ELA Study Guide

ELA Study Guide
G11ELAE-SG Cover
2/22/07
4:01 PM
Page 1
English Language Arts
STUDY GUIDE
English Language Arts
Texas Education Agency
TX00023634
A Student and Family Guide to Exit Level
English Language Arts
Texas Assessment
STUDY GUIDE
Exit Level
English Language Arts
A Student and Family Guide
Copyright © 2007, Texas Education Agency. All rights reserved. Reproduction of all or portions of this work is prohibited
without express written permission from the Texas Education Agency.
Cover photo credits: Left © Jack Hollingsworth/CORBIS; Top © Royalty-Free/CORBIS;
Bottom © Royalty-Free/CORBIS.
A Letter from the Director of Student Assessment
Dear Student and Parent:
The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) is a comprehensive testing
program for public school students in grades 3–11. TAKS replaces the Texas Assessment
of Academic Skills (TAAS) and is designed to measure to what extent a student has
learned, understood, and is able to apply the important concepts and skills expected
at each tested grade level. In addition, the test can provide valuable feedback to
students, parents, and schools about student progress from grade to grade.
Students are tested in mathematics in grades 3–11; reading in grades 3–9; writing in
grades 4 and 7; English language arts in grades 10 and 11; science in grades 5, 8, 10,
and 11; and social studies in grades 8, 10, and 11. Every TAKS test is directly linked
to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum. The TEKS is the
state-mandated curriculum for Texas public school students. Essential knowledge
and skills taught at each grade build upon the material learned in previous grades.
By developing the academic skills specified in the TEKS, students can build a strong
foundation for future success.
The Texas Education Agency has developed this study guide to help students
strengthen the TEKS-based skills that are taught in class and tested on TAKS. The
guide is designed for students to use on their own or for students and families to
work through together. Concepts are presented in a variety of ways that will help
students review the information and skills they need to be successful on the TAKS.
Every guide includes explanations, practice questions, detailed answer keys, and
student activities. At the end of this study guide is an evaluation form for you to
complete and mail back when you have finished the guide. Your comments will help
us improve future versions of this guide.
There are a number of resources available for students and families who would like
more information about the TAKS testing program. Information booklets are available
for every TAKS subject and grade. Brochures are also available that explain the Student
Success Initiative promotion requirements and the new graduation requirements for
eleventh-grade students. To obtain copies of these resources or to learn more about
the testing program, please contact your school or visit the Texas Education Agency
website at www.tea.state.tx.us.
Texas is proud of the progress our students have made as they strive to reach their
academic goals. We hope the study guides will help foster student learning, growth,
and success in all of the TAKS subject areas.
Sincerely,
Lisa Chandler
Director of Student Assessment
Texas Education Agency
3
Contents
English
Language
Arts
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Sample Reading Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Objective 1: Basic Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Reading in Varied Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
What Are Some Strategies for Reading? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Understanding Word Meanings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Summarizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Looking at the “Big Picture” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Identifying Supporting Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Objective 2: Literary Elements and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Understanding Literary Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Understanding Literary Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Using Text to Defend Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Recognizing Theme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Analyzing Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Describing and Analyzing Plot, Conflict, and Resolution. . . . . . . . . . 42
Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Point of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Understanding Literary Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Understanding Literary Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Connecting Literature to Historical Context. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Objective 3: Analysis and Critical Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Reading Between the Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Analyzing and Evaluating Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Understanding and Analyzing Media Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4
Contents
English
Language
Arts
(continued)
Making Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Drawing Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Making Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Analyzing Across Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Author’s Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Author’s Craft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Credibility of Information Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Modes of Persuasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Ideas and Relationships in Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Purposes of Media Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
The Main Point of a Media Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Persuasion in Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Short-Answer Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Answering a Short-Answer Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
On Your Own . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Reading Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Objectives 4 and 5: Written Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
What Are the Writing Prompts Like? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
How Will My Composition Be Scored? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Sample Compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
The Writing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Prewriting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Composing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Revising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Publishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5
Contents
English
Language
Arts
(continued)
On Your Own . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Sample Writing Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Objective 6: Revising and Editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Supporting Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Sequence/Progression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Using Transition Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Sentence Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Complete Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Sentence Fragments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Run–on Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Awkward Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Misplaced Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Avoiding Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Combining Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Standard English Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Subject–Verb Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Verb Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Pronoun–Antecedent Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Pronoun Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Clear Pronoun Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Double Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Correct Word Choice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Informal Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Confusing Parts of Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Adjectives Versus Adverbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6
Contents
English
Language
Arts
(continued)
Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Using the Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Revising and Editing a Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
How Does TAKS Test the Skills You Have
Been Reviewing? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
On Your Own: Practice Passage 1 and Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
On Your Own: Practice Passage 2 and Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Revising and Editing Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
7
8
ENGLISH
L A N G U A G E A RT S
Introduction
INTRODUCTION
Here’s an example of a TAKS objective for
exit level English language arts:
What Is This Book?
The student will demonstrate an understanding
of the effects of literary elements and techniques
in culturally diverse written texts.
This is a study guide to help you strengthen your
skills on the exit level TAKS English Language
Arts test.
What does this mean? It means that students
should be able to show that they understand how
certain elements of a story—such as setting and
theme—affect the story’s meaning. The term
culturally diverse means “having to do with a wide
range of backgrounds and points of view.”
There are three types of questions on the exit
level TAKS ELA test: multiple-choice questions,
short-answer questions, and a writing prompt.
©Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./CORBIS
How Is the Exit Level TAKS English
Language Arts (ELA) Test Organized?
The TAKS ELA test combines reading and writing
skills. One section of the test addresses reading
and composition skills, and another section
addresses revising and editing skills. The ELA test
measures achievement of certain test objectives,
or goals. The TAKS objectives are broad
statements about the knowledge or skills being
tested. You can find out more about the reading
and writing objectives for ELA beginning on
page 25 of this book.
●
In a multiple-choice item, you choose the
correct answer from four possible answers.
●
In a short-answer item, you write a brief
response to a question.
●
For a writing prompt, you write a
composition on an assigned topic.
What Is a Triplet?
At the exit level the reading portion of the TAKS
ELA test has three selections. The three selections
are related; this is why they are called a triplet.
A common theme or idea links all the selections
in a triplet. These selections are carefully chosen
to reflect a variety of backgrounds, experiences,
and points of view. They are much like the
selections you read in the classroom and in your
everyday life.
9
Introduction
How Is This Study Guide Organized?
The next several pages contain a triplet consisting of a literary selection
(“Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit”), an expository piece
(“Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany”), and a visual representation. As
you progress through this section of the study guide, you will be asked to
refer to these selections several times.
Expository Selection
Questions intended to guide the reader are included in the margins of
each selection. As you read, try to answer these questions. You may make
notes in the margin as you read.
by Hans J. Massaquoi
What does the
introduction tell
you about the
author of the
article?
Superman and
Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit
Born in 1926 in Hamburg, Germany, the son of a German mother
and a Liberian father, the author endured 12 years of persecution
under the Nazis, who declared him, along with millions of Jews and
other “non-Aryans,” a racial outcast. After surviving the Allied
bombings, he was liberated by the British Army and reunited with
his father in Liberia, before settling in the United States. Here he
recalls his schoolboy
fascination with Nazi
military pageantry and
his dawning realization of
Hitler’s
true
racial
agenda.
by Sylvia Plath
The author is introducing the narrator
and establishing her
age.
How does the
author use imagery
to make the sights
and sounds more
intense?
Why does the
author refer to a
Surrealist painter
and a figure from
Greek mythology?
The ELA study guide begins by presenting a
sample triplet that consists of a short story, an
excerpt from an autobiography, and a movie
poster.
Growing Up Black in
Nazi Germany
Literary Selection
1
The year the war began I was in the fifth grade at the Annie F.
Warren Grammar School in Winthrop, and that was the winter I
won the prize for drawing the best Civil Defense signs. That was
also the winter of Paula Brown’s new snowsuit, and even now,
thirteen years later, I can recall the changing colors of those days,
clear and definite patterns seen through a kaleidoscope.
2
I lived on the bay side of town, on Johnson Avenue, opposite
the Logan Airport, and before I went to bed each night, I used to
kneel by the west window of my room and look over to the lights
of Boston that blazed and blinked far off across the darkening
water. The sunset flaunted its pink flag above the airport, and the
sound of waves was lost in the perpetual droning of the planes. I
marveled at the moving beacons on the runway and watched,
until it grew completely dark, the flashing red and green lights
that rose and set in the sky like shooting stars. The airport was
my Mecca, my Jerusalem. All night I dreamed of flying.
3
Those were the days of my technicolor dreams. Mother
believed that I should have an enormous amount of sleep, and so
I was never really tired when I went to bed. This was the best
time of the day, when I could lie in the vague twilight, drifting off
1
The author
establishes the
historical context
of the article.
You will see notes in the margins of each
selection. These notes will point out important
points that careful readers notice when they read.
On January 30, 1933,
three months before I
entered second grade,
Adolf Hitler became
chancellor of Germany.
It was an event that
stirred barely a ripple in
the neighborhood where
I lived with my mother,
although
its
lethal
impact would eventually
be felt throughout the
world.
Next the study guide gives you information about
TAKS Objectives 1 through 6. Along with this
information, you’ll find sample items. These
items show you how TAKS tests the skills in
these objectives. Reading items appear before
writing items.
11
Visual Representation
From the producers of Every Second Counts
S
T
E
V
E
C
O
R
A
How would you
describe the
characters shown
on the movie
poster? What are
the drawings trying
to tell you?
B
N
I
N
D
R
E
A
B
W HILE
TICE
J U SAITS
W
U
R
N
E
T
T
S
imon has only
three days to find
the one person
who can clear his
name. Even if he
finds her, will she
be willing to help?
What is the
symbolism of the
statue holding
scales and a sword?
The sample questions in the study guide are the
same types of questions as those on the TAKS test
and are at about the same level of difficulty.
Why are the
quotations from
newspapers and
magazines
included? Why are
the opinions of
these people
important?
“An edge-of-your-seat thriller. No one will guess the
ending.” —James Matson, Daily Times
“★★★★” —Citywide Voice
“Steve Corbin WILL be recognized at awards time!”
—Judith Davis, Movienews
This study guide contains answers to all the
sample TAKS questions. Some of the answers
appear in the sections that focus on the
objectives, and others are found at the end of
each section. The answers include explanations
that tell why an answer choice is correct or
incorrect.
Photograph courtesy of © D. Boone/CORBIS.
Each triplet consists of
●
a published literary selection (such as a
short story or a chapter from a novel);
●
a published expository, or informational,
selection (such as an essay or a magazine
article); and
●
a one-page visual representation (such as
an advertisement, a Web page, or a
cartoon).
How Can This Study Guide Help You?
UIDE
DY G
STU
This study guide can help you strengthen the
skills tested on the TAKS test. It explains the
objectives that are tested and guides you through
sample questions. These questions give you
practice in applying the skills you have learned in
the classroom. When you work through this
study guide, you’ll be working on the same skills
that you’ll need to do well on the test.
10
The next several pages contain a triplet consisting of a literary selection
(“Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit”), an expository piece
(“Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany”), and a visual representation. As
you progress through this section of the study guide, you will be asked to
refer to these selections several times.
Questions intended to guide the reader are included in the margins of
each selection. As you read, try to answer these questions. You may make
notes in the margin as you read.
Literary Selection
Superman and
Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit
by Sylvia Plath
The author is introducing the narrator
and establishing her
age.
How does the
author use imagery
to make the sights
and sounds more
intense?
1
The year the war began I was in the fifth grade at the Annie F.
Warren Grammar School in Winthrop, and that was the winter I
won the prize for drawing the best Civil Defense signs. That was
also the winter of Paula Brown’s new snowsuit, and even now,
thirteen years later, I can recall the changing colors of those days,
clear and definite patterns seen through a kaleidoscope.
2
I lived on the bay side of town, on Johnson Avenue, opposite
the Logan Airport, and before I went to bed each night, I used to
kneel by the west window of my room and look over to the lights
of Boston that blazed and blinked far off across the darkening
water. The sunset flaunted its pink flag above the airport, and the
sound of waves was lost in the perpetual droning of the planes. I
marveled at the moving beacons on the runway and watched,
until it grew completely dark, the flashing red and green lights
that rose and set in the sky like shooting stars. The airport was
my Mecca, my Jerusalem. All night I dreamed of flying.
3
Those were the days of my technicolor dreams. Mother
believed that I should have an enormous amount of sleep, and so
I was never really tired when I went to bed. This was the best
time of the day, when I could lie in the vague twilight, drifting off
11
“Superman”
Why does the
author refer to a
Surrealist painter
and a figure from
Greek mythology?
to sleep, making up dreams inside my head the way they should
1
go. My flying dreams were believable as a landscape by Dalí, so
real that I would awake with a sudden shock, a breathless sense
of having tumbled like Icarus from the sky and caught myself on
the soft bed just in time.
The narrator
describes her
dreams as if they
were real.
4
These nightly adventures in space began when Superman
started invading my dreams and teaching me how to fly. He used
to come roaring by in his shining blue suit with his cape
whistling in the wind, looking remarkably like my Uncle Frank,
who was living with Mother and me. In the magic whirring of his
cape I could hear the wings of a hundred seagulls, the motors of
a thousand planes.
How important will
this new character
be to the narrator
and to the plot of
the story?
5
I was not the only worshiper of Superman in our block. David
Sterling, a pale, bookish boy who lived down the street, shared
my love for the sheer poetry of flight. Before supper every night,
we listened to Superman together on the radio, and during the
day we made up our own adventures on the way to school.
6
The Annie F. Warren Grammar School was a red brick
building, set back from the main highway on a black tar street,
surrounded by barren gravel playgrounds. Out by the parking lot
David and I found a perfect alcove for our Superman dramas.
The dingy back entrance to the school was deep set in a long
passageway which was an excellent place for surprise captures
and sudden rescues.
7
During recess, David and I came into our own. We ignored
the boys playing baseball on the gravel court and the girls
giggling at dodge-ball in the dell. Our Superman games made us
outlaws, yet gave us a sense of windy superiority. We even found
a stand-in for a villain in Sheldon Fein, the sallow mamma’s boy
on our block who was left out of the boys’ games because he
cried whenever anybody tagged him and always managed to fall
down and skin his fat knees.
8
At this time my Uncle Frank was living with us while waiting
to be drafted, and I was sure that he bore an extraordinary
resemblance to Superman incognito. David couldn’t see his
likeness as clearly as I did, but he admitted that Uncle Frank was
What is Superman’s
role in this story?
Why is it
significant that the
narrator compares
Uncle Frank to
Superman?
1
Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí (1904–1989), a Spanish Surrealist painter.
12
“Superman”
the strongest man he had ever known, and could do lots of tricks
like making caramels disappear under napkins and walking on
his hands.
What does the discussion about the
war tell you about
the story’s setting?
9
That same winter, war was declared, and I remember sitting
by the radio with Mother and Uncle Frank and feeling a queer
foreboding in the air. Their voices were low and serious, and
their talk was of planes and German bombs. Uncle Frank said
something about Germans in America being put in prison for the
duration, and Mother kept saying over and over again about
Daddy: “I’m only glad Otto didn’t live to see this; I’m only glad
Otto didn’t live to see it come to this.”
10
In school we began to draw Civil Defense signs, and that was
when I beat Jimmy Lane in our block for the fifth-grade prize.
Every now and then we would practice an air raid. The fire bell
would ring and we would take up our coats and pencils and file
down the creaking stairs to the basement, where we sat in special
corners according to our color tags, and put the pencils between
our teeth so the bombs wouldn’t make us bite our tongues by
mistake. Some of the little children in the lower grades would cry
because it was dark in the cellar, with only the bare ceiling lights
on the cold black stone.
Why does the
author use the
word “seeping”?
11
The threat of war was seeping in everywhere. At recess,
Sheldon became a Nazi and borrowed a goose step from the
movies, but his Uncle Macy was really over in Germany, and Mrs.
Fein began to grow thin and pale because she heard that Macy
was a prisoner and then nothing more.
Why does the
author describe
Paula Brown in
such an unflattering way?
12
The winter dragged on, with a wet east wind coming always
from the ocean, and the snow melting before there was enough
for coasting. One Friday afternoon, just before Christmas, Paula
Brown gave her annual birthday party, and I was invited because
it was for all the children on our block. Paula lived across from
Jimmy Lane on Somerset Terrace, and nobody on our block
really liked her, because she was bossy and stuck up, with pale
skin and long red pigtails and watery blue eyes.
What is your
impression of Paula
so far?
13
She met us at the door of her house in a white organdy dress,
her red hair tied up in sausage curls with a satin bow. Before we
could sit down at the table for birthday cake and ice cream, she
had to show us all her presents. There were a great many because
it was both her birthday and Christmas time too.
How does this
paragraph show
the war’s effect on
the children?
13
“Superman”
Why does the
author use such
strong language to
describe the narrator’s dreams?
Notice the words
the author uses to
describe the setting.
What feeling does
this description
give you?
Can you predict
what will happen
next in the story?
14
Paula’s favorite present was a new snowsuit, and she tried it
on for us. The snowsuit was powder blue and came in a silver
box from Sweden, she said. The front of the jacket was all
embroidered with pink and white roses and bluebirds, and the
leggings had embroidered straps. She even had a little white
angora beret and angora mittens to go with it.
15
After dessert we were all driven to the movies by Jimmy
Lane’s father to see the late afternoon show as a special treat.
Mother had found out that the main feature was Snow White
before she would let me go, but she hadn’t realized that there was
a war picture playing with it.
16
After I went to bed that night, as soon as I closed my eyes, the
prison camp sprang to life in my mind. No matter how hard I
thought of Superman before I went to sleep, no crusading blue
figure came roaring down in heavenly anger to smash the yellow
men who invaded my dreams. When I woke up in the morning,
my sheets were damp with sweat.
17
Saturday was bitterly cold, and the skies were gray and
blurred with the threat of snow. I was dallying home from the
store that afternoon, curling up my chilled fingers in my mittens,
when I saw a couple of kids playing Chinese tag out in front of
Paula Brown’s house.
18
Paula stopped in the middle of the game to eye me coldly.
“We need someone else,” she said. “Want to play?” She tagged
me on the ankle then, and I hopped around and finally caught
Sheldon Fein as he was bending down to fasten one of his furlined overshoes. An early thaw had melted away the snow in the
street, and the tarred pavement was gritted with sand left from
the snow trucks. In front of Paula’s house somebody’s car had left
a glittering black stain of oil slick.
19
We went running about in the street, retreating to the hard,
brown lawns when the one who was “It” came too close. Jimmy
Lane came out of his house and stood watching us for a short
while, and then joined in. Every time he was “It,” he chased
Paula in her powder blue snowsuit, and she screamed shrilly and
looked around at him with her wide, watery eyes, and he always
managed to catch her.
14
“Superman”
How does the
author increase the
story’s tension in
this paragraph?
20
Only one time she forgot to look where she was going, and as
Jimmy reached out to tag her, she slid into the oil slick. We all
froze when she went down on her side as if we were playing
statues. No one said a word, and for a minute there was only the
sound of the plane across the bay. The dull, green light of later
afternoon came closing down on us, cold and final as a window
blind.
21
Paula’s snowsuit was smeared wet and black with oil along
the side. Her angora mittens were dripping like black cat’s fur.
Slowly, she sat up and looked at us standing around her, as if
searching for something. Then, suddenly, her eyes fixed on me.
22
“You,” she said deliberately, pointing at me, “you pushed me.”
23
There was another second of silence, and then Jimmy Lane
turned on me. “You did it,” he taunted. “You did it.”
24
Sheldon and Paula and Jimmy and the rest of them faced me
with a strange joy flickering in the back of their eyes. “You did it,
you pushed her,” they said.
Why don’t the
other children
defend the
narrator?
25
And even when I shouted “I did not!” they were all moving
in on me, chanting in a chorus, “Yes, you did, yes, you did, we
saw you.” In the well of faces moving toward me I saw no help,
and I began to wonder if Jimmy had pushed Paula, or if she had
fallen by herself, and I was not sure. I wasn’t sure at all.
What does her
home symbolize for
the narrator?
26
I started walking past them, walking home, determined not to
run, but when I had left them behind me, I felt the sharp thud of
a snowball on my left shoulder, and another. I picked up a faster
stride and rounded the corner by Kellys’. There was my dark
brown shingled house ahead of me, and inside, Mother and
Uncle Frank, home on furlough. I began to run in the cold, raw
evening toward the bright squares of light in the windows that
were home.
Notice the relationship between
Uncle Frank and
the narrator.
27
Uncle Frank met me at the door. “How’s my favorite
trooper?” he asked, and he swung me so high in the air that my
head grazed the ceiling. There was a big love in his voice that
drowned out the shouting which still echoed in my ears.
28
“I’m fine,” I lied, and he taught me some jujitsu in the living
room until Mother called us for supper.
Why does Jimmy
accuse the narrator?
15
“Superman”
Why does the
author include this
paragraph?
How does the
author’s use of
dialogue help you
understand the
narrator’s
problem?
How does the darkness help mirror
the narrator’s
mood?
Is it significant that
the narrator cannot see the features
of Uncle Frank’s
face?
29
Candles were set on the white linen tablecloth, and miniature
flames flickered in the silver and the glasses. I could see another
room reflected beyond the dark dining-room window where the
people laughed and talked in a secure web of light, held together
by its indestructible brilliance.
30
All at once the doorbell rang, and Mother rose to answer it. I
could hear David Sterling’s high, clear voice in the hall. There
was a cold draft from the open doorway, but he and Mother kept
on talking, and he did not come in. When Mother came back to
the table, her face was sad. “Why didn’t you tell me?” she said.
“Why didn’t you tell me that you pushed Paula in the mud and
spoiled her new snowsuit?”
31
A mouthful of chocolate pudding blocked my throat, thick
and bitter. I had to wash it down with milk. Finally, I said, “I
didn’t do it.”
32
But the words came out like hard, dry little seeds, hollow and
insincere. I tried again. “I didn’t do it. Jimmy Lane did it.”
33
“Of course we’ll believe you,” Mother said slowly, “but the
whole neighborhood is talking about it. Mrs. Sterling heard the
story from Mrs. Fein and sent David over to say we should buy
Paula a new snowsuit. I can’t understand it.”
34
“I didn’t do it,” I repeated, and the blood beat in my ears like
a slack drum. I pushed my chair away from the table, not looking
at Uncle Frank or Mother sitting there, solemn and sorrowful in
the candlelight.
35
The staircase to the second floor was dark, but I went down
the long hall to my room without turning on the light switch and
shut the door. A small unripe moon was shafting squares of
greenish light along the floor and the windowpanes were fringed
with frost.
36
I threw myself fiercely down on my bed and lay there, dryeyed and burning. After a while I heard Uncle Frank coming up
the stairs and knocking on my door. When I didn’t answer, he
walked in and sat down on my bed. I could see his strong
shoulders bulk against the moonlight, but in the shadows his
face was featureless.
16
“Superman”
Do you think Uncle
Frank believes the
narrator?
How does the
author’s use of
figurative language
convey the narrator’s deep sense of
isolation?
37
“Tell me, honey,” he said very softly, “tell me. You don’t have
to be afraid. We’ll understand. Only tell me what really
happened. You have never had to hide anything from me, you
know that. Only tell me how it really happened.”
38
“I told you,” I said. “I told you what happened, and I can’t
make it any different. Not even for you I can’t make it any
different.”
39
He sighed then and got up to go away. “Okay, honey,” he said
at the door. “Okay, but we’ll pay for another snowsuit anyway
just to make everybody happy, and ten years from now no one
will ever know the difference.”
40
The door shut behind him and I could hear his footsteps
growing fainter as he walked off down the hall. I lay there alone
in bed, feeling the black shadow creeping up the underside of the
world like a flood tide. The silver airplanes and the blue capes all
dissolved and vanished, wiped away like the crude drawings of a
child in colored chalk from the colossal blackboard of the dark.
That was the year the war began, and the real world, and the
difference.
“Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” [with brief edits as specified] from JOHNNY PANIC AND
THE BIBLE OF DREAMS by SYLVIA PLATH. Copyright 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1961,
1962, 1963 by Sylvia Plath. Copyright © 1977, 1979 by Ted Hughes. Reprinted by permission of
HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.
17
Expository Selection
Growing Up Black in
Nazi Germany
by Hans J. Massaquoi
What is the
purpose of the
introduction?
The author
establishes the
historical context
of the article.
Born in 1926 in Hamburg, Germany, the son of a German mother
and a Liberian father, the author endured 12 years of persecution
under the Nazis, who declared him, along with millions of Jews and
other “non-Aryans,” a racial outcast. After surviving the Allied
bombings, he was liberated by the British Army and reunited with
his father in Liberia, before settling in the United States. Here he
recalls his schoolboy
fascination with Nazi
military pageantry and
his dawning realization of
Hitler’s
true
racial
agenda.
1
On January 30, 1933,
three months before I
entered second grade,
Adolf Hitler became
chancellor of Germany.
It was an event that
stirred barely a ripple in
the neighborhood where
I lived with my mother,
although
its
lethal
impact would eventually
be felt throughout the
world.
18
“Growing Up”
How does the
author explain his
fascination with
the Nazis?
2
At age 7, I, of all people, became an unabashed proponent of
the Nazis simply because they put on the best shows with the
best-looking uniforms, best-sounding marching bands and bestdrilled marching columns, all of which appealed to my budding
sense of masculinity. Thus, when I got my hands on an
embroidered swastika emblem, I had my baby-sitter, Tante
Moller, who didn’t know any better, sew it on a sweater of mine,
where it remained until my mother removed it over my vigorous
protest.
How does Hitler
become more and
more a part of the
author’s life?
3
At school the first indications of change were the
introduction of Heil Hitler as the official form of greeting and the
hanging of Hitler’s portraits throughout the school. Before we
realized it, the face of the Führer had become as familiar to us as
that of our teacher. Yet even more intrusive on our consciousness
than Hitler’s portraits was his extraordinary guttural voice—a
curious marvel of range, stamina and flexibility. Whenever the
Führer addressed the German people, which happened with
increasing frequency, all instruction came to a mandated halt.
Our entire school, like all schools throughout Germany, would
assemble in the auditorium, where we would listen to the
broadcast speech in its
entirety.
In what ways
are the children
affected by Hitler?
4
Most
of
Hitler’s
speeches lasted more than
one hour. While we kids
were too young to
understand the meaning
of
his
words,
we
nevertheless sensed the
power that emanated
from the speaker, and we
took
pride
in
an
emerging, all-powerful
father figure who was not
intimidated by Germany’s
adversaries. Before long,
19
“Growing Up”
we were raising our right hands and shouting “Heil Hitler!”
ourselves. Like soldiers, we wore nail-studded boots and tiny
horseshoes on our heels that made the streets reverberate under
our feet.
Notice the author’s
choice of the words
“threat,” “bizarre,”
and “danger” to
foreshadow what
happens in the
meeting hall.
5
There literally was never a dull moment in Hamburg. Each
1
week brought endless processions of SS, SA and Hitler Youth
units marching through the city, dramatic torchlight parades at
night and fireworks over the Alster. There were mass
demonstrations in City Park and speeches by party bigwigs, all
trying to outdo one another with their flatteries of the now neardivine Führer.
6
None of these events, however, did I recognize as presenting
any particular personal threat—not until the bizarre drama that
nearly swept me away one day in 1934, when I was in the third
grade. On that day, at age 8, I got my first inkling of the danger
the Nazi regime might pose to me. It was an ironic twist of fate
that the newly formed local Nazi chapter chose for its weekly
meeting place Zanoletti’s tavern, which was next door to our
apartment building. For several months, our new neighbors and
I were oblivious to each other’s existence, since the Nazis held
their regular meetings at night after I had gone to bed.
7
Then the inevitable occurred. It happened on a beautiful
spring Sunday that had started with a giant paramilitary parade
through our neighborhood. For more than two hours, column
after column of brown-shirted SA and black-uniformed SS units
strutted through the neighborhood. The occasion was one of
Hitler’s infamous sham referendums, in which the German
people were ostensibly given an opportunity to accept or reject a
Nazi proposal in polls that had been flagrantly rigged to favor the
Nazis’ agenda. The colorful procession had attracted large
crowds. Like all the other kids, I had become caught up in the
excitement, watching until the last unit of storm troopers had
marched by and the crowd started to disperse.
1
The SS (Schutzstaffel) and the SA (Sturm Abteilung) were military groups formed by
Adolf Hitler and known for their violent tactics.
20
“Growing Up”
Why was the
author drawn to
the meeting hall?
8
As I walked home, I heard loud singing and shouting coming
from the building next to ours. My curiosity aroused, I tried to
catch a glimpse through the wide open door of Zanoletti’s
meeting hall. It was packed to overflowing with beer-guzzling,
smoking, shouting, laughing and singing brownshirts who were
celebrating their spurious election victory. None of them seemed
to notice me—the living antithesis of their obsession with racial
purity—as I peered into the meeting hall. Or so I thought.
How does the
author use descriptive language to
heighten the
tension of the
moment?
9
Suddenly I felt myself grabbed from behind by two huge fists
and lifted into the air. Instinctively, I stretched and bent in rapid
succession like a fish on a hook. The next thing I knew, I had
slipped from the grip of the two fists and was running as fast as
I could to escape my captor. Looking over my shoulder, I caught
my first glimpse of my attacker, a huge SA trooper with short
cropped white-blond hair and mean little eyes set deep in a
ruddy, beer-flushed face. I might have made good my escape had
it not been for two other brownshirts who, alerted by the shouts
of my pursuer, blocked my path. The SA trooper reclaimed his
hapless quarry, and this time, none of my kicking, wiggling and
biting could loosen his viselike grip.
10
Triumphantly, he dragged me through a dense throng of
drunken comrades toward a speaker’s platform at the end of the
hall. I felt nauseated by fear, the cacophony of rough male voices,
and the stench of beer and tobacco smoke. With superhuman
effort I managed to suppress an instinctive urge to vent my panic
by screaming, sensing somehow that I could only expect more
abuse—certainly not help—from this crowd. The SA trooper was
about to lift me to the speaker’s platform, apparently as an
exhibit of Rassenschande—racial defilement—when he found
himself confronted by an enraged woman who was staring at him
with hate-filled eyes.
21
“Growing Up”
What impression
do you have of the
author’s mother?
11
My mother, a nurse, had spent the Sunday morning enjoying
a well-deserved respite from her hospital chores. Unlike me, she
had paid little attention to the election activities in the
neighborhood, except for an occasional glance out the window
in a futile effort to spot me in the crowd below. The heavy
presence of brownshirts gave her a growing sense of foreboding
as the hours went by. When she could no longer contain her
anxiety, she started to look for me. She had barely reached the
stairs when she ran into Tante Moller, who in breathless tones
reported that she had just seen an SA man drag me into the beer
hall next door. My mother did not wait for the end of Tante
Moller’s report. With the fury of a tigress protecting her cub, she
dashed downstairs, raced through the crowd in the street and
into the beer hall. Then, like an unstoppable force, she plowed a
path through the drunken troopers who were blocking her way
until she had reached the speaker’s platform and the man who
had kidnapped me. Momentarily startled by this trembling yet
apparently fearless woman, the giant SA trooper loosened his
grip. Before he, I or anyone else could comprehend what was
taking place, I was once again snatched and dragged through the
carousing throng, this time by my mother, who hauled me off to
the relative safety of our home.
How can you tell
that the author’s
opinion of the
Nazis has begun to
change?
12
Although the experience in Zanoletti’s beer hall haunted me
for years, at the time I was still reluctant to fully connect those
raucous, drunken SA troopers and the man who was increasingly
presented to us children as Germany’s messiah, the man who,
our teachers told us, would restore Germany to its rightful place
of dominance in the world. To me, as to virtually all my peers,
Hitler had taken on a near-godlike nimbus that placed him
beyond blame or criticism. Thus, it never occurred to me that the
brutality I, an 8-year-old boy, had experienced at the hands of a
Nazi bully was merely a mild expression of the most brutal racist
policies, and that the mastermind of that policy was Adolf Hitler,
the man I was being taught to worship. But from that Sunday on,
I began to sense that the brownshirts, the swastika, the martial
22
“Growing Up”
music were harbingers of danger. Even so, it would take several
years and numerous humiliations at the hands of Nazi-inspired
racists before I could clearly see Hitler’s evil and the disastrous
course he was charting.
After immigrating to the United States in 1950, Hans J.
Massaquoi served in the U.S. Army, became active in the Civil Rights
Movement and served as managing editor of Ebony magazine for
more than 30 years. The father of two sons, he now lives with his
wife in New Orleans.
Pages 40–46, with two of the author’s photographs, from DESTINED TO WITNESS by Hans J. Massaquoi.
Copyright © 2000 by Hans J. Massaquoi. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. Photos
from the H. J. Massaquoi Collection.
23
Visual Representation
From the producers of Every Second Counts
S
T
E
V
E
C
O
R
A
How would you
describe the
characters shown
on the movie
poster? What are
the drawings trying
to tell you?
B
N
I
N
D
R
E
A
B
W HILE
TICE
J U SAITS
W
U
R
N
E
T
T
S
imon has only
three days to find
the one person
who can clear his
name. Even if he
finds her, will she
be willing to help?
What does the
statue symbolize?
Why are the
quotations from
newspapers and
magazines
included? Why are
the opinions of
these people
important?
“An edge-of-your-seat thriller. No one will guess the
ending.” —James Matson, Daily Times
“★★★★” —Citywide Voice
“Steve Corbin WILL be recognized at awards time!”
—Judith Davis, Movienews
Photograph courtesy of © D. Boone/CORBIS.
24
Objective 1
The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of culturally diverse written
texts.
Objective 1 covers what students should be able to do as they read to
understand the basic meaning of a selection.
What Is a Basic Understanding?
Having a basic understanding of what you read means much more
than just seeing what is on the printed page. It means being able to
●
find the meanings of words you read by using context and other
ways of figuring out word meanings;
I can tell from this
sentence that dissimilar
means “not alike.”
25
Objective 1
●
recognize important details in a selection; and
The main character
in this book is afraid of
snakes. I think that’s going
to be important to the story.
●
understand the “big picture”—that is, what a selection is
mainly about.
This story is mostly
about a woman’s
dream of exploring
the Amazon.
The skills above are “building block” skills. They are the skills that you
need in order to develop a deeper understanding of what you read.
Next you will read about some of the student expectations for
Objective 1.
26
Objective 1
Reading in Varied Sources
You will find that the reading selections for the TAKS test are very
much like the materials you read every day. For example, you might
be asked to read a magazine article about how to create your own
Web page. Or you might read a short story about three teenagers
who must decide what to do in a difficult situation. Perhaps you’ll
be required to read and interpret a chart that compares nutrients
in different fast-food meals.
Why Develop Good Reading Skills?
Being able to read effectively is extremely important both in and out of
school. As you move from grade to grade, reading skills are necessary
for academic success in all subjects. In your life outside school, reading
skills are crucial to developing a deeper understanding of the world
around you. Good readers live in a wider, richer world. There are more
opportunities available to good readers throughout their lives— in
education beyond high school, in jobs, and in personal growth.
©Michael Keller/CORBIS
In high school, you are learning to explore text at deeper levels of
understanding. You are analyzing how literary elements reveal meaning.
You’re also learning how an author crafts a piece of writing to affect the
way readers read and understand the writing.
And perhaps most importantly, you’re learning how to make
connections between what you read and what you already know. In
other words, you’re not just becoming a better reader; you’re becoming
a better thinker.
27
Objective 1
What Are Some Strategies for Reading?
Understanding what you read means becoming an active reader. Active
reading involves using several skills to get meaning from text.
Before You Read
Before you read a selection from beginning to end, it’s helpful to get a
general idea of what the selection is about. You might briefly look
through the selection—read the title, look at the pictures, remember
what you already know about the topic, and notice how the selection is
organized.
Begin asking questions about the selection. Here’s a chart that you can
use before, during, and after reading:
What I Already Know
What I Want to Know
What I Have Learned
As You Read
As you read a selection, continue to ask yourself questions: What is
this selection mainly about? What is the author’s point of view? What
problem does the main character face?
Look at the questions in the margins of the selections on pages 11–24.
These are the types of questions that careful readers ask themselves as
they read. They’re also the same types of questions you might find on
the TAKS test.
Charts and other graphic organizers can help you keep track of
information as you read. They can increase your understanding of a
selection and organize your thoughts about it. Graphic organizers help
you see relationships between ideas and information in the text. Venn
diagrams, time lines, cause-and-effect charts, and story maps are
examples of graphic organizers.
28
Objective 1
Here’s an example of a graphic organizer for reading fiction, illustrated
with a story you may have read in a textbook. You may have used
story maps in your classroom reading. Story maps organize the
important information in a story and track the sequence of events.
Title: “A Worn Path” by Eudora Welty
Main Characters: Phoenix Jackson and the nurse
Setting: A path through the woods to a city
Conflict: A woman faces several real and imagined obstacles on a
journey.
Overall Theme: Sacrificial love
Problem/Goal: Phoenix must make a difficult journey to get medicine
for her ailing grandson.
Events
Phoenix walks from her home into the still, deep woods, talking to
calm herself, meeting challenges.
A dog rushes toward Phoenix, causing her to fall into a ditch from
which she is eventually rescued by a threatening hunter.
At the doctor’s office, Phoenix is treated with coldness and
condescension, but she pleads her case.
The nurse and the attendant are moved to sympathy and admiration
for Phoenix.
Resolution/Outcome: Phoenix overcomes many obstacles on her
journey and leaves the doctor’s office with the medicine and with a
small gift of money with which to buy a Christmas present for her
grandson.
29
Objective 1
Outlining is an efficient way to take notes and organize ideas when
reading nonfiction. Outlining can help you retain information as you
read in depth. For example, you might outline a chapter in a science
textbook, listing the main ideas and the subtopics or details that
support them.
Here’s an example of an outline for a nonfiction selection. This type of
outline is a topic outline, which uses short phrases. This particular
outline summarizes part of a magazine article about television news.
I.
Positive aspects of television news
A. More timely than print-news sources
B.
Visual impact greater than that of print sources
II. Problems with television news
A. Misleading visuals
B.
Lack of time
C. Confusing news-show formats
D. Push for ratings
1. Competition prompted by the desire for profits
2. Entertainment consultants reshape news shows
30
Objective 1
Understanding Word Meanings
On the exit level TAKS ELA test, you will be asked to determine the
meanings of certain words from the selections. One way to find the
meaning of a word is to look it up in a dictionary. Another way is to
look for clues in the selection. Often other words and sentences give
you a good idea of a word’s meaning. Knowing how to recognize these
clues can help you figure out the meanings of unfamiliar words.
My grandfather bragged to his cronies about his
early career as a singer.
Charles instinctively sped up as he passed Mrs. Hoffman’s house.
et and slipped into its orbital trajector
The capsule separated from the rock
y.
You are to pursue your difficult journey with perseverance.
Using Context Clues
You can often figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word by looking
at context clues.
Context clues are details that clarify the meaning of a word. These
clues can be obvious or not so obvious. If you read carefully and know
what to look for, though, you will often be able to determine the
meaning of an unfamiliar word.
Here are some examples of different types of context clues:
Definition
An electorate is a body of people entitled to vote.
The phrase “a body of people entitled to vote” defines electorate.
31
Objective 1
Comparison
The children clamored for their snacks, like baby birds for worms.
The phrase “like baby birds for worms” suggests that clamored means
“cried noisily.”
Analogy
As sunlight is to flowers, so compassion is to the unfortunate.
Analogy is a type of comparison. If you look at the relationship
between sunlight and flowers— sunlight is necessary for flowers to
bloom and grow—you can guess that compassion is a quality that
nourishes those who are suffering from bad luck.
Connotation
Shea and Warren often quibbled over where to eat dinner, but their
disagreements were never heated.
Two clues—“where to eat dinner” and “their disagreements were never
heated”—help you figure out that quibbled means “argued.”
Connotation refers to the emotional meaning suggested by a word
beyond the word’s dictionary meaning. Quibble is a milder form of
argument than, for example, fight. Similarly, the adjectives determined
and defiant have similar denotations, or dictionary meanings, but
determined has a positive connotation, whereas defiant has negative
feelings attached to it.
Technical Terms
Computer hardware includes circuit boards, chips, wires, disk drives,
keyboard, monitors, and so on.
The list that follows the word includes tells you that computer hardware
means “the physical elements of a computer.” In almost every type of
work, specialized terms are used. Context clues can help you figure out
the meanings of these terms.
32
Objective 1
Here’s an example of the type of context-clue question you might find on
the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman and Paula Brown’s
New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review paragraph 16 and answer the
question below.
In paragraph 16, the narrator uses the word invaded to show that
her dreams have been —
A overrun against her will
B protected from frightening images
C flooded with excitement
D turned in a new direction
Context clues help you figure out that invaded means “overrun against
her will.” You can infer that the “prison camp” the narrator imagines is
from the war movie. She says that “no matter how hard [she] thought
about Superman” before going to sleep, he does not appear. The
frightening “yellow men” overrun her dreams because she is unable to
summon Superman to protect her.
Choice B is incorrect because “the yellow men” are the images that
frighten the narrator, so they cannot protect her. Choice C is incorrect
because she would not want Superman to “smash the yellow men” if she
found them merely exciting rather than threatening. Choice D does not
make sense in the context of the paragraph.
Using Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes
Knowing the meanings of prefixes, roots, and suffixes can help you
figure out the meanings of many unfamiliar words.
A prefix is a word part added before a root to change its meaning.
Connect means “to join or link.”
The prefix re- means “again.”
Reconnect means “to join or link again.”
A root is the foundation on which a word is built. The root carries the
word’s core meaning, and it is the part to which prefixes and suffixes
are added. In the example above, connect is the root of reconnect.
A suffix is a word part added after a root to change its meaning.
Active means “lively.”
The suffix -ate means “to cause to become.”
Activate means “to cause to become lively.”
33
Objective 1
Using Glossaries and Dictionaries
While reading a selection, have you ever come to a word that seems to
have a different meaning from the one you are used to seeing? This can
make the entire selection confusing. As you read, watch for words that
have multiple meanings, such as bound, execution, and poised.
To choose the correct meaning of a word, consider the word’s part of
speech and its context. When you use a glossary or a dictionary, you
can look up all the meanings of a word to discover which meaning fits
the context in which the word is used.
Here’s an example of the type of multiple-meaning word question you
might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Growing Up
Black in Nazi Germany” on pages 18–23. Review paragraph 3 and
answer the question below.
Read the following dictionary entry.
–
range \ ranj\
n 1. a series of things in a line 2. a cooking stove
3. an open area where animals roam and feed 4. the extent of
pitch covered by a voice or an instrument
Which definition best matches the meaning of the word range as it
is used in paragraph 3 of the selection?
A Definition 1
B Definition 2
C Definition 3
D Definition 4
If more than one meaning
seems to fit, use context
to determine the exact
meaning.
To find the correct answer, consider which meaning the author intends.
Then choose the meaning that makes the most sense in the sentence.
Definition 4, Choice D makes the most sense in the sentence because
the word range describes the sound of Hitler’s voice. The definitions in
Choices A, B, and C do not describe a sound, so they do not make
sense in the context of the sentence.
34
Objective 1
Summarizing
A summary captures the main points of a story or another text, boiling
it down to a few sentences. When you summarize, you use your own
words to briefly state the main ideas and key details of the text. When
referring to fiction, such as novels or short stories, we use the term
plot summary to describe the condensed version of the text’s actions.
Reading a summary is one way to get a sense of the important points
of a selection or book without reading the whole text. Writing a
summary is a way to make sure that you understand the key ideas.
Here’s an example of the type of plot summary question you might find
on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman and Paula
Brown’s New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review the selection and
answer the question below.
Which of these is the best plot summary of the story?
A A girl watches airplanes take off and land at Logan Airport, and
she dreams of flying like Superman. When her uncle is drafted
into the army, she begins to worry about the war. Because she is
frustrated, she fights with other children.
B Friends in a Boston neighborhood go to a birthday party for a
girl who receives an expensive snowsuit, which is accidentally
ruined during a game of tag. Everyone learns a valuable lesson
when the narrator’s uncle offers to buy the girl a new snowsuit.
C A girl believes that justice always triumphs. Her friends accuse
her of pushing Paula and ruining her snowsuit. When her uncle
doesn’t come to her defense, the girl begins to see that the
world is not always fair.
D Neighborhood children get along well in school, but they fall
into jealous fights after attending a birthday party. They turn
against one girl because the war is making everyone nervous.
Choice C best summarizes the plot of the story overall. This summary
covers the central idea of the story plus the most important details.
Choices A, B, and D also contain important information from the story,
but they omit a significant point: the narrator learns that justice does
not always triumph, making A, B, and D only partial plot summaries.
35
As you make judgments
about summaries,
remember that a good
summary covers all the
most important points in
a selection.
Objective 1
Looking at the “Big Picture”
The gist, or main idea, is the most important point an author wants to
make. A piece of writing can have an overall message, such as “Adam
learns to respect and admire an animal he once feared.”
Each paragraph or section of a selection can have its own main idea,
too. Identifying the gist of a selection or paragraph will help you
understand how the details work together to convey a single message.
One way to identify the primary message is to read “between the lines.”
Look for the main idea, which may not be stated directly. As you read,
ask yourself: What is this section about? Why did the writer include
these details? How can I state the main idea in one sentence?
Here’s an example of a “big picture” question similar to one you might
find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Growing Up Black in
Nazi Germany” on pages 18–23. Review paragraph 2 and answer the
question below.
What is paragraph 2 mainly about?
A As a child the author was fascinated by the symbols and
spectacle of the Nazi movement.
B The Nazi army presented a well-trained and polished
appearance that appealed to many Germans.
C The author’s baby-sitter was not aware that it was inappropriate
for the child to wear a swastika.
D Early in the Nazi movement, children were encouraged to join
ranks with the soldiers.
Choice A is correct. Each detail in the paragraph contributes to the
author’s description of his childhood fascination with the Nazis. Choice
B is incorrect because the Nazis’ “polished appearance” is just one
36
Objective 1
detail in that description. Moreover, the paragraph is about the Nazis’
appeal for the author, not for “many Germans.” Choice C is incorrect
because it is focused on the author’s babysitter. Choice D is incorrect
because the paragraph is about the author’s support for the Nazis, not
the Nazis’ influence on children in general.
Identifying Supporting Details
The details in a selection support the primary message. In paragraph 3
of “Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany,” the details are expressed as
examples. The author supports the main idea of the paragraph by
offering several examples of Hitler’s growing influence.
Other ways that writers present details can be in the form of
●
facts and figures that answer questions such as Who? What?
When? Where? Why? and How? Newspaper stories and magazine
articles often use facts and figures to clarify a main idea.
●
sensory details that tell how something looks, sounds, feels,
smells, or tastes.
Here’s an example of a detail question similar to one you might find on
the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Growing Up Black in Nazi
Germany” on pages 18–23. Review the selection and answer the
question below.
When was the author grabbed by a Nazi trooper?
A During a school assembly
B While walking with his mother
C After attending a parade
D Before a demonstration in a park
Choice C is correct. Paragraph 9 begins “Suddenly I felt myself grabbed
from behind. . . .” This occurs as the author looks into a meeting hall
while walking home from a parade. Choice A is incorrect because
paragraphs 3 and 4, which describe the school assemblies, do not say
that he is grabbed there. Choice B is incorrect because the author’s
mother runs down from their apartment to save him. Choice D is
incorrect because the Nazi grabs him after the demonstration is over,
not before it begins.
37
Objective 2
The student will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of literary
elements and techniques in culturally diverse written texts.
Objective 2 covers what students should be able to do to move beyond
a basic understanding of a text. This objective is aimed at answering
the question “How does an author use literary elements and techniques
to create meaning?”
Understanding Literary Elements
Literary elements are the basic “ingredients” of a story. These elements
include
●
theme— the overall message of a literary work
●
setting— the time and place in which the events of a story occur
●
characters—the people or animals in a story
●
plot—what happens in a story, including the problem or conflict
faced by one or more characters and how the problem or conflict
is resolved
You will find most of these elements in fiction and in some narrative
nonfiction such as autobiographies, biographies, and some essays.
Understanding Literary Techniques
Literary techniques are the tools an author uses to shape a reader’s
understanding of elements such as theme, setting, characters, and plot.
These techniques include making comparisons, appealing to a reader’s
senses, and using foreshadowing and symbolism.
Understanding literary elements and techniques involves analytical
skills. You’ll need these skills in order to better appreciate and respond
to writing.
38
Objective 2
Using Text to Defend Responses
There are several ways to demonstrate your understanding of
something you have read. You might retell the story or summarize it.
You might make a statement about the text and then quote from it to
support your statement.
... and they
lived happily
ever after.
O.K., so your classmate says that they lived happily ever after. Are you
going to take his word for it? What if you want some proof? As a
classmate of this student, you might ask, “What evidence do you have
that they lived happily ever after?”
Here’s an example of a text-support question similar to one you might
find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Growing Up Black in
Nazi Germany” on pages 18–23. Review the selection and answer the
question below.
Which sentence from the selection best summarizes the attitude the
Nazis displayed toward the author before his encounter with the SA
trooper?
A As I walked home, I heard loud singing and shouting coming from
the building next to ours.
B Like all the other kids, I had become caught up in the excitement,
watching until the last unit of storm troopers had marched by and
the crowd started to disperse.
C None of them seemed to notice me—the living antithesis of their
obsession with racial purity—as I peered into the meeting hall.
D Momentarily startled by this trembling yet apparently fearless
woman, the giant SA trooper loosened his grip.
Choice C is the only choice that describes the attitude the Nazis
displayed toward the author, so it is the correct answer. Choice A says
nothing about the Nazis’ attitude, so it is incorrect. Choice B is
incorrect because it is about the author’s reaction to the Nazis. Choice D
is incorrect because it describes the Nazi trooper’s reaction to the
author’s mother.
39
Objective 2
Recognizing Theme
The theme of a literary work is its underlying message. A theme is a central
insight that a piece of writing communicates about life or human nature.
The theme of a story is similar to a moral, but a theme and a moral are not
the same. A moral is a practical piece of advice about how to conduct our
lives. Morals teach—or even preach. Themes don’t teach or preach; they
simply reveal something about human experience.
The book’s theme is “Some parents push their
children too hard to succeed.”
“Sacrifice and love are worth more than
material things” is the theme of the movie.
I think the theme of the play is “Some people will
go to great lengths to be accepted by others.”
Some themes are clearly stated in a selection. Others are not. In recognizing a
theme of a story, careful readers look at how other story elements—setting,
characters, and plot—work together to point to a theme. Sometimes the title
of a story is a good clue to a theme.
One way to confirm a theme of a selection is to be able to justify it with
supporting evidence from the text.
Here’s an example of a theme-based question similar to what you might find
on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman and Paula Brown’s
New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review the selection and answer the
question below.
Which of these is a major theme in the story?
A A child’s loss of idealism
B The power of patience and love
C A person’s understanding of responsibility
D The virtue of self-sacrifice
Choice A is correct. The narrator loses her idealistic view of the world because
no one defends her when she is unjustly accused of ruining the snowsuit.
There is no support for Choice B in the story. Choice C is incorrect because the
narrator is not really responsible for the destruction of the snowsuit. Choice D
is incorrect because Uncle Frank’s willingness to pay for the snowsuit, even
though the narrator is innocent, leaves her feeling betrayed.
40
Objective 2
Analyzing Setting
The setting of a story is the place and time in which the events occur.
Stories can be set in real or imaginary places. The events can happen in
the past, present, or future.
©CORBIS
©CORB
IS
ss.
ngre
f Co
o
y
r
ra
e Lib
of th
y
s
e
t
ur
to co
Pho
Setting often plays an important role in what happens to the characters
in a story and how they respond. It can influence a story’s overall
impact and meaning. As you read, notice whether the setting gives you
clues to a character’s background, beliefs, and motives. For example,
imagine a story in which a 16-year-old girl is living on a farm during
the Great Depression. The setting—the time and place—can provide a
strong motive for the girl to leave home to live in a big city.
Here’s an example of a setting question similar to what you might find
on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman and Paula
Brown’s New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review the selection and
answer the question below.
The wartime setting allows the author to stress the point that —
A fantasies about flying evolved with the development of
warplanes
B in the real world innocent people aren’t always saved from the
actions of aggressors
C few people in the world are as affluent as the characters in this
story
D families torn apart by war generally have a hard time
reconciling after the war is over
Choice B is correct. The author concludes the story by associating the
main character’s loss of innocence with the negative effects of war.
Choice A is incorrect because there is no evidence that the planes in
paragraph 2 are “warplanes.” Choices C and D are incorrect because
they are unsupported by the text.
41
Objective 2
Describing and Analyzing Plot, Conflict, and Resolution
The plot is what happens in a story. The plot is usually a sequence of
events built around a conflict, or a struggle, that one or more characters
experience. The events in a story move toward a resolution, or outcome.
Plot
The plot of a story is what happens, when it happens, and to whom.
The sequence of events moves the plot forward. A story’s plot usually
includes the stages shown below.
Climax (Turning Point)
The suspense reaches
its peak, and the
characters may change
in some way.
Rising Action
The action rises, and the
conflict heats up.
Exposition
The setting and characters
are introduced.
42
Falling Action
Loose ends are being
tied up.
Resolution
The conflict is resolved.
Objective 2
Here’s an example of a question about plot similar to what you might
find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman and Paula
Brown’s New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review the text and answer
the question below.
What is David Sterling’s most significant action in the story?
A He listens to the Superman radio program with the narrator.
B He admires Uncle Frank’s strength and skill at performing tricks.
C He taunts Sheldon Fein and pushes him down.
D He tells the narrator’s mother that the narrator ruined Paula’s
snowsuit.
Choice D is correct. This is David’s most significant action because it
brings the story’s plot to a climax. The narrator feels defeated when her
closest friend sides with the other children against her. Both Choices A
and B occur in the story but only serve to establish David’s closeness to
the narrator, thus making his later betrayal more painful. Choice C is
incorrect because it is an overstatement of what happens in the story.
Conflict and Resolution
In most stories, the main character undergoes a conflict of some kind.
In an internal conflict, the struggle can be within a single character. An
external conflict can be between two characters, between characters
and the society in which they live, or between characters and a force of
nature, such as a great storm.
A story usually nears its end when the conflicts faced by the main
characters are resolved. In the resolution of a story, the loose ends are
tied up, whether or not the characters “live happily ever after.”
43
Objective 2
In “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit,” the narrator’s
external conflict with Paula is eventually resolved when Uncle Frank
offers to buy a new snowsuit, but the resolution leaves the narrator
feeling very sad and disillusioned.
Characters
Near the beginning of a selection, readers meet the character or
characters in the story. Characters can be people or animals. The
author of a story reveals characters’ traits through what the characters
say or do or through what other characters say about them.
Here’s an example of a question about character similar to what you
might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman and
Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review the text and
answer the question below.
Why does Jimmy Lane agree with Paula Brown when she accuses
the narrator of pushing her down?
A He saw the narrator do it and feels that he should speak up.
B He is mad because the narrator won the poster contest.
C He doesn’t want Paula to blame him.
D He knows that the narrator secretly envies Paula’s snowsuit.
Since there is some question about Jimmy Lane actually being
responsible for Paula’s fall, it makes sense that he would not want her
to blame him. He avoids being blamed by accusing the narrator,
making Choice C correct. Choice A is incorrect since Jimmy knows
that the narrator is innocent. No evidence in the story supports either
Choice B or Choice D.
44
Objective 2
Point of View
Each selection is written from a certain point of view. When a story is
narrated by one of its characters, the author is using the first-person
point of view. When a story is told by a narrator who does not
participate in the action, the author is using the third-person point of
view. Since “Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany” is written from a
first-person point of view, we are able to understand the effect the
Nazis had on Massaquoi.
Here’s an example of a question about point of view similar to what you
might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Growing Up
Black in Nazi Germany” on pages 18–23. Review the selection and
answer the question below.
The selection’s point of view helps the reader understand —
A how a person can be enthralled by a movement
B the way in which Hitler governed in Nazi Germany
C why education is important in preventing discrimination
D the difficulties faced by single mothers in Nazi Germany
Since the selection is written from a first-person point of view, we
understand how the narrator grew to be so fascinated with the Nazi
movement sweeping through Germany. This makes Choice A the
correct answer. Although Choice B is attractive, the selection does not
offer much information about how Hitler governed. Choice C is a
broad, general statement that is not supported by the text. Choice D is
incorrect because the mother’s primary difficulty was having a black
son in Nazi Germany, not being single.
Understanding Literary Language
When you read the sentence“Her burdens lifted, Josephine felt light
as a feather,” you know that the author doesn’t mean that Josephine
literally weighs as little as a feather. The writer is making a comparison
to catch the reader’s imagination. The two things being compared—
Josephine’s feeling of lightness and a feather’s lightness—are not
physically the same. But the writer wants the reader to see that these
things have something in common.
45
Remember that you can
always use your dictionary
if you do not understand a
word used on the reading
section of the exit level
TAKS ELA test.
Objective 2
Writers often use figurative language for its imaginative, rather than its
literal or ordinary, meaning. Figurative language enlivens writing and
adds flavor to it by producing more precise descriptions. The chart
below shows some examples of figurative language.
Type of Figurative Language
How It’s Used
Example
Ross had a voice like sandpaper.
Simile
Compares using like or as
Metaphor
Implies a comparison with- Our vacation was a slice of
out using like or as
heaven.
Personification
Gives human qualities to
an object, animal, or idea
The wind’s icy fingers pried
at the door.
Here’s an example of a question about literary language similar to what
you might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman
and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review the text and
answer the question below.
In the last paragraph of the story, the author uses the figurative
expression “wiped away like the crude drawings of a child” to —
A describe the narrator’s loss of innocence
B compare childhood drawings and comic books
C emphasize the difference between war and peace
D explain the narrator’s fascination with flying
Choice A is correct. The narrator says that “the silver airplanes and the
blue capes” of her fantasies are “wiped away.” These fantasies are
symbols of her innocence, which is lost when Uncle Frank fails to
defend her. Choice B is incorrect because it interprets “the crude
drawings” literally rather than figuratively. Choice C is incorrect
because the narrator is reacting to her uncle, not to the war. Choice D
is incorrect because the narrator is discussing the loss of her flying
fantasies, not her fascination.
46
Objective 2
Understanding Literary Terms
Authors have at their disposal several ways to shape a reader’s
understanding of characters, events, and themes. These are a writer’s
“tools of the trade.” Some of these are listed below.
Mood
The overall feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for a reader
is called mood. Specific words or phrases, such as eerie silence
or squirrel-like frenzy, can
contribute to the mood of a work,
as can figurative language,
repetition, and other literary
devices.
Foreshadowing
In foreshadowing, a writer hints
about something that may happen
in the future. Foreshadowing can
help arouse curiosity or build
suspense.
Irony
©A & J Verkaik/CORBIS
I’m just having
a light snack.
Irony involves a difference between
what appears to be and what really is.
In verbal irony a character says the
opposite of what he or she means. In
irony of situation, an event or situation
turns out to be different from what the
reader expected. In dramatic irony
there’s a difference between what a
character says or thinks and what the
reader knows is true.
©CORBIS
Flashback
A flashback interrupts a story to relate an event that occurred in the
past. Flashbacks can explain a character’s present behavior by revealing
an event from his or her past.
47
Objective 2
Dialogue
Written conversation between two or more characters is known as
dialogue. Writers use dialogue to bring characters to life and to give
the reader a sense of the characters’ voices. The words of characters are
usually set off with quotation marks.
Symbolism
A symbol stands for something beyond itself. Writers often use
symbolism to indicate an important theme in a story. For example, a
road could symbolize life’s journey or a dove could symbolize peace.
Analogy
Analogy is a way of comparing two things that are alike in some way.
“As a hawk fixes its eye on its prey, so Tien directed his will toward
winning the contest” is an analogy. Both the hawk and Tien are focused
and determined. Writers use analogy to explain an idea or support an
argument.
Here’s an example of a question about literary terms similar to what
you might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman
and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review the
selection and answer the question below.
The change in mood between the beginning and the end of the
story illustrates a contrast between —
A friends and enemies
B love and hate
C fantasy and reality
D parents and children
Choice C is correct. The mood in the opening paragraphs is bright and
fanciful. The author refers to “shooting stars,” Superman’s “shining
blue suit,” and “technicolor dreams.” The mood at the end of the story,
in contrast, suggests a dark, cold reality. The author refers to “a small
unripe moon,” “windowpanes fringed with frost,” and a “black shadow
creeping up the underside of the world.” The text does not support
Choices A, B, or D.
48
Objective 2
Connecting Literature to Historical Context
For some selections it’s important to know the historical context,
or the key factors of life in the time period in which a literary
work is set. The customs and attitudes reflected in a work may
be very different from those of today. Knowing this information
will help you understand key points about the selection’s setting,
background, and culture as well as the motivation of characters.
For example, suppose you’re reading a first-person account of the
settlement of an early American colony. You may be shocked by
the author’s use of terms such as barbarians and savages to describe
the Native Americans. It helps to understand that at that time the
Europeans who settled America lacked an understanding of Native
American cultures.
It’s just as important to understand the contemporary context of
some pieces of writing. If you’re reading a newspaper editorial
about a local bicycle-helmet law recently passed in your city, it
may help your understanding to know whether helmet laws for
bicyclists are a current nationwide trend.
In most cases, if the context of a written work is important to
understanding the work but this context is unclear, a brief explanation
will precede the selection. Writers for newspapers and newsmagazines
often provide context for readers in the first few paragraphs of
their articles.
Here’s an example of a question about historical context similar to what
you might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Growing
Up Black in Nazi Germany” on pages 18–23. Review the selection and
answer the question below.
The selection provides evidence to show that —
A most Germans agreed with the position taken by Hitler
B the Nazis discriminated against those who were different from
them
C German schoolchildren were not well educated during this time
D the author’s teachers were members of the Nazi Party
Choice B is correct. In addition to the events described in
paragraphs 9 and 10, paragraph 12 says the author was the victim of
“numerous humiliations at the hands of Nazi-inspired racists.”
Choice A is incorrect because paragraph 7 indicates that the Nazis only
pretended to give Germans the choice to agree or disagree with the
Nazis’ ideas. Even though paragraph 3 says Hitler’s speeches frequently
interrupted instruction, the schools could have provided a good
education when Hitler was not speaking, so Choice C is incorrect. The
teachers, moreover, were not necessarily members of the Nazi Party, as
Choice D suggests. Paragraph 12 says the teachers told their students
that Hitler “would restore Germany to its rightful place,” but they
could have said that out of fear of losing their jobs.
49
© Flip Schulke/CORBIS
Objective 3
The student will demonstrate the ability to analyze and critically evaluate
culturally diverse written texts and visual representations.
Objective 3 covers what students should be able to do to develop a
deeper understanding of what they read. This deeper understanding
comes from “reading between the lines,” looking at how an author has
shaped a piece of writing, and making comparisons and connections.
Reading Between the Lines
The term reading between the lines is another way to describe the skill
called making inferences. You may not realize it, but you make
inferences all day long. Anytime you connect bits of information to
make a logical guess, you’re making an inference. When you read, you
make inferences by
●
drawing conclusions;
●
making generalizations; and
●
making predictions.
50
Objective 3
Analyzing and Evaluating Text
Another skill that is part of “reading deeper” is analyzing the word
choices an author has made and looking at how he or she has put
together those words to form sentences and paragraphs. Analyzing a
piece of writing in this way can tell you a great deal about the way an
author thinks and possibly about how the author wants you to think.
Another way to analyze and evaluate text is to look at the way the
author presents himself or herself to readers. Does the author sound
reliable? Can you trust the information the author is giving you? Are
the author’s ideas worth listening to?
Understanding and Analyzing Media Messages
We are bombarded with media messages from every direction—
television, radio, magazines, newspapers, advertisements, photographs,
billboards, posters, websites, and flyers, for example. The skills you use
to gain a deeper understanding of what you read can also be used to
look at a media message. What is the main idea of the message? What
is its purpose? How well does the message achieve its purpose?
Analyzing and evaluating are the skills that you need in order to
respond at a deeper level to writing and visual messages. Next you will
read about some of the student expectations for Objective 3.
51
Objective 3
i
proce s s g.
r and
in
the on from rea d
a
G mati
or
nf
ou
at y ow.
e wh
n
Us ready k
al
+
eneralizations. Draw
ke g
Make prediction conclusions.
Ma
s.
Making Inferences
When you make an inference during reading, you combine
information you read with your own knowledge and experience to
make a reasonable guess.
Here’s an example of an inference:
Information: Anna’s heart beat rapidly, and her palms felt sweaty as
she walked to the podium to give her speech.
Inference: Anna is nervous about giving her speech.
Sometimes more than one inference is possible. The material you read
will provide clues so that you can make the correct inference.
Sometimes a question that focuses on making an inference will ask you
to support the inference with information from the selection.
Let’s use a sample question about “Growing Up Black in Nazi
Germany” to explore ways of making a correct inference. Review the
story on pages 18–23 and answer the question below.
From the incident in the beer hall, the reader can infer that —
A none of the SA troopers was black
B the author was inspired by the brownshirts
C schoolchildren weren’t affected by the Nazi regime
D the author’s mother was inattentive
B cannot be correct. The incident did not inspire the author; it terrified
him. You might also infer that the Nazis traumatized other
schoolchildren as well, so the text does not support Choice C either.
Since the author’s mother quickly rushed to his aid, you can also see
that Choice D is not a valid inference. Choice A is the only reasonable
inference supported by the text. The man who grabbed the narrator
considered his blackness a distinguishing characteristic, which would
not have been the case if other SA troopers had been black.
52
Objective 3
Drawing Conclusions
Authors often guide you to figure out some things on your own. They
give you a piece of evidence and expect you to use your reasoning
powers to draw a conclusion.
A conclusion is a decision you make after you gather information and
think about it. Most of the time you need more than one piece of
information to reach a conclusion. Suppose you look out your window
and see your neighbors loading beach towels, fishing poles, and a
beach umbrella into their car. What conclusion can you draw?
Making Predictions
When you make a prediction, you try to answer the question “What
will happen next?” To make predictions, it’s helpful to notice
●
how characters react to problems;
●
important details about plot, setting, and character; and
●
foreshadowing.
Suppose you’re reading a review of a new movie that all your friends
have been wanting to see. In the review the writer calls the movie the
“best adventure film of the year.” This movie is scheduled to appear in
only one theater in your town beginning tomorrow. What prediction
can you make about the ticket lines for the movie tomorrow?
Analyzing Across Texts
Sometimes you will need to use your analytical skills on more than one
selection. When you see a movie that has been adapted from a book
you enjoyed or you read two articles on the same topic, you cannot
help making comparisons between the two works. The TAKS ELA test
will ask you to perform this type of analysis as well. But remember that
evidence to support your analysis must be present in both selections.
53
Objective 3
Here’s an example of a cross-text question similar to what you might find
on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Review “Superman and Paula Brown’s
New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17 and “Growing Up Black in Nazi
Germany” on pages 18–23, thinking about the narrators in each
selection. Then answer the question below.
What is one similarity between the narrators of the two selections?
A They are fascinated by airplanes and flying.
B They grow up under the shadow of war.
C They relate memories of an ideal childhood.
D They find parades of soldiers thrilling.
Choice B is correct. In both selections the narrators grow up with the
threat of war. In “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit,” the girl
participates in air-raid drills at school, and members of her family and
her neighbors get drafted. In “Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany,” the
boy witnesses constant military parades and rallies. Choice A is true
only in “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit,” and Choice D is
true only in “Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany.” Choice C is not
true of either selection.
Author’s Purpose
All writers have at least one purpose for writing a particular text. They
may have an idea they care about and want others to care about, such
as preserving rain forests. They may want to debate a certain topic they
feel strongly about, such as year-round school versus a nine-month
school year.
Not all writing has a serious or lofty goal, though. Sometimes writers
just want to share a thought that interests them. Or they may want to
entertain readers with a funny story.
Most purposes for writing fall into these general categories:
Purpose
Characteristics
Examples
Newspaper and magazine
stories, encyclopedia and
textbook passages
To inform
Has mostly factual
information
To persuade
Tries to influence readers to Newspaper editorials,
think or act in a certain way advertisements
To express
Presents a point of view,
shares personal feelings
Personal essays,
autobiographical stories,
feature stories
To entertain
Tells a story, often using
humor or suspense
Short stories, novels
54
Objective 3
Recognizing an author’s purpose can help you better understand what
you’re reading. For example, if you’re reading an article titled “The
Most Perfect Shoes in the Universe!” it helps to be aware that the
author’s purpose is to sell you a pair of shoes.
Here’s an example of a question about author’s purpose similar to what
you might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Growing Up
Black in Nazi Germany” on pages 18–23. Review the selection and
answer the question below.
The author probably wrote this selection to —
A encourage others to recall their childhood memories
B describe his early experiences with racial discrimination
C explain the reasons Germans rallied behind the Nazis
D illustrate the differences between his early life and his later life
The selection could encourage others to recall their childhoods, but
there is no evidence that that is the author’s purpose, so you can
eliminate Choice A. The author does not try to explain why the
Germans in general supported the Nazis; instead, he focuses on his
own naïve support of the Nazis and how he changes his mind, so
Choice C is also incorrect. The author does not discuss his later life,
eliminating Choice D as a viable answer. The best answer is Choice B
because the incident in the meeting hall is an act of racial
discrimination that allows him to see the Nazis’ true nature.
55
Objective 3
Author’s Craft
Authors make deliberate choices in the words they use, the way they
structure a piece of writing, and the tone they create in a selection.
These choices are elements of the author’s craft and lead the reader to
feel and react in ways that the author intends.
Mark Twain
©CORBIS
Here’s an example of a question about author’s craft similar to what you
might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman and
Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17. Review paragraph 11
and answer the question below.
In paragraph 11, the author uses the word seeping to —
A illustrate how threatening the Nazi soldiers are
B show that the war is gradually changing people’s lives
C explain why Mrs. Fein grows thin and pale
D stress the importance of Sheldon Fein’s uncle Macy in the boy’s
life
Choice B is correct. The topic sentence reads, “The threat of war was
seeping in everywhere.” The word seeping compares the impact of the
war on people’s lives to the impact of a gradually leaking liquid.
Paragraph 11 does not mention any real Nazi soldiers, so Choice A is
incorrect. Choices C and D are incorrect because they are specific
references that do not convey the intention of the word seeping.
56
Objective 3
Credibility of Information Sources
Careful readers have their “radar” on as they read informational text.
They monitor the text to determine whether it is trustworthy, asking
questions such as “Is this source credible?”
The word credible means “deserving belief.” When you analyze the
credibility of information sources, you judge whether the sources are
believable.
Here are some specific questions to ask to evaluate the credibility of
information sources:
●
What is the author’s point of view? What is his or her
relationship to the topic? Is the author a respected authority on
the topic?
●
Does the author seem to have personal motives for providing
this information?
●
Does the author support opinions with sound reasons?
●
How current is the information?
Information in well-known encyclopedias, almanacs, and atlases is
usually reliable. Remember that the Internet is a huge source of
information—some of it reliable and some of it not so reliable. Pay
close attention to the source of information on a website. For example,
sources whose Web addresses end in the following are usually reliable:
●
.edu (education)
●
.mil (military)
●
.gov (government)
Here’s an example of a question about credibility similar to what you
might find on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Growing Up
Black in Nazi Germany” on pages 18–23. Review the selection and
answer the question below.
How does the author support the idea that Nazis were intolerant of
difference?
A By describing a horrifying experience from his own childhood
B By comparing Nazi ideals with those of other political groups
C By describing one of Hitler’s speeches
D By listing the various groups the Nazis discriminated against
In paragraphs 8 through 10, the author supports the idea that Nazis
were intolerant of differences with an account of how the Nazis
attacked him because of his race, making the correct answer Choice A.
He does not compare the Nazis to other groups or list other people
they discriminated against, so Choices B and D are incorrect. He
describes listening to Hitler’s speeches, but he does not record any of
Hitler’s intolerant remarks, so Choice C is also incorrect.
