2011, March - Symantec Spam Report

2011, March - Symantec Spam Report
March 2011
Report #51
In the economic world, the media uses the
acronym “BRIC” (Brazil, Russia, India, and
China) as emerging market leaders. In this
month’s State of Spam & Phishing report, we
take a look at whether those countries are
also emerging market leaders of spam. Has
spam coming from that bloc of countries increased or decreased over the last year?
Have any of the countries in the bloc gained
or lost spam market share?
As forecasted in the last month’s report, average daily spam volume did increase for the first
time since August 2010. The average daily spam volume increased 8.7 percent in February
month-over-month. Overall, spam made up 80.65 percent of all messages in February, compared with 79.55 percent in January.
The overall phishing increased by 38.56 percent this month. There was significant increase in
some of the sectors of phishing mostly in automated toolkit and unique domains. Phishing
websites created by automated toolkits increased by about 50.33 percent. Unique URLs increased by 33.73 percent, and phishing websites with IP domains (for e.g. domains like
http://255.255.255.255) decreased by about 47.22 percent. Webhosting services comprised 13
percent of all phishing - an increase of 38.97 percent from the previous month. The number of
non-English phishing sites saw a significant increase by 76.51 percent. Among non-English
phishing sites, Portuguese, French, and Spanish were the highest in February.
The following trends are highlighted in the March 2011 report:
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Examining “BRIC” for Spam
3D Secure Passwords for Recharging Mobile Airtime
Mass Phishing on Credit Card Services Brand Using Fake SSL
February 2011: Spam Subject Line Analysis
Dylan Morss
Executive Editor
Antispam Engineering
David Cowings
Executive Editor
Security Response
Eric Park
Editor
Antispam Engineering
Mathew Maniyara
Editor
Security Response
Sagar Desai
PR contact
[email protected]
Metrics Digest
Global Spam Categories
Spam URL TLD Distribution
Average Spam Message Size
Spam Attack Vectors
Metrics Digest
Spam Regions of Origin
Geo-Location of Phishing Lures
Geo-Location of Phishing Hosts
Metrics Digest
Phishing Tactic Distribution
Phishing Target Sectors
Examining “BRIC” for Spam
We all know that “BRIC” countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) are the leaders of emerging
market world. These countries have shown tremendous economic growth recently, and in
turn have seen fast growth in broadband Internet. This growth in broadband use makes these
countries vulnerable to botnets, a web of compromised computers.
So we asked the question: where are they in terms of global spam output?
The above chart, which shows spam origin percentage by each country, highlights three major
trends:
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As a whole, BRIC’s spam market share declined over the last 15 months.
Brazil made the most nominal improvement.
Russia, on the other hand, gained spam market share.
Over the last 15 months, EMEA has ranked consistently as the top region in global spam output. While a number of countries in EMEA region remained in the top ranking throughout the
time period, one country stood out from
the rest in gaining spam market share.
Netherlands, which only sent 2.3 percent
of global spam in November 2009, saw its
spam output increase to 5.3 percent in
February 2011. The figure was actually
higher in June 2010, coming in at 6.3 percent.
3D Secure Passwords for Recharging Mobile Airtime
Phishers are known for developing different strategies with the motive of duping users into
believing that the phishing site is authentic and secure. Phishing sites are now seen asking for
a 3D secure number.
What is 3D secure number?
A 3D secure number is a password that is only known to the bank and the buyer. In other
words, during an online transaction, the merchant in question does not know this number.
This number is essentially an additional password given separately to card holders specifically
for the safety of online transactions.
Many online transactions typically involve the use of credit/debit card numbers and the number on the back of the card. If anyone happens to see the card and copies or writes down
these numbers found on the card, the card holder would be at risk of having his or her money
stolen in online transactions. The use of a 3D secure password prevents such a risk, as it is a
number not present anywhere on the card. The fact that the card numbers are entered by the
owner of the card helps in authenticating.
A 3D secure number reduces the risk in a situation where the card numbers are copied by
other people. However, if the 3D secure number itself is given away by the user to a phishing
site, the user’s money would still be at risk. Phishers are well aware of this and so prompt users to enter their 3D secure number along with other card details in phishing sites.
Recently, one such example was observed where the phishing site prompted the user for
credit card details and their 3D secure number for an online transaction. The bait was mobile
phone airtime purchased online. The phishing site targeted customers in Turkey and the
phishing pages were in Turkish. Also, the credit card details requested were of banks based in
Turkey. The required information was the mobile phone number, amount of mobile phone
airtime to be recharged, name of the bank, card holder’s name, credit card number, expiration
date, CVV, and 3D secure password. To increase the appeal, the phishing page offered customers of two particular banks gifts worth $10 for every $20 purchased. Upon entering the
information, the user was redirected to a page on the phishing site that asked for more user
information.
3D Secure Passwords for Recharging Mobile Airtime (continued)
The information asked in the second phishing page consisted of mother’s maiden name, card
holder’s date of birth, customer or account number and password. The phishing page claimed
that upon clicking the button at the bottom of the page, a password would be sent as an SMS
to the user’s mobile phone. The user was warned that if incomplete information was entered,
the operation would be disapproved, leading to the failure of the transaction. Below this button was a message stating that 3D secure card purchases are safe for online transactions and
high encryption system provides protection against unauthorized use. This statement was obviously displayed to gain the user’s confidence.
The third page of the phishing site asks for the
password previously claimed to have been sent
to the user by SMS. The phishing page also notifies the user that the SMS may take one to five
minutes to reach the user and requests that the
page not be closed. Of course, this is just a ploy
and the user wouldn’t receive a password.
The phishing URL used IP domains (for example,
domains like http://255.255.255.255). The
phishing site was hosted on servers based in the
state of Orlando, USA.
Mass Phishing on Credit Card Services Brand Using Fake SSL
In February, Symantec observed a mass phishing attack
on a popular credit card services brand. There were a
large number of phishing URLs in the attack, which
were all secured using Secure Socket Layer (SSL).
So what makes this phishing attack stand out from the
rest?
Phishing websites that use SSL are uncommon and are
typically seen in very small numbers. To create a
phishing site that uses SSL, the phisher would either
have to create a fake SSL certificate or attack a legitimate certificate to attain an encryption for the site. In
both cases, Symantec has observed that phishing sites
using SSL are less frequent. In this particular attack,
there were over a hundred phishing URLs that used a
fake SSL certificate. This was achieved by hosting the
phishing site on one single IP address which resolved
to several domain names. That is, although there were
abundant URLs in the attack, they all resolved to a single IP address and contained the same webpage. The
SSL certificate was an expired one, with its issue date
of the year 2006 and an expiration date of 2007. The
phisher’s primary motive behind creating an encrypted
phishing site is to help the site appear authentic and to convince users that the site is safe.
The phishing site spoofed a credit card services brand, which targeted customers of Switzerland and its phishing pages were in French. End-users were also asked to provide login credentials of a popular e-commerce brand. Hence,
phishers attempted to harvest confidential information of two brands with the same phishing
attack. The phishing site was hosted on servers
based in the state of California, USA.
The phishing site asks for the confidential information in a two-step process. The first step is an
identity verification of the user. Here, the user is
asked to enter name, date of birth, address,
email with password of the e-commerce brand,
and mother’s maiden name. The second step asks for banking data including bank name, bank
ID, name of card holder, card type, card number, personal code, card expiration date, and CVV
number. Upon entering the requested information, the phishing site redirects to a blank webpage. If users fell victim to the phishing site, phishers would have stolen their information for
financial gain.
February 2011: Spam Subject Line Analysis
419 spam messages are usually smaller attacks, rather than millions of messages sent with
same subject line. This could explain why these attacks are not seen in the above analysis despite the fact that the category saw 5 percentage point increase month-over-month. Nevertheless, Symantec observed many 419 spam attacks which leveraged current events.
Checklist: Protecting your business, your employees and your customers
Do
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Unsubscribe from legitimate mailings that you no longer want to receive. When signing up
to receive mail, verify what additional items you are opting into at the same time. Deselect items you do not want to receive.
Be selective about the Web sites where you register your email address.
Avoid publishing your email address on the Internet. Consider alternate options – for example, use a separate address when signing up for mailing lists, get multiple addresses for
multiple purposes, or look into disposable address services.
Using directions provided by your mail administrators report missed spam if you have an
option to do so.
Delete all spam.
Avoid clicking on suspicious links in email or IM messages as these may be links to spoofed
websites. We suggest typing web addresses directly in to the browser rather than relying
upon links within your messages.
Always be sure that your operating system is up-to-date with the latest updates, and employ a comprehensive security suite. For details on Symantec’s offerings of protection visit
http://www.symantec.com.
Consider a reputable antispam solution to handle filtering across your entire organization
such as Symantec Brightmail messaging security family of solutions.
Keep up to date on recent spam trends by visiting the Symantec State of Spam site which is
located here.
Do Not
 Open unknown email attachments. These attachments could infect your computer.
 Reply to spam. Typically the sender’s email address is forged, and replying may only result
in more spam.
 Fill out forms in messages that ask for personal or financial information or passwords. A
reputable company is unlikely to ask for your personal details via email. When in doubt,
contact the company in question via an independent, trusted mechanism, such as a verified telephone number, or a known Internet address that you type into a new browser
window (do not click or cut and paste from a link in the message).
 Buy products or services from spam messages.
 Open spam messages.
 Forward any virus warnings that you receive through email. These are often hoaxes.
* Spam data is based on messages passing through Symantec Probe Network.
* Phishing data is aggregated from a combination of sources including strategic partners, customers and security solutions.
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