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169 KB
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USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-44 10 00 (October 2007)
---------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-44 10 00 (April 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIVISION 44 - POLLUTION AND WASTE CONTROL EQUIPMENT
SECTION 44 10 00
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
10/07
PART 1
GENERAL
1.1
REFERENCES
1.2
SUBMITTALS
1.3
QUALIFICATIONS
1.3.1
Welding
1.3.2
Contractor
1.3.3
Manufacturer's Field Representative
1.4
CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
1.5
DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
1.6
EXTRA MATERIALS
PART 2
PRODUCTS
2.1
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
2.2
MATERIALS
2.2.1
Standard Products
2.2.2
General Requirements
2.2.3
Nameplates
2.2.4
Equipment Guards[ and Access]
2.3
GAUGE
2.3.1
Draft Gauge
2.3.2
Gauges, Pressure and Vacuum
2.4
LOW-WATER CUTOFF
2.5
PIPE, FITTINGS, AND TUBING
2.5.1
Pipe
2.5.2
Nipples
2.5.3
Pipe Fittings
2.5.3.1
Steel Pipe Fittings
2.5.3.2
Brass or Bronze Pipe Fittings
2.5.3.3
Malleable-Iron Pipe Fittings
2.5.3.4
Unions
2.5.3.5
Flanges, Cast-Iron and Bronze
2.5.3.6
Pipe Threads
2.5.4
Tube, Copper
2.5.4.1
Tube for Air, Water, Gas, and Drains
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 1
2.5.4.2
Tube for Refrigeration Systems
2.6
STEEL SHEET
2.6.1
Zinc Coated (Galvanized)
2.6.2
Low-Carbon
2.6.3
Corrosion Resistant
2.7
AIR TRAPS
2.8
THERMOMETERS
2.9
VALVES
2.9.1
Angle Valves
2.9.2
Check Valves
2.9.3
Gate Valves
2.9.4
Globe Valves
2.10
WATER METERS
2.11
ELECTRICAL WORK
2.12
DRAFT FANS
2.12.1
Draft Fan Control
2.12.2
Draft Fan Drives
2.13
DUCTWORK
2.14
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT
2.14.1
Dry Dynamic Precipitator
2.14.1.1
Fan Impeller
2.14.1.2
Fan Casing
2.14.1.3
Hopper Storage
2.14.1.4
Test Connections
2.14.2
Wet Dynamic Precipitator
2.14.2.1
Collector
2.14.2.2
Hopper Storage
2.14.2.3
Nonstainless Components
2.14.2.4
Water Supply Components
2.14.2.5
Test Connections
2.14.2.6
Drain Connections
2.14.3
Conical Dry Dust Collector
2.14.3.1
Scrolls, Cylinder, and Cone
2.14.3.2
Test Connections
2.14.4
Multitube, Centrifugal Dry Dust Collector
2.14.4.1
Inlet Tube Assemblies, Casing and Hopper
2.14.4.2
Test Connections
2.14.5
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
2.14.5.1
Discharge Electrodes
2.14.5.2
Collecting Plates
2.14.5.3
Power Supply and Control System
2.14.5.4
Rapping Systems
2.14.5.5
Inlet and Discharge Ducts
2.14.5.6
Dust Storage Hopper
2.14.6
Wet Scrubber
2.14.6.1
Chemical System
2.14.6.2
Scrubber
2.14.6.3
Recirculation Pumps
2.14.6.4
Piping Materials
2.14.6.5
Scrubber Collector System
2.14.7
Dry Fabric Collector for Boiler Flue Gases
2.14.7.1
Filter Cleaning
2.14.7.2
Filter Enclosure
2.14.7.3
Collector Cleaning
2.14.7.4
Test Connections
2.14.7.5
Flue Gas Dust Collectors Designed for In-Place Cleaning
2.14.8
Dry Fabric Collector for Dust Control
2.14.8.1
Filter Cleaning
2.14.8.2
Filter Enclosure Construction
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 2
2.14.8.3
Intermittent and Continuous Service Units
2.14.8.4
Test Connections
2.14.8.5
Dust Collectors Designed for In-Place Cleaning
2.14.9
Gaseous Emissions Control Unit
2.14.9.1
Prefilter
2.14.9.2
Adsorbent Unit
2.14.9.3
Prefilter and Adsorbent Assemblies
2.14.9.4
Inlet and Outlet Ducts
2.14.10
Petrol Vapor Recovery Unit
2.14.10.1
Defrosting
2.14.10.2
Unit Operation and Control
2.14.10.3
Design and Fabrication Requirements
2.14.11
Gravel Bed Filter
2.14.12
Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System
2.14.12.1
Wet Scrubber System
2.14.12.2
Reagent Feed System
2.14.12.3
Waste Handling System
2.14.12.4
Test connections
2.14.13
Spray Dryer Flue Gas Desulfurization System
2.14.13.1
Spray Dryer System
2.14.13.2
Reagent Feed System
2.14.13.3
Particulate Collecting Unit
2.14.13.4
Test connections
2.14.14
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
2.14.14.1
Ammonia Delivery System
2.14.14.2
Catalytic Reactor
2.15
EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEM
2.15.1
Gas Sampling System
2.15.2
Analyzing System
2.15.3
System Mounting
2.15.4
Calibration
2.16
FACTORY APPLIED INSULATION
2.17
PAINTING AND FINISHING
PART 3
EXECUTION
3.1
EXAMINATION
3.2
INSTALLATION
3.3
OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
3.4
FRAMED INSTRUCTIONS
3.5
FIELD QUALITY CONTROL
3.5.1
System Performance Test
3.5.1.1
Retesting
3.5.1.2
Reporting
3.5.2
Manufacturer's Field Service
3.6
CLOSEOUT ACTIVITIES
3.6.1
Training
3.6.2
Operations and Maintenance
3.7
SCHEDULES
-- End of Section Table of Contents --
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 3
**************************************************************************
USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-44 10 00 (October 2007)
---------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-44 10 00 (April 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION 44 10 00
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
10/07
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This guide specification covers the
requirements for air pollution control equipment and
accessories for use with various pollutant emitters.
Adhere to UFC 1-300-02 Unified Facilities Guide
Specifications (UFGS) Format Standard when editing
this guide specification or preparing new project
specification sections. Edit this guide
specification for project specific requirements by
adding, deleting, or revising text. For bracketed
items, choose applicable items(s) or insert
appropriate information.
Remove information and requirements not required in
respective project, whether or not brackets are
present.
Comments, suggestions and recommended changes for
this guide specification are welcome and should be
submitted as a Criteria Change Request (CCR).
**************************************************************************
PART 1
1.1
GENERAL
REFERENCES
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This paragraph is used to list the
publications cited in the text of the guide
specification. The publications are referred to in
the text by basic designation only and listed in
this paragraph by organization, designation, date,
and title.
Use the Reference Wizard's Check Reference feature
when you add a RID outside of the Section's
Reference Article to automatically place the
reference in the Reference Article. Also use the
Reference Wizard's Check Reference feature to update
the issue dates.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 4
References not used in the text will automatically
be deleted from this section of the project
specification when you choose to reconcile
references in the publish print process.
**************************************************************************
The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the
extent referenced. The publications are referred to within the text by the
basic designation only.
AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL (AMCA)
AMCA 204
(2005; R 2012) Balance Quality and
Vibration Levels for Fans
AMCA 210
(2007) Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans
for Aerodynamic Performance Rating
AMCA 300
(2014) Reverberant Room Method for Sound
Testing of Fans
AMCA 801
(2001; R 2008) Industrial Process/Power
Generation Fans: Specification Guidelines
AMCA 99
(2010) Standards Handbook
AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION (AIHA)
AIHA Z9.3
(2007) Spray Finishing Operations - Safety
Code for Design, Construction and
Ventilation
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING
ENGINEERS (ASHRAE)
ANSI/ASHRAE 15 & 34
(2013; Addenda A 2014; ERTA 1 2014; ERTA 2
2015; INT 1 2015; ERTA 3 2015) ANSI/ASHRAE
Standard 15-Safety Standard for
Refrigeration Systems and ANSI/ASHRAE
Standard 34-Designation and Safety
Classification of Refrigerants
ASHRAE 52.2
(2012; Errata 2013; INT 1 2014; ADD A,
B, AND D SUPP 2015; INT 3 2015; Errata 2
2015; ADD C 2015) Method of Testing
General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices
for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size
AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA)
AWWA C700
(2015) Standard for Cold Water Meters Displacement Type, Bronze Main Case
ASME INTERNATIONAL (ASME)
ASME B1.20.1
(2013) Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch)
ASME B1.20.2M
(2006; R 2011) Pipe Threads, 60 Deg.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 5
ASTM A302/A302M
(2012) Standard Specification for Pressure
Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel,
Manganese-Molybdenum and
Manganese-Molybdenum-Nickel
ASTM A48/A48M
(2003; R 2012) Standard Specification for
Gray Iron Castings
ASTM A53/A53M
(2012) Standard Specification for Pipe,
Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated,
Welded and Seamless
ASTM A653/A653M
(2015) Standard Specification for Steel
Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or
Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by
the Hot-Dip Process
ASTM A733
(2013) Standard Specification for Welded
and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples
ASTM A924/A924M
(2014) Standard Specification for General
Requirements for Steel Sheet,
Metallic-Coated by the Hot-Dip Process
ASTM B280
(2013) Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and
Refrigeration Field Service
ASTM B42
(2015a) Standard Specification for
Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes
ASTM B68/B68M
(2011) Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Tube, Bright Annealed (Metric)
ASTM B88
(2014) Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Water Tube
ASTM B88M
(2013) Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Water Tube (Metric)
ASTM D1248
(2012) Standard Specification for
Polyethylene Plastics Extrusion Materials
for Wire and Cable
ASTM D2854
(2009; R 2014) Apparent Density of
Activated Carbon
ASTM D2862
(2010) Particle Size Distribution of
Granular Activated Carbon
ASTM F1139
(1988; R 2015) Steam Traps and Drains
HYDRAULIC INSTITUTE (HI)
HI 3.1-3.5
(2008) Rotary Pumps
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 7
ASTM A302/A302M
(2012) Standard Specification for Pressure
Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel,
Manganese-Molybdenum and
Manganese-Molybdenum-Nickel
ASTM A48/A48M
(2003; R 2012) Standard Specification for
Gray Iron Castings
ASTM A53/A53M
(2012) Standard Specification for Pipe,
Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated,
Welded and Seamless
ASTM A653/A653M
(2015) Standard Specification for Steel
Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or
Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by
the Hot-Dip Process
ASTM A733
(2013) Standard Specification for Welded
and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples
ASTM A924/A924M
(2014) Standard Specification for General
Requirements for Steel Sheet,
Metallic-Coated by the Hot-Dip Process
ASTM B280
(2013) Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and
Refrigeration Field Service
ASTM B42
(2015a) Standard Specification for
Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes
ASTM B68/B68M
(2011) Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Tube, Bright Annealed (Metric)
ASTM B88
(2014) Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Water Tube
ASTM B88M
(2013) Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Water Tube (Metric)
ASTM D1248
(2012) Standard Specification for
Polyethylene Plastics Extrusion Materials
for Wire and Cable
ASTM D2854
(2009; R 2014) Apparent Density of
Activated Carbon
ASTM D2862
(2010) Particle Size Distribution of
Granular Activated Carbon
ASTM F1139
(1988; R 2015) Steam Traps and Drains
HYDRAULIC INSTITUTE (HI)
HI 3.1-3.5
(2008) Rotary Pumps
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 7
INSTITUTE OF CLEAN AIR COMPANIES (ICAC)
ICAC EP-1
(2000) Terminology for Electrostatic
Precipitators
ICAC EP-7
(2004) Electrostatic Precipitator Gas Flow
Model Studies
ICAC EP-8
(1993) Structural Design Criteria for
Electrostatic Precipitator Casings
ICAC F-2
(1972) Fundamentals of Fabric Collectors
and Glossary of Terms
ICAC F-3
(2002) Operation and Maintenance of Fabric
Filters
ICAC FGD-1
(1982) Flue Gas Desulfurization Terminology
ICAC G-1
(1968; R 1972) Gaseous Emissions
Equipment: Product Definitions and
Illustrations
ICAC WS-1
(1975) Wet Scrubber Terminology
ICAC WS-3
(1976; R 1980) Basic Types of Wet Scrubbers
ICAC WS-4
(1975) Wet Scrubber System-Major
Auxiliaries
MANUFACTURERS STANDARDIZATION SOCIETY OF THE VALVE AND FITTINGS
INDUSTRY (MSS)
MSS SP-25
(2013) Standard Marking System for Valves,
Fittings, Flanges and Unions
MSS SP-70
(2011) Gray Iron Gate Valves, Flanged and
Threaded Ends
MSS SP-80
(2013) Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle and Check
Valves
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NEMA)
NEMA ICS 1
(2000; R 2015) Standard for Industrial
Control and Systems: General Requirements
NEMA ICS 6
(1993; R 2011) Enclosures
NEMA MG 1
(2014) Motors and Generators
NEMA SM 23
(1991; R 2002) Steam Turbines for
Mechanical Drive Service
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA)
NFPA 496
(2013) Standard for Purged and Pressurized
Enclosures for Electrical Equipment
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 8
NFPA 70
(2014; AMD 1 2013; Errata 1 2013; AMD 2
2013; Errata 2 2013; AMD 3 2014; Errata
3-4 2014; AMD 4-6 2014) National
Electrical Code
NFPA 91
(2015) Standard for Exhaust Systems for
Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists and
Noncombustible Particulate Solids
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD)
UFC 3-310-04
(2013) Seismic Design for Buildings
U.S. NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION (NARA)
29 CFR 1910
Occupational Safety and Health Standards
40 CFR 50
National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air
Quality Standards
40 CFR 60
Standards of Performance for New
Stationary Sources
UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES (UL)
UL 1203
(2013; Reprint Apr 2015) UL Standard for
Safety Explosion-Proof and
Dust-Ignition-Proof Electrical Equipment
for Use in Hazardous (Classified) Locations
UL 5
(2011) Surface Metal Raceways and Fittings
UL 674
(2011; Reprint Jul 2013) Electric Motors
and Generators for Use in Division 1
Hazardous (Classified) Locations
UL 823
(2006; Reprint Jan 2012) Standard for
Electric Heaters for Use in Hazardous
(Classified) Locations
UL 900
(2015) Standard for Air Filter Units
1.2
SUBMITTALS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Review submittal description (SD) definitions
in Section 01 33 00 SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES and edit
the following list to reflect only the submittals
required for the project.