57
Objective 3
Modes of Persuasion
You already know that persuasive text is writing in which the author
tries to convince you to think or act in a certain way. In addition to
newspaper editorials and advertisements, you’ll find persuasive writing
in speeches, books, magazines, and even movies.
Modes of persuasion are the various tools authors use to persuade
readers. Some of these modes, or forms, appeal to a reader’s powers of
reason. Others appeal to the emotions.
Persuasive writing that appeals to a reader’s powers of logic usually
●
states an issue and the author’s position;
●
gives opinions or claims that have supporting reasons or facts;
●
has a reasonable and respectful tone; and
●
answers opposing views.
Persuasive writing that appeals to a reader’s emotions can sometimes
use faulty or deceptive modes. Here are some examples.
My opponent’s
scheme will lead
to higher taxes.
●
Loaded language: Words and phrases that have a positive or a
negative connotation. For example, “These homesites for sale are
one-acre slices of paradise.” Or in a speech a politician might
describe her opponent’s plan (positive connotation) as a scheme
(negative connotation).
●
Bandwagon appeal: The use of words that urge readers to do or
believe something because everyone else does. For example,
“Join those who care about our town and support the new
airport.”
●
Testimonials: The use of famous people to endorse a product or
idea. For example, “Actress Judith LaMonte wears Beauty Mark
lipstick.”
Understanding modes of persuasion can help you evaluate information
and make informed decisions.
58
Objective 3
Ideas and Relationships in Media
The term media applies to a wide variety of communication forms—
television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the Internet, for example.
Except for radio, these forms all involve your visual sense, or sense
of sight.
When you read a short story, you take in ideas as words on a page. The
ideas may be clearly stated, and the author may explain how the ideas
relate to one another. A television ad, on the other hand, may dazzle
you with colorful images in fast motion, pounding music, and hypnotic
words spoken by a professional announcer. After the ad is over, it’s up
to you to sort out the ideas and their meanings.
©Bettmann/CORBIS
It’s just as important to think about ideas presented visually—to
evaluate the information you are viewing for purpose, content, and
quality—as it is to evaluate what’s on the printed page. In other words,
it’s important to be a careful viewer as well as a careful reader.
When you view visual media, remember that you may be taking in
several ideas at once—and quickly. Take time to identify each idea.
Try to find relationships between the ideas. Use your own good
judgment. Learn to be a critical viewer.
59
Objective 3
From the producers of Every Second Counts
S
T
E
V
E
C
O
R
A
B
N
I
N
D
R
E
A
B
U
W HILE
TICE
J UWSAITS
R
N
E
T
T
S
imon has only
three days to find
the one person
who can clear his
name. Even if he
finds her, will she
be willing to help?
“An edge-of-your-seat thriller. No one will guess the
ending.” —James Matson, Daily Times
“★★★★” —Citywide Voice
“Steve Corbin WILL be recognized at awards time!”
—Judith Davis, Movienews
Photograph courtesy of © D. Boone/CORBIS.
Here’s an example of a question similar to one you might see on the
exit level TAKS ELA test. Review the movie poster on page 24. Then
answer the question below.
The poster suggests that While Justice Waits is a —
A novel
B movie
C short story
D play
Clues such as the word “producers” and the magazine titled Movienews
tell the reader that While Justice Waits is a movie rather than a novel,
short story, or play. A poster for a novel or a short story would credit
an author and not producers, so you can eliminate Choices A and C.
A magazine called Movienews would not review a play, so you can also
eliminate Choice D. While Justice Waits is a movie, making Choice B
the correct answer.
60
Objective 3
Purposes of Media Forms
The different forms of media are used to entertain, inform, and
persuade. It’s not always easy, though, to tell the purpose of a media
message.
Suppose you’re “channel surfing” through television programs. One
program catches your attention, so you watch and listen. A woman in a
white doctor’s coat is proclaiming the health benefits of sports drinks.
She has an official-looking chart to support her claims. Images of
healthy-looking people riding bicycles and jogging appear on the
screen. Then the woman explains that only one sports drink is “right
for you,” and she holds up a bottle of Horse Power II. What is the main
purpose of the message—to inform? Or to persuade?
Here are some questions to ask yourself as you look for the purpose of
a media message.
●
How is the message presented? Is it presented by an authority?
What do your instincts tell you about the truth of the message?
●
What kind of language does the message use? Does it use
phrases such as You should? Does it use words such as better or
worse?
●
Does the message present a balanced picture, or does it support
only one side of an issue? What are the underlying values of the
message?
●
What is the source of the information? Is it up-to-date?
As you analyze media messages for purpose, you’ll find that many of
the messages are designed to persuade.
61
Objective 3
The Main Point of a Media Message
Remember that text selections often have an overall message or main
point. Finding the main point of a media message may sometimes be
harder than finding out what a short story or a textbook passage is
mainly about.
Visual messages—such as those on television, billboards, and the
Internet—can pack a lot of ideas into a small space. You’ve probably
heard the saying “A picture is worth a thousand words.” A media
message usually combines pictures and words. That’s a lot of
information to sift through to find a main point.
Photo courtesy of the Texas Department of Transportation, Travel Division.
Here are some tips for analyzing a media message to find its main point:
●
Break the message into smaller “pieces”: the visual image and the
text. Ask yourself, What overall point is this part of the message
making? Are the key points in each part the same?
●
Look at the details. Do they add up to one main idea?
●
Try to summarize each part of the message. Do these summaries
point to a main idea?
●
Look for symbols in the message— objects that stand for other
things or other ideas. Are the symbols repeated in the message?
What do they stand for?
62
Objective 3
Persuasion in Media
Just as authors use certain tools in persuasive writing, media writers
use tools to persuade viewers. Many media messages are designed to
persuade but are disguised as entertainment or information.
Symbols
A symbol is an object that stands for something beyond itself. Symbols
are often used in persuasive media messages to appeal to the emotions.
For example, an umbrella can symbolize protection or a shark can
symbolize danger. Be alert for symbols—particularly in advertisements—
that try to tap into your hopes, dreams, or fears.
I want to be a
smart shopper.
I ll start shopping
at Threads.
Loaded Terms
Media messages often contain words or statements that are chosen to
draw an emotional response from the viewer. These loaded terms can
cause a viewer to respond in a certain way. For example, “Only the
smartest shoppers buy their clothes at Threads” might be persuasive to
some potential customers.
Here’s an example of a question about persuasion in media similar to
what you might see on the exit level TAKS ELA test. Review the movie
poster on page 24. Then answer the question below.
Which line from the poster is most likely to persuade people to see
While Justice Waits?
A An edge-of-your-seat thriller.
B Even if he finds her, will she be willing to help?
C James Matson, Daily Times
©CORBIS
D From the producers of Every Second Counts
Choice A is correct. The words “edge-of-your-seat thriller” are
emotionally loaded, intended to provoke a feeling of excitement.
Choice B attempts to interest the audience with a question, but it does
not provoke a strong emotional response. Choices C and D provide
information the audience may recognize, but this information is merely
factual.
63
Short-Answer Questions
In addition to the multiple-choice items on the exit level TAKS ELA
test, you will be asked to respond to three short-answer questions.
Short-answer questions differ from multiple-choice questions; they
require you to write an answer rather than simply selecting from
Choices A, B, C, or D.
The short-answer questions on the exit level TAKS ELA test
●
address Objectives 2 and 3
●
are based on the expository and literary selections
●
may address one or both selections
●
have many different possible answers
●
may receive a score of 0 (insufficient), 1 (partially sufficient),
2 (sufficient), or 3 (exemplary)
When you take the exit level TAKS ELA test, you will find that for each
short-answer question, there are a number of lines on the answer
document. If the question asks about one selection, five lines are
provided. This tells you that your answer will not be very long—only a
few sentences. If the question asks about both selections, eight lines are
provided. These extra lines provide you a little more space to compare
selections.
64
Short-Answer Questions
Answering a Short-Answer Question
Short-answer questions on the ELA test are much like the short-answer
questions you have on classroom tests. To answer the short-answer
questions on the exit level ELA test, you should use the same strategies
that you would use for any question that requires a short written
answer. In other words, your answer should be clearly written, and you
must support your answer with evidence from the text. Examples of
evidence include
●
a direct quotation
●
a paraphrase
●
a specific synopsis
Responding to short-answer questions on the ELA test may feel
different from answering the same types of questions during an
ordinary day at school. You may feel extra pressure during a test. Here
are some hints for helping you relax and do your best on this part of
the test. Many of these hints are useful for all parts of the TAKS ELA
test.
●
Take a deep breath and relax. Then read the first question slowly
and carefully. Make sure you understand what information the
question is asking for.
●
Think about how you could answer the question. Review the
main points in your mind. You may want to make notes to use
when writing your answer.
●
Answer the question carefully and accurately. Do not write more
information than the question calls for.
●
Make sure that you support your answer with appropriate
evidence from the selection or selections.
●
Reread the question. Then review your answer. Make sure that
your answer is complete and accurate.
65
Short-Answer Questions
Notice that the analysis in
the responses is in color.
The text support is in black.
Here are some examples of short-answer questions you might find on the
exit level TAKS ELA test. Return to “Superman and Paula Brown’s New
Snowsuit” on pages 11–17 and review the story. Then read the question
and sample responses below.
In “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit,” what is the
narrator’s primary conflict? Explain your answer and support it with
evidence from the selection.
Score Point 0
This student
offers only a
general idea. The
text support and
the analysis of
how things
change at school
are irrelevant
because they do
not specify a
conflict for the
narrator.
This student
offers a
reasonable
interpretation of
the narrator’s
primary conflict.
However, the
student provides
no text evidence
for this idea,
and the idea
that Jimmy
Lane later
admits to
pushing Paula is
not correct.
The narrator’s primary conflict is the way things change during the war.
“Every now and then…air raid.” There’s an example how things changed at
school as well for the Civil Defense signs contest she and the school
had to participate in .
Score Point 1
In “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit,” the narrator is accused
of pushing down Paula and ruining her new snowsuit, while playing an
innocent game of tag. The narrator must try to defend herself, because she
knows it was Jimmy Lane who did, and later admitted to it.
66
Short-Answer Questions
This student
offers the
reasonable and
specific idea that
the narrator’s
family, her uncle
in particular,
does not believe
or stand up for
her when she is
unjustly accused.
The text
evidence shows
that her family
doesn’t believe
her story.
This student
focuses on the
idea that the
narrator’s
beliefs are
destroyed by
the snowsuit
incident.
This thoughtful
idea is combined
with particularly
effective text
evidence.
Score Point 2
The narrator’s primary conflict is that she gets accused of something that
she was not responsible for and no one in her family would believe her or
stand up for her, not even her uncle, whom she admires. “…we’ll pay for
another snowsuit anyway just to make everyone happy,” he said. “…ten years
from now no one will ever know the difference.”
Score Point 3
The narrator is primarily concerned with having to face reality and surrender
her comforting technicolor dreams. In her fairytale of life in the schoolyard,
she believed in “surprise captures and sudden rescues.” After her mishap with
Paula Brown and her snowsuit, the narrator was forced to recognize the
fact that “the blue capes all dissolved and vanished.” She learned that she
now had to brave the war and the real world herself, alone.
67
Short-Answer Questions
Review “Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany” on pages 18–23 before
reading the question and sample responses below.
In “Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany,” why did the author find
the Nazi Party so appealing as a child? Support your answer with
evidence from the selection.
Score Point 0
This student
does not answer
the question. The
first sentence
doesn’t address
the Nazi Party’s
appeal; the
second sentence
is irrelevant.
Hans Jo Massaquoi found the Nazi Party appealing during his childhood
because he did not find them a threat. That is, until he was chased by
some Nazi soldiers and rescued by his mom.
Score Point 1
This student
offers a
reasonable idea.
However, the
student makes
only general
references to
the text rather
than supporting
the analysis
with specific
text evidence.
The author of the selection thought the Nazi Party to be appealing
because of the way they presented themselves. He makes a comment about
the shoes they wore and how they sounded in the streets. This made him
and other children do the same thing to their shoes. Also, he was
fascinated with Hitler’s voice and his tone made him want to be a part of
the whole Nazi entourage.
68
Short-Answer Questions
Score Point 2
This student
offers the idea
that the
fascination the
Nazi Party held
for the narrator
as a child was
the show it put
on, not the
politics. The
specific text
evidence
accurately
supports the
Nazis’ appeal.
This student
skillfully
combines specific
text evidence
with a
particularly
insightful
analysis.
Hans and others were fascinated by the Nazi Party mostly because of the
show and not because of the cause. “I of all people became an unabashed
proponent of the Nazis simply because they put on the best shows with
the best-looking uniforms, best-sounding marching bands and best-drilled
marching columns, all of which appealed to my budding sense of masculinity.”
Score Point 3
The author was swept away by the tide of overwhelming Nazi propaganda. His
fellow schoolmates’ fascination, coupled with his childish naivety, made him
see Hitler as a “father-figure” who would save Germany. Hitler’s
“extraordinary guttural voice” that was drummed into his head at school
plus the shining glory of the Nazi’s “best-looking uniforms and bestsounding marching band” all added up to an image of perfection and
splendor a child cannot help but become caught up in .
69
Short-Answer Questions
Now review both “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” and
“Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany” before reading the question and
sample responses below.
How is the loss of innocence an important concept in “Superman
and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” and “Growing Up Black in Nazi
Germany”? Support your answer with evidence from both selections.
Score Point 0
This student
addresses the
children’s
innocence but
does not address
the loss of
innocence.
This student
offers an idea
that is
reasonable for
both selections.
The student
analyzes how
the loss of
innocence occurs
in each selection
but provides no
text evidence for
the first
selection and
only a general
text reference
for the second
selection.
I think there is a loss of innocence in both stories because there are little
children involved. In both stories they really don’t understand what the
meaning of “war” is and what it is all about. They only know things they hear
on the television or things there friends say. The truth is that they are
innocent and have no idea what’s going on .
Score Point 1
In these selections, both children have their world of perfect fantasy
smashed by a chilling reality. The narrator of the first story realizes that
justice will not always triumph when she is wrongly accused and the narrator
of the second story has his perfect picture of Nazism destroyed when he
is cruelly held up as an example of racial impurity.
70
Short-Answer Questions
Score Point 2
This student
explains how
both the
narrator and
the author
experience
events that
force them to
change their
“innocent” view
of life. Specific
text evidence is
given for both
selections.
The loss of innocence is an important concept in both selections. The
narrator of “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” goes through a
drastic change. At first, she believes in heroes and that justice is always
served. Then she is framed, and no one helps her. She says “the blue capes
all dissolved and vanished…” The author of “Growing Up Black in Nazi
Germany” is a naïve child in the beginning. He was awed by the Nazis and
even took pride in “shouting ‘Heil Hitler.’” Little did he know that he was
one of their targets. He soon learns this and “begins to sense that…the
swastika, the martial music were harbingers of danger.”
Score Point 3
This student
analyzes the
idea that the
narrators lose
their innocence
when they
realize that life
is not a fairy
tale with happyever-after
endings. The
student shows
a deep
understanding of
the selections by
supporting this
idea with
particularly
insightful text
evidence.
Both narrators are in the safe trance of childhood until they see the ogre
of human nature for what it is. The girl’s dreams of flying with Superman,
executing sudden rescues, and being invincible are dashed when nobody,
including her mother, believes she is innocent. “Why didn’t you tell me that
you pushed Paula in the mud and spoiled her new snowsuit?” The spell
cast by the hypnotic Hitler, who “had taken on a near-godlike nimbus” is
broken when they boy is “dragged through a dense throng of drunken” SA
troopers. “I got my first inkling of the danger the Nazi regime might pose
to me.” Both children lost the promise of happy-ever-after endings.
71
On Your Own
Now try these practice questions. Then check your answers with the answer key and explanations on
pages 79–81.
Use “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” on pages 11–17 to answer
questions 1 through 6.
Question
1
Question
3
In paragraph 2, the word flaunted means —
What is paragraph 10 mostly about?
A
displayed
A
Drawing Civil Defense signs
B
changed
B
Practicing for an air raid
C
threw
C
Crying in the dark cellar
D bore
D Winning the fifth-grade prize
Answer Key: page 79
Answer Key: page 79
Question
2
Read the following dictionary entry.
Question
faint \ fānt\ adj 1. lacking courage; cowardly
2. weak or dizzy 3. overwhelming or oppressive
4. lacking distinctness; dim or quiet
In paragraph 2, the author uses imagery to
express —
Which definition best matches the meaning of
the word fainter in paragraph 40?
A
Definition 1
B
Definition 2
C
Definition 3
4
A
the exact location of the narrator’s home
B
the effect that living near the airport has on
the narrator
C
a contrast between daytime and nighttime
D a connection between the airport and
Superman
D Definition 4
Answer Key: page 79
Answer Key: page 79
72
On Your Own
Question
5
Use “Growing Up Black in Nazi
Germany” on pages 18–23 to answer
questions 7 through 14.
Which word best identifies what Superman
represents for the narrator?
A
Independence
B
Intelligence
C
Protection
Question
7
Which word from paragraph 11 helps the reader
understand the meaning of the word foreboding?
D Purity
Answer Key: page 79
A
glance
B
breathless
C
anxiety
D presence
Question
6
Answer Key: page 79
At the end of the story, the reader can conclude
that the narrator —
A
no longer blames David Sterling for telling
on her
B
hopes to rebuild her relationship with the
neighborhood kids
C
no longer believes in the certainty of
miraculous rescue
D cares little about the war going on in Europe
Question
8
Instruction in German schools came to a halt
when —
A
Nazis paraded down the street
B
referendums were held on Nazi proposals
C
Nazis celebrated election victories
D speeches by Hitler were broadcast
Answer Key: page 79
Answer Key: page 79
73
On Your Own
Question
9
Question
In the second sentence of paragraph 9, the
author uses a simile to —
11
This selection is an excerpt from —
A
an autobiography
A
emphasize his funny appearance
B
a textbook
B
describe his attempt to break free
C
a parable
C
show his size compared to that of his captor
D a historical novel
D explain how it felt to be held tightly
Answer Key: page 80
Answer Key: page 79
Question
10
Question
12
In paragraph 1, the author uses the metaphor of
a ripple to signify —
In paragraph 7, the author uses the word
strutted to —
A
the long-lasting effects of Hitler’s being
elected chancellor of Germany
A
explain why the Nazis chose that
neighborhood for their parade
B
the support that was building throughout
Germany for the Nazi Party
B
emphasize the prideful attitude of the Nazis
C
C
the lack of importance those around him
placed on Hitler’s election
show that the Nazis were reluctant to
participate in the parade
D express the author’s curiosity about the
Nazis
D the worldwide attention that was paid to
Hitler’s election
Answer Key: page 80
Answer Key: page 80
74
On Your Own
Question
13
Use both “Superman and Paula Brown’s
New Snowsuit” and “Growing Up Black
in Nazi Germany” (pp. 11–23) to answer
questions 15 through 17.
Which word best describes how the author, as a
child, felt about Hitler?
A
Worshipful
B
Frightened
C
Intimidated
Question
15
In both selections, the main characters
experience —
D Affectionate
A
the power of the Nazi movement
B
the effects of mob behavior
C
difficulty with their parents
D success in school competitions
Answer Key: page 80
Answer Key: page 80
Question
Question
14
In paragraph 2, the author uses the phrase “of
all people” to emphasize —
16
Both selections address the theme of a child’s
untimely introduction to —
A
politics
A
the impressive appearance of the Nazis
B
racism
B
that the Nazis were popular in all segments
of German society
C
injustice
C
D competition
the irony of a black child admiring the Nazis
Answer Key: page 80
D that even young children were impressed by
the Nazis
Question
17
Following a painful incident, the children in both
selections experience —
A
the complete support of family
B
acceptance by their tormentors
C
persecution by the authorities
D a loss of childlike innocence
Answer Key: page 80
Answer Key: page 80
75
On Your Own
Use the visual representation “While Justice Waits” on page 24 to answer
questions 18 through 20.
Question
18
Question
20
According to the Citywide Voice, which adjective
best describes the movie While Justice Waits?
Which of these best describes the primary
message of the poster?
A
Excellent
A
B
Average
A person named Simon is in trouble, but no
one will help him.
C
Acceptable
B
Steve Corbin and Andrea Burnett are the
stars of While Justice Waits.
C
While Justice Waits is a thriller that has
received excellent reviews.
D Critical
Answer Key: page 80
D One out of three reviewers believes that
Steve Corbin will win an award.
Question
19
The creators of this poster mainly want readers
to —
A
learn more about the importance of justice
B
cast an award vote for Steve Corbin
C
buy a ticket to see While Justice Waits
D suggest ways to help Simon clear his name
Answer Key: page 81
Answer Key: page 81
76
On Your Own
Question
21
How does the narrator’s attitude toward Uncle Frank change from the beginning to the
end of “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit”? Support your answer with evidence
from the selection.
Answer Key: page 81
Question
22
How can you tell that the mother in “Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany” is not
intimidated by the Nazis? Support your answer with evidence from the selection.
Answer Key: page 81
77
On Your Own
Question
23
How is clothing important in “Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” and
“Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany”? Support your answer with evidence from both
selections.
Answer Key: page 81
78
Reading Answer Key
“Superman”
Question
1
(page 72)
Choice A is correct. Paragraph 2 is mostly about the
sights the narrator sees when she is looking through
her window. From the context you can figure out that
flaunted means “displayed” because the author is
describing the way the sunset looked, making Choice
A correct. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because
they are not related to sight.
Question
2
3
(page 72)
Choice B is correct. Everything in the paragraph
except the first sentence is a detailed description of
practicing for an air raid. The Civil Defense signs
and the prize are discussed only in the first sentence,
so Choices A and D are incorrect. Choice C is
incorrect because it is merely a detail given in the
last sentence of the paragraph.
Question
4
5
(page 73)
Choice C is correct. After the narrator’s uncle fails to
rescue her from Paula’s false accusation, the author
writes that “the blue capes all dissolved and
vanished.” “Blue capes” is a reference to Superman,
who in her dreams looks just like her uncle. The
conclusion of the story says nothing about David
Sterling or the other neighborhood kids, so
Choices A and B are incorrect. The narrator
associates her loss of innocence with the beginning
of the war, so Choice D is also incorrect.
“Growing Up”
Question
(page 73)
Choice C is correct. In paragraph 16 the narrator
says she wants Superman to “smash the yellow men”
who invade her dreams. This indicates that she sees
Superman as a protector. There is no evidence in the
text that Superman represents independence,
intelligence, or purity, so Choices A, B, and D are
incorrect.
7
(page 73)
Choice C is correct. The author writes that his
mother had a “growing sense of foreboding.” The
next sentence begins, “When she could no longer
contain her anxiety. . . .” Both “foreboding” and
“anxiety” relate to an uncomfortable feeling his
mother could not contain. The word glance does not
relate to his mother’s feelings, so Choice A is
incorrect. The word breathless relates to Tante
Moller, not his mother, so Choice B is incorrect. The
word presence relates to the brownshirts, not his
mother, so Choice D is incorrect.
Question
(page 72)
Choice B is correct. Images such as “the perpetual
droning of the planes, ” “the moving beacons on the
runway,” and “the flashing red and green lights that
rose and set in the sky like shooting stars” all
demonstrate the impression the airport had on the
narrator. Choice A is incorrect because it refers only
to the first sentence, which states the location of the
narrator’s home as a simple fact—no imagery is
used. The imagery does not show a contrast between
the daytime and the nighttime, so Choice C is
incorrect. The paragraph does not mention
Superman, so Choice D is incorrect.
Question
6
(page 72)
Choice D is correct. The passage reads: “I could hear
his footsteps growing fainter.” So the word fainter is
describing a sound. Definition 4, “lacking distinction;
dim or quiet,” works best in this context. The
definitions in Choices A, B, and C do not work in this
context because they do not describe a sound.
Question
Question
8
(page 73)
Choice D is correct. Paragraph 3 reads, “Whenever
the Führer addressed the German people . . . all
instruction came to a mandated halt.” Choices A, B,
and C are incorrect. The text does not state that
parades, referendums, or election victory celebrations
halted instruction. The parade, referendum, and
celebration described in paragraphs 6 through 8
occur on a Sunday.
Question
9
(page 74)
Choice B is correct. The simile is “I stretched and
bent in rapid succession like a fish on a hook.” This
describes how he tried to break free after he was
“grabbed” and “lifted into the air.” The scene is
frightening, not comic, so Choice A is incorrect.
Choices C and D are not supported by the text.
79
Reading Answer Key
Question
10
(page 74)
“Superman” and “Growing Up”
Choice C is correct. The author writes that Hitler
becoming chancellor “stirred barely a ripple in the
neighborhood.” This compares the people’s reaction
to small waves on the surface of water caused by a
breeze or some other slight disturbance. A “ripple”
would not be expected to have “long-lasting effects,”
so Choice A is incorrect. Choices B and D are also
incorrect because they focus on the effect of Hitler’s
election on Germany and the world rather than on
the author’s neighborhood.
Question
11
Question
(page 74)
Choice A is correct. An autobiography is the story of
one’s own life written by oneself. The introduction
indicates that the author is recalling true life
experiences, and the citation at the end identifies the
selection as an excerpt from Destined to Witness, by
Hans J. Massaquoi. A textbook, parable, or historical
novel would not be one person’s true life story, so
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
Question
12
(page 74)
Choice B is correct. The word strut means to walk in a
vain, swaggering manner, so it suggests that the
Nazis have a prideful attitude. The word is not
relevant to why the Nazis chose that neighborhood, so
Choice A is incorrect. The word shows that they are
the opposite of reluctant, so Choice C is incorrect. And
the word refers to the Nazis’ attitude, not the
author’s, so Choice D is incorrect.
Question
13
14
(page 75)
Choice B is correct. The narrator in “Superman and
Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” is the victim of mob
behavior when the other children accuse her of
pushing Paula, and Massaquoi is the victim of mob
behavior when the storm troopers grab him. Choice
A is incorrect because the narrator in “Superman”
does not experience the Nazi movement directly.
Massaquoi objects to his mother removing the
swastika patch, but this is a minor detail in a story
about how she saves him from a mob, so Choice C is
incorrect. Massaquoi does not mention school
competitions, making Choice D incorrect.
Question
16
(page 75)
Choice C is correct. Both narrators confront injustice
at an early age. In “Superman and Paula Brown’s
New Snowsuit,” no one comes to her defense when
the other children unjustly accuse her. In “Growing
Up Black in Nazi Germany,” Nazis harass Massaquoi
because of his race. Massaquoi directly experiences
the effects of politics and racism, but the narrator in
“Superman” does not, so Choices A and B are
incorrect. Competition is a small factor in
“Superman,” but it is not a factor in “Growing Up,”
so choice D is incorrect.
Question
17
(page 75)
Choice D is correct. The narrator in “Superman and
Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” experiences a loss of
childlike innocence after she is wrongly accused of
pushing Paula in the mud, and even her own family
believes she has ruined the snowsuit. In “Growing
Up in Nazi Germany,” Hans Massaquoi suffers a loss
of innocence after he is harassed by the Nazis
because of his race. Choices A and C are incorrect
because they apply only to Massaquoi. Neither the
narrator in “Superman and Paula Brown’s New
Snowsuit” nor Massaquoi is accepted by their
tormentors, making choice B incorrect.
(page 75)
Choice A is correct. In paragraph 12, the author
writes that he was “taught to worship” Hitler and
that “Hitler had taken on a near-godlike nimbus” for
him. Choices B and C are incorrect because, even
after the storm trooper grabbed him, he says it took
“several years” before he “could clearly see Hitler’s
evil.” Choice D, affectionate, is incorrect because the
word suggests a feeling of intimacy that a boy would
not have with a distant hero.
Question
15
(page 75)
“While Justice Waits”
Choice C is correct. In this context the phrase
implies that he of all people is the last person you
would expect to support the Nazis. Choices A, B and
D are incorrect because the phrase refers to the
author. It does not refer to “Nazis” or “young
children” in general.
Question
18
(page 76)
Choice A is correct. Citywide Voice gives the film four
stars, which generally means excellent. In addition,
the reader could infer that four stars indicates an
excellent rating in this case because an advertisement
would not include the rating if it meant average,
acceptable, or critical (Choices B, C, and D).
80
Reading Answer Key
Question
19
(page 76)
Choice C is correct. The poster is an advertisement
for a thriller made by a company that profits by
selling tickets. Since the movie is a commercial film,
it is unlikely that the makers of the poster are
interested in educating the public about the
importance of justice in a general sense, so Choice A
is incorrect. Only a very small fraction of the poster’s
audience would be able to vote for the Academy
Awards, so Choice B is incorrect. Since the poster
does not say the movie is a true story, we can infer
that Simon is a fictional character, so Choice D is
also incorrect; there is nothing readers can do to help
clear a fictional character’s name.
Question
20
Question
Both passages portray power through clothing
and uniforms. Paula receives a fancy new
snowsuit for her birthday. When it becomes
ruined, she quickly finds a scapegoat. The other
children do not want to be blamed, so they agree
with her when she says, “ ‘You,’ . . . pointing at
[the narrator], ‘you pushed me.’ ” The Nazis used
their uniforms to advance their cause, and
Massaquoi says that he “became an unabashed
proponent of the Nazis simply because they put
on the best shows with the best-looking
uniforms.”
(page 76)
Short Answer Items
21
(page 77)
Sample Response:
In the beginning the narrator admires Uncle
Frank. She loves to dream of Superman “in his
shining blue suit . . . looking remarkably like
[her] Uncle Frank.” Toward the end of the story,
however, she feels he has completely abandoned
her. “I lay there all alone in bed, feeling the black
shadow creeping up the underside of the world.”
Question
22
(page 78)
Sample Response:
Choice C is correct. All the details of the poster
create the impression that this is an exciting movie
that got good reviews. Choices A, B, and D are
details that help communicate that primary
message.
Question
23
(page 77)
Sample Response:
The mother in the story was determined to find
her son when she realized he was kidnapped by
the Nazis. “Then, like an unstoppable force, she
plowed a path through the drunken troopers who
were blocking her way until she reached . . . the
man who kidnapped me.”
81
Objectives 4 and 5
The student will, within a given context, produce an effective composition for
a specific purpose that demonstrates a command of the conventions of spelling,
capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure.
The TEKS and the student expectations for Objectives 4 and 5 tell what
students should be able to do to communicate thoughts and ideas
through written expression.
As you know, writing skills are important for a variety of reasons:
●
They are critical for success in school.
●
They give you an advantage in the workplace.
●
They help you clarify and focus your ideas.
●
They are linked to strong reading skills.
To demonstrate your writing skills on the exit level TAKS ELA test, you
will respond to a prompt by writing a composition in standard English
prose.
82
Objectives 4 and 5
What Are the Writing Prompts Like?
The people who write the prompts give them a lot of thought. They
want you, the writer, to have as much flexibility as possible in writing.
One way they do this is by writing prompts that are linked by theme to
the selections on the test. For example, read this sample prompt:
Write an essay explaining how a single event can have a lasting
effect on a person’s life.
You can see that the above prompt is linked to the selections
“Superman and Paula Brown’s New Snowsuit” and “Growing Up Black
in Nazi Germany.” This thematic link gives you two choices when you
begin writing. You may refer to the selections in your composition, or
you may choose not to refer to them. If you choose the first option,
you can use examples and details from the selections as evidence to
support your answer.
Another way that the prompts give you flexibility is that they allow you
to choose your own approach to writing. For example, you may choose
to present a series of causes and effects in response to the prompt,
while a classmate may write an essay organized by problem and
solution. The prompts also allow you to choose your own purpose for
writing. You may want to persuade the reader to agree with you, for
example, while another student may choose to relate a personal
experience.
83
Remember that you must
not simply retell what
happens in a selection, a
book, or a movie.
Objectives 4 and 5
How Will My Composition Be Scored?
On the prompt page of the TAKS ELA test, a box like the one below
will appear. The points listed in the box will help you remember what
to think about as you write.
REMEMBER — YOU SHOULD
❏
write about the assigned topic
❏
make your writing thoughtful and interesting
❏
make sure that each sentence you write contributes to your
composition as a whole
❏
make sure that your ideas are clear and easy for the reader to
follow
❏
write about your ideas in depth so that the reader is able to
develop a good understanding of what you are saying
❏
proofread your writing to correct errors in spelling,
capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and sentence structure
These points are the same ones that scorers will consider as they
evaluate responses. As they read each response, scorers think about
the following:
●
Is the response about the assigned topic?
●
Does the writing seem thoughtful and interesting? Do readers
get a sense of who the writer is? Does the writing sound
authentic and original?
●
How well does each sentence contribute to the composition?
Is the relationship between ideas clear? Do the introduction and
conclusion add depth? Is there a sense of completeness?
●
Are ideas clear and easy to follow? Is the composition well
organized? Is the progression of thought smooth and controlled?
Are transitions used effectively?
●
How much depth is present in the ideas? Are the ideas
developed fully and thoughtfully?
●
Has the response been proofread? Do errors in spelling,
capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, or sentence
structure make the composition confusing, unclear, or difficult
to read?
84
Objectives 4 and 5
Sample Compositions
The following sample compositions were written in response to the
prompt below. They illustrate typical responses at score points 1, 2, 3,
and 4, with 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest.
Write an essay explaining how a single event can have a lasting effect
on a person’s life.
REMEMBER — YOU SHOULD
❏
write about the assigned topic
❏
make your writing thoughtful and interesting
❏
make sure that each sentence you write contributes to your
composition as a whole
❏
make sure that your ideas are clear and easy for the reader to
follow
❏
write about your ideas in depth so that the reader is able to
develop a good understanding of what you are saying
❏
proofread your writing to correct errors in spelling,
capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and sentence structure
85
Objectives 4 and 5
The writer
attempts to
discuss how a
single event can
have good or
bad
consequences
that remain
forever.
The development
overall is general
and vague,
making the
composition
ineffective.
Score Point 1
A single event can have a lasting effect on a person’s life.
Weather the event effects the person in a good or bad manner, the
memories and consequences from that event can stay with them forever.
An example of an event that would have a positive lasting effect on
a person’s life would be an event such as graduation from High School or
college. Events such as these can allow the person to continue their life
and set them on great path for a successful future. They can also provide
them with lasting memories of happiness.
An example of an event that would have a negitive lasting effect on
a person’s life would be an event that involved breaking laws. Many
consequences come along with the breaking of laws such as fines, jail, and
a mark on a permanent record that could go as far as preventing certain
jobs and rights.
There is little or
no sense of the
writer’s voice.
Events such as these can have a long lasting and impactful
affects on a person’s life and can all be positive effects if the right
decisions are made.
86
Some errors
are evident,
but these
errors do not
make the
writing
unclear.
Objectives 4 and 5
In this concise
response the
writer focuses
on the idea that
one event can
have a lasting
effect on the
way you think.
The writer
develops her
theme with a
personal
narrative about
the effect her
father’s car
accident had on
her.
Score Point 2
A single event can have a lasting effect on a person’s life. For
example, if a boy was to find out that his parents were killed in a car
accident, his life would change forever.
When I was eight years old my father was in a very bad car
accident. He was hit from the side when an SUV ran a red light traveling
at 55 mph. Before my father had left that day I was angry at him. He
told me that I could not have my friend spend the night because we
were having family over. I told my father to get away and that I hated
him. When I was told that my father was in a very serious car accident,
my heart sunk. I didn’t know if he was going to live or die. All I could
think about was that my last words to my father would be “I hate you.”
My father was in the hospital for over a month, but he survived. Now
every time my father leaves the house, I tell him to drive safe and I love
him.
The composition
is not developed
enough to be
considered more
than superficial.
This single event has changed the way I think for the rest of my
life. It just goes to show you how one event can change someone for the
rest of their lives.
87
The writer’s voice
is strong and
sustained, and
conventions are
appropriate.
Objectives 4 and 5
The writer of
this composition
combines
personal
reflection within
a narrative
organizational
strategy to
explain how
serving food at
a shelter
changed her life
forever.
The progression
of thought as
the writer
moves from a
spoiled,
demanding child
to a more caring
person is
generally
smooth and
controlled.
Although the
information
about events in
the shelter is
more developed
than the
preceding
paragraph about
the writer’s
background,
there is enough
overall
development to
provide depth.
Score Point 3
Any event in life can change you forever, whether it be something very
small that will take awhile to change you or something big that will have an
immediate impact. Sometimes it can take awhile to figure out that your life has
changed because of something that has happened. When a significant event
occured in my life, I knew right then that I would be changed forever.
I used to be an only child, and being an only child, I was spoiled
and demanding. I usually got everything I wanted and really thought nothing of
it. I just wanted more. One day, for a project at church, we had to deliver
food to a homeless shelter. So my parents and I went out and bought things
to take to the shelter. I didn’t really think anything would come out of our
effort, but something did. My life would be changed forever. On our way to the
shelter, I was complaining that I didn’t want to go because I was hungry
and had missed breakfast. My parents said that it didn’t matter and that we
would go eat after we fed the people at the shelter. When we got there, it was
packed. There were people all over the place. And not all of them were homeless,
some had homes but had very little to eat. When I started to help hand out
food, I saw peoples’ faces light up. Every time I saw them smile, I had a
burning sensation in my chest that I had never experienced before. It felt
Effective word
choice adds
authenticity
and
originality.
good! I knew then that there were many other people besides myself, and a
number of them were less fortunate. After most of the people had gotten their
food, I realized that it felt much better than getting something for myself. On
the way home, I sat quietly, pondering what I could have done in the past
that would have helped other people besides me.
As you can see, your life can be changed at any time and on any
occasion. Before going to the shelter, I was very selfish, but after this
experience I became more caring. I never thought it would change my life, but it
did and I am much happier with myself now.
88
Good control
of conventions
enhances the
quality of the
response.
Objectives 4 and 5
Score Point 4
Life is made up of events, most so small that they pass by
without any real importance, others make you stop and think for a while,
but you eventually move on; and then there are those that hit you so hard
that they change you, and become a part of who you are. It’s impossible
to see them coming, but even after they pass they stay with you, for
better or for worse.
In this focused
composition, the
writer recounts
the effect the
death of her
greatgrandfather had
on her
relationship
with her
mother.
The writer uses
a combination
of strategies—
part narrative,
part
reflective—
to explain her
change in
attitude toward
her mother
from before the
greatgrandfather’s
death to after.
My mom, to me, was just my mother. Somewhere between playing with
dolls and learning to drive I lost who my mother was. I lost that need to
please her, that need to be nice, that need to remember she’s human. To
me my mother became a robot without feelings, there to make me food, clean
my room, and wash my clothes; if she annoyed me or didn’t do something
fast enough, I felt compelled to tell her.
But then my Great-Grandpa became very sick. I had heard stories
of my mom’s childhood, and I knew it had been rough. I also knew her
grandfather meant more to her than anyone in the world, which is why his
dying was so hard for her. It had been a slow death, with many visits from
my mom. Every time we saw him his memory got worse and his face became
more sickly, and every time we left my mom looked a little older, a little
sicker, and a little more tired. By the time my Great-Grandpa passed away
my mother had made a wall around her, which no human emotion could pass
through. After the funeral we went home, and my mother went to bed. I went
to play on the computer. However, only a few minutes later I heard a noise
coming out of my parents room, when I walked in I saw my mom crying, the
first and last time I would ever see her cry. I sat down next to my mom,
not knowing what to say, but I didn’t have to say anything, she did. My
mom spilled out stories I’d never heard. Some were about her when she
was a little girl and others from when she was older, but my great-grandpa
89
Objectives 4 and 5
Score Point 4 (cont.)
was in all of them. As I sat listening to my mother, my heart broke along
with my idea of who my mother was. It was in that moment that I realized
she was a person with feelings, a history, a life. She was someone’s child,
someone’s best friend, someone’s greatest love, and someone’s mother, and
I needed to start acting like being her daughter was an honor, because it
really was.
The writer’s
powerful
account of her
moment of
change creates
depth of thought
and clearly
demonstrates a
strong sense of
voice and
authenticity.
I can’t say that our relationship became perfect after that, but I
can say that I never forgot that moment. My mom and I still fight but
it’s a new way now. She’s moved from mom: my personal servant, to mom:
my best friend. I only spent thirty minutes sitting next to her on that
bed, but that event made me a better person to my mother and to the
world. I now realize that no matter where we stand in life, we are all people,
and we all deserve to be treated as such.
90
The writer has
very good
control of
conventions
throughout the
response.
Objectives 4 and 5
The Writing Process
Even the best writers don’t expect to produce a finished composition
on their first attempt. They understand that writing is a process that
involves several important steps.
©CORBIS
Michael has written a response to the prompt on page 85 about being
open to new ideas. Let’s see how he took his composition through the
stages of the writing process:
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Prewriting
Composing
Revising
Editing
Publishing
91
Objectives 4 and 5
Prewriting
Before Michael began his writing journey, he thought it would be
helpful to have a road map to help guide his ideas. He used the graphic
organizer below to organize his thoughts before he began composing.
Effect #2:
Become accustomed
to a different
environment
Effect #1:
Leave behind
your origins
Cause:
Moving from one
country to
another
Effect #3:
Learn a new
language
92
Effect #4:
Change your
perspective
Objectives 4 and 5
Composing
Using his prewriting chart, Michael wrote the following rough draft. He
simply tried to get his thoughts down on paper in roughly the order he
wanted them. In this step Michael could take risks and be creative in the
way he presented his ideas.
There are many ways a single event in a person’s life can have a
lasting affect on them. For example, one event that can change a persons
life, and this is from personal experience, is to move from one country to
another. This example is true in most cases, because if someone is born
and raised in another country and then moving to another one, they not
only leave their origins, but do not know what to expect, and this causes
them to change their way of life. He has to get used to different
customs, diffrent people, and even different religions and languages. This
change may be big or small. For example, I moved to the United States
from Mexico City, one of the biggest citys in the world, with twenty-five
million people living there. When me and my family moved here we rented a
house in a tiny town, this was not what I am used to, I lived in a place
where lots of people walked along the sidewalks, with lots of noise, and
nature could only be found in the public parks. I never had a back yard,
or never went outside to play in the street until it was dark, and I also
never saw a clear blue sky.
Moving to this new country made me change the way I live my life,
now, I have to speak in a different language in order for people to
understand me, I interact with different people from different cultures,
and this made me realize that the world is bigger, and this is a country
of immigrants. I am not the only one. Even thought my whole prespective
of life has changed, I will never forget my people, or my history, or my
roots.
93
Objectives 4 and 5
Revising
When Michael’s rough draft was complete, he began revising. In this step
he concentrated on his ideas. Were they interesting, clear, and fully
developed for the reader? He did not worry about correcting spelling,
punctuation, capitalization, or grammar errors. That would come later.
There are many ways a single event in a person’s life can have a
definitely
lasting affect on them. For example, one event that can change a persons
Improves the
sentence and
clarifies the
main idea of
the paper.
life, and this is from personal experience, is to move from one country to
event happened to me
another. This example is true in most cases, because if someone is born
one
and raised in another country and then moving to another one, they not
only leave their origins, but do not know what to expect, and this causes
New
paragraph
them to change their way of life. He has to get used to different
customs, diffrent people, and even different religions and languages. This
as big as that or it may be as small as walking outside and viewing the world.
change may be big or small. For example, I moved to the United States
from Mexico City, one of the biggest citys in the world, with twenty-five
New
paragraph
to the U.S.,
million people living there. When me and my family moved here we rented a
with only about one thousand people.
This absense of people
am
In Mexico
house in a tiny town , this was not what I was used to,. I lived in a
o
there were lots of cars in the streets
place where lots of people walked along the sidewalks, with lots of noise,
and nature could only be found in the public parks. I never had a back
and
These details
“paint a picture”
for the reader
and add voice.
yard, or never went outside to play in the street until it was dark, and I
Now I can see kids riding there bikes on the sidewalks and hear other kids playing in their backyards. Everytime I
also never saw a clear blue sky. look up I can see the sun, the clouds, and the blue sky everywhere.
Moving to this new country made me change the way I live my life,
now, I have to speak in a different language in order for people to
understand me, I interact with different people from different cultures,
a bigger place.
Additional
development
strengthens
conclusion.
The U.S.
and this made me realize that the world is bigger, and this is a country
I have made friends with some kids here who have moved to the US from farther away than Mexico.
of immigrants. I am not the only one. Even thought my whole prespective
of life has changed, I will never forget my people, or my history, or my
my Mexico.
roots.
94
These details add
depth to the
response and
make it more
interesting.
Objectives 4 and 5
Editing
After Michael’s revision, he began the process of editing. This is when he
found and corrected the errors in his writing that might interfere with his
message. Remember that a dictionary will be available during this portion
of the TAKS ELA test to help you correct spelling errors.
Capitalize the
first word of a
sentence.
Make sure that
pronouns and
verbs in this
paragraph agree.
There are many ways a single event in a person’s life can have a
him
One
lasting affect on them. one event that can definitely change a persons’ life is
effect
moving
to move from one country to another. This event happened to me.
o
moves
If
if someone is born and raised in one country and then moving to another
he
leaves his
does
one, they not only leave their origins, but do not know what to expect,. and
o
him
his
This move
this causes them to change their way of life. He has to get used to different
Misspelled word.
different
customs, diffrent people, and different religions and languages. This change may be
as big as that, or it may be as small as walking outside and viewing the world.
For example, I moved to the United States from Mexico City, one of
Wrong form of
pronoun used.
cities
the biggest citys in the world, with twenty-five million people living there. When
my family and I
me and my family moved to the U.S., we rented a house in a tiny town with
absence
only about one thousand people. This absense of people was not what I was
Misspelled word.
used to. In Mexico I lived in a place where lots of people walked along the
sidewalks, there were lots of cars in the streets, and nature could only be
found in the public parks. I never had a back yard, and never went
outside to play in the street. I also never saw a clear blue sky. Now I can
o
their
see kids riding there bikes on the sidewalks and hear other kids playing in
Every time
their backyards. Everytime I look up., I can see the sun, the clouds, and the
blue sky everywhere.
Moving to this new country made me change the way I live my life,.
o
now, I have to speak in a different language in order for people to
Now
Incorrect verb
tense.
understand me,. I interact with different people from different cultures, and
o
has
this made me realize that the world is a bigger place,. The U.S. is a country
o
of immigrants. I am not the only one. I have made friends with some
kids here who have moved to the U.S. from farther away than Mexico. Even
Misspelled word.
though
perspective
thought my whole prespective of life has changed, I will never forget my people,
or my history, or my roots, my Mexico.
95
Incorrect
homonym
choice.
Run-on
sentence.
Eliminate vague
references.
Objectives 4 and 5
Publishing
Compare this version to the
rough draft on page 93.
After Michael revised and edited his work, his composition was ready for
the publishing phase. He copied his corrected version onto a clean sheet
of paper.
There are many ways a single event in a person’s life can have a lasting
effect on him. One event that can definitely change a person’s life is moving from
one country to another. This event happened to me.
If someone is born and raised in one country and moves to another
one, he not only leaves his origins but does not know what to expect. This move
causes him to change his way of life. He has to get used to different customs,
different people, and different religions and languages. This change may be as big
as that, or it may be as small as walking outside and viewing the world.
For example, I moved to the United States from Mexico City, one of the
biggest cities in the world, with twenty-five million people living there. When my
family and I moved to the U.S., we rented a house in a tiny town with only
about one thousand people. This absence of people was not what I was used
to. In Mexico I lived in a place where lots of people walked along the sidewalks,
there were lots of cars in the streets, and nature could only be found in the
public parks. I never had a backyard and never went outside to play in the
street. I also never saw a clear blue sky. Now I can see kids riding their bikes
on the sidewalks and hear other kids playing in their backyards. Every time I
look up, I can see the sun , the clouds, and the blue sky everywhere.
Moving to this new country made me change the way I live my life. Now
I have to speak in a different language in order for people to understand me.
I interact with different people from different cultures, and this has made me
realize that the world is a bigger place. The U.S. is a country of immigrants. I
am not the only one. I have made friends with some kids here who have moved to
the U.S. from farther away than Mexico. Even though my whole perspective of life
has changed, I will never forget my people, my history, my roots, my Mexico.
96
Objectives 4 and 5
On Your Own
Now you can try writing a composition using the prompt on the next
page. Use the same writing process that Michael used when he wrote
his composition. The following tips will help you remember the steps
of the writing process.
✓ Prewrite
After you read the prompt, create a graphic organizer such as a word
web, cluster diagram, chart, or outline. You will find that putting your
thoughts into a visual format will help you organize your ideas.
✓ Compose
After you have brainstormed ideas in the prewriting stage, you are
ready to begin writing. Your first draft will probably be very rough. You
should not expect your first efforts at writing to be perfect; in fact, the
writing at this stage will be quite unpolished. Your main goal should be
to get your ideas down on paper. Here are some guidelines for writing a
rough draft:
●
Decide on your purpose and audience before you begin.
●
Allow plenty of space for later revisions. If you are using lined
paper, you may want to write on every other line.
●
Don’t worry if your paper is messy or if it contains mistakes.
✓ Revise
When your draft is completed, most of your ideas will be down on
paper. Pause for a moment and then reread your draft all the way
through. You may want to add or delete words, sentences, or even
paragraphs. You may want to make certain words more specific. Write
your changes between the lines or in the margins. Don’t be shy about
making big changes, such as rewriting the conclusion or moving a
paragraph. As you revise, ask yourself these questions:
●
Is the writing interesting?
●
Does each sentence contribute to the composition?
●
Are the ideas clearly stated and easy to follow?
●
Are the ideas developed in depth?
97
Objectives 4 and 5
✓ Edit
Before you begin rewriting your composition, take a few minutes to
proofread it. When you proofread, you add the final polish to your
writing. Read through your paper and correct errors in spelling,
capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure.
✓ Publish
When you are convinced that your composition is complete and
correct, copy it over as neatly as possible. When you have finished
writing, reread your composition to make sure that you haven’t left
anything out or made mistakes in copying.
Sample Writing Prompt
Use the prompt below to write a composition on your own.
Write an essay explaining the importance of standing up against
injustice.
The information in the box below will help you remember what you
should think about when you write your composition.
REMEMBER — YOU SHOULD
❏
write about the assigned topic
❏
make your writing thoughtful and interesting
❏
make sure that each sentence you write contributes to your
composition as a whole
❏
make sure that your ideas are clear and easy for the reader to
follow
❏
write about your ideas in depth so that the reader is able to
develop a good understanding of what you are saying
❏
proofread your writing to correct errors in spelling,
capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and sentence structure
98
Prewriting
99
Draft
100
Draft
101
Revised Copy
102
Revised Copy
103
104
Objective 6
The student will demonstrate the ability to proofread to improve the clarity
and effectiveness of a piece of writing.
The clarity and effectiveness of a piece of writing are directly
influenced by the writer’s organization of ideas, sentence structure,
standard English usage, and mechanics. To write effectively, you must
understand how these components work individually and together.
Important Note
The revising and editing section of the TAKS test will assess your
ability to improve a piece of writing. You will analyze the writing in
terms of its organization, sentence structure, standard English
usage, and mechanics. This guide will offer instruction and review
in each of these areas.
Organization
To communicate effectively, a writer must organize and develop ideas
in a coherent way. This means that main points should be well
supported, ideas should be presented in a logical sequence, transitions
should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be
included.
105
A well-organized paper is
like a well-planned road
trip. Like a road trip, a
paper has an ultimate
destination. The supporting
ideas are the roads you use
to get there.
Objective 6
Supporting Sentences
Read this sentence.
Extraneous ideas are like
detours on a road trip. If
you do not take detours,
you will get to your
destination more quickly.
Driving long distances can be boring, but what if you could “read” a
good book while you were driving?
Imagine that you are planning to write a paragraph related to the idea
above. What kind of sentences would you need to include in your
paragraph? You would need supporting sentences to tell more about
this idea.
Look at the sentences below. Mark the sentences that can be used to
support the idea about “reading” while you drive.
______ 1. Did you know that there’s a safe way to enjoy good
literature while driving?
______ 2. Many people today use cell phones to talk to other
people.
______ 3. It’s called an audiobook.
______ 4. You can go into almost any bookstore and purchase an
audiobook.
______ 5. An audiobook is a recorded reading of an actual book.
______ 6. Many other forms of technology, from televisions to
computers, are also available in today’s automobiles.
______ 7. These “books on tape” can cost a little more than books
in print.
______ 8. You might not appreciate the voice of the person reading
the book.
______ 9. Audiobooks won’t ever replace reading in the traditional
sense.
______ 10. If you need something to entertain you on a long, tedious
drive, an audiobook may be just right for you.
Which sentences did you mark? If you marked sentences 1, 3, 4, 5, 7,
8, and 9, you have plenty of support to write a paragraph about using
audiobooks while driving. Sentence 10 doesn’t add additional
information, but it would be a good concluding sentence. Sentences 2
and 6 do not belong in a paragraph with the rest of the sentences.
Readers will not be interested in cell-phone use, nor do they care about
other forms of technology. These sentences present extraneous ideas.
Extraneous ideas will confuse and distract your readers. They should
not be included in your papers.
106
Objective 6
Sequence/Progression
You’ve identified some sentences that can be used to support the idea
on page 106 and some sentences that are not directly related to it. How
do you organize the ideas you have selected so that your thoughts
progress logically and smoothly?
First you must put the supporting sentences in an order that your
readers will be able to follow and understand.
Let’s start by writing the sentences you selected in the order they
appeared on page 106.
(1) Driving long distances can be boring, but what if you could
“read” a good book while you were driving? (2) Did you know that
there’s a safe way to enjoy good literature while driving? (3) It’s
called an audiobook. (4) You can go into almost any bookstore and
purchase an audiobook. (5) An audiobook is a recorded reading of
an actual book. (6) These “books on tape” can cost a little more
than books in print. (7) You might not appreciate the voice of the
person reading the book. (8) Audiobooks won’t ever replace reading
in the traditional sense. (9) If you need something to entertain you
on a long, tedious drive, an audiobook may be just right for you.
Read the paragraph aloud. Does it sound right? Are the sentences
in logical order? Since one of the sentences is out of place, the ideas do
not flow logically. Which sentence is out of place in the paragraph
above? Write the sentence on the lines below.
107
If your writing does not
follow a logical sequence,
it is like taking a trip
without a map. You may
take a road that goes
south when you need to go
east. Eventually you will
get to your destination,
but it will probably take
longer and you may get
lost along the way.
Objective 6
Sentence 4 talks about going into a store to buy an audiobook. Then
sentence 5 tells what an audiobook is. Sentence 6 takes the reader
back to the store by talking about the price of the audiobook. These
sentences are not in a logical order. Look how they have been moved
around in the paragraph below. Does this paragraph flow more
logically?
(1) Driving long distances can be boring, but what if you could
“read” a good book while you were driving? (2) Did you know that
there’s a safe way to enjoy good literature while driving? (3) It’s called
an audiobook. (4) An audiobook is a recorded reading of an actual
book. (5) You can go into almost any bookstore and purchase an
audiobook. (6) These “books on tape” can cost a little more than
books in print. (7) You might not appreciate the voice of the person
reading the book. (8) Audiobooks won’t ever replace reading in the
traditional sense. (9) If you need something to entertain you on a
long, tedious drive, an audiobook may be just right for you.
By switching the fourth and fifth sentences, you have improved the
logical progression of thought in the paragraph.
108
Objective 6
The paragraph sounds better now, but it still needs a little work. Have
you ever finished writing and suddenly remembered a detail that you
forgot to include? Take a look at this sentence.
The audiobook of The Hobbit was recorded by Rob Inglis, whose
voice may sound nothing like the hobbit you imagined in your head
when you read J. R. R. Tolkien’s book.
If you wanted to add this idea to your paragraph, where would it most
logically fit? Remember that it has to fit in with the progression of the
other ideas in the paragraph.
After sentence 1?
After sentence 4?
After sentence 7?
It wouldn’t make sense to add this sentence after sentence 1 because
the reader doesn’t even know what an audiobook is yet. It doesn’t really
fit after sentence 4, either, because it gives a detail about a specific
book. But take a look at sentence 7. This sentence says that “you might
not appreciate the voice of the person reading the book.” The new
sentence talks about the voice in a specific audiobook. This seems to be
a logical place to insert this sentence. Take a look at the paragraph with
this sentence included and see whether the ideas flow logically.
(1) Driving long distances can be boring, but what if you could
“read” a good book while you were driving? (2) Did you know that
there’s a safe way to enjoy good literature while driving? (3) It’s
called an audiobook. (4) An audiobook is a recorded reading of an
actual book. (5) You can go into almost any bookstore and
purchase an audiobook. (6) These “books on tape” can cost a little
more than books in print. (7) You might not appreciate the voice of
the person reading the book. The audiobook of The Hobbit was
recorded by Rob Inglis, whose voice may sound nothing like the
hobbit you imagined in your head when you read J. R. R.
Tolkien’s book. (8) Audiobooks won’t ever replace reading in the
traditional sense. (9) If you need something to entertain you on a
long, tedious drive, an audiobook may be just right for you.
The sentences now move in a logical progression, but they still do not
flow as smoothly as they could. The sentences are missing transitions.
109
Objective 6
Using Transition Words and Phrases
Transitions are like ramps
onto highways. If you get
on the right ramp, you can
merge smoothly onto the
next road you want to
take.
Transitions alert your reader to what’s coming next and connect ideas
in a way that makes sense. Transitions can be words, phrases, or
complete sentences. Some common transition words and phrases are
listed below.
For example,
Consequently,
However,
In fact,
Unfortunately,
Nevertheless,
As a result,
On the other hand,
Look at the paragraph on the previous page. Where could you add
transition words or phrases to make the paragraph flow more
smoothly? Here are some suggestions:
(1) Driving long distances can be boring, but what if you could
“read” a good book while you were driving? (2) Did you know that
there’s a safe way to enjoy good literature while driving? (3) It’s called
an audiobook. (4) An audiobook is a recorded reading of an actual
book. (5) You can go into almost any bookstore and purchase an
audiobook. (6) Unfortunately, these “books on tape” can cost a little
more than books in print. (7) Furthermore, you might not appreciate
the voice of the person reading the book. (8) For example, the
audiobook of The Hobbit was recorded by Rob Inglis, whose voice
may sound nothing like the hobbit you imagined in your head when
you read J. R. R. Tolkien’s book. (9) Consequently, audiobooks won’t
ever replace reading in the traditional sense. (10) However, if you
need something to entertain you on a long, tedious drive, an
audiobook may be just right for you.
Important Note
When you finish a piece of writing, ask yourself these questions:
●
Have I given plenty of support to my ideas?
●
Have I presented my ideas in a logical sequence?
●
Have I used transitions to connect my ideas?
If you can answer yes to all these questions, you have probably
crafted a well-organized piece of writing.
110
Objective 6
Sentence Structure
Complete Sentences
People do not always speak in complete sentences. They can use their
hands, vocal inflections, and facial expressions to help communicate
meaning. When you write, however, you have only the words on the
page with which to communicate. That’s why you must use complete
sentences. You need to be sure your readers understand what you are
trying to say.
The following are examples of complete sentences. The subject of each
sentence is underlined once, while the verb is underlined twice.
●
The charging rhinoceros trampled the bushes and small trees
in its path.
●
Unsure whether the concert had ended, the crowd tentatively
applauded.
In the first sentence the subject comes at the beginning of the sentence,
but that is not always the case. Notice that the subject in the second
sentence comes in the middle.
Sentence Fragments
A fragment is a group of words that doesn’t express a complete
thought. Usually a fragment is missing either a subject or a verb, but a
fragment can still be incomplete even if it has both a subject and a
verb. Look at these fragments:
●
The telescope in a trash can behind the sandwich shop in
perfect condition.
●
Have been waiting for years to cheer for a professional sports
team.
●
The roots of the tree deep within the mud at the cave’s
entrance.
Since sentence fragments state incomplete thoughts, each of the
fragments above must be missing something. What is each fragment
missing? How can the fragments be corrected?
In the first fragment the verb is missing. By adding the verb was, we
make this fragment a complete sentence.
The telescope in a trash can behind the sandwich shop was in
perfect condition.
111
A complete sentence
is a group of words that
contains a subject and
a verb and that states
a complete thought.
Objective 6
In the second fragment the subject is missing. By adding the subject
fans in Austin, Texas, we make this a complete sentence.
Fans in Austin, Texas, have been waiting for years to cheer for a
professional sports team.
In the third fragment the predicate is missing. By adding the predicate
looked prehistoric, we make this fragment a complete sentence.
The roots of the tree deep within the mud at the cave’s entrance
looked prehistoric.
Run-on Sentences
A sentence fragment is missing something, but a run-on sentence has
too much of something. A run-on sentence has too many subjects and
predicates. A run-on consists of two or more complete sentences put
together without the correct punctuation or capitalization. Run-on
sentences are confusing because readers can’t tell where one thought
ends and another begins.
Look at this run-on sentence.
The junior class planned an elaborate homecoming dance it was a
huge success.
The run-on above has two subjects (the junior class and it) and two
predicates (planned an elaborate homecoming dance and was a huge
success). Here’s one way to correct the run-on:
The junior class planned an elaborate homecoming dance. It was a
huge success.
It’s often more effective to combine the ideas in a run-on sentence.
Here’s a way to combine the ideas in the run-on sentence about the
homecoming dance:
The junior class planned an elaborate homecoming dance, which
was a huge success.
112
Objective 6
When the ideas in a run-on are closely connected, there is another way
to correct the run-on. You can put a semicolon between the two
sentences.
The junior class planned an elaborate homecoming dance; it was a
huge success.
Try It
Look at the sentences below. Can you find some run-on sentences?
Mark each run-on.
______ 1. Arturo found a flashlight buried in the sand at the park
it still worked.
______ 2. Dancing, singing, playing the banjo, and reciting poetry
will all be a part of the 11th-grade talent show.
______ 3. Remembering facts for a test is difficult, coming up with
a memory trick can help.
______ 4. Kennedy was still working on her homework at 10 o’clock
because volleyball practice had lasted until seven.
______ 5. The children in the preschool seemed restless the
teachers planned a special field trip.
Did you identify sentences 1, 3, and 5 as run-on sentences? How can
you correct these run-ons? Remember that you can always rewrite a
run-on as two separate sentences, but sometimes it’s more effective
to use a semicolon or to find another way to combine the ideas.
Answer Key: page 152
113
You can’t correct a run-on
just by putting a comma
between the two complete
sentences. You will still
have a run-on. You must
either rewrite the run-on
as two sentences, add a
semicolon, or combine the
ideas to form one sentence.
Objective 6
Awkward Sentences
Some sentences are complete but still confusing to readers because the
ideas are not expressed clearly. This kind of sentence is called an
awkward sentence.
Andrea borrowed her mother’s sweater, and the promise was to wash
it and the scarf that she borrowed, too, after the dance.
Because of the way the sentence is written, the reader is left with
questions.
●
Who promised to wash the sweater?
●
Is this person supposed to wash the scarf too?
●
Was the scarf borrowed or washed after the dance?
Think about the ideas in the sentence above. How can you rewrite the
sentence so that its meaning is clear? Here is one way:
Andrea borrowed her mother’s sweater and scarf and promised to
wash them both after the dance.
114
Objective 6
Misplaced Modifiers
A modifier is a word or phrase that adds detail to the meaning of
another word or phrase. Some sentences are confusing because a
modifier is in the wrong place.
Andy took the watch off his wrist that no longer worked.
Did Andy’s wrist stop working? Of course not, but that’s what the
sentence suggests. The phrase that no longer worked is meant to modify
the watch.
Look at the corrected sentence below.
Andy took the watch that no longer worked off his wrist.
Now the modifier is in the right place.
Try It
Here are some more sentences with misplaced modifiers. Rewrite
each sentence so that its meaning is clear.
Long and dull, Fatima yawned and wondered when the play
would be over.
Finally beginning to grasp the concepts of algebra, Val’s score
on last week’s test was an 85.
Billy and Herman watched the very hungry bear tear through
their provisions, hiding in the tent.
Answer Key: page 152
115
Objective 6
Avoiding Redundancy
If a sentence sounds too
wordy, then some of the
information may be
redundant. Read the
sentence to yourself and
decide whether information
has been unnecessarily
repeated.
A redundant sentence is a sentence that repeats information
unnecessarily. Look at this sentence.
When Martha finished her presentation on a rain-forest ecosystem,
she gathered the slides, photographs, displays, and videos she had
used in the presentation on the rain forest and returned them to
the library.
This sentence is confusing because it repeats information. The writer
unnecessarily tells about the presentation on the rain forest twice. How
can you rewrite this sentence? Here is one way:
When Martha finished her presentation on a rain-forest ecosystem,
she gathered the slides, photographs, displays, and videos she had
used and returned them to the library.
Important Note
When people speak, they often repeat information unnecessarily.
That’s because they don’t have the opportunity to review and edit
what they say. When you write, you should always take the time to
reread what you have written. As you reread, remember to delete
information you have unnecessarily repeated.
Try It
Look at the sentences below and draw a line through information
that is redundant and should be deleted.
Computers and printers need electricity, so you should plug
them into electrical outlets to give them electricity.
When one dog in the neighborhood starts to bark, it makes all
the other dogs bark until every dog is barking.
Misha, a member of the debate team, always has an argument
for everything because she is on the debate team.
Answer Key: page 152
116
Objective 6
Combining Sentences
Sometimes complete sentences with no awkwardness or redundancy
still need to be revised. Short, choppy sentences may not flow well and
may need to be rewritten. Look at the sentences below.
(1) There was a flash of light high in the sky. (2) Amy noticed the
light. (3) She wondered whether a storm was coming.
Each of the sentences above expresses a complete thought, contains
both a subject and a predicate, and is not redundant. However, the
sentences sound short and choppy. Many times you can combine
choppy sentences into one sentence. Here is one way to combine the
three sentences above:
Amy noticed a flash of light high in the sky and wondered
whether a storm was coming.
Parallelism
When you combine sentences in your writing, you need to make sure
that the ideas in the new sentence are parallel. Combined sentences
that aren’t parallel are confusing. Read these sentences.
Bree enjoys playing the piano. It also makes her happy to write her
own music.
Look at the next sentence. Is this an effective way to combine the
sentences from the box?
Bree enjoys playing the piano and to write her own music.
The new sentence sounds wrong because the ideas are not expressed in
a parallel way. The writer uses the phrases playing the piano and to
write her own music. Here are two ways you can rewrite this sentence to
make it parallel:
●
Bree enjoys playing the piano and writing her own music.
●
It makes Bree happy to play the piano and to write her own
music.
117
Objective 6
Sometimes a short
sentence is an effective
sentence. In many cases,
however, you will want to
combine short sentences to
make your writing sound
smooth and polished.
There are many different reasons and ways to combine sentences.
Look at the examples below. Notice why and how the sentences have
been combined. The best way to combine the sentences in each box is
marked with a ✓.
A Subject Is Repeated
Choppy: Being on a team reinforces teamwork. Being on a
team teaches self-discipline. Being on a team encourages goal
setting.
Combined but redundant: Being on a team reinforces
teamwork and teaches self-discipline and encourages goal
setting.
✓ Combined and parallel: Being on a team reinforces
teamwork, teaches self-discipline, and encourages goal
setting.
A Verb Is Repeated
Choppy: Terrence studied in the library last night. Last night
Ryan was in the library studying, too.
Combined but unparallel: Terrence studied in the library last
night with Ryan studying in the library, too.
✓ Combined and parallel: Terrence and Ryan studied in the
library last night.
Something Causes Something Else
Choppy: The band began to play the school song. Then
everyone in the audience stood proudly.
Combined but inaccurate: The band began to play the school
song because everyone in the audience stood proudly.
✓ Combined and accurate: The band began to play the school
song, so everyone in the audience stood proudly.
Something Happens Before Something Else
Choppy: The battery in Meg’s cell phone dies. Meg needed to
recharge the cell-phone battery.
Combined but redundant and shifts verb tense: Before the
battery in Meg’s cell phone dies, she needed to recharge the
cell-phone battery.
✓ Combined and clear: Before the battery in Meg’s cell phone
dies, she needs to recharge it.
118
Objective 6
Try It
Now look at the sentences below. Combine each pair of sentences
on the lines provided.
Harry watered the tree every day. The tree grew tall, and its
leaves turned dark green.
Mrs. Thompson gave a pop quiz. Many students were
unprepared for the quiz.
Kurt tried to open the third-floor window. He wanted to
water the flowers in the window box.
Some natives were friendly. These people readily shared their
food with the explorers.
Dudley’s car wouldn’t start on Tuesday. It wouldn’t start on
Wednesday, either.
The committee presented a report to the student council.
The report was about student apathy.
Answer Key: page 152
119
Objective 6
Standard English Usage
Following the rules of
standard English will
ensure that your writing
is as clear and precise as
it can be. Your readers
will be more likely to
understand the ideas you
are expressing.
Imagine you are at a restaurant and have ordered a delicious grilled
steak. When your meal is served, you receive a bowl of cereal instead.
It may still be food, but it’s not what you ordered. A similar thing
happens when you write without following the rules of standard
English. You may still be writing sentences, but they don’t accurately
convey your message.
Subject-Verb Agreement
Remember that every complete sentence must have a subject and a
verb. Subjects and verbs must agree in number. This means that when
you have a singular subject, you must have a singular verb. Similarly,
plural subjects require plural verbs.
Look at the sentences below.
●
Daniel meets his boss at the construction site after school.
●
Ted, Jason, and Reed meet their boss at the parking garage
on Saturdays.
The first sentence has a singular subject (Daniel) and a singular verb
(meets). This singular verb ends in -s, as many third-person singular
verbs do. The second sentence has a plural subject (Ted, Jason, and
Reed) and a plural verb (meet). Notice that the plural verb form does
not end in -s.
Study the singular and plural subjects and verbs below.
A singular subject always
takes a singular verb.
Jenny goes to the mall.
A plural subject always
takes a plural verb.
Jenny and her sister go to
the mall.
A singular pronoun
always takes a singular
verb.
Everybody in the class
writes a paper on justice.
A subject and a verb
always agree, regardless
of what comes
between them.
Olivia, one of Ms. Frank’s
students, is competing in
the Olympics.
A subject and a verb
always agree, even if the
verb comes before the
subject in the sentence.
There are two coaches for
my soccer team.
120
Objective 6
Try It
Read the sentences below and think about subject-verb agreement.
Fill in each blank with the correct verb form.
Street lamps ______________ out less often than regular
lightbulbs do. (burn, burns)
Horseback riding ___________ Todd’s favorite activity.
(is, are)
Fascinating changes ___________ taking place at the old
skating rink.
(is, are)
The teams involved in the competition ____________________
focused and determined.
(remain, remains)
Renaldo and Evan ___________ at the high school track every
morning.
(runs, run)
Answer Key: page 152
121
Objective 6
Verb Tense
Verb tense tells when the action in a sentence takes place.
Tense
When
Example
Present
Now
The firefighter jumps into her truck.
Past
Before now
The firefighter jumped into her truck a
moment ago.
Future
After now
The firefighter will jump into her
truck when the alarm sounds.
The past tense of a verb is usually formed by adding -ed, but some
verbs are different. These are called irregular verbs. Here are some
examples of irregular verbs:
Verb
Past Tense
slide
slid
tear
tore
bring
brought
Try It
Look at the following paragraph. Circle the verbs that are not in
the correct form.
Yesterday my sister finded something as she swimmed in the
river. When she comed up to the surface, she telled us all about
it. Then she taked a deep breath and went back down. I
decided to follow her. A few minutes later we were sitting on
the riverbank and studying the box we had brung up. When
the police arrived, we opened it and showed them the beautiful
jewelry inside. They could not believe these expensive jewels
had sitted at the bottom of the river for so long.
What are the correct forms of the verbs you circled? Write them on
the lines below.
Answer Key: page 152
122
Objective 6
Faulty Tense Shifts
When we talk, we may shift from one tense to another without
confusing our listeners. When we write, however, changing from one
tense to another can cause a lot of confusion. Read the sentences in
the box.
Jennifer’s day began at 4 A.M. She delivers newspapers after she
had wrapped them in plastic bags. When she is finished, she comes
back inside and got ready for school. Her friend Peter picks her up
at 8 A.M. As soon as Jennifer climbs into Peter’s car, she
remembered some homework she will have forgotten to do.
Can you count the number of times the tense shifts in the sentences
above? In the first sentence the verb began signals that the paragraph is
in the past tense. But in the very next sentence, the verb delivers is in
the present tense. The rest of the paragraph switches back and forth so
many times that the action is very difficult to follow.
When you write, you should shift tenses only if you have a good
reason to do so. The same paragraph is written below without tense
shifts. See how much easier it is to understand.
Jennifer’s day began at 4 A.M. She delivered newspapers after she
had wrapped them in plastic bags. When she finished, she came
back inside and got ready for school. Her friend Peter picked her up
at 8 A.M. As soon as Jennifer climbed into Peter’s car, she
remembered some homework she had forgotten to do.
Try It
Read the sentences below. Circle the verb form that makes the verb
tenses in each sentence consistent.
1. After the rally Coach Nelson asks/asked for help, and we all
offered our assistance.
2. After hiking all afternoon, the scout troop is/was too tired to
make dinner that evening.
3. The repairman is scheduled to come tomorrow, and he says
he fixed/will fix the sink and the dishwasher.
4. Jana broke the school record when she ran/runs the
100-meter dash in less than 13 seconds.
Answer Key: page 152
123
Objective 6
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
A pronoun is a word used
in place of a noun. Some
examples of pronouns are
we, they, his, our, herself,
and yours.
Just as a verb must agree with its subject, a pronoun must agree with
its antecedent, or the noun it replaces. The number (singular or plural)
and gender (masculine, feminine, or neuter) of the pronoun depend on
its antecedent.
Look at this sentence.
When company executives bought the new building, he moved the
manufacturing division downtown.
This sentence is incorrect because the pronoun and its antecedent don’t
agree in number. The pronoun he refers to the noun phrase company
executives. However, executives is plural, so it needs a plural pronoun.
The sentence should read as follows:
When company executives bought the new building, they moved
the manufacturing division downtown.
Now look at this sentence.
Timothy studied the bird but couldn’t tell whether he was alive or
dead.
This sentence is incorrect because the pronoun and its antecedent don’t
agree in gender. We don’t know whether the bird is male or female, so
we can’t refer to it as he. The sentence should read as follows:
Timothy studied the bird but couldn’t tell whether it was alive or
dead.
Pronoun Case
When you use pronouns, you must also be sure to use them in the
correct case, or form. For example, when you’re talking about a male
friend, there are four different pronouns you can use:
he
Nominative case—used as the subject
him
Objective case—used as the direct object, indirect
object, or object of a preposition
his
Possessive case—used to show ownership
himself
Reflexive case—used to refer to the subject of a verb
or to add emphasis
124
Objective 6
He was elected class president even though he had refused to vote
for himself. His mother was very proud of him. She said he had
displayed great humility.
In these sentences the writer uses four different pronouns, but each
pronoun is used correctly. That’s because the pronouns are used in
different ways in the sentences. Therefore, different cases are required.
Now look at this sentence.
Our physics teacher gave Frances and I a special assignment.
This sentence sounds very formal, and some people would say it’s
correct. However, look at the pronoun I. Is it used in the subject? No.
It’s the indirect object of the verb gave. Therefore, I is not the correct
pronoun to use. The sentence should read as follows:
Our physics teacher gave Frances and me a special assignment.
When you have a name and a pronoun used in the same way in a
sentence, taking out the name and leaving just the pronoun can
sometimes help you decide which case the pronoun should take.
Our physics teacher gave Frances and me a special assignment.
Try It
Think about what you have reviewed regarding pronoun-antecedent
agreement and pronoun case. Select the correct pronoun for each
sentence below.
Lakshmi was elected president when Greta, the opposition
candidate, had to end their/her campaign.
Sloan’s classmates voted to extend its/their study time by
10 minutes.
The scout troop voted on new uniforms, and a local designer
will produce it/them.
I got away from the team so that I could eat mine/my lunch in
peace.
Answer Key: page 152
125
Objective 6
Clear Pronoun Reference
Sometimes a reader is unsure which noun or noun phrase a pronoun is
meant to replace. Look at the sentence below.
Tiffany plans to study architecture and business at the community
college this summer. It will be difficult.
What does the pronoun It in the second sentence refer to?
●
Studying architecture?
●
Studying business?
●
College?
●
The summer?
These sentences are confusing because the pronoun It could refer to
many different nouns. How can you rewrite this sentence to make its
meaning clearer?
It depends on what the writer is trying to say, but here are a couple of
ways the sentence might be rewritten:
●
Tiffany plans to study architecture and business at the
community college this summer. This course load will
be difficult.
●
Tiffany plans to study architecture and business at the
community college this summer. Being in college during the
summer will be difficult.
Double Indicators
Remember that a pronoun is usually used in place of a noun, not in
addition to a noun. Writers sometimes confuse their readers by using
pronouns that are unnecessary. Look at the sentence below.
The firefighters and paramedics they arrived on the scene at the
same time.
What nouns does the pronoun they refer to in this sentence? It refers
to firefighters and paramedics, but because it comes right after these
plural nouns, this pronoun is unnecessary. To clarify the sentence,
you need to delete either the nouns or the pronoun.
126
Objective 6
Correct Word Choice
When you write, you must be careful to choose the correct words.
Some words sound somewhat alike but have different spellings and
meanings. Here are some examples:
affect/effect
accept/except
quite/quiet
then/than
loose/lose
advice/advise
Homonyms are words that sound exactly alike but have different
spellings and meanings. Here are some common homonyms:
our/hour
lessen/lesson
weather/whether
capital/capitol
it’s/its
knew/new
there/their/they’re
who’s/whose
hear/here
way/weigh
brake/break
stationary/stationery
Try It
Look at these sentences.
Angie was sick for a hole week. She past the time by reading
quiet a few good books. She didn’t mind missing school, accept
for the day that Mr. Simpson visited her art class. He taught the
students how to sketch with pencils. Angie enjoyed drawing more
then anything else. She had really looked forward to hearing Mr.
Simpson’s advise. She would just have to write him a letter and
see weather he’d meet with her on another day.
Can you identify places where an incorrect word has been used in
these sentences? Rewrite the sentences correctly on the lines below.
Answer Key: page 152
127
Objective 6
Informal Language
Sometimes you might write a sentence that uses words correctly but is
too informal for a written composition. This often occurs when people
write as they would speak.
You might say: The science guys checked out the meteor.
You should write: The scientists observed the meteor.
Try It
Write a sentence you would say if you were talking to your friends.
Then write the same idea in the way you would need to write it in a
composition for school. Notice the differences.
Confusing Parts of Speech
Choosing the right word to use also depends on what the word will be
doing in the sentence. Will it serve as a noun, a verb, an adjective, or
an adverb?
Look at this sentence.
Be sure to take a very deep breathe before you dive under the water.
How is breathe used in this sentence? It is something you must be sure
to take before diving underwater. Since it names a thing, it should be a
noun; you should use the word breath, not breathe. The word breathe is
a verb.
Look at this sentence.
Since it was Bernardo’s first high school football game, he shifted
around nervous in his seat on the team bus.
In the sentence above, the word nervous is being used to modify shifted.
Since it is modifying a verb, the word should be an adverb. Nervous is
not an adverb; it’s an adjective. You need to add -ly to nervous to form
the adverb nervously.
128
Objective 6
Adjectives Versus Adverbs
What is the difference between an adjective and an adverb? Both words
are used to describe, but an adjective describes a noun or a pronoun,
while an adverb describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Look
at the ways adjectives and adverbs are used in the sentences below.
Adjective
Adverb
How are they used
in a sentence?
What modifies what?
very
The photograph
shows a very wide
canyon.
gorgeous
unusually
The celebrity wore an
Unusually modifies
unusually gorgeous
gorgeous.
dress to the fundGorgeous modifies dress.
raiser.
lit
brightly
The house seemed
inviting with its
brightly lit entryway.
Brightly modifies lit.
Lit modifies entryway.
brisk
softly
A brisk wind blew,
and rain fell softly.
Brisk modifies wind.
Softly modifies fell.
wide
Very modifies wide.
Wide modifies canyon.
Try It
Complete the sentences below by deciding whether an adjective or
an adverb goes in each blank.
Eating dinner and doing homework are part of Justine’s
____________________ routine.
(normally, normal)
Speeding ____________________ through the water, the boat
(smooth, smoothly)
looked like a giant fish.
Arnold was not sure whether the _________________________
(unbelievable, unbelievably)
story he’d heard yesterday was true.
Answer Key: page 152
129
Adjectives and adverbs can
make your writing more
interesting, but only when
they are used properly.
Remember to use adjectives
to modify nouns and
pronouns; use adverbs to
modify verbs, adjectives,
and other adverbs.
Objective 6
Mechanics
When you express your ideas in writing, it is important to use not only
the appropriate words, phrases, and sentences, but also the correct
mechanics of standard English. Mechanics include punctuation,
capitalization, and spelling. Applying these skills correctly will help
your readers understand what you are trying to communicate.
Punctuation
Punctuation refers to the marks writers use to show readers when a
sentence ends, how a sentence should be read, when a pause is
necessary, and when a person is speaking. Correct punctuation guides a
reader through a piece of writing. Incorrect punctuation, on the other
hand, can cause great confusion.
End Punctuation
Every sentence must end with some form of punctuation.
●
A statement ends with a period. (Parents and students found the
new principal to be a good listener.)
●
An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation point. (What
an incredibly exciting race that was!)
●
A direct question ends with a question mark. (How can one book
cost so much more than another?)
Commas
Commas separate items and help readers know when to pause.
Commas can be used
●
to set off quotations (The store clerk said, “Please don’t touch the
merchandise.”)
●
between items in a series (Fiona found hats, scarves, and even
jewelry in the catalog.)
●
between independent clauses joined by a coordinating
conjunction (such as and, but, and or) in a compound sentence
(The hurricane hit our community, but most houses survived the
worst of the storm.)
●
between coordinate adjectives (Clark had trouble gripping the
glowing, vibrating piece of metal.)
●
to set off a nonessential clause (I finished the poster, which was for
extra credit, before eating dinner.)
●
to set off a nonrestrictive appositive (Mrs. Jenkins, the 11th-grade
calculus teacher, gives lots of homework.)
130
Objective 6
●
to separate an introductory participial phrase from the rest of the
sentence (Weakened by the tough climb up the hillside, Vinny sat in
the shade and relaxed.)
●
after an introductory subordinate clause (Although my coach is
demanding, he’s also fair.)
●
to set off a city and state (The competition will be held in Miami,
Florida, in July.)
●
to set off a date and year (Completed projects are due February 16,
2004, since presentations begin the next week.)
Semicolons, Colons, and Apostrophes
Semicolons and colons are not used as often as commas, but they are
also important. Semicolons are used to separate
●
parts of a compound sentence when no conjunction is used
(Missy was shocked at Harold’s comment; she had never heard him
speak that way before.)
●
items in a series that already contains commas (On the road trip
we stopped in New Orleans, Louisiana; Athens, Georgia; and
Washington, D.C.)
Colons are mainly used
●
at the end of an independent clause when a list follows (There
are seven continents on Earth: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia,
Europe, North America, and South America.)
●
in time descriptions (The football games always begin at
7:30 P.M.)
Apostrophes are used to
●
show possession (Ryan’s car is in the back parking lot next to the
teachers’ cars.)
●
create contractions (Our school doesn’t have a newspaper, but we’re
trying to start one.)
131
These are just a few
examples of situations in
which commas are used.
You will encounter other
uses for commas as you
read and write.
Objective 6
Try It
Look at the paragraph below. Where are commas, semicolons,
colons, and apostrophes needed? Insert the proper punctuation
marks.
In 1994 the population of Texas surpassed the population of
New York making Texas the second-most populous state in the
country. Texass largest city Houston boasts a population of more
than 3 million and a low cost of living. It ranks as one of the
largest most affordable cities in the United States. The city was
named for Sam Houston a Texas military hero and has been
around for almost 200 years. Houston was actually the capital of
the Lone Star State from 1837 to 1840. Houstons residents enjoy
the low cost of living that the city offers but they are also very
proud of several famous tourist attractions Six Flags AstroWorld
NASA and the Gulf Coast.
Answer Key: page 152
Important Note
Introductory prepositional phrases of fewer than four or five words
do not usually need to be followed by a comma. However, this is a
matter of style, and some books will still tell you to include a
comma after all introductory phrases.
Quotation Marks
Quotation marks (“ ”) are used within a piece of writing to show that a
person is speaking. When you use quotation marks, you must follow
certain punctuation and capitalization rules. Look at the sentences
below. Pay attention to the punctuation and capitalization.
●
Marcie suggested, “Let’s help at the animal shelter for our
service project.”
●
“What would we do?” David inquired.
●
“We’d help walk the dogs,” Justin replied, “and we’d clean up
the grounds.”
Look at the first sentence. When the speaker is identified before a
quotation, a comma is used before the opening quotation marks. The
first word of the quotation is capitalized. Correct end punctuation is
used before the closing quotation marks.
132
Objective 6
Now look at the second sentence. When a quotation comes before
the speaker is identified, the first word of the quotation is still
capitalized. A comma, question mark, or exclamation point is used
before the closing quotation marks. Then a period is used at the end
of the sentence.
Now look at the third sentence. This sentence is a little different. Part
of the quotation comes before the speaker is identified, and part comes
after. The first word of the quotation is capitalized, and a comma is
used before the first closing quotation marks. Then another comma is
used before the second opening quotation marks. Since the rest of the
quote is still part of the original sentence, a capital letter is not used
when the quotation is reopened. Correct end punctuation is used at the
end of this sentence, just before the second closing quotation marks.
Try It
Think about what you have learned about quotations. Rewrite the
sentences below, using quotation marks and correct punctuation.
Renée noted The service project has to be finished before the end
of the year
I can go today Justine offered and get some information from the
shelter
That sounds great Rylie cried exuberantly Maybe we can get
started next week
Answer Key: page 152
133
Objective 6
Capitalization
Some words in the English language need to begin with a capital letter.
You know to capitalize the first word in a sentence, and you just
reviewed capitalizing the first word in a direct quotation. Proper
nouns and proper adjectives are other words that must begin with
capital letters.
●
Proper nouns name specific people, places, and things (Big Bend,
the Red Sea, the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial,
New Hampshire).
●
Proper adjectives are adjectives that are formed from proper
nouns (French toast, Spanish music, Greek architecture,
Asian languages).
If you can learn to recognize proper nouns, proper adjectives will be
easy to recognize, too. Look at the chart below.
Common
Noun
Proper Noun
Proper Adjective (with a
noun it might modify)
country
Germany
German sausage
country
Italy
Italian shoes
continent
Asia
Asian restaurant
Try It
Read the paragraph below. Circle the proper nouns and proper
adjectives that need to be capitalized.
Under the brooklyn bridge Darcy laid out her picnic lunch. She
had a greek salad with french dressing while enjoying a
breathtaking view of the hudson river. She had had trouble finding
good mexican food in new york, but the italian restaurants were
unbelievable. When she heard some chicago-style jazz playing on
the street, Darcy knew this was her kind of city.
Answer Key: page 153
134
Objective 6
Spelling
It is important to spell words correctly so that readers will know what
you are trying to say. The chart below shows some rules to help you
spell English words.
Rule
Examples
When a word ends in a short vowel
propel + -er = propeller
followed by one consonant, double the
clap + -ing = clapping
consonant before adding a suffix that
slim + -est = slimmest
starts with a vowel.
When a word ends in a silent -e, drop cleanse + -er = cleanser
the -e before adding a suffix that starts insure + -ance = insurance
with a vowel.
breathe + -ing = breathing
When a word ends in -y, change the -y multiply + -ed = multiplied
to -i before adding a suffix that starts friendly + -est = friendliest
with a vowel.
drowsy + -er = drowsier
When a word contains the letters i and
e together, the rule is “i before e,
except after c or when sounding like
‘a,’ as in neighbor and weigh.”
diet, receipt, ceiling (after c, so
it’s ei)
neighbor, feign (sounds like “a,”
so it’s ei)
Sight Words
For many English words there are no spelling rules to help you. You
simply have to practice and remember the letter patterns in these
words. Here are some examples:
significant
souvenir
attitude
technique
necessary
triumph
separation
primeval
Important Note
When you are unsure of a word’s spelling, use a dictionary to
double-check. The more times you see and write a word correctly,
the more likely you are to eventually remember it. Remember,
however, that you will not be able to use a dictionary on the
revising and editing section of the Exit Level TAKS ELA test.
135
Using the Skills
Revising and Editing a Paper
Now that you have reviewed the concepts that must be considered
when you are trying to improve the clarity and effectiveness of a piece
of writing, you are ready to help a fellow student revise and edit her
paper.
The paper on the next two pages was written by an 11th grader named
Claire. Read Claire’s paper and ask yourself these questions:
●
How well has Claire organized her paper? Do her ideas flow
logically from one to the next? Does she need to include
additional details to support any of her ideas? Does she need to
add transition words or phrases to connect any of her ideas?
Does she need to remove any extraneous sentences?
●
Are Claire’s sentences clear and complete? Does the paper
contain any fragments, run-ons, awkward sentences, or
redundant ideas? Are there places where Claire needs to combine
sentences?
●
Has Claire followed the rules of standard English? Does each
verb agree with its subject? Are the verbs in the correct tense?
Has she used homonyms and pronouns correctly? Does she have
any double negatives in the paper?
●
Has Claire made any punctuation, capitalization, or spelling
errors? Does each sentence, proper noun, proper adjective, and
direct quotation start with a capital letter? Are the commas,
semicolons, colons, apostrophes, and quotation marks used
correctly? Are all the words spelled correctly?
As you read Claire’s paper, you may come to some words or sentences
that you think she should change. When this happens, write notes in
the margin to tell what is wrong and how you would fix it. When you
are finished, look at pages 139–142.
136
Using the Skills
The Everglades—More Than You Might Expect
(1) When I lived in Florida, my science class took a trip to the
Everglades. (2) I did not want to go. (3) Having lived in Florida my
entire life, I knew that Everglades National Park were one of the most
popular tourist attractions in the country, but I still wasn’t interested in
a tour. (4) I was hoping to go someplace exotic or unusual, and I was
positive that a trip to the Everglades would be incredibly boring. (5) I
moped around the house, I wished I would catch a cold so that I would
have an excuse to stay home, but I never got a sniffle or a sneeze.
(6) The bus trip to the park took just over two hours.
(7) During the ride Mrs. Cotton made us read a brochure about the
Everglades. (8) I discovered that there are more than 600 kinds of fish
and 300 species of birds in the Everglades. (9) I procrastinated
temporarily, but in the end I read the material. (10) Although this
intrigued me, it didn’t begin to prepare me for my actual visit.
(11) It was as soon as our group arrived when we boarded a
tram that went 15 miles through Shark Valley. (12) I lost track of the
number of different waterbirds I saw, and I even spotted half a dozen
alligators submerged in the water. (13) Next we went to the
observation tower at the Pa-hay-okee Overlook, the view was
spectacular in every direction. (14) There were prairies of tall plants
called saw grass and huge cypress forests, but I liked the mangroves
best. (15) These are the strangest trees I’ve ever seen. (16) They
have massive, scraggly, spider-like roots that tangle as they grow.
(17) Mangroves are so sturdy that they are considered the best place to
hide during a hurricane. (18) They provide food and shelter to an
amazing number of animals, from tiny crustaceans to barnacles.
137
Using the Skills
(19) Soon it was time to go home. (20) As I got back on the
bus, I realized that while I had certainly learned a lot about the
Everglades, I had also learned something about me. (21) I tend to
judge things prematurely, just as I had judged this trip. (22) I vowed
that from now on I would try to not make a judgment about a place, a
person, or an expereince without first making sure that I really had all
the facts. (23) Of course, the real challenge comes this weekend.
(24) My music teacher has offered extra credit to students who attend
a classical pianists concert on Saturday night. (25) I need the credit,
but can you guess how I feel about classical music?
138
Using the Skills
How Should Claire Revise Her Paper?
Sentence 3
Did you notice a problem in sentence 3? Look at the sentence again
carefully.
Having lived in Florida my entire life, I knew that Everglades
National Park were one of the most popular tourist attractions
in the country, but I still wasn’t interested in a tour.
Look at the verb were. This verb should agree with the noun Everglades
National Park. The proper noun is singular. The sentence should read
as follows:
Having lived in Florida my entire life, I knew that Everglades
National Park was one of the most popular tourist attractions
in the country, but I still wasn’t interested in a tour.
Sentence 5
Did you identify a sentence-construction problem here? Look at the
sentence again.
I moped around the house, I wished I would catch a cold so that I
would have an excuse to stay home, but I never got a sniffle or a
sneeze.
This is a run-on. I moped around the house is a complete thought. Then
the writer starts a new sentence with I wished I would catch . . . Only a
comma separates the two sentences. How can you correct this run-on?
●
I moped around the house and wished I would catch a cold so that
I would have an excuse to stay home. But never got a sniffle or
a sneeze.
●
I moped around the house. Wishing I would catch a cold so that
I would have an excuse to stay home but never got a sniffle or
a sneeze.
●
I moped around the house, wishing I would catch a cold so that
I would have an excuse to stay home, but I never got a sniffle or
a sneeze.
The first choice can’t be right. But never got a sniffle or a sneeze is a
sentence fragment.
The second choice can’t be right, either. Wishing I would catch a cold . . .
is a fragment, too.
The third choice is the best one. The two parts of the run-on have been
combined into one sentence. The second part of the run-on now
contains a participial phrase set off by a comma.
139
Using the Skills
Sentences 6 –10
Did this paragraph seem a little disconnected to you? Read the
paragraph again. Focus on the progression of ideas.
Are the ideas in this paragraph presented in a logical sequence? Look at
sentence 7. This sentence talks about Mrs. Cotton making the students
read a brochure. Then sentence 8 tells what the writer learned from the
brochure. The sequence seems logical so far. But now read sentence 9.
The writer explains that she procrastinated at first but then read the
material. This sentence should come before sentence 8. The writer has
to read the material before she can learn facts about the fish and birds
in the Everglades.
By switching sentences 8 and 9, the writer can improve the
organization of this paragraph.
Sentence 11
Is sentence 11 clear? Do you understand what the writer is trying to
say? Look at the sentence again.
It was as soon as our group arrived when we boarded a tram that
went 15 miles through Shark Valley.
This sentence is confusing because it’s awkward. The ideas are not
presented in a clear and logical way. Which of the following is the most
effective way to rewrite the ideas in this sentence?
●
It was as soon as our group arrived when we boarded a tram, we
went 15 miles through Shark Valley.
●
As soon as our group arrived, we boarded a tram that went
15 miles through Shark Valley.
●
As soon as our group arrived. We boarded a tram that went
15 miles through Shark Valley.
Look carefully at the first choice. It isn’t much clearer than the
sentence in the paper, but that’s not all that’s wrong. This answer
choice is a run-on. It is two sentences with only a comma between
them.
The second choice is the correct answer. It is a clear and complete
sentence.
The third choice looks very similar to the second choice, so let’s
study it more carefully. Do you see the difference? In the third choice
the clause As soon as our group arrived is followed by a period. Since
this clause is not a complete sentence, it should not be followed by a
period. It is an introductory clause that needs to be followed by a
comma.
140
Using the Skills
Sentence 13
What about sentence 13? Is this sentence written correctly? Look at the
sentence again.
Next we went to the observation tower at the Pa-hay-okee Overlook,
the view was spectacular in every direction.
This is another run-on. It is two sentences with only a comma between
them. There are many ways to correct run-on sentences. You can write
two separate sentences.
Next we went to the observation tower at the Pa-hay-okee Overlook.
The view was spectacular in every direction.
You can also combine the two sentences in some way.
Next we went to the observation tower at the Pa-hay-okee Overlook,
where the view was spectacular in every direction.
Since the two ideas are closely connected, you can use a semicolon to
correct a run-on.
Next we went to the observation tower at the Pa-hay-okee Overlook;
the view was spectacular in every direction.
Sentence 20
Did you notice a usage error in this sentence? It’s a common mistake,
so you may not have caught it the first time. Take a look at the
sentence again.
As I got back on the bus, I realized that while I had certainly
learned a lot about the Everglades, I had also learned something
about me.
Look at the pronoun at the end of the sentence. Has the writer used the
right case for this pronoun? Remember that when a writer is talking
about himself or herself, there are four different pronoun cases that can
be used: I, me, my, myself.
The writer used the objective-case pronoun me. That is not the correct
case for this sentence. The writer should have used the reflexive-case
pronoun myself because the pronoun refers to the subject (I) of the
verb (had learned).
Read the sentence again with the correct pronoun.
As I got back on the bus, I realized that while I had certainly
learned a lot about the Everglades, I had also learned something
about myself.
141
Using the Skills
Sentence 22
Did you identify a mechanics error in this sentence? Look at the
sentence again.
I vowed that from now on I would try to not make a judgment about
a place, a person, or an expereince without first making sure that I
really had all the facts.
Are the commas in this sentence used correctly? Are there any proper
nouns or proper adjectives that the writer has forgotten to capitalize?
Are all the words spelled correctly?
Look carefully at this word: expereince. Is it spelled correctly?
There is a spelling rule that can help you with this word. Think about
the “i before e” rule. The rule says that when i and e come together, the
i usually comes first. The e comes first if the two letters follow a c or
stand for the /a/ sound. The letters in this word don’t follow a c or
stand for an /a/ sound, so the i should come before the e. The word
should be spelled like this: experience.
Sentence 24
What about this sentence? Did you identify another error in
mechanics?
My music teacher has offered extra credit to students who attend a
classical pianists concert on Saturday night.
Study the sentence and think about punctuation, capitalization, and
spelling. What change would you make in this sentence?
●
Change music teacher to Music teacher?
●
Change classical to classacil?
●
Change pianists to pianist’s?
The first choice is incorrect because there is no reason to capitalize the
word music.
The second choice is incorrect because classical is already spelled
correctly.
The third choice is the right answer. The word pianists is the plural of
the word pianist. The writer doesn’t need a plural form here. The writer
needs a possessive form to show that the concert “belongs to” the
pianist. An apostrophe must be used in this word.
142
Using the Skills
How Does TAKS Test the Skills You Have Been Reviewing?
On the Exit Level TAKS ELA test, you will be asked to review some
papers written by exit level students. The papers will contain mistakes.
You will need to study the papers and decide how each should be
corrected and improved. Remember that you will not be
able to use a dictionary on this part of the test.
The papers on the following pages are like the ones you will see on a
real TAKS test. As you read each paper, think about what needs to be
changed.
●
Read the first paper and think about how you would correct and
improve it.
●
Look at the first question and the corresponding answer choices.
Decide which answer choice is correct and mark it. Read the rest
of the questions and mark an answer for each one.
●
Look at pages 153–154 of the Answer Key. Compare your
answers to the ones given there. Read the explanation next to
each answer choice. These explanations will help you
understand why one choice is correct and the others are not.
●
Read the second paper and answer the corresponding questions.
●
Return to the Answer Key and look at pages 154–156. Compare
your answers to the ones given there.
That sentence seems out of
place. Should I move it to
another spot or delete it?
©CORBIS
143
Using the Skills
On Your Own: Practice Passage 1 and Questions
Taylor wrote this report for a U.S. history assignment. As part of a
peer conference, you are supposed to read the report and think about
the corrections and improvements he should make. When you finish
reading, answer the questions that follow.
The Beginning of the American Revolution
Remember that you can
make notes or marks in
the text or in the
margins as you read.
(1) Crispus Attucks is remembered as the first hero of the
American Revolution because of an incident that happened on
March 5, 1770. (2) Even though our country’s fight for independence
had not yet began, Attucks was involved in a riot known as the Boston
Massacre. (3) This was the first event leading up to the American
Revolution.
(4) Attucks, whose father was a slave and his mother was a
Native American of the Natick tribe, was born in Massachusetts around
1723. (5) Attucks escaped from slavery in 1750, when he was about
27 years old. (6) He then worked as a seaman on a whaling ship for
20 years, until that fateful day in 1770.
(7) At the time of the massacre, Boston was occupied by 700
armed British soldiers. (8) They were stationed there to protect the
men who collect taxes for King George of Great Britain. (9) Despite
frequent disturbances over taxation without representation, none
having yet resulted in violence.
(10) That all changed on March 5, 1770, when a fight broke out
in front of the Customs House, where taxes were collected to send to
Great Britain. (11) Boston was founded by British immigrants.
(12) An argument had erupted between a barber’s apprentice and a
British soldier, the soldier refused to pay for the haircut he had just
received. (13) When the apprentice tried to force the soldier to pay,
another soldier entered the fray and pushed the apprentice down.
144
Using the Skills
(14) A noisy crowd gathered, and Attucks whose ship had just come
into port, saw what was happening. (15) He led a group of sailors
carrying sticks and rocks to the scuffle to defend the apprentice’s rites.
(16) The British soldiers fired their weapons, leaving five Americans
fatally wounded and six injured. (17) Attucks was the first to fall.
(18) No one is sure exactly what Attucks did. (19) Some
witnesses were convinced that he had struck the British soldiers;
Others said that he had not. (20) Some people said that even if
Attucks had hit the soldiers, it was clearly an act of self-defense.
(21) Although similar incidents occured after this, it is said that
our nation’s fight for independence started with that episode five years
before the War of Independence was officially declared. (22) Today
we honor Crispus Attucks for his bravery and his sacrifice for justice
and freedom.
145
Using the Skills
Question
1
Question
What change, if any, should be made in
sentence 2?
4
What change should be made in sentence 9?
A
Change disturbances to disturbences
A
Change country’s to countrys’
B
Delete the comma after representation
B
Change began to begun
C
Change having to had
C
Change Massacre to massacre
D Insert no after in
D Make no change
Answer Key: page 153
Answer Key: page 153
Question
Question
2
5
What change, if any, should be made in
sentence 4?
What is the most effective way to improve
the organization of the fourth paragraph
(sentences 10–17)?
A
Delete the comma after Attucks
A
Delete sentence 11
B
Change his to whose
B
C
Change Natick to natick
Move sentence 13 to the end of the
paragraph
C
Move sentence 16 to the beginning of the
paragraph
D Make no change
D Delete sentence 17
Answer Key: page 153
Question
3
What change should be made in sentence 8?
A
Change were stationed to was stationed
B
Insert a comma after there
C
Change collect to collected
D Change King to king
Answer Key: page 153
Answer Key: page 153
146
Using the Skills
Question
6
Question
8
What revision, if any, is needed in sentence 12?
What change should be made in sentence 15?
A
An argument had erupted between a
barber’s apprentice and a British soldier
because the soldier refused to pay for the
haircut he had just received.
A
Insert a comma after rocks
B
Change defend to defense
C
Change apprentice’s to apprentices’
B
An argument had erupted. Between a barber’s
apprentice and a British soldier refusing to pay for
the haircut he had just received.
D Change rites to rights
C
An argument had erupted between a
barber’s apprentice and a British soldier.
Who refused to pay for the haircut he had
just received.
Answer Key: page 154
Question
9
What change should be made in sentence 19?
D No revision is needed.
Answer Key: page 153
Question
7
A
Change were convinced to was convinced
B
Change struck to stricken
C
Change the British soldiers to them
D Change Others to others
What change, if any, should be made in
sentence 14?
A
Insert a comma after Attucks
B
Change had just come to had just came
C
Change happening to happenning
D Make no change
Answer Key: page 154
Question
10
What change should be made in sentence 21?
A
Change occured to occurred
B
Delete the comma
C
Change War of Independence to war of
independence
D Change officially to official
Answer Key: page 154
Answer Key: page 154
147
Using the Skills
On Your Own: Practice Passage 2 and Questions
Jeffery wrote this paper for his English class. He’s asked you to help
him revise and edit the paper. Read Jeffery’s paper and think about
how you would correct and improve it. Then answer the questions
that follow.
The Ride of Your Life
(1) For more than an hour, you shuffle slowly through the line.
(2) Finally on the loading platform you’re strapped into a harness with
your arms raised. (3) The machine churns to life, and you are lifted
into a horizontal possition. (4) Posed like a superhero in flight you
©Jay Dickman/CORBIS
creep up a 115-foot starter hill with nothing—no train, no track, just
space—between you and the ground. (5) For the next three minutes,
supported from above, you dive at the ground and just miss it, swoop
through a pretzel-shaped inverted loop, and spin wildly through a
360-degree roll. (6) It’s the ride of a lifetime.
(7) There’s the Superman Ride of Steel at Six Flags of New
England, the Phantom’s Revenge at Kennywood in Pittsburgh, and the
Goliath at Six Flags Magic Mountain. (8) Since the debut of the first
hypercoaster, these thrilling roller coasters have set records for speed,
intensity, excitement, and popularity. (9) The first hypercoaster was
the Magnum XL-200 at Cedar Point in Iowa. (10) As enthusiasts say,
hypercoasters, which must have one drop of at least 200 feet, “pack a
lot of G’s.” (11) A “G” is the force of gravity that you experience daily.
(12) Speed and sudden changes in direction can increase or decrease
the G-load that you feel. (13) A few seconds of going up very fast will
make you feel heavy, whereas a sudden drop can give you “air time,”
the sensation of floating.
148
Using the Skills
(14) Beyond the thrills of hypercoasters, however, there are
some troubling questions that roller-coaster and theme-park
enthusiasts have been forced to consider. (15) Some doctors worry
that the sudden plunges and reversals in direction may slosh their
brains around inside their skulls. (16) In extreme cases this might
even cause bleeding and tearing of the brain. (17) Industry leaders
have commissioned numerous studies, who take these concerns
seriously. (18) However, when an injury is observed, experts say it’s
hard to pin the blame on a single two- or three-minute ride.
(19) Although most roller coasters have excellent safety records,
a few states are beginning to regulate the speeds and G-forces of its
hypercoasters. (20) Signs are often posted that warn people with
certain medical conditions to stay off these rides. (21) Will these signs
someday warn of brain injuries as well? (22) That’s a distinctly
possibility, but it doesn’t seem to be stopping many thrill-seekers yet.
(23) At theme parks around the country, people continue to line up for
the opportunity to experience a sensation that’s about as close to flying
as a person can get.
149
Using the Skills
Question
11
Question
What change, if any, should be made in sentence 3?
14
What change, if any, should be made in
sentence 14?
A
Change churns to churn’s
B
Delete and
A
Delete the comma after hypercoasters
C
Change possition to position
B
Change there to they’re
C
Change are to is
D Make no change
D Make no change
Answer Key: page 154
Answer Key: page 155
Question
12
15
What change, if any, should be made in sentence 4?
Question
A
Insert a comma after flight
The meaning of sentence 15 can be clarified by
changing the first their to —
B
Change creep to crept
C
Change with to without
D Make no change
Answer Key: page 154
Question
A
your
B
doctors’
C
riders’
D someone’s
13
What is the most effective way to combine
sentences 8 and 9?
A
Since the debut of the first hypercoaster, these
thrilling roller coasters have set records for
speed, intensity, excitement, and popularity,
the first hypercoaster was the Magnum
XL-200 at Cedar Point in Iowa.
B
Since the debut of the first hypercoaster, the
Magnum XL-200 at Cedar Point in Iowa,
these thrilling roller coasters have set records
for speed, intensity, excitement, and
popularity.
C
Since the debut of the first hypercoaster, these
thrilling roller coasters have set records like
the Magnum XL-200 at Cedar Point in Iowa
for speed, intensity, excitement, and
popularity.
D Since the debut of the first hypercoaster, these
thrilling roller coasters have set records for
speed, intensity, excitement, and popularity,
and the first hypercoaster was the Magnum
XL-200 at Cedar Point in Iowa.
Answer Key: page 155
150
Answer Key: page 155
Using the Skills
Question
16
Question
18
What is the most effective way to rewrite the
ideas in sentence 17?
What change, if any, should be made in
sentence 19?
A
Industry leaders have commissioned
numerous studies, they take these concerns
seriously.
A
Change are beginning to is beginning
B
Change regulate to regulation
Industry leaders, commissioning numerous
studies, they take these concerns seriously.
C
Change its to their
B
C
D Make no change
Industry leaders have commissioned
numerous studies. And take these concerns
seriously.
D Industry leaders, who take these concerns
seriously, have commissioned numerous
studies.
Answer Key: page 156
Question
19
What transition could best be added to the
beginning of sentence 20?
Answer Key: page 155
Question
17
Jeffery wants to add this sentence to the third
paragraph (sentences 14–18):
A
However,
B
In fact,
C
Nevertheless,
D Finally,
The rider might have had a previously
undiagnosed problem that caused extra
sensitivity to the G-forces.
Where is the best place to insert this sentence?
Answer Key: page 156
Question
20
What change should be made in sentence 22?
A
At the beginning of the paragraph
B
After sentence 14
A
Change distinctly to distinct
C
After sentence 16
B
Change possibility to posibility
C
Delete the comma
D At the end of the paragraph
D Change doesn’t seem to don’t seem
Answer Key: page 155
Answer Key: page 156
151
Revising and Editing Answer Key
Page
Answers to “Try It” Activities
found, swam, came, told, took, had brought,
had sat
Page 113
Possible Answers:
Page
123
asked, was, will fix, ran
Arturo found a working flashlight buried in the
sand at the park.
Although remembering facts for a test is difficult,
coming up with a memory trick can help.
The children in the preschool seemed restless, so
the teachers planned a special field trip.
Page
125
her, their, them, my
Page
127
Angie was sick for a whole week. She passed
the time by reading quite a few good books. She
didn’t mind missing school, except for the day
that Mr. Simpson visited her art class. He taught
the students how to sketch with pencils. Angie
enjoyed drawing more than anything else.
She had really looked forward to hearing
Mr. Simpson’s advice. She would just have to
write him a letter and see whether he’d meet
with her on another day.
Page 115
Possible Answers:
Fatima yawned and wondered when the long,
dull play would be over.
Finally beginning to grasp the concepts of
algebra, Val scored an 85 on last week’s test.
Hiding in the tent, Billy and Herman watched
the very hungry bear tear through their
provisions.
Page
129
normal, smoothly, unbelievable
Page 116
Possible Answers:
Page
Delete the phrase to give them electricity.
Delete the clause until every dog is barking.
Delete the phrase a member of the debate team.
Page 119
Possible Answers:
Because Harry watered the tree every day, it
grew tall, and its leaves turned dark green.
Many students were unprepared for
Mrs. Thompson’s pop quiz.
Kurt tried to open the third-floor window so that
he could water the flowers in the window box.
132
In 1994 the population of Texas surpassed the
population of New York, making Texas the
second-most populous state in the country.
Texas’s largest city, Houston, boasts a population
of more than 3 million and a low cost of living. It
ranks as one of the largest, most affordable cities
in the United States. The city was named for
Sam Houston, a Texas military hero, and has
been around for almost 200 years. Houston was
actually the capital of the Lone Star State from
1837 to 1840. Houston’s residents enjoy the low
cost of living that the city offers, but they are
also very proud of several famous tourist
attractions: Six Flags AstroWorld, NASA, and the
Gulf Coast.
Page
Friendly natives readily shared their food with
the explorers.
133
Renée noted, “The service project has to be
finished before the end of the year.”
Dudley’s car wouldn’t start on Tuesday or
Wednesday.
“I can go today,” Justine offered, “and get some
information from the shelter.”
The committee presented a report about student
apathy to the student council.
Page
122
“That sounds great!” Rylie cried exuberantly.
“Maybe we can get started next week.”
121
burn, is, are, remain, run
152
Revising and Editing Answer Key
Page
134
Question
Under the Brooklyn Bridge Darcy laid out her
picnic lunch. She had a Greek salad with
French dressing while enjoying a breathtaking
view of the Hudson River. She had had trouble
finding good Mexican food in New York, but the
Italian restaurants were unbelievable. When
she heard some Chicago-style jazz playing on
the street, Darcy knew this was her kind of city.
“The Beginning of the American Revolution”
Question
4
(page 146)
Sentence Fragment
A
Incorrect. The word disturbances is spelled
correctly in the passage.
B
Incorrect. The comma is necessary because it
sets off three prepositional phrases.
C
Correct. Using the verb phrase having yet
resulted creates a sentence fragment.
D Incorrect. The word none has already been used.
To insert the word no would create a double
negative.
1 (page 146)
5
Verb Form
Question
A
Incorrect. The word country is singular, so it
needs -’s to show possession.
Extraneous Sentence
B
Correct. Began is in past tense. This sentence
requires the past perfect tense, had begun.
C
Incorrect. The Boston Massacre is the name of a
historic event. It should be capitalized.
A
Correct. Sentence 11 is extraneous. The
paragraph is about a specific incident that
happened on March 5, 1770. It doesn’t matter
who founded Boston.
B
Incorrect. Sentence 13 directly relates to
sentence 12, so it can’t be moved to the end
of the paragraph.
C
Incorrect. The paragraph is describing a
sequence of events. The British soldiers fired
after the sailors carried sticks and rocks to the
scuffle, so this sentence shouldn’t be moved.
D Incorrect. The sentence contains a usage
mistake.
Question
2
(page 146)
Parallelism
A
Incorrect. The phrase that follows Attucks is a
nonrestrictive appositive, so it should be set off
by commas.
B
Correct. To be parallel, the sentence should read
whose father . . . and whose mother . . .
C
Incorrect. Natick is the name of a tribe, so it is a
proper noun and should be capitalized.
D Incorrect. There is a sentence-construction
mistake in this sentence.
Question
3
D Incorrect. This sentence is important. The whole
passage is about what happened to Crispus
Attucks, so the reader needs to know that he fell
during the fighting.
Question
A
Incorrect. The subject They is plural, so the verb
should be were stationed.
B
Incorrect. There is no reason to use a comma to
set off the phrase to protect the men . . .
C
Correct. This sentence and this passage are in
the past tense. The verb should be collected.
6
(page 147)
Run-on Sentence
A
Correct. This answer choice is a clear and
complete sentence.
B
Incorrect. This answer choice contains a sentence
fragment (Between a barber’s apprentice . . .).
C
Incorrect. This answer choice contains a sentence
fragment (Who refused to pay for the . . .).
(page 146)
Verb Tense
(page 146)
D Incorrect. The sentence in the passage is a
run-on. It is two sentences without the proper
punctuation or capitalization between them.
D Incorrect. King is a title, so it should be
capitalized.
153
Revising and Editing Answer Key
Question
7
(page 147)
Question
10
(page 147)
Comma
Spelling
A
Correct. The clause whose ship had just come
into port needs to be set off by commas.
A
Correct. The word occurred should have two r’s.
B
B
Incorrect. The verb form had just come is correct.
Incorrect. The comma is being used to set off an
introductory subordinate clause.
C
Incorrect. The word happening is spelled
correctly in the passage.
C
Incorrect. The name of a specific war is a proper
noun, so it should be capitalized.
D Incorrect. There is a punctuation error in this
sentence.
Question
8
D Incorrect. This word is modifying the verb was
declared, so it should be an adverb. Officially is
the correct form because it is an adverb.
(page 147)
“The Ride of Your Life”
Homonym
A
Incorrect. There is no reason to set off the phrase
to the scuffle to defend . . .
B
Incorrect. The word defense is a noun, and this
sentence needs the verb defend.
C
Incorrect. The writer is talking about one
apprentice, so adding -’s is correct.
9
(page 150)
A
Incorrect. The word churns is a verb. A verb does
not show possession.
B
Incorrect. If and is deleted, the sentence will be a
run-on.
C
Correct. This word is spelled incorrectly in the
passage. It should be spelled position.
D Incorrect. There is a spelling error in the
sentence.
(page 147)
Question
Capitalization
A
11
Spelling
D Correct. The word rite refers to a solemn or
ceremonial act. The sailors weren’t trying to
defend any sort of act. They were trying to
defend the apprentice’s freedoms granted under
the law. That word is spelled rights.
Question
Question
Incorrect. Witnesses is a plural noun, so you need
the plural verb were convinced.
B
Incorrect. The correct verb form is struck.
C
Incorrect. Replacing the British soldiers with
them would create an indefinite reference.
Readers might not know who them refers to.
D Correct. When you use a semicolon to combine
two sentences, you do not need to start the
second sentence with a capital letter.
12
(page 150)
Comma
A
Correct. The participial phrase Posed like a
superhero in flight should be set off with a
comma.
B
Incorrect. The passage is in present tense thus
far, so there is no reason for a tense shift here.
C
Incorrect. Changing with to without would create
a double negative.
D Incorrect. There is a punctuation error in this
sentence.
154
Revising and Editing Answer Key
Question
13
(page 150)
Question
16
(page 151)
Sentence Combining
Misplaced Modifier
A
Incorrect. This answer choice is a run-on. It is
two complete sentences without the correct
punctuation or capitalization between them.
A
Incorrect. This answer choice is a run-on. It is
two sentences put together without the correct
punctuation or capitalization between them.
B
Correct. This answer choice is a clear and
complete sentence.
B
Incorrect. This answer choice is awkward and
contains a double indicator.
C
Incorrect. This answer choice is awkward and
confusing.
C
Incorrect. This answer choice contains a sentence
fragment (And take these concerns seriously).
D Incorrect. This answer choice is redundant.
Question
14
(page 150)
Make No Change
A
Incorrect. The word however needs to be set off
by commas.
B
Incorrect. There is the correct homonym to use
since they’re means they are.
C
Incorrect. The subject of this sentence is
questions. Since the noun questions is plural, the
verb should be are.
D Correct. This answer choice is a clear and
complete sentence. The phrase who take these
concerns seriously is now modifying the correct
noun phrase, Industry leaders.
Question
15
A
Incorrect. This sentence wouldn’t make any
sense at the beginning of the paragraph, because
readers don’t know which rider the sentence is
referring to.
B
Incorrect. Sentence 14 talks about some
troubling questions, but it still makes no
reference to a rider.
C
Incorrect. At first glance it looks as though the
sentence might make sense here, but if you read
the entire paragraph with the sentence inserted
after sentence 16, the progression of ideas is not
logical.
(page 150)
Indefinite Reference
A
Incorrect. Your is just another pronoun. It doesn’t
clarify the meaning of the sentence at all.
B
Incorrect. The doctors are the ones who are
worried. There is nothing to suggest they are the
ones riding the roller coasters.
C
Correct. The doctors are worried about the riders’
brains. The meaning of the sentence is much
clearer now.
(page 151)
Sequence/Logical Progression
D Correct. There are no mistakes in this sentence,
so nothing needs to be changed.
Question
17
D Correct. Although sentence 18 doesn’t actually
include the word rider, we know that when the
writer refers to an injury, he is talking about a
rider who has been injured. He writes that “it’s
hard to pin the blame on a single two- or threeminute ride.” The new sentence should follow
this one because it suggests something else that
might have caused the injury.
D Incorrect. Someone’s is no clearer than their.
Readers still can’t tell whose brains the writer is
talking about.
155
Revising and Editing Answer Key
Question
18
(page 151)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
A
Incorrect. The noun states is plural, so the verb
should be are beginning.
B
Incorrect. A verb is needed here, so regulate is
the correct word.
C
Correct. The pronoun refers to the plural noun
states. The correct pronoun to use is their.
D Incorrect. There is a usage error in this sentence.
Question
19
(page 151)
Transition
A
Incorrect. However suggests a contrast, and that
is not the relationship between sentences 19 and
20.
B
Correct. In fact suggests that the writer is going
to give even more support for the statement he
just made. That’s what sentence 20 does; it tells
about something else people are doing to regulate
the safety of roller coasters.
C
Incorrect. Nevertheless suggests that something is
happening in spite of something else. That’s not
the relationship between sentences 19 and 20.
D Incorrect. Finally suggests that the idea in
sentence 20 is the last in a sequence of events or
ideas, but that’s not the case.
Question
20
(page 151)
Adjective/Adverb
A
Correct. Distinctly is an adverb. The adjective
distinct is needed to modify the noun possibility.
B
Incorrect. This word is spelled correctly in the
passage.
C
Incorrect. The comma is separating the two main
clauses in a compound sentence, so it should
be there.
D Incorrect. It is a singular subject, so doesn’t seem
is the correct verb form.
156
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement