a double-cased well).
a
Once it is determined that the clay layer meets the criteria mentioned above, the clay
will be cased-off. Eight-inch
steel casing will be installed at least one foot into the clay
layer. The casing will then be grouted in place. The grout shall consist of a cementbentonite mixture
consisting of either two parts sand per one part of cement and
water, or three to four percent bentonite powder (by dry weight) and seven gallons of
potable water per 94 pound bag of portland cement.
5-10
r
PROTECTIVE
SLEEVE WITH
LOCKING CAP
160523SP
CONCRETE PAD
4 PROTECTIVE STEEL
BOLLARDS (TYP.)
GROUND SURFACE
CEMENT/BENTONITE
GROUT
GROU$?EyATER---,
BENTONITE
SEAL
-THREADED
CASING
-A
PELLET
PVC
v
--
THREADED PVC WELL
SCREEN-W/O.01
IN. SLOT
FILTER SAND
PACK
BOTTOM OF \
BORE:HOl-E
.I ..‘-.
.’..‘.....
.
.. “,.\
. : .,: -;,;...
: “.,
;::
:, t 2,
,;,.::. ..
;
..
; ..,.”
.’ ., ...*I,.
.:.i......4. *,i” ..: ... .
r
THREADED PVC WELL PLUG
CLAY LAYER
N. T. S.
TYPICAL
Baker Envirornmtal, ko.
FIGURE 5-2
ABOVE GRADE SHALLOW (TYPE II) GROUNDWATER
MONITORING WELL CONSTRUCTION DIAGRAM
SITE 35
MARINE CORPS BASE, CAMP LEJEUNE
NORTH CAROLINA
5-11
l
The grout will be allowed to set-up for a minimum of 24-hours before the borehole is
further advanced.
l
Upon completion of the borehole to the desired depth, monitoring
well construction
materials will be installed as described above.
Figure 5-3 is a typical above grade deep monitoring well construction diagram.
All monitoring wells will be developed as specified in the ECBSOPQAM. The purposes of well
development is to stabilize and increase the permeability
screen, to restore the permeability
drilling
of the filter pack around the well
of the formation which may have been reduced by the
operations, and to remove fine-g-rained materials that may have entered the well or
filter pack during installation.
based on drilling
The selection of the well development method typically
methods, well construction and installation
is
details, and the characteristics
of
the formation.
Well development shall not be initiated
until a minimum of 48 hours has elapsed subsequent
well completion. This time period will allow the cement grout to set. Shallow wells typically
are developed using bailers or low-yield pumping in combination with surging using a surge
block. Deep monitoring
in combination
wells are developed using compressed air (equipped with an air filter)
with surging.
Selection
of a development
device will
be dependent
on
conditions encountered during monitoring well installation.
All wells shall be developed until well water runs relatively
clear of fine-grained
Note that the water in some wells does not clear with continued development.
materials.
Typical limits
placed on well development may include any one of the following:
l
Clarity of water based on visual determination
l
A maximum time period (typically one hour for shallow wells)
l
A maximum well volume (typically three to five well volumes)
l
Stability
of specific conductance and temperature
measurements (typically
10 percent change between three successive measurements)
5-12
less than
WATERTIGHT
LOCKABLE
I
CONCRETE PAD
160524SP
4 PROTECTIVE STEEL
BOLLARDS (TYP.)
GROUND SURFACE
7
r
OUTER BOREHOLE WALL
-_
SOIL
GROUND WATERLEVEL
OUTER THREADED
PVC CASING
THREADED PVC
CEMENT/BENTONITE
GROUT
CLAY LAYER
BENTONITE PELLET
FILTER SAND
PACK
THREADED PVC WELL
SCREEN-W/O.01
IN. SLOT
PVC WELL PLIJG
BOTTOM OF
BOREHOLE
h? T. S.
FIGURE 5-3
TYPICAL ABOVE GRADE DEEP GROUNDWATER
MONITORING WELL CONSTRUCTION DIAGRAM
SITE 35
MARINE CORPS BASE, CAMP LEJEUNE
NORTH CAROLINA
5-13
BakerEnvironmental k
Clarity based on turbidity
l
i--”
measurements [typically
less than 50 Net Turbidity
Units
(NTU)I
A record of the well development shall be completed to document the development process,
Usually,
a minimum
period of one to two weeks should elapse between the end of initial
development and the first sampling
This equilibration
event for a well.
groundwater unaffected by the installation
of the well to occupy the vicinity
period allows
of the screened
interval.
5.3
Groundwater
Sample Collection
Groundwater samples will be collected from existing and newly installed monitoring
wells on
site.
The collection of a groundwater sample includes the following steps:
i”-‘T”
1. First open the well cap and use volatile organic detection equipment (HNu or OVA) on
the escaping gases at the well head to determine the need for respiratory
protection.
This task is usually performed by the Field Team Leader, Health and Safety Officer, or
other designee.
2. When proper respiratory
protection has been donned, sound the well for total depth
and water level (decontaminated
equipment)
and record these data in the field
logbook. Calculate the fluid volume in the well.
3. Lower purging
equipment (bailer or submersible
pump) into the well to a. short
distance below the water level and begin water removal.
temporarily
Purged water will
stored in DOT-approved 55-gallon drums. Final containment
be
of purged
water is addressed in Section 5.9.1.
4. Measure the rate of discharge using a bucket and stopwatch.
5. Purge a minimum of three to five well volumes before sampling.
In low permeability
strata (i.e., if the well is pumped to dryness), one volume will suffice. Allow the well to
5-14
recharge as necessary, but preferably to 70 percent of the static water level, and then
sample.
6. Record measurements of specific conductance, temperature, and pH during purging to
ensure the groundwater
stabilizes.
Generally, these measurements are mad.e after
three, four, and five well volumes.
7. Lower the closed top teflon bailer into the well, submerge into the groundwat,er, and
retrieve. A teflon coated line (only the portion in contact with the water table) will be
used for lowering the bailer.
Pour groundwater from the bailer into the laboratory-
supplied sample bottles.
8. Samples for VOC analysis will be collected first, followed by semivolatiles,
pesticides, and metals.
Sample bottles will
be filled
PCBs,
in the same order for all
monitoring wells.
9. Samples will be collected for total (unfiltered)
and dissolved (filtered) metal analysis.
Samples collected for dissolved metals analysis will be filtered in the field prior to
being submitted for analysis. Filtering
will be conducted using a 45-micron filter.
Sample preservation handling procedures are outlined in Section 6.0.
5.4
Surface Water Sample Collection
The following procedures will be used for the collection of surface water samples at stations
located on site. At each station, samples will be collected at the approximate
mid-vertical
point or near the bank of the surface water body. Care will be taken to ensure that the
sampler does not contact and/or stir up the sediments, while still being relatively
close to the
sediment-water interface.
The surface water samples will be collected by dipping the laboratory-supplied
directly into the water.
Clean PVC gloves will be worn by sampling
sample bottles
personnel
at each
sampling station. For those sample bottles that contain preservative (e.g., sulfuric acid), the
water will be collected in a clean, decontaminated
transferred into the appropriate laboratory-supplied
5-15
sampling
container,
sample bottle.
and then slowly
The water samples will be collected from near mid-stream at each station. Water samples at
the furthest downstream station will be collected first, with subsequent samples taken at the
next upstream station(s).
Sediment samples will be collected after the water samples to
minimize sediment disturbance and suspension.
All sample containers not containing preservative will be rinsed at least once with the sample
water prior to final sample collection. In addition, the sampling container used to transfer the
water into sample bottles containing preservatives will be rinsed once with sample water.
Care will be taken when collecting samples for analysis of volatile organics compounds8(VOCs)
to avoid excessive agitation that could result in loss of VOCs. VOC samples will be collected
prior to the collection of the samples for analysis of the other parameters. Sample bottles (40
milliliter
septum vials with screw-on caps with teflon-silicon
disks) will be tilled in the same
order at all sampling stations. The sample bottles will be filled by pouring down the si.de until
the container is completely filled leaving no head space. Each filled bottle will be checked for
bubbles and rejected if encountered.
Temperature,
pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen of the surface water will be
measured in the field at each sampling location (at each sampling depth), immediately
following sample collection.
The sampling location will be marked by placing a wooden stake and bright colored flagging at
the nearest bank or shore. The sampling location will be marked with indelible ink on the
stake. In addition, the distance from the shore and the approximate location will be estimated
using triangulation
methods, and recorded and sketched in the field log book. If permission is
granted, photographs will be taken to document the physical and biological characteristics
the sampling location.
The following information will be recorded in the field logbook:
l
Project location, date and time
a
Weather
l
Sample location, number, and identification
l
Flow conditions (i.e., high, low, in flood, etc.)
0
On site water quality measurements
l
Visual description of water (i.e., clear, cloudy, muddy, etc.)
5-16
number
of
Sketch of sampling location including
l
boundaries of the water body, sample location
(and depth), relative position with respect to the site, location of wood identifier
a
Names of sampling personnel
l
Sampling technique, procedure, and equipment used
stake
Sample preservation and handling procedures are outlined in Section 6.0.
5.5
Sediment Sample Collection
The following procedures will be used for the collection of sediment samples at stations located
on site. At each station, surface and near surface sediment samples will be collected at :adepth
of O-6 inches, and 6-12 inches. These intervals of sediment will be collected using a stainless
steel hand-held coring instrument.
A new or decontaminated stainless steel liner tube, fitted
with an eggshell catcher to prevent sample loss, will be used at each station.
The coring device will be pushed into the sediments to a minimum depth of fifteen inches, or
until refusal, whichever is encountered first. The sediments in the 0 to g-inch interval and 6 to
la-inch interval will be extruded with a decontaminated extruder into the appropriate sample
containers.
If less than twelve inches of sediments are obtained, the first six inches will be
placed in the 0 to g-inch container, and the remaining
sediment will be placed into the 6 to
12-inch container.
The sampling procedures for using the hand-held coring instrument
are outlined below:
1. Inspect and prepare the corer:
a. Inspect the core tube and, if one is being used, the core liner.
liner must be firmly in place, free of obstruction throughout
Core tube a:nd core
its length.
IBottom
edge of core tube, or of the nose piece, should be sharp and free of nicks or de:nts.
b. Check the flutter valve for ease of movement.
c.
Check the flutter valve seat to make sure it is clear of any obstruction tha.t could
prevent a tight closure.
5-17
d. Attach a line securely to the core sampler. The line should be free of any frayed or
worn sections, and sufficiently
long to reach bottom.
2. Get in position for the sampling operation -- keeping in mind that, if the purpose is to
obtain samples containing
fauna or stratified
sediments, disturbance of the bottom
area to be sampled should be avoided.
3. Line up the sampler, aiming it vertically
for the point where the sample is to be taken.
4. Push the core sampler, in a smooth and continuous movement, through the water and
into the sediments -- increasing the thrust as necessary to obtain the penet,ration
desired.
5. If the corer has not been completely submerged, close the flutter valve by hand and
press it shut while the sample is retrieved.
Warning:
the flutter valve must be kept
very wet if it is to seal properly.
6. Lift the core sampler clear of the water, keeping it as nearly vertical as possible, and
handle the sample according to the type of core tube.
7. Secure and identify the new sample. Unscrew the nose cone. Pull the liner out. Push
out any extra sediments (greater than 12 inches). Push out the sediments within the
6 to 12 inch interval
and place it in a sample jar. Push out the 0 to 6 inch sediment
interval into another sample jar.
8. Seal all sample jars tightly.
9. Label all samples.
5.6
Biological
and Fish Sample Collection
5.6.1
Biological
Sample Collection
Biological samples collected at the stations will consist of fish and benthic macroinverte’brates.
Prior to initiating
the sampling event, the following sampling area description infor:mation
will be recorded at each station:
5-18
l
Project location, date and time
l
Tide (low vs. high)
l
Weather
l
Sample location, number, and identification
l
Flow conditions (i.e., high, low, in flood, etc.)
0
On site water quality measurements
l
Visual description of water (i.e., clear, cloudy, muddy, etc.)
a
Sketch of sampling location including
number
boundaries of the water body, sample location
(and depth), relative position with respect to the site, location of wood identifier
l
Names of sampling personnel
l
Sampling technique, procedure, and equipment used
l
Average width, depth and velocity of the water body
l
Description of substrate
l
Descriptions of other “abiotic” characteristics
stake
of the reach such as pools, riffles, runs,
channel shape, degree of bank erosion, and shade/sun exposure
l
Description of biotic community (i.e., flora, fauna, etc.)
l
Description of other “biotic” characteristics of the reach including aquatic and riparian
vegetation and wetlands
After the habitat review is complete, the field team leader will define and locate the stations
for biological sampling.
Every attempt will be made to define stations to exclude atypical
5-19
habitats such as bridges and mouths of tributaries.
In addition, upstream and downstream
locations will be selected to be as ecologically similar as possible in their biotic and abiotic
characteristics.
Field water quality measurements will be conducted at each station, prior to collection of the
samples.
These measurements
conductivity
instructions
temperature,
All instruments
and salinity.
manufacturers’
include
pH, dissolved
will be calibrated
prior to conducting
oxygen,
specific
in accordance with
the measurements.
the
All measurelments,
including the calibration procedures, will be recorded on field data sheets.
5.6.1.1
Benthic Macroinvertebrate
Benthic macroinvertebrates
Sample Collection
will be collected at each station using a Standard Ponar Grab
Sampler. Each station will consist of three replicate samples with one grab per replicate.
After the sediments are collected, the contents of the sample will be placed into a small1 tub.
The sediments in the tub will be transferred to a No. 35 sieve (0.500 mm) and washed with
water to remove small sediment particles.
transferred
into sample jars.
The remaining
Approximately
contents in the sieve vvill be
half of the sample jar will be filled with the
sample, and 10 percent (by weight) buffered formalin will be added to fill the remainder of the
jar.
A 100 percent cotton paper label will be placed inside the jar, identifying
the station
location and replicate number. The label will be marked with a pencil. The outside of the jar
will be labeled using a black permanent marker with the station location and sample number.
All the sample jars will be stored in large plastic tubs until transfer to Baker Ecological
Services Laboratory in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania.
5.6.1.2
Processing of Macroinvertebrate
Samples
The samples will be returned to the Baker Ecological Services Laboratory for final processing.
The samples will be rewashed using a No. 35 sieve (0.500 mm), to remove any remaining
fine
sediments, and the remaining portion of the sample will be transferred back into the sample
jar containing fresh 90 percent ethanol.
The sediment sample will be sorted under a dissecting microscope. Using a pair of forceps all
the remaining
containing
organisms will
90 percent ethanol.
be removed from the sample and placed into glass vials
After all the organisms in a given sample are sorted, 100
5-20
percent cotton paper labels will be placed inside the vials and/or jars, identifying
The labels will be marked with a pencil.
location and replicate number.
sealed with cotton, and placed into a sample jar containing
the station
The vials will be
90 percent ethanol.
The date,
sorting time, and the name of the person who sorted the sample will be recorded on a log sheet.
The same sorting procedures outlined above will be repeated as a QA/QC measure, with any
additional
species identified,
being placed into their respective vials.
An environmental
scientist will perform this QA/QC measure. Fifty percent of the sample will be resorted.
more than five percent of the individuals
are missed during the initial
sorting, then the rest of
the sample will be resorted. If less than five percent of the individuals
initial
If
are missed during the
sorting, then the rest of the sample will not be resorted. Any changes to this procedure
will be approved by the project manager. The number of additional
individuals
sample will be recorded. The date, sorting time, number of additional
found in the
individuals
fou.nd and
the percent of the sample that was QA/QCed will be recorded on a log sheet. All collected
individuals
will be sent to the appropriate laboratory for taxonomic identification.
5.6.1.3
Analysis of Macroinvertebrates
Results of the benthic macroinvertebrate
collection will be used to prepare the following
descriptive statistics on a station-by-station
basis: (1) a list of taxa collected; (2) a table of
numbers of each taxa collected by replicate; and (3) relative pollution tolerance of the species.
The benthic
macroinvertebrate
expression of community
they condense a substantial
communities
will
structure (i.e., diversity
be examined
index).
Diversity
using
a mathematical
data are useful because
amount of laboratory data into a single value. Separate values of
the diversity index will be computed for sampling areas within the upstream, downstream and
adjacent reaches. Analysis of the species diversity
will be used to compare the community
structure between the stations as well as evaluate the impact that the contaminants
from the
site may be having on the aquatic community.
The species collected during
biological
community
relevance,
the aquatic
and pollution
may be indicated
macroinvertebrate
surveys will be evaluated
tolerance.
by the
Biological
absence
species such as Ephemeroptera,
dominance by any one particular
to determine
impairment
of generally
Plecoptera,
their
of the benthic
pollution-sensitive
and Trichoptera;
excess
taxon; low overall taxa richness; or appreciable shifts in
community composition relative to the reference condition.
5-21
In addition, a Macroinvertebrate
Biotic Index, based on North Carolina Biotic Index of benthic macroinvertebrates,
will lbe used
to assess stream quality, as appropriate.
5.6.2
Fish Collection
Fish will be collected at the designated
electrofishing,
stations using a combination
seining, gill nets, and/or other fish collecting
of the following:
techniques.
The following
paragraphs discuss the procedures that will be used for collecting the fish.
The fish sampled via electroshocking
will be collected using either a boat-mounted Smith-
Root, Inc. electrofisher
powered by a 5,000-watt portable generator, or a Smith-Root,
Inc.
backpack electrofisher.
The boat-mounted unit will be utilized for deeper waters, whdle the
backpack unit will be utilized in shallow waters. Stunned fish will be collected with one-inch
mesh or smaller dip nets handled by members of the field sampling team.
The length of
shocking time per subsection will be recorded as seconds of applied current.
At each station where haul seines are utilized,
a minimum
of two haul seines will
be
conducted. The haul seine will be deployed with one person securing the seine on the shore
and another person walking out in a loop. The bottom of the net will be kept in contact with
the sediment to prevent fish from swimming under the net. Other field personnel will. aid in
removing snags from the net and preventing fish from jumping over the net. When the person
deploying the net arrives back at shore, the net will be pulled in, making sure the bottom of
the net remains in the sediment. After the bag in the middle of the seine reaches the shore,
the bag will be lifted and the fish will be carefully transferred into plastic tubs filled with
water.
Gill nets also may be used to collect fish. The nets will be deployed either in the evening or the
morning and they will be checked for fish within twelve hours after being deployed.
After each fish collection event, the fish will be placed into plastic tubs tilled with water.
Aerators will be placed into the tubs and the water in the tubs will be replaced periodically
often to minimize fish mortality.
The collected fish will be separated into different species,
and then measured and counted. The small fish (less than 20 mm) will be weighed in groups of
10 or 20 because of their low individual
The proportion
of individuals
weight; the larger fish will be weighed individually.
as hybrids and the proportion
of individuals
tumors, fin damage, and skeletal anomalies will be recorded at each station.
5-22
with
disease,
Most of the fish species will be processed in the field and returned
Specimens that present taxonomic
difficulties,
or are too numerous
to the water body.
for effective
field
processing, will be preserved in 10 percent formalin and transported to the Baker Ecological
Services Laboratory for taxonomic work.
At a minimum,
one representative
fuh from each
species will be preserved in 10 percent formalin as a voucher specimen.
Three different species will be collected at each station for the tissue analysis (whole-body and
fillet).
An attempt will be made to collect ten individuals
each species being a representative
of a different trophic level, if possible. The following are
the desired trophic levels for collection:
top carnivores, forage fish, and bottom feeders.
However, based on Baker’s experience from previous
sampling variability
from three different species, with
sampling
at MCB Camp Lejeune,
may prevent the same species of fish from being sampled at each station,
because either the preferred species will not be captured, or adequate numbers of uniform-size
individuals
will not be captured.
Therefore, if the preferred species are not successfully
collected to satisfy the above requirements,
a substitute
species will
be collected that, if
possible, exhibited a similar trophic position in the ecosystem.
Specimens submitted to the laboratory for chemical analysis will be placed into sealed plastic
bags. A lOOpercent cotton label will be placed inside the bag, identifying
the station number.
A pencil will be used to mark the label. The outside of the bag also will be labeled with the
station number using a black permanent marker.
The bags will then be placed on ice in
coolers.
5.6.2.1
Analysis of Fish Species
At each station, fish will be collected for population statistics and tissue analysis. All fish will
be weighed to the nearest gram and measured to the nearest tenth of a centimeter.
Thte total
length of the fish will be measured (i.e., the distance in a straight line from the anterior-most
projecting part of the head to the farthest tip of the caudal fin when its rays are squeezed
together).
Results of the fish collection effort will be used to prepare the following descriptive statistics
on a station by station basis: 1) a list of fishes collected, 2) a table of numbers of each ispecies
collected by station (including
hybrid and pathology statistics), 3) a table of fish population
5-23
estimates in numbers per unit effort, and 4) a table of fish biomass estimates in weight per
unit effort.
The fish will be processed (e.g., filleted,
chemical analyses.
homogenized) by the laboratory
If the time between sampling
and preparation
will
conducting
the
be longer than
48 hours, the fish will be frozen.
At least ten individuals
from each species, if available, will be cornposited and analyzed for
whole body burdens of chemicals. In addition, fillets of at least ten individuals,
if available,
from each edible species will be cornposited and analyzed for chemical constituents.
adequate individuals
If
from each species are not collected for both whole-body analysis and
fillet analysis, only the fillets will be analyzed.
Decontamination
5.7
Procedures
Equipment and materials utilized during this investigation
that will require decontamination
fall into two broad categories:
Field measurement and sampling equipment:
l
water level meters, bailers, split-spoon
samplers, hand auger buckets, stainless-steel spoons, etc.
l
5.7.1
5.7.1.1
Large machinery and equipment: drilling rigs and drilling
Field Measurement
Sampling
equipment, backhoes, etc.
Equipment
Cleaning Procedures for [email protected] or Glass Field Sampling Equipment used for the
Collection of Samples for Trace Organic Compounds and/or Metals Analvses
1. Equipment will be washed thoroughly
with laboratory detergent and hot water using
a brush to remove any particulate matter or surface film.
2. The equipment will be rinsed thoroughly with hot tap water.
3. Rinse equipment with at least a 10 percent nitric acid solution.
4. Rinse equipment thoroughly with deionized water.
5-24
6. Rinse equipment twice with solvent and allow to air dry for at least 24 hours.
7. Wrap equipment in one layer of aluminum foil. Roll edges of foil into a “tab” to allow
for easy removal. Seal the foil wrapped equipment in plastic and date.
8. Rinse the [email protected] or glass sampling equipment thoroughly
with tap water in the field
as soon as possible after use.
When this sampling equipment is used to collect samples that contain oil, grease, or other
hard to remove materials,
it may be necessary to rinse the equipment several times with
pesticide-grade acetone or hexane to remove the materials before proceeding with Step 1. In
extreme cases, it may be necessary to steam clean the field equipment before proceeding with
Step 1. If the field equipment cannot be cleaned utilizing
these procedures, it should be
discarded.
Small and awkward equipment such as vacuum bottle inserts and well bailers may be soaked
in the nitric acid solution instead of being rinsed with it. Fresh nitric acid solution should be
prepared for each cleaning session.
5.7.1.2
Cleaning Procedures for Stainless Steel or Metal Sampling Equipment u.sed for
the Collection of Samples for Trace Organic Compounds and/or Metals Analgses
1. Wash equipment thoroughly
with laboratory detergent and hot water using a brush to
remove any particulate matter or surface film.
2. Rinse equipment thoroughly with hot tap water.
3. Rinse equipment thoroughly with deionized water.
4. Rinse equipment twice with solvent and allow to air dry for at least 24 hours.
5. Wrap equipment in one layer of aluminum foil. Roll edges of foil into a “tab” to allow
for easy removal. Seal the foil wrapped equipment in plastic and date.
5-25
6. Rinse the stainless steel or metal sampling equipment thoroughly
with tap water in
the field as soon as possible after use.
When this sampling equipment is used to collect samples that contain oil, grease,
hard to remove materials,
01:
other
it may be necessary to rinse the equipment several times with
pesticide-grade acetone or hexane to remove the materials before proceeding with Step 1. In
extreme cases, when equipment is painted, badly rusted, or coated with materials that are
difficult to remove, it may be necessary to steam clean, wire brush, or sandblast equipment
before proceeding with Step 1. Any metal sampling equipment that cannot be cleaned1using
these procedures should be discarded.
5.7.1.3
Reusable Glass Composite Sample Containers
1. Wash containers thoroughly
with hot tap water and laboratory
bottle brush to remove particulate
2. Rinse containers thoroughly
detergent, using a
matter and surface film.
with hot tap water.
3. Rinse containers with at least 10 percent nitric acid.
4. Rinse containers thoroughly
with tap water.
5. Rinse containers thoroughly
with deionized water.
6. Rinse twice with solvent and allow to air dry for at least 24 hours.
7. Cap with aluminum foil or [email protected] film.
8. After using, rinse with tap water in the field, seal with aluminum
foil to keep the
interior of the container wet, and return to the laboratory.
When these containers are used to collect samples that contain oil, grease, or other h.ard to
remove materials, it may be necessary to rinse the container several times with pesticidegrade acetone before proceeding with Step 1. If these materials cannot be removed with
acetone, the container should be discarded.
Glass reusable composite containers
collect samples at pesticide, herbicide, or other chemical manufacturing
5-26
used to
facilities that produce
toxic or noxious compounds shall be properly disposed of (preferably at the facility)
at the
conclusion of sampling activities and shall not be returned for cleaning. Also, glass composite
containers used to collect in-process wastewater samples at industrial
discarded after sampling.
Any bottles that have a visible
facilities
shall be
film, scale, or discoloration
remaining after this cleaning procedure shall also be discarded.
5.7.1.4
Plastic Reusable Composite Sample Containers
1. Proceed with the cleaning procedures as outlined in Section 5.7.1.3 but omit the
solvent rinse.
Plastic reusable sample containers used to collect samples from facilities that produce toxic or
noxious compounds or are used to collect in-process waste stream samples at industrial
facilities
will be properly disposed (preferably at the facility)
sampling activities
and will not be returned for cleaning.
of at the conclusion
of the
Any plastic composite sample
containers that have a visible film, scale, or other discoloration remaining after this cleaning
procedure will be discarded.
5.7.1.5
Well Sounders or Tapes Used to Measure Ground Water Levels
1. Wash with laboratory detergent and tap water.
2. Rinse with tap water.
3. Rinse with deionized water.
4. Allow to air dry overnight.
5. Wrap equipment in aluminum
foil (with tab for easy removal), seal in plastic, and
date.
5.7.1.6
Submersible Pumps and Hoses Used to Purge Ground Water Wells
1. Using a brush, scrub the exterior of the contaminated
water
A
5-27
hose and pump with soanv
2. Rinse the soap from the outside of pump and hose with tap water.
3. Rinse the tap water residue from the outside of pump and hose with deionized water.
4. Equipment should be placed in a polyethylene
to prevent contamination
bag or wrapped with polyethylene
film
during storage or transit.
5. The submersible pump to be used is a “Redi-Flo 2”.
5.7.2
Large Machinery
All drilling
rigs, drilling
equipment
involved
and Equipment
and sampling
in the drilling
equipment,
and sampling
backhoes, and all other asso,ciated
activities
shall
be cleaned
and
decontaminated before entering the designated drill site. All equipment should be inspected
before entering the site to ensure that there are no fluids leaking and that all gaskets and
seals are intact.
contaminants
All drilling
and associated equipment entering a site shall be clean of any
that may have been transported from another hazardous waste site, thereby
minimizing
the potential for cross-contamination.
all drilling
equipment shall be thoroughly
cleaning/decontamination
adhered to on all drilling
Before site drilling
activities are initiated,
cleaned and decontaminated
at the designated
area. The following requirements and procedures are to be strictly
activities.
Any portion of the drill rig, backhoe, etc., that is over the borehole (kelly bar or mast, backhoe
buckets, drilling
platform, hoist or chain pulldowns, spindles, cathead, etc.) shall be steam
cleaned before being brought on the site to remove all rust, soil and other material which may
have come from other hazardous waste sites. The drill rig and/or other equipment associated
with the drilling
and sampling activities
shall be inspected to insure that all oil, grease,
hydraulic fluid, etc., have been removed, and all seals and gaskets are intact and there are no
fluid leaks. No oils or grease shall be used to lubricate drill stem threads or any other drilling
equipment being used over the borehole or in the borehole without EPA approval.
stems have a tendency to tighten during drilling
If drill
[email protected] string can be used on the drill stem
threads. The drill rig(s) shall be steam cleaned prior to drilling
each borehole. In addition, all
downhole sampling equipment that will come into contact with the downhole equipment and
sample medium shall be cleaned and decontaminated by the following procedures.
5-28
1. Clean with tap water and laboratory grade, phosphate-free detergent, using a blrush, if
necessary, to remove particulate
matter and surface films.
Steam cleaning and/or
high pressure hot water washing may be necessary to remove matter that is difficult to
remove with the brush.
Hollow-stem augers, drill rods, Shelby tubes, etc., that are
hollow or have holes that transmit
water or drilling
fluids, shall be cleaned on the
inside and outside. The steam cleaner and/or high pressure hot water washer shall be
capable of generating a pressure of at least 2500 PSI and producing hot water and/or
steam (200°F plus).
2. Rinse thoroughly
NOTE:
with tap water (potable).
Tap water (potable) may be applied with a pump sprayer.
decontamination
however,
liquids (D.I.
All other
water, organic-free water, and solvents),
must be applied with
noninterferring
containers.
These
containers shall be made of glass, [email protected], or stainless steel. This aspect of
the decontamination
site geologist
procedures used by the driller will be inspected by the
and/or other responsible
person prior
to beginning
of
operations.
3. Rinse thoroughly
with deionized water,
4. Rinse twice with solvent (pesticide grade isopropanol).
5. Rinse thoroughly
with organic-free water and allow to air dry.
Do not rinse with
deionized or distilled water.
Organic-free
water can be processed on site by purchasing
deionization-organic
filtration
or leasing
a lmobile
system.
In some cases when no organic-free water is available, it is permissible (with approval)
to leave off the organic-free water rinse and allow the equipment air dry before use.
6. Wrap with aluminum
foil, if appropriate, to prevent contamination
going to be stored or transported.
if equipment
is
Clean plastic can be used to wrap augers, drill
stems, casings, etc., if they have been air dried.
5-29
7. All downhole augering, drilling
and sampling equipment shall be sandblasted before
Step #l if painted, and/or if there is a buildup of rust, hard or caked matter, etc., that
cannot be removed by steam and/or high pressure cleaning. All sandblasting shall be
performed prior to arrival on site.
8. All well casing, tremie tubing, etc., that arrive on site with printing
them shall be removed before Step #l.
remove the printing
and/or writing.
materials without the printing
and/or writing on
Emery cloth or sand paper can be used to
Most well material
suppliers
can supply
and/or writing if specified when materials are ordered.
9. Well casing, tremie tubing, etc., that are made of plastic (PVC) shall not be solvent
rinsed during the cleaning and decontamination
process. Used plastic materials
that
cannot be cleaned are not acceptable and shall be discarded.
Cleaning and decontamination
of all equipment shall occur at a designated area on the site,
downgradient, and downwind from the clean equipment drying and storage area. All cleaning
of drill rods, auger fights, well screen and casing, etc., will be conducted above the Iplastic
sheeting using saw horses or other appropriate means. At the completion of the drilling
activities,
the pit shall be backfilled
with the appropriate material designated by the Site
Manager, but only after the pit has been sampled, and the waste/rinse water has been pumped
into 55-gallon drums.
No solvent rinsates will be placed in the pit unless prior approval is
granted. All solvent rinsates shall be collected in separate containers for proper disposal.
Surveying
5.8
All surveying activities will be conducted by a qualified surveying subcontractor licen.sed in
the State of North Carolina.
l
Surveying activities will include the following:
Resurveying areas at the sites which may have undergone physical changes due to
recent construction activities
l
Surveying sampling grid for soil investigation.
l
Surveying
nongrid
sampling
points (monitoring
locations).
5-30
wells, surface water/sediment
All grid intersections
will be marked with a wooden stake and will be numbered
Iby
the
surveyor with a unique location number.
All newly-installed
monitoring
wells will
be surveyed.
The vertical
accuracy sb.al 1 be
surveyed to 0.01 feet and the horizontal accuracy within 0.1 foot. In addition, other sampling
stations (test pit, surface water/sediment)
will be surveyed for horizontal control within 1 foot
accuracy. Control will be established by use of horizontal and vertical control points near the
site that are tied into the North Carolina State Plane Coordinate System. If control points
cannot be located, two benchmarks/monuments
equivalent)
benchmarks.
will be surveyed from the closest USGS (or
The 1929 msl datum will be used as a reference for the vertical
elevation.
Surveying of surface water sampling stations may be difficult,
especially in deep water. The
field team will estimate all locations and mark them on a field map during sampling.
5.9
Handling
5.9.1
Responsibilities
LANTDIV
of Site Investigation
- LANTDIV
Generated
Wastes
or the facility must ultimately
of site wastes. As such, a LANTDIV
representative
be responsible for the final disposition
will usually prepare and sign waste
disposal manifests as the generator of the material, in the event off-site disposal is required.
However, it may be the responsibility
during execution of the investigation
of Baker, depending on the contingency discussions
to provide assistance to LANTDIV
in arranging for final
disposition and preparing the manifests.
Proiect Manager
LANTDIV
- It is the responsibility
EIC in determining
of the Project
the final disposition of site investigation
Manager will relay the results and implications
associated material,
Manager
the
wastes. The Project
of the chemical analysis of the waste or
and advise on the regulatory
appropriate to the disposition of the material.
to work with
requirements
and prudent
measures
The Project Manager also is responsible for
ensuring that field personnel involved in site investigation
waste handling are familia:r with
the procedures to be implemented in the field, and that all required field documentation
been completed.
5-31
has
Field Team Leader - The Field Team Leader is responsible for the on site supervision of the
waste handling
procedures during the site investigations.
The Field Team Leader also is
responsible for ensuring that all other field personnel are familiar with these procedures.
Sources of Investigation
5.9.2
Field investigation
contaminated
environment,
activities
materials
Derived Wastes (IDW)
often result in the generation
that must be properly
and handling
of potentially
managed to protect the public
as well as to meet legal requirements.
and the
These wastes may be either hazardous or
nonhazardous in nature. The nature of the waste (hazardous or nonhazardous) will determine
how the wastes will be handled during the field investigation.
The sources of waste material depend on the site activities planned for a project. The following
types of activities (or sources), typical of site investigations,
may result in the generation
of
waste material which must be properly handled:
l
Drilling
and monitoring well construction (drill cuttings)
l
Monitoring
l
Groundwater sampling (purge water)
l
Heavy equipment decontamination
a
Sampling equipment decontamination
l
Personal protective equipment (health and safety disposables)
a
Mud rotary drilling
Designation
5.9.3
well development (development water)
(decontamination
fluids)
(decontamination
fluids)
(contaminated mud)
of Potentially
Hazardous
Wastes generated during the field investigation
and Nonhazardous
can be categorized
IDW
as either
potentially
hazardous or nonhazardous in nature. The designation of such wastes will determine how the
wastes will be handled.
The criteria
for determining
the nature
of the waste, and the
subsequent handling of the waste is described below for each type of investigative
5.9.3.1
Drill
waste..
Drill Cuttings
cuttings will be generated during the augering of test borings and monitoring
well
boreholes. All drill cuttings will be containerized in 55-gallon drums or in lined roll-off boxes.
As the borehole is augered, and soil samples collected, the site geologist will monit,or the
5-32
cuttings/samples with an HNu photoionization
(PID) unit for organic vapors. In addition, the
site geologist will describe the soils in a field log book. Upon completion, the soil borings will
be backfilled with a cement-bentonite grout.
5.9.3.2
Monitorinp
Well Development and Purge Water
All development and purge waters shall be containerized
in tankers, or large (250-gallon)
containers.
5.9.3.3
Decontamination
Fluids
Equipment
and personal decontamination
fluids shall be containerized
The fluids shall be collected from the decomwash pads. If military
in 55gallon
drums.
vehicle wash racks are used
to decon the heavy equipment, no collection of these wastewaters will be necessary since the
decontamination
waters will be treated at one of the Camp Lejeune treatment
facilities
(depending upon the location of the vehicle wash racks).
5.9.3.4
Personal Protective Equipment
All personal protective equipment (tyvek, gloves, and other health and safety disposables)
shall be placed in the dump box, which will be provided by Camp Lejeune. Camp Lejeune will
dispose of these materials when the box is full.
5.9.4
Labeling
If 55-gallon drums are used to containerize drill cuttings, the containers will be consequently
numbered and labeled by the field team during the site investigation.
be legible and of an indelible
Information
Container labels shall
medium (waterproof marker, paint stick, or similar
means).
shall be recorded both on the container lid and its side. Container labels shall
include, as a minimum:
l
LANTDIV
CT0 (number)
0
Project name
l
Drum number
l
Boring or well number
l
Date
5-33
l
Source
a
Contents
If laboratory
analysis reveals that containerized materials are hazardous or contain PCBs,
additional
labeling of, containers may be required.
LANTDIV
in additional
from the facility.
The project management
will assist
labeling procedures, if necessary, after departure of the field team
These additional labeling procedures will be based upon the identification
material present; EPA regulations
of
applicable to labeling hazardous and PCB wastes are
contained in 40 CFR Parts 261,262 and 761.
5.9.5
Container
Log
A container log shall be maintained in the site log book. The container log shall contain the
same information
as the container label plus any additional remarks or information.
additional information
may include the identification
number of a representative
Such
laboratory
sample.
5.9.6
Container
Storage
Containers of site investigation
wastes shall be stored in a specially designated, secure area
that is managed by the Camp Lejeune Environmental
is determined.
Management Division until disposition
All containers shall be covered with plastic sheeting to provide protectio:n from
weather.
If the laboratory
analysis
reveal that the containers
additionally
required
storage
security
investigation
team, these will be the responsibility
hold hazardous
may be implemented;
of LANTDIV
or PCB waste,
in the absence of the
or the facility, as confIrmed
by the contingency discussions.
Baker will assist LANTDIV
in devising the storage requirements,
which may include the
drums being staged on wooden pallets or other structures to prevent contact with the ground
and being staged to provide easy access. Weekly inspections by facility
temporary storage area may also be required.
integrity
personnel
of the
These inspections may assess the structural
of the containers and proper container
labeling.
Also, precipitation
that may
accumulate in the storage area may need to be removed. These weekly inspections by facility
personnel of the temporary storage area may also be required.
5-34
These inspections may assess
the structural
integrity
of the containers and proper container labeling.
Also, precipitation
that may accumulate in the storage area may need to be removed. These weekly inspections
and whatever precipitation
5.9.7
Container
removal shall be recorded in the site logbook.
Disposition
The disposition of containers of site investigation
LANTDIV,
generated wastes shall be determined by
with the assistance of Baker, as necessary. Container disposition shall be based on
quantity of materials, types of materials, and analytical results. If necessary, specific samples
of contained materials
may be collected identify
disposition.
container disposition
applicable
Typically,
analytical
results;
these results
completion of the filed investigation
5.9.8
will
Disposal of Contaminated
further
characteristics
which may affect
not be addressed until
are usually
not available
after receipt of
until
long after
at the facility.
Materials
Actual disposal methods for contaminated materials disturbed during a site investigation
are
the same as for other PCB or hazardous substances: incineration,
and
so forth. The responsibility
landfilling,
treatment,
for disposal must be determined and agreed upon by all involved
parties during negotiations addressing this contingency.
The usual course will be a contractor specialist retained to conduct the disposal.
However,
regardless of the mechanism used, all applicable Federal, state and local regulations
shall be
observed.
F’CB or
EPA regulations
applicable
to generating,
storing
and transporting
hazardous wastes are contained in 40 CFR Parts 262,263 and 761.
Another consideration
in selecting the method of disposal of contaminated
whether the disposal can be incorporated into subsequent site cleanup activities.
materials
is
For example,
if construction of a suitable on-site disposal or treatment structure is expected, contaminated
materials
generated
treatment/disposal
during
the site investigation
with other site materials.
may be stored
In this case, the initial
at the site for
containment
(drums or
other containers) shall be evaluated for use as long-term storage. Also, other site conditions,
such as drainage control, security and soil types must be considered in order to provide
proper storage.
5-35
Water Level Measurements
5.10
Water level measurements will be collected from soil borings (during drilling),
locations, test pits and monitoring
hydropunch
wells. Static water levels will be measured to the nearest
0.01 foot with a decontaminated electronic water level indicator (E-tape).
Water levels is monitoring
wells will be measured from the top of the PVC casing riser. All
other water level measurements will be taken from ground surface.
Soil Gas Survey
5.11
The following
subsections are from the standard operating procedures provided by Tracer
Research Corporation (TRC). They outline the soil gas survey and soil gas sample collection
procedures.
5.11.1
Soil Gas Sampling
Procedure
Probe Placement
A. A clean probe (pipe) is removed from the storage tube on top of the van.
B. The soil gas probe is placed in the jaws of hydraulic pusher/puller mechanism.
C. A sampling point is put on the bottom of the probe.
D. The hydraulic pushing mechanism is used to push the probe into the ground.
E. If the pusher mechanism will not push the probe into the ground a sufficient depth for
sampling, the hydraulic hammer is used to pound the probe into the ground.
Samnle Extraction
A. An adaptor is put onto the top of the soil gas probe.
B. The vacuum pump is hooked onto the adaptor.
5-36
C. The vacuum pump is turned on and used to evacuate soil gas.
D. Evacuation will be at least 30 seconds, but never more than 5 minutes for samples lhaving
evacuation pressures less than 15 inches of mercury.
Evacuation
1 minute, but no more than 5 minutes for probes reading
times will be at least
greater than 15 inches of
mercury.
E. Gauges on the vacuum pump are checked for inches of mercury.
1. Gauge must read at least 2 inches of mercury less than maximum
vacuum to be
extracting sufficient soil gas to collect a valid sample.
Sample Collection
A. With vacuum pump running, a hypodermic syringe needle is inserted through the silicone
rubber and down into the metal tubing of adaptor.
B. Gas samples should only contact metal surfaces and never contact potentially
sorbing
materials (i.e., tubing, hose, pump diaphragm).
C. The syringe is purged with soil gas then, without removing syringe needle from ada,pter, a
2-10 mL soil gas sample is collected.
D. The syringe and needle are removed from the adaptor and the end of the needle is capped.
E. If necessary, a second 10 mL sample is collected using the same procedure.
Deactivation of Sampling Apparatus
A. The vacuum pump is turned off and unhooked from the adaptor.
B. The adaptor is removed and stored with equipment to be cleaned.
C. Using the hydraulic puller mechanism, the probe is removed from the ground.
D. The probe is stored in the “dirty” probe tube on top of the van.
5-37
E. The probe hole is backfilled, if required.
Lost Book and U.S. EPA Field Sheet Notations for Sampling
A. Time (military
notation).
B. Sample number (use client’s numbering system).
C. Location (approximate description - i.e., street names).
D. Sampling depth.
E. Evacuation time before sampling.
F. Inches of mercury on vacuum pump gauge.
G. Probe and adaptor numbers.
H. Number of sampling points used.
I.
Observations (i.e., ground conditions, concrete, asphalt, soil appearance, surface water,
odors, vegetation, etc.).
J.
Backfill procedure and materials, if needed.
Other Recordkeeping
A. Client-provided
data sheets are filled out, if required.
B. Sample location is marked on the site map.
Determination
A. Initial
of Sampling Locations
sample locations will be determined by client (perhaps after consultation
personnel) prior to start of job.
5-38
with TRC
B. Remaining sample locations may be determined by:
1. Client
a. Entire job sampling locations set up on grid system.
b. Client decides location of remaining
sample locations based on results of initial
study, or
2. Client and TRC personnel
a. Client and TRC personnel decide location of remaining
results of initial
5.11.2
Analytical
sample locations based on
sample locations.
Procedures
Varian 3300 Gas Cbromatograph
A. Equipped with Electron Capture Detectors (ECD), Flame Ionization
Photo Ionization Detectors (PID) and/or Thermal Conductivity
B. The chromatographic
Detectors (FID),
(TC) Detectors.
column used by TRC for the analysis of halocarbons is a l/&inch
diameter packed column containing
tri-chloro and’tetra-chloro
Alltech OV-101. This nicely separates most of the
compounds that are encountered in soil gas investigations.
The
di-chloro compounds tend to elute ahead of the tri-chloro and tetra-chloro compound.s, thus
creating no interference.
particular
In the event that assurance of the identity of a compound in any
sample is needed, it will be analyzed on a SP-1000 column after the OV-101
analysis.
Two Spectra Phvsics SP4270 Computing Integrators
The integrators
are used to plot the chromatogram
and measure
the size of the
chromatographic peaks. The integrators compute and record the area of each peak. Thle peak
areas are used directly in calculation of contaminant concentration.
5-39
Chemical Standards from ChemServices, Inc. of Westchester, Pennsvlvania
A. TRC uses analytical standards that are preanalyzed, of certified purities and lot numbered
for quality control assurance. Each vial is marked with an expiration date. All analytical
standards are the highest grade available.
B. The Quality
Assurance
procedures
Certified purities are typically 99percent.
used by ChemServices
were described
‘by the
Laboratory Supervisor, Dr. Lyle Phipher:
1. The primary measurement equipment at ChemServices, the analytical
balance, is
serviced by the Mettler Balance Company on an annual basis and recalibrated
with
NBS traceable weights.
2. All chemicals purchased for use in making the standards are checked for purity by
means of gas chromatography
using a thermal conductivity
detector. Their chemicals
are purified as needed.
3. The information
on the purification
and analysis of the standards is made available
upon request for any item they ship when the item is identified by lot number.
All
standards and chemicals are shipped with their lot numbers printed on them.
The
standards used by TRC are made up in a two-step dilution
of the pure chemical
furnished by ChemServices.
Analvtical
Supplies
A. Sufficient 2 and 10 cc glass and Hamilton syringes, so that none have to be reused without
first being cleaned.
B. Disposable lab supplies, where appropriate.
C. Glassware to prepare aqueous standards.
D. Miscellaneous laboratory supplies.
5-40
5.11.3
QAIQC Procedures
Standards
A. A fresh standard is prepared each day. The standards are made by serial dilution.
1. First, a stock solution containing the standard in methanol is prepared at TRC offices
in Tucson. The stock solution is prepared by pipetting the pure chemical into 250 mL
of methanol in a volumetric
flask at room temperature.
The absolute
m.ass is
determined from the product of volume and density calculated at room temperature.
Hamilton
microliter
syringes,
1 percent, are used for pipetting.
with a manufacturer’s
Information
Handbook of Physics and Chemistry.
stated accuracy of + of -
on density is obtained from the CRC
Once the stock solution is prepared, typicsally in
concentration range of 50-1000 mg/L, a working standard is prepared in water each
day. The solute in the stock solution has a strong affinity to remain in methanol so
there is no need to refrigerate the stock solution.
Additionally,
the solute tends not to
biodegrade or volatilize out of the stock solution.
2. The working
standards are prepared in 40 mL VOA septum vials by diluting
the
appropriate pg/L quantity of the standard solution in 40 mL of water.
B. The standard water is analyzed for contamination
before making the aqueous standard
each day.
C. The aqueous standard is prepared in a clean vial using the same syringe each day. The
syringe should only be used for that standard.
D. Final dilution of the calibration
standards are made in water in a volatile organic analysis
(VOA) vial having a [email protected] septum cap instead of in a volumetric flask in order to
have the standard in a container with no air exposure. The VOA bottle permits mixing of
the standard solution and subsequent syringe sampling all day long without opening the
bottle or exposing it to air. The measurement uncertainty
bottle instead of a volumetric flask is approximately
inherent in the use of a VOA
+ or - 1 percent.
E. The aqueous standard will contain the compounds of interest in the range of 5 to 100 pg&
depending on the detectability
of the individual
5-41
components.
The standard
will
be
analyzed at least three times at the beginning of each day to determine the mean response
factor (RF) for each component.
The standard will be injected again after every fifth
sample to check detector response and chromatographic
performance of the instrument
throughout the day.
F. The RF allows conversion of peak areas into concentrations
interest.
for the contaminants
The RF used is changed if the standard response varies 25 percent.
of
If the
standard injections vary by more than 25 percent, the standard injections are repeated. If
the mean of the two standard injections represents greater than 25 percent difference,
then a third standard is injected and a new RF is calculated from the three standard
injections. A new data sheet is started with the new RFs and calibration data.
% difference =
A area - B area
A area
A = mean peak area of standard injection from first calibration.
Where:
B = peak area of subsequent standard injection.
G.
The low pg/L aqueous standards that are made fresh daily need not be refrigerated
during the day because they do not change significantly
numerous occasions the unrefrigerated
in a 24-hour period.
On
24-hour old standards have been compared
with fresh standards and no difference has been measurable.
If the standards were
made at high ppm levels in water, the problem of volatilization
would proba.bly be
more pronounced in the absence of refrigeration.
H.
Primary standards are kept in the hotel room when on a project.
I.
A client may provide analytical
standards for additional calibration
and verification.
Svstem Blanks
A.
System blanks are ambient air drawn through
the probe and complete sampling
apparatus (probe adaptor and 10 cc syringe) and analyzed by the same procedure as a
soil gas sample. The probe is above the ground.
5-42
One system blank is run at the beginning of each day and compared to a concurrently
B.
sampled air analysis.
A system blank is run before reusing any sampling system component.
C.
Ambient Air Samples
Ambient air samples are collected and analyzed a minimum
A.
monitor
safety
of the work
environment
of two times d.aily to
and to establish
site
background
concentrations, if any, for contaminants of interest.
All ambient air samples shall be documented.
B.
Samples
A.
All unknown samples will be analyzed at least twice.
B.
More unknown
samples will
be run until
reproducibility
is within
25 percent,
computed as follows:
Difference =
Where:
A-B
(A + BY2
A is first measurement result.
B is second measurement result.
If the difference
is greater than
.25, a subsequent
sample will
be run until
two
measurements are made that have a difference of .25 or less. Those two measurements
will be used in the final calculation for that sample.
C. The injection volume should be adjusted so that mass of analyte is as near as possible to
that which is contained in the standard, at least within a factor of ten.
5-43
D. Whenever possible, the attenuation
for unknown samples is kept constant through the day
(so as to provide a visual check of integrations).
E. A water plug is used as a gas seal in pL syringes.
F. A seal is established between syringes when subsampling.
G. At very high concentrations,
air dilutions
are acceptable
once concentration
of
contaminants in air have been established.
H. All sample analysis are documents.
I.
Separate data sheets are used if chromatographic
J.
Everything
conditions change.
is labeled in pg/L, mg/L, etc., parts per million
(ppm) and parts per billion
(ppb) notations are to be avoided.
Dailv Svstem Preparation
A. Integrators parameters are initialized.
1. Pt. evaluation
2. Attenuation
3. Peak markers
4. Auto zero
5. Baseline offset (min. lopercent of full scale)
B. The baseline is checked for drift, noise, etc.
C. System parameters are set.
1. Gas flows (Note: N,(nitrogen),
2. Temperatures
air, Hz (hydrogen), tank pressure)
.
a. Injector
b. Column
5-44
c. Detector
D. After last analysis of the day, conditioned septa are rotated into injection
ports used
during the day and replaced with fresh septa.
E. Column and injector temperatures are run up to bake out residual contamination.
F. Syringes are cleaned each,day.
1. 2 and 10 cc syringes are cleaned with Alconox or equivalent detergent and brush..
2. pL syringes are cleaned daily with IPA or methanol (MeOH) and purged with Nz.
Syringe Kleen is used to remove metal deposits in the barrel.
3. Syringes are baked out overnight in the oven of the gas chromatograph at a minimum
temperature of 60°C.
Sample Splits
If desired, TRC’s clients or any party, with the approval of TRC’s client, may use sample splits
to verify TRC’s soil gas or groundwater sampling results.
A. Sample splits may be collected in two valve, flow-through-type,
all-glass or internally
electroplated, stainless steel containers for analysis within 10 days of collection.
1. Flow-through
sample collection bottles should be cleaned by purging with nitrogen at
100°C for at least 30 minutes.
Once clean, the bottles should be stored, filled with
nitrogen at ambient pressure.
2. Sample bottles are filled by placing them in the sample stream between the probe and
the vacuum pump. Five sample bottle volumes should be drawn through the container
before the final sample is collected. The sample should be at ambient pressure.
B. Sample splits can be provided in 10 cc glass syringes for immediate analysis in the .field by
the party requesting the sample splits.
5-45
C. Splits of the aqueous standards or the methanol standards used by TRC for instrument
calibration may be analyzed by the party requesting sample splits.
5.12
Drive-Point
Groundwater
Field Screening
(Geoprobe”)
The drive-point sampling technique can sample and analyze subsurface contamination
gas, soil, and groundwater.
drive-point
During the initial
phase of the investigation
system will be utilized to collect and analyze groundwater
determining
the extent of contamination
migration.
This information
in soil
at Site 35 the
samples to assist in
in the surficial aquifer, as well as the direction of
will aid in determining
optimum locations for the proposed
thirteen soil borings and five nested wells.
One round of groundwater
samples will
be collected at each sampling
location.
The
groundwater samples will be collected and analyzed by a gas chromatograph (GC) in an on-site
laboratory equipped van. The on-site GC will be used to scan the groundwater
samples and
will be able to relay results to the field crew on a same-day basis so that field decisions can be
made regarding the placement of soil borings and nested wells. EPA Method 601 (modified)
will be utilized to analyze trichloroethylene
based on previous analytical results.
Subsequent to collecting the groundwater samples, the probe will be removed and the hole will
be backfilled to the ground surface with a cementbentonite
grout mixture.
that the drive-point will be advanced in both asphalt and grass cover.
5-46
It is anticipated
,/‘“h,
6.0
~AMPLEHANDLINGANDANALYSIS
6.1
Sample Program
Field activities
Environmental
will
Operations
be conducted
according
to the guidance
of USEPA
Region
IV
Compliance Branch Standard Operating Procedures and Quality Assurance
Manual (February 1,1991).
The number of samples (including
laboratory
turnaround
QA/QC samples), analytical
times are included in Table 6-l.
method, data quality level and
Preservation
requirements,
bottle
requirements and holding times are included in Section 7.0 of the QAPP which is Section II of
this SAP. Collection procedures for field QA/QC samples are outlined in Section 3.3.
6.2
Chain-of-Custody
Chain-of-custody
procedures will be followed to ensure a documented, traceable link between
measurement results and the sample/parameter
I
..h
that they represent.
These procedures are
intended to provide a legally acceptable record of sample preparation, storage and analysis.
To track sample custody transfers
before ultimate
disposition,
documented using the chain-of-custody form shown in Figure 6-l.
sample custody will
A chain-of-custody
be
seal is
shown in Figure 6-2. A sample label is shown in Figure 6-3.
A chain-of-custody
shipped.
form will be completed for each container
in which the samples are
The shipping containers will usually be coolers. After the samples are properly
packaged, the coolers will be sealed and prepared for shipment.
Custody seals will be placed
on the outside ofthe coolers to ensure that the samples are not disturbed prior to reaching the
laboratory.
A field notebook will be maintained for the site.
6.3
Logbooks
and Field Forms
Field notebooks will be used to record sampling activities
will be bound, field survey books.
and information.
Field notebooks
Notebooks will be copied and submitted
6-1
to the field
TABLE 6-1
SUMMARY OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL PROGRAMS AT SITE 35
REMEDIALINVESTIGATION
CTO-0160
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE. NORTH CAROLTNA
Baseline No. of Samples(l)
Groundwater
4
11 samples from existing wells
(shallow: MW-2,9,10,14,16,
19,22,26; EMW-3,6,7)
Volatiles @PA 601/602)
TCL SVOAs
TAL Metals
8 samples from existing wells
lint.swmn~iato*
,^__II~...“...UYI. MW-2, g, 10,
14,16,19,22,25)
Volatiles (EPA 601/602)
TCL SVGAa
TAL Metals
xl!
:::
t
7
2 samples from existing
well(shallow double-nested:
TCL Organics
TAL Metals
IV
IV
4,5,6
Mw-21p4)
;
Routine
2
Routine
1
Routine
0
;
7,
1
TABLE 6-l (Continued)
SUMMARY OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICALPROGRAMS
REMEDIALINVESTIGATION
CTO-0160
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
Study Area
3ite 35
Investigation
Groundwater
(Continued)
AT SITE 35
Baseline No. of Sample&
Analysis
Data Quality
Level
4 samples from newly installed
shallow wells (MW-29A, 30A,
31A, 32A)
Volatiles (EPA 601/602)
Iv
4 samples from newly installed
shallow wells (deep: MW-29B,
30B, 31B, 32B)
Volatiles
2 samples from newly installed
shallow well cluster MW-33A
and MW-33B
TCL Organics
TAL Metals
z
4 samples from newly installed
deep wells (GWD-1,2,3,4)
Volatiles (EPA 601/602)
1 sample from newly installed
deep well GWD-6
TCL Organics
TAL Metals
1 sample (shallow): from one
existing shallow well (MW21)
BOD
COD
TOC
TSS
TDS
Nitrogen (TKN)
Total Phosphorous
Microbial Enumeration
Alkalinity
2
III
:
EPA 351.2
EPA 365.2
SM 907
EPA 310.1
(EPA 601/602)
Iv
Analytical
Method
4
Laboratory
Turnaround
[email protected])
Routine
4
Field QA/QC
Samples (9)
Field
Duplicate
1
Routine
1
4,5,6
7
Routine
0
Iv
4
Routine
1
z
4,5,6
7
Routine
0
ii
8
8
8
Routine
Routine
Routine
Routine
Routine
Routine
Routine
Routine
Routine
NA
if:
iii
Surface Water Brinson Creek
6 samples
TCL Organics
TAL Metals
iz
49% 6
7
Routine
1
Sediment Brinson Creek
12 samples (O-6”)
(6-12”)
TCL Organics
TAL Metals
4,5,6
7
Routine
1
E
IDW=‘) (GW)
1 sample from 5,000-gallon
..--I--..
bUIIKlS
TCL Organics
‘TAL Metals
Iv
IV
4,&F
7
14 days
NA
IDW (Soil)
1 composite sample from rolloff boxes
Total TCLP
Corrosivity
Ignitability
Reactivity
III
40 CFR
40 CFR
40 CFR
40 CFR
14 days
NA
E:
Iv
261
261
261
261
“
/9
‘3
TABLE 6-1 (Continued)
SUMMARY
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL
PROGRAMS
REMEDIAL INVESTIGATION
CTO-0160
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
AT SITE 35
Baseline number of samples do not include field QA/QC samples.
Surface soil samples shall be obtained from the interval 0 to 12 inches bgs.
Routine analytical turnaround is 28 days following receipt of sample.
Purgeable Organic Compounds - EPA 824O/EPA 624 (EPA 601/602 for groundwater only)
Base/Neutral Acid Extractables - EPA 3510/EPA 625
Pesticides and PCBs - EPA 3510/355O/EPA 608
TAL Inorganics:
EPA 3OlO/EPA ZOO.7
EPA 3010/EPA 200.7
EPA 3010/EPA 200.7
Potassium
Aluminum
Cobalt
EPA 302O/EPA 270.2
EPA 301O/EPA 200.7
Selenium
Antimony
EPA 301O/EPA 200.7
Copper
EPA 301O/EPA 200.7
EPA 302O/EPA 206
EPA 301O/EPA 200.7
Silver
Arsenic
Iron
EPA 3020iEPA 239
EPA 3010/EPA 200.7
EPA 30101EPA 200.7
Lead
Sodium
Barium
Thallium
EPA 302O/EPA 279
EPA 3OlO/EPA 200.7
EPA 3OlO/EPA 200.7
Beryllium
Magnesium
EPA 3OlOIEPA 200.7
Vanadium
EPA 3OlO/EPA 200.7
Cadmium
EPA 3OlO/EPA 200.7
Manganese
EPA 3010,‘EPA 200.7
EPA 3OlO/EPA 200.7
Mercury
EPA 3OlOtEPA 245.1
Zinc
Calcium
EPA 30101EPA 200.7
EPA 3OlO/EPA 200.7
Chromium
Nickel
TDS - Total Dissolved Solids (EPA 160.1)
(8) BOD - Biological Oxygen Demand (SM 5210)
9
TOC - Total Organic Carbon (EPA 415.1)
COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand (EPA 410.1)
lh.
TSS - Total Suspended Solids (EPA 160.2)
(9) Trip Blank - 1 per cooler (VOCs only)
Equipment Rinsate - 1 per day for each matrix sampled
Matrix Spike/Matrix Spike Duplicate - 1 per 20 samples
(10) One soil sample per boring is assumed. Selected sample will have exhibited highest PID or OVA reading. The field geologist can exercise discretion
and substitute a visually contaminated sample in lieu of the sample exhibiting the highest PID or OVA reading.
(11) One soil sample per boring to be obtained from the unsaturated soil interval located immediately above the static groundwater surface.
(12) This soil sample shall be obtained undisturbed via Shelby Tube (ASTM D1587-83) from the underlying clay stratum that reportedly lies roughly 35 to
40 feet bgs.
(13) This soil sample shall be obtained from somewhere within the unsaturated zone at the discretion of the field geologist.
(14) Two samples refers to one sample from each of the two screened intervals within the double-nested well.
(1%IDW = Investigation Derived Waste
‘4
,’9
>
FIGURE 6-1
PROJECT NO.:
SITE NAME:
REMARKS
SAMPLERS (SIGNATURE):
sT;yN
DATE
TIME
COMP GRAB
STATION LOCATION
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
RELWQUISHED
t
BY (SIGNATU~):
I
DATE/TIiifE:
RECEIVED BY (SIGNATURE):
RELINQUISHED
BY (SIGNATURE):
DA’IWI’IME:
RECEIVED BY (SIGNATURE):
---1..
-9:PLM”TT’C-”
~“A”1u.lYU DVI <“Tn.*.
,on.s~un*uLlJs,.
DATE7IlME:
RETCEIVETDBY (SIGNATURE):
RELINQUISHED
BY (SIGNATURE):
DATE/TIME:
&CEIVED
R ELINQUISHED
DATE/TIME:
RECEIVED FOR LABORATORY
BY (SIGNATUm):
DATE/TIME:
BY (SIGNATURE):
REMARKS:
BY (SIGNATURE):
FIGURE
EXAMPLE
6-2
CUSTODY SEAL
II
I/
Date
Date
Signature
Signature
CUSTODY SEAL
CUSTODY SEAL
6-6
-
FIGURE
EXAMPLE
6-3
SAMPLE LABEL
Baker Environmental
Inc.
Airport Office Park, Bldg. 3
420 Rouser Road
Coraopolis, PA 15108
Project:
Sample Description:
Date:
CT0 No.: 0026
19026-SRN
09/17/92
Groundwater
Sampler:
Time:
0944
Analysis:
TAL Metals (CAP)
Project Sample No.:
ABC
Preservation:
HN08
CAX-GW-04
Note: Typically, sample labels are provided by the analytical
laboratory and may be used instead of the above. However,
samplers should make sure all pertinent information can be
affixed to the label used.
6-7
sampling task leader, for filing upon completion of the assignment.
The cover of each logbook
will contain:
l
The name of the person to whom the book is assigned
a
The book number
a
The project name
l
Entry start date
l
Entry completion date
Entries will include general sampling information
The beginning
of each entry will
include
so that site activities may be reconstructed.
the date, sampling
site, start time, weather
conditions, field personnel present and level of personal protection.
would be names and purpose of any visitors
conditions
to the vicinity
which might impact the interpretation
Other possible entries
during
of the subsequent
sampling,
unusual
sampling
daita, or
problems with the sampling equipment. All entries will be in ink with no erasures. Incorrect
entries will be crossed out with a single strike and initialed.
Field forms used in association with the logbooks include: Test Pit Record (Figure 6-41, Field
Test Boring Record (Figure 6-51, and Test Boring and Well Construction Record (Figure 6-6).
,“”
6-8
FIGURE 6-4
TEST PIT RECORD
PROJECT:
SO. NO.:
COORDINATES: EAST
SURFACE ELEVATION:
WEATHER:
DEFINITIONS
HNU = Photo Ionization Detector Reading
OVA = Organic Vapor Analyzer Reading
Depth
(Ft.)
impk
LPe
and
NO.
NU or
)VA) ppm
-
eld
ead
lace
TEST PIT NO.:
NORTH:
WATER LEVEL:
DATE:
Lab Class. = USCS(ASTM D-2487) or AASHTO (ASTM D-3282)
Lab Moist. = Moisture Content (ASTM D-2216) Dry Weight Basis
Visual Description
-ab.
:lass.
.ab.
loist
%
Ellevation
(Principal Constituents, Gradation, Color, Moisture Content, Organic
Content, Plasticity, and Other Observations)
1
2
3
J
4
5
6
-I
7-
8910ll12131415161718.
CONTRACTOR:
EQUIPMENT:
6-9
BAKER REP.:
TEST PIT NO.:
_
SHEET&OF1
FIGURE 6-5
TEST BORING AND WELL CONSTRUCTION RECOR[
PROJECT:
S.O. NO.:
COORDINATES: EAST:
ELEVATION: SURFACE:
BORING NO.:
NORTH:
TOP OF PVC CASING:
UG:
SPLIT
SPOON
CASING
AUGERS
CORE
BARREL
DATE
PROGRESS
VT)
WEATHER
TIME
IZE (DIAM.)
ENGTH
YPE
IAMMERWT.
ALL
TICK UP
IEMARKS:
S
T
R
D
Depth
(Ft.1
=
=
=
=
SAMPLE TYPE
A =Auger
Split Spoon
W = Wash
ShelbyTube
C = Core
Air Rotary
P = Piston
Denison
N = NoSample
tmpli
ype
snd
No.
.
Samp
Rec.
Ft.
&
%
IPT
)r
IQD
Lab.
lass.
or
Pen.
Rate
PID
wm
Visual Description
Well
installation
Detail
Elevation
Ft.
MSL
l-
23456789o-
Match to Sheet 2
.
DRILLING CO.:
DRILLER:
BAKER REP.:
BORING NO.:
6-10
SHEET I_ OF -2
FIGURE 6-6
FIELD WELL CONSTRUCTION LOG
PROJECT:
S.O. NO.:
COORDINATES: EAST:
ELEVATION: SURFACE:
BORING NO.:
NORTH:
TOP OF STEEL CASING: _
Well Development
I
Pay Items
Quantity
Item
WELL
INFORMATION
Remarks
Unit
DIAM.
(INCHES)
TYPE
.,I%,.,
Well Casing
Well Screen
Well Installation
Backfill
Key
Cement
Rubber
Packer
(#l)
(#4)
Detail
Well
Key
l23-
Cement/
Bentonite
Solid
Casing
4-
(43
Sand
Bentonite
(#5)
(#7)
56-
w4
Slotted
Screen
7..m.
. . .
. ..m
. . .
. . .
. . .
Drill
Cuttings
/““’
(#3)
.
.
.
Gravel
W)
l!!!I
DRILLING CO.:
DRILLER:
WI
8-
.
910 BAKER REP.:
BORING NO.:
6-11
SIHEET _
OF -
7.0
SITE MANAGEMENT
This section outlines the responsibilities
and reporting requirements of on-site personnel.
Field Team Responsibilities
7.1
The field portion of this project will consist of one field team.
All field activities
will
be
coordinated by a Site Manager.
The Field Team will employ one or more drilling
installation.
rigs for soil boring and monitoring
The rig(s) will be supervised by a Baker geologist.
well
Two sampling technicians
will be assigned to the field team.
A Site Manager (or Field Team Leader) will be assigned to manage all field activities.
The
Site Manager will ensure that all field activities are conducted in accordance with the ,project
plans (the Work Plan, this Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, the Quality Assurance IProject
Plan, and the Health and Safety Plan).
Reporting
7.2
Requirements
The Site Manager will report a summary of each day’s field activities to the Project Manager
or his/her designee. This may be done by telephone or telefax. The Site Manager will include,
at a minimum, the following in his/her daily report:
l
Baker personnel on site.
l
Other personnel on site.
l
Major activities of the day.
l
Subcontractor quantities (e.g., drilling
l
Samples collected.
l
Problems encountered.
l
Planned activities.
footages).
The Site Manager will receive direction from the Project Manager regarding changes in scope
of the investigation.
This will be especially critical as the rapid-turnaround
laboratory results
become available since additional sample locations may be added to the program.
7-l
,[email protected]*\
8.0
REFERENCES
Camp Lejeune Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). December 6,1989.
ATEC, 1992. Underground Storage Tank Site Check. Investigation
Report, Former Mess Hall
Heating Plant. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
ESE, 1990. Final Community
Relations Plan for MCB Camp Leieune. ESE Project :No. 49-
02036, September 1990.
ESE, 1992. Final Site Assessment Report for Sites 6,48, and 69 - Characterization
Determine Existence and Possible MiPration
of Specific Chemicals In Situ.
Studv to
Marine Corps
Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
Harned, D.A., Lloyd, O.B. Jr., and Treece, M.W. Jr., 1989. Assessment of Hvdrologic
Hvdrogeologic Data at Camp Leieune Marine Corns Base, North Carolina.
Resources Investigations
and
USGS. Water
Report 89-4096.
Law, 1992. Final Report, Underground Fuel Investigation,
Camp Geiger Fuel Farm. IMarine
Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
Law, 1993. Addendum to Report of Underground Fuel Investigation
and Comprehensive Site
Assessment. Camp Geiger Fuel Farm, Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
NUS, 1990. Draft Field Investigation/Focused
Feasibilitv
Study. Camp Geiger Fuel Spill Site.
Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
U.S. Environmental
Investigations
Protection
and Feasibility
Agency,
1988.
Guidance
Studies Under CERCLA.
for Conducting
Remedial
Gffice of Emergency and Remedial
Response, OSWER Directive 9355.3-01, October 1988.
Water and Air Research, Inc., 1983. Initial
Assessment Study of Marine Corps Base, Camp
Leieune. North Carolina. Prepared for Naval Energy and Environmental
8-l
Support Activity.
/-h-
APPENDIX A
JUSTIFICATION
CRITERIA FOR USE
OF PVC AS WELL CASING MATERIAL
The following is EPA Region IV minimum seven point information
use of PVC as an alternate casing material for groundwater
justification
requirements to justify the
monitoring
wells. If requested,
of the use of PVC should be developed by addressing each of the following items:
1. The DQOs for the groundwater
samples to be collected.
Level IV DQOs will be used for analyses of groundwater
project. Analytical
of contamination
2. The anticipated
samples collected during this
parameters have been selected to characterize the presence or absence
and to assess any associated risks to human health or the environment.
(organic)
compounds.
Maximum Groundwater
Organic Concentrations
(l&L)
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
Total Xylenes
MTBE
Trans-1,2-DCE
TCE
PCE
Vinyl chloride
2,300
280
590
1,100
46
110
810
1.0
6.0
The concentrations listed above represent maximums at each site. These compounds are not
necessarily present in all wells at a site.
There are two primary concerns regarding sample bias associated with use of PVC well casing
under these conditions. One is that organic contaminants will leach from the PVC well casing.
The other is that organic contaminants that may be present in the groundwater would adsorb
onto the PVC. Either of these could result in biased analytical results.
It is important
to note that all stagnant
water from inside the well casing is purged
immediately before sample collection. The time required to do this is expected to be much less
than that required for groundwater sampling bias phenomena (adsorbing/leaching)
A-l
to develop.
3. The anticipated
residence
time of the sample
in the well
and the aquifer’s
productivity.
Samples collected immediately
Aquifer
productivity:
conductivity
after purging (i.e “fresh” from the aquifer).
Subsurface
soil samples are mostly
fine sand.
Hydraulic
is estimated at 0.0001 to 0.01 cm/set. The wells should recharge (enough to
sample) before any sorbing/leaching
of organics can occur. Aquifer tests conducted by
O’Brien and Gere (1988) provided information
transmissivity:
well yield:
saturated thickness:
radius of influence:
of the following aquifer characteristics:
500 gpd/ft.
h-pm
19-22 ft.
300-400 ft.
4. The reasons for not using other casing materials.
Costs associated with use of stainless steel and teflon casing materials are prohibitive,
particularly
investigation.
in 4-inch monitoring
Existing
organic materials
groundwater
from/onto
wells.
PVC strength
quality
will
data indicate
be sufficient
for this
that leaching/sorbing
the PVC will not be extensive
of
enough to bias future
groundwater analysis. PVC is lighter and more flexible than stainless steel.
5. Literature
on the adsorption
characteristics
of the compounds
and elements
of
interest.
The following was originally
presented in National
Water Well Association
(NWWA,
1989):
Miller
(1982) conducted a study to determine if PVC exhibited
potential contaminants from solution.
Trichloroethene
any tendency
t,o sorb
and 1,1,2-trichloroethane
did not
sorb to PVC. Reynolds and Gillham (1985) found that 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
to PVC. The sorption was slow enough that groundwater
could sorb
sampling bias would not be
significant if well development (purging the well of stagnant water) and sampling were to
take place in the same day.
A-2
6. Whether
the wall thickness
space when compared
It will not,
of the PVC casing would
to other well construction
interfere
annular
operations
will be of sufficient
of the PVC casing.
7. The type of PVC to be used and, if available,
an assurance
a larger
materials.
Hollow stem augers used during drilling
diameter for installation
require
the manufacturers
specifications,
and
that the PVC to be used does not leach, mask, react or otherwise
with the contaminants
being monitored
Baker will request the appropriate manufacturers
this requirement.
within
the limits of the D&OS.
specifications and assurances regarding
This material will be supplied to Baker by the drilling
subcontractor.
References for Appendix A:
National Water Well Association, 1989, Handbook of Sucrpested Practices for the :Design
and Installation
of Ground-Water Monitoring
Wells, Dublin, Ohio, 398 pp.
Miller, G.D., 1982, Uptake of lead, chromium and trace level volatile organics exposed to
svnthetic well casings, Proceedings
Restoration and Ground-Water
of the Second National
Monitoring,
National
Symposium
on A.quifer
Water Well Association,
Dublin,
Ohio, pp. 236-245.
Reynolds, G.W. and Robert W. Gillham,
1985, Absorption
of halogenated
organic
compounds by polvmer materials commonly used in ground-water
monitors, Proceedings
of the Second Canadian/American
National
Conference on Hydrogeology,
Association, Dublin, Ohio, pp. 125-132.
A-3
Water Well
r:-
APPENDI:X A
JUSTIFICATION
CRITERIA FOR TJSE
OF PVC AS WELL CASING MATERIAL
The following is EPA Region IV minimum seven point information
use of PVC as an alternate casing material for groundwater
justification
requirements to justify the
monitoring
wells. If requested,
of the use of PVC should be developed by addressing each of the following items:
1. The DQOs for the groundwater
samples to be collected.
Level IV DQOs will be used for analyses of groundwater
project. Analytical
of contamination
2. The anticipated
samples collected during this
parameters have been selected to characterize the presence or absence
and to assess any associated risks to human health or the environment.
(organic)
compounds.
Maximum Groundwater
Organic Concentrations
(UdL)
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
Total Xylenes
MTBE
Trans-1,2-DCE
TCE
PCE
Vinyl chloride
2,300
280
590
1,100
46
110
810
1.0
6.0
The concentrations listed above represent maximums at each site. These compounds are not
necessarily present in all wells at a site.
There are two primary concerns regarding sample bias associated with use of PVC well casing
under these conditions. One is that organic contaminants will leach from the PVC well casing.
The other is that organic contaminants that may be present in the groundwater would a.dsorb
onto the PVC. Either of these could result in biased analytical results.
It is important
to note that all stagnant
water from inside the well casing is purged
immediately before sample collection. The time required to do this is expected to be much less
than that required for groundwater sampling bias phenomena (adsorbing/leaching)
to develop.
/----.
3. The anticipated
residence
time of the sample
in the well
and the aquifer’s
productivity.
Samples collected immediately
Aquifer
productivity:
conductivity
after purging (i.e “fresh” from the aquifer).
Subsurface
soil samples are mostly
fine sand.
Hydraulic
is estimated at 0.0001 to 0.01 cm/set. The wells should recharge (enough to
sample) before any sorbing/leaching
of organics can occur. Aquifer tests conducted by
O’Brien and Gere (1988) provided information
transmissivity:
well yield:
saturated thickness:
radius of influence:
of the following aquifer characteristics:
500 gpd/ft.
h-pm
19-22 ft.
300-400 ft.
4. The reasons for not using other casing materials.
Costs associated with use of stainless steel and teflon casing materials
,/I
^-\
particularly
investigation.
in 4-inch monitoring
Existing
organic materials
groundwater
from/onto
wells.
PVC strength
quality
the PVC will
will
data indicate
are prohibitive,
be sufficient
for this
that leaching/sorbing
not be extensive
of
enough to bias future
groundwater analysis. PVC is lighter and more flexible than stainless steel.
5. Literature
on the adsorption
characteristics
of the compounds
and elements
of
interest.
The following was originally
presented in National
Water Well Association
(N’WWA,
1989):
Miller
(1982) conducted a study to determine if PVC exhibited
potential contaminants
from solution.
Trichloroethene
any tendency
to sorb
and 1,1,2-trichloroethane
did not
sorb to PVC. Reynolds and Gillham (1985) found that 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
to PVC. The sorption was slow enough that groundwater
could sorb
sampling bias would not be
significant if well development (purging the well of stagnant water) and sampling were to
take place in the same day.
A-2
6. Whether
the wall thickness
space when compared
It will not.
of the PVC casing would
to other well construction
interfere
annular
operations will be of sufficient
of the PVC casing.
7. The type of PVC to be used and, if available,
an assurance
a larger
materials.
Hollow stem augers used during drilling
diameter for installation
require
the manufacturers
specifications,
and
that the PVC to be used does not leach, mask, react or otherwise
with the contaminants
being monitored
within
the limits of the DQOs.
Baker will request the appropriate manufacturers specifications and assurances regarding
this requirement.
This material will be supplied to Baker by the drilling
subcontractor.
References for Appendix A:
National Water Well Association, 1989, Handbook of Suggested Practices for the IDesign
and Installation
of Ground-Water Monitoring
Wells, Dublin, Ohio, 398 pp.
Miller, G.D., 1982, Uptake of lead. chromium and trace level volatile organics exposed to
svnthetic well casings, Proceedings
Restoration and Ground-Water
of the Second National
Monitoring,
National
Symposium
on A.quifer
Water Well Association,
Dublin,
Ohio, pp. 236-245.
Reynolds, G.W. and Robert W. Gillham,
1985, Absorption
of halogenated
organic
compounds bv polymer materials commonly used in mound-water
monitors, Proceedings
of the Second Canadian/American
National
Conference on Hydrogeology,
Association, Dublin, Ohio, pp. 125-132.
A-3
Water Well
SECTION
II
DRAFT
REMEDIAL
INVESTIGATION/
FEASIBILITY
STUDY
QUALITY
ASSURANCE
PROJECT
PLAN
FOR OPERABLE
UNIT NO. 10
(SITE 35)
MARINE
CORPS BASE,
CAMP LEJEUNE,
NORTH CAROLINA
CONTRACT
TASK
Prepared
ORDEIFi: 0160.
For:
DEPARTMENT
OF TSHE NAVY
ATLANTIC
DIVISION
NAVAL
FACILITIES
ENGINEERING
.COMMAND
Norfolk, Virginia
LANTDIV
Contract
CLEAN Program
N62470-89-D-4814
Prepared
BAKER
by:
ENVIRONMENTAL,
Coraopolis, Pennsylvania
JULY
7,199s
INC.
,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
1.0
INTRODUCTION
2.0
SCOPE OF QUALITY
3.0
PROJECT
DESCRIPTION
4.0
PROJECT
ORGANIZATION
5.0
5.1
5.2
QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES FOR DATA MEASUREMENT
Project Quality Assurance Objectives ...................................
DataQuaIityObjectives
...............................................
5-l
5-l
5-2
6.0
SAMPLING
6-1
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
SAMPLE AND DOCUMENT CUSTODY PROCEDURES
SamplingHandling
...................................................
Chain-of-Custody Procedures ..........................................
Document Custody Procedures .........................................
8.0
8.1
8.2
CALIBRATION
PROCEDURES AND FREQUENCY
FieldInstruments
....................................................
LaboratoryInstruments
...............................................
9.0
9.1
9.2
ANALYTICAL
PROCEDURES
.....................................
Field Analysis .......................................................
Laboratory Analysis ..................................................
10.0
10.1
10.2
DATA REDUCTION, VALIDATION,
AND REPORTING
Field Data Procedures ................................................
LaboratoryDataProcedures
...........................................
...................................................
ASSURANCE
PROCEDURES
PROJECT
l-l
PLAN
..............
..........................................
2-1
3-1
........................................
4-l
........................................
............
................
7-1
7-1
7-l
7-6
8-l
8-l
8-l
9-l
9-l
9-1
............
10-l
10-l
10-l
11.0 INTERNAL QUALITY CONTROL CHECKS
........................
11.1 Field Internal Quality Control Checks ..................................
11.2 TypesofQCSamples
..................................................
11.3 Laboratory Control Limits
............................................
11.4 Quality Assurance Review of Reports, Plans, and Specifications ...........
11.5 Laboratory Quality Assurance .........................................
11-l
11-l
11-1
11-4
11-7
11-8
12.0
PERFORMANCE
12-1
13.0
13.1
13.2
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
....................................
FieldMaintenance
...................................................
LaboratoryMaintenance
..............................................
AND SYSTEM AUDITS
ii
...........................
13-1
13-l
13-2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(CONTINUED)
ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES
14.0 DATA MEASUREMENT
14.1 Overall Project Assessment ............................................
14.2 Field Quality Assessment .............................................
14.3 Laboratory Data Quality Assessment ...................................
14.4 Laboratory Data Validation
...........................................
............
15.0 CORRECTIVE ACTION
............................................
15.1 Corrective Action .....................................................
15.2 Limits of Operation ...................................................
16.0
QUALITY
ASSURANCE
REPORTING
PROCEDURES
14-1
14-l
14-1
14-1
14-3
15-1
15-l
15-2
.............
16-1
APPENDIX
A
Field Water Quality Instruments
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*.*...a...
A-l
f‘”
‘,
LIST OF FIGURES
Number
4-l
Project Organization Chart
Ps
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o. . . .
4-2
LIST OF TABLES
Number
5-l
Definitions of Data Quality Indicators
7-l
Summary of Containers, Preservation, and Holding Times
for Water Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..a...............
. . ...*.
Summary of Containers, Preservation, and Holding Times
forSoil./SedimentSamples
...... .. . ...... .. .... ... .. . ... .. ......... ....
Method Performance Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-2
9-l
. ...... ...... ..... .. .... ...... ....
5-3
7-2
7-3
9-2
1 l-l
QC Analysis Frequency . . . . . . . . . . ..I....
,.............................
11-2 QA/QC Sample Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-3
11-8
12-1 System Audit Checklist - Project Office
12-2
..................
iv
...............
1.0
INTRODUCTION
This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) has been developed for the field investigation
of
the following site at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina:
l
Site 35 - Camp Geiger Area Fuel Farm
The preparation of this QAPP, and other related project plans, is being performed under the
Navy CLEAN Contract Task Order 0160.
Baker Environmental,
Inc., a wholly
owned
subsidiary of the Michael Baker Corporation, is the prime contractor for the implementation
of this project.
This QAPP addresses the quality assurance and quality control steps and procedures that will
be administered for the sample collection and analysis for this Remedial Investigation
Detailed information
regarding
sample handling
Sections 6.0 and 9.0, respectively.
and analytical
(RI).
methods are provided
in
Sample collection procedures are provided in the Field
Sampling and Analysis Plan (FSAP).
)/--..
l-l
2.0
SCOPE OF QUALITY
ASSURANCE
PROJECT
PLAN
This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) addresses sample collection and analysis to be
conducted for the field investigation
of Site 35 of Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
TheeQAPP
has been developed for the Department of Navy (DON) in accordance with U. S. Environmental
Protection
Agency (USEPA) guidelines.
Contractors
will
follow QA/QC practices
and
procedures, including chain-of-custody procedures, while conducting all sample collection and
analysis activities.
In order to provide adequate QA/QC, this investigation
1. Use of a NEESA-certified
will require:
analytical laboratory;
2. Use of accepted analytical methods for the samples outlined in the Field Sampling and
Analysis Plan (FSAP).
Analysis of samples for hazardous constituents
parameters
will be performed using the following documents:
0
“Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,” USEPA, OLM01.6, June 1991;
l
“Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA, ILMO2.0, March 1990;
l
“Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Waste,“ USEPA, 1979, Revised
March 1983;
l
“Environmental
Pollutants,”
l
Protection Agency Regulations on Test Procedures for An.alysis of
USEPA, 40 CFR 136;
“Test Methods for Evaluating
Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,3rd Edition;
and
0
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification
Waste; Toxicity Characteristics
3. Field audit(s) during initial
and Listing of Hazardous
Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA, 52 FR 26886.
sampling activities
performed according to the Plan.
2-1
to verify
that sampling
is being
The structure of this QAPP and the QA elements addressed are:
0
Title Page
l
Table of Contents
l
Introduction
0
QAPP Scope
l
Project Description
0
Project Organization
l
QA Objectives for Data Measurement
l
Sampling Procedures
l
Sample and Document Custody
l
Calibration Procedures and Frequency
l
Analytical Procedures
l
Data Reduction,Validation,
l
Internal QC Checks
l
Performance and System Audits
l
Preventive Maintenance
l
Data Measurement Assessment Procedures
l
Corrective Action
l
QA Reports to Management
and Reporting
2-2
3.0
PROJECT
An introduction
DESCRIPTION
to the field investigation
of Site 35 describing the project objectives and scope
are given in Sections 4.0 and 5.0 of the RYFS Work Plan. These sections discuss the objectives
of the RI, and the various field sampling and analytical
the field investigations,
including
programs. A detailed description of
sample location and designation, sampling procedures and
frequency, is presented in Sections 3.0,4.0, and 5.0 of the FSAP.
3-l
4.0
PROJECT
ORGANIZATION
Technical performance of the investigation
responsible for quality assurance throughout
of Site 35 at Camp Lejeune and key personnel
its duration are described in Section 6.0 of the
RI/FS Work Plan. The contractor will utilize subcontractors to perform laboratory analysis,
data validation, drilling
and monitoring well installation,
Specific subcontractors
have not yet been identified.
organization, lines of authority,
ordnance clearance, and surveying.
Figure
and support personnel/organizations.
4-l
4-1 shows the project
FIGURE 4-1
PROJECT ORGANIZATION
RI/FS AT OPERABLE UNIT NO. 10
SITE 35
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
Linda Berry
LANTDIV EIC
Fj
-----------
l---------------------------
{-yq
Raymond P, Wattras
MCB Camp Lejeune Activity Coordinator
I
Daniel L. Bonk
Project Manager
John Barone
QNQC
William D. Trimbath
John W, Mentz
Technical Advisors
Richard F. Hoff
Risk Assessment
Specialist
1
Drilling
Subcontractors
Peter A. Monday
Site Manager
Site Engineer
Site
Geologist
5.0
QUALITY
ASSURANCE
OBJECTIVES
FOR DATA MEASUREMENT
The purpose of a QA Program is to establish policies for the implementation
requirements
and to provide an internal
of regulatory
means for control and review so that the work
performed is of the highest professional standards.
5.1
Project Quality
Assurance
Objectives
Project QA objectives are:
l
Scientific data will be of a quality sufficient to meet scientific and legal scrutiny;
l
Data will be gathered/developed in accordance with procedures appropriate for
the intended use of the data; and
0
Data will be of acceptable precision, accuracy, completeness, representativeness,
and comparability
The fundamental
as required by the project.
mechanisms that will be employed to achieve these quality
goals can be
categorized as prevention, assessment, and correction:
l
Prevention of errors through planning, documented instructions
and procedures,
and careful selection and training of skilled, qualified personnel;
0
Assessment of all quality assurance sampling reports furnished by the contract
laboratory;
0
Assessment of data through
data validation,
and of procedures
through
laboratory and field audits; and
a
Correction for prevention of reoccurrence of conditions adverse to quality.
This QAPP, prepared in direct response to these goals, describes the QA Program
to be
implemented and the quality control (QO procedures to be followed by the laboratory during
the course of the project.
5-l
This QAPP presents the project organization and specifies or references technical procedures,
documentation
requirements,
sample custody requirements,
audit, and corrective
provisions to be applied to provide confidence that all activities
action
meet the intent of the QA
program. This QAPP has been prepared in accordance with USEPA guidance as presented in
“Interim
Guidelines
and Specifications for Preparing
Quality
Assurance
Project Plans,”
QAMS-005/80.
The procedures contained or referred to herein have been taken from:
l
“Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,” USEPA , OLM01.6, June 1991.;
l
“Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA , ILMO2.0, March 19190;
l
“Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Waste,” USEPA, 1979, Revised
March 1983;
l
“Environmental
of Pollutants,”
l
Protection Agency Regulations on Test Procedures for Analysis
USEPA, 40 CFR 136;
“Test Methods for Evaluating
Solid Waste,” USEPA, November
1986, 3rd
Edition;
l
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification
Waste; Toxicity Characteristics
and Listing of Hazardous
Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA, 52 FR 26886;
and
l
“Interim
Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project
Plans,” USEPA, (QAMS 005180).
5.2
Data Quality
Objectives
Data quality objectives (D&OS) are qualitative
or quantitative
statements developed by the
data users to specify the quality of data needed from a particular
support a specific decision.
representativeness,
data collection activity
The DQOs are expressed in terms of precision,
completeness, and comparability.
for the more general term uncertainty,
Definitions
are given in Table 5-1.
5-2
to
accuracy,
for these terms, a.s well as
TABLE 5-l
DEFINITIONS
OF DATA QUALITY
INDICATORS
PRECISION - A measure of mutual agreement among individual measurements of
the same property, usually under prescribed similar conditions.
Precision is
expressed in terms of the standard deviation. Comparison of replicate values is best.
expressed as the relative percent difference (RPD). Various measures of precision.
exist depending upon the “prescribed similar conditions”.
ACCURACY - The degree of agreement of a measurement (or an average of replicate
measurements), X, with an accepted reference or true value, T, expressed as the
difference between the two values, X-T. Accuracy is a measure of the bias in a.
system.
REPRESENTATIVENESS
- Expresses the degree to which data accurately and1
precisely represent a characteristic
of a population, parameter variations at ai
sampling point, a process condition, or an environmental concern.
COMPLETENESS - A measure of the amount of the valid data obtained from the
measurement system compared to the amount that was expected under “normal”
conditions.
COMPARABILITY
- Expresses the confidence with which one data set can be
compared with another.
UNCERTAINTY
decision.
- The likelihood
of all types of errors associated with a particular
5-3
The Project Manager, in conjunction with the Navy Engineer-in-Charge
for defining the DQOs. The intended use of the data, analytical
(EIC), is responsible
measurements,
and the
availability
of resources are integral
in development of DQOs. DQOs define the level of
uncertainty
in the data that is acceptable for each specific activity during the investigation.
This uncertainty
includes both field sampling error and analytical
zero uncertainty
is the goal; however, the variables associated with sampling and analysis
contribute to a degree of uncertainty
to keep the total uncertainty
instrument
error. Ideally,
in any data generated. It is an overall program objective
within an acceptable range, so as not to hinder the intended use
of the data. To achieve this objective, specific data quality requirements
limits, criteria for accuracy and precision, sample representativeness,
such as detection
data comparability,
and
data completeness have been specified.
The data collected during the course of the site investigation
will be used:
0
To assess potential human health and environmental
risks;
0
To monitor health and safety conditions during field activities;
0
To identify releases or suspected releases of hazardous waste and/or constituents;
0
To characterize the wastes contained and/or managed; and,
0
To screen from further investigation
those areas which do not pose a threat to
human health or environment.
All samples for characterizing
selecting remedial alternatives
the site, assessing human health and environmental
risks, or
will be analyzed and reported by the laboratory as L,evel IV
data. Samples collected to evaluate process options (e.g., TOC, TSS, etc.) will be analyzed and
reported by the laboratory as Level III data quality.
Field parameters including
(aqueous only) and specific conductance will be Level I data quality.
studies are conducted, sample analyses will be Level III or IV quality.
5-4
temperature
In the event treatability
6.0
SAMPLING
Descriptions
PROCEDURES
of the procedures to be used for sampling
the groundwater,
surface water,
sediment and soil at the site are provided in Section 5.0 of the FSAP. The number of samples,
sampling locations, and sampling rationale by media also are presented in the FSAP.
6-l
SAMPLE AND DOCUMENT
7.0
CUSTODY PROCEDURES
Sample custody procedures outlined in this section have been developed from “User’s Guide to
the Contract Laboratory Program,” December 1988, OSWER Directive No. 9240.0-01. These
procedures are in accordance with “EPA NEIC Policies and Procedure Manual,“
revised November 1984, EPA 330-78-001-R and “Interim
May 1978,
Guidelines and Specifications
for
Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans,” December 1980, QAMS-005180.
The purpose of this section is to outline the sample handling
procedures to be used during implementation
of the FSAP.
and sample documentation
The objective of the sample
handling procedures is to deliver representative samples to the laboratories for analysis.
The
objectives of the sample documentation procedures are to: (1) ensure complete analysis of the
requested parameters within
the required turnaround
times; and (2) document the sample
from the point of collection to the final data report.
7.1
,-.
Sampling
Handling
New polyethylene or glass bottles containing the proper preservatives will be provided by the
laboratory for sample collection.
In addition to the chemical preservatives, samples will be
stored on ice at 4°C in a waterproof metal or sturdy plastic cooler, if required (see Tables 7-l
through
7-2 for summaries of containers, preservation,
and holding
times for water and
soil/sediment respectively).
7.2
Chain-of-Custody
Procedures
A sample is considered to be in an individual’s
0
possession if:
It is in the sampler’s possession or it is in the sampler’s view after being i.n his or
her possession;
0
It was in the sampler’s possession and then locked or sealed to prevent
tampering; or
l
It is in a secure area.
7-1
TABLE7-1
SUMMARYOFCONTAINERS,PRESERVATION,ANDHOLDINGTIMESFORAQUEOUSSAMPLES
Parameter
Container
Preservation
Holding Time
Two 40-ml vials with teflon
septum caps
Cool, 4°C
HCl pH c2
14 days
(7 days ifunpreserved)
TCL Semivolatiles
l-liter amber glass bottle with
teflon caps
Cool, 4°C
7 days to extraction;
40 days from extraction to analysis
TCL Pesticides/PCBs
l-liter amber glass bottle with
teflon caps
Cool, 4°C
7 days to extraction;
40 days after extraction for analysis
TAL Metals
l-500 ml polyethylene bottle
HNOspH<2
6 months;
Mercury 28 days
TAL Cyanide
l-liter polyethylene bottle
NaOHpH>12
Cool, 4°C
14 days
TCL Volatiles
TOC
TSS
TDS
I
I
I
I
I
l-liter polyethylene bottle
I
Cool to 4%
HCl or H2SO4 to pH < 2
I
I
28 days
l-liter polyethylene bottle
I
Cool, 4°C
I
7 days
l-liter polyethylene bottle
1
Cool, 4°C
I
7 days
BOD
l-liter polyethylene bottle
Cool, 4°C
48 hours
COD
l-liter polyethylene bottle
Cool, 4°C
H2SO4 pH <2
28 days
TCL - Target Contaminant List
TAL - Target Analyte List
TOC - Total Organic Carbon
TSS - Totai Suspended S0iids
TVS - Total Volatile Solids
TDS - Total Dissolved Solids
BOD - Biological Oxygen Demand
COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand
TABLE7-2
SUMMARYOFCONTAMERS,PRESERVATION,ANDHOLDINGTIMESFOR
SOILANDSEDIMENTSAMPLES
.
Parameter
Container
Preservation
Holding Time
TCL Volatiles
Two 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jars
Cool, 4°C
10 days
(7 days ifunpreserved)
TCL Semivolatiles
One &ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
7 days to extraction;
40 days from extraction to analysis
TCL PesticidesIPCBs
One S-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
7 days to extraction;
40 days after extraction for analysis
TAL Metals
One 8-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
6 months;
Mercury, 28 days
TAL Cyanide
One S-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
14 days
Total TCLP
Two S-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
14 days
Chloride
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
-_
28 days
Fluoride
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
None
28 days
Alkalinity
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
14 days
rot
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
28 days
IPH
One-4 ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
28 days
Sorrosivity
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
NA
[gnitability
One 4-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
NA
1Reactivity
.
One 8-ounce wide-mouth glass jar
Cool, 4°C
NA
NOTE:
Samples to be tested for TCLP should undergo minimal disturbance prior to analysis.
TOC -Total Organic Carbon
TCL - Target Contaminant List
TPH - Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
TAL - Target Analyte List
TCLP - Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
Five kinds of documentation will be used in tracking and shipping the analytical samples:
l
Field log book;
0
Sample labels;
0
Chain-of-Custody (COC) records;
0
Custody seals; and
0
Commercial carrier airbills.
At a minimum, the label for each sample bottle will contain the following information:
l
Site name;
0
Sample number;
l
Date and time of collection;
0
Sample type (grab or composite);
0
Matrix; and
0
Sampler’s initials.
The sample information,
as well as the analysis to be performed on the sample, will be entered
in the field log book for each sampling point. Additionally,
the following items will be entered:
Dates and times of entry;
Names of field personnel on site;
Names of visitors on site;
Field conditions;
Description of activities;
Sampling remarks and observations;
QA/QC samples collected,
List of photographs taken; and
Sketch of site conditions.
Custody of the samples will be maintained
by field personnel from the time of sampling until
the time they are forwarded to the analytical laboratory.
The sample custody is documented using Chain-of-Custody
(CO0 records. Field personnel
will complete a COC record, in waterproof ink, to accompany each cooler forwarded from the
site to the laboratory.
Chemical reagents used to preserve the samples will be recorded on the
7-4
COC record. Any errors on the COC records will not be erased; instead, a line will be drawn
through the error and initialed
by the person completing the form. The original copy will be
placed in a sealable plastic bag and put inside the appropriate cooler, secured to the cooler’s
lid.
If the sample cooler is to be shipped by commercial air carrier, the cooler must be secured with
custody seals so that the seals would be broken if the cooler was opened. The commercial
carrier is not required to sign the COC record as long as the custody seals remain intact and
the COC record stays in the cooler. The only other documentation required is the completed
airbill.
If the sample shipment is hand delivered to the laboratory by field personnel or retrieved by
laboratory
personnel at the site, then the custody seals are not necessary.
The laboratory
sample custodian, or his/her designee accepting the sample shipment, whether it is from the
air carrier or the field personnel, signs and dates the COC record upon sample receipt.
The
original COC record will be returned along with the final data report. The laboratory will be
responsible for maintaining
internal
log books and records that provide a custody record
during sample preparation and analysis.
Laboratory
Chain-of-Custody
Procedures
Upon sample receipt the steps below are performed.
0
Samples are received and unpacked in the laboratory where the staff checks for
bottle integrity
0
(loose caps, broken bottles, etc.).
Samples are verified with incoming paperwork (packing slip, etc.) by type of
bottle and stabilizer.
l
Information
The paperwork is either signed or initialed.
concerning the sample (from the sampling record, Chain-of-Custody,
and observation)
is recorded along with parameters
to be analyzed,
date of
sampling, and date the sample is received in the laboratory.
l
Samples are placed in an appropriate
until analysis.
7-5
secured storage area, e.g. refrigeration,
0
When analysis
is complete, samples are stored for a 30-day period unless
otherwise specified.
If collected samples arrive without Chain-of-Custody
or incorrect Chain-of-Custody
records,
the following steps are taken:
l
The laboratory prepares a nonconformance form stating the problem;
l
The site supervisor and Project Manager are notified; and
l
If the missing information
cannot be reconstructed by the Project Manager or
field staff, the samples affected are removed from the sampling program.
Primary considerations for sample storage are:
l
Secured storage;
l
Maintain
prescribed temperature,
if required, which is typically
four degrees
Celsius; and
l
Extract
and/or analyze samples within
the prescribed
holding
time for the
parameters of interest.
7.3
Document
Custody Procedures
Project records are necessary to support the validity
of the work, to allow it to be recreated if
necessary, and to furnish documentary evidence of quality.
The evident&y
dependent upon the proper maintenance
of quality
and retrieval
value of data is
assurance
records.
Therefore, procedures are established to assure that all documents attesting to the validity
of
work are accounted for when the work is completed.
Records are legible, tilled out completely, and adequately identified as to the item or activity
involved.
Records are considered valid only if initialed,
and dated by authorized personnel.
signed, or otherwise authenticated
These records may either be originals
or reproduced
copies. Records submitted to the files, with the exception of correspondence, are bound, placed
in folders or binders, or otherwise secured for filing.
7-6
Following receipt of information
of reports or other transmittals,
addition, records transmitted
from external sources, completion of analyses, and issuance
associated records are submitted
to the proper file.
In
are adequately protected from damage and loss during transfer
(e.g, hand carrying or making copies prior to shipment).
The following documents will be transferred
to the proper files during the course of this
project: calculations and checkprints; reports and other data transmittals;
copies of proposals,
purchase orders for project services, and contracts; correspondence including
incoming and
outgoing letters, memoranda, and telephone records; and reference material.
All individuals
on the project staff are responsible for reporting obsolete or superseded project-
related information
to the Project Manager. In turn, the Project Manager notifies the project
and laboratory staffs of the resulting
status change in project documents, such as drawings
and project procedures.
In general, outdated drawings and other documents are marked “void.”
However, the Project
Manager may request the copies be destroyed. One copy of void documents is maintained
in
the project files with the reasons for, and date of voiding clearly indicated.
Documents are marked “preliminary”
to denote calculations and other material which have
not been formally checked, or based on information
contribute to final project information.
7-7
which has not been checked, or do not
8.0
CALIBRATION
8.1
Field Instruments
PROCEDURES
AND FREQUENCY
One field instrument will be used for health and safety monitoring:
photoionizer.
These instruments
manufacturer’s
instructions
will
be calibrated
the HNu System portable
on site daily
in addition to the factory calibration
according
to the
it will receive prior to the
start of site sampling. The calibration standards will be recorded in the field log book. Specific
procedures for the calibration
of water quality instruments
are given in Appendix A of this
document.
A pH meter and a conductivity
samples.
meter will be used to analyze groundwater and surface water
Procedures from “Test Methods for Evaluating
Solid Waste,” USEPA, SW-846,
November 1986,3rd Edition will be used to calibrate these meters. Specific procedures for the
calibration
8.2
of water quality instruments
Laboratory
are given in Appendix A of this document
Instruments
i--
The laboratory’s procedures for calibration
and related quality control measures are .to be in
accordance with the protocols presented in the following documents:
l
“Statement of Work for Organic Analysis,” USEPA, OLM01.6, June 1991;
0
“Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA, ILMO2.0, March 1990;
0
“Methods for Organic Chemical AnaIysis of Municipal
and Industrial
Wastewater,”
USEPA, July 1982;
0
“Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Waste,” USEPA, 1979, Revised March
1983;
0
“Environmental
Pollutants,”
0
Protection Agency Regulations
on Test Procedures for Analysis of
USEPA, 40 CFR 136;
“Test Methods for Evaluating
Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,3rd Edition; and
8-1
0
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification
and Listing
of Hazardous
Waste; Toxicity Characteristics Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA, 52 FR 26886.
Formal calibration
procedures are established to ensure that instrumentation
used for sample analysis are accurately calibrated and properly functioning.
apply to all instruments
and equipment
quantities.
All calibrations
and equipment
These procedures
are performed
by
laboratory personnel or external agencies using standard reference materials.
All calibrations
are recorded on in-house calibration
forms or instrument
vendor forms or in
dedicated bound notebooks. The following data are recorded for all calibrations:
target readings, actual readings, instrument
identification
the date,
number, and the analyst’s initials.
Other data may be recorded depending upon the calibration performed.
Only properly calibrated and operating equipment and instrumentation
and instrumentation
not meeting the specified calibration
are used. Equipment
criteria are to be segregated from
Such equipment is repaired and recalibrated
active equipment whenever possible.
before
reuse.
All equipment is uniquely identified, either by serial number or internal calibration
to allow traceability
between equipment and calibration
records.
number,
Recognized procedures
(ASTM, USEPA, or manufacturer’s procedures) are used for calibration whenever available.
8.2.1
Method Calibration
Method calibration
curves, tuning).
is performed as part of the laboratory analytical
Calibration
procedure (calibration
curves are prepared using five standards in graduated amounts
across the appropriate range of analysis.
New calibration
curves are prepared whenever new
reagents or standards are prepared or yearly, whichever is more frequent.
8.2.2
GUMS System Calibration
This section outlines
determination
Procedure
the requirements
for the calibration
of GCiMS systems for the
of organic compounds. The following operations are performed in support of
these requirements:
8-2
l
Documentation of GClMS mass calibration and abundance pattern;
l
Documentation of CC/MS response factor stability; and
l
Internal standard response and retention time monitoring.
Tuning and Mass Calibration
It is necessary to establish that a given GC/MS system meets the standard mass spectral
abundance criteria prior to initiating
analysis
of p-bromofluorobenzene
phenylphosphine
data collection.
This is accomplished
(BFB) for volatile
compounds
through
the
or decaflu.orotri-
(DFTPP) for semivolatile compounds. The BFB or DFTPP criteria are met
before any blanks, standards, or samples are analyzed.
A GCYMS system used for organic compound analysis is tuned to meet the criteria specified for
BFB analysis (volatile compounds) or DFTPP (semivolatile
nanograms (ng) of BFB or DFTPP.
blank analysis.
subtraction,
compounds) for an injection of 50
The analysis is performed separately from standard or
These criteria are demonstrated every 12 hours of operation.
if required,
is straight
background ions. Calibration
forward
documentation
to eliminate
Background
column bleed or instrument
is in the form of a bar graph spectrum and a
mass listing.
GC/MS &stem Calibration
After tuning criteria
initially
have been met and prior to sample analysis,
calibrated at five concentrations utilizing
the linearity
of response. Internal
the GC/MS system is
the compounds to be analyzed to determine
and surrogate standards are used with each calibration
standard. Standards are analyzed under the same conditions as the samples.
l
Relative Response Factor (RRF) Calculation
- The USEPA specifies the internal
standard to be used on a compound-by-compound basis for quantification.
The relative
response factor (RRF) is calculated for each compound at each concentration level.
l
Continuing
volatile
Calibration
- A calibration
compounds and surrogates
performance
calibration
check is performed.
check standard containing
all semivolatile
is run each 12 hours of analysis.
The criteria
8-3
A system
are the same as for the initial
system performance check. A calibration
percent difference is determined for each CCC.
or
check is also performed.
The
The percent Difference for each CCC must be less than or equal to 25.0 percent. The system
performance check and calibration
check criteria must be met before sample analysis can be
performed. The continuing calibration
8.2.3
GC System Calibration
is recorded on the continuing calibration forms.
Procedure
This section outlines the requirements for the calibration of GC systems for the determination
of pesticides/PCBs.
The following operations are performed in support of these requirements:
Three types of analyses are used to verify
performance. The analyses of instrument
and the mid-point concentration
the calibration
and evaluate
blanks, Performance Evaluation
of the the individual
instrument
mixtures (PEMs),
standard mixtures A and B constitute
the continuing calibration.
l
It is necessary to establish resolution
criteria by performing
a Resolution
Check
Mixture where the depth of the valley of two adjacent peaks must be greater than or
equal to 60.0 percent of the height of the shorter peak.
l
The breakdown of DDT and Endrin in both of the PEMs must be less than 20.0 percent
and the combined breakdown of DDT and Endrin must be less than 30.0 percent. All
peaks in both the Performance Evaluation
Mixtures
must be 100 percent resolved on
both columns.
l
The absolute retention times of each of the single component pesticides and surrogates
in both of the PEMs must be within the retention time windows determined from the
three point initial calibration.
l
The relative percent difference of the calculated amount and the true amount for each
of the single component pesticides and surrogates in both of the PEMs must be less
than or equivalent to 25.0 percent.
l
At least one chromatogram
concentrations of Individual
between any two adjacent
peaks in the midpoint
Standard Mixtures A and B in the initial calibration
be greater than or equal to 90 .Opercent.
8-4
must
/----
8.2.4
System Calibration
Procedure
The system must be calibrated
daily
for GC Purgable
by external
Halocarbons
calibration.
A minimum
concentration levels, of each parameter, is used to prepare a calibration
calibration
and Aromatics
of three
curve. The working
curve must be verified on each working day by the measurement of one or more
calibration standards. If the response for any parameter varies from the predicted reslponse by
more than plus or minus ten percent, the test must be repeated using a fresh cal.ibration
standard.
The laboratory must spike and analyze a minimum of ten percent of all samples to monitor
continuing laboratory performance.
Prior to analysis, the system must be demonstrated to be free from contamination,
under the
conditions of the analysis, by running a laboratory reagent blank.
The retention
time window
used to make the identification
should
be based upon
measurements of actual retention time variations of standards over the course of the day.
If the response peak exceeds the working range of the system, prepare a dilution of the sample
with reagent water and reanalyze.
8.2.5
System Calibration
Procedure
This section outlines the requirements
Inductively
for Metals Analysis
for the calibration
of atomic absorption
Coupled Plasma (ICP) systems for the determination
(AA) and
of metals. The following are
performed in support of these requirements:
l
Documentation of standard response; and
0
Correlation coefficient monitoring.
The AA system utilized for direct aspiration technique analysis is initially
calibration blank and five calibration
as follows.
,-.
calibrated with a
standards. The standard concentrations are determined
One standard is at a concentration
near, but above, the MDL.
The other
concentrations correspond to the expected range of concentrations found in the actual samples.
This five-point calibration
is performed daily.
8-5
The AA system utilized for graphite furnace technique analysis is initially
calibration
blank and three calibration
The standard
standards.
calibrated with a
concentrations
are
determined as follows. One standard is at a concentration at the Contract Required Detection
Limit (CRDL). The other concentrations correspond to the expected range of concentrations
found in the actual samples. This three-point calibration is performed daily.
For AA systems, the calibration
standards are prepared fresh each time an analysis is to be
performed and discarded after use. The standards contain the same reagents at the same
concentrations as will result in the samples following preparation.
The ICP system is calibrated initially
This calibration
linearity
is performed daily.
with a calibration
In addition,
blank and one calibration
standard.
ICP systems must undergo quarterly
checks.
Correlation Coefficient Calculation
The data points of the blank and the five calibration
standards are utilized to calculate the
slope, the intercept,
of the best fit line.
correlation
and the correlation
coefficient
coefficient must be achieved before sample analysis may begin.
An acceptable
An acceptable
correlation coefficient is > 0.995 for AA analyses and > 0.995 for ICP analysis.
Calibration
Verification
The initial calibration
curve is verified on each working day by the measurement of one mid-
range calibration standard. The calibration verification
acceptance criterion is as follows:
l
ICEP/GFAA - 90 to 110 percent of true value; and
l
Cold Vapor AA - 80 to 120 percent of true value.
When measurements exceed the control limits,
corrected, the instrument
the analysis
is terminated,
recalibrated, and the calibration reverified.
8-6
the problem
8.2.6
System Calibration
Procedure
for Inorganic
Analyses
This section outlines the requirements
that are used for calibration of calorimetric systems for
analyses of inorganic
The following
parameters.
are performed
in support
of these
standards.
Standard
requirements:
l
Documentation of standard response; and
0
Correlation coefficient monitoring.
The system is initially
calibrated with a blank and five calibration
concentrations are one standard at a concentration
near, but above, the MDL with additional
concentrations corresponding to the expected range of concentrations found in actual samples.
Standards contain the same reagents at the same concentrations as will be present in samples
following preparation.
Correlation Coefficient Calculation
//---,
Data points of the blank and five calibration
standards
are utilized
to calculate
slope,
intercept, and correlation coefficient of a best fit line. An acceptable correlation coefficient is
achieved before sample analysis may begin. An acceptable correlation coefficient is > 0.995
for all systems.
Calibration
Verification
The initial
calibration
calibration
standards. One standard is at a concentration near the low end of the calibration
curve is verified on each working
day by the measurement, of two
curve and one standard is at the high end of the curve. The acceptance criteria for recovery of
verification
standards is within
15 percent of the expected recovery for cyanide analyses and
10 percent of the expected recovery for other inorganic analyses. When measurements exceed
control limits, analysis is terminated, the problem is corrected, the instrument
and calibration
8.2.7
,,H”‘-
Periodic
is recalibrated,
is reverified.
Calibration
Periodic calibration
is performed on equipment
calibrated as part of the analytical
methodology.
8-7
required
in analyses but not
Equipment that falls within
routinely
this category
includes ovens, refrigerators,
and balances. The calibration
is recorded either on specified
forms or in bound notebooks. Discussed below are the equipment, the calibration
and the frequency at which the calibration
performed,
is performed.
l
Balances are calibrated weekly with class S weights,
l
The pH Meter meter is calibrated daily with pH 4 and 7 buffer solutions and checked
with pH 10 buffer solution.
l
The temperatures of the refrigerators are recorded daily.
o
All liquid in glass thermometers
thermometer.
l
are calibrated annually
with the N.B.S. certified
Dial thermometers are calibrated quarterly.
The N.B.S. Certtied Thermometer is checked annually at the ice point.
The following equipment must maintain the following temperatures:
l
Sample Storage and Refrigerators - within 2 degrees of 4 degrees Celsius; and
l
Water Bath, Mercury - within 2 degrees of 95 degrees Celsius.
8-8
/I--,
9.0
ANALYTICAL
PROCEDURES
9.1
Field Analysis
An HNu PI-101 will be used to analyze ambient air for health and safety monitoring,
as to screen soil during the soil sampling.
instrument
as well
The HNu PI-101 detects total organic vapor. This
will be operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
The pH, temperature, and specific conductivity
of aqueous samples also will be measured in
the field. These analyses will be obtained in accordance with “Handbook for Sampling and
Sample Preservation of Water and Wastewater,” September 1982, EPA/600/4-82-029.
9.2
Laboratory
Analysis
The samples that will be collected during the investigation
will be analyzed for constituents
listed in Table 9-l. Parameters will be analyzed using USEPA methods as noted in Table 9-l.
Compounds and the corresponding method performance limits also are listed in Table 9-1
9-1
TABLE 9-1
METHOD
Ethyl Benzene
Stvrene
Xylenes (total)
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
5
5
5
5
5
(1) Contract Required Quantitation Limit, taken from “Statement of Work for Organic
Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory Program, OLM01.6, June 1991.
9-2
TABLE 9-1 (Continued)
METHOD
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
Water
CRQL(1)
Q-lg/w
Soil/Sediment
CRQL(r)
Wg~g)
Semivolatiles
Phenol
10
330
bis(2-Chloroethyl) ether
2-Chlorophenol
1,3-Dichlorobenzene
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
Benzyl alcohol
1,2-Dichlorobenzene
10
10
10
10
10
10
330
330
330
330
330
330
Compound
Method
CLP protocols
- sow 1991
(1) Contract Required Quantitation Limit, taken from “Statement of Work for Organic:
Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory Program, OLM01.6, June 1991.
9-3
TABLE 9-1 (Continued)
METHOD
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
(1) Contract Required Quantitation Limit, taken from “Statement of Work for Organic
Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory Program, OLM01.6, June 1991.
9-4
TABLE 9-1 (Continued)
METHOD
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
(1) Contract Required Quantitation Limit, taken from “Statement of Work for Organic
Analysis,” USEPA Contract Laboratory Program, OLM01.6, June 1991.
9-5
TABLE 9-l (Continued)
METHOD
Analyte
Method
Number(l)
Aluminum
200.7
Antimony
200.7
204.2
Arsenic
200.7
206.2
Barium
200.7
Beryllium
200.7
210.2
Cadmium
200.7
213.2
Calcium
200.7
215.1
Chromium
200.7
218.2
Cobalt
200.7
Copper
PERFORMANCE
CRDL(2)
(PGJ
LIMITS
Method Description
200
Inductively
Coupled Plasma
60
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
10
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
200
Inductively
Coupled Plasma
5
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
5
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
5000
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration
10
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
50
Inductively
Coupled Plasma
Inductively
Coupled Plasma
Inductively
Coupled Plasma
25
200.7
Iron
200.7
Lead
100
3
200.7
239.2
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
(1) Methods taken from “Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA Contract
Laboratory Program, ILM02.0, March 1990.
(2) Contract Required Detection Limit.
(3) Extraction method for arsenic, lead, selenium, and thallium taken from USEPA
Method 3020, “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,
3rd Edition.
(4) Extraction method for all other metals taken from USEPA Method 3010, “Test,
Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,3rd Edition.
9-6
TABLE 9-1 (Continued)
METHOD
Analyte
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Potassium
Selenium
Silver
Sodium
Thallium
Vanadium
Zinc
Cyanide
Method
Number(l)
200.7
242.1
PERFORMANCE
CRDLt2)
o-%~)
LIMITS
Method Description
5000
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration
15
200.7
Inductively
Coupled Plasma
0.2
245.1
245.2
245.5
Water by manual cold vapor technique
Water by automated cold vapor technique
Soil/sediment by manual cold vapor technique
40
Inductively
200.7
Coupled Plasma
5000
200.7
258.1
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration
5
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
200.7
270.2
10
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
200.7
272.2
5000
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration
200.7
273.1
200.7
279.2
10
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
50
200.7
20
200.7
335.2
10
Inductively
Coupled Plasma
Inductively
Coupled Plasma
Titrimetric,
Spectrophotometric
(1) Methods taken from “Statement of Work for Inorganic Analysis,” USEPA Contract
Laboratory Program, ILMO2.0, March 1990.
(2) Contract Required Detection Limit.
(3) Extraction method for arsenic, lead, selenium, and thallium taken from USEPA
Method 3020, “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,
3rd Edition.
(4) Extraction method for all other metals taken from USEPA Method 3010, “Test
Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” USEPA, November 1986,3rd Edition.
9-7
TABLE 9-1 (Continued)
METHOD
Parameter
Pesticides
Chlordane
Endrin
Heptachor (and its hydroxide)
Lindane
Methoxychlor
Toxaphene
Herbicides
2,4-D
2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
Volatiles
Benzene
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chlorobenzene
Chloroform
1,2-Dichloroethane
l,l-Dichloroethylene
Methyl ethyl ketone
Tetrachloroethylene
Trichloroethylene
Vinyl Chloride
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
Water PQL(1)
h-wL)
Soil PQL(1)
ww
0.14
0.06
0.03
0.04
1.8
2.4
9.4
4.0
2.0)
2.7
120
160
EPA Method 8080
12
1.7
800
110
EPA Method 8150
5
5
5
5
5
5
N/A
10
5
5
5
5
5
N/A
5
5
10
EPA Method 8240
5
5
10
Method
-
(1) Practical Quantitation Limit taken from “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,”
USEPA, November 1986.
N/A - Not Applicable
Note: These methods will be used to analyze the Toxicity Characteristic Leading Procedure
(TCLP) extract. The extract will be prepared using Method 1311, described in
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous
Waste; Toxicity Characteristics Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA, 52FR 26886.
9-8
TABLE 9-1 (Continued)
METHOD
Parameter
Semivolatiles
o-Cresol
m-Cresol
p-Cresol
Cresol
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorobutadiene
Hexachloroethane
Nitrobenzene
Pentachlorophenol
Pyridine
2,4,5-tiichlorophenol
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
Water PQL(rJ
(I.lg/L)
Soil PQL(L)
hw-k)
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
50
50
10
10
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
3300
660
660
660
Method
EPA Method 8270
(1) Practical Quantitation Limit taken from “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,”
USEPA, November 1986.
Note: These methods will be used to analyze the Toxicity Characteristic Leading Procedure
(TCLP) extract. The extract will be prepared using Method 1311, described in
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous
Waste; Toxicity Characteristics Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA, 52FR 26886.
9-9
TABLE 9-1 (Continued)
METHOD
Soil
PQL(1)
Water
PQL(v
km
Analyte
10
30
Barium
Cadmium
20
1
1
2
Chromium
20
4
Lead
10
2
Mercury
2
0.002
Selenium
Silver
2o
LIMITS
Method
Method Description
6010
7060
6010
6010
7131
6010
7191
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Water by manual cold vapor technique
Water by automated cold vapor
technique
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Absorption, Furnace Technique-
(mgflrg)
Metals
Arsenic
I
PERFORMANCE
I
4o
6010
7421
7470
6010
7740
6010
7760
(1) Practical Quantitation Limit, taken from “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,”
USEPA, November 1986.
Note: These methods will be used to analyze the Toxicity Characteristic Leading Procedure
(TCLP) extract. The extract will be prepared using Method 1311, described in
“Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous
Waste; Toxicity Characteristics Revisions; Final Rule,” USEPA, 52FR 26886.
9-10
TABLE 9-l (Continued)
METHOD
Parameter
RCRA
Soil pHKorrosivity
Ignitability
Reactive Cyanide
Reactive Sulfide
Engineerinp/FS
Parameters
Ammonium Nitrogen
Sulfate
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
Total Volatile Solids (TVS)
Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH)
Chloride
Alkalinity (Total)
Nitrogen, Organic (as N)
Total Fluoride
Particle Size Distribution
Microbial Count
Atterberg Limits
Total Phosphorus
PERFORMANCE
LIMITS
Water PQL
Soil PQL
Method
N/A
N/A
N/A
10 mg/L(l)
50 mg/L(l)
N/A
10 mg/lq$)
50 mglkg
SW 9045
SW 1010
SW 9012
SW 9030
N/A
15 mg/L(2)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
35 mg/L
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
15 mg/kg’2’
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
65 mgtkg
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
EPA 160.1
EPA 160.4
EPA 415.1
EPA 503013550
SW9251 SM 2320-B EPA 351.3
EPA 340.2 ASTM D422
N/A
N/A
NtA
N/A
N/A
SM 907
ASTM D-4943-89
EPA 365.2
N/A
EPA
EPA
EPA
EPA
EPA
350.2
375.1
410.1
405.1160.2
(1) Practical Quantitation Limit taken from “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,”
USEPA, November 1986.
(2) Method Detection Limit taken from “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,”
USEPA, 1979, Revised March 1983.
N/A - Not Applicable
9-11
/“m
10.0
DATA REDUCTION,
10.1
Field Data Procedures
VALIDATION
AND REPORTING
Data validation practices as described by “Laboratory Data Validation
for Evaluating
Functional
Functional
Inorganic Analyses,” USEPA, June 1988, and “Laboratory
Guidelines for Evaluating
Guidelines
Data Validation
Organic Analyses - Draft,” USEPA, June 1991 will be
followed to insure that raw data are not altered and that an audit trail is developed for those
data which require reduction.
The documentation
bound field log books in which all information
ink.
Appropriate
information
of sample collection will include th.e use of
on sample collection will be entered in i:ndelible
will be entered to reconstruct the sampling event, including:
site name (top of each page), sample identification,
brief description of sample, date and time
of collection, sampling methodology, field measurements and observations,
and sa.mpler’s
initials (bottom of each page, and dated).
A rigorous data control program will insure that all documents for the investigations
are
accounted for when they are completed. Accountable documents include items such as log
books, field data records, correspondence, chain-of-custody
records, analytical
reports, data
packages, photographs, computer disks, and reports. The project manager is responsible for
maintaining
a project file in which all accountable documents will be inventoried.
The project
records will be retained for a period of three years after project close-out; then the files will be
forwarded to the Navy.
All the field data, such as those generated during field measurements, observations and field
instrument
calibrations,
will be entered directly into a bound field notebook.
team member will be responsible
for proofing
all data transfers
Each project
made, and the Project
Manager or his designee will proof at least ten percent of all data transfers.
10.2
Laboratory
Data Procedures
The following procedures summarize the practices routinely
reduction, validation,
and reporting.
used by laboratory staff for data
Numerical analyses, including
manual calculations, are
documented and subjected to quality control review. Records of numerical analyses are legible
and complete enough to permit reconstruction
of the work by a qualified individual
the originator.
10-l
other than
Laboratory
Data Validation
Data validation begins with data reduction and continues through to the reporting of data.
Data processing is checked by an individual
other than the analyst who performed the data
processing. The checker reviews the data for the following:
l
Utilization
of the proper equations;
0
Correctness of numerical input;
l
Correctness of computations; and
l
Correct interpretation
of raw data (chromatographs, strip charts, etc.).
The checking process is thorough enough to verify the results.
All entries made in benchbooks, data sheets, computation sheets, input sheets, etc. are made
in ink. No entry will be rendered unreadable.
Analytical
Reports
The items listed below are required of analytical reports.
l
Data is presented in a tabular format.
l
Analytical
a
The following information
reports are approved by appropriate laboratory personnel.
is included on the report: client name and address, report
date, sample date, analysis dates, number of samples, purchase order number, project
number, and project type. All pages are numbered.
l
The sample numbers and corresponding laboratory numbers are identified.
l
The parameters analyzed, report units, and values are identified.
l
Method, trip, and field blank results are reported.
l
Matrix spike, matrix spike duplicate, and replicate recoveries are reported.
10-2
l
Calibration summaries are reported.
l
Surrogate recoveries are reported.
l
Holding times and sample analysis dates are reported.
l
The detection limit of the procedure is identified.
l
Consistent significant figures are used.
l
Referenced footnotes are used when applicable.
l
A letter of transmittal
accompanies the report if any anomalies are associated with the
data. The letter specifies these anomalies.
LO-3
11.0
INTERNAL
11.1
Field Internal
Field internal
quality
QUALITY
Quality
CONTROL
Control
CHECKS
Checks
control checks to be used during
this investigation
duplicates, equipment rinsates, field blanks, and trip blanks.
include
field
The results from the field
quality control samples will be used by the data validator to determine the overall quality of
the data.
11.2
Types of QC Samples
Documentation
of the analyses of the following types of QC samples is maintained
in the
laboratory bench notebooks and/or the specific client or project files.
Field Duplicates
Duplicates for soil samples are collected, homogenized, and split. All samples except VOCs are
I”--
homogenized, and split. Volatiles are not mixed, but select segments of the soil are taken from
the length of the core and placed in 40 ml glass vials. Cores may be sealed and shipped to the
laboratory
for subsampling if the project deems this appropriate.
samples should be collected simultaneously.
Field duplicates
The duplicate for water
should be collected at a
frequency of 10% per sample matrix for levels IV and III. All the duplicates should be sent to
the primary laboratory responsible for analysis.
shall be split by the laboratory
The same samples used for field duplicates
and used by the laboratory
as the laboratory
duplicate or
matrix spike. This means that for the duplicate sample, there will be analyses of the normal
sample, the field duplicate, and the laboratory matrix spike/duplicate.
Equipment
Rinsates
Equipment rinsates are the final organic-free deionized water rinse from equipment cleaning
collected daily during a sampling event. Initially,
samples from every other day should be
analyzed. If analytes pertinent to the project are found in the rinsate, the remaining
samples
must be analyzed. The results of the blanks will be used to flag or assess levels of analytes in
the samples. This comparison is made during validation.
!“-
same parameters as the related samples.
11-1
The rinsates are analyzeld for the
P”--’
I
Field Blanks
Field blanks consist of the source water used in decontamination,
steam cleaning, and drilling.
At a minimum, one field blank from each vent and each source of water must be collected and
analyzed for the same parameters as the related samples. Organic-free deionized water is
taken to the field in sealed containers and poured into the appropriate sample containers at
predesignated locations. This is done to determine if any contaminants
present in the area
may have an affect on the sample integrity.
Trip Blank
Analysis of trip blanks is performed to monitor possible contamination
collection of samples. Trip blanks are initiated
in the laboratory
during shipment and
prior to the shipping of
sample packs. A corresponding trip blank is prepared for each set of samples to be analyzed for
volatile organic compounds.
Trip blank samples are prepared by adding four drops of concentrated hydrochloric
.,>J--.
(
acid and
then tilling the container with organic-free deionized water (ASTM Type II). The trip blanks
accompany the samples through shipment to the sample site, sample collection, shipment to
the laboratory, and storage of the samples.
If the analyses indicate contamination
of the trip blank, the sample sources may be resampled.
If the extent and nature of the contamination
does not warrant such actions, the data will be
accepted as valid.
Method Blank
Analysis
of method blanks is performed
contamination
to verify
that method interferences
caused by
in reagents, glassware, solvents, etc. are minimized and known.
Method blanks are initiated
by the analyst prior to the preparation
and/or analysis of the
sample set. A method blank consists of a volume of organic-free deionized water equal to the
sample volume which is carried through the entire analytical
procedure. For solid samples to
be analyzed by GUMS, the method blank consists of a purified solid matrix approximately
equal to the sample weight.
A method blank is analyzed with each set of samples or at the
very least, daily. If the analytical
data of the method blank indicates excessive contamination,
11-z
the source of contaminant
will be determined,
The samples may be re-analyzed or the data
may be processed as is depending upon the nature and extent of the contamination.
Replicate
Sample Analysis
Replicate sample analysis is performed to demonstrate the precision
interlaboratory
replicate sample is initiated
carried through the entire analytical
of an analysis.
An
by the analyst prior to sample preparation
and
procedure.
The frequency of inter-laboratory
replicate
analysis for each analyte is summarized in Table 11-l.
Spike Analysis
Spike analysis is performed to demonstrate the accuracy of an analysis. The analyst initiates
the spike prior to sample preparation and analysis by adding a known amount of analyte(s) to
a sample. The spike sample is carried through the entire analytical procedure. The frequency
of spike analysis for each analyte(s) is summarized in Table 11-l.
TABLE
QC ANALYSIS
11-l
FREQUENCY
Parameter
Replicate
Spike
Organic
All analyses by GUMS
All analyses by GC
5%
5%
5%
5%
Metals
Liquids by flame AA or ICP
Solids by flame AA or ICP
All analyses by furnace AA
5%
5%
5%
5%
10%
10%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
~General Chemistry
Cyanide
Nitrate
Sulfide
11-3
Surrogate
Standards
Surrogate standard analysis is performed to monitor the preparation and analyses of samples.
All samples and blanks analyzed by GUMS are fortified with a surrogate spiking solution
prior to extraction or purging.
Internal
Standards
Internal
standard analyses are performed to monitor system stability.
Prior to injection or
purging, internal standards are added to all blanks and samples analyzed by GC/MS (refer to
Section 5.1.1.).
Matrix
Spikes and Matrix
Spike Duplicates
A matrix spike is an aliquot of a matrix (water or soil) fortified (spiked) with known quantities
of specific compounds and subjected to the entire analytical
appropriateness
of the method for the matrix
procedure in order to indicate the
by measuring
recovery.
A matrix
spike
duplicate is a second aliquot of the same matrix as the matrix spike that is spiked in order to
determine the precision of the method.
A matrix spike and matrix spike duplicate will be
performed at a frequency of 1 per 20 samples for organics.
11.3
Laboratorv
Control
Limits
Control limits are established for QC checks (spikes, duplicates, blanks, etc.). CLP control
limits for surrogate standards spikes, and duplicates associated with CC/MS analyses and
Pesticide/PCB analyses are adopted.
samples are determined internally
Control limits for spikes, duplicates,
and reference
through statistical analysis.
Whenever an out-of-control situation
occurs, the cause is determined.
actions are taken.
11-i
Any needed corrective
Method Blanks
For metals analyses, the criteria below are used for method blank analysis.
l
If the concentration of the method blank is less than or equal to the detection level, no
correction of sample results is performed.
l
If the concentration of the blank is above the detection level for any group of samples
associated with a particular
blank, the concentration
of the sample with the least
concentrated analyte must be ten times the blank concentration.
Otherwise,
all
samples associated with the blank and less than ten times the blank concentration
must be redigested (reprepared) and reanalyzed, if possible. If the affected samples
cannot be reprepared and reanalyzed within method holding times, the flagged sample
result and the blank result are both to be reported. The sample value is not corrected
for the blank value.
For GC/MS, GC analyses, the criteria below are used for method blank analysis.
l
A method blank for volatiles analysis must contain no greater than five times the
detection limit of common laboratory
solvents (common laboratory
solvents are:
methylene chloride, acetone, toluene, 2-butanone, and chloroform).
l
A method blank for semivolatiles analysis must contain no greater than five times the
detection limit of common phthalate esters.
l
For all other compounds not listed above, the method blank must contain less than the
detection limit of any single compound. If a method blank exceeds the criteria, the
analytical system is considered to be out of control. The source of the contamination
investigated
is
and appropriate corrective measures are taken and documented before
sample analysis proceeds. All samples processed with a method blank that is out of
control (i.e., contaminated),
are reextracted/repurged
If the affected samples cannot be reextractedirepurged
and reanalyzed, when possible.
and reanalyzed within method
holding times, the flagged sample result and the blank result are both to be reported.
The sample value is not corrected for the blank value.
11-5
l
No positive result for pesticides/PCBs should be reported unless the concentration
of
the compound exceeds five times the amount in the blank.
l
A method blank for pesticides/PCBs must contain no greater than five times the
detection limit for any pesticides/PCBs.
Surrogate
Standards
For method blank surrogate standard analysis, corrective action is taken if any one of the
conditions below exist.
l
Recovery of any one surrogate compound in the volatile fraction is outside the required
surrogate standard recovery limit.
l
Recovery of any one surrogate compound in the semivolatile
fraction
is outside
surrogate standard recovery limits.
Corrective action will include steps listed below.
l
A check of: the calculations
for errors; the internal
solutions for degradation, contamination,
l
Recalculation or reinjectiomrepurging
standard and surrogate spiking
etc.; and instrument performance.
of the blank or extract if the above corrective
actions fail to solve the problem.
l
Reextraction
and reanalysis
of the blank. For sample surrogate standard analysis,
corrective action is taken if any one of the following conditions exist:
)
Recovery of any one surrogate compounds in the volatile fraction is outside the
surrogate spike recovery limits;
)
Recovery of any one surrogate compound in either semivolatile
fr.action is
below ten percent; or
)
Recoveries of two or more surrogate compounds in either semivolatile fraction
are outside surrogate spike recovery limits.
11-6
Corrective action will include the steps listed below.
a
A check of: the calculations for errors; of the internal
solutions for degradation, contamination,
l
standard and surrogate spiking
etc.; and of instrument
performance.
Recalculating or reanalysis the sample or extract if the above corrective action fails to
solve the problem.
l
11.4
Reextraction and reanalysis of the sample if none of the above are a problem.
Quality
Assurance
Review of Reports, Plans, and Specifications
Prior to issuance of a final report, it is reviewed by senior-level
Manager, or a designated representative.
l
program staff, the Project
This review addresses whether:
The report satisfies the scope of work, client requirements,
and pertinent
regulatory
requirements;
l
Assumptions are clearly stated, justified, and documented;
l
A reference is cited for any information
utilized
in report preparation
that was
originated outside the project;
l
The report correctly and accurately presents the results obtained by the work;
l
The tables and figures presented in the report are prepared, checked, and approved
according to requirements;
l
The report figures are signed and dated by the appropriate members of the project staff
and project management; and
l
The typed report has been proofread and punctuation,
spelling are correct.
11-7
grammar, capitalization,
and
11.5
Laboratory
Quality
Assurance
Field Quality Assurance
Four types of field quality
laboratory:
assurance/quality
control
samples will be submitted
trip blanks, equipment rinsates, field blanks, and field duplicates.
to the
A breakdown
by type of sample with which the QA/QC samples will be submitted to the laboratories is given
in Table 11-2. A summary of the number of environmental
and QAIQC samples to be
submitted for analysis is given in the FSAP.
TABLE
QA/QC SAMPLE
11-2
FREQUENCY
Organic
Metal
Type of Sample
Trip Blank
(for volatiles only)
NA( 1)
One per cooler or one per
shipping day
Equipment Rinsate(2)
One per day
One per day
Field Blank
One per source per eventPI
Field Duplicate(8
(1)
I
10%
I
10%
I
Not Applicable
(2) Samples are collected daily; however, only samples from every other day are analyzed.
Other samples are held and analyzed only if evidence of contamination
exists.
(3)
Source water includes water used in decontamination,
(4)
The duplicate must be taken from the same sample which will become the laboratory
matrix spike/matrix spike duplicate for organics or for the sample used as a duplicate in
inorganic analysis.
11-S
steam cleaning, and drilling.
,fi.
12.0
PERFORMANCE
AND SYSTEM AUDITS
A field audit will be conducted during the field investigation
performed according to the plan.
completion of the audit.
to verify that sampling is being
A report will be submitted within
Serious deficiencies will be reported within
30 calendar
days of
24 hours of th,e time of
discovery of the deficiency, including actions taken or to be taken to correct such deficiencies.
The following
table (Table 12-l) is used for audits.
At the appropriate
Manager or Program QA/QC designee will conduct field audits.
,/--\
12-1
time, the Project
TABLE
12-l
SYSTEM AUDIT CHECKLIST
- FIELD OPERATIONS
Project No.
Date
Project Name &
Location
Name & Signature
of Auditor
Team Members
Name & Signature of
Field Team
Yes
No
1.
Is there a set of accountable field documents checked out to
the Site Manager?
Comments:
Yes
No-
2.
Is the transfer of field operations from the Site Manager to
field participants documented in a log book?
Comments:
Yes
No.-----
3.
Is there a written
descriptions?
Comments:
Yes
No-----
4.
Are samples collected as stated in the project plan or as
directed by the Site Manager?
Comments:
Yes
No-----.
5.
Are samples collected in the type of container specified in
the project plan or as directed by the Site Manager?
Comments:
Yes
No-
6.
Are samples preserved as specified in the project plan or as
directed by the Site Manager?
Comments:
12-2
list
of sampling
locations
and
TABLE 12-1
SYSTEM AUDIT CHECKLIST
PAGE TWO
- FIELD OPERATIONS
Yes
No-----
7.
Are the number, frequency and type of samples collected as
specified in the project plan or as directed by tlhe Site
Manager?
Comments:
Yes
No----
8.
Are the number, frequency and type of measurements
taken as specified in the project plan or as directed1 by the
Site Manager?
Comments:
Yes
No-
9.
Are samples identified with sample labels?
Comments:
Yes
No-
10.
Are blank and duplicate samples properly identified?
Comments:
Yes
No-
11.
Are sample and serial numbers for samples split with
other organizations recorded in a log book or on a clhain-ofcustody record?
Comments:
Yes
No----
12.
Are samples listed on a chain-of-custody record?
Comments:
Yes
No-
13.
Is chain-of-custody documented and maintained?
Comments:
Yes
No-----
14.
Are quality assurance checks performed as directed‘?
Comments:
12-3
TABLE 12-1
SYSTEM AUDIT CHECKLIST
PAGE THREE
- FIELD OPERATIONS
Yes
NO-
15.
Are photographs documented in logbooks as required?
Comments:
Yes
No-
16.
Are all documents accounted for?
Comments:
Yes
No----
17.
Have any documents been voided or destroyed?
Comme&s:
12-4
,6---
_
13.0
PREVENTIVE
13.1
Field Maintenance
MAINTENANCE
The HNu PI-101 is to be used in site characterization
the manufacturer’s
instructions.
and will be maintained as described by
The pH and specific conductance meters to be used1during
sampling will be maintained according to Appendix A, Field Water Quality Instruments.
13.2
Laboratory
Preventive
Maintenance
maintenance
is an organized program of actions to prevent
equipment from failing during use and to maintain
instruments
and
proper performance of equipm.ent and
instruments.
A comprehensive preventive maintenance program is implemented to increase
the reliability
of the measurement system. The preventive maintenance program addresses
the following:
l
Schedules of important preventive maintenance tasks that are carried out to minimize
downtime; and
rl
Lists of critical spare parts that are available to minimize downtime.
The laboratory
Trouble
maintains
shooting,
Instruments
histories, in instrument/equipment
maintenance,
and equipment
described in individual
and spare parts inventory
are maintained
analytical
logs, of all major equipment.
periodically
methods, manufacturer’s
are recorded in the logs.
in accordance with procedures
recommendation,
and/o:r service
contracts.
The modern analytical
laboratory
depends heavily upon instrumentation
and equipment;
therefore, cleaning and preventive maintenance are primary considerations in the sustained
production
of satisfactory
instrumentation
data.
Specific
requirements
for proper care of laboratory
and equipment are contained in the manufacturer’s
instructions;
however,
some general guidelines are considered, and are listed below.
l
Special precautions are taken to avoid spillage of corrosive chemicals on or around
equipment and instrumentation
not only to extend the life of the item, but also to
eliminate contamination.
13-1
l
Where available, covers are placed on instrumentation
l
Instrument parts are cleaned as required (i.e., mirrors, probes, detector cells).
13-2
when not in use.
/,.“v”.
14.0
DATA MEASUREMENT
14.1
Overall Project Assessment
Overall data quality
ASSESSMENT
PROCEDURES
will be assessed by a thorough
understanding
of the data quality
objectives which are stated during the design phase of the investigation.
By maintaining
thorough documentation of all decisions made during each phase of sampling, performing field
and laboratory audits, thoroughly reviewing the analytical
laboratory,
and providing
data as they are generated by the
appropriate feedback as problems arise in the field
01:
at the
laboratory, data accuracy, precision, and completeness will be closely monitored.
14.2
Field Quality
Assessment
To assure that all field data are collected accurately and correctly, specific written inst:ructions
will be issued to all personnel involved in field data acquisition by the Project Manager.
Project Manager will perform field audit(s) during the investigation
to document that the
appropriate procedures are being followed with respect to sample (and blank)
/ --
The
collection.
These audits will include a thorough review of the field books used by the project personnel to
insure that all tasks were performed as specified in the instructions.
The field audits will
necessarily enable the data quality to be assessed with regard to the field operations.
The evaluation (data review) of field blanks, and other field QC samples will provide definitive
indications of the data quality.
If a problem that can be isolated arises, corrective actions can
be instituted for future field efforts.
14.3
Laboratory
Data Quality
As part of the analytical
Assessment
QA/QC program, the laboratory
applies precision
and accuracy
criteria for each parameter that is analyzed. When analysis of a sample set is completed, QC
data generated are reviewed and evaluated to ensure acceptance criteria
are met.
These
criteria are method and matrix specific.
QA.tQC data review is based on the following criteria:
l
Method Blank Evaluation
characteristic
- The method blank results are evaluated for high readings
of background contamination.
14-l
If high blank
values are observed,
laboratory glassware and reagents are checked for contamination
,J---
future samples halted until
the system can be brought
and the an.alysis of
under control.
A high
background is defined as a background value sufficient to result in a difference in the
sample values, if not corrected, greater than or equal to the smallest significant
known to be valid.
digit
A method blank must contain no greater than two times the
parameter detection limit for most parameters.
l
Trin Blank Evaluation
- Trip blank results are evaluated for high readings similar to
the method blanks described above. If high trip blank readings are encountered (i.e. a
value sufficient to result in a difference in sample values, if not corrected, greater than
or equal to the smallest significant
digit known to be valid), procedures for sample
collection, shipment, and laboratory analysis are reviewed. If both the method. and the
trip blanks exhibit significant background contamination,
is probably within
the laboratory.
the source of contamination
Ambient air in the laboratory
and reagents are
checked as possible sources of contamination.
l
Standard
calibration
“*.
Calibration
Curve Verification
- The calibration
curve
or midpoint
standard (check standard) is evaluated daily to determine curve hnearity
through its full range and that sample values are within the range defined by the low
and high standards. If the curve is not linear, sample values are corrected. If average
response factors are used to calculate sample concentrations, these factors are verified
on a daily basis.
accomplished
Verification
of calibration
when the evaluated
curves
and response
response for any parameter
factors
is
varies from the
calibrated response by less than ranges specified in Section 7.0.
l
Duplicate Sample Analyses - Duplicate sample analyses are used to determine the
precision of the analytical
method for the sample matrix.
Two types of duplicate
samples are analyzed for this project, field, and interlaboratory.
Duplicate results are
used to calculate precision as defined by the RPD. If interlaboratory
duplicate values
exceeds the control limit, the sample set are reanalyzed for the parameter in question.
Precision limits are updated periodically following review of data.
l
Reference Samnle Analvses - The results of reference sample analysis are compared
with true values, and the percent recovery of the reference sample is calculated.
If
correction is required (excessive or inadequate percent recovery), the reference sample
is reanalyzed to demonstrate that the corrective action has been successful.
14-2
l
Surrogate Standard Analyses - Surrogate standard determinations
are performed on
all samples and blanks for GUMS analyses. All samples and blanks are fortitied with
surrogate spiking compounds before purging or extraction to monitor preparation and
analysis of samples. Recoveries must meet specific criteria.
If acceptance criteria are
not met, corrective action is taken to correct the problem and the affected sample is
reanalyzed.
l
Matrix
Spike Analyses - The observed recovery of spike versus theoretical1 spike
recovery is used to calculate accuracy as defined by the percent recovery.
If the
accuracy value exceeds the control limit for the given parameter, the appropriate
laboratory personnel notified and corrective action is taken before the sample set is
reanalyzed for the parameter in question.
For completeness, it is expected that the methodology proposed for chemical characterization
of the samples will meet QC acceptance criteria for at least 95 percent of all sample data. To
ensure this completeness goal, sample data that does not meet the established criteria1 will be
recollected, reextracted, or reanalyzed.
Data representativeness will be ensured through the use of appropriate analytical procedures,
and analysis of samples performed within the allowed holding times.
Comparability
is a qualitative
characteristic
of the data.
By using standard methods for
sampling and analyses, data generated in past or future investigations
with this investigation
14.4
Laboratory
will be comparable
data.
Data Validation
Review of analyses will be performed. A preliminary
review will be performed by the project
manager to verify all necessary paperwork (e.g., chain-of-custodies, traffic reports, analytical
reports, and laboratory personnel signatures) and deliverables are present. A detailed, quality
assurance review will
qualitative
be performed
and quantitative
reliability
detailed review and interpretation
by a data validation
of the data presented.
subcontractor
established criteria, and professional judgment.
14-3
the
This review will include
of all data generated by the laboratory.
which will be used by experienced data validation
to verify
a
The primary tools
personnel will be guidance documents,
A quality
assurance report stating
the qualitative
and quantitative
reliability
of the
analytical data will be prepared for NEESA. This report will consist of a general introduction
section, followed by qualifying
analytical
statements that should be taken into consideration
results to be best utilized.
The report will
for the
reference NEESA 20.2-047B for
applicable guidance, format, and standards.
During the data review, a data support documentation
package will be prepared which will
provide the back-up information that will accompany all qualifying
quality assurance review.
14-4
statements present in the
15.0
CORRECTIVE
ACTION
Corrective action is taken whenever a nonconformance occurs. A nonconformance is defined
as an event which is beyond the limits established for a particular
Nonconformances can occur in a number of activities.
procedures,
sample receipt,
sample storage,
operation by the plan.
Such activities
sample analysis,
include
sampling
data reporting,
and
computations,
The following personnel are responsible for detecting and reporting nonconformances:
l
Project Staff - during testing and preparation and verification
of numerical analyses;
and
l
Laboratory
Staff - during the preparation
for analyses, performance
of analytical
procedures, calibration of equipment, and quality control activities.
15.1
Corrective
Action
Nonconformances are documented by the person originating
or identifying
it. Documentation
includes the following:
l
Identification
of the individual(s)
l
Description of the nonconformance;
l
Any required approval signatures (initials);
l
Corrective action taken; and
a
Corrective action completion date.
The NEESA contract representative
originating
or identifying
the nonconformance;
(NCR), along with the contract project director. will be
notified of a nonconformance and corrective action taken, if one of the following is true:
l
A nonconformance causes a delay in work beyond the schedule completion date;
l
A nonconformance affects information
l
A nonconformance affects the validity of the data.
already reported; and
15-1
15.2
Limits of Operation
The limits of operation that are used to identify nonconformances are established
contents of the plan and by control limits produced by statistical analyses.
15-2
by the
16.0
QUALITY
ASSURANCE
REPORTING
PROCEDURES
The Project Manager will be responsible for assessing the performance
systems and data quality
related to the field investigation.
maintained
of laboratory
of: the results
A written
QC reports and other periodic
of measurement
record will
be
assessments of
measurement, data accuracy, precision, and completeness; performance and system. audits;
and any significant
QA problems and recommended solutions. Each deliverable will contain a
QAIQC assessment section.
Also, a QAIQC assessment will
be performed any time a
significant problem is identified.
The Project Manager will
keep in contact with
the Navy Engineer-in-Charge
through
informal, verbal reports during the project as well as through monthly progress reports.
16-1
.
APPENDIX
FIELD WATER QUALITY
A. Calibration
Activity
Field
and Preventive
A
INSTRUMENTS
Maintenance
Before Site Visit
meters
to be used
conductance/thermistor
during
sampling,
specifically
the
pH and
specific
meters will be checked against the contractor laboratory meters to
insure proper calibration
and precision response. Thermometers will be checked against a
precision thermometer certified by the National Bureau of Standards. These activities will be
performed by the contractor laboratory manager. In addition, buffer solutions and standard
KC1 solutions to be used to field calibrate the pH and conductivity
meters will be laboratory
tested to insure accuracy. The preparation date of standard solutions will be clearly :marked
on each of the containers to be taken into the field.
A log which documents
problems
experienced with the instrument, corrective measures taken, battery replacement dateis, when
used and by whom for each meter and thermometer
will be maintained
by the contractor’s
laboratory manager. Appropriate new batteries will be purchased and kept with the m,eters to
facilitate immediate replacement, when necessary in the field.
All equipment to be utilized during the field sampling will be examined to certify that it is in
operating condition.
instructions
This includes checking the manufacturer’s
with each instrument
operating manuals and the
to ensure that all maintenance items are being observed. A
spare electrode will be sent with each pH meter that is to be used for field measurements. Two
thermometers will be sent to each field site where measurement of temperature
including those sites where a specific conductance/thermistor
Activity
is required,
meter is required.
at Site
The pH meter must be calibrated a minimum of twice each day using at least two different pH
buffer solutions expected to bracket the pH range of field samples. Rinse the probe thoroughly
between buffer measurements with distilled water and again after calibration
is completed.
Record in the field log book what buffer solutions were used. When the meter is moved, check
pH reading by measuring the pH value of the buffer solution closest to the expected range of
the sample. If the reading deviates from the known value by more than 0.1 standard units,
A-l
recalibrate the instrument
as described above. If unacceptable deviations still occur, consult
the operating manual for remedial course of action.
The specific conductance/thermistor
meter is less likely to exhibit random fluctuations
and
will only require daily checks against a known KC1 solution, which should be chosen to be
within
the expected conductivity
range.
Note that specific conductance
is temperature-
dependent and, therefore, the meter readings must be adjusted to reflect the temperature
of
the standard solution. Thoroughly rinse the probe with distilled water after immersing in KC1
standard solution.
In addition to daily checks of the conductivity
readings, the thermistor
readings must also be checked daily. This is accomplished by taking a temperature reading of
the KC1 standard solution with both the conductivity
Before use, visually
column.
probe and a mercury thermometer.
inspect the thermometer to assure there is no break in the mercury
If there is a break, visually
inspect the spare thermometer.
If both thermometers
have a break in the mercury, neither can be used until the break is corrected. This may be
done by cooling the bulb until the mercury is all contained in the bulb.
33. Analytical
Methods
All field measurements will be obtained in accordance with “Handbook for Sampling and
Sample Preservation of Water and Wastewater,” EPA-600/4-82-029, September 1982 or “Test
Methods for Evaluating
Solid Wastes,” SW-846, November 1986. The quality
procedures for field analysis and equipment are detailed in these documents cited.
A-2
assurance
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