BOOK ECONOMICAL THE COOK'S
THE COOK'S
ECONOMICAL
BOOK
JTXiuJl
Book .V.ZfC
Class
GoiiyiiglitU?.
COnffilGKT DEPOSIT.
THE COOK'S
ECONOMICAL BOOK
Compiled and Edited
BY
MRS.
MARY
DAVIS
C.
WILL BE FOUND A RELIABLE GUIDE
TO THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER AND
A REFERENCE BOOK HELPFUL TO ALL
r
W.
59
A.
BUTTERFIELD
BROMFIELD STREET
:
:
:
:
BOSTON
1^
Copyright,
&<
1918
BY
Mrs. Mary
C.
Davis
OEC 30 ISIS
•CLAfii
1
\\*
109
-^c
\
Weights and Measures
1 quart sifted flour weighs 1 lb.
1 quart Indian meal weighs 1 lb. 2 oz.
1 quart powdered sugar weighs 1 lb. 1 oz.
1 quart best brown sugar weighs 1 lb. 2 oz.
1 quart soft butter weighs 1 lb. 1 oz.
1 pint granulated sugar weighs 1 lb.
1 pint closely packed butter weighs 1 lb.
Butter size of an egg, equals }i cup, weighs 2 oz.
10 eggs average 1 lb.
3 tablespoonfuls liquid weigh 1 oz.
4 saltspoonfuls of liquid equals 1 teaspoonful.
4 teaspoonfuls of liquid equal 1 tablespoonful.
3 teaspoonfuls of dry material equal 1 tablespoonful.
4 tablespoonfuls of liquid equal 1 wineglass, 1 gill or }i cupful,
16 tablespoonfuls of liquid equal 1 cupful.
8 heaping tablespoonfuls of dry material equal 1 cupful.
2 gills equal 1 cupful or J^ pint.
4 cupfuls of liquid equal 1 quart.
1 pint of milk or water equals 1 pound.
1 pint chopped meat solidly packed equals 1 pound.
1 teaspoonful soda to 1 pint of sour milk.
1 teaspoonful soda to 1 cupful of molasses.
pinch of salt or spice is about a saltspoonful.
A
SOUPS
Soup, by some people mistakenly thought to be an expensive
is generally a means of economy since the most tempting
luxury,
and nutritious soups can be made of the most inexpensive
materials.
Soup stock
is
the basis of all
meat soups. It consists of the
and sometimes other ingre-
soluble portions of meat, vegetables,
dients, dissolved in water.
For stock-making a deep
kettle with
a tight cover has been found to be the best.
Soup Stock
Wash
four pounds of lean beef and put it into four quarts of
Let it come to a boil slowly and skim well.
Add a little salt and a dash of cold water to assist the skum to
Skim again, and set it back and let it boil gently for six
rise.
or eight hours, or until the meat is in shreds. Add a little pepper
and strain through two thicknesses of cheese-cloth into a stone
jar.
Cool and remove all grease. This stock will keep for many
days if kept in a cool place.
cold unsalted water.
Mixed Vegetable Soup
To one quart of stock add two heaping tablespoon fuls each
of chopped onion (fried), chopped celery, and turnip either
chopped or cut with a vegetable cutter, one tablespoon ful of
carrot prepared like the turnip, and one cupful of cooked strained
tomato.
Summer Vegetable Soup
Prepare as for mixed vegetable soup. Omit the onion and
tomato and add small green peas and flowerets of cauliflower,
asparagus tips, or all three.
Tomato Soup
Add
and
one pint of stock to one half can of tomatoes, stewed
and one half teaspoonful of sugar.
strained,
Tomato soups must be made with great care to prevent the
acid in the tomatoes from curdling the milk. Adding a little soda
helps to neutralize the acid. Draw the saucepan away from the
heat before adding the soda otherwise the tomato may foam
over. Pour the tomato slowly into the milk if the milk is poured
Take care not to combine milk
into the tomato, it will curdle.
and tomato till just before serving as milk heated with acid is
almost sure to curdle.
;
;
Tomato Soup
To
2 quarts of stock add 1 quart tomatoes, 4 medium-sized
onions, 1 dozen cloves, ^4 teaspoon mace, a few stalks of celery,
a little cayenne pepper, and 1 teaspoon salt. Boil 2 hours. Put
through a sieve to remove seeds, and add 2 tablespoons of rice.
Boil one half hour or until rice is tender.
Tomato Bisque
One
quart tomatoes stewed and strained. Let the juice come
stir until it foams,
to a boil and add 1 heaping teaspoon soda
then add 3 pints of milk. When it comes to a boil remove from
fire, add pepper and salt to taste, and butter the size of an egg.
Thicken with very fine cracker crumbs.
;
Cream
of
Tomato Soup
5^ can tomatoes
tbsp. butter
2
2
1
quart milk
1
tsp. salt
%. tsp. pepper
few grains soda
tbsp flour
Scald the milk and thicken with the flour and butter. Cook
the tomatoes 10 minutes or until soft, add the soda and strain.
Stir the tomato slowly into the thickened milk, taking care that it
does not cook after being mixed, and serve at once.
Tomato Soup
Cook
soda, 1
good sized tomatoes and strain. Then add
pint milk, butter, salt, and pepper.
5
Cream
1
1
of
Asparagus
bunch asparagus
quart water
2 tbsp. butter
2 tbsp. flour
1 pint milk
Salt
and pepper
the heads and cook them with the stalks in the water.
out the heads as soon as they are tender and either serve
on toast or put them in the tureen before turning in the soup.
Break
Take
them
^ teaspoon
oflf
Cream
of Celery
3 roots or 3 stalks celery with
leaves
1 pint hot water
1 quart
Wash
Soup
2 tbsp. butter
2 tbsp. flour
Salt and pepper
milk
the celery, cut in short pieces, and
simmer
until tender.
Corn Chowder
Cut 2 medium slices salt pork into very small bits. Fry until
very well browned. Add 2 onions sliced thin and cook until
tender. To this add 1 quart milk and the corn cut from 5 or 6
medium ears. Let boil until corn is thoroughly cooked. Thicken
slightly if desired and serve with crackers or toast.
8
Cream
1 to 2 cups
mashed
of
Turnip or Carrot Soup
carrots or
turnip
water
milk
1 pt.
1 pt.
2 tbsp. butter
2 tbsp. floiu"
Salt
Pepper
mashed vegetable is used, heat the milk and water
together and pour them on it. Strain and bind as usual.
If a left-over
Split
1
cup
split
Pea Soup
peas
1
tsp.
salt
}i tsp. pepper
3 pts. cold water
Milk to thin properly
2 tbsp. butter
2 tbsp flour
1
ham bone
Slice of onion
Soak peas over night. Drain them and simmer two hours or
more, adding more water as the first boils away. When very
soft, rub peas and water through a strainer.
Potato Soup
3 large potatoes
1
milk
%
1 qt.
tsp. salt
pepper
onion
Celery root or
2 tbsp. butter
2 tbsp. flour
Bit of bay leaf
tsp.
1
slice
1
stalk celery
Boil potatoes and mash them through a strainer into a saucepan. Cook the onion in the milk. When the milk scalds, remove
the onion and stir the milk into the potato. Bind with the flour
and butter. Season, strain into a tureen and sprinkle with parsley.
Bean Soup
beans
1 cup milk
1 tsp. salt
1 pt.
Pepi)er to taste
1 tbsp. flour
1 tbsp. butter
Parboil the beans. Drain oflf water and add fresh and boil till
perfectly tender.
Strain through a colander and add the salt,
pepper, butter and milk and let come to a boil.
Buttercup Soup
cup squash
1 qt. milk
3 tbsp. flour
1 slice onion
%
1 tsp. salt
Few
1
2
tsp. celery salt
tbsp. butter
grains pepper
Scald the milk with the onion. Remove the onion and add a
cup of cooked squash that has been rubbed through a sieve. Add
the butter and flour and cook all together.
9
;
FISH
In food value and digestibility,
it is
less stimulating,
who
workers
take
little
fish is
much
like lean meat.
As
especially suited to the needs of brain
it is
exercise.
It is
more
desirable as
means
hurt more by
of varying the diet than as a staple food.
Fish
keeping than meat and
watery when cooked.
if
kept too long
it is
is
Information about Fish
green with white stripe down side; spotted
with darker color, 2 to 6 ft. long weighs from 3 to 100 lbs.
Sold whole or by the pound. May be boiled baked or fried.
Haddock Color silvery one black spot on either side of head.
2 to 3 ft. long weighs about 5 lbs. Sold like cod. May be boiled,
baked or fried.
Mackerel: Silvery belly with blue back; body slender. 12 in.
long weighs 1 lb. Sold whole and is cooked by broiling.
Bluefish Back blue belly light. Broader than mackerel. 2 ft.
long weighs 4 lbs. Sold whole. Baked, boiled, fried, broiled.
Halibut Flat fish with white belly and brown back. Both eyes
on same side of head. 3 to 6 ft. long; weighs about 125 lbs. Sold
by the pound. May be boiled or fried.
Weak fish White belly yellow breast fins. About 2 ft. long
weighs 4 lbs. Sold by the pound. May be boiled or baked.
Smelts Back silvery. 6 in. long weighs 1 to 2 ounces. Sold
by the pound. Fried.
Cod: Color
light
;
;
:
;
;
;
:
;
:
:
;
;
:
Fresh Water Fish
Whitefish: White except narrow stripe on back. 2 ft. long;
weighs 3 lbs. May be boiled or baked.
9
Perch: Silvery with dark lines along back; yellow fins.
inches long; weighs yi lb. Sold whole. Broiled or fried.
Black Bass: Body broad; back green. 18 inches long; weighs
May be broiled, baked or fried.
1 to 2 lbs.
Fish Found in Both Fresh and Salt Water
Salmon: Silvery, dark line along back, spots near head; flesh,
Sold by the pound.
2 to 3 ft. long; weighs 9 to 10 lbs.
May be boiled or smoked.
Shad Back dark scales large and silvery. 2 ft. long weighs
pink.
:
5 lbs.
Sold whole.
;
:
May
be broiled or baked.
How
TO Clean a Fish
Wash
the fish inside and out with a cloth wet in cold water,
and dry with a clean towel kept for this purpose. If the fish is
to be broiled or fried, cut off head and tail and split it down the
back if to be boiled, cut off the head only if to be baked, leave
whole.
;
;
10
Stuffing for
Baked Fish
Few
Few
cup bread crumbs
tbsp, melted butter
1
1
grains pepper
drops onion juice
1 tbsp. parsley cut fine
Yz tsp. salt
Mix
This recipe makes
the ingredients in the order given.
stuffing for a four-pound fish.
Directions for Baking a Fish
Whole
with stuffing, allowing it room to swell slightly.
Sew the slit over and over with strong thread, taking stitches deep
enough not to tear out. If the fish is a dry one, cut gashes crosswise and put in them strips of fat salt pork about one inch long.
Skewer and tie the fish in the shape of the letter S, and set upright surrounded by bits of salt pork, on a greased fish sheet on
a baking pan. Bake until brown (45 to 60 min.), basting often.
Serve with drawn butter or Hollandaise sauce.
If you have no fish sheet, lay two strips of cloth across the
Fill the cavity
pan and
lift
the fish out,
when
done, by these.
Directions for Broiling a Fish
Use a
close-barred double wire broiler.
Grease it when hot
with salt pork rind. See that the fish is wiped dry, sprinkle it
with salt and pepper, and if not oily, rub it with melted butter.
Broil split fish, flesh side to the heat, turning occasionally. Turn
slices of fish often.
When cooked, carefully loosen both sides of
the fish from the broiler, and slip oflf on to a hot platter. Spread
with butter, salt and pepper, or with tartar sauce, and garnish
with parsley and slices of lemon.
Directions for Boiling a Fish
To
the water in which the fish is to be boiled add the juice
of half a lemon, or one-fourth cup of vinegar. Place the fish on
a fish rack or a plate or coil it in a wire basket. If on a plate,
When the water
tie fish and plate in a piece of clean cheese-cloth.
boils, lower the fish into it and let it simmer until the flesh separates
from the bones. When nearly done, add a tablespoonful of salt.
Garnish with parsley and slices of lemon and serve on a platter
with drawn butter or tartar sauce.
Drawn
Butter
V/i cups water
Yi cup butter
3 tbsp. flour
Mix
flour, salt
Salt
and pepper
and pepper with one-half the butter, pour on
water and stir over the fire until the sauce boils. Add rest of
butter in bits, stirring until it is absorbed. For &g% sauce, add 2
hard-boiled eggs chopped to drawn butter.
11
1
Tartar Sauce
lemon juice
1 tbsp. Worcestershire sauce
tsp.
1 tbsp. vinegar
%. tsp. salt
Brown
Heat the vinegar, lemon juice, salt and Worcestershire.
the butter in a frying pan and strain into the mixture.
Creamed Fish
Remove
heat
it
skin and bone; pick fish into flakes with a fork and
in drawn butter or white sauce.
Creamed Fish
Boil 3
lbs.
^
haddock for
hr. in salted
water; pick into large
flakes.
One
quart milk, ^^ cup cream, thicken with J4 cup of
and pepper to taste. Cook thoroughly, and when done
add the yolks of 2 eggs and
lb. butter.
Fill a baking dish with alternate layers of fish and sauce.
Cover with buttered crumbs and bake until brown.
Sauce.
Salt
flour.
^
Creamed Shrimps
One pint cream (can use part milk), 1 can shrimps, yi cup
boiled rice, ^^ cup strained tomatoes, salt and pepper and piece
of butter.
Salmon
L^oaf
can salmon
cup bread crumbs
4 eggs
4 tbsp. melted butter
1
^
1 tbsp.
Salt
parsley cut fine
and cayenne pepper
Mix salmon and butter well. Beat eggs separately. Add bread
crumbs to beaten yolks. Mix salmon with other ingredients.
After all is well mixed, add 1 large tablespoon lemon juice and 1
of onion extract and the whites of the eggs. Steam in a mold
or a deep pan an hour or more. Serve with a thin white sauce
to which has been added a can of peas.
Salmon and Lemon
Make a plain unsweetened lemon
of salmon.
jelly
Jelly
and
stir in
a good amount
Let harden and serve on lettuce leaves with a good
salad dressing.
Salmon Croquettes
Mash and
drain 1 can of salmon.
And
1 tsp.
salt,
1
tbsp.
onion juice, a grating of nutmeg and a
dash of pepper. Make a white sauce of 1 cup of milk, 1 tbsp.
butter, 2 tbsp. flour. Add 3 beaten tgg yolks and cook a minute
longer.
Mix meat and white sauce. Turn out to cool. Form
into cylinders, dip in beaten ^gg, roll in crumbs and fry in deep
smoking hot fat.
chopped parsley,
1 tbsp.
13
Creamed Lobsters
pt. lobsters
1
Yi
pt.
milk
Yt.
pt,
cream
1 tbsp. flour
Juice of half a lemon
1 tsp. salt
Pinch of cayenne
tbsp. butter
1
Make
a sauce by cooking, over boiling water, the butter
milk and half the cream. Put the lobsters into
sauce, add salt and pepper, and stir until smoking hot; then
rest of cream and cook long enough to heat add lemon juice
flour, the
;
and
the
add
and
sauce.
Fish and Macaroni Scallop
Take equal parts of cold boiled macaroni and fish and put in
baking dish in layers. Fry 1 tsp. minced onion in 1 tbsp. butter,
adding 1 tbsp. flour and 1 cup stewed tomatoes. Salt and pepper
Cover with butter crumbs and
to taste and pour over the fish.
bake until brown.
Scalloped Fish
Flake left-over boiled fish and mix with white sauce and minced
parsley. Cover with buttered crumbs and bake until brown.
Scalloped Fish
For a 2-quart dish boil 3 pounds haddock in salted water and
flake with a fork.
Boil 1 onion in V/2 pints milk 20 minutes, take out onion and
thick add 1 large tablethicken milk with 2 tbsp. flour.
When
spoon butter,
salt
a buttered dish.
and pepper to taste. Mix with fish and pour into
Cover with buttered crumbs and bake until
brown.
Fried Frogs' Legs
little salt and pepper and
onion juice. Roll in flour and fry brown in very hot lard. Garnish with parsley.
Scalloped Salmon
Dip
in
milk to which has been added a
cup buttered crumbs
and pepper
Pick to pieces with a fork and remove all
skin and bones. In a buttered baking dish place a layer of salmon,
then a layer of crumbs, the remaining salmon and the rest of the
crumbs, and pour the milk over this. Bake until brown in a
can salmon
cup milk
Take can salmon.
1
1
1
Salt
quick oven.
Clam Chowder
1
can clams
1
onion
6 large potatoes
3 slices salt pork
Cut the pork up fine and fry to a dark brown. Add the sliced
onion and fry a light brown. Add the potatoes, sliced thin, and
cover with water and cook until the potatoes are soft. Lastly add
the clams and enough milk to make two quarts, season with salt
and pepper. Let come to a boil and serve.
13
OYSTERS
To
clean oysters, drain off the liquor, straining
wire strainer
be used.
if it is to
Rinse the oysters
it
through a
in a colander,
using only half a cup of water to a quart of oysters to avoid
washing away the flavor. Examine the gills to see that there are
no bits of shell left clinging to them. Raw oysters are served
with lemon juice or vinegar and red or black pepper as a first
course at dinner or luncheon or for invalids.
Oyster Stew
2 tbsp. butter
Salt and pepper
1 pint oysters
1
cup hot milk
Drain and rinse the oysters, strain the liquor and heat the
oysters in it till their edges curl, remove the scum and turn the
oysters and the liquid into the hot milk. Add butter and seasoning and serve with oyster crackers.
Scalloped Oysters
Salt and pepper
5 or 6 tbsp. oyster liquor or
oyster liquor and milk
1 qt. oysters
Yz cup melted butter
2 cups crumbs
Mix crumbs
with salt, pepper and butter. Put half the oysters
bottom of a baking dish and cover with crumbs, then the
remaining oysters and the rest of the crumbs. Pour the liquid
over this and bake 20 minutes or until brown.
in the
Fried Oysters
Select large oysters. Drain, roll in fine cracker crumbs, dip in
beaten ^g^ and again in crumbs and fry in hot butter and lard.
Creamed Oysters
Scald the oysters in their
pour in some cream and
salt and pepper to taste.
scald.
own
liquor.
Skim out
Thicken with a
little
oysters and
flour
and add
Oyster Cocktail
4 tsp. lemon juice
4 drops tabasco sauce
small oysters
2 tsp. horse radish
2 tsp. catsup
2 tsp. vinegar
1 pint
Yz tsp. salt
Serve in glasses or on the
half shell
14
:
Oyster Rolls
Pour a quart of water over a pint of oysters. Drain and dry
with a clean cloth. Chop the oysters very fine and add 1 cup of
soft bread crumbs, 1 saltspoon salt, a dusting of white pepper
and of celery salt and a pinch of nutmeg. Mix to a stiff paste
with the yolks of 2 eggs. Shape into small rolls and fry in hot
butter.
Serve with lemon in quarters.
Oyster Pie
Make a good rich paste, and with it line a deep pudding dish.
Roll another sheet of paste nearly one-half inch thick and cut it a
Butter the edges of
little larger round than the top of the dish.
Lay the cover on
the dish and fill the crusts with dry bread.
Bake.
lightly.
Filling
2 tbsp. butter
cup oyster liquor
cup cream
oysters to each person
tsp. vdiite pepper
1
%
4
%
2 tbsp. flour
2 eggs beaten light
1 tsp, salt
Cook
the butter and the flour together
add the oyster liquor and the cream. Stir
they bubble, then
smooth and then
drop in the oysters. Cook till they begin to ruffle, then slowly
add the eggs, the salt, and the pepper. Time the cooking of the
crusts and filling so they will be done at the same time. Remove
the bread crusts, fill the pie, replace the top, and serve at once.
till
until
Creamed Fish
%
1
cup cold cooked flaked
%
fish
Salt
1 tsp. flour
Make
and
fish,
cup milk
drops onion juice
Few
tsp. butter
sauce of butter, flour and milk, add onion juice, salt
then reheat. Serve in croustades of bread.
Fish Chowder
1 lb. haddock or cod
6 large potatoes
1
onion
3 slices salt pork
Cut the pork and onions fine and fry to a dark brown. Add
the potatoes, sliced thin, cover with water and cook until potatoes
are soft.
Add shredded fish and hquid in which it has been
cooked and enough heated milk to made two quarts, season with
Let come to a boil and serve.
salt and pepper.
For lobster chowder, use lobster in place of fish.
15
MEATS
When you
first rub it with salt and pepper, place it
pan and cook in a hot oven; baste occasionally,
leaving the door open a few moments.
roast beef,
in a dripping
In boiling meat,
fresh put
if it is
should be put in cold water.
boiling slowly
When
and skimmed
buying beef to
it
in hot water.
Salt meats
In both cases they should be kept
well.
roast,
by having the butcher take out the
bones and putting the meat in shape with skewers, a good soup
may
be
made
of the bones.
Should you have a roast that has become a little old, put 2 or 3
tablespoons of vinegar in the dripping pan and sprinkle a little
sugar on the bottom of the oven.
In cooking steaks
platter containing a
object
little
The fumes
better to turn
is
olive oil than
will work wonders.
them several times on a
it is
to
hammer
not to force the juice out, but to soften the
is
Meat
it
that
is
them.
The
fiber.
frozen should always be thawed by placing in
cold water.
Keep a basin of water in the oven; the steam from the hot
water not only prevents scorching but makes the meat look better.
In boiling meat or fowl that
gar
in the
water you
boil
Lamb and mutton
chops may be slightly
it
in.
is
tough, put a tablespoon of vine-
It will
make
it
very tender.
chops are broiled like beefsteak; mutton
red in the middle.
Lamb
chops should be
less rare.
For a brown stew, the meat and sometimes the vegetables are
browned in hot fat before being simmered. A brown stew without
vegetables
The
is
a fricassee.
lean of good beef
is
firm and elastic, and,
when
first cut,
purplish red, the surface becoming bright red and moist after
exposure to the
from the
air.
The
best cuts for broiling are the steaks
loin of beef (short, porterhouse, sirloin).
young fowl the scales on the legs are yellow and
and the breast bone yielding.
In a young duck or goose the windpipe is brittle enough to snap
readily between the thumb and finger, and the feet are soft and
yellow. Neither ducks nor geese are good if more than one year
In a chicken or
soft
old.
16
DIAGRAM SHOWING CUTS OF BEEF
1
Time Table
for
Cooking Meat
Beef, filet, rare, 20 to 30 min. to the pound.
Beef, sirloin, rare, 13 to 15 min. to the pound.
Beef, sirloin, well done, 20 to 25 min. to the pound.
Beef, corned, 30 min. per pound.
Chicken, 1 hr. to 1^ hrs. per 3 or 4 pounds.
Duck, 40 to 60 min.
Duck, wild, 15 to 20 min.
Goose, steam 1 hr. roast 2 hrs.
Turkey, 3 hrs. per 10 pounds.
Lamb, 15 min. per pound.
Mutton, leg, boiled, 3^4 to 4 hrs.
Pork, well done, 30 min. per pound.
Veal, well done, 20 min. per pound.
;
Broiled Steak
Have
the coals glowing hot, without flame or smoke. Grease
a double broiler with steak fat. Put steak in and hold it near the
coals for a few seconds.
Turn the broiler, and hold the other
side down for the same length of time. When well seared, hold
it farther away from the fire, turning occasionally until the meat
is browned.
Just before taking it from the fire sprinkle with
salt and pepper turning each side to the heat once more to cook
in the seasoning. Lift to a warm platter, spread sides with butter,
garnish if preferred and serve at once. For quick and efficient
service use gas for broiling.
Roast Beef
Wipe
beef with a clean cloth, skewer and place in a dripping
pan with the skin side down, dredge meat and pan with flour.
In the pan put 1 tbsp. salt and
If the meat is very
tsp. pepper.
lean, put in a few bits of fat.
When the beef is seared and the
flour brown, reduce the heat, and baste the meat about once in
ten minutes till done. After the meat has been in the oven half
an hour turn over to brown the skin side.
After removing the roast to a plate, pour or skim ofif most of
the fat from the liquid.
Set the pan on the stove, and dredge
with flour (about 3 tbsp.). Add 1^^ cups boiling water, and boil
5 minutes stirring constantly. Add salt and pepper to taste and
strain into a gravy boat.
^
Pot Roast of Beef
pork cut in small pieces and fried till brown. 2
small onions, fried till brown. Fry the pork in a kettle. Then the
onions. Sear beef on both sides in the fat until brown. Pour on
boiling water until the meat is well covered. Add more as this
boils away. At dinner time let the water boil down till the meat
fries once more.
Take out the meat before it burns, then pour
in water and thicken to make a rich brown gravy.
4
slices
of
salt
18
Dry Panned Steak
Place pan on stove and heat it very hot. Rub with suet and put
when seared, turn and. sear the other side. Cook at
a high heat for 5 minutes, turning every minute.
in the steak
;
Hamburg
Steak Loaf
of bacon in the bottom of a bread tin and over
an inch thick of hamburg steak which has been seasoned with salt, pepper and onion. Put an equal amount of dressing over this that has been prepared like the dressing for stuffed
chicken, then another layer of steak, then more bacon and lastly
pour a little milk over all. Bake rare or well done according to
It will draw away from the sides of the pan and come out
taste.
in the shape of a loaf.
Put thin
slices
this a layer
Beef Loaf
lbs.
Yi cup milk
lb. salt
1 ^gg
Salt and pepper to taste
lean beef
port
1 cup cracker crumbs
2
^
Put
pan and bake
in a bread
1 hour.
Beef Loaf
raw beef
cup cracker crumbs
4 tbsp. milk
3 lbs. chopped
1
1
1 tbsp. salt
Bake
1^
in a tin for
1
chopped
cup bread crumbs
pepper and sage
Yz
Salt,
Form
into a roll
and bake 45 minutes.
Hamburg
lbs.
hamburg
Steak
steak
1
1 hour.
tsp. salt
Ya tsp. pepper
Y2 cup crumbs
Ya cup milk
Bake
crumbs
RoU
fine
^gg
2
sage
or 2 hours.
Beef
1 lb. beef steak
tsp.
Yz tsp. pepper
Few bits of butter on
3 well beaten eggs
1
This makes
^gg
1 loaf.
Cottage Pie
meat of any kind. To every cup add Ya cup gravy
and pepper to taste. Cover the meat with a mashed
potato crust and bake to a light brown.
Chop
and
cold
salt
19
Veal Stew
Boil 33^ pounds of the breast of veal 1 hour
to cover. Add a dozen potatoes and cook half
the potatoes are done. Before taking from the
of milk and flour enough to thicken and season
in water enough
an hour or until
stove add 1 pint
to taste.
Veal Pie
Make
a crust as for chicken pie, bake in two pie pans. Place
platter, pour the stew over this and place
one of the crusts on a
the other on top.
Veal Loaf
1
lb.
Pinch of black pepper
veal
y^ lb. salt pork
%. tsp. parsley
Dash red pepper
Salt to taste
1 small onion
1 tbsp.
Cover top with bacon and bake
crumbs
1 hour.
Breaded Veal Cutlets
Fry the cutlets until nearly done. Take out and dip into beaten
tgg and then in crumbs with a little salt stirred in. Fry again
turning often so as to get an even brown on both sides. Season
if
not salted enough.
Cutlets may be served with tomatoes
if
desired.
Veal Scallops
Cut lean veal into pieces the size of oysters. Salt and pepper
and add a little mace. Dip in tgg then in cracker crumbs and fry
the
same
as oysters.
Veal
Fry 2
vvith
Oysters
veal cut in thin bits and dredged with flour in sufficient hot lard to prevent sticking.
When nearly done add
pints oysters, thicken with flour; salt and pepper to taste and
cook until done.
lbs.
1^
Roast Pork
Small loin of pork
3 tbsp. bread crumbs
1 onion tchopped
^
tsp.
1
oz.
pepper
chopped suet
y2 tsp. salt
Separate each joint of the loin with a chopper and
make
a deep
incision into the thick part of the pork for the stuffing.
Prepare
the stuffing by mixing the crumbs with the onion, add the sage,
pepper, salt, and suet, and when all is well mixed press the mixture into the pork. Sew edges together and bake in a dry baking
pan in a brisk oven, basting occasionally. Bake 30 minutes for
each pound and then 30 minutes more.
20
Roast Sparerib
Trim
Crack the ribs across the middle.
off the rough ends.
with salt and sprinkle with pepper fold over and stuff with
turkey dressing. Sew up tightly and place in a dripping pan with
Baste frequently, turning over once so both
a pint of water.
sides will be brown.
Rub
;
Boiled
Leg
of
Mutton
Cover mutton leg with boiling water and let come to a boil.
Skim and simmer until meat is tender. This may
be served with a caper sauce made by adding V/i cups drained
capers to lj!/2 cups drawn butter made with mutton liquor.
Boil 5 minutes.
Lamb
Roast
Let lamb heat through slowly in a moderate oven. Dredge with
then quicken fire. Put a pint of water into the dripping pan
with a teaspoon of salt. Baste the meat occasionally. Roast 15
or 20 minutes to each pound. Make a gravy as for any roast,
add a mint or bay leaf if desired.
flour,
Lamb Stew with
Peas
Cut neck or breast veal in pieces and place in a stew pan with
some salt pork sliced thin and enough water to cover it. Let stew
till tender.
Skim and add a quart of green shelled peas, more
hot water, if necessary, and cover till the peas are tender. Add
a bit of butter rolled in flour and pepper to taste. Let simmer a
few moments and serve.
Lamb
Scallop
Chop cold lamb and add any gravy that may have been left
In a dish put a layer of meat, a layer
over, seasoning to taste.
of crumbs and a layer of cooked tomatoes until all is used. Cover
with buttered crumbs, and bake until brown.
Boiled
Ham
For a 10 pound ham wash and boil gently for 3 hours. Remove
the skin and put the ham in a large pan in a moderate oven until
brown. It improves it if whole cloves are placed in it before
baking.
Ham
Fry
fine.
%
fresh ham cut in small cubes and 1 small onion sliced
6 slightly beaten eggs and scramble the eggs and ham
lb,
Add
together.
and Eggs
Cubes of boiled ham may be used instead of the fresh
ham.
21
Chicken. Pie
Cook fowl in salted water till tender. Take out largest bones,
place meat in baking dish in layers with butter, salt and pepper
until the pan is 7^ full.
Pour in chicken broth and cover with
the following crust.
Chicken Pie Crust
tsp. cream tartar and 2 tsp. soda with 1 large quart flour.
butter the size of a large egg and mix with sweet milk to
stiff batter.
Wet the edge of a baking dish, cover chicken
with batter and cut slit in center for the steam to escape. Bake
30 minutes.
Sift
4
Rub in
make a
Jellied
Chicken
To
3 pints of cold chicken stock add beaten whites of 2 eggs
box gelatine which has been soaked in a cup of water 1
hour. Heat all together and skim add chicken, cooked and cut
up fine, season with onion, celery salt, salt and pepper, and when
the gelatine begins to harden, pour all into a mold.
and
1
;
Fried Chicken
Cut up a young chicken season with salt and pepper and dip
each piece in a beaten egg, then in cracker crumbs. Mix butter
and lard enough to fry the chicken in and heat boiling hot. Fry
the chicken slowly till both sides are well browned.
Place the
chicken in a covered dish and thicken the gravy with a large
tablespoon flour and add a cup of sweet cream, salt, and pepper.
Pour over the chicken and serve very hot. If the chicken is old
simmer in a little water until tender before frying.
;
Broiled Chickens
Split spring chickens down through the breast. Wash and wipe
thoroughly and rub both sides with salt; dredge with flour, and
put in a baking pan with a little water. When nearly cooked,
remove to a buttered broiler and brown over hot coals.
Poultry and
Game
In market terms, chicken not more than five months old is
Full grown
"spring chicken"; chicken over a year is fowl.
poultry is finer in flavor than young chickens. In a chicken or
young fowl the scales on the legs are yellow and soft and the
breastbone yielding. Pin feathers are usually an indication that
the chicken is young.
22
In a young duck or goose the windpipe is brittle enough to snap
readily between the thumb and finger, and the feet are soft and
yellow. Neither ducks nor geese are good if more than one year
old.
Chicken Fricassee
1 fowl
1 qt. boiling water
1 small onion
2 tsp. salt
2 tsp. parsley cut fine
Sprigs of parsley for garnishing
Cut the chicken in pieces. Brown the onion in a little fat and
put with chicken meat and bones. Add water and let simmer till
nearly evaporated.
(About 1 hr.) Take out the bone, pour off
the liquid and let the meat and sediment brown delicately, stirring
and turning the pieces. Then pour back the liquid with enough
water to make 2 or 3 cupfuls in all. Add salt and simmer for
another hour. Arrange the pieces on a platter, neck and tail in
the center, breast pieces and wishbone on top of these, second
joints at one end of the dish, legs crossed at the other, and wings
and side pieces at either side. Thicken the gravy with flour
and pour over the chicken. Sprinkle and garnish with parsley.
The fricassee may be served in a border of rice.
Chicken Stew
do not brown the chicken.
cupfuls and add 1 cup milk and thicken
with 4 tbsp. flour. Stewed chicken, lacking the flavor of browned
meat, is better served on toast than with the comparatively tastePrepare
like chicken fricassee, except
Reduce the
liquid to
1^
less rice.
Creamed Chicken
Melt 1 tbsp. butter, add 1 tbsp. flour, pour in slowly 1 cup hot
milk or cream. Add salt and pepper and 1 cup chicken meat cut
into small pieces.
Roast Turkey
After singeing the turkey, plump it by plunging it quickly three
times in boiling water and three times in cold, holding it by the
legs.
Drain and dress. Prepare the stuffing by taking pieces of
dry bread and crust (not too brown). Place in a pan and pour
on a little boiling water, cover tightly with a cloth and let stand
until soft add a large lump of butter, salt and pepper, and one
or two fresh eggs and the bread from which the crust was cut
so as not to have it too moist. Mix well and season to suit taste
with salt, pepper and sage. Rub the inside of the turkey with
salt and a little pepper, and stufif.
Sew up each slit with a strong
;
23
;
down firmly, and press the wings closely to the
them with a cord tied around the body or with
skewers. Steam from one to three hours or until easily pierced
with a fork. Place the turkey in a pan with water from the dripping pan in which the turkey was steamed butter the turkey,
sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and if there is
not enough water in the pan, keep adding boiling water, basting
often. Cook until a nice brown and perfectly tender. Remove to
a hot platter and serve with cranberry sauce.
Skim off most of the fat of the gravy, and add water if necessary.
Chop the heart, gizzard, and liver (previously boiled in
water for 2 hours) and add to the gravy with the water in which
they were boiled. Season with salt and pepper and add a smooth
thickening of flour and water and stir constantly until the flour
thread
;
tie
the legs
sides, securing
;
is
well cooked.
Roast Goose
Take a 10 pound goose and wash thoroughly.
After cleaning,
with a little water and steam till tender.
While steaming, prick with a fork every little while to let out
the oil. When ready, take out and stuff the same as turkey and
set in oven.
Cook slowly 2 hours, basting every few minutes.
put
it
in a large kettle
Carving
To
carve well, a good knife of moderate size and great sharpa necessity. Fowls are easily carved. In roasts such as
loins, breasts, fore-quarters, etc., the butcher should always have
instructions to separate the joints. The platter should be placed
so near to the carver that he has full control over it; if far off
nothing can prevent an ungraceful appearance. In carving a turkey, place the head to the right, cut off the wing nearest you first,
then the leg and second joint; then slice the breast until a round
ivory-shaped piece appears insert the knife between that and the
bone and separate them this part is the nicest bit of the breast
next comes the "merry thought." After this, turn over the bird
a little, and just below the breast you will find the "oyster," which
you can separate as you did the inner breast. The side bone lies
beside the rump, and the desired morsel can be taken out without
separating the whole bone. Proceed in the same way upon the
other side. The fork need not be removed during the whole process.
An experienced carver will dissect a fowl as easily as you
can break an egg or cut a potato. He retains his seat, manages
his hands and elbows artistically, and is perfectly at his ease.
fillet of veal is cut in thin, smooth slices off the top, and portions of the stuffing and fat are served to each.
In cutting a
breast of veal, separate the breast and brisket, and then cut them
ness
is
;
;
A
up.
24
;
Ham
A
ham may be carved three ways First, by cutting long delicate slices, through the thick fat from 1 to 2, down to the bone
secondly, by running the point of the knife in the middle, and cutting thin circular slices, thus keeping the ham moist ; and last, and
:
most economically, by beginning
ing upward.
at the knuckle,
4 to
5,
and
slic-
Leg of Mutton
In carving a leg of mutton the best slices are obtained from the
by cutting from 1 to 2 ; and some very good cuts are found
on the broad end from 5 to 6. Some epicures prefer slices nearer
the knuckle, but they are dry. The cramp bone is a delicacy, and
is obtained by cutting down to the bone at 4, and running the
knife under it in a semicircular direction to 3.
The fat so
esteemed by many lies on the ridge 5. By turning over the meat
some excellent slices are found, and can be cut lengthwise.
center,
Tongue
A tongue may be carved as "thin as a wafer," its deiicacy depending in a great degree upon that. A well-cut tongue tempts
the most fastidious and this applies, in fact, to all kinds of roast
and boiled meats. A chunk of beef we turn from with disgust
;
25
artistic slice we enjoy.
The center slices of the tongue are
considered the best, and should be cut across at the line 1, and
the slices taken from each side, with a portion of the fat which
is at the root, if it is liked.
The question should be asked.
an
Sirloin of Beef
In carving beef, mutton, lamb, and veal, thin, smooth, and neat
are desirable cut across the grain, taking care to pass the
knife through to the bones of the meat. There are two modes
of helping a sirloin of beef either by carving long, thin slices
from 3 to 4, and helping it with a bit of the fat underneath the
ribs, or by cutting thicker slices, from 1 to 2, through the tenderslices
—
;
loin.
Shoulder of Mutton
A
shoulder of mutton should be cut down to the bone, in the
direction of the line 1, and then thin slices of lean taken from
each side. The best fat is found at 2, and should be cut in thin
slices in that direction.
Several tempting slices can be cut on
either side of the line 3, and there are nice bits on the under side
near the flap.
86
VEGETABLES
Vegetables,
like
mineral
contain
fruits,
Too many cooks
health.
salts
without regard to retaining their juices and
cooked
to
salts.
Vegetables
water lose a large proportion of their foodstuffs.
selecting vegetables in the market, choose only those that
in
When
are in season.
Choose medium sized or small vegetables.
vegetables are usually old and
cook them and are
less
woody they
;
nutritious than
squashes and cucumbers are seedy
tough.
important
think only of getting vegetables soft,
;
require
more
younger ones.
Large
fuel to
Large
corn with large kernels
is
Stale or wilted vegetables are never economical and are
unwholesome.
If you get your vegetables from the garden, gather them when
the dew is on them.
Cook vegetables whole when practicable, or cut them into as
large pieces as convenient. Use only as much water as is necessary to cover the vegetable.
can be
stirred,
For small or cut-up vegetables, that
use just enough to keep them from burning, adding
more
as this cooks away.
Green vegetables keep their color better if cooked uncovered.
Cook onions and cabbage uncovered their odor is less noticeable.
The time required to cook any vegetable depends on its age,
size and freshness.
Old beets may be woody so that they cannot
be cooked tender.
;
Asparagus
Stalks should be green; the ends should show that they have
been recently cut. To keep for a short time, stand ends in cold
water.
Cut stalks off as far down as they are brittle. Untie the
bunches, wash stalks and retie them in bunches right to serve to
one person. Tie these into one bunch again and stand in cold
water till put on to cook.
Stand the asparagus in a deep kettle and pour in boiling water
to cover all but the tips. Let it boil tightly covered till the stalks
are tender. The steam will cook the heads. Cook for about 45
minutes. Drain, butter, and. serve on strips of buttered toast.
Lima Beans
green, with juicy pods and small veined beans. Wash and
shell.
Cook uncovered in barely enough water to cover them.
Let the water boil down when nearly done and add salt to taste.
Buy
27
:
Cook from
Season
]
to 13^ hours and serve without draining.
with butter and pepper.
Potatoes
Potatoes must be cooked till soft all through. Rapidly boiling
water wears off the outside of the potato before the inside is
cooked. Let it bubble gently.
Potatoes baked in a slow oven
become dry and hard. Quickly baked potatoes are more easily
digested than boiled potatoes.
Mashed Potato
Mash
free
in the kettle in
which the potatoes were cooked.
When
from lumps, add for each pint of mashed potato
1 tbsp. melted butter
3 tbsp. scalded milk
^4 to
^
tsp. salt
Pinch of pepper
"
Beat all together till light and creamy. Heap in a dish without
smoothing the top; or put in a baking dish, brush the top with
milk and brown in a hot oven.
Stuffed Potatoes
Roast large potatoes (one to each person). Cut in halves
lengthwise and take out the pulp, being careful not to break
the skins. Mash in a bowl and mix with salt and pepper and a
little milk or cream.
Put the pulp back in the skins, score with
a fork or put it back with a potato ricer. Brush with milk or
egg, set in the oven and brown on top.
Stuffed Peppers
Cut green peppers in two lengthwise. Remove every seed
carefully and soak the peppers in cold water for half an hour.
Dry them and fill with a stuffing made from bread crumbs, seasoned with sage, onion juice, pepper and salt. Chopped meat may
be added if desired. Place in buttered pan and bake till brown
on top, moistening once or twice with melted butter.
Baked Beans
Soak 3 cups white beans over night in cold water. Pour off
water in the morning and cover with cold water. Boil until skins
pop open when blown upon pour off that water and cover with
boiling water; add 3 tablespoons molasses, 1 teaspoon salt, 54
teaspoon soda,
teaspoon mustard and a piece of pork. Bake all
day in a slow oven, being sure not to let bake dry.
;
%
Baked Tomatoes
Wipe and remove
a thin slice from the stem end of 6 ripe
tomatoes. Take out seeds and pulp and drain off most of the
liquid.
Add an equal quantity of cracker crumbs with the pulp
28
and season with salt and pepper and a little onion juice. Refill
the tomatoes with the mixture and bake in a buttered pan for 20
minutes in a hot oven. Sprinkle tomatoes with buttered crumbs
before baking.
Stuffed Tomatoes and Rice
Select firm, ripe tomatoes of even size, cut a slice from the top
of each and scoop out the center. Boil 2 tablespoons of rice in 1
quart of boiling water for 10 minutes, then drain ; melt 2 tablespoons butter in a small pan, add a few bits of chopped onion,
also 1 or 2 green peppers, (according to size and taste after the
seeds have been removed). After frying the onion and pepper
in the butter for about 5 minutes add the scooped part of the
tomato and rice; season with salt and pepper. Fill the tomatoes
with this mixture and place in a buttered pan with the open tops
of the tomatoes down. Brush over with melted butter and bake
about 25 minutes.
Cauliflower
Select a close, white cauliflower, trim off decayed leaves and cut
stalk off flat at bottom. Open the flower a little in places to remove insects which are generally found near the stalk. Let lie
with head downward in salted water for about 2 hours to remove
Then put in boiling water, salted and boil briskly
all vermin.
The
for 15 or 20 minutes, keeping the sauce pan uncovered.
water should be well skimmed. When the cauliflower is tender,
take up, drain, and stand upright in a dish. Pour a thin white
sauce over it or it may be served with plain melted butter. Cauliflower makes a good garnish for chicken or sweetbreads.
Dandelions
They are fit for use until they blossom. Cut off the leaves, pick
over carefully and wash in several waters. Put in boiling water
and boil one hour. Drain well and boil two hours in salted boiling
water. Drain, season with butter and more salt if needed and
cut with a knife or boil with a piece of salt pork and omit the
;
butter in the dressing.
String Beans
The pod should be brittle, the string should be delicate and the
beans very small. Wash, pull off the strings and snap or cut the
pods into inch pieces. Cook in barely enough water to cover,
letting this boil down when the beans are nearly cooked.
Salt
when nearly done. For young beans cook 1 hour; for old ones,
3 to 3 hours.
pepper.
Serve without draining and season with butter and
Com
The
should be brown. Remove outer husks as soon as
comes from the market. Cook as soon as possible as corn
silk
29
it
is
injured by keeping.
If
Cook
in boiling
cooked in salted water the corn
water from 5 to 15 minutes.
will become wrinkled and
hardened.
Beets
Choose those with dirty roots and fresh, green, leaves. If the
roots are clean, the beets have probably wilted and been freshened
by soaking. Wash, taking care not to break the skin. Cut tops
off about 2 inches above the root.
If cut short the beets will lose
color and sweetness.
Cook in boiling water 1 hour for young
beets,
cloth.
salt,
Rub
4 or 5 hours for old ones.
with a dry
Season with butter,
off the skins
Slice large beets, quarter small ones.
and pepper.
Cabbage
Choose a hard, heavy one with crisp, white, leaves, and stalk
Remove outer leaves, cut out stalk, and
cut close to the head.
separate inner leaves, removing any insects found.
Cook uncovered in boiling salted water for about 20 minutes or until tender
but not sodden. Drain, and season with butter,
or mix with a thin white sauce.
Summer
Wash and
salt
and pepper
Carrots
and drop into cold water. Cook in boiling
water from 30 minutes to an hour. Serve in a thin white sauce
scrape,
or with green peas.
Winter Carrots
Wash and
scrape and cut into half-inch cubes. Cook in a small
quantity of boiling water for 20 or 30 minutes and serve in a
thin white sauce. Peas and carrot cubes are a good garnish for
meat.
Peas
See that the pods are green and brittle and the peas green.
as soon as possible.
Peas are injured by keeping. Wash
the pods before shelling and cook in barely enough water to cover
them, adding salt 15 minutes before taking from the fire. Let
the water boil down when peas are nearly cooked. Serve without
draining; season with butter and pepper. Should the peas lack
sweetness, add ^^ to 1 teaspoon sugar to each half peck of peas
Cook
while cooking.
Spinach
Choose spinach with leaves that are fresh and dirty. If clean
they have wilted and been soaked to revive them. Cut off roots,
stems and poor leaves; wash by lifting from one pan of cold
water to another till water is free from sand. Cook in its own
juices, heating it gradually till these are drawn out.
Cook for
about 15 minutes. Rather old spinach may be better cooked in
water and dramed. Season with butter, salt and pepper.
80
Summer Squash
The
should be tender enough to be broken with the finger
Wash, cut into pieces and pare. Cook in a steamer or a
nail.
Mash, season with
strainer over boihng water fo-r 30 minutes.
If very watery, press out juice by
butter, salt and pepper.
squeezing between the colander and the plate*
shell
Winter Squash*
Choose sound ones with no- soft spots. If you buy a quantity,
keep spread out in a dry place. Break into pieces, take out shreds
and seeds and steam like summer squash for about 40 minutes.
Scoop out inner part. Rub through a colander, and season with
butter, salt and pepper.
;
Tomatoes
smooth and evenly red, with no decayed,
bruised or green spots. Let them stand in boiling water for one
minute to loosen the skins. Peel and cut into pieces. Simmer
them for about 20 minutes and add for each pint of tomatoes,
1 tbsp. butter, 14 tsp. salt, a few grains of pepper, and 1 or 3 tsp.
The
sugar.
best ones are firm,
To
thicken, stir in 2 tbsp. of sifted cracker crumbs, or
omit the crumbs and serve on buttered
toast.
Macaroni
Break macaroni into inch pieces. Boil until soft in salted water.
Drain and rinse in cold water over a colander to separate the
macaroni and to prevent sticking together. Place in a dish and
pour hot white sauce over it. Season with butter, salt, and pepper,
1 lb. spaghetti
1
can tomato
1
crumb
1
1
garlic
Italian, Spaghetti
1 tbsp. sugar
Spanish onion
green pepper with seeds 1 dash red pepper
Butter size of walnut
removed
Boil spaghetti until tender.
Make
sauce of above ingredients,
pour over spaghetti, and bake for 30 minutes.
Time Table for Cooking Vegetables
Oyster plant
1 hr.
30 min.
Asparagus
Parsnips
45 min.
Beans (string, shelled) 1 hr.
Peas, dried (baked) 6-8 hrs.
45-60 min.
Beans, lima
Peas (green)
30 min.
Beans, dried (baked) 6-8 hrs.
Potatoes, med,
30 min.
45 min.
Beets (young)
Potatoes, med. (baked)
2 hrs.
Beets (old)
Brussels sprouts
Cabbage (young)
Cabbage (old)
Carrots (young)
Carrots (old)
Cauliflower
Celery
)
60 min.
15-20 min,
30 min.
45-60 min.
45 min.
2 hrs.
Sweet potatoes, boiled 45 min.
Squash,
summer
30 min.
Squash winter, steamed or
baked
1 hr.
Spinach and other greens
1 hr.
20-30 min.
Corn (sweet, young) 12 min.
Lentils, dried (baked) 6-8 hrs.
45 min.
Onions
Tomatoes
Turnips (young)
Turnips (old)
31
30-45 min.
30 min.
1 hr.
2 hrs,
SALADS
While the food value of a green salad is not large, the salts it
and its appetizing qualities, make it a very wholesome
supplies,
The
food.
oil
or butter used in dressing
digestible form.
The
acid vinegar
is
it
furnishes fat in a
a great aid to digestion.
you cannot have salad every day, have it as often as you can.
people now have salad instead of dessert, and if you cannot
have both at the same dinner it is well to substitute salad for a
pudding two or three times a week at least.
By using originality and invention, one can produce many a
salad not described in cook books, but delightful to eye and taste.
If
Some
Cooked Salad Dressing (without
^
tsp.
Yi.
tsp. salt
Few
2
mustard
1
^
sugar
of one ^gg
cup milk
tsp. melted butter
y^ cup hot vinegar
grains of cayenne
2
tsp. flour
Mix the
butter and
to thicken,
as thick as
tsp.
Yoke
oil)
dry ingredients in a saucepan, stir in the yolk of ^gg,
milk. Stir the mixture over hot water until it begins
then stir in the vinegar, a few drops at a time. When
cream, strain and cool.
Cream Salad Dressing
2 eggs well beaten
1 tbsp.
1 tsp.
1
^
sugar
mustard
Cook in a double
whipped cream.
1
boiler until creamy.
tsp. salt
cup of vinegar
tbsp. melted butter
Cool and add
Yt.
cup of
Emergency Salad Dressing
1
tsp.
dry mustard
Y^ tsp. pepper
1 or 2 tsp. sugar
Yz tsp. salt
Add very slowly 1 cup of cream, working it gradually with the
dry ingredients. Now add, also by degrees, 1 tablespoon vinegar
or more if liked, stirring well. Make just before using.
Mayonnaise Dressing
Yolk of one ^gg,
at a time.
adding all the while a few drops of oil
grows thick and stiff the oil may be added
desired amount of dressing is obtained.
Add lemon
When
beat,
it
faster till
juice and salt to taste.
38
Mayonnaise Dressing
Yolks of 2 eggs well beaten, 1 teaspoon yellow mustard, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 tablespoon flour, pinch of sugar, and a pinch of caycup of sour
enne pepper. Rub all together until light. Add
cup of vinegar. Put over a
cream or sweet milk will do and
fire until it comes to a boil.
Stir constantly. Take from fire and
add butter the size of an egg and beat well. When cold, add
olive oil to taste for chicken salad for salmon or fish salad, add
lemon juice, and for vegetable salad add equal parts of whipped
cream.
^
^
;
Mayonnaise Dressing for
Two
Break the yolk of a fresh egg into a small deep bowl and add
teaspoon salt.
4 tablespoons salad oil, 1 tablespoon vinegar,
Whip with an egg beater 1 minute.
^
French Dressing
4 tbsp. salad
1 tbsp.
lemon
/^ tsp. salt
oil
^
juice
tsp.
pepper
Put salt and pepper in a bowl and stir oil into it until it is
Add lemon juice and stir until it thickens. This
dissolved.
dressing must be used at once.
Tomato and Cheese Salad
Mash cream
cheese and moisten with sweet cream, season with
and pepper and chopped green peppers. Roll into small
balls, put inside of ripe tomatoes, and pour a French dressing over
salt
all.
Tomato
Jelly Salad
quart can of tomatoes, boiled 30 minutes, flavored with one
teaspoon sugar, a little salt and pepper and 5 cloves.
Soak Ys box of silver white gelatine in cold water and add, stirring until dissolved; add 2 tablespoons of vinegar and strain.
Pour into small wet molds and harden, serve individually on
lettuce leaves with mayonnaise dressing.
1
bay
leaf, 3^
Salad of Salmon
Buy
a slice of salmon 4 inches thick fold in a cloth, put in a
water and cook slowly for 10 or 15 minutes. Refrom kettle and when cold place the fish in a deep platter
;
kettle of cold
move
surrounded with crisp lettuce leaves. Cover with mayonnaise
dressing and garnish with capers, pitted olives, hard-boiled eggs
cut in quarters and lemons cut in the same way.
33
Lobster Salad
Cut lobster meat in small pieces, mix with oil dressing and
place on ice. When ready to serve, place a tablespoonful of the
lobster meat on a leaf of lettuce, cover with mayonnaise dressing,
and garnish with hard boiled eggs.
Fruit Salad
Yz can pineapple
3 apples
Yz head celery
oranges
3
Add Yz cup
Mix with a
Cut all in small pieces.
a lemon and salt to taste.
serve immediately.
of walnut meats, juice of
thick cream dressing and
Salmon Salad
1 can
salmon flaked
lemon juice
^
fine
1 tbsp.
tbsp. vinegar
Salt
and pepper
to taste
into parts and set away. When ready to serve, place
lettuce leaves and cover with cream dressing.
Form
on
Potato Salad
Cut potatoes in half-inch cubes. Season with salt and pepper
and mix with salad dressing. Place in a salad bowl, on lettuce
leaves, garnish with hard-boiled eggs sliced, or with radishes
cut in rose shape, or with sprigs of parsley, or all three may be
used.
Beet Salad
Take 6 cold boiled beets and chop fine. Add 3 hard-boiled eggs
chopped, and mix with salad dressing. Line a salad bowl with
chilled leaves of lettuce and place the salad in the bowl. Garnish
with rings made of the whites of 3 hard-boiled eggs and put the
yokes through the potato ricer and place on top.
Cabbage Salad
Soak one-half of a small, hard cabbage in cold water for 30
Shred it fine with a sharp knife or vegetable shredder,
and mix a cupful of hot salad dressing with it. Serve cold.
minutes.
Rice Salad
To 3 cups cold boiled rice add 1 cup finely diced beets, 1 cup
chopped celery and a sliced cucumber. Green peas, lima beans, or
any fresh vegetable may be used with rice for a foundation. Add
dressing enough to moisten well.
84
Banana Salad
Peel as many bananas as you have people to serve. Roll in
Place in a lettuce leaf a
nuts which have been chopped fine.
banana which has been rolled, cover with salad dressing and
sprinkle on a
few more
nuts.
Tomato Salad
Scoop out the tops of as many good sized tomatoes as you have
people to serve, and fill the cavity with chopped walnut meats.
Put each on a lettuce leaf, add salad dressing to your taste and
sprinkle over all chopped green peppers.
Waldorf Salad
Clean a bunch of celery and a head of lettuce, and keep fresh
wet napkin on ice. When ready to serve, cut the celery in
crescent-shaped pieces and mix with diced apple and crumpled
pecans or walnuts. Mix with mayonnaise dressing. Line a glass
salad bowl with the lettuce and arrange salad in a mound in the
center, cover with mayonnaise dressing and garnish with thin
rings or crescents of red-skinned apple, celery tips, and whole
nut meats.
in a
Tunny Fish Salad
To one can of tunny fish add an equal amount of chopped
Mix well with salad dressing. If tomatoes are in season,
this may be served in a tomato shell and garnish with a sprig of
celery.
parsley.
Vegetable Salad
Place crisp lettuce leaves on a flat dish. Slice raw tomatoes,
sliced cucumbers, then another layer of tomatoes.
oil dressing and garnish with hard-boiled eggs.
add a layer of
Serve with an
Chicken Salad
Cut cold chicken into small
and serve on
^
amount of chopped
add
and pepper. Mix with dressing
pieces,
celery, 3 hard-boiled eggs, salt
crisp lettuce leaves.
Mock Chicken
Salad
cold roast pork or veal, mix with equal part of chopped
and 2 hard-boiled eggs. Add salt and pepper and cover
Chop
celery,
with y^ can of green peas.
Serve with dressing.
35
Nut Salad
Chop nuts and mix with an equal
Add baby
pitted olives
quantity of chopped celery.
and serve on
lettuce with
mayonnaise
dressing.
Watermelon Salad
Cut the heart of a thoroughly
chilled watermelon into cubes and
put in a salad bowl. Sprinkle with 1 cup sugar, Yz teaspoon salt,
grated nutmeg, and pour over all the juice of 3 large oranges.
^
Macedoine Salad
Cold cooked peas, carrots, beets, string beans ; almost any cold
vegetables may be combined in this salad.
Cut beets and carrots in half-inch cubes, string beans and celery
in short lengths, mix each vegetable separately with French or
cream dressing, and arrange them in sections, forming a circular
mound. Let vegetables of contrasting color come next each
other.
Garnish with radishes, celery tips, lettuce leaves, etc.
Stuffed
Tomato Salad
Scald and peel tomatoes slice off the tops and scrape out their
Fill the cavities heaping full with sliced celery or cucumber mixed with mayonnaise dressing. Arrange on a platter or
on separate plates in nests of tender lettuce leaves.
;
seeds.
Stuffed
Banana Salad
Take
firm, smooth-skinned bananas and remove the skin careDice the pulp and mix with chopped nuts and salad dressing.
Replace the pulp in the skins and garnish with celery tips
and serve on lettuce leaves.
fully.
Tutti-Frutti Salad
Arrange on a platter in any tasteful manner sliced pineapple,
bananas, oranges, grapes, and any other fruits in season. Make
a syrup and pour over it. The syrup, in a few hours, penetrates
the juice and absorbs the flavor of each in a measure and is
delicious.
Pineapple Salad
remove the center and place a slice on a lettuce
the center with cream dressing.
Serve on individual
Slice pineapple,
leaf.
Fill
plates.
36
BREAD AND ROLLS
White Bread
or
cups flour
Yi cup cold water
Yz cup milk
3
2
3)^2
^
lukewarm water
cake compressed yeast
tbsp.
Yz tsp, salt
Scald the milk; sift and measure the flour; put the salt in a
bowl and pour the milk on it. Add the cold water, then the yeast
mixed thoroughly and smoothly with the warm water. After
stirring all together, stir in enough flour to make a drop batter.
Beat this batter until it is full of bubbles then beat in gradually
enough more flour to make a rather soft dough. When too stiff
to beat, rub a little flour on the molding board, and turn the dough
;
out.
Dust a little flour on the dough and on the palms of
Fold the edge of the dough farthest from you toward
of the mass, immediately pressing the dough down
from you with a gentle rolling motion with the palms of
the hands.
the center
and away
the hands,
twice repeated. Turn the dough so that what was the right-hand
part of it will be farthest away from you fold over and knead
as before ; continue to do this, turning the dough and flouring the
hands, the board, and the dough, to keep the batter from sticking.
Should it stick to the board, scrape it free with a dull knife, and
flour the board anew.
Knead the dough until it does not stick
to your hands or the board, and is smooth on the surface and
feels spongy and elastic.
It should rise quickly after being indented.
Replace the dough ball in the bowl, brush the top with water,
cover the bowl with several thicknesses of cloth and set it near
the stove or in a pan of warm water, turning another pan over it.
When the dough has risen to twice its original bulk, lift it on
the board and shape into small loaves, handling lightly and using
little or no flour.
Put into pans, and let it stand in a warm place
covered with a thick, clean cloth, until it has again doubled in bulk.
When nearly risen, test the oven it should be hot enough to
turn a piece of writing paper brown in 6 minutes. Bake small
French loaves 35 minutes brick loaves, 4 inches thick, 50 to 60
minutes. Turn the pans if the bread does not bake evenly.
;
;
;
Entire
1
pt.
warm
Wheat Bread
water
2
^
Yz cup sugar
3
tsp. salt
yeast cake
pts. sifted flour
In the morning mold into 2 loaves, let
twice the size of the original loaf and bake in a moderate
oven 1^ hours.
Put
rise
to rise at night.
till
37
Graham Bread
1
1
^
1
^
cup sour milk
cup sweet milk
soda
yi cup sugar
1
tsp.
Add enough graham
for cake.
flour to
make a
cup molasses
tsp. salt
cup wheat flour
batter a
little
thicker than
Add boiling water to oats, shortening and molasses, and let
stand an hour, or until cool. Add yeast and mix stiff, with bread
flour.
In the morning knead into loaves and bake 1 hour. This
recipe
makes
3 loaves.
Rye Bread
Make sponge
it
as for wheat bread, let rise over night, then mix
with rye flour (not so stiff as wheat bread), and bake in a
moderate oven.
Plain Bread Rolls, Finger Rolls and Bread Sticks
Shape from white bread dough after
its
first rising.
Cut or
pull off pieces the size of an egg; draw up and pinch the edges
together, forming balls; then with your hand roll each into a
cylindrical shape on the board.
Put into French roll pans, let
rise until more than doubled in bulk, and bake from 12 to 15
minutes. Or, put the balls on a flat pan, and when they have risen,
cut a cleft nearly an inch deep across the top of each one. Bake
12 to 15 minutes. For finger rolls, roll pieces of dough half the
size of an egg into cylinders five inches long.
For bread sticks,
roll out sticks about half an inch thick and five or six inches long.
Bake these and finger rolls 10 minutes. The oven may be a little
hotter for rolls than for loaves.
Hot Cross .Buns
cup scalded milk
%. cup sugar
1
1
2
tbsp shortening
1
tbsp. salt
-)4
5^ yeast cake dissolved in
Cover and let
cross on each.
rise
tbsp cinnamon
cups flour
1 egg
J4 cup raisins
cup warm water
3
%
over night.
Make
into biscuits
and cut a
Rusks
2 cups raised
1
dough
cup sugar
Flour to make a
j^ cup butter
2 eggs well beaten
stiff
dough
Set to rise and when light mold into high biscuit, and let rise
again ; sift sugar and cinnamon over the top, and place in oven.
Italian Rolls
1
pound bread dough
}i
Work
pound butter
the butter into the dough and roll out half an inch thick.
Cut in strips nearly an inch wide and seven or eight inches long;
sift fine corn meal over them and place apart in a buttered tin
and when light bake in a quick oven.
39
Coffee Rolls
Work
rounded tablespoon of butter and Yz cup of sugar into
bread dough. Add some dried currants (well washed
and dried in the oven), sift some flour and sugar over them, work
into the other ingredients, and make into small rolls.
Dip into
melted butter, place in tins, let rise a short time and bake.
1
1 quart of
Wheat
Entire
cup entire wheat
cup white flour
Yi cup sugar
Muffins
1
4
tsp.
1
1
t.gg
V/^ cups milk
4 tbsp. melted butter
34 tsp, salt
Bake
baking powder
in hot muffin tins
20 minutes.
Popovers
1
1
cup flour
cup milk
J4 tsp. salt
2 eggs
(Set popover cups on the stove to heat). Put the flour in a
make a well in the center of it drop in salt and then the
unbeaten eggs. Add the milk gradually, stirring in widening
circles from the center.
Bake in buttered muffin pans or in
earthen cups, in a hot oven for 30 minutes.
bowl
;
;
Tea
2 cups flour
3 tsp. baking
^
Biscuit
Yz tsp. salt
1 tbsp. butter
cup milk (or milk and water.)
powder
powder and salt together. Rub in the
butter (which should be cold and firm) with the tips of the fingers, or cut with a knife, until the mixture looks like meal. Pour
in milk slowly, cutting, not stirring, the mass with a knife.
As
soon as one portion of the flour becomes slightly moistened, push
it aside.
When all is moist, turn out on a floured board. Knead
it for a minute with the hands.
Pat and roll it lightly with a
rolling pin to a thickness of ^4 of an inch.
Cut into biscuit with
a small biscuit cutter dipped in flour. Bake on a pan for 12 or
15 minutes in a hot oven.
Sift the flour, baking
Plain Muffins
2 cups flour
3 tsp. baking
J^ tsp. salt
1 tbsp. butter
powder
y^
cup milk
Mix and sift the flour, baking powder and salt. Stir in enough
milk to make a drop batter, beat well, and add the butter melted.
Bake about 20 minutes,
40
Egg
1^
Muffins
cups flour
tsp. baking powder
2
1
1
1 tbsp.
Yi tsp. salt
Mix and
cup milk
egg
melted butter
dry ingredients. Separate the egg; beat the yolk
to a stiff froth. Stir the milk, beaten yolk,
and melted butter in the order named, into the dry ingredients.
Lastly, fold in the beaten whites. Bake in muffin pans 25 minutes.
slightly
sift
and the white
Com
^
Meal Muffins
cups corn meal
Yz tsp. salt
1
cup
flour
2
tsp.
baking powder
1
1
cup milk
tbsp. butter
Scald half the milk. Separate the egg, and beat the white to a
Put the corn meal in a bowl, make a well in the center,
into the well put the salt and butter.
Stir in the scalded milk.
Add the yolk unbeaten, the cold milk and the flour and baking
powder sifted together. Beat well and fold in the beaten whites.
Bake in a hot oven 30 minutes.
stiff froth.
Singing Corn Cake
Two
One
One
One
One
cups of Indian meal one cup of wheat,
cup sour milk, one cup of sweet,
good egg that you will beat,
half cup of molasses, too,
half cup sugar add thereto,
With one spoon of butter new.
Salt and soda, each a spoon.
Mix it quickly, bake it soon.
Sponge Corn Cake
Yi tsp, each of soda and salt
1 cup flour
2 eggs
1 tbsp. melted butter
1
J4 cup corn meal
cup sour milk
Bake intern pans.
Griddle Cakes
2 cups flour
1 tsp.
Y^ tsp. salt
2 cups sour milk
baking soda
1
Put the griddle where
^gg
by the time the cakes are
mixed. Sift the flour, salt and soda together. Beat the egg well.
Stir the milk into the flour. Add the beaten egg, and beat it all
together until well mixed. Bake by spoonfuls on a hot griddle.
it
will be hot
41
When
the cakes are full of bubbles on top, and brown on one side,
turn them over with a broad knife or cake turner.
If large
bubbles rise in the top at once, the griddle is too hot. If the top
of the cake stiffens before the under side is brown, the griddle is
not hot enough. Never turn a cake twice a twice turned cake
will be heavy.
Serve the cakes as soon as they are baked, piled (not more than
six to eight together) on a hot plate.
Serve with butter and
syrup, or butter and sugar.
In making griddle cakes with sweet milk, omit the soda, and add
2 teaspoons of baking powder and 1 tablespoon of melted butter.
;
Rice Griddle Cakes
%
cups flour
Dissolve yeast and sugar in lukewarm water, add lard or
and half the flour. Beat until smooth, then add salt and
balance of the flour, or enough to make dough that can be
handled. Knead until smooth and elastic. Place in greased bowl,
cover and set aside in a moderately warm place, free from draft,
until light
about 1^?^ hours. Mould into loaves. Place in wellgreased bread pans, filling them half full. Cover and let rise
Bake 45 to 60 minutes. If a
1 hour, or until double in bulk.
richer loaf is desired, use milk in place of part or all of the
water.
butter,
—
Sally
Lunn
compressed yeast
scalded and
2 cups milk,
cooled
4 tbsp. butter, melted
4 cups sifted flour
2 eggs
1 tbsp. sugar
1 tsp, salt
1 cake
Dissolve yeast and sugar in lukewarm milk. Add butter, then
eggs well beaten, and the salt. Beat until perfectly smooth.
Pour into well-greased pans. Cover and let rise in a warm
place, free from draft, until double in bulk
about 1% hours.
Sprinkle 1 tbsp. granulated sugar over top and bake 20 minutes
in hot oven.
Serve hot. Break apart with fork. This recipe
will fill two medium cake pans.
flour,
—
Oatmeal Muffins
1
cake compressed yeast
1
%
%
y^ cup lukewarm water
3 tbsp. sugar
2 tbsp. butter
1
cup rolled oats
cup whole wheat flour
cup sifted white flour
tsp. salt
1
cup hot milk
Boil oats and butter in milk 1 minute. Let stand until lukeDissolve yeast and sugar in lukewarm water, and combine the two mixtures. Add flour and salt, and beat well. The
batter should be thick enough to drop heavily from the spoon.
Cover and let rise until light, about 1 hour, in a moderately warm
place.
Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full.
Let rise
about 40 minutes, bake 25 minutes in a moderately hot oven.
warm.
Waffles
%
4 tbsp. melted butter
2 tsp. baking powder
tsp. salt
2 eggs
1^
2 cups flour
Mix
cups milk
flour with baking powder.
Beat the yolks of eggs, add
butter and milk. Add this mixture gradually to dry ingredients,
beating thoroughly.
When well mixed fold in stiffly beaten
whites of eggs. Pour from a pitcher into center of hot, wellgreased waffle iron. Serve with maple syrup.
43
;
CROQUETTES, FRITTERS AND
PATTIES
Articles of food to be fried are usually covered with egg and
crumbs, flour or meal, to protect them from absorbing the
Use
a deep frying pan or kettle.
the articles to be fried,
but they
may
hung on a long handle
it
fat.
wire frying basket to hold
fork,
is
convenient
be lowered into the fat with a wire egg beater.
the fat into a cold kettle and bring
Have
A
Put
to the right degree of heat.
several sheets of soft paper ready on a pan, also a pan to
hold under the food as
it
is
begins to smoke, drop into
taken from the
it
fat.
When
the fat
an inch cube of white bread.
If
becomes a golden brown in forty seconds, it is right for croquettes and other articles of cooked material, and for fish and
oysters. If it takes sixty seconds, it is right for fritters and most
other uncooked articles. Three croquettes can be fried at once
More will cool the fat below the
in a three-quart saucepan.
soaking point. When all the grease has been absorbed by the
paper, arrange the food on a platter, and garnish with parsley;
in the case of fish or oysters, with parsley and lemon.
this
Chicken Croquettes
2 cups chicken, chopped fine
1 cup thick white sauce
1 tsp.
Few
Salt
onion juice
grains grated
and pepper
nutmeg
to taste
Add seasoning to the chicken, mix with hot white sauce, and
turn on to a platter to cool. When cold, form into cylinders or
Stick
cones, roll in egg and bread crumbs, and fry in deep fat.
a small sprig of parsley in each one. They may be served with
white sauce poured around them.
Potato Croquettes
2
2
5^2
cups mashed potato
Pinch of pepper
%
tbsp. butter
tsp.
celery salt
10 drops onion juice
1 egg
tsp. salt
Beat the egg, mix it with the potato and add the other ingrediHeat the mixture in a saucepan, stirring, and when it
cleaves from the sides of the pan turn out on a flat dish. When
cold, shape into cylinders 3 inches long. Roll in egg and crumbs
ents.
and
fry.
44
Rice Croquettes
Mix
cup of cooked rice with 1 beaten egg, and 1 tablespoon
These croquettes
in hot lard and take up on paper.
are to be eaten with meat.
flour.
1
Fry
Salmon Croquettes
To 1 can of salmon take 1 egg and 3 icrackers rolled fine, add
Mix
2 tablespoons cream and 2 tablespoons of melted butter.
till smooth, roll in crumbs and fry till brown.
Salmon Croquettes
>2 cup fine bread crumbs
Part of 1 lemon
Salt and pepper
1 can salmon
1 egg beaten
Drain the fish and mince. Melt and work in the butter, season,
and if too dry moisten with the liquor of fish. Add crumbs.
Form into rolls, flour and roll in crumbs. Put on ice for an hour.
Fry in hot fat and garnish with parsley.
Ham Croquettes
1
1
cup
egg
ham chopped
2 cups
fine
1
mashed potato
cup bread crumbs
1 tbsp. butter
Make into rolls, dip in beaten egg, then in bread crumbs, and
fry in hot fat.
Fritters
Mix and
sift 1 pint of flour, 1 teaspoon sugar, >4 teaspoon soda,
teaspoon cream tartar. Beat 1 egg very lightly and add J^
Stir this into the flour and add 1 tablespoon of
pint of milk,
(Apples, peaches,
olive oil. Drop pieces of fruit into the batter.
Drop spoonfuls of the
bananas, or pineapple may be used.)
batter with fruit in hot fat and fry till brown. Remove from fat
and drain on paper. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve
with syrup or with a sauce made of the fruit juice.
and
1
Com
Fritters
J4 tsp. paprika
1 tsp. baking powder
2 eggs
1 can corn
1 tsp. salt
1
cup flour
Chop corn. Add dry ingredients mixed and sifted, then add
yolks of eggs beaten, until thick and fold in whites of the eggs
beaten stiff. Cook in a frying pan in »hot fat.
45
Chicken Patties
Make a rich pie crust, line patty pans and bake in a moderate
oven. Cut cold cooked chicken in bits and cream in a rich white
sauce. Pour into patties and serve after seasoning with salt and
pepper to taste.
Dresden Patties
Cut
stale
bread or biscuit into 2 inch
slices,
shape with a round
cutter and remove center, making cases. Dip cases in egg slightly
diluted with milk and seasoned with salt.
When the bread is
soaked, drain and fry in deep fat.
Fill with creamed oysters,
chicken, or creamed vegetable.
Oyster Patties
Make patty cups of rich pie crust and bake. Just before serving fill with creamed oysters. Vegetable patties may be made in
the same way by creaming them in a rich white sauce and serving
in patty cups.
Cheese Balls
3
eggs (whites)
1%
%
tsp. salt
Cayenne (dash)
Bread crumbs
1
tbsp. flour
1
tsp.
cups grated dairy cheese
Parmesan cheese
Beat eggs until stiff, add other ingredients and roll in crumbs.
into %-inch balls.
Fry in deep fat. Serve with salad, 2
Makes 18 balls.
balls on a plate.
Form
46
BREAKFAST AND LUNCHEON
DISHES
Cereals
Oatmeal
Cereals are the most important of vegetable foods.
and cornmeal, having more fat than other grains, are good winter
On
foods.
is
account of
strong and indigestible
its
fiber,
oatmeal
less nutritious than other grains except for strong, hard-work-
ing people.
Cereals should absorb
moist
when
all
the water they are cooked
in.
If too
nearly done, cook uncovered for a time.
To improve
rice, farina,
or hominy,
15 minutes before taking from the
fire
^4 cup of milk about
and leave the cover off
all
than to eat them under
stir in
during the rest of the time.
It is better
not to eat cereals at
Sugar, a heat giver,
cooked.
is
not needed with cereals milk and
;
cream, on the other hand, supply fat and substances, of which
cereals have
little.
Whole Oatmeal
1
cup oatmeal
4 cups water
1 tsp. salt
Put the water with the salt in the upper part of the double
boiler and set it directly over the heat. When it boils, stir in the
oatmeal, put the parts of the boiler together and cook over night
or 6 hours by a day fire. Reheat in the morning.
Steamed Oatmeal
Soak the oatmeal
and steam 3 hours.
in the
water for several hours, add the
salt
Hominy
1
cup hominy
4 cups water
1
tsp. salt
Put the water and the salt together and bring
in the hominy and steam 4 hours.
to a boil.
Stir
Rice Omelet
3
eggs
1
cup milk
^
1 tbsp. butter
1 tbsp. flour
cooked rice
Beat yolks and whites separately, add milk, flour and salt.
this to a pint of cooked rice.
Bake 30 minutes.
tsp. salt
1 pt.
47
Add
Glorified
4 eggs
Eggs
1 cup milk
Butter size of walnut
1 tsp. salt
Beat the eggs until light, add the other ingredients and put in
a double boiler. Do not stir. When mixture is firm it is ready
to serve. Turn on a hot platter and serve at once.
French Omelet
4 eggs
4 tbsp. water
Yi tsp. salt
grains pepper
1 tbsp. butter
Few
Beat the eggs lightly, add water, salt and pepper. Melt the
butter in a hot omelet pan without letting it brown. Turn in the
eggs, shake the pan gently, and as the ^gg thickens, lift it lightly
with a fork or knife letting the uncooked part run underneath.
The omelet should slip on the pan without sticking anywhere.
When creamy all through roll it up, rolling toward the left side
of the pan. Hold a hot platter over the edge of the pan and turn
the pan and the platter over so that the omelet will fall in the
center of the platter. Garnish with parsley and serve at once.
Omelet
and whites
beaten separately
1 cup sweet milk
5 eggs, yokes
1 tbsp. flour
with a
mixed smoothly
little
milk
1 tsp. salt
Beat thoroughly. Add the whites last. Pour into a buttered
spider and when partly done turn over. Cook a light brown.
Baked Omelet
cup milk
6 eggs
1
1 tbsp. butter
1 tsp. salt
1 tbsp. flour
Melt the butter. Add the flour and when smooth add the milk
and stir until thickened and creamy. Remove from fire and set
aside to cool. Separate the eggs, beating the yolks until light and
the whites stiff.
Fold the yolks into the sauce and then the
whites. Put into a baking dish and bake in a moderate oven 20
minutes. Serve immediately in the dish in which it was baked.
Macaroni with Boiled
Ham
Boil 1 cup of macaroni broken in inch pieces in salted water
Drain and dash cold water over it to separate the
pieces. Make a sauce of 1 cup of scalded milk, 2 tbsp. butter, and
3 tbsp. flour. Put a layer of macaroni in a baking dish,, cover
until soft.
48
with sauce and sprinkle liberally with cold boiled ham which has
been chopped and grated cheese. Continue until the materials
are used, cover the top with buttered crumbs and bake until
brown.
Macaroni and Tomatoes
Boil macaroni in salted water until soft. Add the same amount
of tomatoes as macaroni and let simmer on the back of the stove.
Just before serving add 1 cup of sweet cream and let heat for
3 minutes and serve.
Macaroni and Tomatoes
Boil Yz pound of macaroni until soft.
Rinse in cold water
and place a layer of macaroni on the bottom of a buttered baking
dish.
Salt and pepper, add a layer of tomatoes and continue
until the materials are all used. Pour a thin white sauce over all,
cover with buttered crumbs and bake until brown.
Macaroni and Cheese
Boil Y^ cup of macaroni in salted water until soft. Drain in
a strainer and rinse in cold water. Put a layer of macaroni in a
buttered baking dish and sprinkle with grated cheese.
Repeat
until the materials have been used.
Pour 1 cup of white sauce
over the top, cover with buttered crumbs and bake until brown.
"Cleave to that which
is
Good"
cup Mark 8:8.
1 cup Genesis 49 13, mixed with 1 tbsp. I Kings 4 23.
3 Isaiah 10:14 (Genesis 37:40 and Job 6:6, Prov. 33:14,
1
:
:
Genesis 13 9). Lev. 3 13 to
20 minutes of I Sam. 38 34.
:
:
taste.
:
Eggs Vermicelli
Separate the whites and yokes of 4 hard-boiled eggs. Chop the
whites and rub yolks through a sieve. Melt a tablespoon of butter
and when bubbling add a tablespoon of flour gradually, a cup of
milk, stirring well, and salt and pepper to season. Add the whites
to this sauce and spread thickly on buttered toast, then sprinkle
the yolks over the top.
Scrambled Eggs
Toast thin slices of bread, moisten the edges with hot salted
water or milk, arrange on hot plates and butter slightly. Beat
the yolks of 4 eggs, add 4 tbsp. thin cream,
tsp. salt, then fold
in the well-beaten whites.
Melt a little butter in a saucepan, add
the mixture and as it cooks draw the thickened portion toward
the center. Take up by the spoonful and lay on the toast.
^
49
Dropped Eggs
Have a pan of hot water ready. Salt the water that the eggs
may keep round and even. Drop in as many eggs as desired and
cook till the whites are firm. Lift out carefully and serve on toast
or on a hot platter garnished with parsley.
Bird's Nests
Beat the white of an egg
little salt
and brown
and heap
it on a slice of buttered
the yolk in the center, add a
in a quick oven.
stiff
toast in the shape of a nest.
Drop
Stuffed
Boil eggs hard.
mash
fine.
Mix
Cut
Eggs
in halves lengthwise,
remove yolks and
with cream salad dressing and
refill
the whites.
Serve on lettuce leaves.
Tomato and Egg
Place tomato from which pulp has been removed in ramekin
dish ; sprinkle with salt and pepper and drop egg into the cup in
the tomato. Bake in a moderate oven with ramekin covered with
buttered paper and set in a pan of hot water.
Bread and Cheese
Line a baking dish with slices of dry bread and butter, cover
with 1 cup of dairy cheese cut up fine, a little mustard, salt and
pepper. Pour over this 1 cup of milk to which have been added
2 well-beaten eggs, and as much more milk as the bread will
soak up. Bake in a quick oven until it rises and seems firm.
(About y2 hour.)
Cheese Fondue
cup scalded milk
cup soft stale bread crumbs
34 lb. mild cheese cut in small
1
1
pieces
1 tbsp. butter
3^ tsp. salt
3 eggs, yolks and
beaten separately
whites
the cheese and the crumbs with the milk. Add the butter
and the yolks of the eggs. Fold in the whites and pour
into a buttered baking dish. Bake 20 minutes.
Mix
and
salt
Cheese Ramekin
Yolks of 2 eggs
Whites of 3 eggs beaten stiff
j^ tsp. mustard
Salt and pepper to taste
4 tbsp. grated cheese
2 tbsp. butter
1 gill milk
4 tbsp. bread crumbs
Put the bread and milk on and boil until smooth. Add cheese
and butter. Cook over fire 1 minute, remove and add seasoning
50
and the yolks of the eggs. Stir the whites in carefully. Pour in
a buttered dish and bake 15 minutes in a quick oven. Serve immediately.
Cheese Souffle
Put 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan, add 1 heaping tablecup milk, }^ teaspoon salt, and
spoon flour. When smooth add
a few grains of cayenne. Cook 2 minutes. Add the yolks of 3
Set away to cool.
eggs well beaten and 1 cup grated cheese.
When cold add the whites beaten to a stifif froth. Turn into a
buttered dish and bake 25 or 30 minutes. Serve at once.
^
Potato
2 cups hot or cold
PufiF
mashed
3 tbsp. cream
Salt and pepper to taste
potatoes
2 eggs
Put the potatoes in a frying pan, add yolks of eggs, cream and
Take from fire, add the egg
seasoning, stir until well mixed.
whites (beaten stiff), heap in a buttered baking dish or gem pans
and bake
oven
in a quick
until nicely
browned.
Cold Meat and Potatoes
good sized potatoes. Mash light and fine, add
butter the size of an egg, 1 cup of hot milk, and salt and pepper
Beat up light and spread on a hot platter. Place on
to taste.
this slices of cold meat with a tablespoon of gravy on each slice.
Put a little gravy around the dish and set it in a hot oven for 5
Pare and
boil G
minutes.
Rice and Cheese
Cook
1
cup of
white sauce of
until thick.
water if any. Make a
cup of milk and cook
pound of cheese grated fine. Put a layer of
rice
and
strain off the
1 tbsp. butter, 1 tbsp. flour, 1
Add
^
rice in a buttered dish, then a layer of sauce until all
Season with a
bit of
red pepper and
salt
to taste.
is
used.
Bake 20
minutes.
Fish Balls
cup codfish, 1 quart raw potatoes cut in slices. Put in cold
water and boil. Drain and mash fine. Add butter the size of an
Mix with a
egg, a dash of red pepper and 2 well-beaten eggs.
large spoon and fry brown in boiling fat.
1
Meat Popovers
cup of any kind cold meat finely chopped. Make a batter of
2 eggs, 1 cup of flour, 1 cup of milk, a little salt and a pinch of
cayenne. Beat well and stir into the meat. Bake in hot gem pans
1
15 minutes.
51
Lamb
Chop cold lamb and add
over, seasoning to taste. In
a layer of bread crumbs and
is used.
Add a small lump
crumbs and bake.
Scallop
any gravy that may have been left
a dish put a layer of the meat, then
a layer of cooked tomatoes, until all
of butter to the top layer of bread
Walnut
2 cups walnut meats ground
Lioaf
1 egg
Salt and pepper to taste
fine
Onion
2 cups bread crumbs
if
liked
Add
a mixing spoon of butter. Mix dry ingredients, add milk
to make moist, put in a buttered tin and cover with bread crumbs
and dot with butter. Bake 1 hour and serve as meat with tomato
sauce or plain if preferred.
Celery Sauce for
Nut Loaf
Brown 3 tablespoons flour in 3 tablespoons butter, add 1%
cups of meat stock or cream in which bits of celery have been
cooked. Season and strain.
Scalloped
Haddock
Boil 4 pounds of haddock in salted water with 1 tablespoon vinegar for 15 minutes, then pick apart and flake. Make a white
sauce of 1 pint of milk, 1 pint of cream and 4 tablespoons flour.
Cook until it thickens and add a little salt. Butter a baking dish
and put in a layer of fish, then one of sauce until both are used
up, adding a little pepper each time. Cover the top with buttered
crumbs and bake
until
brown.
Pigs in a Blanket
Take very
an oyster up in each piece,
pin together with a toothpick and bake in a hot oven until brown.
Arrange on a platter, garnish with parsley and serve at once.
thinly sliced bacon, roll
Baked Eggs with Cheese
Break 4 eggs into buttered ramekin and pour 1 tablespoon of
cream over each egg. Place ramekin in a pan of water and cook
Sprinkle with cheese
in the oven until whites begin to thicken.
and bread crumbs and continue cooking until brown.
Cheese Potato Puff
To
cup baked mashed potato add 2 to 3 tablespoons milk, 1
cup grated cheese. Beat until light.
egg' y2 teaspoon salt,
Refill skins and brown.
1
^
52
PUDDINGS AND SAUCES
Plain Bread Pudding
3 cups stale bread
1 qt. scalded milk
Yi cup sugar
2 eggs
crumbs
without crust, grated or
rubbed
or
y^ tsp. salt
1
cup dried crumbs
Beat the eggs slightly; beat into them the sugar and add the
milk, spice, and salt. When the crumbs become soft, turn into a
buttered dish, and bake until a knife inserted in the pudding
comes out
clean.
—
1. Add one cupful of boiled
Variations of Bread Pudding.
raisins, citron and currants mixed.
Beat
2. Separate the eggs, add only the yolks to the pudding.
the whites stiflf beat into them two and a half tablespoonf uls of
powdered sugar, spread them roughly over the pudding, and
return it to the oven for two minutes, or till a deHcate brown.
Like variation 2, except omit spice,
3. Queen of puddings.
flavor with one and a half tablespoonf uls of lemon juice and
spread it over with jam or jelly before covering it with the mer;
ingue.
Bread Puddings are baked custards thickened with bread
crumbs.
They should be
soft, like custard.
Plain Soft Custard
6 tbsp. sugar
Vs tsp. salt
y2 tsp. vanilla
2 cups scalded milk
3 tgg yolks
slightly, beat into them the sugar and salt, and
slowly the hot milk. Pour into a double boiler, and cook,
stirring constantly, until the custard is thick enough to coat the
spoon. Strain at once through a fine strainer into a cold pitcher.
When cool stir in the vanilla, and pour into a glass dish or glass
custard cups for serving.
Beat the eggs
stir in
Apple Tapioca
4
tbsp. pearl or granulated
^
cup sugar
cinnamon or nutmeg
/4 tsp.
tapioca
6 tart apples
1 pint boiling water
Few
grains salt
Soak the tapioca over night in a cupful of cold water. Core
and pare the apples, slice one of them, and cook it with the tapioca
in the boiling water till the latter is translucent. Place the rest of
the apples upright in a buttered baking-dish, sprinkle over them
63
the sugar and spice, pour over them the tapioca mixture, and bake
Serve with sugar and cream.
till they are tender.
Cup Custard (For
three)
1^ cups milk, warmed, 1 egg beaten light with 2 tbsp. sugar.
Beat all together until very light, sprinkle nutmeg on top or add
vanilla then put in ramekins and bake in oven in pan of boiling
water until firm.
;
Delmonico Pudding
3 cups milk
3 crackers
3 eggs well beaten
^
cup desiccated cocoanut
>4 cup sugar
5^ tsp. salt
Pour into a buttered pudding dish. Sprinkle some of the cocoanut on top and some grated nutmeg. Bake about 5^ hour, standing dish in a pan of hot water. Use large cup in measuring.
English Plum Pudding
j/2
lb.
suet chopped fine
cups sugar, 1 pint sweet milk. Cook this like thick custard and
when cold pour over the oranges. Beat the whites of eggs with
Yz cup sugar and brown in the oven.
Cornstarch Meringue
^
quart milk
54 cup cornstarch
3 eggs
1
cup granulated sugar
1
tsp. vanilla extract
6
tbsp.
powdered sugar
Scald the milk in a double boiler, and stir into it the cornstarch
Cook directly over the heat till
just moistened with cold water.
Separate the
it comes to a boiling point; then remove at once.
eggs ; beat the yolks slightly by themselves, then with the granulated sugar; stir these into the thickened milk, cook all together
for one minute, add the vanilla, and pour into a baking dish.
Beat the whites till frothy, add the
For the Meringue.
powdered sugar, and beat again. When stiff enough to hold its
shape, spread the meringue over the pudding, heaping it in the
middle, sprinkle with powdered sugar, and brown slightly in a
warm oven. Serve cold.
Creamy Rice Pudding
1
Yz cup sugar
Grated nutmeg few grains
quart milk
Yi cup rice
54 tsp. salt
Wash the rice. Mix the ingredients in a pudding dish and bake
for three or four hours, stirring in a brown crust as it forms. Or
cook slowly for a shorter time in a saucepan on the stove, stirring
Serve cold.
often.
Half a cupful of
raisins
may
be added to this recipe.
Chocolate Cocoanut Pudding
cups bread crumbs soaked
1 hour in 2 cups milk
1 t.gg and 1 yolk
Yi. cup sugar
Cook in a double boiler 1 hour.
2
Sauce. One cup powdered sugar,
and add the beaten white of 1 t%%.
1 tbsp. butter
1
square chocolate melted
3 tbsp. cocoanut
Y^-
cup butter cream together
;
Chocolate Pudding
1 pt. strong boiling coffee
strained
1
3 tbsp. cornstarch
1
dessert spoon cocoa
cup sugar
Mix cocoa and cornstarch in a little cold water. Last add 5^
teaspoon vanilla. Turn in small molds and serve with whipped
cream.
56
Chocolate Pudding without Eggs
2 cups scalded milk
2 cups bread crumbs soaked
2 tbsp, cocoa or
2 squares chocolate
1 tsp. vanilla
until soft
cup sugar
Yz
Bake about
1 hour.
Serve with hard sauce or vi^hipped cream.
Pineapple Cream.
Yz cup cold water
V/2 cups boiling water
can pineapple, grated or
1
chopped fine
1 cup sugar
3^ box gelatine
pint
1
cream
Soak the gelatine in the cold water stir the pineapple into the
boiling water and add the sugar and gelatine. Let it stand till it
thickens and cools, then beat until it looks white, stir in the
;
whipped cream and mold.
Prune Whip
Soak 1 cup prunes in warm water and cook until tender. After
removing pits cut up in fine pieces and when cold add Yi cup sugar
and Yz cup hot water, in which is dissolved 1 envelope minute
Whip
gelatine.
into this the well-beaten whites of 3 eggs.
Serve
with cream.
Raspberry Pudding
Yolks of 2 eggs
1 cup sugar
1 cup sweet milk
A
When
little
cup flour
cream of tartar
Y^ tsp. soda
1
1
tsp.
salt
baked spread with raspberry jam and frost with whites
stiff with 3 tablespoons sugar.
Eat with cream
of eggs beaten
and sugar.
Raisin Puffs
2
1
2
2
Fill
eggs
tsp.
cup sweet milk
tsp. baking powder
cup raisins chopped
1
butter
1
^
sugar
cups flour
tsp.
cups half
full.
Steam Y^ hour.
To
be eaten with sauce.
Revere Pudding
cup molasses
1 cup sweet milk
3 cups flour
Y2 cup melted butter
1
Mix
1
cup
raisins
1 tsp.
soda
2 tsp.
mixed
thoroughly together and steam 3 hours.
56
fine
spices
Rice Pudding
y2 cup uncooked
^
cup sugar
large cup seeded raisins
Salt, nutmeg and cinnamon
rice
eggs
2
1
3 pints milk
taste
Butter size of small ^g%
Bake 3^^ hours, stirring frequently until it begins to boil.
not put in the raisins until the pudding begins to thicken.
to
Do
Snow Pudding
1 cup boiling water
cornstarch dissolved in
a little water
2 beaten whites of eggs
1 tbsp.
3^ cup sugar
Cook together water and cornstarch
in double boiler till it looks
sugar and whites of eggs. Flavor with lemon.
Turn into custard cups and cool.
Sauce. One cup of milk, pinch of salt, beaten yolks of 2 eggs,
Cook in a double boiler till like a custard. Flavor
Yi. cup sugar.
with vanilla.
like starch.
Add
Steamed Suet Pudding
4 cups flour
1 tsp. soda
cup molasses
1 cup suet or butter
1 saltspoon salt
1 cup raisins
Steam 3 hours. Serve with sugar and cream or some sauce.
2 cups milk
1
Walnut Cream
^
Soak
box gelatine in J4 cup cold water for 30 minutes. Beat
the yolks of 3 eggs add a little salt, j^ cup sugar, and 1 cup of
hot milk. Cook until it thickens. Add gelatine and strain. Then
add Yi. cup walnut meats pounded pretty fine. When it begins to
thicken add another half cup walnut meats, 1 tablespoon wine and
Yz pint whipped cream. Turn into a mold to cool and serve with
;
whipped cream.
Fig Pudding
Cook 1 cup graham flour in 1 pint salted water, one hour or
more. Then add
pound of figs cut in small pieces and Yi. pound
walnut meats. Cook
hour and serve cold with whipped cream.
^
^
Charlotte Russe
Y2 envelope
Knox
sparkling gelatine, 1 cup sugar, Y^ doz. rolled
heavy cream, 1 doz. marshmallows in small
pieces, vanilla, 2 tbsp. chopped candied cherries, ^4 cup cold water,
cup boiling water. Soak
Ya lb. blanched and chopped almonds,
the gelatine in cold water, dissolve in boiling water, and add sugar.
When the mixture is cold, add cream beaten until stiff, almonds,
stale
macaroons,
1 pint
^
57
macaroons, marshmallows and candied cherries.
Flavor with
vanilla.
Turn into a mold first dipped in cold water, and chill.
Remove from mold and serve with angel cake.
Dutch Apple Cake
2 cups flour
2 tsp. cream of tartar
^2 tsp. salt
J4 cup butter
y2 tsp. soda
Sift together dry ingredients and work butter in. Add 1 egg
beaten and 1 cup of milk. Turn into a buttered pan and press
into the top apples which have been pared and quartered.
Sift
3 tablespoons of sugar and 1 tablespoon of cinnamon on top.
Bake and serve with butter or hard sauce.
Suet Pudding
cup molasses
1 cup chopped suet
Rub suet into 2}^ cups of flour, add
salt.
Bake, and serve with sour sauce.
1
1
^
1
English Pudding
1
cup milk
soda
cup raisins and a
tsp.
little
;
PUDDING SAUCES
Hot Chocolate Sauce
cup chocolate, grated
1 cup white sugar
1 cup milk or cream
1 cup brown sugar
Melt chocolate, add cream and when smooth and thick add
sugar and cook for a minute or two. Serve hot. This may be
used for vanilla ice cream.
1
Foam Sauce
7 tbsp boiling milk
cup sugar
^gg
Stir the egg and sugar together until almost white. Just before
serving stir the milk in slow.
Flavor to taste. Excellent for
apple pudding.
1
1
Pudding Sauce
%
cup butter
1
cup powdered sugar
Cream
the above ingredients together, add a small tablespoon
of boiling water and beat it until it is foamy. Flavor with vanilla.
Cocoanut Sauce
9 tbsp. butter
1
cup sugar
1
tbsp. flour
1
cup sugar
egg
}^ cup milk
2 tbsp. cocoanut
Lemon Sauce
1
Juice and rind of 1 lemon
^
pint of boiling
and just before serving add
on stove, and when at boiling point, serve. Never boil
Some add ys
sauce after adding lemon, as it makes it bitter.
of a cup of butter and a tablespoon of cornstarch.
Beat
water
;
all
together,
set
Strawberry Sauce
^2 cup butter
1^
1 pint strawberries,
cups sugar
mashed
until juicy
Beat the butter and sugar to a cream
and the beaten white of an egg.
;
then
stir in
the berries
Vinegar Sauce
13^ cups sugar
13^ tbsp. flour, in a
2 tbsp. vinegar
Quarter of a grated nutmeg
little
A
water
Pour over
pinch of
just before taking
from stove add
59
1
salt
and boil 10 minutes
dessert spoon of butter.
this 1 3^ pints of boiling water,
Whipped Cream Sauce
1 pint
Whites of
cream (thick and
2
eggs
sweet)
Whip
the cream and add the beaten whites of the eggs sweeten
place pudding in center of dish, and surround with the
sauce; or pile up in the center and surround with molded blancmange, or fruit puddings.
to taste
;
;
Hard Sauce
1 cup confectionery sugar
Cream
Make
34
Flavor with vanilla.
the above ingredients together.
into shape
and
when
slice off
cup butter
cold.
Orange Hard Sauce
Select a thin orange, cut the skin into six equal parts, by cutting
through the skin at the stem end and passing the knife around the
orange to nearly the blossom end; loosen and turn each piece
down and remove the orange. Extract juice and mix it with
butter and sugar till a ball can be formed, which place inside the
orange peel and serve.
way.
Lemon
sauce
may
made
be
in the
same
White Sauce
y2 tsp. salt
1 tbsp. flour
1 tbsp. butter
Few
grains pepper
cup milk
1
Melt butter, add flour, salt and pepper, and
milk and stir until boiling point
add
remainder of milk and cook 2 minutes.
blended
;
%
until well
reached, add
stir
is
Birown Sauce
2 tbsp. butter
y2 sliced onion
3 tbsp. flour
1
%
cup brown stock
tsp. salt
Ys tsp.
pepper
browned, remove onion, stir
Add flour mixed with
butter constantly until well browned.
Then add liquid
seasoning and brown the butter and flour.
Cook onion
in butter until slightly
gradually.
Spanish Sauce
4
4 drops pepper
stalks celery
tomatoes
2 green peppers
4 slices of good-sized onion
%
5 ripe
Cook together
baked
5 minutes.
chili
sauce
tsp. salt
pepper
cups any rich stock
^4 tsp. black
1%
This
fish.
60
is
excellent over any kind of
PASTRY
Pie Crust for
One
cup flour
1
1 tbsp. lard
y^ cup cold water
1 tsp. salt
To make
Pie
pie crust flaky spread on a
little flour on it.
Roll
lard on the top crust
and wet with water just
little
and sprinkle a
before putting in the oven.
No. 2
Pie Crust.
Yz cup lard
1
1
tsp.
baking powder
Ys cup cold water
cup flour
Y2 tsp. salt
Apple Lemon Pie
cup chopped apple
cup sugar
1
1
1
tgg
Juice and grated rind of 1
lemon
Chocolate Pie
pint milk
1
1
IY2 cups sugar
2 tbsp. corn starch
tgg
Little salt
Chocolate to taste
After baking, frost with whipped cream or meringue.
Banana Pie
Line a deep pie plate with a rich pie crust and bake. When cold
with thin slices of bananas, sprinkle with powdered sugar and
cover with whipped cream.
fill
Lemon
cup sugar
Juice and rind of
']/4
cup butter
Pie
Pinch of salt
Yolks of 2 eggs
1 cup milk
1
3
1
lemon
tbsp. flour
Beat the tgg yolks, butter, sugar and flour together, add the
lemon, then the milk and the whites of the eggs. Bake with 1 crust.
Mock Cherry Pie
1
1
1
Stew
vanilla.
cup cranberries
cup raisins
cup sugar
1
cup water
1 tbsp. flour stirred in
until the cranberries crack open.
This will not keep.
61
dry
Cool and flavor with
Raisin Pie
1
1
cup sugar
Pinch of salt
cup chopped raisins
cup boiling water
1
1 tsp. corn starch
Bake with
Vanilla to flavor
2 crusts.
Custard Pie
4 eggs
1
milk
cup sugar
1
Pinch of
the pie
In using canned fruit, use 1 cup sugar to
the juice in making a pie. Pour it in after
Pies.
Do
is
salt
1 crust.
Hint for Berry
pie.
nutmeg grated on top
Little
Bake with
a
tsp. vanilla
1 pint
not use
baked.
all
Date Pie
Ys cups sugar
dates
>2
3 eggs
lb,
Milk enough
to
make
pie as
for custard
Stew the dates until they can be mashed with a spoon. Sift
through a colander to remove stones. Then stew all the water out
and bake with 1 crust.
Cranberry Pie
1
cup cranberries cut
Cook together
1
cup sugar.
in half, 3^
5 minutes, then
Add
cup water.
or cornstarch with
teaspoon vanilla.
cup seeded
mix
to the other mixture
Lemon
raisins, 1
1 tbsp. flour
^
Pie
Dissolve 1 tbsp. cornstarch in a little cold water and add 1 cup
boiling water. Cook until it thickens. Beat together 1 cup sugar,
1 tbsp. butter, 1 Ggg, juice and grated rind of 1 lemon.
Bake with
2 crusts.
Cream Pie
1 cracker rolled fine
1 egg beaten light
1
cup cream
and sugar to
Salt
taste
Pumpkin Pie
1
1
Ggg
cup sifted pumpkin
2 tbsp. molasses
sugar to taste
tsp. ginger
%
1 tbsp. flour
Add
milk enough to fill a deep plate.
of pie when ready for the oven.
62
Sprinkle cinnamon on top
Maple Sugar Pie
1
cup maple sugar scraped
1
^
heaping
1 tbsp. butter
cup milk
Bake with
egg
1 tbsp. flour,
fine
2 crusts.
Marlborough Pie
1
%
1
2
cup sifted stewed apple
cup sugar
1 cup milk
Bake with
cup butter
well beaten eggs
Nutmeg
to taste
1 crust.
Squash Pie
2 cups boiled sifted squash
3 eggs
1 tbsp. flour
1 qt. milk
Butter size of Ggg
2 cups sugar
Mix the flour with the squash. Scald the milk and dissolve the
butter in it. Add cinnamon and nutmeg to taste. This recipe will
make 2 pies.
Rhubarb Pie
1
1
1 tbsp. flour
egg beaten
cup sugar
Bake with 2
1
cup rhubarb
crusts.
Grape Pie
iy2 cups grapes (Concord)
1 cup sugar
1 cup hot water
Separate skins from pulp.
3^6 tsp. salt
1 tbsp. butter
1 tbsp.
Cook pulp
Then add skins and above
10 minutes. Bake with 2 crusts.
easily.
cornstarch
until the seeds
remove
ingredients and cook together
Lremon Sponge Pie
1 tbsp. flour
Butter Yo size of
1
egg
1
cup milk
1
pinch
salt
Juice and rind of 1 lemon
cup sugar
2 eggs
Cream butter, flour and sugar, separate eggs and add beaten
Beat
yolks to above, with juice and rind of lemon and salt.
Bake with 1
whites of eggs and fold into above ingredients.
crust in moderate oven.
63
FROZEN DESSERTS
Ice
1
Cream
1 cup sugar
Flavor to taste
quart milk
1 pint
cream
4 eggs
Freeze in a 2-quart freezer.
Cooked Ice Cream
1 pint cream
3 tbsp. cornstarch
pints milk
4 eggs
2^ cups sugar
3
Put the milk on stove and heat; wet the cornstarch and
milk beat sugar and yolks of eggs and cook in
thoroughly cook
milk when cool add cream which has been whipped, and beaten
whites of eggs flavor and freeze.
m
;
;
;
Ice
1 quart
Cream without Eggs
milk
1 tbsp. vanilla
cream
large cup sugar
3 tbsp. cornstarch
1 pint
1
Heat the milk in a double
is cooked add the sugar,
before freezing add cream.
it
with cornstarch after
cold the vanilla, and just
boiler, thicken
after
it
is
;
Spanish Cream
1
envelope
Knox
sparkling
3 eggs
8 tbsp. sugar
1 tbsp. vanilla
gelatine
1
quart milk
Soak the gelatine in milk. Put on the fire and stir until dissolved. Add the yolks of eggs and 4 tablespoonfuls of sugar well
Remove from
beaten. Stir until it comes to the boiling point.
the stove and have whites of eggs well beaten with 4 tbsp. of
sugar.
Add whites, stirring briskly until thoroughly mixed
Flavor and turn into mold. If desired, serve with whipped cream.
This will separate and form a jelly in the bottom with a custard
on the top.
Milk Sherbet
Juice of 3 lemons and the
grated peel of 1
Juice of 1 orange
1 quart milk
1 pint sugar
Mix
Pour
all
together in the freezer and
in the
let it
milk without stirring and freeze.
G4
dissolve to a syrup.
Coffee Sponge
tbsp. granulated gelatine
2
cups coffee (strong)
2
1 cup sugar
yi cup water
Whites of 3 eggs or 1 cup of thick whipped cream. Soak the
Strain and beat until quite
gelatine, add hot coffee and sugar.
Add the whites beaten stiff or whipped cream. Mold.
stiff.
Frozen Dessert
whipped cream
cup sugar
Juice of 3 oranges
1
Pack
in salt
and
ice
1 lemon
cup chopped nuts
Juice of
pint
1
1
4 hours.
Maple Mousse
Yolks of 4 eggs, beaten
cup maple syrup
1
Beat the yolks of the eggs and add maple syrup and boil about
3 minutes.
Then add when cold 1 pint of whipped cream and
Pack in ice and salt 3 or 4
lastly add the whites beaten stiff.
hours before serving.
Trifle
1
1 cup powdered sugar
White of 1 tgg
cup strawberries or raspberries crushed
Beat together until stiff. Put on the
Enough for four people.
ice
and
chill.
Serve with
cake.
Lemon
1
Ice
1^
4 large lemons
orange
1
pounds sugar
quart water
Make a syrup of the sugar and water by boiling them together
for five minutes. Add the grated rind of the orange and lemons.
Add the juice of the orange and lemons. When the syrup is cool,
strain and freeze.
— Nut
Ices
^
envelope
Knox
Frappe
^^ cup sugar
sparkling
gelatine
1 pint cream
cup cold water
White of an egg
1
1
%
cup chopped nuts
cup pineapple
Strawberries
Soak the gelatine in the cold water five minutes and dissolve
over hot water. Add dissolved gelatine to cream and sugar and
When cold, add the pineapple
stir in beaten whites of the egg.
and strawberries which have been chopped in small pieces also,
the chopped nuts. Serve ice cold in sherbet dishes.
;
65
;
Frozen Coffee
cup coffee
cup sugar
1
%
1 tsp. vanilla
1
pint
cream
Beat the yolks of 2 eggs and add to coffee while warm. Cool
and then add sugar and vanilla. Add cream beaten stiff. Put in
freezer and pack in salt and ice and let it stand 4 hours.
Lemon
Sherbet
Juice of 5 lemons
3 cups sugar
Get the freezer
all
2^4 quarts milk
ready with
and
salt
ice,
then turn the milk
into the can, then the syrup, which has stood until the sugar has
dissolved.
Use one-half the quantity for a small family.
Ames
1
Hill Ice
Cream
small quart milk
1 pint
1
cup sugar
cream
Y) pound candied fruit cut in small pieces and soaked in the
milk, 1 wineglass sherry or brandy, 2 teaspoons of vanilla.
Banana Snow
small pieces 3 bananas, sprinkle with 1 teaspoon lemon
^4 cup of sugar.
Mash all together and add stiffly
beaten whites of 2 eggs and 1 cup cream beaten stiff. Beat all
until light and foamy. Pile in sherbet glasses and serve very cold.
Cut
juice
in
and
Cafe Frappe
pint coffee
1 pint whipped
1^
1
cream
2
cups sugar
tbsp. gelatine
Soak the gelatine 2 hours in a little water. Pour hot coffee
on gelatine, add the sugar, let it cool after mixing well, then add
the cream.
Freeze about 15 minutes.
Frozen Strawberries
3 quarts
strawberries
well
mashed
3 cups sugar
1 pint cold water
Let stand one-half hour, stirring occasionally then put in
freezer and when mostly frozen add one pint of whipped cream
finish freezing.
All kinds of berries can be used this way.
;
Marshmallow Pudding
1
heaping
tbsp.
gelatine
2 tbsp. cold water
powdered
1 cup granulated sugar
Whites of 3 eggs
1 tsp. vanilla
Dissolve gelatine in the cold water, and fill cup with boiling
water thoroughly dissolve. Into sugar break the whites of eggs
and over this pour gelatine. Add vanilla and beat constantly for
20 minutes. Serve with whipped cream in sherbet glasses, with
cherry in center of top.
;
;
BEVERAGES
Value of Tea
While not nutritious, tea is a useful food adjunct, because it
prevents tissue from wearing out.
Buy good tea cheap tea is likely to be adulterated with
1.
used tea leaves and leaves of other plants. 2. Keep it in a closely
covered glass jar or tin canister if exposed to the air it loses
never a tin
flavor.
3. Use a china, or silver, or earthen teapot
one. 4. Have the water freshly drawn, and bring it quickly to
the boiling point, water deprived of its air by standing or by
boiling gives tea a flat taste. 5. Steep it not over five minutes
;
;
;
Never
let it boil.
Directions for
Making Tea
teaspoons of tea to 3 cups of water, using
than of coarse, loose teas. When the water
boils, scald the pot, put in the tea, and pour in the boiling water,
and let it stand covered from 3 to 5 minutes on the side of the
stove or under a cosy on the table.
Iced Tea, made weak, is a wholesome summer drink. Serve it
strained, with lemon and powdered sugar.
Allow from
1 to 3
less of close-rolled
French Tea
Add
%
teaspoon of brandy to each cup of tea and serve with
lemon.
Russian Tea
To 1 quart of cold tea add the juice of 2 large lemons ; pour in
This is a
glasses supplied with cracked ice and sugar to taste.
very cooling drink for hot weather, and satisfies the thirst as few
beverages do.
Value of Coffee
Coffee, like tea, contains tannin and theine (generally called
caffeine in coffee) it acts, therefore, much as tea does upon the
body, and requires similar preparation. The difference in flavor
and odor between coffee and tea is caused by a difference in the
aromatic oils they contain. Moderately strong coffee in moderate
quantities seems to be not harmful to grown persons in good
health, but it is unsuitable for boys and girls for the same reasons
that tea is.
1.
Buy freshly roasted, unground coffee, and grind it at home
as needed or buy it freshly ground every two or three days. 2.
;
;
Keep
it
in
an
airtight can or jar.
67
3.
Use an enameled or earthen
;
coffeepot that is scoured clean, not omitting the spout, after each
using. 4. Either filter the coffee, or boil it not longer than three
minutes. 5. Have coffee powdered for filtering, finely ground for
boiling.
Serve with hot, but not scalded, milk.
Directions for
Making Coffee
Use
2 heaping tablespoons of coffee to 1 pint of boiling water.
Put the coffee into the pot, pour on the water, and let it come again
to the boihng point.
Set it away from the heat, and stir in 2
tablespoons of slightly beaten egg. Let it boil for 1 minute to
clear it; then keep it hot, where it will not boil, for 5 minutes
before serving
Filtered Coffee
Use a French coffee-pot. Put 2 heaping tablespoons of
powdered coffee into the bag. Pour over it 1 pint of boiling
water. Cover the pot and let it stand in hot water till the water
poured in has filtered through. Pour it out, and turn it through
the filter again. This makes black coffee, suitable for serving in
Make
small cups after dinner.
breakfast coffee less strong.
Value of Cocoa
Linnseus, the great botanist, named cocoa theobroma, "food of
the Gods." Roasted cocoa contains about 50 per cent of fat, 15
to 16 per cent of nitrogenous compounds, and 10 to 13 per cent
of starch. For children and young people, it is the best of hot
drinks.
Breakfast Cocoa
2 tbsp. prepared cocoa
1 pint boiling water
1 pint scalded milk
2 to 4 tbsp. sugar
Mix the cocoa and sugar in a saucepan stir in the water
gradually, and boil 5 minutes add the milk and cook for 5 minutes
longer, or until smooth and free from any raw taste. Beat well
to prevent albuminous skin from forming.
;
;
Chocolate
2 squares chocolate
4 tbsp. sugar
1 cup boiling water
3 sups scalded milk
Put the chocolate cut in bits into a saucepan set into hot water
melted, add the sugar and water, stirring till smooth. Pour
into this part of the milk, then pour the chocolate back into the
rest of the milk, and stir until it comes to the boiling point. Beat
till frothy with an egg-whisk.
For luncheon or for afternoon tea, serve in tall cups with a
spoonful of whipped cream on the top of each cup.
when
;
Lemonade
sugar
1 pint
Boil and skim.
1 gallon of water.
you wish.
1
quart water
Add
the juice of 1 dozen lemons. This is for
Put in a jar and it is ready for use whenever
Egg- Lemonade
2 large lemons
1
1 pint boiling
water
^g
the juice from the lemons, and mix with 3 tablespoons
of sugar; pour on a pint of boiling water. Stir in the egg well
beaten and serve.
Remove
Orangeade
5 tbsp. sugar
1 pint boiling
4 oranges
1
To
pour
lemon
the juice of the oranges and the lemon
on the boiling water. Serve while hot.
water
add the sugar and
Grandmother's Wine
Take some fine raspberries, bruise them with the back of a
spoon then strain through a flannel bag into a stone jar; to each
quart of juice put a pound of double-refined sugar, stir well together and cover it close let it stand 3 days, then pour it off clear
It
to 1 quart of juice put 2 quarts of white wine and bottle it.
will be fit to drink in a week.
;
Grandfather's Nightcap
Yolk of
1
egg
1 tsp.
1 tsp. allspice
1 gill
1
sugar
cup boiling water
rum
Beat the yolk of the egg with the allspice and rum; melt the
sugar in the boiling water. Whisk this well and stir strain into
a hot glass, placing the beaten white on top dust with nutmeg.
;
;
Wedding Punch
Yellow rind of 2 oranges
3 lemons
2
pounds sugar
Grate the rind of the oranges and lemons into a quart of water.
the sugar and stir until sugar is dissolved and boil 10 minutes.
Strain. Return to the fire and add a tumbler each of blackberry,
currant and raspberry jelly. Strain again and when cold add 1 pint
of grated pineapple, 1 pint of grape juice. Cover and set aside
over night, At serving time add juice of 6 oranges and 1^ dozen
Add
69
lemons, and 1 quart of cherries or strawberries. To 1 pint of this
mixture add 3 pints of water or 1 pint of ginger ale and 2 pints
of water. Pour over ice.
Osgood's Punch
Juice of 6 oranges
Juice of 6 lemons
1 pint can cherries
Sweeten
to taste.
A
can pineapple
quart apollinaris water
1 pint
1
pint of raspberries improves
it.
Ambrosia
1
pineapple
1
shredded grape
quart strawberries
(or any fruit in season)
4 oranges
1
fruit
Remove the pulp of the oranges with an orange spoon. Pare
and shred thin 2 lemons. Sugar each kind of fruit as prepared.
Mix fruit in a large bowl and let it stand for several hours, then
add 3 quarts af water and more sugar if desired.
Dandelion Wine
Pour a gallon of boiling water over 3 quarts of dandelion
flowers. Let stand 24 hours.
Strain and add 5 pounds of light
brown sugar, juice and rind of 2 lemons, juice and rind of 2
oranges. Let boil 10 minutes and strain. When cold, add half
a cake of compressed yeast.
commences
After
work.
work.
to
it
Then
Put
bottle
in crock and let stand until
and put corks in loose to let
it
it
stops working, cork tight.
Root Beer
cake compressed yeast
1 bottle root beer extract
5 gallons fresh water, not too
1
cold
4 pounds granulated sugar
In extremely hot weather use one-half cake of yeast. Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the extract, then the yeast thoroughly dissolved in a little water, mix well and bottle immediately, using strong bottles or jugs, and tie the corks in securely.
Set in a warm place 36 to 48 hours in cold weather, a little
longer.
Remove to cellar or other place of even temperature,
but do not put it on ice until a few hours before using.
;
Cocoa from Shells
cup cocoa
1
34 tsp. salt
shells
1 quart boiling
water
ingredients together 1 to 1% hours, adding more water
evaporates. Serve with an equal volume of hot milk, and
Cook
as
it
sugar to
taste.
70
CAKES
"With weights and measures just and
With stoves of even heat;
Well buttered
tins,
true.
and quiet nerves,
Success will be complete."
some cakes being richer than others, that
is, having more butter, sugar, and eggs, in proportion to the flour.
All cakes belong to one of two classes, butter cakes and sponge
cakes. Several kinds of cake can easily be made from one recipe,
by varying the flavorings, spices, and fruits, by baking the mixCake
rich bread,
is
ture in pans of dififerent shapes, by frosting the cake, or by leav-
ing
it
In mixing butter cakes, cream the butter and sugar
plain.
thoroughly
become
unless they
;
partially
liquefied before
the
other ingredients are added, the cake will be coarse grained, per-
Add
haps heavy.
little
the yolks of the eggs, beaten slightly, then a
of the milk, then part of the flour with the other dry ingredi-
ents sifted with
a
it,
little
more
milk, and so on until
all
the flour
mixture the same
degree of stiffness. Fold in the whites beaten very stiff. Add
the flavoring and beat the mixture well. If fruit is to be added,
and milk
fold
is
it in,
stirred in, taking care to keep the
well floured, last of
all.
In mixing sponge cakes, beat the yolks
colored.
liquid if
dry
;
slip
till
thick
and lemon
Beat the sugar into them, add the flavoring (and other
the recipe calls for any). Beat the whites till stiff and
them into the mixing bowl sift the flour over them and
;
fold all together.
Sponge cake beaten after the
flour is
added
will
be close and tough.
In mixing molasses cakes,
mix milk and molasses and
stir
them
into the flour.
Add
this purpose.
Fruit must be well floured and added last or
will sink to the
bottom of the
soda
The oven should be
last, sifted
less
with a
little
flour reserved for
it
loaf.
hot for cake than for bread.
When
a cake is done, it shrinks from the pan and a small tooth pick run
in it comes out clean.
Take it at once from the pan and set it
on a clean towel or sieve to cool.
Use only the best materials in making cake. Otherwise the
cake will not pay for the trouble of making it. See that the fire
is arranged so that the oven will be hot by the time the cake is
mixed. Cake containing molasses burns easily. Bake such cakes
71
and any thick loaves requiring long baking in tins lined with
greased paper. If the cake browns in 15 minutes, the heat is too
great. Reduce it or make a tent of brown paper over the pan. A
pan of water put in the oven will reduce the heat.
Standard Cake
%
3^ cup milk
cup butter
y^ cup sugar
2
eggs, yolks
separately
Mix
baking powder
cups flour
1^^
tsp.
1^
and whites
3^ tsp. vanilla
according to rule for butter cakes.
Spice Cake
scant cup butter
1 cup brown sugar
%. cup molasses
tsp. baking powder
3
1
^
%
1
tsp.
3
cinnamon
tsp.
cup water
cups flour
5^ cup raisins
cup currants
^
3^ tsp. allspice
tsp. clove
^
^
eggs, yolks and whites
beaten separately
54 cup citron
nutmeg
Mix according to the directions for butter cake, adding the
molasses to the butter and sugar. Remember to add the soda last.
Gold Cake
^
scant cup butter
2
2
lyi cups sugar
Yolks of 4 eggs
Yz cup milk
Make
%
tsp. baking powder
cups flour
tsp. grated nutmeg
gold and silver cake at the same time, to use both parts of
the eggs.
Silver
^
cup butter, scant
2
2
1^
cups sugar
Whites of 4 eggs
Yi cup milk
Mix
Cake
baking powder
cups flour
tsp.
Yz tsp. almond extract
according to rule for butter cake.
Sponge Cake
1^4 cups sugar, powdered or granulated, 5 eggs, yolks and
whites beaten separately, 1^4 cups flour, juice and grated rind of
Yi lemon, Ya tsp. salt. Mix according to rule for sponge cakes.
72
sponge Cake
1^
3
cups sugar
eggs, yolks
separate
^2 cup water
2
and whites
1^
%
^
baking powder
cups flour
tsp.
tsp. salt
tsp.
lemon extract
Apple Sauce Cake
Cream
1 cup sugar and ^2 cup butter, and add 1 cup of floured
pinch each of salt, cloves, nutmeg, and cinnamon. Dissolve 1 teaspoon soda in a bit of warm water and stir it into a
cup of sour apple sauce letting it foam over the ingredients in the
bowl.
Beat all thoroughly and add 1^ cups of pastry flour.
Bake 45 minutes.
raisins,
Small Angel Cake
Whites of 4 eggs beaten
1 cup granulated sugar
Sift flour
^
^
stiff
cup bread flour
tsp. cream tartar
and sugar together 4 or 5 times and fold lightly into
Bake in a moderate oven about 20 minutes.
the beaten egg whites.
Spanish Cake
^
cup butter
l}i cups flour
1 cup sugar
3 tsp. baking powder
Bake
Yolks of 2 eggs
1 tsp. cinnamon
}4 cup milk
Whites of 2 eggs beaten
and spread with a caramel
in a shallow tin
frosting.
Date Cake
cup sugar
cup butter
5^ cup milk
1^4 cups flour
1
^
2
1
tsp.
^2
eggs yolks and whites
separate
lb.
baking powder
dates stoned
and
chopped
Cream Cake
Break 2 eggs in a cup and fill the cup with thick sour cream.
1 cup sugar, lj4 cups flour, 1 tsp. salt, and 1 tsp. soda dissolved in 1 tbsp. hot water. Flavor with nutmeg or vanilla and
for variety, add
cup chopped walnuts.
Add
^
Scripture Cake
4 cups I Kings 4: 22, 1 cup Judges 5 25 (last clause), 2 cups
Jeremiah 6:20 (sugar), 2 cups I Sam. 30:12 (raisins), 2 cups
:
Nahum 3 12, 1 tbsp. Numbers 17, 1 large tbsp. I Sam. 14 25,
season to taste of II Chron. 9 9, 6 of Jeremiah 17 11, Pinch Lev.
cup Gen. 24:20, 2 tsp. Amos 4:5 (baking powder),
2:13,
Follow Solomon's advice for making good boys and you will have
a good cake. Prov. 23 14.
:
:
:
:
^
:
Marble Cake
^
2 eggs
1
1
cup sour cream
cup white sugar
1
2
Take
cloves,
tsp. salt
soda dissolved in water
cups flour
tsp.
5'^ of the mixture and add 2 tbsp. molasses, 3^ teaspoon
cinnamon and nutmeg add a pinch of soda and a rounding
spoonful of
;
flour.
War
Cake
^
%
tsp. salt
cup cold water
tsp. ground cloves
cup raisins
1 cup brown sugar
Vi tsp. cinnamon
Boil above 5 minutes, let cool, then add iVi cups flour, 1 teaspoon soda, walnuts, if desired. Beat well, and bake in slow oven
1
%
%
hour.
cup sugar
egg
1
1
2
Chocolate Marble Cake
1 tsp. cream tartar
y^ tsp. soda
V-k cups flour
tbsp. melted butter
y^y
cup sweet milk
2 teaspoons of chocolate or cocoa to one-third of the mixture and flavor to taste.
Add
Raised Cake
cup of soft bread dough, 1 cup sugar, y^ cup of butter
Add to the bread dough a little cinnamon and nutmeg
and knead thoroughly. Add y. cup milk, 2 tsp. cream tartar, 1
but not
tsp. soda, 1 cup raisins, and flour to make a soft dough
Lastly add 1 egg. Bake in a slow oven immediately.
stiff.
1 large
creamed.
Layer Cake
S tsp. baking
2 eggs
powder
2^^ cups flour
1 tsp. flavonng
\y2 cups sugar
cup butter
1 cup milk
%
Cream sugar and butter, add eggs, beaten, then
powder mixed. Bake in moderate oven.
flour
and baking
Molasses Pound Cake
2 tsp. soda
1 tsp. cinnamon
2 tsp. ginger
1 tsp. cloves or allspice
Raisins if desired
cup molasses
cup sugar
11/^ cups milk
1 cup butter
3 eggs
4 cups flour
1
1
%
tsp. salt
Cream butter and sugar, add eggs, milk and other ingredients.
Bake in slow oven.
Lightning Cake
1
cups flour
tsp. baking powder
1 cup granulated sugar
Xy-y
^g%
1 cup milk
1 tsp. vanilla
1
Butter size of walnut
34 tsp. salt
Melt
Sift together flour, baking powder, sugar and salt.
this into
Mix
milk.
with
cup
fill
and
in
egg
break
cup,
butter in
dry ingredients. Bake in quick oven.
75
DOUGHNUTS AND
GINGERBREAD
COOKIES,
Brownies
}^ cup butter
cup powdered sugar
ys cup Porto Rico molasses
egg well beaten
cup bread flour
cup pecans chopped
1
^
^
1
Mix the ingredients in the order given. Bake in small, shallow,
fancy cake tins using a teaspoon, or less, of batter to each cake.
Brownies
J4 cup butter
1 cup sugar
2
eggs well beaten
^
cup flour
Salt to taste
1 tsp. vanilla
2 squares melted chocolate
1
Drop by teaspoons on
a buttered
cup chopped walnuts
Bake 10 or 15 minutes.
tin.
Filled Cookies
cup sugar
J^ cup shortening
1 egg
}i cup milk
3j4 cups flour
1
2
tsp.
1
tsp.
Roll thin. Place cookies in a pan, put
each and place another cooky on top.
1
cream tartar
soda
teaspoon of
filling
on
Filling.
cup raisins
cup sugar
}4 cup water
1
1
^
Cook
tsp.
flour
Juice of 1 lemon
in a double boiler until thick.
Mother's Cookies
1
1
cup thick sour cream
cup sugar
1
1 tsp. vanilla
Flour to
egg
1 tsp.
soda dissolved in as
milk as possible
little
roll
Handle as
soft as possible, sprinkle with sugar
and bake
in a
quick oven.
Molasses Drop Cookies
1 cup hot water
cup sugar
1 cup molasses
3^ cup butter and lard
1
1 tsp.
mixed
1
soda
1 tsp. cinnamon
5 cups flour
egg
Drop on buttered
tin
and bake quickly.
cooky before baking.
76
Place 1 raisin on each
Cream Cookies
1 tsp. soda
cup sour cream
1 cup sugar
Taste of nutmeg
Little salt
1 egg
Dissolve the soda in the cream, add sugar and egg and use only
flour enough so that the dough can be dropped from the spoon.
1
Vanilla Wafers
^
cup butter, scant
4
tbsp. milk
1
cup sugar
egg
tsp. soda
2
tsp.
1
tsp. vanilla
Flour to
1
1
Roll very thin (about
5 minutes.
^
cream
Bake
inch thick).
tartar
stiffen
in a
hot oven not
more than
Oatmeal Cookies
^
cup sugar
cup lard and butter mixed
2
6
tbsp. milk
1
1
tsp.
teaspoon fuls on buttered
tins.
Doughnuts. No.
1
cinnamon
}i tsp. soda
Little salt
in
cup chopped raisins
cups oatmeal, dry
cups flour, scant
1
eggs
Drop
2
2
egg
1.
Little ginger
ys cup sugar
2 tsp.
nutmeg
cream tartar
1 tsp.
soda
Little
cup sweet milk
Pinch of salt
Add bread flour enough to
1
roll out.
Doughnuts. No. 2
1
3/2
1
Add
egg
cup sugar
cup sour milk
flour
enough
tbsp. shortening
2
tsp.
J/2
Salt
soda
and a
little
nutmeg
After frying dip each one
to roll soft.
quickly in a basin of hot water.
Crullers.
No.
1
Pinch of salt
Flour to make
2 eggs
2 tbsp. sugar
1 tbsp. butter
stiff
Roll to about 3^2 inch thick. Cut in strips eight or ten inches
long and one-half inch wide. Hold one end of strip firmly and
roll the other end to make a twist
wind over the fingers into a
lover's knot. Fry like doughnuts.
;
77
Crullers.
1
2
coffee
eggs
y^ coffee
Add
cup sugar
flour
cup milk
enough
to roll out
No.
2.
3
tsp. lard
1
tsp.
cream tartar
%
tsp.
soda
and fry
in hot lard.
Raised Doughnuts
%
milk
1 tbsp. melted butter
Pinch of salt
yeast cake
Flour to make a soft batter
1 pint
Mix
as for biscuit without kneading and let rise over night. In
morning add 2 eggs well beaten, 1 cup sugar and a little nutmeg. Mold, roll out, let rise, and when light, fry in hot lard.
the
Soft Gingerbread
1
y?
y
%
%
egg
cup sugar
cup molasses
cup boiling water
tsp. soda
%
3*^
3
1%
cinnamon
tsp.
ginger
tbsp. melted shortening
cups of flour
tsp.
Sour Milk Gingerbread
1
1
2%
1%
cup molasses
cup sour milk
cups flour
tsp. soda
%
2
%
tsp. salt
tsp.
ginger
cup melted butter
Cheese Gingerbread
1
cup molasses
34 lb. soft cheese
1
tsp.
1
egg
soda
34 cup milk or water
2 cups flour
2
y
tsp.
ginger
tsp. salt
Rub cheese and flour together, add soda, ginger and salt, then
milk and molasses. Beat until smooth, add well-beaten egg.
Nut Drop Cakes
23^ cups flour
AND
ICINGS
FILLINGS
Boiled Icing
cup sugar and 2 tablespoons cold water boiled until it strings.
the white of one egg well beaten to the hot syrup and beat
until thick. Flavor with vanilla.
1
Add
Caramel Frosting
Boil ys cup of sugar, j/s cup milk and a small piece of butter
Stir until right consistency.
until it will hair from the spoon.
Flavor with vanilla and spread.
Maple Sugar Frosting
4 tbsp. milk
y2 cup maple sugar
y
cup granulated sugar
Boil until
it
will
harden
in water.
Maple Sugar Frosting
^
it
cup grated maple sugar until
Boil 1 cup of maple syrup and
Cool and add the beaten whites of 2 eggs.
will hair.
Mocha
Cream
vanilla
1
and 2
and beat
Icing
y^ cup butter,
2 tsp. hot coffee (a
cup powdered sugar,
tsp. cocoa.
until
Add
and add
little
1 tsp.
at a time)
creamy.
Chocolate Filling
^
cup powdered sugar (or more
2 heaping tablespoons cocoa.
liked) 1 cup cold water, and 1 heaping tablespoon cornstarch
dissolved in 3.^ cup cold water, a small piece of butter. Cook in
a double boiler until thick and flavor with vanilla.
if
Raisin Filling
y
1
cup chopped raisins
cup sugar
5 tbsp.
sweet milk
Boil sugar and milk together for 5 minutes and then add raisins.
Custard Filling
cup of milk in a double boiler and stir into it 1 beaten
Cook
egg, Yz cup sugar, 1 tbsp. butter and 1 tbsp. cornstarch.
until thick like custard. Remove from fire and flavor with lemon
Heat
1
extract.
79
Tutti-Frutti Frosting
34 cup figs
34 cup walnuts
Chop figs, walnuts,
the ingredients.
and
raisins
;
34 cup cocoanut
34 cup raisins
make a boiled frosting
and add
Marshmallow Paste
%
2 tbsp. hot water
3^ tsp. vanilla
cup sugar
34 cup milk
marshmallows
34 lb.
Boil the sugar and milk together six minutes. Melt the marshmallows and add the water. Combine the two mixtures, add the
vanilla and beat until stiff enough to spread.
Chocolate Frosting
%
cup sugar
3 tbsp. milk
2 squares chocolate
1 egg yolk
Melt the chocolate, add sugar and milk and cook in a double
boiler until smooth.
Add the egg yolk and cook one minute.
Spread on the cake.
Quick White Frosting
Place the white of one egg in a bowl and add enough powdered
sugar to make a smooth paste. Beat all up together and flavor
with vanilla.
Quick Chocolate Icing
Wet enough powdered sugar with a little milk and stir until it is
a smooth paste.
Add a little cocoa and beat all together well.
When of the right consistency, spread on the cake.
Peanut Filling
peanuts chopped fine
powdered sugar
1 tbsp. vinegar
Mix sugar and milk. Add vinegar,
34 cup milk
Pinch of salt
1 qt.
2 cups
Cream
salt
and peanuts.
Filling
milk
2 tsp. cornstarch
1 egg
1 pt.
3^
cup sugar
34 tsp. salt
1 tsp. vanilla
Boil the milk, add the other ingredients, mixed with a
milk. When cooked, add piece of butter size of an egg.
little
Chocolate Filling
3^ cake chocolate
34 cup sugar
Shave
it.
ofif
chocolate.
1
cup milk
3 tsp. cornstarch
Add
just
enough hot water
Then add sugar and cornstarch
80
to thicken
it.
to dissolve
CHAFING DISHES
Welsh Rarebit
tsp.
1
Yz lb. cheese
2 eggs
One speck of cayenne
1 tbsp. butter
mustard
y^ tsp. salt
Yz cup sweet cream
Break the cheese in small pieces, put in with the other ingrediStir until
ents in a bright saucepan and set over boiling water.
the cheese melts, then spread the mixture on slices of crisp toast;
serve immediately.
Oyster Rarebit
1 lb. cheese,
chopped
dry mustard
Pinch of salt, dash of red,
two of black pepper
1 tsp.
fine
^ZZ yolk
1
1 tbsp. butter
1 cup cream
Put the butter into the chafing
dish, also the cheese let it simyolk
mer. After it is melted gradually add the following to the
pepper,
black
and
red
mustard,
the
add
of tgg broken into the cup
pour into cheese, stir constantly. Heat again and serve on toast
;
:
or soda crackers.
Dropped Eggs
in
Cream
6 eggs
Yz cup sweet cream
Heat the cream and break the eggs into the cream one by one.
Sprinkle each ^g% with salt and pepper. Cook slowly ten minutes
and serve on toast. Delicious for either breakfast or tea dish.
Chicken Wiggle
5
]
cup chicken cut in pieces
cup canned peas
Salt and pepper
1
level tbsp. butter
1
3 level tbsp. flour
Yz cups milk
Serve on crackers or nicely toasted bread.
Ham
Rechauffee
tumbler currant jelly. When warm add
heated
1 coffee cup of boiled ham cut in squares when thoroughly
serve on toast.
Put
in chafing dish 1
;
English
Monkey
1 tbsp. butter
cup stale bread crumbs
cup milk
Y2 cup mild cheese
Soak the bread crumbs in the milk for about 15 minutes. IVIelt
cup of cheese cut in small pieces when
the butter and add the
1
1
^
:
81
melted add the soaked bread crumbs. 1 egg slightly
teaspoon salt and a few grains of cayenne. Cook until
smooth and thickened and serve poured over toasted crackers.
cheese
beaten,
is
}'2
Italian
1 pint
Monkey
1 tbsp. flour
milk
Thicken the milk with the flour add slowly 2 ounces of cheese
cut fine. 1 ounce of butter. 1 teaspoon salt and 1 egg well beaten
and mixed with 2 tablespoons of cold water or milk. Simmer 5
minutes and serve hot. Should be eaten with dry toast.
:
Cheese Rarebit
1
tbsp. flour
1
tbsp. butter
^
Rub
tsp.
flour
H
tsp. salt
cup milk
1
mustard
34
and melted butter together
lb.
cheese
w-ith seasonings.
Then
hot milk, stirring vigorously until thickened. Cut
cheese into it. When melted pour over bread or crackers toasted
on one side, the mixture being poured on the untoasted side.
pound beef.
Cost, 16 cents food value equals
pour over
it
%
;
Salmon Wiggle
1^4 cups milk
tbsp. butter
tbsp. flour
2
2
%
cup cream
can salmon
can peas
1
Yg tsp. salt
Pinch of paprika
1
Melt butter, then slowly add flour until creamy, stir constantly
to avoid getting limipy. Then add milk and cream, and stir until
Add salmon cut fine and last
this becomes thick like cream.
Then pinch of salt and paprika. Serve on saltines
the peas.
or toast.
Cheese Rice Fondu
1 cup boiled rice
2 tbsp. milk
4
^gs
Heat
cheese
1
%
melted.
tsp. salt
1 tsp.
rice in milk,
is
cup grated cheese
meat flavoring
add other ingredients and cook slowly
Serve on crackers or
82
toast.
until
CANNING
We
from the bees, and in the long
up food for the winter. If we can kill the
bacteria in food, and then seal it up so that no more can get in, it
will keep indefinitely. This we do in canning.
do well
summer days
to take a lesson
to store
Canning
Can each
fruit in its season,
when
it is
best
and cheapest.
Select
under-ripe rather than over-ripe. To insure success in preserving it observe carefully the following directions.
it
Preparing the Jars
For a small family use the pint jars. Buy jars with tight-fitting
Old rubber
fit them each year with new rubber rings.
becomes porous, and lets in the air. Fit each jar with a ring and a
cover pour water into them, and invert them to see if they are
Sterilize jars and covers by
If not, do not use them.
airtight.
placing them in a dishpan of cold water and letting this slowly
come to the boiling point, and boil fifteen minutes.
covers, and
;
Preparing for Cooking Fruit
Strawberries. Wash and hull the berries ; weigh them, and add
one-third of a pound of sugar for every pound of fruit. Let them
stand for 45 minutes or longer. Cook the berries slowly until the
juice is thick and syrupy, and the berries soft. Remove the scum
as
it
rises.
Pare the peaches, dropping them into cold water.
a syrup, allowing 1 cup of water and 1 pound of sugar to 3
pounds of peaches boil it 15 minutes. Cut peaches in two, stone
them, and put peaches and stones into the syrup. The flavor of
peaches is improved by cooking the stones with them. Cook the
fruit until, when tried with a knitting needle, it is found to be
Peaches.
Make
;
soft.
Pears, Cherries, Apples and
Plums may be canned
Directions for
Remove
cloth
wet
filled first.
the jars
like peaches.
filling jars
from the boiling water, and stand them on a
in boiling water.
Silver, being a
Place a silver spoon in the jar to be
good conductor of heat, absorbs heat
from the fruit, thus further lessening the risk of the jar's breakDip a rubber ring into the boiling water (to sterilize it), and
place it on the jar. Dip a silver spoon into boiling water, and with
ing.
filled the jar with fruit; then fill the jar to overflowing with
syrup. With the handle of the spoon press the fruit away from
the side of the jar, that any air-bubbles between may escape. Put
it
on the cover, and screw it tight. Turn the jar upside down; if
syrup oozes out, remove cover and rubber, put on another rubber,
refill with boiling syrup, and again screw down the cover.
The
jars must be sealed airtight.
Spiced Currants with Raisins
3 lbs. sugar
1 pint vinegar
5 lbs. currants
seeded raisins
1 lb.
Make
a syrup of the sugar and vinegar and skim. Boil J^ hour
and add 1 tablespoon cinnamon and y^ tablespoon each of cloves,
allspice
and nutmeg.
Tomato Butter
7 lbs. ripe tomatoes
3 lbs. sugar
1 pint cider vinegar
1
oz.
ground cinnamon
J^ oz. ground cloves
Boil 3 hours, or until rich and thick.
It
should keep without
sealing.
For Canning Blackberries, Blueberries, Red Raspberries,
and Strawberries.
Prepare the jars the same as for other preserves. Pick over
the fruit very carefully. Fill each can with the fruit add one cup
of sugar to each can. Be sure that the sugar is dissolved in hot
water or it will settle in the bottom of the jar. Fill each can with
water, placing the cover on and seal without rubber. Put little
blocks of wood in the bottom of the boiler setting the jars on them.
Let them boil for about Yz hour. After they have boiled remove
covers, put on the rubbers and seal tight.
;
Peaches may be canned in this way
canned in this way without any sugar.
also.
Tomatoes may be
For Canning Cranberries
Pick the berries over very carefully and see that the jars are
Fill the jars with berries and fill with cold water.
After
this is done set the jars away.
Rhubarb may be canned in the same way.
clean.
Canning Tomatoes
smooth tomatoes scald and peel them.
and fill the jars with boiling water.
Sterilize the covers and put them on without screwing down.
Set the jars on small blocks of wood in a kettle of cold water,
and let the water heat slowly for 15 minutes. Remove the covers,
fill the jars to overflowing with boiling water, put on the rubber
rings, and screw the covers down.
Select small, round,
Pack them
:
in sterilized jars
84
Canned Beets
To 1 quart of vinegar use 1 cup of sugar. Fill can with hot
If the
sliced beets and cover with the hot vinegar and seal.
water.
little
a
use
strong
vinegar is too
Canned S'weet Corn-
H
%
cup sugar,
9 cups of sweet corn cut from the cobs,
aircup salt, 1 pint of water. Boil hard for 5 minutes. Put up
The corn should soak before using or rinse 3 or 3
tight cans.
Take
m
times while cooking.
To Prepare Pineapple
Pare and slice lengthwise. Cover parings and cores with hot
water, cook slowly 1 hour. Add 1 cup of sugar to each piece.
Strain juice and let boil, then pour over pineappl^. Set away to
This improves by standing a day.
cool.
Spiced Rhubarb
3 lbs.
2 lbs.
1 tbsp.
rhubarb
sugar
1 tbsp.
ground cloves
cinnamon
cup vinegar
Cut the rhubarb
1
and bring slowly
in inch pieces, mix other ingredients with it
Boil fast for 30 minutes, pour into
to a boil.
jelly glasses.
Grape Conserve
3 oranges
grapes
1 lemon
lbs. sugar
Grated rind and juice
1 lb. seeded raisins
meats
walnut
lb.
y2
Pulp grapes, cook pulp to remove seeds, then strain. Add skins
and cook 15 minutes. To this add sugar, oranges, lemon and
raisins. Boil 1 hour. Add chopped nuts 1/2 hour before it is done.
Put the raisins and oranges through the food chopper.
5
5
lbs.
Canning Fruit without Sugar
Rhubarb and gooseberries may be canned without cooking
because they are so acid.
Rhubarb.
Wash and
peel the rhubarb
if
tough
(if tender,
do
not remove the skins), and cut into inch-length pieces. Pack the
sterilized and cooled jars full of the fruit and place each under
the cold water spigot. Let the water run into the jars with as
much force as possible for 10 to 15 minutes to expel the air, then
cover and fasten as tightly as possible. Be sure that the jar is
bubbles.
filled to the very brim with water to drive out all air
Let the jars stand for a few hours, then tighten again, and put
away
in the preserve closets.
Gooseberries should be topped and tailed before canning, but
are canned in exactly the same way as rhubarb.
Cranberries, which are so plentiful in the late fall and winter,
may be kept in the same way as rhubarb and gooseberries.
85
Reviving an Ancient Custom
—Drying
Viegetables
and Fruits
In the days of our foremothers, the drying of vegetables and
was a much more common process than canning and preserving, and in these times, when every possible means of conservation of food is being urged, it is well for housewives to
fruits
understand the method of drying.
Vegetables lend themselves especially well to drying because
of the small percentage of moisture. By the removing of this
small amount of water, vegetables may be kept almost indefinitely.
Drying vegetables require air. If not dried in a current of
give them as much as possible during the process.
Place the vegetables on small meshed wire trays, or in large
air, at least
Place trays in a cold oven. When the therregisters 120 degrees F., open the door half an inch,
shallow tin pans.
mometer
and keep the oven
at not more than 125 degrees for two hours.
gradually to 140 degrees, and finish drying. Turn
the vegetables once or twice during the drying process. Peas will
be dry enough in about seven hours. It is far better to accomplish the work slowly and gradually than to attempt to hurry it.
Small vegetables like peas and lima beans will dry more quickly
than potatoes and carrots. The latter should be sliced before
drying.
Apples and peaches, also sweet potatoes, are excellent
Then
raise
when
sliced
it
and dried.
finished place the vegetables in airtight receptacles
keep in a dry place.
When
and
Quinces
Wash and wipe
the quinces, pare and core, saving the peel.
cut into quarters. Drop each piece into cold water to prevent discoloration. When all are ready, place them in a preserving kettle and cover with cold water.
Simmer very gently till
tender. Lift from the water with a skimmer, and add the parings
to the water.
Cook them for half an hour, keeping them closely
covered. Then strain and measure the liquid.
Allow a pound
of sugar to a pint and cook 10 minutes, skimming often. Add
the quinces and simmer them until they are clear and tender and
a rich red. By keeping the kettle covered the quinces will be a
much brighter color. When clear and transparent, lift carefully
from the syrup and place in jars. Boil the syrup a few moments
longer and pour over the fruit.
Then
86
Canning Corn on the Cob
Pack corn on cob in two-quart jars and fill with cold water,
shaking until no bubbles rise, add 1 teaspoon salt, fill the jars to
running over with cold water, put on rubber and cover but do
not screw tight. Set the jars on a rack in a boiler of cold water
and boil five hours, adding more water as it boils away. Seal
tight, and set away in cool dry place.
String beans, whole, may be canned the same way.
Choose
small tender ones.
Canned Asparagus
Wash
same
it
well, scrape stocks,
and cut
off
tough ends, and can
as corn.
Canned Spinach
Wash
the spinach, rinse it thoroughly in several waters, then
very small quantity of salted water as for the table.
When tender, pack into sterilized hot jars, and force down with
a spoon. Pour the water from the spinach, or boiling water, into
the jar until it overflows, then adjust rubbers, seal and cook for
1% hours, in jars. Fasten tops and set away.
Canned dandelions, beet greens and szviss chard are prepared
as above.
cook
it
in a
Canned Beets, Carrots and Turnips
Choose young vegetables, wash well but do not peel them.
Cover with boiling unsalted water, cook 30 minutes, then remove
skin and pack into glass jars. For beets, pour three tablespoons
of vinegar in each jar, then fill with cold water. Place the rubber
in position and the tops lightly on the jars, stand in boiler and
cook for 1 hour. Then tighten the tops of the jars as quickly
as possible.
For carrots and turnips do not put vinegar in jar. Fill with
cold water.
Canned Peas, Lima Beans and
Com
Green peas and lima beans are shelled and washed. Corn is
husked and freed from every particle of silk, and the pulp cut
from the ears with a sharp knife. Sterilize jars, place the corn
pulp, lima beans or peas in them, cool.
Sterilized water must
be poured in to fill the jars containing the peas and beans, but no
water is necessary with the corn. Add % teaspoon of salt to
pint of water.
This will keep the vegetables green. Place the
tops on lightly, then stand the jars in the boiler as in foregoing
recipe.
Pour tepid water around them. Cover and boil without
stopping
Then
2^
hours for peas or Hma beans, 3^^ hours for corn.
above directions.
finish as in
87
JELLY MAKING
Before the principles of sterilizing were understood, fruit was
it with its weight of sugar.
Only jellies
are commonly done in this way, now.
The juice of fruits that contain considerable pectin can be made
into jelly.
Pectin, although a carbohydrate, in some ways resembles gelatine. It dissolves in boiling water, and stiffens on
cooling. It is most abundant in the harder parts of the fruit, the
preserved by cooking
core and skin.
Apples, quinces, crab apples, currants, and grapes
make
the
best jellies.
General Directions for Making Jelly
Wash the fruit, and
large fruit into pieces.
currants, use no water.
remove stems and imperfections.
Cut
With watery fruits, such as grapes and
With apples and quinces use enough
water to cover them. Cook the fruit until the juice flows, crushing it with a spoon. Remove it from the fire and strain it through
a pointed bag hung from the ceiling or between two chairs. Do
not squeeze the bag at first when nearly all has strained through,
the bag may be squeezed. Keep this last juice by itself the jelly
made from it will not be clear, but can be used for jelly cake, etc.
;
;
and measure out an equal quantity of sugar.
add the sugar, and let boil. As scum forms
When a little of the jelly dropped on a cold plate
thickens slightly, pour into jelly glasses and set aside till firm.
Measure the
Reheat the
remove it.
juice,
juice,
Quince
Jelly
Cut the quinces into quarters without paring or coring, cover
with water, and cook until soft. Strain, and proceed according
to "General Directions for
Jelly
must be covered
Making
to protect
it
Jelly."
from mold.
Paraffin
is
con-
venient for this purpose.
To Cover
Jelly
with Paraffin
Melt the paraffin in a saucepan and pour it over the jelly to the
depth of about one-eighth of an inch. If, on cooling, any bubbles
form, exposing the surface of the jelly add another coat of paraffin.
After filling fruit jars let them stand upside down over night.
In the morning, screw the tops down as tightly as possible, wipe
the jars carefully, label them and put them away in a cool, dark
place.
88
Spiced Apple
1 quart apple juice
1
1
Jell
1 tbsp.
each of clove, allspice
and cinnamon
quart sugar
cup vinegar
Cook it until it w^ill jell and then put in tumblers.
cover with a thin coating of paraffin.
When
cold
Spiced Grapes
5 lbs. grapes
3 lbs. sugar
1
2
%
tsp.
cinnamon and
allspice
tsp. cloves
cup vinegar
Pulp the grapes, boil skins until tender cook pulp and strain
through a sieve, and add it to the skins put in the sugar, spices
and vinegar. Boil until it becomes thick like marmalade and turn
;
;
into glasses.
Nut Marmalade
lemons
6 lbs. sugar
2
4 lbs. rhubarb
4 oranges
1 lb.
English walnut meats
the bitter rind of the oranges and lemons, slice them
cover with water and let stand all night. Boil till soft in the
same water. Cut the rhubarb, add the sugar, lemons, oranges
and lastly the nuts cut fine. Boil till thick and clear. Make early
in the season when the rhubarb is tender.
Remove
thin,
Orange Marmalade
6 large navel
3 large
oranges
lemons
%
inch thick. Measure and to every pint of
Slice these about
fruit add 3 pints of water. Put in a jar and let it stand 24 hours.
Then boil until tender and let stand 24 hours. Measure and add
the sugar pint for pint. Let it come to a boil and boil furiously
grape fruit may
25 minutes. This will make 15 or 20 glasses.
be added.
A
Conserves
Peel and grate
Pineapple Conserve is especially delicate.
coarsely or run through the food chopper, three ripe pineapples,
and add to them the grated rind and pulp of two lemons and three
Cook together for half an hour,
oranges, rejecting the seeds.
then add an equal quantity of sugar and boil gently till thick as
marmalade.
Mixed Print Conserve. Pare twenty-four ripe peaches, ten
pears and fifteen blue plums, cut the fruit in quarters and add
89
;
two pounds of white grapes, halved and freed from the seeds.
Cook all together with an equal quantity of sugar until the syrup
is thick and heavy, then place in sterilized jars and when cool
seal.
Carrot Conserve. The children will enjoy this on their bread
or cakes. It is easily made and inexpensive. Select young carCover with cold
rots, scrape and wash them, then slice thin.
water and cook till soft enough to press through a sieve. Measure the pulp and add the strained juice of two lemons, and the
grated rind of one lemon and one orange, also three-fourths the
Cook till thick, and pour into
quantity of light brown sugar.
tumblers.
Ginger Pear. One peck hard pears, peel and cut in %, remove
pound preserved ginger cut in
core, slice 4 lemons thin, add
small pieces, 5 pounds granulated sugar, layer of pears, lemon
and ginger, sprinkle thickly with sugar, add more fruit, have
sugar at to.p ; let it stand over night, set over slow fire, bring to
boiling point very slowly, let it simmer until the pears are done;
%
will be
dark red
in color
;
seal very hot.
Currant Jelly. Free the currants from the leaves and stems
wash them in a sieve. Put a small quantity into an agate preserving kettle and crush them gently. This makes a little juice
in the kettle to start with so when placed over the heat the fruit
will not stick. Let the currants simply heat slowly and not cook.
When they are hot, crush them. Put a sieve over a large bowl
and over this spread a double square of cheese-cloth. Turn the
fruit and juice into the cheese-cloth and let it drain as long as it
will drip never use any pressure, for that would make the jelly
"cloudy." Measure the juices. To every pint of juice may be
added one pint of granulated sugar. Let the juice boil 15 minutes
before adding the sugar, which should be heated first. Then, as
soon as the sugar is dissolved, pour a spoonful into a dish and
place on the ice, and if it "jellies" it is ready to put into glasses.
Oriental Jelly is novel and very delicious. It is made by cooking rose geranium leaves and two lemon verbena leaves in 2
quarts of apple juice for a few moments, then proceed as in other
;
jellies.
90
PICKLES
Small Cucumber Pickles
Fill a quart can with small cucumbers after washing, add a
tablespoonful of salt, a few small pieces horse-radish, fill up with
cold vinegar; seal.
Sweet Pickle
7
cucumbers
4
lbs.
1
quart vinegar
sugar
Pare the cucumbers, soak in salt water over night; drain
thoroughly cook in water with a small piece of alum cook a few
Spice to
at a time, drain well before putting into the vinegar.
;
;
suit yourself.
Mustard Pickle
2 heads cauliflower
3 heads celery
tender string beans
cucumbers, cut small
green tomatoes
6 peppers
1 qt.
1 qt.
Cut small, remove all seeds from peppers, cover with 1 cup of
and allow it to stand 24 hours. Drain off water, cover with
fresh hot water and scald 10 minutes or until tender.
Dressing. Mix 6 tablespoons of dry mustard with a little vinegar, Yz cup flour, 1 cup sugar, a little cayenne pepper, 1 tablespoon
salt
Stir all into a quart of boiling vinegar.
tumeric.
fectly
When
per-
smooth pour over the vegetables.
Piccalilli
1
1 tsp. all kinds of spice
peck green tomatoes
and
black pepper
Chop the tomatoes and sprinkle on them 1 cup of salt let stand
3 hours; then drain over night; partly cook in weak vinegar
enough to cover add the spices and pepper when cooked enough
and partly cold, add 1 pint of maple molasses and 1 cup of horseradish.
;
;
French Mustard
3 tbsp.
mustard
1 tbsp.
white sugar
1
1
^%g
cup vinegar
Work the mustard and sugar together; beat the zgg
smooth and add the vinegar, a little at a time, working
smooth cook in a double boiler, stirring all the time until
Will last many weeks. Very good with cold meats.
;
91
until
it
all
thick.
:
Chow Chow
head cabbage
34 peck small onions
15 good sized cucumbers
1 head cauliflower
4 green peppers
2 red peppers
J^ pint grated horse-radish
34 lb. white mustard seed
34 teacup tumeric
1
Chop
the cabbage, slice the cucumbers break the cauliflower
chop the peppers with some of the cabbage; throwing
the seeds. Add a teacup of salt and pack in a jar and let it
;
in pieces,
away
stand over night.
In the morning drain off the brine, take 1 part vinegar and 2
parts water and pour on hot, letting it cook a little let stand
2 days in this vinegar, then drain off and throw away add spices
tumeric and other ingredients boil 3 quarts of vinegar with 1
pound of sugar and pour scalding hot over the pickles for three
mornings.
;
;
;
Pickled Pears
Wash the pears good and clean and put 3 cloves in each one.
Boil in the following syrup
1
quart vinegar
brown sugar
1 tsp. each of cloves, cinnamon and allspice
6 cups
Boil the vinegar and sugar together, skim, then add the spices.
the pears in this syrup until tender. Put away in a jar.
Cook
No.
Chili Sauce.
1
3^ cup sugar
2 cups vinegar
6 large tomatoes
2 green peppers
1 tbsp. salt
Chop
fine,
simmer
until well cooked.
No. 2
Chili Sauce.
8 cups vinegar
5 tbsp. sugar
3 tbsp. salt
5 large onions
8 green peppers
30 ripe tomatoes
Boil
all
together about 23^ hours and bottle for use
Cold Catsup
3^ peck ripe tomatoes
2 red peppers
2 onions
3/2
3/2
mustard seed
teacup grated horse-radish
tsp. black pepper
quart vinegar
}i teacup white
1
1
teacup salt
teacup brown sugar
1
Chop tomatoes fine and drain rub through a colander
onions and pepper fine mix all together and bottle.
;
;
92
;
chop
Cold Tomato and Celery Sauce
14 peck ripe tomatoes peeled,
well and put in a jar.
cup white mustard
4
%
Mix
1
tbsp. bottled horseradish
2 doz. stalks celery
2 tbsp. white pepper
1 quart cold vinegar
chopped and drained
through a colander
cup salt
1 cup sugar
It will
keep a year or more.
Pepper Hash
12 green sweet peppers
14 onions
12 red sweet peppers
Chop not very fine. Take 1 quart of vinegar, 2% cups of sugar,
2 even tablespoons of salt. Pour boiling water over the chopped
Pour more boiling
ingredients, let stand 5 minutes, then drain.
water over, let stand 10 minutes, drain. Then boil the whole a
good half-hour, in the sugar, salt and vinegar.
Pickled Peaches
1 qt.
sugar
1 stick
cinnamon
Cloves
1 qt. vinegar
Pare peaches and in each insert two or more cloves. Bofl
sugar, vinegar and cinnamon, add peaches and boil until soft.
When all the peaches are cooked, place in a jar. Pour liquid
over them. This should cover the peaches.
Pepper Relish
Five red peppers, 5 green peppers, take out seeds and stems,
chop peppers with 5 onions fine, pour boiling water over them and
when it has stood 10 minutes strain and add cup sugar, 1 cup
vinegar, 1% tbsp. salt; boil slowly about 15 minutes and bottle.
Cucumber
Pickles
with medium-sized cucumbers. Add a cup of
cover with cold vinegar. It is well to change the vinegar in
about two months.
Fill a stone jar
salt,
93
DIET FOR THE SICK
Preparing and administering the patient's food
is
an important
part of the nurse's work.
The
Use a
Cover
it
Tray
Invalid's
enough for the dishes it is to hold.
Arrange it as if you were
Use the prettiest dishes you have.
large tray just large
with a spotlessly clean napkin.
setting a place at the table.
Three Kinds
of Diet
Diets for the sick are classified as liquid, light, and convalescent. Liquid diet consists entirely of liquid food.
Oatmeal Gruel
%. cup oatmeal
1 quart cold water
3 tbsp. salt
Cook these together in a double boiler for two hours. Press
through a strainer, dilute with milk or cream, reheat, and serve.
The well-beaten white of an egg stirred into the gruel makes it
more
nutritious.
Corn Meal Gruel
^
^
2 tbsp. corn meal
1 tbsp. flour
3 cups boiling water or hot milk
tsp. salt
cup cold water
Mix the meal, flour, and salt stir into them enough cold milk
or water to make a thin paste, and pour this into the hot milk or
water. If water is used, cook 1 hour in a saucepan if milk is
used 3 hours in a double boiler. Serve hot, dilute with milk or
cream.
;
;
Shredded Wheat Gruel
1
shredded wheat biscuit
1 pint boiling
1
tsp. salt
1
Cook
water
cup milk
and water together for 20 minutes, stirring
After adding the milk, strain.
biscuit, salt
occasionally.
Irish
y^ cup Irish
2 cups milk
Moss
Jelly
A
Moss
few grains
Sugar to suit
salt
patient's taste
After washing the moss, let it soak in the milk in a double boiler
one hour then cook until the milk steams, sweeten and strain
into molds. When cold, turn out on a colored plate and serve with
cream and sugar. Vanilla may be used to flavor either jelly or
;
cream
if
the doctor prescribes.
94
Meat Preparations
Beef Juice
Cut into small bits one pound of lean beef from the top round.
Put in a glass jar, put on the cover, and set the jar wrapped in
cloth, or supported on a trivet, in a kettle of cold water.
Heat
the water slowly to about 130 F., or till it steams, let it remain
temperature four or
at this
meat
to obtain all the juice.
then strain, pressing the
Reheat, season and serve like beef
five hours,
tea.
Mutton Broth
neck of mutton
1 quart cold water
Bit of bay leaf
2
Small sprig of parsley
lbs.
Salt
Cut the meat into small pieces, soak it with the herbs 1 hour,
then simmer 3 hours. Strain, cool, and remove fat. Reheat and
salt a portion when required.
Three tablespoons of rice may be
boiled and served in the strained broth.
Clam Broth
6 or 8 large clams
34 cup water
Scrub the clams well with a brush and cold water. Heat them
with one-fourth cupful of water in a covered saucepan till their
shells open.
Boil for one minute after this, and strain through
fine wire.
Serve undiluted, or add a little hot water.
Wine
1%
Jelly
tbsp. granulated gelatine
%
cup cold water
1 cup boiling water
1}2 tbsp. lemon juice
Make the same as lemon
^
^
cup sugar
cup wine (sherry or
Madeira)
jelly.
Egg Preparations
Egg Gruel
1 egg, 1 tsp. sugar, 1 cup hot milk (not scalded), nutmeg or
lemon juice to flavor. While the milk heats, beat the yolk of the
egg till thick and light colored, the white till stiff. Stir into the
yolk the other ingredients in the following order; sugar, milk,
beaten white, flavoring. Serve hot in a glass placed on a plate
covered with a doily.
Eggnog
1
egg
Beat the yolk
ents.
wine or
brandy
1 to 2 tbsp.
tbsp. sugar
V/i tbsp. lemon juice or
2
till
Nutmeg may
1 tsp.
Nutmeg
thoroughly foamy
be omitted.
95
;
stir in
the other ingredi-
Shirred
Egg
Break an egg into a buttered cup or egg shirer let this stand
Season
in a pan of hot water in the oven till the white jellies.
and serve in the same dish placed on a plate.
;
Milk Preparations
Albuminized Milk
Put the white of an egg and half a cupful of milk
cover tightly, and shake until well mixed.
into a glass
jar,
Peptonized Milk
^
tube Fairchild's peptonizing
1
powder
1
cup cold water
pint fresh cold milk
Shake the water and powder together in a quart glass jar or
add the milk, and shake again. Set the jar into warm
water, and keep it as near 130 F., as you can for 20 minutes.
Then put it at once on ice. Serve with grated nutmeg, sugar, or
bottle,
mineral water, as the patient
Irish
%
Lemon
cup Irish Moss
and sugar
juice
may
prefer or the doctor prescribe.
Moss Lemonade
2 cups cold
water
to suit the patient's taste.
Soak the moss in cold water till soft. Pick out dark bits and
foreign matter. Cook it in the 2 cups of water in a double boiler
for 20 minutes. Strain, flavor and sweeten. Use hot or cold for
patients with throat or bronchial inflammation.
Lemon Whey
1 pint hot milk (not scalded) juice of 2 lemons or 6 tbsp. Add
the lemon juice to the milk when the latter has curdled, strain
it through cloth.
Serve the whey hot or cold in a glass.
;
Liquid Diet for
8
One Day
}i cup hot milk
}i cup chicken broth
Eggnog
^ cup hot milk
glass milk punch or Kumiss
% cup chicken broth
A
8 p.m.
}i cup cocoa
SANDWICHES
Bread for sandwiches should be one day old. Use white, graham, or brown bread. Cut the bread as thin as possible and have
the butter soft enough not to tear the bread. Remove the crusts
and cut in squares or triangles.
Anchovy Sandwiches
Rub
yolks of hard-boiled eggs to a paste, moisten with
butter and anchovy essence to taste.
oil
or
Chicken Sandwiches
Cold boiled chicken may be sliced thin and sprinkled with
pepper and salt, or cold chicken may be chopped and mixed with
mayonnaise.
Cheese Sandwiches
Mix
equal parts of cream cheese and chopped walnuts with
French dressing.
Cucumber Sandwiches
Chop medium sized cucumbers
drain and mix with mayonnaise.
rather
fine,
add a
little
salt,
Egg Sandwiches
Chop hard-boiled eggs with a silver knife,
dressing or mayonnaise.
Ham
Chop
mix with French
Sandwiches
ham
very fine and season with mustard, make into a
paste with melted butter.
the
Lettuce Sandwiches
Shred
lettuce
and mix with mayonnaise.
Nut Sandwiches
Peanuts or walnuts chopped very fine are an addition to almost
any sandwiches. The chopped nuts may be mixed with French
dressing or mayonnaise.
Olive Sandwiches
Pimola olives are most used
;
mayonnaise.
97
chop quite
fine
and mix with
Sardine Sandwiches
Mash
sardines with
salt,
cayenne and lemon
juice.
Tongue Sandwiches
Use
thin slices of boiled tongue
and spread with mustard.
Club Sandwiches
On
a slice of bread put a lettuce leaf, next slices of thin crisp
bacon, next slices of chicken and mayonnaise, cover with slice of
bread, and toast lightly on either side.
Watercress Sandwiches
Cut thin slices of bread and butter and spread them evenly
with picked watercress and some chopped chives. Then spread
thickly with the hard-boiled yolks of eggs which have been rubbed
through a sieve. Place another piece of bread on the top and
press together.
May Day
Chop together
Sandwiches
fine 5 lettuce leaves, Yz pint stuffed olives, Yz
cup walnuts, add 4 tablespoons salad dressing and spread between
thin slices of bread, either
brown or
white.
CONFECTIONERY
Peanut Butter Fudge
cups powdered sugar
cup milk
2
Yi.
3
tbsp.
peanut butter
Boil 5 or 6 minutes.
Molasses Candy
1 tbsp. vinegar
Vanilla and small piece butter
cup molasses
1
2 cups sugar
Boil 10 minutes, then cool enough to pull.
Penoche
2 cups
1 cup granulated sugar
brown sugar
Moisten the sugar with cream or rich milk and put on the stove
into cold water.
to boil. Let it boil until it hardens when dropped
and a few
butter
of
lump
a
nuts,
Then add a cup of chopped
well
drops of vanilla. Stir until creamy enough to pour mto
buttered pans.
Peppermint Creams
cups granulated sugar
Yz cup boiling water
2
Drop
quickly on
waxed
1
tsp.
peppermint
Yz
tsp.
cream tartar when
taken from
fire
paper.
Maple Nut Fudge
cup sweet eream
cup chopped nuts
ball in cold
Boil sugar and cream until it forms a very soft
tms.
buttered
into
Pour
creamy.
until
beat
water. Add nuts and
Before quite cold cut in squares.
1
% cups maple sugar
1 cup white sugar
1
Chocolate Cream Candy
2 squares chocolate
1 tsp. vanilla
cups sugar
Yz cup milk
2
1
tbsp. butter
melted
Put the butter into a granite saucepan and when it is
the
add
then
point,
boiling
a
to
this
add the sugar and milk. Heat
Boil 1^
chocolate and stir constantly until chocolate is melted.
stir until
minutes then remove from fire. Add the vanilla and
little around the
a
sugar
to
begins
mixture
the
until
and
creamy,
edge of the saucepan.
99
Walnut Creams
Any
White of an egg
desired flavoring
2 tbsp. cold water
Add the water to the beaten white of the egg. Work in confectionery sugar until mixture can be molded with hands. Make
into small balls and press a walnut on each side. This cream can
also be used for chocolate creams, stuffed dates, etc.
Plain
Fudge
cups sugar
squares chocolate
y2 cup milk
1 tbsp. butter
3
2
Vanilla
Boil until it is stringy. Take off, beat until it becomes grainy.
into a well-buttered pan. Just before cold cut into squares.
Pour
Fudge
Divinity
2
%
%
cups white sugar
cup Karo corn syrup
cup water
1
cup walnut meats
White of one egg beaten
stiff
Boil the sugar, water and syrup until a thread spins from the
spoon. Pour on the beaten white of an egg and beat until thick
and white. Add walnuts before pouring in buttered pans.
Pop
Com
Balls
Pop corn without salting it. Shake out the hard kernels. Boil
cup sugar, 1 cup of syrup, 1 teaspoon vanilla and 1 teaspoon
soda. After it has boiled pour over the corn and make into balls.
This also makes a good cracker] ack by putting in some peanuts
and putting the corn in a buttered pan and pressing it down while
1
warm.
When
cold cut in squares.
Ice
Cream Cones
1 lb. sugar (powdered best)
5 lbs. sifted flour
About
2 tsp. vanilla
1
1 tbsp.
egg
sweet
oil
3 qts. water
may
be added
if
desired
First dissolve sugar in water, add flour slowly, stirring until
there are no lumps, then other ingredients. Stir well.
100
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOODS AND FOOD MATERIALS
From
Bulletin No.
28,
issued
by United States Department
of Agriculture
The food value of any food or food material is estimated by finding out how
much energy it yields in the form of heat when burned. Heat is measured by
calories.
One calorie is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of
water four degrees Fahrenheit. The figures in the right-hand column thus
of a pound of each food or food material would be
were perfectly digested and assimilated.
show what the food value
every bit of
it
Pood and Food Materials
if
...
«
5
a! O
« C
Food and Food Materials
«>
.3 R
tST3
>
o
Is
oi:
fc.S
LAMB, Cooked
Chops, broiled
As purchased
Edible portion
%
7o
%
%
%
%
%
Calories
13.5 40.1 18.4 26.7
47.6 21.7 29.9
1.2 1470
1.3 1665
67.1 19.7 12.7
900
17.7 51.9 15.4 14.5
63.2 18.7 17.5
900
1.0 1085
22.1 46.8 13.7 17.1
60.2 17.5 21.8
975
1245
50.9 25.0 22.6
1.2 1420
....
19.3 40.8 13.2 26.0
50.7 16.4 32.0
.9 1655
Edible portion ....
12.2 35.8 14.5 33.2
39.8 16.5 38.8
4.2 1670
4.7 1945
Ham, smoked, fried
As purchased
36.6 22.2 33.2
5.8 1815
1.9 86.2
3.9 3670
Leg
roast
Edible portion
MUTTON
Hmd leg
As purchased.
Edible portion
Shoulder
As purchased
.
Edible portion
MUTTON, Cooked
Leg
roast
Edible portion
PORK
Loin Chops
As purchased
Edible portion
1340
Ham, smoked
As purchased
Salt pork, clear fat
As purchased
7.9
POULTRY
Chickens
As purchased
Edible portion
Fowl
As purchased
Edible portion
295
505
41.6 43.7 12.8 1.4
74.8 21.5 2.5
1.1
25.9 47.1 13.7 12.3
63.7 19.3 16.3
.7 775
1.0 1045
103
.7
t.
Food and Food Materials
.
Sis
Food and Food Materials
Ph.S
fclz;
MILK
%
%
Whole ....
Skimmed.
^0
ries
87.0 3.3 4.0 5.0
90.5 3.4
.3 5.1
26.9 8.8 8.3 54.1
Condensed
Calo-
ojo
325
170
1.9 1520
.7
.7
MEAL, FLOUR AND BREAD
Corn Meal
12.5
11.8
79.3
7.3
84.5
12.3
72.5
Hominy
Hominy, cooked
Oatmeal
Oatmeal, cooked
Rice
Rice, boiled
75.4
79.0
17.8
67.5
11.5
79.0
24.4
9.2
8.3
2.2
16.1
2.8
8.0
2.8
1.0 1655
.3 1650
.5 380
1.9 1860
.7 285
.4 1630
.3 535
1.0
.9
Wheat Flour
Entire wheat
High grade spring wheat
11.4 13.8 1.9 71.9
12.3 11.7 1.1 74.5
Macaroni, cooked
Graham bread
78.4
35.7
32.9
35.3
6
Biscuit
White bread
Crackers
3.0 1.5 15.8
8.9 1
52.1
8.7 2.6 55.3
9.2 1.3 53.1
10.7
71.9
1.0 1675
.4 1650
.9
.1
1.3 415
1.5 1210
.5 1300
1.1 1215
1.8 1905
i!i
.7
.5
.5
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT
Beets, cooked
Cabbage
Lettuce
Carrots
Onions
Onions, cooked
Peas, dried
Peas, green, cooked
Potatoes, raw, edible portion.
Potatoes, boiled
Tomatoes
Apples, edible portion
Bananas, edible portion
Dates, dried
Chocolate
Cocoa
15.0
15.0
20.0
10.0
2.3
1.4
1.0
77
80
70
78
91
9
73
78
75
94
84
.9
.1
.2
.2
.2
.3
1.4
1.2 1
24.6 1.0
6.7 3.4
2.2
.1
2.5
.1
.9
.4
.4
.5
.6
1.3
1.9 2.5
75
10.0 13
7.4
4.8
2.5
7.4
8.9
4.9
62.0
14.6
18.4
20.9 17.
3.9
14.2
22.0
70.6
5.9 12.9 48.7 30.3
4.6 21.6 28.9 37.7
104
185
125
75
160
.5 205
.9 190
2.9 1655
540
385
1.6
.9
.8
.9
440
12.
105
290
460
1.2 1450
2.2 2860
7.2 2320
GENERAL SUGGESTIONS
Home
Furnishing
Start with an idea.
2.
Buy each thing with reference to everything else.
3.
Carry color of one room into the next, where it may be
combined with one which is to be repeated in a third.
4.
colors (yellow, brown, red) could be used in north
1.
Warm
rooms.
5.
Care should be taken not to have too many visible figured
things in a room.
6.
It is well to have plain paper in one room and a figured
in the next.
Striped papers give apparent height to a room.
7.
Plain papers make the best background for pictures.
8.
Whenever possible have no picture wires visible.
9.
10.
"A mantel is the altar on which you place the gods of
your
11.
taste."
A
general fault
is
too
much
furniture in a single room.
The Home Medicine Chest
1 pair scissors
1 roll of adhesive plaster
1 eye cup
2 rolls bandages
1 roll gauze
1 cake soap
1 box absorbent cotton
1 bottle of alcohol
lYoQ carbolic acid.
For white material or metals.
Chlorinated lime.
For disinfecting excreta, water closets, sinks.
Use only perfectly fresh.
Formaldehyde is an excellent deodorant.
Antiseptics
Boric acid 2 to 4 per cent solution
—
:
of hydrogen
;
;
peroxide
salt solution.
Care and Feeding of Children
General Remarks
The
meal in the middle of the day.
No eating between meals, except plain bread and butter, or a
glass of milk given in the morning or the afternoon.
Much water should be taken.
Quantity should be regulated according to size, activity and
largest
age.
Certain large quantities are to be prohibited, like meat, sweets
and desserts.
Food carefully prepared,
palatable, digestible.
child first goes to school is very important time.
Child
is apt to be nervous and food should be of abundant quantity,
of right quality. Breakdown more apt to be due to too small
When
quantity than from overeating.
Training of children to eat at specified time important.
Pure candy may be given at the end of a meal, not between
meals.
Suggestions for School Lunches
Materials for Packing
A
fresh
Waxed
box
paper for wrapping
Paper napkin
Individual cup.
To Pack Box
Line with paper
Wrap each kind of food in separate paper
Whenever possible, pack so that things to be eaten
On
top.
first
are
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