Smithco Turf Spraying Guide

Smithco Turf Spraying Guide
ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO
TURF SPRAYING
Table of Contents
Description
Page
Introduction
1
Safety Precautions
1
1. Application
2
2. Technical Information and Formulas
15
3. Introduction to Calibration
16
4. Boom Sprayer Calibration
17
Smithco Nozzle Performance Chart #1
23
Smithco Nozzle Performance Chart #2
24
Smithco Nozzle Performance Chart #3
25
Smithco Nozzle Performance Chart #4
26
Smithco Nozzle Performance Chart #5
27
Smithco Nozzle Performance Chart #6
28
Star Command Calibration Test
29
INTRODUCTION
This guide is intended to offer practical guidelines for the distribution of liquid chemicals over
an area of turfgrass such as golf courses, parkland, school grounds and lawns. It offers two
procedures for Boom Sprayer Calibration. There are other proven procedures available.
Smithco makes no representation as to the suitability of any procedure or product for any
particular situation.
This Guide is suitable for self-propelled Spray Vehicles, sprayers towed by vehicles and
tractors or sprayers mounted onto vehicles.
This guide is intended to be used in conjunction with:
1. The Sprayer Owners Manual
2. The Spray Boom Owners Manual
3. The Electronic Spray Control System Owners Manual (if the sprayer is so equipped)
4. It may also be useful to the user to refer to the catalogs produced by nozzle
manufacturers (Spraying Systems Co., Delavan Mfg. Co. and others)
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Persons engaged in the handling, preparation or application of chemicals must follow
accepted practices to insure the safety of themselves and others.
•
WEAR protective clothing including: gloves; hat; respirator, eye protection and skin
covering suitable for protection from chemicals being used.
•
BATHE thoroughly after any exposure to chemicals, giving particular attention to eyes,
nose, ear and mouth.
•
CLEAN equipment and materials in accordance with employer, municipal and state
regulations, using only approved areas and drains.
•
DISPOSE of chemicals and rinse solutions by approved and legal methods
•
PROVIDE methods and materials for operators to wash eyes and hands immediately
during the spraying process.
•
PROVIDE methods and materials for control, safe dilution & neutralization of chemical
spills during preparation, spraying, transporting and clean up.
1
1 APPLICATION
A. – PUMPS USED FOR SPRAYING TURF
he type of pump selected for the spraying is usually the determining factor in selecting
pressure variables used in spraying tasks.
Most dedicated spray vehicles (e.g., Spray Star 1600 & 3000, Toro Multipro 1100 & 5500) are
fitted with Centrifugal pumps. These are known as high volume/low pressure pumps. Typically 60-70
gallons of flow per minute at pressures up to 100 PSI.
T
 Characteristics of Centrifugal pumps:
Positives
1. They are relatively inexpensive.
2. Easy to replace and rebuild.
3. Can be pumped against a closed system, as they will bypass within the
volute.
4. Has a relatively small size to fit in many places.
5. Requires little horsepower to run.
6. Can use less expensive hydraulic agitation due to high flow rates.
Negatives
1. All the material pumped passes through the heart and critical components, so wear can be a
factor if a lot of abrasives (wetable powders) are used.
2. Considered a “throw-away” pump by a lot of end users.
3. Low Pressure means it cannot be used in some applications.
The other most common pump used is the Diaphragm-Piston pump. They are considered low
volume/high pressure pumps. Typically these will have volumes of 10, 14 or 20 gallons per minute with
pressures as high as 700 PSI. These are considerably more expensive.
 Characteristics of Piston-Diaphragm pumps:Positives
1. All the material pumped passes through a special chamber, separated from critical components
by a rubberized diaphragm, so wear is not a factor if a lot of
abrasives (wetable powders) are used.
2. Mechanical parts of pumps (piston, gears, etc.) are enclosed
in an oil bath for lubrication and protection.
3. Usually has air-dampener included reducing pulsation in lines.
4. Useful in wider applications because of high-pressure
capabilities.
5. Easy to rebuild.
6. Considered a better pump by many end users.
Negatives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
They are relatively expensive.
Much larger profile so harder to fit in manufacturing process.
Requires more horsepower to run.
Often requires mechanical agitation due to small flow rates.
Usually much noisier for operator environment.
2
Other pumps less frequently used on turf sprayers are:
 Roller pumps
 Electric diaphragm pumps
 Ceramic piston pumps
 Turbine pumps
B. - HOSE AND HANDGUN SPRAYING
handgun (or hand-nozzle or hand-lance) is used to control and
direct the spray pattern to the ground, shrub or tree. They
must be constructed of long lasting and non-corrosive
materials such as brass, stainless and aluminum
The handgun fits to a hose of any length from the sprayer allowing
operator mobility. The hose should be as short as possible while still
permitting operator mobility.
A
Liquid looses pressure due to friction as it travels through the hose, from
1 to 3 PSI for each foot (30 cm) of hose length.
Pressure Drop through Various Hose Sizes
Pressure drop in psi (in 10-Ft. length without couplings)
Flow in GPM
0.5
¼” I.D.
½” I.D.
¾” I.D.
1” I.D.
1.4
1.0
1.5
.4
2.0
.6
2.5
.9
3.0
1.2
4.0
2.0
5.0
2.9
.4
6.0
4.0
.6
8.0
.9
.3
10.0
1.4
.4
As you can see, if a sprayer with a low-pressure centrifugal pump is fitted with an excess of ½” hose
(over 100 feet), it will lose at least 20 PSI at a flow rate of 4.0 GPM. Considering that you only start with
around 60 PSI, it can limit your options. At 6.0 GPM, the pressure loss would be over 40 PSI for 100
feet of hose. This also does not take into account pressure loss through the other fittings, solenoids,
etc.
3
For most operations, 1/2" (1 1/4 cm) inside diameter hose is adequate. Trees over 40 ft. (12
m) high require 3/4" (2 cm) inside diameter hose and a sprayer pump capable of delivering a
volume of at least 20 GPM (75 LPM) and a pressure of at least 400 PSI (28 BAR). Handgun
selection makes a critical difference as well. (see chart below)
C - BOOM SPRAYING
oom Spraying is the most effective, accurate and
efficient method of applying chemicals to large turf
areas.
B
It may be done my means of:
1. A dedicated spray vehicle
2. A sprayer mounted upon a utility vehicle
3. A sprayer drawn behind a tractor or other
towing vehicle
Smithco 16’ “wet boom” with 10” spaced Tee-Jet nozzles
These sprayers are equipped with wide spray booms.
Generally these booms are between 15 feet (4.5 m) and 20
feet (6 m) in width. They are divided into 3 sections with
hinges, which permit the long outer sections to be moved out
of the way if an obstacle such as a tree or fence is struck.
There are essentially three types of booms in use today. The
first is called a “wet boom” (above) in that the material to be sprayed is carried to the individual
nozzles through a structural element of the boom. Secondly is a
“dry boom” (right) in which the structural elements are used to
support sections of hose between nozzle body sections. Lastly,
“boomless” nozzles are used to put out wider spray paths from a
single (or cluster of specialized nozzles) nozzles from a single,
center mounted location. The most typical boomless nozzles used
are a “flood-jet” or “field-jet” type nozzle. Also available is a
“Boom-Jet” (left) nozzle capable of delivering widths up to 70 feet.
They all have positives and negatives, but there is no right or
wrong boom type. Individual preference usually takes priority with the superintendent’s choice.
4
Wet booms have been considered less than acceptable in the past for the following reasons. Some wet
booms are made from inferior material and will suffer
internal corrosion leading to blockages in the tips. This
objection is eliminated through the use of high quality
stainless steel for the carrier portions. Also, easily removed
end caps make inspection and cleaning a simple task.
Another perceived negative is that if the boom carrier is
damaged or bent (see examples, above left & right), the
replacement of that part is expensive. This is compensated
for in the “Smithco Autoboom” 18 by using a square tube
steel bridge to support and protect the stainless sections.
The bridge angles forward as it extends to act as a bumper
for the boom ends, greatly eliminating the chance for bends or breaks.
Along the length of the boom are located some type of spray nozzles, usually spaced 10" (25 cm) or
20" (51 cm) apart. There are a vast number of nozzle types, shapes and sizes available. They are
made of many materials. Stainless steel, nylon and ceramic are best suited for turf spraying. Brass is
not satisfactory due to shorter useful life. These nozzles are usually mounted on “nozzle bodies” of a
specific type. Nozzle bodies accomplish the following tasks:
1. Provide clamp or mount to the boom structure.
2. Provide “Drip-less Diaphragm” with a spring and check valve to
prevent material leaking out when boom is shut off.
3. Provide “Quick-Cap” mount for spray tips so that tip alignment
when cleaning and replacing nozzles is easy, automatic and
foolproof.
4. Modern nozzles are color-coded. Each size has its own color. An
operator can see at a glance if all nozzles are identical.
Nozzle bodies are now available with multiple tip capabilities. Each nozzle body can be mounted with
three, four or five tip configurations. This allows the spray tech to change the nozzle tip quickly and
simply to the right one for the particular job he’s performing. He also has extra tips always on board
and can easily switch a broken or damaged one to complete a critical application without having to
return to the maintenance area.
The SPRAY BOOM NOZZLE has 3 functions:
1. To regulate the flow of liquid (the volume)
2. To form the liquid into droplets which will be sprayed over the turf.
3. To disperse a specific pattern in order to insure proper coverage on the turf.
The first function - to regulate the flow is done through the size of the orifice opening within the nozzle.
All nozzles, regardless of type, have some point within them that regulates the flow of liquid. Obviously,
the larger the opening the greater the rate of flow volume. Volume is expressed in Gallons Per Minute
or Liters Per Minute. Tips are rated for flow and if a flat fan type tip, it’s operating angle. When
discussing tips and flow rates, the industry standard is to assume that the operating pressure is fortyPSI. The first two, or three numbers (Tee-Jets are available in 65º, 80º &110º) express the angle the tip
applies material. The last two numbers are the flow rate at forty PSI. Therefore, a flat fan tip rated as
an 8008 has a spray angle of eighty degrees and a flow rate of eight-tenths of a gallon per minute. A
Tee-Jet 11008 would have an angle of 110 degrees and the same flow rating. Delavan Raindrop tips
are only rated for flow, e.g.; RA-6 (.6 GPM), RA-10 (1.0 GPM) and RA-15 (1.5 GPM). Complete nozzle
5
charts are available at the end of this guide for some of the most popular tips used in the Turf industry.
Do not confuse the term volume with application rate, which will be covered later.
As pressure increases, the flow volume through a given nozzle also increases. For example, an
average size nozzle which discharges .52 GPM (1.4 LPM) at 30 PSI (2 BAR), will discharge .73 GPM
(2 LPM) at 60 PSI (4 BAR). In this example, an increase in pressure of 100% has caused an increase
in discharge of 40%
Some nozzles deliver a small volume (for example, 0.2 GPM [.75 LPM]). Some nozzles deliver a
relative large volume (for example, 1.5 GPM [5.7 LPM]), or 7 1/2 times as much as the smaller nozzle
in this example.
We will discuss more on the types of nozzles as we address the nozzle's other functions.
The amount of material (volume) to be applied is determined by the type of effect the chemical is to
have on the turf.
Just some brief general comments on turf management chemicals. They are made for four general
purposes:
1. Fungicides
Prevent or cure fungus on turfgrass.
They are made in 2 general types:
a. Systemic Chemicals enter the plant system and protect or cure it of
fungus.
b. Contact Kills fungus with which it comes into contact
2. Insecticides
Eliminate damaging insects and worms (such as grubs, beetles, ants, etc.)
3. Herbicides
Control and eliminate undesirable weeds and grass from turf areas and
non-turf areas such as bunkers, trails, fences, etc.
4. Nutrients & Fertilizer Promote growth, beauty and color in turfgrass
Some materials have to be applied so that they get into the soil below the plant leaves. (This is called
"soil application") In order to do this; they are best applied with a large volume of water. They are often
then watered in" using the irrigation system. This type of chemical material includes systemic
chemicals and chemicals designed to destroy pests, which live in the thatch and the soil.
Other materials must be applied to reach a problem that is present on the plant leaves. This is called
Foliar Application and requires a lower volume of water. Instead of irrigation water, dry air and
sunshine further activate these materials. They include contact fungicide and many herbicides.
Above all, the user of sprayers and chemicals must follow the directions provided with the spray
material. It is the only way to insure safe and effective results. It provides information on how much
chemical and how much water is to be applied to the area to be sprayed.
The second function of a nozzle on a sprayer is to form the liquid into droplets.
The size of the droplet is determined by two factors:
1. The design of the nozzle
2. The system operating pressure (PSI / BAR)
Some applications are done best by big droplets such as
systemic fungicides and insecticides and some herbicides
in order to reduce drift. Other applications require small
droplets like contact fungicides and some herbicides.
This, again, often is determined by whether the chemical is foliar applied or soil applied. Large droplets
6
for soil applied material, small droplets, which more fully cover plant for foliar applied materials.
Pressure also affects droplet size. More pressure at the same nozzle produces smaller droplets, more
subject to drift. The general rule on pressure is to use the lowest pressure possible with just enough to
form adequate spray nozzle patterns.
Though there are many types and sizes of nozzles, two specific types have proven most successful in
turfgrass management. The first type is target directed. It sprays the material in a direct line downward
to the target turfgrass.
These are flat fan nozzles, commonly referred to as Tee-Jet nozzles. They are available in a wide
variety of sizes for any required discharge volume rate. They are the best for many contact or foliar
applied pesticides. They are spaced either 10" (25 cm) or 20" (51 cm) apart. They overlap one another
by about 1/3.
The second types useful in turf management are broadcast type
nozzles. They are commonly referred to as raindrop or floodjet
nozzles. They spray a hollow-cone shaped pattern of much larger
droplets, which fall quickly to the turf under their own weight. They
are best for systemic pesticides or any material requiring a large
volume of water for soil application.
The larger droplets are not subject to drift from wind and are a safer,
environmentally friendly choice in many situations. The nozzle's third
function is to disperse the material at a specific pattern, which will insure an
even distribution of chemical across the swath covered by the boom.
A graph of the pattern formed by flat fan (tee-jet) nozzles would show most
liquid concentrated at the center, then tapering off where it begins to
overlap with the next nozzle-approximately 1/3.
The pattern of liquid dispersed by the hollow-cone (Raindrop)
is more even across its' width. Each nozzle overlaps the
adjoining nozzle by 100%. That is to say the area covered by
each nozzle extends to the center of the two nozzles on either
side.
In order to properly develop their spray pattern, each nozzle
must be the proper distance from the next nozzle (spacing)
and the proper height above the ground.
SPACING - Turf spray nozzles are normally 10" (25 cm) or
20' (51 cm) apart (some cases 30" / 76 cm), depending on
the type of spray boom and type of area to be sprayed.
Very fine, level areas (golf greens & tees, bowling lawns,
tennis courts, etc.) may be sprayed with nozzles spaced
every 10" (25 cm).
Information from Delavan catalog
on 45° Tilt of Rain-Drop
7
BOOM HEIGHT is very important in permitting spray nozzles to develop their proper spray pattern. If
nozzles are too high, excessive overlap develops. If nozzles are too low, there is not enough
overlapping of nozzle spray patterns.
NOZZLE
TYPE
80° Flat Fan
65° Flat Fan
Raindrop Cone
Raindrop Flat
Turbo Floodjet
Turbo Floodjet
NOZZLE
SPACING
20" (51 cm)
10" (25 cm)
20" (51 cm)
20" (51 cm)
20" (51 cm)
30" (76 cm)
HEIGHT AB0VE
THE GROUND
18" (45-46 cm)
12" (30-31 cm)
18" (45-46 cm)
12" (30-31 cm)
15" (38-39 cm)
16" (40-41 cm)
Improper nozzle height or spacing prevents proper application of chemical. Some areas are
under-treated and chemicals are ineffective. Some areas are over-treated with wasted chemical and
possible turf damage. It is very important to remember that flat fan nozzles MUST be angled at five
degrees from the line of the boom. This is so the overlap areas do not collide with each other,
disrupting the pattern. With current nozzle bodies and quick caps, this alignment is automatic. Observe
nozzles in operation while the sprayer is parked. This a good time to look for tip pattern alignment, it
will be very evident if the fan pattern is colliding between tips. This is also a good time to visually
inspect the overlap area. For flat fans, it is approximately thirty percent.
If the boom pattern checks out so far, a good method of further checking spray pattern consistency to
operate the sprayer at desired speed and pressure on a hard, dry surface (i.e., a parking lot), applying
water to the pavement. Observe if the area dries evenly. If alternating wet and dry streaks are
apparent, raise or lower the spray boom. If the wet streaks are directly under the nozzle, the boom is
too low, raise it. If the wet streaks are between the nozzles, the boom is too high, lower it. It is
important to check for pattern alignment prior to spraying water, as colliding patterns will give
misleading information as it dries unevenly.
The most precise method is to use the two
tools made by Spraying Systems, the Tee-Jet
Tip Tester and Tee-Jet Pattern Checker. Use
the Tip Tester to quickly check each tip for
consistency of flow. At this point, it doesn’t
matter what the flow is, just that it’s the same
from tip to tip. Then operate the spray boom
while the Pattern Checker is lying flat on the
ground, applying water. When the Checker is lifted, the balls in the chambers will float, giving a very
accurate representation of the sprayed patterns accuracy.
FURTHER NOZZLE INFORMATION
•
NOZZLE SCREENS (STRAINERS): Smaller nozzles require nozzle screens or strainers to prevent
clogging.
Teejet type nozzles from size 8001 and 80015 and RF Flat Spray Raindrop Nozzles
require 100 mesh screens
Teejet type nozzles from size 8002 through 8008 and RF Flat Spray Raindrop Nozzles
require 50 mesh screens
8
Raindrop Hollow Cone Nozzles Size RA-2 through RA-6 require 50 mesh screens
Raindrop Hollow Cone Nozzles Size RA-8 and larger does not require strainers.
Turbo Floodjet Nozzles TF-VS2 through TFVS-3 require 50 mesh screens. Turbo Floodjet Nozzles
TF-VS4 and larger do not require screens.
•
•
Always be alert to the possibility of a plugged or damaged nozzle. Serious misapplication may
result.
Check nozzles out-put periodically.
D – AGITATION
T
he question often comes up whether hydraulic or mechanical agitation is superior. There is
really no correct answer. Both are very acceptable if they perform the required job. That is to
keep the insoluble materials use suspended in the carrier. The oft time feeling that mechanical
is better stems from the fact that it became popular when fiberglass tanks and small volume
piston-diaphragm pumps became popular. Because the small volume output of the diaphragm pump
precluded the use of hydraulic agitation, mechanical means had to be devised. These were
considerably more expensive, due to the cost of the pump, as well as the costs associated with
fiberglass tanks and stainless steel mechanical systems. Over time, the more expensive systems
became misconstrued as superior
The point is, as long as there is enough volume to provide adequate turbulence to keep particulate
matter suspended, there is no difference in quality of agitation. To further this end, devices such as
“Venturi” tips or “Eductor” nozzles continue to reduce the differences in effectiveness. These nozzles
literally double to triple the flow through them by “Venturi” action.
The case could be made that mechanical agitation is considered inferior as the need to have rigid walls
to mount shafts, packing glands to prevent leaks and extra horsepower to turn the shafts are required.
E – SPRAY CONTROLLERS
he spraying industry have grown considerable more sophisticated since the days of the “Ratchet
Valve” was the standard to turn spray booms on and off. Today, computers are being used more
and more to control the spraying event. They have become popular because they increase
efficiency and productivity, especially in large scale operations. The level and sophistication of
these devices brief descriptions of the various controllers in use today. Remember that computers
really only do two things: 1. Monitor and adjust flow to keep application rate constant as it senses
changes in ground speed; and 2. Keep track of volume sprayed and acreage covered.
T
Computers can be either “flow” based, “pressure” based or in one unique instance, both.
Smithco is not a supporter of pressure based control systems due to the earlier explained loss
of pressure due to friction through lines, fittings and solenoids. Pressure based systems would
be accurate only if the pressure transducer was placed at the tip, and then only for that tip.
Most systems mount the transducer up around the solenoids, so they are only relatively
accurate. That is, they will accurately read and report pressure and pressure changes where
the transducer is mounted, but that may have nothing to do with what is going on at the tip.
When do you have forty PSI at the tip on a boom mounted with 8008 nozzles? Only
when that tip delivers eight tenths of a gallon in one minute!
9
1. Manual
Requires that the pressure side hose come up the operator station into either a single or multiple
(usually three-section) boom control. There is a main on/off, pressure adjustment (with return to
agitation for unused flow) and individual boom on/off controllers. It is inexpensive and easy to
maintain and repair. Major negative is that since hoses and therefore chemicals are at the operator
station, if a hose bursts, the operator will be exposed to that chemical.
2. Raven 203
This is a basic electronic control that eliminates the
hoses from coming to the front of the sprayer. It
includes a central control box at the operator’s station
that has a master on/off switch, individual switches to
turn boom sections on/off. A pressure adjustment
switch and pressure gauge. The master and boom
section switches control solenoids located at the rear of
the sprayer and the pressure adjust switch controls a
motorized ball or “butterfly” valve to allow more or less
flow (read pressure) to reach the boom. The leftover flow is return as bypass agitation. It is
simple, effective and well accepted in the industry. A major negative is the solenoids which,
if not properly maintained, can readily corrode, causing the sprayer to either not turn on or
off. Some companies and end users will substitute electric ball valves in this application.
They are substantially more reliable and expensive. An important point to remember is
that although we offer solenoids as standard, we can supply a sprayer with electric ball
valves, at an increase in cost.
3. Raven SCS 440 Computer
Probably the most popular and well know computer controller
used in the turf industry or perhaps the last 10 years. Toro also
uses it and private labeled it the Toro Pro-Control System. It has
achieved a negative image due to its early moisture sensitivity and
loss of memory problems. Although much improved, it is still
basically the same technology as the original models.
4. Micro-Trak 3000 Computer
Used by John Deere primarily, it is a good, competent controller that never
gained much use in Turf. Mostly noted for its “Delta” increase capabilities,
which allow an increase in flow rate by a user’s settable amount. This is a
flow based control system.
10
5. Tee-Jet 844 Computer
One of two new controllers offered by
Spraying Systems, this is the simple
computer by Tee-Jet. Complete weather
proofing and non-volatile memory are two
very important points that will register with
your customers immediately. It can monitor
either flow or pressure (using a flow meter
or pressure transducer), but not both at the
same time. It displays all the sprayer
information on a single screen; target rate,
speed, pressure (calculated) volume
sprayed and area covered. Very effective
as a flow based controller, it has a unique
system for programming application rates.
Designed with essentially a tip chart
programmed into its memory, when
entering your gallons per acre (or gallons
per thousand) it will tell you the speed and
pressure required with the tip selected. The
program will always default to the speed for forty PSI, and as you adjust speed it will change the
required pressure. If you are unable to achieve the balance you want, changing the tip size on the
computer will bring the parameters into a workable range. The 844 allows an operator to do “what ifs”
before mixing chemical. Additionally, information from a spraying event can be downloaded to either an
optional printer or directly to a computer. The 844 is also GPS capable, but that technology is off in the
future for turf.
6. Tee-Jet 855 Computer
The more sophisticated controller from Spraying Systems, the 855 monitors both flow and pressure,
using one as a primary and the other as a
backup and also features the weather proof
housing and non-volatile memory. Again, flow
based is recommended for the aforementioned
reason. This enables the 855 to perform some
very neat tricks, which will be explained a little
later. The 855 has two screens for reading out
information; the left one showing speed, target
rate and pressure while the right displays actual
rate (being applied), volume applied and acreage
covered. Repeatedly pressing a button changes
each display and LEDs illuminate to tell the
operator which mode is currently being displayed.
It will store up to four preset rates, and each rate
can be overridden by plus or minus increments,
up to a maximum of ninety percent either way
(tips being the real limiting factor). When
programming application rates, extensive tip
information is entered into the computer. For each rate, tip size, minimum/maximum recommended
operating pressures and tip spacing is also required. The information plus the dual monitoring is what
lets the 855 do it special tricks. It will alert the operator when pressure falls below minimum by flashing
11
SPD (speed) UP on the left and right screen and also sounding an alarm. It will also flash SLO DN
when the sprayer is being driven too fast. In fact, whenever it detects a variance from the pressure/flow
curve it expects, it will flash CAL SYS (calibrate system) and sound an alarm. This can result from:
 BLOCKAGES in tips or lines
 LEAKS in tips or lines
 EXCESSIVE TIP WEAR
This is extremely valuable information for the spray technician to have displayed, bringing a level of
confidence to spraying that’s revolutionary. Couple this with its weatherproof reliability and it’s an
impressive controller.
To add to that confidence level, the 855 operates as an electronic spray
controller if the computer ever fails. The switches that control the master
on/off, individual boom section solenoids and pressure-compensating valve
are completely independent of the computer. The computer can be turned
off and the sprayer operated normally. All that is required is a pressure gauge mounted somewhere in
the system (which is usually the case on most sprayers. LEDs illuminate to indicate connections with
the flow meter, pressure transducer and speed sensor. LEDs also light when booms sections are
turned on and preset rates are selected. These LEDs blink when target rates are overridden. Again,
computer and printer links are options as well as the GPS capability.
7. Smithco Star Controller
This is a customized version of an expanded Tee-Jet 844 made exclusively for Smithco. It has all the
features and benefits of the regular 844, but includes custom cabling and electric control through a
dedicated junction box All sprayer functions are accessed from a central control location. Boom
lift/lower, pump engagement, lights and any other needs will all be controlled here.
F – ACCESSORIES
M
any accessories are now available for sprayers in the turf industry. This will be by no means a
complete list, but will address the most popular options selected by our end users. These
options are listed randomly, in no particular order.
1. Hose Reel
Hose reels are often used for handgun spraying or
walking boom (Spray Hawk) use. Other tasks performed
might be with root feeders, tree guns and other
specialized attachments. They are available in either
manual or electric rewind, and usually can carry
approximately 200 feet of ½” or 100 feet of ¾” hose.
Please remember the discussion earlier concerning
pressure loss due to friction through hose.
12
2. Foam Markers
A good spray practice is the use of some device to mark the outside
boundaries of each spray swath. Foam markers are advisable. Foam
Markers are used to mark the overlap area of the end of the boom for
making a return pass. They minimize the chance for missed areas or
double application.
They are devices that generate foam balls using a water and soap
mixture in a tank by pumping air into the mixture. Pressure forces it out
through some hosing from the foam generator to the ends of each
boom. Foam markers usually only can drop foam balls on one side of a
boom at one time. A newer foam marker made by Spraying System
differs in that the mixture and the air are both pumped out to the end of
the boom in smaller, separate tubes. Electric switches with red indicator
lights control the side that foam is dropped. This allows the user to generate foam much more quickly
(in as little as 10 seconds) to insure that the overlap patterns are accurate. And because it quickly and
reliably generates foam, balls can be dropped on both sides of the boom by switching left and right
sides on and off so that the first pass can be down the middle of the fairway.
3. Dye Markers
For many years, Blue dye has been added to spray tanks to mark where an operator has already
sprayed chemicals. Although very accurate, it leaves unsightly colored patches where it’s been put
down. It can also come off on the shoes and clothing of club members as well as being quite
expensive. Many members of golf clubs don’t like its use for these reasons. Dye markers are similar to
foam markers in function as these are devices are essentially small sprayers mounted to a larger spray
rig. They pump concentrated dye out of a pony tank to the end of the boom to put down a thin strip of
blue dye to mark the overlap pattern. It uses Tee-Jet flat fan tips mounted in the direction of travel to
keep the width of the mark to a minimum. While new to the market, its use is sure to grow.
4. Tank Rinse Systems
To properly dispose of chemical left over in spray tanks,
many EPA regulations state that the tank must be rinsed
with a neutralizing agent (Cleary’s, Neutrasol, etc.) and
then the sprayer driven back out onto the course to boom
spray the rinsate out at the original rate. Tank rinse
systems have been designed to easily solve this problem.
Again, a pony tank is mounted in a suitable position on the
sprayer so that the operator can pre-mix the neutralizing
agent to take out on the golf course (or other turf area).
The system includes an electric diaphragm pump and
hose that connects to a special nozzle mounted inside the
tank. The nozzle has opposed jets that spin when the
hydraulic pressure of the pump is turned on. When the operator is finished spraying for that event,
instead of returning to the maintenance area to mix and rinse, he simply flips a switch on the dash of
the sprayer, engaging the system. It takes approximately three minutes to empty the tank, the nozzles
cover 100 percent of the interior of the tank (up to 300 gallons), and then the operator turns on the
boom to drain the rinsate out. The time saving is substantial, as well as showing any regulatory agency
that your procedures exceed their requirements.
13
5. Clean Air Cabs
These are cabs that cover the operator’s station from about the seat area
upwards. They are not sealed, but rely on the positive pressure of a forced
air blower to keep chemically contaminated air from infiltrating the cab.
They draw air in from the front of the machine, through a series of
particulate and charcoal filters to insure fresh air is being blow over the
operator. While these cabs do not obviate the need for respirators worn by
spray technicians, it provides a much healthier environment for them.
6. Electric Lift Booms
Booms can be ordered with electric lift actuators to raise and lower the left
and right boom wings. It enables the operator to transport and spray
without getting off the machine. It also lets the spray tech lift and lower the
boom to match changes in contours of terrain.
7. Enclosed Boom Systems
Enclosed boom systems use is going to see a leap in growth in the next
few years and Smithco wants to be at the forefront of this
development. Enclosed booms do the following:
• Permit spraying in windy (or windier) conditions by reducing the
opportunity for drift.
• Protect the operator, the golfing member, and the environment
plus reduce liability risks.
• Provide an increase in efficiency by more accurately applying
chemicals when they’re needed, regardless of weather
conditions.
They can be electric or manual lift and should include some way to indicate flow to each tip to ensure
the spray pattern is being applied correctly.
8. Air-gap fillers
Air Gap fillers are required in many municipal districts to prevent chemical
from siphoning back into the water system through the filling hose.
9. Fresh Water Wash Tanks
Fresh water wash tanks are small (3-9 gallon) tanks mounted on a
sprayer to allow the operator to have clean, fresh water available in the
event there is a spill of chemicals on the operator, or to rinse out eyes
that may have come in contact with a chemical.
10. Automatic Air Bleed Device
This device is intended to allow the non-self-priming centrifugal pump to
re-prime itself with low volumes of material in the tank. A fitting is
installed in one of the pipe plugs on the pump casing and a small hose
is run to the top of the tank to allow air to bleed back up into the tank,
eliminating the loss of prime problems usually associated with
centrifugal pumps.
11. Low Pressure Alarm System
If air is sucked into the suction side of the pump, as when the tank is emptied, this device senses the
pressure drop and through a transducer, sends a signal to a warning alarm located at the operator’s
station. This alarm sounding allows the spray tech to shut off the pump before damage can be done to
pump by running it dry.
14
2. TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND FORMULAS
AREA & SPEED
Distance (feet) x 0.68 = Travel Speed (MPH)
Travel Time (seconds)
Speed
Time Required in Seconds to Travel a
(MPH)
Distance of:
100 ft. 200 ft. 300 ft.
ONE ACRE = 43,560 SQFT = 43.56 SQFT. BLOCKS
ONE ACRE = 0.405 HECTARES
ONE HECTARE = 2.471 ACRES
ONE MILE = 5280 = 1610 METERS = 1.61 KILOMETERS
APPLICATION RATES
ONE GALLON PER ACRE = 2.9 FLUID OUNCES PER 1,000 SQ FT. = 9.35 LITERS PER
HECTARE
ONE GALLON PER 1,000 SQ FT. = 43.56 GALLONS PER ACRE
ONE GALLON = 128 FLUID OUNCES = 8 PINTS = 4 QUARTS = 3.79 LITERS =0.83
IMPERIAL GAL.
ONE POUND PER SQUARE INCH = 0.069 BAR = 6.895 KILOPASCAL
GPA =
5940 x GPM (per nozzle)
MPH x Nozzle Spacing Width (inches)
GAL. 1,000 SQFT. =
.
136 X GPM ( Per nozzle )
MPH x Nozzle Spacing Width (inches)
15
3. INTRODUCTION TO CALIBRATION
number of acceptable methods for calibrating a turf sprayer are widely available. Two methods
are described later in this guide. Calibrating simply means to adjust a set of variables on the
sprayer in order to deliver the desire amount of chemical to a known area of turf.
A
The variables are:
• OPERATING PRESSURE
• NOZZLE ORIFICE SIZE
• TRAVEL SPEED
• NOZZLE SPACING (Previously discussed in this guide)
The job of calibrating the sprayer consists of balancing these variables so that your sprayer delivers
the desired application rate. That is, an amount of chemical on a given area. It is expressed as:
Gallons Per Acre (GPA)
(1 US GPA = .83 UK GPA)
or Gallons Per 1,000 Square Feet (GPT)
or Liters Per Hectare (LPH)
( 1 US GPA = 9.3 5 LPH)
The calibration methods chosen must take these variables into account. They must include known
ground speed (by measurement or from an accurate speedometer) and nozzle output (GPM or LPM)
from a nozzle chart or from actual measurement.
1st VARIABLE- PRESSURE:
Just as pressure increases the volume discharge rate, it also
increases the application rate. Pressure must increase by 4 times in order to double the application
rate. Small pressure changes of 10 PSI ( 1.4 BAR) or less do not greatly affect performance.
Pressure is established and maintained by a pressure control valve or by a flow control valve located
on the sprayer.
2nd VARIABLE - NOZZLE CAPACITY (Volume):
We have covered the different types of spray
patterns of various nozzles and made our selection of type accordingly. We now have to choose a size,
which will provide the correct application rate. Sizes are available for all requirements. Consult the
nozzle chart in this guide for your nozzle type in order to select the correct size.
3rd VARIABLE- TRAVEL SPEED:
Increased travel speed decreases the application rate (GPA or
GPT or LPH). Travel speed must be safe and appropriate for the area to be sprayed.
Unlike pressure changes, which have only a minor effect on application rate, ground speed changes
have a more major and direct effect. For example: A 50% increase in ground speed means a 100%
decrease in application rate. If the vehicle does not have an accurate speedometer, correct speed
must be determined by timing the sprayer travel over a measured distance. (Refer to the page in this
guide titled, "Useful Formulas".
To calibrate a sprayer, the user must:
1. Understand the variables
• Operating Pressure (PSI/BAR)
• Nozzle Orifice Size (GPM/LPM)
• Travel Speed (MPH/KPH)
2. Set those variables using one of the proven methods available.
3. Make a trial run and measure the output (use water, not chemical)
4. Determine the output.
5. Make adjustments to the 3 variables until the output is at the desired level.
This covers the principles of what must be known to prepare a sprayer for operation.
16
4. BOOM SPRAYER CALIBRATION
A. PREPARATION
1. Before adding any chemical, fill the sprayer tank with one-half of the desired amount of water. It
is suggested (and required by law in some areas), that water only be added to a sprayer tank
through an Anti-Siphon ("Air-Gap") Filler System to prevent contamination of the water supply.
Operate the sprayer to be certain all valves, hoses, as well as the pump and engine (or PTO)
are operating properly. Make certain that each nozzle is spraying a consistent pattern.
2. Set (or check) the Spray Boom so that the Nozzles are the correct height above the ground for
the type of nozzle and the nozzle spacing (distance between each nozzle) that is being used.
Nozzle Type
Spacing
Height Above Ground
80 Degree Flat Fan
20" (51 cm) 18" (45-46 cm)
65 Degree Flat Fan
10" (25 cm) 12" (30-31 cm)
Raindrop Hollow Cone
20" (51 cm) 18" (45-46 cm)
Turbo Floodjet 20" (51 cm)
15" (38-39 cm)
Turbo Floodjet 30" (76 cm)
16" (40-41 cm)
3. Calibration of the sprayer is to be done with water, not chemicals. This insures safety to the
operator or individual performing the calibration operation. Only after all calibration procedures
are completed should chemicals be added to the sprayer.
4. Carefully measure the amounts of spray material to be added to the tank. Always read the label
instructions, then follow these instructions exactly.
5. If the chemical to be sprayed is a dry (powder) material, it is essential that it be thoroughly
mixed with water in a small container such as a pail, to form a slurry before adding to the
sprayer tank. Then, while the sprayer is running, add the mixture to the tank with the agitation
system operating. Always add the material to the sprayer tank through a filter screen in the tank
opening. Then, add the balance of the desired amount of water to the tank.
Liquid chemicals may be added directly from their storage container to the tank through a filter screen,
with the agitation system in operation.
(NOTE: Instructions #4 & #5 do not apply if the sprayer is equipped with a Concentrate Injection
System. If your sprayer is equipped with a Concentrate Injection System, refer to the operating
instructions provided with that system.)
B. CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES
The 2 Calibration Techniques outlined here are:
I. The Nozzle Chart Method of Calibration
II. The ~128" Method of Calibration
Each method may be useful in various circumstances and conditions.
It is important to note that there are other acceptable and proven methods of calibrating a turf
sprayer for application. Other techniques may be more suitable depending on operational
needs and technical competence of the operator.
17
1. THE NOZZLE CHART METHOD OF CALIBRATION
a. Introduction
The Nozzle Chart Method (see sample below) is useful when the sprayer nozzles are
new or nearly new. It is also the most useful method to employ when the sprayer is
equipped with a Computer
Based Spray Control System
(CBSCS). The CBSCS does
most of the calibration work; it
is up to the operator to select
the proper combination of
nozzle size and ground speed,
which will deliver the desire
application rate.
The nozzle chart method
requires the use of the
appropriate nozzle charts,
which are found at the end of
this guide. (Nozzle Charts 1
through 7).
Nozzle charts are available for:
1. FIVE different types of nozzles:
a. Spraying Systems Teejet Flat Fan
b. Delavan Raindrop Hollow Cone
c. Spraying Systems Turbo Floodjet
d. Delavan Raindrop Flat Fan
e. Spraying Systems Turbo Floodjet
2.
Three different nozzle spacings:
a. 10 Inch (25 cm)
b. 20 Inch (51 cm)
c. 30 Inch (76 cm) (Turbo Floodjet)
3.
Three different expressions of application rate:
a. US Gallons per acre
(GPA)
b. US Gallons per 1,000 sq. ft. (GPT)
c. Liters per hectare
(LPH)
NOTE: The information provided in the previous pages of this guide should help determine the
proper type of nozzle for your needs.
Nozzle charts for other nozzles are available from the manufacturer.
18
b. CALIBRATION STEPS USING THE NOZZLE CHART METHOD
Determine "HOW" your sprayer is to be calibrated from the list of variable factors available (above).
1.
NOZZLE TYPE Teejet, Raindrop, Turbo Flood ?
2.
SPACING 10" (25 cm) or 20 (51 cm) or 30" (76 cm).
3.
EXPRESSION OF APPLICATION RATE G.P.A. or G.P.T. or L.P.H.
The answers to these three questions will direct you to the appropriate nozzle chart for your
application among the charts on the pages in the back of this guide. The correct nozzle chart MUST
be used.
c. DETERMINE THE DESIRED APPLICATION RATE.
This is determined from the information on chemical labels or other technical information available
from a variety of sources.
d. DETERMINE AN ACCEPTABLE GROUND SPEED
Conditions over which the sprayer will operate generally dictate the appropriate ground speed.
Within the limits of practicality and efficiency, spraying should generally be done at the lowest
possible speed. This increases operator safety and contributes to more precise application of
chemicals. For example, golf greens and tees and hill areas would generally be sprayed in the range
of 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 Miles per hour (4-6 kph). Larger, open and more level areas such as golf fairways
and open park or school grounds would be sprayed at 4 1/2 to 6 mph (7-10 kph). The best guideline
is the fastest speed, which is “safe and comfortable for the piece of equipment.” Often, operators
can withstand more punishment than the sprayer.
The vehicle which carries or tows the sprayer should be equipped with a precise low-speed
speedometer. If it is not, exact ground speed at a given engine speed must be determined by timing
the travel of the sprayer over a measured course.
e. DETERMINE NOZZLE SIZE
Now refer to the appropriate nozzle chart in this guide for your nozzle TYPE (the type of nozzle you
have or the type you wish to use), nozzle SPACING and CALIBRATION TYPE (GPM, GPT or LPH).
You will note from the chart that application rates from any given nozzle decrease as the ground
speed increases. In other words, the faster you drive, the less material you are applying.
Application rates are shown in the columns to the right of the charts. Once the desired application
rate is decided upon, it should be located, as nearly as possible in one of these columns on the
appropriate chart for your operation. It could well be that the approximate rate desired would be
obtained from the nozzles already installed in the boom. If this is not possible, then nozzles will need
to be changed.
IMPORTANT NOTE: When selecting a new nozzle size refer to the Discharge Rate Column" on the
nozzle charts. The Discharge Rate (GPM or LPM) multiplied by the number of nozzles should not
exceed 75% of the actual discharge volume of the sprayer pump. (i.e., if you need to use nozzles
which discharge 0.8 gallons per minute [3.0 Liters per minute], and the spray boom is equipped with
12 nozzles, the sprayer pump would have to produce an actual discharge volume of 13 GPM ~49
LPM] in order to properly supply these nozzles.) If the collective volume of the spray boom nozzles
exceeds the actual discharge volume of the pump, inadequate pressure and poor nozzle distribution
patterns may result.
Once nozzle type and size have been determined, those nozzles are installed in the sprayer boom.
Nozzles could be expected to be replaced after 15-20 hours of actual sprayer operation if made of
softer materials. After nozzles are installed, make trial application of water over a known area to
19
check application rate.
f.
FOR SPRAYERS WITH ELECTRONIC SPRAY CONTROL SYSTEMS
On sprayers equipped with Electronic Spray Control Systems ("Spray Computers") such as
those manufactured by Spraying Systems (Tee-Jet) Raven Ind., Micro-Trak Co. &
Dickey-John Co., it is still important to select the right type and size of nozzle for the
required operation. Electronic Spray Control Systems cannot function properly if the nozzles
are not capable of delivering the programmed (desired) application rate. Nozzles which are
too large will not develop adequate pressure or satisfactory spray patterns. Nozzles which
are too small will not allow the discharge of spray material at the programmed application
rate.
Further, when calibrating sprayers which are equipped with Electronic Spray Control Systems, care
must be taken to use the mode of operation on the Spray Control System (Gallons per Acre ["US"
Mode]; Gallons per 1,000 sq. ft. ["Turf" Mode]; or Liters per Hectare [Std. International Mode], which
corresponds with the nozzle calibration charts (GPA, GPT or LPH).
g. USING THE NOZZLE CHARTS
Select the correct chart based on your nozzle type, nozzle spacing and desired expression of
application rate (GPA, GPT, LPH). If the desired operating speed is not found on the nozzle chart, it
is simple to determine application rates at different speeds by extrapolating from the application
rates at the given speed.
For example: If the desired speed is 2 1/2 MPH (4 kph) on a sprayer using Raindrop nozzles (Chart
5). The average between the application rates for 2 MPH and 3 MPH may be assumed to be the
application rate for 2 1/2 MPH. For example: RA-5 Nozzle, 50 PSI, the application rate for 2 MPH is
74 GPA and the application rate for 3 MPH is 50 GPA. Add 74 + 50 (124) then divide by 2 (62).
Therefore, the application rate at 2 1/2 MPH is 62 GPA.
Another example: The desired speed is 6 MPH. Use the application rate column for 3 MPH and
divide by 2.
h. CONVERTING NOZZLE CHART METHOD TO BRITISH GALLONS
To convert any of the Gallon Per Acre rates to Imperial Gallons per acre, (ImpGPA) multiply by .83. To
convert any of the liter Per Hectare rates to Imperial Gallons Per Hectare (ImpGPH), multiply by .22.
i. CHECKING THE ACTUAL APPLICATION RATE
After the combination of ground speed, nozzle size and operating pressure has been selected, the
sprayer should be operated to determine if the target application rate is being achieved. The
following "128" method is one way to validate the Nozzle Chart Method of calibration.
2. THE "128" METHOD OF BOOM SPRAYER CALIBRATION
a. INTRODUCTION
The "128" Method is useful for calibrating sprayers and also for checking the calibration of sprayers calibrated by
the Nozzle Chart Method and sprayers using Electronic Spray Control Systems. The "128" is based on a
convenient mathematical relationship that exists between US Gallons, liquid ounces and acres.
An ounce is 1/128 th of a (US) gallon. If an area which was "1/128 of an acre" could be found, the number of
ounces applied to that small area would be equal to the number of gallons applied to the acre. Thus, no
20
mathematical computations would be required.
 To determine an area which is 1/128 of an acre:
On nozzles with 20 inch (51 cm) spacing, measure off a distance of 204 ft. (62
meters). Mark a "START" and a "STOP" line. The rectangle formed by this
distance and the spraying width of one nozzle (20" 51 cm) is equal to 340 square
feet which is equal to 1/128 acre. Therefore, the amount of material applied to
this area by one nozzle in OUNCES is the same amount of material applied to an
acre in GALLONS (GPA).
On nozzles with 10 inch (25 cm) spacing, the measure distance is 408 feet (124 meters).
On nozzles with 30 inch (76 cm) spacing the measured distance is 136 feet (41 meters).
b. CALIBRATING FOR APPLICATION
1. Fill the sprayer tank with water. Run the sprayer, inspect it for leaks and make sure all systems function
properly.
2. Drive the sprayer through the measured distance
discussed above at normal spraying speed, record
the travel time required to cover the measured
distance in seconds with a stopwatch. The carrying
or towing vehicle is to be traveling at the desired
speed when it crosses the start line of the
measured course. Repeat this procedure and
determine the average of the two times.
3. With the sprayer parked, run the sprayer at the
required pressure level. Catch the output of each
nozzle in a container, which is marked or graduated
in Ounces for the same period of time which it took
the sprayer to cover the measured course in step
#2.
4. NOTE: If a Dedicated Spray Vehicle or a sprayer which is powered by a vehicle's PTO/Hydraulic
system is used, it will be necessary to operate the vehicle engine at spraying speed using a hand
throttle.
5. Observe the volume of water in the collection bottle. The number of OUNCES collected in the time it
takes to cover the marked course. Take the average nozzle output by adding the outputs of each
nozzle and then dividing that sum by the number of nozzles.
6. The NUMBER OF OUNCES collected in the time required to cover the SMALL AREA is equal to the
NUMBER OF GALLONS applied per ACRE. For example: if an average of 40 ounces of water are
collected in the time required to cover the 1/128 acre area, the application rate is 40 gallons per acre
(GPA).
AVERAGE OUTPUT (OUNCES) = APPLICATION RATE (GPA)
21
7.
NOTE: As a practical matter, if high application rates are desired (above 75 GPA), the measured
course length should be reduced by half (i.e. 102-ft [31 m] for 20-inch (52 cm) spaced nozzles). The
volume collected (above) is then doubled (multiplied by 2).
8.
Observe individual nozzle output volumes. If an individual nozzle's is 10% above or below the
average output, check for blockages in the nozzle or in the nozzle strainer. If the nozzle is worn or
damaged, replace it.
9.
Compare this actual application rate with the recommended rate. If the actual rate is more than 5%
higher or lower than the intended rate, adjustments must be made.
10. Increasing or decreasing the spraying pressure may make minor adjustments in application rate.
Lowering spraying pressure decreases application rate. Increasing spraying pressure increases
application rate. This procedure normally does not apply to spray systems controlled by an electronic
spray control system that governs flow rate.
11. Increasing or decreasing the travel speed of the sprayer if conditions permit may make adjustments in
application rate. Slower speeds increase application rate. Faster speeds decrease application rate.
12. Nozzle sizes can be changed to provide the correct application rate. Refer to the nozzle charts in this
book for the desired nozzle type.
13. Re-calibrate the sprayer (steps 2-6) after any adjustments are made.
As previously discussed, there are other acceptable methods of Turf Sprayer Calibration. Chemical suppliers,
Agricultural Extension Agents, Universities and consultants of various types offer helpful advice on this subject.
Technical catalogues are available from nozzle manufacturers.
3. TRANSFERRING THE "128" METHOD OF CALIBRATION INTO METRIC (LITERS
PER HECTARE)
The same steps are used that are used when calibrating in gallons per acre. First a relationship between a
measurable amount (milliliters) and the calibration amount (liter) is determined. That ratio is 1: 1,000.
Now an area which is 1/1,000 th of a hectare must be measured. On spray booms with 51 cm (20 inch)
spacing, mark off an area which is 20 meters (65.6 feet) long. The area formed by that length and the width of
one spray nozzle (20 meters by .5 meters) is 10 square meters which is 1/1,000 of a hectare. Therefore, the
amount of spray material applied to this small area in milliliters is equal to the amount applied to one hectare in
liters.
Then, follow the remaining steps 2-10, substituting milliliters for ounces, liters for gallons, square meters for
square feet and hectares for acres.
AVERAGE OUTPUT (MILLILITERS) = APPLICATION RATE (LITERS/HA)
22
Nozzle Performance Chart 1
Nozzle Type:
Spacing:
Calibration:
Color
Size
XR TeeJet & DG TeeJet
20 inch (51cm)
US Gal/Acre (GPA) & US Gal/1,000 Square Feet (GPT)
Application Rate GPA
Nozzle
Speed MPH
Pressure Capacity
psi
(Gal/Min)
4
5
6
7
Application Rate GPT
Speed MPH
2
3
4
5
Orange
XR8001
20
30
40
60
0.071
0.087
0.10
0.12
5.3
6.5
7.4
8.9
4.2
5.2
5.9
7.1
3.5
4.3
5.0
5.9
3.0
3.7
4.2
5.1
0.24
0.31
0.34
0.41
0.16
0.21
0.23
0.28
0.12
0.16
0.17
0.21
0.10
0.11
0.14
0.16
Green
XR80015
DG80015
20
30
40
60
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.18
8.2
9.7
11.1
12.6
6.5
7.7
8.9
10.7
5.4
6.4
7.4
8.9
4.7
5.5
6.4
7.6
0.38
0.44
0.51
0.61
0.25
0.30
0.34
0.41
0.19
0.22
0.26
0.31
0.15
0.18
0.20
0.25
Yellow
XR8002
DG8002
20
30
40
60
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.24
10.4
12.6
14.96
17.8
8.3
10.1
11.9
13.1
6.9
8.4
9.9
11.9
5.9
7.2
8.5
10.2
0.48
0.58
0.68
0.82
0.32
0.39
0.45
0.54
0.24
0.29
0.34
0.41
0.19
0.23
0.27
0.33
Blue
XR8003
DG8003
20
30
40
60
0.21
0.26
0.30
0.37
15.6
19.3
22.0
27.0
12.5
15.4
17.8
22.0
10.4
12.9
14.9
18.3
8.9
11.0
12.7
15.7
0.72
0.89
1.02
1.26
0.48
0.59
0.68
0.84
0.36
0.44
0.51
0.63
0.29
0.35
0.41
0.50
Red
XR8004
DG8004
20
30
40
60
0.28
0.35
0.40
0.49
21.0
26.0
30.0
36.0
16.6
21.0
24.0
29.0
13.9
17.3
19.8
24.0
11.9
14.9
17.0
21.0
0.98
1.20
1.40
1.70
0.64
0.80
0.91
1.10
0.48
0.60
0.68
0.84
0.38
0.48
0.55
0.67
Brown
XR8005
DG8005
20
30
40
60
0.35
0.43
0.50
0.61
26.0
32.0
37.0
45.0
21.0
26.0
30.0
36.0
17.3
21.0
25.0
30.0
14.9
18.2
21.0
26.0
1.20
1.50
1.70
2.10
0.80
0.98
1.10
1.40
0.60
0.73
0.85
1.00
0.48
0.59
0.68
0.83
Gray
XR8006
20
30
40
60
0.42
0.52
0.60
0.73
31.0
39.0
45.0
54.0
25.0
31.0
36.0
43.0
21.0
26.0
30.0
36.0
17.8
22.0
25.0
31.0
1.40
1.80
2.00
2.50
0.95
1.20
1.40
1.70
0.72
0.89
1.00
1.20
0.57
0.57
0.82
0.99
White
XR8008
Steel
SS8010
20
30
40
60
40
60
0.57
0.69
0.80
0.98
1.00
1.20
42.0
51.0
59.0
73.0
128
156
34.0
41.0
48.0
58.0
74.0
91.0
28.0
34.0
40.0
49.0
59.0
72.0
24.0
29.0
34.0
42.0
50.0
60.0
1.90
2.40
2.70
3.30
3.40
4.10
1.30
1.60
1.80
2.20
2.30
2.80
0.97
1.20
1.40
1.70
1.70
2.10
0.78
0.94
1.10
1.30
1.40
1.70
Nozzle Performance Chart 2
Nozzle Type:
Spacing:
Calibration:
Color
Size
XR TeeJet & DG TeeJet
20 inch (51cm)
Liters Per hectare
Application Rate l/ha
Speed km/h
4
5
6
7
Pressure
bar
Nozzle
Capacity
(l/min)
0.28
0.32
0.39
0.45
84
96
117
135
67.2
76.8
93.6
108
56.0
64.0
78.0
90.0
48.0
54.9
66.9
77.1
Orange
XR8001
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
Green
XR80015
DG80015
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
0.42
0.48
0.59
0.68
126
144
177
204
101
115
142
163
84.0
96.0
118
136
72.0
82.3
101
117
Yellow
XR8002
DG8002
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
0.56
0.65
0.79
0.91
168
195
237
273
134
156
190
218
112
130
158
182
96.0
111
135
156
Blue
XR8003
DG8003
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
0.83
0.96
1.18
1.36
249
288
354
408
199
230
283
326
166
192
236
272
142
165
202
233
Red
XR8004
DG8004
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
1.12
1.29
1.58
1.82
336
387
474
546
269
310
379
437
224
258
316
364
192
221
271
312
Brown
XR8005
DG8005
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
1.39
1.61
1.97
2.27
417
483
591
681
334
386
473
545
278
322
394
454
238
276
338
389
XR8006
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
1.68
1.94
2.37
2.74
504
582
711
822
403
466
569
658
336
388
474
548
288
333
406
470
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
2.23
2.58
3.16
3.65
3.95
4.56
669
774
948
1095
1185
1368
535
619
758
876
948
1094
446
516
632
730
790
912
382
442
542
626
677
782
Gray
White
XR8008
Steel
SS8010
24
Nozzle Performance Chart 3
Nozzle Type:
Spacing:
Calibration:
Color
Size
Red
TF-VS2
Brown
TF-VS2.5
Gray
TF-VS3
White
TF-VS4
Blue
TF-VS5
Green
TF-VS7.5
Black
TF-VS10
Turbo FloodJet
40 inch (100cm)
US Gal/Acre (GPA) & US Gal/1,000 Square Feet (GPT)
Application Rate GPA
Application Rate GPT
Nozzle
Speed
MPH
Speed MPH
Pressure Capacity
psi
(Gal/Min)
4
5
6
7
4
5
6
7
20
0.28
10.4
8.3
6.9
5.9
.24
30
0.35
13.0
10.4
8.7
7.4
.30
20
0.35
13.0
10.4
8.7
7.4
.30
30
0.43
16.0
12.8
10.6
9.1
.37
20
0.42
15.6
12.5
10.4
8.9
.36
30
0.52
19.3
15.4
12.9
11.0
.44
20
0.57
21.0
16.9
14.1
12.1
.48
30
0.69
26.0
20.0
17.1
14.6
.59
20
0.71
26.0
21.0
17.6
15.1
.60
30
0.87
32.0
26.0
22.0
18.5
.74
20
1.06
39.0
31.0
26.0
22.0
.90
30
1.30
48.0
39.0
32.0
28.0
1.11
20
1.41
52.0
42.0
35.0
30.0
1.20
30
1.73
64.0
51.0
43.0
37.0
1.47
25
Nozzle Performance Chart 4
Nozzle Type:
Spacing:
Calibration:
Color
Size
Red
TF-VS2
Brown
TF-VS2.5
Gray
TF-VS3
White
TF-VS4
Blue
TF-VS5
Green
TF-VS7.5
Black
TF-VS10
Turbo FloodJet
40 inch (100cm)
Liters Per Hectare
Pressure
bar
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
Nozzle
Capacity
(l/min)
1.11
1.29
1.40
1.61
1.68
1.94
2.23
2.57
2.79
3.22
4.19
4.83
5.58
6.45
Application Rate l/ha
Speed km/h
4
6
8
10
167
111
83.3
66.6
194
129
96.8
77.4
210
140
105
84.0
242
161
121
96.6
252
168
126
101
291
194
146
116
335
223
167
112
386
257
193
129
419
279
209
167
483
322
242
193
629
419
314
251
726
484
363
290
837
558
419
335
968
645
484
387
26
Application Rate GPT
Speed MPH
Nozzle Performance Chart 5
Nozzle Type:
Spacing:
Calibration:
Turbo TurfJet
20 inch (51cm)
US Gal/Acre (GPA) & US Gal/1,000 Square Feet (GPT)
Application Rate GPA
Application Rate GPT
Speed MPH (KPH)
Speed MPH (KPH)
Nozzle
Pressure Capacity
6
6
psi
(Gal/Min) 3 (5) 4 (6) 5 (8) (10)
3 (5) 4 (6) 5 (8) (10)
Color
Size
Yellow
1/4 TTJ02VS
25
30
40
50
.16
.17
.20
.22
15.8
16.8
19.8
22
11.9
12.6
14.9
16.3
9.5
10.1
11.9
13.1
7.9
8.4
9.9
10.9
.36
.39
.45
.50
.27
.29
.34
.37
.22
.23
.27
.30
.18
.19
.23
.25
Red
1/4 TTJ04VS
25
30
40
50
.32
.35
.40
.45
32
35
40
45
24
26
30
33
19.0
21
24
27
15.8
17.3
19.8
22
.73
.79
.91
1.0
.54
.60
.68
.77
.44
.48
.54
.61
.36
.40
.45
.51
Brown
1/4 TTJ05VS
25
30
40
50
.40
.43
.50
.56
40
43
50
55
30
32
37
42
24
26
30
33
19.8
21
25
28
.91
.97
1.1
1.3
.68
.73
.85
.95
.54
.58
.68
.76
.45
.49
.57
.63
Gray
1/4 TTJ06VS
25
30
40
50
.47
.52
.60
.67
47
51
59
66
35
39
45
50
28
31
36
40
23
26
30
33
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
.80
.88
1.0
1.1
.64
.71
.82
.91
.53
.59
.68
.76
White
1/4 TTJ08VS
25
30
40
50
.63
.69
.80
.89
62
68
79
88
47
41
59
66
37
41
48
53
31
34
40
44
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
.86
.94
1.1
1.2
.71
.78
.91
1.0
L.
Blue
1/4 TTJ10VS
25
30
40
50
.79
.87
1.00
1.12
78
86
99
111
59
65
74
83
47
52
59
67
39
43
50
55
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
.90
.99
1.1
1.3
L.
Green
1/4 TTJ15VS
25
30
40
50
1.19
1.30
1.50
1.68
118
129
149
166
88
97
111
125
71
77
89
100
59
64
74
83
2.7
2.9
3.4
3.8
2.0
2.2
2.6
2.9
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
27
Nozzle Performance Chart 6
Nozzle Type:
Spacing:
Calibration:
Turbo TurfJet
20 inch (51cm)
Liters Per Hectare
Application Rate l/ha
Speed KPH (MPH)
4
10
(2.5) 6 (4) 8 (5) (6)
Pressure
bar
Nozzle
Capacity
(l/min)
Yellow
1/4 TTJ02VS
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
0.46
0.56
0.65
0.80
69.0
84.0
97.5
120.0
46.0
56.0
65.0
80.0
34.5
42.0
48.8
60.0
27.6
33.6
32.5
48.0
Red
1/4 TTJ04VS
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
.091
1.11
1.29
1.58
137
167
194
237
91.0
111
129
158
68.3
83.3
95.8
119
54.6
66.6
77.4
94.8
Brown
1/4 TTJ05VS
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
1.14
1.40
1.61
1.97
171
210
242
296
114
140
161
197
85.5
105
121
148
68.4
84.0
96.6
118
Gray
1/4 TTJ06VS
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
1.37
1.68
1.94
2.37
206
252
291
356
137
168
194
237
103
126
146
178
82.2
101
116
142
White
1/4 TTJ08VS
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
1.82
2.23
2.57
3.15
273
335
385
473
182
223
257
315
137
167
193
236
109
134
154
189
L.
Blue
1/4 TTJ10VS
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
2.28
2.79
3.22
3.95
342
419
483
593
228
279
322
395
171
209
242
295
137
167
193
237
L.
Green
1/4 TTJ15VS
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
3.42
4.19
4.84
5.92
513
629
726
888
342
419
484
592
257
314
363
444
205
251
290
355
Color
Size
28
Collection Times for Sprayer Calibration
Speed/
MPH
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
Fixed
Feet/Min Distance
Minutes
Seconds
Seconds
176
204 1.159090909 69.54545455
70
184.8
204 1.103896104 66.23376623
66
193.6
204 1.053719008 63.2231405
63
202.4
204 1.007905138 60.4743083
60
211.2
204 0.965909091 57.95454545
58
220
204 0.927272727 55.63636364
56
228.8
204 0.891608392 53.4965035
53
237.6
204 0.858585859 51.51515152
52
246.4
204 0.827922078 49.67532468
50
255.2
204 0.799373041 47.96238245
48
264
204 0.772727273 46.36363636
46
272.8
204 0.747800587 44.86803519
45
281.6
204 0.724431818 43.46590909
43
290.4
204 0.702479339 42.14876033
42
299.2
204 0.681818182 40.90909091
41
308
204 0.662337662 39.74025974
40
316.8
204 0.643939394 38.63636364
39
325.6
204 0.626535627 37.59213759
38
334.4
204 0.610047847 36.60287081
37
343.2
204 0.594405594 35.66433566
36
352
204 0.579545455 34.77272727
35
360.8
204
0.5654102 33.92461197
34
369.6
204 0.551948052 33.11688312
33
378.4
204 0.539112051 32.34672304
32
387.2
204 0.526859504 31.61157025
32
396
204 0.515151515 30.90909091
31
404.8
204 0.503952569 30.23715415
30
413.6
204 0.493230174 29.59381044
30
422.4
204 0.482954545 28.97727273
29
431.2
204 0.47309833 28.38589981
28
440
204 0.463636364 27.81818182
28
448.8
204 0.454545455 27.27272727
27
457.6
204 0.445804196 26.74825175
27
466.4
204 0.437392796 26.24356775
26
475.2
204 0.429292929 25.75757576
26
484
204 0.421487603 25.2892562
25
492.8
204 0.413961039 24.83766234
25
501.6
204 0.406698565 24.40191388
24
510.4
204 0.39968652 23.98119122
24
519.2
204 0.392912173 23.57473035
24
528
204 0.386363636 23.18181818
23
Smithco Spray Star & Star Command Controllers
29
88 feet per minute = 1 MPH
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement