RoNoMar - This course has been developed under Romanian Norwegian Maritime Project

RoNoMar - This course has been developed under Romanian Norwegian Maritime Project
This course has been developed under
RoNoMar - Romanian Norwegian
Maritime Project
(2008/111922)
Supported by a grant from Norway through the
Norwegian Cooperation Programme for Economic
Growth and Sustainable Development with Romania.
PERSONAL SAFETY
AND SOCIAL
RESPONSIBILITIES
SAFE WORKING
PRACTICES
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Introduction
“The present situations regarding equipments, installations, general
general
stage of ship building and seafarers training system doesn’
doesn’t
generate the reduction of accidents as will be expected.”
expected.”
Any company must have objectives relating safety management,
like:
acquiring of a safety practice in ship exploitation and of a nonnondangerous environment;
establishing of safety measures against all identified risks;
improving of personnel competencies on board and ashore about
safety management, including personnel training for emergency
situations
1
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
A trainee successfully completing this course will
be able to:
comply with emergency procedures;
take precautions to prevent pollution of the
marine environment;
observe safe working practices;
understand orders and be understood in relation
to shipboard duties;
contribute to effective human relationship on
board ship.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Importance of the course
Seafarers should:
cooperate as closely as possible with the shipowner in the
application of the prescribed safety and health measures;
take care of their own safety and health and of other persons who
may be affected by their acts or omissions at work;
use and take care of personal protective equipment and clothing at
their disposal and not misuse any means provided for their own
protection or the protection of others;
report forthwith to their immediate supervisor any situation which
they believe could pose a hazard and which they cannot properly
deal with themselves;
comply with the prescribed safety and health measures; and
participate in safety and health meetings.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Ship familiarization
All persons onboard during a passage (supernumeraries,
family members, surveyors, repair subcontractor
personnel etc.) have safety related obligations similar to
those of the rest of the crew, shall be familiarised on
safety aspects upon embarkation according to
Familiarisation Checklist for Ratings, their names
included in the Muster List and participate in the drills.
The above familiarisation must be conducted within
48 hours after the signing on day or before leaving
port, whatever comes first.
2
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Means of access to the ship:
there should be a safe means of access between any ship and any
quay, or another ship alongside which the ship is secured;
seafarers should be provided with adequate information on how to
make their way safely to and from the ship through the marine
terminal or shore side cargo handling area;
seafarers should not use a means of access which is unsafe;
all access arrangements should be supervised at all times
access should generally be by an accommodation ladder or
gangway which is appropriate to the deck layout, size, shape and
maximum freeboard of the ship
any access equipment should be of good construction, sound
material, adequate strength, free from obvious defect
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
a lifebuoy with a self-activating light and a separate safety line
should be provided at the point of access aboard the ship
all access equipment and the approaches to such equipment should
be properly illuminated
access equipment should be kept free of any snow, ice, grease or
other substance likely to cause a slip or fall
the means of access and its immediate approaches should be kept
free from obstruction
gangways and accommodation ladders should be clearly marked
with the maximum permitted angle of use and maximum safe
loading in both number of persons and total weight
3
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Ship’s accommodation ladders and gangways:
the accommodation ladder or gangway should be so constructed
that ordinary changes in the ship’s draught or height above the quay
can be easily accommodated
where practicable, accommodation ladders should have a swivel top
platform, slip-resistant treads and wheels or rollers at the bottom
duckboards should be fitted to provide a secure foothold at small
angles of inclination
the gap between the top of the gangway or ladder and the ship
should be protected on each side by handrails
accommodation ladders should not be used at a greater angle to the
horizontal than 55 degrees
special care should be taken during maintenance to detect any
cracking, rusting or corrosion in gangways, ladders and metal fittings
any defect posing hazards should be made good before further use
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Pilot ladders:
the requirements for pilot
ladders and mechanical pilot
hoists found in SOLAS, 1974,
Chapter V, Regulation 17.
4
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Passageways and walkways:
seafarers should move about the ship bearing in mind the possibility
of an unusual lurch or heavy roll by the ship while at sea
any deck obstructions and head-height obstructions that are a
hazard should be painted a bright, conspicuous colour.
where necessary, warning notices should be posted
head-height obstructions should be padded.
the stowage of deck cargoes should take account of the
requirements for safe access to crew quarters, for crew working the
ship, for boarding of pilots, and access to safety equipment.
all passageways, walkways, stairs and all deck surfaces used for
transit should be properly maintained and kept free from materials or
substances liable to cause slips or falls
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Protection around cargo hatches
and other deck openings:
every cargo hatchway should be
protected by means of a coaming or
fencing to a height of at least 1 m
above the deck.
access within cargo spaces and
holds should be kept clear
any openings through which a
person might fall should be fitted
with secure guards or fencing of
adequate design and construction
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Cranes and derricks:
all lifting equipment used on board ship should be of good design,
sound construction and material, adequate strength for the purpose
for which it is used, free from defect, properly installed or assembled
and properly maintained.
lifting gear should be tested and examined in accordance with
national requirements.
lifting gear should be clearly and legibly marked with its safe working
load, including the safe working load at various operating positions.
seafarers using cranes, derricks or special lifting gear should
preferably be trained and certified for the particular equipment
persons operating equipment should have a clear view. If this is not
possible, a signaller should be placed at a point clearly visible to the
equipment operator and from the area of work.
straps and slings should be of sufficient size and length to enable
them to be used safely and be applied and pulled sufficiently tight to
prevent the load or any part of the load from slipping and falling
5
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
all blocks should be inspected
before use and no block should be
used unless it has identification
marks and its safe working load
marked on it in tonnes
all grease nipples and/or
lubrication holes should be kept
clear and each block should be
regularly greased.
hooks should be marked with their
safe working load.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Mooring and unmooring:
all seafarers involved in mooring
and unmooring operations of any
kind should be informed of the
hazards of engaging in such
operations.
a competent person should be in
charge of mooring operations and
ascertain that there are no persons
in a dangerous position before any
heaving or letting go operation is
commenced.
mixed moorings of wires and ropes
in the same direction should not be
used because wires and ropes
stretch differently.
there should be sufficient seafarers
available to ensure the safe
conduct of operations.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
only competent persons should operate
windlasses and winches.
under no circumstances whatsoever
should seafarers stand in a bight of a
rope or wire which is lying on deck.
Seafarers should never stand or move
across a rope or wire that is under
strain.
ropes and wires are frequently under
strain during mooring operations and
seafarers should, as much as possible,
always stand in a place of safety from
whiplash should ropes or wires break.
due to the types of man-made ropes that
may be on board ship, seafarers should
be trained in the techniques of "stopping
off wires and ropes. Chain-securing
devices should be used for stopping off
wire mooring ropes but never for fibre
ropes
6
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Working in machinery spaces:
all operations in machinery spaces should be performed by a
competent person under the supervision of a responsible officer or
senior rating.
the regulations of the competent authority on the guarding of every
dangerous part of a vessel's machinery should apply.
particular attention should be paid to protecting seafarers from the
effects of noise. Spaces in which hearing protection needs to be
worn should be indicated by warning signs.
no work other than routine duties should be undertaken except on
the orders of a responsible engineering officer
moving parts of machinery should be provided with permanent
guards or other safety devices such as railings or fencing
no guard, fencing or shielding should be removed for repair or
maintenance except when the machinery to which it relates has
been stopped
the source of any oil leak should be located as soon as possible and
the leak stopped
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
care should be taken to keep the noise level as low as practicable,
and to maintain or where necessary improve sound-absorbing
arrangements.
seafarers should be informed of the danger of removing hearing
protection in areas where the noise level is high, even for short
periods
unless properly equipped and authorized to be operated without
persons in attendance, the boiler room and machinery space should
be under the direct supervision of a competent person at all times
and should be manned at all times by persons adequate for the
duties required.
seafarers should always stand clear of any load being lifted and
should not walk close to or underneath any load being lifted or while
it is suspended.
any tools used at heights above platform level should be kept in a
suitable bag or box, or secured so as to prevent them from falling.
notices of safety precautions to be observed by seafarers working in
control-rooms and unattended machinery spaces should be clearly
displayed at entrances
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Nature of shipboard hazards
The importance of good housekeeping in the prevention of accidents
accidents
and conditions likely to be injurious to health should be given proper
priority in the training of every member of the crew until its
acceptance becomes second nature.
nature.
Any spillage of oil or other substance likely to cause a hazard should
be removed immediately.
Accumulations of ice, snow or slush should be removed from
working areas and passages on deck.
Doors, whether open or closed, should be properly secured.
Coils of rope and wires on deck should be located so as not to pose
a tripping hazard.
Under no circumstances whatsoever should seafarers stand in a
bight of a rope or wire which is lying on deck. Seafarers should
never stand or move across a rope or wire that is under strain.
7
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Seafarers should always stand clear of any load being lifted and
should not walk close to or underneath any load being lifted or while
it is suspended.
Litter presents a fire risk and may cause slips, falls or conceal other
hazards.
Aerosols having volatile and inflammable content should never be
used or placed near naked flames or other heat sources even when
empty.
Seafarers should have appropriate and up-to-date vaccinations and
inoculations.
Small cuts and abrasions should be treated immediately.
Precautions should be taken to avoid insect bites. In particular, antimalaria precautions should be taken before, during and after the
ship visits ports where malaria is known to exist.
High standards of personal cleanliness and hygiene should be
maintained at all times.
Seafarers should protect themselves from the sun in tropical areas
and be informed that prolonged sun bathing, even when the skin is
protected, may be harmful.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Chemicals should always be handled with extreme care, protection
should be worn and the manufacturer's instructions closely followed.
Particular attention should be paid to protecting eyes.
Some cleaning agents, such as caustic soda and bleach, are
chemicals and may burn the skin.
Exposure to certain substances such as mineral oils, natural
solvents and chemicals, including domestic cleaning agents and
detergents, may cause dermatitis.
When seafarers use portable equipment or portable lamps they
should ensure that any flexible cables passing through doors,
hatches, manholes, etc., are protected and that their insulation is not
damaged by the closing of doors, covers or lids.
Seafarers should not site private aerials in the vicinity of the vessel's
aerials.
Care should be taken when drying items of clothing. Clothing should
not be hung directly on or close to heaters and should never be
dried in the engine-room.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Shipboard security is essential in reducing the risks of terrorism,
stowaways, piracy and drug smuggling.
The chances of a ship experiencing a terrorist attack are very low
but attacks do happen. The main threat is from people trying to
smuggle weapons and explosives on board.
Owners or masters of ships operating in areas where attacks may
occur are responsible for deciding what measures to take. The
following notes are guidance only based on advice from security
experts:
Be vigilant
Maintain a 24 hour visual and security watch
Strengthen night watches
Seal off means of access to the ship
Establish radio (VHF) contact
Provide adequate lighting
Water hose and any other equipment
Reduce opportunities for theft
Inform crew of the security plan
8
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Equipment provided on board to counter
hazards and items in each group. Use of PPE
Risks to the health and safety of workers must be
identified and assessed.
Personal protective equipment must be used only when
risks cannot be avoided or reduced to an acceptable
level by safe working practices, that cause no health risk
to any worker.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Suitable equipment should:
be appropriate for the risks involved, and the task being
performed, without itself leading to any significant
increased risk;
fit the worker correctly after any necessary adjustment;
take account of ergonomic requirements and the
worker's state of health;
be compatible with any other equipment the worker has
to use at the same time, so that it continues to be
effective against the risk.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal protective equipment
Seafarers should be reminded that the provision of
personal protective equipment does not mean that
they can lower their own safety standards and that
such equipment does not eliminate hazards but
gives only limited protection in the case of
accidents.
All seafarers should be trained in the use of personal
protective equipment and advised of its limitations.
Persons using such items should check them each
time before use.
9
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal protective equipment can be classified as
follows:
Head protection
Hearing protection
Face and eye protection
Respiratory protective equipment
Hand and foot protection
Body protection
Protection against drowning
Protection against hypothermia
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Safety helmets, bump caps hair protection
Ear muffs, ear plugs
Goggles and spectacles, facial shields
Dust masks, respirators, breathing apparatus
Gloves, safety boots and shoes
Safety suits, safety belts, harnesses, aprons, high visibility clothing.
clothing.
Lifejackets, buoyancy aids and lifebuoys
Immersion suits and antianti-exposure suits
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Operations that take place on board which can
be hazardous to personnel or ship
loading/unloading of cargoes
mooring
working aloft
handling of chemicals
engine-room watchkeeping and maintenance
lifting loads (manually and mechanically)
entry into enclosed spaces
hot work
anti-piracy and stowaway operations
10
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Loading and unloading of cargoes
All cargoes should be stowed and secured in a manner
that will avoid exposing the ship and persons on board to
unnecessary risk. The safe stowage and securing of
cargo depends upon proper planning, execution and
supervision by properly qualified and experienced
personnel.
Cargo securing should be completed before the ship
proceeds to sea.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The following points should be taken into account:
o
o
o
o
o
cargo information, including gross mass of the cargo or cargo units
units
and any special properties detailed on board or in the shipping
documents, should be recorded and used in planning;
care should be taken not to over stow lighter cargoes with heavier
heavier
cargoes which may lead to a collapse of the stow;
cargo should be stowed so as to leave safe clearance behind the
rungs of hold ladders and to allow safe access as may be necessary
necessary
at sea;
the need to walk across or climb onto deck cargo, where this may
involve an approach to an unprotected edge with risk of falling,
should be minimised;
care should be taken to avoid large gaps next to cargo where it is
stacked against corrugated bulkheads.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Deck cargo should be stowed in accordance with the statutory
regulations, and kept clear of hatch coamings to allow safe access.
Access to safety equipment, fire fighting equipment (particularly fire
hydrants) and sounding pipes should also be kept free.
Suitable safety nets or temporary fencing should be rigged where
personnel have to walk or climb across built-up cargo, and are
therefore at risk of falling.
Dangerous substances should be loaded or unloaded only under the
supervision of a competent responsible officer. Suitable precautions,
such as the provision of special lifting gear as appropriate, should be
taken to prevent damage to receptacles containing dangerous
substances.
Emergency response procedures should be established.
11
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The equipment used for lifting a container should be suitable for the
load, and safely attached to the container.
Safe means of access to the top of a container should be provided
to release lifting gear, and to fix lashings, and personnel so engaged
should, where appropriate, be protected from falling by use of a
properly secured safety harness or other suitable means.
The system of work should be such as to limit the needs to work on
container tops.
Safety arrangements prior to working cargo should ensure that
adequate and suitable lifting plant is available, in accordance with
the register of lifting appliances and cargo gear, and that all plant
and equipment, and any special gear necessary is available and
used.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Masters, officers and ratings appointed to work on tankers or similar
vessels must meet the minimum training and qualifications
requirements specified in regulation V/I of the International
Conventions on Standards of Training, Certification and
Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as amended in 1995.
Training in emergency procedures and in the use of any special
emergency equipment should be given as appropriate to members
of the crew at regular intervals. The instruction should include
personal first aid measures for dealing with accidental contact with
harmful substances in the cargo being carried and inhalation of
dangerous gases and fumes.
Guidance on the general precautions which should be taken on
these vessels is given in the Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefied Gas)
and Safety in Liquefied Gas Tankers (a handbook for crew
members) published by the International Chamber of Shipping.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The movement, stowage and securing of vehicles on vehicle decks
and ramps should be supervised by a responsible ship's officer
assisted by at least one competent person.
Passengers and drivers should not be permitted to remain on
vehicle decks without the express authority of a responsible ship's
officer. The period prior to disembarkation when passengers and
drivers are requested to return to their vehicles should be kept to a
minimum.
12
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Mooring and unmooring
All seafarers involved in mooring and unmooring operations of any
kind should be informed of the hazards of engaging in such
operations.
Where mooring to buoys by the ship's crew is permitted by the local
authority, the following additional precautions should be followed:
lifebuoys, with and without attached lines, should be readily
available;
seafarers engaged in mooring to buoys from a ship's boat should
wear personal protective equipment and a life-jacket;
equipment should be provided to enable anyone who falls into the
water to climb on board the boat;
the eye of a slip wire used for mooring to buoys should never be put
over the buts;
mooring strong points, such as chain-securing devices and quickrelease mechanisms, should be maintained in a serviceable
condition.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Areas where mooring operations are to be undertaken should be
clutter free as far as possible. Decks should have anti-slip surfaces
provided by fixed treads or anti-slip paint coating, and the whole
working area should be adequately lit for operations undertaken
during periods of darkness.
Careful thought should be given to the layout of moorings, so that
leads are those most suited without creating sharp angles and ropes
and wires are not fed through the same leads or bollards. Preplanning of such operations is recommended.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Enclosed spaces
The atmosphere of any enclosed or confined space is potentially
dangerous. The space may be deficient in oxygen and/or contain
flammable or toxic fumes, gases or vapours. Where possible,
alternative means of working which avoid entering the space should
should
be found.
When it is suspected that there could be a deficiency of oxygen in
any space, or that toxic gases, vapours or fumes could be present,
present,
then such a space should be considered to be a dangerous space.
13
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The following precautions should be taken as appropriate before a
potentially dangerous space is entered so as to make the space
safe for entry without breathing apparatus and to ensure it remains
safe whilst persons are within the space:
A competent person should make an assessment of the space and
a responsible officer to take charge of the operation should be
appointed
The potential hazards should be identified
The space should be prepared and secured for entry
The atmosphere of the space should be tested
A 'permit-to-work"system should be used
Procedures before and during the entry should be instituted
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Duties and responsibilities of a competent person and of a
responsible officer
A responsible officer is a person appointed to take charge of every
operation where entry into a dangerous space is necessary. This
officer may be the same as the competent person or another officer
It is for the responsible officer to decide on the basis of the risk
assessment the procedures to be followed for entry into a potentially
dangerous space and will depend on whether the assessment
shows:
there is a minimal risk to the life or health of a person entering the
space then or at any future time;
there is no immediate risk to health and life but a risk could arise
during the course of work in the space;
the risk to life or health is immediate.
14
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Identifying potential hazards oxygen deficiency
If an empty tank or other confined space has been closed for a time
the oxygen content may have been reduced owing to a number of
reasons:
Rusting may have occurred due to oxygen combining with steel.
Oxygen absorbing chemicals may have been present.
Oxygen absorbing cargoes may have been carried or gases from
volatile cargoes may have displaced the oxygen in tanks.
Hydrogen may have been produced in a cathodically-protected
cargo tank used for ballast.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Preparing and securing the space for entry
When opening the entrance to a potentially dangerous space,
precautions should be taken in case pressurised or unpressurised
vapour or gases are released from the space.
The space should be isolated and secured against the ingress of
dangerous substances by blanking off pipe-lines or other openings
and by closing valves.
Where necessary, any sludge or other deposit liable to give off
fumes should be cleaned out.
The space should be thoroughly ventilated either by natural or
mechanical means and then tested to ensure that all harmful gases
are removed and no pockets of oxygen deficient atmosphere
remain.
A steady reading of at least 20% oxygen by volume on an oxygen
content meter should be obtained before entry is permitted.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Procedures and arrangements before entry and during entry
Access to and within the space should be adequate and well illuminated.
No source of ignition should be taken or put into the space unless the
master or responsible officer is satisfied that it is safe to do so.
In all cases rescue and available resuscitation equipment should be
positioned ready for use at the entrance to the space.
The number of personnel entering the space should be limited to those who
actually need to work in the space.
Ventilation should continue during the period that the space is occupied and
during temporary breaks.
The atmosphere should be tested periodically whilst the space is occupied
and personnel should be instructed to leave the space should there be any
deterioration of the conditions.
15
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Training, instruction and information
Employers should provide any necessary training, instruction and
information to employees in order to ensure that the requirements of
the Entry into Dangerous Spaces Regulations are complied with and
should include:
recognition of the circumstances and activities likely to lead to the
presence of a dangerous atmosphere,
the hazards associated with entry into dangerous spaces, and the
precautions to be taken,
the use and maintenance of equipment and clothing required for
entry into dangerous spaces,
instruction and drills in rescue from dangerous spaces.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
When in a dangerous space:
No one should remove their own breathing apparatus.
Breathing apparatus should not be removed from a person unless it
is necessary to save their life.
It is recommended that resuscitators of an appropriate kind should
be provided where any person may be required to enter a
dangerous space.
Where entry is expected to occur at sea the ship should be provided
with appropriate equipment. Otherwise entry should be deferred until
the ship has docked and use can be made of shore side equipment.
16
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Hot work
Welding, flame-cutting and other hot work operations should be
conducted within the "permit-to-work" system, whenever carried out
in a non-workshop location.
Operators should be competent and familiar with the equipment to
be used, which should be inspected by a competent person before
use.
Seafarers should be given careful instructions if special precautions
need to be taken.
Harmful fumes may be produced and oxygen depleted during
operations.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The operator should normally wear:
a welding helmet and suitable eye shield;
leather working gloves;
a leather apron when appropriate;
other appropriate personal protective equipment.
Before any operation begins, inspections and tests should be carried
out to ensure that there are no combustible solids, liquids or gases at or
in any compartments adjacent to the work area which might be ignited
by heat or sparks from the work.
All surfaces to be welded, or upon which hot work is to be conducted,
should be free of oil, grease or any flammable or combustible material.
All operations should be properly supervised and a fire watch
maintained, both in the operational area and all adjacent areas.
Because of the possibility of delayed fires the fire watch should be
maintained for a suitable period of time after the work has been
completed.
17
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Working aloft
Consideration should be given to a permit-to-work system for
work aloft or over the side depending on the nature of the work.
A form for working aloft should take account of the particular
nature of the operation.
Particular attention should be paid to sea and weather conditions
and the possibility of squalls before working aloft or over the side is
commenced. In general, working aloft or over the side should not be
permitted if the movement of a ship in a seaway makes such work
hazardous.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
All seafarers should wear safety harnesses and safety nets should
be rigged where appropriate.
Persons working over the side should wear life jackets or other
suitable flotation devices.
Someone should be in attendance on deck and a lifebuoy with a line
attached should be readily available.
Warning notices that seafarers are working aloft should be posted
on deck and elsewhere as appropriate.
Tools should not be carried in pockets but secured in belt tool
carriers and they should be kept secured to the belt with a lanyard or
string during the work.
Tools and stores should be sent up and lowered by line in suitable
containers.
18
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Seafarers working aloft or over the
side should be continuously
supervised by a competent person.
Cradles should be at least 40 cm
wide and fitted with guard-rails to a
height of 1 meter.
Plank stages should be made from
sound wood and materials and
should be free from defect.
As far as possible stages should be
secured against movement.
Gantlines should be long enough to
allow stages to be lowered to a level
which enables seafarers to step off
the stage easily.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
EngineEngine-room watchkeeping and maintenance
All operations in machinery spaces should be performed by a
competent person under the supervision of a responsible officer or
senior rating.
The regulations of the competent authority on the guarding of every
dangerous part of a vessel's machinery should apply.
When working alone, a person should arrange to communicate at
regular and frequent intervals with other persons in the machinery
spaces or on the bridge.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
No person should perform any operation on a boiler, unfired
pressure vessel or steam pipe that could result in the release of
steam, air, or oil except:
under the supervision of an engineer officer;
with the knowledge and approval of the chief engineer.
The propulsion machinery should be provided and maintained in
accordance with the requirements of the competent authority and
good practice.
Maintenance should be carried out by a competent person and a
responsible officer should be informed immediately if any actual, or
latent, fault or defect is observed, with remedial action being taken
as appropriate.
Internal combustion machinery should be maintained in safe
condition and be regularly inspected as required by the
manufacturer.
19
CONTRIBUTE TO
EFFECTIVE HUMAN
RELATIONSHIP ON
BOARD SHIP
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Interpersonal relationships
At most simply level interpersonal relationships means to be polite
with others and in this way to be accepted.
be companionable, adaptable, accommodating
respect the elementary standards
avoid altercations with colleagues.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
There is also a second level, more complex, where well
interpersonal relationships means establishing and maintaining of
connections in many directions and with persons from many
categories.
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
know how to solve difficult situations
be able to face a conflict situation
work well when your superior is unfair or dominator
know and understand yourself
be able to communicate with others
have good relations with colleagues, friends and family
remake a deteriorated working relation, to be able to fix up a relation
after an altercation
learn to live with your own problems without to disturb others with
them
be able to adopt the right attitude during a conversation with a mate.
20
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Errors possible to appear inside of interpersonal perception are:
Hallo Effect
Error through significant values
Analogy with own personality
Error through generalization from a significant person
Projection
Metaphoric generalization
Temporally extension
Exaggerate simplifying
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Error through value added to information source
Situational error
Preconception
Cognitive stereotypy
Age errors
Professional status errors
Social perception inertia
Prestige raying
Differences amplification errors
Positive error (allowable error)
Exacerbate prudence (exactingness error)
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Interpersonal skills refer to mental and communicative
algorithms applied during social communications and
interactions to reach certain effects and results.
Having positive interpersonal skills increases the
productivity in the organization since the number of
conflicts is reduced. In informal situations, it allows
communication to be easy and comfortable. People with
good interpersonal skills can generally control the
feelings that emerge in difficult situations and respond
appropriately, instead of being overwhelmed by emotion.
21
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Team building
Team building refers to a wide range of activities for
improving team performance.
Team building is pursued via a variety of practices, and
can range from simple bonding exercises to complex
simulations and multi-day team building retreats
designed to develop a team, usually falling somewhere
in between.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Reasons for team building include:
improving communication
making the workplace more enjoyable
motivating a team
getting to know each other
getting everyone “onto the same page”, including goal setting
teaching the team self-regulation strategies
helping participants to learn more about themselves (strengths and
weaknesses)
identifying and utilizing the strengths of team members
improving team productivity
practicing effective collaboration with team members
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Team member qualities
Emotional stability: adjustment, selfself-esteem
Extraversion: dominance, affiliation, social percertiveness,
percertiveness,
expressivity
Openness: flexibility
Agreeableness: trust, cooperation
22
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Building a new team
Old Environment
Person followed orders.
New Environment
Person comes up with initiatives.
Group depended on manager.
Group has considerable authority to chart its own
steps.
Group was a team because people conformed to
direction set by manager. No one rocked the
boat.
Group is a team because people learn to
collaborate in the face of their emerging right
to think for themselves. People rock the boat
and work together.
People cooperated by suppressing their thoughts
and feelings. They wanted to get along.
People cooperate by using their thoughts and
feelings. They link up through direct talk.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Team work
Teamwork is the capability to comprehend and
recognize the diverse strengths and abilities in a group
setting and then applying them to one final solution.
Some things cannot be accomplished by people working individually.
Larger, ambitious goals usually require that people work together
with other people.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Collaboration is a recursive process where two or more people or
organizations work together in an intersection of common goals, for
example, an intellectual endeavour that is creative in nature, by
sharing knowledge, learning and building consensus.
Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of
behaviour and communication.
A cross-functional team is a group of people with different functional
expertise working towards a common goal.
23
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Team management refers to techniques, processes and tools for
organizing and coordinating individuals working towards a common
goal, i.e. a team.
Team performance management is the concept of adjusting the
composition, context or direction of a team or work group in order to
increase the effectiveness of the team or group.
UNDERSTAND ORDERS
AND BE UNDERSTOOD
IN RELATION TO
SHIPBOARD DUTIES
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Fundamentals of communication
To achieve precision and effectiveness in communicating, you
should understand the basic process of communication. It has four
requirements:
A message must be conveyed.
The message must be received.
There must be a response.
Each message must be understood.
24
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
It is often said that
poor communication
is the reason for 80%
of all accidents.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
If the receiver is uninterested, tired, hungry, thirsty is under a high
degree of stress, has poor attitudes or suffers from reduced hearing,
the message will be lost.
If I don’t talk clearly enough, you will not understand.
If I don’t talk loudly enough, you will not understand.
If I speak too fast without any pauses, you will not understand.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Methods of communication
Forms of communication:
interpersonal communication/organizational communication
formal/informal communication
horizontal/vertical/diagonal communication
verbal/para-verbal/nonverbal/cognitive communication
feedback
25
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Interpersonal communication techniques:
interpersonal report
personal habitat/safety areas
look and visual control
smile
postures and mimics
ambiance
first impression
looking for an anchor
avoidance of negative answer
challenge of positive answer
positive request
significant silence
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Barriers in communication
Physically: verbal deficiencies, acoustics, position, light, temperature, daily time,
length of meeting, etc.;
Semantically: vocabulary, grammar, syntax, emotional connotations of words;
Due to internal factors: positive implication and negative implication;
Fear
Subjective suppositions
Hidden agenda
Imaginative worlds
Other barriers can be:
Perception differences
Transient conclusions
Stereotypes
Knowledge missing
Interest missing
Emotions
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Effective transmission and listening skills
Elements of effective transmission and listening skills are:
Consciously
Reflexive listening
Clarity
Reconcilement
Assertiveness
Empathy
Active listening
Mobile communication
Unidirectional communication
Two way communication
Assertive-constructive behaviour
Assertive-objective behaviour
Passive-elusive behaviour
Aggressive-destructive behaviour
26
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Communication sumsum-up
The language usually used on board ship is the national
language of the crew.
However, in these days of multinational crews, a variety
of languages may be used or alternatively one working
language adopted.
Ships trading internationally must conduct ship to shore
communications in a language that can be understood
as navigational and safety communications must be
precise and unambiguous to avoid confusion and error.
COMPLY WITH
EMERGENCY
PROCEDURES
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Means of emergency
An emergency is a situation
with imminent danger of loss of
life, injury, loss or damage to
property or damage to
environment.
27
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Shipboard contingency plans should take account of the various
types of emergency which may arise on a particular ship and may
include:
the allocation of duties and responsibilities on board;
actions to be taken to regain of a situation;
communication methods to be used on board;
procedures for requesting assistance from third parties;
procedures for notifying the company and reporting to relevant
authorities;
maintaining communication between the ship and shore;
procedures for dealing with the media or their outside parties.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Examples of emergency situation may include:
structural failure;
main engine failure;
steering gear failure;
electrical power failure;
collision;
cargo spillage or contamination;
fire;
flooding;
abandoning ship;
man overboard/ search and rescue;
entry into enclosed spaces;
serious injury;
terrorism or piracy;
helicopter operations;
heavy weather damages.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Drills and muster. Value and need of drills
and training
Actions to counter potential emergency situations should be
practiced in drills.
A programme of such drills, additional to those required by the
SOLAS Convention, should be conducted to develop and maintain
confidence and proficiency on board.
The purpose of these drills is to:
Improve awareness of the potential hazards facing personnel and
the ships;
Increase the standards and speed of response to identified potential
emergency situations
28
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The following drills and exercises shall be periodically carried out on
all Company ships:
Fire in accommodation;
Fire in engine room;
Fire in cargo space;
Abandon ship;
Grounding;
Collision;
Flooding;
Structural damages or caused by bad weather;
Man over board;
Personal injury/ illness;
Oil pollution;
Entry/ escape from enclosed spaces.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Other drills that may be considered for certain ships include, but are
not limited to:
Piracy or terrorist attacks;
Dangerous cargo spill;
Cargo shifting;
Equipment damages;
Open sea towing;
Search and rescue.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
All completed drills shall be reported by entries in the deck logbook.
This record shall include personnel involved, equipment used and
details of any problem encountered and shall be signed by the
Master.
The effectiveness of these drills shall be formally reviewed at the
monthly on board management meetings. Any suggested
improvements arising from these reviews shall be transmitted to the
Company for approval as soon as is practicable, and any event from
the next port.
The master should ensure that a muster list is compiled and kept up
to date and that copies are displayed in conspicuous places
throughout the ship.
The muster list should contain details of the general alarm signal
and other emergency signals and the action to be taken when such
signals are activated.
29
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Seafarers should be informed of the location to which they must go
on hearing the emergency signal and of their duties when they arrive
at that station. The location should be well marked.
The purpose of drills is to familiarize personnel with their respective
duties and to ensure that they can carry out those duties in an
appropriate manner.
The timing of drills should be varied to ensure that seafarers who
because of their duties have not taken part in a particular drill may
participate in the next drill.
Seafarers should receive training as soon as possible, if possible
before joining the ship, to ensure that there is no period of time
when the seafarer is incapable of carrying out safety-related
responsibilities.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Appropriate crew members on board should be trained in the use of
the following fire-fighting appliances:
all types of portable fire extinguishers carried on board;
self-contained breathing apparatus;
hoses with jet and spray nozzles;
any fixed fire-fighting system such as foam or carbon dioxide;
fire blankets;
firemen's outfits.
When possible, fire drills should be held in port as well as at
sea.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The type and position of the fire scenario should be varied in a wellconceived sequence which covers most parts of the ship and all
types of fire-fighting.
Locations could include:
holds, tanks and other spaces such as forepeak stores and paint
lockers;
engine or boiler rooms;
accommodation spaces such as cabins and laundry rooms; and
galleys.
Fire drills should be as realistic as circumstances permit.
30
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Abandoning ship and other life-saving drills should be carried out in
accordance with national requirements, which should be at least equivalent
to those of Chapter III of the Annex to SOLAS (1974), as amended.
summoning personnel to muster stations by the general alarm and ensuring
that they are made aware of the order to abandon ship. A check should be
carried out to ensure that all personnel are at muster stations;
reporting to stations and preparing for the duties described in the muster
list;
checking that personnel are suitably dressed to minimize cold shock if direct
entry into the sea is necessary;
checking that life-jackets are correctly donned;
where possible, lowering of at least one lifeboat after any necessary
preparation for launching;
starting and operating the lifeboat engine;
where fitted, operating of davits for launching liferafts; and
divers in saturation are not able to take advantage of conventional lifeboats
in an emergency.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
A sufficient number of crew members should be trained in helicopter
operations.
A safety check-list should be used as the basis for preparing for all
ship/helicopter operations. The check-list should include such typical
provisions as:
all loose objects should be secured or removed;
all aerials should be lowered;
fire hoses should be ready, pumps running and adequate water
pressure provided on deck;
foam hoses, monitors and portable foam equipment should be
ready;
additional equipment, such as wire cutters and crowbars, should be
ready;
railings should be lowered where appropriate; and
flag pennants or wind socks should be used to indicate wind
direction.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
A contingency plan should be devised to minimize the effect of a
helicopter crashing onto the ship and seafarers should be trained in
the operation of the plan. The plan should provide for:
foam equipment operators, at least two wearing firemen's outfits,
standing by;
rescue party, with at least two members wearing firemen's outfits,
standing by;
man overboard rescue boat ready for immediate lowering;
hook handlers equipped with suitable gloves and rubber boots.
The crew should be trained in procedures for evacuation by
helicopter.
31
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Each ship should have a contingency plan in the event that
someone falls overboard.
This would include:
executing a Williamson turn or other ship's turn as appropriate;
dropping the bridge wing quick-release lifebuoy;
sounding the general or emergency squad alarm;
announcing the type of emergency over the public address system
so that the rescue boat can be prepared;
assigning a person to the wheel and posting lookouts;
radar "marking" of the man overboard position;
positioning the ship to make a lee and launching the rescue boat.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Emergency training should not be limited to abandoning ship, firefighting and man-overboard drills.
Seafarers should undergo continuous and refresher training in any
emergency situations likely to occur aboard the ship.
Seafarers should receive first-aid training prior to boarding the ship.
Special training should be provided for particular types of cargoes
and operations.
Refresher training should be given on a regular basis.
Posters, pamphlets and other means of reminding seafarers of firstaid procedures should be posted or otherwise made available
throughout the ship.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Internal communication
Telephone, portable VHF/UHF and radio telephone systems should
comply with the appropriate safety requirements.
When telephones are used should be continuously manned by
persons who can immediately contact their superior. Additionally, it
should be possible for that superior to override all calls.
When VHF/UHF or radiotelephone systems are used, units should
preferably be portable and carried by the responsible officer or
seaman. Where fixed systems are used, the above guidance for
telephones should be followed.
The selected system of communication together with the necessary
information on channels to be used should be recorded on an
appropriate form.
32
TAKE PRECAUTIONS TO
PREVENT POLLUTION OF
THE MARINE
ENVIRONMENT
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Definition of “pollution”
pollution”
Pollution means presence of matter (gas, liquid,
solid) or energy (heat, noise, radiation) whose
nature, location, or quantity directly or indirectly
alters characteristics or processes of any part of the
environment, and causes damage to the condition,
health, safety, or welfare of animals, humans, plants
or property.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
33
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Sources of pollution (main ways that pollutants enter the marine
environment) :
direct discharge of effluents and solid wastes into the seas and
oceans (industrial discharge, municipal waste discharge, coastal
sewage, and others);
land runoff into the coastal zone, mainly with rivers;
atmospheric fallout of pollutants transferred by the air mass onto
the seas' surface.
Oil spills on ships can be a result of both emergency and routine
operations.
Operations such as cleaning of cargo residues or ballasting of cargo
tanks for the purpose of loading cargo and stability can lead to oil
pollution.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Effects of operational or accidental
pollution of the marine environment
A sudden spillage of oil into the sea causes a thick layer that floats
on the surface of the sea(as we know density of oil is lesser than
density of water). This layer forms a smothering blanket that
interferes with the exchange of oxygen between the sea and the
atmosphere.
Human life can also be affected when coastline or beaches which
are nearest to the oil spillage and which are used for recreational
activities comes in direct contact with oil. This oil may also enter sea
water distilling inlets and also get deposited on tidal mud flats.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
34
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
International measures for pollution
prevention, pollution avoidance and
containment of pollutants
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships:
1973, was adopted by the International Conference on Marine Pollution
convened by IMO from 8 October to 2 November, including Protocols I
(Provisions concerning Reports on Incidents involving Harmful Substances)
and II (Arbitration).
modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, which was adopted by the
International Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention (TSPP
Conference) convened by IMO from 6 to 17 February 1978.
The Convention, as modified by the 1978 Protocol, is known as “The
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as
modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto", or, in short form,
"MARPOL 73/78".
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Segregated ballast tanks
Segregated ballast means the ballast water introduced into a tank
which is completely separated from the cargo oil and oil fuel system
and which is permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast or to
the carriage of ballast or cargoes other than variously defined in the
Annexes of the oil or noxious substances present Convention.
Every crude oil tanker of 20,000 tons deadweight and above and
every product carrier of 30,000 tons deadweight and above shall be
provided with segregated ballast tanks.
Every crude oil tanker and product carrier of 40,000 tones
deadweight and above delivered on or before 1 June 1982, shall be
provided with segregated ballast tanks.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
In no case shall ballast water be carried in cargo tanks, except:
on those rare voyages when weather conditions are so severe
that, in the opinion of the master, it is necessary to carry
additional ballast water in cargo tanks for the safety of the ship;
in exceptional cases where the particular character of the
operation of an oil tanker renders it necessary to carry ballast
water in excess of the quantity, provided that such operation of
the oil tanker falls under the category of exceptional cases as
established by the Organization.
Such additional ballast water shall be processed and discharged
in compliance with MARPOL 73/78 Convention and an entry
shall be made in the Oil Record Book Part II.
35
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Double hull design
The entire cargo tank length shall be protected by ballast tanks or
spaces other than that carry oil as follows:
wing tanks or spaces shall extend either for the full depth of the
ship’s side or from the top of the double bottom to the uppermost
deck, disregarding a rounded gunwale where fitted. They shall be
arranged such that the cargo tanks are located inboard of the
moulded line of the side shell plating.
At any cross-section, the depth of each double bottom tank or space
shall be such that the distance between the bottom of the cargo
tanks and the moulded line of the bottom shell plating measured at
right angles to the bottom shell plating is not less than B/15 (m) or
2.0 m, whichever is the lesser.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
On crude oil tankers of 20,000 tones deadweight and above and product
carriers of 30,000 tones deadweight and above, the aggregate capacity of
wing tanks shall not be less than the forepeak tanks and after peak tanks
shall not be less than the capacity of segregated ballast tanks necessary to
meet the requirements of MARPOL 73/78 Convention.
Wing tanks or spaces and double bottom tanks used shall be located as
uniformly as practicable along the cargo tank length.
Oil shall not be carried in any space extending forward of a collision
bulkhead
An oil tanker that is not required to have a collision bulkhead in accordance
with that regulation shall not carry oil in any space extending forward of the
transverse plane perpendicular to the centerline that is located as if it were
a collision bulkhead located in accordance with that regulation.
Double hull and double bottom requirements apply to oil tankers of 5,000
tones deadweight and above which are delivered before 6 July 1996.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Reception facilities
To enable pipes of reception facilities to be connected with the ship's
discharge pipeline, both lines shall be fitted with a standard discharge:
Outside diameter: 21,0 mm
Inner diameter According to pipe outside diameter
Bolt circle diameter: 170 mm
Slots in flange 4 holes 18 mm in diameter equidistantly placed on a bolt
circle of the above diameter, slotted to the flange periphery.
The slot width to be 18 mm
Flange thickness: 16 mrn
Bolts and nuts: quantity and diameter 4, each of 16 mm in diameter and of
suitable length
The flange is designed to accept pipes up to a maximum internal diameter
of 100 mm and shall be of steel or other equivalent material having a flat
face. This flange, together with a suitable gasket, shall be suitable for a
service pressure of 6 kg/cm2
36
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Sewage disposal arrangements and garbage
management plan/record book
Every ship shall be equipped with one of the following sewage
systems:
a sewage treatment plant which shall be of a type approved, taking
into account the standards and test methods developed by IMO, or
a sewage comminuting and disinfecting system approved. Such
system shall be fitted with facilitation for the temporary storage of
sewage when the ship is less then 3 nautical miles from the nearest
land, or
a holding tank for the retention of all sewage, having regard to the
operation of the ship, the number of person on board and other
relevant factors.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above, and every ship which is
certified to carry 15 persons or more, shall carry a garbage
management plan which the crew shall follow.
Every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above and every ship which is
certified to carry 15 persons or more engaged in voyages to ports or
offshore terminals and every fixed and floating platform engaged in
exploration and exploitation of the sea-bed shall be provided with a
Garbage Record Book.
Each discharge operation, or completed incineration, shall be
recorded in the Garbage Record Book and signed for on the date of
the incineration or discharge by the officer in charge.
Each completed page of the Garbage Record Book shall be signed
by the Master of the ship.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The Master is responsible for the implementation and supervision of
the vessel’s waste and garbage management plan.
Deck Department: the Chief Officer is responsible for the
separation and storage of garbage generated in this area.
Engine Room: the 2nd Engineer is responsible for the separation
and storage of garbage generated in this area.
Catering Department: the Cook is responsible for the separation
and storage of garbage generated in this area.
37
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Red Container: Plastics and synthetic materials
Blue Container: Food wastes
Black Container: Paper products, rags, glass, metal containers,
bottles crockery and similar refuse.
Yellow Container: Floating dunnage, lining and packing materials
Please note:
THE USE OF PLASTIC BAGS FOR DISPOSAL OF
GARBAGE INTO THE SEA IS UNIVERSALLY
BANNED
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Contents and purpose of the shipboard oil pollution
emergency plan (SOPEP)
Every oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above and every ship other than
an oil tanker of 400 gross tonnage and above shall carry on board a
shipboard oil pollution emergency plan.
The plan shall consist at least of:
the procedure to be followed by the master or other persons having charge
of the ship to report an oil pollution incident.
the list of authorities and persons to be contacted in the event of an oil
pollution incident.
a detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on
board to reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incident.
the procedures and point of contact on the ship for coordinating shipboard
action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Shipboard organization to deal with pollution
In order to achieve the above-mentioned objectives of the Policy, the
Company shall:
provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working environment;
continuously improve safety management skills of personnel aboard ships
including preparing for emergencies related to environmental protection;
ensure compliance with mandatory rules and regulations;
ensure that applicable codes, guidelines and standards recommended by
the Organization and Administrations taken into account;
maintain high standards of safety consciousness, strict personnel discipline
and accountability by adherence to a comprehensive, documented and
ongoing training system;
ensure adherence, at all times, to the documented operating procedures by
a system of internal verification of procedures and activities;
continuously and positively review the SMS;
38
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Structure of oil spill response team and assigned
duties to officers and crew
Emergency Squads, deck and engine room, shall be formed
according to the emergency station bill. The Squads shall be
manned by 4 or more crew members, at least one being an Officer,
and have access to proper tools and equipment. It is the
responsibility of the Master to ensure training of the Squad.
The following guidelines are intended to help the early stages of the
occurrence:
assess the situation,
take evasive action,
eliminate the cause of the casualty,
prevent recurrence of the casualty,
restore services.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Shipboard drills to deal with pollution of the marine
environment
The Master shall ensure that the ship’s emergency organisation is ready to
respond to every emergency situation.
The Chief Officer shall organise and supervise the drills and keep relevant
records.
The sound of the alarm on board the vessel shall be consistent with the
appearance of situations which endanger the vessel and/or the life of the
persons aboard. When the alarm sounds all vessel’s personnel shall
proceed to the emergency (muster) stations, as specified on the Station Bill.
Drills on oil pollution shall be conducted in accordance with relevant rules
and regulations and performed in accordance to the “Annual Schedule of
Drills & Training.” Training shall include use of various safety equipment and
instruments.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Pollution by sewage from ships
Sewage means:
drainage and other wastes from any form of toilets and urinals;
drainage from medical premises via wash basins, wash tubs and
scuppers located in such premises;
drainage from spaces containing living animals;
other waste waters when mixed with the drainages defined above.
39
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited, except when:
the ship is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using
a system approved at a distance of more than 3 nautical miles
from the nearest land, or sewage which is not communited or
disinfected at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the
nearest land, provided that, in any case, the sewage that has
been stored in holding tanks shall not be discharged
instantaneously but a moderate rate when the ship is en route
and proceeding at not less than 4 knots;
the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant
which has been certified to meet the operational requirements;
the test results of the plant are laid down in the ship’s
International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate;
additionally, the effluent shall not produce visible floating solids
nor cause discoloration of the surrounding water.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Pollution by garbage from ships
Garbage means all kind of victual, domestic and
operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof,
generated during the normal operation of the ship and
liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically
except those substances which are defined or listed in
other Annexes of MARPOL 73/78 Convention.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
40
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Disposal of garbage outside special areas:
the disposal into the sea of all plastics, including but not limited to
synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, plastic garbage bags and
incinerator ashes from plastic products which may contain toxic or
heavy metal residues, is prohibited;
the disposal into the sea of the following garbage shall be made as
far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited
if the distance from the nearest land is less than: 25 nautical miles
for dunnage, lining and packing materials which will float; 12 nautical
miles for food wastes and all others garbage including paper
products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar refuse;
disposal into the sea of garbage specified before (accepted at 12
nautical miles) may be permitted when it has passed through a
comminuter or grinder and made as far as practicable from the
nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance from the
nearest land is less than 3 nautical miles. Such comminuted or
ground garbage shall be capable of passing through a screen with
openings no greater than 25 mm.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Disposal of garbage within special areas:
disposal into the sea of the following is prohibited: all plastics, including but
not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, plastic garbage bags
and incinerator ashes from plastic products which may contain toxic or
heavy metal residue
all other garbage, including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles,
crockery, dunnage, lining and packing materials;
disposal into the sea of food wastes shall be made as far as practicable
from land, but in any case not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest
land;
disposal into the Wider Caribbean Region of food wastes which have been
passed through a communiter or grinder shall be made as far as practicable
from land, but in any case not less than 3 nautical miles from the nearest
land. Such communited or ground food wastes shall be capable of passing
through a screen with openings no greater than 25 mm.
when the garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal
or discharge requirements the more stringent requirements shall apply.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Control of oil discharge from machinery
spaces and oil fuel tanks
Subject to the provisions of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 Convention,
oil tankers of 150 gross tonnage and above shall be provided with
effective oil/water interface detectors approved for a rapid and
accurate determination of the oil/water interface in slop tanks and
shall be available for use in other tanks where the separation of oil
and water is affected and from which it is intended to discharge
effluent direct to the sea.
41
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Contents of Oil Record Book
loading of oil cargo;
internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage;
unloading of oil cargo;
ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tanks;
cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing;
discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tanks;
discharge of water from slop tanks;
closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank
discharge operations;
closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast
tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop tank discharge
operations;
disposal of residues.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Control of discharge of oil and special areas
Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from the cargo area of
an oil tanker shall be prohibited except when all the following conditions
are satisfied:
the tanker is not within a special area;
the tanker is more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land;
the tanker is proceeding en route;
the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30
litres per nautical mile;
the total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed for
tankers on or before 31 December 1979, 1/15,000 of the total quantity
of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part, and for
tankers delivered after 31 December 1979, 1/30,000 of the total
quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part;
the tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control
system and a slop tank arrangement as required.
42
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Introduces the contents of Annex VI of
MARPOL
Regulation regarding nitrogen oxides shall apply to:
each diesel engine with power output of more than 130 kW which is
installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 2000;
each diesel engine with a power output of more than 130 kW which
undergoes a major conversion on or after 1 January 2000.
This regulation does not apply to:
emergency diesel engines, engines installed in lifeboats and any
device or equipment intended to be used solely in case of
emergency;
engines installed on ships solely engaged in voyages within waters
subject to the sovereignty or jurisdiction of the state the flag of which
the ship is entitled to fly, provided that such engines are subject to
an alternative NOx control measure.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
SOx emission control areas shall include:
the Baltic Sea area, the North Sea area
the other sea area, including port areas
While ships are within SOx emission control areas, at least one of the
following conditions shall be fulfilled:
the sulphur content of fuel oil used on board ships in a SOx emission control
area does not exceed 1.5% m/m;
an exhaust gas cleaning system is applied to reduce the total emission of
sulphur oxides from ships, including both auxiliary and main propulsion
engines, to 6.0 g SOx/kW h or less calculated as the total weight of sulphur
dioxide emission. Waste streams from the use of such equipment shall not
be discharged into enclosed ports, harbours and estuaries unless it can be
thoroughly documented by the ship that such waste streams have no
adverse impact on the ecosystems of such enclosed ports, harbours and
estuaries, based upon criteria communicated by the authorities of the port.
Any other technological method that is verifiable and enforceable to limit
SOx emission.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
43
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
CONTRIBUTE TO EFFECTIVE
HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS ON
BOARD SHIP – SOCIAL
RESPONSIBILITIES
44
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Rights and obligations of crew
Obligations:
adhering to safety procedures;
adhering to measures regarding environmental safety;
respect of safety working procedures
understood orders and be understand during on board duties;
to contribute to efficiency of human relations on board;
to contribute to realization of safety practices in ship exploitation and
generating of a safety work environment;
establishing of safety measures for all identified risks;
to contribute to continue improvement of personnel competence.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Rights:
right to his convictions;
right to express his convictions
right to make a request of another as long as he can appreciate that
the other has a right to say no
right to clarify communications to enhance interpersonal
relationships.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Employment conditions
The collective working contract for on board duties must to:
assure necessary conditions for efficient company activity inside
inside of
equilibrate working relations;
establish employees rights, their obligations regarding execution,
execution,
modification and ending of the present contract.
The individual working contract must to content date about:
working conditions, work protection and payment;
working period and rest period;
other measures for social protection of employees and their
facilitates;
professional formative programmes;
rights and obligations of the parties;
discipline and punishing procedures for indiscipline;
45
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
International Transporters Federation previsions:
to be paid in report with quantity, quality and importance of his work;
to have a stable working place, employment contract has to be
changed under legal conditions only;
to benefit by conditions creates by the law, including study holidays
for increasing of own performances;
to have weekly free time and annual holiday for recovering of work
capacity.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Drugs and alcohol
Alcoholism causes 500 million lost workdays each
year.
It is estimated that 10-30% of the accidents at work are
related to alcohol and that problem drinkers have a 2-4
times higher chance of an accident than non-drinkers.
The cost of reduced labour productivity for most
industrialized countries has been estimated at several
hundred million dollars annually.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Seafaring is international in nature and the shipping industry as a
whole has become increasingly conscious of the impact that drug
and alcohol use can have on operations.
Special conditions that increase the need for action to limit drug and
alcohol use that put health and safety at risk, variables unique to the
maritime industry include:
ships act as both workplace and home;
maritime population requires geographic mobility;
mixed cultures, customs and languages;
limited social interaction with non-maritime personnel on board or
ashore;
limited health facilities;
long and often irregular working hours;
high variability in ownership and management of ships, hiring
practices and work conditions;
significant variations in national laws, regulations and enforcement
standards.
46
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
before any alcohol ingestion,10% could not perform
all tasks correctly,
after reaching a blood alcohol concentration of
0.10/100ml, 89% could not perform all tasks correctly
fourteen hours later, after all alcohol had left their
systems, 68% could not perform all tasks correctly.
There is every reason to believe
these findings apply equally to
seafarers!
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The responsibilities which the master fulfill include:
commitment to the programme,
familiarity with the policy, programme and associated procedures,
monitoring and providing feedback on the programme through the
ship's safety committee,
monitoring the performance of ship's officers and seafarers,
identifying drug and alcohol abuse problems,
carrying out disciplinary procedures,
obtaining medical or specialist advice and dealing with emergency
medical situations,
executing testing procedures (where required),
co-operating with foreign port authorities and ensuring conformance
to national or foreign regulations, and
monitoring and controlling consumption.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Health and hygiene on board
It is the seafarer's responsibility to look after his own health and
fitness.
On board ship, simple infections can easily be spread from one
person to others.
Treatment should be sought straight away for minor injuries; cuts
and abrasions to protect against infection.
The risk of contracting malaria in infected areas can be much
reduced by taking precautions to avoid mosquito bites.
Rats and other rodents may be carriers of infection and should
never be handled, dead or alive, with bare hands.
47
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Drinking alcohol whilst under treatment with medication
should be avoided.
The individual has a responsibility to ensure that
inoculations and vaccinations required for international
voyages are kept up to date.
Personnel on board ship are trained and equipped to
provide initial medical care for the range of health
problems that may arise.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
Good housekeeping is an essential element in promoting health and
safety on board; equipment and other items should be safely and
securely stored.
Many aerosols have volatile and inflammable contents. They should
never be used or placed near naked flames or other heat source
even when 'empty'.
Some fumigating or insecticidal sprays contain ingredients which,
though perhaps themselves harmless to human beings, may be
decomposed when heated.
If asbestos-containing panels, cladding or insulation become loose
or are damaged in the course of a voyage.
Prolonged exposure to mineral oils and detergents, may cause skin
problems.
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
The Master shall monitor the environment on
board and admit to the doctor/hospital
seamen that have to go through a medical
examination.
The Chief Officer shall keep an upup-toto-date
medical locker, order medicines and medical
equipment and maintain their inventory.
48
Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities
In order to ensure good quality of the drinking water onboard the
following precautions and measures shall be taken:
The water shall be checked before delivery (colour, taste, odour).
The drinking water tanks shall be inspected and cleaned frequently.
Supply shall not performed in ports with questionable water quality.
A sterilizing system shall be used for the treatment of the drinking
water.
49
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