Content and performance standards for Alaska students

Content and performance standards for Alaska students
ALASKA STANDARDS
F OU R TH E DI TI O N
C O N T E N T AN D P E R F O R M A N C E
STANDARDS FOR ALASKA STUDE NTS
REVISED MARCH 200 6
MESSAGE
FROM THE
GOVERNOR
I am proud to introduce the Third Edition of
the Alaska Content and Performance Standards,
which has been adopted into regulation by the
State Board of Education & Early Development.
Frank H. Murkowski, Governor
These standards represent the efforts of many
people working for more than a decade to
decide what young Alaskans should know and
be able to do as a result of their public schooling.
During my administration, the State Board and Department of Education & Early
Development have taken school accountability and expectations to a higher level than ever
before. The third edition lays out clear, measurable academic grade level expectations in
reading, writing, math, and science for students in grades 3 through 10.
This publication is for teachers, parents, local school board members, and other community
members involved in the education of our children. Taken seriously and used well, this
information will help prepare all our children to do their best in school and on state exams.
These efforts will help achieve our goal of educating young Alaskans to step forward
confidently after high school prepared to tackle the next stage of life, whether in college, in
technical school, or in the workplace.
MESSAGE FROM
THE
COMMISSIONER
This revised edition of the Alaska standards booklet
represents the intense effort by many people to describe
what the students in our state should know and be able
to do as a result of their public school experience.
Our state embarked on this campaign in 1993 with the
development of content standards—broad statements of
Roger Sampson, Commissioner
what our students should know and be able to do. The first
Education & Early Development
edition of this booklet included content standards in ten
core subject areas: English/language arts, mathematics,
science, geography, government and citizenship, history, skills for a healthy life, arts, world
languages, and technology.
A second edition added content standards for employability and library information/literacy;
performance standards in reading, writing, and mathematics; and cultural standards for
students.
To fulfill requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), the third edition of the
standards booklet added:
• Expanded performance standards in reading, writing, and mathematics by inclusive grade
level expectations for grades 3 through 10;
• Revised science content standards; and
• Science performance standards and grade level expectations for grades 3 through 11.
The State of Alaska has called upon school districts to adopt the state standards. In September
2001, the State Board of Education & Early Development adopted a regulation that extended
statewide testing to all students in grades 3 through 9. Beginning in 2004, high school students
were required to pass the High School Graduation Qualifying Examination, a criterion-referenced
test targeting essential skills, in order to earn a high school diploma.
In April 2005, in response to NCLB, the state implemented criterion–referenced tests for students
in grades 3 through 9, in order to measure how well all students meet the Alaska performance
standards. Norm-referenced tests were required in fifth and seventh grades. In 2006, students in
tenth grade will also be assessed on grade–specific performance standards.
This system of standards and assessments gives educators, families, and policy makers solid
information with which to hold schools and communities accountable for the academic
achievement of children and prepare all Alaska students for the future.
Alaska State Board of Education & Early Development
Richard I. Mauer, Chair, Delta Junction Esther
J. Cox, First Vice-Chair, Anchorage Sylvia J.
Reynolds, Second Vice-Chair, Soldotna Patsy
DeWitt, Member, Juneau
Shirley J. Holloway, Ph.D, Member, Anchorage
Carol “Bunny” Schaeffer, Member, Kotzebue
Tim R. Scott, Member, Anchorage
LTC David Jones, Military Advisor, Elmendorf Air Force Base
Bryant Hopkins, Student Advisor, Fairbanks
Abbey Wangstrom, Student Advisor Elect, Anchorage
Roger Sampson, Commissioner of Education & Early Development
June 2005
For additional information on Alaska’s standards, write:
Standards, Department of Education & Early Development
801 W. Tenth Street, Suite 200, Juneau, Alaska 99801-1894
or call, 907/465-2800; or visit our website: www.eed.state.ak.us
ALL CHILDREN . . .
RISE EASILY TO THE COMMON LEVEL.
THERE THE MASS STOP; STRONG
MINDS ONLY ASCEND HIGHER. BUT
RAISE THE STANDARD,
AND, BY A SPONTANEOUS MOVEMENT, THE
MASS WILL RISE AGAIN AND REACH IT.
Horace Mann’s First Annual Report (1837)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. CONTENT STANDARDS
Science .............................................................................................
8
Geography.........................................................................................
10
Government and Citizenship .............................................................
12
History ..............................................................................................
15
Skills for a Healthy Life .....................................................................
17
Arts...................................................................................................
19
World Languages ...............................................................................
21
Technology ........................................................................................
22
Employability ....................................................................................
24
Library/Information Literacy..............................................................
25
II. CULTURAL STANDARDS
Cultural Standards .............................................................................
28
III. PERFORMANCE STANDARDS/
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATIONS
Science .............................................................................................
31
History ..............................................................................................
58
CONTENT
STANDARDS
FOR ALASKA
STUDENTS
The State Board of Education & Early
Development adopted into regulation
Content Standards listed on the following
pages. Content Standards are broad statements of what students should know and
be able to do as a result of their public
school experience.
SCIENCE
A
Science as Inquiry and
Process
A student should understand
and be able to apply the
processes and applications of
scientific inquiry.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop an understanding of the processes of science used to investigate
problems, design and conduct repeatable scientific investigations, and defend
scientific arguments;
2) develop an understanding that the processes of science require integrity,
logical reasoning, skepticism, openness, communication, and peer review; and
3) develop an understanding that culture, local knowledge, history, and
interaction with the environment contribute to the development of scientific
knowledge, and local applications provide opportunity for understanding
scientific concepts and global issues.
B
Concepts of Physical
Science
A student should understand
and be able to apply the
concepts, models, theories,
universal principles, and
facts that explain the physical
world.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop an understanding of the characteristic properties of matter and the
relationship of these properties to their structure and behavior;
2) develop an understanding that energy appears in different forms, can be
transformed from one form to another, can be transferred or moved from
one place or system to another, may be unavailable for use, and is ultimately
conserved;
3) develop an understanding of the interactions between matter and energy,
including physical, chemical, and nuclear changes, and the effects of these
interactions on physical systems; and
4) develop an understanding of motions, forces, their characteristics and
relationships, and natural forces and their effects.
C
Concepts of Life
Science
A student should understand
and be able to apply the
concepts, models, theories,
facts, evidence, systems, and
processes of life science.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop an understanding of how science explains changes in life forms
over time, including genetics, heredity, the process of natural selection, and
biological evolution;
2) develop an understanding of the structure, function, behavior, development,
life cycles, and diversity of living organisms; and
3) develop an understanding that all organisms are linked to each other and their
physical environments through the transfer and transformation of matter and
energy.
SCIEN CE
D
Concepts of Earth
Science
A student should understand
and be able to apply the
concepts, processes, theories,
models, evidence, and systems
of earth and space sciences.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop an understanding of Earth’s geochemical cycles;
2) develop an understanding of the origins, ongoing processes, and forces that
shape the structure, composition, and physical history of the Earth;
3) develop an understanding of the cyclical changes controlled by energy from
the sun and by Earth’s position and motion in our solar system; and
4) develop an understanding of the theories regarding the origin and evolution
of the universe.
E
Science and
Technology
A student should understand
the relationships among
science, technology, and
society.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop an understanding of how scientific knowledge and technology
are used in making decisions about issues, innovations, and responses to
problems and everyday events;
2) develop an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of
thinking, perspectives, and curiosity that lead to the exploration of multiple
paths that are analyzed using scientific, technological, and social merits; and
3) develop an understanding of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect and are affected by our lives and cultures
F
Cultural, Social,
Personal Perspectives
and Science
A student should understand the
dynamic relationships among
scientific, cultural, social, and
personal perspectives.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop an understanding of the interrelationships among individuals,
cultures, societies, science, and technology;
2) develop an understanding that some individuals, cultures, and societies use
other beliefs and methods in addition to scientific methods to describe and
understand the world; and
3) develop an understanding of the importance of recording and validating
cultural knowledge.
G
History and Nature of
Science
A student should understand
the history and nature of
science.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop an understanding that historical perspectives of scientific
explanations demonstrate that scientific knowledge changes over time,
building on prior knowledge;
2) develop an understanding that the advancement of scientific knowledge
embraces innovation and requires empirical evidence, repeatable
investigations, logical arguments, and critical review in striving for the best
possible explanations of the natural world;
3) develop an understanding that scientific knowledge is ongoing and subject
to change as new evidence becomes available through experimental and/or
observational confirmation(s); and
4) develop an understanding that advancements in science depend on curiosity,
creativity, imagination, and a broad knowledge base.
GEOGRAPHY
A
A student should be
able to make and
use maps, globes,
and graphs to gather,
analyze, and report
spatial (geographic)
information.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) use maps and globes to locate places and regions;
2) make maps, globes, and graphs;
3) understand how and why maps are changing documents;
4) use graphic tools and technologies to depict and interpret the world’s human
and physical systems;
5) evaluate the importance of the locations of human and physical features in
interpreting geographic patterns; and
6) use spatial (geographic) tools and technologies to analyze and develop
explanations and solutions to geographic problems.
B
A student should be
able to utilize,
analyze, and explain
information about the
human and physical
features of places and
regions.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) know that places have distinctive geographic characteristics;
2) analyze how places are formed, identified, named, and characterized;
3) relate how people create similarities and differences among places;
4) discuss how and why groups and individuals identify with places;
5) describe and demonstrate how places and regions serve as cultural symbols,
such as the Statue of Liberty;
6) make informed decisions about where to live, work, travel, and seek
opportunities;
7) understand that a region is a distinct area defined by one or more cultural or
physical features; and
8) compare, contrast, and predict how places and regions change with time.
C
A student should
understand the
dynamic and
interactive natural
forces that shape the
Earth’s environments.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) analyze the operation of the Earth’s physical systems, including ecosystems,
climate systems, erosion systems, the water cycle, and tectonics;
2) distinguish the functions, forces, and dynamics of the physical processes that
cause variations in natural regions; and
3) recognize the concepts used in studying environments and recognize the
diversity and productivity of different regional environments.
G EO G R A PH Y
D
A student should
understand and be
able to interpret
spatial (geographic)
characteristics of
human systems,
including migration,
movement,
interactions of
cultures, economic
activities, settlement
patterns, and political
units in the state,
nation, and world.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) know that the need for people to exchange goods, services, and ideas
creates population centers, cultural interaction, and transportation and
communication links;
2) explain how and why human networks, including networks for
communications and for transportation of people and goods, are linked
globally;
3) interpret population characteristics and distributions;
4) analyze how changes in technology, transportation, and communication
impact social, cultural, economic, and political activity; and
5) analyze how conflict and cooperation shape social, economic, and political
use of space.
E
A student should
understand and be
able to evaluate how
humans and physical
environments
interact.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand how resources have been developed and used;
2) recognize and assess local, regional, and global patterns of resource use;
3) understand the varying capacities of physical systems, such as watersheds, to
support human activity;
4) determine the influence of human perceptions on resource utilization and
the environment;
5) analyze the consequences of human modification of the environment and
evaluate the changing landscape; and
6) evaluate the impact of physical hazards on human systems.
F
A student should be
able to use geography
to understand the
world by interpreting
the past, knowing the
present, and preparing
for the future.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) analyze and evaluate the impact of physical and human geographical factors
on major historical events;
2) compare, contrast, and predict how places and regions change with time;
3) analyze resource management practices to assess their impact on future
environmental quality;
4) interpret demographic trends to project future changes and impacts on
human environmental systems;
5) examine the impacts of global changes on human activity; and
6) utilize geographic knowledge and skills to support interdisciplinary learning
and build competencies required of citizens.
GOVERNMENT
AND CITIZENSHIP
A
A student should know
and understand how
societies define
authority, rights, and
responsibilities through
a governmental
process.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand the necessity and purpose of government;
2) understand the meaning of fundamental ideas, including equality, authority,
power, freedom, justice, privacy, property, responsibility, and sovereignty;
3) understand how nations organize their governments; and
4) compare and contrast how different societies have governed themselves over
time and in different places.
B
A student who meets the content standard should:
A student should
understand the
constitutional
foundations of the
American political
system and the
democratic ideals
of this nation.
1) understand the ideals of this nation as expressed in the Declaration of
Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights;
2) recognize American heritage and culture, including the republican form of
government, capitalism, free enterprise system, patriotism, strong family
units, and freedom of religion;
3) understand the United States Constitution, including separation of powers,
the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, majority rule,
and minority rights;
4) know how power is shared in the United States’ constitutional government at
the federal, state, and local levels;
5) understand the importance of individuals, public opinion, media, political
parties, associations, and groups in forming and carrying out public policy;
6) recognize the significance of diversity in the American political system;
7) distinguish between constitution-based ideals and the reality of American
political and social life;
8) understand the place of law in the American political system; and
9) recognize the role of dissent in the American political system.
C
A student should
understand the
character of
government of
the state.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand the various forms of the state’s local governments and the
agencies and commissions that influence students’ lives and property;
2) accept responsibility for protecting and enhancing the quality of life in the
state through the political and governmental processes;
G O VE R N M E N T A N D C I T Z E N S H I P
C
(continued)
3) understand the Constitution of Alaska and Sec. 4 of the Alaska Statehood
Act, which is known as the Statehood Compact;
4) understand the importance of the historical and current roles of Alaska
Native communities;
5) understand the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act and its impact on the
state;
6) understand the importance of the multicultural nature of the state;
7) understand the obligations that land and resource ownership place on the
residents and government of the state; and
8) identify the roles of and relationships among the federal, tribal, and state
governments and understand the responsibilities and limits of the roles and
relationships.
D
A student should
understand the role
of the United States
in international
affairs.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) analyze how domestic politics, the principles of the United States
Constitution, foreign policy, and economics affect relations with other
countries;
2) evaluate circumstances in which the United States has politically influenced
other nations and how other nations have influenced the politics and society
of the United States;
3) understand how national politics and international affairs are interrelated
with the politics and interests of the state;
4) understand the purpose and function of international government and nongovernmental organizations in the world today; and
5) analyze the causes, consequences, and possible solutions to current
international issues.
E
A student should
have the knowledge
and skills necessary
to participate
effectively as an
informed and
responsible citizen.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) know the important characteristics of citizenship;
2) recognize that it is important for citizens to fulfill their public
responsibilities;
3) exercise political participation by discussing public issues, building
consensus, becoming involved in political parties and political campaigns,
and voting;
4) establish, explain, and apply criteria useful in evaluating rules and laws;
5) establish, explain, and apply criteria useful in selecting political leaders;
6) recognize the value of community service; and
7) implement ways of solving problems and resolving conflict.
AL
SK
CN
OT
N TAENNDT CS ITA
GO
VA
ER
NA
ME
T ZNED
N AS R
H DI PS
F
A student should
understand the
economies of the
United States and
the state and their
relationships to the
global economy.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand how the government and the economy interrelate through
regulations, incentives, and taxation;
2) be aware that economic systems determine how resources are used to
produce and distribute goods and services;
3) compare alternative economic systems;
4) understand the role of price in resource allocation;
5) understand the basic concepts of supply and demand, the market system,
and profit;
6) understand the role of economic institutions in the United States, including
the Federal Reserve Board, trade unions, banks, investors, and the stock
market;
7) understand the role of self-interest, incentives, property rights, competition,
and corporate responsibility in the market economy;
8) understand the indicators of an economy’s performance, including gross
domestic product, inflation, and the unemployment rate;
9) understand those features of the economy of the state that make it unique,
including the importance of natural resources, government ownership and
management of resources, Alaska Native regional corporations, the Alaska
Permanent Fund Corporation, the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation, and
the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority; and
10) understand how international trade works.
G
A student should
understand the impact
of economic choices
and participate
effectively in the local,
state, national, and
global economies.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) apply economic principles to actual world situations;
2) understand that choices are made because resources are scarce;
3) identify and compare the costs and benefits when making choices;
4) make informed choices on economic issues;
5) understand how jobs are created and their role in the economy;
6) understand that wages and productivity depend on investment in physical
and human capital; and
7) understand that economic choices influence public and private institutional
decisions.
HISTORY
A
A student should
understand that
history is a record of
human experiences
that links the past to
the present and the
future.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand chronological frameworks for organizing historical thought
and place significant ideas, institutions, people, and events within time
sequences;
2) know that the interpretation of history may change as new evidence is
discovered;
3) recognize different theories of history, detect the weakness of broad
generalization, and evaluate the debates of historians;
4) understand that history relies on the interpretation of evidence;
5) understand that history is a narrative told in many voices and expresses
various perspectives of historical experience;
6) know that cultural elements, including language, literature, the arts,
customs, and belief systems, reflect the ideas and attitudes of a specific time
and know how the cultural elements influence human interaction;
7) understand that history is dynamic and composed of key turning points;
8) know that history is a bridge to understanding groups of people and an
individual’s relationship to society; and
B
A student should
understand historical
themes through
factual knowledge of
time, places, ideas,
institutions, cultures,
people, and events.
9) understand that history is a fundamental connection that unifies all fields of
human understanding and endeavor.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) comprehend the forces of change and continuity that shape human history
through the following persistent organizing themes:
a. the development of culture, the emergence of civilizations, and
the accomplishments and mistakes of social organizations;
b. human communities and their relationships with climate, subsistence
base, resources, geography, and technology;
c. the origin and impact of ideologies, religions, and institutions upon
human societies;
d. the consequences of peace and violent conflict to societies and their
cultures; and
e. major developments in societies as well as changing patterns related to
class, ethnicity, race, and gender;
H I STO RY
B
(continued)
2) understand the people and the political, geographic, economic, cultural,
social, and environmental events that have shaped the history of the state,
the United States, and the world;
3) recognize that historical understanding is relevant and valuable in the
student’s life and for participating in local, state, national, and global
communities;
4) recognize the importance of time, ideas, institutions, people, places,
cultures, and events in understanding large historical patterns; and
5) evaluate the influence of context upon historical understanding.
C
A student should
develop the skills
and processes of
historical inquiry.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) use appropriate technology to access, retrieve, organize, and present
historical information;
2) use historical data from a variety of primary resources, including letters,
diaries, oral accounts, archeological sites and artifacts, art, maps, photos,
historical sites, documents, and secondary research materials, including
almanacs, books, indices, and newspapers;
3) apply thinking skills, including classifying, interpreting, analyzing,
summarizing, synthesizing, and evaluating, to understand the historical
record; and
4) use historical perspective to solve problems, make decisions, and understand
other traditions.
D
A student should
be able to integrate
historical knowledge
with historical
skill to effectively
participate as a
citizen and as a
lifelong learner.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand that the student is important in history;
2) solve problems by using history to identify issues and problems, generate
potential solutions, assess the merits of options, act, and evaluate the
effectiveness of actions;
3) define a personal position on issues while understanding the historical
aspects of the positions and roles assumed by others;
4) recognize and demonstrate that various issues may require an understanding
of different positions, jobs, and personal roles depending on place, time, and
context;
5) base personal citizenship action on reasoned historical judgment with
recognition of responsibility for self and others; and
6) create new approaches to issues by incorporating history with other
disciplines, including economics, geography, literature, the arts, science, and
technology.
SKILLS FOR A
HEALTHY LIFE
A
A student should be
able to acquire a core
knowledge related to
well-being.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand that a person’s well-being is the integration of health knowledge,
attitudes, and behaviors;
2) understand how the human body is affected by behaviors related to eating
habits, physical fitness, personal hygiene, harmful substances, safety, and
environmental conditions;
3) understand and identify the causes, preventions, and treatments for diseases,
disorders, injuries, and addictions;
4) recognize patterns of abuse directed at self or others and understand how to
break these patterns;
5) use knowledge and skills to promote the well-being of the family;
6) use knowledge and skills related to physical fitness, consumer health,
independent living, and career choices to contribute to well-being;
7) understand the physical and behavioral characteristics of human sexual
development and maturity; and
8) understand the ongoing life changes throughout the life span and healthful
responses to these changes.
B
A student should be
able to demonstrate
responsibility for the
student’s well-being.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) demonstrate an ability to make responsible decisions by discriminating among
risks and by identifying consequences;
2) demonstrate a variety of communication skills that contribute to well-being;
3) assess the effects of culture, heritage, and traditions on personal well-being;
4) develop an awareness of how personal life roles are affected by and contribute
to the well-being of families, communities, and cultures;
5) evaluate what is viewed, read, and heard for its effect on personal well-being;
and
6) understand how personal relationships, including those with family, friends,
and co-workers, impact personal well-being.
S K I L L S F O R A H E A LT H Y L I F E
C
A student should
understand how
well-being is affected
by relationships with
others.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) resolve conflicts responsibly;
2) communicate effectively within relationships;
3) evaluate how similarities and differences among individuals contribute to
relationships;
4) understand how respect for the rights of self and others contributes to
relationships;
5) understand how attitude and behavior affect the well-being of self and
others; and
6) assess the effects of culture, heritage, and traditions on well-being.
D
A student who meets the content standard should:
A student should be
able to contribute
to the well-being
of families and
communities.
1) make responsible decisions as a member of a family or community;
2) take responsible actions to create safe and healthy environments;
3) describe how public policy affects the well-being of families and
communities;
4) identify and evaluate the roles and influences of public and private
organizations that contribute to the well-being of communities;
5) describe how volunteer service at all ages can enhance community wellbeing; and
6) use various methods of communication to promote community well-being.
ARTS
A
A student should be
able to create and
perform in the arts.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) participate in dance, drama, music, visual arts, and creative writing;
2) refine artistic skills and develop self-discipline through rehearsal, practice,
and revision;
3) appropriately use new and traditional materials, tools, techniques, and
processes in the arts;
4) demonstrate the creativity and imagination necessary for innovative
thinking and problem solving;
5) collaborate with others to create and perform works of art;
6) integrate two or more art forms to create a work of art; and
7) investigate careers in arts production.
B
A student should be
able to understand
the historical and
contemporary role of
the arts in Alaska, the
nation, and the world.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) recognize Alaska Native cultures and their arts;
2) recognize United States and world cultures and their arts;
3) recognize the role of tradition and ritual in the arts;
4) investigate the relationships among the arts and the individual, the society,
and the environment;
5) recognize universal themes in the arts such as love, war, childhood, and
community;
6) recognize specific works of art created by artists from diverse backgrounds;
7) explore similarities and differences in the arts of world cultures;
8) respect differences in personal and cultural perspectives; and
9) investigate careers relating to arts history and culture.
C
A student should be
able to critique the
student’s art and the
art of others.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) know the criteria used to evaluate the arts; these may include
craftsmanship, function, organization, originality, technique, and theme;
2) examine historical and contemporary works of art, the works of peers, and
the student’s own works as follows:
ARTS
C
(continued)
a. identify the piece;
b. describe the use of basic elements;
c. analyze the use of basic principles;
d. interpret meaning and artist’s intent; and
e. express and defend an informed opinion;
3) accept and offer constructive criticism;
4) recognize and consider an individual’s artistic expression;
5) exhibit appropriate audience skills; and
6) investigate careers relating to arts criticism.
D
A student should be
able to recognize
beauty and meaning
through the arts in
the student’s life.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) make statements about the significance of the arts and beauty in the student’s
life;
2) discuss what makes an object or performance a work of art;
3) recognize that people tend to devalue what they do not understand;
4) listen to another individual’s beliefs about a work of art and consider the
individual’s reason for holding those beliefs;
5) consider other cultures’ beliefs about works of art;
6) recognize that people connect many aspects of life through the arts;
7) make artistic choices in everyday living; and
8) investigate careers related to the search for beauty and meaning, which is
aesthetics.
WORLD
LANGUAGES
A
A student should be
able to communicate
in two or more
languages, one of
which is English.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand written and oral communication in two or more languages;
2) write and speak understandably in two or more languages;
3) use two or more languages effectively in real life situations; and
4) use two or more languages to learn new information in academic subjects.
B
A student should
expand the student’s
knowledge of
peoples and cultures
through language
study.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand the relationship between language and culture;
2) learn about and experience surface characteristics of the culture, including
art, cuisine, dance, dress, geography, history, music, and literature;
3) learn about and experience deep characteristics of the culture, including
folkways, mores, laws, traditions, customs, and patterns of behavior;
4) improve the student’s understanding of the student’s language and culture
through experiences with other languages and cultures;
5) apply knowledge of the functions and structure of one language to the study
of another language; and
6) recognize through language study that all cultures contribute to the global
society.
C
A student should
possess the language
skills and cultural
knowledge necessary
to participate
successfully in
multilingual
communities and
the international
marketplace.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) interact appropriately in multilingual communities through various means,
including printed and electronic media, audio and visual sources, face-to-face
conversations, penpals, and travel;
2) use experiences with language and culture to explore the student’s personal
interests and career options;
3) learn how language skills and cultural knowledge enhance a person’s
competitiveness in the international marketplace; and
4) apply language skills and cultural knowledge to enhance the student’s
intellectual and social growth and to promote lifelong learning.
TECHNOLOGY
A
A student should
be able to operate
technology-based
tools.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) use a computer to enter and retrieve information;
2) use technological tools for learning, communications, and productivity;
3) use local and worldwide networks;
4) manage and maintain technology tools; and
5) diagnose and solve common technology problems.
B
A student should be
able to use technology
to locate, select, and
manage information.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) identify and locate information sources using technology;
2) choose sources of information from a variety of media; and
3) select relevant information by applying accepted research methods.
C
A student should be
able to use technology
to explore ideas, solve
problems, and derive
meaning.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) use technology to observe, analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions;
2) solve problems both individually and with others; and
3) create new knowledge by evaluating, combining, or extending information
using multiple technologies.
D
A student should be
able to use
technology to express
ideas and exchange
information.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) convey ideas to a variety of audiences using publishing, multi-media, and
communications tools;
2) use communications technology to exchange ideas and information; and
3) use technology to explore new and innovative methods for interaction with
others.
T E C H N O LO G Y
E
A student should be
able to use technology
responsibly and
understand its impact
on individuals and
society.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) evaluate the potentials and limitations of existing technologies;
2) discriminate between responsible and irresponsible uses of technology;
3) respect others’ rights of privacy in electronic environments;
4) demonstrate ethical and legal behavior regarding intellectual property, which
is the manifestation of an original idea, such as computer software, music, or
literature;
5) examine the role of technology in the workplace and explore careers that
require the use of technology;
6) evaluate ways that technology impacts culture and the environment;
7) integrate the use of technology into daily living; and
8) recognize the implications of emerging technologies.
EMPLOYABILITY
A
A student should
be able to develop
and be able to use
employability skills
in order to effectively
make the transition
from school to work
and lifelong learning.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) develop and maintain a work ethic necessary for success in the workplace
that includes honesty, integrity, dependability, punctuality, self-discipline,
initiative, reliability, accuracy, productivity, respect, and perseverance;
2) understand how to apply skills and academic knowledge in a variety of work
settings;
3) understand the process for seeking employment including résumé
development, application completion, interview skills, and appropriate dress
for work settings;
4) understand the process for developing self-employment opportunities
including marketing studies, business plan development, and managing
business finances;
5) understand how an individual job fits into the overall organization and how
the organization fits into the overall economy;
6) understand the need for safe practices in workplaces; and
7) understand employer and employee rights and responsibilities.
B
A student should be
able to identify career
interests and plan for
career options.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) identify and appreciate personal interests, aptitudes, abilities, and priorities;
2) identify possible career options, considering both employment and self
employment, and understand how changes in the workplace affect career
choice;
3) use labor market information to identify occupational and economic trends
and opportunities, and evaluate possible career options;
4) identify education and/or training needed for career options and
advancement, and develop a career plan; and
5) identify resources available to support education and training related to
career possibilities.
LIBRARY/INFORMATION
LITERACY
A
A student should
understand how
information and
resources are
organized.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) recognize that libraries use classification systems to organize, store, and
provide access to information and resources;
2) understand how library classification and subject heading systems work;
3) understand how information in print, non-print, and electronic formats is
organized and accessed;
4) search for information and resources by author, title, subject, or keyword,
as appropriate; and
5) identify and use search strategies and terms that will produce successful
results.
B
A student should
understand and use
research processes
necessary to
locate, evaluate, and
communicate
information and ideas.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) state a problem, question, or information need;
2) consider the variety of available resources and determine which are most
likely to be useful;
3) access information;
4) evaluate the validity, relevancy, currency, and accuracy of
information;
5) organize and use information to create a product; and
6) evaluate the effectiveness of the product to communicate the
intended message.
C
A student should
recognize that being
an independent
reader, listener, and
viewer of material in
print, non-print, and
electronic formats
will contribute to
personal enjoyment
and lifelong learning.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) read for pleasure and information;
2) read, listen, and view a wide variety of literature and other creative
expressions; and
3) recognize and select materials appropriate to personal abilities and
interests.
L I B R A R Y / I N F O R M AT I O N L I T E R A C Y
D
A student should be
aware of the freedom
to seek information
and possess the
confidence to pursue
information needs
beyond immediately
available sources.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) know how to access information through local, national, and international
sources in printed and electronic formats;
2) recognize the importance of access to information and ideas in a democratic
society;
3) access information on local, state, national, and world cultures and issues;
4) evaluate information representing diverse views in order to make informed
decisions; and
5) assimilate and understand how newly acquired information relates to oneself
and others.
E
A student should
understand ethical,
legal, and social
behavior with respect
to information
resources.
A student who meets the content standard should:
1) use library materials and information resources responsibly;
2) understand and respect the principles of intellectual freedom;
3) understand and respect intellectual property rights and copyright laws; and
4) develop and use citations and bibliographies.
CULTURAL
STANDARDS
FOR ALASKA
STUDENTS
The Alaska Cultural Standards for Students
were developed by the
Alaska Native
Knowledge Network in 1998. They also were
adopted by the State Board of Education & Early
Development in the same year. The Cultural
Standards are meant to enrich the Content
Standards and provide guidelines for nurturing and building in students the rich and varied
cultural traditions that continue to be practiced in communities throughout Alaska.
The standards are broad statements of what students should know and be able to do as
a result of their experience in a school that is aware of and sensitive to the surrounding
physical and cultural environment.
CULTURAL STANDARDS
A
Culturallyknowledgeable
students are well
grounded in the
cultural heritage and
traditions of their
community.
Students who meet this cultural standard are able to:
1) assume responsibilities for their role in relation to the well-being of the
cultural community and their lifelong obligations as a community member;
2) recount their own genealogy and family history;
3) acquire and pass on the traditions of their community through oral and
written history;
4) practice their traditional responsibilities to the surrounding environment;
5) reflect through their own actions the critical role that the local heritage
language plays in fostering a sense of who they are and how they understand
the world around them;
6) live a life in accordance with the cultural values and traditions of the local
community and integrate them into their everyday behavior; and
7) determine the place of their cultural community in the regional, state,
national, and international political and economic systems.
B
Culturallyknowledgeable
students are able
to build on the
knowledge and skills of
the local cultural
community as a
foundation from which
to achieve personal
and academic success
throughout life.
Students who meet this cultural standard are able to:
1) acquire insights from other cultures without diminishing the integrity of
their own;
2) make effective use of the knowledge, skills, and ways of knowing from their
own cultural traditions to learn about the larger world in which they live;
3) make appropriate choices regarding the long-term consequences of their
actions; and
4) identify appropriate forms of technology and anticipate the consequences of
their use for improving the quality of life in the community.
C
Culturallyknowledgeable
students are able to
actively participate
in various cultural
environments.
Students who meet this cultural standard are able to:
1) perform subsistence activities in ways that are appropriate to local cultural
traditions;
2) make constructive contributions to the governance of their community and
the well-being of their family;
C U LT U R A L S TA N D A R D S
C
(continued)
3) attain a healthy lifestyle through which they are able to maintain their social,
emotional, physical, intellectual, and spiritual well-being; and
4) enter into and function effectively in a variety of cultural settings.
D
Culturallyknowledgeable
students are able to
engage effectively
in learning activities
that are based on
traditional ways of
knowing and learning.
Students who meet this cultural standard are able to:
1) acquire in-depth cultural knowledge through active participation and
meaningful interaction with Elders;
2) participate in and make constructive contributions to the learning activities
associated with a traditional camp environment;
3) interact with Elders in a loving and respectful way that demonstrates an
appreciation of their role as culture-bearers and educators in the community;
4) gather oral and written history information from the local community and
provide an appropriate interpretation of its cultural meaning and significance;
5) identify and utilize appropriate sources of cultural knowledge to find solutions
to everyday problems; and
6) engage in a realistic self-assessment to identify strengths and needs and make
appropriate decisions to enhance life skills.
E
Culturallyknowledgeable
students
demonstrate an
awareness and
appreciation of
the relationships
and processes of
interaction of all
elements in the
world around them.
Students who meet this cultural standard are able to:
1) recognize and build upon the interrelationships that exist among the spiritual,
natural, and human realms in the world around them, as reflected in their
own cultural traditions and beliefs as well as those of others;
2) understand the ecology and geography of the bioregion they inhabit;
3) demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between world view and the
way knowledge is formed and used;
4) determine how ideas and concepts from one knowledge system relate to those
derived from other knowledge systems;
5) recognize how and why cultures change over time;
6) anticipate the changes that occur when different cultural systems come in
contact with one another;
7) determine how cultural values and beliefs influence the interaction of people
from different cultural backgrounds; and
8) identify and appreciate who they are and their place in the world.
Introduction to
Science Performance Standards
(Grade Level Expectations)
The Alaska Science Performance Standards/Grade Level Expectations (PSGLEs) have been
developed for grades 3 through 11 in fulfillment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)
requirements.
This document is intended to provide a road map for the development of assessment items as
well as the basis upon which school districts refine, align, and develop their science curriculum.
The content described by the PSGLEs does not represent the entire science curriculum for a
grade or course. Nor does it represent the final word on the science content that is presented
since one of the basic understandings in science is that our knowledge continues to grow and
change as we gather more evidence about a subject. The PSGLEs indicate core content to be
mastered by the end of a given grade. Science content can be added and enriched as appropriate
for a district program, school, or student. It may be necessary to introduce some skills at an
earlier grade in order for students to achieve mastery at a given level. Similarly, skills will need
to be maintained after mastery has occurred at a given grade level.
The Alaska Science PSGLEs are aligned to the Alaska Science Content Standards. The Content
Standards were revised in 2003 to align with the National Science Education Standards.
Participants in the development of the PSGLEs actively researched the concepts and skills
contained within this document.
References
National Research Council (U.S.). (1996). National Science Education Standards: Observe,
interact, change, learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Project 2061 (American Association for the Advancement of Science). (2001). Atlas of science
literacy. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science: National
Science Teachers Association.
SCIEN CE
P E R F O R M A N C E S TA N D A R D S ( G r a d e L e v e l E x p e c t a t i o n s )
The Science Content Standards are grouped into seven
strands, A-1 through G-1.
Each PSGLE
includes a bolded
statement called
the “stem.” Each
stem is the same
or similar across
the grades for
a given PSGLE
and is meant to
communicate the
main curriculum
and instructional
focus of the PSGLE
across the grades.
A1—Science as Inquiry
and Process
SA
Students develop an understanding of the processes and applications of scientific inquiry.
SA1 Students develop an understanding of the processes of science used to investigate problems, design and
conduct repeatable scientific investigations, and defend scientific arguments.
SA2 Students develop an understanding that the processes of science require integrity, logical reasoning, skepticism,
openness, communication, and peer review.
SA3 Students develop an understanding that culture, local knowledge, history, and interaction with the environment
contribute to the development of scientific knowledge, and local applications provide opportunity for
understanding scientific concepts and global issues.
GR ADE 3
GR ADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the processes of science by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the processes of science by
[3] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making
generalizations, inferring, and communicating
[4] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making
generalizations, inferring, and communicating*
[5] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making generalizations,
inferring, and communicating*
[3] SA1.2 observing and describing their world to
answer simple questions
[4] SA1.2 observing, measuring, and collecting data
from explorations and using this information to classify,
predict, and communicate
[5] SA1.2 using quantitative and qualitative observations
to create their own inferences and predictions
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
The number in
brackets indicates
the grade level.
GR ADE 4
[3] SA2.1 answering “how do you know?” questions with
reasonable answers
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[4] SA2.1 supporting their ideas with observations and
peer review (L)
[5] SA2.1 supporting their statements with facts from a
variety of resources and by identifying their sources (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment
provide an opportunity for understanding
scientific concepts by
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment
provide an opportunity for understanding
scientific concepts by
[3] SA3.1 observing local conditions that determine
which plants and/or animals survive (L)
[4] SA3.1 identifying the local limiting factors (e.g.,
weather, human influence, species interactions) that
determine which plants and/or animals survive (L)
Some PSGLEs have been
identified as Local. They are for
local assessment and will not be
on a state assessment.
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the processes of science by
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment provide
an opportunity for understanding scientific
concepts by
[5] SA3.1 identifying the limiting factors (e.g., weather,
human influence, species interactions) that determine
which plants and/or animals survive
The number indicates the Content Standard and the
Grade Level Expectation number; thus PSGLE [4]
SA3.1 represents Content Standard SA3, and the first
PSGLE for that Content Standard for grade 4.
PSGLEs repeated
with no changes
across grade levels
are marked with
asterisks to indicate
that the PSGLE
assumes increasing
complexity to
indicate growth in
the PSGLE.
Note: Items differentiated
with an “i.e.” indicate
that statewide assessment
items may be written only
to the content contained
within the statement in
the parentheses. Items
differentiated with
an “e.g.” do not limit
assessment items to that
content, but indicate
examples of content that
may be used in statewide
assessment items.
Differences between grade
levels are underlined.
Participants in the development of the PSGLEs actively researched the concepts and skills contained within this document.
References
National Research Council (U.S.). (1996). National Science Education Standards: Observe, interact, change, learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Project 2061 (American Association for the Advancement of Science). (2001). Atlas of science literacy. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of
Science: National Science Teachers Association.
SCIENCE GRADES 3 — 5
A1—Science as Inquiry
and Process
SA
Students develop an understanding of the processes and applications of scientific inquiry.
SA1 Students develop an understanding of the processes of science used to investigate problems, design and
conduct repeatable scientific investigations, and defend scientific arguments.
SA2 Students develop an understanding that the processes of science require integrity, logical reasoning, skepticism,
openness, communication, and peer review.
SA3 Students develop an understanding that culture, local knowledge, history, and interaction with the environment
contribute to the development of scientific knowledge, and that local applications provide opportunity for
understanding scientific concepts and global issues.
GRADE 3
GRADE 4
GRADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the processes of science by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the processes of science by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the processes of science by
[3] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making
generalizations, inferring, and communicating
[4] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making
generalizations, inferring, and communicating*
[5] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making
generalizations, inferring, and communicating*
[3] SA1.2 observing and describing the student’s own
world to answer simple questions
[4] SA1.2 observing, measuring, and collecting data
from explorations and using this information to classify,
predict, and communicate
[5] SA1.2 using quantitative and qualitative observations
to create inferences and predictions
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[3] SA2.1 answering “how do you know?” questions with
reasonable answers
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment
provide an opportunity for understanding
scientific concepts by
[3] SA3.1 observing local conditions that determine
which plants and/or animals survive (L)
* Same concept at a higher level
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[4] SA2.1 supporting the student’s own ideas with
observations and peer review (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment
provide an opportunity for understanding
scientific concepts by
[4] SA3.1 identifying the local limiting factors (e.g.,
weather, human influence, species interactions) that
determine which plants and/or animals survive (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[5] SA2.1 supporting the student’s own statements with
facts from a variety of resources and by identifying their
sources (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment provide
an opportunity for understanding scientific
concepts by
[5] SA3.1 identifying the limiting factors (e.g., weather,
human influence, species interactions) that determine
which plants and/or animals survive
SCIENCE GRADES 3 — 5
SB
B1— Concepts of
Physical Science
Students develop an understanding of the concepts, models, theories, universal principles, and facts that explain the physical world.
SB1 Students develop an understanding of the characteristic properties of matter and the relationship of these properties to their structure
and behavior.
SB2 Students develop an understanding that energy appears in different forms, can be transformed from one form to another, can be
transferred or moved from one place or system to another, may be unavailable for use, and is ultimately conserved.
SB3 Students develop an understanding of the interactions between matter and energy, including physical, chemical, and nuclear changes,
and the effects of these interactions on physical systems.
SB4 Students develop an understanding of motions, forces, their characteristics and relationships, and natural forces and their effects.
GRADE 3
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure and properties of matter by
[3] SB1.1 classifying matter according to physical
properties (i.e., color, size, shape, weight, texture,
flexibility)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how energy can be transformed, transferred,
and conserved by
[3] SB2.1 classifying materials as insulators or conductors
(i.e., fur, metal, wood, plastic) and identifying their
applications
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the interactions between matter and energy and
the effects of these interactions on systems by
GRADE 4
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the structure and properties of matter by
[4] SB1.1 identifying and comparing the
characteristics of gases, liquids, and solids
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how energy can be transformed,
transferred, and conserved by
[4] SB2.1 investigating the effectiveness of different
insulating and conducting materials with respect to
heat flow and record the results (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the interactions between matter and energy and
the effects of these interactions on systems by
[3] SB3.1 recognizing that temperature changes cause
changes in phases of substances (e.g., ice changing to
liquid, water changing to water vapor, and vice versa)
[4] SB3.1 explaining that temperature changes cause
changes in phases of substances (e.g., ice changing to
liquid water and liquid water to water vapor)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
[3] SB4.2 recognizing that objects can be moved without
being touched (e.g., using magnets, falling objects, static
electricity)
SB4.1 is not addressed until grade 4.
[4] SB4.1 simulating that changes in speed or direction
of motion are caused by forces (L)
GRADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure and properties of matter by
[5] SB1.1 comparing models that represent matter as solids,
liquids, or gases and the changes from one state to another
(L)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how energy can be transformed, transferred, and
conserved by
[5] SB2.1 classifying the changes (i.e., heat, light, sound, and
motion) that electrical energy undergoes in common
household appliances (i.e., toaster, blender, radio, light bulb,
heater)
The student demonstrates understanding of the
interactions between matter and energy and the
effects of these interactions on systems by
[5] SB3.1 identifying physical and chemical changes
based on observable characteristics (e.g., tearing paper vs.
burning paper)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
[5] SB4.1 investigating that the greater the force acting on
an object, the greater the change in motion will be (L)
SCIENCE GRADES 3 — 5
C1—Concepts of Life
Science
SC
Students develop an understanding of the concepts, models, theories, facts, evidence, systems, and
processes of life science.
SC1 Students develop an understanding of how science explains changes in life forms over time, including
genetics, heredity, the process of natural selection, and biological evolution.
SC2 Students develop an understanding of the structure, function, behavior, development, life cycles, and
diversity of living organisms.
SC3 Students develop an understanding that all organisms are linked to each other and their physical
environments through the transfer and transformation of matter and energy.
GRADE 3
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how science explains changes in life forms over
time, including genetics, heredity, the process of
natural selection, and biological evolution by
GRADE 4
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how science explains changes in life forms over
time, including genetics, heredity, the process of
natural selection, and biological evolution by
[3] SC1.1 sorting Alaskan plants and/or animals using
physical characteristics (e.g., leaves, beaks) (L)
[3] SC1.2 describing how some traits (e.g., claws, teeth,
camouflage) of living organisms have helped them survive
as a species
[4] SC1.1 showing the relationship between physical
characteristics of Alaskan organisms and the environment
in which they live
[4] SC1.2 describing fossil evidence (e.g., casts, track
ways, imprints, etc.) of extinct organisms
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure, function, behavior, development,
life cycles, and diversity of living organisms by
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure, function, behavior, development,
life cycles, and diversity of living organisms by
[3] SC2.1 sorting animals and plants into groups based on
appearance and behaviors
[3] SC2.2 observing and comparing external features of
plants and of animals that may help them grow, survive,
and reproduce
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
[3] SC3.1 identifying and sorting examples of living and
non-living things in the local environment (L)
[3] SC3.2 organizing a simple food chain of familiar
plants and animals (L)
[4] SC2.1 choosing appropriate tools (i.e., hand lens,
microscopes, ruler, balance) to examine the basic
structural components (e.g., stems, leaves, fish scales,
wings) of living things
[4] SC2.2 describing the basic characteristics and
requirements of living things
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
[4] SC3.1 identifying examples of living and non-living
things and the relationship between them (e.g., living
things need water, herbivores need plants)
[4] SC3.2 identifying a simple food chain of familiar
plants and animals, diagramming how energy flows
through it; describing the effects of removing one link
GRADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how science explains changes in life forms over
time, including genetics, heredity, the process of
natural selection, and biological evolution by
[5] SC1.1 contrasting inherited traits (e.g., flower color,
number of limbs) with those that are not (riding a bike,
scar from an accident)
[5] SC1.2 making reasonable inferences about fossil
organisms based on physical evidence
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure, function, behavior, development,
life cycles, and diversity of living organisms by
[5] SC2.1 identifying and sorting animals into groups using
basic external and internal features
[5] SC2.2 explaining how external features and internal
systems (i.e., respiratory, excretory, skeletal, circulatory,
and digestive) of plants and animals may help them grow,
survive, and reproduce
[5] SC2.3 recognizing that organisms are composed of cells
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
[5] SC3.1 diagramming how matter and energy are
transferred within and between living and nonliving
things
[5] SC3.2 organizing a simple food chain of familiar plants
and animals that traces the source of the energy back to
sunlight
SCIENCE GRADES 3 — 5
D1— Concepts of Earth Science
SD Students develop an understanding of the concepts, processes, theories, models, evidence, and
systems of earth and space sciences.
SD1 Students develop an understanding of Earth’s geochemical cycles.
SD2 Students develop an understanding of the origins, ongoing processes, and forces that shape the
structure, composition, and physical history of the Earth.
SD3 Students develop an understanding of the cyclical changes controlled by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our solar system.
SD4 Students develop an understanding of the theories regarding the evolution of the universe.
GRADE 3
GRADE 4
GRADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding of
geochemical cycles by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of geochemical cycles by
The student demonstrates an understanding of
geochemical cycles by
[3] SD1.1 recognizing that most rocks are composed of
combinations of different substances
[3] SD1.2 describing the water cycle to show that water
circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere of
Earth
[4] SD1.1 describing that most smaller rocks come
from the breaking and weathering of larger rocks as
part of the rock cycle
[4] SD1.2 recognizing the physical properties of water
as they relate to the rock cycle
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the forces that shape Earth by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the forces that shape Earth by
[3] SD2.1 identifying and comparing a variety of Earth’s
land features (i.e., rivers, deltas, lakes, glaciers, mountains,
valleys, and islands)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our solar
system by
[3] SD3.1 using recorded weather patterns (e.g.,
temperature, cloud cover, or precipitation) to make
reasonable predictions (L)
[4] SD2.1 observing models of how waves, wind,
water, and ice shape and reshape the Earth’s surface by
eroding rock and soil (L)
[4] SD2.2 identifying causes (i.e., earthquakes,
tsunamis, volcanoes, floods, landslides, and avalanches)
of rapid changes on the surface
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our
solar system by
[4] SD3.1 recognizing changes to length of daylight
over time and its relationship to seasons
[4] SD3.2 observing that heat flows from one object
to another (L)
[5] SD1.1 observing a model of the rock cycle showing
that smaller rocks come from the breaking and
weathering of larger rocks and that smaller rocks (e.g.,
sediments and sands) may combine with plant materials
to form soils (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the forces that shape Earth by
[5] SD2.1 describing how wind and water tear down
and build up the Earth’s surface resulting in new land
formations (i.e., deltas, moraines, and canyons)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our solar
system by
[5] SD3.1 observing a model that shows how the regular
and predictable motion of the Earth and moon determine
the apparent shape (phases) of the moon over time (L)
[5] SD3.2 comparing heat absorption and loss by land and
water
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the theories regarding the origin and evolution
of the universe by
[3] SD4.1 recognizing that objects appear smaller the
farther away they are
[3] SD4.2 recognizing that objects have properties,
locations, and movements that can be observed and
described
[3] SD4.3 recognizing and using appropriate instruments
of magnification (e.g., binoculars and telescopes) (L)
* Same concept at a higher level
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the theories regarding the origin and
evolution of the universe by
[4] SD4.1 recognizing that stars are like the sun but are
so far away that they look like points of light
[4] SD4.2 recognizing that objects have properties,
locations, and movements that can be observed and
described*
[4] SD4.3 recognizing and using appropriate
instruments of magnification (e.g., binoculars and
telescopes)* (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the theories regarding the origin and evolution
of the universe by
[5] SD4.1 distinguishing among stars, planets, moons,
comets, and meteors (L)
[5] SD4.2 recognizing that the Earth is in regular and
predictable motion and this motion explains the length of
a day and a year
[5] SD4.3 recognizing and using appropriate instruments
of magnification (e.g., binoculars and telescopes)* (L)
SCIENCE GRADES 3 — 5
E1—Science and Technology
SE Students develop an understanding of the relationships among science, technology, and society.
SE1 Students develop an understanding of how scientific knowledge and technology are used in making
decisions about issues, innovations, and responses to problems and everyday events.
SE2 Students develop an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of thinking,
perspectives, and curiosity that lead to the exploration of multiple paths that are analyzed using
scientific, technological, and social merits.
SE3 Students develop an understanding of how scientific discoveries and technological innovations affect
and are affected by our lives and cultures.
GRADE 3
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge and
technology to address problems by
[3] SE1.1 identifying local problems and discussing
solutions (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways
of thinking, perspectives, and curiosity by
[3] SE2.1 identifying local tools and materials used in
everyday life (L)
GRADE 4
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge and
technology to address problems by
[4] SE1.1 recognizing that tools (e.g., spear, hammer,
hand lens, kayak, computer) and processes (e.g., drying
fish, sewing, photography) are an important part of
human cultures
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways
of thinking, perspectives, and curiosity by
[4] SE2.1 identifying the function of a variety of tools
(e.g., spear, hammer, hand lens, kayak, computer)
[4] SE2.2 identifying multiple explanations (e.g., oral
traditions, folklore, scientific theory) of everyday events
(e.g., weather, seasonal changes) (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
[3] SE3.1 listing the positive and negative effects of a
single technological development in the local community
(e.g., fish trap, fish wheel, four-wheeler, computer) (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
[4] SE3.1 listing the positive and negative effects of a
scientific discovery
GRADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge and
technology to address problems by
[5] SE1.1 identifying a community problem or issue and
describing the information needed to develop a scientific
solution (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways
of thinking, perspectives, and curiosity by
5] SE2.1 investigating a problem or project over a
specified period of time and identifying the tools and
processes used in that project (L)
[5] SE2.2 comparing multiple explanations (e.g., oral
traditions, folklore, scientific theory) of everyday events
(e.g., weather, seasonal changes) (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
[5] SE3.1 describing the various effects of an innovation
(e.g., snow machines, airplanes, immunizations) on the
safety, health, and environment of the local community (L)
SCIENCE GRADES 3 — 5
F1—Cultural, Social, Personal
Perspectives, and Science
SF
Students develop an understanding of the dynamic relationships among scientific, cultural, social,
and personal perspectives.
SF1 Students develop an understanding of the interrelationships among individuals, cultures, societies,
science, and technology.
SF2 Students develop an understanding that some individuals, cultures, and societies use other beliefs
and methods in addition to scientific methods to describe and understand the world.
SF3 Students develop an understanding of the importance of recording and validating cultural knowledge.
GRADE 3
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among scientific,
cultural, social, and personal perspectives by
[3] SF1.1-SF3.1 exploring local or traditional stories
that explain a natural event (L) Cross referenced with
SA3.1.
GRADE 4
GRADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among
scientific, cultural, social, and personal
perspectives by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among scientific,
cultural, social, and personal perspectives by
[4] SF1.1-SF3.1 connecting observations of nature to
a local or traditional story that explains a natural event
(e.g., animal adaptation, weather, rapid changes to
Earth’s surface) (L) Cross referenced with SA3.1.
[5] SF1.1-SF3.1 telling a local or traditional story
that explains a natural event (e.g., animal adaptation,
weather, rapid changes to Earth’s surface) and relating
it to a scientific explanation*(L) Cross referenced with
SA3.1.
SCIENCE GRADES 3 — 5
G1–History and Nature of
Science
SG Students develop an understanding of the history and nature of science.
SG1 Students develop an understanding that historical perspectives of scientific explanations
demonstrate that scientific knowledge changes over time, building on prior knowledge.
SG2 Students develop an understanding that the advancement of scientific knowledge embraces
innovation and requires empirical evidence, repeatable investigations, logical arguments, and
critical review in striving for the best possible explanations of the natural world.
SG3 Students develop an understanding that scientific knowledge is ongoing and subject to change as
new evidence becomes available through experimental and/or observational confirmation(s).
SG4 Students develop an understanding that advancements in science depend on curiosity, creativity,
imagination, and a broad knowledge base.
GRADE 3
[3] SG 1.1**
GRADE 4
[4] SG 1.1**
GRADE 3
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
[3] SG2.1 comparing the results of multiple observations
of a single local event (L)
[5] SG 1.1**
GRADE 4
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
[4] SG2.1 recognizing the need for repeated
measurements
GRADE 3
[3] SG 3.1**
The student demonstrates an understanding
that advancements in science depend on
curiosity, creativity, imagination, and a broad
knowledge base by
[3] SG4.1 asking questions about the natural world
GRADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
[5] SG2.1 reviewing and recording results of
investigations into the natural world
GRADE 4
[4] SG 3.1**
GRADE 3
GRADE 5
GRADE 5
[5] SG 3.1**
GRADE 4
GRADE 5
The student demonstrates an understanding
that advancements in science depend on
curiosity, creativity, imagination, and a broad
knowledge base by
The student demonstrates an understanding
that advancements in science depend on
curiosity, creativity, imagination, and a broad
knowledge base by
[4] SG4.1 using an account of a discovery to recognize
that an individual’s (e.g., George Washington Carver,
Marie Curie) curiosity led to advancements in science
[5] SG4.1 investigating that scientists’ curiosity led to
advancements in science (L)
**“Most of the historical benchmarks do not appear until high school.” (Project 2061 [American Association for the Advancement of Science], 2001, p. 129)
Project 2061 (American Association for the Advancement of Science). (2001). Atlas of science literacy. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science:
National Science Teachers Association.
SCIENCE GRADES 6— 8
A1—Science as Inquiry and
Process
SA Students develop an understanding of the processes and applications of scientific inquiry.
SA1 Students develop an understanding of the processes of science used to investigate problems, design and
conduct repeatable scientific investigations, and defend scientific arguments.
SA2 Students develop an understanding that the processes of science require integrity, logical reasoning,
skepticism, openness, communication, and peer review.
SA3 Students develop an understanding that culture, local knowledge, history, and interaction with the
environment contribute to the development of scientific knowledge, and that local applications provide
opportunity for understanding scientific concepts and global issues.
GRADE 6
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the processes of science by
[6] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making generalizations,
inferring, and communicating*
[6] SA1.2 collaborating to design and conduct simple
repeatable investigations (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[6] SA2.1 identifying and differentiating fact from opinion
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment provide
an opportunity for understanding scientific
concepts by
[6] SA3.1 gathering data to build a knowledge base that
contributes to the development of questions about the
local environment (e.g., moose browsing, trail usage,
river erosion) (L)
* Same concept at a higher level
GRADE 7
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the processes of science by
[7] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making
generalizations, inferring, and communicating*
[7] SA1.2 collaborating to design and conduct simple
repeatable investigations, in order to record, analyze
(i.e., range, mean, median, mode), interpret data, and
present findings (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[7] SA2.1 identifying and evaluating the sources used
to support scientific statements
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment
provide an opportunity for understanding
scientific concepts by
[7] SA3.1 designing and conducting a simple
investigation about the local environment (L)
GRADE 8
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the processes of science by
[8] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making generalizations,
inferring, and communicating*
[8] SA1.2 collaborating to design and conduct repeatable
investigations, in order to record, analyze (i.e., range,
mean, median, mode), interpret data, and present findings
(L)*
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[8] SA2.1 recognizing and analyzing differing scientific
explanations and models
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment provide
an opportunity for understanding scientific
concepts by
[8] SA3.1 conducting research to learn how the local
environment is used by a variety of competing interests
(e.g., competition for habitat/resources, tourism, oil and
mining companies, hunting groups) (L)
SCIENCE GRADES 6— 8
B1—Concepts of Physical
Science
SB
Students develop an understanding of the concepts, models, theories, universal principles, and facts that explain the physical world.
SB1 Students develop an understanding of the characteristic properties of matter and the relationship of these properties to their structure
and behavior.
SB2 Students develop an understanding that energy appears in different forms, can be transformed from one form to another, can be
transferred or moved from one place or system to another, may be unavailable for use, and is ultimately conserved.
SB3 Students develop an understanding of the interactions between matter and energy, including physical, chemical, and nuclear changes,
and the effects of these interactions on physical systems.
SB4 Students develop an understanding of motions, forces, their characteristics and relationships, and natural forces and their effects.
GRADE 6
The student demonstrates understanding of the
structure and properties of matter by
[6] SB1.1 using models to represent matter as it changes
from one state to another
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how energy can be transformed, transferred,
and conserved by
[6] SB2.1 recognizing that energy can exist in many forms
(i.e., heat, light, chemical, electrical, mechanical)
GRADE 7
The student demonstrates understanding of
the structure and properties of matter by
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure and properties of matter by
[7] SB1.1 using physical properties (i.e., density,
boiling point, freezing point, conductivity) to
differentiate among and/or separate materials (i.e.,
elements, compounds, and mixtures)
[8] SB1.1 using physical and chemical properties (i.e.,
density, boiling point, freezing point, conductivity,
flammability) to differentiate among materials (i.e.,
elements, compounds, and mixtures)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how energy can be transformed,
transferred, and conserved by
[7] SB2.1 explaining that energy (i.e., heat, light,
chemical, electrical, mechanical) can change form
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the interactions between matter and energy
and the effects of these interactions on
systems by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the interactions between matter and energy
and the effects of these interactions on
systems by
[6] SB3.1 recognizing that most substances can exist as a
solid, liquid, or gas depending on temperature
[7] SB3.1 recognizing that most substances can exist as
a solid, liquid, or gas depending on the motion of their
particles
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
[6] SB4.2 stating that every object exerts gravitational
force on every other object
[6] SB4.3 making waves move through a variety of media
(L)
SB4.1 is not addressed in grade 6.
GRADE 8
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
[7] SB4.1 illustrating that unbalanced forces will cause
an object to accelerate
[7] SB4.2 recognizing that electric currents and magnets
can exert a force on each other
[7] SB4.3 describing the characteristics of a wave (i.e.,
amplitude, wavelength, and frequency)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how energy can be transformed, transferred,
and conserved by
[8] SB2.1 identifying the initial source and resulting
change in forms of energy in common phenomena (e.g.,
sun to tree to wood to stove to cabin heat)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the interactions between matter and energy and
the effects of these interactions on systems by
[8] SB3.1 exploring changes of state with increase or
decrease of particle speed associated with heat transfer (L)
[8] SB3.2 exploring through a variety of models (e.g.,
gumdrops and toothpicks) how atoms may bond together into
well defined molecules or bond together in large arrays (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
[8] SB4.1 demonstrating (L) and explaining circular
motion
[8] SB4.2 describing the interactions between charges
SCIENCE GRADES 6— 8
C1—Concepts of Life Science
SC
Students develop an understanding of the concepts, models, theories, facts, evidence, systems, and processes of
life science.
SC1 Students develop an understanding of how science explains changes in life forms over time, including genetics,
heredity, the process of natural selection, and biological evolution.
SC2 Students develop an understanding of the structure, function, behavior, development, life cycles, and diversity
of living organisms.
SC3 Students develop an understanding that all organisms are linked to each other and their physical environments
through the transfer and transformation of matter and energy.
GRADE 6
GRADE 7
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how science explains changes in life forms over
time, including genetics, heredity, the process of
natural selection, and biological evolution by
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how science explains changes in life forms over
time, including genetics, heredity, the process of
natural selection, and biological evolution by
[6] SC1.1 recognizing sexual and asexual reproduction
[6] SC1.2 recognizing that species survive by adapting to
changes in their environment
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure, function, behavior, development,
life cycles, and diversity of living organisms by
[6] SC2.1 using a dichotomous key to classify animals and
plants into groups using external or internal features
[6] SC2.2 identifying basic behaviors (e.g., migration,
communication, hibernation) used by organisms to meet
the requirements of life
[6] SC2.3 describing the levels of organization within a
human body (i.e., cells, tissues, organs, systems)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
[6] SC3.1 recognizing that organisms can cause physical
and chemical changes (e.g., digestion, growth, respiration,
photosynthesis) to matter and recognizing the importance
of energy transfer in these changes
[6] SC3.2 organizing a food web using familiar plants and
animals
[7] SC1.1 comparing and contrasting sexual and asexual
reproduction
[7] SC1.2 describing possible outcomes of mutations (i.e.,
no effect, damage, benefit)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the structure, function, behavior,
development, life cycles, and diversity of
living organisms by
[7] SC2.1 describing the basic structure and function of
plant and animal cells
[7] SC2.2 identifying the seven levels of classification
of organisms
[7] SC2.3 identifying and describing the functions of
human organs (i.e., heart, lungs, brain)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
[7] SC3.1 recognizing and explaining that organisms
can cause physical and chemical changes (e.g.,
digestion, growth, respiration, photosynthesis) to matter
and recognizing and explaining the importance of
energy transfer in these changes
[7] SC3.2 classifying organisms within a food web as
producers, consumers, or decomposers
GRADE 8
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how science explains changes in life forms over
time, including genetics, heredity, the process o f
natural selection, and biological evolution by
[8] SC1.1 describing the role of genes in sexual
reproduction (i.e., traits of the offspring)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure, function, behavior, development,
life cycles, and diversity of living organisms by
[8] SC2.1 placing vertebrates into correct classes of
taxonomy based on external, observable features
[8] SC2.2 explaining that most organisms utilize inherited
and learned behaviors to meet the basic requirements of life
[8] SC2.3 describing the functions and interdependence of
human body systems (i.e., circulatory, respiratory, nervous)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
[8] SC3.1 stating that energy flows and that matter cycles
but is conserved within an ecosystem
[8] SC3.2 organizing a food web that shows the cycling
matter
SCIENCE GRADES 6— 8
D1—Concepts of Earth Science
SD
Students develop an understanding of the concepts, processes, theories, models, evidence, and systems of earth
and space sciences.
SD1 Students develop an understanding of Earth’s geochemical cycles.
SD2 Students develop an understanding of the origins, ongoing processes, and forces that shape the structure,
composition, and physical history of the Earth.
SD3 Students develop an understanding of the cyclical changes controlled by energy from the sun and by Earth’s
position and motion in our solar system.
SD4 Students develop an understanding of the theories regarding the evolution of the universe.
GRADE 6
The student demonstrates an understanding of
geochemical cycles by
GRADE 7
The student demonstrates an understanding
of geochemical cycles by
[6] SD1.1 exploring the rock cycle and its relationship to
igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (L)
[7] SD1.1 describing the rock cycle and its relationship
to igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks
[6] SD1.2 identifying the physical properties of water
within the stages of the water cycle
[7] SD1.2 explaining the water cycle’s connection to
changes in the Earth’s surface
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the forces that shape Earth by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the forces that shape Earth by
[6] SD2.1 describing the formation and composition (i.e.,
sand, silt, clay, organics) of soils
[6] SD2.2 identifying and describing its layers (i.e., crust,
mantle, core)
[6] SD2.3 describing how the surface can change rapidly
as a result of geological activities (i.e., earthquakes,
tsunamis, volcanoes, floods, landslides, avalanches)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our
solar system by
[6] SD3.1 connecting the water cycle to weather
phenomena
[6] SD3.2 identifying that energy transfer is affected by
surface conditions (e.g., snow cover, asphalt, vegetation)
and that this affects weather
GRADE 8
The student demonstrates an understanding of
geochemical cycles by
[8] SD1.1 making connections between components of the
locally observable geologic environment and the rock cycle
(L)
[8] SD1.2 applying knowledge of the water cycle to explai
changes in the Earth’s surface
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the forces that shape Earth by
[7] SD2.1 identifying strategies (e.g., reforestation,
dikes, wind breaks, off road activity guidelines) for
minimizing erosion
[8] SD2.1 interpreting topographical maps to identify
features (i.e., rivers, lakes, mountains, valleys, islands, and
tundra)
[7] SD2.2 describing how the movement of the
tectonic plates results in both slow changes (e.g.,
formation of mountains, ocean floors, and basins) and
short-term events (e.g., volcanic eruptions, seismic
waves, and earthquakes) on the surface
[8] SD2.2 using models to show the relationship between
convection currents within the mantle and the large-scale
movement of the surface (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our
solar system by
[7] SD3.1 describing the weather using accepted
meteorological terms (e.g., pressure systems, fronts,
precipitation)
[7] SD3.2 recognizing the relationship between
phase changes (i.e., sublimation, condensation,
evaporation) and energy transfer
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our solar
system by
[8] SD3.1 recognizing the relationship between the
seasons and Earth’s tilt relative to the sun and describing
the day/night cycle as caused by the rotation of the Earth
every 24 hours
[8] SD3.2 recognizing types of energy transfer
(convection, conduction, and radiation) and how they
affect weather
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the theories regarding the origin and
evolution of the universe by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the theories regarding the origin and
evolution of the universe by
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the theories regarding the origin and evolution
of the universe by
[6] SD4.1 contrasting characteristics of planets and stars
(i.e., light reflecting, light emitting, orbiting, orbited,
composition)
[7] SD4.1 comparing and contrasting characteristics of
planets and stars (i.e., light reflecting, light emitting,
orbiting, orbited, composition)
[8] SD4.1 creating models of the solar system illustrating
size, location/position, composition, moons/rings, and
conditions (L)
[6] SD4.2 defining a light year
[7] SD4.2 using light years to describe distances
between objects in the universe
[8] SD4.2 comparing the brightness of a star to its
distance and size
SCIENCE GRADES 6— 8
E1—Science and Technology
SE
Students develop an understanding of the relationships among science, technology, and society.
SE1 Students develop an understanding of how scientific knowledge and technology are used in making
decisions about issues, innovations, and responses to problems and everyday events.
SE2 Students develop an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of thinking,
perspectives, and curiosity that lead to the exploration of multiple paths that are analyzed using
scientific, technological, and social merits.
SE3 Students develop an understanding of how scientific discoveries and technological innovations affect
and are affected by our lives and cultures.
GRADE 6
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge and
technology to address problems by
[6] SE1.1 recognizing that technology cannot always
provide successful solutions for problems or fulfill every
human need
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways of
thinking by
[6] SE2.1 identifying and designing a solution to a problem
[6] SE2.2 comparing the student’s work to the work of
peers in order to identify multiple paths that can be used to
investigate a question or problem (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
[6] SE3.1 describing the various effects of an innovation
on a global level
* Same concept at a higher level
GRADE 7
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge and
technology to address problems by
[7] SE1.1 describing how public policy affects the
student’s life (e.g., public waste disposal) (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways
of thinking by
[7] SE2.1 identifying, designing, testing, and revising
solutions to a local problem (L)
[7] SE2.2 comparing the student’s work to the work
of peers in order to identify multiple paths that can be
used to investigate a question or problem* (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
[7] SE3.1 recognizing the effects of a past scientific
discovery, invention, or scientific breakthrough (e.g.,
DDT, internal combustion engine)
GRADE 8
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge and
technology to address problems by
[8] SE1.1 describing how public policy affects the student’s
life and participating diplomatically in evidence-based
discussions relating to the student’s community (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways of
thinking by
[8] SE2.1 identifying, designing, testing, and revising
solutions to a local problem* (L)
[8] SE2.2 comparing the student’s work to the work
of peers in order to identify multiple paths that can be
used to investigate and evaluate potential solutions to a
question or problem (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
[8] SE3.1 predicting the possible effects of a recent
scientific discovery, invention, or scientific breakthrough
(L)
SCIENCE GRADES 6— 8
F1—Cultural, Social, Personal
Perspectives, and Science
SF
Students develop an understanding of the dynamic relationships among scientific, cultural, social, and
personal perspectives.
SF1 Students develop an understanding of the interrelationships among individuals, cultures, societies,
science, and technology.
SF2 Students develop an understanding that some individuals, cultures, and societies use other beliefs and
methods in addition to scientific methods to describe and understand the world.
SF3 Students develop an understanding of the importance of recording and validating cultural knowledge.
GRADE 6
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among scientific,
cultural, social, and personal perspectives by
[6] SF1.1-SF3.1 telling a local or traditional story that
explains a natural event (e.g., animal adaptation, weather,
rapid changes to Earth’s surface) and relating it to a
scientific explanation* (L). Cross referenced with SA3.1.
* Same concept at a higher level
GRADE 7
GRADE 8
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among scientific,
cultural, social, and personal perspectives by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among scientific,
cultural, social, and personal perspectives by
[7] SF1.1-SF3.1 investigating the basis of local
knowledge (e.g., describing and predicting weather)
and sharing that information (L). Cross referenced with
SA3.1.
[8] SF1.1-SF3.1 describing how local knowledge, culture,
and the technologies of various activities (e.g., hunting,
fishing, subsistence) influence the development of
scientific knowledge (L). Cross referenced with SA3.1.
SCIENCE GRADES 6— 8
G1—History and Nature of
Science
SG
Students develop an understanding of the history and nature of science.
SG1 Students develop an understanding that historical perspectives of scientific explanations demonstrate
that scientific knowledge changes over time, building on prior knowledge.
SG2 Students develop an understanding that the advancement of scientific knowledge embraces innovation
and requires empirical evidence, repeatable investigations, logical arguments, and critical review in
striving for the best possible explanations of the natural world.
SG3 Students develop an understanding that scientific knowledge is ongoing and subject to change as new
evidence becomes available through experimental and/or observational confirmation(s).
SG4 Students develop an understanding that advancements in science depend on curiosity, creativity,
imagination, and a broad knowledge base.
GRADE 6
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
GRADE 7
GRADE 8
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
[6] SG1.1**
[7] SG1.1**
[8] SG1.1**
[6] SG2.1 recognizing differences in results of repeated
experiments
[7] SG2.1 explaining differences in results of repeated
experiments
[8] SG2.1 describing how repeating experiments
improves the likelihood of accurate results
See [6] SE 3.1
[6] SG4.1**
The student demonstrates an understanding
that scientific knowledge is ongoing and
subject to change by
The student demonstrates an understanding
that scientific knowledge is ongoing and
subject to change by
[7] SG3.1 revising a personal idea when presented with
experimental/observational data inconsistent with that
personal idea (e.g., the rates of falling bodies of different
masses) (L)
[8] SG3.1 revising a personal idea when presented with
experimental/observational data inconsistent with that
personal idea (e.g., the rates of falling bodies of different
masses)* (L)
[7] SG4.1**
[8] SG4.1**
* Same concept at a higher level
**“Most of the historical benchmarks do not appear until high school.” (Project 2061 [American Association for the Advancement of Science], 2001, p. 129)
Project 2061 (American Association for the Advancement of Science). (2001). Atlas of science literacy. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science:
National Science Teachers Association.
SCIENCE GRADES 9— 11
A1—Science as Inquiry and
Process
SA
Students develop an understanding of the processes and applications of scientific inquiry.
SA1 Students develop an understanding of the processes of science used to investigate problems, design and conduct
repeatable scientific investigations, and defend scientific arguments.
SA2 Students develop an understanding that the processes of science require integrity, logical reasoning, skepticism,
openness, communication, and peer review.
SA3 Students develop an understanding that culture, local knowledge, history, and interaction with the environment
contribute to the development of scientific knowledge, and that local applications provide opportunity for
understanding scientific concepts and global issues.
GRADE 9
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the processes of science by
[9] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making generalizations,
inferring, and communicating*
[9] SA1.2 hypothesizing, designing a controlled
experiment, making qualitative and quantitative
observations, interpreting data, and using this information
to communicate conclusions
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[9] SA2.1 formulating conclusions that are logical and
supported by evidence
GRADE 10
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the processes of science by
[10] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making
generalizations, analyzing data, developing models,
inferring, and communicating
[10] SA1.2 reviewing pertinent literature, hypothesizing,
making qualitative and quantitative observations,
controlling experimental variables, analyzing data
statistically (i.e., mean, median, mode), and using this
information to draw conclusions, compare results to
others, suggest further experimentation, and
apply student’s conclusions to other problems (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[10] SA2.1 examining methodology and conclusions
to identify bias and determining if evidence logically
supports the conclusions
GRADE 11
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the processes of science by
[11] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing,
describing, measuring, classifying, making generalizations,
analyzing data, developing models, inferring, and
communicating*
[11] SA1.2 recognizing and analyzing multiple explanations
and models, using this information to revise student’s own
explanation or model if necessary (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the attitudes and approaches to scientific
inquiry by
[11] SA2.1 evaluating the credibility of cited sources
when conducting the student’s own scientific
investigation (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that interactions with the environment provide
an opportunity for understanding scientific
concepts by
[11] SA3.1 conducting research and communicating
results to solve a problem (e.g., fish and game
management, building permits, mineral rights, land use
policies) (L)
*Same concept at a higher level
SCIENCE GRADES 9— 11
B1—Concepts of Physical
Science
SB
SB1
SB2
SB3
SB4
Students develop an understanding of the concepts, models, theories, universal principles, and facts
that explain the physical world.
Students develop an understanding of the characteristic properties of matter and the relationship of
these properties to their structure and behavior.
Students develop an understanding that energy appears in different forms, can be transformed from
one form to another, can be transferred or moved from one place or system to another, may be
unavailable for use, and is ultimately conserved.
Students develop an understanding of the interactions between matter and energy, including physical,
chemical, and nuclear changes, and the effects of these interactions on physical systems.
Students develop an understanding of motions, forces, their characteristics and relationships, and
natural forces and their effects.
GRADE 9
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure and properties of matter by
[9] SB1.1 describing atoms and their base components
(i.e., protons, neutrons, electrons)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how energy can be transformed, transferred,
and conserved by
[9] SB2.1 applying the concepts of heat transfer (i.e.,
conduction, convection, radiation) to Alaskan dwellings
[9] SB2.2 recognizing simple electrical circuits
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the interactions between matter and energy
and the effects of these interactions on
systems by
GRADE 10
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the structure and properties of matter by
[10] SB1.1 using the periodic table to describe atoms in
terms of their base components (i.e., protons, neutrons,
electrons)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how energy can be transformed,
transferred, and conserved by
[10] SB2.1 examining energy (i.e., nuclear,
electromagnetic, chemical, mechanical, thermal)
transfers, transformations, and efficiencies by
comparing useful energy to total energy
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the interactions between matter and energy
and the effects of these interactions on
systems by
[9] SB3.1 recognizing that a chemical reaction has taken
place
[10] SB3.1 describing the behavior of electrons in
chemical bonding
[9] SB3.2 explaining that in chemical and nuclear
reactions, energy (e.g., heat, light, mechanical, and
electrical) is transferred into and out of a system
[10] SB3.2 recognizing that radioactivity is a result of
the decay of unstable nuclei
[9] SB3.3 recognizing that atoms emit and absorb
electromagnetic radiation
[10] SB3.3 comparing the relative wavelengths and
applications of different forms of electromagnetic
radiation (i.e., x-ray, visible, infrared, microwaves, radio)
GRADE 11
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure and properties of matter by
[11] SB1.1 predicting the properties of an element (i.e.,
reactivity, metal, non-metal) using the periodic table and
verifying the predictions through experimentation (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
how energy can be transformed, transferred,
and conserved by
[11] SB2.1 demonstrating energy (e.g., nuclear,
electromagnetic, chemical, mechanical, thermal) transfers
and transformations by comparing useful energy to total
energy (entropy) (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the interactions between matter and energy
and the effects of these interactions on
systems by
[11] SB3.1 predicting how an atom can interact with
other atoms based on its electron configuration and
verifying the results (L)
[11] SB3.2 researching applications of nuclear reactions
in which a small amount of matter is converted directly
into a huge amount of energy (i.e., E=MC2) (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
[9] SB4.1 explaining the relationship of motion to an
object’s mass and the applied force
[9] SB4.2 recognizing that the gravitational attraction
between objects is proportional to their masses and
decreasing with their distance
[9] SB4.3 describing the interactions of waves (i.e.,
reflection, refraction, wave addition)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
[10] SB4.1 recognizing that when one thing exerts a
force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted
back on it
[10] SB4.2 explaining that different kinds of materials
respond to electric and magnetic forces (i.e.,
conductors, insulators, magnetic, and non-magnetic
materials)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of motions, forces, their characteristics,
relationships, and effects by
[11] SB4.1 conducting an experiment to demonstrate that
when one thing exerts a force on another, an equal amount
of force is exerted back on it (L)
[11] SB4.2 conducting an experiment to explore the
relationship between magnetic forces and electric forces to
show that they can be thought of as different aspects of a
single electromagnetic force (e.g., generators and motors)
(L)
SCIENCE GRADES 9— 11
C1—Concepts of Life Science
SC
Students develop an understanding of the concepts, models, theories, facts, evidence, systems, and
processes of life science.
SC1 Students develop an understanding of how science explains changes in life forms over time, including
genetics, heredity, the process of natural selection, and biological evolution.
SC2 Students develop an understanding of the structure, function, behavior, development, life cycles, and
diversity of living organisms.
SC3 Students develop an understanding that all organisms are linked to each other and their physical
environments through the transfer and transformation of matter and energy.
GRADE 9
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how science explains changes in life forms
over time, including genetics, heredity, the
process of natural selection, and biological
evolution by
[9] SC1.1 recognizing that all organisms have
chromosomes made of DNA and that DNA determines
traits
[9] SC1.2 using probabilities to recognize patterns of
inheritance (e.g., Punnett Squares)
[9] SC1.3 inferring evolutionary pathways from evidence
(e.g., fossils, geologic samples, recorded history)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure, function, behavior, development,
life cycles, and diversity of living organisms by
[9] SC2.1 describing and comparing the characteristics of
phyla/divisions from each kingdom
[9] SC2.3 stating the function of major physiological
systems (i.e., circulatory, excretory, digestive,
respiratory, reproductive, nervous, immune, endocrine,
musculoskeletal, and integumentary)
SC2.2 is not addressed in grade 9.
* Same concept at a higher level
GRADE 10
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how science explains changes in life forms
over time, including genetics, heredity, the
process of natural selection, and biological
evolution by
[10] SC1.2 explaining how the processes of natural
selection can cause speciation and extinction
[10] SC1.3 examining issues related to genetics (L)
GRADE 11
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how science explains changes in life
forms over time, including genetics,
heredity, the process of natural selection,
and biological evolution by
[11] SC1.1 relating the structure of DNA to
characteristics of an organism
[11] SC1.2 researching how the processes of natural
selection cause changes in species over time (L)
SC1.1 is not addressed in grade 10.
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the structure, function, behavior,
development, life cycles, and diversity of
living organisms by
[10] SC2.1 describing the structure-function
relationship (e.g., joints, lungs)
[10] SC2.2 explaining that cells have specialized
structures in which chemical reactions occur
[10] SC2.3 explaining the functions of organs of major
systems (i.e., respiratory, digestive, circulatory,
reproductive, nervous, musculoskeletal, and excretory)
[10] SC2.4 tracing the pathways of the digestive,
circulatory, and excretory systems
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the structure, function, behavior, development,
life cycles, and diversity of living organisms by
[11] SC2.1 describing the structure-function relationship*
[11] SC2.2 describing the learned behaviors (e.g., classical
conditioning, imprinting, trial and error) that are utilized
by living organisms to meet the requirements of life
[11] SC2.3 describing the functions and interdependencies
of the organs within the immune system and within the
endocrine system
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
[9] SC3.1 describing the carbon and nitrogen cycle
within an ecosystem and how the continual input of
energy from sunlight keeps the process going (L)
[9] SC3.3 identifying dynamic factors (e.g., carrying
capacity, limiting factors, biodiversity, and productivity)
that affect population size
SC3.2 is not addressed in grade 9.
* Same concept at a higher level
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
The student demonstrates an understanding
that all organisms are linked to each other
and their physical environments through the
transfer and transformation of matter and
energy by
[10] SC3.1 relating the carbon cycle to global climate
change
[11] SC3.1 relating the carbon cycle to global climate
change*
[10] SC3. 2 exploring ecological relationships (e.g.,
competition, niche, feeding relationships, symbiosis)
(L)
[11] SC3.2 analyzing the potential impacts of changes
(e.g., climate change, habitat loss/gain, cataclysms, human
activities) within an ecosystem
SCIENCE GRADES 9— 11
D1—Concepts of Earth
Science
SD
Students develop an understanding of the concepts, processes, theories, models, evidence, and systems
of earth and space sciences.
SD1 Students develop an understanding of Earth’s geochemical cycles.
SD2 Students develop an understanding of the origins, ongoing processes, and forces that shape the
structure, composition, and physical history of the Earth.
SD3 Students develop an understanding of the cyclical changes controlled by energy from the sun and by
Earth’s position and motion in our solar system.
SD4 Students develop an understanding of the theories regarding the evolution of the universe.
GRADE 9
The student demonstrates an understanding of
geochemical cycles by
[9] SD1.1 using a model to demonstrate the rock cycle (L)
[9] SD1.2 applying knowledge of the water cycle to
explain changes in the Earth’s surface*
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the forces that shape Earth by
[9] SD2.1 recognizing the dynamic interaction of erosion
and deposition including human causes
[9] SD2.2 describing how the theory of plate tectonics
explains the dynamic nature of its surface
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our solar
system by
[9] SD3.1 recognizing the effect of the moon and sun on
tides
[9] SD3.2 explaining the phenomena of the aurora
* Same concept at a higher level
GRADE 10
The student demonstrates an understanding
of geochemical cycles by
[10] SD1.1 using a model to explain the processes
(i.e., formation, sedimentation, erosion, reformation)
of the rock cycle
[10] SD1.2 describing their interrelationships (i.e.,
water cycle, carbon cycle, oxygen cycle)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the forces that shape Earth by
[10] SD2.1 recognizing the dynamic interaction of
erosion and deposition including human causes*
[10] SD2.2 describing how the theory of plate tectonics
explains the dynamic nature of its surface*
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our
solar system by
[10] SD3.1 describing causes, effects, preventions, and
mitigations of human impact on climate
GRADE 11
The student demonstrates an understanding of
geochemical cycles by
[11] SD1.1 creating a model to demonstrate the rock
cycle (L)
[11] SD1.2 integrating knowledge of the water cycle and
biogeochemical cycling to explain changes in the Earth’s
surface (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the forces that shape Earth by
[11] SD2.1 recognizing the dynamic interaction of
erosion and deposition including human causes*
[11] SD2.2 describing how the theory of plate tectonics
explains the dynamic nature of its surface*
The student demonstrates an understanding
of cycles influenced by energy from the sun
and by Earth’s position and motion in our
solar system by
[11] SD3.1 describing causes, effects, preventions, and
mitigations of human impact on climate*
[11] SD3.2 exploring causes and effects related to
phenomena (e.g., the aurora, solar winds, Coriolis
Effect) (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the theories regarding the origin and
evolution of the universe by
[9] SD4.1 recognizing that a star changes over time
[9] SD4.2 explaining that the position of stars changes
in the expanding universe
[9] SD4.4 identifying the Big Bang Theory
SD4.3 is not continued in 9-11.
* Same concept at a higher level
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the theories regarding the origin and
evolution of the universe by
[10] SD 4.1 recognizing phenomena in the universe
(i.e., black holes, nebula)
[10] SD 4.2 explaining that the position of stars
changes in the expanding universe*
[10] SD 4.4 describing the Big Bang Theory
The student demonstrates an understanding of
the theories regarding the origin and evolution
of the universe by
[11] SD4.1 describing phenomena in the universe (i.e.,
black holes, nebula)
[11] SD4.2 using evidence to explain how the position of
stars changes in the expanding universe
[11] SD4.4 describing the Big Bang Theory and exploring
the evidence that supports it (L)
SCIENCE GRADES 9— 11
E1—Science and Technology
SE
Students develop an understanding of the relationships among science, technology, and society.
SE1 Students develop an understanding of how scientific knowledge and technology are used in making
decisions about issues, innovations, and responses to problems and everyday events.
SE2 Students develop an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of thinking,
perspectives, and curiosity that lead to the exploration of multiple paths that are analyzed using
scientific, technological, and social merits.
SE3 Students develop an understanding of how scientific discoveries and technological innovations
affect and are affected by our lives and cultures.
GRADE 9
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge and
technology to address problems by
[9] SE1.1 recognizing that the value of any given
technology may be different for different groups of
people and at different points in time (e.g., different uses
of snow machines in different regions of Alaska)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways
of thinking by
[9] SE2.1 questioning, researching, modeling, simulating,
and testing a solution to a problem (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
[9] SE3.1 predicting and evaluating the possible effects
of a recent scientific discovery, invention, or scientific
breakthrough (L)
* Same concept at a higher level
GRADE 10
GRADE 11
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge
and technology to address problems by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how to integrate scientific knowledge and
technology to address problems by
[10] SE1.1 identifying that progress in science
and invention is highly interrelated to what else is
happening in society
[11] SE1.1 researching how social, economic, and
political forces strongly influence which technology will
be developed and used (L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways
of thinking by
The student demonstrates an understanding
that solving problems involves different ways
of thinking by
[10] SE2.1 questioning, researching, modeling,
simulating, and testing multiple solutions to a problem
(L)
[11] SE2.1 questioning, researching, modeling,
simulating, and testing multiple solutions to a problem*
(L)
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
The student demonstrates an understanding
of how scientific discoveries and technological
innovations affect our lives and society by
[10] SE3.1 researching a current problem, identifying
possible solutions, and evaluating the impact of each
solution (L)
[11] SE3.1 researching a current problem, identifying
possible solutions, and evaluating the impact of each
solution* (L)
SCIENCE GRADES 9— 11
F1—Cultural, Social, Personal
Perspectives, and Science
SF
Students develop an understanding of the dynamic relationships among scientific, cultural, social, and
personal perspectives.
SF1 Students develop an understanding of the interrelationships among individuals, cultures, societies,
science, and technology.
SF2 Students develop an understanding that some individuals, cultures, and societies use other beliefs and
methods in addition to scientific methods to describe and understand the world.
SF3 Students develop an understanding of the importance of recording and validating cultural knowledge.
GRADE 9
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among scientific,
cultural, social, and personal perspectives by
[9] SF1.1-SF3.1 describing the scientific principles
involved in a subsistence activity (e.g., hunting, fishing,
gardening) (L). Cross referenced with SA3.1.
GRADE 10
GRADE 11
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among scientific,
cultural, social, and personal perspectives by:
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the dynamic relationships among scientific,
cultural, social, and personal perspectives by
[10] SF1.1-SF3.1 analyzing the competition for
resources by various user groups to describe these
interrelationships. Cross referenced with SA3.1.
[11] SF1.1-SF3.1 investigating the influences of societal
and/or cultural beliefs on science (L). Cross referenced
with SA3.1.
SCIENCE GRADES 9— 11
G1—History and Nature of
Science
SG Students develop an understanding of the history and nature of science.
SG1 Students develop an understanding that historical perspectives of scientific explanations demonstrate that
scientific knowledge changes over time, building on prior knowledge.
SG2 Students develop an understanding that the advancement of scientific knowledge embraces innovation and
requires empirical evidence, repeatable investigations, logical arguments, and critical review in striving for
the best possible explanations of the natural world.
SG3 Students develop an understanding that scientific knowledge is ongoing and subject to change as new
evidence becomes available through experimental and/or observational confirmation(s).
SG4 Students develop an understanding that advancements in science depend on curiosity, creativity,
imagination, and a broad knowledge base.
GRADE 9
The student demonstrates an understanding of
changes in historical perspectives of science by
[9] SG1.1 identifying those perspectives (i.e., cultural,
political, religious, philosophical) that have impacted the
advancement of science
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
[9] SG2.1 explaining the importance of innovations (i.e.,
microscope, immunization, computer)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that scientific knowledge is ongoing and subject
to change by
[9] SG3.1 describing the role of serendipity in scientific
discoveries
GRADE 10
GRADE 11
The student demonstrates an understanding of
changes in historical perspectives of science by
[10] SG1.1 describing how those perspectives (i.e.,
cultural, political, religious, philosophical) have impacted
the advancement of science
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
[10] SG2.1 using an account of an event to recognize
the processes of science used by historically significant
scientists (e.g., Goodall, Watson & Crick, Newton)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that scientific knowledge is ongoing and
subject to change by
[10] SG3.1 using experimental or observational data to
evaluate a hypothesis
The student demonstrates an understanding
that advancements in science depend on
curiosity, creativity, imagination, and a broad
knowledge base by
[10] SG4.1 recognizing the role of these factors on
scientific advancements
The student demonstrates an understanding
of the bases of the advancement of scientific
knowledge by
[11] SG2.1 describing the importance of logical
arguments (i.e., thought experiments by Einstein,
Hawking, Newton)
The student demonstrates an understanding
that scientific knowledge is ongoing and
subject to change by
[11] SG3.1 investigating instances when scientists’
observations were not in accord with prevailing ideas of
the time (L)
Introduction to
Alaska History Standards
Unlike the Performance Standards/Grade Level Expectations developed for each grade in
reading, writing, mathematics, and science, the Alaska History Standards reflect the cumulative
knowledge a student must demonstrate in order to fulfill the Alaska history graduation
requirement detailed in regulation 4 AAC 06.075 (g) High school graduation requirements.
The teaching of history should introduce students to the process of historical inquiry. This
process requires critical examination of evidence and careful weighing of facts and hypotheses.
It provides experience in the kind of reasoned and informed decision-making that should
characterize each student’s knowledge of and participation in state events and issues. For this
reason, the standard for historical inquiry stands alone; the intent is to integrate this standard,
where appropriate, into the standards that follow. The objective of the historical inquiry standard
is to apply conceptual knowledge and skills as designated in all strands of Alaska History by
problem solving, communicating, reasoning, and making connections.
This framework uses the scholarly approach of the historian to define the content of the standards.
This approach presents the people, ideas, events, themes, and sources to be included in order
for a student to demonstrate competency in Alaska History. While recognizing that knowledge
of specifics is important, the framework design emphasizes that knowledge of context is crucial
to meaning and understanding.
The framework organizes Alaska history into four central themes that give perspective and
meaning to the people, ideas, and events that shaped the state. The framework also divides
Alaska history into five chronological periods that structure the sequence of events.
From the statewide perspective, these are the essential learnings. The state encourages districts
to add to and enrich the scope of their local Alaska history curriculum.
H I S TO R Y P E R F O R M A N C E S TA N D A R D S ( G r a d e L e v e l E x p e c t a t i o n s )
Chronological Period
Colonial Era—
The Russian period
The first column of
each table includes
suggested topics
for instruction. As
this is not an
inclusive list, it is
expected that other
topics will also be
explored.
(1741-1867)
Suggested Topics
[not an inclusive list]
• Rationale for European
explorations
• Epidemics
• Utilization of Alaskan resources
• Relationships with indigenous
peoples
• Role of significant leaders (e.g.,
Katlian, Baranov, Veniaminov,
Netsvetov)
• Missionary activit ies
• Russian dependence on Alaska
Natives
• Russia’s incentive to sell
Items differentiated with an “i.e.” indicate that assessment items may be written
only to the content contained with the statement in the parentheses. Items
differentiated with an “e.g.” do not limit assessment items to that content, but
indicate examples of content that may be used in assessment items.
PEOPLE, PLACES,
ENVIRONMENT
CONSUMPTION,
PRODUCTION, DISTTRIBUTION
INDIVIDUAL, CITIZENSHIP,
GOVERNANCE, POWER
CONTINUITY
AND CHANGE
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the interaction between
people and their physical
environment by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
discovery, impact, and
role of natural resources
by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the historical rights
and responsibilities of
Alaskans by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
chronology of Alaska
history by:
AH. PPE 2 using texts/
sources to analyze the
similarities and differences
in the cultural attributes
(e.g., language, hunting
and gathering practices, art,
music/dance, beliefs,
worldview), movement,
interactions, and settlement of
Alaska Native peoples. [DOK
3] (G. D1, D4) — repeated
from Indigenous Alaskans
AH. CPD 1 identifying
patterns of growth,
transformation, competition,
and boom and bust, in
response to use of natural
resources (e.g., supply and
demand of fur, minerals, and
whaling). [DOK 2] (G. D1)
AH. ICGP 2 using texts/
sources to analyze the impacts
of the relationships between
Alaska Natives and Russians
(i.e., Russian Orthodox
Church, early fur traders,
Russian American Companies,
enslavement, and Creoles).
[DOK 3] (H. B1d)
Themes
AH. CC 1 using texts/
sources to recognize and
explain the interrelationships
among Alaska, national,
and international events and
developments (e.g.,
international interest, trade,
commerce). [DOK 3] (H. B2)
Depth of Knowledge*
AH. PPE 3 using texts/
sources to analyze the effect
of the historical contributions
and/or influences of significant
individuals, groups and local,
regional, statewide, and/or
international organizations.
[DOK 3] (H. B4) — repeated
in Colonial Era – United States
period
History — Section B — Standard number 4
The coding in parentheses at the end of the standard indicates alignment of the
Alaska History standard to existing Alaska Content Standards for social studies. G =
Geography; GC = Government and Citizenship; H = History; C = Cultural Standards
* Depth of Knowledge (DOK) is the cognitive demand associated with each item. Briefly, DOK levels reflect the following: DOK 1: Recall of Information; DOK 2: Basic
Reasoning; DOK 3: Complex Reasoning; DOK 4: Extended Reasoning. For additional information, please see the accompanying document, Depth-of-Knowledge
(DOK) Levels for Social Studies.
Because the Alaska History standards are intended to provide the content to which a student demonstrates knowledge of Alaska History, the DOK assigned to each
standard should be used as the ceiling to which assessment items are written. When considering the highest DOK Level as the ceiling not the target, the standard
has the potential to be assessed at Depth of Knowledge Levels at the ceiling, and up to the ceiling, depending upon the demand of the standard.
Depth-of-Knowledge (DOK) Levels for Social Studies
Descriptors of DOK Levels for Social Studies (based on Webb, Technical Issues in Large-Scale Assessment,
report published by CCSSO, December 2002)
Level 1 Recall of Information
Level 4 Extended Reasoning
Level 1 asks students to recall facts, terms, concepts, trends, generalizations and theories
or to recognize or identify specific information contained in graphics. This level generally
requires students to identify, list, or define. The items at this level usually ask the student
to recall who, what, when and where. Items that require students to “describe” and
“explain” could be classified at Level 1 or 2 depending on what is to be described and
explained. A Level 1 “describe or explain” would recall, recite or reproduce information.
Items that require students to recognize or identify specific information contained in
maps, charts, tables, graphs or drawings are generally level 1.
Level 4 requires the complex reasoning of Level 3 with the addition of planning,
investigating, or developing that will most likely require an extended period of time. The
extended time period is not a distinguishing factor if the required work is only repetitive
and does not require applying significant conceptual understanding and higher-order
thinking. At this level the cognitive demands should be high and the work should be
very complex. Students should be required to connect and relate ideas and concepts within
the content area or among content areas in order to be at this highest level. The
distinguishing factor for Level 4 would be evidence through a task or product that the
cognitive demands have been met. A Level 4 performance will require students to analyze
and synthesize information from multiple sources, examine and explain alternative
perspectives across a variety of sources, and/or describe and illustrate how common
themes and concepts are found across time and place. In some Level 4 performance
students will make predictions with evidence as support, develop a logical argument, or
plan and develop solutions to problems.
Level 2 Basic Reasoning
Level 2 includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or
reproducing a response. This level generally requires students to contrast or compare
people, places, events and concepts; convert information from one form to another;
give an example; classify or sort items into meaningful categories; describe, interpret or
explain issues and problems, patterns, reasons, cause and effect, significance or impact,
relationships, points of view or processes. A Level 2 “describe or explain” would require
students to go beyond a description or explanation of recalled information to describe or
explain a result or “how” or “why.”
Level 3 Complex Reasoning
Level 3 requires reasoning, using evidence, and a higher level of thinking than the
previous two levels. Students would go beyond explaining or describing “how and
why” to justifying the “how and why” through application and evidence. The cognitive
demands at Level 3 are more complex and more abstract than Levels 1 or 2. Items at
Level 3 include drawing conclusions; citing evidence; applying concepts to new situations;
using concepts to solve problems; analyzing similarities and differences in issues and
problems; proposing and evaluating solutions to problems; recognizing and explaining
misconceptions or making connections across time and place to explain a concept or big
idea.
Many on-demand assessment instruments will not include assessment activities that could
be classified as Level 4. However, standards, goals, and objectives can be stated so as to
expect students to perform thinking at this level. On-demand assessments that do include
tasks, products, or extended responses would be classified as Level 4 when the task or
response requires evidence that the cognitive requirements have been met.
HISTORY
Historical Inquiry
The student demonstrates an understanding of the methods of documenting history by:
AH. HI 1 planning and developing history projects, utilizing research tools such as: interviewing protocols,
oral history, historical context, pre-interview research, primary sources, secondary sources, proper citation,
corroboration, and cause and effect of historical events. [DOK 4] (H. C1-4)
Indigenous Alaskans
before western
contact (time
immemorial—contact)
Suggested Topics
[not an inclusive list]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Locations
Social organizations
Cultures
Political traditions
Natural resources
Cultural changes
Archeology
Native oral traditions
PEOPLE, PLACES,
ENVIRONMENT
CONSUMPTION,
PRODUCTION, DISTTRIBUTION
INDIVIDUAL, CITIZENSHIP,
GOVERNANCE, POWER
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the interaction between
people and their physical
environment by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the historical rights
and responsibilities of
Alaskans by:
AH. PPE 1 comparing and
contrasting geographic regions
of Alaska. [DOK 2] (G. B4, B8)
AH. ICGP 1 identifying and
summarizing the structures,
functions, and transformation
of various attributes (e.g.,
leadership, decisionmaking, social and political
organization) of traditional
Alaska Native governance.
[DOK 2] (GC. A4)
AH. PPE 2 using texts/
sources to analyze the
similarities and differences
in the cultural attributes
(e.g., language, hunting and
gathering practices, art, music/
dance, beliefs, worldview),
movement, interactions, and
settlement of Alaska Native
peoples. [DOK 3] (G. D1, D4)
AH. PPE 3 using texts/
sources to analyze the effect
of the historical contributions
and/or influences of significant
individuals, groups and
local, regional, statewide,
international organizations.
[DOK 3] (H. B4)
CONTINUITY
AND CHANGE
Colonial Era—
The Russian period
(1741-1867)
Suggested Topics
[not an inclusive list]
• Rationale for European
explorations
• Epidemics
• Utilization of Alaskan resources
• Relationships with indigenous
peoples
• Role of significant leaders (e.g.,
Katlian, Baranov, Veniaminov,
Netsvetov)
• Missionary activities
• Russian dependence on Alaska
Natives
• Russia’s incentive to sell
PEOPLE, PLACES,
ENVIRONMENT
CONSUMPTION,
PRODUCTION, DISTTRIBUTION
INDIVIDUAL, CITIZENSHIP,
GOVERNANCE, POWER
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the interaction between
people and their physical
environment by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
discovery, impact, and
role of natural resources
by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the historical rights
and responsibilities of
Alaskans by:
AH. PPE 2 using texts/sources
to analyze the similarities and
differences in the cultural
attributes (e.g., language,
hunting and gathering
practices, art, music/dance,
beliefs, worldview), movement,
interactions, and settlement of
Alaska Native peoples. [DOK 3]
(G. D1, D4)
AH. PPE 3 using texts/
sources to analyze the effect
of the historical contributions
and/or influences of significant
individuals, groups and local,
regional, statewide, and/or
international organizations.
[DOK 3] (H. B4)
AH. CPD 1 identifying
patterns of growth,
transformation, competition,
and boom and bust, in
response to use of natural
resources (e.g., supply and
demand of fur, minerals, and
whaling). [DOK 2] (G. D1)
AH. ICGP 2 using texts/
sources to analyze the impacts
of the relationships between
Alaska Natives and Russians
(i.e., Russian Orthodox
Church, early fur traders,
Russian American Companies,
enslavement, and Creoles).
[DOK 3] (H. B1d)
CONTINUITY
AND CHANGE
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
chronology of Alaska
history by:
AH. CC 1 using texts/
sources to recognize and
explain the interrelationships
among Alaska, national,
and international events and
developments (e.g.,
international interest, trade,
commerce). [DOK 3] (H. B2)
Colonial Era
The United States
Period (1867-1912)
Suggested Topics
[Not an inclusive list]
• United States’ motives for
purchasing Russia’s interest in
Alaska
• Treaty of Cession
• Legal status of Alaska Natives
under the Commerce Clause
and the Marshall Trilogy
• Mining Law of 1872
• Organic Act of 1884
• Role of Sheldon Jackson
• Resources (e.g., whaling, fur
trading, mining, commercial
fisheries)
• Gold Rush
• Nelson Act of 1905 and the
dual school system
• Creation of National Forests
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the interaction between
people and their physical
environment by:
AH. PPE 3 using texts/
sources to analyze the effect
of the historical contributions
and/or influences of significant
individuals or groups and local,
regional, statewide, and/or
international organizations.
[DOK 3] (H. B4)
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
discovery, impact, and
role of natural resources
by:
AH. CPD 2 using texts/
source to draw conclusions
about the role of the federal
government in natural
resource development and
land management (e.g.,
jurisdiction, authority,
agencies, programs, policies).
[DOK 3] (GC. F1)
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the historical rights
and responsibilities of
Alaskans by:
AH. ICGP 3 explaining and
analyzing tribal and western
concepts of land ownership and
how acting upon those concepts
contributes to changes in land
use, control, and ownership.
[DOK 4] (H. C7, C8)
AH. ICGP 4 explaining
Alaskans’ quest for selfdetermination (i.e., full rights
as U.S. citizens) through the
statehood movement. [DOK 1]
(GC. C3)
AH.ICGP 5 explaining the
impacts of military actions (e.g.,
Naval bombardment of Angoon,
Aleut internment, military
expeditions) relative to Native
communities. [DOK 2] (H. B1)
IGCP 6 using texts/sources to
analyze how the military
population and its activities,
including administrative,
policing, defense, mapping,
communication, and
construction, have impacted
communities. [DOK 3] (H. B2)
AH. ICGP 7 describing the
historical basis of federal
recognition of tribes, their
inherent and delegated powers,
the ongoing nature and
diversity of tribal governance,
and the plenary power of
Congress. [DOK 1] (GC. C8)
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
chronology of Alaska
history by:
AH. CC 2 describing how
policies and practices of nonnatives (e.g., missionaries,
miners, Alaska Commercial
Company merchants)
influenced Alaska Natives.
[DOK 2] (H. B4, B5)
Alaska as a Territory
(1912-1959)
Suggested Topics
[Not an inclusive list]
• Territorial Organic Act of 1912
• Native efforts toward civil and
land rights (e.g., founding of
Alaska Native Brotherhood
(ANB), Alaska Native Sisterhood
(ANS), and Tanana Chiefs)
• Role of significant individuals
(e.g., Judge Wickersham,
William Paul, Elizabeth
Peratrovich, Ernest Gruening)
• Infrastructure (e.g., railroad,
aviation, roads, ships)
• Indian Reorganization Act
• World War II and internment of
Aleuts and Japanese Americans
• Cold War
• National Parks and National
Forests, resources (e.g., oil,
timber, coal)
• Constitutional Convention,
constitution, and statehood
PEOPLE, PLACES,
ENVIRONMENT
CONSUMPTION,
PRODUCTION, DISTTRIBUTION
INDIVIDUAL, CITIZENSHIP,
GOVERNANCE, POWER
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the interaction between
people and their physical
environment by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
discovery, impact, and role
of natural resources by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
historical rights and
responsibilities of
Alaskans by:
AH. PPE 4 describing how
Alaska’s strategic location
played an important role
in military buildup and
explaining the interrelated
social and economic impacts.
[DOK 2] (G. A5)
AH. CPD 3 using texts/
sources to draw conclusions
about the significance of
natural resources (e.g.,
fisheries, timber, Swanson
River oil discovery, “sustained
yield” in the Alaska
Constitution) in Alaska’s
development and in the
statehood movement. [DOK 3]
(G. F1, F4)
AH. ICGP 4 explaining
Alaskans’ quest for selfdetermination (i.e., full rights
as U.S. citizens) through the
statehood movement. [DOK 1]
(GC. C3)
and policies (e.g., William Paul,
Tanana Chiefs, ANB, ANS) [DOK 1 ]
(H. A1, B2)
AH. ICGP 11 exploring federal
policies and legislation (e.g.,
Alaska Citizenship Act, TlingitHaida Jurisdictional Act, Indian
Citizenship Act of 1924, Alaska
Reorganization Act, ANCSA) that
recognized Native rights. [DOK 1]
(H. B2)
AH.ICGP 5 explaining the
impacts of military actions
relative to Native communities
(e.g., Naval bombardment of
Angoon, Aleut internment,
military expeditions). [DOK 2]
(H. B1)
AH. ICGP 8 describing how
Alaskans, particularly the
Native people, challenge
the status quo to gain
recognition of their civil
rights (e.g., appeals to the
Russian government, Ward
Cove Packing Co. Case, Molly
Hootch, anti-discrimination
acts, women’s suffrage). [DOK
2] (H. B2, GC. B5)
AH. ICGP 9 exploring the
federal government’s influence
on settlements in Alaska (e.g.,
Matanuska Colony, Anchorage,
Adak, Tok, Hydaburg) by
establishment of post offices,
military facilities, schools,
courts, and railroads. [DOK 1]
(G. G2, H. B1)
AH. ICGP 10 identifying
the role of Alaska Native
individuals and groups
in actively proposing and
promoting federal legislation
CONTINUITY
AND CHANGE
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
chronology of Alaska
history by:
AH. CC 3 describing how the
roles and responsibilities in
Alaska Native societies have
been continuously influenced
by changes in technology,
economic practices, and social
interactions. [DOK 2] (G. D4,
H. B1b)
Alaska as a State
(1959-present)
Suggested Topics
[Not an inclusive list]
• Role of significant individuals
(e.g., Eben Hopson, Howard
Rock, Ted Stevens, Katie John)
• Controversies of Statehood Act
land selections
• Disasters (e.g., 1964 Earthquake,
1967 Interior flood, Exxon
Valdez oil spill)
• Formation of Inuit Circumpolar
Conference
• Formation of AFN
• Development of public education
(e.g., Molly Hootch case)
• Prudhoe Bay and oil pipeline
construction
• Permanent Fund
• Alaska Native Claims Settlement
Act (ANCSA)
• Marine Mammal Protection Act
1972 (MMPA)
• Alaska National Interest Lands
Conservation Act (ANILCA)
• Indian Self-Determination Act
1975
• Indian Child Welfare Act 1978
• Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
(ANWR)
• Tourism
• Fiscal issues
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the interaction between
people and their physical
environment by:
AH. PPE 4 describing how
Alaska’s strategic location
played an important role
in military buildup and
explaining the interrelated
social and economic impacts.
[DOK 2] (G. A5)
AH. PPE 5 comparing and
contrasting the differing
perspectives between rural and
urban areas. [DOK 2] (H. B1b,
C. E4)
AH. PPE 6 analyzing patterns
of movement and settlement.
[DOK 2] (H. B4, G. D3)
AH. PPE 7 using texts/
sources to explain the political,
social, cultural, economic,
geographic, and historic
characteristics of the student’s
community or region. [DOK 3]
(H. B1b, C. E2, E8)
The student demonstrates
an understanding of the
discovery, impact, and
role of natural resources
by:
The student demonstrates
an understanding of
the historical rights
and responsibilities of
Alaskans by:
AH. CPD 4 describing the
federal government’s
construction and maintenance
of Alaska’s infrastructure
(e.g., transportation,
communication, public health
system, education). [DOK 1]
(G. D4)
AH. ICGP 3 explaining and
analyzing tribal and western
concepts of land ownership
and how acting upon those
concepts contributes to
changes in land use, control,
and ownership (e.g., ANCSA,
ANILCA). [DOK 4] (H. C7, C8)
AH. CPD 5 using texts/
sources to analyze the
multiple perspectives in the
continuing debate between
conservation and development
of resources. [DOK 3] (G. E4,
F3)
AH. ICGP 8 describing how
Alaskans, particularly the
Native people, challenge
the status quo to gain
recognition of their civil
rights (e.g., appeals to the
Russian government, Ward
Cove Packing Co. Case, Molly
Hootch, anti-discrimination
acts, women’s suffrage). [DOK
2] (H. B2, GC. B5)
AH. CPD 6 describing the
formation of Alaska Native
Corporations and their impact
on Alaska’s economy. [DOK 2]
(GC. F9)
AH. CPD 7 explaining the
creation and implementation
of the Permanent Fund and
how it has impacted the state.
[DOK 2] (GC. F9)
AH. ICGP 10 identifying
the role of Alaska Native
individuals and groups
in actively proposing and
promoting federal legislation
and policies (e.g., William
Paul, Tanana Chiefs, ANB,
ANS) [DOK 1] (H. A1, B2)
AH. ICGP 12 using texts/
sources to analyze the
evolution of self-government
through an examination of
organic documents (i.e., Treaty
of Cession, Organic Act,
Territorial Act, Alaska State
Constitution, Statehood Act).
[DOK 3] (H. B2, B4)
The student demonstrates an
understanding of the
chronology of Alaska histor y
by:
AH. CC 4 giving correct and
incorrect examples to explain
subsistence as a way of life.
[DOK 2] (H. B1b)
AH. CC 5 defining, describing,
and illustrating the economic,
political, and social characteristic s
of the major periods, their
key turning points (e.g.,
implementation of Prudhoe
Bay pipeline, Molly Hootch
case, ANCSA, ANILCA, ANWR,
natural and manmade disasters,
establishment of Alaska Native
Corporations) and how they
interrelate. [DOK 4] (H. B2)
AH. CC 6 explaining the
historical context and the
legal foundations (e.g., Alaska
Constitution, ANCSA, MMPA,
ANILCA, Katie John case)
pertinent to subsistence. [DOK 1 ]
(GC. A2, C. A4)
AH. CC 7 comparing and
contrasting the perspectives
of sport, commercial, and
subsistence users on policies
regarding fish and game
management. [DOK 2] (G. E4,
F5)
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