Epson | 386 | User`s guide | Epson 386 User`s guide

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Equity 386SX User’s Guide
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HERE
EPSON America, Inc.
2780 Lomita Blvd.
Torrance, CA 90505
MS 4-1
Fold Here
Tape Here - Do Not Staple
L
EPSON®
EQUITY™386SX
User’s Guide
Y19299100100
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
Epson America makes no representations or warranties, either express or implied, by
or with respect to anything in this manual, and shall not be liable for any implied
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or for any indirect,
special, or consequential damages. Some states do not allow the exclusion of
incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion may not apply to you.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Epson
America, Inc. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of information
contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this
publication, Epson America assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is
any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained
herein. Further, this publication and features described herein are subject to change
without notice.
TRADEMARKS
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
Equity is a trademark of Epson America, Inc.
Centronics is a registered trademark of Centronics Data Corporation.
Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer Technology Corporation.
IBM is a registered trademark and AT and XT are trademarks of International
Business Machines Corporation.
Intel is a registered trademark and Above is a trademark of Intel Corporation.
Lotus and 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation.
Microsoft, MS-DOS, and MS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
RampagePlus is a registered trademark of AST Research, Inc.
Copyright 0 1989 by Epson America, Inc.
Torrance, California
ii
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1.
Read all of these instructions and save them for later reference.
2.
Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the product.
3.
Unplug this product from the wall outlet before cleaning. Do not
use liquid cleaners or aerosol cleaners. Use a damp cloth for
cleaning.
4.
Do not use this product near water.
5.
Do not place this product on an unstable cart, stand, or table.
The product may fall, causing serious damage to the product.
6.
Slots and openings in the cabinet and the back or bottom are
provided for ventilation; to ensure reliable operation of the
product and to protect it from overheating, these openings must
not be blocked or covered. The openings should never be
blocked by placing the product on a bed, sofa, rug, or other
similar surface. This product should never be placed near or over
a radiator or heat register. This product should not be placed in a
built-in installation unless proper ventilation is provided.
7.
This product should be operated from the type of power source
indicated on the marking label. If you are not sure of the type of
power available, consult your dealer or local power company.
8.
This product is equipped with a 3-wire grounding-type plug, a
plug having a third (grounding) pin. This plug will only fit into a
grounding-type power outlet. This is a safety feature. If you are
unable to insert the plug into the outlet, contact your electrician
to replace your obsolete outlet. Do not defeat the purpose of the
grounding-type plug.
9.
Do not locate this product where the cord will be walked on.
10. If an extension cord is used with this product, make sure that the
total of the ampere ratings on the products plugged into the extension cord do not exceed the extension cord ampere rating.
Also, make sure that the total of all products plugged into the
wall outlet does not exceed 15 amperes.
iii
11. Never push objects of any kind into this product through cabinet
slots, as they may touch dangerous voltage points or short out
parts that could result in a risk of fire or electric shock. Never
spill liquid of any kind on the product.
12. Except as specifically explained in the User’s Manual, do not
attempt to service this product yourself. Opening or removing
those covers that are marked “Do Not Remove” may expose you
to dangerous voltage points or other risks. Refer all servicing in
those compartments to service personnel.
13. Unplug this product from the wall outlet and refer servicing to
qualified service personnel under the following conditions:
A. When the power cord or plug is damaged or frayed.
B. If liquid has been spilled into the product.
C. If the product has been exposed to rain or water.
D. If the product does not operate normally when the operating
instructions are followed. Adjust only those controls that
are covered by the operating instructions, since improper
adjustment of other controls may result in damage and will
often require extensive work by a qualified technician to
restore the product to normal operation.
iv
E.
If the product has been dropped or the cabinet has been
damaged.
F.
If the product exhibits a distinct change in performance,
indicating a need for service.
Contents
Introduction
How to Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Get Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Unpacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting a Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting a Printer or Other Device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Parallel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Serial Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Mouse Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Connecting the Power Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Connecting the Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Turning On the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
2
3
4
Chapter 2
3
4
1-1
1-3
1-4
1-7
1-7
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-15
Running the Setup Program
Starting the Setup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuing From an Error Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving the Cursor Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Display Adapter Card Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Power-on Password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Fast Boot Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Auto Speed Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Real-time Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Diskette Drive Type(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
2-4
2-6
2-6
2-8
2-11
2-12
2-14
2-17
2-22
v
Setting the Serial and Parallel Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing Your Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leaving the Setup Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding an Optional Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 3
2-28
2-29
Using the Equity 386SX
Installing MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Power-on Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a Power-on Password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a Power-on Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Operating Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Keys on the Equity 386SX Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping a Command or Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Disks and Disk Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Disks Store Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Diskette Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting and Removing Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write-protecting Diskettes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Backup Copies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Single Diskette Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Two Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Hard Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Off the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
2-24
2-26
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-12
3-14
3-16
3-18
3-20
3-21
3-22
3-22
3-25
Chapter 4
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Starting MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Drive Designators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Current Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of MS-DOS Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering an MS-DOS Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Managing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naming Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Renaming Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing Text Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Directories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Current Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Current Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Pathnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Including Filenames With Pathnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Including Drive Letters With Pathnames and
Filenames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing the Contents of a Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying a List of Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Directories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Diskettes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the FORMAT Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing Up Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the DISKCOPY Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the BACKUP Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The MS-DOS Shell Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Epson HELP Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Epson MENU Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu Program Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an AUTOEXEC.BAT File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Memory Beyond 640KB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using EMM386.SYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-11
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-16
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-21
4-23
4-23
4-25
4-27
4-27
4-28
4-30
4-31
4-34
4-35
4-35
4-37
4-39
4-40
4-41
4-43
4-44
vii
Chapter 5
Installing Options
Adding Memory Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Option Cards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing an Option Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Setup for Memory Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix A
Troubleshooting
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Won’t Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Locks Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Password Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting a New Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Drive Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Card Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-7
A-8
A-8
A-10
A-13
A-14
A-17
A-18
A-19
Power-on Diagnostics
Power-on Diagnostics Error Codes and Messages Table . . . . .
viii
5-2
5-4
5-5
5-8
5-14
5-21
5-22
5-23
5-25
B-2
Appendix C
Performing System Diagnostics
Starting System Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting an Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the Device List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resuming From an Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Board Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monochrome Display Adapter and CRT Check . . . . . . . . . . .
Monochrome Adapter Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attribute Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Character Set Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sync Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run All Above Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color Graphics Adapter and CRT Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color Graphics Adapter Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attribute Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Character Set Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40-column Character Set Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
320x200 Graphics Mode Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
640x200 Graphics Mode Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen Paging Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light Pen Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color Video Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sync Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run All Above Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Drives and Controller Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sequential Seek Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Random Seek Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write, Read Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Change Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run All Above Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Math Coprocessor Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Port (Printer Interface) Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-2
C-3
C-4
C-6
C-8
C-9
C-10
C-10
C-12
C-12
C-13
C-13
C-14
C-14
C-14
C-15
C-15
C-16
C-16
C-17
C-18
C-19
C-20
C-21
C-22
C-22
C-23
C-23
C-24
C-25
C-25
C-26
C-27
C-27
C-28
ix
Alternate Parallel Port Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Port (on Video Adapter) Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Port (RS-232C Port) Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternate Serial Port Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dot-matrix Printer Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Drive(s) and Controller Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seek Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write, Read Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Read, Verify Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run All Above Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Codes and Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix D
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
Choosing the Type of Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reformatting a Used Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting a New Disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting an Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the Formatting Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 1, Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the Defective Track Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting the Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 2, Destructive Surface Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 3, Non-destructive Surface Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exiting the Hard Disk Format Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix E
D-2
D-3
D-4
D-4
D-4
D-5
D-7
D-9
D-10
D-12
D-13
Hard Disk Drive Types
Hard Disk Drive Types Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X
C-28
C-29
C-29
C-31
C-31
C-33
C-33
C-34
C-35
C-36
C-37
E-1
Appendix F
Specifications
CPU and Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mass Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
F-1
F-1
F-2
F-2
F-2
F-3
F-3
F-4
Glossary
Index
xi
Introduction
The Epson® Equity™ 386SX is a high-performance personal
computer which offers exceptional speed and versatility in a
compact design. The computer’s 80386SX microprocessor
makes all your programs run faster, even when supporting
multitasking operations.
The Equity 386SXS available in these configurations:
c3
A single diskette drive system with a 1.44MB (megabyte)
3 ‘/z-inch diskette drive
Cl
A hard disk drive system with one 40MB or 100MB hard
disk and a 1.44MB diskette drive.
You can install an additional diskette drive or hard disk drive,
up to a maximum of three drives total.
All models of the Equity 386SX include 1MB of internal
memory, five standard option slots (four 16-bit and one 8-bit),
serial and parallel interfaces, and an auxiliary mouse connector.
You can easily upgrade your computer by installing additional
memory and adding optional devices.
Because of its industry-standard architecture, the Equity 386SX
is fully compatible with the current installed base of personal
computer hardware and software. You can install just about any
optional device that is compatible with the IBM@ Personal
Computer, PC XT™, or PC AT™.
You can expand the computer’s memory up to 14MB by
adding memory modules to a special card that comes with the
Equity 386SX. Memory modules are efficient because they
eliminate the need to use one of your option slots to add
memory to your computer. If you do choose to use a memory
card, you can increase the computer’s memory up to 16MB.
You may also want to install an 80387SX math coprocessor in
your computer to speed up mathematical calculations. Check
with your authorized Epson dealer to see which options are
available.
The Equity 386SXoffers several features to enhance the
security and versatility of your computer:
D
Password protection. This optional feature ensures that no
one may access your computer unless they know the
password.
Cl
Embedded hard disk drive and integrated diskette drive
controllers. Each controller can run up to two drives so you
don’t have to use an option slot to install additional drives
in your system.
Ll
Automatic configuration. The Setup program automatically
configures the memory and other items included in your
system, making it easier for you to get started.
Your Equity 386SX comes with version 4.01 of MS-DOS the
operating system by Microsoft? This version of MS-DOS
includes a Shell program, which lets you run MS-DOS
commands by selecting options from on-screen menus. You’ll
find a set of MS-DOS manuals packed in the box with the
computer.
You probably also purchased other software; you can use
virtually any application program designed for the IBM PC,
PC XT, PC AT, or compatible computers on your
Equity 386SX. You may also use powerful 32-bit softwaresuch as Microsoft Windows/386-with your computer.
Additionally, Epson has included two time-saving utilites that
make MS-DOS easier to use: HELP and MENU. The HELP
program lets you display information on the screen about any
MS-DOS command. MENU provides an easy way to run many
useful MS-DOS commands.
2
Introduction
MS-DOS is not the only operating system you can use with
your computer. If you have a hard disk you also may want to
use MS®OS/2. A mong other capabilities, MS OS/2 provides
multitasking, dual-mode processing, and online help. With
Epson’s version of MS OS/2, you can have both MS-DOS and
MS OS/2 on your Equity 386SX; this way, you can select which
operating system to load each time you turn on the computer.
Ask your Epson dealer for more information.
How to Use This Manual
This manual explains how to set up and care for your.
Equity 386SX. It also describes how to use your computer and
run diagnostics checks. You probably do not need to read
everything in this book; see the following chapter summaries.
Chapter 1 provides simple step-by-step instructions for setting
up your system. On the back cover foldout are illustrations
identifying the different parts of the Equity 386SX; you may
want to refer to this while setting up your system.
Chapter 2 describes how to run the Setup program to define
your computer’s configuration. You must do this for a new
computer before you use it. You may need to do it again later,
if you change the configuration.
Chapter 3 provides instructions for performing important
operating procedures, including using and caring for your disks
and disk drives.
Chapter 4 provides basic instructions for using MS-DOS with
your computer.
Chapter 5 describes some of the options you can use in your
Equity 386SX and contains instructions for installing option
cards and changing jumper settings.
Introduction 3
Appendix A contains troubleshooting tips in case you
encounter any problems while using your computer.
Appendix B provides information about the power-on
diagnostics.
Appendix C outlines the system diagnostics checks you can
perform on your computer. If you are having trouble with any
part of the hardware, you may want to run some of these
diagnostics checks.
Appendix D describes how to perform a hardware-level format
on a hard disk. You need to do this only if you have installed a
new hard disk that has never received this type of low-level
format, or if you are having serious problems with the hard disk
in your computer. (This is not the same type of format you can
perform with the MS-DOS FORMAT command.)
Appendix E lists the types of hard disk drives you can use in the
Equity 386SX.
Appendix F gives the technical specifications for the computer.
At the end of the manual, you’ll find a glossary of the computer
terms used in this manual and an index.
Where to Get Help
Customer support and service for Epson products are provided
by a network of authorized Epson dealers and Customer Care
Centers throughout the United States. Epson America provides
product information and support to its dealers and Customer
Care Centers.
Therefore, we ask that you contact the business where you
purchased your Epson product to request assistance. If the
people there do not have the answer to your question, they can
obtain it through our toll-free dealer support program.
4 Introduction
Epson is confident that this policy will provide you with the
assistance you need.
Call the Epson Consumer Information Center at
1-800-922-8911 for the following:
Cl The nearest Epson dealer
0
The nearest Customer Care Center
Cl
Information on Epson User Groups.
To locate or purchase accessories or supplies, contact your
nearest Epson dealer or call 1-800-873-7766.
Introduction 5
6
Introduction
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your Epson Equity 386SX personal computer is easy.
Just follow the seven steps in this chapter. As you set up your
computer, you may want to leave this manual’s back cover
foldout open so you can refer to the two illustrations identifying
the different parts of the computer.
1
Unpacking
As you remove your system components from their cartons, be
sure to inspect each piece. If anything is missing or looks
damaged, check with your Epson dealer.
Setting Up Your System
1-1
Besides this manual, you should have the following:
LI
The computer and power cord
Ll
The keyboard with attached cable
Cl
Three MS-DOS 4.01 diskettes: Install, Operating, and Shell
Cl A Reference diskette
Ll
Four MS-DOS manuals: an Installation Guide, a Shell
User’s Guide, a Reference Manual, and a Command
Summary.
In addition to these items, you need a compatible monitor and
display adapter card. You may also have a printer or other
peripheral device.
You’ll find a warranty card and a registration card with the
computer. Keep the warranty card for your records. Fill out the
registration card now and mail it to Epson. With your
registration card on file, Epson can send you update
information.
Be sure to keep your packing materials. They provide the best
protection for your computer if you need to transport it later.
1-2
Setting Up Your System
2
Choosing a Location
Before you set up your Equity 386SX, it’s important to choose a
comfortable, convenient location where it can run properly.
Select a location that provides the following:
A large, sturdy desk or table that can easily support the
weight of your system, including all its components.
A flat, hard surface. Soft surfaces like beds and carpeted
floors attract static electricity, which can erase data on your
disks and damage the computer’s circuitry. Soft surfaces also
prevent proper ventilation.
Good air circulation. Air must be able to move freely under
the system as well as behind it. Leave several inches of space
around the computer to allow ventilation.
Moderate environmental conditions. Protect your computer
from extremes in temperature, humidity, dust, and smoke.
Avoid direct sunlight or any other source of heat. High
humidity also hinders operation, so select a cool, dry area.
Appropriate power sources. To prevent static charges,
connect all your equipment to three-prong, 120-volt
grounded outlets. You need one outlet for the computer, one
for the monitor, and additional outlets for a printer and any
other peripherals. You can plug one peripheral into the
auxiliary power outlet on the back panel of the computer,
reducing the number of wall outlets you need.
No electromagnetic interference. Locate your system away
from any electrical device, such as a telephone, that
generates an electromagnetic field.
Setting Up Your System
1-3
3
Connecting a Monitor
The procedure you use to connect your monitor to the
computer depends on the type of monitor you have. See your
monitor manual for detailed instructions or follow the general
guidelines below.
A monitor requires that a display adapter (video) card be
installed inside the computer to control it. Your dealer may
have already installed a video card for you; if not, you need to
install it before you can connect your monitor. See Chapter 5
for instructions on how to remove the computer’s cover and
install an option card (a video card in this case).
The monitor type must match the video card installed in the
computer. Check the following table to make sure your card and
monitor match.
Monitor/video card compatibility
Monitor
Video card
Monochrome
Monochrome display adapter (MDA)
Multi-mode graphics adapter (MGA)
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA)
Hercules@ graphics card (HGC)
Color or EGA
Color graphics adapter (CGA)
Multi-mode graphics adapter (MGA)
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA)*
Monochrome
or color VGA
Video graphics array (VGA)
* Color monitors do not support EGA cards,
1-4
Setting Up Your System
Follow these steps to connect the monitor:
1.
Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. It is
easiest to connect the monitor cable if the backs of the
monitor and the computer are facing you.
2.
If necessary, connect the monitor cable to the monitor.
(Some monitors come with permanently attached cables.)
3.
Connect the appropriate end of the monitor cable to the
video card connector on the back of the computer, as
shown below. If the plug has retaining screws, tighten them
by hand or with a screwdriver, depending on the screw type.
UL
II
111111111111111111
I
I I
I
retaining
screws
4.
If there are any switches or jumpers on the video card (for
example, to indicate color or monochrome), be sure they
are set properly. (See the documentation that came with
your monitor or video card for instructions.)
Setting Up Your System
1-5
5.
Plug the monitor’s power cord into the monitor’s power
inlet, as shown below.
6.
Plug the other end of the power cord into an electrical
outlet.
Note
If the monitor has the proper type of plug, you can plug it
into the AC power outlet on the back of the computer,
1-6
Setting Up Your System
4
Connecting a Printer or Other Device
The Equity 386SX has a parallel interface, a serial interface, and
an auxiliary mouse connector. To connect a printer or other
peripheral device to one of these interfaces, follow the
instructions below. Of course, Epson offers a full range of
printers; check with your dealer for more information.
Using the Parallel Interface
The Equity 386SX parallel interface is Centronics®-compatible
and uses a DB-25S connector.
To connect a printer to the computer, you need an IBMcompatible printer cable. If you are not sure which one you
need, check with your Epson dealer.
Once you have the correct printer cable, follow these steps to
connect your printer to the parallel interface on the computer:
1.
Be sure the power switches on the computer, monitor, and
printer are off.
2.
Place the printer next to the computer.
Setting Up Your System
1-7
3.
One end of the printer cable has a 25-pin, D-shell, male
connector. Connect this end to the parallel port on the
back panel of the computer, as shown below. If the plug has
retaining screws, tighten them by hand or with a
screwdriver, depending on the screw type.
- *retaining
screws
\
1-8
Setting Up Your System
4.
Connect the other end of the cable to the printer, as shown
below. To secure the cable, squeeze the clips at each side of
the printer port and push them into place.
5.
Plug the printer’s power cord into an electrical outlet.
Setting Up Your System
1-9
Using the Serial Interface
If you have a printer, a modem, or any other peripheral with a
serial interface, you can connect it to the serial (RS-232C) port
on the back of the computer.
The Equity 386SX uses a DB-9P male connector, so be sure you
have a compatible cable. To connect a serial device, follow the
same steps as above for connecting a parallel device.
Note
You need to ensure that the serial port is set up so it
functions properly. If you are using the port for a serial
printer, you need to redirect printer output to the serial
port instead of the parallel port. To do this, you can use the
MS-DOS MODE or SETMODE command or the MENU
program. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
instructions.
1-10
Setting Up Your System
Using the Mouse Connector
The Equity 386SX has an auxiliary port for a mouse that uses a
mini DIN (6-pin) connector. To connect a mouse to the builtin mouse port and set up the computer to use it, see the manual
that comes with the mouse. To use a mouse with your
computer, you may need to add commands to your MS-DOS
CONFIGSYS file. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
instructions.
6
5
4
3
2
1
mouse connector
Note
If you want to use a mouse or other pointing device
connected to a port on an option card in your computer, you
need to disable the built-in mouse connector by changing a
jumper setting in the computer. See “Changing Jumper
Settings” in Chapter 5 for instructions.
Setting Up Your System
1-11
5
1-12
Connecting the Power Cord
Follow these steps to connect the power cord:
1.
Make sure the power switch on the computer is turned off.
2.
Plug the power cord into the AC power inlet on the back
panel, as shown below. To avoid an electric shock, be sure
to plug the cord into the computer before plugging it into
the wall socket.
3.
Plug the other end of the power cord into a three-prong,
120-volt, grounded electrical outlet.
Setting Up Your System
6
Connecting the Keyboard
Follow these steps to connect the keyboard:
1.
Turn the computer around so the front is facing you.
2.
Open the door on the lower left corner of the computer’s
front panel by pressing it in slightly and then releasing it.
Setting Up Your System
1-13
__
3.
Plug the keyboard cable into the socket, as shown below.
Do not force the connector, but be sure to insert it all the
way. Guide the keyboard cable through the notch on the
left side of the panel.
\c
4.
1-14
Close the panel access door.
Setting Up Your System
You can change the angle of the keyboard by adjusting the legs
on the bottom. Turn the keyboard over and lift each leg upward
until it locks into place, as shown below. You can lock the legs
to a low or high position, or leave them flat.
7
Turning On the Computer
After you set up your system, you’re ready to turn on the power.
But first, read the following safety rules to avoid accidentally
damaging your computer or injuring yourself:
Ll
Do not dismantle any part of the computer. Only remove
the cover to install or remove optional devices or change
jumper settings. If there is a hardware problem you cannot
solve after reading the information on troubleshooting in
Appendix A, check with your Epson dealer.
D
Always turn off the power, disconnect the computer’s
power cord, and wait five seconds before you remove the
computer’s cover.
Ll
Do not unplug cables from the computer when the power
is on.
Setting Up Your System
1-15
D
Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drive
light is on. This can destroy data stored on disk or make an
entire disk unusable.
C!
Always wait at least five seconds after you turn off the
power before you turn it on again. Turning the power off
and on rapidly can damage the computer’s circuitry.
D
Do not leave a beverage on top of or next to your system or
any of its components. Spilled liquid can damage the
circuitry of your components.
Follow these steps to turn on your system:
1-16
1.
Make sure the power cord is plugged into the AC power
inlet on the back panel of the computer and into a threeprong, 120~volt, grounded electrical outlet.
2.
Turn on the monitor, printer, and any other peripheral
devices connected to the computer. (Always turn on the
monitor and any peripheral devices before you turn on the
computer.)
3.
To turn on the power, press the power button in the upper
right corner of the computer’s front panel.
Setting Up Your System
The power indicator on the front panel lights up. After a few
seconds, the computer starts to perform an internal self test.
This is a series of checks the computer completes each time you
turn it on to make sure everything is working correctly. If
anything is wrong, an error message appears on the screen.
You see a message prompting you to insert a system diskette.
(Do not insert a diskette at this point.)
If you cannot see the screen display clearly, use the controls on
your monitor to adjust the brightness and contrast until
characters on the screen are clear and bright. If the display is
not stable, check your monitor’s horizontal and vertical hold
controls.
After you adjust the monitor’s brightness and contrast, press the
power button again to turn off the computer. Then turn off the
monitor and any peripherals.
Now go on to Chapter 2 and follow the instructions there to
run the Setup program. After you run Setup, you need to install
MS-DOS using the instructions in your MS-DOS Installation
Guide.
Setting Up Your System
1-17
1-18
Setting Up Your System
Chapter 2
Running the Setup Program
The first time you use your Equity 386SX, you need to run the
Setup program on the Reference diskette to define the
computer’s configuration. This is a simple procedure you must
do at least once. (You may need to do it again later, if you
change the configuration.)
The Setup program lets you set (or change) the following for
your computer:
Type of display adapter (video) card installed
Power-on password
Fast boot function
Auto speed function
Real-time clock’s time and date
Hard disk drive configuration
Diskette drive type(s)
Serial and parallel port settings.
The configuration you define with the Setup program is stored
in the CMOS RAM, which is permanent because it is backed
up by a battery. Whenever you turn on the computer, it
searches the CMOS RAM for the correct installation
information.
The Equity 386SX automatically defines your system’s memory
configuration and recognizes a math coprocessor, if you have
installed one. If the computer discovers a difference between
the information in the CMOS RAM and its actual
configuration, it prompts you to run the Setup program.
Running the Setup Program
2-1
Starting the Setup Program
Follow these steps to start the Setup program:
1.
Turn off your computer, monitor, and any peripheral
devices, if you have not already done so.
2.
Insert the Reference diskette into drive A with the label
facing up and the metal shutter leading into the drive, as
shown below:
Slide the diskette into the drive until it clicks into place.
(For more instructions on inserting and removing diskettes,
see Chapter 3.)
2-2
Running the Setup Program
3.
Turn on your system. (Remember to turn on your monitor
and any peripherals before you turn on the computer.) The
screen displays the Operation Menu:
OPERATION MENU
1
2
3
4
-
Setup
Format hard disk
System diagnostics
Prepare hard disk for moving
0 - Exit to DOS for more utilities
Note
If an error message appears when you rum on the
computer, see “Continuing From an Error Message,”
below.
4.
The Setup option is highlighted. To select it, press
Enter. The screen displays the main Setup menu:
Exit
Display
Password
Fast boot
Auto speed
Real-time
clock
Hard disk drive
drive
Diskette
Serial / Parallel
Running the Setup Program
2-3
Continuing From an Error Message
If your computer has never been set up, you may see an error
message, such as the following:
162 - System options not set
(Run SETUP in REFERENCE DISK)
(Resume = "F1" key)
If you see an error message like this one, follow these steps to
proceed:
1.
Press F1. The computer beeps and the screen displays
messages, such as the following:
!!!!! Error(s) detected !!!!!
The error message following the diamond indicates the
condition causing the error. There may be more than one
error listed in the message. Here are the error messages you
may see:
Time is invalid
HDD and/or HDC failed initialization
Memory size is incorrect, correction made
Incorrect
configuration
Checksum is incorrect
Real-time clock has lost power
2-4
Running the Setup Program
Some errors, such as Time i s invalid, do not allow
you to set a default value, so the screen does not display the
Set default value prompt. If you see one of these
errors, press ESC; the screen displays the main Setup menu
so you can enter a new setting.
Note
If you see the message Real-time clock has
l o s t power, contact your Epson dealer. You cannot
correct this error using the Setup program.
2.
Be sure Y is highlighted and press Enter. The Setup
program changes the setting that caused the error to a
setting that is more likely to match your system
configuration. The screen displays the main Setup menu:
Exit
Display
Password
Fast boot
Auto speed
Real-time clock
Hard disk drive
Diskette drive
Serial / Parallel
You should check all the settings in the Setup program to
make sure they are correct for your system. The default
value for the setting that caused the error may not be the
correct one for your particular configuration.
Running the Setup Program
2-5
Moving the Cursor Block
Use 4 and ? to move the cursor block (the highlighted bar)
through the options on the main Setup menu. After you
highlight the option you want, you can press Enter to select it.
Note
If the arrow keys on the numeric keypad do not appear to
work, Num Lock mode may be enabled. If the Num Lock
indicator in the upper right corner of the keyboard is lit, press
the Num Lock key once to disable Num Lock mode. and
enable the arrow keys on the numeric keypad. If you need to
enter numbers while using the Setup program and you want
to use the numeric keypad, you need to turn on Num Lock.
Follow the instructions in the rest of this chapter to use the
Setup program to define your computer’s configuration.
Setting the Display Adapter Card Type
Follow the steps below to set the type of display adapter (video)
card you are using with your Equity 386SX.
Note
With this option you select the type of display adapter card
you are using-not the type of monitor.
2-6
Running the Setup Program
1.
At the main Setup menu, highlight Display. You see
the current display adapter card type, such as the following:
Monochrome
80 column
If the display adapter card type is correct for your system,
you can skip this section.
2.
To change the display adapter card setting, press Enter. The
cursor block moves into the submenu and you see:
40 column
CGA
80 column
CGA
Monochrome 80 column
Special Adapter
The last option in this menu displays the type of display
adapter card you installed if it is an EGA, VGA, or MCGA
card. If you installed a different type of display adapter card
or a type listed as one of the first three options, you see
Special Adapter as the fourth option.
3. Press Enter to move the cursor block into this submenu and
then use ? or L to highlight the option that matches your
display adapter card. If you are not sure which one to
choose, follow these guidelines:
Cl
If you have a VGA, EGA, or MCGA card, select the
fourth option.
Cl
If you have a color graphics adapter (CGA) or a multigraphics adapter (MGA) attached to an RGB (color)
monitor, select CGA 80 column. (Also be sure to
set the color/mono switch on the MGA card to color.)
Running the Setup Program
2-7
Ll
If you have a composite color monitor, such as a color
television with a video input, try selecting CGA 8 0
column. If the resulting resolution is poor, run Setup
again and select CGA 40 column.
Cl
If you have a monochrome display adapter (MDA), an
MGA, or a Hercules MGA attached to a monochrome
monitor, choose Monochrome 80 column.
(Also be sure to set the color/mono switch on the MGA
card to mono.)
LI
If you have any other combination of monitor and
display adapter card, select Special Adapter.
In addition, consult the documentation supplied with
your display adapter card.
4. After you highlight the appropriate display adapter card
type, press Enter. The screen displays your new display
adapter card setting.
5. Highlight *** SAVE SETTING***
to return to the main Setup menu.
and press Enter
Setting the Power-on Password
Setting a power-on password lets you control who can use your
system. However, you do not need to set a power-on password
to use the Equity 386SX.
If you set a power-on password, you must enter it the next time
you turn on or reset your computer. If you cannot enter it
correctly, the computer locks up and does not respond to your
keyboard entries. Therefore, if you set a power-on password, be
sure to remember it or write it down and keep it in a safe place.
2-8
Running the Setup Program
If you want to use your computer as a network server, you must
turn on network server mode. (A network server is the master
computer in a network which provides storage space for the
other computers connected to it. The network server can write
files to and read files from the other computers in the network.)
To turn on network server mode, you must set a power-on
password.
If you do not want to set a power-on password or turn on
network server mode, skip this section.
Follow these steps to set a power-on password (when one does
not exist) and turn network server mode on or off:
1.
At the main Setup menu, highlight Pas sword. This
submenu appears:
Power-on password
Network server mode OFF
2. Press Enter. The cursor block moves to Power-on
password.
Note
If a password already exists, this message appears:
Power-on password already installed
The Setup program does not allow you to enter a new
password if one already exists. However, you can easily
change or delete the current password if you know it. See
“Using a Power-on Password” in Chapter 3 for
instructions.
3. Press Enter. You see this prompt:
r-7
Running the Setup Program
2-9
To enter a password, type any combination of characters
(including letters, numbers, and blank spaces) up to a total
of seven characters. Use the backspace key to delete
mistakes.
Do not use characters requiring the SHIFT key, such as $,
@, or *, in your password. The Equity 386SX does not
recognize the SHIFT key when you use your password to
access the system.
WARNING
Be sure to remember the password you enter or write it
down and keep it in a safe place. If you cannot remember
the password you enter now, you will not be able to
access the computer the next time you turn it on.
If you want to return to the password submenu without
saving any changes, press ESC.
4.
After you enter a password, press Enter to return to the
password submenu.
5. Highlight Network server mode. To turn network
server mode on or off, press Enter.
The Setup program requires a power-on password to turn
network server mode on. If you did not enter a password,
this message appears:
Set a power-on password first
To enter a password, highlight Power-on password
and follow steps 3 and 4 above.
6.
2-10
After you enter a power-on password and turn network
server mode on or off, highlight * * * * SAVE
SETTINGS * * * * and press Enter to return to the main
Setup menu.
Running the Setup Program
Note
If you forget your password, there is a way to disable the
password function. See “Password Problems” in Appendix A
for instructions.
Setting the Fast Boot Function
The Fast boot function allows you to start up your system faster
by reducing the time it takes the computer to perform its poweron diagnostics. Power-on diagnostics are a series of diagnostics
checks which your computer runs automatically each time you
turn on the power.
When Fast boot is disabled, the diagnostics program performs
three different tests on your system’s memory and also checks
the internal devices in your computer. When you enable Fast
boot, the program performs abbreviated versions of these tests.
You should enable Fast boot when you are using your computer
in its current configuration. If you install additional memory in
your computer, disable Fast boot before you make the change.
The next time you turn on your computer, it runs complete
power-on diagnostics, allowing you to test your new
configuration thoroughly. Then you can run the Setup program
to enable the Fast boot function again.
Note
If you disable the Fast boot function and then change your
system’s configuration, the computer can take up to five
minutes to perform its power-on diagnostics the first time you
turn it on.
Running the Setup Program
2-11
Follow these steps to change the Fast boot setting:
1. At the main Setup menu, highlight Fast boot and
press Enter. The current status appears:
enabled
Fast boot
** SAVE SETTING **
If the displayed setting is correct, press ? to return to the
main Setup menu.
2.
To change the setting from enabled to disabled or vice
versa, press Enter.
3. Highlight * * SAVE SETTING * * and press Enter to
return to the main Setup menu.
Setting the Auto Speed Function
The Equity 386SX can operate at 16 MHz or simulate an
8 MHz operating speed. The 16 MHz speed is high and the
simulated 8 MHz speed is low. You can use the CPU SPEED
switch on the computer’s front panel to select either speed.
(See “Selecting the Operating Speed” in Chapter 3.)
You’ll probably use high speed for almost all your operations.
Some copy-protected application programs, however, require
the computer to run at the low speed while accessing the
program on a diskette. These programs also usually require you
to leave a key disk-the diskette that contains the copy
protection-in the diskette drive. If you use a copy-protected
program often, you may want to enable the Auto speed
function.
2-12
Running the Setup Program
--
When Auto speed is enabled, the computer automatically
switches to low speed whenever it needs to access a diskette
drive. It runs at high speed for all other operations.
There are different types of copy-protected programs.
Depending on the type you have, you may or may not want to
enable the Auto speed function. Follow these guidelines:
Cl
If you are using a copy-protected program that can run only
on a diskette or that requires a key disk, try to start the
program on high speed. If this works, you do not need to
enable the Auto speed function.
If you can’t load the program on high, enable Auto speed.
D
If you are using a copy-protected program that does not
require a key disk but requires a special procedure to install
the program on a hard disk, set the CPU SPEED switch on
the front panel to LOW while you are installing the
program. Once it is installed, set the switch to HIGH, where
you should be able to leave it while you load and run the
program.
LI
If this does not work, try loading the program at low speed
and then switch to high to run it. Do not enable the Auto
speed function.
Follow these steps to change the Auto speed setting:
1. At the main Setup menu, highlight Auto speed and
press Enter. The current status appears:
Auto speed disabled
** SAVE SETTING **
If the displayed setting is correct, press 1‘ to return to the
main Setup menu.
Running the Setup Program
2-13
2. To change the setting from disabled
or vice versa, press Enter.
to enabled
3. Highlight * * SAVE SETTING ** and press Enter to
return to the main Setup menu.
Setting the Real-time Clock
The real-time clock in your Equity 386SX constantly tracks the
time and date-even when the computer is turned off. The first
time you run the Setup program, you use the Real-time
clock option to set the time and date for your computer. You
may need to use this option again later to adjust the time for
daylight savings time. The computer automatically changes the
date for leap years.
Another way to change the real-time clock*s time and date is
with the MS-DOS TIME and DATE commands. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions.
Follow these steps to set the real-time clock:
1.
At the main Setup menu, highlight Real-time
clock. If the time and date have been previously set, the
current settings appear:
If the time and date are correct, you can skip ‘the rest of this
section.
2-14
Running the Setup Program
If the time and date are incorrect, go to step 2 below.
If the time and date have never been set, the submenu
contains a template for you to fill in:
Go to step 2 to enter the time and date.
2. Press Enter to move the cursor block into the submenu.
3.
To set or change the time, press Enter again. You see this
prompt:
4.
Using a 24-hour time period, enter the time in the exact
format shown in the box. Type two digits for each part; the
Setup program automatically inserts the colons ( : ). For
example, to set the time to 1:30 p.m., you would type the
following:
133000
You can use the backspace key to make corrections.
Note
If you want to use the number keys on the numeric
keypad to enter the time or date, press the Num Lock
key to enable Num Lock mode. The Num Lock light is
on when Num Lock mode is enabled.
Running the Setup Program
2-15
If you enter an invalid time-for example, a number greater
than 23 for the hours or greater than 59 for the minutes or
seconds-the computer beeps and ignores your entry. Try
again.
When the time is correct, press Enter.
5.
To set or change the date, highlight Date and press
Enter. You see this prompt:
6. Enter the date in the exact format shown in the box. Use
two digits for the month and day and four digits for the year;
the Setup program automatically inserts the dashes. For
example, to set the date for December 30, 1989, you would
type the following:
12301989
You can use the backspace key to make corrections.
If you enter an invalid date-for example, a number greater
than 12 for the month or greater than the number of days in
that month-the computer beeps and ignores your entry.
Try again.
When the date is correct, press Enter.
7. Check the new time and date to be sure they are correct.
Then press 1‘ once or twice to return to the main Setup
menu.
2-16
Running the Setup Program
--
Note
The Setup program automatically saves the time and date
when you press Enter after typing-each one. If you
change the time or date and then exit the Setup program
without saving your changes, the new time and date still
take effect.
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Configuration
If your computer came with a 40MB or 100MB hard disk, your
computer’s hard disk configuration has already been set for you
at the factory and you can skip this section.
If you installed or removed a hard disk, follow these steps to set
the computer’s hard disk configuration:
1. At the main Setup menu, highlight Hard disk
drive. Your current settings appear:
Drive 1:
Drive 2:
Type
None
17
The Type number indicates the type of hard disk
installed in your computer. See Appendix E for a list of hard
disk drive types, and the documentation supplied with your
hard disk to find the correct type for the hard disk drive
installed in your computer.
The None after Drive 2 indicates that there is not a
second hard disk.
If the displayed settings match your hard disk configuration,
you can skip the rest of this section.
If a setting is incorrect, or if you want to see more details
about your hard disk configuration, go to step 2.
Running the Setup Program
2-17
2. To select Hard disk drive, press Enter. You see a
menu such as the following:
Change settings
** SAVE SETTINGS **
Drive 1:
Type
17
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors
Precomp. cylinder
Landing zone
Total capacity (MB)
Drive 2:
977
5
17
300
971
40.5
None
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors
Precomp. cylinder
Landing zone
Total capacity (MB)
0
0
0
0
0
.0
The submenu lists the settings you can change for each
drive: the number of cylinders (tracks), the number of read/
write heads, the number of sectors, the precompensation
cylinder, the landing zone (the cylinder on which you want
to park the heads when moving the computer), and the
total storage capacity in megabytes.
3.
If you want to change the settings for Drive 1 (which is
drive C on most computers), press Enter to highlight
Drive 1:. If you want to change the settings for
Drive 2, press Enter and then + to highlight
Drive 2:.
4. Press Enter. You see this submenu:
5.
2-18
If you want to change the drive type and the configuration
of the hard disk you are installing matches one of the drive
types listed in Appendix E, go to step 6.
Running the Setup Program
If you want to change the drive types, and the configuration
of the hard disk you are installing does not match one of the
drive types listed in Appendix E, go to step 7.
If you have disconnected the drive or if the drive does not
exist, highlight None and press Enter. All the drive
settings become 0. Go to step 8.
Note
If you install an ESDI hard disk drive controller in an
option slot (instead of using the embedded controller),
follow these guidelines to set the drive type:
D If the ESDI controller does not have its own BIOS
ROM and your hard disk drive type is not listed on
the hard disk drive parameter table, go to step 7.
If the hard disk drive type is listed on the hard disk
drive parameter table, go to step 6 and set the type.
Cl If the ESDI controller has its own BIOS ROM, you
must set the hard disk drive type to Type 1. Go to
step 6.
6.
Highlight Type and press Enter. The current type
number appears:
Now select the drive type number that matches your hard
disk configuration from the list of hard disk drive types in
Appendix E.
Running the Setup Program
2-19
You can enter the drive type in one of two ways:
Cl
You can type the drive type number (listed in
Appendix E) and press Enter. The screen displays the
new drive type number and hard disk settings. (You
cannot type 00 or a drive type number that has more
than three digits.)
Cl You can use the cursor keys to move through the drive
type numbers, as follows:
L
increases the drive type number one
number at a time
decreases the drive type number one
number at a time
PgDn
increases the drive type number in
increments of 10 (for example, from 47
to 57)
PgUp
decreases the drive type number in
increments of 10 (for example, from 47
to 37)
Home
enters drive type 1 (the first available drive
type)
End
enters drive type 63 (the last available drive
type)
This is a handy way to verify new hard disk settings
before you press Enter because the settings list is
automatically updated as you display each new type
number.
After you enter the appropriate drive type number, press
Enter. The screen displays the new drive type number and
hard disk settings. Go to step 8.
2-20
Running the Setup Program
7.
If the configuration of the hard disk you are installing does
not match one of the drive types listed in Appendix E,
highlight User defined and press Enter. You see the
following:
Number of cylinders
977
I
The same parameter is highlighted on the submenu above.
Enter the correct number of cylinders (tracks) for the disk
and press Enter.
Note
If you use the number keys on the numeric keypad to
enter parameters, press the Num Lock key to enable
Num Lock mode. The Num Lock light is on when the
Num Lock mode is enabled.
The information for Number of cylinders is
automatically updated on the submenu above and you see
the next parameter, Number of heads. Enter the
correct number of read/write heads for the hard disk and
press Enter.
Follow this same procedure for each remaining item in the
settings list (the number of sectors, the precompensation
cylinder, and the landing zone).
If you enter a parameter incorrectly, press T or 1 to
highlight the parameter and then enter it again.
The Setup program does not allow you to enter the total
storage capacity; it calculates the storage capacity for you,
based on what you enter for the number of cylinders, heads,
and sectors.
After you type the landing zone number and press Enter,
the cursor block returns to the Drive submenu heading.
Running the Setup Program
2-21
8.
If you want to change the hard disk settings for drive 2,
press -+ and return to step 4.
9. When the hard disk drive settings are correct, press ? to
move the cursor block into the top submenu. Highlight
** SAVE SETTINGS * * and press Enter to save your
hard disk drive configuration. The main Setup menu
appears.
Setting the Diskette Drive Type(s)
Your Equity 386SX comes with one factory-installed diskette
drive. If you removed the installed drive or added a second
diskette drive, you need to change the diskette drive settings to
match your configuration. If you haven’t made any changes, you
can verify the drive type settings. Follow these steps:
1.
At the main Setup menu, highlight Diskette drive.
The current settings appear:
Each diskette drive is followed by its specific type (360KB,
720KB, 1.2MB, or 1.44MB). If the diskette drive types on
the screen match your diskette drive configuration, you can
skip the rest of this section.
2-22
Running the Setup Program
2.
Press Enter. The cursor block moves into the diskette drive
submenu and you see the following:
Not
360
720
1.2
1.44
installed
KB drive
KB drive (3.5")
MB drive
MB drive (3.5")
3.
If you want to change the drive A settings, be sure
Drive A : is highlighted and press Enter. If you want to
change the drive B settings, highlight Drive B : and
press Enter. The cursor block moves into the submenu.
4.
Use 1 or ? to highlight the correct type for your diskette
drive and press Enter. The screen displays the new diskette
drive type you selected.
If you want to enter the type for another diskette drive,
return to step 3.
5.
When the diskette drive settings are correct, highlight
** SAVE SETTINGS * * and press Enter. The cursor
block returns to the main Setup menu and you see the
updated information for drives A and B.
Running the Setup Program
2-23
Setting the Serial and Parallel Interfaces
The serial and parallel interfaces in your computer are set up to
act as the primary ports. If these are the only ports you are using
in your computer, you can skip this section.
If you install an option card with its own serial or parallel port,
however, you may want to designate the built-in port as
secondary and the additional port as primary. The Setup
program lets you choose which port is primary and which is
secondary so there is no conflict between the built-in port and
the additional port. Here are some examples:
D If you install an option card with a port pre-set as primary
by the manufacturer, you must designate it as the primary
port and make the computer’s built-in port the secondary
port.
0
If you install an option card or peripheral with a port not
pre-set, you must designate it as the secondary port and the
built-in port as the primary port.
Cl
If you install two option cards with ports, designate one as
the primary port and the other as the secondary port and
disable the built-in port.
Follow these steps to change your built-in serial and parallel
interface settings:
1.
At the main Setup menu, highlight Serial/
Parallel. The current settings for each port appear:
Serial
Parallel
2-24
Primary
Primary
Running the Setup Program
.
2. Press Enter to move the cursor block into the submenu.
You see:
3.
If you want to change the serial port setting, be sure
S e r i a l is highlighted and press Enter. If you want to
change the parallel port setting, highlight Parallel
and press Enter. The cursor block moves into the submenu.
ig th th e appropriate setting for the port
4. Use L or t to highl’
you selected and press Enter. The screen displays the new
setting.
Note
If you add an option card with a parallel or serial port and
highlight a setting that causes a conflict between your
built-in ports and the port on the option card, you see
this message:
Conflict with option card
Highlight a setting that is appropriate for your system
configuration and press Enter.
If you want to change the setting for the other port, return
to step 3.
5.
When the serial and parallel port settings are correct,
highlight *** SAVE SETTINGS *** and press
Enter. The cursor block returns to the main Setup menu
and you see your updated serial and parallel interface
settings.
Running the Setup Program
2-25
Reviewing Your Settings
When you finish using the Setup program to define your
computer’s configuration, press ‘? to highlight Exit at the
main Setup menu and press Enter. The following Setup
summary appears on the screen:
Memory
Password
Extended memory
384
Base memory
6 4 0 K B
KB
Power-on password
Network server mode
not installed
OFF
Display type
Monochrome 80 column
Fast boot
enabled
If you see an error message on the first Setup summary screen,
see “Adding an Optional Memory Card” later in this chapter.
There are two more Setup summary screens you need to check.
To display the next screen, press PgDn. You see the following:
Real-time clock
13:40:38
12-30-1989
Auto speed
disabled
Coprocessor
not installed
Diskette drive
2-26
Time
Date
Drive A:
Drive B:
1.44 MB
None
Serial
Primary
Parallel
Primary
Running the Setup Program
If you have never set the real-time clock, the real-time clock
entry at the top of the screen flashes to remind you to set the
time and date.
To view the last Setup summary screen, press PgDn. You see
your hard disk configuration(s):
Hard disk drive
Drive 1:
Type
Drive 2:
17
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors
Precomp. cylinder
Landing zone
Total capacity (MB)
977
5
17
300
977
40.5
None
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors
Precomp. cylinder
Landing zone
Total capacity (MB)
0
0
0
0
0
.0
Change settings
Exit without saving
** EXIT AND SAVE **
Check each Setup summary screen to see if all the information
is correct. You can press PgUp to display the previous screen or
PgDn to display the next screen.
If anything is incorrect, be sure Change settings is
highlighted and press Enter. The main Setup menu appears and
you can change the appropriate settings.
Running the Setup Program
2-27
Leaving the Setup Menu
If you want to save the settings you entered, highlight
** EXIT AND SAVE * * and press Enter at a Setup
summary screen. The Setup program stores the new settings and
resets the computer using the new configuration. If you have set
a password, you need to enter it at the key prompt. (See “Using
a Power-on Password” in Chapter 3 for instructions.) The
Operation Menu appears. Press 0 and Enter to exit the
Operation Menu.
If the computer displays an error message while it is starting up,
run the Setup program again and check the setting the error
message indicates. If the computer still displays an error message
after you check your Setup program settings, see Appendix B or
ask your dealer for assistance.
Note
If you did not change any settings or you want to cancel the
changes you made, highlight Exit without saving
at a Setup summary screen and press Enter, The Operation
Menu appears. Press 0 and Enter to exit from the Opera
Menu. (If you changed the time or date, the new setting
takes effect even if you exit the Setup program without
saving your changes.)
After you save the settings you entered, remove the Reference
diskette from your diskette drive and turn off your system. Then
follow the instructions in your MS-DOS Installation Guide to
install MS-DOS.
Note
Be sure to make a backup copy of your Reference diskette
after you run the Setup program and install MS-DOS. See
Chapter 3 for instructions on how to copy diskettes,
2-28
Running the Setup Program
Adding an Optional Memory Card
The first Setup summary screen shows the current amount of
memory installed in your system. The Equity 386SX comes with
1MB of on-board memory. (On-board memory is memory that
resides on the computer’s main system board.) Setup
automatically configures this memory as 640KB of base memory
and 384KB of extended memory. If you install even more
memory, Setup configures it as extended memory also.
You can add more memory to your computer by installing single
inline memory modules (SIMMs) or by installing an optional
memory card. Because SIMMs do not require you to use an
option slot, they provide a more efficient way to add memory
than optional memory cards: You can also add both SIMMs and
a memory card.
All memory in your system has a particular address. A memory
address is the exact area where the memory resides in the
system. If you add memory by installing a memory card, the
address of the memory on the card could overlap the address of
memory you added by installing SIMMs, or there could be a gap
between the two addresses.
Setup displays this error message on the first summary screen if a
memory address overlap occurs:
ERROR: Memory overlapping from 100000h to
260000h
Reset Add-on memory board starting at
200000h or 260000h
If there is a gap between the memory addresses, you see this
message:
ERROR: Memory gapping from 160000h to
200000h
Reset Add-on memory board starting at
100000h or 160000h
Running the Setup Program
2-29
The addresses of the gap or overlap are shown in hexadecimal
numbers. (Hexadecimal is a base-16 numbering system used in
programming.) The message tells you the starting and ending
addresses of the gap or overlap and recommends two starting
addresses for the memory you added on the memory card.
The first recommended starting address is the starting address of
the 384KB of on-board extended memory. The second
recommended starting address is the ending address of that
384KB of memory. If you reset your memory card to the first
recommended starting address, your system cannot use the
384KB of on-board extended memory in your configuration
since its address is used by memory on the memory card. By
choosing the second recommended starting address, you can
include the 384KB of memory in your configuration because the
memory you add on the memory card begins where the 384KB
of memory ends.
Some memory cards limit the possible starting addresses you can
set. See the manual that came with your memory card to
determine which starting address to use.
2-30
Running the Setup Program
2-32
Running the Setup Program
Chapter 3
Using the Equity 386SX
This chapter describes the following procedures for using your
Equity 386SX computer:
0 Installing MS-DOS
CI Using a power-on password
Cl Selecting the operating speed
Cl
Using special keys on the keyboard
CI
Stopping a command or program
L! Resetting the computer
Cl
Using disks and disk drives
0 Turning off the computer.
Installing MS-DOS
After you connect the components of your system and run
the Setup program, you must install MS-DOS. Follow the
instructions in your MS-DOS Installation Guide.
The MS-DOS installation process automatically copies the
MS-DOS files onto your hard disk or generates working copies
of the original MS-DOS diskettes. It is best to make another set
of backup copies of your original MS-DOS diskettes. You may
also want to copy the working diskettes MS-DOS generates if
you do not have a hard disk.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-1
In addition, be sure to make a backup copy of your Reference
diskette; MS-DOS does not create one for you. See “Making
Backup Copies” in this chapter and “Backing Up Data” in
Chapter 4 for instructions on how to copy diskettes.
Using a Power-on Password
If you set a power-on password when you ran the Setup
program, you must enter it every time you turn on or reset the
computer. (See “Resetting the Computer” later in this chapter
for instructions on how to reset the computer.) Follow these
steps:
1.
If you do not have a hard disk, insert your Startup diskette
in drive A.
2.
Turn on your system. The screen displays a key prompt:
3.
At the key prompt, enter the power-on password you set
when you ran the Setup program. The key turns when you
type a character. The screen does not display the characters
you type. Then press Enter.
After you type the complete password correctly and press Enter,
a happy face character appears. Then the computer loads
MS-DOS. The screen displays the MS-DOS command prompt
or the MS-DOS Shell Start Programs menu, depending on
whether you installed the Shell program when you installed
MS-DOS.
3-2
Using the Equity 386SX
You have three chances to enter the correct password. If you do
not enter the correct password at the first or second key prompt,
another key prompt appears. If you do not enter the correct
password at the third key prompt, the screen displays a 0. The
keyboard locks up and you cannot use the computer. You may
reset the computer and try to enter the correct password again.
Note
If you do not know the correct password, see “Password
Problems” in Appendix A.
Changing a Power-on Password
To change your power-on password, follow these steps:
1.
If you do not have a hard disk, insert your Startup diskette
in drive A.
2.
Turn on or reset the computer. At the key prompt, enter
your current power-on password followed by a forward slash.
After the slash, enter the new password you want to use. For
example, if your current password is 123 and you want to
change it to ABC, type:
123/ABC
Do not use characters requiring the SHIFT key, such as $,
@, or *, in your new password. The Equity 386SX does not
recognize the SHIFT key when you use your password to
access the system.
The screen does not display what you type.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-3
WARNING
Be sure to remember the new power-on password you
enter or write it down and keep it in a safe place. If you
cannot remember the password you enter now, you will
not be able to access your computer the next time you
turn it on.
3. Press Enter. A happy face character appears and then the
computer loads MS-DOS.
To access the computer the next time you turn it on or reset it,
you must enter the new power-on password.
Deleting a Power-on Password
To delete your power-on password, follow these steps:
1.
If you do not have a hard disk, insert your Startup diskette
in drive A.
2.
Turn on or reset the computer. At the key prompt, enter
your current power-on password followed by a forward slash.
For example, if your password is 123, type:
123/
3. Press Enter. A happy face character appears and then
the computer loads MS-DOS.
The next time you turn on or reset the computer, it does not
request a password and loads MS-DOS immediately.
3-4
Using the Equity 386SX
Selecting the Operating Speed
The Equity 386SX can operate at two speeds: high and low.
High speed is 16 MHz and low speed simulates 8 MHz. On high,
the computer can access memory faster than on low.
You will probably use high speed for almost everything you do.
However, certain application programs have specific timing
requirements for diskette access and can run only at the slower
speed. See the manual for your application program to
determine if this is the case.
Note
If you enabled the Auto speed function when you ran the
Setup program, the computer automatically slows down to
low speed whenever it accesses a diskette drive. See
Chapter 2 for information on the Auto speed function.
Use the CPU SPEED switch on the front panel to change the
CPU speed; move it left for low and right for high. When the
computer runs at low speed, the power light is orange; at high
speed, it is green.
CPU SPEED switch
WARNING
You do not need to turn off the computer to change the
operating speed, but do not change it while you are running a
program. Complete your current operation, exit the program
to MS-DOS, and then change the speed.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-5
Special Keys on the Equity 386SX Keyboard
Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when
your computer is running MS-DOS or application programs.
The following illustration shows the Equity 386SX keyboard,
and the table that follows describes the special keys.
Key functions
3-6
Key
Purpose
Tab It
Tab +I
Moves the cursor one tab to the right in normal
mode and one tab to the left in shift mode.
Caps Lock
Changes the letter keys from lower- to
uppercase; changes back to lowercase when
pressed again. The numeric/symbol keys on
the top row of the keyboard and the symbol
keys in the main part of the keyboard are not
affected.
Shift
Produces uppercase characters or the top
symbols on the keys when used with the main
character keys. Produces lowercase
characters when the Caps Lock function is on.
Ctrl
Works with other keys to perform special
(control) functions, such as editing operations
in MS-DOS and various application programs.
Alt
Works with other keys to enter alternate
character codes or functions.
Using the Equity 386SX
Key
Purpose
t Backspace
Moves the cursor back one space, deleting the
character to the left of the cursor.
J Enter
Ends a line of keyboard input or executes a
command.
Insert (Ins)
Turns the Insert function on and off.
Delete (Del)
Deletes the character marked by the cursor.
Home, End
Page UP (PgUp)
Page Down (PgDn)
Tel+
Control cursor location.
Num Lock
Changes the function of the numeric/cursor
keys from entering numbers to positioning the
cursor; changes back when pressed again.
Esc
Cancels the current command line or
operation.
F1-F12
Perform special functions within application
programs.
Print Screen
(PrtSc)
Prints the screen display on a line printer.
SYS Rq (Req)
Generates the System Request function in
some application programs (when used with
Alt).
Scroll Lock
Controls scrolling in some applications.
Pause
Suspends the current operation.
Break
Terminates the current operation (when used
with Ctrl).
The Caps Lock, Num Lock, and Scroll Lock keys work as
toggles; press the key once to turn on a function and again to
turn it off. When the function is enabled, the corresponding
light in the upper right comer of the keyboard is on. When the
function is disabled, the light is off.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-7
Stopping a Command or Program
You may sometimes need to stop a command or program while
it is running. Many application programs provide a command
you can use to cancel or even undo an operation. If you have
entered an MS-DOS command that you want to stop, try one of
the following commands:
0
Hold down the Ctrl key and press C
Q
Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break.
These methods may also work in your application program. If
you cannot stop a particular operation, however, you may need
to reset the computer, as described in the following section.
Caution
It is best not to turn off the computer to stop a program or
command. If you created new data and you have not yet
stored it, the data will be erased if you turn off the computer.
The computer stores your data in its memory until you save
it; but the memory area is erased each time you turn off or
reset the computer.
Resetting the Computer
Occasionally, you may want to clear the computer’s current
settings or its memory without turning it off. This is called
resetting the computer.
If an error occurs and the computer does not respond to your
keyboard entries, you can reset the computer to reload MS-DOS
and try again. However, resetting erases any data in the
computer’s memory that you have not stored; so reset your
computer only if necessary.
3-8
Using the Equity 386SX
WARNING
Do not reset the computer to exit a program unless you have
to. Some application programs classify and store new data
when you exit the program. If you reset the computer without
properly exiting the program, you may lose data.
To reset the computer, MS-DOS must be either on the hard
disk or on a diskette in drive A; so if your computer does not
have a hard disk, insert the Startup diskette in drive A.
There are three ways to reset. Because each is more powerful
than the last, try them in the order listed here:
1.
If you are using MS-DOS, hold down Ctrl and Alt and press
the Del key. The screen goes blank for a moment and then
the computer should reload MS-DOS. If it doesn’t, try the
second method.
2. Press the RESET button on the front panel. This method
works even when the computer does not respond to your
keyboard entries. If this does not correct the problem, try
the third method.
3.
Remove any diskette(s) from the diskette drive(s). Turn off
the computer and wait five seconds. If your computer does
not have a hard disk, insert the Startup diskette in drive A.
Then turn on the computer.
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on
disk, and then retrieve and use your stored data when you want
to. The Equity 386SX comes with a single diskette drive or one
diskette drive and one hard disk drive. You may add another
diskette or hard disk drive, up to a maximum of three drives
total.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-9
This section explains how disks work and tells you how to do
the following:
Cl
Use different types of diskettes and diskette drives
0
Care for your diskettes and diskette drives
Cl Insert and remove diskettes
0 Write-protect diskettes
Make backup copies of your diskettes
Li
Use a single diskette drive
Ll Use two diskette drives
Cl
Use a hard disk drive.
How Disks Store Data
The diskette you insert in your computer’s diskette drive is
made of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material. It is
enclosed in a square jacket that is either hard (3 ‘/z-inch
diskettes) or slightly flexible (5 ‘/+-inch diskettes).
Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is
sealed in a protective case to keep it free of dust and dirt. A
hard disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but it
works much faster and has a much larger storage capacity.
All disks are divided into data storage compartments by sides,
tracks, and sectors. Double-sided diskettes store data on both
sides. On each side, there are concentric rings, called tracks
(or cylinders), on which a disk can store data. Double-density
diskettes have either 40 or 80 tracks on each side, and highdensity diskettes have 80 tracks on each side.
3-10
Using the Equity 386SX
Because a hard disk consists of two or more platters stacked on
top of one another, it has four or more sides with many more
tracks per side than a diskette. (The number of tracks depends
on the capacity of the hard disk. You do not need to know how
many sides and tracks your hard disk has.)
A disk is further divided by sectors. To understand what a sector
is, picture the spokes on a bicycle wheel radiating from the
center of the wheel to the tire. The space between one spoke
and the next is like a sector on a diskette; the lines dividing the
sectors cut across the tracks. (See the figure below.) A diskette
can have 8, 9, 15, or 18 sectors per track. The number of sectors
on a hard disk depends on the type of hard disk.
sector
Using the Equity 386SX
3-11
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to store
and retrieve data on a disk. To write to a disk, the computer
spins it in the drive to position the area on the disk where the
data is to be written under the read/write head. A diskette has
an exposed area where the read/write head can access it.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, record
over it, and erase it-just as you play, record, and erase music
on a cassette tape.
Types of Diskette Drives
The Equity 386SX comes with one 1.44MB diskette. With this
drive, use 3½-inch, double-sided, high-density, 135 TPI,
1.44MB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 18
sectors per track, and hold up to 1.44MB of information, which
is approximately 600 pages of text. MB stands for megabyte;
each megabyte equals 1,048,576 bytes or 1024KB.
You may also have a second diskette drive, and it may be the
same type or it may be different. The following list describes the
other types of diskette drives you can use in the Equity 386SX
and which diskettes to use with them:
3-12
Cl
720KB drive-With this drive, use 3½-inch, double-sided,
double-density, 135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These diskettes
contain 80 tracks per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold up
to 720KB of information, which is approximately 300 pages
of text. KB stands for kilobyte; each kilobyte equals 1024
bytes. Each byte represents a single character, such as A, $,
or 3.
Cl
1.2MB drive-With this drive, use 5¼-inch, double-sided,
high-density, 96 TPI, 1.2MB diskettes. These diskettes
contain 80 tracks per side, 15 sectors per track, and hold up
to 1.2MB of information, which is approximately 500 pages
of text.
Using the Equity 386SX
D
360KB drive-With this drive, use 5 l/4-inch, double-sided,
double-density, 48 TPI (tracks per inch), 360KB diskettes.
(You can also use single-sided, 160KB or 180KB diskettes.)
These diskettes contain 40 tracks per side, 8 or 9 sectors per
track, and hold up to 360KB of information, which is
approximately 150 pages of text. (With 8 sectors per track, a
diskette holds up to 320KB.)
Note
Before you can use them with MS-DOS, you must format
new diskettes using the MS-DOS FORMAT command.
Formatting erases all the data on a diskette and prepares it to
receive new data, so be sure to format only new blank
diskettes or diskettes that contain data you want to erase. See
Chapter 4 for instructions on formatting diskettes.
Drive and diskette incompatibilities
If your computer has more than one type of diskette drive, or if
you use diskettes from other computers with other types of
diskette drives, you need to be aware of certain incompatibilities
between the diskette drives and the diskettes they use.
Because of the size difference, you cannot use 5 l/4-inch diskettes
in a 3 l/z-inch drive or vice versa. There are also certain
limitations on using diskettes that are the same size as the drive
but have different capacities. The following tables summarize
the possibilities and limitations.
3 ‘/I-inch drive/diskette compatibility
Drive type
Diskette types it can read from and write to
720KB
720KB
1.44MB
720KB, 1.44MB
Using the Equity 386SX
3-13
5 ‘Ivinch drive/diskette compatibility
Drive type
Diskette types it can read from and write to
360KB
160KB, 180KB, 320KB, 360KB
1.2MB
160KB, 180KB, 320KB, 360KB, 1.2MB
WARNING
If you write to a 360KB (or 160KB, 180KB, or 320KB)
diskette in a 1.2MB drive, you may nut be able to read it or
write to it in a 360KB drive later.
Because of these incompatibilities, always indicate the diskette
type and density when you label your diskettes. (Usually this
information appears on the manufacturer’s label.)
If you have any combination of the above drives (1.44MB,
720KB, 1.2MB, or 360KB), you can copy files from one drive to
another-using the COPY or XCOPY command-as long as
the correct diskette type is in each drive. You can also use these
commands to copy files between a hard disk and any type of
diskette. However, you cannot use the DISKCOPY command to
copy from one diskette drive to another if the two drives are not
the same type. For more information on the MS-DOS COPY,
XCOPY, and DISKCOPY commands, see Chapter 4.
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskettes and
avoid losing data:
3-14
Ll
Do not remove a diskette from the diskette drive or turn off
the computer while the drive light is on. This light
indicates that the computer is copying data to or from a
diskette. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy data.
0
Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
Using the Equity 386SX
Keep diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small particles of
dust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface, destroy data,
and ruin the read/write heads in a diskette drive.
Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
Keep diskettes in a moderate environment. They work best
at normal room temperature and in normal humidity. Don’t
leave diskettes sitting in the sun, or in extreme cold or heat.
Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields. (Remember that
diskettes store information magnetically.) There are many
magnetic sources in your home or office, such as electrical
appliances, telephones, and loudspeakers.
Do not place diskettes on top of your monitor or near an
external hard disk drive.
Do not slide the metal shutter on a 3 ‘/2-inch diskette; this
exposes the diskette’s magnetic surface. If you have a 5 l/4+
inch diskette drive, the surface of the diskette is exposed by
the read/write slot. Always hold this diskette by its
protective jacket and never touch the magnetic surface.
The oils on your fingertips can damage it.
Do not place anything on top of your diskettes, and be sure
they do not get bent. A diskette does not rotate properly in
the drive if it has been damaged.
Carefully label your diskettes and be sure to indicate the
diskette type and density. Attach labels firmly but gently,
and only along the top of a diskette (next to the
manufacturer’s label). Do not stick several labels on top of
one another; too many labels can make it difficult to insert
and remove the diskette in the drive.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-15
For a 5 l/4-inch diskette, it is best to write on a label before
you attach it to a diskette. If you need to write on a label
that is already on a 5 ‘/q-inch diskette, use only a soft-tip
pen-not a ballpoint pen or a pencil.
Store diskettes in a proper location, such as a diskette
container. Do not store diskettes flat or stack them on top
of each other. If you use any 5 l/4-inch diskettes, store them
in their protective envelopes.
Inserting and Removing Diskettes
Insert the diskette with the label facing up and the metal
shutter leading into the drive, as shown below. Slide the
diskette into the drive until it clicks into place.
To remove the diskette, press the release button. The diskette
pops out of the drive. Pull out the diskette and store it properly.
3-16
Using the Equity 386SX
If you have a 5 ‘/+inch diskette drive, hold the diskette with the
label facing up and the read/write slot leading into the drive.
Slide the diskette into the slot until it is in all the way. Then
turn the latch down to lock it in a vertical position. This keeps
the diskette in place and enables the read/write heads in the
diskette drive to access the diskette.
To remove the diskette, turn the latch up until it is horizontal
and the edge of the diskette pops out. Carefully pull out the
diskette, place it in its protective envelope, and store it in a
proper location, such as a diskette container.
WARNING
Never remove a diskette or turn off the computer while the
diskette drive light is on. You could lose data. Also, be sure to
remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-17
Write-protecting Diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being
altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can read it and
copy data from it, but you cannot store new data on the diskette
or delete any files it contains. If you try to change data stored on
a write-protected diskette, MS-DOS displays an error message.
On a 3 ‘/I-inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small
switch on the back of the diskette in the lower right corner,
shown below. To write-protect a 3 ‘/z-inch diskette, slide the
switch toward the edge of the diskette until it clicks into
position, exposing a hole in the comer.
write-protect
/ switch
To remove the write protection, slide the switch toward the
center of the diskette until it clicks into position so the hole is
covered.
3-18
Using the Equity 386SX
Note
Some program diskettes, such as your MS-DOS diskettes and
your Reference diskette, have no switch so they are
permanently write-protected. This protects them from being
accidentally erased or altered. It is a good idea to writeprotect the backup copies you make of your MS-DOS and
Reference diskettes.
To write-protect a 5 %-inch diskette, cover the small,
rectangular notch (shown below) with an adhesive writeprotect tab. Write-protect tabs usually come with new 5 ‘/.+-inch
diskettes when you buy them.
To remove the write protection, peel off the write-protect tab.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-19
Making Backup Copies
It is important to make copies of all your data and system
diskettes. Make backup (or working) copies
contain programs, such as the original MS-DOS and Reference
diskettes that come with the Equity 386SX, and use only the
copies. Store the original diskettes in a safe place away from
your working diskettes.
Copy your data diskettes regularly, whenever you revise them,
to keep them up-to-date, and store them away from your
originals.
To make backup copies of your diskettes, use the DISKCOPY
command, the MS-DOS Shell, or the MENU program. See
Chapter 4, your Shell User’s Guide, or your MS-DOS Reference
Manual for instructions.
It is best to store the programs and data files you use regularly
on the hard disk. Keep backup copies of all your program files
on diskettes, and regularly copy important data files to diskettes
as well. See “Backing up the hard disk” in this chapter for more
information.
Note
Most files on your Reference diskette (including the Setup
and diagnostics programs) run properly only if you execute
them from the Reference diskette. If you have a hard disk,
copy only the following Reference diskette files onto it:
CORFIX.EXE, HDSIT.COM, HDSIT.VER, and
ROMBIOS.COM.
3-20
Using the Equity 386SX
Using a Single Diskette Drive
MS-DOS expects the computer to have at least two diskette
drives, and it displays prompts and messages accordingly. If your
system has a single diskette drive, MS-DOS treats your one
drive like two logical drives. This helps you perform operations
that normally require two diskette drives.
Usually, MS-DOS recognizes the first diskette drive (the top
drive on the Equity 386SX) as drive A and a second diskette
drive as B. If you have only one diskette drive, MS-DOS can
treat it as both A and B.
For example, if you enter a command to copy from A to B,
MS-DOS copies from the first diskette you place in the drive
(A) to the computer’s memory. Then MS-DOS prompts you to
insert another diskette (for drive B) and copies from memory to
the new diskette. When copying is complete, you see a prompt
to insert the original diskette (for drive A).
Because you may often swap diskettes this way, it is important
to remember which diskette is which. It is also a good idea to
write-protect your original diskette.
If you have a hard disk and one diskette drive, you can load the
operating system and application programs from the hard disk,
create and store your data there, and use the diskette drive just
for copying data to or from diskettes.
If you have only one diskette drive and no hard disk, you need
to use that drive to load the operating system as well as the
application programs you are using. First load the operating
system; this copies it to the computer’s memory (RAM) so you
do not need to leave the system diskette in the drive. Then you
can remove that diskette and insert the program diskette you
want to use, and load that into memory too. See your
application program manual for detailed instructions.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-21
Using Two Diskette Drives
If you have two diskette drives, you can use the top drive (A)
for loading the operating system and application programs and
the second drive (B) for creating data. If you have a hard disk,
you will probably need the diskette drives just to copy files to
and from the hard disk and to copy diskettes.
Note
You can load MS-DOS from an application program diskette
if that diskette contains the MS-DOS system files.
--
Using a Hard Disk Drive
Working with a hard disk is similar to working with a diskette.
However, the hard disk provides several advantages:
CI
A 40MB hard disk can store as much data as approximately
30 1.44MB diskettes, and a 100MB hard disk can store as
much data as approximately 70 1.44MB diskettes.
Q
Your computer can perform all disk-related operations
faster.
CI You can store frequently used programs and data files on the
hard disk, eliminating the inconvenience of swapping
diskettes to access different files.
The added storage capacity makes it easy to move back and
forth between different programs and data files. However,
because it is so easy to add programs and files to your hard disk,
you may find yourself trying to organize hundreds of files.
MS-DOS lets you keep related files together in directories and
subdirectories so they are easy to find and use. See Chapter 4 for
instructions on how to use directories.
3-22
Using the Equity 386SX
Note
The MS-DOS Shell program is a menu-driven program
which makes it easy for you to move, create, delete, and
rename files and directories, as well as view files and execute
commands. See your MS-DOS Shell User’s Guide for
instructions.
If your Equity 386SX has a hard disk drive, follow these
precautions to protect it from damage and to avoid losing data:
0
Never turn off the computer when the hard disk drive light
is on. This light indicates that the computer is copying data
to or from the hard disk. If you interrupt this process, you
can lose data.
ci
Never attempt to open the hard disk drive. The disk itself is
enclosed in a sealed container to protect it from dust.
ci
Before you move your computer (even to another part of
the room), you need to prepare the hard disk for moving.
See “Preparing the hard disk for moving,” below, for
instructions.
A hard disk must be partitioned and formatted before you can
use it. Be sure you have performed the procedures in your
MS-DOS Installation Guide to prepare your hard disk for use.
You can enhance the performance of your hard disk by using
the SMARTDRV.SYS device driver and the FASTOPEN
command. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
instructions.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-23
Backing up the hard disk
While the hard disk is very reliable, it is essential to back up
your hard disk files to diskettes in case you lose some data
accidentally. Make copies of all your system and application
diskettes before copying the programs to the hard disk. After
you create data files on the hard disk, be sure to copy them to
diskettes whenever you revise them to keep your backup
diskettes up-to-date.
To make copies of your program diskettes before copying them
to the hard disk, use the DISKCOPY command, the MS-DOS
Shell, or the MENU program. To copy your hard disk files onto
diskettes, use the BACKUP, COPY, or XCOPY command; the
MS-DOS Shell; or the MENU program. See Chapter 4, your
Shell User’s Guide, or your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
instructions.
Preparing the hard disk for moving
If you need to move your computer to a new location-whether
it is across the country or just across the room-you should run
the HDSIT program to protect the hard disk during the move.
The HDSIT program moves the disk drive’s read/write heads to
a region on the disk surface that does not contain data, and
locks them securely in position. This protects the hard disk from
being damaged if the computer is bumped accidentally.
Follow these steps to run HDSIT:
1.
Exit any program you are using and display the MS-DOS
command prompt on the screen.
2.
Insert the Reference diskette in drive A.
3.
Type the following and press Enter:
A:HDSIT
3-24
Using the Equity 386SX
You see a message on the screen that tells you the disk drive’s
read/write heads will remain locked until you reset the
computer or turn the power off and on again. The computer
locks the heads and disables the keyboard. You can now turn off
the computer and prepare to move it to the new location.
Turning Off the Computer
Before you turn off your computer, save your data, exit the
program you are using, and remove any diskettes from the
diskette drives. Turn off the computer first, then turn off the
monitor and any peripherals.
Using the Equity 386SX
3-25
-.
7.
R
-_
-
ri
h
14
3-26
Using the Equity 386SX
Chapter 4
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Your Equity 386SX comes with version 4.01 of MS-DOS. This
operating system manages your computer by organizing the
computer’s memory, controlling the monitor display, receiving
keyboard input, and accessing data.
How much you need to know about MS-DOS depends on how
you will be using your computer. If you plan to use it just to run
application programs, the few MS-DOS commands you’ll need
are introduced in this chapter. If you plan to use advanced
features, refer to your MS-DOS Reference Manual for complete
descriptions of MS-DOS commands and features.
This chapter covers the following topics:
Starting and exiting MS-DOS
Using drive designators
Types of MS-DOS commands
Entering an MS-DOS command
Setting the date and time
Creating and managing files
Using directories
Formatting diskettes
Backing up data
The MS-DOS Shell program
Using the Epson HELP program
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-1
Ll
Using the Epson MENU program
Ll Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT file
Ll Using memory beyond 640KB.
Starting MS-DOS
Before you can run an MS-DOS application program, MS-DOS
must be loaded in the computer’s memory. If you have a hard
disk and you installed MS-DOS according to the instructions in
your MS-DOS Installation Guide, the computer loads MS-DOS
automatically after you turn on the power (provided no diskette
is in the diskette drive).
If you do not have a hard disk, you need to load MS-DOS when
you turn on the computer. To do this, insert the MS-DOS
Startup diskette in drive A and then turn on the computer.
(The Startup diskette is one of the working diskettes MS-DOS
generates during the installation process. See your MS-DOS
Installation Guide for instructions on how to install the
operating system.)
If you set a power-on password when you ran the Setup
program, the computer displays the key prompt ( +n ) before
loading MS-DOS. At the key prompt, type your power-on
password and press Enter. (See “Using a Power-on Password” in
Chapter 3 for more information.) After you enter your
password, the computer loads MS-DOS.
When MS-DOS is loaded, the screen displays the Shell Start
Programs Menu if you installed the Shell program when you
installed MS-DOS. If you did not install the Shell program, the
screen displays the MS-DOS command prompt, usually C> or
A>. The MS-DOS command prompt identifies the current
drive.
4-2
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Note
Before you turn off the computer, be sure to exit any
application program you are using. The screen should display
the Shell Start Programs Menu or the MS-DOS command
prompt. Then remove your diskettes (if any), turn off the
computer, and turn off any peripherals.
Using Drive Designators
MS-DOS uses letters known as drive designators to identify the
disk drives in your computer. If you have one diskette drive, it is
known as drive A. If you have two diskette drives, the top drive
is A and the bottom drive is B.
If you have one hard disk drive, MS-DOS identifies its primary
partition as drive C (even if you have only one diskette drive).
If you have a second hard disk drive, MS-DOS identifies its
primary partition as drive D.
If you created one or more extended partitions on your hard
disk when you installed MS-DOS, the logical drives that make
up the extended partition(s) are identified by drive letters. For
example, if you have one hard disk (one physical drive)
partitioned into three logical drives, the logical drives are C, D,
and E. If you have two hard disk drives partitioned into a total
of five logical drives (three on the first physical drive and two
on the second), the first physical drive is divided into logical
drives C, E, and F, and the second physical drive is divided into
logical drives D and G, as shown here:
drive 1
drive 2
C: (primary)
E:
F:
D: (primary)
G:
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-3
The Current Drive
At any given time, MS-DOS considers one disk drive to be the
current (or default) drive. The current drive is the drive on
which MS-DOS executes your next command, unless you tell it
to do otherwise. For example, if the current drive is C, and you
enter the DIR (directory) command, MS-DOS lists the files
stored on drive C. If the current drive is A and you type WP and
press Enter, MS-DOS looks on drive A for a file called WP and
executes the instructions in that file. The current drive is the
drive you are logged onto at the time.
The MS-DOS command prompt tells you which drive is the
current drive. The MS-DOS command prompt includes the
current drive’s letter followed by a greater-than symbol.
(Depending on how you installed MS-DOS, it may also include
additional information.) Thus, when you see C> on the screen,
you know the current drive is C. The MS-DOS command
prompt also lets you know that MS-DOS is ready to receive a
command from you.
If you need to access a file or program on another drive, you can
either change the current drive or specify the other drive when
you give the command.
Changing the current drive
To change the current drive, type the letter of the drive you
want to change to, followed by a colon. Then press Enter. For
example, to change the current drive from C to A, type A : at
the C> prompt and press Enter. MS-DOS acknowledges the
change by displaying the command prompt A>. Changing to a
new drive is also known as logging onto that drive.
4-4
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Specifying the drive designator
If you want to access a program or file on another drive without
first changing the current drive, type the drive designator along
with the filename. For example, if you are logged onto drive A
and want to use a file named PROGRAM on drive B, type
B : PROGRAM and press Enter. MS-DOS loads and executes
the file named PROGRAM from drive B but stays logged onto
drive A.
Types of MS-DOS Commands
Each MS-DOS command is either internal or external. Internal
commands are built into MS-DOS; so you can use them any
time after MS-DOS has been loaded into memory. External
commands are separate files which MS-DOS must be able to
find before it can execute the command. If it cannot find the
file, MS-DOS displays an error message.
If you installed MS-DOS according to the instructions in your
MS-DOS Installation Guide, most external commands are
stored in a subdirectory named DOS on the hard disk (unless
you specified a different name when you installed MS-DOS).
The external commands CONFIG.SYS, AUTOEXEC.BAT,
and COMMAND.COM are stored in the root directory. (For
information on directories, see “Using Directories,” later in this
chapter.) MS-DOS automatically finds any external commands
you use in the DOS subdirectory or the root directory because
the installation process has set a path to them. (For information
on setting paths, see “Using Pathnames,” later in this chapter.)
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-5
If you do not have a hard disk, external commands are stored
on the set of working diskettes generated when you installed
MS-DOS. To use an external MS-DOS command, you must
insert the diskette containing that command into a diskette
drive. To find out which external commands are on which
diskettes, see the list of working diskette contents in your
MS-DOS Installation Guide.
For example, if you want to use the FORMAT command, you
must insert the Startup diskette into a diskette drive. Then you
can either log onto that drive and enter the FORMAT
command or specify the appropriate drive when you enter the
command.
For example, if you have two diskette drives and you want to
format a diskette that is in drive B, you need to insert the
Startup diskette into drive A, and log onto drive A. Then type
the following and press Enter:
FORMAT B:
MS-DOS finds the file named FORMAT.COM on the current
drive.
If you are logged onto drive B, you need to type the following
and press Enter:
A:FORMAT B:
This tells MS-DOS to look on drive A for FORMAT.COM
because the current drive is drive B.
4-6
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Entering an MS-DOS Command
To enter an MS-DOS command, you need to type the
command in the correct format. The command format provides
MS-DOS with the information needed to perform a task.
The MS-DOS command format consists of the command name,
parameters, and delimiters. The command name tells MS-DOS
the task you want the computer to perform. Parameters specify
information such as what data you want to process and where to
locate or store a file. Delimiters are characters such as spaces or
commas that separate command names and parameters.
For example, the command to format a diskette in drive A is:
FORMAT A:
delimiter
FORMAT is the name of the command that tells MS-DOS to
execute the file FORMAT.COM. The A : is a parameter that
tells MS-DOS what to format-in this case, the diskette in
drive A. The space between FORMAT and A : is the delimiter
that allows MS-DOS to distinguish the command name
(FORMAT) from the parameter (A : ).
Some commands also have optional switches you can use. A
switch is a type of parameter that changes the effects of a
command. A forward slash usually precedes a switch. For
example, suppose you want to format a 720KB diskette in a
1.44MB diskette drive. To do this, you add the following switch
to the FORMAT command:
FORMAT A: /F:720
If you do not add the /F:720 switch, MS-DOS tries to format the
720KB diskette as a 1.44MB diskette.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-7
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information on
the command format and for command descriptions that
explain which parameters and delimiters are required and which
parameters and switches are optional for each command.
You can enter an MS-DOS command whenever you see the
MS-DOS command prompt. Type the command name and any
parameters and delimiters. You can type command names and
parameters in either uppercase or lowercase letters. Then press
Enter to execute the command.
If you make a mistake when typing a command and you notice
it before you press Enter, you can do either of two things:
Cl
Use the backspace key to delete the error
Cl Press ESC and then Enter to cancel the current command
line and move to a new one.
Then reenter the command correctly.
If you press Enter when a command line has an error in it, the
screen displays an error message. Usually, the MS-DOS
command prompt reappears so you can try again. Type the
correct command and press Enter.
Setting the Date and Time
The real-time clock in your Equity 386SX constantly tracks the
correct time and date-even when the computer is turned off.
To adjust the time for daylight savings time, you can use the
MS-DOS TIME and DATE commands. See your MS-DOS
Reference Manual for instructions. The computer automatically
changes the date for leap years.
4-8
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
You can also use the Setup program on your Reference
diskette to set the correct time and date, See “Setting the
Real-time Clock” in Chapter 2 for instructions.
Creating and Managing Files
All your data and programs are stored in files on disk. A data
file contains information, such as words, numbers, or pictures. A
program file contains coded instructions that the computer can
understand and execute.
The kind of file you create depends on the MS-DOS command
or application program you use to create it. In general, a data
file that you create using an application program is stored in a
special format. If you use a different application program to read
that file, you may encounter problems.
When you create a file, you need to give it a name. The name
must be in the format MS-DOS requires.
Naming Files
Each file must have a unique name so that you can retrieve it
when you need to. The name consists of two parts: the filename
and the extension (which is optional).
The filename can be up to eight characters long. Create a
filename that identifies the information the file contains. You
can use any characters or numbers except for blank spaces and
the following symbols:
*\/;?[I:;<>.,+=
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-9
The extension is optional and can be up to three characters
long. You can use the extension to further identify a file or to
describe what type of file it is, such as a text file or program file.
When you use an extension, separate it from the filename with
a period, like this:
DATA.TXT
Do not use uppercase and lowercase letters to distinguish
between files. MS-DOS does not recognize the difference and
displays all filenames in uppercase.
Some application programs automatically add extensions to the
files you create. These programs use the extension to determine
whether a data file is compatible. Avoid using the same
extensions that your application programs use.
MS-DOS reserves certain filenames for its own use. The
reserved filenames are:
AUX
CLOCK$
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
CON
LPT1
LPT2
LPT3
LST
NUL
PRN
MS-DOS also reserves certain extensions for program files. The
reserved extensions are .COM, .EXE, and .BAT, and files with
these extensions are also sometimes called executable files. Do
not use these reserved filenames and extensions for your data
files.
The extension .BAT denotes a type of executable file called a
batch file. You can use batch files to automate sequences of
MS-DOS commands. Even if you are not a programmer, you
may want to create some batch files to save time. See “Creating
an AUTOEXEC.BAT File” in this chapter for a description of a
particularly useful kind of batch file, an autoexecute batch file.
4-10
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Copying Files
You can use the COPY command to copy individual files or
groups of files. COPY is an internal command; you can use it
any time you see the MS-DOS command prompt.
You can use the COPY command to copy files in several ways:
Ll
You can copy individual files from one disk to another
CI
You can copy a group of files using wildcard characters
CI
You can copy one or more files and give them new names
D
You can combine or merge files into one file.
To use the COPY command, type COPY at the MS-DOS
command prompt, followed by the drive designators and
necessary filenames. Then press Enter to execute the command.
For example, to copy the file named REPORT from the diskette
in drive A to the diskette in drive B (using the same name for
the copy as for the original file), type the following and press
Enter:
COPY A:REPORT B:
You now have two files named REPORT, one on the diskette in
drive A and one on the diskette in drive B.
To copy the file named REPORT from the diskette in drive A
to the diskette in drive B using a new name, FACTS, for the
copy, type the following and press Enter:
COPY A:REPORT B:FACTS
The file REPORT remains unchanged on drive A and a new file
named FACTS now exists on drive B.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-11
To copy the file named REPORT to the same drive or directory
and name the copy FACTS, type the following and press Enter:
COPY REPORT FACTS
Now you have two files on the current drive that have the same
contents but different names. In this example, you can omit the
drive designators because the original file and the copy are both
on the current drive.
You can use wildcard characters to copy a group of files. There
are two wildcard characters: * and ?. The asterisk represents
any group of characters and the question mark represents any
single character.
For example, to copy all the files on the diskette in drive A to
the diskette in drive B, type the following and press Enter:
COPY A:*.* B:
To copy all files with names that begin with the four letters
MEMO and end with any single character (such as MEMO1),
type the following and press Enter:
COPY A:MEMO? B:
You can also use the COPY command to combine several files
into one file. For example, to create a new file called DATA
that consists of the files REPORT, FACTS, and MEMO, type
the following and press Enter:
COPY REPORT + FACTS + MEMO DATA
Now the file DATA consists of REPORT followed by FACTS
followed by MEMO.
4-12
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
To copy REPORT, FACTS, and MEMO from drive A to a file
named DATA on drive B, type the following and press Enter:
COPY A:REPORT + A:FACTS + A:MEMO B:DATA
Remember these rules when using the COPY command:
Cl
MS-DOS must be able to find the original file and know
where to store the copy; that is, you may need to specify the
drive (and directory, if necessary) for one or both.
Cl
You cannot create a new file with the same name and in the
same directory as an existing file.
CI
If there is a file on the destination diskette or directory that
has the same name as the file you are copying, the copy
automatically replaces the existing file. There is no warning
that the existing file is being replaced; so be careful that you
do not accidentally erase a file you want to keep.
Ci
If you are copying to a diskette, the diskette must already be
formatted.
Note
You can also use the XCOPY command to copy individual
files or groups of files. XCOPY-which is an external
command--offers an efficient way to copy certaingroups of
files or whole directories. The MENU program allows you to
copy files with XCOPY using menus instead of the command
itself. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual and “Using the
Epson MENU Program” in this chapter for inform&on on
XCOPY and MENU.
You can also use the MS-DOS Shell program to copy
individual files, groups of files, or whole directories. See your
MS-DOS Shell User's Guide for instructions.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-13
Renaming Files
You can use the RENAME command to change the name of
a file or group of files on the same disk and directory. For
example, to rename a file named PROSPECT (in the current
directory) to CLIENT, type the following and press Enter:
RENAME PROSPECT CLIENT
You can shorten the RENAME command to REN. For example,
to change the name of a file from HAMMERS to WRENCHES,
you can type the following and press Enter:
REN HAMMERS WRENCHES
You can use wildcards to rename groups of files. For example, to
change the extensions of all files on drive C with the extension
.NEW from .NEW to .OLD, type the following and press Enter:
REN C:*.NEW *.OLD
To add the extension .OLD to all files that begin with the same
four characters, MEMO, but end with one varying character,
type the following and press Enter:
REN MEMO? MEMO?.OLD
This command renames files such as MEMO1 and MEMO2 to
MEMO1 .OLD and MEM02.OLD.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information on
the RENAME command.
4-14
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Deleting Files
You can delete files you no longer need with the DEL (delete)
command. For example, to delete REPORT.AUG from drive C,
type the following and press Enter:
DEL C:REPORT.AUG
To delete the file WRENCHES from drive C, type the
following and press Enter:
DEL C:WRENCHES
To display a prompt asking you to confirm that you want to
delete the file before MS-DOS deletes it, use the /P switch.
Type the following and press Enter:
DEL C:WRENCHES /P
You see this prompt:
C:\WRENCHES,
Delete (Y/N)?
Press Y and Enter for yes or N and Enter for no.
You can use wildcards to delete groups of files. For example, to
delete all files on the diskette in drive A (in the current
directory), you could type the following and press Enter:
DEL A:*.*
Because deleting all files is a serious procedure, MS-DOS
prompts you to confirm the command when you use the * . *
wildcard combination with the DEL command. Press Y and
Enter to confirm the command and delete all files on the
diskette in drive A or N and Enter to cancel the command.
You may substitute ERASE for DEL in the examples above.
ERASE is a synonym for DEL.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-15
Printing Text Files
If you have a printer attached to your computer, you can print
text files with the PRINT command. In general, you will
probably use application programs to print files, but if you need
to print a text file from the MS-DOS command prompt, follow
the steps below.
To print a text file named STATS.NBA on drive C:
1.
Make sure your printer is on and ready to print.
2.
At the MS-DOS command prompt, type the following and
press Enter:
PRINT C:STATS.NBA
MS-DOS prompts you for the name of the printing device
connected to your computer. (This is usually the name of
the communications port that the printer cable is
connected to, such as LPT1.)
3.
Type the name of the device, such as LPT1, and press
Enter. MS-DOS prints the file on your printer.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information on
the PRINT command.
Using Directories
You can store many files on a diskette, and a hard disk can
store many more. To help you organize this much information,
MS-DOS lets you subdivide a disk into logical units called
directories. Directories allow you to arrange your disk so that files
of similar type or purpose are kept together.
4-16
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Directories are essential for organizing files on a hard disk, and
you might even want to create directories on a 1.44MB diskette.
However, you may not need to create directories if you use
lower capacity diskettes-especially if the diskette contains only
a few large files.
Whenever you format a disk, MS-DOS automatically creates
one main directory. This directory is called the root directory.
Any directories you later create are logically subordinate to the
root directory; that is, they are subdirectories of the root
directory. Here is an example of a simple directory structure:
Root directory
I
WORDPROC
DOS
SPDSHEET
In this example, you keep your word processing programs and
data files in a directory called WORDPROC, your spreadsheet
programs and data files in a directory called SPDSHEET, and
MS-DOS files in a directory called DOS. The few files that
MS-DOS needs to find as soon as you turn on your computer
(such as COMMAND.COM, CONFIG.SYS, and
AUTOEXEC.BAT) remain in the root directory at the top
level of the structure.
As the number of files in your WORDPROC and SPDSHEET
directories grows, you can create additional directories
subordinate to those two-like this:
Root directory
WORDPROC
DOS
I
I
BUSINESSPERSONAL
SPDSHEET
I
I
SALES PROJ
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-17
This directory tree lets you separate business word processing
files from personal word processing files, and sales spreadsheets
from spreadsheet files used for financial projections.
Your directory structure may be as simple as this example or
much more complex. Organize your disk(s) to suit your needs.
As your needs change, you can modify the structure by deleting
old directories and creating new ones.
Here are some additional points about directories:
Name subdirectories the same way you name files. The
name can include up to eight characters (letters or
numbers), and you can add an extension of up to three
characters.
The root directory does not have a name. It is identified by
the backslash character: \.
The total number of files and subdirectories in the root
directory must not exceed 512 on a hard disk or 112 on a
1.44MB diskette.
All directories other than the root directory can have any
number of files and subdirectories.
Like hard disks, diskettes have root directories, and you can
create subdirectories on diskettes the same way as you create
subdirectories on a hard disk.
The following sections describe how to create, use, and delete
directories.
Note
The MS-DOS Shell program provides an easy way to see and
organize your directories. See “The MS-DOS Shell Program,”
later in this chapter, and your MS-DOS Shell User’s Guide.
4-18
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
The Current Directory
MS-DOS always recognizes one directory as the current (or
default) directory, just as it always recognizes one drive as the
current drive. The current directory is the directory you are
logged onto at the time and the one in which MS-DOS
performs your commands, unless you tell it to do otherwise. If
you installed MS-DOS according to the instructions in your
MS-DOS Installation Guide, the MS-DOS command prompt
displays the current directory.
If you want to run a program or access a data file that is not
stored in the current directory, you can either change
directories (making a different directory the current directory)
or include a pathname in your command.
Changing the Current Directory
To change from one directory to another, use the CHDIR
command, or its shorthand equivalent, CD. For example, to
change to the root directory of the current drive from anywhere
in the directory tree, type the following and press Enter:
CHDIR \
If you are in the WORDPROC directory and you want to
change to PERSONAL, a subdirectory of WORDPROC, type
the following and press Enter:
CD PERSONAL
To change from PERSONAL back to WORDPROC, you can
use the special symbol . . (two periods). The . . symbol always
designates the parent directory, which is the directory one level
above the current directory. You can type:
CD . .
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-19
Using Pathnames
You use pathnames with MS-DOS commands to tell MS-DOS
how to find its way to the directory you want to access.
Backslashes separate the directories in a pathname. There are
two types of pathnames: absolute and relative. An absolute
pathname begins with a backslash and tells MS-DOS how to
find its way to the desired directory from the root directory. A
relative pathname does not begin with a backslash and tells
MS-DOS how to find its way to the desired directory from the
current directory.
Here is an example of an absolute pathname:
The pathname above tells MS-DOS to start at the root
directory, go down the directory tree to the WORDPROC
directory, and then continue down the tree to the PERSONAL
directory.
Here is an example of a relative pathname:
SALES
The pathname above tells MS-DOS to find a directory named
SALES that is one level below the current directory. Using the
example above, this pathname is valid only if you are logged
onto the SPDSHEET directory.
Relative pathnames can tell MS-DOS to move upward in the
directory tree as well as downward. The symbol . . (two
periods) in a pathname tells MS-DOS to move upward one
level in the tree. For example, if the current directory is
WORDPROC, the pathname . . \DOS tells MS-DOS to move
up one level from WORDPROC (in the example above, to the
root directory) and then find a subdirectory called DOS.
4-20
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
You can use either relative or absolute pathnames at any time,
as long as you give MS-DOS enough information to find the
directory or file at the end of the pathname.
Including Filenames With Pathnames
You can use a pathname when you want to access a file that is
not in the current directory. You specify the name of the file
you want to access at the end of the pathname, like this:
TYPE
\WORDPROC\PERSONAL\JEAN1204.DOC
This command tells MS-DOS to list on screen (TYPE) the
contents of the text file JEAN1204.DOC which is stored in the
directory \ WORDPROC \ PERSONAL. You separate the name
of a file from the name of a directory with a backslash.
Including Drive Letters With Pathnames and Filenames
To access a file stored on a drive other than the current drive,
you need to include a drive designator (A :, for example) as well
as a filename. If the file you want is not stored in the current
directory of that drive, you also need to include a pathname.
For example, if you are logged onto the root directory of drive C
and you want to delete the file JEAN1204.DOC stored in the
directory \ WORDPROC \ PERSONAL of drive A, type the
following and press Enter:
DEL
A:\WORDPROC\PERSONAL\JEANl204.DOC
If you change drives and then try to access a file on the previous
drive, MS-DOS remembers which directory was the current
directory the last time you were logged onto that drive. For
example, suppose that the last time you were logged onto
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-21
drive C, the root directory was the current directory. Now you
are logged onto drive A and you enter the following command
to delete the file JEAN1204.DOC:
DEL C:JEAN1204.DOC
MS-DOS tries to find the file you want in the root directory of
drive C. Because the file is not there, an error message appears
on the screen. You need to enter the complete pathname in
such a case.
If you do not know which is the current directory on another
drive, it is best to include the full pathname whether or not you
need it. You can never give MS-DOS too much information.
To change to another directory on another drive, include the
drive designator in the command-like this:
CD B:\WORDPROC\PERSONAL
Note
MS-DOS provides several commands that make using
pathnames easy. When you use the following commands, you
don’t have to type a full pathname or enter the drive and
directory every time you want to access certain files.
Cl
The APPEND command lets you specify a search path
for data files and executable files.
Cl
The PATH command lets you specify a search path for
program files and commands.
0
The SUBST command lets you substitute a drive letter
for a directory path, which is convenient if you type long
pathnames often.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for information on
these helpful commands.
4-22
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Creating Directories
You use the MKDIR command to create directories. For
example, to create a LEDGER directory under the root directory
of the current drive, type the following and press Enter:
MKDIR
\LEDGER
You can abbreviate the name of this command to MD. For
example, to create a SALES directory under the LEDGER
directory, type the following and press Enter:
MD
\LEDGER\SALES
If the current directory is the LEDGER directory, you can create
the SALES subdirectory with this command:
MD
SALES
Listing the Contents of a Directory
You can use the DIR command to list the contents of a
directory. To list the files in the current directory, type the
following and press Enter:
DIR
MS-DOS lists the names of the files in the current directory on
the current drive, like this:
Volume in drive C is MEMODRIVE
Volume Serial Number is 354C-12E9
Directory of C:\WORDPROC\PERSONAL
<DIR>
11-09-89
10:16a
..
<DIR>
11-09-89
10:16a
LETTERS
<DIR>
12-13-89
1:48p
RESUME.713
8293 12-29-89
9:07a
BOOKRPRT
11:43p
10866 11-18-89
5 File(s)
15013560 bytes free
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-23
A directory listing includes the following information about
each file in the directory:
Cl Name and extension
D
Size of the file in bytes
tl
Date and time the file was created or last modified
(whichever is later).
The directory listing also shows any subdirectories in the
directory; they are identified by the letters <DIR>. At the top
of the listing, MS-DOS reports any name (Volume label) you
have given to the hard disk partition or diskette you are using,
the volume serial number (an identifying code assigned by the
MS-DOS FORMAT command), and the drive and name of
the directory you are viewing. At the bottom of the listing,
MS-DOS indicates the the total number of files (including
subdirectories) in the directory and the number of bytes on the
disk that are still available for use.
If the directory listing is too long to fit on one screen, add the /P
switch to the command, like this:
DIR /P
This switch causes MS-DOS to pause after displaying each
screenful of information. To see the next screenful, press any
key.
You can also use the /W switch to view a long directory listing:
DIR /W
4-24
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
This switch displays a wide-format directory listing, like this:
Volume in
drive C
is MEMODRIVE
Volume Serial Number is 354C-12E9
Directory of C:\WORDPROC\PERSONAL
LETTERS RESUME.713 BOOKRPRT
..
15013560 bytes free
5 File(s)
This type of listing does not show the size of a file or the time
and date it was last modified.
To list the contents of a different drive or directory, include the
appropriate drive designator and/or pathname in the command.
For example, to see what is in the root directory of the diskette
in drive A, type the following and press Enter:
DIR A:\
To display the contents of the WORDPROC\PERSONAL
directory (on drive C), type the following and press Enter:
DIR
C:\WORDPROC\PERSONAL
Displaying a List of Directories
The TREE command displays a tree diagram of all the
subdirectories of the directory you specify. For example, to see
the names of all the subdirectories of the current directory, type
the following and press Enter:
TREE
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-25
The screen displays a tree diagram of the subdirectories of the
current directory, for example:
C:\LEDGER
RECEIV
PAYABL
SALES
SALE1989
t SALE1990
To see a list of all the files in the subdirectories, add the /F
switch, like this:
TREE /F
The screen displays the directory information shown above and
the names of all the files in each subdirectory:
C:\LEDGER
NOVRECV
DECRECV
NOVSALES.RPT
DECSALES.RPT
JANSALES
FEBSALES
MARSALES
4-26
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
To see the list of subdirectories of another directory, include the
pathname:
TREE C:\WORDPROC
Removing Directories
You may sometimes want to remove directories you no longer
need. However, before you can delete a directory, it must be
empty. If it contains any files or subdirectories, MS-DOS
displays an error message and does not delete the directory.
(Use the DEL command to delete the files in a directory or the
COPY command to move them to another directory.)
To delete an empty directory from a disk, use the RMDIR
command, or its shorthand equivalent, RD. For example, to
remove the directory ACCOUNTS, which is a subdirectory in
the LEDGER directory on drive C, type the following and press
Enter:
RD C:\LEDGER\ACCOUNTS
If you are in the LEDGER d irectory, you can type the following
and press Enter:
RD ACCOUNTS
Formatting Diskettes
Before you can store data on a new diskette, you must format it.
Formatting prepares the diskette so that MS-DOS can write to
it. You need to do this only once, before you use the diskette for
the first time.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-27
You can reformat previously used diskettes. This process erases
all data on the diskette, so be sure you do not want to save any
of the data on a used diskette before you format it.
If you plan to use a new diskette to make a backup copy of
another diskette, you do not need to use the FORMAT
command to format it first. The DISKCOPY command
automatically formats a blank diskette if it has never been
formatted. (See “Using the DISKCOPY Command,” later in
this chapter.)
Also see your MS-DOS Reference Manual for information
about the optional switches you can use with the FORMAT
command to format various diskette types in different types of
drives.
Note
You can also format diskettes using the MS-DOS Shell or the
Epson MENU program. These programs are easy to use
because they let you select options from menus instead of
using commands, See your MS-DOS Shell User’s Guide and
“Using the Epson MENU Program,” later in this chapter.
Using the FORMAT Command
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your Startup diskette
into drive A, and log onto drive A.
If you have a hard disk, type C : and press Enter to log onto
drive C.
2. At the MS-DOS prompt, type FORMAT A: and press
Enter. You see this prompt:
Insert new diskette for drive A:
and press ENTER when ready...
4-28
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
3.
If necessary, remove the Startup diskette from drive A.
Insert the diskette you want to format in drive A and press
Enter to start formatting.
4.
When the diskette is formatted, you see this message:
Format complete
Volume label (11 characters, ENTER
for none)?
5.
At the Volume label prompt, you can enter a name
to describe the information the diskette will contain. The
name (the volume label) will appear whenever you view the
contents of a directory on the diskette using the DIR
command. The volume label can be up to 11 characters
long and can consist of any characters or numbers, except
for blank spaces and the following symbols:
After you name the diskette, press Enter. (If you do not
want to name the diskette, simply press Enter.) Then you
see messages such as the following:
1457664 bytes total disk space
1457664 bytes available on disk
512 bytes in each allocation unit
2847 allocation units available on disk
Volume Serial Number is 344A-15DB
Format
6.
another
(Y/N)?
To format another diskette, press Y and Enter. To return to
the MS-DOS command prompt, press N and Enter.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-29
Formatting a diskette to 720KE3
If you want to format a diskette to a capacity of 720KB in your
1.44MB diskette drive, you need to use a switch with the
FORMAT command.
The /F:size switch tells the FORMAT command to format the
diskette as the size specified in the command even if the
capacity of the diskette drive is different. You can format a
1.44MB or a 720KB diskette to a capacity of 720KB using this
switch.
For example, to format a 720KB diskette in your 1.44MB
diskette drive, enter the following command:
FORMAT A: /F:720
Use this command when you follow the instructions in this
section to format a diskette.
Backing Up Data
It is very important to keep backup diskettes containing copies
of the files you create. You can copy your data (text and
program files) in several ways:
4-30
Cl
You can use the COPY or XCOPY command to copy
individual files or groups of files.
Cl
You can use the DISKCOPY command to make an exact
duplicate of a diskette.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Ll
You can use the BACKUP command to back up hard disk
files to diskettes. Because BACKUP can split large files
across two or more diskettes, it makes more efficient use of
diskette space than COPY or XCOPY. It also allows you to
back up files that are larger than the capacity of your
diskettes. To access files created with BACKUP, you use
the RESTORE command.
DISKCOPY, BACKUP, and RESTORE are described below.
“Copying Files,” earlier in this chapter, describes the COPY
command. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
information on XCOPY.
Note
The MS-DOS Shell and the Epson MENU program provide
easy ways to perform the functions listed above. See your
MS-DOS Shell User’s Guide and “Using the Epson MENU
Program,” later in this chapter.
Using the DISKCOPY Command
The DISKCOPY command lets you make an exact copy of a
diskette. (You cannot use DISKCOPY to copy to or from a
hard disk.) Because this procedure copies the data byte by byte,
the two diskettes must be of the same type. For example, you
cannot use DISKCOPY to copy a 720KB diskette to a 1.44MB
diskette or a 360KB diskette to a 1.2MB diskette. (Use the
COPY command to copy files between different types of
diskettes and to copy files to or from a hard disk.)
If the diskette you are copying to has never been formatted,
DISKCOPY formats it automatically before copying the data.
The procedure for copying diskettes depends on whether you
have one or two diskette drives. Follow the instructions below
for your configuration.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-31
Using DISKCOPY with one diskette drive
1.
Make sure the diskette you want to copy is write-protected.
(See Chapter 3 for instructions.)
2. If you don’t have a hard disk, insert your Startup diskette
into drive A.
3.
If you have a hard disk, type C : and press Enter to log onto
drive C. If you do not have a hard disk, type A : and press
Enter to log onto drive A.
4.
At the MS-DOS command prompt, type the following and
press Enter:
DISKCOPY A: A:
MS-DOS displays these messages:
Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:
Press any key to continue . . .
5.
If necessary, remove the Startup diskette from drive A.
Insert the diskette you want to copy from (the source
diskette) into the drive. Then press any key. DISKCOPY
starts to copy the contents of the diskette to the computer’s
memory. When the computer’s memory is full, the screen
displays these messages:
Insert TARGET diskette in drive A:
Press any key to continue . . .
6.
4-32
Remove the source diskette from drive A and insert the
diskette you want to copy to (the target diskette). Then
press any key. If the target diskette is not formatted,
DISKCOPY formats it before copying data to it.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
7.
After DISKCOPY copies the data from memory to the
target diskette, the screen prompts you to insert the source
diskette again to copy the remaining data to the computer’s
memory (if necessary). Insert the source diskette into
drive A and press any key.
8.
After DISKCOPY copies the rest of the source diskette’s
data to the computer’s memory, the screen prompts you to
insert the target diskette again to copy the remaining data
from memory to it. Insert the target diskette and press any
key. When the copy is complete, you see this message:
Copy another diskette (Y/N)?
9.
Press Y to copy another diskette or N to return to the
MS-DOS command prompt.
Using DISKCOPY with two diskette drives
If you have two diskette drives, follow these steps to copy a
diskette:
1.
Make sure the diskette you want to copy is write-protected.
(See Chapter 3 for instructions.)
2.
If you don’t have a hard disk, insert your Startup diskette
into drive A.
3.
At the MS-DOS command prompt, type the following and
press Enter:
DISKCOPY A: B:
MS-DOS prompts you to insert your diskettes:
Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:
Insert TARGET diskette in drive B:
Press any key to continue . . .
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-33
4.
If necessary, remove the Startup diskette from drive A.
Insert the diskette you want to copy from (the source
diskette) into drive A and the diskette you want to copy to
(the target diskette) into drive B. Then press any key to
begin copying. If the target diskette is not formatted,
DISKCOPY formats it before copying data to it.
5.
When the copy is complete, you see this message:
Copy another diskette (Y/N)?
Press Y to copy another diskette or N to return to the
MS-DOS command prompt.
Using the BACKUP Command
Use the BACKUP command to back up the data on your hard
disk. It provides a convenient and efficient way to copy the files
on the hard disk to diskettes. BACKUP allows you to do the
following:
Cl
Split large files across two or more diskettes
Cl
Copy only those files that have been modified since the
most recent backup (with the /M switch)
Cl
Copy only those files that have been created (or modified)
after a specified date (with the /D switch)
Cl
Copy files in the current directory together with files in all
subdirectories of the current directory (with the /S switch)
Cl
Automatically format diskettes before copying files.
Unlike COPY, XCOPY, and DISKCOPY, which make readable
copies of files, BACKUP creates files that you cannot access
directly. To return files copied with the BACKUP command to
the hard disk, you need to use the RESTORE command.
4-34
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Make sure you have enough diskettes to back up the data on
your hard disk drive. For example, it takes about 30 1.44MB
diskettes to copy a 40MB hard disk partition that is completely
full.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for complete instructions
on using BACKUP and RESTORE.
The MS-DOS Shell Program
The MS-DOS Shell program allows you to execute many
MS-DOS commands and programs by selecting options from
menus. Using the MS-DOS Shell, you can run commands
without having to remember their exact syntax. MS-DOS Shell
makes it easy for you to manage files and directories. It is
especially useful for managing the data on a hard disk, where
you may have hundreds of files. For example, you can easily
view, create, move, rename, and delete files and directories
using MS-DOS Shell.
See your MS-DOS Installation Guide for instructions on how to
install the Shell program and see your MS-DOS Shell User’s
Guide for information on how to use it.
Using the Epson HELP Program
The Epson HELP program lets you display information on the
screen about MS-DOS commands and programs. You can use
HELP in one of three ways:
0
At the MS-DOS command prompt, you can type HELP
and press Enter to display the HELP menu.
Cl
To bypass the HELP menu you can type HELP followed by
the name of the command you want information about.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-35
0 If you want information about more than one command you
can type HELP followed by the names of the commands,
each separated by a space.
To use the HELP program, follow these steps:
1.
If you don’t have a hard disk, make sure your Working
diskette is in drive A.
2.
If necessary, type A : and press Enter to log onto drive A.
3.
If you want to use the HELP menu, type HELP and press
Enter. Use the cursor keys to highlight the command you
want information about and press Enter.
If you want to bypass the HELP menu and see information
about one command, type HELP followed by the name of
that command. For example, to see help information about
the COPY command, type the following and press Enter:
HELP COPY
If you want to see information about more than one
command, type HELP and the names of the commands you
want information about. Separate each command name
with a space, as in the following example:
HELP DISKCOPY FORMAT COPY
The HELP information for the first command is displayed
first.
4.
4-36
If there is more than one screen of information about the
command, you see the prompt PgUp at the top of the
screen. Press the PgUp key to display the next screen of
text.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
__
If there is yet another screen of text, you see both PgUp
and PgDn at the top. Press PgUp to display the next screen
of text or PgDn to see the previous screen. On the last page
of text you see only PgDn at the top.
5.
If you used the HELP menu to chose your help information,
press ESC to return to the menu.
If you requested information about more than one MS-DOS
command in the HELP command line, press ESC to see
information about the next command.
6.
Press ESC to exit the HELP program.
Using the Epson MENU Program
The Epson MENU program lets you display a menu of
commonly used MS-DOS commands and select the one you
need. It provides an easier way to run MS-DOS commands
because you can execute commands without having to
remember their exact syntax.
To access MENU, follow these steps:
1.
If you do not have a hard disk, insert your Working diskette
into drive A and log onto that drive.
2.
At the MS-DOS command prompt, type MENU and press
Enter. You see this main menu:
1
EXIT
File Utilities
Disk Utilities
Mode Settings
Help
Enter DOS Command
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-37
3.
To select an option, use the arrow keys to highlight the
option you want and press Enter. Most options contain
submenus; keep highlighting your selection and pressing
Enter until you select the desired operation.
MENU works by calling external commands which it looks for
on the current disk or path. If you do not have a hard disk and
the diskette in the current drive does not contain a command
called by MENU-for example, BACKUP.COM-you may see
an error message like this when you select an option:
BACKUP.COM is not on the current disk
or path.
Press any key to continue...
If you see a message similar to this one, insert the diskette that
contains the command you selected into drive A and try again.
(To see which commands are on which MS-DOS diskettes,
refer to the list of your Working diskette contents in the
MS-DOS Installation Guide.)
Note
If you find that you often have to swap diskettes when you
use MENU, see the description of MENU in your MS-DOS
Reference Manual for some recommended solutions.
4-38
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
__
MENU Program Options
Following is a description of each MENU option. Your
MS-DOS Reference Manual provides step-by-step instructions
for using each option.
File Utilities
Lets you back up and restore files, replace
files, compare files, change file attributes,
and copy files and directories. This option
does the work of the MS-DOS commands
BACKUP, RESTORE, REPLACE, FC,
ATTRIB, and XCOPY.
Disk Utilities
Lets you check, copy, compare, and format
diskettes. This option provides an easy-touse alternative to the MS-DOS CHKDSK,
DISKCOPY, DISKCOMP, and FORMAT
commands.
Mode Settings
Lets you change your configuration
settings. Also lets you select alternate code
pages (character sets) and redirect data
from the parallel port to the serial port.
Because you can perform so many tasks
from the Mode Settings submenus, this
option is a simpler alternative to the
MS-DOS MODE command.
Help
Lets you access the Epson HELP program.
Enter DOS
Lets you run other MS-DOS commands
without leaving the MENU program.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for a complete description
of the MENU program.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-39
Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT File
You may want to run some commands every time you turn on
your computer. To run a command or a series of commands
automatically upon startup, you can type the commands in a
special file called AUTOEXEC.BAT. When you load MS-DOS,
it always looks for this file. If MS-DOS finds an
AUTOEXEC.BAT file in the root directory, it executes the
commands in that file.
Here are some tasks you can perform using an
AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
Li
Modify the PATH command to include the directories
containing other software programs you commonly use.
This reduces the number of times you need to change
directories or specify pathnames.
0
Add the command to start your most commonly used
application program (such as a word processing or
spreadsheet program) so that it loads automatically when
you turn on or reset the computer.
0
Change the information the MS-DOS command prompt
includes.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on using
the PATH command, the PROMPT command, and any other
commands you want to include in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
Also see the chapter on batch processing commands in your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for detailed information about
AUTOEXEC.BAT files.
4-40
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
If you have a hard disk and you installed MS-DOS according
to the instructions in your MS-DOS Installation Guide,
MS-DOS automatically sets a path to the directory that
contains the MS-DOS commands and the MS-DOS
command prompt displays the current drive and directory.
Creating an AUTOEXEC.BAT File
Here is an example of an AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
PATH
C:\;C:\DOS;C:\WP
PROMPT $P$G
The first line tells MS-DOS to look for programs or batch files
in the root directory, the DOS directory, and your word
processing directory. This way you can run programs in those
directories without having to specify pathnames in the
commands. The second line changes the MS-DOS command
prompt so that it displays your current directory.
To create an AUTOEXEC.BAT file, you can use any command
or program that lets you create a text-only file. If you have a
word processing program that can save a file as a text-only file
(sometimes called an ASCII text file), you can use that program
to create your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Name the file
AUTOEXEC.BAT and store it in the root directory of the hard
disk or diskette from which you load MS-DOS.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-41
You can also use the MS-DOS COPY or EDLIN command to
create an AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Follow these steps to create
an AUTOEXEC.BAT file with the COPY command:
1.
If you are creating an AUTOEXEC.BAT file on your hard
disk, log onto the root directory of your hard disk. (Type
CD C : \ and press Enter.)
If you are creating an AUTOEXEC.BAT file on your
Startup diskette, insert the Startup diskette into drive A
and log onto that drive.
2.
At the MS-DOS command prompt, type the following and
press Enter:
COPY CON: d:\AUTOEXEC.BAT
where d is the drive that will contain the
AUTOEXEC.BAT file you are creating. This drive must be
the drive from which your computer loads MS-DOS. For
example, if you load MS-DOS from drive C, type the
following and press Enter:
COPY CON: C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT
3.
Now enter the commands you want to include in the file.
Type them exactly as you want MS-DOS to execute them,
and in the order you want MS-DOS to perform them. Press
Enter at the end of each line. After you type the last
command, press Enter to move the cursor to the next line.
4.
Press F6 and then Enter. MS-DOS copies everything
you typed to the AUTOEXEC.BAT file. From now on,
MS-DOS runs the commands in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file
every time you turn on or reset the computer.
If you need to change anything in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file
later, you can use the same procedure to modify the commands.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information.
4-42
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Using Memory Beyond 640 KB
The Equity 386SX comes with 1MB of random access memory.
MS-DOS and your application programs that run under
MS-DOS use the first 640KB of memory. You can use the
memory between 640KB and 1MB as extended or expanded
memory. If your computer has more than 1MB of random access
memory on SIMMS you can also use this additional memory as
extended or expanded memory.
Expanded memory can be used by certain application programs
(such as Lotus® l-2-3®) that support the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft
Expanded Memory Specification (LIM EMS).
To use expanded memory, you must modify the file
CONFIG.SYS, which is stored in the root directory of the hard
disk or diskette from which you load MS-DOS. If you have a
word processing program that can save a file as a text-only file
(also called an ASCII text file), you can use that program to
modify the CONFIG.SYS file. Start your word processing
program, load the file CONFIG.SYS, and then add the
following line to the file:
DEVICE=EMM386.SYS
You can add one or more of the optional switches explained in
the next section to this command line. Then save the file as an
ASCII text file and reset the computer.
If you do not have a word processing program capable of saving
an ASCII text file, you can modify CONFIG.SYS using the
MS-DOS COPY or EDLIN command. To modify
CONFIG.SYS using the COPY command, follow these steps:
1.
Log onto the root directory of the hard disk or diskette from
which you boot MS-DOS.
2. Type COPY CONFIG.SYS + CON : and press Enter.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-43
3. Type DEVICE=EMM386.SY S and press Enter. You can
add one or more of the optional switches explained in the
next section to this command line.
4.
Press F6 and then Enter.
5. Reset the computer.
Using EMM386.SYS
EMM386SYS is an expanded memory manager that lets you
use extended memory to emulate expanded memory so that you
can use application programs that support LIM EMS.
Note
Do not use EMM386.SYS if you installed an expanded
memory option card. Use the device driver that came with
the memory card. See the documentation that came with the
card for instructions.
The full syntax for the command line that activates
EMM386SYS is:
DEVICE= [d:][path] EMM386.SYS [size]
[X:mmmm-nnnn] [Mx]
The items in brackets are optional; you do not type any brackets
when you enter this command. The following paragraphs
describe the items in the command line.
The d:path parameter specifies the pathname. You specify the
pathname if the file EMM386.SYS is not in the root directory
of the hard disk or diskette from which you load MS-DOS. For
example, if EMM386.SYS is in a directory called \DOS on
drive C, include the pathname, like this:
DEVICE=C:\DOS\EMM386.SYS
4-44
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
The size parameter allows you to specify the amount of extended
memory to be used as expanded memory. You specify the
amount of memory in kilobytes. If you do not specify a size, the
default value is 256KB.
This example tells the computer to use 1024KB of extended
memory as expanded memory:
DEVICE=EMM386.SYS 1024
The X:mmmm-nnnn parameter specifies a range of memory to
exclude from the EMM386.SYS command in hexadecimal
notation. EMM386.SYS does not locate its page frame or other
mappable pages in this memory range.
For example, to specify 1024KB of memory as expanded
memory and ensure that EMM386SYS does not locate any
pages in the address range C400 to C7FF, include this command
in your CONFIG.SYS file:
DEVICE=EMM386.SYS 1024 X:C400-C7FF
You can include more than one X: parameter in your
DEVICE=EMM386.SYS command to exclude more than one
range of memory.
Note
Do not use the X: parameter unless you experience a memory
conflict with a memory option card.
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
4-45
The Mx parameter specifies a particular address for the
EMM386.SYS page frame. You specify the address by
substituting a code for x from this table:
I x I
Page frame begins at segment
For example, if you want EMM386.SYS to locate its page frame
at the address C800, include this command in your
CONFIG.SYS file:
DEVICE=EMM386.SYS M2
Do not use the Mx parameter unless you need to force
EMM386.SYS to use a particular address.
Note
If you install devices that use expanded memory, be sure the
DEVICE=EMM386SYS command appears in your
CONFIG.SYS file before the commands to install those
devices.
For more information on using EMM386.SYS, see your
MS-DOS Reference Manual.
4-46
Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386SX
Chapter 5
Installing Options
You can enhance the performance of your Equity 386SX by
adding a variety of options, including the following:
Cl An 80387SX math coprocessor
Ll Memory modules
Cl A memory card
Cl Other option cards.
A math coprocessor speeds up the numeric calculations your
computer performs when using certain application software. If
you want to install a math coprocessor in your computer, ask
your authorized Epson dealer to do it for you.
Memory modules allow you to increase the amount of memory
in your computer. This chapter briefly describes the types and
amounts of memory modules you can use in the Equity 386SX.
If you want to install memory modules in your computer,
however, ask your dealer for help.
An option card is a circuit board you install in your computer to
add a particular function. A memory card is a type of option
card that increases the total amount of memory in your
computer, over and above any installed memory modules. Other
types of option cards contain a device, such as a modem, or
provide an interface, such as a connector to which you connect
a monitor. This chapter describes how to install option cards
and configure the computer for use with them.
Installing Options
5-1
Adding Memory Modules
The standard Equity 386SX system comes with 1MB of onboard memory. You can add SIMMs (single inline memory
modules) to increase the amount of memory in the computer.
With added SIMMs, the total amount of memory in your
computer must be one of the following: 2MB, 4MB, 6MB, 8MB,
10MB, 12MB, or 14MB.
You install SIMMs on the SIMM card that comes with
your computer. Any SIMMs you install must have 70ns
(nanosecond) access speed or faster to operate in the
Equity 386SX. Check with your dealer to ensure that the
correct type of SIMMs are used.
There are 16 SIMM sockets on the SIMM card organized in two
banks containing eight sockets each. Each socket can contain
either one 256KB or one 1MB SIMM. The following table
shows the possible configurations for the Equity 386SX:
Possible Equity 386SX SIMM configurations
Right bank
Left bank
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
12A 13A 14A 15A 16A 17A 18A 19A
Total
MB
1MB
*
1
*
11"
111*
1111
*
*
l
*
*
*
*
l
*
*
l
2MB
l
*
l
*
1
11111*
* = 256KB SlMMs
1 = 1MB SlMMs
5-2 Installing Options
*
l
1
1
1
1
1
11111*** '
1
1
*
4MB
1
l
1
1
1
6MB
1
8MB
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1OMB
12MB
1
14MB
Two sockets in each bank accept only 256KB SIMMs. These
sockets are labelled 7A, 8A, 12A, and 13A. The rest of the
sockets accept only 1MB SIMMs. You must fill all of the 256KB
SIMM sockets before using any of the 1MB sockets.
SIMMs must be distributed evenly between the two banks. For
example, if you want to have 4MB of memory, install two
256KB SIMMs and one 1MB SIMM in the left bank and two
256KB SIMMs and one 1MB SIMM in the right bank. You
cannot install both of the 1MB SIMMs in just one of the banks.
Note
Once SIMMs have been installed, you should be sure your
dealer has set a jumper on the SIMM card before you turn on
your computer. See “Changing Jumper Settings” later in this
chapter for more information.
After SIMMs have been installed in your computer, you need to
run the Setup program on your Reference diskette to set the
computer’s memory configuration, as described in Chapter 2.
Also see “Post-installation Setup,” later in this chapter.
Note
If you want to use extended memory as expanded memory,
you can use the EMM386,SYS utility, See “Using Memory
Beyond 640KB” in Chapter 4 and your MS-DOS Reference
Manual for more information.
Installing Options 5-3
Installing Option Cards
The Equity 386SX has five standard option slots and one special
option slot occupied by the card that controls the serial and
parallel interfaces (known as the SP card). The video card that
controls your monitor occupies one standard slot. You can buy
additional option cards from authorized Epson dealers as well as
other vendors.
If you want additional memory, you can install a memory card
in your computer. (You can install a memory card whether or
not you have already added SIMMs.) With added SIMMs and a
memory card, the Equity 386SX can have up to a total of 16MB
of memory. Most popular memory cards are compatible with the
Equity 386SX.
This section explains how to:
Ci Remove the computer’s cover
0
Install an option card
Cl Change jumper settings
LJ Remove an option card
Li Replace the cover.
Note
After you install or remove an option card, see “Postinstallation Setup” at the end of this chapter to configure
your computer to operate with an option card. If you install a
memory card, also see “Post-installation Setup for Memory
Cards” in this chapter.
5-4 Installing Options
Removing the Cover
To install an option card, you need to remove the cover from
your Equity 386SX. Follow these steps:
1.
Turn off the computer and then any peripherals (including
the monitor and printer) that are attached to it.
2.
Disconnect the computer’s power cable from the electrical
outlet and from the back panel. Then disconnect any
peripheral cables that are connected to the computer.
3.
Disconnect the keyboard.
4.
If the monitor is on top of the computer, lift it off and set it
to one side.
5.
As shown below, the top cover is secured by five screws on
the back panel and four screws on the side panels (two on
each side). Remove the screws and set them safely to one
side so you do not lose them.
-screws
Installing Options 5-5
6.
Facing the front panel, grasp the two sides of the cover and
carefully pull it straight toward you and away from the back
of the computer (as shown in the following illustration),
until it is a few inches away from the back panel.
5-6 Installing Options
7.
After the cover’s front panel clears the power button and
the diskette drive, you can lift off the cover. Separate the
cover’s sides from the inside of the computer by pulling
them outward slightly, as shown below. Then lift off the
cover and set it aside.
Installing Options 5-7
Installing an Option Card
The illustration below shows the five standard option slots
inside the Equity 386SX. (The SP card occupies a special
additional slot, number 6.)
option card slots
I
SP card
/
/
5-8 Installing Options
Slot 5 is designed for an 8-bit option card, and slots 1 through 4
are designed for 16-bit cards. As you can see below, a 16-bit
card has a second connector along the bottom.
8-bit option card
16-bit option card
Usually, it does not matter which slot an option card occupies
as long as the card fits in the slot. For example, you can place
some 8-bit cards in a 16-bit slot. However, you must follow
these guidelines when deciding which slot to use:
An 8-bit card with an additional connector along the
bottom must go in the 8-bit slot.
If you install an additional disk drive that uses a controller
card, place the card as close as possible to the disk drive it is
controlling.
Some option cards must be installed in a specific slot.
Consult the instructions that come with the card to see if
this is the case.
Installing Options 5-9
Follow these steps to install an option card:
1.
Decide which slot you want to use. Then remove the
retaining screw from the top of the metal option slot cover;
hold on to the screw as you remove it so it doesn’t fall into
the computer. Lift out the slot cover.
Keep the screw to secure the option card to the computer.
Store the slot cover in a safe place in case you remove the
option card later.
5-10
Installing Options
2.
Unpack the option card and adjust any switches or jumpers
on it if necessary. (Check the option card instructions to see
if this is necessary.) When you handle the card, be careful
not to touch any of the contacts on the circuit board,
especially the gold-edged connector pins. If you need to set
it down before you install it, place it gently on top of its
original packing material with the component side facing
up. Keep the packing materials in case you remove the card
later.
3.
Grip the card firmly by the top corners and position it at the
top of the slot, as shown below. Make sure the connector
pins point down and the component side faces the power
supply inside the computer.
power supply
Installing Options
5-11
4.
Insert the card in the slot, guiding it straight down. Once
the connector pins reach the connector slot, push the card
downward firmly (but carefully) to fully insert it, as shown
in the following illustration. You should feel the card fit
into place.
If the card does not go in smoothly, do not force it-pull it
all the way out and try again, keeping it straight as you
insert it.
5-12
Installing Options
-
5.
Secure the end of the card to the back of the computer with
the retaining screw.
Installing Options
5-13
Changing Jumper Settings
If you change your computer’s configuration, you may need to
change a jumper setting in the computer. A jumper is a small
electrical connector that controls one of the computer’s
functions.
A jumper’s setting is determined by where the jumper is placed:
either between pin 1 and pin 2 (position 1-2) or between pin 2
and pin 3 (position 2-3), as shown below:
position 1-2
position 2-3
c!lj$? cg!g J@
3
3
3
Jumper J5 on the main system board is different from the other
jumpers in the Equity 386SX. The pin positions for jumper JS
are shown below:
c@? cJ?$?
position 1-2
&
1
1
position 2-3
1
The jumpers you may need to change are on the main system
board. There is an additional jumper on the SIMM card that
you may want to check if your dealer has installed SIMMs for
you. The following tables list the jumper settings and their
functions.
5-14
Installing Options
Main system board jumper settings
Jumper Jumper Function
number setting
J1
1-2
Math coprocessor installed
J1
2-3*
No math coprocessor installed
J2
1-2
Password skip enabled
J2
2-3*
Password skip disabled
J3
1-2
Disables the built-in hard disk drive controller
so you can use a hard disk drive controller on
an option card in your computer
J3
2-3*
Enables the built-in hard disk drive controller
J4
1-2*
Sets the P-ROM type to 256 Kbits
J4
2-3
Sets the P-ROM type to 512 Kbits
J5
1-2
Disables the built-in mouse connector so you
can use a mouse or other pointing device
connected to a port on an option card in your
computer; the device must use the IRQ 12
signal
J5
2-3*
Enables the built-in mouse connector for use
with a mouse which uses the IRQ 12 signal
* Factory setting
SIMM card jumper settings
Jumper Jumper Function
number setting
J1
1-2
SlMMs have been installed for additional
memory
J1
2-3*
No SlMMs have been installed
* Factory setting
Installing Options
5-15
If you need to change or check any jumper settings, perform the
following procedures in the order listed here, as necessary for
your system:
Follow the instructions in “Removing the Cover” earlier in
this chapter to remove the computer’s cover.
If you need to change any jumper settings for jumpers J1, J2,
J3, or J4 on the main system board, remove any option cards
that may be blocking your access to those jumpers. See
“Removing an Option Card” below.
If you need to change the jumper setting of jumper J5 on
the main system board, remove the SIMM card to access
the jumper. See “Removing the SIMM card” below.
Change the main system board jumper settings as necessary.
See “Changing the main system board jumper settings”
below.
If you need to check the SIMM card jumper setting, see
“Checking the SIMM card jumper setting” below.
Replace any option cards you removed. See “Replacing the
options cards” below.
Follow the instructions in “Replacing the Cover” later in
this chapter to replace the computer’s cover.
5-16
Installing Options
Removing the SIMM card
To reach jumper J5 on the main system board, you need to
remove the SIMM card. Follow these steps:
1.
Remove the retaining screw that secures the SIMM card
bracket to the inside of the computer, as shown below.
(Do not remove the screw securing the SIMM card to the
bracket.) Be careful not to drop the screw.
Ins ding Options
5-17
5-18
2.
Remove the SIMM card from its slot on the main system
board by pulling it straight up, as shown below. Then set it
on a soft surface with the components facing up.
3.
Change the setting of jumper J5 as necessary. (See
“Changing the main system board jumper settings” below.)
Avoid disturbing the cable connection next to the jumper.
4.
To replace the SIMM card, reinstall the card in the SIMM
card slot on the main system board and secure it to the
inside of the computer with the retaining screw.
Installing Options
Changing the main system board jumper settings
The illustration below shows the locations of jumpers J1
through J5 on the main system board. Check the table above to
see which one(s) you need to change.
J3
J5
\
I
J2
J1
J4
To move a jumper from one position to the other, use your
fingers or needle-nose pliers or tweezers to pull it off its current
pins and gently move it to the other position. Be careful not to
lose the jumper or leave it out of the computer. Also take care
not to damage any surrounding components on the main system
board.
Checking the SIMM card jumper setting
If your dealer has installed SIMMs for additional memory, you
may want to check the jumper setting on the SIMM card inside
your computer.
Installing Options
5-19
The illustration below shows the location of the SIMM card in
the computer.
The following illustration shows the location of jumper J1 on
the SlMM card. The jumper should be in position 1-2 if SIMMs
have been installed. If you are not using SIMMs, the jumper
should be set to position 2-3.
5-20
Installing Options
If the jumper setting is incorrect, move it to the correct setting.
You do not have to remove the SIMM card to change the
jumper setting.
Replacing option cards
To replace any option cards you may have removed to access
the main system board, reinstall the card in the appropriate slot
and secure it to the back of the computer with the retaining
screw.
Removing an Option Card
If you later need to remove an option card, simply reverse the
steps you followed to install it. Remove the screw securing the
card to the back of the computer and pull the card straight up
and out of the slot. Then carefully wrap the card, preferably
with the original packing materials, and place it inside its box
for safe storage. Cover the end of the empty option slot with the
original metal cover and secure it with the retaining screw.
Installing Options
5-21
Replacing the Cover
After you install (or remove) an option card, follow these steps
to replace the computer’s cover:
1.
Facing the front of the computer, position the cover on the
computer as shown below. Pull the cover’s sides outward
slightly.
2.
Lower the cover and slide it toward the back of the
computer until it fits into place. The diskette drive fits
through the opening in the front panel and the power
button fits into its cover.
3.
To secure the cover, replace the five screws on the back
panel and the two screws on each side panel.
4.
Return the computer to its original position and place the
monitor on top, if that is where you use it. Then reconnect
the computer to the monitor, printer, keyboard, and any
other peripherals you have.
5-22 Installing Options
5.
Check to be sure the power button on the computer is off.
Then reconnect the power cable to the back of the
computer and to an electrical outlet.
Post-installation Setup for Memory Cards
After you install a memory card in your computer, you need to
configure your computer to use it. Follow these guidelines:
Use the Setup program on your Reference diskette to
automatically reset your computer’s configuration to include
the memory on your installed memory card. See Chapter 2
for instructions.
Use the setup program that comes with your memory card
to configure the computer for use with the installed memory
card. See your memory card manual for instructions.
If you installed a memory card and you want to use any of
its memory as expanded memory, use the EMM386.SYS
utility. See “Using Memory Beyond 640KB” in Chapter 4
and your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information.
Also see “Post-installation Setup” at the end of this chapter for
more information on setting up your computer for use with an
option card.
To configure your computer for use with the RampagePlus® 286
memory card, you need to use CORFIX, an Epson utility on
your Reference diskette, and SMART, the RampagePlus 286
setup program. You must use CORFIX before you use SMART.
Follow these steps:
1.
Make sure that the computer is on and that MS-DOS is
loaded. (See “Loading MS-DOS” in Chapter 4 for
instructions.)
Installing Options
5-23
2.
Insert the working copy of your Reference diskette into
drive A.
3.
If necessary, type A: and press Enter to log onto drive A.
4. At the A> prompt, type CORFIX and press Enter. The
following messages appear:
This program will configure the
system to work with the SMART
utility when installing the
RampagePlus 286.
SMART can only be executed
immediately after this
configuration program.
Continue ? (Y/N)
5. To configure your computer for use with RampagePlus 286,
press Y. (If you want to exit to MS-DOS without
configuring your computer, press N.) If you press Y, you see
the MS-DOS A> prompt and this message:
Configuration completed. The SMART
installation utility may now be
used.
6.
Use the SMART setup program now. See your
RampagePlus 286 manual for instructions.
You can also execute CORFIX from your hard disk if you
copied the CORFIX utility from the Reference diskette to
your hard disk.
5-24
Installing Options
--
Post-installation Setup
After you install or remove a math coprocessor, memory
modules, or a memory card, you need to run the Setup program
on your Reference diskette so it can automatically update the
computer’s configuration information.
If you install or remove any other type of option card or device,
such as a video adapter card or a diskette drive, it is important
to run the Setup program to check if you need to change any
configuration information. For example, if you add a hard disk,
you need to let the computer know that it has the additional
drive. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
Additionally you may also need to add some commands in your
configuration files. See the MS-DOS Reference Manual and the
manual that comes with the option card for instructions.
You may want to test a newly-installed option. Some options
come with their own diagnostics test programs, and you can test
others with the diagnostics programs on your Reference
diskette. You can use the System diagnostics program on your
Reference diskette to test the following:
D System memory
Cl 80387SX math coprocessor
Q
Serial and parallel ports
LI Disk drives
0 Monitors and display adapters
0 Dot-matrix printers.
See Appendix C for instructions.
Installing Options
5-25
5-26
dling
Options
Appendix A
Troubleshooting
You should not encounter any difficulties as you set up and use
your computer, but if anything out of the ordinary happens,
refer to this appendix. You can correct most problems by
adjusting a cable connection, repeating a software procedure, or
resetting the computer.
Besides trying the suggestions in this chapter, you can run
diagnostics checks on the various components of your computer
system. See Appendix C for instructions.
If the suggestions in this appendix or Appendix C do not solve
the problem, contact your authorized Epson dealer. Your dealer
may be able to solve the problem; if not, he or she can refer
you to an Authorized Epson Customer Care Center for service.
If necessary, call the Epson Customer Information number
(1-800-922-891 1) for the location of your nearest Authorized
Epson Customer Care Center.
When you contact your dealer or Customer Care Center, be
ready to provide the serial number of your computer, its
configuration (including the type of disk drives, monitor, and
option cards), and the names and version numbers of any
software you are using.
Error Messages
If the screen displays an error message when you turn on the
computer, see Appendix B, “Power-on Diagnostics.” If the
screen displays an error message while you are running system
diagnostics, described in Appendix C, check the error message
table at the end of that appendix for the cause. Then give this
information to your Epson dealer.
Troubleshooting A-1
The Computer Won’t Start
If your computer does not start when you turn on the power,
check the following:
1.
Is the power light on the computer’s front panel on? If not,
remove any diskettes and turn off the power. Check that
the power cord is securely connected to both the AC inlet
on the back panel and an electrical outlet.
WARNING
If you need to turn off the computer for any reason,
always wait at least five seconds before turning it back on
again. You can damage the computer if you rum it off
and on rapidly.
Replace the Startup diskette, if necessary, and turn the
computer on again.
A-2
2.
If the computer’s power light still does not come on, check
the electrical outlet for power. Turn off your computer and
unplug the power cord from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp
into the wall outlet, and turn it on to see if the outlet
supplies power.
3.
If the electrical outlet is working and all the connections
are secure but your computer still won’t start, call your
Epson dealer.
4.
If the computer starts but is taking a long time to complete
its power-on diagnostics, you may have disabled the Fast
boot function and made a change in your computer’s
configuration. Power-on diagnostics may take up to five
minutes to complete if this is the case. If the computer does
not display the MS-DOS prompt after five minutes, press
the RESET button and try again. If the computer still does
not complete power-on diagnostics after five minutes,
contact your Epson dealer.
Troubleshooting
If the computer starts but you can’t see anything on the
screen, see “Monitor Problems,‘” later in this appendix,
The Computer Locks Up
If your computer locks up and does not respond when you type
on the keyboard, follow these steps:
1.
Some computer operations take longer than others to
complete. For example, the computer takes longer to sort a
database than to accept a single typed character. If your
computer is still locked after a reasonable length of time,
proceed to the next step.
2.
If you are running an application program, see “Software
Problems,” later in this appendix. This section covers
certain problems caused by application programs.
3.
Did you enter the correct password? See “Password
Problems,” below.
4.
If you want to stop whatever the computer is doing and
return to the MS-DOS command prompt, hold down the
Ctrl key and press Break. In most cases, this solves the
problem. See Chapter 3 for more information on stopping a
command or program.
5.
If your computer still does not respond, you can reset it with
the RESET button. Follow the instructions in Chapter 3.
6.
If resetting the computer does not work, turn off the
computer, wait at least five seconds, and turn it on again.
If you do not have a hard disk drive, insert the Startup
diskette in drive A. The computer should load MS-DOS.
Troubleshooting A-3
Password Problems
If you set a power-on password using the Setup program, you
must enter this password after you turn on your computer before
you can use the system. When you turn on the computer, the
screen displays a key prompt ( t+nl ). If you do not enter the
correct password, you see an x on the screen to indicate it is
incorrect. The computer gives you a second and third chance to
enter it correctly.
If after three tries you have not entered the correct password,
the computer locks up and does not respond to your keyboard
entries.
If you have any trouble using your power-on password, try the
following:
1.
If you think you know the correct password, reset the
computer and try again. (You’ll get three chances, as before,
to enter the correct password.) See Chapter 3 for
instructions on using the password.
2.
If you know the current power-on password but you want to
change or delete it, see Chapter 3 for instructions.
3. If you do not know the current power-on password and you
do not want to set a new one, see “Removing a Password”
below.
4.
A-4
If you do not know the current power-on password and you
want to set a new one, see “Setting a New Password” below.
Troubleshooting
Removing a Password
If you have forgotten your password and you do not want to set
a new one, there are two ways to remove the current password:
LI Disable the existing password
Ll Disable the password function.
To do either of these procedures, you must reset a jumper on the
main system board.
You should disable the existing password if you want to be able
to set a new password later without having to reset a jumper on
the main system board again. See “Disabling an existing
password” below for instructions.
If you disable the password function, you cannot set a new
password unless you perform the steps to disable the existing
password at that time. If you do not want to use a password
anymore, follow the instructions under “Disabling the password
function” below.
Disabling an existing password
If you do not know your power-on password and do not want to
set a new one, follow these steps to disable the existing
password:
1.
Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 to enable the
password skip function by setting jumper J2 to position 1-2.
2.
Insert the Reference diskette into Drive A and turn on the
computer. You do not see the key prompt ( C+rrn ).
Troubleshooting A-5
3.
When the Operation Menu appears, highlight Setup
and press Enter. Then see “Setting the Power-on Password”
in Chapter 2 and follow the instructions as if you are going
to enter a new password. However, when you see the
password prompt, press Enter immediately. This clears out
the existing password.
Make sure you save your password setting and that you
highlight * * EXIT AND SAVE * * when you leave
the Setup program.
4.
Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 to disable the
password skip function by setting jumper J2 to position 2-3.
5.
Turn on the computer again. You do not see the key prompt
( 9~ ) and the computer loads MS-DOS.
Later, if you want to create a power-on password, run Setup and
enter a password. The jumper is already in the correct position.
Disabling the password function
If you do not want to use a power-on password anymore, you
can disable the password function. However, if you want to use
the password function later, your old password is still stored as
the current password. If you want to be able to easily set a
password later, follow the instructions in “Disabling an Existing
Password” above.
To disable the password function, follow the instructions under
“Changing Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 to change the setting
of jumper J2 on the main system board to position 1-2.
A-6
Troubleshooting
Setting a New Password
If you have forgotten your current power-on password and want
to set a new one, follow these steps:
1.
Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 to enable the
password skip function by setting jumper J2 to position 1-2.
2.
Insert the Reference diskette into Drive A and turn on the
computer. You do not see the key prompt ( ti ).
3.
When the Operation Menu appears, highlight Setup
and press Enter. Then follow the instructions under
“Setting the Power-on Password” in Chapter 2 to enter a
new password.
Make sure you save your password setting and that you
highlight * * EXIT AND SAVE * * when you leave
the Setup program.
4.
After you exit Setup, you see this message:
TURN OFF POWER AND CORRECT JUMPER
SETTING TO ENABLE PASSWORD CHECKING
5.
Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 to disable the
password skip function by setting jumper J2 to position 2-3.
6.
Turn on the computer. You see the key prompt ( % ).
Enter your new password to access the system. (See “Using
the Power-on Password” in Chapter 3.)
Note
e sure to remember your new password or write it down
and keep it in a safe place. If you forget the password you
enter now, you may have to repeat the procedure above
the next time you turn on your computer.
Troubleshooting A-7
Keyboard Problems
If you are having trouble with the keyboard, check the
following:
1.
If the screen displays a keyboard error when you turn on or
reset the computer, make sure the keyboard is securely
connected to the computer. See “Connecting the
Keyboard” in Chapter 1 for instructions.
2.
If nothing happens when you type on the keyboard, see
“The Computer Locks Up,” earlier in this appendix.
3.
If the cursor keys do not work properly, the Num Lock
function may be on. When Num Lock is on, the numeric/
arrow keys on the numeric keypad work only as numbers.
Check to see if the Num Lock indicator in the upper right
corner of the keyboard is lit; if it is, press the Num Lock key
to turn off the function.
Monitor Problems
For monitor problems, check the following:
A-8
1.
If there is no display on the screen, check that the monitor’s
power switch is on and that the power light on the monitor
is lit. If the power light is on but you still do not see
anything on the screen, check the monitor’s brightness and
contrast controls.
2.
If the power switch is on but the power light is not, turn off
the monitor’s power, wait five seconds, and turn the power
back on. Wait a few seconds to see if the screen displays any
text.
Troubleshooting
3.
If the monitor’s power light still does not come on, check
the electrical outlet for power. Turn off your monitor and
unplug it from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp into the wall
outlet and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies power.
4.
If you still do not see anything on the screen, make sure
your monitor is connected to the computer properly. See
“Connecting the Monitor” in Chapter 1 for more details.
Also check the monitor manual for instructions on how to
connect it to the computer.
5.
Make sure your monitor and display adapter card match,
and, if your display adapter card has any switches or
jumpers, be sure they are set properly. See “Connecting a
Monitor” in Chapter 1 and the documentation that came
with your monitor and display adapter card for instructions.
6.
If you are running an application program, see if you need
to set up the program for the type of monitor and display
adapter card you have. Also make sure you are using the
appropriate monitor and display adapter card for your
software.
Note
If your application program requires a monitor that
supports graphics but you have a monochrome monitor,
the results will be unpredictable.
7.
Be sure you have chosen the correct display adapter card
type in the Setup program. See “Setting the Display
Adapter Card Type” in Chapter 2.
8.
If you are still having difficulty with your monitor, try
running either the Monochrome Display Adapter and CRT
Check or the Color Graphics Display Adapter and CRT
Check, as described in Appendix C. If the diagnostics
program indicates an error, contact the place where you
bought the monitor.
Troubleshooting A-9
Diskette Problems
If you have trouble accessing data on a diskette, try the
following steps:
1.
Is the diskette inserted properly? You may have inserted it
upside-down or it may not be inserted all the way. Remove
the diskette from the drive and reinsert it with the label
facing up. (See Chapter 3 for detailed instructions on
inserting and removing diskettes.)
2.
If reinserting the diskette does not solve the problem and
you have access to another diskette drive of the same type,
place the diskette in the other drive and repeat the
operation. If you can successfully repeat the operation in the
new drive, the trouble may be in your diskette drive. See
“Diskette Drive Problems,” below.
3.
Have you inserted the right type of diskette? The diskette
type normally appears on the manufacturer’s label. Here are
the guidelines:
Ct
In a drive that has a storage capacity of 1.44MB, such as
drive A, use 3 ‘/z-inch, double-sided, high-density, 135
TPI diskettes. This type of drive can also read and write
to 720KB diskettes.
Li
In a drive that has a storage capacity of 720KB, use
3 ‘/z-inch, double-sided, double-density, 135 TPI
diskettes. You cannot use 1.44MB diskettes in this
drive.
Cl
In a drive that has a storage capacity of 1.2MB, use
5 l/4-inch, double-sided, high-density, 96 TPI diskettes.
You can also use 360KB diskettes in this drive, but if
you write to a 360KB diskette in this drive, you may
have trouble using the diskette in a 360KB drive later.
A-10 Troubleshooting
Cl
In a drive that has a storage capacity of 360KB, use
5 ‘/q-inch, double-sided, double-density, 48 TPI
diskettes. You cannot use 1.2MB diskettes in this drive.
See “Types of Diskette Drives” in Chapter 3 for more
information.
4.
If your diskette is the right type for your drive, check to see
if the diskette is write-protected. On a 3 ‘/I-inch diskette,
the write-protect switch may be set to the write-protect
position or there may be no switch. On a 5 ‘/.+-inch diskette,
there may be a write-protect tab over the notch on the side
of the diskette or there may be no notch at all. You cannot
store or revise data on a write-protected diskette. See
Chapter 3 for information on write-protecting diskettes.
Some application programs do not function properly if the
diskette is write-protected. Check the program manual.
5.
If MS-DOS displays errors when you try to access data, your
diskette may be defective. MS-DOS error messages that may
indicate a defective diskette include:
Cl
Disk Drive Error: Abort, Ignore, Retry?
Cl
Disk error reading drive d:
U
Disk error writing drive d:
If you see one of these messages, make sure the diskette is
properly inserted in the diskette drive. If you use a 5 l/4-inch
diskette, make sure the diskette drive latch is closed. Try
the operation again. If the problem persists, try removing
the diskette and reinserting it. This may solve the problem
if the diskette was not seated properly in the drive.
Is the diskette formatted? A new diskette must be formatted
before you can store data on it. See Chapter 4 for
instructions on formatting diskettes.
Troubleshooting
A-l I
If the error message still occurs, you probably have a
defective diskette. Use the MS-DOS COPY command to
copy the files from the diskette onto another diskette. (See
“Copying Files” in Chapter 4 for instructions.)
If you are not able to copy all the files from the defective
diskette, copy as many as you can and then use the
MS-DOS program RECOVER. This program recovers all
the data that it can read on the diskette. It is specifically
designed to work on disks that may be defective. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on using
RECOVER.
Note
RECOVER renames all files on the diskette, so use it
only after you have copied as many files as possible with
the MS-DOS COPY command.
6.
If you see no error messages but there is something wrong
with the data in a file, MS-DOS or an application program
may have updated the storage information on the diskette
incorrectly. This is probably the case if you have one of
these problems:
0
Part of a file is missing
0
A file includes parts of other files
Cl
An expected output file is missing.
To make the necessary repairs, use the MS-DOS program
CHKDSK. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
instructions.
A-12 Troubleshooting
Diskette Drive Problems
Follow these steps if you are having difficulty with a diskette
drive:
1.
If the diskette is not turning or the diskette drive is making
loud noises, do not attempt any further examination of it.
Contact your Epson dealer.
Note
Diskette drives may make different sounds with different
diskettes.
2.
If your diskette drive read/write heads are dirty, you may
occasionally see this MS-DOS error message:
Error Reading Drive d: Abort,
Retry, or Fail?
To clean the read/write heads, use a diskette drive head
cleaning kit, available in most computer stores.
3.
If you are still having problems with your diskette drive, try
running the Diskette Drives and Controller Check
described in Appendix C. If the diagnostics program
indicates an error, consult your Epson dealer.
Troubleshooting
A-13
Hard Disk Problems
If you are having problems with the hard disk in your computer,
try the following steps:
1.
Be sure you have installed MS-DOS on the hard disk
according to the instructions in the MS-DOS Installation
Guide.
2.
If you have installed MS-DOS on the hard disk but it does
not load MS-DOS when you turn on the computer, it may
be missing one of the MS-DOS system files. Turn off your
computer and insert your Startup diskette into drive A.
Then turn on your computer again.
Type C : and press Enter to log onto the hard disk. If this
works, the next step is to make sure the file
COMMAND.COM is in the root directory of the hard disk.
Type DIR and press Enter.
If COMMAND.COM is in the root directory, use the
MS-DOS COMPARE command to compare the
COMMAND.COM file on your diskette with the
COMMAND.COM file on the hard disk. (See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on using
COMPARE.) If the files do not match, use the COPY
command to replace COMMAND.COM on the hard disk
with the COMMAND.COM file on your diskette. Type the
following and press Enter:
COPY A:COMMAND.COM C:
3.
A-14
If the hard disk still does not work, the root directory of
your hard disk may be missing some hidden system files.
(Hidden files are not displayed when you list files using the
DIR command.)
Troubleshooting
To copy the hidden system files from your Startup diskette
to the root directory of the hard disk, type A : to log onto
drive A. Then type the following and press Enter:
SYS c:
4.
If you can load MS-DOS from your Startup diskette but you
cannot access data stored on your hard disk, you may have
accidentally repartitioned or reformatted part or all of the
disk.
Use the Display Partition Information option of the FDISK
program to see if your hard disk has an active (bootable)
DOS partition on it. (See the MS-DOS Reference Manual
for instructions on using FDISK.) If it does not, back up all
your hard disk files and then reinstall MS-DOS on the hard
disk. See your MS-DOS Installation Guide for instructions.
If your hard disk does have an active DOS partition, back
up all your hard disk files and then try reformatting your
hard disk using SELECT. See your MS-DOS Installation
Guide for instructions.
WARNING
Reformatting destroys all the data currently on your hard
disk, so do this only after careful consideration and after
trying the preceding steps.
5.
If your hard disk is producing a lot of read/write errors or
you are having other serious problems with it, try running
the Hard Disk Drive and Controller diagnostics check,
described in Appendix C. If the diagnostics program
indicates an error, contact your Epson dealer. Never open
the sealed unit that encloses the hard disk.
Troubleshooting
A-15
6.
A-16
If you have been using your hard disk for a long time and
begin to see numerous read/write errors, the magnetic
signals on the disk may be getting weak. If this is the case,
you may need to reformat the hard disk. If you decide to do
this, follow these steps:
Ll
Back up all the data on the disk using the BACKUP
command (described in the MS-DOS Reference
Manual).
Li
Follow the instructions in Appendix D to perform a
low-level (physical) format.
Ll
Follow the instructions in the MS-DOS Installation
Guide to install MS-DOS on the hard disk.
7.
If you have installed a hard disk drive made by another
company in your computer, you need to install MS-DOS.
See the MS-DOS Installation Guide for instructions. If the
hard disk needs a low-level format, do that before you
install MS-DOS. (See Appendix D for instructions.)
8.
If you have installed a hard disk drive that has its controller
on an option card, you may need to change the position of
jumper J3 on the main system board. See “Changing Jumper
Settings” in Chapter 5. Also, if your Equity 386SX came
with a hard disk drive that you are no longer using, be sure
the cable leading from that drive to the main system board
is disconnected.
Troubleshooting
Software Problems
If you are having trouble with an application program, try the
following solutions:
1.
If the application program does not start, check that you are
following the correct procedure for starting the program,
and that it is installed correctly. If you have a hard disk and
the program is stored in a directory on that drive, make sure
you are logged onto or specifying the correct directory. If
you don’t have a hard disk, make sure you have inserted the
application program diskette in the top drive (drive A).
2.
Your computer can run at either 16 MHz (high) speed or
simulated 8 MHz (low) speed. While almost all programs
work properly at the faster speed, some must run at the
slower speed. Check your software manual to see if this is
the case, and change the CPU operating speed if necessary.
(See Chapter 3 for instructions.) Also see the description of
the Auto speed function in Chapter 2 for information on
accommodating copy-protected programs.
3.
If you have entered an MS-DOS command that you want to
stop, there are special key combinations you can type to tell
MS-DOS to stop what it is doing. These methods may also
work in your application programs.
To interrupt an MS-DOS command while it is executing,
try one of the following commands:
4.
CI
Hold down the Ctrl key and press C
CI
Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break.
An application program can occasionally lock the
computer, making it unresponsive to the keyboard. If your
computer does not respond when you type on the keyboard,
you can reset it. Follow the instructions in Chapter 3.
Troubleshooting
A-17
Printer Problems
Below are some general steps to follow if you are having
difficulty with your printer. If the problem persists and you need
more detailed information, check your printer manual.
1.
If your printer does not work correctly immediately after
you install it, check that the printer has power and is
properly connected to the computer. See Chapter 1 or your
printer manual for instructions on how to connect your
printer to the computer.
Also make sure your printer has paper in it, since many
printers cannot operate without paper.
2.
Check the printer manual for the printer’s correct DIP
switch or control panel settings. These settings help a
printer communicate properly with the computer.
3.
If you are using more than one parallel port or more than
one serial port, the computer must be set properly so
MS-DOS knows which port is the primary port and which
is the secondary port. See Chapter 2 for instructions on how
to set the serial and parallel ports using the Setup program.
4.
If your printer is properly set up but is still not functioning,
test it from the MS-DOS level. When the screen displays
the MS-DOS command prompt (such as C> or A>), hold
down Shift and press PrtSc. This should print the contents
of the screen on your printer.
If it does not, you may need to change the internal setting
of the computer’s parallel port for a parallel printer (or serial
port for a serial printer). To do this, use the MS-DOS
MODE command or the MENU program. See your printer
manual and the MS-DOS Reference Manual for more
details.
A-18
Troubleshooting
5.
Many application programs (such as word processors) must
be set up properly before they can use a printer. Check your
program manual to see what customization is required.
6.
Try running the Parallel Port (Printer Interface) Check if
you have a parallel printer, or the Serial Port (RS-232C)
Check if you have a serial printer. Appendix C describes
these diagnostics checks. If the diagnostics test indicates an
error, contact the place where you bought the printer.
Option Card Problems
If you install an option card and it is not functioning properly,
check the following:
1.
Is the option card installed correctly? Check the installation
procedure described in Chapter 5 and also see the
instructions that come with the option card. The most
common problem with option cards is a loose connection.
Make sure the option card is well-seated in its slot.
2.
Did you set the necessary DIP switches or jumpers on the
option card? See your option card manual for instructions.
3.
Did you run the Setup program to redefine your computer’s
configuration after installing the card? See Chapter 2.
4.
If you installed a memory card in your computer, see “Postinstallation Setup for Memory Cards” in Chapter 5.
5.
If you installed a hard disk drive that has its controller on
an option card, you may need to change the position of
jumper J3 on the main system board. See “Changing Jumper
Settings” in Chapter 5. Also, if your Equity 386SX came
with a hard disk drive that you are no longer using be sure
the cable leading from that drive to the main system board
is disconnected.
Troubleshooting
A-19
6. If you used the option card to add an external device to your
computer, did you use the proper cable to connect the
device to the option card connector on the back panel?
7.
Did you perform the correct setup procedures for the
software you are using with the option card? If necessary, see
your software manual for instructions on running the
software setup procedure.
A-20 Troubleshooting
Appendix B
Power-on Diagnostics
Your computer’s built-in memory (ROM) contains a series of
diagnostics programs, which your computer runs automatically
every time you turn on the power. These programs check
internal devices such as ROM, RAM, the timer, the keyboard
controller, and the hard disk drive. If the computer finds an
error, it displays a specific error number and error message on
the screen.
If the error is serious, the computer cancels further checking
and halts system initialization. The error message remains on
the screen, and the computer locks up. If this happens, contact
your dealer as soon as possible. Report both the error message
and code number.
If the error is not serious, the computer waits for you to resume
further checking. You see this prompt:
(Resume = "F1" key)
Write down the error message and code number, and then press
F1 to continue. Report the error message and code number to
your dealer when requesting repairs.
The following table lists all the error codes and messages which
may appear during power-on diagnostics checks.
Power-on Diagnostics
B-1
Power-on diagnostics error codes and messages Table
Error code
Message
System Board
101
SYSTEM BOARD ERROR
102
SYSTEM BOARD ERROR
103
SYSTEM BOARD ERROR
105
SYSTEM BOARD ERROR
106
SYSTEM BOARD ERROR
108
SYSTEM BOARD ERROR
Real-time Clock
161
SYSTEM OPTIONS NOT SET
162
SYSTEM OPTIONS NOT SET
163
TIME AND DATE NOT SET
164
MEMORY SIZE ERROR
Memory
181
182
201
202
203
Keyboard
301
303
304
INTC (8259)
Timer (8254)
Timer (8254)
NMI generated (Parity
error or other)
DMA page register
failure
Timer (8254)
Power failure
Check-sum error
Invalid value
SYSTEM EXTENDED MEMORY Memory overlap
ERROR
SYSTEM RESERVED MEMORY Memory overlap
(384KB)
ERROR
First 64KB
RAM ERROR
Memory data or
MEMORY ADDRESS ERROR
parity error
Memory data or
MEMORY ADDRESS ERROR
parity error
KEYBOARD ERROR
KEYBOARD OR 8042 ERROR
KEYBOARD OR 8042 ERROR
Diskette drive(s) and controller
601
DISKETTE ERROR
Parallel port (printer interface)
901
PARALLEL PORT ERROR
Serial port (RS-232C port)
1101
SERIAL PORT ERROR
B-2
Notes
Power-on Diagnostics
Power-on diagnostics error codes and messages (continued)
Error code
Notes
Message
Hard disk drive(s) and controller
1760
DISK 0 PARAMETER FAILURE
1761
DISK 1 PARAMETER FAILURE
1770
DISK 0 PARAMETER ERROR
1771
DISK 1 PARAMETER ERROR
1780
1781
1782
1790
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
1791
DISK 1 ERROR
0 FAILURE
1 FAILURE
CONTROLLER FAILURE
0 ERROR
Auxiliary device(s)
8601
AUXILIARY DEVICE FAILURE
8602
AUXILIARY DEVICE FAILURE
8603
AUXILIARY DEVICE FAILURE
Incorrect user
definable table
Incorrect user
definable table
Calibration failure
Calibration failure
Self test failure
Parameter does
not match
Parameter does
not match
No response
Reset device not
complete
INT12 or bad
mouse ID
Power-on Diagnostics B-3
B-4
Power-on Diagnostics
Appendix C
Performing System Diagnostics
This appendix describes how to check the operation of the main
unit and peripheral devices of your Equity 386SX. You check
these devices using the diagnostics program on your Reference
diskette.
Run the diagnostics program if you are not sure whether a
device is performing correctly. The table at the end of this
appendix lists the error messages you may see during testing.
You can test the following devices, each of which is identified
by specific reference numbers:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
11
12
14
17
21
81
-
System board
Memory
Keyboard
Monochrome display adapter and CRT
Color graphics adapter and CRT
Diskette drives and controller
Math coprocessor
Parallel port (printer interface)
Serial port (RS-232C port)
Alternate serial port
Dot-matrix printer
Hard disk drives and controller
Alternate parallel port
Parallel port (on video adapter)
Performing System Diagnostics
C-1
Starting System Diagnostics
To run the System diagnostics program, you must turn on your
computer with the Reference diskette in drive A. If you start
this program in any other way, some tests may produce strange
results.
To start the System diagnostics program, follow these steps:
1.
Insert the Reference diskette in drive A.
2.
Turn on or reset the computer. The Operation Menu
appears.
3.
If the Num Lock indicator is illuminated, press Num Lock
to turn off the function.
4. Press 3 or use J to select System diagnostics and
then press Enter.
When you start the System diagnostics program, the computer
checks any peripheral devices that are connected to the system.
Then you see a list of the devices available for testing. This list
includes only the devices that are part of your system, such as
the following, for example:
DEVICE LIST
1
2
3
5
6
9
11
14
17
C-2
-
System board
Memory
Keyboard
Color graphics adapter and CRT
Diskette drives and controller
Parallel port (printer interface)
Serial port (RS-232C port)
Dot-matrix printer
Hard disk drives and controller
Performing System Diagnostics
If the list correctly describes your system, press Enter. If a
device is missing from this list, or if you wish to change the list,
press N or + and Enter. Then see “Modifying the Device List,”
below.
After you confirm the Device List, you can test only those
items. If you decide later that you need to add a device, you
must return to the Operation Menu and reselect S y s t em
diagnostics.
Selecting an Option
When you are using the System diagnostics program, you often
need to select an option from a menu. There are two ways to do
this:
Q
You can use the arrow keys (‘l’ L t +) to move the
highlighted cursor block to the option you want and then
press Enter to select it.
0
You can type the number of the desired option and press
Enter to select it.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-3
For example, you may see this menu:
1 - Run test one time
2 - Run test multiple times
0 - Exit
Suppose the first option is highlighted. If you want to select that
option, just press Enter (because it is already highlighted). If
you want to select option 2, you can either press 1 or 2; this
causes the cursor block to move to that option. Then press
Enter to select it.
Therefore, when the instructions in this appendix tell you to
select an option, you can either use ‘l’, -1, t, or + to highlight
the option or you can type the number of the option. Then
press Enter. (You must press Enter to start the operation.)
You can press ESC any time you want to leave the menu
currently displayed and return to the previous one.
Modifying the Device List
If an installed device is missing from the Device List, you must
add it to the list and test it carefully. At the following prompt,
select N.
DEVICE LIST is correct ? (Y/N)
C-4
Performing System Diagnostics
You see this menu:
1 - Add device
2 - Delete device
0 - Finish modification
To add a device to the list, select 1. The program displays a list
of other devices that are not currently included in the Device
List. You see a menu similar to this:
Additional
4
7
12
21
81
-
DEVICE
LIST
Monochrome display adapter and CRT
Math coprocessor
Alternate serial port
Alternate parallel port
Parallel port (on video adapter)
0 - Exit to DEVICE LIST
I
Select the item you wish to add.
Nate
If you want to type the number for an option that has two
digits (such as 12 or 81) you must hold down the Alt key
while you type the number.
You can add as many devices as necessary. When the Device
List is complete, select 0 (Exit).
To remove a device from the list, select 2 (Delete device). The
screen displays the current Device List.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-5
Select the item you wish to delete. You can delete as many
devices as necessary.
When the Device List is correct, select 0. The screen displays
the modified Device List for a final check and these options:
If the list is correct, select 0.
You are now ready to select a test.
Selecting a Test
From the Device List, select the device you wish to test. Before
the test begins, you are asked how many times to perform the
test. You see this menu:
Number of times to test device
You can specify that the test be performed one time only or any
number of times in the range from 1 to 9999. Running a test
multiple times is for reliability testing of essential functions
only; in most cases, running a test only once is sufficient.
C-6
Performing System Diagnostics
To perform the test once, select 1. The program then displays a
submenu of more detailed tests for the device you are checking.
To perform the test multiple times, select 2. You see this
prompt:
Terminate checking if an error
detected ? (Y/N)
Select Y to terminate checking if the device produces an error,
or N to repeat the tests regardless of an error. You see this
prompt:
Repeat times (1-9999) ? 1
To perform the test once, press Enter.
If you wish to run the tests more than once, type the number of
times and press Enter.
For some devices, the computer does not display a submenu of
tests to choose from. Instead, it performs all the tests that do not
require you to enter a response. If you chose to test the device
more than once, the computer runs all the tests and then
repeats them in the same order.
You may see this message on the screen during the tests:
On errors, press any key to stop
If you see an error while one of the tests is running, press any
key to terminate the test.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-7
Resuming From an Error
If an error occurs during a test, the test stops at that point, and
an error code and error message appear. If you want to record
the problem, you can print out the message on your printer. You
see this prompt:
Do you want a printout of the error
message(s) ? (Y/N)
To continue without printing the error message, select N.
Before you request a printout, be sure your printer is ready and
contains paper. Then select Y. If the printer is not ready, the
following message and prompt appear:
Printer is not installed correctly.
Install correctly before entering.
Continue ? (Y/N)
Correct the problem and select Y to continue printing, or select
N to cancel printing.
After printing the error message, the program displays this
prompt:
Printout is finished. Press ENTER to
return to the menu.
The program continues after an error in one of the following
ways:
C-8
D
It returns to the Device List, or
Ll
If you are running multiple tests and are not terminating on
an error, the program repeats the test that caused the error.
Performing System Diagnostics
The remainder of this appendix describes the tests you can run
on the system’s internal devices and on the optional devices
installed on your computer. The program displays the title of
each check on the screen.
For a complete list of the error codes and messages these tests
may display, see the table at the end of this appendix.
System Board Check
Use this option to check the operation of each major
component on the system board, including:
LI The 80386SX CPU chip
CI The system ROM
Ci
The real-time clock, CMOS RAM, and battery
Cl The main integrated circuits.
The checks made on the 80386SX CPU chip are extremely
comprehensive and ensure that the CPU instruction set,
including protected-mode operation, is functioning correctly.
If an error occurs, make a copy or a printout of the error code
and message, and contact your Epson dealer or service center for
assistance. Attempting to correct system board errors yourself
may violate your warranty agreement.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-9
Memory Check
Use this option to check all the memory currently installed in
your computer. The program reads the CMOS RAM to find the
total amount of memory. If any settings are incorrect, run the
Setup program (described in Chapter 2) to automatically set the
correct amount of memory in CMOS RAM. If you installed an
optional memory card, you may need to adjust some DIP switch
settings on the card.
For this check, the program writes specific data into memory
and then reads it back in blocks of 64KB. It also makes a parity
check on each block. A memory count is displayed after each
block is tested without error. After the program checks the last
block, you see a message such as the following:
001024 KB
OK
If an error occurs, make a copy or a printout of the error code
and message, and contact your Epson dealer or service center.
Attempting to correct memory errors yourself may violate your
warranty agreement.
Note
Extended memory, which is normally not available to
MS-DOS, is checked using the protected mode of the
80386SX CPU chip.
Keyboard Check
Use this option to check the operation and the configuration of
the keyboard. The program first checks the keyboard controller;
during this check, you see the green indicator lights on the
keyboard flash.
C-10
Performing System Diagnostics
Before checking the operation of the keys, you must identify
your keyboard layout so the test is appropriate for the keys on
your keyboard. A display appears, asking you to identify the
shape of your Enter key. Choose the shape that matches the
one on your keyboard, then press Enter.
The program displays your keyboard layout on the screen.
When you press a key on the keyboard, an asterisk appears at
the corresponding location on the keyboard layout. If you hold
a key down, the asterisk begins to blink. If an asterisk does not
appear at the correct location, there is a problem with your
keyboard. Test each key.
You see these messages on the screen:
Press ESC followed by ENTER to exit.
Press END followed by ENTER if screen
and keyboard do not match.
If all the keys function correctly and match the characters
displayed, press ESC and then Enter.
If all the keys function, but the characters displayed do not
match the keys, press ESC and then Enter. Then reselect the
keyboard test from the Device List, and check that you selected
the correct keyboard layout. You can find diagrams of all the
international keyboard layouts in the MS-DOS Reference
Manual.
If any key is incorrect, press End and Enter. Make a copy of the
error code and message, or print them out, and contact your
Epson dealer or service center.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-11
Monochrome Display Adapter and CRT Check
Use this option to verify the operation of a monochrome display
adapter, VGA, or EGA card attached to a monochrome
monitor. This test includes several checks that allow you to
identify particular problems related to the monochrome display.
You can select the individual checks from this menu:
MONOCHROME DISPLAY ADAPTER AND CRT CHECK MENU
0 - Exit
If an error occurs during any of these tests, record the error code
and message, or print them out. Then contact your Epson dealer
or service center.
When you finish testing the device, select 0 to exit.
Monochrome Adapter Check
To check the monochrome adapter, select 1. The program
checks the video RAM (display memory) on the display adapter
by writing certain data to memory, then reading it back and
comparing it to the written data. The program also tests the
video enable signal of the display controller chip.
C-12
Performing System Diagnostics
Attribute Check
To check the display attributes of the adapter card, select 2.
Several messages appear showing examples of all the possible
display attributes (normal intensity, high intensity, blinking,
reverse, and underlining). Check the information that appears
on your screen, and then respond to the prompt:
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
Select Y if the display is correct. If the display attributes are not
correct, adjust the brightness and contrast on your monitor. If
they are still incorrect, select N.
Character Set Check
To check your character set, select 3. The character fonts that
are included in the internal character generator appear on your
screen. Compare your screen display to this illustration:
MONOCHROME ADAPTER CHECK
CHARACTER SET CHECK
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
Performing System Diagnostics
C-13
After checking the character fonts, respond to the prompt:
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
If the characters match the illustration, select Y. If you find a
problem with the characters on the screen, select N to display
the error message.
Video Check
To check the video output of your monochrome adapter,
select 4. This check displays two different screens: black and
intensified white. First you see the black screen; press any key to
display the intensified white screen. Then press any key to end
this check.
You can use this test to adjust the size of the screen display. The
vertical and horizontal adjustments are located on your
monitor.
Sync Check
This test is provided for service purposes only. If you
accidentally select this option, press any key to end the test.
Run All Above Checks
To run all the tests on the menu in sequence, select 6. When
you choose this option, all checks for the monochrome adapter
and CRT are performed automatically in sequential order.
Although you do not start each test, you must still supply the
appropriate responses to progress from one test to the next.
Press any key to return to the menu.
C-14
Performing System Diagnostics
Color Graphics Adapter and CRT Check
Use this option to check the operation of a color graphics
adapter (or MGA, EGA, or VGA) card and display. This test
includes several checks that allow you to identify particular
problems related to the color display. You can select the
individual checks from this menu:
COLOR GRAPHICS ADAPTER AND CRT CHECK MENU
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
-
Color graphics adapter check
Attribute check
Character set check
40-column character set check
320X200 graphics mode check
640X200 graphics mode check
Screen paging check
Light pen check
Color video check
Sync check
Run all above checks
0 - Exit
If an error occurs during any of these tests, record the error code
and message, or print them out. Then contact your Epson dealer
or service center.
When you finish testing the device, select 0 to exit.
Color Graphics Adapter Check
To check the color graphics adapter, select 1. The program
checks the video RAM (display memory) on the display adapter
card by writing test data to memory, and then reading it back
and comparing it to the written data. The program also tests the
video enable signal of the display controller chip.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-15
Attribute Check
To check the display attributes of the color graphics adapter
card, select 2. Several messages appear showing examples of all
the possible display attributes and colors. Check the
information on your screen, and respond to the prompt:
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
Select Y if the display is correct. If the colors are not correct,
adjust the controls on your monitor. If they are still incorrect,
select N. Contact your dealer to verify any monitor problems.
Character Set Check
To check your 80-column character set, select 3. The character
fonts that are included in the internal character generator of the
video adapter appear on your screen. Compare your screen
display to the following illustration.
CHARACTER SET CHECK
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
C-16
Performing System Diagnostics
After checking the character fonts, respond to the prompt:
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
If the characters match the illustration, select Y. If you find a
problem with the characters on the screen, select N to display
the error message.
40-column Character Set Check
To check your 40-column character set, select 4. The character
fonts that are included in the internal character generator are
displayed on your screen. Compare the characters on your
screen to the following illustration.
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
After checking the character fonts, respond to the prompt:
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
Performing System Diagnostics
C-17
If the characters match the illustration, select Y. If you find a
problem with the characters on the screen, select N to display
the error message.
320x200 Graphics Mode Check
To check your 320x200 graphics mode, select 5. The screen
displays three colored squares-green, brown, and red-against
a cyan background. These four colors are Color Set 0. If they are
correct, select Y.
The same pattern appears again; this time the squares are cyan,
white, and magenta, and the background is red. These colors are
called Color Set 1. If these are also correct, select Y to end the
test.
If any colors are displayed incorrectly, first check the
adjustment of your monitor, and make sure that both ends of
the cable are plugged in firmly. If a problem still exists, select N
to display the error message.
C-18
Performing System Diagnostics
640x200 Graphics Mode Check
To check your 640x200 graphics mode, select 6. The screen
displays three patterned squares against a contrasting
background, as shown below.
640X200 GRAPHICS MODE CHECK
Is the display correct ? (Y/N)
If the patterns on your screen are clear and distinct, select Y. If
any pattern is not clear, first check the adjustment of your
monitor, and then make sure that both ends of the cable are
plugged in firmly. If a problem still exists, select N to display the
error message.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-19
Screen Paging Check
To check the screen paging of your monitor, select 7. The
video RAM on the color graphics adapter is divided into eight
independent display pages (numbered 0 through 7). This test
checks the eight pages by first filling all eight with a number
corresponding to the page, and then displaying each page in
turn. You see the following pattern for screen 0:
SCREEN PAGING CHECK
Press any key for next page
Once you examine this screen, press any key to display the next
page. The eight pages are displayed sequentially.
After the eighth page appears, you see the prompt:
Is
the
d i s p l a y c o r r e c t ? (Y/N)
If all eight pages are correct, select Y. If any page is filled with
an incorrect number, select N to display the error message.
C-20
Performing System Diagnostics
Light Pen Check
To check the function of a light pen connected to the color
graphics adapter card, select 8. This test checks that a light pen
connected to the color graphics adapter is performing
accurately. When you select this check, you see these prompts:
Confirm light pen is connected
correctly before starting the check.
Start the check ? (Y/N)
After you verify that the light pen is connected properly,
select Y.
You see this prompt:
PLACE LIGHT PEN ON CENTER OF WHITE BLOCK
Touch the center of the white block on the screen with the
light pen. When the light pen is correctly positioned, the block
moves to another part of the screen for a second test. After
three successful tests, the check ends.
An error occurs if one of the following is true:
0
The light pen is not connected properly
Q
The light pen is malfunctioning
Ll
You do not touch the square within 12 seconds.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-21
Color Video Check
This test displays 16 different screens, each a different color,
and a message indicating the color. The screens show the
following colors in the order specified below:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
Black
Blue
Green
Cyan
Red
Magenta
Brown
White
910 11 12 13 14 15 16 -
Gray
Light blue
Light green
Light cyan
Light red
Light magenta
Yellow
White (high intensity)
To start this test, select 9. Press any key to display each screen.
On the last screen, you see this prompt:
Is
the
display correct
?
(Y/N)
If all the colors are correct, select Y to end the test. If any color
is incorrect, first check the adjustment of your monitor, and
then make sure that both ends of the cable are plugged in
firmly. If a problem still exists, select N to display the error
message.
Sync Check
This test is provided for service purposes only. If you
accidentally select this option, press any key to end the test.
C-22
Performing System Diagnostics
Run All Above Checks
To run all the tests on the menu in sequence, select 11. When
you choose this option, all checks for the color adapter and
CRT are performed automatically in sequential order. Although
you do not start each test, you must still supply the appropriate
responses to progress from one test to the next. Press ESC to
return to the menu.
Diskette Drives and Controller Check
Use this option to test the performance of the diskette drive(s)
installed in your computer. This test includes several checks
that allow you to identify particular problems related to your
diskette drives.
Before running these tests, format a diskette to use for the tests
that write data on the disk in the drive. To test a 1.44MB drive,
you can use either a 1.44MB diskette or a 720KB diskette; but it
is better to use the higher capacity diskette. In a 720KB drive,
you can use only a 720KB diskette.
To test a 1.2MB drive, you can use a 1.2MB or a 360KB
diskette. However, to test the full capacity of the drive, use only
a 1.2MB diskette. In a 360KB drive, you can use only a 360KB
diskette.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-23
You can select the individual tests from the following menu.
DISKETTE DRIVE(S) AND CONTROLLER CHECK MENU
1
2
3
4
5
-
Sequential seek check
Random seek check
Write, read check
Disk change check
Run all above checks
0 - Exit
Before it performs any checks, the program determines the
number of diskette drives installed in your computer. If you
have more than one drive, you see this prompt each time you
select a test:
Enter drive number ? (1/2)
Select 1 (for drive A) or 2 (for drive B). If any errors occur,
record the error code and message and contact your dealer.
Always have the diskette drive serviced by your dealer or service
center.
When you finish testing the device and return to the menu,
select 0 to exit.
Sequential Seek Check
This test checks the ability of the read/write heads to locate any
part of the diskette. This action by a read/write head is called a
seek. During this test, each head seeks sequentially from the
innermost track to the outermost track. The innermost track is
track 79 for 1.44MB, 1.2MB, and 720KB diskettes and track 39
for 360KB diskettes.
C-24
Performing System Diagnostics
Select option 1 from the menu to start this test. The program
displays the number of each track it finds. For example, with a
1.44MB diskette, the first message you see is:
Current track is 79
The track number counts down from 79 to 0 (39 to 0 for a
360KB diskette). The seek is performed by each head, so you see
the count twice. If no errors occur, the menu is displayed.
Random Seek Check
This test is identical to the sequential seek check, except that
the seek operation is performed on each track in random order
instead of sequential order. Select option 2 from the menu to
start this test.
Write, Read Check
This test checks the ability of the selected disk drive to read and
write data on a diskette. The test writes to and reads from each
track on the diskette, starting at the center.
WARNING
This test destroys all data on the diskette in the selected
drive.
Select option 3 from the menu to start this test.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-25
If you have only one diskette drive, you see a prompt to remove
the the Reference diskette and insert a blank diskette before
running the test. You see these messages:
If using drive 1, remove your Reference Disk.
Insert a formatted blank disk in the drive
before starting the check.
Any data present may be erased.
Start the check ? (Y/N)
Make sure the blank diskette you prepared is in drive A (l),
then select Y. The program displays the current track number as
each cylinder is tested. For example, with a 1.44MB diskette,
the first message you see is:
Current track is 79
After the test is over, be sure to replace the Reference diskette
in drive A before you select another device from the Device List
or exit System diagnostics.
Disk Change Check
This option tests the ability of a diskette drive to detect
whether a diskette has been inserted or removed. Disk changes
cannot be detected by a 360KB diskette drive.
Select option 4 from the menu to start this test. The program
checks the selected drive type; if it is a 360KB drive, you see
these messages:
Drive d is a 360 KB drive.
DISK CHANGE is not allowed with this type of
drive.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
C-26
Performing System Diagnostics
When you run the test for 1.44MB, 1.2MB, or 720KB drive, you
see this prompt:
Remove the disk from drive 1.
Remove the diskette. The program displays the following
prompt:
Re-insert the disk into drive 1.
Reinsert the diskette. If no errors occur, the menu reappears.
An error occurs if you do not remove or replace the diskette in
time or if the drive is malfunctioning.
Run All Above Checks
To run all the tests on the menu in sequence, select 5. When
you choose this option, all checks for the diskette drive(s) and
controller are performed automatically in sequential order.
Although you do not start each test, you must still supply the
appropriate responses to progress from one test to the next.
Press ESC to return to the menu.
Math Coprocessor Check
Use this option to check the operation of the 80387SX math
coprocessor if you have one installed in your computer. To
check the math coprocessor, select option 7 from the Device
List.
The program runs a series of checks on the precision with which
the coprocessor performs calculations and handles exceptions.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-27
Parallel Port (Printer Interface) Check
Use this option to test the operation of the primary parallel
printer port. To perform the test, you must insert a special loopback connector into the parallel port so that the computer can
check individual pins of the port. Contact your dealer if you
need a loop-back connector. Note that a different connector is
required to test the serial port.
__
When you select option 9 from the Device List, you see these
prompts:
Attach loop-back connector to parallel
port before starting the check.
Start the check ? (Y/N)
Insert the loop-back connector. Then select Y to start the
check. The computer checks the port by writing and reading
data and control information, and reports errors for any pins
that are faulty. Note that if you connect a printer cable instead
of a loop-back connector, you will get errors.
Alternate Parallel Port Check
Use this option to test the operation of an additional parallel
port. To perform the test, you must insert the special loop-back
connector into the alternate parallel port so that the computer
can check individual pins of the port.
This test is similar to the Parallel Port Check. For more details,
see the description of the Parallel Port (Printer Interface)
Check.
C-28
Performing System Diagnostics
.
Parallel Port (on Video Adapter) Check
Use this option to test the operation of an additional parallel
port on a video adapter. To perform the test, you must insert the
special loop-back connector into the parallel port on the video
adapter so that the computer can check individual pins of the
port.
This test is similar to the Parallel Port Check. For more details,
see the description of the Parallel Port (Printer Interface)
Check.
Serial Port (RS-232C Port) Check
Use this option to test the functions of the primary serial
communications (RS-232C) port. To perform the test, you must
insert a special loop-back connector into the RS-232C port so
that the computer can check individual pins of the port.
Contact your dealer if you need a loop-back connector. Note
that a different connector is required to test the parallel port.
When you select option 11 from the Device List, you see these
prompts:
Attach loop-back connector to serial
port before starting the check.
Start the check ? (Y/N)
Insert the loop-back connector. Then select Y to start the
check.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-29
First, the program checks the serial port control lines to see that
they are able to change from high to low and vice versa. No
messages are displayed during this part of the test unless an error
occurs.
The second test is an echo back check during which the port
sends data to itself in a fixed data format, at all the possible
baud rates. When this test begins, you see these messages:
RS-232C echo back check - at various baud rates
Current baud rate is 75
Current test data is 00
Each baud rate is tested in turn, and the display informs you of
the progress of the test. If the port does not become ready
correctly, a timeout error occurs. If any data received does not
match the data sent, a verify error occurs, and the computer
reports the transmitted and received data at the time of the
error.
The final test is an echo back check during which the port
sends data to itself at 9600 baud, using various data formats. At
the start of the test, you see these messages:
RS232C echo back check-with various data formats
Current data format: 5 data bits, 1 stop bit,
parity - NONE
Current test data is 00
Once again, if any data received does not match the data sent, a
verify error occurs, and the computer reports the transmitted
and received data at the time of the error.
C-30
Performing System Diagnostics
Alternate Serial Port Check
Use this option to test the functions of an additional serial
communications (RS-232C) port. To perform the test you must
insert a special loop-back connector into the alternate serial
port so that the computer can check individual pins of the port.
This test is identical to the check for the primary serial port. For
more details, see the description of the Serial Port (RS-232C
Port) Check.
Dot-matrix Printer Check
Use this option to check the following:
Ei
The operation of your printer in IBM-compatibility mode
D
The compatibility of your printer with the extended
character set your computer uses
LI
The ability of your printer to produce bit-image graphics
and print images of the graphics screen.
When you select option 14 from the Device List, you see this
prompt:
Is dot-matrix printer on-line ? (Y/N)
Check that your printer is connected to the computer and that
it is turned on, loaded with paper, and online. Select Y to
continue, or N to return to the menu.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-31
When you continue the test, the program checks that the
printer is responding correctly. This test detects whether the
printer is offline or whether an interface error exists. If no errors
occur, the computer sends a repeating sequence of ASCII
characters and bit-image data to the printer until you press any
key. The pattern looks like this:
The text data includes all the characters commonly used by
programs that require foreign languages or graphic characters.
If your printer prints different characters than you see in the
illustration, you may need to be careful with certain software.
The bit-image data is sent to the printer using a command
(ESC K) compatible with Epson and IBM printers.
Note
Even if the test runs only for a short time, your printer may
store many characters in its buffer. To stop printing, set the
printer offline.
C-32
Performing System Diagnostics
Hard Disk Drive(s) and Controller Check
Use this option to test the performance of the hard disk drive(s)
installed in your computer. If any errors occur, have your dealer
or service center check and service the drive. When you select
option 17 from the Device List, you see this menu:
HARD DISK DRIVE(S) AND CONTROLLER CHECK MENU
1
2
3
4
-
Seek check
Write, read check
Read, verify check
Run all above checks
0 - Exit
1
When you select a check from this menu, the program
determines the number of hard disk drives installed in your
computer. If you have more than one physical drive, then each
time you select a test you see this prompt:
Enter drive number ? (1/2)
Select 1 for the first hard disk or 2 for the second.
When you finish testing the device and return to the menu,
select 0 to exit.
Seek Check
This test checks the ability of the read/write heads to locate any
part of the hard disk. This action by a read/write head is called a
seek. During this test, each head seeks each cylinder of the disk
in sequence, starting from the center.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-33
Select option 1 from the menu to start this test. The program
displays the number of each cylinder it finds. For example, with
a hard disk, the first message you see is:
Current cylinder is nnn
where nnn is the largest cylinder number used on the drive. The
cylinder number counts down to 0. The seek is performed by the
read/write heads simultaneously, so you see the cylinder
numbers only once. If no errors occur, the menu reappears.
Write, Read Check
This check tests the ability of the hard disk drive to read and
write data. The test writes to and reads from each sector of the
innermost cylinder of the disk, using each head.
Note
This test destroys all data on the innermost cylinder of the
selected hard disk drive. This cylinder is reserved for
diagnostics, and is never used for storage by MS-DOS or any
other operating system. Therefore, data created by
application programs is not destroyed.
Select option 2 from the menu to start this test. You see these
messages:
The data on the highest physical
cylinder may be destroyed by the
check.
Start the check ? (Y/N)
Select Y to continue with the test. You do not see a cylinder
count during the test. If no errors occur, the program returns to
the menu.
C-34
Performing System Diagnostics
If an error occurs, make a note of the code and message. Then
use the Non-destructive surface analysis (option 3 on the Hard
Disk Format Menu) to check the condition of the hard disk.
If this analysis shows no other problems with the disk, follow
these steps:
1.
Back up all the files on your hard disk.
2.
Reformat the disk using option 2, Format hard disk, on the
Operation Menu.
3.
Install MS-DOS on the hard disk according to the
instructions in the MS-DOS Installation Guide.
4. Restore your files.
Read, Verify Check
This test reads and verifies data from ‘all tracks of the disk,
checking each cylinder and using all read/write heads.
Select option 3 from the menu to start this test. The program
displays the number of each cylinder it finds. For example, with
a hard disk, the first message you see is:
Current cylinder is nnn
The cylinder number counts down to 0. At the end of the test,
you see a table of the results, as follows:
BAD TRACKS ...................
READ ERROR TRACKS ............
GOOD TRACKS ..................
n
n
nnnn
Press ENTER to return to the menu
Performing System Diagnostics
C-35
Press Enter when you have viewed the table. If the results show
any read error tracks, run the write/read test (described above),
and follow the instructions there.
Run All Above Checks
To run all the tests on the menu in sequence, select 4.
When you choose this option, all checks for the hard disk
drive(s) and controller are performed automatically in
sequential order. Although you do not start each test, you must
still supply the appropriate responses to progress from one test to
the next. The first prompt you see is:
The data on the highest physical
cylinder may be destroyed by the
check.
Start the check ? (Y/N)
Select Y to continue with the test.
C-36
Performing System Diagnostics
Error Codes and Messages
The following table lists all the error codes and messages that
may appear during system diagnostics testing.
System diagnostics error codes and messages
Error code
System board
101
102
103
104
105
105
106
107
108
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
Memory
201
Keyboard
301
302
Message
CPU ERROR
ROM CHECKSUM ERROR
TIMER COUNTER REGISTER ERROR
TIMER COUNTER ERROR
DMA CONTROLLER REGISTER ERROR
REFRESH ERROR
DMA PAGE REGISTER ERROR
KEYBOARD CONTROLLER TIMEOUT ERROR
KEYBOARD CONTROLLER SELF DIAGNOSTIC
ERROR
KEYBOARD CONTROLLER WRITE COMMAND
ERROR
INTERRUPT CONTROLLER ERROR
CMOS SHUTDOWN BYTE ERROR
CMOS BATTERY ERROR
CMOS CHECKSUM ERROR
INSTRUCTION ERROR
PROTECT MODE ERROR 1
PROTECT MODE ERROR 2
MEMORY/PARITY ERROR
KEYBOARD ERROR
KEYBOARD IS NON-STANDARD, OR KEYBOARD
IS DEFECTIVE
Monochrome display adapter and CRT
401
V-RAM ERROR
402
VIDEO SIGNAL ERROR
403
ATTRIBUTE ERROR
404
CHARACTER SET ERROR
Performing System Diagnostics
C-37
System diagnostics error codes and messages (continued)
Error code
Color graphics
501
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
Message
adapter and CRT
V-RAM ERROR
ATTRIBUTE ERROR
CHARACTER SET ERROR
40-COLUMN CHARACTER SET ERROR
COLOR GRAPHICS ERROR
640 x 200 GRAPHICS MODE ERROR
SCREEN PAGING ERROR
LIGHT PEN ERROR
COLOR VIDEO ERROR
Diskette drive(s) and controller
DISKETTE DRIVE CONTROLLER ERROR
601
SEQUENTIAL SEEK ERROR
602
RANDOM SEEK ERROR
603
WRITE ERROR
604
READ ERROR
605
DISK CHANGE CHECK REMOVE ERROR
606
DISK CHANGE CHECK INSERT ERROR
607
Math coprocessor
701
COPROCESSOR NOT INSTALLED
COPROCESSOR INITIALIZE ERROR
702
COPROCESSOR INVALID OPERATION
703
MASK ERROR
COPROCESSOR ST FIELD ERROR
704
COPROCESSOR COMPARISON ERROR
705
706
COPROCESSOR ZERO DIVIDE MASK ERROR
COPROCESSOR ADDITION ERROR
707
COPROCESSOR SUBTRACTION ERROR
708
COPROCESSOR MULTIPLICATION ERROR
709
COPROCESSOR PRECISION ERROR
710
Parallel port (printer interface)
ERROR PIN p
901
Serial port (RS-232C port)
1101
control signal ALWAYS LOW
1101
control signal ALWAYS HIGH
1102
TIMEOUT ERROR
VERIFY ERROR
1103
C-38
Performing System Diagnostics
System diagnostics error codes and messages (continued)
Error code
Message
Alternate serial port
1201
control signal ALWAYS LOW
1201
control signal ALWAYS HIGH
1202
TIMEOUT ERROR
1203
VERIFY ERROR
Dot-matrix printer
1401
status
Hard disk drive(s) and controller
1701
SEEK ERROR
1702
WRITE ERROR
1703
READ ERROR
1704
HEAD ERROR
1705
ERROR DETECTION ERROR
1706
ERROR CORRECTION ERROR
Alternate parallel port
2101
ERROR PIN p
Parallel port (on video adapter)
81nn
ERROR PIN p
Performing System Diagnostics
C-39
C-40
Performing System Diagnostics
Appendix D
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
This appendix describes how to physically format a hard disk.
Sometimes called a low-level format, this procedure should not
be confused with the logical format performed by the MS-DOS
FORMAT command. The physical formatting of a hard disk is a
separate step that is usually done at the factory by the disk
manufacturer.
If your Equity 386SX came with a hard disk, that disk has
d already been physically formatted. You need only follow the
- instructions in the MS-DOS Installation Guide to prepare your
hard disk for use.
You may need to physically format a hard disk, however, if
either of the following is true:
Ci
Your hard disk is producing numerous read/write errors or
you are having other serious problems with the disk.
Sometimes, after a hard disk has been used for a long time,
the disk’s data becomes fragmented, causing the disk to
frequently produce errors. You may need to reformat the
disk in this case.
Cl
You have installed a hard disk in your computer that has
never received the low-level format.
Physically formatting a hard disk erases any data it contains.
If you have any data on the disk or you are unsure if
formatting is necessary, contact your Epson dealer for
assistance.
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
D-1
In addition to destroying all the data on the hard disk,
formatting removes any partitions defined on the disk by
SELECT or FDISK and the logical formatting performed by
SELECT or FORMAT. After you physically format a new or
used hard disk (using option 1 or 2 of the Hard Disk Format
Menu), you need to install MS-DOS. Follow the instructions in
your MS-DOS Installation Guide. The installation process
automatically partitions and formats the hard disk to prepare it
for use.
Choosing the Type of Format
Follow these steps to display the formatting options:
1.
Insert the Reference diskette in drive A.
2.
Turn on or reset the computer. The computer automatically
loads MS-DOS and displays the Operation Menu.
3. Press 2 to highlight Format hard disk and press
Enter. The Hard Disk Format Menu appears on the screen:
HARD DISK FORMAT MENU
1 - Format
2 - Destructive surface analysis
3 - Non-destructive surface analysis
0 - Exit
D-2
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
The formatting options work as follows:
Format first scans the disk (if it has no defective track
table) for defective (bad) tracks and lets you decide which
tracks to mark as bad. Then the program formats the disk
and marks those bad tracks so they are never used to store
data.
Destructive surface analysis tests the
entire disk for read/write errors or unflagged bad tracks and
updates the defective track table. Because this option writes
and reads data on the disk, it destroys all data on any track
that produces an error. You cannot run the Destructive
surface analysis on a disk that has never been formatted.
Non-destructive surface analysis checks
the disk for unflagged bad tracks without destroying data.
You cannot run the Non-destructive surface analysis on a
disk that has never been formatted.
The type of format you choose depends on whether you are
reformatting a disk that has been used or formatting a new disk
for the first time. See the recommendations below.
Reformatting a Used Disk
If you are reformatting a disk you have been using that appears
to be damaged, follow these steps:
1.
Use the Non-destructive surface analysis test to check for
unflagged bad tracks.
2.
If errors occur during the Non-destructive analysis, use
BACKUP to back up the data on your disk. (See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on how to use
BACKUP.)
3.
Run the Destructive surface analysis.
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
D-3
Formatting a New Disk
Many hard disk drives come with a printed list of bad tracks but
without the bad tracks flagged on the disk. Other hard disks
(such as those supplied by Epson) come with the bad tracks
already flagged. If you are formatting a new hard disk that has
never been formatted, select the 1 -Format option to format
the disk.
Selecting an Option
When using this program, you often need to select an option
from a menu. There are two ways to do this:
CI
You can use the arrow keys (? L t +) to move the
highlighted cursor block to the option and press Enter.
Ci
You can type the number of the option and press Enter.
You can select almost any option that appears on the screen
while you are formatting the disk using either of these two
methods. Therefore, when the instructions in this appendix tell
you to select an option, you can either use the arrow keys (T 1
t +) to highlight the option or you can type the number of
the option. Then press Enter. (You must press Enter to start
the operation.)
Starting the Formatting Process
If you have more than one hard disk drive, you see this prompt:
Enter drive number ? (1/2)
Select 1 for the first hard disk or 2 for the second hard disk.
Then see the instructions below for the Hard Disk Format
Menu option you want to use.
D-4
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
Option 1, Format
If you select 1 -Format from the Hard Disk Format Menu,
you see the following (for a disk that does not have a defective
track table):
Format Hard Disk
< Drive 1: >
Scan hard disk to get defective track
information
? (Y/N)
(If the disk already has a defective track table, you do not see
the message because the disk does not need to be scanned for
bad tracks.)
Select Y to scan the disk or N to skip the scanning process.
If you select Y, the program scans the disk and displays these
messages during the process:
Scanning for flagged bad tracks...
Head : nnn
Cylinder
: nnnnn
You see the head and cylinder numbers decrease as the program
progresses. After scanning the disk, the program displays the
results, such as the following:
Scanning
finished.
Count of tracks flagged bad
Count of tracks with other errors
Count of good tracks
EC
=
=
1
0
4884
Next you see the following prompt:
Accept recommended skewed sectors in
format
: 1 ? (Y/N)
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
D-5
For the hard disk in the Equity 386SX, it is best to accept the
recommended skewed sector (also called the interleave factor)
of 1. For other hard disk drives, you may need to change this
value if the documentation that came with the hard disk
recommends a different number.
To accept the default, select Y.
To enter a new value, select N. You see the following prompt:
Enter new skewed sectors in
(1-16):
format
Enter a number from 1 through 16 which equals the maximum
sector number for the drive minus 1. The maximum sector
number varies, depending on the drive type. Then press Enter.
Next you see this prompt:
Accept recommended skewed sectors per
head in format : 0 ? (Y/N)
For an Epson hard disk drive, accept the recommended value
of 0. For another type of drive, use the value recommended in
the documentation for the drive.
To accept the default, select Y.
To enter a new value, select N. You see the following prompt:
Enter new skewed sectors per head
in format (0-16):
Enter a number from 0 through 16 which equals the maximum
sector number for the drive minus 1. The maximum sector
number varies, depending on the drive type. Then press Enter.
D-6
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
The program now allows you to edit the table of defective
tracks:
At the bottom of the table is this prompt:
Modify defective track table ? (Y/N)
Select N to leave the table as it is. Then skip the following
section and go on to “Formatting the Disk,” below.
To modify the defective track entries, select Y.
Modifying the Defective Track Table
If you select Y to modify the table, you see the following options
at the bottom of the table:
Defective Track Table : Move box cursor to desired track with cursor key
A = Add track, C = Change track, D = Delete track, F = Finish editing
Enter command:
To add a bad track, follow these steps:
1.
Press A. You see this prompt:
Enter
cylinder
number
(1
-nnnn):
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
D-7
2.
Type the number of the cylinder containing the bad track
and press Enter. You see this prompt:
Enter head number (0 -nn):
3.
Type the head number for the bad track and press Enter.
To cancel the operation, press Enter without typing a value.
When you complete a valid entry, it appears in the table and
you can add the next bad track, if necessary.
If you make a mistake, move the cursor block to the incorrect
track and press C to alter the track data or press D to remove
the track from the table. Change the track data just as you add a
track.
The maximum valid cylinder number and head number (nnnn
and nn) vary according to the capacity of the hard disk. If you
enter an invalid cylinder or head number, a reminder of the
range of values appears and the program asks you to enter the
value again.
When you finish adding all the bad tracks, press Enter without
typing a value. After you complete editing, check the entries in
the defective track table. When you are sure the table is correct,
press F. The program displays a warning about the consequences
of proceeding with formatting.
D-8
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
Formatting the Disk
When you are ready to start formatting the disk, you see the
following warning:
WARNING? ALL DATA WILL BE DESTROYED IN
ALL PARTITIONS OF HARD DISK, NOT JUST IN
MS-DOS PARTITION!
Do you want to start formatting ? (Y/N)
If you are not sure you want to format the hard disk, select N. If
you are sure, select Y; the program gives you one more chance
to cancel:
DOUBLE CHECK THAT YOU HAVE BACKUP
DISKETTE COPIES OF ALL YOUR FILES.
Do you want to exit and check your
file copies ? (Y/N)
Select Y to cancel formatting (and check your backups) or N to
continue.
If you continue with formatting, you see:
Format started.
Head : nnn
Cylinder
: nnnnn
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
D-9
You see the head and cylinder numbers decrease as the program
progresses. When formatting is complete, the program flags any
bad tracks and you see a series of messages like these:
Format finished.
Flagging bad tracks...
Cylinder is nnnn, head is nn
Format completed.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Press Enter to return to the Hard Disk Format Menu.
Option 2, Destructive Surface Analysis
You can perform a Destructive surface analysis of your hard disk
to accurately locate any bad tracks, and flag any bad tracks that
are not flagged.
WARNING
If any errors occur during this check, all data on the track
that produces the error is destroyed. For this reason, if you
think that an unflagged bad track is causing trouble, first run
option 3, Non-destructive surface analysis, to check the disk
surface,
The Destructive surface analysis operates by a complex process
of writing, reading, and verifying information on every track of
the hard disk, except for tracks that are already flagged as bad
tracks.
D-10
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
To start this test, select 2-Destructive surface
analysis from the Hard Disk Format Menu. You see these
messages:
<Drive 1:>
Analyze Hard Disk
Read/Save/Write/Read/Restore/Read
check for all tracks...
Current cylinder is nnnn
As the program checks each track, it counts the cylinder
numbers (nnnn) down to zero. When the test is complete, the
program displays a report on the status of the disk, including a
table of unflagged tracks that produced write, read errors-such
as the following:
Analysis finished.
Count of tracks flagged bad
Count of tracks with write, read errors
Count of good tracks
No write,
n
n
= nnnn
zz
=
read error was detected.
No data was destroyed.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
If the program finds one bad track that is not flagged, the
summary would show one track with a write, read error. The
report is followed by a table like this:
Write,
Cylinder Head
Read Error Tracks
Cylinder Head
Cylinder
Head
Cylinder Head
Confirm to register the tracks in the Write, Read Error Track
1,Y,N)
.a::: as :d tracks.
Do you want to register the error
tracks as bad tracks?
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
D-11
I
1
To flag the error tracks as bad, select Y. You see a list of the
tracks as they are flagged and these messages:
Flagging bad tracks...
Cylinder is 237, head is 2
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Press Enter to return to the Hard Disk Format Menu.
Option 3, Non-destructive Surface Analysis
The Non-destructive surface analysis does not destroy any data,
and you can use it to safely check the condition of your hard
disk drive. However, this test does not flag any bad tracks it
detects.
To start the test, select 3-Non-destructive surface
analysis from the Hard Disk Format Menu. You see these
messages:
Analyze Hard Disk
<Drive 1:>
Read/Verify check for all tracks...
Current cylinder is nnnn
As the program checks each track, it counts the cylinder
numbers down to zero. When the test is complete, the program
displays a report on the status of the disk, such as the following:
Analysis finished.
=
n
Count of tracks flagged bad
n
Count of tracks with read, verify errors =
= nnnn
Count of good tracks
No read, verify error was detected.
D-12
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
If the program finds errors, the screen displays a table of the
tracks that gave errors, similar to the one the Destructive
surface analysis displays.
After the status reports, you see this message:
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Check the information displayed. Then press Enter to return to
the Hard Disk Format Menu.
Exiting the Hard Disk Format Menu
To leave the Hard Disk Format Menu, select 0 -Exit. The
screen displays the Operation Menu. At the Operation Menu,
select O-Exit to DOS for more utilities.
If you formatted the hard disk with option 1 or 2, you must now
install MS-DOS on the hard disk to prepare it for use. Follow
the instructions in your MS-DOS Installation Guide. (The
installation process automatically partitions and formats the
hard disk.)
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
D-13
-
-
-
-
D-14
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
Appendix E
Hard Disk Drive Types
This appendix lists the types of hard disk drives you can use in
your Equity 386SX. Check this table and the documentation
supplied with your hard disk to find the correct number for the
type of hard disk drive installed in your computer. You need to
enter this number when you set the hard disk drive parameters
in the Setup program. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
Hard disk drive types
Hard Disk Drive Types
E-1
-
T-
Landing
MB
-
Type no
Cylinders
Heads
Sectors
Precomp
27
698
976
7
17
300
732
40.6
28
5
17
488
977
40.5
29
306
4
17
0
340
10.2
30
611
4
17
306
663
20.4
31
732
7
17
300
732
42.6
32
1023
5
17
1023
42.5
33
none
34
none
35
none
36
none
37
none
38
none
39
none
none
40
-
1022
84.8
CDC 94216-106(3)
36
-
1022
89.8
CDC94216-106
17
1023
68.0
34
512
-
828
37.5
(4)
Toshiba MK-156F
5
17
512
1023
42.5
8
17
128
618
40.8
6
17
-
820
40.8
Seagate ST251
830
10
17
-
830
68.9
Toshiba MK56FB
41
1022
5
34
42
1022
5
43
1024
8
44
828
10
45
1024
46
615
48
820
49
47
(5)
NECD5147H
none
1024
9
17
-
1023
76.5
Seagate ST4096
51
ESDI
828
7
34
-
828
96.2
Toshiba MK-154F
52
ESDI
967
5
36
-
967
85.0
CDC 94166-101
53
ESDI
967
7
36
-
967
119.0
CDC 94166-141
54
ESDI
967
9
36
-
967
'53.0
CDC 94166-182
55
ESDI
1022
7
34
-
1022
18.8
Micropolis 1354A
50
56
ESDI
967
5
34
-
967
80.3
CDC 94166-101(3)
57
ESDI
967
7
34
-
967
12.4
CDC 94166-141(3)
58
ESDI
967
9
34
-
967
144.5
CDC 94166-182(3)
59
AT
980
5
17
-
979
40.5
CONNERCP-344
60
AT
776
8
33
-
775
100
CONNERCP-3104
61
AT
745
4
28
-
744
40.5
62
AT
965
5
17
-
Auto
40
Quantum 40AT(6)
63
AT
965
10
17
-
Auto
80
Quantum pro 8OAT(6)
64-255
E-2
Drive name
-
-
Hard Disk Drive Types
-
Mini 8051A native mode
none
Notes:
1. Miniscribe 8425F, Seagate ST125
2. Conner CP-344 or Miniscribe 8051A can be used as type 17
3. For Western Digital ESDI HDC or Drive Maker default setting
4. Micropolis 1325, Ataal 3085, Lanstor Lan64, Maxtor XT1O85, Newbury NDR1085
5. Micropolis 1323A, Miniscribe 3035, Microscience HH1050, Seagate ST4053
6. The landing zone value is 964
Types 1 through 47 are allocated at 0FE401 h, IBM new AT-compatible area.
Types 48 through 63 are allocated at 0FD2F1h to 0FDFFOh. extended Hard Drive Parameter area.
The factory-installed hard disk drive types for the Equity 386SX are number 17 (40.7MB) and number 60 (100MB)
The settings for types 59,60,61, and 63 are stored in the computer’s BIOS, so you do not need to enter the
parameters for these drives in the Setup program.
Hard Disk Drive Types
E-3
E-4
Hard Disk Drive Types
Appendix F
Specifications
CPU and Memory
16-bit CPU
80386SX microprocessor, 16 MHz or
simulated 8 MHz clockrate, selectable
through a switch or through software
24-bit address and 16-bit data bus
On-board memory
1MB RAM on main system board;
expandable using 256KB or 1MB SIMMs
to 2MB, 4MB, 6MB, 8MB, 10MB, 12MB,
or 14MB (maximum); SIMMs must be
70ns access speed or faster
ROM
64KB
Math coprocessor
80387SX ( 16 MHz) support; coprocessor is
optional
Controllers
Diskette
Supports up to two drives in any of four
formats: 3 ‘/z-inch, high-density, 1.44MB;
3 i/z-inch, double-density, 720KB;
5 ‘/s-inch, high-density, 1.2MB; or
5 i/4-inch, double-density, 360KB;
controller on main system board
Hard disk
Supports up to two drives available in
40MB or 100MB; embedded controller
Specifications F-1
Interfaces
Serial
RS-232C, programmable, asynchronous;
DB-9P male connector
Parallel
Standard 8-bit parallel; DB-25S female
connector
Auxiliary
Mini DIN (6-pin) connector for IRQ 12
mouse or other device
Option slots
Five standard input/output expansion slots
(one with 8-bit bus and four with 16-bit
bus); one special slot occupied by a serial/
parallel interface card
Speaker
Internal
Clock/calendar
RAM
Real-time clock, calendar, and 64-byte
CMOS RAM for configuration; battery
backup
Power Supply
Switching type, fan-cooled, 115/230 VAC
(switch-selectable), 140 W; +5 VDC,
+ 12 VDC, - 5 VDC, - 1 2 VDC; 50/60 Hz
Mass Storage
Three half-height drives maximum
Standard
3 ‘/z-inch diskette drive, 1.44MB (highdensity) storage capacity
Optional
3 ‘/z-inch diskette drive, 720KB (doubledensity) storage capacity
F-2 Specifications
Optional
3 ‘/r-inch diskette drive, 1.44MB (highdensity) storage capacity
Optional
5 l/4-inch diskette drive, 1.2MB (highdensity) storage capacity
Optional
5 ‘/d-inch diskette drive, 360KB (doubledensity) storage capacity
Optional
3 ‘/I-inch hard disk drive (in a 5 l/4-inch
mounting frame), 40MB storage capacity
Optional
3 ‘/z-inch hard disk drive (in a 5 ‘/J-inch
mounting frame), 100MB storage capacity
Keyboard
Detachable, three positions,
101 sculpted keys
Layout
58-key QWERTY main keyboard;
17-key numeric/cursor pad; 10 cursor keys;
16 function keys (user-definable)
Function keys
Four levels (normal, shift, control,
alternate); user-definable
Environmental Requirements
Temperature
Operating range: 41° to 104° F
(5° to 35° C)
Storage range: -40° to 158° F
(40° to 60° C)
Humidity
Operating range: 20% to 80%,
non-condensing
Storage range:
5% to 95%,
non-condensing
Specifications F-3
Physical Characteristics
F-4
Width
15.7 inches (400 mm)
Depth
16.4 inches (416.5 mm)
Height
6.2 inches (157 mm)
Weight
(without
keyboard)
Single diskette drive model: 23.2 lb
(10.5 kg)
40MB or 100MB hard disk drive model:
24.9 lb (11.3 kg)
Specifications
Glossary
Absolute pathname
A pathname that begins with the backslash character. An
absolute pathname tells MS-DOS how to find its way to a given
directory, starting at the root directory. See also Relative
pathname.
Address
A number or name that identifies the location where
information is stored in a computer’s memory.
Application program
A software program designed to perform a specific task, such as
a word processing or spreadsheet program.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A
standardized coding system for representing characters, such as
numbers, letters, and graphic symbols. An ASCII character
occupies one byte of storage. Files transmitted in ASCII code
can be used by many different computers, printers, and
programs.
Asynchronous
A method of data transmission in which one machine sends
data one character at a time to another, without either machine
preparing for the transmission.
AUTOEXEC.BAT file
The batch file that is executed automatically when you load
MS-DOS. See also Batch file.
Glossary 1
Auto speed
The Equity 386SX feature that enables it to automatically
switch from 16 MHz to simulated 8 MHz speed when accessing
the diskette drive (for copy-protected programs).
Backup
An extra copy of a program, data file, or disk, kept in case your
working copy is damaged or lost.
Base memory
The amount of memory in the computer below 1MB that is
available to MS-DOS and application programs-usually
640KB. Also called conventional memory or main memory.
Batch file
A type of file that lets you execute a series of MS-DOS
commands by typing one command. Batch files are text files
with the filename extension .BAT. In a batch file, each
command is entered on a separate line. When you type the
filename, MS-DOS executes all the commands in that file
sequentially.
Baud rate
A measure of the speed of data transmission. Usually equivalent
to bits per second.
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System. Routines in ROM (Read Only
Memory) that handle basic input/output functions of the
operating system.
2
Glossary
Bit
A binary digit (0 or 1). The smallest unit of computer storage.
The value of a bit represents the presence (1) or absence (0) of
an electric charge.
Boot
To load the operating system into the computer’s memory.
Byte
A sequence or group of eight bits that represents one character.
CGA
Color Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that can
generate up to 25 lines of text with 80 characters on each line,
monochrome graphics at 640 x 200 resolution, or four-color
graphics at 320 x 200 resolution.
Character
Anything that can be printed in a single space on the page or
the screen; includes numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and
graphic symbols.
CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A method of
making low-power silicon chips.
Code
A system of symbols for representing data or instructions. Also
any software program or part of a program.
Code page
A table that defines the country-specific or language-specific
character set you are using.
Glossary
3
Command
An instruction you enter (usually on a keyboard) to direct your
computer to perform a specific function.
Command prompt
The symbol or message that tells you MS-DOS is loaded and
ready to receive instructions. The default command prompt
displays the current drive and directory. If you are logged onto
drive A, the command prompt looks like this: A>.
Configuration
The particular setup of a group of components. For example, a
typical system configuration consists of a computer with one
diskette drive and one hard disk drive and a monitor, connected
to a printer.
Control code
A command (generated when you hold down Ctrl and press
another key on the keyboard) that instructs the computer to
perform a specific function.
Conventional memory
The memory on the main system board (up to 640KB) used by
MS-DOS and application programs. Also called base memory or
main memory.
Coprocessor
An optional device that enables the computer to process certain
mathematical calculations faster.
4 Glossary
Copy-protected program
A type of program that cannot be copied. Some copy-protected
programs require you to leave the program diskette in the
diskette drive while you are using it. Some also require the
computer to be running at simulated 8 MHz instead of 16 MHz.
See also Auto speed.
CPU
Central Processing Unit. The primary unit of the computer that
interprets instructions, performs the tasks you indicate, keeps
track of stored data, and controls all input and output
operations.
Current directory
The directory where MS-DOS executes your next command,
unless you tell it to do otherwise (by including a pathname with
the command). Also known as the default or working directory.
Current drive
The disk drive from which MS-DOS executes your next
command, unless you tell it to do otherwise (by including a
drive designator with the command). Also known as the default
drive.
Cursor
The highlighted marker that shows your position on the screen.
Cylinders
See Tracks.
Data
Information such as text or graphics stored or processed by a
computer.
Glossary 5
Data diskette
A formatted diskette on which you store data files (as opposed
to program files).
Data length
The number of bits per character in serial transmissions.
Default
Values or settings that take effect when the computer is turned
on or reset. A default value stays in effect unless you override it
temporarily by changing a setting or you reset the default value
itself.
Default directory
The directory you are logged onto and working in. Also known
as the current directory.
Default drive
The disk drive from which MS-DOS executes your next
command, unless you tell it to do otherwise (by including a
drive designator with the command). Also known as the current
drive.
Delimiter
A character or space used to separate different parts of an
MS-DOS command.
Device
A piece of equipment that is part of a computer system and
performs a specific task, such as a disk drive, a monitor, or a
printer.
6
Glossary
Diagnostics
The tests and procedures the computer performs to check its
internal circuitry and set up its configuration.
DIP switch
A small switch on a computer, option card, or printer that
controls a particular function. DIP stands for Dual In-line
Package.
Directory
A list of files stored in a particular area on a disk; part of a
structure for organizing files into groups. A directory listing
shows the name, location, and size of the files in the directory.
A directory can contain both files and subdirectories.
Disk
The collective term for diskettes and hard disks.
Disk drive
The physical device that allows the computer to read from and
write to a disk. A diskette drive has a disk slot into which you
insert a diskette. A hard disk is sealed inside a protective unit.
Diskette
A flat piece of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material
and used to store data permanently.
Display adapter card
The circuit board installed in one of the computer’s option slots
that provides the interface to which you connect the monitor.
The display adapter card controls the way the monitor displays
text and graphics. Also known as Video card.
Glossary
7
DOS
The Disk Operating System that controls the computer’s input
and output functions. See Operating system.
Double-density
A type of diskette format that allows you to store twice as much
data as the standard-density format. A 3 l/z-inch double-density
diskette can store 720KB of data. A 5 ‘/+inch double-density
diskette can store 360KB of data.
Drive designator
The letter name of a disk drive, followed by a colon-for
example, C :.
EGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that
allows you to display high-resolution graphics on a color
monitor. It can display up to 43 lines of text with 80 characters
on each line, or it can display monochrome or 16-color graphics
at up to 640 x 350 resolution.
Executable file
A file containing program instructions, as opposed to data
created with an application program. An executable file has the
extension .BAT, .COM, or .EXE.
Expanded memory
Memory that specially-written MS-DOS application programs
can use with an Expanded Memory Specification (EMS) device
driver such as EMM386.SYS. Expanded memory does not fill a
certain range of memory like conventional and extended
memory; expanded memory can be mapped from the memory
area between 640KB and 1MB.
8
Glossary
Extended Memory
Memory above 1MB that is accessed by the protected mode of
the 80386SX microprocessor and available to some application
programs and operating systems.
Extended partition
An additional MS-DOS partition; you can create one primary
MS-DOS partition and one extended partition.
Extension
A suffix of up to three characters that you can add to a filename
to better identify it.
External command
An MS-DOS command stored in a program file. MS-DOS must
be able to find the program file to execute the command. See
also Internal command.
Fast boot
The Equity 386SX function that reduces the time it takes the
computer to run power-on diagnostics.
File
A group of related pieces of information called records, or
entries, stored together on a disk. Text files consist of words and
sentences. Program files consist of codes and are used by
computers to interpret and carry out instructions.
Filename
A name up to eight characters long that MS-DOS uses to
identify a file.
Glossary
9
Fixed disk
See Hard disk.
Format
To prepare a new disk (or an old one you want to reuse) so that
it can store information. Formatting divides a disk into tracks
and sectors and creates addressable locations on it.
Graphics
Lines, angles, curves, and other nonalphanumeric data.
Hard disk
The enclosed unit used to store data permanently. Unlike a
diskette, it is fixed in place. It can process data more rapidly and
store many more files than a diskette. Also called fixed disk.
Hardware
Any physical component of a computer system, such as a
monitor, printer, keyboard, or CPU.
Hexadecimal
A base-16 numbering system frequently used by programmers.
Any decimal number between 0 and 255 can be represented by
a two-digit hexadecimal number.
High-density
A type of format that allows you to store more data than
normal. A 3 ‘/z-inch high-density diskette can store 1.44 MB of
data. A 5 l/4-inch high-density diskette can store 1.2 MB of
data.
Input/output (I/O) port
See Port.
10
Glossary
Interface
A physical or software connection used to transmit data
between equipment or programs.
Internal command
An MS-DOS command that is stored in the command
processor of the operating system; it is not a separate program
file. Examples include COPY, DEL, RENAME, and DIR.
Jumper
A small device that connects two pins on an option card, the
SIMM card, or the main system board to activate a particular
function.
Key disk
A diskette containing a copy-protected program that must
remain in the diskette drive while you are using the program.
Kilobyte (KB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory or
on a disk. One kilobyte equals 1024 bytes.
LIM EMS
The Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification-a
protocol that allows certain application programs to use memory
that MS-DOS cannot use.
Logical disk drive
A subdivision of a physical disk drive, which MS-DOS treats as
though it were a separate physical component of the computer.
A physical disk drive may be divided into several logical disk
drives.
Glossary 11
Main system board
The board built into your computer which contains 1MB of
memory and the circuitry the computer requires to operate.
Math coprocessor
An optional device that enables the computer to process certain
mathematical calculations faster.
MCGA
Monochrome/Color Graphics Adapter. A type of display
adapter that runs either a monochrome or color graphics
monitor.
Megabyte (MB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory or
on a disk. One megabyte equals 1024KB.
Megahertz (MHz)
A unit used to measure oscillation frequency (of a computer’s
internal timing clock). A megahertz is one million cycles per
second. The Equity 386SX operates at 16 MHz or simulates an
8 MHz operating speed.
Memory
The area where your computer stores data. Memory contents
can be permanent and inalterable (ROM) or temporary
(RAM).
Memory module
A small circuit board with an edge connector that contains
memory chips. You can add 256KB or 1MB memory modules to
the SIMM card inside the Equity 386SX to expand the
computer’s memory. A memory module is commonly called a
SIMM (single inline memory module).
12
Glossary
Memory on card
The additional memory on an option card installed in the
computer.
MGA
Multi-graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that can
display monochrome text and color graphics on the screen.
Microprocessor
A small version of a CPU contained on one semiconductor
chip.
Modem
A device that allows a computer to transmit signals over
telephone lines so it can send and receive data. Modem stands
for MOdulator/DEModulator.
Monitor
The piece of hardware that contains the screen and displays
information.
Monochrome monitor
A monitor that displays in only one color, such as green or
amber, as opposed to a color monitor which can display in
several colors.
Mouse
A hand-held pointing device with one or more buttons. When
you slide the mouse over a flat surface in a certain direction, the
cursor moves in the same direction on the screen.
Glossary 13
MS-DOS
Microsoft Disk Operating System. The operating system that
comes with your computer. See Operating system.
Network server
The master computer in a network which provides storage space
for the other computers connected to it. The network server
can write files to and read files from the other computers in the
network.
Network server mode
The condition of a computer that is working as a network
server.
Numeric keypad
The number keys grouped to the right of the keyboard.
On-board memory
The memory contained on the computer’s main system board.
The Equity 386SX comes with 1MB of on-board memory.
Operating speed
The speed at which the central processing unit can execute
commands. The Equity 386SX can run at 16 MHz or simulate
an 8 MHz operating speed.
Operating system
A collection of programs (such as MS-DOS or MS OS/2) that
manages a computer’s operations. The operating system
determines how programs run on the computer and supervises
all input and output.
14
Glossary
Option card
A circuit board you install inside the computer to provide
additional capabilities, such as more memory or a modem.
Parallel
The type of interface that transmits data in groups of bits. See
Interface and Serial.
Parameter
A qualifier added to a command that tells MS-DOS what
particular conditions to look for and specifies information such
as what data you want to process and where to locate or store a
file.
Parent directory
The directory immediately above a given directory in the
directory tree. In pathnames, the parent directory is represented
by the symbol . . (two periods).
Parity
Data signals sent during communications to detect errors in
transmitting or receiving data.
Partition
The area defined on a hard disk for use by an operating system;
to divide a hard disk into separate sections or logical drives.
Pathname
The list of directories and subdirectories you specify to locate a
file. For example, the pathname for the file SALES which is
located in the subdirectory BUSINESS of the root directory ( \ )
is \ BUSINESS \ SALES.
Glossary 15
Peripheral
A device (such as a printer or a modem) connected to a
computer that depends on the computer for its operation.
Port
A physical input/output socket on a computer where you can
connect a peripheral device.
Power-on diagnostics
The system tests the computer runs to check its internal
circuitry and configuration each time you turn it on.
Power-on password
The sequence of characters you type after you turn on the
computer in order to access and use your system. A power-on
password can be up to seven characters long and can include
letters, numbers, and blank spaces.
Primary partition
The hard disk partition where the operating system is stored and
from which the computer loads the operating system.
Program
A disk file that contains coded instructions and tells a computer
what to do and how to do it.
Prompt
A message the screen displays that tells you what action you
need to perform next. See also Command prompt.
16 Glossary
RAM
Random Access Memory. The portion of the computer’s
memory used to run programs and store data while you work.
All data stored in RAM is erased when you turn off the
computer; so you must store any data you want to keep on a
diskette or hard disk.
Read
To move data from one area to another. For example, when you
open a text file stored on disk, the computer reads the data from
the disk and displays it on the screen.
Read/write head
The physical device inside a disk drive that reads and records
data on the magnetic surface of a disk.
Real-time clock
A battery-powered clock inside the computer that keeps track
of the time and date, even when the computer is turned off.
Relative pathname
A pathname that does not begin with the backslash character.
A relative pathname tells MS-DOS how to find its way to a
subdirectory of the current directory, starting at the current
directory. See also Absolute pathname.
Reset
To reload a computer’s operating system so you can retry a task
or begin using a different operating system. Resetting erases all
information in RAM.
RGB
Red Green Blue. A type of color monitor.
Glossary 17
ROM
Read Only Memory. A portion of memory that can only be read
and cannot be used for temporary storage. ROM retains its
contents even when you turn off the power.
Root directory
The top-level directory in MS-DOS, designated by a \
(backslash). All other directories are subdirectories of the root
directory or of other subdirectories.
RS-232C
A widely-used, standard type of serial interface. You can easily
connect an RS-232C-compatible device to the computer.
Sector
A contiguous section of a disk track that provides an address at
which the computer can access data.
Self test
The initial diagnostics procedures a system performs to check its
hardware.
Serial
The type of interface that transmits data one bit at a time. See
Interface and Parallel.
SIMM
See Memory module.
Software
The programs that enable your computer to perform the tasks
and functions you indicate.
18 Glossary
Source diskette
The diskette that you are reading or copying data from during a
copy or backup operation.
SP card
The circuit board inside the computer that provides the serial
and parallel interfaces.
Stop bit
A signal sent in serial communications to mark the end of a
character.
Subdirectory
A directory or group of files that branches down from another
subdirectory or from the root directory.
Switch
An option added to an MS-DOS command that modifies the
way the command works. Switches are usually preceded by a /
(forward slash). For example, if you add the /S switch to a
FORMAT command, MS-DOS installs the operating system on
the diskette as it formats it. See Parameter.
System diagnostics
A series of checks you can perform on the computer to make
sure the hardware is functioning correctly.
System diskette
A diskette that contains the operating system.
Target diskette
The diskette to which you are writing or copying data during a
copy or backup operation.
Glossary 19
Tracks
Addressable, concentric circles on a disk, resembling the
grooves on a record, which help to divide the disk into separate
accessible areas. There are 80 tracks on each side of a doublesided 1.44MB, 1.2MB, or 720KB diskette and 40 tracks on each
side of a double-sided 360KB diskette. The number of tracks on
a hard disk depends on its capacity.
VGA
Video Graphics Array. A type of high-resolution color display
adapter card that can display monochrome text and graphics at
up to 720 x 400 resolution, 16-color graphics at up to 640 x 480
resolution, or 256-color graphics at 320 x 200 resolution.
Video card
The display adapter card installed in one of the computer’s
option slots. The video card provides the interface to which you
connect the monitor and controls the way the monitor displays
text and graphics. Also known as Display adapter card.
Wildcard
A character that represents any character or group of characters.
The wildcard character * (asterisk) represents a group of
characters, and the wildcard character ? (question mark)
represents a single character.
Write
To store data on a disk.
Write-protect
To protect the data on a diskette from being changed by setting
the write-protect switch on a 3 ‘/z-inch diskette or by placing a
write-protect tab over the notch on the side of a 5 ‘/+inch
diskette. When a diskette is write-protected, you cannot erase,
change, or record over its contents.
20 Glossary
Index
A
Absolute pathname, 4-20 -21
Alternate parallel port check,
C-28
Alternate serial port check, C-31
APPEND, 4-22
Auto speed function, 2-12 -14, 3-5
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-5, 4-10,
4-40 -42
B
Backing up data, 3-20 -22, 3-24,
4-30 -35
with BACKUP, 3-24, 4-34 -35
with DISKCOPY, 3-20, 3-24,
4-30 -34
BACKUP, 3-24, 4-34 -35
Base memory, 2-26, 2-29 -31
Batch files, 4-10
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-5, 4-10,
4-40-42
Break, 3-7, 3-8
C
Cards,
display adapter, see Video cards
memory, Intro-l, 2-11, 2-26,
2-29 -31, 5-1, 5-4, 5-23 -25
serial/parallel (SP), see SP card
video, see Video cards
CGA card, see Video cards
Changing directories, 4-19-21
CHDIR (CD), 4-19
Clock, real-time, 2-14 -17, F-2
Clock/calendar RAM, F-2
CMOS RAM, 2-1, C-9, F-2
Color graphics adapter (CGA) card,
see Video cards
Color graphics adapter and CRT
check, C- 15-23
Command, entering 4-7 -8
Command format, 4-7 -8
Command prompt, 4-2, 4-4, 4-19,
4-40 -41
COMMAND.COM, 4-5, 4-17, A-14
CONFIG.SYS, 4-5, 4-17, 4-43, 4-45
Configuring the system, Intro-l,
2-1 -31
Consumer Information Center
Number, Intro-5
Connecting,
keyboard, 1-13-15
modem, 1-10
monitor, 1-4 -6
mouse, 1-11
power cord, 1-12, 1-15 -16
printer, 1-7 -10
Control codes,
CTRL ALT DEL, 3-9
CTRL BREAK, 3-8
CTRL C, 3-8
Controllers, F-1
COPY, 3-14, 3-24, 4-11 -13
Copying
diskettes, 3-14, 3-20, 4-31 -34
files, 4-11 -13
hard disk files, 4-34 -35
Coprocessor, see Math coprocessor
Copy-protected programs, 2-12 -13
Index 1
Cover,
removing, 5-5-7
replacing, 5-22 -23
CPU, F-1
CPU speed, 2-12 -14, 3-5
CPU SPEED switch, 2-12 -14, 3-5
CTRL ALT DEL, 3-9
CTRL BREAK, 3-8
CTRL C, 3-8
Current directory, 4-19, 4-41
changing, 4-19
Current drive, 4-4 -5,
changing, 4-4 -5
D
DATE, 2-14, 4-8 -9
Date, setting, 2-16 -18, 4-8 -9
Default directory, see Current
directory
Default drive, see Current drive
DEL, 4-15
Deleting files, 4-15
Delimiters, 4-7 -8
Destructive surface analysis, D-2 -3,
D-10 -12
Diagnostics,
power-on, B-1 -3
system, C-1 -39
DIR, 4-23 -25
Directories, 4-16 -27
changing, 4-19
creating, 4-23
current, 4-19, 4-41
listing contents of, 4-23 -25
naming, 4-18
on diskettes, 4-18
pathnames for, 4-20-22
removing, 4-27
root, 4-17-19
tree diagram of, 4-25-27
2 Index
DISKCOPY, 3-14, 3-20, 3-24,
4-30 -34
Diskette drive,
caring for, 3-14 -16
compatibility, 3-12 -14
configuring, 2-22 -23
drive and controller check,
C-23 -27
how they work, 3-10 -12
inserting diskettes, 3-16 -17
problems, A-13
removing diskettes, 3-16 -17
setting types, 2-22 -23
single, 3-21, 4-32 -33
types, 3-12 -14
using, 3-9 -25
Diskettes,
backing up, 3-20, 4-30 -35
caring for, 3-14 -16
choosing, 3-12 -14
compatibility, 3-12 -14
copying, 3-14, 3-20, 4-30 -35
directories on, 4-18
formatting, 3-13, 4-27 -30
inserting, 3-16 -17
labeling, 3-16
naming, 4-29
problems, A-10 -12
read/write slot, 3-15
removing, 3-16 -17
storing, 3-16
swapping, 3-21, 4-38
system, 3-20
types, 3-12 -14
volume label, 4-29
write-protecting, 3-18 -19
Display adapter cards, see Video
cards
Display screen, see Monitors
Dot-matrix printer check,
C-31 -32
Double-density diskettes, 3-12-13
Double-sided diskettes, 3-12-13
Drive designator, 4-3-5
Drives,
see Diskette drives
see Hard disks
E
EGA card, see Video cards
EMM386.SYS, 4-43 -46
Enhanced graphics adapter, see
Video cards
Environmental requirements,
F-34
Epson Consumer Information
Center number, Intro-5
ERASE, 4-15
Error codes and messages, 2-36,
2-29, A-1, B-1 -3, C-37 -39
Expanded memory, 4-43 -46
Extended memory, 2-26, 2-29 -31,
4-43 -46
Extended partition, 4-3
Extension, 4-9 -10
External commands, 4-5 -6, 4-38
F
Fast boot, 2-11 -12, A-2
FASTOPEN, 3-23
FDISK, A-15, D-2
Files,
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-5, 4-10,
4-17, 4-40 -42
backing up, 4-11 -13
batch, 4-10, 4-40 -42
COMMAND.COM, 4-5, 4-17,
A-11
CONFIGSYS, 4-5, 4-17, 4-43,
4-45
copying, 4-11 -13
creating and managing, 4-9-16
deleting, 4-15
executable, 4-10
naming, 4-9-10
printing, 4-16
renaming, 4-14
Floppy disk drives, see Diskette drives
Floppy disks, see Diskettes
FORMAT, 3-13, 4-27 -30
Formatting,
diskettes, 3-13, 4-27 -30
extended partition, 4-3
hard disk, 3-23, D-1 -13
physical, D-1 -13
primary partition, 4-3
H
Hard disks, see also Diskette drives
backing up, 3-24, 4-34 -35
configuring, 2-17 -22
controller and hard disk check,
B-l
drive and controller check,
C-33 -36
formatting, 3-23, D-1 -13
how they work, 3-10 -12
installing MS-DOS on, 3-1 -2
loading MS-DOS from, 4-2 -3
parking the heads, 3-24 -25
partitions, 4-3, D-2, D-13
physically formatting, D-1 -13
precautions, 3-23
preparing for moving, 3-24 -25
preparing for use, 3-23
problems, A-14 -16
setting types, 2-17 -22
types, E-1 -3
HDSIT, 3-24-25
HELP program, Intro-2, 4-35 -37
Help, where to get, Intro-4 -5
Hercules card, see Video cards
High-density diskette, 3-12-13
I
Interfaces,
list of, F-2
setting serial and parallel, 2-24 -25
Internal command, 4-5
J
Jumper settings, changing, 5-14 -21
K
Keyboard,
adjusting angle, 1-15
cable, 1-14
check, C-10 -11
connecting, 1-13 -15
controller and keyboard check,
B-1
layout, 3-6-7, F-3
problems, A-8
special keys, 3-6 -7
L
LIM EMS, 2-6, 4-43 -46
Loading MS-DOS, 4-2 -3
Location, choosing for computer, 1-3
Logical disk drive, 4-3
M
Mass storage, F-2 -3
Math coprocessor,
check, C-27
configuring, 2-1
installing, 5-1
jumper setting, 5-15
specification, F-1
MCGA card, see Video cards
Memory,
above 640K, 2-29 -31, 4-43 -46
base, 2-26, 2-29 -31
4 Index
cards, Intro-l, 2-29 -31, 5-1,
5-4,5-23 -25
check, C-10
configuration, 2-1, 2-11
EMM386.SYS, 4-43 -46
expanded, 4-43 -46
extended, 2-26, 2-29 -31,
4-43 -46
gapping, 2-29 -31
LIM EMS, 2-6, 4-43 -46
modules, Intro-l, 2-29, 5-1 -3
on-board, 2-29 -31, 5-2
overlapping, 2-29 -31
setting, 4-43 -46
MENU program, Intro-2, 3-20,
4-37 -39
MGA card, see Video cards
MKDIR (MD), 4-23
MODE, 1-10
Modem, connecting, 1-10
Monitor,
connecting, 1-4 -6
problems, A-8 -9
selecting type, 1-4, 2-6 -8
Monochrome display adapter and
CRT check, C-12 -14
Monochrome graphics adapter
card, see Video cards
Mouse,
connecting, 1-11
setting jumper, 5-15
MS-DOS,
command format, 4-7 -8
command prompt, 4-2, 4-4,
4-19, 4-40 -41
copying files, 4-11 -13
correcting commands, 4-8
current directory, 4-19, 4-41
current drive, 4-4 -5
deleting files, 4-15
directories, 4-16-27
diskettes, 1-2, 3-1 -2
EMM386.SYS, 4-43 -46
entering commands, 4-7 -8
exiting, 4-3
external commands, 4-5 -6,
4-38
filenames, 4-9-10
installing, 3-1-2
internal commands, 4-5
loading, 4-2-3
pathnames, 4-20-22
printing files, 4-16
renaming files, 4-14
Shell, 3-20, 3-23, 4-2 -3, 4-13,
4-18, 4-28, 4-31, 4-35
starting, 4-2
MS OS/2, Intro-3
N
Network server mode, 2-9-11
Non-destructive surface analysis,
D-2 -3, D-12 -13
O
On-board memory, 2-29 -31, 5-2
Operating speed, 2-12 -14, 3-5
Operation Menu, 2-3
Option cards, 5-1, 5-4-25
configuring, 5-23-25
installing, 5-4-13
memory, 5-1, 5-4, 5-23 -25
problems, A-19 -20
removing, 5-21
serial/parallel, see SP card
testing, 5-25
video, see Video cards
Option slots, 5-3, 5-8 -9, F-2
Options, installing, 5-1 -25
memory modules, 5-2-3
P
Package contents, 1-2
Packing materials, 1-2
Parallel, see also SP card
cable, 1-7 -9
interface, 1-7 -9, F-2
port, 1-7 -9
port check, C-28
port on video adapter check, C-29
setting, 2-24 -25
Parameters, 4-7 -8
Partitions on hard disk, 4-3, D-2,
D-13
Password, see Power-on password
PATH, 4-22
Pathnames, 4-20 -22
absolute, 4-20 -21
including drive letters in, 4-21 -22
including filenames in, 4-21 -22
relative, 4-20 -21
Physical characteristics, F-4
Physical formatting, D-1 -13
Port,
mouse, 1-11
parallel, 1-7 -9
serial, 1-10
setting serial and parallel, 2-24 -25
Power,
connecting power cord, 1-12,
1-15-16
source, 1-3
supply, F-2
Power-on diagnostics, 2-11, B-1 -3
Power-on password,
changing, 3-3-4
deleting, 3-4
disabling, 5-15, A-4 -7
entering, 3-2 -3
problems, A-4 -7
setting, 2-11 -13
using, 3-2 -4, 4-2
Index 5
Precautions,
computer, 1-15 -16
hard disk, 3-23
Primary partition, 4-3
PRINT, 4-16
Printer,
connecting, 1-7 -10
interface check, C-28
parallel interface, 1-7 -9, 2-24 -25
problems, A-18 -19
serial interface, 1-10, 2-24-25
R
RAM check, B-1
Random access memory (RAM),
2-1, 3-21, 4-43, B-1
Read only memory (ROM), B-l, C-9,
F-l
Read/write heads, 3-12, 3-24-25
Real-time clock, 2-14 -17, F-2
Redirecting printer output, 1-10
Registration card, 1-2
Relative pathname, 4-20-21
RENAME, 4-14
RMDIR (RD), 4-27
RESET button, 3-9
Resetting the computer, 3-8-9
ROM, see Read Only Memory
Root directory, 4-17 -18
S
Sector, 3-11 -13
SELECT, D-2
Serial, see also SP card
cable, 1-10
interface, 1-10
port (RS-232C port) check,
C-29 -31
setting, 2-24-25
SETMODE, 1-10
Setting up, 1-1 -17
6
Index
Setup menu, 2-3 -5
Setup program, 2-1 -31, E-1
auto-speed function, 2-12-14
clock, real-time, 2-14 -17
cursor block, moving, 2-2 -6
diskette drive types, 2-22 -23
display adapter type, 2-6 -8
error message, continuing from,
2-4 -6
fast boot function, 2-11, A-2
hard disk drive configuration,
2-17 -22
interfaces, serial and parallel,
2-24 -25
leaving the program, 2-28
math coprocessor, 2-1
memory, 2-1, 2-29-31
password/ 2-8 -l1
ports, serial and parallel,
2-24 -25
real-time clock, 2-14 -17
running, 2-1 -31
starting the program, 2-2-6
summary, 2-26-27
Shell program, 3-20, 3-23, 4-2-3,
4-13, 4-18, 4-28, 4-31, 4-35
SIMM card, 5-2 -3, 5-14-21
SIMMs, 2-29 -31, 5-1 -3, 5-15
SMARTDRVSYS, 3-23
Software problems, A-17
Special keys, 3-6-7
Specifications, F-1 -4
Speed, changing, 2-12 -14,3-5
SP card, 5-4, 5-8
Subdirectories, see Directories
Switches, 1-5, 4-7-8
System,
board check, C-9
device check, B-1
diagnostics, C-1 -39
setting up, 1-1 -17
T
W
TIME, 2-14, 4-8
Time, setting, 2-14 -17,4-8
Timer check, B-1
Toll-free number, Intro-4
Tracks, 3-10 -13
TREE, 4-25 -27
Troubleshooting, A-1 -20
Turning off computer, 3-25, 4-3
Turning on computer, 1-15 -17
Warranty card, 1-2
Wildcard characters, 4-11 -l2
Write-protect notch, 3-18 -19
Write-protect switch, 3-19
Write-protect tab, 3-18
Write-protecting diskettes,
3-18-19
U
X
XCOPY, 3-14, 3-24, 4-13, 4-30 -31,
4-34, 4-39
Unpacking the system, 1-1 -2
V
Video cards,
CGA, 1-4, 2-7-8
color graphics adapter and
CRT check, C-15 -23
compatibility, 1-4
EGA, 1-4, 2-7
Hercules graphics card, 1-4,
2-8
installing, 1-4, 5-8 -13, 5-21,
5-25
MCGA, 2-7
MGA, 1-4, 2-7-8
monochrome display adapter
and CRT check, C-12 -14
parallel port (on video adapter)
check, C-29
problems, A-9
removing, 5-21
setting display adapter card
type, 2-6-8
VGA, 1-4, 2-7
Video graphics array (VGA) card,
see Video cards
Video monitors, see Monitor
Volume label, 4-29
Index 7
8
Index
diskette release button
switch
option card slots
power outlet
I \
I
mouse port
serial port
parallel port
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