eTech2
e
YOUR ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE ISSUE 2
13
Just Add
Wireless!
16
A bright future for
renewable energy
Now landing, over 18,000 Tyco
Electronics products ready for
next generation designs.
06
RS EDP & ARM
mbed make proof of
concept supersonic
rswww.com/electronics 08457 201201
rswww.com/electronics
4
D
P
E
En
ERG
Y
Nguyen Xuong Co., Ltd.
RS Components Distributor
159-161 Duong Tu Giang, District 5, Hochiminh
City, Vietnam
Tel: (08) 3855.0003; Fax: (08) 3856.2078
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: www.nguyenxuong.com
16 REnEWABl
The world of electronic design is under increasing pressure to
offer competition kicking products in ever decreasing timescales.
Short-cuts and inside information are essential to stay ahead of
the game. That’s why we strive to make RS your first choice for
electronic components and solutions by continually introducing
new technologies and partnerships to support designs from
concept to prototype and production.
Our aim is to make the RS Components website the place where you start and finish
your design. That’s the thinking behind a very significant upgrade to our online presence
which started with our new Electronics Centre initially launched across the UK and
Europe in October. It’s also why we’re extending our universal Embedded Development
Platform, EDP, to support ARM’s new mbed virtual design environment, and driving
through a host of improvements great and small to help you get your design off the
CAD screen and into production more quickly and easily. The article on page 6
provides an overview of EDP and the start of more things to come.
Terms and conditions: Terms and
conditions of sale set out in the current
RS Catalogue. This issue is valid from
March 2010 to May 2010.
Published by: RS Components
Limited. Registered office:
Birchington Road, Weldon, Corby,
Northamptonshire NN17 9RS.
Registered No. 1002091. RS
Components Ltd 2010.
RS are trademarks of RS
Components Limited. An
Electrocomponents Company.
PRECISIOn
E
D
An
D
E
ARM, MB
2
06
A
nA
lOGUE
www.nguyenxuong.com
In this edition, we’ve also put the spotlight
on energy saving products, with technical
articles looking at solar power as well as low
power comms, processor, connector and
display technologies.
We’ve received lots of positive feedback about our
first edition of eTech and want to hear more from
you. eTech is written by you as well as for you so,
if you’ve got a great idea for a technical article or
would like to offer an opinion in iSay (pg 4), drop
me an email at [email protected] or
visit www.rs-components.com/etech.
InSIDE eTech
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iSAY
RS nEWSlInES
ARM, MBED AnD EDP
PRODUCT nEWS
JUST ADD WIRElESS!
REnEWABlE EnERGY
OlED DISPlAY TECHnOlOGY
ATTEnTIOn! 32-BIT ARCHITECTURE
FPGA FlAGSHIP DEVICES
THE JOY OF PRECISIOn AnAlOGUE
DESIGn TIPS
ESSEnTIAlS
THE POWER BEHInD THE TEST SYSTEM
GRAPHICAl DISPlAY IS A WInnER
THE SCIEnCE OF OnlInE SECURITY
COnnECTORS FOR
REnEWABlE EnERGY
lUnCH BREAK
InDUSTRY nEWS
Glenn Jarrett
Head of Electronics Marketing
GLO_0106_0210
eTech - ISSUE 2
03
www.nguyenxuong.com
iSAY
RS
nEWSlInES
ADRIAN RAWLINSON,
MANAGING DIRECTOR OF
MARL INTERNATIONAL, TALKS:
“
Over 4,000 more Tyco Electronics lines
Candelas, watts
and
lumens
”
story more or
less worked
when there was one lighting
technology, incandescent,
which saw very little change
in efficiency year on year. It
wasn’t too much of a stretch
to accommodate a second
– Cold Cathode Florescent
Lamp - and fluorescent
tubes are commonly sold
as being ‘equivalent to’
an incandescent bulb of
a specified power. Throw
another two technologies into
the mix: halogen and LED,
and things start to get silly,
especially as LED lighting in
particular is seeing very rapid
progress. A 6W LED today can
produce twice as much light
as its equivalent a year ago.
LEDs also have very different
characteristics than other
forms of light, as they give
a directional, as opposed to,
spherical output.
The apparent efficiency of a
lighting system also depends
on the point at which you
measure the power used.
Incandescent lights are driven
direct from a mains supply,
fluorescent lights are driven
through an inverter and
LEDs need a rectified supply,
normally low voltage.
I don’t know whether to be
amused or to despair at the
idea that measures such as
candela, lumens and mean
spherical candle power are
based on the output of a
Amongst the introductions, are over 270
more Universal MATE-N-LOK connectors,
giving design engineers increased choice
in selecting the right connector for new
industry, HVAC and lighting applications.
Over 240 AMPMODU micro-interconnect
products have also been added, which are
designed for cable-to-board, cable-to-cable
and board-to-board applications along with
140 additional PIDG crimp terminals,
and over 300 additional relays.
hermaphroditic and poke-in connectors. The
poke-in connectors are low profile, surface
mount (SMT) two-position connectors ideally
suited for LED strings and lighting controls.
The hermaphroditic blade and receptacle
connectors are new SMT connectors
available in 2, 4 and 6 positions, intended for
use with in-line board-to-board LED lighting
applications.
candle, but few buyers other
than lighting specialists
understand them.
Everyone is concerned about
the energy used by lighting
systems, but a sensible debate
about which form of lighting
does the best job in a specified
set of circumstances is being
constrained by the lack of
a standardised method of
measuring light output and
power consumption across
the US, Europe and Asia.
If you’ve got a strong opinion and would like the opportunity to
get on your soapbox, write it up in around 300 words and email
it to [email protected]
eTech - ISSUE 2
Easy to use calculator shows
your savings from using
greener lighting
To search the full Tyco Electronics range
available from RS, visit rswww.com/te
Molex introduce 2,300 new lines
RS has now doubled your choice of Molex products
Highlights from the new range
additions include the introduction of
the C-Grid® / Sl system into the RS
offer. The C-Grid dual-row board-toboard system combines with the Sl
(Stackable linear), a modular singlerow wire-to-wire and board-to-board
system. Together, these products offer
the largest number of variations and
cabling configurations in the industry.
The popular Molex KK series,
developed to meet the challenges of
modularisation has been increased
with over 250 new additions to this
family, giving customers multiple pitch
options and allowing thousands of
configurations. The RS range of FFC
connectors, designed for use in signal
and data applications requiring flat
flex cable, has doubled in size with
more than 150 new products added.
Further additions include increased
Mini-Fit Jr and Micro-fit 3.0 ranges.
You can see the full Molex range
and supporting technical information
at rswww.com/molex
1,400 more relays and switches from
Omron now available from stock
RS now has the largest stocked range of Omron electronic components
04
Save energy
with the new
RS light Energy
Saver tool
Also introduced are 85 connectors from the
Tyco Electronics LED printed circuit board
(PCB) mount lighting connectors, including
If you walk into a car showroom now and a salesman tries to convince you that his
flash sports car was outstanding because it uses lots of fuel, you’d think he was daft.
Yet that’s still more or less what we do in the lighting industry. By and large, customers
and manufacturers correlate the light output of a lamp to the power it uses.
The
More than 18,000 parts now available through RS online
RS has been working
with Omron Electronic
Components to develop a
complete offer for design
engineers to use, with a
dedicated Omron web
portals, plus implementation
of buy-it-now web referral
links from the Omron
website to RS and expansion
of the Omron product range
available from RS.
Alex Grout, European
Distribution Manager for
Omron Components said
“RS has spent a great effort
and huge investment in
our partnership. With the
expansion of the weblinks,
dedicated Omron portals
and range developments,
specifiers of our products
can be confident that the
widest range of Omron
relays, switches, and
connectors are available
online from RS”.
To learn more about
the Omron Electronics
range available from RS,
including all the new
introductions, go to
www.omron-rs.eu.
Now available across all European
websites, the Lamp Energy Calculator
has been developed to help RS
customers increase their ability
to deliver energy efficient lighting
solutions for buildings. The calculator
allows users to select their current
lighting solutions, setting features such
as lamp type, wattage and temperature
output. Using these criteria, it will then
identify potential alternatives from the
RS energy efficient lighting range, and
calculate the savings to be gained from
running and replacement costs, as well
as reduced energy usage costs.
First launched in the UK in May
2009, the calculator has been used
by thousands of RS customers to
help save energy and reduce costs.
Combined with energy efficient
product ranges including heating and
plumbing, test and measurement,
insulation, IT and renewable energy,
RS offers a complete solution
for energy efficient design and
maintenance of buildings.
As energy efficiency continues to
be a dominant industry trend for
Electronic Design Engineers, go to
rswww.com/energyRSource and
find out how RS can help ensure that
the design environment is as energy
efficient as the latest application
designs being worked on.
eTech - ISSUE 2
05
www.nguyenxuong.com
RS EDP & ARM
mbed make proof of
concept supersonic
The RS generic Embedded Development Platform (EDP)
now supports mbed, the new online development tool
for rapid prototyping with ARM microcontrollers.
As
part of its roadmap for
EDP going forward, RS is
establishing a close partnership with
ARM aimed at allowing developers
to take full advantage of ARM’s
web-based mbed embedded
development concept.
RS has added mbed processor
modules supporting the ARM7
and Cortex®-M3 architectures to
its range of available modules for
EDP. This gives EDP users access
to the industry’s first online platform
for fast, low-risk prototyping
of ARM based microcontroller
systems.
The EDP and mbed concepts are
ideally matched. ARM’s mbed
module containing the microcontroller
has a 40-pin DIP form factor designed
to allow the microcontroller I/Os to be
connected to a solderless prototype
board or a through-hole printed circuit
board (PCB). The module connects
to the EDP baseboard via an adaptor
board that, together with the 40-pin
mbed module, makes up the EDP
mbed Command Module. With
the module connected, programs
are downloaded by dragging and
dropping the program binary in the
same way as using a Flash USB drive.
Perhaps the most powerful aspect
of mbed-based development is its
fundamentally online nature. Many
of the programming resources and
project-management functions
developers need to call on are
maintained in “the cloud”, removing
06
eTech - ISSUE 2
the need for a large initial investment
in a suitable compiler, for example.
Even the developer’s workspace is
maintained online, giving engineers
the freedom to login from anywhere
without needing to ensure access to
project documentation stored locally.
In addition, mbed development
is independent of the developer’s
chosen platform – whether PC,
Linux or Mac.
Developers can also access the
mbed online library of functions.
This provides an API-driven approach
to coding, and pre-written drivers
are also available saving developers
learning microcontroller hardware
details. Each peripheral also has the
benefit of a turnkey “Hello World”
example to quickly verify correct
functionality. RS is taking a leading
role in further development of mbed
by working with ARM to provide
resources dedicated to writing
production-ready drivers. This will
quickly increase accessibility for
developers to high-quality functions
optimised for the ARM Cortex
embedded processor family.
Another benefit of mbed
development is access to a large
online community of developers
sharing code and resources through
mechanisms such as the mbed
Cookbook online repository, wiki
and the mbed forums.
Developers combining the EDP
mbed Command Module with EDP
application modules to complete
rapid proof-of-concept work can take
advantage of this online approach to
reduce design-start costs and quickly
acquire knowledge and code. In
addition, customers will also be able
to use the baseboard with the latest
Cortex-M0 microcontrollers targeting
ultra low-power applications, when
these become available.
EDP Explained
Embedded design projects typically
aim to have a proof-of-concept
ready early in the project lifecycle.
This requires some basic hardware,
which is usually obtained by
purchasing an evaluation board from
the processor vendor or from a thirdparty developer. However, hardware
modifications may be required, and
the project must usually absorb
the full purchase price. Such kits
are rarely re-usable in subsequent
projects, either because the
right features are not provided
or the technology may have
been superseded.
A more cost-effective approach is to
work using a modular development
platform that can also be reconfigured
throughout the longer term to meet
requirements for initial hardware in
future projects. The EDP fulfils this
concept. It provides a baseboard
into which are plugged processor
modules and special-function
modules as required by each project.
This provides a trusted platform,
suitable for long-term use,
Continued page 08 >
eTech - ISSUE 2
07
www.nguyenxuong.com
wireless development. Users can
also build their own modules, if
required, by referring to the EDPCON
bus specification.
connectors of 140 and 100 pins
each, called EDPCON1 and
EDPCON2 respectively. The EDP
motherboard also solves issues
such as inter-module and inter-EDP
system communications, using
available interconnects such as
I2C and CAN.
< Continued from page 07
which will not only save purchasing
numerous development kits but
will also save the time to make
any adaptations.
Configurable Baseboard
The EDP baseboard, or
motherboard, is an Extended
Eurocard size (220 x 100
mm) board that provides four
identical “stations” for the plug
in modules. The motherboard
allows microcontrollers and I/O
devices to communicate through
a standardised interface similar to
PC/104 or STE buses. However,
whereas PC/104 and STE tend
to support only power-line, data,
address and control signals,
the EDP interface supports
microcontroller applications by also
catering for specialist pin functions
relevant to typical 8, 16 and 32-bit
microcontrollers. There are three
I2C channels, two CAN channels,
an SPI port, and various signalmeasurement and signal-generation
peripherals. There are also groups
of pins to support interrupts in
response to external events,
groups of pins able to create
pulsetrains, others dedicated
to motor control, I2S, memory
cards and many other common
microcontroller IO types. Advanced
interfaces such as SD/MMC are
also supported.
All of these signals are contained
within two 0.8mm dual-row
08
eTech - ISSUE 2
Plug-in Command Modules
This architecture allows a wide
variety of processor modules, based
on various microcontrollers, to be
built by mapping the device I/O pins
onto the EDPCON1 and EDPCON2
connectors. The microcontroller
then appears to be a virtual CPU
to another I/O device fitted on the
bus, such as a digital or analogue
peripheral module. It is possible
to map almost any microcontroller
to this format. The first Command
Modules to be introduced for EDP
have supported the Infineon XC167,
STMicroelectronics STR9, and
the Microchip Plug-in Module for
microcontrollers and dsPIC devices
(PIC-PIM) spanning 8-bit, 16-bit and
32-bit families.
Plug-in Functional Modules
Of course, since the EDP is
conceived to provide a configurable
platform for proof-of-concept work,
its success is also dependent
on providing a diverse range of
peripheral functions that are also in
EDPCON-compatible modules. The
first modules to be developed as
part of the EDP programme include
analogue and digital I/O modules, a
communications module, and two
motor-control modules.
The EDP modular concept lends itself
to the development of an increasing
range of application modules going
forward. RS is actively pursuing
development of new modules;
recent announcements include a
new SD Card module and plans
for modules to enable EDP-based
High Reliability
A key challenge facing embeddedsystems developers is to build
drivers for each of the functions to
be implemented. The time taken
to write and debug a driver, at the
proof-of-concept stage, can delay
the project; particularly if the driver
will not work. Later in the project, it
may be necessary to develop certain
drivers further to achieve the full
functionality and robustness.
EDP solves both of these challenges
by including all necessary drivers for
each function. Moreover, the drivers
are written from the outset to be
production ready. Hence, developers
can progress their projects without
debugging drivers at the initial
hardware stage or refining the drivers
for production later in the project.
EDP Hits the Open Roadmap
By introducing EDP, RS has delivered
a solution that enables today’s
design engineers to meet the
increasingly acute cost and timeto-market demands on embedded
systems design. As a common
platform, the EDP reduces design
and construction times from weeks
to days. Project cost savings are
achieved by removing the need
to purchase and adapt to multiple
manufacturer-specific development
kits. Ultimately, EDP sets developers
free to try more new ideas and
push boundaries to create more
successful, highly differentiated
products. A new, two-station EDP
baseboard will be introduced in the
near future, to further reduce the
cost of building initial embeddedsystems hardware.
when you need it most
Datamate, the 2mm pitch cable to cable,
cable to board and board to board connector
family from Harwin, is designed to perform
in
harsh
operating
conditions,
surviving
extremes of shock, vibration & temperature
– yet the cost per contact is that of an
industrial, commercial device.
RS is also inviting participation
in the EDP developer
community from academic
institutions. Universities
interested in gaining access to
development kits for research
and teaching can contact us at
[email protected]
To see more on the EDP
go to rswww.com/edp
making the right connection
rswww.com/harwin
www.nguyenxuong.com
PRODUCT
nEWS
PRODUCT
nEWS
TEKTROnIX  CURREnT MEASUREMEnT
High sensitivity current probes for accurate power
and load analysis.
n The TCP300 and TCP400 series AC/DC Current Measurement
family is a highly advanced current measurement system for
today’s current measurement needs. Tektronix current probes
provide industry-leading measurement sensitivity to a minimum
of 1mA, which is critical for accurately measuring low level
currents and frequency components. When connected to
Tektronix Oscilloscopes with TEKPROBE level II, TekConnect
(with TCA-BnC) or TekVPI (with TPA-BnC) interfaces, current
measurements and calculations are made simple and easy.
Additional measurement power is available with add-on
software such as the TDSPWR2 power measurements package.
RS Online search term: Current Probes, Tektronix
lECROY - WAVEACE SERIES
OSCIllOSCOPES
n Our WaveAce oscilloscope series simplifies your work and
shortens the time taken to find and debug problems. The
WaveAce™ combines long memory, a colour display, extensive
measurement capabilities, advanced triggering and excellent
connectivity to improve troubleshooting and shorten debug
time. With both 2 and 4 channel models, bandwidths from
40 MHz to 300 MHz, sample rates up to 2 GS/s and waveform
memory up to 9 kpts/Ch (18 kpts interleaved) the WaveAce
exceeds all expectations of a small affordable oscilloscope.
RS Online search term: lecroy Waveace digital
Integrated 3 Phase Motor Drive Solutions
for BlDC PMSM/BlAC and ACIM.
n The Motion-SPM in DIP packaging offers a high
performance simplified solution for commercial
and industrial inverter motor designs, Each SPM
integrates six IGBTs, six diodes, three HVICs, one
LVIC and a thermistor in a single compact module
(60mm * 31mm). Compared to discrete IGBT
solutions, the integrated
SPM requires less than
half the board space, while
providing low voltage control
and a high voltage output
stage rated at 10A-75A
at 220Vac. This compact,
ceramic and DBC-based
transfer moulded-type
package optimises heat
transfer from the IGBTs.
RS Online search term:
Fairchild FSAM*
10
eTech - ISSUE 2
Ever extending options
for flex circuit FFC/FPC
connectors.
AGIlEnT - U1701A
HAnDHElD
CAPACITAnCE
METER
A Capacitance Meter in
the palm of your hand.
n Agilent’s new U1701A
Capacitance Meter now
allows random checks
across the production
floor and performance
checking at your
inspection or sorting stations. With a wide measurement range
and many features, the U1701A puts a new level of convenience
into capacitance meters. It has up to 25 sets of high/low limits to
store and choose from in compare mode. The U1701A also lets you
breeze through capacitor sorting without the need to set and reset
the standard reference for different capacitors under test. Handy
functions, include tolerance and relative modes, Hold, Min/Max/
Average recordings and PC data logging.
RS Online search term: Agilent capacitance
300/400 Watts, digital power solution
for medical applications.
n TDK-Lambda has introduced their new digitally
controlled 300-watt power supplies designed specifically
with medical applications in mind. With a 4kVAC reinforced
input to output isolation and an output-to-ground
isolation of 1500VAC, the EFE300M meets the rigorous
international safety standards of IEC 60601-1 for medical
equipment. Designed with space limitations in mind, the
3 x 6” footprint, 1.6” height is ideal and the low profile
connectors allow maximum airflow for optimised cooling
efficiency. Other features such as a redundant operation
capability and high current standby make the EFE300M
equally suitable for highly integrity applications including
instrumentation, routers and security networks.
RS Online search term: tdk-lambda efe300*
CREE - XlAMP MC-E SERIES lEDS
lighting class, high lumen multichip lED’s.
60V step down DC/DC
converters, for light load
efficiency and automotive
applications.
n The TPS54160 from Texas
Instruments is a step down
regulator with an Integrated
Switch. The input voltage
range is 3.6-60Volts. Output
voltage range is 0.8-58V with
a maximum output current of
1.5A. The TPS54160 has excellent
efficiency in light load conditions
and is from the 0.5A to 10A
™
SWIFT Converter family.
RS Online search term:
TPS54160
TDK-lAMBDA - 300W MEDICAl
POWER SUPPlY
n FCI, a leader in flex FFC/FPC
connectors continue to bring you
unique solutions that give you the footprint and the quality level
you need for your application. FCI were the first to introduce
a flex connector with a back side flip actuator that allows you
to insert the flex cable and lock the actuator with one hand.
Products include flex connectors for LIF (low insertion force) and
ZIF (zero insertion force), top and bottom contact options, vertical
and right angle orientations, surface mount and through hole
terminations in contact spacing options down to 0.3mm.
RS Online search term: FCI FFC
TEXAS InSTRUMEnTS
- nEW 60V STEP
DOWn DC/DC
COnVERTER
Oscilloscopes offering a powerful combination of
large, informative displays at an affordable price.
FAIRCHIlD MOTIOn-SMART
POWER MODUlES (SPM™)
FCI - FFC & FPC
COnnECTORS
ARDUInO DUEMIlAnOVE
ATMEGA328 MCU
STARTER BOARD
Atmel Development boards.
n The new Arduino Duemilanove
is an ATmega328 starter board
which contains everything needed to
start designing straight away.
It has 14 digital input/output pins
(6 can be used as PWM outputs),
6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz
crystal oscillator, a USB connection,
a power jack, an ICSP header
and a reset button. The platform is
open-source, implements the
Processing/Wiring language and
provides a free IDE; simply connect it
to a computer with a USB cable or
power it with an AC-to-DC adapter
or battery to get started.
RS Online search term:
Duemilanove
n Cree leads the industry in brightness and reliability for
power lEDs with its Xlamp lED family. Cree is
enabling the lighting industry with efficient,
environmentally friendly lED light. MC-E
X-lAMP lEDs can reduce lED
system complexity and
size by combining 4 lED
chips in one package.
Compared to discrete
lEDs, they reduce the
distance between lED die,
creating a small optical
source for excellent
optical control and efficient
colour mixing. They have
a maximum output of 430
lumens bringing high performance and quality
of light to a wide range of applications, including
parking, roadway and pedestrian outdoor areas,
portable and personal lighting, retail display
lighting and emergency vehicle lighting.
RS Online search term: MCE4WT
APTInA 10MEGAPIXEl COlOUR IMAGE SEnSOR
A High-Speed, low-Power Sensor for Camera Designs.
n The MT9J003 is a 1/2.3-Inch CMOS Digital Image Sensor, built with Micron’s
exclusive DigitalClarity® technology, this sensor features exceptionally low noise
levels and low-light sensitivity. It supports full HD—1080p at 60 fps, delivering
CCD image quality (based on SnR and low-light sensitivity)—along with the low
cost, low power, high performance, small form factor, and fast time-to-market.
With very low power consumption and variable functions such as gain, frame
rate, and exposure, this sensor outputs high-quality images at high speeds. It is
easily programmed through a simple two-wire serial interface.
RS Online search term: Aptina 10MP
See more online - Over 5,000 new products are added at rswww.com/electronics every month
eTech - ISSUE 2
1
11
www.nguyenxuong.com
Lowest RDS(on) in TO-247 Package
*
N-Channel MOSFETs
Part Number
BVDSS
(V)
RDS(on)
(mΩ)
[email protected] 25˚C
(A)
Qg typ
(nC)
IRFP4004PBF
40
1.7
195**
220
IRFP4368PBF
75
1.85
195**
380
With performance improvement of up to 50%
over competing devices, the new TO-247
MOSFETs from International Rectifier can
help extend battery life in motor applications,
improve efficiency in solar inverter systems,
and deliver the wattage required for high power
Class D audio systems.
IRFP4468PBF
100
2.6
195**
360
Applications
IRFP4568PBF
150
5.9
171
151
IRFP4668PBF
200
9.7
130
161
• High Power DC Motors
IRFP4768PBF
250
17
93
180
• DC to AC Inverters
• Active O’Ring
Features
• 40V to 250V in TO-247AC Package
• Industrial grade, MSL1
• RoHS compliant
OICE
Your FIRST CH
ce
n
a
rm
for Perfo
For more information visit us at rswww.com/IR
12
TITlE nOVEMBER 2009
WIRElESS!
• High Power Synchronous Rectification
• High Power Class D
* Based on data compiled October 2008
** Package limited
Just add
THE POWER MANAGEMENT LEADER
Trends in consumer electronics often
create a climate of expectation in
the wider electronics market, and so
it is with wireless communications. It
would be really hard to buy a laptop
without WiFi and all but the simplest
mobile phones now come with
Bluetooth as standard. Since the pieces
of electronics that most customers
use most often now have wireless
connections, there is an increasing
expectation that all the rest of their
personal gadgets and professional
tools will offer no less.
Continued page 14 >
eTech - ISSUE 2
13
www.nguyenxuong.com
“
Modules are a highly competitive market, and
prices are coming down all the time. Many use
Chip-on-Board technology, so that the complete
module ends up coming in as small as - or
sometimes smaller than - the packaged IC.
”
John Fairall
Director, RF Solutions
< Continued from page 13
The
task of adding wireless
communications to a system
may appear daunting, with the RS website
listing support for no less than eight different
standards, as well as several proprietary
alternatives. Which of these multiple
alternatives is the best for any given project,
and what are the implementation challenges?
The candidates
For the purposes of this discussion, we’re
going to assume that the requirement is for
wireless communications with a range of
10-100m, with the capability to penetrate solid
objects. For short range line-of-sight data or
remote control applications, there is a range of
solutions based on infra-red that can be readily
accessed. Longer range connections normally
require the use of the cellular infrastructure,
which is a whole subject in its own right.
On this basis, the main alternatives are
WiFi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, RFID or proprietary
solutions. According to John Fairall, Director
of the company RF Solutions, the main
parameters to consider are power, physical
size, range and data rate. RF Solutions offers
14
eTech - ISSUE 2
products based on all of the major standards,
and his advice is that developers shouldn’t
necessarily adopt any of them. “The major
benefit of choosing an independent standard
is that it offers access to a wider market. For
a system where you control both ends, all
four of the major standards will burden you
with features and performance that you don’t
need, and will probably be more costly than a
proprietary solution,” he says.
He continues, “However, if your product
needs to communicate with a laptop or to
surf the web through an access point, then
wireless LAN is a great idea. If it needs to
connect to a mobile phone, Bluetooth would
be an excellent choice. Similarly, ZigBee is
building critical mass in home automation,
sensor networks and remote metering, and
RFID is widely used in logistics. If these are
your target markets, and interoperability would
be attractive to your customers, then that
should drive the decision.”
Implementation
All of these technologies are offered as
discrete components or modules. Although
vendors usually offer reference designs to
help the developer, they are best avoided
by development teams without RF design
experience. “RF design is full of pitfalls, and
unexpected things like the density of the
fibreglass mounting board can be a real issue,”
says Fairall. “A reference design simplifies the
development for a suitably qualified specialist.
Those choosing this path should either lean on
the supplier for enough application support to
troubleshoot their design, or expect to hire in
a consultant to advise on its completion.” This
requirement probably makes the discrete path
uneconomic for products with volumes of less
than 10,000 pieces per annum.
In truth, though, with the outstanding module
solutions currently emerging, there is little need
to brew your own. Fairall continues, “Modules
are a highly competitive market, and prices are
coming down all the time. Many use Chip-onBoard technology, so that the complete module
ends up coming in as small as or sometimes
smaller than the packaged IC.”
Modules can be highly configurable, with
parameters including frequency selectable by
the customer. Some offer standard RS-232
interfaces. “With the smart versions, all you
need to do is squirt data in and RF comes out,”
according to Fairall.
Proprietary solutions
A wide range of low-power applications just
need simple point-to-point or networked
communications, that can be run from a
battery. Such applications include alarm and
security products and home automation. Using
a proprietary solution leaves the developer
in complete control of the whole system,
eliminating the commercial and technical
downsides of allowing customers to introduce
third-party products into the mix.
Texas Instruments SimpliciTITM network
protocol is one example of the low-power RF
protocols available for simple, small RF
networks (less than 100 nodes). Designed
for easy implementation with minimal
microcontroller resource requirements it
runs out-of-the-box on TI’s low-power
microcontrollers and RF transceivers. Despite
the modest resources required, SimpliciTI
network protocol supports peer-to-peer
communication, the option to use an access
point to store and forward messages and range
extenders to extend the range of the network
to four hops.
Energy Harvesting
A particularly neat idea is to harvest energy
from the surrounding environment to power
a wireless link, eliminating the need to use
a batter altogether. This makes the system
entirely maintenance-free and reduces costs
by eliminating the need for wires of any form.
EnOcean GmbH develops and manufactures
such self-powered wireless sensors, which
harvest heat or light from the environment,
or the energy used for example to depress a
switch to generate enough electricity to allow
the transmission of a short pulse of control data.
Their self-powered wireless switches consume
about 50 µWs for a complete command which
takes less than one millisecond, and has a range
of 300 meters in the open. If this sounds too
good to be true, take a look at the Trial Pack
offered by RS (stock number is 189-065).
Conclusion
For a great many customers looking for a
simple point to point or point to multipoint link,
a proprietary protocol offers the simplest and
lowest cost solution. The major standards, WiFi,
Bluetooth, ZigBee and RFID are only needed if
the market demands them. Either way, it is only
worth considering discrete implementations
for high volume designs, where the team
has access to the appropriate expertise. In
most cases, modules offer the shortest time
to market and the lowest design risk, usually
with no or very little penalty in terms of size,
power consumption and bill of materials cost.
Truthfully,the latest modules make it easy to
incorporate a wireless link into almost any
electronics product at low cost and with little
design effort.
For the latest information on
wireless technology available
from RS, visit the Electronics Centre
at rswww.com/electronics
eTech - ISSUE 2
15
www.nguyenxuong.com
A bright future for
renewable
energy
IGBT IGBT
Q1
Q2
DC supply
(Solar Inverter,
battery)
Conservation
in general
is now
high on the global agenda and as part of the
overall drive for efficiency, the momentum
behind alternative forms of renewable energy
is growing. One of the most viable and buoyant
technologies is solar power derived from
photovoltaic cells. There are now numerous
examples of how PV energy can be employed;
from portable phone chargers, to arrays of
solar roof panels generating enough energy to
supply a home or small business.
The latter is the subject of much interest at
the moment, as efficient installations are
capable of supplying surplus energy back into
the power grid under the right circumstances,
thereby providing not only a form of renewable
energy for the owner, but also a modest return
on investment. However, along with much
interest there is also much debate, as the
deployment of PV technology is susceptible
to losses at various stages in the power chain.
To combat this, manufacturers throughout the
supply chain are becoming polarised over the
best system architecture to implement.
The power generated by solar panel arrays is
a direct current and so using PV technology
to supply an AC voltage at mains power levels
requires a DC-AC inverter. A debate rages
over how best to implement the inverter
technology: Centralised or distributed?
With a distributed approach (which is gaining
favour over the more traditional centralised
topology) a dedicated inverter is positioned
close to each solar panel’s output. The main
benefit of this approach is that no individual
cell’s performance can negatively impact
the overall system’s performance – a major
criticism of the centralised approach. While
the duplication of inverters does carry a higher
cost, advocates of the distributed approach
argue that the increased efficiency coupled
with the improvement in system reliability
16
eTech - ISSUE 2
AC-out
C1
L1
C2
L2
IGBT IGBT
Q3
Q4
The potential for photovoltaic solar
energy is high but requires careful
design consideration in order to
attain maximum efficiency.
High-side
IGBTs
AC-out
Low-side
IGBTs
Fig.1 The solar-power inverter taps high voltage IGBTs in
a full-bridge topology
due to the removal of a single point of failure
outweighs the higher unit price over the
system’s lifetime.
Both centralised and distributed topologies
have their merits but both share the need
for efficient inverter technology. Without an
efficient inverter, any gains made through
improving the system’s performance could
be in vain. However, the requirements of
the inverter(s) used will differ based on the
topology and it is here that the technology
within the inverter plays a key role.
The input voltages to the inverter will depend
on the topology chosen and, in turn, the
efficiency of the inverter will depend on its
design based on those system requirements.
It is well established that insulated-gate bipolar
transistors, or IGBTs, offer advantages for this
type of inverter design. These devices present
the best of field effect transistor (FET) and
bipolar junction transistor (BJT) technologies in
a single device; allowing them to be controlled
by a voltage, as with a MOSFET, but offer the
higher current-passing capabilities of BJTs.
As a result, their use in power delivery has
increased rapidly and while there is now a
wide range of IGBTs to choose from, it is clear
that one size does not fit all applications. This is
illustrated not only by the differences between
inverters within a centralised or distributed
topology, but the optimised selection of the
IGBTs within those inverters.
To create the AC waveform, the DC input
from a solar cell or battery passes through a
full-bridge inverter, as shown in Figure 1. This
requires four high-voltage IGBTs; Q1 and Q2
(referred to as ‘high-side’), and Q3 and Q4
(referred to as ‘low-side’) transistors.
One technique to create the AC sine wave
is to pulse-width modulate the high-side
transistors, at 20kHz, and commutate the lowside IGBTs at the desired power grid frequency
(typically 50 or 60Hz). This effectively means
that, during the positive half-cycle, Q1 is pulsewidth modulated at 20kHz while Q4 remains
on (Q2 and Q4 are off) and, similarly for the
negative half-cycle, Q2 is modulated and Q3
remains on (Q1 and Q4 are off). Clearly, the
characteristics of the high-side and low-side
IGBTs differ based on this architecture, so it is
important to choose devices from a supplier
who understands these requirements.
International Rectifier’s (IR) portfolio of IGBTs
and MOSFETs provides for this scenario,
as Figure 1 shows. For the high-side IGBTs,
switching time is crucial and so selecting a fast
switching IGBT can minimise switching losses.
A new range of IGBTs launched recently
by IR, the 600V Trench IGBTs, have been
optimised for high-side switching at 20kHz
and target inverters used in uninterruptable
power supplies (UPS) and solar panel inverters.
In fact, using these devices can deliver up to
30% efficiency gains in these applications.
The low-side devices need not be optimised
for switching speed in the same way and in
this application the recommended devices
would be standard speed IGBTs, constructed
from a planar process as opposed to the
trench devices used for the high-side. These
devices have been optimised for low speeds
and low conduction losses and therefore
represent the most efficient solution.
The use of PV solar panels is increasing rapidly,
yet the technology offers a great deal of
scope in terms of efficiency improvements.
Developing more efficient inverters is a critical
stage in the advancement of PV technology, as
well as other forms of renewable energy.
For more on IR’s portfolio of IGBTs
and MOSFETs for PV technology,
go to rswww.com/ir
eTech - ISSUE 2
17
www.nguyenxuong.com
In our increasingly portable world,
reducing power consumption, weight and
cost conflicts with the need to provide a
sophisticated user interface on even the
simplest measurement or test system. The
mobile phone industry is a wonderful proving
ground for new technologies that can
reconcile these conflicting requirements, and
OlED display technology is the latest idea
that was pioneered in this market and is now
being offered to the general display user.
OlED –
the backlight-free
display option
OlED explained
OLED is an emissive
technology, each pixel emitting
its own light – so when it is
off, it produces no light and
consumes virtually no power.
Unlike backlit LCD displays
therefore, OLEDs produce a
true black, and their contrast
ratio is much higher, typically
10,000:1 compared with 400:1
for an LCD display. They are
also brighter, partly because
they don’t require the polarizers
which filter out up to half the
light from the backlight with an
LCD display.
Aesthetically OLED is better
than LCD. OLED not only
achieves increased brightness
and contrast, but offers a much
wider viewing angle - up to 170
degrees up/down and left/right,
compared to 150 degrees on
all but the most advanced TFT
LCDs. The response time of an
18
eTech - ISSUE 2
Serial data is still used for many industrial and
machine control tasks, but with demands
for greater control and remote access the
growth in Ethernet usage continues apace.
Brainboxes have the solution with a simple
to install Ethernet to serial converter which
allows RS-232 or RS-485 based control
systems to transmit data via a local Ethernet
network and even further.
The ES-357 Ethernet to Serial device server
provides access to one RS232 and one
RS422/485 serial port via any Ethernet
network. With support for data transfer baud
rates up to 230,400, coupled with software
support for multiple network protocols
including DHCP, TCP, IP and HTTP it delivers
uncompromising performance.
Despite its higher price and other issues such as shorter
lifetimes, OLED adoption is growing rapidly. iSupply forecasts
an eight-fold increase in take-up between 2009 and 2015 and
LG has announced a 15” TV using OLED instead of TFT LCD.
Designers can keep abreast of this new technology and evaluate
it in their own project with the expanding RS range of displays
from the world’s leading OLED manufacturers including 4D
Systems, Bolymin, CMEL, Powertip and Univision.
RS now offers displays, both active and passive matrix,
spanning a range of sizes (0.79” to 7.6”) and resolutions
(64x48 to 800x480).
See the latest displays and evaluation kits online
at rswww.com/electronics
Features
• RS422 Full duplex. RS485 4 wire full duplex
or 2 wire half duplex with Autogating,
automatic control of data direction
• Support for 5,6,7, or 8 data bits for
maximum system compatibility
• Support XON/XOFF software flow control
and parity bits
• Ethernet port is auto-sensing 10/100Mbit
with normal or crossover operation
• Power input range from 5-30Vdc making
it suitable for all applications
• Compact dimensions - 90x62x25mm
(not including mounting ears or connectors)
For datasheets and to see the full
range of serial data solutions for
Brainboxes available visit rswww.com
and search for ‘668-5506’.
METCAl MX-5000 SOlDERInG SYSTEMS
The new MX-5000 Series Soldering and
Rework System is the next generation of
the trusted Metcal Soldering Systems that
will enable you to increase productivity
and process control for a wide range of
applications with these new features:
active matrix OLED display is
typically 50µs versus 25ms of
LCD, meaning full motion-video
is smoother and greyscale
rendition is far superior.
lower cost
OLED manufacturing capacity
globally is limited, and the
displays are manufactured in
much lower volumes than LCDs
at the moment. Accordingly,
OLED displays are currently
sold at a premium to LCD
products. The manufacturing
process is in fact simpler
though, so eventually, they are
expected to be much lower in
cost than other comparable
display technologies. One
variant, Polymer-OLED can
be printed onto almost any
substrate with inkjet printer
technology, meaning ultra-thin
displays become achievable,
with the potential for roll-up
displays in the future.
COnnECT  COnFIGURE 
COnTROl YOUR SERIAl DEVICES
More power. With nearly double the
power of its predecessor, the MX-5000
time to recovery increases production
rates and throughput.
Improved ergonomics. A new Metcal
Advanced™ Hand-piece for soldering and
rework is carefully designed to decrease
operator fatigue and enhance the operator
manual dexterity.
Greater process control. SmartHeat®
Technology in every MX-5000 means that
soldering and rework are always performed
at safe, controlled temperatures.
MX-5010 SOlDERInG
AnD REWORK SYSTEM
Configured with the Metcal Advanced™
Hand-piece, this system is highly effective
for soldering applications including: lead-free,
high mass components or boards, thermally
sensitive components requiring low operating
temperature, high volume production
soldering and touch-up soldering operations.
RS Part number: 675-0691
MX-5041 PRECISIOn TWEEZERS,
SOlDERInG AnD REWORK SYSTEM
Combines both the Metcal Advanced™ Handpiece and the Precision Tweezers Hand-piece,
users get maximum application flexibility for
soldering and reworking the widest range of
surface mount components.
RS Part number: 675-0701
MX-5051 SOlDERInG, DESOlDERInG
AnD REWORK SYSTEM
For unmatched rework versatility, the MX5051 addresses through-hole desoldering,
general soldering, and SMD rework
applications. The system incorporates the
Metcal Advanced Hand-piece and the Metcal
DS1 Desoldering Hand-piece.
RS Part number: 675-0704
eTech - ISSUE 2
19
www.nguyenxuong.com
scaling, to the point of a Deep Sleep state, where the clock can be
stopped completely. Through these low power modes, the Atom is
now capable of operating at levels comparable with other processors
targeting deeply embedded applications. ARM, of course, has always
pioneered low power technology, which may, in part, account for
its success in mobile phones. As its architectures have increased in
performance, it has striven to maintain that reputation but it is clear
that the application software has a significant impact on the overall
system performance.
Software
Developing software for an Intel Atom is, arguably, much simpler than
developing software for other deeply embedded processors, because
it is Windows-compatible. This means it can run the same operating
system used by the majority of desktop computers, so porting an
application developed on a PC to an Atom based hardware platform
should be relatively straightforward. It does require that the OEM
purchases a Windows licence for every unit deployed, however, which
may not be commercially viable. But there is an alternative. Windows
Embedded Standard is the componentised version of Windows XP and
is comprised of around 12,000 individual software components. This
allows for an optimised software environment which contains only those
components necessary for a given application, making the platform
more reliable. Windows Embedded Standard also carries a lower
licencing fee than a desktop product (although there are restrictions on
how it may be used).
VYInG
FOR YOUR
ATTEnTIOn
Choosing the right 32-bit architecture for your
next embedded development now presents
an even wider challenge.
20
eTech - ISSUE 2
Within
the embedded engineering sector, ARM and Intel
are rarely considered competitors because ARM is a
RISC based architecture and, predominantly, they are active in different
application areas. But with the increased interest in 32-bit architectures
within the deeply embedded space, ARM and Intel are now competing
against each other and a vast number of other potential solutions, for a
wide range of applications.
ARM offers a large family of processor cores, which have been licensed
by over 40 partners – the majority of which are semiconductor vendors.
As a result, an increasing number of ARM-based microcontrollers are
appearing on the market, covering a range of processing performance
and peripherals. ARM also has a reputation for being a low power
solution, which in the embedded space always features high won the
‘must have’ list.
Under these conditions, how can a processor developed for the desktop
computing sector hope to compete? The answer is it couldn’t, which
is partly why Intel developed the Atom. While it retains the same IA-32
instruction set, the Atom has a number of features that make it more
applicable to the embedded market. By considering the demands of the
market, the relative merits of both the Atom and an ARM solution can
be identified.
Power
Until relatively recently, the question of power meant different things
to Intel and ARM; for the former it meant processing performance, for
the latter it meant battery conservation. Today, neither company is in
any doubt that low power operation is important. Both companies now
implement voltage and frequency scaling technology, Intel calls this
SpeedStep technology and in the Atom this has been further extended
to what it calls ‘enhanced low-power states’ (C1E, C2E and C4E). These
are sequentially more extreme states of frequency and core voltage
The eco-system surrounding the ARM architecture is much larger
in terms of solutions targeting embedded applications and so offers
potentially even more scope for an optimised solution. This, coupled
with the vast number of semiconductor vendors supporting the ARM
architecture, may present a more attractive solution for OEMs targeting
deeply embedded applications, many of which fall in to the industrial
sector – an area where the Intel architecture has seen some success in
the form of Single Board Computers (SBCs).
SBCs
Applications within the industrial sector are the ‘sweet spot’ for SBC
vendors, but it’s interesting to learn that until the advent of the Atom
processor, Intel devices didn’t support the industrial temperature
specification. This meant that Intel based SBCs for industrial applications
needed to either be screened for compliance with the industrial
temperature specification, or be cooled – both of which represent an
increased cost. However, the Atom is the first Intel IA-32 processor to
be supplied to industrial temperature specification, which means its
use in SBCs has escalated. Such as the offering launched by RS from
Congatec and AValve.
ARM based devices are developed by semiconductor vendors to meet
the industrial specification, making them much more accessible in this
application area. Many vendors support their ARM implementations
with hardware and software development kits.
When choosing a 32-bit processor architecture, there is an increasing
number of vendors competing for the same design wins, many
of which will be ARM based, many of which may use proprietary
core. Only one will be Intel based, but with its renewed focus on
embedded applications, the Atom deserves to be compared against
the rest. Ultimately, while ARM, Intel and others continue to develop
leading edge solutions for the embedded space, it is the engineering
community at large who will remain the winner.
Visit rswww.com to see the latest ARM development kits,
ATOM processors and ATOM based SBCs from Cangatec
and AValve.
eTech - ISSUE 2
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www.nguyenxuong.com
t
e
e
p
l
i
F
h
s
g
a
l
F
e
h
T
The big FPGA houses enthuse about their flagship high-performance devices to
anyone who will listen, but innovations among the low and mid-range devices
have much more to offer engineers tackling general-purpose designs.
The
he
t
d
n
i
h
e
b
word FPGA encourages
thoughts of hugely complex
devices offering the ultimate in resources
and performance to a minority of specialist
designers able to exploit them. But behind
the flagship silicon, mainstream FPGAs are
a competitive design option for generalpurpose applications demanding low
power, low cost and high performance.
FPGA vendors are competing hard to
conquer general-purpose markets.
Each of the major suppliers – Xilinx,
Altera and Lattice – is positioning
low-cost, low-power device families
supported by easily accessible
development kits allowing
engineers to implement
relatively straightforward
designs benefiting from
the fast time to market
and efficient lifetimemanagement achievable
through FPGA-based design.
“
A key characteristic of the
new breed of development
tools supporting the latest ultracompetitive FPGA families is a
low purchase price.
22
eTech - ISSUE 2
”
Features Philosophy
Features conceived to target the enormous
variety of cost- and power-sensitive
opportunities in industrial, scientific,
medical and some consumer applications
include specialised on-chip functions,
power-management features, and low-cost
packages. Whereas the largest FPGAs
require multiple power rails to support
diverse system-on-chip functions, today’s
general-purpose devices such as the Xilinx
Spartan-3A and Altera Cyclone® IV families
simplify power distribution by operating
from only two power rails thereby helping
to save cost, engineering time and board
space. FPGAs are regarded as being
relatively heavy users of power, but
FPGA vendors are closing the gap using
innovations and process improvements.
As a result there is now a growing body
of general-purpose FPGA devices that
provide a viable upgrade path for CPLDbased designs. In the past, designers
have had to balance the extra flexibility
and performance of an FPGA against
factors such as higher cost and complexity.
But designers can now get the best of
both worlds without trading valuable
CPLD properties such as high pin-to-pin
performance and instant-on functionality.
Lattice, for example, has positioned its
LatticeXP architecture for high-volume, lowcost applications by using a combination
of SRAM and Flash technology and
optimising the feature set to include
configurable serial and parallel ports, onchip PLLs, embedded block RAM, and a
combination of logic-only and combined
logic/RAM blocks.
There is also a noticeable difference in
security mechanisms, compared to highperformance devices typically featuring
on-chip AES encryption/decryption.
Techniques such as Xilinx’s Device DNA
design-level security provide lower-cost
protection against threats such as reverse
engineering, cloning, tampering, or
overbuilding. Device DNA, using principles
similar to those of a cash machine
transaction, is designed specifically to be
effective in cost-sensitive, high-volume
applications. Connectivity is a central
aspect of many embedded designs, and
bandwidth requirements can range from
low-data-rate serial communications,
through industrial Ethernet speeds, to
Gigabit Ethernet and higher. Flexible
connectivity is a known FPGA strength,
and families such as the Xilinx Spartan-3
and LatticeXP2 families deliver high
bandwidth per price by supporting
high-speed I/O standards such as LVDS
enabling off-chip communications at
high Mbit/s rates.
For applications requiring higher
bandwidth, Altera’s Cyclone® IV family
and Xilinx Virtex-6 provide integrated
transceivers enabling communication at up
to 3.125Gbit/s suitable for protocols such
as Gigabit Ethernet, PCI Express, Serial
RapidIO® and XAUI. At the same time,
Altera claims that Cyclone IV consumes
up to 30% less total system power
than comparable devices requiring
an external transceiver.
low-Cost Tools
By optimising device performance,
features and cost, FPGA vendors have
delivered silicon that can compete for slots
on production boards against alternatives
such as ASSPs and microcontrollers. In
addition, new generations of development
tools, including fast-starter kits, evaluation
boards, application-specific boards and
reference designs are also emerging to
further reduce the barriers to FPGA design
starts in the general-purpose space.
Family-specific kits such as Xilinx’s Lowcost Spartan-3A development kit, as
well as application-oriented products such
as the Altera USB-Blaster™ kit, usually
provide everything the designer needs
to get started. They also take advantage
of each vendor’s well-established and
robust FPGA design software, which
walk engineers through a methodical and
easy to understand sequence to complete
the design.
A key characteristic of the new breed of
development tools supporting the latest
ultra-competitive FPGA families is a low
purchase price. The selling prices allow
many of these kits to be ordered without
requiring purchase authorisation, effectively
making access to FPGA technology as
easy as starting a microcontroller design.
Unprecedented Accessibility
Low-to-mid-range FPGAs are now more
accessible than ever for general-purpose
applications. RS supports engineers
looking to take advantage of these features
in new designs, by increasing access
to general-purpose devices, simplifying
purchasing even for small quantities, and
supporting low-cost starter kits from all the
major FPGA vendors.
Our FPGA range is growing rapidly.
Go to rswww.com/electronics to
see the latest additions.
eTech - ISSUE 2
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www.nguyenxuong.com
The Joy of Precision Analogue:
True Systemon-Chip
Performance
Another benefit of certain mixedsignal microcontrollers, such as
Cypress’ PSoC 3 and PSoC 5
devices, is that they solve worries
on routing signals. When
laying out traces on a PCB,
designers need to take
careful consideration of
noise-inducing signals
and properly shield
sensitive ones.
The software tools
used to program these
devices automatically route
all the internal signals to provide
the optimal integrity for analogue
signals, so a system designer
has more time to focus on other
portions of the project.
By Aaron Gl Podbelski, senior product marketing engineer,
Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
As systems increase in complexity,
engineers have a need to incorporate
more components, both analogue
and digital, into a single device while
maintaining the integrity of the design.
new mixed-signal microcontrollers
are emerging which integrate more
precision analogue components than
previous generations. Utilizing these next
generation mixed-signal microcontrollers
allow for designs which reduce BOM
costs, save board space, protect IP,
and provide more flexibility for change
throughout the design process. now
mixed-signal microcontrollers have
ADCs with a precision upwards of 20-bits,
amplifiers with lower offset voltages,
and 0.1% voltage references.
Previous
generations of mixed-signal
microcontrollers allowed for an
increased level of integration in a
design, but often those featured
analogue components did not
have enough precision for many
designs. Low-end analogue
designs benefited from the
integration, but mid- and high-end
designs still required external
analogue components. Newer
generations of mixed-signal
microcontrollers have improved
their analogue components, and
therefore are allowing mid- and
some high-end designs to take
advantage of the benefits of a
device incorporating both digital
and analogue signals.
The more capable the mixedsignal microcontroller is,
the more likely the design
can be a true system-on-a-
24
eTech - ISSUE 2
chip. By incorporating ADCs,
DACs, comparators, mixers,
amplifiers, filters, and voltage
references a single mixedsignal microcontroller can be
the complete analogue front
end of a design and the control
system. A design could have the
input of two sensors, amplify
and condition the signals, then
quantify them to be displayed
on an LCD that is directly driven
by the device. An example of
this would be a temperature
compensated gas meter, a design
which would be a complete
system-on-a-chip.
One of the main benefits of using
a mixed-signal microcontroller
is analogue IP protection. A
complex analogue design which
uses individual components
can be reverse-engineered
by competitors. The list of
components used can easily
In general mixed-signal
microcontrollers allow for
cost savings in a design. The
integration of ADCs, DACs,
comparators, amplifiers,
mixers, voltage references,
analogue MUXs, etc., provide
a BOM reduction. As a device
incorporates more commonly
used analogue components, then
the external components are
obviously not needed and money
is saved. In the same respect,
as these components are no
longer on the board, the PCB can
be reduced in size to save more
money. Additionally, with fewer
components on the board, routing
is simplified, allowing a designer
to worry less about noise issues
with traces and spend less
design time. As mixed-signal
microcontrollers start to increase
the precision and accuracy of the
included analogue components,
more designs can utilize the
money savings from using these
devices as systems-on-chips.
A digital cooking thermometer
is a good example of how new
high-precision mixed-signal
microcontrollers can provide a
concise solution over previous
generations. In this example,
a type K thermocouple will be
used for the temperature probe,
which provides an output of
~40µV/ºC. Since the output is
small for the range needed, a
very precise reference is required
to accurately capture the signal.
The thermocouple output is
an absolute measurement,
so a cold junction reading
is required as well, which is
performed by a thermistor (as a
thermistor provides a ratiometric
measurement).
Previous generations of mixedsignal microcontrollers required
the use of some external
components to properly measure
a thermocouple. Because
the internal voltage reference
inside of older mixed-signal
microcontrollers is accurate to
3% on average, an external
precision reference is required. A
0.1% accurate voltage reference
is commonly used for this
purpose. The voltage reference
is used as a scale reference point
and is fed into the controller’s
ADC as well as into the
thermocouple input. The ADC
then alternates between reading
the thermocouple and the voltage
reference in order to provide
a proper reading. Because the
thermocouple’s output is small,
an amplifier may be used to
increase the signal depending
on the resolution of the ADC.
The output of the thermistor
is read as a thermal reference
and the output of the
thermocouple is added to
this measurement. Figure 1
shows this setup.
3, which has a 0.1% voltage
reference. In this case, the
external reference is not needed.
The ADC can use the internal
reference for measurement so
the designer does not need to
worry about accounting for the
additional setup to accurately
read a thermocouple, which
is shown in Figure 2. If the
device being used also has
a high-resolution ADC, then
the amplification stage can be
removed since the conversion
will provide enough granularity
of the signal. The Cypress PSoC
3 device has a 20-bit DeltaSigma ADC which can measure
a 1.0V range signal down to
1µV. The use of a high-precision
mixed-signal microcontroller
allows designers to spend less
time on the design, as it is less
complicated. This in turn saves
board space and money.
Overall, new generations of
mixed-signal microcontrollers
allow designers to simplify
their designs, protect their IP,
reduce the need for external
components, and increase
the amount of value they are
receiving from a device. The
increased quality of the analogue
components in these devices
provides designers with more
Thermistor
RS has a wide
range of mixed signal
microprocessors now
available. To find out more,
visit rswww.com/electronics
14-bit ADC
Processing
Core
0.1% VREF
Previous Generation Mixed
Signal Microcontroller
Figure 1: Block diagram of a thermocouple reading based on less
precise mixed-signal microcontrollers.
Thermocouple
Thermistor
For the new mixed-signal
microcontrollers the setup for
measuring a thermocouple’s
output is far simpler. Some
of these mixed-signal
microcontrollers have a highly
accurate voltage reference,
such as Cypress’ PSoC
choices in how a design can
be accomplished and allows
for unique methods to solve
a problem. The thermocouple
example discussed shows how
various levels of mixed-signal
microcontrollers can solve
an issue, and how the newer
generations allow an even
more simplified design.
Mixed-signal microcontrollers
are becoming more prevalent
in a wide variety of designs, and
the latest generation of these
devices, with their increased
analogue performance, validates
this growth.
Thermocouple
Amp
be determined, and the signals
can be read by an oscilloscope
effectively turning the analogue
front end into a reference design.
If the design effectively uses a
mixed-signal microcontroller to
condition the analogue signal
then it renders that design into a
black box situation. A competitor
trying to determine how an
analogue signal is being handled
only sees the input into the
device and has no insight into the
components used, how they are
interconnected, or their settings.
Good designs utilize novel
methods to solve a problem;
smart designs employ novel
means to protect their IP.
20-bit ADC
Processing
Core
0.1% VREF
Next Generation Mixed
Signal Microcontroller
Figure 2: Block diagram of a thermocouple reading base on new high
precision mixed-signal microcontrollers.
eTech - ISSUE 2
25
www.nguyenxuong.com
DESIGn
TIPS
DESIGn
TIPS
In ASSOCIATIOn WITH
180n
P2
68p
R4
2k2
R3
10k
POCKET PREAMP
3
IC1A
1
R12
1M
4k7
3k3
220k
5
C10
100n
IC1
4
C4
6n8 P3
27n
R8
1k5
10k lin.
C3
R10
R13
100R
7
IC1B
R11
1k
0
8
R7
1k5
C7
68p
6
R9
C9
100n
-9V
C8
R6
R2
R1
IC1=NE5532
+9V
lin.
15k
2
P1
10k
log.
10k
R5
2k2
1k
Part 2: Power in the Pocket
the tone control has a steeper response.
Components R9 and C4 have the same
functions for the mid frequency control as
R6 and C7 for the low and high controls. C3
has the same function as C2, but filters the
high frequencies much later. Together with
C4 it sets the range of the mid control. In the
end, the control ranges of the mid and high
adjustments are not only determined by, for
example, the ratio of P3 to R7 and R8, but the
other components in the feedback circuit also
play a role. That is why the ratios between
P3 and P4 to R7/R8 and R10/R11 are greater
than would be expected from the actual
control ranges. The low tone control has quite
a wide bandwidth, because we assume
that small loudspeakers will be used. If this
tone control is going to be used with a larger
amplifier and speakers, a larger value for C2
may result in a better sound. Output resistor
R13 prevents problems in the event
an excessive capacitive load is connected.
C2
C1
C5
27n
4n7
P4
10k
C6
080278 - 11
27n
lin.
Figure 1. The preamplifier is quite straightforward for a volume control with triple-band tone control.
amplifier stage (IC1a) is non-inverting and has a
gain of 4 times as calculated from:
and R5 determine the minimum and maximum
control range respectively. The maximum gain
for example is:
Power supply
The power supply is symmetrical. This way we
can avoid relatively large coupling capacitors
and their detrimental effects on sound quality.
The disadvantage is that a negative supply
voltage is required. The easiest solution is a
circuit that inverts the positive power supply.
R3 / R2+1
(P2+R5) / R4
Tone control
The tone control has an adjustment range of
±12 dB for the low and high frequencies and
±9 dB for the mid frequencies. The latter is
26
eTech - ISSUE 2
• Connector layout matched
to associated boards
THR
TR
IC1
OUT
TLC555
3
R4
10u 63V 4
P2 is the bass control. C2 determines the
frequency range that will be controlled. Simply
put, at higher frequencies, C2 effectively shorts
out P2. The amplification is then determined by
the ratio of R5 and R4. The ratios of P2 to R4
V+
TEST
VOUT
ICL7662CPA
C10
C12
6
10u
63V
CAP-
LV
100n
L2
9V
0
9V
1mH
C7
C8
4u7
63V
4u7
63V
8
C6
7
1
OSC
TEST
2
CAP+ IC3
C4
5
VOUT
ICL7662CPA
CAP-
100n
LV
100n
6
3
The circuit
The volume control (P1) is connected directly
to the input of the preamplifier (see Figure 1).
This is the best place to prevent the tone
control stage from being overdriven. The first
IC2
100p
10u 63V 4
more than enough, because our ears are more
sensitive to mid-range frequencies. The circuit
will also remain reasonably straightforward
with these values. If these adjustment
ranges are too small then there is very likely
5
8
1k
DIS
C3
GND
8
R3
R
4
6
2
C2
100n
1
3
100n
C11
10u
63V
1k
9V
R2
C9
C5
V+
• Compact
9V
C1
7
7
OSC
2
CAP+
GND
• Symmetrical supply
10uH
CV
• 3-band tone control
something wrong with the loudspeakers.
A control range of 12 dB means that,
because of the relatively limited power of the
output stage, there is an imminent danger
of overdriving it, particularly for the low and
middle frequencies. After all, an increase of
12 dB implies an increase in power by a
factor of 16!
Continued page 28 >
1
Main Specifications
L1
5
In the previous edition of this series of articles
we described a small PWM amplifier. What
is missing from this are tone and volume
controls. Since most people are spoilt these
days with surround sound systems equipped
with an equalizer as an absolute minimum,
we made this preamp with a 3-way tone
control, instead of the more customary
bass/treble control.
We selected a DC/DC converter from Maxim,
the ICL7662 (see Figure 2). This IC works as a
charge pump and can operate with voltages
up to 20 V. Pin-wise and functionally the IC is
compatible with the more common ICL7660,
R1
100k
The PWM power stage discussed in the previous edition of eTech can be used
perfectly well on its own. But a matching preamplifier with power supply would
complete this amplifier nicely. That is why this edition’s Mini Project presents
the sequel: the Pocket Preamp.
and amounts to about 5.5 times (15 dB, DC).
R6 is necessary so that the other frequencies
can be adjusted with P3 and P4. C7 primarily
determines from which frequency the high
tone control operates. C5 and C6 ensure that
100k
Ton Giesberts (Elektor labs)
At a supply voltage of ±9 V, a signal of more
than 1 V (i.e. a little over 1.2 Veff) can be
processed without distortion, when the tone
controls are in their centre positions. It will
be obvious that when either the high or the
low tone control is at its maximum value,
the maximum permissible input signal is a
lot smaller at only 300 mV (for the applicable
frequencies, of course). At this point the output
of the tone control is just below the point of
being overdriven (but it will already overdrive
the power amp, so take care!).
The operation of the tone controller is not all
difficult to understand. The part around IC1b
is an inverting amplifier with three feedback
circuits connected in parallel for the tone
control. Resistor R12 ensures that the output
cannot swing to the power supply rail in the
event of contact bounce by the wiper of P2.
Incidentally, R1 functions in a similar way for
volume control P1. C8 and C1 suppress RF
(high frequency) interference.
080278 - 12
Figure 2. A voltage converter is used to convert a single power supply voltage
into a symmetrical power supply.
eTech - ISSUE 2
27
www.nguyenxuong.com
DESIGn
TIPS
< Continued from page 27
which can operate up to 10 V (the ‘A’ version
can handle voltages up to 12 V). These parts
can also be used here without any problems.
The biggest advantage of this is the simplicity;
only two external capacitors are required.
A small disadvantage is that the output
voltage is not regulated.
DESIGn
TIPS
Component list
Component list
Preamplifier board
Power supply board
The unloaded output voltage is equal to the
input voltage, but negative. As the output
current increases the output voltage will
reduce however. To increase the stability of
the output voltage two ICs are connected in
parallel. If you load a single IC powered at 9 V
with a resistance of 100 Ω, the output voltage
drops to about –4.6 V. With two ICs in parallel
this drops to only –6.3 V. With your preamplifier
as a load the output voltage drops only 0.35 V
(the NE5532 draws about 7.5 mA). You could
also use other opamps that have a lower
current consumption, but their quality
is often inferior; the NE5532 is an
excellent audio opamp.
Test results
The most interesting test results for the
tone controller are of course the individual
frequency response curves for the tone
adjustments. Figure 3 shows the maximum,
minimum and neutral positions (the positions
of the bass and treble controls remain
unchanged). In the neutral position a slight
attenuation of less than 1 dB at 20 kHz can be
seen. This is mainly caused by RF suppression
capacitors C1 and C8. At 20 Hz the variation in
gain is ±14 dB (±12 dB at 40 Hz) and at 20 kHz
it is about ±12 dB.
quite large; ±20 % is typical, and inevitably
has an effect on the frequency ranges and
maximum and minimum gains. With multiple
channels the individual deviations can result in
audible differences. If you have the opportunity
to check whether the individual channels of
stereo potentiometers are matched then it
is certainly recommended that you do this.
With more than two channels, the use of
rotary switches with multiple poles may be
considered, but this is an expensive solution.
Construction of the three boards
The connections for the three boards have
been placed in the same positions as much
as possible. The output of the preamplifier is
in the same corner as the input to the power
The distortion with an input signal of 0.5 V is
less than 0.005 % (1 kHz, 22 kHz bandwidth,
volume control to maximum, tone controls to
is as compact as possible. For a reliable
mounting option you could consider a couple
of plastic supports with slots. The boards can
then be mounted one above the other. The
best order is the power supply board at the
bottom, the tone control above that and the
power amplifier at the top.
(080278-1)
Kit set
As indicated in the parts list, you can order
the bare printed circuit boards for this
project from www.thepcbshop.com.
+15
+12
+10
+8
+6
In our prototype we initially connected four
ICs in parallel, but with three or four not
much more is gained. There was however a
strange effect: the ripple in the output was
found to vary slowly between a minimum
and a maximum value. This was caused by
the asynchronous operation of the internal
oscillators. In addition, the frequency of this
power supply ripple was 10 kHz so it could
become audible. That’s why the ICs are
driven with an external clock furnished by a
555 IC. The frequency of the 555 is set to
40 kHz, so that the ripple at 20 kHz is just
outside the audible range. An advantage is
that the inductor in the output filter can be
much smaller, which results in a much smaller
resistance loss for this coil. The inductor we
used for L2 has a rated series resistance
of 12 Ω. L1 and L2 are standard axial noise
suppression chokes, which are fitted upright
here. The latter is also true for the four resistors
in the circuit; this saves space.
We won’t dwell on the circuit around the 555.
It is the standard astable configuration. IC1
drives the clock inputs of the two converters,
each via a 1 kΩ resistor, to prevent potential
problems at power-on (risk of latch-up). The
ripple across the filter capacitors C7 and C8,
which are connected in parallel for a lower
series resistance, is almost completely
removed by output filter L2/C10/C12. On an
oscilloscope only a very small amount of
the switching frequency of the power
amplifier can be seen.
28
eTech - ISSUE 2
+4
Resistors
R1 = 220kΩ
(159-004) RS P/N
R2 = 3.3kΩ
(157-480)
R3 = 10kΩ
(150-928)
R4,R5 = 2.2kΩ
(151-088)
R6 = 15kΩ
(151-145)
R7,R8 = 1.5kΩ
(151-094)
R9 = 4.7kΩ
(151-000)
R10,R11 = 1kΩ
(157-446)
R12 = 1MΩ
(151-123)
R13 = 100Ω
(157-610)
P1 = 10kΩ potentiometer,
logarithmic (361-7033)
P2,P3,P4 = 10kΩ potentiometer,
linear (361-7033)
Capacitors
(lead pitch 5mm / 0.2”)
C1,C8 = 68pF ceramic (653-0030)
C2 = 180nF polyester / MKT (334-209)
C3 = 4.7nF polyester / MKT (312-1661A)
C4,C5,C6 = 27nF polyester / MKT
(312-1447A)
C7 = 6.8nF polyester / MKT (622-4145)
C9,C10 = 100nF polyester / MKT
(463-1765)
Semiconductors
IC1 = NE5532 (DIP-8) (810-188)
Miscellaneous
PCB, # 080278-1
(www.thepcbshop.com)
Resistors
R1,R2 = 100kΩ (151-303) RS P/N
R3,R4 = 1kΩ (157-446)
Capacitors
C1,C5,C6,C11,C12 = 100nF ceramic,
lead pitch 5mm (0.2”) (652-9995)
C2 = 100pF, lead pitch 5mm (0.2”)
(405-7662)
C3,C4,C9,C10 = 10µF 63V radial
electrolytic, lead pitch 2.5mm (0.1”)
(521-3504)
C7,C8 = 4.7µF 63V radial electrolytic,
lead pitch 5mm (0.2”) (520-1040)
Inductors
L1 = 10µH axial (vertical mounting)
(191-0481)
L2 = 1mH axial (vertical mounting)
(191-0712)
Semiconductors
IC1 = TLC555 (DIP-8) (638-942)
IC2,IC3 = ICL7662CPA+ (DIP-8)
(Maxim IC) (207-0118)
Miscellaneous
PCB # 080279-1
(www.thepcbshop.com)
d +2
B
r +0
A
-3
-5
-7
-9
-11
-13
-15
20
50
100
200
500
1k
Hz
2k
5k
10k
20k
080278 - 13
Figure 3. The curves show the effects of the different maximum settings of the tone control.
neutral). The current consumption of the entire
circuit is 56 mA at 9 V, 12 mA up on the PWM
amplifier by itself. With an 8 Ω loudspeaker
and the amplifier overdriven slightly, the
current consumption peaks at about 162 mA.
This really is too much for a 9 V battery. With
multiple channels we therefore recommend
that you use an AC power adapter.
During the tests we didn’t actually use
potentiometers for the tone controls, but
instead went for rotary switches and resistors.
This is because the interest is mainly in the
performance at the neutral positions and at the
upper and lower limits. So, each potentiometer
is reduced to two resistors and a rotary switch.
The tolerance of potentiometers is usually
amplifier. The power supply connections of
the preamplifier are in the same place as the
power supply outputs of the power supply
board. The 9-V input of the power supply board
is looped directly to the two connections for
the power amplifier. The position of these
corresponds to the power supply connections
of the power amplifier. On the power amplifier,
next to the power supply connections, there
are also the connections for the power supply
switch (S1). This is only for the power amplifier.
It is better to insert a switch in series with the
input to the power supply board. You can then
short out the connections for S1.
Mounting holes were deliberately not included
on all three of the boards so that everything
eTech - ISSUE 2
29
www.nguyenxuong.com
Essentials
Essentials
TIME ELECTRONICS
8-DECADE
RESISTANCE BOX
LINDSTROM
TWEEZER SET
®
n Two-piece set of the most
popular tweezers supplied in
an ESD wallet. Items are hand
crafted from stainless steel
to give perfect tip symmetry
and balance which ensures
tips always meet and line
up perfectly.
RS Online search term:
361-3104
Offers a wide resistance range
for general laboratory work.
ISO-TECH IDM91E MULTIMETER
A cost-effective digital multimeter for
day-to-day use.
n A high accuracy resistance box, with a low temperature
coefficient. Clear visual indication is provided with colour
coded digits, and is ideal for Platinum Resistance Thermometer
simulation. A special multiple gold contact arrangement ensures
low contact resistance. Accuracy is 0.1% to 10% depending on
range, and zero residual resistance is less than 90mΩ.
RS Online search term: 610-297
n This very popular multimeter has a large
20mm digit high contrast display for clarity,
as well as diode test, continuity beeper, DC
and AC Volts and Current measurement. The
protective holster includes a tilt stand for use
on a bench, as well as storage for the test
leads when not in use.
RS Online search term: 159-2140
n Twin pack format enables mixing of
the resin and hardener within the bag thus
preventing air entrapment and providing
ease of application for user. This dark grey,
two part flexible encapsulant is designed to provide environmental
protection whilst not causing component stress by shrinkage during
curing process. Cure time is 16 hours at 25°C and once cured is flame
retardant and gives good adhesion to a wide variety of materials.
RS Online search term: 199-1395
RS ULTRANE 550
HAND PROTECTION
For use in assembly, finishing, clean room
and electronics manufacturing.
DINO-LITE
COMPACT DIGITAL
MICROSCOPES
n With excellent abrasion resistance for enhanced
durability, superior breathability thanks to the material,
enhanced finger sensitivity due to the reduced
thickness, and a hand-specific design providing precise
fit. To EN388 4131. Supplied in bags of 10.
RS Online search term: 475-849 (small),
475-823 (medium), 475-855 (large)
Ideal for electronics assembly, repair
and quality inspection.
POLYURETHANE
POTTING
COMPOUND
ELECTRONIC CUTTERS
n Lindstrom® are well known within the electronics
industry to be of the highest quality. They are made
to exacting standards using the finest quality
materials and are used in high-end electronics
application such as aviation, computer,
telecoms and medical.
RS Online search term: Lindstrom cutters
n Dino-Lite is a compact digital microscope with a lot of new possibilities
compared to the traditional microscope. The Dino-Lite can be connected
to a computer and allows you to record moving and still images.
Dino-Lite comes in different versions, developed for specific applications.
Depending to the version, magnification ranges from ~10 to 200 to 500x.
LED lights are built-in, in white, polarized, and ultraviolet combinations.
Most versions have calibration and measuring options, and housings
are either composite or aluminium alloy.
RS Online search term: Dinolite
30
eTech - ISSUE 2
AC DIGITAL
VOLTMETER/
AMMETER
n A 3 & ¾ digital display
with 40 segment bar
graph. Available in both
standard and negative
LCD formats, with colour
options of red, green and
white. Options available
measuring AC & DC
voltage up to 300Vdc
and current up to 40A.
48x48mm sizing makes
them ideal for upgrade
from older moving coil
panel meters.
RS Online search term:
Trumeter *APM*
PRECISION CLEANING EQUIPMENT
n RS has a full range of products for use in precision
electronic applications from swabs and wipes to
cleaning fluids and air dusters. We also have a wide
range of RS branded cleaning products to
offers a cost effective but quality solution.
RS Online search term:
Precision cleaning equipment
BI-COLOUR BACKLIT LCD METER
n A compact, panel mount, 3.5 digit LCD
200mV FSD voltmeter with dual colour ‘stop/
go’ backlit display. During normal operation
the display is green, however if the reading
exceeds a programmable threshold the display
will turn red to warn operators.
Easy setup via DIP switch and 2 buttons. Opencollector alarm output mirrors backlit status for
remote monitoring or process control. 40x72mm
panel cut-out and supplied complete with
mounting bezel and accessories.
RS Online search term:
667-3991
eTech - ISSUE 2
31
www.nguyenxuong.com
The (Hidden) Power
Behind the Test System
Engineers typically feel
little pressure to renew
their trusty laboratory
power supplies. Although
digital oscilloscopes
and function generators
are frequently upgraded
to test high-speed,
feature-rich new designs,
engineers believing “they
don’t make them like this
anymore” can be happy
to connect the board to
the same PSU that has
served the department for
20 years or longer.
However,
the latest
models offer
some important benefits and valuable
new features that help to reduce setup
and execution time and provide greater
control and flexibility for testing modern
assemblies.
using several power supplies.
Agilent’s latest products include robust
fault-detection capabilities, as well as
guaranteed specifications for its benchtop,
modular and application-specific PSUs,
giving engineers a high level of confidence
in the latest equipment.
Design priorities for modern electronic
products are changing, and these changes
affect the expectations placed on laboratory
PSUs. The consolidation of functionality
into ICs to reduce product size and cost and
to add extra features, is increasing the need
for engineers to perform actions such as
device characterization and validation on
the bench. There is also a trend towards
portable and battery-powered equipment,
which is increasing the importance
of accurate measurement of power
consumption.
As another example, showing how the
latest units can respond automatically
to protect the device under test (DUT)
in the event of a fault, the fuse-linking
capability included in Hameg’s range of
laboratory PSUs caters for boards having
interdependent power domains. In a
motor-control system, for example, if a
short circuit causes one supply rail for the
driver bridge to shut down, it is desirable
also to turn off the complementary supply.
The PSU can be programmed to shut down
these two rails while continuing to supply
the controller board to and so allow the
circuit to be tested.
Precision Power
Multiple output channels allow the PSU to
be connected to modern boards that often
have several power domains operating at
different voltages, for example to supply
power-electronic components, analogue
voltage rails, ICs operating from a variety of
voltage levels, or devices with independent
core logic and I/O voltages. The latest
models deliver a significant advantage
over many older types by providing more
flexible over-voltage and over-current
protection capabilities. PSUs offering
independent over-voltage and/or overcurrent settings, for individual outputs,
allow engineers to power boards without
32
eTech - ISSUE 2
Moreover, with the growth in markets
for alternative energy sources, an
increasing number of engineers need to
be able to test devices such as solar cell
assemblies. PSUs such as the Hameg
HMP series cater for this growing need
by allowing users to create complex V/I
profiles specific for each cell. The ability to
simulate events such as brown-outs or the
injection of voltage or current peaks, or to
individually program current versus time
behaviour for any channel, also allows
engineers to create robust tests for
battery-charging circuits.
Smaller is Better
To save desk space and help engineers
work more efficiently, Hameg has designed
its range to allow engineers to use one
PSU to fulfil as much as 85% of the
general-purpose power supply
requirements they deal with on a daily
basis. Its HMP family comprises four
units, offering two- and three-channel
configurations, in 200W and 400W classes,
capable of supplying up to 40A. This
approach will allow some companies to
provide a PSU cost effectively on each
engineer’s desk. This can save the need to
laboriously retrieve and return equipment
from storage and will help companies
avoid accumulating a large assortment of
different power supplies.
On the other hand, buyers facing many
diverse requirements need flexibility and
choice. Agilent, for example, can offer over
200 configurations including benchtop DC
supplies such as the single-output 601X,
603X, 606X, 65XX, 66XX families as well
as its N5700/N8700 compact, high-power
system supplies in a variety of standard
U sizes.This is one of the widest
power-product ranges in the industry,
conceived to satisfy as many customers’
needs as possible.
Enhancing Usability
Most of today’s circuit boards operate from
generally lower voltages than previous
generations. As far as laboratory PSUs
are concerned, more precise control is
necessary to maintain stable voltage and
current at lower nominal levels. Thurlby
Thandar Instruments (TTi) has responded
to this by emphasising user-interface
enhancements that help engineers achieve
a valuable increase in control over the
instrument. The user interface of TTi’s new
PL series of PSUs, for example, has been
designed to satisfy customers’ wishes for
equipment combining the stability of digital
control with the simplicity and speed of
traditional analogue control knobs. These
provide true analogue control knobs but
also implement internal digital circuitry
to perform functions such as locking
voltage and current settings at the press of
a button to provide optimal security and
stability. Another important digital function
allows users to define the output-voltage
adjustment range. The instrument also
then configures the control knob response
automatically so that one full turn of the
knob will span the entire user-selected
range. This function, called V-span,
allows engineers to create a voltage
source that is adjustable over a very
small range, if required.
Mixed-Mode Regulation
PSU manufacturers have implemented
mixed-mode regulation to deliver
the best aspects of both linear and
switching principles. On the AC side, a
compact switching regulator performs
efficient bulk power conversion. In the
DC output channels however, precision
linear regulators are used to produce a
stable, accurate voltage free of switching
harmonics that could otherwise only be
removed by applying impractical levels
of filtering. Mixed-mode architectures
feature in power supplies from most
leading vendors.
TTi has further developed this topology
for its PowerFlex range, which uses a
modified form of mixed-mode regulation
to provide higher levels of current when
the voltage is set to lower values. This
is valuable for powering advanced,
high-performance equipment such as
motherboards and rack-mount cards
populated with low-voltage processors.
Conclusion
While tried and tested equipment has its
attractions, engineers risk underestimating
the contribution that modern laboratory
PSUs can make to improving efficiency,
streamlining test design and execution,
saving capital expenditure and, ultimately,
reducing time to market for new
generations of products.
To see the full range of laboratory
PSUs available from RS, visit
rswww.com/electronics
eTech - ISSUE 2
33
www.nguyenxuong.com
Graphical
display is
a winner for
Powelectrics
A well structured user interface which makes imaginative
use of a flexible graphical display can be a huge advantage
in the market, as Powelectrics found when they launched
Metron2, an affordable telemetry outstation and the first of
its kind to feature a graphical display. The design netted
the company a significant global contract with a major
multinational – and won its designer, Oliver Start, the Young
Engineer of the Year award, sponsored by RS, at the British
Engineering Excellence Awards.
According
to Powelectrics Sales Director
David Oakes, the achievements
in the design of the Metron2
were twofold. “Traditionally,
industrial products requiring
installation have a poor level of
user feedback, which means
that the installer is working
almost blind. The LCD graphical
display on the Metron2 makes
the commissioning process clear
and simple, using a logical menu
system. The display also offers
local access to measurements if
required.” he said. “At the same
time, Metron2 is designed to
compete at the price sensitive
end of the GSM/GPRS telemetry
market. It proves that a compact,
reliable and functional telemetry
system offering a great user
experience can now be realised at
low cost.” Powelectrics consulted
extensively with users at all
levels at the final design of the
menu system and the layout of
information on the display, a point
which particularly impressed the
BEEA judges.
Glenn Jarrett, Head of
Electronics Marketing from RS,
congratulated Oliver Start on his
success in the awards saying,
“The user interface and other
features conceived by Oliver
and developed by him to a tight
budget gave Powelectrics a
significant advantage. Achieving
a design of this quality within
just a few years of graduation
and joining the company is an
exceptional achievement.”
Powelectrics made extensive
use of the RS next day delivery
service during the prototyping
phase of the Metron2 project.
Commenting, Glenn Jarrett
said, “To maintain the rate
of innovation for which our
industry is justly famous,
it is crucial to encourage
young men and women
to enter the electronics
engineering profession.
These awards play a key
part in recognising the
crucial role that they play.”
He continued, “Oliver Start
took the Metron 2 project
from concept, developed
them into prototypes, and
brought to production a
highly innovative solution
that is already showing great
commercial potential. He is
an excellent example of
the kind of young engineer
we need to encourage
in industry.”
According to Dave Oakes,
“Like all designers, we explore
many alternative options before
specifying the display and other
key components. Slow arrival of
samples can be a huge frustration
– and can add considerably to
the time to market over the
life of a project. With RS, we can
be absolutely sure that anything
we order from stock will be
with us the next day.”
eTech - ISSUE 2
35
www.nguyenxuong.com
Quantum is the key
to beat fraudsters
By Richard Nock, Bristol University
The growth of Internet-based commerce has highlighted security limitations
in card transaction systems, leading to improvements in cryptographic
standards and techniques. However, the currency of conventional
cryptography is computing power; with enough computational ability,
the key can be broken to enable fraudulent transactions.
One
such project aims to perfect
a new generation of security
systems for card transactions. In this article,
Bristol University PhD student Richard
Nock describes his work with the Faculty
of Engineering’s Professor John Rarity
and Dr Naim Dahnoun on the university’s
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) project,
which aims to provide a basis for secure
e-commerce capable of resisting attacks
using aggressive code-breaking algorithms.
The time is approaching when ultraminiature processor circuitry will begin to
follow the rules of quantum physics, rather
than those of classical physics. At this
point, quantum algorithms such as Shor’s
algorithm will be able to perform numbercrunching tasks such as those used to break
security keys much more quickly than the
computers we know today; this will make
conventional cryptography obsolete almost
overnight.
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)
systems establish a different currency for
cryptography, based not on computing
power but on the physics of light. QKD
provides a means of generating a perfectly
secure key between two parties. Because
36
eTech - ISSUE 2
the key’s security is not dependent on
computational difficulty and computational
time, QKD effectively takes the breaking of
key codes out of the realm of the quantum
computer and also provides a means for the
communicators to detect an eavesdropper
in the quantum channel whilst generating
a key. This will allow banks and institutions
to combat many types of fraud, including
“Card Not Present” frauds, by enabling
secure communications and money
transfers using guaranteed-secure keys
between the two parties.
Quantum Key Distribution
My PhD is in researching and creating the
technologies required for making a QKD
system plausible for consumer markets.
The final aim of the research is to have a
system where QKD transmitter chipsets
could be embedded in phones, PDAs and
other smart devices, to communicate with
a corresponding receiver in Quantum
Automated Teller Machines (ATM) allowing
anyone to generate secured keys for use
with facilities such as online shopping.
A typical QKD system consists of the QKD
Transmitter, usually called Alice, and the
QKD receiver, known as Bob. The Quantum
communication channel is via light. The
Bristol system communicates through free
space, but an optical fibre could be used.
The system must also have a classical
channel, which could use a standard
such as Ethernet/Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, USB,
RS-232 or similar, to carry non-secure
communications.
Light is encoded such that there are
four polarizations 0°, 90°, 45° and 135°.
The 0° and the 90° polarizations are the
rectilinear bases with 90° representing a
logical zero and 0° representing a logical
one. In a similar fashion 45° and 135°
are the diagonal bases with 45° and
135° representing logical zero and one
respectively. Alice transmits random bits,
on random bases, and Bob receives by also
selecting at random the basis to measure
in. After transferring a sufficiently large
number of bits Alice uses the classical
channel to transmit the bases she used to
Bob. Bob then analyses the received data,
discarding data where they did not select
the same bases. Alice should also release
part of the actual data she sent such that
Bob can estimate an error rate. This subset
of the key is then discarded as it has been
on a classical open channel. The remaining
bits with matching bases is now the Key,
and Bob shall transmit which ones matched
back to Alice, again not transmitting the
actual data.
The error rate is how we verify the QKD
channel is secure. Due to the physics of
light, if an Eavesdropper (Eve) is passively
looking at the photons, she will disturb
their state, losing any data encoded upon
them. Hence Eve’s presence increases the
error rate. Another exploit would be for
Eve to replicate a Bob receiver, and then
retransmit photons to the real Bob.
This would also introduce more errors
as Eve’s receiver will have to choose the
receiving basis randomly, which will also
increase the error rate. By monitoring of the
error rate, we can ensure the bits we have
between Alice and Bob are secure.
Research Objectives
Current development is on an FPGA and
Microcontroller-based Alice, and a Bob
receiver comprising an FPGA and an
Embedded PC running Linux. Building
on earlier work by researchers in the
department, I have implemented some
improvements to the Alice transmitter
aimed at enabling a smaller, lower-cost
implementation whilst improving bit rate
and key/basis storage space.
My next goal is to reduce the size and cost
of the QKD system, in which Alice currently
measures around 10cm x 12cm and Bob is
in a 19 inch rack mount case. The new Bob
will be reduced in cost and size by building
a DSP & FPGA based implementation. RS
is providing development environments
for the chosen DSPs, the Texas Instruments
C2000 and OMAP.
It is still too early to predict exactly
when a QKD system could be viable at
consumer price points. Practically, current
cryptography offers adequate security at
a relatively low cost; hence QKD remains
largely an academic pursuit. In reality,
however, the race between QKD and
quantum computing is happening now,
and the outcome is critically important to
commerce and finance worldwide.
If your university is interested
in working with RS and would
like more information, email
[email protected]
eTech - ISSUE 2
37
www.nguyenxuong.com
Digital Oscilloscopes
FOR
REnEWABlE
EnERGY
Mixed Signal MSO Xs-A
400 MHz – 1 GHz
4 Ch. + 18 Digital Channels
10 Mpts/Ch
From
WaveSurfer Xs-A
200 MHz – 1 GHz
up to 5 GS/s
up to 10 Mpts/Ch
£ 9255
WaveJet 300A
100 MHz – 500 MHz
up to 2 GS/s
500 kpts/Ch
Renewable and sustainable electrical and electronic systems
are often characterised by high levels of DC current and the need
for low energy losses. These requirements pose specific challenges
when it comes to developing interconnect and electromechanical
products for this market. In expanding its 35,000 strong portfolio
of connectors from 70 suppliers, RS has introduced a number
of solutions aimed at this application area.
From
£ 5785
WaveAce 100/200
40 MHz – 300 MHz
up to 2 GS/s
up to 20 kpts
From
£ 1965
From
£ 850
The New Oscilloscope Experience
rswww.com/lecroy
COnnECTORS
Energy efficient lighting
Lighting in commercial and
domestic buildings uses a lot of
electricity and there is growing
interest in using LEDs as an
energy efficient and long lasting
light source. RS is supporting this
application with a new family of
Tyco hermaphroditic blade and
receptacle wire-board and boardboard connectors, supporting the
increasingly popular strips of LED
lights that are being produced to
give effect lighting and to replace
fluorescent tubes. Rated at 6A
and 125VAC/DC, they are ideal
for this class of applications.
High DC Currents
Sustainable systems such as
electric and hybrid cars require
small, light and cost-effective
connectors that can cope with
the very high DC currents. Tyco
offers a broad range of multi-point
contact systems that meet these
specifications, from the cost
effective AMP MCP system to
higher performance interfaces
with larger number of contact
points. The Tyco Kilovac range of
hermetically sealed contactors
(relays) has been used in electric
vehicles for many years, and
/ VDE strain relief and should
feature a safety clip that prevents
unmating without the appropriate
tool to meet NEC 2008 standards.
The systems need to be low loss,
so that as little as possible of the
hard-won renewable electricity is
dissipated as heat downstream
of the panel. Multi-Contact is
a market leader in this field.
Its solutions meet IEC 60529
for protection of the contacts
against accidental touching when
unmated. A recently introduced
innovation is a plug that interrupts
the flow of current when
withdrawn and activates an
anti-arcing circuit.
the manufacturer has extended
the range with new versions
addressing the needs of the
latest applications.
Solar energy
Solar energy is another
growing market with exacting
requirements to meet. Solar panel
installations feature a series of
connectors between the module
and the inverter, often linking
multiple panels in the same
installation. The requirement
here is for a low loss, easy to use
push in – pull out connector that
meets the demanding safety and
environmental requirements of
this application. Each connector
needs to be well protected
against UV radiation and water
alike, have the required UL/ DIN
RS is continuing to expand
it’s connectors portfolio
to address renewable
energy and many other
new applications.
Visit rswww.com/electronics
to find a solution that
addresses your specific
requirements.
eTech - ISSUE 2
39
www.nguyenxuong.com
LUNCH
BREAK
LUNCH
BREAK
WIN
a PS3 Slim 120GB
with our killer sudoku
Daily No. 1478
18
Easier
8
10
8
14
11
Name:
Job Title:
7
16
13
How to play:
As with standard sudoku, every row and column and 3 x 3
square must contain the numbers 1 through 9 exactly once.
19
23
Ship-To-Number:
Tel:
17
E-mail:
11
The grid is composed of shapes with a dotted outline.
At the top of each shape is a number, this signifies
the sum of the cell. For example; if there is a shape
composed of two cells with a ‘3’ in the corner,
the total of those cells is ‘3’. From that you can
tell that the values of the cells must be ‘1’
and ‘2’ or ‘2’ and ‘1’.
12
13
5
It is not permitted to repeat a number in a
shape. If you have a sum of 8 across three cells,
this cannot be ‘2’, ‘4’, ‘2’ as the ‘2’ is then repeated
in the shape.
10
21
9
8
4
12
10
9
18
No numbers are placed in the grid to start with, unlike in normal
sudoku; however you can work out every number with no guesswork
but applying logic alone to reach the unique solution for each puzzle.
8
12
9
13
17
10
13
17
Send your completed Sudoku to:
RS Components Ltd, eTech Team, DPN 24, Corby, Northamptonshire,
NN17 9RS. All entries must be received by 1st June 2010 and the
winner will be notified by the end of June 2010.
Terms & Conditions:
This competition is being run by RS Components Ltd. To enter the
competition, all information on the entry form must be supplied.
Entry is free, no purchase is necessary. It is the responsibility of
the participant to gain permission from his/her employer to enter
this competition. The prize is as stated. No cash alternatives are
available. The competition is open to all RS Components catalogue
recipients, except employees of RS Components or their families.
The closing date for entries is 01/07/2010. The date of the draw
will be in the month of August 2010. The winner will be selected at
random by RS Components and will be notified by 1st September
2010. Responsibility cannot be accepted for lost entries, damaged
or delayed in transit to the porters address. Illegible, altered or
incomplete entries will be disqualified. Details of the prize winner
can be obtained from the promoter after the date of the draw by
sending an SAE to RS Components, eTech Team, DPN 24,
Corby, Northamptonshire, NN17 9RS or by visiting
www.rs-components.com/etech.
Copyright (c) 2009, killersudokuonline.com
Correctly match these IT-terms with the following descriptions:
AMAZONED
EXABYTE
BETAMAXED
SPAMISH
CLICKS AND MORTAR
STORAGE CAPACITY EQUAL TO 200,000 BRITISH LIBRARIES
2 QUERY WORDS PRODUCING ONLY ONE RESULT
GOOGLESTALK
TYPOSQUATTING
MICKEY
DATAMINING
POSTCARDWARE
BUSINESSES TAKEN OVER BY ONLINE PRESENTATIONS
GOOGLEWHACK
OVERTAKEN BY SUPERIOR TECHNOLOGY
40
eTech - ISSUE 2
UNIT DEFINED AS 0.127mm OF MOUSE MOVEMENT
What does html stand for?
LARGE DATABASE TRAWLING
REGISTERING DOMAINS ONLY A FEW KEYSTROKES FROM POPULAR SITES
WHERE YOU SUBSTIUTE WORDS TO AVOID WEB STOPS I.E V!AGRA
USING GOOGLE TO FIND FORMER FRIENDS
accelerator is the LHC, what does
this stand for?
a.
3What is the full name for the
4What home video title released
a.
2The world’s most powerful particle
SOFTWARE REQUESTING A THANK YOU REPLY
MEATSPACE
1
LOSING ONES JOB TO ONLINE BUSINESS
General technology fun Quiz
international protocol standard
for lighting control?
a.
a.
5What classic screen actress
6
REAL LIFE AS OPPOSED TO CYBERSPACE
by Artisan Entertainment became
the first publicly available DVD18? (That is, the first two-sided,
dual-layered disc.)
co-invented spread-spectrum
wireless technology?
7Only one of the stable chemical
www.rs-components.com/etech
a.
8What temperature is the same in
Celsius as Farenheit?
a.
a.
9What corporation was the first to
What does pdf stand for?
a.
move to Silicon Valley in 1938?
a.
10Who invented the Integrated
Answers can be found at
elements is named after a person,
which one?
Circuit in 1958?
a.
eTech - ISSUE 2
41
www.nguyenxuong.com
InDUSTRY
nEWS
Fraunhofer ISE develops new
photovoltaic technologies
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for
Solar Energy Systems ISE have developed
new methods and cell concepts
for the manufacture of n-type
silicon solar cells. As a result,
higher efficiencies and power
production levels are also
possible for commercial solar
cells. The prototype exceeded
an efficiency of 23 %.
Fraunhofer ISE’s group manager Dr. Martin
Hermle explains the difference between the
new technology and current products. “Most
commercial silicon solar cells are currently
p-types, but the new n-type silicon used for
the novel solar cell structures developed at ISE
has better properties for photovoltaic electricity
production, such as greater tolerance for
most impurities. In practice, there are two
options: either greater efficiency, or lower
manufacturing costs because you can use
less expensive silicon.” In addition, p-type
Czrochalski (Cz) silicon suffers from lightinduced degradation, which does not occur
with n-type silicon.
Silicon solar cells consist of two areas with
different thicknesses for different conduction:
n stands for negative, p for positive. The thicker
layer, the substrate material, is considered the
base and determines the cell’s type – such as
p-type for conventional solar cells. Such cells
have a p-type base and a thin n-conductive
layer – the emitter, or the charge carrier. In
n-type solar cells, the emitter is p-doped,
either through boron diffusion or the addition
of aluminum.
For some time, experiments have been
conducted on n-type silicon as a base
material, but production technology was very
complicated. For instance, the main problem
42
eTech - ISSUE 2
in using n-type solar cells, in which the
emitter is on the side facing the sun, was the
passivation of the emitter, which was usually
doped with boron. Such surfaces cannot
be optimally passivated with conventional
layers, such as silicon oxide SiO2 or silicon
nitride SiNx. In collaboration with the Technical
University of Eindhoven, the problem of front
passivation was solved through the use of
aluminum oxide Al2O3.
Jan Benick, who is working on his doctorate
in the group for high- efficiency silicon solar
cells, managed to develop a highly efficient cell
process especially for n-type cells that uses
boron diffusion to make the emitter; the
efficiency is 23.4 % on 2x2 cm² – the highest
efficiency ever reached for this cell type.
Christian Schmiga, project leader in the group
for high-efficiency silicon solar cells, has also
reached 18.2 % efficiency on 12.5x12.5 cm²
by using much simpler process stages close
to industry practice, including a screen printing
process to apply the aluminum alloy emitter.
Fraunhofer ISE continues to further develop
process technology for n-type solar cells so
that industrially manufactured silicon solar
cells can reach efficiency rates exceeding
20% quickly.
www.nguyenxuong.com
Power With Confidence
No Surprises
Predictable, Reliable Agilent DC Power Supplies
E3600 and U8000 Series Basic Power Supplies
6030 Series Basic Autoranging
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6500 And 6600 Series High Performance
DC Power Supplies
N5700 Series and NEW N8700 Series
Basic DC Power Supplies
N6700 Low-Profile Modular
Power System
N6705A DC Power Analyzer
66000 Modular Power System
DC Electronic Loads
AC Sources
U2720 Series USB Modular
Source Measure Units
• Basic and performance low noise DC power supplies
• Robust protection and fault detection capabilities
• Guaranteed specifications
• Typical MTBF of 40,000 hours
• Over 200 DC power supply models to choose from
• 50 year history of innovation and patents
• Most models are programmable with standard interfaces
such as GP-IB, LAN/LXI, and USB
Detailed information on Agilent Technologies power
supplies is available at rswww.com/agilent
Exclusive Offer for eTech readers
Save up to 12%
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WHY STRUGGLE WITH
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• 3-year warranty
Manufacturer Part No.
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www.nguyenxuong.com
e
YOUR ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE ISSUE 2
13
Just Add
Wireless!
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A bright future for
renewable energy
Now landing, over 18,000 Tyco
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RS EDP & ARM
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rswww.com/electronics
www.nguyenxuong.com
Power With Confidence
No Surprises
Predictable, Reliable Agilent DC Power Supplies
E3600 and U8000 Series Basic Power Supplies
6030 Series Basic Autoranging
DC Power Supplies
6500 And 6600 Series High Performance
DC Power Supplies
N5700 Series and NEW N8700 Series
Basic DC Power Supplies
N6700 Low-Profile Modular
Power System
N6705A DC Power Analyzer
66000 Modular Power System
DC Electronic Loads
AC Sources
U2720 Series USB Modular
Source Measure Units
• Basic and performance low noise DC power supplies
• Robust protection and fault detection capabilities
• Guaranteed specifications
• Typical MTBF of 40,000 hours
• Over 200 DC power supply models to choose from
• 50 year history of innovation and patents
• Most models are programmable with standard interfaces
such as GP-IB, LAN/LXI, and USB
Detailed information on Agilent Technologies power
supplies is available at rswww.com/agilent
Exclusive Offer for eTech readers
Save up to 12%
on Tektronix
4-channel
Oscilloscopes
WHY STRUGGLE WITH
2 CHANNELS WHEN
YOU CAN HAVE 4?
There’s a lot going in today’s embedded systems: Analogue &
digital i/o, clocks, serial communications and more. Signal timing
needs to meet specification across all of them to validate system
operation and performance. With four scope channels you can
easily correlate critical signal timing across your designs.
SAVE MONEY
Validate setup & hold timing
in a single view.
SAVE TIME
Quickly validate analog Signal
Integrity performance.
• Key specs for any clocked device
• Crosstalk
• Data, Clock, Q
• Rise & fall time
• Reflections
More scope than you would expect
• Up to 500 MHz bandwidth
• Up to 5 GS/s sample rate
on all channels
• Up to 25 automatic measurements
• FFT standard
• OpenChoice and LabVIEW
SignalExpress software for
documenting and analysing
measurement results
• Front panel USB port for
easy storage and transfer
of measurement data
• Multiple language user interface
• Portable, lightweight design
(optional battery pack
for TDS3000C models)
• 3-year warranty
Manufacturer Part No.
RS Stock No.
Bandwidth
Channels
Sample Rate
(all channels)
Applications
• Digital design and debug
• Education and training
• Manufacturing test
and quality control
• Service and repair
• General bench test
• Manufacturing test
Saving
• Race conditions
• Metastability
• Bus contention
SPECIAL OFFER
Between now and the end of May you can save up to
12% on Tektronix TDS2000B and TDS3000C 4-channel
oscilloscopes.
Quote promotion code ETECH0410
TDS2004B
TDS2014B
TDS2024B
617-0082
617-0105
617-0127
462-988
60 MHz
100 MHz
200 MHz
100 MHz
4
4
4
4
1 GS/s
1 GS/s
2 GS/s
1.25 GS/s
£1,168.40
£1,377.00
£1,557.60
£3,560.40
8%
10%
12%
8%
Record Length
Promotional Price
MAKE YOUR JOB EASIER
Easily check for digital Signal
Integrity (SI) issues across
multiple channels.
2.5k
All products sold are subject to the current RS Conditions of Sale set out at rswww.com. The offer is applied at the point of goods
despatch, if goods are despatched outside of the validity date of the offer then the promotional offer will not be applied to the order.
Offer ends 31 May 2010. Prices may be changed by RS at any time, and exclude VAT which will be charged at the current rate.
rswww.com/tektronix
TDS3014C
10k
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