AS5140H Datasheet EN v2
AS5140H
10-Bit 360º Programmable Magnetic
Rotary Encoder For High Ambient
Temperatures
General Description
The AS5140H is a contactless magnetic rotary encoder for
accurate angular measurement over a full turn of 360º and over
an extended ambient temperature range of -40ºC to 150ºC.
It is a system-on-chip, combining integrated Hall elements,
analog front end and digital signal processing in a single device.
To measure the angle, only a simple two-pole magnet, rotating
over the center of the chip, is required. The magnet may be
placed above or below the IC.
The absolute angle measurement provides instant indication of
the magnet’s angular position with a resolution of 0.35º = 1024
positions per revolution. This digital data is available as a serial
bit stream and as a PWM signal. Furthermore, a
user-programmable incremental output is available.
An internal voltage regulator allows the AS5140H to operate at
either 3.3V or 5V supplies.
The AS5140H is pin-compatible to the AS5040; however it uses
low-voltage OTP programming cells with additional
programming options.
Ordering Information and Content Guide appear at end of
datasheet.
Key Benefits & Features
The benefits and features of AS5140H, 10-Bit 360º
Programmable Magnetic Rotary Encoder For High Ambient
Temperatures are listed below:
Figure 1:
Added Value of Using AS5140H
Benefits
Features
No mechanical wear
Contactless high resolution rotational position encoding over a
full turn of 360º
High resolution absolute position sensing
Two digital 10-bit absolute outputs: Serial interface and Pulse
width modulated (PWM) output
Easy to use for motor control
Three incremental output modes: Quadrature A/B and Index
output signal, Step / Direction and Index output signal, 3-phase
commutation for brushless DC motors
Adjustable zero position
User programmable zero / index position
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
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AS5140H − General Description
Benefits
Features
Tolerant to magnet misalignment
Failure detection mode for magnet placement monitoring and
loss of power supply
Usable for high speed applications
Rotational speeds up to 10.000 rpm
Tolerant to airgap variations
Pushbutton functionality detects movement of magnet in
Z-axis
Supports daisy chain application
Serial read-out of multiple interconnected AS5140H devices
using Daisy Chain mode
Fitting to automotive applications
Fully automotive qualified to AEC-Q100, grade 0
Operates up to 150°C ambient temperature
Wide ambient temperature range: -40ºC to 150ºC
Applications
The AS5140H is an ideal solution for automotive applications
like engine compartment sensors, transmission gearbox
encoder, throttle valve position control and for industrial
applications like rotary sensors in high temperature
environment.
Block Diagram
The functional blocks of this device for reference are
shown below:
Figure 2:
AS5140H Block Diagram
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Page 2
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Pin Assignment
Pin Assignment
Figure 3:
Pin Diagram (Top View)
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Pin Description
The following figure shows the description of each pin of the
standard SSOP16 package (Shrink Small Outline Package, 16
leads, body size: 5.3mm x 6.2mmm; See Figure 3).
Figure 4:
Pin Description
Pin Number
Pin Name
1
MagINCn
Magnet Field Magnitude Increase. Active low. Indicates a distance
reduction between the magnet and the device surface.
2
MagDECn
Magnet Field Magnitude Decrease. Active low. Indicates a distance
increase between the device and the magnet.
3
A_LSB_U
Mode1.x: Quadrature A channel
Mode2.x: Least Significant Bit
Mode3.x: U signal (phase1)
4
B_Dir_V
Mode1.x: Quadrature B channel quarter period shift to channel A
Mode2.x: Direction of Rotation
Mode3.x: V signal (phase2)
5
NC
6
Index_ W
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Description
For internal use. Must be left unconnected.
Mode1.x and Mode2.x: Index signal indicates the absolute zero position
Mode3.x: W signal (phase3)
Page 3
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AS5140H − Pin Assignment
Pin Number
Pin Name
Description
7
VSS
Negative Supply Voltage (GND).
8
Prog
OTP Programming Input and Data Input for Daisy Chain mode. Internal
pull-down resistor (~74kΩ). May be connected to VSS if programming is not
used.
9
DO
Data Output of Synchronous Serial Interface.
10
CLK
SSI Clock Input. Schmitt-Trigger input.
11
CSn
Chip Select. Active low; Schmitt-Trigger input, internal pull-up resistor
(~50kΩ) connect to VSS in incremental mode (see Incremental Power-up
Lock Option on page 21)
12
PWM_LSB
13
NC
For internal use. Must be left unconnected.
14
NC
For internal use. Must be left unconnected.
15
VDD3V3
3V-Regulator Output (see Figure 38)
16
VDD5V
Positive Supply Voltage 5V
Pulse Width Modulation of approx. 1kHz; LSB in Mode3.x
Pin 1 and 2 are the magnetic field change indicators, MagINCn
and MagDECn (magnetic field strength increase or decrease
through variation of the distance between the magnet and the
device). These outputs can be used to detect the valid magnetic
field range. Furthermore those indicators can also be used for
contact-less push-button functionality. Pins 3, 4 and 6 are the
incremental pulse output pins. The functionality of these pins
can be configured through programming the one-time
programmable (OTP) register.
Figure 5:
Pin Assignment for Different Incremental Output Modes
Output Mode
Pin 3
Pin 4
Pin 6
Pin 12
1.x: Quadrature
A
B
Index
PWM
2.x: Step/direction
LSB
Direction
Index
PWM
3.x: Commutation
U
V
W
LSB
Mode 1.x: Quadrature A/B Output
Represents the default quadrature A/B signal mode.
Mode 2.x: Step / Direction Output
Configures pin 3 to deliver up to 512 pulses (up to 1024 state
changes) per revolution. It is equivalent to the LSB (least
significant bit) of the absolute position value. Pin 4 provides the
information of the rotational direction.
Page 4
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Pin Assignment
Note(s): Both modes (mode 1.x and mode 2.x) provide an index
signal (1 pulse/revolution) with an adjustable width of one LSB
or three LSB’s.
Mode 3.x: Brushless DC Motor Commutation Mode
In addition to the absolute encoder output over the SSI
interface, this mode provides commutation signals for
brushless DC motors with either one pole pair or two pole pair
rotors. The commutation signals are usually provided by 3
discrete Hall switches, which are no longer required, as the
AS5140H can fulfill two tasks in parallel:
absolute encoder + BLDC motor commutation.
In this mode,
• Pin 12 provides the LSB output instead of the PWM
(Pulse-Width-Modulation) signal.
• Pin 8 (Prog) is also used to program the different
incremental interface modes, the incremental resolution
and the zero position into the OTP (see Incremental Mode
Programming). This pin is also used as digital input to shift
serial data through the device in Daisy Chain
configuration, (see Figure 24).
• Pin 11 Chip Select (CSn; active low) selects a device within
a network of AS5140H encoders and initiates serial data
transfer. A logic high at CSn puts the data output pin (DO)
to tri-state and terminates serial data transfer. This pin is
also used for alignment mode (see Alignment Mode) and
programming mode (see Programming the AS5140H).
• Pin 12 allows a single wire output of the 10-bit absolute
position value. The value is encoded into a pulse width
modulated signal with 1μs pulse width per step (1μs to
1024μs over a full turn). By using an external low pass filter,
the digital PWM signal is converted into an analog voltage,
allowing a direct replacement of potentiometers.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
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AS5140H − Absolute Maximum Ratings
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Stresses beyond those listed in Absolute maximum Ratings may
cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, and functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions beyond those indicated in Operating
Conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum
rating conditions for extended periods may affect device
reliability.
Figure 6:
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
DC supply voltage at pin VDD5V
-0.3
7
V
DC supply voltage at pin VDD3V3
-0.3
5
V
Input pin voltage
-0.3
7
V
Input current (latchup immunity)
-100
100
mA
Norm: JEDEC 78
kV
Norm: MIL 883 E method 3015
Electrostatic discharge
Storage temperature
±2
-55
150
ºC
260
ºC
5
85
%
-40
150
ºC
Body temperature
(Lead-free package)
Humidity non-condensing
Ambient temperature
Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL)
Page 6
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3
Comments
Pins Prog, MagINCn, MagDECn, CLK, CSn
t=20 to 40s, Norm: IPC/JEDEC J-Std-020C
Lead finish 100% Sn “matte tin”
Represents a maximum floor time of
168h
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Electrical Characteristics
Electrical Characteristics
TAMB = -40 to 150ºC, VDD5V = 3.0-3.6V (3V operation)
VDD5V = 4.5-5.5V (5V operation) unless otherwise noted.
Figure 7:
Operating Conditions
Symbol
Isupp
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
16
21
mA
4.5
5.0
5.5
V
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
150
μs
Supply current
VDD5V
External supply voltage at
pin VDD5V
VDD3V3
Internal regulator output
voltage at pin VDD3V3
5V operation
VDD5V
VDD3V3
tpwrup3
External supply voltage at
pin VDD5V, VDD3V3
3.3V operation
(pins VDD5V and VDD3V3
connected)
External VDD3V3 supply
voltage rise time at
power-up
10-90% level in 3.3V mode
(pins VDD5V and VDD3V3
connected)
1
DC Characteristics for Digital Inputs and
Outputs
Figure 8:
CMOS Schmitt-Trigger Inputs: CLK, CSn (CSn = Internal Pull-up)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min
VIH
High level input voltage
Normal operation
0.7 *VDD5V
VIL
Low level input voltage
VION - VIOFF
Typ
Max
V
0.3 *VDD5V
Schmitt Trigger hysteresis
1
V
V
ILEAK
Input leakage current
CLK only
-1
1
IiL
Pull-up low level input
current
CSn only,
VDD5V:5.0V
-30
-100
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Unit
μA
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AS5140H − Electrical Characteristics
Figure 9:
CMOS / Program Input: Prog
Symbol
Parameter
VIH
High level input voltage
VPROG
High level input voltage
VIL
Low level input voltage
IiL
Pull-up high level input
current
Condition
Min
Typ
0.7 *VDD5V
During
programming
Max
Unit
5
V
Refer to
Programming Conditions
VDD5V:5.0V
V
0.3 *VDD5V
V
100
μA
Max
Unit
VSS+0.4
V
Figure 10:
CMOS Output Open Drain: MagINCn, MagDECn
Symbol
Parameter
VOL
Low level output voltage
IO
IOZ
Condition
Min
Typ
VDD5V:4.5V
4
VDD5V:3V
2
Output current
mA
Open drain leakage
current
1
μA
Max
Unit
Figure 11:
CMOS Output: A, B, Index, PWM
Symbol
Parameter
VOH
High level output voltage
VOL
Low level output voltage
IO
Condition
Min
Typ
VDD5V-0.5
V
VSS+0.4
VDD5V:4.5V
4
VDD5V:3V
2
Output current
Page 8
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V
mA
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Electrical Characteristics
Figure 12:
Tristate CMOS Output: DO
Symbol
Parameter
VOH
High level output voltage
VOL
Low level output voltage
IO
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
VDD5V-0.5
V
VSS+0.4
VDD5V:4.5V
4
VDD5V:3V
2
Output current
IOZ
Unit
V
mA
Tri-state leakage current
μA
1
Magnetic Input Specification
Figure 13:
Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Magnetic Input Specification (Two-pole cylindrical diametrically magnetized source)
dmag
Diameter
tmag
Thickness
Recommended magnet:
Ø 6mm x 2.5mm for cylindrical
magnets
Bpk
Magnetic input field
amplitude
Required vertical component
of the magnetic field strength
on the die’s surface, measured
along a concentric circle with a
radius of 1.1mm
BOFF
Magnetic offset
Constant magnetic stray field
Field non-linearity
fmag_abs
Disp
Input frequency
(rotational speed of
magnet)
Displacement radius
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
4
6
mm
2.5
45
75
mT
± 10
mT
Including offset gradient
5
%
Absolute mode: 600 rpm @
readout of 1024 positions
(see Figure 33)
10
Hz
Incremental mode: no missing
pulses at rotational speeds of
up to 10.000 rpm
(see Figure 33)
166
Max. X-Y offset between
defined IC package center and
magnet axis (see Figure 40)
0.25
Max. X-Y offset between chip
center and magnet axis
0.485
mm
Page 9
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AS5140H − Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Chip placement
tolerance
Recommended
magnet material and
temperature drift
Condition
Min
Typ
Placement tolerance of chip
within IC package
(see Figure 42)
NdFeB (Neodymium Iron
Boron)
-0.12
SmCo (Samarium Cobalt)
-0.035
Max
Unit
±0.235
mm
%/K
Electrical System Specifications
Figure 14:
Electrical System Specifications
Symbol
RES
Parameter
Resolution(1)
Condition
LSB
9 bit
Typ
0.352 deg
Max
Unit
10
bit
2.813
7 bit
8 bit
Min
Adjustable resolution only
available for incremental
output modes; Least
significant bit, minimum step
10 bit
1.406
deg
0.703
0.352
Integral non-linearity
(optimum)(2)
Maximum error with respect to
the best line fit. Verified at
optimum magnet placement,
TAMB =25ºC
±0.5
deg
Integral non-linearity
(optimum)
Maximum error with respect to
the best line fit. Verified at
optimum magnet placement,
TAMB = -40 to 150ºC
±0.9
deg
INL
Integral non-linearity
Best line fit =
(Errmax – Errmin) / 2
Over displacement tolerance
with 6mm diameter magnet,
TAMB = -40 to 150ºC
(see Figure 19)
±1.4
deg
DNL
Differential
non-linearity(3)
10bit, no missing codes
±0.176
deg
Transition noise(4)
RMS equivalent to 1 sigma
0.12
Deg
RMS
Hysteresis
Incremental modes only
INLopt
INLtemp
TN
Hyst
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0.704
deg
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
VON
Power-on reset
thresholds
On voltage; 300mV typ.
hysteresis
VOFF
Power-on reset
thresholds
OFF voltage; 300mV
typ. hysteresis
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
1.37
2.2
2.9
DC supply voltage 3.3V
(VDD3V3)
Unit
V
1.08
1.9
2.6
tPwrUp
Power-up time
Until offset compensation
finished
50
ms
tdelay
System propagation
delay absolute output
Includes delay of ADC and DSP
48
μs
System propagation
delay incremental
output
Calculation over two samples
192
μs
fS
CLK
Sampling rate for
absolute output
Read-out frequency
Internal sampling rate,
TAMB = 25ºC
Internal sampling rate,
TAMB = -40 to 150ºC
9.90
10.42
10.94
kHz
9.38
10.42
11.46
Max. clock frequency to read
out serial data
1
MHz
Note(s) and/or Footnote(s):
1. Digital Interface.
2. Integral Non-Linearity (INL) is the maximum deviation between actual position and indicated position.
3. Differential Non-Linearity (DNL) is the maximum deviation of the step length from one position to the next.
4. Transition Noise (TN) is the repeatability of an indicated position.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 11
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AS5140H − Electrical Characteristics
Programming Conditions
TAMB = -40 to 150ºC, VDD5V = 3.0-3.6V (3V operation)
VDD5V = 4.5-5.5V (5V operation), unless otherwise noted.
Figure 15:
Programming Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
VPROG
Programming voltage
Voltage applied during
programming
VProgOFF
Programming voltage
OFF level
Line must be discharged to
this level
IPROG
Programming current
Current during
programming
Programmed fuse
resistance (log 1)
10μA max. current @
100mV
Unprogrammed fuse
resistance (log 0)
2mA max. current @ 100mV
50
100
Ω
Programming time per
bit
Time to prog. a singe fuse
bit
10
20
μs
Refresh time per bit
Time to charge the cap after
tPROG
1
fLOAD
LOAD frequency
Data can be loaded at n*2μs
500
kHz
fREAD
READ frequency
Read the data from the latch
2.5
MHz
fWRITE
WRITE frequency
Write the data to the latch
2.5
MHz
Rprogrammed
Runprogrammed
tPROG
tCHARGE
Page 12
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Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
1
V
100
mA
0
100k
Ω
μs
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Electrical Characteristics
Timing Characteristics
TAMB = -40 to 150 ºC, VDD5V = 3.0 to 3.6V (3V operation)
VDD5V = 4.5 to 5.5V (5V operation), unless otherwise noted
Figure 16:
Synchronous Serial Interface (SSI)
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
s
100
ns
Data output activated
(logic high)
Time between falling edge of
CSn and data output
activated
tCLKFE
First data shifted to output
register
Time between falling edge of
CSn and first falling edge of
CLK
500
ns
TCLK/2
Start of data output
Rising edge of CLK shifts out
one bit at a time
500
ns
Data output valid
Time between rising edge of
CLK and data output valid
413
ns
tDO tristate
Data output tristate
After the last bit DO changes
back to “tri-state”
100
ns
tCSn
Pulse width of CSn
CSn =high; To initiate
read-out of next angular
position
500
fCLK
Read-out frequency
Clock frequency to read out
serial data
>0
tDO active
tDO valid
ns
1
MHz
Units
Figure 17:
Pulse Width Modulation Output
Symbol
fPWM
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Signal period = 1025μs ±5% at
TAMB = 25ºC
0.927
0.976
1.024
PWM frequency
kHz
Signal period =1025μs ±10%
at TAMB =-40 to 150ºC
0.878
0.976
1.074
PWMIN
Minimum pulse width
Position 0d; angle 0 degree
0.90
1
1.10
μs
PWMAX
Maximum pulse width
Position 1023d; angle 359.65
degree
922
1024
1126
μs
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 13
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AS5140H − Electrical Characteristics
Figure 18:
Incremental Outputs
Symbol
tIncremental
outputs valid
tDir valid
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Incremental outputs valid
after power-up
Time between first falling
edge of CSn after power-up
and valid incremental
outputs
500
ns
Directional indication valid
Time between rising or
falling edge of LSB output
and valid directional
indication
500
ns
Figure 19:
Integral and Differential Non-Linearity Example (Exaggerated Curve)
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Page 14
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Detailed Description
The AS5140H is manufactured in a CMOS standard process and
uses a spinning current Hall technology for sensing the
magnetic field distribution across the surface of the chip. The
integrated Hall elements are placed around the center of the
device, and deliver a voltage representation of the magnetic
field at the surface of the IC. Through Sigma-Delta Analog /
Digital Conversion and Digital Signal-Processing (DSP)
algorithms, the AS5140H provides accurate high-resolution
absolute angular position information. For this purpose, a
Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) calculates the
angle and the magnitude of the Hall array signals. The DSP is
also used to provide digital information at the outputs MagINCn
and MagDECn that indicate movements of the used magnet
towards or away from the device’s surface. A small low cost
diametrically magnetized (two-pole) standard magnet
provides the angular position information (see Figure 39).
The AS5140H senses the orientation of the magnetic field and
calculates a 10-bit binary code. This code can be accessed via a
Synchronous Serial Interface (SSI). In addition, an absolute
angular representation is given by a Pulse Width Modulated
signal at pin 12 (PWM). Simultaneously, the device also provides
incremental output signals. The various incremental output
modes can be selected by programming the OTP mode register
bits (see Figure 35). As long as no programming voltage is
applied to pin Prog, the new setting may be overwritten at any
time and will be reset to default when power is turned off. To
make the setting permanent, the OTP register must be
programmed. The default setting is a quadrature A/B mode
including the Index signal with a pulse width of 1 LSB. The Index
signal is logic high at the user programmable zero
position.
The AS5140H is tolerant to magnet misalignment and magnetic
stray fields due to differential measurement technique and Hall
sensor conditioning circuitry.
Figure 20:
Typical Arrangement of AS5140H and Magnet
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 15
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
10-bit Absolute Angular Position Output
Synchronous Serial Interface (SSI)
If CSn changes to logic low, Data Out (DO) will change from high
impedance (tri-state) to logic high and the read-out will be
initiated.
• After a minimum time t CLK FE, data is latched into the
output shift register with the first falling edge of CLK.
• Each subsequent rising CLK edge shifts out one bit of data.
• The serial word contains 16 bits; the first 10 bits are the
angular information D[9:0], the subsequent 6 bits contain
system information about the validity of data such as OCF,
COF, LIN, Parity and Magnetic Field status
(increase/decrease).
• A subsequent measurement is initiated by a log “high”
pulse at CSn with a minimum duration of tCSn.
Figure 21:
Synchronous Serial Interface with Absolute Angular Position Data
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Data Content
D9:D0 – Absolute angular position data (MSB is clocked out
first).
OCF – (Offset Compensation Finished). Logic high indicates the
finished Offset Compensation Algorithm. For fast startup, this
bit may be polled by the external microcontroller. As soon as
this bit is set, the AS5140H has completed the startup and the
data is valid (see Figure 23).
COF – (Cordic Overflow). Logic high indicates an out of range
error in the CORDIC part. When this bit is set, the data at D9:D0
is invalid. The absolute output maintains the last valid angular
value. This alarm may be resolved by bringing the magnet
within the X-Y-Z tolerance limits.
Page 16
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
LIN – (Linearity Alarm). Logic high indicates that the input field
generates a critical output linearity. When this bit is set, the data
at D9:D0 may still be used, but can contain invalid data. This
warning may be resolved by bringing the magnet within the
X-Y-Z tolerance limits.
MagINCn – (Magnitude Increase) becomes HIGH, when the
magnet is pushed towards the IC, thus increasing the magnetic
field strength.
MagDECn – (Magnitude Decrease) becomes HIGH, when the
magnet is pulled away from the IC, thus decreasing the
magnetic field strength.
Signal “HIGH” for both MagINCn and MagDECn indicate a
magnetic field that is out of the allowed range (see Figure 22).
Figure 22:
Magnetic Magnitude Variation Indicator
MagINCn
MagDECn
Description
0
0
No distance change
Magnetic Input Field OK (in range)
0
1
Distance increase: Pull-function. This state is dynamic, it is
only active while the magnet is moving away from the chip in
Z-axis.
1
0
Distance decrease: Push- function. This state is dynamic, it is
only active while the magnet is moving towards the chip in
Z.-axis.
1
1
Magnetic Input Field invalid – out of range: Too large, Too
small (missing magnet).
Note(s) and/or Footnote(s):
1. Pins 1 and 2 (MagINCn, MagDECn) are open drain outputs and require external pull-up resistors. If the magnetic field is in range,
both outputs are turned OFF.
The two pins may also be combined with a single pull-up
resistor. In this case, the signal is high when the magnetic field
is in range. It is low in all other cases (see Figure 22).
Even Parity – A bit for transmission error detection of bits 1to
15 (D9 to D0, OCF, COF, LIN, MagINCn, MagDECn).
The absolute angular output is always set to a resolution of 10
bit. Placing the magnet above the chip, angular values increase
in clockwise direction by default. Data D9:D0 is valid, when the
status bits have the following configurations:
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 17
Document Feedback
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 23:
Status Bit Outputs
OCF
1
COF
0
LIN
MagINCn
MagDECn
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
Parity
even checksum of bits 1:15
The absolute angular position is sampled at a rate of 10kHz
(0.1ms). This allows reading of all 1024 positions per 360
degrees within 0.1 seconds = 9.76Hz (~10Hz) without skipping
any position. Multiplying 10Hz by 60, results the corresponding
maximum rotational speed of 600rpm. Readout of every second
angular position allows for rotational speeds of up to 1200 rpm.
Consequently, increasing the rotational speed reduces the
number of absolute angular positions per revolution (see
Figure 45). Regardless of the rotational speed or the number of
positions to be read out, the absolute angular value is always
given at the highest resolution of 10 bit.
The incremental outputs are not affected by rotational speed
restrictions due to the implemented interpolator. The
incremental output signals may be used for high-speed
applications with rotational speeds of up to 10.000 rpm without
missing pulses.
Daisy Chain Mode
The Daisy Chain mode allows connection of several AS5140H’s
in series, while still keeping just one digital input for data
transfer (see “Data IN” in Figure 24 below). This mode is
accomplished by connecting the data output (DO; pin 9) to the
data input (Prog; pin 8) of the subsequent device. The serial data
of all connected devices is read from the DO pin of the first
device in the chain. The Prog pin of the last device in the chain
should be connected to VSS. The length of the serial bit stream
increases with every connected device. It is,
(EQ1)
n * (16+1) bits
For example, 34 bit for two devices, 51 bit for three devices, etc.
The last data bit of the first device (Parity) is followed by a logic
low bit and the first data bit of the second device (D9), etc.
(see Figure 25).
Page 18
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 24:
Daisy Chain Hardware Configuration
AS5140H
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Figure 25:
Daisy Chain Mode Data Transfer
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Programming Daisy Chained Devices. In Daisy Chain mode,
the Prog pin is connected directly to the DO pin of the
subsequent device in the chain (see Figure 24). During
programming (see Programming the AS5140H), a programming
voltage of 7.5V must be applied to pin Prog. This voltage level
exceeds the limits for pin DO, so one of the following
precautions must be made during programming:
• Open the connection DO→Prog during programming, (or)
• Add a Schottky diode between DO and Prog (Anode = DO,
Cathode = Prog)
Due to the parallel connection of CLK and CSn, all connected
devices may be programmed simultaneously.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 19
Document Feedback
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Incremental Outputs
Three different incremental output modes are possible with
quadrature A/B being the default mode. Figure 26 shows the
two-channel quadrature as well as the step / direction
incremental signal (LSB) and the direction bit in clockwise (CW)
and counter-clockwise (CCW) direction.
Quadrature A/B Output (Quad A/B Mode)
The phase shift between channel A and B indicates the direction
of the magnet movement. Channel A leads channel B at a
clockwise rotation of the magnet (top view) by 90 electrical
degrees. Channel B leads channel A at a counter-clockwise
rotation.
Figure 26:
Incremental Output Modes
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Page 20
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
LSB Output (Step/Direction Mode)
Output LSB reflects the LSB (least significant bit) of the
programmed incremental resolution (OTP Register Bit Div0,
Div1). Output Dir provides information about the rotational
direction of the magnet, which may be placed above or below
the device (1=clockwise; 0=counter clockwise; top view). Dir is
updated with every LSB change. In both modes (quad A/B,
step/direction), the resolution and the index output are user
programmable. The index pulse indicates the zero position and
is by default one angular step (1LSB) wide. However, it can be
set to three LSBs by programming the Index-bit of the OTP
register accordingly (seeFigure 35).
Incremental Power-up Lock Option. After power-up, the
incremental outputs can optionally be locked or unlocked,
depending on the status of the CSn pin:
• CSn = low at power-up: CSn has an internal pull-up resistor
and must be externally pulled low (Rext ≤ 5KΩ). If Csn is
low at power-up, the incremental outputs (A, B, Index) will
be high until the internal offset compensation is finished.
This unique state (A=B=Index = high) may be used as an
indicator for the external controller to shorten the waiting
time at power-up. Instead of waiting for the specified
maximum power up-time (0), the controller can start
requesting data from the AS5140H as soon as the state
(A=B=Index = high) is cleared.
• CSn = high or open at power-up: In this mode, the
incremental outputs (A, B, Index) will remain at logic high
state, until CSn goes low or a low pulse is applied at CSn.
This mode allows intentional disabling of the incremental
outputs until, for example the system microcontroller is
ready to receive data.
Incremental Output Hysteresis
To avoid flickering incremental outputs at a stationary magnet
position, a hysteresis is introduced. In case of a rotational
direction change, the incremental outputs have a hysteresis of
2 LSB. Regardless of the programmed incremental resolution,
the hysteresis of 2 LSB always corresponds to the highest
resolution of 10 bit. In absolute terms, the hysteresis is set to
0.704 degrees for all resolutions. For constant rotational
directions, every magnet position change is indicated at the
incremental outputs (see Figure 27). For example, if the magnet
turns clockwise from position “x+3“ to “x+4“, the incremental
output would also indicate this position accordingly. A change
of the magnet’s rotational direction back to position “x+3”
means that the incremental output still remains unchanged for
the duration of 2 LSB, until position “x+2” is reached. Following
this direction, the incremental outputs will again be updated
with every change of the magnet position.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 21
Document Feedback
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 27:
Hysteresis Window for Incremental Outputs
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Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Output
The AS5140H provides a pulse width modulated output (PWM),
whose duty cycle is proportional to the measured angle:
(EQ2)
t ON ⋅ 1025
Position = ------------------------------- – 1
( t ON + t OFF )
The PWM frequency is internally trimmed to an accuracy of ±5%
(±10% over full temperature range). This tolerance can be
cancelled by measuring the complete duty cycle as shown
above.
Figure 28:
PWM Output Signal
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Page 22
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 29:
PWM Signal Parameters
Symbol
Parameter
Typ
Unit
Note
fPWM
PWM frequency
0.9756
kHz
PWMIN
MIN pulse width
1
μs
Position 0d
Angle 0 deg
PWMAX
MAX pulse width
1024
μs
Position 1023d
Angle 359.65 deg
Signal period: 1025μs
Analog Output
An analog output may be generated by averaging the PWM
signal, using an external active or passive lowpass filter. The
analog output voltage is proportional to the angle: 0º = 0V;
360º = VDD5V. Using this method, the AS5140H can be used as
direct replacement of potentiometers.
Figure 30:
Simple Passive 2nd Order Lowpass Filter
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R1, R2 ≥ 4k7 C1, C2 ≥ 1 μ F/6V
R1 should be ≥4k7 to avoid loading of the PWM output. Larger
values of Rx and Cx will provide better filtering and less ripple,
but will also slow down the response time.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 23
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
Brushless DC Motor Commutation Mode
Brushless DC motors require angular information for stator
commutation. The AS5140H provides U-V-W commutation
signals for one and two pole pair motors. In addition to the
three-phase output signals, the step (LSB) output at pin 12
allows high accuracy speed measurement. Two resolutions
(9 or 10 bit) can be selected by programming Div0 according to
Figure 35.
Mode 3.0 (3.1) is used for brush-less DC motors with one-pole
pair rotors. The three phases (U, V, W) are 120 degrees apart,
each phase is 180 degrees on and 180 degrees OFF.
Mode 3.2 (3.3) is used for motors with two pole pairs requiring
a higher pulse count to ensure a proper current commutation.
In this case the pulse width is 256 positions, equal to 90 degrees.
The precise physical angle at which the U, V and W signals
change state (“Angle” in Figure 31and Figure 32) is calculated
by multiplying each transition position by the angular value of
1 count:
(EQ4)
Angle[deg] = Position x (360 degree/1024)
Figure 31:
U, V and W-Signals for BLDC Motor Commutation (Div1=0, Div0=0)
Commutation - Mode 3.0
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 32:
U, V and W-Signals for 2Pole BLDC Motor Commutation (Div1=1, Div0=0)
Commutation - Mode 3.2
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Programming the AS5140H
Note(s): A detailed description of the ams low voltage polyfuse
OTP programming method is given in Application Note
AN514X-10, which can be downloaded from the ams website.
The OTP programming description in this datasheet is for
general information only.
After power-on, programming the AS5140H is enabled with the
rising edge of CSn with Prog = high and CLK = low. The AS5140H
programming is a one-time-programming (OTP) method, based
on polysilicon fuses. The advantage of this method is that a
programming voltage of only 3.3V is required for programming.
The OTP consists of 52 bits, of which 21 bits are available for
user programming. The remaining 31 bits contain factory
settings and a unique chip identifier (Chip-ID).
A single OTP cell can be programmed only once. Per default,
the cell is “0”; a programmed cell will contain a “1”. While it is
not possible to reset a programmed bit from “1” to “0”, multiple
OTP writes are possible, as long as only unprogrammed “0”-bits
are programmed to “1”. Independent of the OTP programming,
it is possible to overwrite the OTP register temporarily with an
OTP write command at any time. This setting will be cleared and
overwritten with the hard programmed OTP settings at each
power-up sequence or by a LOAD operation.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 25
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
The OTP memory can be accessed in several ways:
• Load Operation: The Load operation reads the OTP fuses
and loads the contents into the OTP register. Note that the
Load operation is automatically executed after each
power-on-reset.
• Write Operation: The Write operation allows a temporary
modification of the OTP register. It does not program the
OTP. This operation can be invoked multiple times, and
will remain set while the chip is supplied with power and
while the OTP register is not modified with another Write
or Load operation.
• Read Operation: The Read operation reads the contents
of the OTP register, for example to verify a Write command
or to read the OTP memory after a Load command.
• Program Operation: The Program operation writes the
contents of the OTP register permanently into the OTP
ROM.
• Analog Readback Operation: The Analog Readback
operation allows a quantifiable verification of the
programming. For each programmed or unprogrammed
bit, there is a representative analog value (in essence, a
resistor value) that is read to verify whether a bit has been
successfully programmed or not.
Page 26
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
OTP Memory Assignment
Figure 33:
OTP Bit Assignment
Symbol
Md0
50
Md1
49
Div0
48
Div1
47
Index
46
Z0
:
:
37
Z9
36
CCW
35
RA0
:
:
31
RA4
30
FS 0
:
:
18
FS 12
17
ChipID0
16
ChipID1
:
:
0
ChipID17
Incremental output mode selection
Customer Section
51
Factory Bit 1
10-bit Zero Position
Direction
Redundancy Address
Factory Section
mbit1
Function
Factory Bit
ID Section
Bit
18-bit Chip ID
mbit0
Factory Bit 0
User Selectable Settings
The AS5140H allows programming of the following user
selectable options:
• Md1, Md0: Incremental Output Mode Selection.
• Div1, Div0: Divider Setting of Incremental Output.
• Index: Index Pulse Width Selection – 1LSB / 3LSB.
• Z [9:0]: Programmable Zero / Index Position.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 27
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
• CCW: Counter Clockwise Bit.
ccw=0 – angular value increases in clockwise direction.
ccw=1 – angular value increases in counterclockwise
direction.
• RA [4:0]: Redundant Address. An OTP bit location
addressed by this address is always set to “1” independent
of the corresponding original OTP bit setting.
OTP Default Setting
The AS5140H can also be operated without programming. The
default, un-programmed setting is as listed below.
• Md0, MD1:00 = Incremental mode = quadrature.
• Div0, Div1:00 = Incremental resolution = 10bit.
• Index:0 = Index bit width = 1LSB.
• Z9 to Z0:00 = No programmed zero position.
• CCW:0 = Clockwise operation.
• RA4 to RA0:0 = No OTP bit is selected.
Redundant Programming Option
In addition to the regular programming, a redundant
programming option is available. This option allows that one
selectable OTP bit can be set to “1” (programmed state) by
writing the location of that bit into a 5-bit address decoder. This
address can be stored in bits RA5...0 in the OTP user settings.
Example: Setting RA5 …0 to “00001” will select bit 51 = MD0,
“00010” selects bit 50 = MD1, “10000” selects bit 36 = CCW, etc.
OTP Register Entry and Exit Condition
To avoid accidental modification of the OTP during normal
operation, each OTP access (Load, Write, Read, Program)
requires a defined entry and exit procedure, using the CSn,
PROG and CLK signals as shown in Figure 34.
Figure 34:
OTP Access Timing Diagram
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Page 28
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([LW&RQGLWLRQ
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Incremental Mode Programming
The following three different incremental output modes are
available:
• Mode: Md1=0 / Md0=1 sets the AS5140H in quadrature
mode.
• Mode: Md1=1 / Md0=0 sets the AS5140H in step / direction
mode (see Figure 5).
In both modes listed above, the incremental resolution may be
reduced from 10 bit down to 9, 8 or 7 bit using the divider OTP
bits Div1 and Div0 (see Figure 35 below).
• Mode: Md1=1 / Md0=1 sets the AS5140H in brushless DC
motor commutation mode with an additional LSB
incremental signal at pin 12 (PWM_LSB).
To allow programming of all bits, the default factory setting is
all bits = 0. This mode is equal to mode 1:0 (quadrature A/B,
1LSB index width, 256ppr). The absolute angular output value,
by default, increases with clockwise rotation of the magnet (top
view). Setting the CCW-bit (see Figure 33) allows for reversing
the indicated direction, e.g. when the magnet is placed
underneath the IC:
• CCW = 0 – angular value increases clockwise;
• CCW = 1 – angular value increases counterclockwise.
By default, the zero / index position pulse is one LSB wide. It
can be increased to a three LSB wide pulse by setting the
Index-bit of the OTP register. Further programming options
(commutation modes) are available for brushless DC
motor-control.
Md1 = Md0 = 1 changes the incremental output pins 3, 4 and 6
to a 3-phase commutation signal. Div1 defines the number of
pulses per revolution for either a two-pole (Div1=0) or four-pole
(Div1=1) rotor.
In addition, the LSB is available at pin 12 (the LSB signal replaces
the PWM-signal), which allows for high rotational speed
measurement of up to 10.000 rpm.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 29
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A S 5 1 4 0 H − Detailed Description
Figure 35:
One Time Programmable (OTP) Register Options
OTP-Mode-Register-Bit
Pin#
Mode
Md1
Md0
Div1
Div0
Index
default (Mode0.0) (1)
0
0
0
0
0
1LSB
quadAB-Mode1.0
0
1
0
0
0
1LSB
quadAB-Mode1.1
0
1
0
0
1
3LSBs
quadAB-Mode1.2
0
1
0
1
0
1LSB
quadAB-Mode 1.3
0
1
0
1
1
quadAB-Mode 1.4
0
1
1
0
0
1LSB
quadAB-Mode 1.5
0
1
1
0
1
3LSBs
quadAB-Mode 1.6
0
1
1
1
0
1LSB
quadAB-Mode 1.7
0
1
1
1
1
3LSBs
Page 30
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3
A
4
B
6
3LSBs
12
PWM
10 bit
Pulses Per
Revolution
(ppr)
Incremental
Resolution
(bit)
2x256
10
2x128
9
2x64
8
2x32
7
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
A S 5 1 4 0 H − Detailed Description
OTP-Mode-Register-Bit
Pin#
Mode
Md1
Md0
Div1
Div0
Index
3
Step/Dir-Mode 2.0
1
0
0
0
0
1LSB
Step/Dir-Mode 2.1
1
0
0
0
1
3LSBs
Step/Dir-Mode 2.2
1
1
0
1
0
1LSB
Step/Dir-Mode 2.3
1
0
0
1
1
3LSBs
LSB
4
6
Dir
Step/Dir-Mode 2.4
1
0
1
0
0
1LSB
Step/Dir-Mode 2.5
1
0
1
0
1
3LSBs
Step/Dir-Mode 2.6
1
0
1
1
0
1LSB
Step/Dir-Mode 2.7
1
0
1
1
0
3LSBs
Commutation-Mode3.0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
Commutation-Mode3.2
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
512
10
256
9
128
8
64
7
PWM
10 bit
V(120º)
W(240º)
LSB
3x1
9
U’(0º,180º)
Commutation-Mode3.3
Incremental
Resolution
(bit)
10
U(0º)
Commutation-Mode3.1
12
Pulses Per
Revolution
(ppr)
V’(60º,
240º)
W’(120º,
300º)
10
LSB
2x3
9
Note(s) and/or Footnote(s):
1. Div1, Div0 and Index cannot be programmed in Mode 0:0.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 31
Document Feedback
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Zero Position Programming
Zero position programming is an OTP option that simplifies
assembly of a system, as the magnet does not need to be
manually adjusted to the mechanical zero position. Once the
assembly is completed, the mechanical and electrical zero
positions can be matched by software. Any position within a
full turn can be defined as the permanent new zero/index
position. For zero position programming, the magnet is turned
to the mechanical zero position (e.g. the “OFF”-position of a
rotary switch) and the actual angular value is read.
Alignment Mode
The alignment mode simplifies centering the magnet over the
center of the chip to gain maximum accuracy. Alignment mode
can be enabled with the falling edge of CSn while Prog = logic
high (see Figure 37). The Data bits D9-D0 of the SSI change to
a 10-bit displacement amplitude output. A high value indicates
large X or Y displacement, but also higher absolute magnetic
field strength. The magnet is properly aligned, when the
difference between highest and lowest value over one full turn
is at a minimum. Under normal conditions, a properly aligned
magnet will result in a reading of less than 128 over a full turn.
The MagINCn and MagDECn indicators will be = 1 when the
alignment mode reading is < 128.
At the same time, both hardware pins MagINCn (#1) and
MagDECn (#2) will be pulled to VSS. A properly aligned magnet
will therefore produce a MagINCn = MagDECn = 1 signal
throughout a full 360º turn of the magnet. Stronger magnets or
short gaps between magnet and IC may show values larger than
128. These magnets are still properly aligned as long as the
difference between highest and lowest value over one full turn
is at a minimum. The Alignment mode can be reset to normal
operation by a power-on-reset (disconnect / re-connect power
supply) or by a falling edge on CSn with Prog = low.
Page 32
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 36:
Enabling the Alignment Mode
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Exiting Alignment Mode
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3.3V / 5V Operation
The AS5140H operates either at 3.3V ±10% or at 5V ±10%. This
is made possible by an internal 3.3V Low-Dropout (LDO) voltage
regulator. The internal supply voltage is always taken from the
output of the LDO, meaning that the internal blocks are always
operating at 3.3V. For 3.3V operation, the LDO must be bypassed
by connecting VDD3V3 with VDD5V (see Figure 38).
For 5V operation, the 5V supply is connected to pin VDD5V,
while VDD3V3 (LDO output) must be buffered by a 2.2...10μF
capacitor, which is supposed to be placed close to the supply
pin (see Figure 38). The VDD3V3 output is intended for internal
use only. It must not be loaded with an external load.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 33
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
The output voltage of the digital interface I/O’s corresponds to
the voltage at pin VDD5V, as the I/O buffers are supplied from
this pin (see Figure 38). A buffer capacitor of 100nF is
recommended in both cases close to pin VDD5V.
Note that pin VDD3V3 must always be buffered by a capacitor.
It must not be left floating, as this may cause an instable internal
3.3V supply voltage, which may lead to larger than normal jitter
of the measured angle.
Figure 38:
Connections for 5V/3.3V Supply Voltages
5V Operation
3.3V Operation
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Choosing the Proper Magnet
Typically the magnet should be 6mm in diameter and ≥2.5mm
in height. Magnetic materials such as rare earth AlNiCo, SmCo5
or NdFeB are recommended. The magnet’s field strength
perpendicular to the die surface should be verified using a
gaussmeter. The magnetic field Bv at a given distance, along a
concentric circle with a radius of 1.1mm (R1), should be in the
range of ±45mT …±75mT. (see Figure 39).
Physical Placement of the Magnet
The best linearity can be achieved by placing the center of the
magnet exactly over the defined center of the IC package as
shown in Figure 40.
Magnet Placement. The magnet’s center axis should be
aligned within a displacement radius R d of 0.25mm from the
defined center of the IC with reference to the edge of pin #1
(see Figure 40). This radius includes the placement tolerance of
the chip within the SSOP-16 package (± 0.235mm). The
displacement radius R d is 0.485mm with reference to the center
of the chip (see Alignment Mode).
The vertical distance should be chosen such that the magnetic
field on the die surface is within the specified limits
(see Figure 39). The typical distance “z” between the magnet
and the package surface is 0.5mm to 1.8mm with the
recommended magnet (6mm x 2.5mm). Larger gaps are
possible, as long as the required magnetic field strength stays
within the defined limits. A magnetic field outside the specified
range may still produce usable results, but the out-of-range
condition will be indicated by MagINCn (pin 1) and MagDECn
(pin 2), (see Figure 22).
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 35
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 39:
Typical Magnet and Magnetic Field Distribution
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Figure 40:
Defined IC Center and Magnet Displacement Radius
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Page 36
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 41:
Vertical Placement of the Magnet
N
N
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S
3DFNDJHVXUIDFH
=
PP“PP
PP“PP
Simulation Modeling
With reference to Figure 42, a diametrically magnetized
permanent magnet is placed above or below the surface of the
AS5140H. The chip use an array of Hall sensors to sample the
vertical vector of a magnetic field distributed across the device
package surface. The area of magnetic sensitivity is a circular
locus of 1.1mm radius with respect to the center of the die. The
Hall sensors in the area of magnetic sensitivity are grouped and
configured such that orthogonally related components of the
magnetic fields are sampled differentially. The differential
signal Y1-Y2 will give a sine vector of the magnetic field. The
differential signal X1-X2 will give an orthogonally related cosine
vector of the magnetic field.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 37
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 42:
Arrangement of Hall Sensor Array on Chip (Principle)
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The angular displacement (Θ) of the magnetic source with
reference to the Hall sensor array may then be modelled by:
(EQ5)
( Y1 – Y2 )
Θ = arc tan -------------------------- ± 0.5°
( X1 – X2 )
The ±0.5º angular error assumes a magnet optimally aligned
over the center of the die and is a result of gain mismatch errors
of the AS5140H. Placement tolerances of the die within the
package are ±0.235mm in X and Y direction, using a reference
point of the edge of pin #1 (Figure 42). In order to neglect the
influence of external disturbing magnetic fields, a robust
differential sampling and ratiometric calculation algorithm has
been implemented. The differential sampling of the sine and
cosine vectors removes any common mode error due to DC
components introduced by the magnetic source itself or
external disturbing magnetic fields. A ratiometric division of
the sine and cosine vectors removes the need for an accurate
absolute magnitude of the magnetic field and thus accurate
Z-axis alignment of the magnetic source.
The recommended differential input range of the magnetic
field strength (B (X1-X2) ,B(Y1-Y2) ) is ±75mT at the surface of the
die. In addition to this range, an additional offset of ±5mT,
caused by unwanted external stray fields is allowed. The chip
will continue to operate, but with degraded output linearity, if
the signal field strength is outside the recommended range. Too
strong magnetic fields will introduce errors due to saturation
effects in the internal preamplifiers. Too weak magnetic fields
will introduce errors due to noise becoming more dominant.
Page 38
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Failure Diagnostics
The AS5140H also offers several diagnostic and failure
detection features, which are discussed in detail further in the
document.
Magnetic Field Strength Diagnosis
By Software: The MagINCn and MagDECn status bits will both
be high when the magnetic field is out of range.
By Hardware: Pins #1 (MagINCn) and #2 (MagDECn) are
open-drain outputs and will both be turned on (= low with
external pull-up resistor) when the magnetic field is out of
range. If only one of the outputs is low, the magnet is either
moving towards the chip (MagINCn) or away from the chip
(MagDECn).
Power Supply Failure Detection
By Software: If the power supply to the AS5140H is interrupted,
the digital data read by the SSI will be all “0”s. Data is only valid,
when bit OCF is high, hence a data stream with all “0”s is invalid.
To ensure adequate low levels in the failure case, a pull-down
resistor (~10kΩ) should be added between pin DO and VSS at
the receiving side.
By Hardware: The MagINCn and MagDECn pins are open drain
outputs and require external pull-up resistors. In normal
operation, these pins are high ohmic and the outputs are high
(see Figure 22). In a failure case, either when the magnetic field
is out of range or the power supply is missing, these outputs
will become low. To ensure adequate low levels in case of a
broken power supply to the AS5140H, the pull-up resistors
(>10kΩ) from each pin must be connected to the positive
supply at pin 16 (VDD5V).
By Hardware - PWM Output: The PWM output is a constant
stream of pulses with 1kHz repetition frequency. In case of
power loss, these pulses are missing.
By Hardware - Incremental Outputs: In normal operation, pins
A(#3), B(#4) and Index (#6) will never be high at the same time,
as Index is only high when A=B=low. However, after a
power-on-reset, if VDD is powered up or restarts after a power
supply interruption, all three outputs will remain in high state
until pin CSn is pulled low. If CSn is already tied to VSS during
power-up, the incremental outputs will all be high until the
internal offset compensation is finished (within t PwrUp).
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 39
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
Angular Output Tolerances
Accuracy
Accuracy is defined as the error between the measured angle
and the actual angle. It is influenced by several factors:
• The non-linearity of the analog-digital converters
• Internal gain and mismatch errors
• Non-linearity due to misalignment of the magnet
As a sum of all these errors, the accuracy with centered magnet
= (Err max – Err min )/2 is specified as better than ±0.5 degrees @
25ºC (see Figure 44). Misalignment of the magnet further
reduces the accuracy. Figure 43 shows an example of a
3D-graph displaying non-linearity over XY-misalignment. The
center of the square XY-area corresponds to a centered magnet
(see dot in the center of the graph). The X- and Y- axis extends
to a misalignment of ±1mm in both directions. The total
misalignment area of the graph covers a square of 2x2 mm
(79x79mil) with a step size of 100μm. For each misalignment
step, the measurement as shown in Figure 44 is repeated and
the accuracy (Err max – Err min)/2 (e.g. 0.25º in Figure 44) is
entered as the Z-axis in the 3D-graph.
Figure 43:
Example of Linearity Error Over XY Misalignment
6
5
4
3
800
500
2
200
1
-100
-700
-1000
-1000
-800
-400
-600
-200
0
400
y
Page 40
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x
-400
200
800
600
1000
0
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
The maximum non-linearity error on this example is better than
±1 degree (inner circle) over a misalignment radius of ~0.7mm.
For volume production, the placement tolerance of the IC
within the package (±0.235mm) must also be taken into
account. The total nonlinearity error over process tolerances,
temperature and a misalignment circle radius of 0.25mm is
specified better than ±1.4 degrees.
Note(s): The magnet used for this measurement was a
cylindrical NdFeB (Bomatec® BMN-35H) magnet with 6mm
diameter and 2.5mm in height.
Figure 44:
Example of Linearity Error Over 360º
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
transition noise
0.1
Err max
0
-0.1
1
55
109
163
217
271
325
379
433
487
541
595
649
703
757
811
865
919
973
Err min
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
Transition Noise
Transition noise is defined as the jitter in the transition between
two steps. Due to the nature of the measurement principle (Hall
sensors + Preamplifier + ADC), there is always a certain degree
of noise involved. This transition noise voltage results in an
angular transition noise at the outputs. It is specified as 0.06
degrees rms (1 sigma) 1. This is the repeatability of an indicated
angle at a given mechanical position.
The transition noise has different implications on the type of
output that is used:
• Absolute Output; SSI Interface: The transition noise of
the absolute output can be reduced by the user by
applying an averaging of readings. An averaging of 4
readings will reduce the transition noise by 50% = 0.03º
rms (1 sigma).
1. Statistically, 1 sigma represents 68.27% of readings; 3 sigma represents 99.73% of readings.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 41
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
• PWM Interface: If the PWM interface is used as an analog
output by adding a low pass filter, the transition noise can
be reduced by lowering the cutoff frequency of the filter.
If the PWM interface is used as a digital interface with a
counter at the receiving side, the transition noise may
again be reduced by averaging of readings.
• Incremental Mode: In incremental mode, the transition
noise influences the period, width and phase shift of the
output signals A, B and Index. However, the algorithm
used to generate the incremental outputs guarantees no
missing or additional pulses even at high speeds (up to
10.000 rpm and higher).
High Speed Operation
The AS5140H samples the angular value at a rate of 10.42k
samples per second. Consequently, the incremental and the
absolute outputs are updated each by 96μs. At a stationary
position of the magnet, this sampling rate creates no additional
error.
Absolute Mode. With the given sampling rate of 10.4 kHz, the
number of samples (n) per turn for a magnet rotating at high
speed can be calculated by:
(EQ6)
60
n = --------------------------rpm ⋅ 96μs
In practice, there is no upper speed limit. The only restriction is
that there will be fewer samples per revolution as the speed
increases.
Regardless of the rotational speed, the absolute angular value
is always sampled at the highest resolution of 10 bit. Likewise,
for a given number of samples per revolution (n), the maximum
speed can be calculated by:
(EQ7)
60
rpm = -------------------n ⋅ 96μs
In absolute mode (serial interface and PWM output), 610 rpm
is the maximum speed, where 1024 readings per revolution can
be obtained. In incremental mode, the maximum error caused
by the sampling rate of the ADCs is 0/+96μs. It has a peak of
1LSB = 0.35º at 610 rpm. At higher speeds, this error is reduced
again due to interpolation and the output delay remains at
192μs as the DSP requires two sampling periods (2x96μs) to
synthesize and redistribute any missing pulses.
Incremental Mode. Incremental encoders are usually required
to produce no missing pulses up to several thousand rpm.
Therefore, the AS5140H has a built-in interpolator, which
ensures that there are no missing pulses at the incremental
outputs for rotational speeds of up to 10.000 rpm, even at the
highest resolution of 10 bits (512 pulses per revolution).
Page 42
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Detailed Description
Figure 45:
Speed Performance
Absolute Output
Mode
Incremental Output
Mode
610rpm = 1024 samples / turn
122rpm = 512 samples / turn
2441rpm = 256 samples / turn
No missing pulses
@ 10 bit resolution (512ppr):
max. speed = 10.000 rpm
etc.
Propagation Delays
The propagation delay is the delay between the time that a
sample is taken until it is converted and available as angular
data. This delay is 48μs for the absolute interface and 192μs for
the incremental interface. Using the SSI interface for absolute
data transmission, an additional delay must be considered,
caused by the asynchronous sampling (t=0…1/fs) and the time
it takes the external control unit to read and process the data.
Angular Error Caused by Propagation Delay. A rotating
magnet will therefore cause an angular error caused by the
output delay. This error increases linearly with speed:
(EQ8)
e sampling = rpm * 6 * prop.delay
Where:
e sampling = angular error [º]
rpm = rotating speed [rpm]
prop.delay = propagation delay [seconds]
Note(s): Since the propagation delay is known, it can be
automatically compensated by the control unit that is
processing the data from the AS5140H, thus reducing the
angular error caused by speed.
Internal Timing Tolerance
The AS5140H does not require an external ceramic resonator or
quartz. All internal clock timings for the AS5140H are generated
by an on-chip RC oscillator. This oscillator is factory trimmed to
±5% accuracy at room temperature (±10% over full
temperature range). This tolerance influences the ADC
sampling rate and the pulse width of the PWM output:
• Absolute output; SSI interface: A new angular value is
updated every 100μs (typ.)
• Incremental outputs: The incremental outputs are
updated every 100μs (typ.)
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 43
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AS5140H − Detailed Description
• PWM output: A new angular value is updated every 100μs
(typ.). The PWM pulse timings T ON and T OFF also have the
same tolerance as the internal oscillator. If only the PWM
pulse width Ton is used to measure the angle, the resulting
value also has this timing tolerance. However, this
tolerance can be cancelled by measuring both Ton and
T OFF and calculating the angle from the duty cycle (see
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Output):
(EQ9)
t ON ⋅ 1025
Position = ------------------------------- – 1
( t ON + t OFF )
Temperature
Magnetic Temperature Coefficient. One of the major benefits
of the AS5140H, in comparison to linear Hall sensors is that it is
much less sensitive to temperature. While linear Hall sensors
require a compensation of the magnet’s temperature
coefficient, the AS5140H automatically compensates for the
varying magnetic field strength over temperature. The
magnet’s temperature drift does not need to be considered, as
the AS5140H operates with magnetic field strengths from
±45 …±75mT.
Example:
A NdFeB magnet has a field strength of 75mT @ -40ºC and a
temperature coefficient of -0.12% per Kelvin. The temperature
change is from -40ºto 150º = 190K. The magnetic field change
is: 190 x -0.12% = -22.8%, which corresponds to 75mT at -40ºC
and 57.9mT at 150ºC.
In the above described scenario, the AS5140H can
automatically compensate for the change in temperature
related field strength. No user adjustment is required.
Accuracy Over Temperature. The influence of temperature in
the absolute accuracy is very low. While the accuracy is ≤ ±0.5º
at room temperature, it may increase to ≤±0.9º due to
increasing noise at high temperatures.
Timing Tolerance Over Temperature. The internal RC
oscillator is factory trimmed to ±5%. Over temperature, this
tolerance may increase to ±10%. Generally, the timing tolerance
has no influence in the accuracy or resolution of the system, as
it is used mainly for internal clock generation. The only concern
to the user is the width of the PWM output pulse, which relates
directly to the timing tolerance of the internal oscillator. This
influence however can be cancelled by measuring the complete
PWM duty cycle (see Internal Timing Tolerance).
Page 44
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Application Information
The benefits of AS5140H are as follows:
Application Information
• Complete system-on-chip
• Flexible system solution provides absolute, PWM and
incremental outputs simultaneously
• Ideal for applications in harsh environments due to
contactless position sensing
• Tolerant to magnet misalignment and airgap variations
• Tolerant to external magnetic fields
• Operates up to 150ºC ambient temperature
• No temperature compensation necessary
• No calibration required
• 10, 9, 8 or 7-bit user programmable resolution
• Small Pb-free package: SSOP 16 (5.3mm x 6.2mm)
AS5140H Differences to AS5040
The AS5140H and AS5040 differ in the following features:
Figure 46:
Differences Between AS5140H and AS5040
Parameter
AS5140H
Pin - assignment
AS5040
Pin - compatible
Ambient temperature
range
-40ºC …150ºC
-40ºC … 125ºC
Alignment mode
Exit alignment mode by
power-on-reset,
Exit alignment mode by POR or with
PROG=low @ falling edge of CSn.
Exit alignment mode by power-on-reset
only.
OTP programming
voltage
3.0 to 3.6V
7.3 to 7.5V
OTP programming
options
Incremental modes (quad AB, step/dir,
BLDC)
Incremental resolution
Incremental Index bit width
10-bit Zero position
Direction bit (cw/ccw)
Redundancy address (1 of 16)
18-bit Chip-Identifier
Incremental modes (quad AB, step/dir,
BLDC)
Incremental resolution
Incremental Index bit width
10-bit Zero position
Direction bit (cw/ccw)
OTP Programming
protocol
CSn, Prog and CLK; 52-bit serial data
protocol
CSn, Prog and CLK;
16-bit (32-bit) serial data protocol
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 45
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AS5140H − Package Drawings & Markings
Package Drawings & Markings
The device is available in a 16-Lead Shrink Small Outline
Package.
Figure 47:
Package Drawings and Dimensions
YYWWMZZ
AS5140H
Symbol
Min
Nom
Max
A
A1
A2
b
c
D
E
E1
e
L
L1
L2
R
Θ
N
1.73
0.05
1.68
0.22
0.09
5.90
7.40
5.00
0.55
0.09
0º
1.86
0.13
1.73
0.30
017
6.20
7.80
5.30
0.65 BSC
0.75
1.25 REF
0.25 BSC
4º
16
1.99
0.21
1.78
0.38
0.25
6.50
8.20
5.60
0.95
8º
Green
RoHS
Note(s) and/or Footnote(s):
1. Dimensions and tolerancing conform to ASME Y14.5M-1994.
2. All dimensions are in millimeters. Angles are in degrees.
Figure 48:
Package Marking: YYWWMZZ
YY
WW
M
ZZ
Last two digits of the
manufacturing year
Manufacturing week
Plant identifier
Assembly traceability code
Page 46
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Package Drawings & Markings
Figure 49:
Vertical Cross Section of SSOP-16
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 47
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AS5140H − Package Drawings & Markings
Recommended PCB Footprint
Figure 50:
PCB Footprint
Figure 51:
Recommended Footprint Data
Page 48
Document Feedback
Symbol
mm
inch
A
9.02
0.355
B
6.16
0.242
C
0.46
0.018
D
0.65
0.025
E
5.01
0.197
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Ordering & Contact Information
Ordering & Contact Information
The devices are available as the standard products shown in
Figure 52.
Figure 52:
Ordering Information
Ordering Code
Package
Marking
Delivery Form
Delivery Quantity
AS5140H-ASST
SSOP-16
AS5140H
Tape & Reel
2000
AS5140H-ASSM
SSOP-16
AS5140H
Tape & Reel
500
Buy our products or get free samples online at:
www.ams.com/ICdirect
Technical Support is available at:
www.ams.com/Technical-Support
Provide feedback about this document at:
www.ams.com/Document-Feedback
For further information and requests, e-mail us at:
[email protected]
For sales offices, distributors and representatives, please visit:
www.ams.com/contact
Headquarters
ams AG
Tobelbaderstrasse 30
8141 Unterpremstaetten
Austria, Europe
Tel: +43 (0) 3136 500 0
Website: www.ams.com
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 49
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AS5140H − RoHS Compliant & ams Green Statement
RoHS Compliant & ams Green
Statement
RoHS: The term RoHS compliant means that ams AG products
fully comply with current RoHS directives. Our semiconductor
products do not contain any chemicals for all 6 substance
categories, including the requirement that lead not exceed
0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to
be soldered at high temperatures, RoHS compliant products are
suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
ams Green (RoHS compliant and no Sb/Br): ams Green
defines that in addition to RoHS compliance, our products are
free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants
(Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous
material).
Important Information: The information provided in this
statement represents ams AG knowledge and belief as of the
date that it is provided. ams AG bases its knowledge and belief
on information provided by third parties, and makes no
representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such
information. Efforts are underway to better integrate
information from third parties. ams AG has taken and continues
to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate
information but may not have conducted destructive testing or
chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals. ams AG
and ams AG suppliers consider certain information to be
proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited
information may not be available for release.
Page 50
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ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Copyrights & Disclaimer
Copyrights & Disclaimer
Copyright ams AG, Tobelbader Strasse 30, 8141
Unterpremstaetten, Austria-Europe. Trademarks Registered. All
rights reserved. The material herein may not be reproduced,
adapted, merged, translated, stored, or used without the prior
written consent of the copyright owner.
Devices sold by ams AG are covered by the warranty and patent
indemnification provisions appearing in its General Terms of
Trade. ams AG makes no warranty, express, statutory, implied,
or by description regarding the information set forth herein.
ams AG reserves the right to change specifications and prices
at any time and without notice. Therefore, prior to designing
this product into a system, it is necessary to check with ams AG
for current information. This product is intended for use in
commercial applications. Applications requiring extended
temperature range, unusual environmental requirements, or
high reliability applications, such as military, medical
life-support or life-sustaining equipment are specifically not
recommended without additional processing by ams AG for
each application. This product is provided by ams AG “AS IS”
and any express or implied warranties, including, but not
limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness
for a particular purpose are disclaimed.
ams AG shall not be liable to recipient or any third party for any
damages, including but not limited to personal injury, property
damage, loss of profits, loss of use, interruption of business or
indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages, of any
kind, in connection with or arising out of the furnishing,
performance or use of the technical data herein. No obligation
or liability to recipient or any third party shall arise or flow out
of ams AG rendering of technical or other services.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 51
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AS5140H − Document Status
Document Status
Document Status
Product Preview
Preliminary Datasheet
Datasheet
Datasheet (discontinued)
Page 52
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Product Status
Definition
Pre-Development
Information in this datasheet is based on product ideas in
the planning phase of development. All specifications are
design goals without any warranty and are subject to
change without notice
Pre-Production
Information in this datasheet is based on products in the
design, validation or qualification phase of development.
The performance and parameters shown in this document
are preliminary without any warranty and are subject to
change without notice
Production
Information in this datasheet is based on products in
ramp-up to full production or full production which
conform to specifications in accordance with the terms of
ams AG standard warranty as given in the General Terms of
Trade
Discontinued
Information in this datasheet is based on products which
conform to specifications in accordance with the terms of
ams AG standard warranty as given in the General Terms of
Trade, but these products have been superseded and
should not be used for new designs
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Revision Information
Revision Information
Changes from 1.6 (2012-Mar-30) to current revision 1-08 (2015-Jan-16)
Page
Content of austriamicrosystems datasheet was converted to latest ams design
Added Benefits to Key Features
1
Updated Figure 20
15
Updated Package Drawings & Markings section
46
Updated Ordering Information section
49
Note(s) and/or Footnote(s):
1. Page and figure numbers for the previous version may differ from page and figure numbers in the current revision.
2. Correction of typographical errors is not explicitly mentioned.
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
Page 53
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AS5140H − Content Guide
Content Guide
Page 54
Document Feedback
1
1
2
2
General Description
Key Benefits & Features
Applications
Block Diagram
3
3
Pin Assignment
Pin Description
6
Absolute Maximum Ratings
7
7
9
10
12
13
Electrical Characteristics
DC Characteristics for Digital Inputs and Outputs
Magnetic Input Specification
Electrical System Specifications
Programming Conditions
Timing Characteristics
15
16
16
18
20
20
21
21
22
23
24
25
27
27
28
28
28
29
32
32
33
35
35
37
39
39
39
40
40
41
42
43
43
44
Detailed Description
10-bit Absolute Angular Position Output
Synchronous Serial Interface (SSI)
Daisy Chain Mode
Incremental Outputs
Quadrature A/B Output (Quad A/B Mode)
LSB Output (Step/Direction Mode)
Incremental Output Hysteresis
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Output
Analog Output
Brushless DC Motor Commutation Mode
Programming the AS5140H
OTP Memory Assignment
User Selectable Settings
OTP Default Setting
Redundant Programming Option
OTP Register Entry and Exit Condition
Incremental Mode Programming
Zero Position Programming
Alignment Mode
3.3V / 5V Operation
Choosing the Proper Magnet
Physical Placement of the Magnet
Simulation Modeling
Failure Diagnostics
Magnetic Field Strength Diagnosis
Power Supply Failure Detection
Angular Output Tolerances
Accuracy
Transition Noise
High Speed Operation
Propagation Delays
Internal Timing Tolerance
Temperature
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
AS5140H − Content Guide
ams Datasheet
[v1-08] 2015-Jan-16
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45
Application Information
AS5140H Differences to AS5040
46
47
Package Drawings & Markings
Recommended PCB Footprint
48
49
50
51
52
Ordering & Contact Information
RoHS Compliant & ams Green Statement
Copyrights & Disclaimer
Document Status
Revision Information
Page 55
Document Feedback
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ams:
AS5140H-ASST-500
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