Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies

Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies
Energy Indicators for
Sustainable Development:
Guidelines and
Methodologies
International Atomic
Energy Agency
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs
International Energy
Agency
Eurostat
European Environment
Agency
Photos on the cover:
D. Kinley, IAEA
FAO/17954/J.Y.Piel
ENERGY INDICATORS FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
GUIDELINES AND METHODOLOGIES
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY,
UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND
SOCIAL AFFAIRS,
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY,
EUROSTAT
AND EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY
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STI/PUB/1222
ENERGY INDICATORS FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
GUIDELINES AND METHODOLOGIES
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY,
UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND
SOCIAL AFFAIRS,
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY,
EUROSTAT
AND EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
VIENNA, 2005
IAEA Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Energy indicators for sustainable development : guidelines and methodologies.
— Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency, 2005.
p. ; 24 cm.
ISBN 92–0–116204–9
Includes bibliographical references
1. Sustainable development.
2. Power resources.
3. Energy
consumption — Environmental aspects.
I. International Atomic
Energy Agency.
IAEAL
05–00389
FOREWORD
This publication is the product of an international initiative to define a set of Energy
Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) and corresponding methodologies and
guidelines. The successful completion of this work is the result of an intensive effort led
by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the United
Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), the International
Energy Agency (IEA), Eurostat and the European Environment Agency (EEA).
The thematic framework, guidelines, methodology sheets and energy indicators set out
in this publication reflect the expertise of these various agencies, recognized worldwide
as leaders in energy and environmental statistics and analysis. While each agency has an
active indicator programme, one goal of this joint endeavour has been to provide users
with a consensus by leading experts on definitions, guidelines and methodologies for the
development and worldwide use of a single set of energy indicators.
No set of energy indicators can be final and definitive. To be useful, indicators must
evolve over time to fit country-specific conditions, priorities and capabilities. The
purpose of this publication is to present one set of EISD for consideration and use,
particularly at the national level, and to serve as a starting point in the development of a
more comprehensive and universally accepted set of energy indicators relevant to
sustainable development. It is hoped that countries will use the EISD to assess their
energy systems and to track their progress towards nationally defined sustainable
development goals and objectives. It is also hoped that users of the information presented
in this publication will contribute to refinements of energy indicators for sustainable
development by adding their own unique perspectives to what is presented herein.
The work of devising energy indicators in the context of sustainable development was
initiated in 1999 by Arshad Khan and Garegin Aslanian at the Planning and Economic
Studies Section of the IAEA. They spearheaded the complex process of selecting,
defining and validating an appropriate set of energy-related indicators consonant with the
larger effort on Indicators of Sustainable Development (ISD) developed by Member
States of the United Nations and international organizations under the umbrella of
Agenda 21 and the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).
Their preliminary work was presented by the IAEA in cooperation with the IEA in the
9th session of the CSD in 2001. This effort was followed by an international initiative to
refine the energy indicators, created as a partnership in 2002 and registered with the
World Summit on Sustainable Development.
Under this partnership, an ad hoc interagency expert group started consultations to
develop a consensus on a single set of energy indicators, methodologies and guidelines
for general use. The members of this group were Kathleen Abdalla from UNDESA,
Roeland Mertens and Rosemary Montgomery from Eurostat, Aphrodite Mourelatou and
Peter Taylor from the EEA, Fridtjof Unander from the IEA and Ivan Vera (Project
Coordinator) from the IAEA.
Over the past two years, these committee members have made outstanding contributions
to the substance and quality of the present report and its attempt to circumscribe a
challenging emerging subject. Their dedication to finishing a unified report with
worldwide applicability has ensured its success, and their congenial and professional
spirit of cooperation was crucial for reaching consensus for the publication of this five-
agency report. Their work also benefited greatly from the contributions of others,
including Kui-nang Mak from UNDESA; Carmen Difiglio from the IEA; August
Götzfried, Nikolaos Roubanis and Peter Tavoularidis from Eurostat; Tobias Wiesenthal,
Andre Jol, David Stanners and Jeff Huntington from the EEA; Hans-Holger Rogner,
Lucille Langlois, Greg Csullog, Irej Jalal and Ferenc Toth from the IAEA; and Ellen
Bergschneider, who provided editorial support.
EDITORIAL NOTE
In this unedited publication, the use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any
judgement by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and
institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries.
The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply
any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the
part of the IAEA.
The authors are responsible for having obtained the necessary permission for the IAEA to reproduce, translate
or use material from sources already protected by copyrights.
Material prepared by authors who are in contractual relation with governments is copyrighted by the IAEA, as
publisher, only to the extent permitted by the appropriate national regulations.
CONTENTS
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1
2. Background ............................................................................................................ 5
3. Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development .............................................. 11
4. Selecting and Using Energy Indicators .............................................................. 25
5. Methodology Sheets ............................................................................................. 29
Social Dimension ...................................................................................................... 29
SOC1:
Share of households (or population) without electricity or
commercial energy, or heavily dependent on non-commercial
energy ...................................................................................................... 29
SOC2:
Share of household income spent on fuel and electricity ........................ 32
SOC3:
Household energy use for each income group and corresponding
fuel mix ................................................................................................... 35
SOC4:
Accident fatalities per energy produced by fuel chain ........................... 38
Economic Dimension ............................................................................................... 40
ECO1:
Energy use per capita .............................................................................. 40
ECO2:
Energy use per unit of GDP .................................................................... 42
ECO3:
Efficiency of energy conversion and distribution ................................... 45
ECO4:
Reserves-to-production ratio ................................................................... 48
ECO5:
Resources-to-production ratio ................................................................. 50
ECO6:
Industrial energy intensities .................................................................... 52
ECO7:
Agricultural energy intensities ................................................................ 56
ECO8:
Service/commercial energy intensities .................................................... 59
ECO9:
Household energy intensities .................................................................. 63
ECO10:
Transport energy intensities .................................................................... 67
ECO11:
Fuel shares in energy and electricity ....................................................... 71
ECO12:
Non-carbon energy share in energy and electricity ................................ 74
ECO13:
Renewable energy share in energy and electricity .................................. 76
ECO14:
End-use energy prices by fuel and by sector ........................................... 79
ECO15:
Net energy import dependency ............................................................... 83
ECO16:
Stocks of critical fuels per corresponding fuel consumption .................. 85
Environmental Dimension ....................................................................................... 87
ENV1:
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and
use, per capita and per unit of GDP ........................................................ 87
ENV2:
Ambient concentrations of air pollutants in urban areas ......................... 91
ENV3:
Air pollutant emissions from energy systems ......................................... 95
ENV4-1: Contaminant discharges in liquid effluents from energy systems ........ 101
ENV4-2: Oil discharges into coastal waters ......................................................... 105
ENV5:
Soil area where acidification exceeds critical load ............................... 108
ENV6:
Rate of deforestation attributed to energy use ...................................... 112
ENV7:
Ratio of solid waste generation to units of energy produced ................ 115
ENV8:
Ratio of solid waste properly disposed of to total generated solid
waste ...................................................................................................... 118
ENV9:
Ratio of solid radioactive waste to units of energy produced ............... 122
ENV10:
Ratio of solid radioactive waste awaiting disposal to total
generated solid radioactive waste ......................................................... 127
Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 133
Related Internet Sites ............................................................................................ 145
Annex 1: Glossary of Selected Terms .................................................................. 149
Annex 2: List of Acronyms .................................................................................. 151
Annex 3: A Decomposition Method for Energy Use Intensity Indicators ........... 155
Annex 4: Units and Conversion Factors ............................................................... 161
1.
INTRODUCTION
‘Sustainable development’ has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as
‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs’.1 Adequate and affordable energy supplies
have been key to economic development and the transition from subsistence
agricultural economies to modern industrial and service-oriented societies. Energy is
central to improved social and economic well-being, and is indispensable to most
industrial and commercial wealth generation. It is key for relieving poverty,
improving human welfare and raising living standards. But however essential it may
be for development, energy is only a means to an end. The end is good health, high
living standards, a sustainable economy and a clean environment. No form of energy
— coal, solar, nuclear, wind or any other — is good or bad in itself, and each is only
valuable in as far as it can deliver this end.
Much of the current energy supply and use, based, as it is, on limited resources of
fossil fuels, is deemed to be environmentally unsustainable. There is no energy
production or conversion technology without risk or without waste. Somewhere along
all energy chains — from resource extraction to the provision of energy services —
pollutants are produced, emitted or disposed of, often with severe health and
environmental impacts. Even if a technology does not emit harmful substances at the
point of use, emissions and wastes may be associated with its manufacture or other
parts of its life cycle. Combustion of fossil fuels is chiefly responsible for urban air
pollution, regional acidification and the risk of human-induced climate change. The
use of nuclear power has created a number of concerns, such as the storage or disposal
of high-level radioactive waste and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The noncommercial use of biomass in some developing countries contributes to desertification
and loss of biodiversity.
Moreover, about one-third of the world’s population still relies on the use of animal
power and non-commercial fuels. Some 1.7 billion people have no access to
electricity. Many areas in the world have no reliable and secure energy supplies. This
lack of access to modern energy services severely limits socioeconomic development
— an integral part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, because of improved
technology and an increased understanding of the effects and impacts of energy and
energy systems, a developing country today can make the transition from an
agricultural to an industrial economy with much lower costs and with less
environmental damage than today’s developed countries were subjected to during
their transition.
Achieving sustainable economic development on a global scale will require the
judicious use of resources, technology, appropriate economic incentives and strategic
policy planning at the local and national levels. It will also require regular monitoring
of the impacts of selected policies and strategies to see if they are furthering
sustainable development or if they should be adjusted. It is important to be able to
measure a country’s state of development and to monitor its progress or lack of
1
WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development), 1987. Our Common Future.
Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
1
progress towards sustainability. First, policymakers need to know their country’s
current status concerning energy and economic sustainability, what needs to be
improved and how these improvements can be achieved. Second, it is important for
policymakers to understand the implications of selected energy, environmental and
economic programmes, policies and plans, and their impacts on the shaping of
development and on the feasibility of making this development sustainable. Third,
inevitably there will be trade-offs. In short, there is an imminent need for informed
and balanced choices to be made on policy, investment and corrective action.
When choosing energy fuels and associated technologies for the production, delivery
and use of energy services, it is essential to take into account economic, social and
environmental consequences. Policymakers need methods for measuring and
assessing the current and future effects of energy use on human health, human society,
air, soil and water. They need to determine whether current energy use is sustainable
and, if not, how to change it so that it is. This is the purpose of the energy indicators
presented in this report, which address important issues within three of the major
dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental.
The indicators are not merely data; rather, they extend beyond basic statistics to
provide a deeper understanding of the main issues and to highlight important relations
that are not evident using basic statistics. They are essential tools for communicating
energy issues related to sustainable development to policymakers and to the public,
and for promoting institutional dialogue. Each set of indicators expresses aspects or
consequences of the production and use of energy. Taken together, the indicators give
a clear picture of the whole system, including interlinkages and trade-offs among
various dimensions of sustainable development, as well as the longer-term
implications of current decisions and behaviour. Changes in the indicator values over
time mark progress or lack of progress towards sustainable development.
The same value for a given energy indicator might not mean the same thing for two
different countries. The meaning will depend on the state of development of each
country, the nature of its economy, its geography, the availability of indigenous
energy resources and so on. Caution, therefore, needs to be applied when using such
indicators for cross-country comparisons. Nonetheless, changes in the value of each
indicator over time will help to quantify the progress of each country.2 Instead of
relying on abstract analysis, policymakers will have a simple set of figures to guide
their decisions and monitor the results of their policies.
Consider an example from medicine. A doctor can evaluate a patient’s health using a
handful of numbers: blood pressure, pulse rate, weight-to-height ratio, cholesterol
level and so on. By watching how these numbers change over time, the doctor can
advise the patient whether his or her health is improving or deteriorating. This will
help the patient to choose the best diet, exercise regimen and medicine. Of course, the
numbers do not mean the same thing for all patients. A naturally stocky person, even
2
Indicators are useful for monitoring progress towards specific country goals. For example, to reach
an annual limit on a set of emissions from the energy sector, it would be sensible to identify the
values of appropriate indicators that would be necessary to meet this goal. With knowledge of the
energy sector, policymakers can identify the indicators over which they have the most control.
Progress is then more easily monitored and policy is often more easily implemented by using these
indicators rather than focusing solely on the goal.
2
in perfect health, will have a higher weight-to-height ratio than a naturally slight
person; some people naturally have rather high blood pressure. But by monitoring the
numbers over time, the doctor can advise different patients on their progress towards
good health.
The indicators presented here constitute a core set of Energy Indicators for
Sustainable Development (EISD) with corresponding methodologies and guidelines
useful to policymakers, energy analysts and statisticians. Some indicators focus on the
delivery of essential energy services for reducing poverty and improving living
conditions, while other indicators focus on environmental effects. It is important to
take not only the economic but also these social and environmental issues into account
when deciding on policies. The role of the analyst is to select, weigh and present to
policymakers appropriate indicators for the situation in their own country so as to
foster development in a sustainable manner.
Each of the EISD presented in this report might, in fact, represent a set of several
indicators, as many of the issues touched on are best analysed using a group of related
indicators.
Contents of the Report
This report includes five chapters, four annexes, a bibliography and a list of related
Internet sites. Chapter 2 presents a background summary and short descriptions of
work on energy indicators undertaken in participating agencies. Chapter 3 includes
the list of indicators classified according to dimensions, themes and sub-themes. The
chapter also discusses the dimensions, themes and frameworks used to define the
indicators. Chapter 4 provides guidelines on how to select and use the indicators and
discusses their limitations, pitfalls and constraints to ensure meaningful analysis and
to avoid basic statistical misinterpretations. Chapter 5 contains methodology sheets
for each of the 30 EISD. Annex 1 is a glossary of selected terms used in the report.
Annex 2 is a list of acronyms. Annex 3 includes a summary of a decomposition
method to analyse energy intensities. Annex 4 provides units and conversion factors.
The methodology sheets make up the bulk of the report. They give basic descriptions,
methods, data availability, units, alternative definitions and relevance to sustainable
development. These sheets are complete descriptions of the indicators, prepared to
assist users in the elaboration, construction and implementation of the EISD. They
include the main and alternative definitions, the components of each indicator, the
units in which they are measured, instructions on how to construct them, data issues
and sources. A country implementing the EISD may choose to use an alternative
definition for a particular indicator that better fits that country’s specific
circumstances.
3
2.
BACKGROUND
Since the publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987, various international and
national organizations have been developing sets of indicators to measure and assess
one or more aspects of sustainable development. These efforts received a major boost
following the adoption of Agenda 21 at the Earth Summit in 1992, which (in Chapter
40) specifically asks countries and international governmental and nongovernmental
organizations to develop the concept of indicators of sustainable development and to
harmonize them at the national, regional and global levels.
2.1
The United Nations Effort on Indicators of Sustainable Development
In response to decisions taken by the United Nations (UN) Commission on
Sustainable Development (CSD) and to Chapter 40 of Agenda 21, in 1995 the UN
Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) began working to produce a
set of indicators for sustainable development. At the outset, the indicators considered
the four major dimensions of sustainable development: social, economic,
environmental and institutional. Within these categories, indicators were classified
according to their driving force, state and response (DSR) characters following a
conceptual framework widely used for environmental indicator development.
However, after national testing, the Expert Group on Indicators of Sustainable
Development (ISD) changed from the DSR format to policy issues or main themes
and sub-themes, with energy as a sub-theme with three indicators (annual energy use
per capita, share of consumption of renewable energy resources and intensity of
energy use). This was done to better facilitate national policymaking and performance
measurements. The revised framework also addresses future risks, correlation
between themes, sustainability goals and basic social needs.1
At one point, the UN ISD package included more than 130 indicators. The latest
version of the package includes 58 indicators classified into four dimensions, 15
themes and 38 sub-themes. The number of indicators was greatly restricted when it
became apparent that a large set of indicators was unwieldy and difficult to use
effectively.
2.2
Energy Indicators and Sustainable Development: The Commission on
Sustainable Development and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
The initial work on energy indicators undertaken by the International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA) with contributions from UNDESA, the International Energy Agency
(IEA) and other international and national organizations was presented at the ninth
session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-9) in 2001, under the
name ‘Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development’ (ISED). During this session
energy was a major theme. Improving affordability of and accessibility to modern
energy services for the rural and urban poor as well as promoting less wasteful use of
energy resources by the rich were among the most pressing issues identified at CSD9. The dissemination of information on clean and efficient technologies, good practice
1
UNDESA, 2001. Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies,
2nd edition, September. New York, NY, USA: United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs.
5
and adequate policies was recognized as an important contribution to providing
energy for sustainable development. The international community noted that relevant
information could guide decision makers to suitable policy and energy supply options,
and that energy indicators were a tool for monitoring the consequences of such
choices. Decisions taken at CSD-9 pertinent to the refinement of the ISED included
the identification of the key energy issues of accessibility, energy efficiency,
renewable energy, advanced fossil fuel technologies, nuclear energy technologies,
rural energy, and energy and transport.
Energy was discussed the following year at the World Summit on Sustainable
Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg. The international community built on
decisions taken at CSD-9 and reconfirmed access to energy as important in the
Millennium Development Goal of halving the proportion of people living in poverty
by 2015. The WSSD agreed to facilitate access for the poor to reliable and affordable
energy in the context of larger national policies to foster sustainable development. The
Summit also called for changes to unsustainable patterns of energy production and
use. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) that came out of the Summit
urges all nations, groups and institutions to take immediate action to achieve the goals
of sustainable development set out in Agenda 21 and at the Earth Summit +5, and
further elaborated in the JPOI.
The core set of energy indicators, now called Energy Indicators for Sustainable
Development (EISD), has been designed to provide information on current energyrelated trends in a format that aids decision making at the national level in order to
help countries assess effective energy policies for action on sustainable development.
The indicators can help to guide the implementation of actions urged at the WSSD,
namely, (i) to integrate energy into socioeconomic programmes, (ii) to combine more
renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced energy technologies to meet the
growing need for energy services, (iii) to increase the share of renewable energy
options, (iv) to reduce the flaring and venting of gas, (v) to establish domestic
programmes on energy efficiency, (vi) to improve the functioning and transparency of
information in energy markets, (vii) to reduce market distortions and (viii) to assist
developing countries in their domestic efforts to provide energy services to all sectors
of their populations.
The indicators should make it easier to see which programmes are necessary for
sustainable development. This should identify what energy statistics need to be
collected as well as the necessary scope of regional and national databases.
2.3
Energy Indicator Efforts in Participating Agencies
This report is the result of an interagency effort led by the IAEA in cooperation with
UNDESA, the IEA, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) and
the European Environment Agency (EEA). It is a joint endeavour intended to
eliminate duplication and provide users with a single set of energy indicators
applicable in every country. In addition to the interagency cooperative work on EISD,
each of these agencies has ongoing programmes on energy or energy/environmental
indicators, which are to some extent interlinked. These programmes are designed to
monitor and assess sustainable development trends in their corresponding Member
States and regions. These activities complement the joint effort on harmonization
6
presented in this report. A short description of these various agency programmes is
presented below.
2.3.1
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the ISED/EISD Effort
The IAEA initiated this indicator project in 1999 in cooperation with various
international organizations, including the IEA and UNDESA, and some Member
States of the IAEA. As previously mentioned, the original name was Indicators for
Sustainable Energy Development (ISED). This name was later modified to Energy
Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) to reflect the view held by some users
that ‘sustainable energy development’ refers only to renewable energy and not to the
broader spectrum of energy choices. The project was conceived (i) to fill the need for
a consistent set of energy indicators applicable worldwide, (ii) to assist countries in
the energy and statistical capacity building necessary to promote energy sustainability
and (iii) to supplement the work on general indicators being undertaken by the CSD.
The project has two phases. In the first phase (2000–2001), a potential set of energy
indicators for sustainable development was identified and the conceptual framework
to define and classify these indicators was developed. During the second phase, which
began in 2002, the original set of indicators and framework were refined, and the
practical utility of the indicator set in a variety of applications is being demonstrated
by incorporating the indicators into relevant databases and analytical tools, using them
in ongoing statistical analyses (capacity building) and helping countries to use the
system to track their energy strategies in conformity with their national objectives of
sustainable development.
In the first phase, the original set of 41 indicators was developed and defined in terms
of their assigned DSR characters, with desirable responses identified for improving
the sustainability of energy systems. A conceptual framework was developed that
defined major themes and sub-themes, and systematic cross-linkages among
indicators. The results of the first phase were presented at CSD-9 in April 2001.2
The second phase started with a coordinated effort led by the IAEA to implement the
set of EISD in the following countries: Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russian
Federation, Slovak Republic and Thailand. These countries have selected particular
subsets of the EISD most relevant to their energy priorities and have applied these
indicators in analyses of their current and potential future energy systems and policies.
This implementation programme concludes in 2005 with reports summarizing the
findings. Also during the second phase, the EISD project was classified as a WSSD
Partnership and was officially registered as such with the CSD.
The second phase has also included a parallel coordinated effort with other
international organizations (the IEA, UNDESA, Eurostat and the EEA) involved in
the development of energy indicators for further refining the original set of indicators.
The final set of energy indicators in this report builds on their cumulative experience.
By consensus, the original set of 41 indicators was reduced to the 30 EISD that
constitute the final core set of energy indicators presented in this report. A number of
2
IAEA/IEA, 2001. Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development, presented at the 9th Session of
the CSD, New York, April 2001. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA)/International Energy Agency (IEA).
7
indicators were redefined and merged; others were classified as auxiliary indicators.
Although the original framework followed the DSR framework, the package was
modified to emphasize main themes and sub-themes following the same approach
currently used by the CSD on the ISD.
The 30 EISD presented here are classified according to the three major dimensions of
sustainable development: social (4 indicators), economic (16 indicators) and
environmental (10 indicators). Each group is divided into themes and sub-themes. The
indicators in the EISD core set are thus consistent with and supplementary to the CSD
indicators as published by UNDESA in 2001.3 Moreover, this interagency report
reflects a consensus of leading experts on definitions, guidelines and methodologies
for the development and worldwide use of energy indicators for sustainable
development.
2.3.2
International Energy Agency (IEA)
The IEA project on energy indicators was established in 1996. The analytical
framework and data developed under this project have become important tools for
IEA analysis of energy-use developments. The focus of the energy indicator project is
to assist IEA Member countries in analysing factors behind changes in energy use and
emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). The indicators (and the associated databases) help
to reveal key couplings between energy use, energy prices and economic activity.
This insight is crucial when assessing and monitoring past and present energy
efficiency policies and for designing effective future actions. Data developed for the
IEA indicator project are also used for other IEA analytic activities, such as the World
Energy Outlook publication and several energy efficiency and energy technology
projects within the IEA Secretariat.
An important aim of the IEA’s work on indicators is to increase the transparency and
quality of energy-use data. This provides a better basis for meaningful comparisons of
energy and emission developments across countries, as well as a tool to measure
progress in emission reductions and efficiency improvements within individual
countries over time. The IEA has worked with Member countries and with the
European Community to ensure the official and consistent collection of data. A
database with energy indicator data for most IEA countries has recently been
completed. The IEA has published several reports on energy indicators, and in 2004
the IEA released a publication highlighting findings of its work on indicators.4 The
IEA is also assisting non–Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) countries to improve their energy statistics and to establish energy indicators.
This includes work with international organizations such as the Energy Charter
Secretariat, Eurostat, the Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) and the
IAEA.
3
4
UNDESA, 2001. Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies,
2nd edition, September. New York, NY, USA: United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs.
IEA, 2004. Oil Crises and Climate Challenges: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
8
In the 2004 edition of the World Energy Outlook,5 the IEA introduced an energy
development index (EDI) to better understand the role that energy plays in human
development. The index is intended to be used as a simple composite measure of a
country or region’s progress in its transition to modern fuels and of the degree of
maturity of its energy end use. The EDI seeks to capture the quality of energy services
as well as their quantity and can be used to assess the need for policies to promote the
use of modern fuels and to stimulate investment in energy infrastructure in each
region. It is calculated in such a way as to mirror the Human Development Index
(HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
2.3.3
Eurostat
Eurostat has collaborated with the IEA on energy-data collection for more than 25
years, and more recently has collaborated on indicator development. As in most IEA
Member countries, since the oil crises of the 1970s, energy policy in the European
Union (EU) has traditionally concentrated on security and diversity of supply, energy
efficiency, prices and competitiveness. At the European Council6 meeting in Cardiff
in 1998, the principle of integrating environmental concerns into broader policy was
introduced, with a particular emphasis on energy. Minimizing damage to the
environment became of fundamental importance to the EU’s sustainable energy
policy. This ‘Cardiff Process’ emphasized the need for indicators to measure progress
and so raised the profile of indicator work. Eurostat publishes annually, in pocketbook
format, integration indicators for energy based on data collected by Eurostat and the
EEA.
In June 2001, the European Council in Gothenburg integrated the Cardiff Process into
a new, wider EU Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS). The SDS is based on the
principle that the economic, social and environmental effects of all policies should be
considered in a coordinated manner in all decision making.
Energy issues are addressed under several of the themes of the SDS. On climate
change, the SDS aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by increasing the
use of renewable forms of energy. It addresses public health, where air pollution from
the burning of fossil fuels is an important issue, and it addresses transport. Energy is
also of primary importance for the EU’s commitments following the WSSD and the
JPOI, for sustainable production and consumption, and for global partnership and
good governance.
Following the adoption of the EU SDS, the EU’s Statistical Programme Committee7
set up a Task Force on sustainable development indicators to promote a common
approach for the European Statistical System. This Task Force is chaired by the
‘Environment and Sustainable Development’ unit of Eurostat and is composed of
experts from Member States, European Free Trade Area countries, various
Commission Directorates-General and international organizations.8
5
6
7
8
IEA, 2004. World Energy Outlook. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
The European Council is made up of the heads of state of the EU Member States and meets at least
every six months.
The Statistical Programme Committee is composed of the general-directors of the statistical
institutions of EU Member States.
For more information, see http://forum.europa.eu.int/Public/irc/dsis/susdevind/home.
9
2.3.4
European Environment Agency (EEA)
The EEA is the EU body dedicated to providing sound, independent information on
the environment. It is a main information source for those involved in developing,
adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and for the general
public.
Indicators are an important tool in the EEA’s work for assessing progress towards
environmental protection and sustainable development. The EEA's indicator work
covers the environmental aspect of sustainable development and is based on the socalled DPSIR assessment framework (Driving forces, Pressures, State of the
environment, Impacts, and societal Responses).
The EEA has developed a set of about 25 indicators for energy and environment that
are updated regularly. In line with the EEA’s mandate, these indicators have more of
an environmental emphasis than those of the IEA or Eurostat9 and, taken together,
allow assessment of progress towards environmental integration in Europe by energy
sector. The indicators describe the development of the sector in Europe and
implications for the environment and related policy actions. The indicators cover not
only the current situation, but also trends and prospects; most importantly, they point
to the conditions for change that are needed for progress towards a more sustainable
energy policy that benefits the environment.
9
More information on the work of the EEA on energy and environment indicators is available at
http://themes.eea.eu.int/Sectors_and_activities/energy, including the EU’s first report
(http://reports.eea.eu.int/environmental_issue_report_2002_31/en).
10
3.
ENERGY INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
The indicators in the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) core set
are discussed in this chapter according to dimensions, themes and sub-themes
following the same conceptual framework used by the United Nations Commission on
Sustainable Development (CSD). Table 3.1 lists the indicators that make up the EISD
core set. There are 30 indicators, classified into three dimensions (social, economic
and environmental). These are further classified into 7 themes and 19 sub-themes.
Note that some indicators can be classified in more than one dimension, theme or subtheme, given the numerous interlinkages among these categories. Also, each indicator
might represent a group of related indicators needed to assess a particular issue.
Table 3.1: List of Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development
Social
Theme
Sub-theme
Energy Indicator
Components
Equity
Accessibility
SOC1
Share of households – Households (or population)
without electricity or
(or population)
commercial energy, or
without electricity or
heavily dependent on noncommercial energy,
commercial energy
or heavily dependent
on non-commercial – Total number of households
energy
or population
Affordability
SOC2
Share of household – Household income spent on
income spent on fuel
fuel and electricity
and electricity
– Household income (total
and poorest 20% of
population)
Disparities
SOC3
Household energy
use for each income
group and corresponding fuel mix
– Energy use per household
for each income group
(quintiles)
– Household income for each
income group (quintiles)
– Corresponding fuel mix for
each income group
(quintiles)
Health
Safety
SOC4
Accident fatalities
– Annual fatalities by fuel
per energy produced
chain
by fuel chain
– Annual energy produced
11
Economic
Theme
Sub-theme
Use and
Overall Use
Production
Patterns
Energy Indicator
Components
ECO1
– Energy use (total primary
energy supply, total final
consumption and electricity
use)
Energy use per
capita
– Total population
Overall
Productivity
ECO2
Energy use per
unit of GDP
– Energy use (total primary
energy supply, total final
consumption and electricity
use)
– GDP
ECO3
Production
ECO4
Reserves-to– Proven recoverable reserves
production ratio – Total energy production
ECO5
Resources-to– Total estimated resources
production ratio – Total energy production
ECO6
Industrial
energy
intensities
– Energy use in industrial sector
Agricultural
energy
intensities
– Energy use in agricultural
Service/
commercial
energy
intensities
– Energy use in service/
Household
energy
intensities
– Energy use in households and
End Use
ECO7
ECO8
ECO9
Efficiency of
energy conversion and
distribution
– Losses in transformation
Supply
Efficiency
systems including losses in
electricity generation,
transmission and distribution
and by manufacturing branch
– Corresponding value added
sector
– Corresponding value added
commercial sector
– Corresponding value added
by key end use
– Number of households, floor
area, persons per household,
appliance ownership
ECO10
Transport
energy
intensities
– Energy use in passenger travel
and freight sectors and by
mode
– Passenger-km travel and
tonne-km freight and by mode
12
Economic
Theme
Sub-theme
Energy Indicator
Diversification ECO11
(Fuel Mix)
Security
Components
Fuel shares in
energy and
electricity
– Primary energy supply and
final consumption, electricity
generation and generating
capacity by fuel type
– Total primary energy supply,
total final consumption, total
electricity generation and total
generating capacity
ECO12
Non-carbon
energy share in
energy and
electricity
– Primary supply, electricity
generation and generating
capacity by non-carbon
energy
– Total primary energy supply,
total electricity generation and
total generating capacity
ECO13
Renewable
energy share in
energy and
electricity
– Primary energy supply, final
consumption and electricity
generation and generating
capacity by renewable energy
– Total primary energy supply,
total final consumption, total
electricity generation and total
generating capacity
Prices
ECO14
End-use energy – Energy prices (with and
prices by fuel
without tax/subsidy)
and by sector
Imports
ECO15
Net energy
import
dependency
Strategic Fuel
Stocks
ECO16
– Stocks of critical fuel (e.g. oil,
Stocks of
gas, etc.)
critical fuels per
corresponding
– Critical fuel consumption
fuel
consumption
13
– Energy imports
– Total primary energy supply
Environmental
Theme
Sub-theme
Energy Indicator
Components
ENV1
GHG emissions – GHG emissions from energy
production and use
from energy
production and – Population and GDP
use per capita
and per unit of
GDP
ENV2
– Concentrations of pollutants
Ambient
in air
concentrations
of air pollutants
in urban areas
ENV3
Air pollutant
emissions from
energy systems
– Air pollutant emissions
Water
Water Quality ENV4
Contaminant
discharges in
liquid effluents
from energy
systems
including oil
discharges
– Contaminant discharges in
liquid effluents
Land
Soil Quality
ENV5
Soil area where
acidification
exceeds critical
load
– Affected soil area
– Critical load
Forest
ENV6
Rate of
deforestation
attributed to
energy use
– Forest area at two different
times
– Biomass utilization
Solid Waste
Generation
and
Management
ENV7
Ratio of solid
waste
generation to
units of energy
produced
– Amount of solid waste
– Energy produced
ENV8
Ratio of solid
waste properly
disposed of to
total generated
solid waste
– Amount of solid waste
properly disposed of
– Total amount of solid waste
ENV9
Ratio of solid
– Amount of radioactive waste
radioactive
(cumulative for a selected
waste to units of
period of time)
energy produced – Energy produced
Atmosphere Climate
Change
Air Quality
14
Environmental
Theme
Sub-theme
Energy Indicator
ENV10
3.1
Components
– Amount of radioactive waste
Ratio of solid
awaiting disposal
radioactive
waste awaiting – Total volume of radioactive
disposal to total
waste
generated solid
radioactive
waste
The Indicators as a Measure of Progress
Some of these indicators are unequivocal measures of progress; they clearly
distinguish between desirable and undesirable trends. Most of the social and
environmental indicators fall into this category, including such indicators as SOC4
(accident fatalities), ENV3 (air pollutant emissions from energy systems) and ENV6
(rate of deforestation attributed to energy use). However, some of these indicators also
must be taken in context; for example, depending on the development choices made,
there may be a temporary rise in undesirable effects until a higher level of
development is achieved, representing a larger benefit that could outweigh the interim
disadvantages. Another example is when the availability of commercial fuels — for
example, kerosene — in developing countries increases the share of a household’s
income spent on energy (SOC2). This may not indicate a negative development from
a social perspective, since the collection of non-commercial fuelwood often involves
significant losses of productive time and the burning of the wood often has important
health consequences.
Other indicators are not designed to distinguish between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ but rather
describe and give an indication of an aspect of energy use. Most of the economic
indicators fall into this category. They include ECO1 (energy use per capita) and
ECO3 (efficiency of energy conversion and distribution). Energy use per capita might
be low in a given country because that country is very poor or because there is high
energy efficiency and the economy is based on services rather than on heavy industry.
The ratio of final to primary energy might be high because the country has a
rudimentary energy system where primary and final energy are the same, or it might
be high because the country has an advanced economy and efficient energy
transformation.
The indicators need to be read in the context of each country’s economy and energy
resources. An economy that is dominated by primary extraction and processing will
have relatively high energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) no matter
how efficient it is. This does not mean that the country should abandon development
of its resource base.
Structural changes to the economy must also be taken into account. For example,
building a large, modern aluminium smelter in a country that previously relied on
subsistence farming and foreign aid would result in a large increase in the ECO6
indicator (industrial energy intensities), but would also generate export revenues and
hence improve income levels.
15
Nonetheless, the indicators taken together and in context, allowing for inherent
differences between countries, give a good picture of a country’s energy system. As
the indicators change over time, they will be good markers of progress and underlying
changes. This will guide policy and help guide decisions on investments in energy,
pollution control and industry.
Finally, the use of indicators can help answer questions about external costs, which
are often difficult to quantify. Energy markets can and do accommodate the
internalization of some of the ‘external costs’ of energy through more or less efficient
responses to more or less correct economic and regulatory incentives. However, some
external costs are difficult to internalize, with the result that they will be borne by
society. Such externalities include ill health, environmental damage and decline in
property values caused by oil refineries, power lines and other energy facilities.
What cost is placed on a tonne of nitrous oxides emitted from a gas or coal power
station, a tonne of radioactive waste from a nuclear power station or a landscape
disrupted by wind turbines? What penalties or subsidies1 does one give to each energy
technology? By quantifying energy intensity, accidents per unit of energy and
environmental consequences per unit of energy, indicators can permit comparative
assessment of alternatives and strategies, and help policymakers to decide on
appropriate measures, including penalties or subsidies, to promote efficient and
sustainable energy development. Indicators to reflect the extent of internalization of
external costs are being developed and may be incorporated into the EISD in due
time.
3.2
Dimensions of Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is essentially about improving quality of life in a way that
can be sustained, economically and environmentally, over the long term supported by
the institutional structure of the country. For this reason, sustainable development
addresses four major dimensions: social, economic, environmental and institutional.
The indicators are divided into three dimensions: social, economic and environmental;
institutional questions are largely considered to be responses and not readily
quantified as indicators. Although a sound institutional structure is essential for an
efficient and reliable energy system, indicators to reflect this institutional dimension
are still being developed and may be incorporated into the EISD at a later stage.
3.2.1
Social Dimension
Availability of energy has a direct impact on poverty, employment opportunities,
education, demographic transition, indoor pollution and health, and has gender- and
age-related implications. In rich countries, energy for lighting, heating and cooking is
available at the flip of a switch. The energy is clean, safe, reliable and affordable. In
poor countries, up to six hours a day is required to collect wood and dung for cooking
and heating, and this task is usually done by women, who could be otherwise engaged
in more productive activities. In areas where coal, charcoal and/or paraffin are
commercially available, these fuels take up a large portion of the monthly household
1
EEA, 2004. Energy Subsidies in the European Union: A Brief Overview. Technical report 1/2004.
Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
16
income. Inadequate equipment and ventilation means that these fuels, burned inside
the house, cause a high toll of disease and death through air pollution and fires.
This example serves to illustrate the two themes of the social dimension: Equity and
Health. Social equity is one of the principal values underlying sustainable
development, involving the degree of fairness and inclusiveness with which energy
resources are distributed, energy systems are made accessible and pricing schemes are
formulated to ensure affordability. Energy should be available to all at a fair price.
The Equity indicators have the sub-themes of Accessibility, Affordability and
Disparities. Because of a lack of access to modern energy (for example, by not being
connected to the electricity grid), poor households not only spend a larger portion of
their income on energy than do the rich, but they often have to pay more in absolute
terms per unit of useful energy. A household in an African township often has to pay
more for the coal or paraffin needed to cook a meal than one in a European city pays
for the electricity to do the same amount of cooking. The lack of electricity limits
work opportunities and productivity, as without electricity it is only possible to use
the simplest tools and equipment. It also usually means, among other limitations,
inadequate illumination, limited telecommunications and no refrigeration.
Limited income (limited affordability) may force households to use traditional fuel
and inefficient technologies, and the time needed to find and collect fuelwood is time
that cannot be spent cultivating fields or otherwise working. The poor usually have to
spend a large share of their income on indispensable energy fuels such as those
required for services like cooking and heating.
There may be disparities in access or affordability between regions and between
income groups within a region. Disparities within a country or between countries may
result from highly uneven income distributions, inadequate energy transport and
distribution networks, and major geographical differences among regions. In many
countries the large disparity in household incomes and energy affordability is a major
problem in low-income neighbourhoods in both urban and rural areas, even if
commercial energy services are available.
The Accessibility and Affordability indicators are clear markers of progress towards
development. They also mark an improvement in the situation of women, since it is
invariably women who bear the burden of fuel collection in poor countries. With
easily obtainable commercial energy, these women will have more time to improve
their lot and that of their children.
The use of energy should not damage human health, but rather should improve it by
improving living conditions. Yet the production of energy has the potential to cause
injury or disease through pollution generation or accidents. A social goal is to reduce
or eliminate these negative impacts. The Health indicators have the sub-theme of
Safety, which covers accident fatalities caused by the extraction, conversion,
transmission/distribution and use of energy. Oil rigs and, particularly, coal mines are
subject to accidents that injure, maim or kill people. Oil refineries and power stations
may release emissions into the air that cause lung or respiratory diseases. However,
per unit of energy, the toll from energy use in households is often much higher. In
squatter camps or informal settlements, for example, fires that kill or maim people are
regular occurrences. In households that burn coal, wood and kerosene for cooking and
17
heating in traditional fireplaces and stoves, there are high levels of respiratory
diseases, especially in children.
3.2.2
Economic Dimension
Modern economies depend on a reliable and adequate energy supply, and developing
countries need to secure this as a prerequisite for industrialization. All sectors of the
economy — residential, commercial, transport, service and agriculture — demand
modern energy services. These services in turn foster economic and social
development at the local level by raising productivity and enabling local income
generation. Energy supply affects jobs, productivity and development. Electricity is
the dominant form of energy for communications, information technology,
manufacturing and services.
The economic indicators have two themes: Use and Production Patterns, and Security.
The first has the sub-themes of Overall Use, Overall Productivity, Supply Efficiency,
Production, End Use, Diversification (Fuel Mix) and Prices. The second has the subthemes of Imports and Strategic Fuel Stocks.
ECO2 (energy use per unit of GDP) is a marker of aggregate energy intensity. Much
attention is paid to efficiencies and aggregated and disaggregated intensities in
defining the sustainability of consumption trends. However, caution is warranted in
the interpretation of these indicators. A country whose economy is based on banking
and trading will use less energy per unit of GDP than one whose economy is based on
steel making and ore processing. By taking the structure of the economy into account,
these indicators can monitor changes in energy efficiency, which in turn may be
linked to changes in technologies, fuel mix or consumer preferences or behaviour.
ECO3 (efficiency of energy conversion and distribution) monitors energy efficiency
in transformation processes such as power stations. Again, it is essential to allow for
the nature of the economy. Neolithic communities would all have had a ratio of 1.0,
since they had no transformation processes at all. The Production indicators look at
the energy being used compared with the indigenous energy resources.
There are indicators for energy intensity in individual sectors. Since they are sector
specific, they can be good benchmarks of energy efficiency, economic structure and
the vintage of plants and equipment. However, changes measured by value added are
subject to world commodity prices and currency fluctuations in trade-dependent
sectors that can change the indicators dramatically but have nothing to do with real
changes in efficiency or practice. Therefore, such indicators must be interpreted
cautiously.
ECO11, which gives the proportions of energy from different energy fuels, provides a
useful picture of the primary energy supply mix and shows the extent of energy
diversification.
The prices of end-use energy by fuel and sector (ECO14) have obvious economic
importance. Efficient energy pricing is key to efficient energy supply and use, and
socially efficient levels of pollution abatement. Energy prices and related subsidies
and taxes can encourage efficiency of energy use or improve access levels, or they can
generate inefficiencies in the supply, distribution and use of energy. While relatively
high prices for commercial fuels can be seen as a barrier to access, prices that cover
18
the cost of delivery are necessary for attracting investment in a secure and reliable
energy supply.
Addressing energy security is one of the major objectives in the sustainable
development criteria of many countries. Interruptions of energy supply can cause
serious financial and economic losses. To support the goals of sustainable
development, energy must be available at all times, in sufficient quantities and at
affordable prices. Secure energy supplies are essential to maintaining economic
activity and to providing reliable energy services to society. The monitoring of trends
of net energy imports and the availability of appropriate stocks of critical fuels are
important for assessing energy security.
3.2.3
Environmental Dimension
The production, distribution and use of energy create pressures on the environment in
the household, workplace and city, and at the national, regional and global levels. The
environmental impacts can depend greatly on how energy is produced and used, the
fuel mix, the structure of the energy systems and related energy regulatory actions and
pricing structures. Gaseous emissions from the burning of fossil fuels pollute the
atmosphere. Large hydropower dams cause silting. Both the coal and nuclear fuel
cycles emit some radiation and generate waste. Wind turbines can spoil pristine
countryside. And gathering firewood can lead to deforestation and desertification.
The Environmental indicators are divided into three themes: Atmosphere, Water and
Land.
The sub-themes on the Atmosphere are Climate Change and Air Quality. Priority
issues include acidification, the formation of tropospheric ozone and emissions of
other pollutants affecting urban air quality. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are
central to the debate on whether humankind is changing the climate for the worse. Air
pollutants of major concern include sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide
and particulates (the last two being particularly important for indoor air pollution).
These pollutants can damage human health, leading to respiratory problems, cancer,
etc.
Water and land quality are other important sub-themes of the environmental
dimension. Land is more than just physical space and surface topography; it is in itself
an important natural resource, consisting of soil and water, essential for growing food
and providing habitat for diverse plant and animal communities. Energy activities
may result in land degradation and acidification that affect the quality of water and
agricultural productivity. The use of wood as (non-commercial) fuel may result in
deforestation, which in some countries has led to erosion and soil loss. Some countries
have long histories of steady deforestation. Although environmental legislation is now
in place in many countries to avoid further land degradation, the damage still affects
significant areas.
Land is also affected by energy transformation processes that often produce solid
wastes, including radioactive wastes, which require adequate disposal. Water quality
is affected by the discharge of contaminants in liquid effluents from energy systems,
particularly from the mining of energy resources.
19
3.2.4
Institutional Dimension
The EISD do not yet include institutional indicators. These indicators are the most
difficult to define for two reasons. First, they tend to address issues that are, by nature,
difficult to measure in quantitative terms. Many of these issues relate to the future and
require dynamic analysis based on projections of energy production, use and
investment. Second, the variables measured by institutional indicators tend to be
structural or policy responses to sustainable development needs.
For example, institutional indicators might help to measure not only the existence but
also the effectiveness of a national sustainable energy development strategy or plan,
energy statistical capacity and analytical capabilities, or the adequacy and
effectiveness of investments in capacity building, education or research and
development. Institutional indicators could also help to monitor progress towards
appropriate and effective legislative, regulatory and enforcement institutions for
energy systems.
Infrastructure is the backbone of any national energy system. Countries need to
monitor the state of their major energy infrastructures to ensure a sustainable energy
future. Many countries now depend on major energy infrastructures that are obsolete,
inefficient, insufficient or environmentally unacceptable.
3.3
Accommodating National Sustainability and Development Priorities
Some caveats are in order about the use of the EISD and their interpretation for
monitoring progress towards sustainable energy development. Since the publication of
the Brundtland Report, countries have begun to define their own sustainable
development objectives and priorities, reflecting national resources and needs,
aspirations, and social and economic conditions. Sustainable development strategies
must therefore be structured to accommodate a wide range of definitions of what
desirable sustainable development can encompass, and monitoring the success of such
strategies through indicators must also avoid rigid definitions or judgements about
what is universally desirable and necessary.
For example, it is possible for an economy to be sustainable without developing. This
was true of hunter-gatherer groups living twenty thousand years ago. It is also
possible for a country to develop without its development being sustainable. This
would be true of a country completely dependent on a lucrative and highly effective
fishing industry that generates high income levels, thus enabling investment in
schools, hospitals, art galleries and welfare services, but that also exhausts the fish
stocks. This country would have achieved a degree of development, but that
development would not be sustainable since it is destroying the country’s source of
income.
However, it is also true that the depletion of resources does not necessarily imply
unsustainable development. By definition, if an energy source is not renewable, any
use of it is irreversible. But this does not mean it should never be used. Consider a
country with a natural gas field that uses all of the gas in a way calculated to bring in
funds to build up its economy and technology, and then moves on to another form of
energy — for example, renewables or imported fuels. This may represent sustainable
development. The depletion of the gas field by one generation does not necessarily
jeopardize the energy supply for future generations.
20
Paradoxically, the economic and environmental crises of depletion in the past have all
come from the exhaustion of renewable resources — overfishing, overgrazing, cutting
down too many trees, etc. This highlights the importance of not using renewable
resources at a rate faster than their natural replenishment rates.
The indicators, with one possible exception, do not individually distinguish between a
focus on sustainability or on development. The possible exception is SOC1 (share of
households without electricity or commercial energy). This is clearly an indicator of
development only and not sustainability. The rest of the indicators could mark either.
However, used together and in the context of a country’s individual circumstances,
they can be used to show progress towards sustainable development and attainment of
the goals defined by the country’s particular sustainable development strategy.
3.4
Establishing Links and Causality
If indicators are to be used to guide policymaking and strategic decisions, then they
must provide some notion of where to apply policy pressure and where to initiate
changes that can bring desired results. Establishing links and some idea of causality is
thus an important feature of policy monitoring with indicators. Seeing trends without
understanding how to affect them is not useful for strategic development.
A complete understanding of how each individual economic activity influences all
others and fits into the whole is not yet in reach. Nonetheless, one can establish useful
general rules of cause and effect to analyse economies and guide policymaking. The
indicators can help us understand some of the effects that energy production and use
have on the economy and the environment. By linking these indicators and monitoring
changes in their values, one should be able to see the effects that shifts in energy
production or use have on the economy, society and the environment.
In general, a cause–effect framework allows policymakers to track pathways and
subsidiary effects from the point of a policy’s implementation to its impacts in order
to discern linkages among energy and to target policies more specifically.
A model of cause and effect was initially designed to identify and categorize the EISD
using a driving force, state and response (DSR) framework. Similar models are used
by international organizations such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United
Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), Eurostat and the
European Environment Agency (EEA). These include, for example, the pressurestate-response (PSR) model developed by the OECD for categorizing the nature of
different environmental indicators and the DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State of
the environment, Impacts, and societal Responses) framework developed by the EEA.
The PSR framework describes indicators for environmental pressures as ‘direct’ and
‘indirect’ pressures exerted on the environment. These indirect pressures are called
driving forces in other models. The indicators for the environmental state relate to
environmental quality and the quality and quantity of natural resources. The indicators
21
for societal responses measure how society responds to environmental concerns
through individual and collective actions and reactions.2
In the DPSIR framework, the driving forces are the causes underlying the problem;
pressures are the pollutant releases into the environment; state is the condition of the
environment; impact is the effects of environmental degradation; and responses are
the measures taken to reduce the drivers and pressures on the environment or to
mitigate the impact and effect on the state of the environment. The DPSIR framework
is used by the EEA to categorize its environmental indicators.3
As previously noted, the CSD has abandoned the use of the driving force, state and
response (DSR)-type categorization of indicators as being unwieldy and subject to
definitional difficulties. Consequently, and following the same approach currently
used by the CSD on the Indicators of Sustainable Development (ISD), the EISD are
now simply categorized according to the theme and sub-theme framework. The theme
framework emphasizes policy issues and is useful in discerning correlations among
themes, defining sustainable development goals and basic societal needs. In addition,
the theme framework has proved to be easier to understand and implement at the
country level. However, when interpreting the indicators, care must be taken in
attributing causality, because the indicators can sometimes show trends that are
similar but not linked.
3.5
Data and Statistics for the Indicators
For indicators to be reliable and useful tools, they must have a solid base in valid and
consistent statistical data. Obtaining reliable, accurate, comprehensive, recent data
requires considerable effort. The indicators have been structured to make this task as
straightforward as possible, and the methodology sheets in this report are designed to
facilitate the process. Introducing the EISD at the national level will necessarily be an
improvement in statistical arrangements and analytical capabilities.
The indicators should also help to clarify for each country where its priorities lie. This
will help it to concentrate its statistical abilities in the most appropriate areas. Since
the energy indicators mark social, economic and environmental trends, they will be
useful to the relevant government departments, which have their own databases. This
should help to improve the databases and coordinate the statistical services of these
departments.
3.6
Auxiliary Statistics/Indicators
The construction and interpretation of energy indicators require the use of a number of
auxiliary statistics that measure, for example, demographics, wealth, economic
development, transport, urbanization, etc. Some of these statistics include
2
3
•
Population.
•
GDP per capita.
OECD, 2000. Environmental Performance Indicators: OECD Overview, in Towards Sustainable
Development: Indicators to Measure Progress, Proceedings of the OECD Rome Conference. Paris,
France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental issue report no. 31.
Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
22
•
Shares of sectors in GDP value added.
•
Distance travelled per capita.
•
Freight transport activity.
•
Floor area per capita.
•
Manufacturing value added for selected industries.
•
Income inequality.
These statistics may serve as indispensable components for the formulation of some
of the indicators in the EISD core set, or as complements to their analysis and
interpretation.
3.7
Methodology Sheets
A complete description of each of the indicators in the EISD core set is provided in
the corresponding methodology sheets in Chapter 5. These sheets have been designed
to provide the user with all the information needed to develop the indicators. They
contain the following:
•
Basic information on the indicator, including its definition and unit of
measurement, alternative definitions, auxiliary data or indicators needed for its
development and the relevant Agenda 21 chapter.
•
Policy relevance, including purpose and relevance to sustainable development;
international conventions, agreements, targets or recommended standards, if
applicable; and linkage to other related indicators.
•
Methodological description, including underlying definitions and concepts,
measuring methods, limitations and alternative definitions.
•
Assessment of data, including the data needed to compile the indicator,
national and international data availability and sources, and related
publications that include similar indicators or related issues.
•
References.
A conscious effort has been made to use a consistent format to frame the contents of
the methodology sheets. The sheets follow the format used by the CSD in the
methodology sheets of its overall ISD core set, making this report consistent with and
an extension (at the energy-sector level) of the corresponding report by UNDESA.4
The methodology sheets are designed to help countries develop indicators that are
relevant to their energy policies and programmes for sustainable development. The
methodology sheets represent a starting point for the process of developing energy
indicators and are open for refinement and amendment.
4
The methodology sheets for the UNDESA set of ISD are available at http://www.un.org/esa/ustdev/
natlinfo/indicators/isdms2001/
23
4.
SELECTING AND USING ENERGY INDICATORS
The information in this section is intended to help countries in selecting and using
energy indicators and in setting up their own national energy indicator programmes.
The relative importance of different indicators for sustainable energy development
will vary from country to country, depending on country-specific conditions, national
energy priorities, and sustainability and development criteria and objectives. Every
country has its own special economic circumstances and geography, its own range of
energy resources and its own expertise and priorities. Therefore, each country will
have its own way of using the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD).
The implementation process will depend on national policy goals, existing statistical
capabilities and expertise, and the availability and quality of energy and other relevant
data. Each country can make the most appropriate allocation of people and resources
for the development of the EISD so as to obtain the greatest benefit at an affordable
cost.
4.1
Information Gathering
Countries might need to evaluate their statistics programmes and data collection
capabilities and the range and quality of their energy data. This might include a
review of the agencies that collect and compile statistics, and an assessment of the
energy data already being collected. The data required cover energy, demographics,
economics and the environment for the country as a whole and within specific
economic sectors (agricultural, residential, commercial, industrial and transport).
Organizations for collecting statistics include central statistical offices, government
departments, reserve banks, revenues offices, research institutes and nongovernmental organizations.
To evaluate the energy statistical capacity and data availability that will support the
implementation of the EISD core set, it is recommended that countries consider the
following actions:
•
Determine which organizations are specifically responsible for each type of
data collection and statistical analysis.
•
Review and ascertain the scope, quality and reliability of the basic data. This
assessment might include data availability, collection frequency, time periods,
quality, reliability and relevance. The statistics used in the EISD need to be
consistent in form and definition. The units should be standardized throughout.
•
Determine whether energy indicators are already being used and, if so, which
ones. It is also necessary to determine whether these indicators are consonant
with, or can be complementary or supplemental to, the EISD.
This review, and assembling the required data, could lead to several hurdles. Data
may be difficult to find or may not exist. The responsibility for maintaining and
monitoring energy databases and related activities (including data collection,
compilation and analysis) is likely to reside in a number of institutions, such as
national statistical offices, ministries of energy, economy, trade or industry, and
environment and national energy commissions. The data required by one organization
25
might be collected by another, or there might be duplication of efforts or jurisdictional
concerns. Therefore, a coordinating mechanism for the development and
implementation of EISD might be needed to facilitate coordinated activities among
major players.
It might, therefore, be desirable to set up a body to liaise with all of the relevant
organizations in the country and to coordinate their activities with the EISD effort.
This national coordinating mechanism could take the form of a working group or
committee based on existing institutional arrangements where possible, using the
experience and expertise of extant organizations and making use of the widest
possible consultation and participation of all stakeholders involved. The mechanism
should be flexible and transparent. Such an effort should help to avoid duplication,
inconsistencies and unnecessary data collection. It should also facilitate the
incorporation of the analysis of these indicators into a broader range of ongoing
statistical programmes.
Countries might need to invest in improving their energy and other related statistics to
take full advantage of the EISD. This includes improved data collection, monitoring
and analysis at the national and regional levels. Missing data might need to be
collected or derived. Data compilation and interpretation might need to be improved.
This will require training and an assessment of the resources involved, including the
cost of new data collection.
4.2
Statistical Considerations: Time Series, Missing Data and Interpretation
in Context
Each indicator should be seen in the context of a given country’s individual
circumstances. These include the structure of the economy, changing energy
technologies and new energy options. Transitions or shifts — such as if the country
changes from subsistence farming to commercial farming, if it changes its electricity
supply from small diesel power stations to large hydropower plants, if it moves from
heavy manufacturing to information technology, or if it discovers a large gas field —
can substantially change the value of an EISD. The analysts must take these kinds of
changes into account when interpreting whether an indicator shows progress towards
sustainable development or not. This might mean giving the indicators different
relative importance with changing circumstances.
4.2.1. Time Series
Energy indicators are necessary to evaluate past developments, assess the status of the
energy system, define potential targets and measure progress. Therefore, the snapshot
of information given by the set of indicators at any moment is of limited use. What is
important is how the indicators change over time. It is therefore essential to record
time series of each indicator in a consistent manner.
Time series data are thus indispensable in the evaluation of the effectiveness of
policies in the long run. They permit an evaluation of how a country got to where it is
and which policies are responsible for current trends, whether the country is where it
wants to be and whether it will achieve its proposed targets under proposed policy
choices. The extension of the analysis into the future through the use of scenarios
developed with modelling tools permits a comparative assessment of different policy
26
and strategic paths, and more comprehensive monitoring and analysis of sustainable
development trends. To foster an effective debate about national sustainable energy
development policy, the government might wish to disseminate the results of such
trend analysis.
4.2.2. Missing Data
Some relevant data might not exist at all, some might be difficult to find and some
might be scattered around in disparate institutions and government departments. There
might be duplication in data collection, or data might be collected in different units
and on different bases.
It might not be possible to fill in gaps in historical data by ‘re-collection’ of the data,
and it might not be possible to collect all future data required. Some of the missing
data could be estimated by interpolating between the known data. In some cases,
proxies could be used to approximate missing data. For instance, if there were no data
on deforestation specifically resulting from energy use (ENV6), one might be able to
estimate this indicator from the amount of non-commercial fuel used and the total
deforestation resulting from all purposes. Alternatively, data from other countries
might be scaled or adapted. A certain degree of creativity wedded to topical and
statistical expertise and understanding is implied in this exercise.
4.2.3. Interpretation in Context
Most of the social and environmental indicators are unambiguous markers of
progress. For example, if ambient concentrations of air pollutants in urban areas
(ENV2) show lower values than were previously measured, then this is certainly a
sign of progress and an indication that the policies in this area most likely have
contributed to this.
However, this is not necessarily the case with the economic indicators. For example,
if agricultural energy intensity (ECO7) increases, this might be because of a higher
degree of mechanization or because of a structural change in agriculture, such as a
change from one crop to another that requires more energy for its growing, harvesting
and processing. In these cases, changes in the indicators must be considered in the
context of the country’s specific conditions. So used, however, they show the effects
of policy decisions and are useful for evaluating such decisions and designing future
policy.
The analysis and interpretation of the EISD need to be performed within the context
of each country’s energy and sustainable development priorities. As each country is
unique, the results from one country should not necessarily be taken as a standard for
comparison with another country facing different conditions.
The EISD represent a quantitative tool for monitoring progress and for defining
strategies towards a more sustainable energy future. There are a number of issues that
are difficult to quantify or are more qualitative by nature but that need be considered
in decision-making processes and in the formulation of major energy policies. Many
of these non-quantifiable aspects are within the institutional dimension of sustainable
development. Therefore, the results of analysis with the EISD tool need to be put into
a larger policy perspective for effective decision making.
27
4.3.
Priorities and Approaches for Individual Countries
The EISD as presented in this report constitute a recommended rather than a complete
core set of energy indicators. Since every country is unique, each will have its own
approach to the EISD and will use them according to its own priorities. Each will
decide which of the indicators within the recommended EISD core set are relevant to
its needs and may even develop other indicators for its own special circumstances of
energy supply and demand.
One approach that might be considered includes the following steps:
•
Identify major energy priority areas. This might already have been done in
national energy plans or programmes. These national plans could constitute a
possible point of departure for an initial application of EISD. Known
vulnerabilities in the national energy structure or known financial,
environmental or social pressures related to energy can inspire ideas on the
critical areas to cover.
•
Select the indicators from the EISD core set that are relevant for addressing
these priority areas. If necessary, define and structure new indicators.
Determine specifically how progress in specified variables and factors would
be monitored using EISD.
•
Determine what data are needed to cover the priority areas. Review available
data to assess the adequacy of statistics to cover the priority areas. If needed,
collect additional statistics or establish proxy data.
•
Compile data in time series for each selected EISD.
•
Analyse the data and their implications. Evaluate progress made in the
relevant priority area. Assess the effectiveness of past and present energy
policies. Test interpretations and conclusions for sensitivities, for false
assumptions about linkages and causality, or for biases reflecting value
judgements.
•
Consider different energy policies for the future and look at their possible
effects by using energy models for different scenarios. In this way, a country
may learn the lessons of the past while exploring options for the future.
•
If possible, use alternative scenarios developed with modelling tools and
projected time series to explore future policy and growth trajectories. The
EISD need to be linked to expected or desired energy futures. Sustainability
implies a forward-looking approach and not just a look at the past and the
present.
28
5.
METHODOLOGY SHEETS
This chapter presents the methodology sheets for the Energy Indicators for
Sustainable Development (EISD), grouped according to the social, economic and
environmental dimensions.
Definitions for a number of the energy, economic and environmental terms used in
this report are given in Annex 1. Additionally, acronyms used throughout the report
are listed in Annex 2.
The units specified for the indicators in each of the methodology sheets represent, in
most cases, recommended units based on data availability and should facilitate
international analysis. Individual countries may decide to use different units based on
national practices and the specific objectives sought in using this analytical tool.
Annex 4 includes a summary of relevant units and conversions that may be useful to
the reader.
It is recommended that all economic data (including gross domestic product, value
added and prices) used to develop the EISD be in terms of constant prices (i.e.
deflated to a base year — for example, 2000). These data may be in national
currencies. In the case of international analysis, the monetary units should be
converted into a common currency (e.g. US dollars or euros), preferably in terms of
purchasing power parity or, for specific applications, in terms of exchange rates.
SOCIAL DIMENSION
SOC1: Share of households (or population) without electricity or commercial
energy, or heavily dependent on non-commercial energy
Brief Definition
Share of households or population with no access to
commercial energy services including electricity, or
heavily dependent on ‘traditional’ non-commercial
energy options, such as fuelwood, crop wastes and
animal dung
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
Per capita consumption of non-commercial or
traditional energy
Agenda 21
Chapter 3: Combating poverty
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: To monitor progress in accessibility and affordability of commercial
energy services including electricity.
29
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Commercial energy services are crucial
to providing adequate food, shelter, water, sanitation, medical care, education and
access to communication. Lack of access to modern energy services contributes to
poverty and deprivation, and limits economic development. Furthermore, adequate,
affordable and reliable energy services are necessary to guarantee sustainable
economic and human development.
It is estimated that 2 billion people, or about one-third of the world’s population,
depend mainly on traditional biomass sources of energy; 1.7 billion are without
electricity. About 300 million people have been connected to electricity grids or have
been provided with modern biomass or other forms of commercial energy options
since 1993. However, in the absence of adequate measures, the number of people with
no access to commercial energy will remain stable or continue to grow as
demographic growth outpaces electrification in some parts of the world. Therefore, a
sustainable development goal is to increase the accessibility and affordability of
energy services for the lower-income groups of the population in developing countries
so as to alleviate poverty and promote social and economic development.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: The Johannesburg Plan of
Implementation (JPOI) of the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in
2002 includes the aim of improving access to reliable and affordable energy services.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to the use of noncommercial fuels, to energy prices and to several indicators of the social dimension,
such as income inequality, share of household income spent on fuel and electricity,
energy use relative to income level, urbanization, etc. The indicator might indirectly
reflect a related use of forest resources as fuelwood, which in turn could cause
deforestation.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Consumption of traditional fuels refers to
the non-commercial consumption of fuelwood, charcoal, bagasse, and animal and
vegetable wastes. Total household energy use might comprise commercial energy as
well as traditional (non-commercial) fuels.
Households choose among energy options on the basis of fuel accessibility and
affordability, the household’s socioeconomic characteristics and attitudes, and the
attributes of the different fuels. Lack of access to commercial energy implies
unsatisfied energy requirements or the use of traditional fuels. If commercial energy
services and electricity are available, income is the main characteristic that appears to
influence a household’s choice of fuel. Different income groups use different fuels,
and the poor in many developing countries to a great extent meet their energy demand
using traditional biomass fuels, either because of a lack of access to commercial
energy services or because of limited income. National shares of traditional fuel in
total energy use do not accurately reflect this indicator, as the average figures may
strongly differ from corresponding figures for each income group of the population.
Therefore, the preferred indicator is the percentage of households or population with
30
no access to commercial energy options, or heavily dependent on ‘traditional’ noncommercial energy options, such as wood, crop wastes and animal dung.
(b) Measuring Methods: This indicator is defined by the share of households (or
population) without access to commercial energy or electricity and by the share of
households for which dependence on non-commercial (traditional) fuel exceeds 75%
of total energy use.
(c) Limitations of the Indicators: Availability of data on the number of households
or share of the population without access to commercial energy or electricity may be a
limitation. Heavy dependence on non-commercial energy, defined as 75% dependence
on traditional energy, is an arbitrary benchmark for this indicator.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: An alternative indicator that may be useful is
‘Per capita consumption of non-commercial or traditional energy’. However, this does
not really capture the essence of the issue.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: The number of households or share of
the population without access to electricity or to commercial energy and for which the
share of non-commercial fuel consumption exceeds 75% of their energy use, and the
total number of households in a specific country or a region.
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: The most important
source of data on commercial and non-commercial fuel and electricity consumption is
household surveys. The results of these surveys can be obtained from reports
published by government statistical agencies. About two-thirds of the developing
countries have conducted sample household surveys that are representative nationally,
and some of these provide high-quality data on living standards. International
agencies such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) also carry out their
own surveys of households.
Data on household fuel and electricity consumption by average population are
available from the International Energy Agency (IEA) Energy Balances of OECD
Countries and Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries.
REFERENCES
•
Chen, S., Datt, G., Ravallion, M., 1992. POVCAL: A Program for Calculating
Poverty Measures from Grouped Data. Washington DC, USA: World Bank,
Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
31
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
UNICEF. MICS Household Surveys. New York, USA: United Nations
Children’s Fund. Available at www.childinfo.org.
•
UNSD, 1991. Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
WEC, 2000. Energy for Tomorrow’s World — Acting Now. London, UK:
World Energy Council.
•
World Bank, various editions. World Development Indicators. Published
annually. Washington DC, USA: World Bank.
SOC2: Share of household income spent on fuel and electricity
Brief Definition
Share of household disposable income (or private
consumption) spent on fuel and electricity (on
average and for the 20% of the population with the
lowest income)
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
Share of income needed to satisfy minimum
household commercial energy requirements for
household income group
Agenda 21
Chapter 3: Combating poverty
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator provides a measure of energy affordability for the
average household and for the poorest segment of households.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: From a sustainable development
perspective, it is important to examine income, wealth and in particular affordability
of modern energy services across the population. A country may have a high per
capita gross domestic product (GDP), but its income distribution may be so skewed
that a large percentage of the population has no possibility to meet their needs for
commercial household energy at current energy prices and private income levels.
Therefore, there is a need to decrease the burden of expenditure on fuel and electricity
in household budgets for the lower-income groups of the population in developing
countries, so as to promote social and economic development.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/ Recommended Standards: None.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to energy prices and to
several indicators of the social dimension, such as income inequality, shares of
households without access to electricity or heavily dependent on non-commercial
energy services and energy use relative to income level.
32
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: This indicator corresponds to the overall
household expenditures on commercial energy divided by total disposable income or
private consumption. Expenditure on energy can be obtained from surveys of
household expenditure or from the sum of all the consumed energy commodities
multiplied by their corresponding unit price.
Per capita consumption by the overall population and by the 20% of the population
with the lowest income may be assessed through the distribution of income. Each
distribution is based on percentiles of population — rather than of households — with
households ranked by income or expenditure per person.
(b) Measuring Methods: There are a number of choices about data that can influence
the precise value of disposable income (private consumption) per capita. It is
important how ‘income’ is measured — for example, whether it is total household
income or per capita household income, or income per equivalent adult. In addition, it
matters whether or not the incomes are weighted by household size, since households
with lower incomes per person tend to be larger.
The World Bank, for example, prefers to weight by household size and calculate the
shares held by persons rather than households for most purposes. As a general rule,
the World Bank also considers household consumption expenditure to be a more
reliable indicator of welfare than income. Incomes can vary excessively over time and
are also more difficult to measure accurately, particularly in developing countries.
If data on energy expenditures are not available, the amount of energy consumed and
corresponding fuel prices must be used. Because prices change through the year, the
data collected must refer to a fixed date.
(c) Limitations of the Indicators: Availability of data on a number of developing
countries may be a limitation.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: A more representative indicator of
affordability is the share of income needed to satisfy minimum household commercial
energy requirements according to household income group. The minimum energy
requirements are multiplied by the corresponding energy fuel prices to determine the
minimum energy requirement expenditures. The share is then calculated by dividing
by the income corresponding to each income group. Countries would benefit from the
development of this alternative indicator, although it is clear that data availability
represents a major problem in most countries, especially developing countries. The
indicator implies the definition of minimum energy requirements for representative
households for each income group. Defining minimum energy requirements is a very
subjective task and may prove to be difficult and controversial.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Annual household energy expenditure,
or annual household fuel consumption multiplied by the corresponding energy fuel
prices, and household disposable income or private consumption for the overall
population and for the 20% of the population with the lowest income.
33
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: At the national
level the most important source of data on disposable income (private consumption)
and structure of consumption is household surveys. The results of these surveys can
be obtained from reports published by national statistical agencies. About two-thirds
of the developing countries have conducted sample household surveys that are
representative nationally, and some of these provide high-quality data on living
standards. These surveys are carried out on an irregular basis and may be targeted to
specific income groups or geographic areas. Generally, data on the detailed structure
of consumption in low- and middle-income economies are weak. In some countries,
surveys are limited to urban areas or even to capital cities and so do not reflect
national spending patterns. Urban surveys tend to show lower-than-average shares for
food and higher-than-average shares for gross rent, fuel and power, transport and
communications, and other consumption.
Data can also be obtained from international agencies such as the World Bank and
from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), which carries out its own
surveys of households. Household consumption structure, including the share of
household income spent on fuel and power, was reported by the World Bank in the
2000 edition of the World Development Indicators. Data for developed countries can
be obtained from Eurostat and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD). Data from the European Community Household Panel are
currently available for 1995 and 1996.
Data on household energy use are also available from the International Energy
Agency (IEA). However, until the early 1980s, the household or residential sector was
not well distinguished from the service/commercial sector in OECD energy statistics,
particularly for liquid and solid fuels. In OECD countries, this distinction is now
common. In developing countries, data often distinguish between residential and
commercial consumption of electricity and natural gas, but users of liquid and solid
fuels are often not accurately identified. Many national energy balances thus fail to
distinguish between the residential and service/commercial sectors. Such problems are
indicated when data show electricity and natural gas consumption for both the
residential and service/commercial sectors, while liquid and solid fuel consumption is
shown for only one of the two sectors.
Household fuel and electricity prices in developed countries are generally available, both
nationally and internationally (OECD, Eurostat), but the availability of price data varies
from one country to another. For developing countries, data may be available from
national sources.
REFERENCES
•
Eurostat, 1980–1997. Energy Prices. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, 1990–1997. Electricity Prices. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, 2001. The Social Situation in the European Union 2001. Brussels,
Belgium: European Commission (DC Employment and Social Affairs).
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
34
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Prices and Taxes. Published quarterly. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
Schipper, L., Ketoff, A., Kahane, A., 1985. Estimating residential energy use
from bottom-up, international comparisons. Ann. Rev. Energy 10. Palo Alto
CA: Ann. Revs.
•
UNICEF. MICS Household Surveys. New York, USA: United Nations
Children’s Fund. Available at www.childinfo.org
•
World Bank. World Development Indicators. Published annually. Washington,
DC, USA: World Bank.
SOC3: Household energy use for each income group and corresponding
fuel mix
Brief Definition
Energy use of representative households for each
income group and the corresponding fuel mix
Household incomes divided into quintiles (20%)
Units
Energy: tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year per
household
Electricity: kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year and per
household. Percentage for fuel mix
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 3: Combating poverty
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator provides a measure of energy disparity and affordability.
The indicator is an assessment of the amount of electricity and fuels used by the
population relative to income level and the corresponding fuel mix.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: From a sustainable development
perspective, it is important to examine income, wealth and in particular affordability
of modern energy services across the population. A country may have a high per
capita gross domestic product (GDP), but its income distribution may be so skewed
that a large percentage of the population has no possibility to meet their needs for
commercial household energy at current energy prices and private income levels. This
is particularly relevant to developing countries, where one-third of the population
does not have access to commercial energy. Therefore, there is a need to increase
35
energy availability and affordability for the lower-income groups of the population in
many developing countries so as to promote social and economic development.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/ Recommended Standards: None.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to energy prices and to
several indicators of the social dimension, such as shares of households without
access to electricity or heavily dependent on non-commercial energy options, shares
of income spent on fuel and electricity, etc. The indicator might indirectly reflect a
related use of forest resources as fuelwood, which in turn could cause deforestation.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: This indicator provides information about
different levels of energy use and changes in fuel mix in relation to income level.
Energy use per household represents final energy use including traditional or noncommercial fuel. If data are available only on household energy fuel expenditures,
then the corresponding fuel prices are necessary to compute the amount of energy
used. Household income, by income group in quintiles, corresponds to the distribution
of income available for most countries. Each distribution is based on percentiles of
population — rather than on households — with households ranked by income or
expenditure per person. The values of the disposable income per capita and consumer
prices by commodity should be in national currencies.
(b) Measuring Methods: This indicator reflects energy use by fuel mix (in energy
units) relative to income level. If energy prices are needed, price data must refer to a
fixed date. Overall energy use can be computed by converting fuel energy use to a
single energy unit (e.g. toe). Also, energy use can be presented by fuel type using
different energy units (e.g. heating and cooking fuel in toe and electricity in kWh).
(c) Limitations of the Indicators: Availability of data for a number of developing
countries may be a limitation.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: None.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Energy use according to household
income group per fuel type. If data are available only on household energy fuel
expenditures, then the corresponding fuel prices are necessary.
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: The most important
source of data on disposable income is household surveys. The results of these
surveys can be obtained from government statistical agencies, often via published
reports. About two-thirds of the developing countries have done sample household
surveys that are representative nationally, and some of these provide high-quality data
on living standards.
Data can also be obtained from international agencies such as the World Bank. The
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) also carries out its own surveys of
households. Data for developed countries can be obtained from Eurostat and the
36
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Data from the
European Community Household Panel are currently available for 1995 and 1996.
Data on energy prices are available from national sources and are compiled by the
International Energy Agency (IEA) for OECD and non-OECD countries.
REFERENCES
•
Chen, S., Datt, G., Ravallion, M., 1992. POVCAL: A Program for Calculating
Poverty Measures from Grouped Data. Washington DC: World Bank, Poverty
and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department.
•
Eurostat, 2001. The Social Situation in the European Union 2001. Brussels,
Belgium: European Commission (DC Employment and Social Affairs).
•
Eurostat, various editions. Electricity Prices. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Electricity Prices: Price Systems. Luxembourg:
Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Prices. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Prices and Taxes. Published quarterly. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries. Published
annually. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
UNICEF. MICS Household Surveys. New York, USA: United Nations
Children’s Fund. Available at www.childinfo.org.
•
World Bank, various editions. World Development Indicators. Published
annually. Washington DC, USA: World Bank.
37
SOC4: Accident fatalities per energy produced by fuel chain
Brief Definition
Number of annual fatalities per energy produced
by fuel chain
Units
Number of fatalities by fuel chains per energy or
electricity produced annually
Alternative Definitions
Total number of accident fatalities
Agenda 21
Chapter 6: Protecting and promoting human health
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator shows the number of fatalities per energy produced in
energy systems and related activities. The indicator is used to assess the risk to human
health derived from energy systems, and in particular by various fuel chains per
energy produced.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Energy systems are associated with a
vast array of insults and impacts including environmental health risks. Exploring the
sustainability of current energy supply practices indicates that the extraction,
transport, use and waste management of energy options involve important health
hazards that in many cases result in fatalities. Although this issue is often ignored, the
risks to the population and the rates of occupational injury and mortality from energyrelated accidents are high. Operating a liquefied natural gas terminal, transporting
petroleum, running a coal mine or exploiting a hydropower dam also require the
conscious assessment of system-wide resilience in response to human or technical
failure in order to minimize the risk of accidents and consequently of fatalities.
Nuclear energy represents a special case in this context in that the scope of an
accident could be potentially large, but major efforts exist to actively assess and
manage the multidimensional risk in the nuclear industry. Also, the use of traditional
fuels in many countries is linked to fatalities resulting from fires and smoke
inhalation.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: None.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is closely linked to some indicators
of the economic dimension, such as the level of energy use and production, fuel mix,
etc. Also, the indicator is linked to other social indicators such as share of households
without electricity or heavily dependent on non-commercial energy.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: To compute the indicator, identification
of energy-related accidents and their allocation to specific fuel cycles and
subsequently to energy produced are required. For practical reasons, there is a
discrepancy between the number of accidents that actually occur and those that are
published and analysed in reports or periodicals. Therefore, the relatively rare major
38
accidents have a much greater probability of being registered than do the much more
frequent or routine accidents that are less publicized.
(b) Measuring Methods: Types of accidents for various fuel chains that may result in
fatalities include the following:
Coal: Explosions or fires in underground coal mines; collapse of roof or walls in
underground or surface mines; tailing dam collapse; haulage/vehicular accidents.
Oil: Offshore rig accidents; fires or explosions from leaks or process plant failures;
well blowouts causing leaks; transportation accidents resulting in fires, explosions or
major spills; loss of content in storage farms resulting in fires or explosions.
Natural Gas (includes liquefied petroleum gas): Same as for oil, except for spills.
Nuclear: Loss of coolant or reactivity transient and reactor meltdown; accidents
during shipment of high-level radioactive waste.
Hydro: Rupture or overtopping of dam.
Power Sector: Explosions or fires; failures of equipment for electricity generation,
transportation or distribution.
(c) Limitations of the Indicators: Fatalities alone do not cover all types of
consequences of accidents. In spite of the importance of monitoring all consequences,
the lack of corresponding information does not allow this issue to be fully addressed.
It is recognized that the current state of knowledge concerning delayed health effects
from accidents associated with different energy systems is limited.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Total number of accident fatalities.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Annual number of fatalities from the
various energy chains and from various types of power generation per energy
produced.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Numerous sources of information
at the national and international levels exist, but their availability, completeness,
scope, development status and quality vary enormously. The available data normally
cover human-induced accidents in a variety of sectors and in some cases also natural
disasters, but very few databases deal explicitly with energy-related accidents. The
Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) was set up by the European Commission
(EC) and is operated by the Major Accident Hazards Bureau (MAHB) at the EC’s
Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. The Worldwide Offshore Accident Databank
(WOAD) was established by the Norwegian organization Det Norske Veritas.
REFERENCES
•
Hathaway, L., 1991. A 26-Year Study of Large Losses in the Gas and
Electricity Utility Industry. New York, NY, USA: Marsh & McLennan
Protection Consultants.
•
IAEA, 1992. Comparative Assessment of the Health and Environment Impacts
of Various Energy Systems from Severe Accidents. Working Material,
39
Proceedings of a Technical Committee Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 1–3 June
1992. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
ICOLD, 1995. Dam Failures Statistical Analysis. Bulletin 99, CIGB/ICOLD.
Paris, France: International Commission on Large Dams.
•
The Paul Scherrer Institute. Energy-Related Severe Accidents Database
(ENSAD). Villigen, Switzerland: Paul Sherrer Institute.
•
WLO, 1998. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Geneva,
Switzerland: International Labour Organization.
ECONOMIC DIMENSION
ECO1: Energy use per capita
Brief Definition
Energy use in terms of total primary energy supply
(TPES), total final consumption (TFC) and final
electricity use per capita
Units
Energy: tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per capita
Electricity: kilowatt-hours (kWh) per capita
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator measures the level of energy use on a per capita basis and
reflects the energy-use patterns and aggregate energy intensity of a society.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Energy is a key factor in economic
development and in providing vital services that improve quality of life. Although
energy is a key requirement for economic progress, its production, use and byproducts have resulted in major pressures on the environment, both by depleting
resources and by creating pollution. On the one hand, the long-term aim is for
development and prosperity to continue through gains in energy efficiency, rather
than increased use, and through a transition towards the use of environmentally
friendly energy options. On the other hand, limited access to energy is a serious
constraint in the developing world, where the per capita use of energy is less than onesixth that of the industrialized world.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: Currently, there are no
conventions or agreements that specifically refer to the regulation and/or limitation of
energy use per capita. However, calls have been made for the prudent and rational
utilization of natural resources (Article 174 of the Treaty Establishing the European
Community — Nice, 2001), improved energy efficiency (The Energy Charter
Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects — Lisbon, 1994)
and a switch to cleaner forms of energy. The United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol call for limitations on total
40
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which result mainly from the combustion of fossil
fuels.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: None.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is closely linked with other
economic indicators, such as energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP),
energy prices, energy intensities and energy net imports; with environmental
indicators such as GHG emissions, air quality and waste generation; and with social
indicators such as household energy use for each income group.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Total primary energy supply (TPES) and
total final consumption (TFC) are key aggregates in the energy balances.
TPES comprises production of primary energy — for example, coal, crude oil, natural
gas, nuclear, hydro and other non-combustible and combustible renewables — plus
imports, less exports of all energy carriers, less international marine bunkers and
finally corrected for net changes in energy stocks. Production refers to the first stage
of production. International trade of energy commodities is based on the general trade
system; that is, all goods entering and leaving the national boundaries of a country are
recorded as imports and exports, respectively. In general, data on stocks refer to
changes in stocks of producers, importers and/or industrial consumers at the
beginning and the end of the year.
TFC refers to the sum of consumption by the different end-use sectors and thus
excludes energy consumed, or losses incurred, in the conversion, transformation and
distribution of the various energy carriers.
(b) Measuring Methods: This indicator is calculated as the ratio of the total annual
use of energy to the mid-year population. The following entries are to be specified for
the numerator of the indicator: total primary energy supply, total final consumption
and total final electricity consumption.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The actual value of the indicator is strongly
influenced by a multitude of economic, social and geographical factors.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: None.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Energy commodity data for production
and use (energy balances) and mid-year population estimates.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Energy commodity data for
production and use, and population data are regularly available for most countries at
the national level and for some countries at the sub-national level. Both types of data
are compiled by and available from national statistical offices and country
publications.
41
REFERENCES
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA/OECD/Eurostat, 2004. Energy Statistical Manual. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
UNSD, 1982. Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special
Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances — A Technical Report. New
York, NY, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1987. Energy Statistics: Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion
Factors. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1991. Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
ECO2: Energy use per unit of GDP
Brief Definition
Ratio of total primary energy supply (TPES), total
final consumption (TFC) and electricity use to
gross domestic product (GDP)
Units
Energy: tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per US dollar
Electricity: kilowatt-hours (kWh) per US dollar
Alternative Definitions
Sectoral energy intensities
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator reflects the trends in overall energy use relative to GDP,
indicating the general relationship of energy use to economic development.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Energy is essential for economic and
social development. However, energy use affects resource availability and the
environment. In particular, fossil fuel use is a major cause of air pollution and climate
change. Improving energy efficiency and decoupling economic development from
energy use are important sustainable development objectives.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: Currently, there are no
conventions or agreements that specifically refer to the regulation and/or limitation of
energy use per unit of GDP. However, Agenda 21 calls for considering how
economies can grow and prosper while reducing their use of energy and materials.
Also, it encourages the reduction of the amount of energy and materials used per unit
of goods/services produced. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation that was
agreed at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development also calls for
42
enhanced energy efficiency and greater use of advanced energy technologies. At the
regional level, calls have been made for the prudent and rational utilization of natural
resources (Article 174 of the Treaty Establishing the European Community — Nice,
2001), improved energy efficiency (The Energy Charter Protocol on Energy
Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects — Lisbon, 1994) and a switch to
cleaner forms of energy.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: There is no specific target for
energy intensity.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: The ratio of energy use to GDP is an aggregate
energy intensity indicator and thus is linked to indicators of the energy intensities of
the manufacturing, transport, service/commercial and residential sectors. This
indicator is also linked to indicators for total energy use, greenhouse gas emissions
and air pollution emissions.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: The ratio of energy use to GDP is also
called ‘aggregate energy intensity’ or ‘economy-wide energy intensity’. The ratio of
energy use to GDP indicates the total energy being used to support economic and
social activity. It represents an aggregate of energy use resulting from a wide range of
production and consumption activities. In specific economic sectors and sub-sectors,
the ratio of energy use to output or activity is the ‘energy intensity’ (if the output is
measured in economic units) or the ‘specific energy requirement’ (if the output is
measured in physical units such as tonnes or passenger-kilometres [km]).
Due to the limitations described below, disaggregated energy intensities by sector
(industrial, transport, residential, service/commercial, agricultural, construction, etc.)
or sub-sector should be developed in addition to the energy per GDP intensity. For
each sector or sub-sector, energy use can be related to a convenient measure of output
to provide sectoral or sub-sectoral energy intensity. Examples include energy use for
steel making relative to tonnes of steel produced; energy use by passenger vehicles
relative to passenger-km or vehicle-km; and energy use in buildings relative to their
floor area. (See separate methodology sheets for intensities of the industrial, transport,
service/commercial, agriculture and household sectors.)
(b) Measuring Methods: This indicator is calculated as the ratio of energy use to
economic output.
Energy Use: TPES, TFC and final electricity consumption are obtained from national
energy balances and international statistical sources. TPES and TFC are measured in
toe; electricity use is measured in kWh.
Output: GDP could be measured in US dollars, converted from the real national
currency at purchasing power parity (PPP) for the base year to which the national
currency was deflated.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The ratio of aggregate energy use to GDP is not an
ideal indicator of energy efficiency, sustainability of energy use or technological
development, as it has been commonly used. The aggregate ratio depends on the
energy intensities of sectors or activities, but also on factors such as climate,
43
geography and the structure of the economy. Consequently, changes in the ratio over
time are influenced by factors that are not related to changes in energy efficiency
(such as changes in economic structure). It is thus important to supplement the energy
use per GDP indicator with energy intensities disaggregated by sector, since these
disaggregated indicators are a better representation of energy efficiency
developments.
Comparisons among countries of the ratio of energy use to GDP are complicated by
geographical factors. Large countries, for example, tend to have high levels of freight
transportation, as many goods are distributed nationwide. Compared with countries
with moderate climates, cold countries might consume considerably more energy per
capita due to demand for space heating. Countries with hot climates might use more
energy per capita as a result of demand for air conditioning. Countries with economies
that depend mainly on raw-material industries might use larger quantities of energy
per unit of manufacturing output compared with countries that import processed
materials owing to the high energy intensity of raw-material processing. Canada, for
example, has a high ratio of energy use to GDP, resulting in part from the fact that it
is a large country with relatively cold weather and an economy that depends on a large
raw-material processing sector. In Japan, the climate is milder, raw materials are
limited, and the high population density results in smaller residential units and less
distance travelled, contributing to a lower ratio of energy use to GDP.
Interpreting the ratio of energy use to GDP in terms of environmental impact or
sustainability is also complicated by differences in environmental impacts among
energy options. Canada, for example, has substantial hydropower, nuclear power and
natural gas, which are energy sources that have lower environmental impacts than
coal or oil with respect to air pollution and climate change.
Given the large number of factors that affect energy use, the ratio of total energy use
to GDP should not be used alone as an indicator of energy efficiency or sustainability
for policy-making purposes.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: The ratio of sectoral or sub-sectoral energy
use to the output or activity of the sector or sub-sector provides a detailed indication
of energy intensity.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Energy use in terms of TPES, TFC and
electricity use, and real GDP in US dollars or national currency at PPP for
corresponding years and for a base year.
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: The International
Energy Agency (IEA) and Eurostat maintain the most comprehensive sets of energy
balances and energy accounts, based primarily on national data or data collected from
reliable regional agencies and statistical offices. GDP data are primarily available in
national accounts.
GDP and value added by industry are published by international organizations. The
International Financial Statistics of the International Monetary Fund provide nominal
and real GDP for most countries. Data on components of GDP are often available
from regional development banks or national sources.
44
Regional data are available from regional organizations such as the Asia Pacific
Energy Research Centre (APERC) and the Organización Latinoamericana de Energía
(OLADE).
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Balance Sheets. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Yearly Energy Statistics. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, 2004. Oil Crises and Climate Challenges: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA
Countries. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA/OECD/Eurostat, 2004. Energy Statistical Manual. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IMF, various editions. International Financial Statistics. Published monthly.
Washington DC, USA: International Monetary Fund.
•
UNSD. National Accounts Statistics. New York, NY, USA: United Nations
Statistics Division.
•
World Bank, 2000–2001. World Development Indicators. Washington DC,
USA: World Bank.
ECO3: Efficiency of energy conversion and distribution
Brief Definition
Efficiency of energy conversion and distribution,
including fossil fuel efficiency for electricity
generation, efficiency of oil refining and losses
occurring during electricity transmission and
distribution, and gas transportation and distribution
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator measures the efficiency of energy conversion and
distribution systems in various energy supply chains including losses occurring during
electricity transmission and distribution, and gas transportation and distribution.
45
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Improving energy supply efficiency and
reducing losses during energy conversion and transportation processes are important
sustainable development objectives for countries all over the world. Improvements in
the efficiency of energy supply systems translate into more effective utilization of
energy resources and into reductions of negative environmental impacts.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: Currently, there are no
international conventions or agreements that specifically refer to regulation or
improvements in energy supply efficiency. However, Agenda 21 calls for encouraging
greater efficiency in the use of energy, in particular on the supply side, and this call
was renewed by the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg.
Also, Agenda 21 calls for considering how economies can grow and prosper while
reducing the losses from various fuel-cycle chains.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: There is no specific target for
energy efficiency.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is closely linked with other
indicators of the economic and environmental dimensions, including energy use,
energy intensities, energy mix, greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, and soil
and water contamination.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: This indicator comprises the following:
Fossil fuel efficiency for electricity generation, defined as gross production of
electricity (including own use of electricity by power plants) from fossil fuel power
plants relative to fossil fuel inputs. Significant improvements in the average efficiency
of thermal power plants result from fuel switching; the commissioning of new, highefficiency generating plants; and the decommissioning of older, inefficient plants. In
particular, a move from coal towards gas, a fuel used in high-efficiency combined
gas-steam cycle, usually incurs higher efficiency gains. The indicator can be
developed separately for oil-, gas- and coal-based generation to isolate the fuelswitching effect.
Electricity transmission and distribution efficiency, defined as the ratio of final
electricity consumption to electricity supply. Electric power transmission and
distribution losses include losses during transmission between sources of supply and
points of distribution and during the distribution to consumers, including pilferage.
Gas distribution efficiency, defined as the ratio of final gas consumption to gas
supply. Gas supply is defined as primary gas supply less gas input to power stations.
Gas transportation and distribution losses include losses during transportation between
sources of supply and points of distribution, including own-use gas consumed by gas
pumping systems, and during the distribution to consumers.
Oil refining efficiency, defined as the average percentage of refinery output products
to refinery input, including feedstock. Both factors are expressed in energy units.
(b) Measuring Methods: The amount of energy produced, supplied and used can be
derived from the energy statistics and balances published by individual countries or
46
various international or regional organizations. The amounts of all primary energy
options, such as fossil fuel, electricity and heat, need to be considered.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Data on the efficiency of energy conversion and
distribution are not readily available for some countries.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: None.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Energy commodity data for production
and use (energy balances); output and input of refineries; gas consumption and
supplies; and structure of electricity supplies.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Energy commodity data for
production and consumption (energy balances) are regularly available for most
countries at the national level, and for some countries at the sub-national level. Both
types of data are compiled by and available from national statistical offices and
country publications.
Internationally, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Eurostat maintain the
most thorough sets of energy balances and energy accounts, based primarily on
national data or data collected from reliable regional agencies. Other sources of data
include the World Bank, the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA), the European Environment Agency (EEA), etc.
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no. 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, 2001. Integration — Indicators for Energy Data 1985–98, European
Commission, 2001 edition. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
UNSD, 1982. Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special
Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances — A Technical Report. New
York, NY, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1987. Energy Statistics: Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion
Factors. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1991. Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
47
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles. Published
biennially. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Statistics Yearbook. Published annually. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
World Bank. World Development Indicators. Published annually. Washington,
DC, USA: World Bank.
ECO4: Reserves-to-production ratio
Brief Definition
Ratio of energy reserves remaining at the end of a
year to the production of energy in that year. Also,
lifetime of proven energy reserves or the
production life index
Units
years
Alternative Definitions
Total reserves
Depletion rate of reserves
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The purpose of this indicator is to measure the availability of national
energy reserves with respect to corresponding fuel production. Reserves are generally
defined as identified (demonstrated and inferred) resources that are economically
recoverable at the time of assessment. Reserves are also defined as those quantities
that geologic and engineering information indicates can be recovered with reasonable
certainty in the future from known or identified energy resources under existing
economic and technical conditions The indicator considers fuels such as oil, natural
gas, coal and uranium, and provides a relative measure of the length of time that
proven reserves would last if production were to continue at current levels.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Availability of energy fuel supplies is a
key aspect of sustainability. This indicator provides a basis for estimating future
energy supplies with respect to current availability of energy reserves and levels of
production. The proper management of proven energy reserves is a necessary
component of national sustainable energy programmes.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: None.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to indicators of annual
energy production, annual energy use, imports, prices and resources.
48
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Proven reserves indicate the resources in
place that have been assessed as exploitable under present and expected economic
conditions with available technology.
(b) Measuring Methods: The estimates are based on the results of geological and
exploratory information about an area or on evidence of the duplication or parallelism
of geological conditions that occurs in known deposits. Unproven deposits are not
included. The lifetime of proven fuel reserves in terms of the reserves-to-production
ratio is computed by dividing the proven energy reserves of a commodity at the end of
a year by the total production of that commodity in that year.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The rate of use of energy reserves depends on
many factors, including economic conditions, prices, technological progress and
exploration efforts. Therefore, this indicator represents only a relative measure of
reserve availability. For many countries, reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas
have been constant over many years, despite increasing exploitation of these
resources. This is because when known reserves start to be depleted, greater effort
typically is put into identifying new reserves as a replacement. Trends in reserve-toproduction ratios may therefore underestimate the total resource available, on the one
hand, while providing inaccurate information about the extent to which a finite
resource is being exhausted, on the other hand.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: The total reserves and depletion rate are
alternative measures for this indicator.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Data on available energy reserves and
production.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Data on proven fossil fuel
reserves are available from the annual publication Survey of Energy Resources by the
World Energy Council and are subject to frequent revision. Such data are also
available from national and international oil and gas companies. Data on uranium
reserves are available from joint publications of the International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA).
REFERENCES
•
BP. Statistical Review of World Energy. Published annually. London, UK:
British Petroleum.
•
NEA/IAEA, various editions. Uranium: Resources, Production and Demand.
Paris, France: Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA).
•
UNDP/UNDESA/WEC, 2000, World Energy Assessment. New York, USA:
United Nations Development Programme.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Statistics Yearbook. Published annually. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
49
•
USGS, various editions. World Petroleum Assessment. Washington DC, USA:
United States Geological Survey.
•
WEC, various editions. Survey of Energy Resources. Published annually.
London, UK: World Energy Council.
ECO5: Resources-to-production ratio
Brief Definition
Ratio of the energy resources remaining at the end
of a year to the production of energy in that year
Also, lifetime of proven energy resources
Units
years
Alternative Definitions
Total resources
Depletion rate of resources
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The purpose of this indicator is to measure the availability of national
energy resources with respect to corresponding fuel production. Resources are
generally defined as concentrations of naturally occurring solid, liquid or gaseous
material in or on the Earth’s crust in a form that makes economic extraction
potentially feasible. Total resources include reserves, and hypothetical and speculative
undiscovered resources. This indicator considers fuels such as oil, natural gas, coal
and uranium. It provides a relative measure of the length of time that resources would
last if production were to continue at current levels.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: The availability and security of energy
fuel supplies are key aspects of sustainability. This indicator provides a basis for
assessing possible future energy supplies with respect to the current availability of
energy resources and levels of production. The proper management of energy
resources is a necessary component of national sustainable energy programmes.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: None.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to indicators of annual
energy production, annual energy use, imports, prices and reserves.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Resources include reserves, estimated
additional resources and speculative resources. Proven reserves indicate the resources
in place that have been assessed as exploitable under present and expected economic
conditions with available technology. Estimated additional resources are resources
inferred to exist. Speculative resources are resources thought to exist, mostly on the
basis of indirect evidence and geological extrapolations.
50
(b) Measuring Methods: The lifetime of fuel resources in terms of the resources-toproduction ratio is computed by dividing the total energy resources of a commodity at
the end of a year by the total production of that commodity in that year.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The rate of use of energy resources depends on
many factors, including economic conditions, prices, technological progress and
exploration efforts. Therefore, this indicator represents only a relative measure of
resource availability.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: The total resources and depletion rate are
alternative definitions for this indicator.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Data on available energy resources and
production.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Data on fossil fuel resources are
available from the annual publication Survey of Energy Resources by the World
Energy Council and are subject to frequent revision. Data on uranium resources are
available from joint publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Data are also available from national and
international oil and gas companies.
REFERENCES
•
NEA/IAEA, various editions. Uranium: Resources, Production and Demand.
Paris, France: Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA).
•
UNDP/UNDESA/WEC, 2000, World Energy Assessment. New York, USA:
United Nations Development Programme.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Statistics Yearbook. Published annually. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
WEC, various editions. Survey of Energy Resources. Published annually.
London, UK: World Energy Council.
51
ECO6: Industrial energy intensities
Brief Definition
Energy use per unit of value added in the industrial
sector and by selected energy-intensive industries
Units
Energy: tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per US dollar
Electricity: kilowatt-hours (kWh) per US dollar
Alternative Definition
Energy use per unit of physical output in the
industrial sector, manufacturing branches and
selected energy-intensive industries
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The industrial sector is a major user of energy. This set of indicators
measures the aggregate energy use of the industrial sector and selected energyintensive industries per corresponding value added. Intensities provide information
about the relative energy use per unit of output. The set is used to analyse trends in
energy efficiency and in changes in product composition and fuel mix as they affect
industrial, branch and product intensities. In addition, this set of indicators can be
used for evaluating trends in technological improvements and changes in the structure
of the industrial sector and sub-sectors.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Improving energy efficiency and
reducing energy intensities in industrial processes are important sustainable
development objectives for countries all over the world. Improvements in intensities
translate into more effective utilization of energy resources and into reductions of
negative environmental impacts.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: There are no specific international
conventions or agreements directly related to the reduction of energy intensities.
However, international conventions on the reduction of emissions, such as the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, might
influence intensity levels. The importance of energy efficiency and the rational use of
energy has also been highlighted by Agenda 21, at the World Summit on Sustainable
Development in Johannesburg and by various European Union treaties.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: Although there are no specific
international targets regarding energy intensities or energy efficiency, many
industrialized countries have targets for reducing energy use and carbon emissions
and other pollutants from industrial and manufacturing branches.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is part of a set of energy intensity
indicators in different sectors (transport, agriculture, service/commercial and
residential), all linked to the aggregate energy use per unit of gross domestic product
(GDP) indicator. These indicators are also linked to indicators of final and primary
energy use, electricity use, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions and
depletion of energy resources.
52
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Energy use per unit of value added is one
way of measuring energy requirements relative to manufacturing production.
While energy use per unit of physical output is a better indicator of energy efficiency
in specific manufacturing processes, energy use per unit of economic output is more
useful both for relating energy efficiency to economic activity and for aggregating and
comparing energy efficiency across manufacturing sectors or across the entire
economy.
Energy-intensive industries that may be considered include iron and steel, non-ferrous
metals, chemicals, petroleum refining, non-metallic minerals, cement, and paper and
pulp.
Changes in intensities are affected by factors other than energy efficiency; therefore,
analysing intensity trends provides important insights into how energy efficiency and
other factors affect energy use. Annex 3 includes a decomposition method for energy
intensities.
(b) Measuring Methods:
Energy Use: Energy use is usually measured as final energy at the point of
consumption; that is, the factory or establishment. ‘Own energy’ (including internal
use of hydropower, biofuels or internal waste heat) should be combined with
purchased energy to obtain total final energy use.
Complications in interpreting energy-intensity data arise from the fact that some
branches of manufacturing might be concentrated in regions of a country rich in
certain kinds of power or heat sources, so that those branches constitute a lower
energy burden on the economy than the indicator would suggest. Interpretation is also
complicated when a particular branch has significant internal energy resources, such
as captive hydropower, biofuels or coal.
For combined production of heat and electricity, no simple method exists for dividing
the total energy used between these two outputs. Where excess heat or electricity is
sold or provided to outside establishments or a grid, the energy required for this
outgoing supply should not be allocated to the product of the establishment or branch.
In some cases, it might be preferable to measure total primary energy use including
losses incurred in the external production and distribution of the purchased electricity
and heat as these losses would occur if the establishment or branch used the primary
energy directly. Primary energy use per unit of output measures the total energy
burden on the economy of a unit of output from a given industry. Generally, the
energy loss from converting primary energy to electricity is estimated using the
average ratio for electricity production in the economy. There are various conventions
for calculating the primary energy corresponding to electricity produced by nuclear,
hydropower or geothermal sources.
It is also possible to measure total energy use, internal and external for any final
product, by using input-output tables. This approach allows the measuring of the
energy embodied in materials and intermediate products; however, this is a very dataintensive task and input-output tables are not produced regularly.
53
Units: toe for final energy and kWh for electricity.
Output: Both value added and gross output may be used to measure economic output
from the industrial sector. In both cases, the real national currency is used, deflated by
the deflator for the sector or branch to a base year. This step is crucial, so that the
weight of each sector or branch reflects the correct weight in the base year. The value
of output can then be converted to a common international currency, usually US
dollars, using purchasing power parities (PPP). One alternative is to calculate the total
value of production or shipments, or gross output. This represents the total value of all
outputs from a given industry. Value added is equal to the contribution to GDP arising
from the sector, which represents only the increase in economic output produced by
the sector or branch in question.
The gross output measure tends to be more stable over time but has the disadvantage
that it cannot be aggregated to total output because of double counting; the inputs to
one branch may be the outputs of another branch. On the one hand, value added could
be aggregated but may have greater fluctuations from year to year if input costs or
output prices change. On the other hand, using value added allows the estimation of
impacts on energy use from structural changes.
Unit: Constant currency. The market value of output in the real national currency is
deflated to a base year using GDP deflators. The national currency can be converted
to US dollars, using the PPP for the base year.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The aggregate indicator for the industrial sector
reflects both the energy intensity of various branches of manufacturing and the
composition of the manufacturing sector. Changes in the aggregate indicator can
therefore be due either to changes in energy intensity or to changes in relative branch
output (structure). Similarly, differences between countries may be due either to
differences in energy efficiency or to differences in the structure of the manufacturing
sector. A country with large energy-intensive industries, such as pulping, primary
metals or fertilizers, for example, will have a high energy intensity, even if the
industry is energy efficient. For this reason, it is desirable to disaggregate energy
intensity by manufacturing branch and by industry.
Intensities measured as energy per value added at a disaggregated level are affected
by changes in the structure within each branch — for example, by changes in the mix
of metals produced within the non-ferrous metals sector or in the share of pulp versus
paper in total paper and pulp value added. While desirable, detailed calculations, such
as total energy use for particular products using input-output tables, are very data
intensive and difficult to update regularly.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Energy use per unit of physical output in
industries. For some purposes, physical output would be preferable, but this is not
possible using the energy-use statistics available in many countries, and there are
many sectors for which aggregate physical output cannot be easily defined.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Energy and electricity use by industrial
sector, by manufacturing branch and by selected industries; value added or gross
output.
54
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: The United Nations
compiles value added at the two- or three-digit level of the International Standard
Industrial Classification (ISIC) system for developed and developing countries. The
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), as part of its
STAN database, compiles value added in manufacturing at the three- and four-digit
ISIC level for most OECD countries. The European Union produces data on value
added at the two- and three-digit level in the NACE system, and suitable bridges exist
to translate NACE into ISIC.
One persistent data problem at the aggregate level is distinguishing between ‘industry’
(ISIC, Divisions C, D, F and E) and ‘manufacturing’ (ISIC, Division D). Some
countries also lump agriculture, forestry and fishing (ISIC, Divisions A and B) into
the aggregate ‘industrial sector’ classification. For these reasons, it is strongly
recommended that data be checked to ascertain exactly what sectors are covered.
Data on final energy use are compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in
the energy balances for OECD and non-OECD countries, but these data are given by
main sector and not by main product. Thus it is difficult to track energy use related to
the physical production of a certain product — for example, cement. Very few
countries report data at this disaggregated level.
Regional data are available from regional organizations such as the Asia Pacific
Energy Research Centre (APERC) and the Organización Latinoamericana de Energía
(OLADE).
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no. 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Energy Policy, June/July 1997 issue, Elsevier Science Limited. Various
articles in this issue discuss the physical and monetary measures of output and
various problems associated with indicators of manufacturing energy use and
intensity.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Balance Sheets. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, 1997. Indicators of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency (IEA)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD).
•
IEA, 2004. Oil Crises and Climate Challenges: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA
Countries. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
Phylipsen, G.J.M., Blok, K., Worrell, E., 1997. Handbook on International
Comparison of Energy Efficiency in the Manufacturing Industry. Utrecht,
Netherlands: Utrecht University, Dept. of Science, Technology, and Society.
55
•
Unander, F., Karbuz, S., Schipper, L., Khrushch, M., Ting, M., 1999.
Manufacturing energy use in IEA countries: Decomposition of long-term
trends, Energy Policy, 27(13): 769–778.
•
UNSD. Industry Statistics. New York, NY, USA: United Nations Statistics
Division.
•
UNSD. National Accounts Statistics. New York, NY, USA: United Nations
Statistics Division.
ECO7: Agricultural energy intensities
Brief Definition
Final energy use per unit of agricultural value
added
Units
Energy: tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per US dollar
Electricity: kilowatt-hours (kWh) per US dollar
Alternative Definition
Energy use per unit of agricultural output
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator is a measure of aggregate energy intensity in the
agricultural sector that can be used for analysing trends, particularly in renewables
and non-commercial energy use.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Energy is essential for most human
activities, including agriculture. The availability of energy is a key factor for
increasing agricultural productivity and for improving rural livelihoods. This indicator
can be used to guide policy and investment decisions regarding energy requirements
in all stages of agricultural production and energy efficiency. Renewable energy
options such as solar, wind and bioenergy can contribute greatly to increased labour
efficiency and diversified economic activities in rural areas.
It is worth noting that the specific functions of agriculture as an energy producer and
agroecosystem regenerator are important components of sustainable development
programmes in some countries.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: No international agreements exist.
Agenda 21 makes reference to the need to promote energy efficiency in all sectors.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: No international targets exist
or apply. Targets could be developed at the national level, depending on the country’s
range of agricultural products.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is part of a set of energy intensity
indicators in different sectors (manufacturing, transport, service/commercial and
residential), with energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) as an aggregate
energy intensity indicator. It is also linked to indicators such as total energy, non-
56
commercial energy and electricity use, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant
emissions.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Energy use per unit of value added is one
way of measuring energy requirements per unit of output in the agricultural sector.
While energy use per unit of physical output is a better indicator of energy efficiency
in specific agricultural processes, data supporting this level of disaggregation are
rarely available. Measuring intensity in terms of economic output is useful for
aggregating and comparing energy developments across the entire economy. Total
energy use in agriculture derives from the energy inputs at all the stages of
agricultural production and processing. The agricultural activities include land
preparation, mechanization, fertilization, irrigation, harvesting, transport, processing
and storage. Each of these stages uses different forms of energy (mechanical,
electrical, thermal), which can be aggregated in equivalent units.
Changes in intensities are affected by factors other than energy efficiency; therefore,
analysing intensity trends provides important insights into how energy efficiency and
other factors affect energy use. Annex 3 includes a decomposition method for energy
intensities.
(b) Measuring Methods:
Energy Use: Annual energy inputs for each stage of agricultural production and
processing are determined and converted into equivalent units and aggregated as total
energy. Energy use is usually measured at the point of consumption (i.e. the farm),
and ‘own energy’ (including internal use, biomass, etc.) should be added to the
purchased energy.
Units: toe for final energy and kWh for electricity.
Output: Net economic output is measured in agricultural value added (International
Standard Industrial Classification [ISIC], Division A). The sector comprises crops and
livestock production, agricultural services, and forestry and fishing/hunting/trapping.
Data on physical output of some products are available from the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO). However, matching energy-use data for
the same products are rarely available, and thus it is difficult to construct
disaggregated energy intensities from the physical output data.
Unit: Constant currency. The market value of output in the real national currency is
deflated to a base year using GDP deflators. The national currency can be converted
into US dollars, using purchasing power parity for the base year.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The aggregate indicator for the agricultural sector
(ISIC, Division A, groups 01, 02, 07, 08 and 09) reflects the energy intensity for all
agricultural activities (crop and livestock production, forestry, fishing, etc.). Changes
in this aggregate indicator are due to changes in both energy efficiency and the
product mix of agricultural output (structure). This means that differences seen across
countries in both the absolute level and the time development of this indicator do not
necessarily reflect differences in energy efficiency. Furthermore, agricultural
production is affected by factors other than energy inputs (e.g. climate, availability of
57
other inputs, etc). These factors are less distorting if comparative values are collected
for consecutive years. Data for energy use in agriculture are not considered to be very
reliable at the present time. Special surveys could generate sound data but would be
expensive and might not be a priority for statistical agencies.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: An alternative indicator is energy use per
unit of agricultural output. While data for production are available, it is problematic to
find data on energy use disaggregated for specific forms of agricultural activity. The
indicator includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW) but not such noncommercial energy inputs as human and animal power. Human power quantification
methodologies might need to be further elaborated.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator:
•
Total final energy use by the agricultural sector.
•
Electricity consumption by the agricultural sector.
•
Value added of the agricultural sector.
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: Some data are
available for most countries, although reliable and comprehensive statistics to enable
time-series analysis are elusive. Agriculture value-added data are compiled by the
World Bank. Agricultural production figures are available from agriculture ministries.
The FAO has processed and compiled considerable data on agricultural sector outputs
in physical terms. The United Nations compiles value added at the two- and threedigit level in the agricultural sector. The energy balances of the International Energy
Agency (IEA) include energy use in agriculture. Energy balances are prepared by
energy ministries or other competent national authorities. Regional data are available
from regional organizations such as the Organización Latinoamericana de Energía
(OLADE).
REFERENCES
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Balance Sheets. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
FAO, 1988. Energy Conservation in Agriculture. Report and proceedings of
Technical Consultation, Helsinki (Finland), CNRE Bulletin 23. Rome, Italy:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
•
FAO, 1995. Forests, Fuels and the Future — Wood Energy for Sustainable
Development. FAO Forestry Topics, Report No. 5. Rome, Italy: Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
•
FAO, 1995. State of Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations.
•
FAO, 2001. Statistiques de la FAO. Bases de Datos Estadísticos de la FAO.
Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
58
•
FAO and African Development Bank, 1995. Future Energy Requirements for
Africa’s Agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations.
•
FAOSTAT, 2001. CD-ROM. FAO Statistical Databases. Bases de Données.
Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
WEC, 1993–1998. World Energy Council Developing Country Committee
Publications. London, UK: World Energy Council.
•
World Bank, various editions. World Development Indicators. Published
annually. Washington DC, USA: World Bank.
ECO8: Service/commercial energy intensities
Brief Definition
Final energy use per unit of service and commercial
value added or per floor area
Units
Tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) for final energy and
kilowatt-hours (kWh) for electricity per US dollar
(value added), in constant US dollars (purchasing
power parity [PPP]) or per square metre of floor
area
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator is used to monitor trends in energy use in the service/
commercial sector.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: The service sector is less energy
intensive than is the manufacturing sector, and the growth of the sector relative to
manufacturing contributes to the long-term reduction in the ratio of total energy use to
gross domestic product (GDP). The sector, however, is a large consumer of
electricity. In general, sustainable development requires increases in energy efficiency
in all sectors in order to reduce overall energy use and to diminish negative
environmental impacts.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: There are no international
agreements. Some countries are promulgating energy efficiency standards for lighting,
office equipment or other devices, while others are negotiating voluntary agreements
to reduce energy use per square metre of floor space.
59
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: There are no international
targets or standards. Many industrialized countries have set targets for reducing the
space-heating component of service-sector energy use per unit of floor area.
Currently, many countries are trying to reduce electricity consumption for cooling,
lighting and information systems.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is part of a set for energy intensity
in different sectors (manufacturing, transport, agriculture and residential), with the
indicator for energy use per unit of GDP as an aggregate energy intensity indicator.
This indicator is also linked to indicators for total energy and electricity use,
greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Energy use per unit of value added or per
unit of floor area in the service/commercial sector is one way to measure energy
requirements and trends of service buildings. These buildings include both public and
commercial services such as offices, schools, hospitals, restaurants, warehouses and
retail stores. Energy use in services is challenging to analyse in the aggregate owing to
the large differences among building types and the wide range of activities and
energy-related services offered in any given building. That buildings house different
kinds of enterprises and a given branch of enterprises may be found in many different
kinds of buildings makes the situation even more complex. Thus the
service/commercial sub-sectors are diverse and difficult to classify. They include subsectors that require a great deal of electricity per unit of output (retail trade), those that
use large quantities of fuel for water and space heating (health care establishments)
and those that by their nature consume little energy (warehouses, parking garages).
Energy efficiency in this sector is more directly related to the efficiency of general
energy services (lighting, ventilation, computing, lifting, etc.) than to the efficiency of
the particular sectoral activities. However, there are almost no data on actual energy
service outputs per unit of energy input (lumens of light, cubic metres of air moved,
computing power or use, tonnes raised in lifts, etc.). Hence, the usual measure of
energy intensity, toe per unit of output in economic terms (toe /US dollar), can be a
useful indicator, provided it is clear that this indicator summarizes many processes
and types of buildings. Because of the differences in processes, it is very important to
separate electricity from fossil-fuel and purchased heat.
Changes in intensities are affected by factors other than energy efficiency; therefore,
analysing intensity trends provides important insights into how energy efficiency and
other factors affect energy use. Annex 3 includes a decomposition method for energy
intensities.
(b) Measuring Methods:
Energy Use: Energy use (including district heating and electricity) and electricity
intensities are recorded separately. Final energy use is usually measured at the point
of use (i.e. the building or enterprise). Data for enterprises in this sector are usually
collected through the enterprise’s normal accounting of expenditures or use of energy.
Note, however, that the correspondence between enterprise and building type can be
very loose.
60
In a few countries, energy use in buildings by type of end use is measured by surveys
of actual buildings. Where these data exist, they can be used to construct more
disaggregated intensities that better reflect efficiencies of certain end uses. Heating
energy use per square metre of floor area heated is an important example of such a
measure. Electricity use per square metre is important to measure, but it is difficult to
disaggregate into heating, cooling, water heating/cooking, lighting, etc., without
recourse to detailed surveys. Some colder countries (e.g. Norway) have a high overall
energy intensity in the service sector and a high share of electric heating, while other
colder countries (e.g. Finland) also have high intensities, but with much less electric
space heating. Similarly, warmer countries have substantial amounts of space that are
fully air-conditioned. For many countries, data on the amount of air-conditioned space
are not available.
Despite all these uncertainties, fuel intensities give useful information about spaceand water-heating and cooking activities, and electricity intensities for electricity
services.
Units: toe for final energy and kWh for electricity.
Output: There are different approaches to measuring output in the service/commercial
sector, with value added as the most direct measure of economic output. However,
intensities calculated as energy per unit of floor area are more closely related to
energy efficiency for end uses such as heating, cooling and lighting. Surveys of floor
area, by building type, have been carried out in many International Energy Agency
(IEA) Member countries. Often, the building type is specifically related to the activity
of the enterprise — for example, school (education), hospital (health care) or
restaurant (food services). However, in many cases, particularly for offices and
restaurants, buildings contain a mix of activities and enterprises, each with its own
energy system and with considerably different energy-use patterns.
Unit: Constant currency. The market value of output in the real national currency is
deflated to a base year using GDP deflators. The national currency can be converted
to US dollars, using PPP for the base year. For floor area, square metres of built space
is usually the unit, but in some colder countries, square metres of occupied or heated
space is recorded. The difference, which can be significant, reflects unheated spaces,
garages and stairwells, etc.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: It is often difficult to measure and interpret energy
intensities per unit of value added within sub-sectors (private services, public services,
etc.) because different activities often take place in the same building, hence the real
allocation of energy use among activities is uncertain. In such cases, intensities
expressed per unit area disaggregated by building type may be more easily related to
real energy efficiencies. However, these have the similar problem that a variety of
activities may take place in a particular type of building. A hospital, for example, will
contain space for food preparation or laundry services, as well as for health care.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: None.
61
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator:
•
Energy use by service/commercial sector.
•
Electricity consumption by service/commercial sector.
•
Real value added of the sector.
•
Built areas or occupied space (sometimes, heated space).
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: Data on value
added or GDP in one-digit service sector branches of the International Standard
Industrial Classification (ISIC) system are available for almost every country. More
detailed data exist for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) countries, both from national sources and from the OECD national accounts,
as well as from the OECD’s STAN database.
Energy-use data at the sector-wide level are available for almost all OECD countries
and for most others, but there are some important caveats. First, one must check the
residential sector data from the same source to determine whether liquid and solid
fuels have been divided between these sectors (service/commercial and residential). In
many of the IEA time series, this division is not made, and one sector or the other has
all of the liquid or solid fuels. For developing countries, this split is a problem for gas
as well, which is often entirely allocated to either residential use or services rather
than being split. Second, it must be checked whether the service/commercial sector
contains data from other sectors — for example, agriculture, construction, street
lighting and even non-energy utilities like water and waste disposal.
Regional data are available from regional organizations such as the Asia Pacific
Energy Research Centre (APERC) and the Organización Latinoamericana de Energía
(OLADE).
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no. 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Balance Sheets. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, 1997. Indicators of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency IEA/Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD).
•
IEA, 2004. Oil Crises and Climate Challenges: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA
Countries. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
62
•
Krackeler, T., Schipper, T., Sezgen, O., 1998. Carbon dioxide emissions in
OECD service sectors. The critical role of electricity use. Energy Policy, 26
(15): 1137–1152.
•
UNSD. Industry Statistics. New York, NY, USA: United Nations Statistics
Division.
•
UNSD. National Accounts Statistics. New York, NY, USA: United Nations
Statistics Division.
ECO9: Household energy intensities
Brief Definition
Amount of total residential energy used per person
or household or unit of floor area. Amount of
energy use by residential end use per person or
household or unit of floor area, or per electric
appliance
Units
Tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) of final energy and
kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity per capita or per
household or square metre of floor area; toe and
kWh of electricity for space heating per unit of
floor area; kWh of lighting per unit of floor area;
toe and kWh for cooking per household; toe and
kWh for water heating per capita; unit electricity
consumption for electric appliances
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator is used to monitor energy use in the household sector.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: The household sector is a major user of
energy with distinctive usage patterns. Improvement of energy efficiencies in this
sector is an important priority for many countries, since it translates into the more
effective utilization of energy resources and a reduction of negative environmental
impacts. Many policies addressing energy efficiency and savings have been formulated
for this sector. In colder countries, for example, the space-heating component has been
the focus of many energy-saving policies, while in almost all countries, the electricappliance and lighting component is still the focus of many policies.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None specifically for this sector.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: There are no international
targets or standards; however, thermal standards for new homes are in effect in almost
all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and East
European countries, and in other countries in colder climates. Efficiency standards for
63
boilers and new electric appliances exist and are also important in many countries.
Many countries have home energy standards for home appliances.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is part of a set for energy intensities
in different sectors (manufacturing, agriculture, transport and service/commercial),
with the indicator for energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) as an
aggregate energy intensity indicator. These indicators are also linked to indicators of
total energy and electricity use, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Household energy use encompasses
energy used in residential buildings, including urban and rural free-standing houses,
apartment dwellings and most collective dwellings such as dormitories and barracks.
These energy uses typically include cooking, water heating, space heating and
cooling, lighting, major appliances for refrigeration, washing and drying, television
and communications, computers, conveniences like food processing machines,
vacuum cleaners, etc., as well as a myriad of small appliances. Household energy use
should exclude energy for farm processes, small businesses or small industry. The
household sector must be separated from the service/commercial sector. The energy
fuel options should include not only commercial energy, but also non-commercial
energy sources such as fuelwood and other biomass fuels.
Changes in intensities are affected by factors other than energy efficiency; therefore,
analysing intensity trends provides important insights into how energy efficiency and
other factors affect energy use. Annex 3 includes a decomposition method for energy
intensities.
(b) Measuring Methods:
Energy Use: Commercial energy for households is usually recorded in the energy
statistics of countries based on data provided by electric, gas or heat utilities
according to customer definitions that correspond to ‘households’. Data on purchases
of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), other oil products, coal or similar fuels and wood
are not always recorded correctly since suppliers may not know where or how these
fuels are being used.
More information on different end uses in the household sector can be obtained
through household surveys. The most direct surveys collect detailed information on
both fuels consumed and energy-using equipment owned or used. The most accurate
surveys also collect data (with permission from households) from energy suppliers for
quantities consumed, or they use fuel-use diaries for households to record what is
consumed. The surveys measure usage in a variety of appliances and in heating
equipment using miniature data loggers. Less-detailed surveys estimate the use of
each fuel for each major purpose through regression analysis over a large number of
households.
Unit: toe for final energy and kWh for electricity.
Activity: At the aggregate level, residential energy use is calculated on a per capita or
per household basis, or if data are available, per unit of floor area. In general, energy
use depends on both the physical size and characteristics of the dwelling, on the
64
number of people and on ownership levels of electric appliances. As the number of
people in a household declines, energy use per household declines, while the energy
use per capita increases. Energy use for water heating and cooking, and for many
appliances tends to vary with the household size and the number of people per
household.
For developing countries with large rural sectors or large numbers of homes without
access to electricity, the share of homes connected to the electricity grid is an
important factor in total household energy use. The shares of homes using different
kinds of combustible renewables and waste (CRW) are also important.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: When energy use by end use is not known, energy
use per household can be used as an energy-intensity indicator, but it does not
measure energy efficiency developments very well. Some important conclusions can
be drawn, however, if the average winter temperature, ownership of energy-using
appliances and dwelling size are known. In a country with cold winters and a high
penetration of central heating systems, a low total use of energy for all purposes,
relative to total home (floor) area and the severity of winter climate, probably implies
efficient heating practices. Conversely, high energy use relative to floor area in a
country with mild winters might imply inefficiencies. However, since energy-use
habits vary so much, both among countries and among end uses, few conclusions
about efficiency can be drawn from the indicator on residential energy use per
household.
The measurement and interpretation of energy intensities are complicated by
differences among products within a category, such as size (e.g. refrigerator capacity),
features (freezer compartments in refrigerators) and utilization (hours per year a stove
is used).
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: None.
(e) Measurement of Efficiency: To describe energy efficiency developments,
intensities should be expressed as energy use per unit of disaggregated energy service.
The inverse of these intensities would then reflect energy efficiency — for example,
litres of refrigerated volume at a given temperature divided by electricity use for
refrigeration, lumens of light per watt of power consumed, or computer tera-flops per
second divided by power consumption for the computer, etc. In practice, these kinds
of disaggregated data are not available. For some household equipment, specific
energy requirements can be calculated from survey data on equipment efficiency and
usage time per year for the equipment.
Activity (Services Provided): Ideally, output units would be in energy services
delivered, such as lumens of lighting, number of meals cooked, area and time heated,
litres of hot water provided, litres refrigerated, kilograms of clothes washed, etc. In
practice such data are rarely available, even for individually metered homes. If data
separating residential energy use by main end use are available, floor area should be
used as the activity measure for space heating, air conditioning and lighting; number
of persons per household, for water heating and cooking; and ownership levels
measured as number of devices per household, for important electric household
appliances.
65
Disaggregated Intensities: Using the activity measures mentioned above, the
following intensities may be developed for each main end use:
•
Space heating: energy use per square metre of heated floor area or per square
metre per degree-day (this intensity should be measured in terms of useful
energy, i.e. taking into account estimates of the efficiency of different spaceheating alternatives).
•
Energy use per capita for heating water and cooking.
•
Electricity use per unit for each major appliance: refrigerator, freezer, clothes
washer, clothes dryer, dishwasher, television, etc.
These specific energy requirements are related to, but not identical to, the inverse of
energy efficiencies. However, these intensities are often the most disaggregated
measures that can be constructed from statistics published regularly in Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Yet it should be
noted that also many countries within the OECD do not estimate the split between
residential end uses, and consequently even more aggregate measures, such as total
residential energy per household, remain the only alternative.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator:
•
Energy use by main residential end use (heating, cooling, cooking, heating
water, lighting).
•
Population and/or number of households.
•
Area per household or per capita.
•
Electricity use per major appliance (e.g. refrigerators, freezers, combination
freezers/refrigerators, clothes washers, clothes dryers, dishwashers,
televisions).
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: In some countries,
the lack of separation between the residential/household and the service/commercial
sectors in energy statistics has been a problem, particularly for liquid and solid fuels.
In OECD countries, this distinction is now common. In developing countries, data
often distinguish between residential and commercial consumption of electricity and
natural gas, but users of liquid and solid fuels are often not accurately identified.
Many national energy balances thus fail to distinguish between the residential and
service/commercial sectors. Such problems are indicated when data show electricity
and natural gas consumption for both the residential and service/commercial sectors,
while liquid and solid fuel consumption is shown for only one of the two sectors.
The other major challenge is to estimate the use of all kinds of non-commercial fuels,
such as CRW (biomass), in developing countries. This is important in almost all
developing countries, even in urban areas. Because of these two problems, aggregate
national or international statistics must be used with caution.
Consistent data separating residential energy use by main end uses are often not
available, even in OECD countries, and have thus not been compiled by international
66
institutions. However, both the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Eurostat have
recently started collecting these data, where available, from their respective member
countries. The World Bank has sponsored many one-time household surveys in
developing countries, focusing either on rural or urban areas. In addition to survey
results, data on energy-using equipment are sometimes available from electric and gas
utilities, as well as from sales statistics from electric and gas appliance manufacturers.
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no. 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
IEA, 1997. Indicators of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency (IEA)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD).
•
IEA, 2004. Oil Crises and Climate Challenges: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA
Countries. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
ECO10: Transport energy intensities
Brief Definition
Energy use per unit of freight-kilometre (km)
hauled and per unit of passenger-km travelled by
mode
Units
Freight: tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per tonne-km
Travel: toe per passenger-km
Alternative Definitions
Overall average fuel consumption for all modes per
passenger-km or tonne-km
Agenda 21
Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: Transport is a major user of energy, mostly in the form of oil products,
which makes transport the most important driver behind growth in global oil demand.
The transport indicators measure how much energy is used for moving both goods and
people.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Transport serves economic and social
development through the distribution of goods and services and through personal
mobility. However, energy use for transport also leads to the depletion of resources
and to air pollution and climate change. Reducing energy intensity in transport can
67
reduce the environmental impacts of transport while maintaining the economic and
social benefits.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: There are no international
conventions directly related to energy intensities in the transport sector. International
conventions on energy emissions, such as the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol, are indirectly related to
transport energy intensities. The European Union voluntary commitments on carbon
dioxide (CO2) emissions by European, Japanese and Korean car manufacturer
associations require reductions of CO2 emissions per kilometre for new automobiles.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: Many industrialized countries
have targets for reducing energy use and carbon emissions from transport.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is part of a set for energy intensities
in different sectors (manufacturing, agriculture, service/commercial and residential),
with energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) as an aggregate energy
intensity indicator. These indicators are also linked to indicators for total energy use,
greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution emissions.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: The transport indicators reflect how
much energy is used to transport goods and people. The separation of freight transport
and passenger travel is essential for energy analysis, both because they are largely
based on different modes and because the activities driving energy use are different.
The two activity measures (tonne-km and passenger-km) are quite distinct and are
collected separately. However, separating the energy use in these two activities is
often complicated given the way data are available from typical energy statistics.
Changes in intensities are affected by factors other than energy efficiency; therefore,
analysing intensity trends provides important insights into how energy efficiency and
other factors affect energy use. Annex 3 includes a decomposition method for energy
intensities.
(b) Measuring Methods:
Energy Use: Ideally, for road transport, energy use should be measured for each type
of vehicle or means of transport, including two-wheel vehicles, automobiles, sport
utility vehicles (SUVs) and buses for personal travel, and small trucks, heavy trucks
and miscellaneous road vehicles for freight transport. Outside of road transport, both
freight and personal travel should be divided into trains, ships and aircraft for
domestic transport. In general, however, national energy balances are only
disaggregated by fuel and broad traffic type or mode of transport: road, rail, water, air
and pipeline. Thus, they give no information on energy use by individual means of
road transport or, even more importantly, on the split between personal travel and
freight transport. International air or maritime transport should not be included.
Output or Activity: For assessing the efficiency of road vehicles, vehicle-km is a
useful activity measure, assuming that data are available for each vehicle type.
However, to be able to construct indicators across all modes for personal travel and
freight transport, passenger-km and tonne-km, respectively, must be used as activity
68
variables. This also provides a better indication of how efficiently energy is used to
provide personal mobility and distribution of goods. For example, from this
perspective, a bus carrying 20 passengers for 10 km (200 passenger-km) is less energy
intensive (more efficient) than the same bus carrying 5 passengers for the same
distance (50 passenger-km). Similarly, a fully loaded truck is less energy intensive
than the same truck carrying a partial load.
Vehicle Intensities: Energy use per vehicle-km by vehicle and fuel type is an
important indicator, as many standards for air pollution (and more recently, goals for
CO2 emissions reductions) are expressed in terms of vehicle characteristics, that is,
emissions per vehicle-km.
Modal Intensities: Energy use per passenger-km or tonne-km should be disaggregated
by vehicle type, namely, two-wheel vehicle, automobile/van, bus, airplane, local and
long-distance train, metro (also known as ‘subway’ or ‘underground’), tram, ship or
ferry for passengers, and truck, train, ship or airplane for freight.
Note: Aggregate energy intensities for travel or freight are a meaningful summary
indicator whose value depends on both the mix of vehicles and the energy intensities
of particular types of vehicles. The energy intensities of public train and bus transport
per passenger-km are significantly lower than the energy intensities for automobiles
or air transport. Freight, rail and ship transport are commonly less energy intensive
than is trucking per tonne-km. It should also be noted that fuel consumption per
vehicle-km also depends on traffic conditions as well as vehicle characteristics.
The energy intensity of a vehicle depends on both capacity and capacity utilization. A
large vehicle that is fully loaded generally has lower energy intensity per tonne-km
than a fully loaded smaller vehicle, but a small vehicle fully loaded will have a lower
energy intensity than a large vehicle with the same load.
For some developed countries, typical load factors for private automobiles are 1.5
persons per automobile. For rail and bus, load factors vary from well below 10% (e.g.
United States city buses on average) to over 100% of nominal capacity at peak times
(in many developing countries during most of the day). Typical load factors for
trucking might be 60–80% of weight capacity when loaded, but trucks commonly run
20–45% of their kilometres empty, yielding a relatively low overall load factor.
Underutilized transport capacity means more pollution and road damage per unit of
transport service delivered; hence capacity utilization itself is an important indicator
of sustainable transport.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Data availability may limit the disaggregation of
the indicator to the desired level. Considerable work is often required to disaggregate
energy balances into various modes of transport.
Some countries’ transport energy statistics include fuel consumed by domestic airlines
or shipping lines in international transport. Efforts should be made to exclude such
transport and energy use from the indicators.
Measurement and interpretation of energy intensities are complicated by differences
among products within a category, such as size (e.g. automobile weight), features
(power steering and automatic transmission in automobiles) and utilization (vehicle
occupancy if passenger-km is the measure of output).
69
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: An alternative, simpler measure of energy
intensity for transport could be overall average fuel consumption per passenger-km or
tonne-km for all modes, but the results would be strongly influenced by the mix of
modes and vehicle types, which varies enormously among countries and over time.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator:
•
Energy use by mode of transport, vehicle type and fuel for passenger travel
and freight transport separately.
•
Distance travelled by vehicles, passengers and freight, including load factors.
•
Distance travelled by urban public transport and corresponding share of
electric vehicles.
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: National energy
balances and energy statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and
Eurostat normally do not disaggregate road transport into individual means of
transport, but this information is sometimes published by transport ministries. Few
sources of energy data separate fuel consumption for air, rail or domestic shipping
into that for passengers and that for freight, but national or private rail and shipping
organizations may have this information. Energy use for local electric transport
(commuter rail, metro, trams) is often published separately by national authorities.
Eurostat, the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT) and the United
Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) are leading agencies for the
collection of data on vehicle-, passenger- and tonne-km in Europe. Transport
ministries in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia and other countries publish
similar data, often through their statistical agencies. In developing and transitional
countries, fewer data are available.
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. TERM 2002 — Paving the Way for EU Enlargement — Indicators
of Transport and Environment Integration. Environmental issue report no. 32.
Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
EEA, 2004. Ten Key Transport and Environment Issues for Policy-Makers.
TERM 2004: Indicators Tracking Transport and Environment Integration in
the European Union. EEA Report no. 3/2004. Copenhagen, Denmark:
European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, 2003. Calculation of Indicators of Environmental Pressures Caused
by Transport — Main Report. Luxembourg, European Communities.
•
Eurostat, 2003. Energy Efficiency Indicators. Luxembourg, European
Communities.
•
Eurostat, 2004. Glossary for Transport Statistics Document prepared by the
Intersecretariat Working Group on Transport Statistics. Third edition.
Luxembourg, European Communities.
70
•
Eurostat, various editions. Transport and Environment: Statistics for the
Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) for the European
Union. Luxembourg, European Communities.
•
IEA, 1997. Indicators of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency (IEA)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD).
•
IEA, 2001. Saving Oil and Reducing CO2 emissions in Transport: Options
and Strategies. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, 2004. Oil Crises and Climate Challenges: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA
Countries. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
•
Schipper, L., Figueroa, M.J., Price, L., Espey, M., 1993. Mind the gap: The
vicious circle of measuring automobile fuel use. Energy Policy 21(12): 1173–
1190.
ECO11: Fuel shares in energy and electricity
Brief Definition
The structure of energy supply in terms of shares
of energy fuels in total primary energy supply
(TPES), total final consumption (TFC) and
electricity generation and generating capacity
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Changing consumption and production
patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator provides the share of fuels in TPES, TFC and electricity
generation and generating capacity.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Regarding the economic dimension, the
energy supply mix is a key determinant of energy security. Therefore, the ‘right’
energy mix for a particular country relies on a well-diversified portfolio of domestic
and imported or regionally traded fuels and sources of energy. Also, the particular mix
of fuels used in energy and electricity affects energy intensities.
With respect to the environmental dimension, the energy supply mix has a major
effect since the environmental impacts of each energy source differ greatly and
include the following: (i) traditional local or regional atmospheric pollution related to
the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. urban smog, acid rain); (ii) global climate change
related to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated by fossil fuel
production, transport and use; (iii) land use for a range of energy activities, and
notably for mining and for hydroelectric reservoirs; and (iv) risks attributed to various
fuel chain cycles (fires, explosions, spills, radioactive emissions, etc.).
71
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: In some countries there is a
target for the percentage of electricity from renewable sources. For example, in the
European Union a directive sets the quantitative target of 21% for electricity from
renewable energy by the year 2010, as well as indicative targets for each Member
State.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to annual indigenous fuel
production, annual energy use per capita, net energy import dependence and lifetime
of proven energy reserves. It is also closely linked to some of the environmental
indicators, such as air pollutants and GHG emissions, generation of solid and
radioactive wastes, land area taken by energy facilities, etc.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: This indicator disaggregates energy
supply by fuel source with respect to TPES, TFC and electricity generation and
generating capacity. The components of this indicator are consumption of various
fossil fuels (coal, crude oil, petroleum products, gas); primary electricity and heat;
non-combustible renewables; and combustible renewables and waste (CRW).
Regarding the primary energy supply mix, sources to be specified are coal, crude oil,
gas, nuclear power, hydropower, non-combustible renewables, CRW and net import
of electricity.
Regarding the final energy use mix, sources to be specified are coal, crude oil,
petroleum products, gas, electricity, heat and CRW.
Regarding electricity generation and generating capacity, sources to be specified are
coal, petroleum products, gas, nuclear, hydropower, non-combustible renewables and
CRW.
(b) Measuring Methods: This indicator is computed by calculating the ratio of
consumption or production of the specific energy fuels identified above to total
energy use or production with respect to:
•
TPES,
•
TFC and
•
Electricity generation.
Energy use is measured in terms of heat contents based on their specific net calorific
values (NCVs).
For electricity generating capacity, the indicator corresponds to the shares of capacity
by fuel.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Data on particular fuels for a number of developing
countries might be a limitation.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: None.
72
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator:
•
Primary energy supply, TPES and by specified primary energy fuels.
•
Final energy use, TFC and by specified final energy fuel consumption.
•
Electricity generation, total and by fuel.
•
Generating capacity, total and by fuel.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Data on energy supply by fuel are
available from national statistical offices and country publications, and various
international sources, such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World
Bank, Eurostat and the United Nations.
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no. 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Balance Sheets. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Pocketbook on Energy, Transport and Environment.
Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
UNSD, 1982. Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special
Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances — A Technical Report. New
York, NY, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1987. Energy Statistics: Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion
Factors. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1991. Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles. Published
biennially. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Statistics Yearbook. Published annually. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
World Bank, various editions. World Development Indicators. Published
annually. Washington DC, USA: World Bank.
73
ECO12: Non-carbon energy share in energy and electricity
Brief Definition
The share of non-carbon energy sources in primary
energy supply (TPES) and in electricity generation
and generating capacity
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Changing consumption and production
patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator measures the share of non-carbon energy sources in
TPES and electricity generation and generating capacity.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: The promotion of energy and of
electricity from non-carbon sources is a high priority for sustainable development for
several reasons, ranging from environmental protection to the energy security and
diversification of energy supply. An increase in the share of non-carbon fuels reduces
the specific emissions — that is, emissions per unit of total energy and electricity used
— of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutants affecting local air quality and
regional acidification. The introduction of carbon taxes targets, to a large extent, a
shift towards a higher share of non-carbon energy sources in the primary energy mix.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: At the World Summit on
Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002, an agreement was reached to
increase the global share of renewable energy sources. In some countries, there is a
target for a certain percentage of energy supply from renewable sources. For example,
in the European Union a directive sets quantitative targets for electricity from
renewable energy to be 21% by the year 2010, as well as indicative targets for each
Member State.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to fuel shares (energy
mix) and shares of renewables in energy and electricity. The indicator is also linked to
indicators of energy use and electricity generation and to environmental indicators
such as GHGs, etc.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: This indicator is an aggregation of noncarbon energy sources with respect to TPES and electricity generation and generating
capacity.
Non-carbon energy sources include combustible and non-combustible renewables and
nuclear electricity generation.
(b) Measuring Methods: The share of non-carbon energy sources in TPES is the
primary supply of non-carbon energy divided by TPES. The share of non-carbon
74
energy in electricity generation is the total electricity generated from non-carbon
energy sources divided by total electricity generation.
Energy use is measured in terms of heat content based on specific net calorific values
(NCVs).
Electricity from hydropower and other non-combustible renewables (such as wind,
tide, photovoltaics, etc.) is accounted for by using the factor 1 terawatt hour (TWh)
equals 0.086 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). Electricity from nuclear power is
accounted based on an average thermal efficiency of 33%; that is, 1 TWh equals
0.261 Mtoe (see Annex 1).
For electricity generating capacity, the indicator corresponds to the shares of noncarbon energy in overall capacity.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: For a number of countries, data on non-carbon
energy sources might be a limitation.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: None.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: TPES and total electricity generation
and generating capacity. Primary energy from non-carbon energy options, and
electricity generation and generating capacity from renewable and nuclear sources.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Data on energy supply by fuel are
available from national statistical offices and country publications, and various
international sources, such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Bank and Eurostat.
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no. 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Balance Sheets. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Pocketbook on Energy, Transport and Environment.
Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Pocketbook on Renewable Energy Statistics in the
EU. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IAEA, 2003. Country Nuclear Power Profiles, 2002 edition. Vienna, Austria:
International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, various editions. Nuclear Power Reactors of the World, Reference data
series no. 2. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IEA, 1990–2001. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, 1990–2001. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
75
•
IEA, 1990–2001. Energy Statistics Non-OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
UNSD, 1982. Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special
Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances — A Technical Report. New
York, NY, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1987. Energy Statistics: Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion
Factors. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1991. Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles. Published
biennially. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Statistics Yearbook. Published annually. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
World Bank, various editions. World Development Indicators. Published
annually. Washington DC, USA: World Bank.
ECO13: Renewable energy share in energy and electricity
Brief Definition
The share of renewable energy in total primary
energy supply (TPES), total final consumption
(TFC) and electricity generation and generating
capacity (excluding non-commercial energy)
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Changing consumption and production
patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator measures the share of renewable energy in TPES, TFC
and electricity generation and generating capacity.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: The promotion of energy, and in
particular of electricity from renewable sources of energy, is a high priority for
sustainable development for several reasons, including the security and diversification
of energy supply and environmental protection.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: At the World Summit on
Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002, an agreement was reached to
increase urgently and substantially the global share of renewable energy sources. A
coalition was formed at the Summit that includes countries and regions willing to set
themselves targets and time frames for the increase of renewable energy sources in the
76
energy mix. More than 80 countries are now members of this coalition. Also, in some
countries there is a target for the percentage of electricity from renewable sources. For
example, in the European Union a directive sets the quantitative target of 21% for
electricity from renewable energy by the year 2010, as well as indicative targets for
each Member State.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to fuel shares (energy
mix) in energy and electricity and non-carbon fuel shares. Also, the indicator is linked
to indicators related to security of supplies and environmental protection.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: This indicator aggregates renewable
energy options with respect to TPES, TFC and electricity generation and generating
capacity.
Renewable energy includes both combustible and non-combustible renewables.
Non-combustible renewables include geothermal, solar, wind, hydro, tide and wave
energy. For geothermal energy, the energy quantity is the enthalpy of the geothermal
heat entering the process. For solar, wind, hydro, tide and wave energy, the quantities
entering electricity generation are equal to the electrical energy generated. Electricity
is accounted for at the same heat value as electricity in final consumption (i.e. 1
terawatt hour [TWh] equals 0.086 million tonnes of oil equivalent [Mtoe]). Direct use
of geothermal and solar heat and heat from heat pumps is also included.
The combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consist of biomass (fuelwood, vegetal
waste, ethanol) and animal products (animal materials/wastes and sulphite lyes),
municipal waste (wastes produced by the residential, commercial and public service
sectors that are collected by local authorities for disposal in a central location for the
production of heat and/or power) and industrial waste.
(b) Measuring Methods: This indicator is computed by calculating the ratio of the
consumption and production of renewables to total final energy supply and
production.
The share of renewables in electricity is the electricity generated from renewables
divided by total electricity use.
Energy use is measured in terms of heat content based on specific net calorific values
(NCVs).
For electricity generating capacity, the indicator corresponds to the shares of
renewables in overall capacity.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Data on particular renewables for a number of
developing countries might be a limitation.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: None.
77
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: TPES, TFC, total electricity generation
and generating capacity. Primary energy from renewable energy options, electricity
generation and generating capacity from renewable energy options.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Data on energy supply by fuel are
available from national statistical offices and country publications, and from various
international sources, such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World Bank
and Eurostat.
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no. 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Balance Sheets. Luxembourg, Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Pocketbook on Energy, Transport and Environment.
Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Pocketbook on Renewable Energy Statistics in the
EU. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, 2001. Key World Energy Statistics from the IEA. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
UNSD, 1982. Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special
Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances — A Technical Report. New
York, NY, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1987. Energy Statistics: Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion
Factors. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1991. Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles. Published
biennially. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Statistics Yearbook. Published annually. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
78
•
World Bank, various editions. World Development Indicators. Published
annually. Washington DC, USA: World Bank.
ECO14: End-use energy prices by fuel and by sector
Brief Definition
Actual prices paid by final consumer for energy
with and without taxes and subsidies
Units
US dollars (purchasing power parity [PPP]) per unit
of energy (different units)
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator reflects the final price paid by consumers for energy
services. Energy prices are driving forces for incentives or disincentives for
consumption or conservation, or efficiency improvements. Also, prices can affect
affordability.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Energy prices can be regulated to
internalize environmental and social costs, to manage demand and to encourage
development of alternative renewable energy options.
For developing countries, there is a need to increase energy availability and
affordability, in particular for the lower-income groups of the population, so as to
improve social and economic development. At the same time, efficient energy use in
developing and developed countries is a major priority. Appropriate pricing
mechanisms may be used to overcome inefficiencies.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: No international targets have
been established. However, it is widely accepted that external costs of energy
production and use should be internalized. Furthermore, the Johannesburg Plan of
Implementation agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development calls for a
phasing-out of environmentally harmful subsidies.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: Related indicators of the economic dimension are
annual energy use per capita, intensity of energy use, energy mix and emissions of
greenhouse gases. This indicator is also linked to social indicators such as share of
household income spent on fuel and electricity.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: This indicator reflects the actual price
paid by final consumers for various energy services. Prices should include all regular
charges linked to the supply of energy to the customer. For example, for electricity
and gas, the data should include not only the price per kilowatt-hour (kWh) or cubic
metre, but also any standing charges and meter rental charges. Initial charges for
79
connection to the electricity or gas network should not be included. For other
products, any delivery charge should be included. Energy prices can also be adjusted
(e.g. through taxes) to incorporate external environmental and social costs that energy
producers and consumers impose on others without paying the consequences.
Examples of external costs include the environmental and health impacts of air, waste
and water pollution, and climate change. Reflecting the cost of these impacts in the
price of energy can help to promote more efficient energy supply and use.
Different prices are often charged to different types of consumer. Therefore, price data
should be collected both for the main fuels and for different types of consumer — for
example, households or industry.
An underlying principle of tracking price data over time is that the product for which the
price is tracked remains the same throughout the period. This is clear in the case of
gasoline, where the data to be collected is always the price at the pump of 1 litre or
gallon of gasoline. However, for other products, such as electricity or gas, it is less
straightforward, as the price per kWh paid will vary depending on the amount delivered.
Therefore, it is necessary to define one or more standard consumers, representative of
consumers in a given country, whose consumption pattern does not vary from one year
to another, in order to track changes in price paid.
(b) Measuring Methods: Because prices change through the year, the data collected
must refer to a fixed date; 1 January of each year is proposed.
Three price levels should be distinguished: prices including all taxes; prices excluding
deductible taxes (normally only deductible for industry); and prices excluding all
taxes. If possible, subsidies for different consumers should also be identified, though
in practice this can prove to be extremely difficult, as the subsidies are often hidden in
complicated tariff systems.
In general, prices are collected in national currencies and can be converted to a
common unit, usually US dollars. Exceptions would be fuels such as aviation fuel,
which is often billed directly in US dollars. A further refinement is to deflate prices to
allow for inflation. In order to deflate the price series, the consumer price indices
should be used for household prices, including pump prices of gasoline and diesel,
and the industrial price indices (or gross domestic product [GDP], if industrial indices
are not available) should be used for industrial prices.
Prices should be collected for the following products, in so far as these are commonly
available on the market in the country:
Petroleum Products:
•
Automotive fuel:
–
Premium unleaded gasoline.
–
Premium leaded gasoline.
–
Automotive gasoil (diesel).
•
Heavy fuel oil (residual fuel oil), for industry.
•
Light fuel oil (heating gasoil), for households.
80
•
Kerosene, for households.
•
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), for households.
Measurement: Average price charged by the main distributors on 1 January.
Prices for gasoline and diesel should be pump prices. For heating gasoil and residual
fuel oil, a standard offtakes or delivery must be defined, as in general the unit price is
lower for larger deliveries. Standard offtakes should be defined for domestic
consumers and for industrial consumers. For example, in the countries of the
European Union, prices are collected for the following:
•
Heating gasoil: deliveries of 2000–5000 litres.
•
Heavy fuel oil: offtakes less than 2000 tonnes per month or less than 24 000
tonnes per year.
Coal:
•
Steam coal, for industry and for households.
•
Coking coal, for industry.
Measurement: In many countries, the main users of coal are electricity generators and
the steel industry. These users often directly import coal to meet their own needs, in
which case it is sufficient to collect data on coal import prices.
Electricity, District Heat and Piped Gas:
•
Electricity, for industry and for households.
•
Natural gas, for industry and for households.
•
Heat, for industry and for households.
Measurement: Average prices charged by main distributors on 1 January.
For electricity, heat and gas, a similar alternative is to use industry and household
surveys to collect information on quantities of electricity, heat and gas purchased and
amounts charged, and to calculate average expenditure per unit purchased. This is
strictly speaking not a true price, but rather a weighted price, where the weighting
varies from one year to another. However, it is preferable to the average revenue
method.
The average revenue method, commonly used for lack of a better alternative, is based
on data from utilities on average revenue per unit delivered. However, it is generally
not possible to distinguish between sales to domestic and industrial customers, and
data are skewed towards industry as the major consumers. Moreover, revenue data
often include charges for connecting new customers to the network and for repairs, as
well as income from sales of appliances.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The wide variety of energy products available on
the market means a large number of prices need to be collected. For example, for road
transport, leaded and unleaded 95 octane petrol, leaded and unleaded 98 octane petrol,
diesel fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and liquefied natural gas can all be found
on the market. Normally, only a selection of those considered most representative can
be taken into account.
81
Further problems include differing prices for different locations throughout the country;
for example, prices in remote rural areas are often much higher than in major cities. As
mentioned above, for some forms of energy, in particular electricity and gas, the price
per unit will depend on a variety of delivery conditions. The indicator can therefore only
be indicative of the price paid by a typical or standard consumer and cannot reflect the
full spectrum of consumer types and locations.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: In practice, the method proposed above
might prove difficult for an industry when no ‘list price’ exists and when industries
negotiate individual supply contracts with the coal producer or oil company. In this
case, the only solution is to carry out a sample survey of industry costs and to
calculate average unit prices defined as total cost/quantity purchased.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Energy prices.
(b) National and International Data Availability: For coal and petroleum products,
except aviation fuel, prices are generally available for developed countries, both
nationally and internationally (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development [OECD], Eurostat). For gas and electricity, the availability of price data
varies from country to country.
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Energy and Environment in the European Union. Environmental
issue report no. 31. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, 1985–2002. Energy Prices. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, 1990–2003. Electricity Prices. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, 1990–2003. Gas Prices. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, 2001. Electricity Prices: Price Systems. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, 2001. Gas Prices: Price Systems. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Prices and Taxes. Published quarterly. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
OECD, various editions. Energy Prices. Paris, France: Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development.
82
ECO15: Net energy import dependency
Brief Definition
The ratio of net import to total primary energy
supply (TPES) in a given year in total and by fuel
type such as oil and petroleum products, gas, coal
and electricity
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
Net energy imports
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator measures the extent to which a country relies on imports
to meet its energy requirements.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Maintaining a stable supply of energy is
a core objective of policy in the pursuit of sustainable development. The importance
of energy security in terms of the physical availability of supplies to satisfy demand at
a given price for economic and social sustainability is paramount. Therefore energy
supply interruptions constitute a type of systematic risk that needs to be addressed by
policies for sustainable development. Two different kinds of risk are involved: a
quantity risk and a price risk. Both risks are related to the level of a country’s reliance
on imported energy. Thus, the general exposure to energy supply disruptions can be
limited by decreasing the import dependency, which in turn could be achieved
through policies to increase indigenous energy production, enhance energy efficiency,
diversify fuel sources, optimize fuel mix, etc.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: None.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: In some countries there is a
recommended level to which a country may rely on energy import.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is closely linked to some of the
economic indicators, such as indigenous energy production, energy use per capita, etc.
It is also linked to indicators of resource availability.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: The elements that constitute this indicator
are primary energy supply and fuel requirements (oil, gas, coal, etc.), and electricity.
Net energy import is calculated as imports minus exports, both measured in oil
equivalents. Imports and exports are the amounts that have crossed the national
territorial boundaries of a given country, whether or not customs clearance has taken
place. A negative value for net imports indicates that the country is a net exporter.
Oil: Quantities of crude oil and petroleum products imported or exported under
processing agreements (i.e. refining on account) are included. Quantities of oil in
transit are excluded. Crude oil, natural gas liquids (NGL) and natural gas are reported
as coming from the country of origin; refinery feedstocks and petroleum products are
reported as coming from the country of last consignment.
83
Re-exports of oil imported for processing within the country are shown as exports of
products from the processing country to the final destination.
Coal: Imports and exports are the amount of fuels obtained from or supplied to other
countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union between the relevant
countries. Coal in transit is not included.
Electricity: Amounts are considered as imported or exported when they have crossed
the national territorial boundaries of a given country.
If accurate data are not available on imports and exports, then net imports can be
estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents.
(b) Measuring Methods: This indicator is computed by calculating the ratio of net
imports to consumption if the country is a net importer, or the ratio of exports to
production if the country is a net exporter.
The indicator is computed for primary energy, in total and by fuel and electricity.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Data on imports for a number of fuels may not be
readily available in some countries.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Net energy imports.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator:
•
Total primary and final energy use, imports, exports, production and by fuel
— oil, gas, coal, etc.
•
Electricity imports, exports, consumption and generation.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Data on energy imports, exports,
production and use by fuel are available from national statistical offices and country
publications and from various international sources, such as the International Energy
Agency (IEA) and the World Bank.
REFERENCES
•
Eurostat, various editions. Energy Balance Sheets. Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
Eurostat, various editions. Pocketbook on Energy, Transport and Environment.
Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Balances of OECD Countries Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. Energy Statistics of OECD Countries. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
84
•
UNSD, 1982. Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special
Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances — A Technical Report. New
York, NY, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1987. Energy Statistics: Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion
Factors. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, 1991. Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles. Published
biennially. New York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
UNSD, various editions. Energy Statistics Yearbook. Published annually. New
York, USA: United Nations Statistics Division.
•
World Bank, various editions. World Development Indicators. Published
annually. Washington DC, USA: World Bank.
ECO16: Stocks of critical fuels per corresponding fuel consumption
Brief Definition
Ratio of the stocks of critical energy fuels to the
daily, monthly or annual use of the corresponding
fuel. Critical fuel is usually oil. Some countries
might consider other fuels critical (e.g. natural gas,
ethanol, etc.)
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
Total fuel stocks
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The purpose of this indicator is to measure the availability of national
stocks of critical fuels, such as oil, with respect to corresponding fuel consumption.
Many countries maintain stocks of oil in anticipation of disruptions in oil supply. For
some countries, the critical fuel might be natural gas or other types of fuel. For
example, ethanol is a critical fuel for the Brazilian transportation sector. The indicator
provides a relative measure of the length of time that stocks would last if supply were
disrupted and fuel use were to continue at current levels.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: The availability and security of fuel
supplies are key aspects of sustainability. This indicator provides a basis for
estimating energy supply security by indicating the relation between the current
availability of critical fuel stocks and levels of consumption. Maintaining strategic
stocks of critical fuels might be a necessary component of a national sustainable
energy programme. Fuel stocks over fuel consumption represents a type of ‘response’
indicator that might be important to countries in critical fuel supply situations, such as
a world oil crisis, disruptions of natural gas distribution systems, etc.
85
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: The Member countries of the
International Energy Agency (IEA) maintain minimum levels of oil stocks based on
specific agreements.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards:
recommended levels of oil stocks to its Member countries.
The
IEA
provides
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to indicators of annual
energy production, annual energy use, imports, prices and resources.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Stocks of critical fuels, in particular oil,
and the corresponding annual consumption provide an indication of energy supply
security. Countries decide the appropriate levels of stocks of the critical fuels needed.
(b) Measuring Methods: This indicator is defined by dividing the stocks of the
critical fuels maintained by countries by the corresponding daily, monthly or annual
fuel consumption.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The rate of use of fuels, in particular oil, depends
on many factors, including economic conditions, prices and technological progress.
Therefore, this indicator represents only a relative measure of energy supply security.
Many countries still cannot afford to maintain adequate levels of stocks of critical
fuels.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Total stocks of critical fuels.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Data on stocks of critical fuels and the
corresponding annual consumption.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Data on stocks of critical fuels
and the corresponding annual consumption are available from national energy and
statistics bodies and for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) countries from the IEA.
REFERENCES
•
IEA, 2002. Fact Sheet on IEA Oil Stocks and Response Potential. Paris,
France: International Energy Agency.
•
IEA, 2004. Security of Gas Supply in Open Markets — LNG and Power at a
Turning Point. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
•
Priddle, R., 2002. A New Perspective on Energy Security. Paper presented at
the 25th Annual IAEE Conference, 26–29 June, Aberdeen, UK.
86
ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION
ENV1: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and use, per
capita and per unit of GDP
Brief Definition
Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from
energy production and use, per capita and per unit
of gross domestic product (GDP), including carbon
dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide
(N2O)
Units
Annual GHG emissions in tonnes, per capita or per
US dollar. Emissions of CH4 and N2O are to be
converted to CO2 equivalents using the 100-year
global warming potentials (GWPs) provided in the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) Second Assessment Report (1995)
Alternative Definitions
Total GHG emissions from energy production and
use. GHG emissions from energy-related activities
per unit of energy and electricity produced
Agenda 21
Chapter 9: Protection of the atmosphere
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator measures the total, the per capita and the per unit of GDP
emissions of the three main GHGs from energy production and use that have a direct
impact on climate change.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: During the 20th century, the Earth’s
average surface temperature rose by around 0.6°C, and evidence is growing that most
of this warming is attributable to increasing concentrations of GHGs in the
atmosphere. The amount of CO2, for example, has increased by more than 30% since
preindustrial times and is currently increasing at an unprecedented rate of about 0.4%
per year, mainly due to the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation. The
concentrations of CH4 and N2O are increasing as well due to energy, agricultural,
industrial and other activities. The concentrations of nitrogen monoxide (NO),
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic
compounds (NMVOCs) are also increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity.
Although these gases are not themselves GHGs, they affect atmospheric chemistry,
leading to an increase in tropospheric ozone, which is a GHG.
The resulting effect is predicted to lead to more extreme weather events than in the
past, with some areas experiencing increased storms and rainfall, and others suffering
drought. How fast and where this change will happen is still uncertain, but the
consequences may be serious, especially in developing countries, which are the least
able to prepare for and deal with the effects of extreme weather conditions such as
floods, landslides, droughts, etc.
87
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: The United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) entered into force in March 1994. The
Convention included a commitment by Parties, both developed countries and
economies in transition (Annex I Parties), to aim to return emissions of CO2 and other
GHGs not controlled by the Montreal Protocol to their 1990 levels by 2000, although
relatively few Parties actually met this goal. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in
December 1997. It was designed to enter into force after being ratified by at least 55
Parties to the Convention, including developed countries accounting for at least 55%
of the total 1990 CO2 emissions from this group. With the 2004 decision by the
Russian Federation to ratify the Protocol, it entered into force in early 2005. In any
event, countries are also bound by their commitments under the Convention.
Ozone-depleting GHGs are controlled by the Vienna Convention and the Montreal
Protocol.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: The Kyoto Protocol sets
targets for each Annex I Party with a view to reducing these Parties’ overall emissions
of the six main GHGs by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period
2008–2012.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is closely linked to many other
economic and environmental indicators, including energy use per capita and per unit
of GDP, primary and final energy use and electricity generation, fuel mix,
atmospheric emissions, etc.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: GHGs contribute in varying degrees to
global warming depending on their heat absorption capacity and their lifetime in the
atmosphere. The GWP describes the cumulative radiative forcing effect of a gas over
a time horizon (usually chosen for reporting purposes to be 100 years) compared with
that of CO2. For example, the 100-year GWP of CH4 is 21, meaning that the global
warming impact of 1 kilogram (kg) of CH4 is 21 times higher than that of 1 kg of
CO2. The GWP of N2O is 310. No GWPs are provided for indirect GHGs. Sinks for
GHGs should not be included in the indicator. There are currently no agreed
international inventory methodologies for the quantification of engineered sinks in
which energy-related GHG emissions can potentially be captured and stored, while
biological sinks are not directly linked with energy-related GHG emissions.
(b) Measuring Methods: CO2 emissions from fuel combustion are calculated by
multiplying the energy use for each fuel type by an associated CO2 emission
coefficient. Wherever possible, GHG emissions should be measured directly at the
source of energy use. More commonly, however, measured data are incomplete or
unavailable. In the absence of measured data, emissions are calculated by multiplying
some known data, such as coal production or natural gas throughput, by an associated
emission factor derived from a small sample from a relevant emission source or
through laboratory experiments.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: This indicator shows the quantity of GHGs emitted
into the atmosphere from energy use only. For some GHGs (e.g. N2O), non-energy
sources (e.g. agriculture) can produce significant levels of emissions. This indicator
88
does not show how much the climate will be affected by the increased accumulation
of GHGs or the consequent effect of climate change on countries. Data might not be
available for some sources in some countries.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Total quantities of annual GHG emissions or
GHG emissions normalized per unit of energy use could be alternative indicators.
This analysis would provide an indication of the trend of increasing or decreasing
carbonization of the energy system. There are a number of other gases resulting from
energy use that indirectly produce GHGs, and these could also be included in the
scope of the definition.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Data on total GHG emissions from
energy sources and the breakdown by component:
•
CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.
•
GHG emissions from energy production and use.
•
GHG emissions from transportation.
•
Total population for normalization of total GHG emissions per capita, unit:
tonnes CO2/capita.
•
GDP in national currency or converted to US dollars ($) using purchasing
power parities for normalization of total GHG emissions per unit of GDP, unit:
tonnes CO2/$1000.
It is recommended that, in countries where GHG targets exist, these targets be stated
in the indicator (although it is recognized that such targets generally apply to all
emission sources within a country, and not just the energy-related sectors). These
could be expressed either as a percentage reduction in absolute emissions from a base
year (as specified by the Kyoto Protocol) or as an intensity target (as for the case of
the GHG goal of the USA).
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: National
communications from Parties to the Convention are available. Developing countries
report on a limited basis. At the international level, the UNFCCC Secretariat database
has information based on annual data inventory submissions from Annex I Parties to
the Convention (see http://ghg.unfccc.int/).
As part of the review process of the UNFCCC, emission levels were initially available
only for Annex I Parties to the Convention. Non-Annex I Parties have also started to
submit first-hand information on their annual GHG emissions.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) provides data on CO2 emissions by fuel and
sector, and from fossil fuels consumed for electricity, combined heat and power, and
district heating. Data are calculated using the IEA's Energy Balance Tables and the
Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines.
The World Bank compiles data on annual anthropogenic emissions of CO2. These
data originate from calculations by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
(CDIAC), sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The calculations are derived
89
from data on fossil fuel combustion, based on the World Energy Data Set maintained
by the UN Statistics Division, and from data on world cement manufacturing, based
on the Cement Manufacturing Data Set. To derive data on the quantity of CO2
emissions from energy use only, the amounts of CO2 from cement manufacturing
have to be subtracted from the World Bank’s data on CO2 emissions.
(c) Data References: The IEA data on CO2 emissions by fuel and sector, and from
electricity and heat generation are reported in the IEA publication CO2 Emissions
from Fuel Combustion, published annually. Data on total CO2 emissions from energy
and industrial sources are available from the World Bank report World Development
Indicators, published annually. Data on CH4 and N2O are not available. GHG
emissions data for the European Union are available from the European Environment
Agency Web site (http://dataservice.eea.eu.int/dataservice/metadetails.asp?id=699).
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2003. Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe.
Environmental issue report no. 36. Copenhagen, Denmark: European
Environment Agency.
•
EEA, 2004. Annual European Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–
2002 and Inventory Report 2004. Technical report no. 2/2004. Copenhagen,
Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
IEA, various editions. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. Paris, France:
International Energy Agency.
•
IPCC, 1995. IPCC Second Assessment Report: Climate Change 1995. Geneva,
Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
•
IPCC, 1997. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas
Inventories. J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B. Lim, K. Treanton, I.
Mamaty, Y. Bonduki, D.J. Griggs, B.A. Callender, eds. IPCC/OECD/IEA.
Bracknell: UK Meteorological Office.
•
IPCC, 2000. Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in
National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. J. Penman, D. Kruger, I. Galbally, T.
Hiraishi, B. Nyenzi, S. Emmanul, L. Buendia, R. Hoppaus, T. Martinsen, J.
Meijer, K. Miwa, K. Tanabe, eds. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Programme. Kitakyushu, Japan: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
•
IPCC, 2001. IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001. A Report
of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland:
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
•
UNFCCC. In-depth Review Reports on National Communications from
Individual Countries. Bonn, Germany: United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change. Available at http://maindb.unfccc.int/ library/?screen=
list&language=en&FLD1=dC&VAL1=/IDR&OPR1=contains
•
UNFCCC. National Communications from Parties to the UNFCCC. Bonn,
Germany: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Available at http://unfccc.int/resource/natcom/nctable.html.
90
•
World Bank, various editions. World Development Indicators. Published
annually. Washington DC, USA: World Bank.
ENV2: Ambient concentrations of air pollutants in urban areas
Brief Definition
Ambient concentrations of air pollutants such as
ozone, carbon monoxide, particulate matter
(PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate [TSP],
black smoke), sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide,
benzene and lead
Units
Micro- or milligrams per cubic metre (μg/m3 or
mg/m3), as appropriate
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 9: Protection of the atmosphere
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator provides a measure of the state of the environment in
terms of air quality, which can be a health concern in urban areas. It also provides an
indirect measure of the population exposure relevant to impacts on human health and
vegetation.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: An increasing percentage of the world’s
population lives in urban areas. High population density and the concentration of
industry and traffic exert great pressures on local environments. Air pollution from
energy use in households, industry, power stations and transportation (motor vehicles)
is often a major problem. As a result, the greatest potential for human exposure to
ambient air pollution and subsequent health problems occurs in urban areas.
Improving air quality is a significant aspect of promoting sustainable human
settlements. This indicator may be used to monitor trends in air pollution as a basis for
prioritizing policy actions; to map levels of air pollution in order to identify hotspots
or areas in need of special attention; to help assess the number of people exposed to
excessive levels of air pollution; to monitor levels of compliance with air quality
standards; to assess the effects of air quality policies; and to help investigate
associations between air pollution and health effects.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: There are several international
conventions that focus on controlling air emissions as a means of improving air
quality. Concern over emissions of acidifying pollutants has led to several
international agreements, including the United Nations Economic Commission for
Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
(CLRTAP) (Geneva, 1979) and its protocols to reduce emissions of sulphur (Helsinki,
1985; Oslo, 1994; Gothenburg, 1999) and nitrogen oxides (Sofia, 1988; Gothenburg,
1999). Two other protocols have also been agreed upon that aim at reducing heavy
metals (Aarhus, 1998) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (Geneva, 1991).
91
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: World Health Organization
(WHO) air quality guidelines exist for all the pollutants covered by this indicator
except nitrogen monoxide. Many countries have established their own air quality
standards for many of these pollutants.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is closely linked to others that
relate to energy use and environmental protection, such as annual energy use per
capita and per unit of gross domestic product (GDP), air pollutant emissions from
energy systems, share of non-carbon fuels and renewables, soil contamination, etc.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: This indicator may be designed and
constructed in a number of ways. An important aspect that must be considered is the
definition of the statistic to be used; for example, where monitoring data are available,
the indicator may be expressed in terms of a mean annual concentration, a percentile,
or the nth highest daily mean, etc., on the basis of either an hourly or daily average.
For health effects, the most appropriate averaging times and statistics are likely to be
different for different pollutants. It is therefore recommended that the basis for the
indicator be the number of days where concentrations exceed an established threshold
(national or international air quality limits) and/or the percentage of the urban
population exposed to concentration levels that exceed the target values (e.g.
according to European Union legislation, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations
above 50 μg/m3 are not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year). It should be noted
that this type of comparison might need to be made with care because of possible
changes or differences in guideline values. However, a simple count of the number of
exceedances in a country is an inappropriate final measure for the indicator, as the
number of exceedances is likely to increase with increasing numbers of monitoring
stations.1
Where monitoring data are unavailable, estimates of pollution levels may be made
using air pollution models. Dispersion models, however, depend on the availability of
emissions data; where these are not available, surveys may be conducted using rapid
source inventory techniques. Because of the potential errors in the models or in the
input data, results from dispersion models should ideally be validated against
monitoring data.
(b) Measuring Methods: Suitable air monitoring networks must fulfil several
requirements, such as ensuring representative and comparable measurements,
detection limits, interferences, time resolution, ease of operation and cost. There are
numerous references on air monitoring and analysis in the literature or available from
environmental agencies. The published scientific literature on the subject includes the
most appropriate and recent air monitoring methods. Air quality data can be highly
dependent on weather conditions, which can give rise to relatively large year-to-year
variations. Time-trend data used for the indicator should therefore incorporate as long
1
Possible ways to avoid this problem include a method developed by the European Environment
Agency (EEA) that counts the fraction of available stations recording exceedances and then uses a
population-weighted average to calculate urban, national and regional averages. An approach
similar to this is recommended (for more information on this methodology, see www.eea.eu.int).
92
a time frame as possible so that long-term trends can be properly assessed.
Measurements for compliance purposes (i.e. the comparison of concentrations with air
quality standards) should not just be limited to urban areas, as limit values should not
be exceeded anywhere. Concerning exposure and health considerations, urban areas
combine a large fraction of the population and elevated concentrations; nevertheless,
rural areas should not be excluded from a measuring network. In the case of ozone,
for example, rural concentrations can be high downwind of large emission point
sources. A number of models are available for estimating ambient concentrations of
air pollutants, most of which are based on the Gaussian air dispersion model.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Measurement limitations relate to detection limits,
interferences, time resolution, ease of operation and cost. Evaluation of the accuracy
of model results is critical before model output can be relied on for decision making.
To compare the indicator values obtained from different cities, countries should
ensure that monitoring networks, monitoring strategies, measuring methods, etc., are
compatible.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: A composite indicator that weighs and sums
the main pollutants (e.g. PM10/2.5, nitrous oxides) into one measure could possibly
be used, but only if data for all pollutants were regularly available. However, the
recommendation of a European Environment Agency (EEA)/WHO workshop in
Berlin in 2002 was that this approach should not be used for indicator purposes.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Data must include time and spatially
representative concentrations, such as mean annual concentrations (mean
concentrations of the pollutant of concern, averaged over all hours of the year) or
percentile concentration (concentration of the pollutant of concern exceeded in 100 –
x% of hours, where x is the percentile as defined by the relevant standards). In
addition, information must be available on site location and type (e.g. industrial or
residential area).
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: Data on ambient air
pollution concentrations are often routinely collected by national or local monitoring
networks. Universities and research institutes often also collect data for research
purposes. In addition, industry collects many data. Data on concentrations of major air
pollutants are available for major cities in Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD) countries, but more work is needed to improve
international comparability and to link these data to national standards and to human
health issues.
(c) Data References: Data on ambient air pollution can be obtained from national
and local monitoring networks. Sometimes data are available from universities,
research institutes and industry. In addition, a growing volume of data can be obtained
from international sources such as the WHO Healthy Cities Air Management
Information System (AMIS) and the Air Base database of the EEA.
93
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2002. Air Quality in Europe: State and Trends 1990–1999. Topic report
no. 4/2002. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
EEA, 2003. Air Pollution by Ozone in Europe in Summer 2003 — Overview of
Exceedances of EC Ozone Threshold Values during the Summer Season April–
August 2003 and Comparisons with Previous Years. Topic report no. 3/2003.
Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
EEA, 2003. Air Pollution in Europe 1990–2000. Topic report no. 4/2003.
Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
EEA, 2003. EuroAirnet — Status Report 2000. Technical report no. 90,
Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Schwela, D., Zali, O., eds, 1999. Urban Traffic Pollution. London, UK: Spon
Press.
•
UNEP/WHO, 1992. Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World. Oxford,
UK: Blackwell Publishers.
•
UNEP/WHO, 1994. Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS/ Air),
Methodology Review Handbook Series. Volumes 2, 3 and 4. Nairobi, Kenya:
United Nations Environment Programme.
•
WHO, 1999. Environmental Health Indicators: Framework and
Methodologies, Prepared by D. Briggs. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health
Organization.
•
WHO, 1999. Monitoring Ambient Air Quality for Health Impact Assessment,
WHO Regional Publications, European Series no. 85. Copenhagen, Denmark:
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe.
•
WHO, 2000. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe (Revision of Air Quality
Guidelines for Europe 1987). Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health
Organization, Regional Office for Europe.
•
WHO, 2000. Decision-Making in Environmental Health: From Evidence to
Action, C. Corvalan, D. Briggs, G. Zielhuis, eds. London, UK: Spon Press.
•
WHO, 2000. Human Exposure Assessment, Environmental Health Criteria
Document 214, Programme of Chemical Safety. Geneva, Switzerland: World
Health Organization.
•
WHO, 2004. Health Aspects of Air Pollution, results from the WHO project
Systematic Review of Health Aspects of Air Pollution in Europe. Copenhagen,
Denmark: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe.
94
ENV3: Air pollutant emissions from energy systems
Brief Definition
Emissions of air pollutants from all energy-related
activities including electricity production and
transportation. Main causes of growing concern are
emissions of acidifying substances, such as sulphur
oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx); ozoneforming gases (ozone precursors), such as volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), NOx and carbon
monoxide (CO); and fine particulates
Units
Tonnes or 1000 tonnes
Alternative Definitions
Percentage change in emissions over time;
emissions per unit of gross energy use
Auxiliary Data/Indicators
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 9: Protection of the atmosphere
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator tracks the release of air pollutants into the atmosphere
from energy-related activities. It is used to evaluate the environmental performance of
national policies and to describe the environmental pressure in relation to air pollution
abatement in energy-related activities, including power generation and transportation.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: There is growing concern about higher
concentrations of various air pollutants, mainly arising from energy use. The
concentration of pollutants is largely influenced by energy production and
consumption patterns, which in turn are affected by both energy intensity and
efficiency. Emissions of these pollutants are also influenced by national standards of
pollution abatement and control, and the use of clean energy technologies. The level
of emissions gives an indication of the impact of human activities on the environment.
A country’s efforts to abate air pollutant emissions are reflected in its national policies
and international commitments. Concrete actions include structural changes in energy
demand (efficiency improvements and fuel substitution) as well as pollution control
policies and technical measures (e.g. the installation of industrial precipitators,
denitrification and desulphurisation facilities, and the use of catalytic converters on
cars). This indicator can therefore be used to assess environmental pressure in relation
to energy production and use, and to evaluate the environmental performance of
national policies designed to address four major impacts of air pollutants on health
and the environment:
•
The acidification of soil and water by pollutants such as SOx and NOx.
•
The damage to buildings sensitive to these acidifying substances.
•
The formation of tropospheric ozone from so-called ozone precursors; for
example, VOCs, NOx and CO, which indirectly affect human and animal
health and vegetation.
95
•
The direct effects on human health and ecosystems; for example, through high
atmospheric concentrations of particulates and VOCs.
Sulphur and nitrogen compounds are the source of environmental acidification.
Anthropogenic nitrogen is predominantly emitted as NOx by transport sources, as well
as by other energy uses and industrial processes. Airborne emissions of NOx
contribute to both local pollution and to large-scale pollution through long-distance
transport in the atmosphere.
Air pollutants are associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality in humans; for
example, NOx can irritate the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infections. The
effects of short-term exposure are still unclear, but continued or frequent exposure to
concentrations higher than those normally found in the ambient air may cause
increased incidence of acute respiratory disease.
In the presence of sunlight, NOx react with VOCs to form tropospheric ozone and
other oxidizing chemicals, which are toxic to living things, including human beings.
NOx and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are also precursors to acids in rainwater and
subsequently have deleterious effects on artefacts, aquatic organisms, agriculture and
habitats. Atmospheric deposition of NOx can also contribute to eutrophication. In
some areas, NOx are precursors to particulate matter concentrations. The deposition of
nitrogen may be dry (in the form of gases and particles) or wet (in the form of rain or
snow), or in the form of condensation (as fog and cloud droplets).
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: Concern over emissions of
acidifying pollutants has led to several international agreements, including the United
Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range
Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) (Geneva, 1979) and its protocols to reduce
emissions of sulphur (Helsinki, 1985; Oslo, 1994; Gothenburg, 1999) and NOx (Sofia,
1988; Gothenburg, 1999). Two other protocols have also been agreed upon that aim at
reducing heavy metals (Aarhus, 1998) and non-methane volatile organic compounds,
or NMVOCs (Geneva, 1991).
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: The 1999 Gothenburg
Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone sets
emission ceiling targets for SO2, NOx, NMVOCs and ammonia (NH3) for UNECE
countries. European Union Member States are also required to meet National
Emission Ceiling Directive (NECD) targets for 2010. Some countries have set
national targets that are stricter than those of the international agreements, but few
have yet met these national targets.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: In addition to annual air pollutant emissions and
their percentage changes, emission intensities (expressed as quantities of pollutant
emitted per unit of gross energy used) should be presented in order to assess
sustainability. This set of indicators is therefore closely linked to issues such as fuel
mix, annual energy use per capita and transport fuel consumption, in addition to the
status of abatement technology and expenditure on air pollution abatement within
individual countries.
96
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Air pollution stems from gases and
airborne particles that, in excess, are harmful to human health, artefacts and
ecosystems. Emissions of air pollutants from anthropogenic activities are often
directly related to the combustion of fossil fuels for energy. However, non-energyrelated emission sources are also significant for some pollutants — for example,
NMVOCs. Emissions of greenhouse gases, or GHGs (e.g. carbon dioxide [CO2],
nitrous oxide [N2O] and methane [CH4]), are excluded from the scope of this indicator
and are described separately in the GHG emissions indicator.
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2): The primary product from the combustion of sulphur is SO2.
However, other sulphur oxide compounds can also be produced; thus, when reported,
these compounds are to be jointly referred to as SOx (sulphur oxides).
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx): The primary combustion product of nitrogen is nitrogen
dioxide (NO2). However, several other nitrogen compounds are usually emitted at the
same time, such as nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), etc., and these may
or may not be distinguishable in available test data. Total NOx is to be reported on the
basis of the molecular weight of NO2.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): VOCs are defined as any compound of carbon
(excluding CO, CO2, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium
carbonate) that participates in atmospheric chemical reactions. In some cases, the term
non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) is used to indicate that methane is
exempt from the VOC categorization.
Carbon Monoxide (CO): CO is formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil
fuels. In most countries the transport sector is the main source of CO emissions.
Emissions of NOx, VOCs, CO and CH4 contribute to the formation of ground-level (or
tropospheric) ozone. These ozone precursors can be aggregated on the basis of their
ozone-forming potential to assess the combined impact of the different pollutants. The
relative weighting factors are as follows: NOx, 1.22; NMVOCs, 1.0; CO, 0.11; and
CH4, 0.014. This methodology is routinely used by the European Environment
Agency (EEA) for its reporting of ozone formation, but the use of such factors does
not yet have broad international acceptance. The factors are assumed to be
representative for Europe as a whole, but on the local geographical scale, the factors
may vary (for further information regarding uncertainties in these factors, see De
Leeuw 2002).
Particulates: Terms commonly associated with particulate matter are particulate
matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), total suspended particulate (TSP),
primary particulate and secondary particulate. PM10 in the atmosphere can result
from direct particulate emissions (primary PM10) or from emissions of gaseous
particulate precursors that are partly transformed into particles by chemical reactions
in the atmosphere (secondary PM10). TSP consists of matter emitted from sources in
solid, liquid and vapour forms, but existing in the ambient air as particulate solids or
liquids.
Secondary PM10 precursors include SO2, NOx, NH3 and VOCs. Reliable information
on the relative contribution of VOCs to particulate formation is not available. For
97
estimations of quantities of secondary particulates, aerosol formation factors could be
used to assess the aggregated particulate formation potential arising from emissions of
the different secondary pollutants (see De Leeuw 2002). The factors are as follows:
SO2, 0.54; NOx, 0.88; and NH3, 0.64. It should be noted that, as for the tropospheric
ozone formation factors, these factors are only a best approximation of the relative
contribution of the different pollutants and significant local variations may actually
occur in both urban and rural areas.
Since the objective of this set of indicators is to describe the impact of human
activities on the environment, emissions from natural sources (such as forest fires and
volcanic eruptions) should be excluded from the indicator.
The indicator should therefore present annual air pollutant emissions and their
percentage changes. Emission intensity expressed as quantities of pollutant emitted
per unit of gross energy use could be used to assess sustainability. It would also be
useful if policy-relevant information on emission targets were included in the
indicator (if such targets exist for a given country). This would allow an assessment of
the ‘distance to target’ for a country, and hence whether existing pollution abatement
measures are sufficient to meet existing national or international targets.
(b) Measuring Methods: In some cases emissions from, for example, industrial
plants can be estimated based on actual direct measurements in stacks or by material
balances. However, in general, pollutant emissions are calculated with the help of an
emission factor, which is a representative value that attempts to relate the quantity of a
pollutant released to the atmosphere with an activity associated with the release of that
pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of the pollutant divided by
a unit weight, volume, distance or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g.
kilograms of particulate emitted per tonne of coal burned). Such factors facilitate the
estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution and ideally are known
on a facility- or country-specific basis. In most cases, these factors are simply
averages of all available data of acceptable quality and are generally assumed to be
representative of long-term averages for all facilities in the source category (i.e. a
population average).
Work to standardize sampling and analytical methods for air pollution has been
completed by the International Organization for Standardization, the World
Meteorological Organization (WMO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the
UNECE, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and
the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range
Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP).
Similarly, in recent years, considerable effort has been made to standardize or
harmonize the calculation of national emission inventories for air pollutants in order
to improve the comparability of national estimates. There have been a number of
initiatives that provide guidance to countries on the creation, compilation and
reporting of pollutant release inventories. These include the EMEP/Corinair
Guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2004), the OECD Pollutant Release and Transfer Register
(PRTR) programme guidance (OECD, 1996), and the United Nations Institute for
Training and Research (UNITAR) guidance on pollutant release and transfer registers
(UNITAR, 1997). The last of these is specifically designed to support and facilitate
the national PRTR design process within developing and industrializing countries.
98
In the first instance, countries should consult existing information sources to obtain
specific guidance on, for example, energy sector definitions and the recommended
emission estimation or measurement methodologies. Regarding the reporting of
inventories, estimations of data from previous years are typically subject to revision as
estimation methods become better and countries shift from using default emission
factors to country-specific factors.
To assess sustainability, ideally it would be possible to study the trends in emissions
over long time periods (e.g. 20 or 30 years). However, even within Europe, where air
pollutant emissions have been reported for a number of years, reported emissions for
years before 1990 are generally not complete and may also be unreliable due to the
non-availability of historical activity data, technology-specific emission factors, etc.
Time series reporting should therefore initially focus on accurate reporting from 1990,
the baseline reporting year for many international agreements.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: (i) This indicator quantifies air pollution resulting
from energy use only; thus it ignores pollutant emissions related to other activities,
such as those of the industrial and agricultural sectors. In general, these sectors are not
dominant sources for the pollutants discussed, but to some extent they do contribute to
total exposures. (ii) The indicator assumes that countries have adequate national
statistical services to enable an air pollutant release and transfer register/inventory to
be established. (iii) When interpreting this indicator, it should be read in connection
with the indicator for urban air quality. (iv) The level of detail required for various
combustion processes, particularly data related to machinery characteristics, might not
be readily available for certain activities. In this case, default emission factors from
existing sources of inventory compilation guidance should be used to obtain estimates
of the pollutant emissions released into the atmosphere.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Alternatively, the percentage change in
emissions over time (e.g. the percentage change in emissions between 1990 and the
most recent year) may be considered; that is, indexed emissions relative to a 1990
baseline. Normalized forms of indicators are useful for cross-country comparisons
(i.e. emissions per unit of gross energy use).
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Quantities of emissions of air pollutants
from all energy-related activities, particularly from the electricity production and
transportation sectors. Proposed denominator for a normalized indicator: Unit of gross
energy use.
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: Most European
countries report emissions of air pollutants annually under the protocols of the
CLRTAP. Globally however, the main challenge concerning data is to increase the
frequency with which the data are collected, processed and updated at the national
level. Annual changes in emissions cannot be calculated unless annual data are
available. In a number of countries, the current practice still is to publish emission
inventories at five-year intervals. Additional efforts are needed to improve the
availability, completeness and comparability of data for air pollutant emissions.
99
(c) Data References: The EMEP Web site contains a database (http://www.emep.int/
index_data.html) that has been developed to support the CLRTAP protocols. It
includes emissions data for around 50 (mostly European) countries. Trends in
emissions of ozone precursors in Europe can be found on the EEA Web site
(http://dataservice.eea.eu.int/dataservice/metadetails.asp?id=700). Related work is
being carried out by EMEP, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
UNECE, The World Bank, the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD),
Eurostat and the EEA.
REFERENCES
•
De Leeuw, F.A.A.M., 2002. A set of emission indicators for long-range
transboundary air pollution. Environmental Science and Policy, 5:135–145.
•
EEA, 2002. Annual European Community CLRTAP Emission Inventory 1990–
2000. Technical report no. 91. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment
Agency.
•
EEA, 2003. Air Pollution in Europe 1990–2000. Topic report no. 4/2003.
Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
EMEP/EEA, 2004. Joint EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook,
Third edition, Sept. 2004 update. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency. Available at http://reports.eea.eu.int/ EMEPCORINAIR4/en.
•
OECD, 1996. Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs): A Tool for
Environmental Policy and Sustainable Development. Guidance Manual for
Governments [OECD/GD(96)32]. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development. Available at http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/
1996doc.nsf/ LinkTo/ocde-gd(96)32.
•
OECD, 2001. Key Environmental Indicators. Paris, France: Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development.
•
OECD, 2002. Environmental Data Compendium 2002. Paris, France:
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
•
UNITAR, 1997. Implementing a National PRTR Design Project: A Guidance
Document. UNITAR Guidance Series for Implementing a National PRTRR
Project. New York, NY: United Nations Institute for Training and Research.
Available at http://www.unitar.org/cwm/b/prtr/index.htm.
100
ENV4-1: Contaminant discharges in liquid effluents from energy systems
Brief Definition
Contaminant discharges in liquid effluents from all
energy-related activities, including the discharge of
cooling waters, which can raise the temperature of
the watercourse
Units
Kilograms (kg) or milligrams (mg) per litre
Alternative Definitions
Mass emission or concentration in the discharge
Agenda 21
Chapter 17: Protection of the oceans, all kinds of
seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas,
and coastal areas and the protection, rational use
and development of their living resources
Chapter 18: Protection of the quality and supply of
freshwater resources: application of integrated
approaches to the development, management and
use of water resources
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The purpose of this indicator is to monitor the discharge of harmful
pollutants from energy industries, particularly coal mining and oil extraction, into
rivers, lakes and marine waters.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Fresh water is a scarce resource in
many parts of the world and needs to be used wisely to ensure and maintain
sustainable quantities of good-quality supplies. Fresh water is used as a source for
potable supply, arable crop irrigation and drinking water for farm animals and is the
habitat for plants, fish species and other wildlife. Polluted water can have a direct
impact on human health and on the ability of livestock and crops to thrive, resulting in
sickly livestock, lower yields and, depending on the pollutant, contaminated farm
produce.
The marine environment is also an important habitat for aquatic life and an important
resource for fishing, aquaculture, tourism and recreation.
Freshwater and marine environments are often fragile habitats, and avoiding the
destruction of these habitats is a priority for ensuring a sustainable future.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: The importance of ensuring the
protection of marine and fresh waters has been recognized by the Convention on
Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS), which advocates an integrated, ecosystem approach to protect the oceans
and coastal areas. Other conventions include the non-binding Global Programme of
Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities
(GPA); the Washington Declaration (1995) implemented by the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP); and the Paris Convention (1974). The Convention
on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses provides
measures to protect, preserve and manage these watercourses. It addresses such issues
as flood control, water quality, erosion, sedimentation, saltwater intrusion and living
101
resources. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and
International Lakes (1992) includes national and international measures to prevent,
control and reduce the release of hazardous substances into the aquatic environment.
It also includes measures to abate eutrophication and acidification, as well for the
prevention, control and reduction of transboundary pollution. The goal is to encourage
sustainable water management, conservation of water resources and environmental
protection.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: The
Organization (WHO) has established some water law standards.
World
Health
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to indicators of energy
production and electricity generation and to other environmental indicators such as
discharges of oil into coastal waters, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant
emissions, etc.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Water pollution from energy industries
depends very much on the activity and the type of technology and abatement
techniques used. Most important in this respect are the coal mining and oil extraction
industries, but the use of energy in industry in general can lead to discharges of
pollutants into water bodies. A range of by-products and residues are generated in
energy production, including bottom ash, fluidised bed ash, fly ash and flue gas
desulphurisation residues and by-products. Knowledge of the process and the
pollutants likely to be generated is necessary when developing a programme for
monitoring water quality.
When measuring water quality, measurements can be made directly in effluent
discharges or in the downstream watercourse as a measure of the environmental
impact of the discharge. The following list presents typical monitoring requirements
for energy industries:
Flow Rate: Volume, measured in cubic metres per second, hour or day. Volumes can
be multiplied by the concentration of the pollutant to calculate the mass emissions of
individual pollutants.
pH: This is a measure of the acidity/alkalinity of a discharge. The pH of a
watercourse affects the solubility of various substances and alters the habitat for fish,
animals and plants.
Total Organic Carbon (TOC): Measured in milligrams per litre (this can be used as a
surrogate for chemical oxygen demand [COD] or biochemical oxygen demand
[BOD]). TOC measures the organic content in a discharge, which can sometimes be
elevated when the discharge is contaminated. Elevated levels of organic matter
change the natural balance of plants and organisms in the watercourse.
Hydrocarbon Oil: Measured in milligrams per litre. Surface water drainage passing
through industrial facilities and storage areas can often become contaminated with
hydrocarbon oil, which can pollute watercourses and harm plants and animals
102
downstream. Contamination of fresh water with very low levels of oils makes the
water undrinkable (see ENV4-2: Oil discharges into coastal waters).
Suspended Solids: Measured in milligrams per litre. These can often contaminate
watercourses downstream of storage areas or from mining/drilling operations.
Suspended solids colour the water, change the opacity of the water and can smother
plants and animals downstream.
Ammoniacal and Total Nitrogen: Measured in milligrams per litre. Nitrogen is a
nutrient, which often causes nutriphication of the watercourse, changing the habitat
and affecting native species.
Chloride and Sulphides: Measured in milligrams per litre. Wastewater from flue gas
desulphurisation plants contains salts such as chloride and sulphides, which can be
particularly damaging when released into freshwater environments.
Phenols and Sulphides: Measured in milligrams per litre. These are by-products of
gasification and carbonization processes and can also be present in drainage water
from coal stockyards, etc.
Metals (typically cadmium [Cd], mercury [Hg], chromium [Cr], nickel [Ni],
vanadium [V], zinc [Zn], copper [Cu], arsenic [As] and boron [B]): Measured in
milligrams per litre. Metals can leach out of fuel stockpiles and are often released
from the various ashes and wastes that arise from energy industries.
(b) Measuring Methods: Measurement methods for water discharges are
straightforward and well established and should conform to widely adopted
international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) standards.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: (i) When the quality of the water body itself is
monitored, it is not always possible to distinguish between pollution resulting from
energy activities and pollution from other activities, such as those in the industrial and
agricultural sectors. For this reason, it is preferable to monitor direct discharges from
the activity as they enter the water body. (ii) It is difficult, and perhaps not helpful, to
aggregate into a single indicator the measurements for all pollutants taken at different
times and points along the watercourse. Therefore, this indicator is in fact a number of
different indicators, depending on the number of pollutants being measured.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: An alternative indicator is annual water
pollutant discharges (as a mass emission – concentration x flow) and their percentage
changes. It would also be useful if policy-relevant information on emission targets
were to be included in the indicator (if such targets exist for a given country). This
allows an assessment of the ‘distance to target’ for a country, and hence whether
existing pollution abatement measures are sufficient to meet existing national or
international targets.
Alternatively, the percentage change in discharges over time (e.g. the percentage
change in discharges between 1990 and 2000) may be considered; that is, indexed
emissions relative to a 1990 baseline.
103
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Either (i) quantities of pollutants
discharged from all energy-related activities, particularly from coal mining and oil
extraction, or (ii) monthly or annual average site-specific concentrations of each of the
pollutants.
(b) National and International Data Availability and Sources: In Europe,
information on discharges from energy industries can be found in the European
Pollutant Emission Register (EPER), which was established by the European
Commission as an inventory of emissions from those industries covered by Council
Directive 96/61/EC concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (which
includes large energy producers). Globally, however, the main challenge concerning
data is to increase the frequency with which the data are collected, processed and
updated at the national level. In a number of countries, the current practice still is to
publish emission inventories at five-year intervals. Additional efforts are needed to
improve the availability, completeness and comparability of data for air pollutant
emissions.
(c) Data References: Emissions data are available from the European Pollutant
Emissions Register (http://www.eper.cec.eu.int). The European Environment Agency
(EEA) provides information on water data flows and assessments
(http://themes.eea.eu.int/Specific_media/water). The WHO maintains a Web site with
information on water-law standards (http://www.who.int/waterlaw/).
REFERENCES
•
EIPPCB, 2003. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Large
Combustion Plant, March 2003 draft. Seville, Spain: European Integrated
Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau.
•
EEA, 2003. Europe’s Water: An Indicator-Based Assessment. Topic report no.
1/2003. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
OECD, 1989. Energy and the Environment: Policy Overview. Paris, France:
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/
International Energy Agency (IEA).
•
UNEP, 1995. Biological Indicators and Their Use in the Measurement of the
Condition of the Marine Environment. Report no. 55. Nairobi, Kenya: United
Nations Environment Programme.
104
ENV4-2: Oil discharges into coastal waters
Brief Definition
Total accidental, licensed and illegal disposal of
mineral oil into the coastal and marine
environment
Units
Tonnes
Alternative Definitions
None
Agenda 21
Chapter 17: Protection of the oceans, all kinds of
seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas,
and coastal areas and the protection, rational use
and development of their living resources
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator shows the amount of oil discharged into coastal waters
and the effectiveness of measures designed to reduce these discharges over time in
accordance with regional seas conventions and action plans.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Coastal ecosystems provide important
economic benefits, such as fisheries, tourism and outdoor recreation. They are also
important for biodiversity, which is recognized by the Convention on Biological
Diversity (CBD). Agenda 21, based on the United Nations Convention on the Law of
the Sea (UNCLOS), advocates an integrated, ecosystem approach to protect oceans
and coastal areas. Such an approach is heavily dependent on the application of
precautionary and anticipatory principles to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem
productivity while improving the quality of life of coastal communities.
Oil lost or discharged into the sea represents a pollution threat that can damage coastal
ecosystems, endanger marine life and pollute beaches and coastlines. Its toxic effects
can kill or damage marine organisms, and its physical effects on marine life can result
in the loss of water-repellent properties and reduced thermal insulation and buoyancy.
Furthermore, oil spills can have a considerable impact on human activities that depend
on clean seawater and clean shores, notably tourism, fishing and aquaculture.
Oil is used by the population at large and enters the marine and coastal environment
not only directly from shipping, oil drilling, etc., but also as the final sink from a large
variety of hinterland uses. Although there may be legislation to limit this
‘background’ pollution, enforcement depends heavily on the public’s understanding
of the threat, good practices and the reward of good practices. By focusing on the
input from all sources and designing suitable monitoring and reporting techniques, an
indicator can be developed that could be used for assessing policies and defining
strategies for improving the situation.
The impact of oil pollution depends on the type of oil and the sensitivity of the
specific area affected, as well as the weather and the way the cleanup is handled.
Damage to a salt marsh polluted by oil may be almost irreversible, whereas a rocky
shore can be restored with a relatively quick and satisfactory recovery programme.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: This indicator is relevant to the
UNCLOS (1982), the non-binding Global Programme of Action for the Protection of
105
the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) and the Washington
Declaration (1995) implemented by the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP).
The Paris Convention seeks to prevent and eliminate pollution and to protect maritime
areas against the adverse effects of human activities.
In addition, each of the regional seas has its own convention or action plan; in
particular, the Helsinki Convention (HELCOM) refers to protection of the Baltic and
the Kattegat Seas.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: Some regional targets exist.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to indicators for oil and
gas production, consumption and import. It is also linked to other environmental
indicators related to contaminant discharges in water, greenhouse gas emissions, air
pollutant emissions, etc.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Oil pollution in coastal waters essentially
takes place in two ways, either as large discharges during a short period owing to
accidents (acute discharges) or as small but continual discharges over a longer period
(chronic or diffuse discharges). It is estimated that 1% of the total amount of oil
transported by sea is discharged.
There are multiple sources of oil pollution in coastal areas and marine environments.
The major sources include the following:
•
Discharges from coastal industries; for example, petrochemical and oil
refineries, and factories using oil-based products as feedstock.
•
Discharges from coastal iron, steel and non-ferrous industries, as well as from
engineering and surface treatment industries that use oil in various processes
and operations.
•
Discharges and overflows of storm water, which often contain oil, soot,
grease, etc.
•
Discharges of diffuse inputs from various sources.
•
Shipping accidents at sea that release oil.
•
Accidents in connection with oil and gas production, such as blowouts,
explosions and fires.
•
Discharges from ships in operation, including legal as well as illegal
discharges (e.g. tank cleaning at sea, which is prohibited).
•
Recurrent discharges entering the sea around oil platforms from drilling muds
and oil production water.
•
Spills during the loading or unloading of crude oil and petroleum products,
refuelling and other port operations.
•
Atmospheric deposition.
106
(b) Measuring Methods: Estimates of oil discharges from various sources on land
and at sea are normally made indirectly. For ship accidents, the amount of oil lost is
estimated as the difference between the amount carried and the amount retained after
the accident. For oil fingerprinted as bilge water, the expected bilge load, known from
ships that discharge their waste oil legally, is also estimated. Only in a few cases has
the amount of oil discharged into the marine environment been monitored on a regular
basis (e.g. discharge of oil from refineries). For some regions, aerial surveillance is
available.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Accidental or routine discharges are, in many
cases, not accounted for. In general, available data sets are very limited, as oil is
discharged from many different sources. In many countries, oil discharges are not
included in national environmental monitoring programmes. It therefore is not
possible at present to develop realistic estimates showing actual input and time series
to illustrate real trends.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Because of current limitations on discharge
data, an alternative definition could be based on the amount of oil input to marine and
coastal environments by the major sources, namely the oil lost by offshore activities,
the oil discharged by coastal refineries and spills from shipping. Such an approach
excludes input from riverine and atmospheric deposition.
The indicator can be disaggregated into two sub-indicators: (i) oil discharges from
land-based and offshore installations and (ii) accidental oil discharges, legal oil spills
and illegal spills from ships at sea.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Estimates of oil input to coastal areas
and seas from the main sources of oil disposal.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Two particularly important
international data sources are the following:
CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe): The oil companies’
European association for environment, health and safety in refining and distribution,
CONCAWE issues reports on a regular basis on West European oil refinery effluents,
including water quality, oil content and quantities.
ITOPF (International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited): Since 1974,
ITOPF has maintained a database on oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and
barges.
International sea commissions are also sources of data and contribute information
about aerial surveillance activities, estimates of direct oil discharges from specific
point sources, etc.
(c) Data References: Data at the regional level are available from the Regional Seas
Programme of the UNEP (http://www.unep.ch/seas/rshome.html).
Data at the international level may be available from the United Nations
Environmental Assessment sub-programme (http://www.unep.org).
107
REFERENCES
•
EEA, 2003. Europe’s Water: An Indicator-Based Assessment. Topic report no.
1/2003. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Hettige, H., Mani, M., Wheeler, D., 1998. Industrial Pollution in Economic
Development: Kuznets Revisited. Available at http://www.worldbank.org/nipr.
•
IMO, 1994. Guidelines for Marine Environmental Assessments. Report no. 54.
London, UK: International Maritime Organization.
•
OECD, 1989. Energy and the Environment: Policy Overview. Paris, France:
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/
International Energy Agency (IEA).
•
UNEP, 1995. Biological Indicators and Their Use in the Measurement of the
Condition of the Marine Environment. Report no. 55. Nairobi, Kenya: United
Nations Environment Programme.
•
UNEP, 1996. Report on the Survey of Pollutants from Land-Based Sources in
the Mediterranean Sea. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment
Programme.
ENV5: Soil area where acidification exceeds critical load
Brief Definition
Soil area where damage could occur due to
acidification levels that exceed critical loads
Units
Square kilometres (km2)
Alternative Definitions
Soil areas exceeding specific target loads
Agenda 21
Chapter 9: Protection of the atmosphere
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: This indicator describes the extent of acidification at the national level.
It is used to monitor the state and trends in the severity of acidification caused by wet
and dry deposition over time, and to evaluate the environmental performance of
national air pollution abatement policies. The indicator should show acidification
attributable to all sources and, where appropriate national data are available,
acidification due to emissions from the energy sector alone.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: When both sulphur and nitrogen
compounds settle out of the atmosphere in the form of wet deposition (acid rain) or
dry deposition, the resulting acidification of soils and surface waters can have serious
consequences for both plant life and water fauna. When the soil becomes acidified, its
essential nutrients are leached out, which reduces the fertility of the soil. The
acidification process also releases metals that can harm the microorganisms in the soil
that are responsible for decomposition, as well as birds and mammals higher up in the
food chain, including humans. The acidifying effects of acid deposition and land use
must not exceed the limits that can be tolerated by the area in question.
108
Acidification is a priority atmospheric issue considered by Agenda 21 in addressing
degradation of soil and surface-water resources. Therefore, there should be a
mechanism for determining the importance of this issue at the national level. Trend
data over time can indicate the success of response actions. Concrete actions include
structural changes in energy demand (efficiency improvements and fuel substitution)
as well as pollution control policies and technical measures.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: The following agreements are
relevant to this indicator: the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
(UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP)
(Geneva, 1979) and its protocols to reduce emissions of sulphur (Helsinki, 1985,
Oslo, 1994, Gothenburg, 1999) and nitrogen oxides (Sofia, 1988, Gothenburg, 1999).
These protocols are widely accepted as a major step in combating environmental
acidification in Europe. A new multi-pollutant, multi-effect protocol on acidification,
eutrophication and ground-level ozone was signed by the European Union (EU)
Member States in Gothenburg in 1999. Exceedance of critical loads is also covered by
the Acidification Strategy of the EU.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: No specific targets have been
defined; however, the goal worldwide should be to reduce the area of soil affected by
acidification and/or to reduce the severity of acidification. In the EU in the long term,
the target is to cut acidifying emissions to levels whereby critical loads will not be
exceeded anywhere.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: The indicator is linked to other environmental
indicators such as air pollutant emissions from energy systems, which includes
emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: The environment’s ability to withstand
acid precipitation is measured by the concept of a critical load, which is now accepted
as a basis for political decisions on reductions of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen. A
critical load represents a quantitative estimate of a long-term exposure to acid
pollutants that the environment (ecosystem), according to present knowledge, can
absorb without sustaining damage or, in other words, the pollution load that the
environment can withstand. The area where critical loads are exceeded provides an
indication of the ecosystem area in which damage could occur. Exceedance of critical
loads is a complex function of the deposition of various pollutants and the natural
buffering ability of the waterway or soil in question. Long-range transboundary air
pollution plays a significant role in areas where the critical load is exceeded. The
number of exceedances of critical loads has therefore come to be adopted as a proxy
measure for the level of ecosystem protection.
It is important to distinguish between the concepts of ecosystem protection and the
concept of exceedance of critical loads. Targets for reducing acidification are mainly
aimed at addressing the gap between the present level of exceedances and a ‘zero’
level of exceedances; that is, the gap closure approach. Both the EU Acidification
Strategy and the UNECE protocols use the gap closure approach; both have the longterm goal of reducing the number of unprotected ecosystems to zero. The main
109
difference between the two is in the planned pace of attainment, with the EU targets
being required to be reached on a faster time scale.
(b) Measuring Methods: The area of soil where critical loads are exceeded
determined by the sum of all ecosystem areas in grid cells where exceedances occur.
Levels of acidification that exceed critical loads are calculated by considering both
sulphur and nitrogen deposition. The data are directly derived from official national
sources.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The values of the exceedance of critical loads are
highly dependent on the size of the grid cells used for the calculations. In particular,
the area of a protected ecosystem can vary considerably depending on the spatial
resolution of the grid system. This means that the accuracy of the method depends on
the grid size (currently 50x50 km for deposition modelling). More research is needed
to increase the robustness of the calculations.
In many cases the critical loads are determined only for the acidity of sulphur. The
total acidity of sulphur and nitrogen needs to be determined so that a coherent
agreement can be reached regarding abatement policies. Numerous methods are
available for obtaining critical loads. To obtain values for the critical loads, an
ecosystem has to be chosen and then a suitable indicator species must be selected to
represent the ecosystem. A chemical limit is subsequently defined as the
concentration at which the indicator species will die. In forests the indicators are trees,
and in fresh waters they are fish.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: The concept behind critical loads is based on
a dose-response relationship where the threshold of harmful response (within the
ecosystem) is triggered by a certain load of pollutant — the critical load. However, it
is not always easy to apply the concept without careful consideration of the nature of
the affected ecosystem and the threshold effects of harmful pollutants. For critical
loads to be used, ‘target loads’ can be set for different areas in order to try to halt the
acidification processes. Target loads have been defined as ‘the permitted pollutant
load determined by political agreement’. Therefore, target loads can be either higher
or lower than the scientifically determined critical load values. For example, the target
load may be lower so as to give a safety margin, or the target load may be higher for
economic reasons. There are also increasing possibilities for mapping critical loads
for individual ecosystems (e.g. there has been much recent attention given to the
application of acidification modelling to forest ecosystems).
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Critical load values for total acidity of
sulphur and nitrogen, combined with acid deposition values, in order that exceedance
values can be produced showing the area of soil where critical loads are being
exceeded. Countries should make clear the data validation processes for the
emissions, deposition and critical load determinations that are used as the basis for the
development of the indicator.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Critical loads are calculated by
the countries of the CLRTAP and are collected and mapped over Europe by the
Coordination Center for Effects (CCE). Every year, emissions data are reported by
110
national authorities under the CLRTAP. The emissions data include both new
estimates of emissions for two years in areas and updated information on emissions
from previous years. The emissions data are stored and verified in the European
Monitoring and Evaluation Programme’s Meteorological Synthesizing Centre —
West (EMEP/MSC-W). On the basis of these emissions, EMEP/MSC-W carries out
calculations of atmospheric transport of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants according to
recorded meteorological conditions. Updated deposition calculations are used as a
basis for the calculation of exceedances of critical loads at the CCE. Results are
presented in the yearly update of the EMEP report on Transboundary Acidification
and Eutrophication in Europe.
REFERENCES
•
Bouwman, L., van Vuuren, D., 1999. Global Assessment of Acidification and
Eutrophication of Natural Ecosystems. Bilthoven, the Netherlands: United
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/ National Institute of Public Health
and the Environment (RIVM) (www.rivm.nl/env/int/geo).
•
De Vries, W., Posch, M., Reinds, G.J., Kämäri, J., 1993. Critical Loads and
Their Exceedance on Forest Soils in Europe. Report 58 (revised version).
Wageningen, The Netherlands: DLO The Winand Staring Centre for
Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research.
•
Downing, R., Hettelingh, J.-P., de Smet, P., eds, 1993. Calculation and
Mapping of Critical Loads in Europe. Status report 1993. CCE/RIVM Rep.
259101003. Bilthoven, the Netherlands: Coordination Center for Effects
(CCE), National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
•
EEA, 2003. Air Pollution in Europe 1990–2000. Topic report no. 4/2003.
Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Nilsson, J., Grennfelt, P., eds, 1988. Critical Loads for Sulphur and Nitrogen.
NORD 1988:97. Copenhagen, Denmark: Nordic Council of Ministers.
•
Posch, M., Hettelingh, J.-P., de Smet, P.A.M., Downing, R.J., eds, 1999.
Calculation and Mapping of Critical Thresholds in Europe. Status Report
1999, Bilthoven, the Netherlands: Coordination Center for Effects (CCE),
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
•
TCDC/ECDC Network, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem
Sensitivity and the Critical Load Approach on a Global Scale. Beijing, China:
Technological Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC)/Economic
Cooperation among Developing Countries (ECDC) Network. Available at
http://www.ecdc.net.cn/events/report/acid/acidification.htm.
•
UNEP/ISSS/FAO/ISRIC, 1995. Global and National Soil and Terrain Digital
Databases: Procedures Manual (revised edition). Wageningen, the
Netherlands: International Soil Reference and Information Centre.
111
ENV6: Rate of deforestation attributed to energy use
Brief Definition
Annual change in the amount of natural and
plantation forest area tracked over time that could
be attributed to using wood as a fuel for energy
purposes
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
Ratio of fuelwood deforestation rate to total
deforestation rate
Agenda 21
Chapter 11: Combating deforestation
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The purpose of this indicator is to show a change in the area covered by
the forest formations of a country over time that could be attributed to using wood for
energy needs.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Forests serve multiple ecological,
socio-economic and cultural roles in many countries. They are among the most
diverse and widespread ecosystems of the world. Forests provide many significant
resources, including wood products, recreational opportunities and habitat for
wildlife, and serve many important functions, such as filtering pollutants and playing
a role in water and soil conservation. They support employment and traditional uses,
as well as biodiversity. There is general concern about the human impact on forest
health and the natural processes of forest growth and regeneration. It is estimated that,
between 1980 and 1990, the global forest area declined by 180 million hectares (ha),
with a further decline of 56 million ha from 1990 to 1995. Combating deforestation to
maintain the production of fuelwood and other non-fuel wood and to preserve soils,
water, air and biological diversity is explicitly considered in Agenda 21.
Deforestation, in particular due to fuelwood harvest, is seen as a major issue in
developing countries. The issue is of less concern in developed countries, where the
area volume of fuelwood consumption is negligible.
The availability of accurate data on a country’s forest area, which is a basic indication
of its forest resources, is an essential requirement for forest policymaking and
planning within the context of sustainable development.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: Many international agreements
exist encouraging countries to maintain or increase their forested areas. Specific forest
agreements include the Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for
a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development
of All Types of Forests (the Forest Principles of the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development [UNCED]) and the International Tropical Timber
Agreement. Many other international agreements deal with forests within the context
of natural resources and environment conservation; for example, the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the
Convention on the Conservation of Wetlands of International Importance Especially
as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), the Convention on Biological Diversity,
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the
112
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). In addition, several
regional conventions cover forests.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: There are no international
targets or standards set for size of forest or rate of deforestation. It is understood,
however, that the higher the deforestation rate, the more critical the environmental
impact might be in a country or region. Several countries have set targets for the
extent of their forest area, either in absolute values or as a percentage of the total land
area of the country.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to several social and
economic indicators, such as consumption of combustible renewables and waste
(CRW) per capita; share of CRW in energy mix, and in particular share of fuelwood
in CRW; and share of households or population without electricity or commercial
energy, or heavily dependent on non-commercial energy.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: Definitions are available from the Forest
Resources Assessments of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United
Nations (FAO). Forest area is defined as lands with a tree crown cover equal to or
more than 10% of the area; plantation as the artificial establishment of forests by
planting or seeding; and natural forests as natural and/or semi-natural established
forests. The comparisons of forest area over time using reference years allows the
calculation of change in absolute values and as a percentage of the total rate of
deforestation (TRD). The rate of deforestation attributed to the use of wood as fuel
(RDfw) is determined by using the ratio of the average annual fuelwood production
(FWP) to the annual total forest fellings (TFF).
(b) Measuring Methods: The measurement methods for forest area can be contained
in national forest inventories and obtained by remote sensing, by sampling ground or
cadastral surveys, or through a combination of these methods.
The forest area is calculated as the sum of plantations and natural forest areas with
tree crown cover of at least 10%. This calculation is made at given reference years as
follows:
The total rate of deforestation (TRD) is the compound annual rate in percent from year
P to year N:
⎛ 1 ⎞
⎛
⎜
⎟⎞
⎜ ⎛ Forest area N ⎞ ⎝ ( N −P ) ⎠ ⎟
TRD = 100⎜1 − ⎜
⎟
⎟ .
⎜ ⎝ Forest area P ⎠
⎟
⎝
⎠
Then, the rate of deforestation attributed to fuelwood (RDfw) is
⎛ FWP ⎞
RD fw = TRD⎜
⎟ ,
⎝ TFF ⎠
where FWP is annual fuelwood production and TFF is annual total forest fellings.
113
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The indicator does not measure the total rate of
deforestation but focuses only on deforestation caused by harvesting of fuelwood. The
area value does not give any indication of the quality of the forest or of forest values
or practices. The indicator does not provide information on the degradation of the
forest resources in a country. The total forest area in a country might remain
unchanged, even as the quality of the forest degrades. The indicator covers an
extremely diverse range of forests, from open tree savannah to dense tropical forests.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: The ratio of rate of deforestation related to
fuelwood harvest to the total rate of deforestation could serve as an alternative
indicator to measure the impact of use of forest resources as fuelwood on
deforestation.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: The total forest area of a country,
including plantations, at different yearly intervals; fuelwood production or use; and
the annual total forest fellings. Data on the fuelwood harvest might be available from
national agencies responsible for forestry. If there is no reliable information on the
level of fuelwood production, the data on CRW compiled by the International Energy
Agency (IEA) for many developing and developed countries could be used as a proxy.
(b) National and International Data Availability: Data on the extent of forests
(natural and plantations) and total forest fellings are available for most countries, at
both the national and sub-national scales. The data are often estimates, which are not
always comparable because of changes in definitions and assessment methodologies.
International data are available from FAO Forest Resources Assessments and the
statistics of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
National data are available from ministries responsible for forestry and statistics.
International data provided by other institutions — for example, the World Resources
Institute — are mostly based on information from the FAO Forest Resources
Assessments.
(c) Data References: The primary international sources of data are the FAO and the
UNECE, which collect data on forest area and fellings on a regular 10-year basis.
Data on harvested fuelwood are available from national ministries responsible for
forestry. CRW data for many countries are available in the IEA statistics.
REFERENCES
•
Eurostat, 2000. Forest and Environment, Statistics in Focus. Eurostat 17/2000.
Luxembourg: Eurostat.
•
FAO, 1980, 1990 and 2000. Forest Resources Assessments. Rome, Italy: Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
•
FAO, 1993. Forest Resources Assessment 1990: Tropical Countries. FAO
Forestry Papers no. 112/ FAO. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department.
•
FAO, 1999. State of the World’s Forests. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department.
114
•
Harcharik, D.A., 1995. Forest Resources Assessment 1990: Non-Tropical
Developing Countries. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations, Forestry Department.
•
UNECE, 2000. Temperate and Boreal Forest Resource Assessment (TBERA).
New York, NY, USA, and Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe.
ENV7: Ratio of solid waste generation to units of energy produced
Brief Definition
Amount of solid waste (excluding radioactive
waste) produced annually from activities related
to the extraction and conditioning of primary
fuels, and waste produced in thermal power
plants, expressed as weight of waste per unit of
energy produced
Units
Tonnes of waste per unit of energy produced
(tonnes of oil equivalent [toe], megawatt hours
[MWh] or specific units of fuel produced)
Alternative Definitions
Accumulated quantity of solid waste from energy
production
Agenda 21
Chapter 21: Environmentally sound management
of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
Chapter 4: Changing consumption patterns
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The main purpose of this indicator is to provide information on the
amount and type of solid waste generated each year by the energy sector and for
which proper disposal facilities are needed.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: From extraction of energy through to
final use, the energy sector generates specific types of waste; for example, waste from
coal mining, waste from processing of fuels and from combustion of fuel, etc.
Volumes of mining waste tend to be large, and the nature of the waste makes it a
safety hazard. If not properly secured, it can be susceptible to fire, to landslide and to
the leaching of heavy metals and other pollutants into water and soil. In developing
countries, scavenging on coal slag tips is common, leading to accidents and other
health problems. In addition, large volumes of waste take up considerable space,
blight the landscape and can spoil local wildlife habitats. For all waste types,
inadequate storage and disposal can also lead to contamination of water bodies and
soil through runoff and leaching. Moreover, much of the waste can potentially be used
as a raw material — for example, as a building aggregate, which could reduce the
need for quarrying, etc. — so that the non-use of this potential raw material represents
a waste of resources.
115
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: There are no specific international
agreements addressing the issue of solid waste from energy production or use. Agenda
21 calls on developed countries to take the lead in promoting and implementing more
sustainable consumption and production patterns, which are also priority areas for the
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: Some countries have set
national targets for the reduction of solid waste within a specified time frame. In
general, proposed measures for dealing with waste range from the introduction of
cleaner technology and waste minimization to reuse, recycling, incineration and, when
all other options have been exhausted, landfill.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to other economic and
environmental indicators, including indigenous energy production, energy use, energy
intensity, energy mix, energy supply efficiency, accumulated quantity of solid wastes
to be managed, land area taken up by waste dumping, etc.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: For the purpose of this indicator, the
energy sector includes the following activities:
•
Extraction of crude oil, natural gas, coal, lignite, peat, oil shales and other
primary fuels. Harvesting of wood for fuel and extraction of uranium are not
included.
•
Conditioning of primary fuels (e.g. production of coal and lignite briquettes,
refining of petroleum products).
•
Electricity generation in public supply conventional thermal power plants,
including combined heat and power plants. Enterprises that produce electricity
exclusively for their own use are not included. Activities related to the
functioning of nuclear power stations are specifically excluded.
Waste is defined as any substance or object that the holder discards or intends to
discard. It is, therefore, perceived to have no commercial value to the producer. This
does not preclude its being of value to some other party.
Solid waste from the energy sector is limited to waste that results directly from the
normal functioning of that sector. Included are waste from coal and lignite mining and
upgrading (tails); waste from oil and gas extraction and from refineries; combustion
waste from thermal power stations (bottom ash, flying ash, slug); waste from the
incineration of industrial and municipal waste, when these are used as a fuel in power
stations; and waste from air pollution abatement technologies (sludge from scrubbers,
spent catalysts). Non-regular waste such as decommissioned oil/gas rigs, power
stations, refineries and other machinery should be reported separately, as these are
exceptional events requiring special disposal measures. For the purpose of this
116
indicator, radioactive waste and (scrapped) road vehicles, railway wagons and seagoing vessels2 belonging to the energy industry are excluded.
(b) Measuring Methods: For the energy sector, the amount of normal waste can most
easily be measured by weight as it leaves the energy production facility. In the case of
mining waste, which normally is stored on-site, the amount can be estimated based on
the quantity of coal or lignite extracted. The estimation method should be revised
regularly to take into account new extraction methods and changes in the seam.
Where relevant, the amount of incineration waste generated may be estimated based
on the ash content of the coal or lignite. It is important for this indicator to be policy
relevant; therefore, the different types of waste should be reported separately to
highlight the main areas where action is needed.
The waste generated should be presented in absolute terms (tonnes), which gives an
indication of the scale of the problem, and in terms of waste generated per unit of
energy produced, which allows the effects of reduction measures to be assessed. In
this case, it is important that the waste for each process be divided by the energy
resulting from that process only. Under no circumstances should any attempt be made
to aggregate all wastes and all energy produced from the different processes, as this
will result in double and treble counting of some energy sources and will present a
false picture.
The energy produced can be expressed in specific units of fuel produced (i.e. tonnes
for coal, lignite and petroleum; cubic metres for gas; MWh for electricity), or in
energy units (terajoules [TJ], MWh or toe, based on gross calorific value).
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Solid waste generation from energy use,
particularly waste from mining activities, is not always monitored at source and may
have to be estimated based on coefficients. In this case, the waste generated per unit
of energy produced will remain unchanged, unless the coefficients are changed. The
indicator does not distinguish between toxic and hazardous wastes, and those that are
more benign. It is often confused with the amount of solid waste disposed of, which is
measured by recording the weight or volume of waste disposed of at a disposal or
treatment site.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: The basic waste data could be presented on
their own or as the accumulated waste — ideally the waste accumulated since
operations started, but more realistically that accumulated since a fixed base year.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Data on the production of waste at
source, as well as data on primary energy production, output from refineries and
electricity generated from fossil fuels and other combustible fuels.
(b) National and International Data Availability: In general, waste statistics are of
very poor quality, and the share of solid waste from energy production may be
2
Transport equipment is considered to belong to the transport sector and thus is excluded from the
definition of waste from the energy sector. If such equipment were included, the figures could be
manipulated and waste could be ‘reduced’ by simply outsourcing transport activities, with no real
impact on the quantities of waste generated.
117
difficult to obtain. Available data are scattered and consist of only rough estimates. In
the European Union, data on industrial waste will be regularly collected with the
implementation of the Waste Statistics Regulation.
(c) Data References: In some countries, data on the volume of waste removed from
energy-producing facilities are monitored by waste-collection contractors. However,
this may not be all the waste generated (see above).
REFERENCES
•
Commission of the European Communities, 2003. Proposal for a Directive of
the European Parliament and of the Council on the Management of Waste
from the Extractive Industries. COM(2003) 319 final. Brussels, Belgium:
Commission of the European Communities.
•
EEA, 2002. Review of Selected Waste Streams: Sewage Sludge, Construction
and Demolition Waste, Waste Oils, Waste from Coal-Fired Power Plants and
Biodegradable Municipal Waste. Technical report no. 69. Copenhagen,
Denmark: European Environment Agency.
•
Eurostat, 2000. Waste Generated in Europe — Data 1985–1997. Luxembourg:
Eurostat.
•
OECD, 1998. The Status of Waste Minimization in the OECD Member
Countries. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development.
ENV8: Ratio of solid waste properly disposed of to total generated solid waste
Brief Definition
Amount of waste generated by the energy sector
that has been properly disposed of, expressed as a
percentage of the volume of total solid waste
produced by the energy sector
Units
Percentage
Alternative Definitions
Amount of waste generated by the energy sector
awaiting proper disposal; capacity of existing
energy-related solid waste disposal and treatment
facilities
Agenda 21
Chapter 4: Changing consumption patterns
Chapter 21: Environmentally sound management
of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The main purpose of this indicator is to assess the extent of proper
disposal of solid waste from the energy sector.
118
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: From extraction of energy through to
final use, the energy sector generates specific types of waste; for example, waste from
coal mining, waste from processing of fuels and from combustion of fuel, etc.
Volumes of mining waste tend to be large, and the nature of the waste makes it a
safety hazard. If not properly treated or disposed of, it can be susceptible to fire, to
landslide and to the leaching of heavy metals and other pollutants into water and soil.
In developing countries, scavenging on coal slag tips is common, leading to accidents
and other health problems. In addition, large volumes of waste take up considerable
space, blight the landscape and can spoil local wildlife habitats. For all waste types,
inadequate storage and disposal can also lead to contamination of water bodies and
soil through runoff and leaching.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: There are no specific international
agreements addressing the issue of solid waste from energy production or use. Agenda
21 calls on developed countries to take the lead in promoting and implementing more
sustainable consumption and production patterns, which are also priority areas for the
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: Some countries have set
national targets for the reduction of solid waste within a specified time frame. In
general, proposed measures for dealing with waste range from the introduction of
cleaner technology and waste minimization to reuse, recycling, incineration and, when
all other options have been exhausted, landfill.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is specifically linked to the
indicator on solid waste generation to units of energy produced. It is also linked to
other economic and environmental indicators including indigenous energy production,
energy use per capita, energy intensity, energy mix, energy supply efficiency,
accumulated quantity of solid wastes to be managed, land area taken up by waste
dumping, etc.
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: For the purpose of this indicator, the
energy sector includes the following activities:
•
Extraction of crude oil, natural gas, coal, lignite, peat, oil shales and other
primary fuels. Harvesting of wood for fuel and extraction of uranium are not
included.
•
Conditioning of primary fuels (e.g. production of coal and lignite briquettes,
refining of petroleum products).
•
Electricity generation in public supply conventional thermal power plants,
including combined heat and power plants. Enterprises that produce electricity
exclusively for their own use are not included. Activities related to the
functioning of nuclear power stations are specifically excluded.
Waste is defined as any substance or object that the holder discards or intends to
discard. It is, therefore, perceived to have no commercial value to the producer. This
does not preclude its being of value to some other party.
119
Solid waste from the energy sector is limited to waste that results directly from the
normal functioning of that sector. Included are waste from coal and lignite mining and
upgrading (tails); waste from oil and gas extraction and from refineries; combustion
waste from thermal power stations (bottom ash, flying ash, slug); waste from the
incineration of industrial and municipal waste, when these are used as a fuel in power
stations; and waste from air pollution abatement technologies (sludge from scrubbers,
spent catalysts). Non-regular waste such as decommissioned oil/gas rigs, power
stations, refineries and other machinery should be reported separately, as these are
exceptional events requiring special disposal measures. For the purpose of this
indicator, radioactive waste and (scrapped) road vehicles, railway wagons and seagoing vessels3 belonging to the energy industry are excluded.
‘Properly disposed of’ refers to
• Recycling or reuse of waste;
•
Incineration in incinerators fitted with appropriate filters, etc., to remove
noxious emissions;
•
Solidification, so as to prevent landslide; and
•
Disposal in secured and lined landfill sites and other sites where measures are
in place to avoid runoff and uncontrolled combustion.
(b) Measuring Methods: To obtain a reasonable estimation of the proper disposal of
waste, it is important to have an inventory of (energy) waste treatment and disposal
facilities, whether on-site or at separate facilities that can also dispose of other types
of waste. The weight of (energy) waste properly disposed of can most easily be
measured as it enters the waste disposal or treatment facility. In the case of mining
waste, which normally is stored on-site, the amount can be estimated based on the
availability of adequate storage or treatment facilities on-site and on the percentage of
waste generated that is sent to those facilities. For this indicator, it is important that
the different types of waste be reported separately to highlight the main waste types
for which proper disposal facilities are needed.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: The expression ‘properly disposed of’ will have
different meanings in different countries, and therefore the indicator will not
necessarily mean the same thing everywhere. However, as use of this indicator is
mainly internal, this will not pose a major problem. The indicator does not distinguish
between toxic and hazardous wastes, and those that are more benign. For this reason,
it is important to break the indicator down into the different types of waste.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Two alternative indicators are proposed:
3
•
Amount of waste generated by the energy sector awaiting proper disposal.
•
Capacity of existing energy-related solid waste disposal and treatment
facilities as a percentage of waste generated. This information is likely to be
Transport equipment is considered to belong to the transport sector and thus is excluded from the
definition of waste from the energy sector. If such equipment were included, the figures could be
manipulated and waste could be ‘reduced’ by simply outsourcing transport activities, with no real
impact on the quantities of waste generated.
120
more easily available, as in many countries these facilities are licensed or at
least subject to planning permission.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: Data on the production of waste at
source and on the quantities delivered to waste treatment and disposal facilities.
(b) National and International Data Availability: In general, waste statistics are of
very poor quality, and the share of solid waste from energy production may be
difficult to obtain. Available data are scattered and consist of only rough estimates. In
the European Union, data on industrial waste and on waste treatment facilities will be
regularly collected with the implementation of the Waste Statistics Regulation.
(c) Data Reference: Many waste disposal facilities charge by weight for the
treatment and disposal of waste. Therefore, these quantities should be readily
available. However, this may not be all the waste treated, as some waste will be
treated and disposed of on-site, without the intervention of outside contractors.
REFERENCES
•
Commission of the European Communities, 2003. Proposal for a Directive of
the European Parliament and of the Council on the Management of Waste
from the Extractive Industries. COM(2003) 319 final. Brussels, Belgium:
Commission of the European Communities.
•
Eurostat, 2000. Waste Generated in Europe — Data 1985–1997. Luxembourg:
Eurostat.
•
OECD, 1998. The Status of Waste Minimization in the OECD Member
Countries. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development.
121
ENV9: Ratio of solid radioactive waste to units of energy produced
Brief Definition
Radioactive waste arisings from nuclear fuel cycles
or other fuel cycles per unit of energy produced.
Waste arisings destined for disposal in solid form
are classified and categorized according to national
definitions or as proposed here. These quantities
consider all radioactive wastes from energy fuel
cycles, including mining, milling, energy
generation and other related processes. This
indicator represents a set of indicators that includes
one for each type of radioactive waste
Units
Cubic metres (m3) of radioactive waste destined for
disposal in solid form and tonnes of heavy metal
(tHM) for spent fuel per terawatt hour (TWh) of
electricity produced or tonne of oil equivalent (toe)
or exajoule (EJ) of final energy produced in a
selected period of time (e.g. several years or
lifetime of facility)
Alternative Definitions
Generation of radioactive waste
Agenda 21
Chapter 22: Safe and environmentally sound
management of radioactive wastes
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: The purpose of this indicator is to account for the amounts of various
radioactive waste streams that arise from the nuclear fuel cycle in particular and from
other fuel cycles per unit of energy produced.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Energy is a key to sustainable
development, and the generation of all types of solid waste, and in particular solid
radioactive waste, should be minimized. In addition, and as described in the chapter
on radioactive waste (Chapter 22) of Agenda 21, it is important to ensure that
radioactive wastes are safely managed, transported, stored and disposed of, with a
view to protecting human health and the environment in the short and long terms.
Radioactive waste is an environmental concern associated with different energy
generation systems and in particular with nuclear power. To protect human health and
the environment, waste management strategies and technologies exist and are being
employed, especially by the nuclear industry. Fundamental principles of radioactive
waste management involve minimization of waste arisings and systematic
management of the treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal of such waste. Other
fuel chains besides nuclear produce radioactive waste; thus, this indicator should also
be applied to those fuel chains.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: International standards and criteria
exist for the nuclear energy industry in the form of recommendations by the
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and also in the
Requirements and Guides of the Safety Standards of the International Atomic Energy
122
Agency (IAEA). In 1995, the IAEA published The Principles of Radioactive Waste
Management (Safety Series No. 111-F). One of the nine principles specified in this
report states that ‘Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that will not
impose undue burdens on future generations’. The principles set forth in this
publication provided the technical basis for the Joint Convention on the Safety of
Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. This
convention, which entered into force in June 2001, requires Contracting Parties to
account for spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories. This convention binds
Parties to manage spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes using the most
appropriate waste management practices.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: The IAEA has established
Safety Standards (Fundamentals, Requirements and Guides) applicable to the
management of radioactive wastes generated in nuclear energy facilities. It has also
established the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing
Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, which are consistent with
recommendations of the ICRP. No comparable international recommended standards
or targets exist for the radioactive waste generated in non-nuclear energy industries.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to other indicators related
to radioactive waste, such as the ‘Ratio of solid radioactive waste awaiting disposal to
total generated solid radioactive waste’ and ‘Management of radioactive waste, ISDRW’.4
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: At present, there are no universally
accepted strict categorizations for and definitions of radioactive waste, although some
countries do have strict definitions. Nevertheless, in 1994 the IAEA published a guide
(Safety Series No. 111-G-1.1) on waste classification for all waste types arising from
the nuclear cycle. However, capacity building and improved guidance are required to
apply this class scheme, and a common international framework on how to apply the
classes to waste types is necessary. No definitions, concepts or classifications exist for
radioactive waste arising from non-nuclear processes and activities.
For nuclear fuel cycles, if national classifications are not available, it is proposed that
the radioactive waste in solid form be classified into three different categories: highlevel radioactive waste (HLW); low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste
(LILW), long lived (LL) and short lived (SL); and spent fuel arisings. The vast
majority of all radioactive waste from the nuclear power fuel cycle chain is low level,
and safe disposal sites for this type of waste have been in operation in numerous
countries for many years. Disposal sites for HLW and other long-lived waste are
under development in some countries. LILW is waste for which the heat generated is
negligible and does not need to be taken into account during treatment and disposal.
HLW is waste for which heat generation is significant and must be considered in all
4
The latter is part of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA)
ISD set of indicators; its description is available at http://www-newmdb.iaea.org/
and http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isdms2001/isd-ms2001economicB.htm#
radioactivewaste.
123
the management steps. The concentration of long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides
determines whether the LILW is classed as SL or LL. Additionally, radioactive waste
includes spent fuel, although in some countries it is not considered a waste stream and
is routinely reprocessed (or stored for future use) in order to recycle the uranium and
plutonium (as fresh fuel) and to remove the fission product, which is vitrified and
constitutes the HLW stream. The indicator described by this methodology sheet in
fact represents a set of indicators, since each type of radioactive waste needs to be
assessed separately.
(b) Measuring Methods: For radioactive waste from nuclear cycles in
packaged/conditioned form, the volume should be the actual volume in m3 as recorded
in the appropriate waste package registry; and for spent fuel, in tHM. For radioactive
waste not yet in conditioned form, the volumes used should be those based on the
conditioning method assumed the most likely to be used later for disposal. The
indicator can be developed at three levels according to the definition of boundaries: (i)
at the plant level, (ii) at the generating system level and (iii) at the overall fuel cycle
or energy system level. At the plant level, the indicator provides a tool to weigh the
environmental sustainability of innovative technologies, especially with respect to
innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. At this level, the indicator is readily
defined by the technical specifications unique to each technology. At the generating
system level, the indicator considers the net waste after reprocessing or any other
processes that either increase or reduce the net radioactive waste. At the overall fuel
cycle level, the indicator assesses the overall waste generation from front end to back
end, including all intermediate processes, and through time from start-up to
decommissioning. At this level, the measuring of the environmental sustainability is
the most comprehensive, but the measuring method remains to be fully defined. The
indicator is defined, for each waste type and for each industry or activity, as the ratio
of solid radioactive waste to energy produced. The waste is normalized with respect to
the amount of energy produced in a selected period of time (several years or for the
life of the facility).
Efforts are necessary worldwide for the identification, measuring and monitoring of
radioactive waste generated from non-nuclear activities and processes. Appropriate
recommended standards, targets and measuring methods need to be developed for the
effective management of the radioactive waste generated from these sources.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: Differences between countries may arise due to
differences in the classification system used in establishing national inventories.
Defining the indicator at the overall fuel cycle level requires an elaborated
methodology that is not yet fully defined.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Generation of radioactive waste.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: The volumes of the various radioactive
waste types arising annually:
•
High-level radioactive waste (HLW).
•
Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, long lived (LILW-LL).
124
•
Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, short lived (LILW-SL).
•
Spent fuel arisings.
•
Radioactive waste from non-nuclear processes and activities.
(b) National and International Data Availability: At the national level, the volume
of radioactive waste arisings from nuclear facilities could be obtained from the waste
accountancy records maintained by the various waste generators or, in consolidated
form, from national regulatory bodies. Almost one-third of the IAEA Member States
keep some type of national radioactive waste registry. The Joint Convention on the
Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste
Management requires Contracting Parties to report their radioactive waste inventories
within their national reports. Through this mechanism, both the availability and the
quality of data are likely to increase over time. A secondary source may be databases
managed by international organizations such as the IAEA or the Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/ Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA).
Currently, with perhaps the exception of country data on spent fuel arisings,
comprehensive country data from nuclear fuel cycles on radioactive waste are not
readily available.
Data on radioactive waste from other fuel chains are not usually available.
(c) Data References: The primary source for data includes national or state-level
governmental organizations. The IAEA maintains the Net Enabled Waste
Management Database (NEWMDB), which contains information on national
radioactive waste management programmes, plans and activities, relevant laws and
regulations, policies and radioactive waste inventories (http://wwwnewmdb.iaea.org/). The European Commission compiles data for the European Union
Member States and for the Accession Countries.
REFERENCES
•
European Commission, 1999. The Present Situation and Prospects for
Radioactive Waste Management in the European Union. COM (1998) 799
final of 11/1/99, Communication and Fourth Report from Commission.
Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.
•
IAEA, 1994. IAEA’s Safety Guides (Safety Series No. 111-G-1.1), 1994.
Classification of Radioactive Waste. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic
Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 1995. IAEA’s Safety Fundamentals (Safety Series No. 111-F), 1995.
The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. Vienna, Austria:
International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 1995. IAEA’s Safety Standards (Safety Series No. 111-S-1), 1995.
Establishing a National System for Radioactive Waste Management. Vienna,
Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 1996. IAEA’s Safety Standards (Safety Series No. 115), 1996.
International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation
125
and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic
Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 1997. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and
on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, September 1997.
INFCIRC/546. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 2000. Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Proceedings of
International Conference, Cordova, 2000. Vienna, Austria: International
Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 2003. The Long Term Storage of Radioactive Waste: Safety and
Sustainability: A Position Paper of International Experts. Vienna, Austria:
International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
ICRP, 1991. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on
Radiological Protection. Publication 60, 1991. Annals of the ICRP, Vol.
21/1_3. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
•
ICRP, 1996. Radiation Protection Principles for the Disposal of Solid
Radioactive Waste. Publication 46, 1986. Annals of the ICRP, Vol. 15/4.
•
ICRP, 1998. Radiological Protection Policy for the Disposal of Radioactive
Waste. Publication 77, 1998. Annals of the ICRP, Vol. 27, Supplement.
•
ICRP, 2000. Radiation Protection Recommendations as Applied to the
Disposal of Long-Lived Solid Radioactive Waste. Publication 81, 2000.
Annals of the ICRP, Vol. 28/4.
126
ENV10: Ratio of solid radioactive waste awaiting disposal to total generated
solid radioactive waste
Brief Definition
This indicator is a measure of the accumulated
quantities of solid radioactive waste awaiting nearsurface or geological disposal from all steps in the
nuclear and non-nuclear fuel cycles. These
quantities include all radioactive wastes originating
from energy fuel cycles, including mining, milling,
energy generation and other related processes.
Radioactive wastes in solid form are classified and
categorized according to national definitions or as
proposed here. This indicator represents a set of
indicators that includes one for each type of
radioactive waste
Units
Percentage based on cubic metres (m3) of solid
radioactive waste (or tonnes of heavy metal [tHM]
for spent fuel) awaiting disposal over total
generated radioactive waste
Alternative Definitions
Accumulated quantity of radioactive waste
awaiting disposal or ratio of radioactive waste
properly disposed of to total generated radioactive
waste
Agenda 21
Chapter 22: Safe and environmentally sound
management of radioactive wastes
POLICY RELEVANCE
(a) Purpose: By providing the share of radioactive waste still awaiting disposal, this
indicator shows the relative status of the existing radioactive waste at any given time
for any energy fuel cycle. Increasing shares of radioactive waste awaiting disposal
over time would indicate an increasing need in the long term for appropriate disposal
options, such as near-surface or geological disposal.
(b) Relevance to Sustainable Development: Energy is a key to sustainable
development, and the appropriate management of solid radioactive waste generated by
energy fuel cycles is a major priority. As described in the chapter on radioactive waste
(Chapter 22) of Agenda 21, it is important to ensure that radioactive wastes are safely
managed, transported, stored and disposed of, with a view to protecting human health
and the environment in the short and long terms.
Radioactive waste is an environmental concern associated with different energy
generation systems and in particular with nuclear power. To protect human health and
the environment, waste management strategies and technologies exist and are being
employed, especially by the nuclear industry. Fundamental principles of radioactive
waste management involve minimization of waste arisings and systematic
management of the treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal of such waste. Waste
management strategies are designed to confine and contain the radionuclides within a
127
system of engineered and natural barriers. Other fuel chains besides nuclear produce
some radioactive waste; thus, this indicator should also be applied to those fuel
chains.
(c) International Conventions and Agreements: International standards and criteria
exist for the nuclear industry in the form of recommendations by the International
Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and also in the Requirements and
Guides of the Safety Standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
In 1995, the IAEA published The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management
(Safety Series No. 111-F). One of the nine principles specified in this report states that
‘Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that will not impose undue
burdens on future generations’. The principles set forth in this publication provided
the technical basis for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management
and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. This convention, which entered
into force in June 2001, requires Contracting Parties to account for spent fuel and
radioactive waste inventories. The convention also binds Parties to manage spent
nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes using the most appropriate waste management
practices.
(d) International Targets/Recommended Standards: International targets do not
exist. Nationally, targets can be derived from the relevant national radioactive waste
management programmes. No recommended standards or targets exist for the
radioactive waste generated in non-nuclear energy processes and activities.
(e) Linkages to Other Indicators: This indicator is linked to other indicators related
to radioactive waste, such as ‘Ratio of solid radioactive waste to units of energy
produced’ and ‘Management of radioactive waste, ISD-RW’.5
METHODOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
(a) Underlying Definitions and Concepts: At present, there are no universally
accepted strict categorizations for and definitions of radioactive waste, although some
countries do have strict definitions. Nevertheless, in 1994 the IAEA published a guide
(Safety Series No. 111-G-1.1) on waste classification for all waste types arising from
the nuclear cycle. However, capacity building and improved guidance are required to
apply this class scheme, and a common international framework on how to apply the
classes to waste types is necessary. No definitions, concepts or classifications exist for
radioactive waste arising from non-nuclear processes and activities.
For nuclear fuel cycles, if national classifications are not available, it is proposed that
the radioactive waste in solid form be classified into three different categories: highlevel radioactive waste (HLW); low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste
(LILW), long lived (LL) and short lived (SL); and spent fuel arisings. The vast
majority of all radioactive waste from the nuclear power fuel cycle chain is low level,
and safe disposal sites for this type of waste have been in operation in numerous
countries for many years. Disposal sites for HLW and other long-lived waste are
5
The latter is part of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA)
ISD set of indicators; its description is available at http://www-newmdb.iaea.org/
and http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isdms2001/isd-ms2001economicB.htm#
radioactivewaste.
128
under development in some countries. LILW is waste for which the heat generated is
negligible and does not need to be taken into account during treatment and disposal.
HLW is waste for which heat generation is significant and must be considered in all
the management steps. The concentration of long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides
determines whether the LILW is classed as SL or LL. Additionally, radioactive waste
includes spent fuel, although in some countries it is not considered a waste stream and
is routinely reprocessed (or stored for future use) in order to recycle the uranium and
plutonium (as fresh fuel) and to remove the fission product, which is vitrified and
constitutes the HLW stream. The indicator described by this methodology sheet in
fact represents a set of indicators, since each type of radioactive waste needs to be
assessed separately.
(b) Measuring Methods: For radioactive waste from nuclear fuel cycles in
packaged/conditioned form, broken down into the different waste types according to
national classifications and regulations or as specified above, the basic unit should be
the actual volume in m3; for spent fuel, tHM. For radioactive waste not yet in
conditioned form, the volumes used should be those based on the conditioning method
assumed the most likely to be used later for disposal. The indicator is defined, for
each waste type and for each industry or activity, as the ratio of radioactive waste
awaiting disposal to the corresponding total generated radioactive waste.
Efforts are necessary worldwide for the identification, measuring and monitoring of
radioactive waste generated from non-nuclear processes and activities. Appropriate
recommended standards, targets and measuring methods need to be developed for the
effective management of the radioactive waste generated from these sources.
(c) Limitations of the Indicator: There is an inevitable time lag between the
moment that the waste arises and its disposal. In the case of spent fuel and HLW, this
time lag can be on the order of several decades, and therefore trends should be
interpreted carefully.
Some differences among countries may arise due to differences in the classification
system used in establishing national inventories.
(d) Alternative Definitions/Indicators: Accumulated quantity of radioactive waste
awaiting disposal; also, ratio of radioactive waste properly disposed of to total
generated radioactive waste.
ASSESSMENT OF DATA
(a) Data Needed to Compile the Indicator: The accumulated quantities of the
various radioactive waste types generated and awaiting proper disposal as defined
nationally or classified as
•
High-level radioactive waste (HLW);
•
Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, long lived (LILW-LL);
•
Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, short lived (LILW-SL);
•
Spent fuel; or
•
Radioactive waste from non-nuclear processes and activities.
129
(b) National and International Data Availability: At the national level for nuclear
fuel cycles, the accumulated volume of radioactive waste awaiting disposal could be
obtained from the waste accountancy records maintained by the various waste
generators or, in consolidated form, from national regulatory bodies. At present,
almost one-third of the IAEA Member States keep some kind of national radioactive
waste registry. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on
the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management requires Contracting Parties to report
their radioactive waste inventories within their national reports. Through this
mechanism, both the availability and the quality of data are likely to increase over
time. A secondary source may be databases managed by international organizations
such as the IAEA or the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Currently, with perhaps the exception of
country data on spent fuel arisings, comprehensive country data from nuclear fuel
cycles on radioactive waste awaiting disposal are not readily available.
Data on radioactive waste from other fuel chains are not usually available.
(c) Data References: The primary source for data includes national or state-level
governmental organizations. The IAEA maintains the Net Enabled Waste
Management Database (NEWMDB), which contains information on national
radioactive waste management programmes, plans and activities, relevant laws and
regulations, policies and radioactive waste inventories.6 The European Commission
compiles data for the European Union Member States and for the Accession
Countries.
REFERENCES
6
•
European Commission, 1999. The Present Situation and Prospects for
Radioactive Waste Management in the European Union. COM (1998) 799
final of 11/1/99, Communication and Fourth Report from Commission.
Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.
•
IAEA, 1994. IAEA’s Safety Guides (Safety Series No. 111-G-1.1), 1994.
Classification of Radioactive Waste. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic
Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 1995. IAEA’s Safety Fundamentals (Safety Series No. 111-F), 1995.
The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. Vienna, Austria:
International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 1995. IAEA’s Safety Standards (Safety Series No. 111-S-1), 1995.
Establishing a National System for Radioactive Waste Management. Vienna,
Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 1996. IAEA’s Safety Standards (Safety Series No. 115), 1996.
International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation
and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic
Energy Agency.
The NEWMDB internet site is http://www-newmdb.iaea.org/
130
•
IAEA, 1997. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and
on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, September 1997.
INFCIRC/546. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 2000. Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Proceedings of
International Conference, Cordova, 2000. Vienna, Austria: International
Atomic Energy Agency.
•
IAEA, 2003. The Long Term Storage of Radioactive Waste: Safety and
Sustainability: A Position Paper of International Experts. Vienna, Austria:
International Atomic Energy Agency.
•
ICRP, 1991. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on
Radiological Protection. Publication 60, 1991. Annals of the ICRP, Vol.
21/1_3. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
•
ICRP, 1996. Radiation Protection Principles for the Disposal of Solid
Radioactive Waste. Publication 46, 1986. Annals of the ICRP, Vol. 15/4.
•
ICRP, 1998. Radiological Protection Policy for the Disposal of Radioactive
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•
ICRP, 2000. Radiation Protection Recommendations as Applied to the
Disposal of Long-Lived Solid Radioactive Waste. Publication 81, 2000.
Annals of the ICRP, Vol. 28/4.
131
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143
RELATED INTERNET SITES
•
CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe — The Oil
Companies’ European Organization for Environmental and Health Protection):
www.concawe.be
•
EEA (European Environment Agency):
http://www.eea.eu.int
•
EEA — Energy and environmental indicators:
http://themes.eea.eu.int/Sectors_and_activities/energy
•
EEA — First indicators report on energy and environment in the European
Union:
http://reports.eea.eu.int/environmental_issue_report_2002_31/en
•
EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency):
http://www.epa.gov/ epaoswer/other/mining/minedock/id.htm
•
EC (European Commission) — Eurostat:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/
•
EC — Eurostat, statistical information:
http://epp.eurostat.cec.eu.int/portal/page?_pageid=1090,1137397&_dad=porta
l&_schema=PORTAL
•
EC — General Directorate Transport & Energy:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.html
•
EC — Joint Research Centre, SIP project:
http://esl.jrc.it/envind/sip/en/sip_en01.htm
•
EC — Joint Research Centre, Waste treatment and disposal technologies:
http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm
•
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN):
http://www.fao.org
•
FAO — Forest Management:
http://www.fao.org/forestry/FODA/infonote/ infont-e.stm
•
FAO — Statistical Databases:
http://apps.fao.org
•
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency):
http://www.iaea.org/
•
IAEA — Net Enabled Waste Management Database:
http://www-newmdb.iaea.org/
•
IAEA — Planning and Economic Studies Section: Analysis for Sustainable
Energy Development:
http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/Pess
145
•
ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection):
http://icrp.org/
•
IEA (International Energy Agency):
http://www.iea.org
•
IEA — Statistics:
http://www.iea.org/statist/index.htm.
•
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change):
http://www.ipcc.ch
•
IPCC — Technical support:
http://www.ipcc.nggip.iges.or.jp
•
ISWA (International Solid Waste Association):
http://www.iswa.org/
•
ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization):
http://www.itto.or.jp/
•
NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency):
http://www.nea.fr/
•
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development):
http://www.oecd.org/
•
UNCSD (United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development):
www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd
•
UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs):
http://www.un.org/esa/desa.htm
•
UNDESA — Indicators of Sustainable Development:
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm
•
UNDESA — Indicators of Sustainable Development, Methodology Sheets:
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isdms2001/
•
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme):
http://www.unep.org/
•
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change):
http://www.unfccc.int
•
UNITAR (United Nations Institute for Training and Research), Publications:
www.unitar.org/ccp/pubs/index.htm
•
UNITAR — Other emissions:
www.unitar.org/cwm/publications/prtr.htm
•
UNSD (United Nations Statistics Division):
http://www.un.org/Depts/unsd
•
World Bank:
http://www.worldbank.org/data
146
•
WEC (World Energy Council):
http://www.worldenergy.org
•
WHO (World Health Organization):
http://www.who.org
•
World Resources Institute:
http://www.wri.org/
•
WSSD (World Summit on Sustainable Development):
http://www.johannesburgsummit.org/
147
ANNEX 1: GLOSSARY OF SELECTED TERMS
Acidification is the change in an environment’s natural chemical balance caused by
an increase of acidic elements.
Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and
locally by the United Nations system, governments and major groups in every area in
which human activities have an impact on the environment.
Coal includes primary solid fuels such as hard coal and lignite, and derived fuels
(including patent fuel, coke oven coke, gas coke, coke oven gas and blast furnace
gas). Peat is also included in this category.
Combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consists of biomass (wood, vegetal waste,
ethanol) and animal products (animal materials/wastes and sulphite lyes), municipal
waste (wastes produced by the residential, commercial and public service sectors that
are collected by local authorities for disposal in a central location for the production
of heat and/or power) and industrial waste.
Critical load is the maximum load that a given system can tolerate before failing.
Crude oil comprises crude oil, natural gas liquids, refinery feedstocks and additives,
as well as other hydrocarbons such as synthetic oils, mineral oils extracted from
bituminous minerals and oils from coal and natural gas liquefaction.
Gas includes natural gas (excluding natural gas liquids) and gas works gas.
Global warming potential describes the cumulative effect of the different greenhouse
gases. For example, over a period of 100 years, 1 tonne of methane will have a
warming effect equivalent to 21 tonnes of carbon dioxide, and 1 tonne of nitrous
oxide will have the effect of 310 tonnes of carbon dioxide.
Greenhouse gases act like a blanket around the Earth or like the glass roof of a
greenhouse; they trap heat from sunlight and keep the Earth some 30ºC warmer than
it would be otherwise. The Kyoto Protocol covers a basket of six greenhouse gases
produced by human activities: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide,
hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride.
Hydro refers to the energy content of the electricity produced in hydropower plants.
Hydro output excludes output from pumped storage plants. Electricity production
from hydropower is accounted for by using the factor 1 terawatt hour (TWh) equals
0.086 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe).
Non-combustible renewables include geothermal, solar, wind, hydro, tide and wave
energy. For geothermal energy, the energy quantity is the enthalpy of the geothermal
heat entering the process. For solar, wind, hydro, tide and wave energy, the quantities
entering electricity generation are equal to the electrical energy generated. Electricity
is accounted for at the same heat value as electricity in final consumption (i.e. 1 TWh
equals 0.086 Mtoe). Direct use of geothermal and solar heat, and heat from heat
pumps is also included here.
Nuclear represents the primary heat equivalent of the electricity produced by a
nuclear power plant with an average thermal efficiency of 33%, that is, 1 TWh equals
0.261 Mtoe.
149
Particulates: Terms commonly associated with particulate matter are particulate
matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), total suspended particulate (TSP),
primary particulate and secondary particulate. PM10 in the atmosphere can result
from direct particulate emissions (primary PM10) or from emissions of gaseous
particulate precursors that are partly transformed into particles by chemical reactions
in the atmosphere (secondary PM10). TSP consists of matter emitted from sources in
solid, liquid and vapour forms, but existing in the ambient air as particulate solids or
liquids.
Petroleum products comprise refinery gas, ethane, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG),
aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, jet fuels, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, heavy fuel oil,
naphtha, white spirit, lubricants, bitumen, paraffin waxes, petroleum coke and other
petroleum products.
Purchasing power parities (PPP) are the rates of currency conversion that equalize
the purchasing power of different currencies. A given sum of money, when converted
into different currencies at the PPP rates, buys the same basket of goods and services
in all countries. In other words, PPPs are the rates of currency conversion that
eliminate the differences in price levels between different countries.
Tonne is equivalent to 1000 kilograms.
Total final consumption (TFC) refers to the sum of consumption by the different
end-use sectors and thus excludes energy consumed or losses incurred in the
conversion, transformation and distribution of the various energy carriers.
Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up of production of primary energy —
for example, coal, crude oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, other non-combustible and
combustible renewables — plus imports and less exports of all energy carriers, less
international marine bunkers and finally corrected for net changes in energy stocks.
Production refers to the first stage of production. International trade of energy
commodities is based on the general trade system; that is, all goods entering and
leaving the national boundaries of a country are recorded as imports and exports,
respectively. In general, data on stocks refer to changes in stocks of producers,
importers and/or industrial consumers at the beginning and the end of the year.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are defined as any compound of carbon
(excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or
carbonates, and ammonium carbonate) that participates in atmospheric chemical
reactions. In some cases, the term non-methane volatile organic compound
(NMVOC) is used to indicate that methane is exempt from the VOC categorization.
150
ANNEX 2: LIST OF ACRONYMS
EJ
km
km2
kWh
m
m3
mg
Mtoe
MWh
tHM
TJ
toe
TWh
exajoule
kilometre
square kilometre
kilowatt-hour
metre
cubic metre
milligram
million tonnes of oil equivalent
megawatt hours
tonnes of heavy metal
terajoules
tonnes of oil equivalent
terawatt hour
BOD
COD
CRW
DPSIR
biochemical oxygen demand
chemical oxygen demand
combustible renewables and waste
Driving forces, Pressures, State of the environment, Impacts, and
societal Responses
driving force, state and response
energy development index
Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development
gross domestic product
greenhouse gas
global warming potential
Human Development Index
high-level radioactive waste
Indicators of Sustainable Development
Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development
low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste
long lived
liquefied natural gas
liquefied petroleum gas
net calorific value
natural gas liquids
non-methane volatile organic compound
nitrogen oxides
particulate matter
particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 μm
particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm
purchasing power parity
pressure-state-response
short lived
sport utility vehicle
total final consumption
DSR
EDI
EISD
GDP
GHG
GWP
HDI
HLW
ISD
ISED
LILW
LL
LNG
LPG
NCV
NGL
NMVOC
NOx
PM
PM2.5
PM10
PPP
PSR
SL
SUV
TFC
151
TOC
TPES
TSP
VOC
total organic carbon
total primary energy supply
total suspended particulate
volatile organic compound
APERC
CCE
CDIAC
CSD
EC
ECMT
EEA
Eurostat
EU
FAO
EMEP/MSC-W
IAEA
ICRP
IEA
IPCC
ISO
ITOPF
MAHB
NEA
OECD
OLADE
UN
UNCED
UNDESA
UNECE
UNEP
UNICEF
UNITAR
WEC
WHO
WMO
Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre
Coordination Center for Effects
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
Commission on Sustainable Development
European Commission
European Conference of Ministers of Transport
European Environment Agency
Statistical Office of the European Communities
European Union
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
EMEP’s Meteorological Synthesizing Centre — West
International Atomic Energy Agency
International Commission on Radiological Protection
International Energy Agency
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
International Organization for Standardization
International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited
Major Accident Hazards Bureau
Nuclear Energy Agency
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organización Latinoamericana de Energía
United Nations
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Children’s Fund
United Nations Institute for Training and Research
World Energy Council
World Health Organization
World Meteorological Organization
AMIS
CBD
CITES
Air Management Information System
Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
CONservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe — The Oil
Companies’ European Organization for Environmental and Health
Protection
Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the
Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe
European Pollutant Emission Register
CLRTAP
CONCAWE
EMEP
EPER
152
GPA
HELCOM
ISIC
JPOI
MARS
NECD
NEWMDB
OSPAR
PRTR
UNCCD
UNCLOS
UNFCCC
WOAD
WSSD
Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine
Environment from Land-Based Activities
Helsinki Convention Baltic Marine Environment Protection
Commission
International Standard Industrial Classification system
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
Major Accident Reporting System
National Emission Ceiling Directive
Net Enabled Waste Management Database
Oslo and Paris Conventions Commission
(OECD) Pollutant Release and Transfer Register
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Worldwide Offshore Accident Database
World Summit on Sustainable Development
153
ANNEX 3: A DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR
ENERGY USE INTENSITY INDICATORS1
Introduction
This annex provides an overview of a method that can be used to analyse energy-use
developments in a disaggregated fashion. There are a number of journal publications
that describe this method and related results.2
The indicators employed to analyse energy use intensity are constructed by combining
energy data with data that describe factors driving consumption in end-use sectors.
From these data, various types of energy intensities can be developed. Energy
intensities are related to the inverse of energy efficiencies, but are not equivalent. The
two are related in that the energy intensity of an activity or productive output
summarizes the relationship between an overall measure of output and the energy
used for a variety of processes towards that end. Each process (e.g. heating, motive
power) involves one or more transformations of energy that can be described in terms
of efficiencies.
Changes in intensities are affected by factors other than energy efficiency; therefore,
analysing intensity trends provides important insights into how energy efficiency and
other factors affect energy use.
The method described here distinguishes among three main components affecting
energy use: activity levels, structure (the mix of activities within a sector) and energy
intensities (energy use per unit of sub-sectoral activity). Depending on the sector,
activity is measured either as value added, passenger-kilometres (km), tonne-km,
population or built area. Structure divides activity further into industry sub-sectors,
transportation modes or measures of residential end-use activity. Table A3.1 gives an
overview of the various measures applied for activity, structure and energy intensities
in each sector; Figure A3.1 illustrates the disaggregation into sectors, sub-sectors and
end uses.
1
2
The method presented here builds on the analytical framework developed under the International
Energy Agency (IEA) Energy Indicator Project. Key findings of this work are presented in the IEA
publication Oil Crises and Climate Challenges: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA Countries (IEA
2004).
Selected references include the following: Krackeler et al. (1998); Schipper, Murtishaw, et al.
(2001); Schipper, Unander, et al. (2001); Unander et al. (1999); Unander et al. (2004).
155
Table A3.1: Summary of Variables Used in the Energy Decomposition Method
Sector (i)
Sub-sector (j)
Activity (A)
Structure (Sj)
Intensity (Ij = Ej/Aj)
Space Heat
Population
Floor area/capita
Heat1/floor area
Water Heat
"
Persons/household
Energy/capita2
Cooking
"
Persons/household
Energy/capita2
Lighting
"
Floor area/capita
Electricity/floor area
Household
"
Ownership /capita
Energy/appliance3
Cars
Passengerkm
Share of total
passenger-km
Energy/passengerkm
Bus
"
"
"
Appliances
3
Passenger Transport
Rail
"
"
"
Domestic Air
"
"
"
Trucks
Tonne-km
Share of total tonne-km
Energy/tonne-km
Rail
"
"
"
Domestic Shipping
"
"
"
Total Services
Services
GDP
(Not defined)
Energy/GDP
Paper and Pulp
Value added
Share of total value
added
Energy/value added
Chemicals
"
"
"
Non-Metallic
Minerals
"
"
"
Iron and Steel
"
"
"
Freight Transport
Service
Manufacturing
Non-Ferrous Metals
"
"
"
Food and Beverages
"
"
"
Agriculture and
Fishing
Value added
Share of total value
added
Energy/value added
Mining
"
"
"
Construction
"
"
"
Other Industry
1
Adjusted for climate variations and for changes in the share of dwellings with central heating systems.
Adjusted for dwelling occupancy (number of persons per household).
3
Includes ownership and electricity use for six major appliances.
2
156
Total Final Consumption
Households
Service
Space Heating Service Total
Water Heating
Cooking
Lighting
Refrigerators
Freezers
Clothes Washers
Clothes Dryers
Dishwashers
Other Appliances
Travel
Freight
Manufacturing Other Industry
Paper and Pulp
Trucks
Cars and Light Trucks
Industrial
Chemicals
Freight Rail
Buses
Non-Metallic
Minerals
Domestic Shipping
Passenger Rail
Iron
and
Steel
Domestic Air Freight
Inland Air Travel
Non-Ferrous Metals
Food and Beverages
Other
Agriculture and
Fishing
Mining
Construction
Figure A3.1. Disaggregation into Sectors, Sub-sectors and End Uses
Key Terms
Useful Energy: Delivered energy minus losses estimated for boilers, furnaces,
water heaters and other equipment in buildings; used for estimates of heat provided
in space and water heating.
Activity or Output: Basic unit of accounting for which energy is used; for
example, in space heating, it is the area heated; in manufacturing, it is the
production measured as value-added in real terms as in the output in tonnes of steel
or number of widgets.
Energy Intensity: Energy ‘consumed’ per unit of activity or output.
Structure: Refers to the activity mix; for example, modal mix (trucks, rail, ships) in
travel, energy end uses in households and the shares of each sub-sector in total
manufacturing value added.
Energy Services: Implies actual services for which energy is used: heating a given
amount of space to a standard temperature for a period of time, etc. Here, a measure
of energy service demand in a sector is obtained from combined activity and
structure measures.
157
The separation of impacts on energy use from changes in activity, structure and
intensity is critical for policy analysis, as most energy-related policies target energy
intensities and efficiencies, often by promoting new technologies. Accurately tracking
changes in intensities helps measure the effects of these new technologies. To separate
the effect of various components over time, a factoral decomposition is used where
changes in energy use in a sector are analysed using the following equation:
E=A
∑ S *I
j
(A3.1)
j .
j
In this decomposition,
E
represents total energy use in a sector;
A
represents overall sectoral activity (e.g. value added in manufacturing);
Sj
represents sectoral structure or mix of activities within a sub-sector j (e.g.
shares of output by manufacturing sub-sector j); and
Ij
represents the energy intensity of each sub-sector or end-use j (e.g. energy
use/real US dollar value added),
where the index j denotes sub-sectors or end uses within a sector as shown in the
second column in Table A3.1.
If indices for the changes in each of these components over time are established, they
can be thought of as ‘all else being equal’ indices. They describe the evolution of
energy use that would have taken place if all but one factor had remained constant at
their base year (t=0) values.3
From this the activity effect can be calculated as the relative impact on energy use that
would have occurred between year t=0 and year t if the structure and energy
intensities for a sector had remained fixed at base-year values while aggregate activity
had followed its actual development:
At/A0 = At
∑S
j,o *
Ij,0 / E0 .
(A3.2)
j
Similarly, the hypothetical change in energy use given constant aggregate activity and
energy intensities but varying sectoral structure — the structure effect — is
St/S0 = A0
∑S
j,t *
Ij,0 / E0 ,
(A3.3)
j
and the proportional change in energy use given constant activity and structure but
varying energy intensities — the intensity effect — is
It/I0 = A0
∑S
j,o *
Ij,t / E0 .
(A3.4)
j
3
There are different index-number techniques that permit the analysis of this relationship over time.
Here, the Laspeyeres indices approach is used. The Laspeyres approach yields a residual term as a
result of interaction among the other factors in the decomposition. This means that the changes in
the decomposition factors do not necessarily always add up exactly to the changes in energy use. In
most cases, the residual term is relatively small compared to the effects of the other factors.
158
Thus through calculating the relative impact on energy use from changes in each of
these components, the impacts on energy use related to improved end-use energy
efficiency (reductions in energy intensities) can be isolated from changes derived
from shifts in the activity and structure components.
The resulting indices from each sector defined above can be combined further and
weighted at base-year values of energy use to measure the impact of changes in either
energy intensities or economy-wide activity and structure components on overall
energy use. With E in this case representing energy use at the national level, the
decomposition equations take the form
E=
∑ A *∑ S
i
i
i,j* Ii,j
,
(A3.5)
j
where the index i denotes the sectors listed in the first column in Table A3.1. By reaggregating the decomposition terms to the national level, interesting comparisons can
be made of developments in energy per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). If both
sides of Equation (A3.5) are divided by GDP, then
E/GDP = ((
∑ A *∑ S
i
i
i,j)/GDP)
j
*
∑I
i,j
.
(A3.6)
i, j
The product of the activity effect (A) and the structure effect (S) can be defined as the
energy services effect. Thus Equation (A3.6) helps explain how energy per unit of
GDP has changed due to shifts in the ratio of energy services to GDP and due to
changes in end-use energy intensities. The first factor reflects that the structural
evolution of economies and human activities can cause changes in demand for energy
services and, therefore, consumption that enhances or offsets shifts caused by changes
in energy intensities. For example, air travel measured as passenger-km has grown
faster than GDP in many countries, usually more than offsetting declines in air travel
intensity (energy per passenger-km), with an increase in energy use for air travel per
unit of GDP as a result. On the other hand, structural changes away from energyintensive manufacturing industries have enhanced the effect of reduced sectoral
intensities in many places and thus accelerated a decline in energy per unit of GDP.
Measuring the impact of these changes in the relationship between energy services
and GDP is therefore crucial to understanding how the ratio of energy use to GDP
changes over time.4
The developments in energy services per GDP indicator help to show how much of
the change in energy per unit of GDP is due to factors other than changes in energy
intensities. The impact of intensities at the national level is instead captured by the
4
The decomposition presented in this annex can be extended to address changes in CO2 emissions by
introducing the dimension of fuel mix. This approach can be used to assess how changes in CO2
emissions per GDP can be decomposed into changes in supply efficiency and fuel mix, final energy
fuel mix, end-use intensity effect, and ratio of energy services to GDP. The approach thus provides
a framework for quantifying the relative impact each of these factors has on CO2 emission per GDP
trends. Since all of these factors, except the ratio of energy services to GDP, are represented by
some of the ECO indicators presented in this publication, this decomposition approach can help
weighing the impact on overall CO2 emission trends from the relevant ECO indicators. For more
details on how to decompose CO2 emissions see: IEA, 2004 Oil Crises and Climate Challenges:
30 Years of Energy Use in IEA Countries. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
159
energy intensity index at a national level (the I term in Equation A3.6). This is
constructed through weighting the sectoral energy intensity effects (Equation A3.4) at
the base-year value of energy use.
The separation between energy services effects and energy intensity effects is
important from a policy perspective, since restraining energy-service demand is
seldom a policy objective. This decomposition approach allows for observing the
impacts of the policy elements related to energy intensity separately from changes in
the structural and activity components of energy use. This helps both to determine
where policies can be most effective and to monitor progress once they have been
implemented.
160
Annex 4: Units and Conversion Factors1
Table A4.1: General Conversion Factors for Energy
To:
From:
TJ
Gcal
Mtoe
MBtu
GWh
238.8
2.388 x 10-5
947.8
0.2778
1
10-7
3.968
1.163 x 10-3
Multiply by:
1
Terajoule (TJ)
10-3
Gigacalorie (Gcal)
4.1868 x
Million tonnes of oil
equivalent (Mtoe)
4.1868 x 104
107
1
3.968 x 107
11 630
Million British thermal
units (Mbtu)
1.0551 x 10-3
0.252
2.52 x 10-8
1
2.931 x 10-4
Gigawatt-hour (GWh)
3.6
860
8.6 x 10-5
3412
1
t
lt
st
lb
1
0.001
9.84 x 10-4
1.102 x 10-3
2.2046
1000
1
0.984
1.1023
2204.6
Table A4.2: Conversion Factors for Mass
To:
From:
kg
Multiply by:
Kilogram (kg)
Tonne (t)
Long ton (lt)
1016
1.016
1
1.120
2240.0
Short ton (st)
907.2
0.9072
0.893
1
2000.0
Pound (lb)
0.454
4.54 x 10-4
4.46 x 10-4
5.0 x 10-4
1
Table A4.3: Conversion Factors for Volume
To:
From:
gal U.S.
gal U.K.
bbl
ft3
l
m3
Multiply by:
U.S. gallon (gal)
1
0.8327
0.02381
0.1337
3.785
0.0038
U.K. gallon (gal)
1.201
1
0.02859
0.1605
4.546
0.0045
Barrel (bbl)
42.0
34.97
1
5.615
159.0
0.159
7.48
6.229
0.1781
1
28.3
0.0283
3
Cubic foot (ft )
Litre (l)
0.2642
0.220
0.0063
0.0353
1
0.001
Cubic metre (m3)
264.2
220.0
6.289
35.3147
1000.0
1
Table A4.4: Decimal Prefixes
101
deca (da)
10-1
deci (d)
102
hecto (h)
10-2
centi (c)
103
kilo (k)
10-3
milli (m)
106
mega (M)
10-6
micro (µ)
109
giga (G)
10-9
nano (n)
1012
tera (T)
10-12
pico (p)
1015
peta (P)
10-15
femto (f)
1018
exa (E)
10-18
atto (a)
1
Source: International Energy Agency
161
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