The Guide Specification technical editors have
designated those items that require Government
approval, due to their complexity or criticality,
with a "G." Generally, other submittal items can be
reviewed by the Contractor's Quality Control
System. Only add a “G” to an item, if the submittal
is sufficiently important or complex in context of
the project.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 9
For submittals requiring Government approval on Army
projects, a code of up to three characters within
the submittal tags may be used following the "G"
designation to indicate the approving authority.
Codes for Army projects using the Resident
Management System (RMS) are: "AE" for
Architect-Engineer; "DO" for District Office
(Engineering Division or other organization in the
District Office); "AO" for Area Office; "RO" for
Resident Office; and "PO" for Project Office. Codes
following the "G" typically are not used for Navy,
Air Force, and NASA projects.
An "S" following a submittal item indicates that the
submittal is required for the Sustainability
Notebook to fulfill federally mandated sustainable
requirements in accordance with Section 01 33 29
SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING.
Choose the first bracketed item for Navy, Air Force
and NASA projects, or choose the second bracketed
item for Army projects.
**************************************************************************
Government approval is required for submittals with a "G" designation;
submittals not having a "G" designation are for [Contractor Quality Control
approval.] [information only. When used, a designation following the "G"
designation identifies the office that will review the submittal for the
Government.] Submittals with an "S" are for inclusion in the
Sustainability Notebook, in conformance to Section 01 33 29 SUSTAINABILITY
REPORTING. Submit the following in accordance with Section 01 33 00
SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES:
SD-02 Shop Drawings
Approved Detail Drawings; G[, [_____]]
SD-03 Product Data
Emission Monitoring System
Air Pollution Control Equipment
Instrumentation and Controls
Training
System Performance Test; G[, [_____]]
SD-06 Test Reports
Factory Tests
System Performance Test;
SD-07 Certificates
Manufacturer's Field Representative
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 10
SD-10 Operation and Maintenance Data
Air Pollution Control Equipment; G[, [_____]]
Accessories; G[, [_____]]
1.3
1.3.1
QUALIFICATIONS
Welding
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If the need exists for more stringent
requirements for weldments, delete the first
bracketed statement and the last bracketed statement
applies. Dust collection equipment covered by the
guide specification is not normally manufactured to
the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel code. Welding of these vessels will be
governed by Section 05 50 14 STRUCTURAL METAL
FABRICATIONS.
**************************************************************************
[Piping shall be welded in accordance with qualified procedures using
performance qualified welders and welding operators. Procedures and
welders shall be qualified in accordance with ASME BPVC SEC IX. Welding
procedures qualified by others, and welders and welding operators qualified
by another employer may be accepted as permitted by ASME B31.1. The
Contracting Officer shall be notified 24 hours in advance of tests and the
tests shall be furnished at the work site if practicable. The Contracting
Officer shall be furnished a copy of qualified procedures and a list of
names and identification symbols of qualified welders and welding
operators. The welder or welding operator shall apply his assigned symbol
near his welds using a rubber stamp or felt-tipped marker with permanent
weatherproof ink or other methods approved by the Contracting Officer that
do not deform the metal. Structural members shall be welded in accordance
with Section 05 05 23.16 STRUCTURAL WELDING.] [Welding and nondestructive
testing procedures are specified in Section 40 05 13.96 WELDING PROCESS
PIPING.] Nonpressure dust collection vessels shall be welded in accordance
with provisions of Section 05 50 14 STRUCTURAL METAL FABRICATIONS.
1.3.2
Contractor
Contractor shall have had a minimum of [2][3][5][_____] years of experience
in the construction and maintenance of industrial air pollution control
systems.
1.3.3
Manufacturer's Field Representative
Services of a manufacturer's field representative and training engineer,
who is experienced in the installation, adjustment, and operation of the
equipment furnished, and who has complete knowledge of the proper operation
and maintenance of the system, shall be provided. Field representative
shall be onsite to supervise the installation, adjustment and compliance
testing of the equipment. Field representative shall provide supervision
of the system for [_____] days after startup of the system.
1.4
CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
System shall be suitable for [indoor] [outdoor] installation and shall be
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 11
2.6.2
Low-Carbon
Gauges specified, for dust collector casings, housings, and components,
refer to manufacturers' standard gauge.
2.6.3
Corrosion Resistant
ASTM A167, Class 304 or 316.
2.7
Gauges specified refer to U.S. Standard Gauge.
AIR TRAPS
Air traps for removal of moisture from plant compressed air supplied to air
pollution control equipment shall conform to ASTM F1139.
2.8
THERMOMETERS
Thermometers shall conform to ASME PTC 19.3 TW with wells and temperature
range suitable for the use encountered.
2.9
VALVES
Valves shall conform to the following:
2.9.1
Angle Valves
MSS SP-80, Types 1, 2, or 3, Class 125, except that valves over 80 mm 3 inch
shall have iron bodies and brass or bronze standard trim with glands or
followers in the stuffing boxes. Valves shall have nonmetallic renewable
composition discs and raised flat seats designed for 862 kPa 125 psi
steam. Wheels shall be secured with hexagonal nuts.
2.9.2
Check Valves
MSS SP-80, Types 1, 2, 3, or 4, Class 125, as required. Valves over 80 mm
3 inch shall have iron bodies and shall be the swing type designed for 862
kPa 125 psi steam. Check valves shall have renewable composition discs or
shall have metallic discs of the regrinding type to permit regrinding
without removing valve from the line.
2.9.3
Gate Valves
Sizes of 40 mm 1-1/2 inch or less, MSS SP-80, Class 125, Type 1 and 2; 50 mm
2 inch size and over, MSS SP-70, Class 125 or 250, as specified; outside
screw and yoke with threaded end (design OT), or flanged end (design OF),
as required.
2.9.4
Globe Valves
MSS SP-80, Type 1. Valves over 80 mm 3 inch shall have iron bodies and
brass or bronze standard trim and shall have glands or followers in the
stuffing boxes. Valves shall have nonmetallic renewable composition discs
and raised flat seats designed for 1035 kPa 150 psi steam. Wheels shall be
secured to the stems with hexagonal nuts.
2.10
WATER METERS
Water meters shall be the disc type with reinforced disc for hot water above
66 degrees C 150 degrees F, and rubber or carbon disc for cold water, and
shall be constructed of bronze composition or cast iron protected by
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 16
noncorrosive coating. Moving parts subject to wear shall be easily
replaceable. Meters shall conform to the requirements of AWWA C700.
2.11
ELECTRICAL WORK
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Indicate on drawing the type and class of
motor enclosure depending on environment in which
the motor is to be used.
**************************************************************************
Electrical motor-driven equipment specified shall be provided complete with
motors, motor starters, and controls. Electrical equipment and wiring
shall be in accordance with [Section 26 20 00 INTERIOR DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM]. [Section 33 71 02 UNDERGROUND ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION]. [Section
33 71 01 OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION]. Electrical
characteristics shall be as indicated or specified. Motor starters shall
be provided complete with thermal overload protection and other
appurtenances necessary for the motor control specified. Each motor shall
be of sufficient size to drive the equipment at the specified capacity
without exceeding the nameplate rating of the motor. Manual or automatic
control and protective or signal devices required for the operation
specified and any control wiring required for controls and devices
specified but not shown, shall be provided. Motors shall conform to
NEMA MG 1, with enclosures as indicated [except as specified for Petrol
Vapor Recovery Unit]. Controls, interlocks, instruments, status indication
lights, and other devices required for operation and observation of
equipment status shall be assembled on an [open face panel] [enclosed panel
with [latched door] [key locked door]]. Panel shall be [factory-assembled,
connected to equipment, and mounted on unit] [or] [factory assembled and
boxed for field installation]. [Instrumentation and control system shall
include local control panels and a central control panel located in the
facility control room. The control system shall integrate local controls
provided with equipment, as specified, so that complete system operation
can be monitored and controlled from the control room]. The air pollution
control system shall be integrated with the emission generating equipment.
The control system shall provide integrated control of all system processes
and equipment, and shall contain all necessary instrumentation required for
monitoring and operation of the air pollution control system. Control
system panels shall graphically display the system. Local control panels
shall be provided with selector switches so that equipment can be operated
manually for test and maintenance purposes. Suitable safety interlocks
shall be incorporated to assure that proper permissive conditions have been
met prior to changing the operating status of major system components.
Shutdown of the air pollution control equipment system, or portion thereof,
shall be automatically initiated, with alarms should unsafe conditions
arise during operation of the system. Visible and audible alarms shall be
provided on critical functions locally. and at central control room.
Controls shall conform to NEMA ICS 1. Enclosures for power and control
panels shall conform to NEMA ICS 6.
2.12
DRAFT FANS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: In new installations, coordinate design with
boiler or incinerator specification. For retrofit,
fans will be sized for air pollution control
equipment. For fans operating in corrosive or
erosive environment, provide liners for scroll
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 17
control equipment electric power requirements
including motor sizes, etc., where applicable.
Coordinate performance, operation, and control of
pollution control equipment with all other related
system components to assure total system operation
and that safety requirements are met. Indicate on
drawings any such items as walkways, guardrails,
stairs, and ladders furnished as part of the
pollution control equipment, if required.
**************************************************************************
Performance of equipment shall be as indicated in Paragraph SCHEDULES.
[Paint spray and wet process gas ductwork shall comply with AIHA Z9.3 and
NFPA 91.][ Air and water piping shall comply with ASME B31.1.][
Particulate emission control equipment shall conform to ASME PTC 38].[
Equipment shall be provided with steel walkways, safety rails and stairs,
or ladders as indicated. Access shall be by means of [caged ladders][step
stairs with handrails]].
a.
Submit a complete list of equipment and material, including
manufacturer's descriptive data and technical literature, performance
charts and curves, catalog cuts, and installation instructions. Spare
parts data for each different item of material and equipment specified,
after approval of detail drawings and not later than [_____] months
prior to the date of beneficial occupancy. The data shall include a
complete list of parts and supplies, with current unit prices and
source of supply.
b.
Submit proposed diagrams, instructions, and other sheets, prior to
posting. Framed instructions under glass or in laminated plastic,
including wiring and control diagrams showing the complete layout of
the entire system, including equipment, piping, valves, and control
sequence, shall be posted where directed. Condensed operating
instructions explaining preventative maintenance procedures, methods of
checking the system for normal, safe operation, and procedures for
safely starting and stopping the system shall be prepared in typed
form, framed as specified above for the wiring and control diagrams,
and posted beside the diagrams. The framed instructions shall be
posted before acceptance testing of the system.
c.
Submit detailed manufacturer's data on the instrumentation and controls.
Include overall controls, sensors, process controllers, control
operators, ladder diagrams, timers, sequence of controls, valves,
alarms, signals, interlocks and cut off systems. Data describing in
detail the equipment used to monitor emissions, including the sampling
probe, filters, sampling pump, moisture separator/drier, tubing,
analyzer, analyzer calibration system, data recorder, and alarms.
Process and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs).
2.14.1
Dry Dynamic Precipitator
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Select construction features required
including drive component and delete all others.
Dry dynamic precipitators may be used for collecting
coarse dry particulates from coal crusher, conveyor,
and bunker ventilation where the objective is to
control material losses and to remove coarse fly-ash
particulates from boiler flue gases of chain-grate
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 20
or stoker-fired boilers. It is not effective in
removing gaseous pollutants or particles of 7
micrometers and under.
**************************************************************************
Unit must be a mechanical collector consisting of a motor-driven fan, a fan
casing, a hopper or dust bin, fan motor, fan motor starter with overload
protection, [fan drive coupling] [belt drive with fan and motor pulleys and
adjustable motor base], fan and motor mounting base on hopper, and a
[ceiling mounting] [floor mounting] stand for the entire assembly. The fan
shall comply with AMCA 99, Section 99-0401, Classification for Spark
Resistant Construction, AMCA 210, and AMCA 300.
2.14.1.1
Fan Impeller
Fan Impellers must be steel and designed to provide the static head
required for pumping the dirty and cleaned gas streams through the duct
systems and related components. Impeller shall be keyed and locked on a
cold drawn, turned and polished steel shaft mounted on heavy duty grease or
oil lubrication ball or roller bearings. Shaft shall have a diameter and
stiffness that will limit deflection at the maximum shaft loading, within
the operating range of the fan, to not more than 0.167 mm/meter 0.002
inch/foot of shaft. Shaft shall be provided with a locked key slot for
mounting a pulley, a direct drive, or coupling. The entire rotating
assembly shall be dynamically balanced at operating speeds. Fans shall be
dynamically balanced and factory-tested in accordance with AMCA 204 at the
design operating RPM to Fan Application Category BV-3, Balance Quality
Grade G6.3 or approved equivalent. Installed vibration levels shall not
exceed the levels specified in AMCA 801.
2.14.1.2
Fan Casing
Fan casing shall be abrasion resistant cast iron conforming to ASTM A48/A48M
or abrasion resistant steel consisting of a fan support base with
back-housing, involute fan discharge scroll with inlet and discharge duct
connections, and a dirt discharge port. Scroll shall be provided with
readily replaceable wear plates and shall be constructed to permit field
positioning the direction of discharge in at least eight different
directions. Scroll shall provide means for accumulating and diverting the
bulk of the particulate enriched gas stream into the hopper before the gas
stream is returned to the inlet to the scroll.
2.14.1.3
Hopper Storage
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Determine the rate and quantity of pollutant
material collected, the final disposition of the
material, and the manner and frequency of transport
to disposal location. From this, determine the
hopper size to be indicated and select the bracketed
hopper outlet. Delete those not selected.
**************************************************************************
Hopper storage capacity shall be as indicated. Unit shall be constructed
of not less than 3.4 mm 10 gauge [welded low carbon] [corrosion resistant]
steel plate for the vertical sides and bottom which shall be sloped steeper
than the slump angle of the material being collected to minimize bridging
over at the outlet. Top shall be constructed to support the fan, motor,
and drive without buckling or being resonated by the fan and shall be not
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 21
2.6.2
Low-Carbon
Gauges specified, for dust collector casings, housings, and components,
refer to manufacturers' standard gauge.
2.6.3
Corrosion Resistant
ASTM A167, Class 304 or 316.
2.7
Gauges specified refer to U.S. Standard Gauge.
AIR TRAPS
Air traps for removal of moisture from plant compressed air supplied to air
pollution control equipment shall conform to ASTM F1139.
2.8
THERMOMETERS
Thermometers shall conform to ASME PTC 19.3 TW with wells and temperature
range suitable for the use encountered.
2.9
VALVES
Valves shall conform to the following:
2.9.1
Angle Valves
MSS SP-80, Types 1, 2, or 3, Class 125, except that valves over 80 mm 3 inch
shall have iron bodies and brass or bronze standard trim with glands or
followers in the stuffing boxes. Valves shall have nonmetallic renewable
composition discs and raised flat seats designed for 862 kPa 125 psi
steam. Wheels shall be secured with hexagonal nuts.
2.9.2
Check Valves
MSS SP-80, Types 1, 2, 3, or 4, Class 125, as required. Valves over 80 mm
3 inch shall have iron bodies and shall be the swing type designed for 862
kPa 125 psi steam. Check valves shall have renewable composition discs or
shall have metallic discs of the regrinding type to permit regrinding
without removing valve from the line.
2.9.3
Gate Valves
Sizes of 40 mm 1-1/2 inch or less, MSS SP-80, Class 125, Type 1 and 2; 50 mm
2 inch size and over, MSS SP-70, Class 125 or 250, as specified; outside
screw and yoke with threaded end (design OT), or flanged end (design OF),
as required.
2.9.4
Globe Valves
MSS SP-80, Type 1. Valves over 80 mm 3 inch shall have iron bodies and
brass or bronze standard trim and shall have glands or followers in the
stuffing boxes. Valves shall have nonmetallic renewable composition discs
and raised flat seats designed for 1035 kPa 150 psi steam. Wheels shall be
secured to the stems with hexagonal nuts.
2.10
WATER METERS
Water meters shall be the disc type with reinforced disc for hot water above
66 degrees C 150 degrees F, and rubber or carbon disc for cold water, and
shall be constructed of bronze composition or cast iron protected by
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 16
noncorrosive coating. Moving parts subject to wear shall be easily
replaceable. Meters shall conform to the requirements of AWWA C700.
2.11
ELECTRICAL WORK
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Indicate on drawing the type and class of
motor enclosure depending on environment in which
the motor is to be used.
**************************************************************************
Electrical motor-driven equipment specified shall be provided complete with
motors, motor starters, and controls. Electrical equipment and wiring
shall be in accordance with [Section 26 20 00 INTERIOR DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM]. [Section 33 71 02 UNDERGROUND ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION]. [Section
33 71 01 OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION]. Electrical
characteristics shall be as indicated or specified. Motor starters shall
be provided complete with thermal overload protection and other
appurtenances necessary for the motor control specified. Each motor shall
be of sufficient size to drive the equipment at the specified capacity
without exceeding the nameplate rating of the motor. Manual or automatic
control and protective or signal devices required for the operation
specified and any control wiring required for controls and devices
specified but not shown, shall be provided. Motors shall conform to
NEMA MG 1, with enclosures as indicated [except as specified for Petrol
Vapor Recovery Unit]. Controls, interlocks, instruments, status indication
lights, and other devices required for operation and observation of
equipment status shall be assembled on an [open face panel] [enclosed panel
with [latched door] [key locked door]]. Panel shall be [factory-assembled,
connected to equipment, and mounted on unit] [or] [factory assembled and
boxed for field installation]. [Instrumentation and control system shall
include local control panels and a central control panel located in the
facility control room. The control system shall integrate local controls
provided with equipment, as specified, so that complete system operation
can be monitored and controlled from the control room]. The air pollution
control system shall be integrated with the emission generating equipment.
The control system shall provide integrated control of all system processes
and equipment, and shall contain all necessary instrumentation required for
monitoring and operation of the air pollution control system. Control
system panels shall graphically display the system. Local control panels
shall be provided with selector switches so that equipment can be operated
manually for test and maintenance purposes. Suitable safety interlocks
shall be incorporated to assure that proper permissive conditions have been
met prior to changing the operating status of major system components.
Shutdown of the air pollution control equipment system, or portion thereof,
shall be automatically initiated, with alarms should unsafe conditions
arise during operation of the system. Visible and audible alarms shall be
provided on critical functions locally. and at central control room.
Controls shall conform to NEMA ICS 1. Enclosures for power and control
panels shall conform to NEMA ICS 6.
2.12
DRAFT FANS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: In new installations, coordinate design with
boiler or incinerator specification. For retrofit,
fans will be sized for air pollution control
equipment. For fans operating in corrosive or
erosive environment, provide liners for scroll
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 17
sheets and rotor blades. References to draft fans
will be deleted if inapplicable for the equipment
specified.
**************************************************************************
Centrifugal fans conforming to AMCA 801 [Type I] [Type II] [forced draft]
[and] [induced draft] shall be furnished as an integral part of air
pollution control equipment design. Fans shall be [centrifugal] [_____]
with [backward curved blades] [radial tip blades] [or] [axial flow type].
Each fan shall be sized for an output volume and static pressure rating
sufficient for pressure losses, leakages, temperature, and elevation
corrections for worst ambient conditions. In addition, fan sizing shall
include margins of 10 percent volume and 21 percent static pressure, plus
margins of [5] [_____] degrees C [10] [_____] degrees F for forced draft
fans and [22] [_____] degrees C [40] [_____] degrees F for induced draft
fans. [Induced draft fans shall be provided with outlet dampers]. Noise
levels for fans shall not exceed 85 decibels in any octave band at a 914 mm
3 foot station. Fan bearings shall be [air cooled] [or] [water cooled],
and backward curved fan blade type with bearings not requiring water
cooling may be of the self-aligning antifriction type. [Scroll sheets and
rotor blades shall have liners.]
2.12.1
Draft Fan Control
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Variable speed control, inlet vane control,
and inlet damper control are, in descending order of
efficiency, capable of control draft fan
conditions. The choice is based on economics.
However, in erosive services, inlet vane control is
not desirable.
**************************************************************************
Forced draft centrifugal fans shall have [inlet vane control] [variable
speed control] where indicated. Induced draft centrifugal fans shall have
[inlet vane control] [inlet damper control] [variable speed control].
[Axial propeller fans shall have variable propeller pitch control and
variable speed drive.] Inlet vanes or dampers shall be suitable for use
with air pollution control equipment.
2.12.2
Draft Fan Drives
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Where motor starters for mechanical equipment
are provided in motor control centers, delete the
reference to motor starters.
Steam driven boiler auxiliaries will not be used
unless the exhaust steam can be utilized
completely. Reference to steam drives will be
deleted if inapplicable for the equipment specified.
**************************************************************************
Fan shall be driven by [an electric motor] [or] [a steam turbine].
[Electric motor shall be [drip-proof] [totally enclosed nonventilated]
[totally enclosed fan-cooled] [totally enclosed fan-cooled], suitable for
installation in a Class II, Division 1, Group F, hazardous location
conforming to NFPA 70]. [Motor starter shall be magnetic [across-the-line]
[reduced voltage start] type with [general-purpose] [weather-resistant]
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 18
2.14.4.2
Test Connections
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the inlet and outlet ducts
connecting to the collector.
2.14.5
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Electrostatic precipitators are highly
effective with efficiencies up to 99.9 percent by
weight in removing fine particulates down to 0.3
micrometers in size from gas streams having light
loading of material by weight. They are frequently
applied in gas streams of 371 degrees C 700 degrees F
or higher but may require a precleaner such as a
dynamic precipitator, conical, or multitube
centrifugal to bring the gas stream down to an
optimum loading. They require a relatively large
space. They have a very low gas flow friction but
are quite sensitive to having a uniform distribution
of gas flow through the unit. The efficiency may
sharply fall under a gas flow above design rate.
Efficiency is also affected by dust particle
electrical resistivity which can be too high or too
low for maximum performance. Frequently in these
situations the addition of relatively small
quantities of flue gas conditioning agents have been
very effective in improving precipitator
performance. Depending on the particle electrical
resistivity level, flue gas conditioning will be
considered a viable option. Commercial systems are
available for ammonia, sodium compounds (carbonate
and sulfate), and sulfur trioxide flue gas
addition. Pulse energization, the modification to a
conventional precipitator power supply to include
the capability to superimpose a high voltage pulse
on the base voltage, is a second enhancement
technique for high resistivity particle
applications. Intermittent pulsation, the
programmed interruption of normal high voltage
waveform, is another enhancement technique.
Optimization of precipitator energization and
rapping systems through the use of
microprocessor-based controls results in lower power
levels, reduced electrode failure, and overall
improved collection efficiency. Examples of control
schemes that can be accomplished with properly
programmed microprocessors include:
a.
Spark Prediction and Advance
b.
Back Corona Detection
c.
Opacity Feed Back
d.
Rapping Optimization
e.
Electrical Power Conservation
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 26
Reentrainment of collected material can be limited
by a proper balance of factors that affect
performance, such as gas velocity through the
plates; uniformity of gas velocity profile; ratio of
plate height to depth; size of lumps of agglomerated
material rapped from the collecting plates and
discharge electrodes; and others. Control may also
be achieved by a system of automatic programmed gas
flow dampers coordinated to operate with related
rappers for sequential cleaning of each of the
chambers.
Power consumption is generally equivalent to the
additional power required by other collecting
methods. The pressure drop across units is
typically less than 127 Pa 0.5 inch water gauge.
Caution should be exercised in their use where
combustible or explosive coal dusts or oil fumes may
be present and could be ignited by a "spark-over" of
the high voltage across the electrodes.
**************************************************************************
Unit shall comply with requirements of ICAC EP-1, ICAC EP-7, and ICAC EP-8,
and shall remove [aerosols] [and] [particulates] from processed gas stream
by impressing a polarized electrostatic charge to the contaminants causing
them to be drawn to and deposited upon opposite polarity charged plates.
Unit shall contain multiple chambers and be of gas-tight construction.
Unit shall be provided with [insulator compartments] [penthouse]. Unit
shall be provided with anti-sneak baffles to force all gas flow through
ionizing gas passages and to prevent gas bypassing the precipitator
sections. Assembly shall consist of discharging electrodes and opposite
charged plates, high voltage power pack and controls, a rapping system for
knocking dust from the discharge electrodes and collector plates,
perforated gas distribution plates, sheet steel enclosure with dust
collecting hopper bottom, dirty gas inlet, clean gas outlet, and structural
steel frame. Precipitator systems shall include microprocessor based
controls [flue gas conditioning systems] [pulse energization] [intermittent
energization].
2.14.5.1
Discharge Electrodes
Discharge electrodes shall be [wires and weights] [rigid electrodes] [rigid
frame]. Discharge electrodes shall be top supported with the bottom free
to expand and contract with gas stream temperature changes. Electrodes
shall be laterally restrained to maintain optimum spacing from the plates.
Electrodes shall have a stiffness, length, or restraints required to
prevent vibration or flutter when the unit is in service.
2.14.5.2
Collecting Plates
Collecting plates shall consist of vertical panels of multiple steel strips
hanging edgewise in the horizontal air stream so as to form the equivalent
of many vertical splits of the gas stream into many gas passages. The
strips shall be convoluted, stiffened or constructed with raised ribs, to
provide sufficient stiffness to prevent distortion of the plates and also
present vertical ridges to support boundary layer edges to increase plate
dust retention. Plates shall be top supported with the bottom free to
expand and contract with changes of gas stream temperature. Plate
configuration and support system design shall be coordinated with the plate
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 27
or stoker-fired boilers. It is not effective in
removing gaseous pollutants or particles of 7
micrometers and under.
**************************************************************************
Unit must be a mechanical collector consisting of a motor-driven fan, a fan
casing, a hopper or dust bin, fan motor, fan motor starter with overload
protection, [fan drive coupling] [belt drive with fan and motor pulleys and
adjustable motor base], fan and motor mounting base on hopper, and a
[ceiling mounting] [floor mounting] stand for the entire assembly. The fan
shall comply with AMCA 99, Section 99-0401, Classification for Spark
Resistant Construction, AMCA 210, and AMCA 300.
2.14.1.1
Fan Impeller
Fan Impellers must be steel and designed to provide the static head
required for pumping the dirty and cleaned gas streams through the duct
systems and related components. Impeller shall be keyed and locked on a
cold drawn, turned and polished steel shaft mounted on heavy duty grease or
oil lubrication ball or roller bearings. Shaft shall have a diameter and
stiffness that will limit deflection at the maximum shaft loading, within
the operating range of the fan, to not more than 0.167 mm/meter 0.002
inch/foot of shaft. Shaft shall be provided with a locked key slot for
mounting a pulley, a direct drive, or coupling. The entire rotating
assembly shall be dynamically balanced at operating speeds. Fans shall be
dynamically balanced and factory-tested in accordance with AMCA 204 at the
design operating RPM to Fan Application Category BV-3, Balance Quality
Grade G6.3 or approved equivalent. Installed vibration levels shall not
exceed the levels specified in AMCA 801.
2.14.1.2
Fan Casing
Fan casing shall be abrasion resistant cast iron conforming to ASTM A48/A48M
or abrasion resistant steel consisting of a fan support base with
back-housing, involute fan discharge scroll with inlet and discharge duct
connections, and a dirt discharge port. Scroll shall be provided with
readily replaceable wear plates and shall be constructed to permit field
positioning the direction of discharge in at least eight different
directions. Scroll shall provide means for accumulating and diverting the
bulk of the particulate enriched gas stream into the hopper before the gas
stream is returned to the inlet to the scroll.
2.14.1.3
Hopper Storage
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Determine the rate and quantity of pollutant
material collected, the final disposition of the
material, and the manner and frequency of transport
to disposal location. From this, determine the
hopper size to be indicated and select the bracketed
hopper outlet. Delete those not selected.
**************************************************************************
Hopper storage capacity shall be as indicated. Unit shall be constructed
of not less than 3.4 mm 10 gauge [welded low carbon] [corrosion resistant]
steel plate for the vertical sides and bottom which shall be sloped steeper
than the slump angle of the material being collected to minimize bridging
over at the outlet. Top shall be constructed to support the fan, motor,
and drive without buckling or being resonated by the fan and shall be not
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 21
less than 6.4 mm 1/4 inch thick. Hopper shall be provided with an access
door and shall have [a manually-operated rotary lock] [a motor-driven
rotary lock] [a guillotine-type slide gate].
2.14.1.4
Test Connections
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the suction and discharge
ducts connecting to the precipitator.
2.14.2
Wet Dynamic Precipitator
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Select construction features required
including drive component and delete all others.
Wet dynamic precipitators are frequently used for
ventilation air cleaning of coal crushing,
conveying, and storage facilities where the dust
loading is 1 to 4.6 grams per cubic meter 1/2 to 2
grains (weight) per cubic foot of air and the
particles are 50 percent or more of 2 to 7
micrometers size. It will remove some gaseous
pollutants.
**************************************************************************
Unit shall be a mechanical collector consisting of a motor-driven fan, a
fan casing with water sprayhead, [a hopper or slurry bin,] fan motor, fan
motor starter with overload protection, [fan drive coupling,] [belt drive
with fan and motor pulleys and adjustable motor base,] [fan and motor
support on [the hopper] [a rigid structural steel base] arranged for [floor
mounting]]. Fan shall comply with AMCA 99,Section 99-0401, Classification
for Spark Resistant Construction, AMCA 210, and AMCA 300.
2.14.2.1
Collector
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Delete inapplicable materials and equipment.
Pipe, fitting, and valve materials listed in this
section are suitable for water service, but not for
corrosive, erosive, and some petrol services. The
designer should select the proper alloy (e.g.,
stainless steel 304, 316, etc.), rubber or other
elastomer lining or plastic for these and other
applications where the chemistry of the process
shall dictate material selection.
**************************************************************************
Collector shall consist of a heavy steel plate fan housing constructed of
low carbon steel. Fan shall have ASTM A240/A240M stainless steel blades
and rivets. Blades shall be fastened to a heavy forged steel hub mounted
on a forged, ground, and polished ASTM A302/A302M stainless steel shaft
supported on ball or roller bearings. Shaft shall have a diameter and
stiffness that will limit deflection at the maximum shaft loading to not
more than 0.167 mm/meter 0.002 inch/foot of shaft. Impeller and driven
units shall be lock-keyed to the shaft with the entire assembly dynamically
balanced at all operating speeds. Fans shall be dynamically balanced and
factory-tested in accordance with AMCA 204 at the design operating RPM to
Fan Application Category BV-3, Balance Quality Grade G6.3 or approved
equivalent. Housing and impeller shall be provided with components that
will provide for uniformly covering rotating and stationary parts with a
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 22
film of moving water to provide for wetting and capturing of centrifugally
impinged particulates. Means shall be provided for separation from the air
stream and drainage of the water and particulate slurry from the
collector. Installed vibration levels shall not exceed the levels
specified in AMCA 801.
2.14.2.2
Hopper Storage
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Determine hopper storage capacity and
indicate an open drain or valved outlet. Omit
entire paragraph if hopper is not required for an
installation piped to drain filtrate to a coal
recovery or ash pit.
**************************************************************************
Hopper storage capacity shall be as indicated. Unit shall be constructed
of not less than 3.4 mm 10 gauge [welded black] [welded corrosion
resistant] steel plate for the vertical sides and sloped bottom. Top shall
be constructed to support the fan, motor, and drive without buckling or
being resonated by the fan and shall be not less than 6.4 mm 1/4 inch
thick. Hopper bottom shall be sloped for complete drainage of slurry of
collected material; shall be free of ledges and pockets; and shall provide
for full free flushing of particulate when operating wet. Hopper shall be
provided with an inspection window, cleanout, and access door. Hopper
shall be provided with electric heating coils, modules, or blankets to keep
collected material dry and free flowing with the unit installed outdoors
and out of service in a local winter outdoor design temperature of [_____]
degrees C degrees F.
2.14.2.3
Nonstainless Components
Water wetted, nonstainless components shall be coated with a permanently
bonded, abrasion and corrosion resistant rubber facing suitable for the
operating temperature of the gas stream.
2.14.2.4
Water Supply Components
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If water supply is unlimited, the pressure
gauges, rate adjustment, and flow meter within
brackets are not needed and should be deleted.
**************************************************************************
Precipitator shall be provided with water supply components sized to meet
equipment capacity requirements and shall include:
a.
A stainless steel water supply strainer with removable screen, flow
control valve [with rate adjustment] [pressure gauge] [low pressure
alarm switch] [water meter].
b.
Analog solenoid water flow control valve.
c.
Adjustable water pressure control switch with contacts to open on low
pressure to stop or prevent operation of the fan motor if water
pressure is below the minimum required for efficient operation of the
collector. [An additional set of contacts to close on low pressure to
permit operation of an annunciator alarm.] The adjustable range of the
switch trip shall be from [_____] to [_____] kPa [_____] to [_____] psig.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 23
d.
Water pressure gauges with 0 to 690 kPa 0-100 psig range.
e.
Adjustable automatic water pressure or water flow rate regulator to
provide a steady controlled rate of water flow as required for optimum
collector performance.
f.
Water flow meter sized for rate required by the collector.
2.14.2.5
Test Connections
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the suction and discharge
ducts connecting to the precipitator.
2.14.2.6
Drain Connections
Slurry drain connections shall be screwed or flanged pipe connections sized
as recommended by the manufacturer.
2.14.3
Conical Dry Dust Collector
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The conical dry dust collector removes up to
80 percent by weight of particles, 10 micrometers
and over, from a gas stream and is used primarily on
general industrial dusts and occasionally to clean
boiler flue gases since it has a temperature
tolerance up to 371 degrees C 700 degrees F. It is
not effective in removing gaseous pollutants or
particles of 7 micrometers size and under. Its high
air friction drop may require a booster fan. It
normally is selected for pressure drops in the 890
Pa to 1652 Pa 3-1/2 to 6-1/2 inch water gauge range
at operating conditions.
**************************************************************************
Unit shall be a mechanical collector consisting of a top horizontal
involute scroll gas inlet and outlet mounted over a vertical cylindrical
shell or cone which shall have a narrow angle cone below. Unit shall be
specifically designed to impart a high velocity vortex spin to the incoming
downflowing gas stream to throw particulates to the wall of the cylinder
and cone before turning upward in an internal vortex to the outlet.
Replaceable wear plates [are] [are not] required.
2.14.3.1
Scrolls, Cylinder, and Cone
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Delete inapplicable materials and equipment.
Pipe, fitting, and valve materials listed in this
section are suitable for water service, but not for
corrosive, erosive, and some petrol services. The
designer should select the proper alloy (e.g.,
stainless steel 304, 316, etc.), rubber or other
elastomer lining or plastic for these and other
applications where the chemistry of the process
shall dictate material selection.
**************************************************************************
Scrolls, cylinder, and cone shall all be not less than [3.4 mm 10 gauge] [
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 24
4.8 mm 3/16 inch] [9.5 mm 3/8 inch] [welded black] [corrosion resistant]
steel. Inlet and outlet scrolls shall be connected for [clockwise]
[counterclockwise] connection and rotation of the vortex when looking down
on the collector. Four equally spaced, welded steel support brackets shall
be provided on the bottom of the inlet scroll or on the vertical walls of
the cylindrical section of the collector. The collector cone shall not be
used for storage. Particulate shall be removed and collected, and cone
bottom shall be provided with an air-tight seal. [A guillotine-type slide
gauge] [A manually-operated rotary lock] [A motor-driven rotary lock] shall
be provided on the [bottom of cone] [bottom of surge tank] [bottom of
storage receptacle].
2.14.3.2
Test Connections
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the inlet and outlet ducts
connecting to the collector.
2.14.4
Multitube, Centrifugal Dry Dust Collector
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The multitube centrifugal dust collector has
similar performance to the conical dry dust
collector except it removes more of both coarse and
fine particulates. This collector is often used on
stoker-fired boiler applications. The pressure drop
range is normally 635 Pa to 1144 Pa 2.5 to 4.5
inches water gauge at operating conditions. Sixty
degree hopper valley angle is considered adequate
for worse case coal/ash scenario. If designer can
confirm that application is less demanding, he
should consider a lower valley angle 55 degrees or
45 degrees. In certain applications the size of the
unit may require some subassembly in the field,
negating the restrictions on field assembly.
**************************************************************************
Unit shall be a mechanical collector utilizing a number of parallel
vertical or horizontal tubes of small diameter in an enclosure having a
single gas inlet and single gas outlet.
2.14.4.1
Inlet Tube Assemblies, Casing and Hopper
Inlet tube assemblies shall be replaceable [cast iron] [wear resistant
steel with replaceable cast iron spinner vanes and cones] [wear resistant
steel with replaceable spinner vanes and cones]. Casing shall be [3.4 mm
10 gauge] [4.8 mm 3/16 inch] [6.4 mm 1/4 inch] [low carbon] [corrosion
resistant] steel with the dust released into a [3.4 mm 10 gauge] [4.8 mm
3/16 inch] [6.4 mm 1/4 inch] [black] [corrosion resistant] steel sloped
bottom dust hopper. Hopper valley angle shall be 60 degrees from the
horizontal. The hopper shall be provided with a poke hole and access
door. Hopper bottom outlet shall be provided with [a guillotine-type slide
gate] [a gravity-type trip gate opened by the weight of the collected
material] [a manually-operated rotary lock] [a motor-driven rotary lock].
Unit shall be provided with a welded steel support assembly for field
erection with no additional work other than setting and bolting the unit in
place.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 25
related to arrival of coal transporters and does not
warrant a fully automatic continuous operation
facility. Under the present state-of-the-art, the
use of pulse jet cleaning should be limited to
systems up to 142 cubic meters per second 300,000
acfm (actual cfm).
**************************************************************************
Filter cleaning of collector units processing air or gas streams at or near
ambient temperatures, shall be [manually initiated and executed by
[operating the required dampers and cleaning devices]] [automatically
initiated and executed [on an adjustable or timed cycle] [by operation of
an adjustable high filter pressure drop switch]]. [Powered cleaning shall
be for [intermittent] [continuous] service employing [powered vibrator or
shaker devices] [reverse air flow with atmospheric air and] [reverse
cleaned air pressurized air flow with] [positive] [negative] air pressure
in the unit [compressed air pulse jet cleaning] [of individual or a few
elements] [of an entire compartment].] [Filter element cleaning shall
include sonic horns.]
2.14.8.2
Filter Enclosure Construction
The filter enclosure shall be fabricated of [3.4] [4.8] [6.4] mm [10 gauge]
[3/16 inch] [1/4 inch] [low carbon] [corrosion resistant] steel of welded
or bolted construction or combinations thereof. Enclosure sheets shall be
given supporting strength and rigidity by folding or bending or shall be
supported on supplemental structural steel shapes. Unit shall be provided
with gas inlet and outlet connections and baffles, vanes, deflectors, or
low friction diffuser plates that will insure uniform gas flow to all
elements of the fabric system without causing flutter, vibration, or
erosion of the fabric. Hinged, latched, and gasketed access doors shall be
provided for all parts and areas that require inspection or service.
Fabric elements shall be secured and supported in a manner to have the
entire fabric surface so deployed that gas flow and particulate collection
will be uniform over the entire working surface. Dust shedding properties
shall be uniform so that the entire fabric surface will be equally cleared
by a cleaning operation without damage to the media other than normal
service wear. Media shall be arranged in elements, sections, pockets, or
tubes that can be handled, removed, replaced, and secured without special
facilities.
2.14.8.3
Intermittent and Continuous Service Units
[Intermittent service units shall be equipped with [washable]
[cleaning-in-place] fabric filters.] [Continuous service units shall be
provided with means for isolation of a compartment or section for cleaning
while other compartments are performing their normal dust removal
function. Compartment isolation shall effectively prevent reentrainment of
particulate during the cleaning operation.] Unit rating shall be based
upon operation with one section out for cleaning. Cleaning operation shall
be [operator initiated and executed by manually operating the cleaning
cycle on each compartment in sequence until all filters have been cleaned]
[operator initiated to have the filters cleaned automatically one
compartment at a time until all filters have been cleaned] [automatically
initiated by an adjustable filter air pressure drop switch operating at a
high pressure set point to initiate the filter cleaning operation]
[automatically initiated by a timer to initiate filter cleaning
operation]. Once started, the cleaning operation shall progressively clean
one compartment at a time until all filters are cleaned. Removal of
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 35
Reentrainment of collected material can be limited
by a proper balance of factors that affect
performance, such as gas velocity through the
plates; uniformity of gas velocity profile; ratio of
plate height to depth; size of lumps of agglomerated
material rapped from the collecting plates and
discharge electrodes; and others. Control may also
be achieved by a system of automatic programmed gas
flow dampers coordinated to operate with related
rappers for sequential cleaning of each of the
chambers.
Power consumption is generally equivalent to the
additional power required by other collecting
methods. The pressure drop across units is
typically less than 127 Pa 0.5 inch water gauge.
Caution should be exercised in their use where
combustible or explosive coal dusts or oil fumes may
be present and could be ignited by a "spark-over" of
the high voltage across the electrodes.
**************************************************************************
Unit shall comply with requirements of ICAC EP-1, ICAC EP-7, and ICAC EP-8,
and shall remove [aerosols] [and] [particulates] from processed gas stream
by impressing a polarized electrostatic charge to the contaminants causing
them to be drawn to and deposited upon opposite polarity charged plates.
Unit shall contain multiple chambers and be of gas-tight construction.
Unit shall be provided with [insulator compartments] [penthouse]. Unit
shall be provided with anti-sneak baffles to force all gas flow through
ionizing gas passages and to prevent gas bypassing the precipitator
sections. Assembly shall consist of discharging electrodes and opposite
charged plates, high voltage power pack and controls, a rapping system for
knocking dust from the discharge electrodes and collector plates,
perforated gas distribution plates, sheet steel enclosure with dust
collecting hopper bottom, dirty gas inlet, clean gas outlet, and structural
steel frame. Precipitator systems shall include microprocessor based
controls [flue gas conditioning systems] [pulse energization] [intermittent
energization].
2.14.5.1
Discharge Electrodes
Discharge electrodes shall be [wires and weights] [rigid electrodes] [rigid
frame]. Discharge electrodes shall be top supported with the bottom free
to expand and contract with gas stream temperature changes. Electrodes
shall be laterally restrained to maintain optimum spacing from the plates.
Electrodes shall have a stiffness, length, or restraints required to
prevent vibration or flutter when the unit is in service.
2.14.5.2
Collecting Plates
Collecting plates shall consist of vertical panels of multiple steel strips
hanging edgewise in the horizontal air stream so as to form the equivalent
of many vertical splits of the gas stream into many gas passages. The
strips shall be convoluted, stiffened or constructed with raised ribs, to
provide sufficient stiffness to prevent distortion of the plates and also
present vertical ridges to support boundary layer edges to increase plate
dust retention. Plates shall be top supported with the bottom free to
expand and contract with changes of gas stream temperature. Plate
configuration and support system design shall be coordinated with the plate
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 27
rapping system design and operation to shed collected material from the
plates and to retain a consistent and optimum spacing from the discharge
electrodes.
2.14.5.3
Power Supply and Control System
Power supply and control system shall be solid state microprocessor type.
Control system shall provide for continuous monitoring and regulating of
applied voltage for effective maximum performance of precipitation over the
range of plate loadings with minimum sparking and arcing to the plates.
Entire system shall be provided with a system of safety interlocks and
grounding devices to prevent personnel physical contact with high voltage
components. Voltage insulators shall be provided with heaters.
2.14.5.4
Rapping Systems
The rapping systems shall consist of multiple hammers or other impact
devices to cause particulate shedding from the collecting plate. Rapping
shall automatically be programmed so that a minimum number of collecting
plates and discharge electrodes are rapped simultaneously. The unit shall
be designed to limit reentrainment of collected material falling from the
collecting plates and discharge electrodes during the rapping operation
without exceeding the design cleaning efficiency.
2.14.5.5
Inlet and Discharge Ducts
Inlet and discharge ducts shall be provided with turning vanes, deflectors,
and baffle plates to provide for uniform distribution of gas flow through
all gas passages and in each gas passage in accordance with ICAC EP-7.
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the inlet and discharge
ducts connecting to the precipitator.
2.14.5.6
Dust Storage Hopper
The unit shall be provided with a [4.8 mm 3/16 inch] [6.4 mm 1/4 inch] [low
carbon] [corrosion resistant] sloped steel bottom dust storage hopper
having the dust holding capacity indicated. The hopper shall be arranged
to prevent reentrainment of collected material into the gas stream. The
hopper bottom shall be provided with rappers or fluidizing pads and a
hopper valley angle of 60 degrees and shall be free of pockets, ribs, fins,
or any other obstruction to hold or interfere with free release of
collected material to the outlet. The outlet shall be provided with [a
guillotine-type slide gate] [a manually-operated rotary lock] [a
motor-driven rotary lock]. The hopper shall be provided with a poke hole
and gasketed access door and shall have a collected material level
indicator for [local indication] [local indication with terminals for
wiring to a remote indicator]. [The level indicator shall include a high
material level audible alarm.] [The hopper shall be provided with electric
heating coils, modules, or blankets to keep collected material dry and free
flowing with the unit installed outdoors and out of service in a local
winter outdoor design temperature of [_____] degrees C degrees F]. [The
capacity of the heating coil module or blanket shall be as shown.] [The
heating coil module or blanket's size shall be based on the ambient
temperature of [_____] degrees C degrees F].
2.14.6
Wet Scrubber
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Select scrubber type based on efficiency
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 28
required. Wet scrubbers are used for the removal of
gaseous pollutants such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen
oxides, and other gaseous materials from boiler flue
gases. Removal of sulfur oxides (flue gas
desulfurization) is covered by Paragraphs "Wet Flue
Gas Desulfurization System" and "Spray Dryer Flue
Gas Desulfurization System". Wet scrubbers will
also remove fumes, mists, dusts, and smoke particles
from laboratory fume hood and welding booth
exhausts. With appropriate adsorbents they can
collect vapors of paint thinners and solvents. They
can handle boiler flue gases as high as 371 degrees C
700 degrees F, but impose a heavy water demand for
evaporative cooling causing a heavy water vapor
plume from the chimney. This water use also
increases flue and chimney condensation and possible
corrosion damage. Those problems can be minimized
with a heat exchanger with a pump and water coils to
precool the hot flue gas to the scrubber and deliver
the recovered heat to the relatively cool cleaned
gas out of the scrubber, as required. Any surplus
heat can be used for other heating applications.
The scrubber requires a water and chemicals supply
system with problems of slurry or sludge removal;
chemicals storage, mixing, feeding, and monitoring;
and corrosion prevention of wetted parts. Since the
scrubber system is relatively costly to install and
operate, care should be exercised to limit its use
to the function that only it can perform. In
addition to its primary function of removing gaseous
pollutants, it will also remove particulates. In
addition to water sources shown within brackets,
there may be other sources such as recycled water
from waste treatment plant among others. Insert
source within brackets and delete the others.
**************************************************************************
Unit shall comply with ICAC G-1, ICAC WS-1, ICAC WS-3, and ICAC WS-4 as a
wet scrubber for removing gases, fumes, and particulates from the air
exhausted from [welding] [and] [paint spray] booths [and from [_____]].
Scrubber shall be one of the types identified by ICAC WS-3 as a [venturi,]
[spray,] [tray,] [fixed packed bed,] [mobile bed,] [impingement,] [or]
[entrainment] type [or a combination of these types]. Unit shall employ a
small quantity of water or chemical neutralizing water solution to provide
for maximum scouring and pollutant removal of the gas stream. Water demand
rates of less than 0.13 L/second per cubic meter per second one gpm per
1000 cfm of processed gases shall use [potable] [cooling tower blowdown]
[_____] water with waste to drain. Water demand in excess of the above
flow rate shall provide for recirculation of the washing liquor. Unit
shall be provided with [an automatic water supply control valve,] [a
float-operated water level control valve,] [a totalizing water meter,]
strainer, and water pressure gauge.
2.14.6.1
Chemical System
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Investigate user agency, facility operation,
and maintenance standards and procedures; analyze
the pollution control equipment's consumption of
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 29
materials; confer with equipment suppliers; and
determine the optimum time period for reserve
capacity. Select the "reserve" time period, and
delete all other periods. The above investigation
will also determine if the last sentence within the
brackets should be retained or deleted.
**************************************************************************
Each unit requiring neutralizing chemical additives shall be provided with
a complete automatic chemical monitoring, control, mixing, feeding, and
reserve storage system. The chemical system shall have a reserve capacity
for [[24] [36] [48] hours] [[3] [7] [10] days] of continuous scrubber
operation at design conditions without requiring servicing. [Components
that must be taken out of service for routine maintenance or chemical
loading shall be provided in duplicate arranged for transfer by manual
operation of switches and valves.]
2.14.6.2
Scrubber
Scrubber shall be fluid-tight construction of [glass fibre reinforced
polyester] [rolled low-carbon steel coated with coal-tar enamel] [
ASTM A302/A302M stainless steel] [ASTM A240/A240M stainless steel]. Unit
shall be provided with leak-tight viewing windows and access doors to
permit appraisal of entire operation as well as full access for all service
operations or parts replacement. Vanes, baffles, deflectors, or diffuser
plates shall provide for uniform gas flow through the processing area.
Scrubber shall be factory assembled, piped, and wired on floor mounted
welded steel bases as indicated.
2.14.6.3
Recirculation Pumps
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Determine if facility will require continuous
operation or if it can be shut down or if the
pollution control equipment can be out of service
for extended periods. If continuous operation is
required, select wording for duplicate pumps and
remove brackets.
**************************************************************************
Unit requiring recirculation of the scrubbing liquor shall be provided with
[direct] electric motor centrifugal pumps [in duplicate] to conform to
HI 3.1-3.5. Pumps shall develop the system pressure head required by the
scrubber. Materials, construction, ratings, application, and testing shall
conform to the standards and recommendations of HI 3.1-3.5 for corrosion
resistant operation of pumping the scrubber liquor. [A manual selector
switch shall be provided for selection of "Lead" and "Lag" operation of the
duplicate pumps.] Each pump shall have a discharge pressure gauge
appropriate for the pump head and a low pressure limit switch to [start the
backup pump] [and] [close a circuit for an alarm]. Pumps shall be provided
with corrosion-resistant strainers, valves, and piping suitable for the
system and the gas to be processed. [Pumps for metering the feed rate of
scrubber chemical additives shall be provided with [manual] [automatic]
means for varying the feed rate.]
2.14.6.4
Piping Materials
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Delete inapplicable materials and equipment.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 30
Pipe, fitting, and valve materials listed in this
section are suitable for water service, but not for
corrosive, erosive, and some petrol services. The
designer should select the proper alloy (e.g.,
stainless steel 304, 316, etc.), rubber or other
elastomer lining or plastic for these and other
applications where the chemistry of the process
shall dictate material selection.
**************************************************************************
Piping materials shall be compatible with the scrubber fluids.
2.14.6.5
Scrubber Collector System
Each scrubber requiring the use of chemical additives shall be provided
with a system for removing and dewatering the collected material and
chemical residues of the scrubber process. Related equipment and controls
shall be provided. Pressure test connections shall be provided at the
inlet and outlet ducts connecting to the collector.
2.14.7
Dry Fabric Collector for Boiler Flue Gases
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Dry fabric collectors are highly effective in
removing up to 99.9 percent by weight of
particulates of submicron size and larger from gas
streams of more than 229 mg per cubic meter 0.1
grain (weight) per cubic foot. Emissions will
consistently be less than 11 mg per cubic meter
0.005 grain/actual cubic foot. Fabrics are
available for gas streams up to 288 degrees C 550
degrees F and are often used for particulate removal
from coal handling operations and boiler flue
gases. Fibre selection and fabric construction and
finish are extremely critical to the performance and
service life of a dry fabric collector. Chemical,
temperature and abrasion resistance, strength, and
dimensional stability are important fibre selection
considerations. Fabric weave, weight, finish, and
dimensional stability are major fabric
requirements. Fabric filters can be harmed by
corrosive chemicals. It may be necessary to scrub
the gas prior to the dry fabric collector. ICAC F-2
summarizes fibre and fabric selection parameters.
The space requirement is rather large and pressure
drop is typically in the 1.02 kPa to 1.53 kPa 4 to 6
inch water gauge range. An important consideration
is whether the processed stream can be interrupted,
such as a nonproduction type welding facility
exhaust, or if it must remain in continuous
operation, such as for a base boiler plant. If the
process is relatively small and the dust loading is
relatively light, or if the process is intermittent,
it may be desirable and economic to use replaceable
deep pocket type or automatic moving media type
filters. If the loading is high and process must
not be interrupted, a cleanable baghouse type unit
may be desired.
**************************************************************************
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 31
Unit shall be type identified as [an unsupported tubular [unibag]
[multibag] [side entry] [top entry] type] [a supported filter element
[tubular] [or] [envelope] type]. Fabric collectors shall comply with
ICAC F-2 and ICAC F-3. The collector provided shall be coordinated with
the boiler combustion control and safety system so as to assure that the
boilers operate within design conditions throughout entire operating range
at design capacity of the collector. The collector shall be an ICAC
[standard collector, Type III, medium-to-heavy duty, usually continuous
service cleaning gases at [_____] degrees C degrees F] [special or
custom-designed collector, Type IV, heavy duty continuous service cleaning
gases at [_____] degrees C degrees F].
2.14.7.1
Filter Cleaning
**************************************************************************
NOTE: In the last sentence, three filter cleaning
methods are available, any or all of which may be
allowed depending upon site conditions and available
utilities. Under the present state of the art, the
use of compressed air pulse jet cleaning should be
limited to systems below 142 cubic meter per second
300,000 acfm (actual cfm). Efforts to reduce flue
gas pressure drop in fabric collectors have led to
the development of more vigorous cleaning methods,
in particular, the use of sonic horns in combination
with conventional air exchange cleaning methods,
such as reverse air, pulsed jet, or shake/deflate.
Up to 60 percent reduction in pressure drop has been
realized using sonic horns with no deterioration in
particulate emission levels. Pressure level,
frequency, power levels, and spatial distribution of
horns within the collector compartment are all
important specification criteria.
**************************************************************************
Filter element cleaning shall be automatically initiated and executed [on
an adjustable programmer time cycle] [by operation of an adjustable high
filter pressure drop switch]. Cleaning shall be accomplished by powered
vibrator or shaker devices, reverse cleaned air flow with [positive]
[negative] air pressure in the unit, a combination of shaker and reverse
air flow [or compressed air pulse jet cleaning]. [Filter element cleaning
shall include sonic horns.]
2.14.7.2
Filter Enclosure
Filter enclosure shall be fabricated of [4.8 mm 3/16 inch] [6.4 mm 1/4 inch
] [low carbon] [corrosion resistant] steel of welded or bolted construction
or combinations thereof. Enclosure sheets shall be given supporting
strength and rigidity by folding or bending or shall be supported on
supplemental structural steel shapes. Unit shall be provided with gas
inlet and outlet connections and baffles, vanes, deflectors, or low
friction diffuser plates that will insure uniform gas flow to all elements
of the fabric system without causing flutter, vibration, or erosion of the
fabric. Hinged, latched, and gasketed access doors shall be provided for
all parts and areas that require inspection or service. Fabric elements
shall be secured and supported by internal rings or equivalent method so
that the entire fabric surface is so deployed that gas flow and particulate
collection will be uniform over entire working surface. Dust shedding
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 32
properties shall be uniform so that entire fabric surface will be equally
cleared by a cleaning operation without damage to media other than normal
service wear. Media shall be arranged in elements, sections, pockets, or
tubes that can be handled, removed, replaced, and secured without special
facilities.
2.14.7.3
Collector Cleaning
Units shall be provided with means for isolating a compartment or section
for cleaning while other compartments are performing their normal dust
removal function. Compartment isolation shall effectively prevent
reentrainment of the particulate during the cleaning operation. Unit
rating shall be based upon operation with one section out for cleaning.
Cleaning operation shall be [operator initiated and executed by manually
operating the cleaning cycle on each compartment in sequence until all
filters have been cleaned] [operator initiated to have the filters cleaned
automatically one compartment at a time until all filters have been
cleaned] [automatically initiated by an adjustable filter air pressure drop
switch operating at a high pressure set point to initiate the filter
cleaning operation] [automatically initiated by a timer to initiate the
filter cleaning operation]. Once started, the cleaning operation shall
progressively clean one compartment at a time until all filters are
cleaned. Removal of collected particulate shall be by discharging from a
hopper below. Collector manufacturer shall provide all of the components
required for the entire cleaning operation including [manual rappers]
[motorized rappers] [rotary air valve] [manual dampers] [motorized dampers]
[compressed air surge receiver] [air compressor with receiver, motor drive,
and controls] [blast or pulse jet controls, nozzles, and valves] [shaker or
flutter blower, motor, drive, and controls]. [Automatic operations shall
be provided with a manual override for starting, stopping, interrupting,
and restarting operation.]
2.14.7.4
Test Connections
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the inlet and outlet ducts
connecting to the collector.
2.14.7.5
Flue Gas Dust Collectors Designed for In-Place Cleaning
Dust collectors designed and constructed for in-place cleaning of the
fabric shall be provided with a [3.4] [4.8] [6.4] mm [10 gauge] [3/16 inch]
[1/4 inch] [low carbon] [corrosion resistant] steel sloped bottom dust
storage hopper having the dust holding capacity as indicated. Collector
and hopper system shall be constructed to minimize reentrainment of
collected material into the gas stream. The hopper bottom shall be
provided with rappers or fluidizing pads and shall have a hopper valley
angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal and shall be free of pockets, ribs,
fins, or any other obstruction to hold or interfere with free and complete
release of all collected material to the outlet. Outlet shall be provided
with [a guillotine-type slide gate] [a motor-driven rotary lock] [automatic
lock hoppers]. Hopper shall be provided with a poke hole and gasketed
access door, and shall have a collected material level indicator for [local
indication] [local indication with terminals for wiring to a remote
indicator]. Level indicator shall include a high material level audible
alarm. [Hopper shall be provided with electric heating coils, modules, or
blankets to keep collected material dry and free flowing with the unit
installed outdoors and out of service in a local winter outdoor design
temperature of [_____] degrees C degrees F].
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 33
tests. The test shall not commence until the procedure has been approved.
Electricity and water will be furnished by the Government.
3.5.1.1
Retesting
If any deficiencies are revealed during test, such deficiencies shall be
corrected and the tests reconducted.
3.5.1.2
Reporting
Submit test reports in booklet form showing all field tests performed to
adjust each component and all field tests performed to provide compliance
with the specified performance criteria, upon completion and testing of the
installed system. Each test report shall indicate the final position of
controls.
3.5.2
Manufacturer's Field Service
Services of a manufacturer's representative who is experienced in the
installation, adjustment, and operation of the specified equipment shall be
provided. The representative shall supervise the installing, adjusting,
and [testing] [testing start-up] of the equipment.
3.6
3.6.1
CLOSEOUT ACTIVITIES
Training
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Insert number of hours required to train
personnel for the equipment operations.
**************************************************************************
Conduct training course for operating staff as designated by the
Contracting Officer. The training period, of a total of [_____] hours of
normal working time, shall start after the system is functionally
completed, but prior to final acceptance tests. The field instructions
shall cover all of the items contained in the operating and maintenance
instructions, as well as demonstrations of routine maintenance operations.
Submit training course curriculum and training instructions [14] [_____]
days prior to the start of training.
3.6.2
Operations and Maintenance
Submit complete copies of operation manual outlining the step-by-step
procedures required for system startup, operation, and shutdown. The
manuals shall include the manufacturer's name, model number, service
manual, parts list, and brief description of all equipment and its basic
operating features. Also, submit complete copies of maintenance manual
listing routine maintenance procedures, possible breakdowns and repair, and
troubleshooting guides. The manuals shall include piping layout, equipment
layout, and simplified wiring and control diagrams of the system as
installed. Operation and maintenance manuals shall be approved prior to
training course.
3.7
a.
SCHEDULES
TABLES I and II: List any or all properties of particulate materials
such as corrosive, toxic, abrasive, sticky, flammable, explosive,
abrasive, friable, spherical fibrous, and hygroscopic.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 47
b.
TABLES I and III: Delete reference to particulates if the scrubber is
to be installed with a particulate precleaner.
c.
TABLE III: Delete reference to water supply data if not applicable for
equipment selected.
d.
TABLES III and IV: The volume to be listed here is the total volume of
exhaust or ventilation air flow with which the pollutant is mixed. Add
or delete items under Analysis of Gaseous Pollutants.
TABLE I.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Type Collector:
[_____]
Contaminate Stream:
[_____]
Collector Inlet Conditions:
Elevation:
[_____] meters feet
Gas Density:
[_____] kg per cubic meter pcf
Volume:
[_____] actual cubic meters per second cfm
[stoichiometric] [pitot]
Pressure:
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Temperature:
[_____] degrees C F
Grain Loading:
[_____] mg per actual cubic meters
grain/acf
[_____] mg per standard cubic meter
grains/scf
[_____] nanograms per J pounds/106 Btu
Moisture:
[_____] percent
Analysis of Particulates:
Specific Gravity:
[_____]
Bulk Density:
[_____] kg per cubic meter pcf
Physical Properties:
[_____]
Paricle Size Distribution, µm microns
Percent by Weight of Dust in Range
0-5
[_____]
5-10
[_____]
10-20
[_____]
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 48
collected particulate shall be by [raking out] [removal and dumping of a
particulate pan or tray] [draining from a hopper below]. Collector
manufacturer shall provide all of the components required for the entire
cleaning operation including [manual rappers] [motorized rappers] [manual
dampers] [motorized dampers] [compressed air surge receiver] [air
compressor with receiver, motor, drive, and controls] [blast or pulse jet
controls, nozzles, and valves] [shaker or flutter blower, motor, drive, and
controls] [traveling ring components]. [Automatic operations shall be
provided with a manual override for starting, stopping, interrupting, and
restarting operation.]
2.14.8.4
Test Connections
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the inlet and outlet ducts
connecting to the collector.
2.14.8.5
Dust Collectors Designed for In-Place Cleaning
Dust collectors designed and constructed for in-place cleaning of the
fabric shall be provided with a [3.4] [4.8] [6.4] mm [10 gauge] [3/16 inch]
[1/4 inch] [low carbon] [corrosion resistant] steel sloped bottom dust
storage hopper having the dust holding capacity as indicated. Collector
and hopper system shall be constructed to minimize reentrainment of
collected material into the gas stream. Hopper bottom shall be provided
with rappers or fluidizing pads and the hopper valley angle shall be 60
degrees from the horizontal and shall be free of pockets, ribs, fins, or
any other obstruction to hold or interfere with free and complete release
of all collected material to the outlet. Outlet shall be provided with [a
guillotine-type slide gate] [a manually-operated rotary lock] [a
motor-driven rotary lock] [automatic lock hoppers]. Hopper shall be
provided with a poke hole and gasketed access door, and shall have a
collected material level indicator for [local indication] [local indication
with terminals for wiring to a remote indicator]. Level indicator shall
include a high material level audible alarm. [Hopper shall be provided
with electric heating coils, modules, and blankets to keep collected
material dry and flowing with the unit installed outdoors and out of
service in a local winter outdoor design temperature of [_____] degrees C
degrees F].
2.14.9
Gaseous Emissions Control Unit
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The gaseous emissions control units are to be
used for cleaning particulate and gaseous solvent
materials from the exhaust air at laboratory fume
hoods, welding booths, water curtain paint spray
booths, and other similar type problems. The fabric
prefilter will collect a reasonable amount of
particulates and the carbon will adsorb the gaseous
vapors. The unit may be used without the prefilter
to collect gasoline vapor from small storage tank
vents, but the tank should be installed underground
or be shaded to minimize boil-off. Project
conditions may make regeneration of the carbon
desirable. A typical gaseous emission control with
carbon regeneration unit consists of two or more
adsorber vessels with deep bed (typically 450 to 600
mm 18 to 24 inches) of high grade gas phase
activated carbon. The manufacturer should provide
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 36
the bed depth as part of his design, and should
consider the life cycle cost when sizing the
adsorbent unit. The dampers and control valves will
be pneumatically operated, based on timer operation
or solvent sensor operation. Once the adsorption
bed is saturated with solvent vapors, the flow into
the adsorber is automatically diverted to the second
adsorber. Low pressure steam is used to desorb the
saturated adsorber, regenerating the carbon and
producing a steam and solvent mixture which is
condensed in a shell and tube condenser. Water
insoluble solvents should be separated in a decanter
for reuse. The system must be complete with
adsorber vessels, blower, filter, condenser, and
controls. Deposition of the waste effluents is
dependent on the specific project and cannot be
determined in the guide specification.
**************************************************************************
Unit shall comply with ICAC G-1 and shall consist of a dry type particulate
removal precleaner followed by an adsorption unit of activated carbon or
other approval adsorbent material.
2.14.9.1
Prefilter
Prefilter shall be [cleanable] [replaceable]. Prefilter shall have a
cleaning performance equal to or exceeding ASHRAE 52.2 of 95 percent
arrestance by weight, 80 to 90 percent atmospheric dust spot efficiency,
and a dust-holding capacity of not less than 530 grams per 1 cubic meter
per second 250 grams per 1,000 cfm cell. Media shall comply with UL 900
and shall be provided with a support frame or shall be constructed to be
self-supporting without sagging either with or without gas flow. Each cell
shall be securely held in place with applied pressure leak-tight joint
between the media, media flange, and media collar, and the filter shall be
secured to the media bulkhead with latches or clips to permit removal,
replacement, and securing without special tools.
2.14.9.2
Adsorbent Unit
Adsorbent section shall consist of a system of trays, hollow panels,
canisters, or other means of holding a deep bed of activated carbon
conforming to ASTM D2854 and ASTM D2862, or other adsorbent material, to
cause the processed gas to pass through a uniform depth of material in the
gas flow direction. Trays, panels, and canisters shall be designed to
assure that the adsorbent bed will be uniform, full and free of voids or
thin spots and supported and contained to prevent movement, pulverizing,
abrasion, or dusting of the adsorbent and easy and full recharging without
special facilities or tools. Adsorbent units shall be secured leak-tight
in a bulkhead forcing all gas to pass through the adsorbent bed.
2.14.9.3
Prefilter and Adsorbent Assemblies
Prefilter and adsorbent assemblies shall be enclosed in a welded, bolted,
or riveted sheet metal enclosure that limits both in-leakage or out-leakage
of gas. Enclosure access doors or panels shall be bolted, or gasket-sealed
and latched to provide independent access to the prefilter and the
adsorbent plenums. The enclosure shall be designed for the maximum
differential pressure (positive or negative) under any mode of operation.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 37
2.14.9.4
Inlet and Outlet Ducts
Unit shall be provided with inlet and discharge vanes, baffles, diffusers,
or other devices to assure uniform gas flow through the processors.
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the inlet and outlet ducts
connecting to the collector.
2.14.10
Petrol Vapor Recovery Unit
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The petrol vapor recovery unit is intended
for use at fuel depots or fuel distribution terminal
facilities. It is used to recover fuel vapors by
refrigerated condensation of the material from tank
and transporter vents. Underground storage tanks at
petrol dispensing stations do not commonly require
refrigerated petrol recovery units but are equipped
to have the unloading fuel displace a like volume of
vapor from the underground tank into the transporter
through a vent hose and manifold which are integral
with the transporter vehicle. The transporter then
hauls this vent gas to the local depot for recovery
as the transporter is reloaded. Some jurisdictions
may require vehicle tank venting back to the storage
tank as the vehicle is loaded. Gaseous emission
activated carbon emission control units, with and
without carbon regeneration, can be used in this
application.
**************************************************************************
Unit shall be a complete air-cooled mechanical refrigerated
electric-operated unit designed for condensing the fuel vapors vented from
gasoline system storage tanks. Recovery process shall be in two steps.
The first step shall precool the vent gas to slightly above water freeze
point to remove most of the water vapor without a defrost cycle. The
second step shall cool the gas to the required vapor pressure with minimum
frost collection. System shall include storage capacity and circulation
system for defrosting fluid. Refrigerants shall be classified as nontoxic,
nonflammable, conforming to ANSI/ASHRAE 15 & 34, Group 1.
2.14.10.1
Defrosting
[Fuel handling operation will allow defrosting for about [4] [5] [6] hours
after midnight.] [Fuel handling operation will not allow time for
defrosting and a duplicate cooler shall be provided with automatic controls
to alternate the units between cool and defrost modes with status
indication of each.]
2.14.10.2
Unit Operation and Control
Unit shall be provided for [complete monitoring and control at the unit]
[operation and control at the unit with remote indication of ON-OFF
position of unit power supply switch] [operation and control at the unit
with remote indication of operating and control of the unit with complete
process indication with maintenance and service operation at the unit].
[[Visible] [and] [audible] alarms shall be provided on critical functions
[locally] [and at remote station].]
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 38
2.14.10.3
Design and Fabrication Requirements
Unit shall be from single supplier and of coordinated design, fully
assembled and subjected to factory tests before shipment. Unit shall be
skid mounted on a permanent steel base with pick-up lugs and anchor bolt
holes for installation on a concrete foundation. Electric power
connection, vent gas inlet, return line for condensed hydrocarbons, and
drain for aqueous liquids shall be provided. Components shall be installed
in a ventilated weather proof enclosure with full accessibility for
operation and service through hinged access doors with latches or removable
panels. Doors shall be used for access to all operating functions. Cold
components and piping of the entire system subject to sweating or frosting
shall be insulated. Electrical equipment and installation work shall
conform to requirements of hazardous locations for Class I, [Division I,]
[Division II,] Group D, of NFPA 70 and NFPA 496, and Type X shall conform
to UL 5, UL 674, UL 1203, and UL 823 requirements. Inlet vent gas flow to
the unit shall be through a 0.075 mm 200 mesh removable ASTM A240/A240M
stainless steel or equal strainer. Refrigeration work shall comply with
ANSI/ASHRAE 15 & 34 and ASME B31.5. Petrol vapor, condensed hydrocarbon
returns, and aqueous waste piping shall comply with ASME B31.3.
2.14.11
Gravel Bed Filter
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Electrostatically enhanced gravel beds,
combining granular filtration and electrostatic
collection, are highly effective with collection
efficiencies in excess of 99 percent on submicron
particles. Gravel beds without electrostatic
enhancement have collection efficiency greater than
95 percent on coarser particulate. They are
frequently applied to gas streams in excess of 371
degrees C 700 degrees F and are particularly
suitable for the collection of high resistivity
particulates with potential fire and explosion
hazards. Gravel beds are more compact then
electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters for
comparable applications. The unit is relatively
insensitive to variations in gas flow and
temperature excursions, and, in most cases, chemical
makeup of the exhaust gas and particulate. Pressure
drop across the gravel bed ranges from 763 Pa to
1271 Pa 3 to 5 inches water gauge. Carbon steel is
the normal material of construction although high
temperature and/or corrosive environments require
the use of alloys or stainless steel.
**************************************************************************
The system shall remove particulates from process gas streams through
granular filtration in a moving bed of filter media supplemented by
electrostatic collection resulting from the application of high voltage
power to [an electrical grid located in the bed] [an ionization grid
located upstream of the bed in addition to an electrical grid located in
the bed].
2.14.12
Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System
**************************************************************************
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 39
NOTE: A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system is
used to reduce emission of sulfur dioxide from solid
waste incinerator and boiler flue gases. It can
also reduce other acid gas emissions such as
hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. FGD
systems are classified as either wet or dry
processes. In the wet process, the flue gas reacts
with a sorbent solution, producing a liquid
product. The reagent selected will result in either
a waste product, which must be disposed of, or a
by-product, in which the sulfur recovered is in
useable form. In general, the capital cost of
regenerative systems may be up to twice the cost of
non-regenerable systems.
**************************************************************************
System shall remove sulfur dioxide, [hydrochloric acid] [hydrofluoric
acid] [particulates] [and] [______] from processed gas stream. System
shall be [non-regenerative] [regenerative] and shall use wet scrubbing
process. System shall include all equipment required for a complete,
operable FGD system, including wet scrubbing system, complete reagent feed
system, [waste] [by-product] handling system, and instrumentation and
controls for safe, reliable operation of the system.
2.14.12.1
Wet Scrubber System
Wet scrubber shall comply with ICAC G-1, ICAC WS-1, ICAC WS-3, and ICAC WS-4.
Scrubber shall be one of the types identified by ICAC WS-3 as a [venturi,]
[spray,] [tray,] [fixed packed bed,] [mobile bed,] [impingement,] [or]
[entrainment,] type [or a combination of these types]. Scrubber shall be
fluid-tight construction of [glass fiber reinforced plastic] [rolled
low-carbon steel coated with coal-tar enamel] [ASTM A302/A302M stainless
steel] [ASTM A240/A240M stainless steel] [_____]. Unit shall be
constructed with leak-tight viewing windows and access doors to permit
appraisal of scrubbing process as well as full access for all service
operations or parts replacement. Vanes, baffles, deflectors, or diffuser
plates shall provide for uniform gas flow through the scrubbing chamber.
Scrubber internal components shall be designed to minimize scaling and
plugging inside the tower. Mist eliminator shall be of fluid-tight
construction. Vanes, baffles, or deflectors shall provide for uniform gas
flow to the mist eliminator elements. Mist eliminator shall be designed to
minimize reentrainment of liquid into the gas stream. Mist eliminator
shall be provided with a water washing system to prevent solids buildup on
the blades. Washing nozzles shall be sized and oriented to spray entire
mist eliminator area. System shall be provided with clean gas reheater
upstream of stack to prevent acidic condensation and corrosion in the stack.
2.14.12.2
Reagent Feed System
Reagent feed system shall include all components required for storage of
dry reagent, preparation of reagent slurry, delivery and re-circulation of
the selected reagent. One reagent feed system shall serve all scrubbers.
Reagent feed system shall have a reserve capacity for [[24] [36] [48]
hours] [[3] [7] [10] days] of continuous FGD operation at design capacity
without servicing. [Components that must be taken out of service for
routine maintenance or reagent loading shall be provided in duplicate,
arranged for transfer by manual operation of switches and valves.] System
shall include all tanks, agitators, pumps, piping, valves and other
equipment required by a specific system design. System equipment shall be
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 40
of design, material and construction appropriate for scrubbing solution
delivery and for re-circulation of scrubbing effluent. Piping shall be
designed to prevent settling of scrubbing solution inside the pipes.
Design shall include provisions for drainage and clean-out of feed system
components, including pumps and piping.
2.14.12.3
Waste Handling System
Waste handling system shall include all equipment required for pre-disposal
treatment of the scrubbing effluent, including tanks, agitators,
liquid-solid separator, vacuum filter, solid waste holding bin, pumps,
piping, and valves as required.
2.14.12.4
Test connections
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the inlet and outlet ducts
connecting to the scrubber.
2.14.13
Spray Dryer Flue Gas Desulfurization System
**************************************************************************
NOTE: A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system is
used to reduce emission of sulfur dioxide from solid
waste incinerator and boiler flue gases. It can
also reduce other acid gas emissions such as
hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. FGD
systems are classified as either wet, wet/dry, or
dry processes. The spray dryer FGD process is a
wet/dry process, in which the flue gas reacts with
an alkaline reagent, usually a lime slurry, and the
reaction product is in dry form. The reagent
selected will result in either a waste product,
which must be disposed of, or a by-product, in which
the sulfur recovered is in useable form. In
general, the capital cost of regenerative systems
may be up to twice the cost of non-regenerable
systems.
**************************************************************************
System shall remove sulfur dioxide, [hydrochloric acid] [hydrofluoric acid]
[particulates] [and] [_____] from processed gas stream. System shall be
non-regenerative and shall use a spray dryer scrubbing process. System
shall include all equipment required for a complete, operating FGD system,
including spray dryer scrubbing system, complete slurry feed system, waste
handling system, particulate collecting unit consisting of [fabric filter
collector,] [electrostatic precipitator,] and instrumentation and controls
for safe, reliable operation of the system.
2.14.13.1
Spray Dryer System
Spray dryer shall comply with ICAC G-1 and ICAC FGD-1. Spray dryer shall
be of gas-tight construction. Unit shall be constructed with leak-tight
viewing windows and access doors to permit appraisal of scrubbing process
as well as full access for all service operations or parts replacement.
Spray dryer system shall include flue gas preheater prior to spray dryer
inlet. Vanes, baffles, deflectors, or diffuser plates shall be designed to
provide complete mixing of flue gas and chemical reagent, and to provide
adequate time for chemical reaction and evaporation of liquid in spray
dryer chamber. Atomizing system shall be [rotary] [or] [dual fluid] and
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 41
shall provide uniform dispersion of the chemical reagent in the spray dryer
chamber and prevent gas droplet deposition on spray dryer walls. [Dual
fluid nozzle atomizers shall use compressed air as the atomizing fluid. A
dedicated air compressor system shall be provided for dual fluid atomizing
system.] Scrubber internal components shall be designed to minimize
scaling inside the tower.
2.14.13.2
Reagent Feed System
Chemical reagent feed system shall include all components required for
storage, preparation, delivery and re-circulation of the chemical reagent.
One reagent feed system shall serve all scrubbers. Reagent feed system
shall have a reserve capacity for [[24] [36] [48] hours] [[3] [7] [10]
days] of continuous FGD operation at design capacity without servicing.
[Components that must be taken out of service for routine maintenance or
reagent loading shall be provided in duplicate, arranged for transfer by
manual operation of switches and valves.] System shall include all tanks,
agitators, filters, pumps, piping, valves and other equipment required by a
specific system design. System equipment shall be of design, material and
construction appropriate for reagent delivery and for re-circulation of
spray dryer effluent. Piping shall be designed to prevent settling of
solids inside the pipes. Design shall include provisions for drainage and
clean-out of feed system components, including pumps and piping.
2.14.13.3
Particulate Collecting Unit
Particulate collecting unit shall be designed to collect spray dryer
products and fly ash remaining in the gas stream exiting the spray dryer.
Particulate collection unit shall consist of [fabric filter collector]
[electrostatic precipitator]. [Fabric filter collector shall be in
accordance with Paragraph "Dry Fabric Collector for Boiler Flue Gases"].
[Electrostatic precipitator shall be in accordance with Paragraph
"Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)"].
2.14.13.4
Test connections
Pressure test connections shall be provided at the inlet and outlet ducts
of each spray dryer and fabric filter collector.
2.14.14
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System
**************************************************************************
NOTE: All fossil fuel burning processes produce
nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic
reduction (SCR) reduces NOx to N2 in the presence of
a catalyst. The reducing gas is usually ammonia
(NH3), and the catalyst may be composed of various
materials, such as oxides of vanadium or tungsten.
The catalytic reduction reaction requires
temperatures in the range of about 300 to 425
degrees C 600 to 800 degrees F. Selection of the
catalyst material and configuration, as well as the
operating temperature, depends on the type of fuel
being burned. The catalytic reactor will receive a
high dust, low dust, or tail end gas stream,
depending on its location in the system. In the
high dust location, the catalyst is located upstream
of an electrostatic precipitator. Location of the
SCR system downstream of an electrostatic
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 42
precipitator results in a low dust environment for
the catalyst. In the tail end location, the SCR
system is located downstream of an electrostatic
precipitator and/or a flue gas desulfurization
system, which provides the cleanest gas to the
catalyst. Location of the SCR in the system will
have an impact on catalyst life.
Efficiency of conventional SCR equipment in removal
of NOx is about 80-90 percent. SCR may be used in
conjunction with combustion modifications, such as
low NOx burners. A potential complication of SCR
using ammonia when high sulfur coal is burned is the
formation of ammonium bisulfate. When unreacted
ammonia passes through the catalytic reactor, called
ammonia slip, it will combine with SO3 present in
the flue gas, forming ammonium bisulfate. Ammonium
bisulfate, a sticky, corrosive material, will
condense on downstream equipment. Ammonia slip is a
major design concern when burning high sulfur coal.
**************************************************************************
System shall be designed to reduce nitrogen oxides from processed gas
stream. System shall use ammonia as the reducing agent. System shall
include all equipment required for a complete, operable SCR system,
including, but not limited to, ammonia delivery system, catalytic reactor
[with sootblowers], ash removal system, instrumentation and controls for
safe, reliable operation of the system, and other pollution control devices
as required.
2.14.14.1
Ammonia Delivery System
Ammonia delivery system shall include all components required for storage,
preparation, and delivery of ammonia to the flue gas stream downstream of
the economizer, prior to the catalytic reactor. The ammonia delivery
system shall be designed to automatically deliver ammonia based on the
quantity of NOx detected in the gas stream. Ammonia vaporizers shall be
designed to ensure uniform ammonia distribution in the gas stream. Ammonia
vaporizers shall be located in ductwork at a sufficient distance upstream
of the catalytic reactor to provide complete mixing of ammonia and flue gas
prior to the catalytic reactor inlet.
2.14.14.2
Catalytic Reactor
Catalytic reactor shall provide environment for chemical reaction between
ammonia and nitrogen oxides, to produce elemental nitrogen and water as the
products. Catalytic reactor configuration shall provide for uniform gas
flow through all elements of the reactor. Catalytic reactor shall be of
gas tight construction Catalytic reactor shall be located between boiler
economizer and boiler air preheater. [Catalytic reactor shall be located
[upstream of an electrostatic precipitator] [downstream of an electrostatic
precipitator] [downstream of a flue gas desulfurization system] [downstream
of an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization system].]
[Catalytic reactor shall be provided with sootblowers.] Ammonia slip shall
be limited to [_____] ppm.
2.15
EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEM
**************************************************************************
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 43
NOTE: Provide in-situ opacity monitoring equipment
where applicable to insure emission compliance of
the particulate control equipment.
State and local regulatory authorities should be
contacted at an early stage of the project design to
determine if they consider the test methods cited to
be adequate, and if they have any additional
requirements.
**************************************************************************
Emission monitoring system complete with all components, accessories,
analyzers [analyzer calibration system] [and recorders,] [alarms], and
free-standing factory assembled panel shall be provided to [monitor
opacity, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon
monoxide emissions in boiler flue gases.] [In-situ opacity monitoring.]
[_____]. System shall [continuously monitor] [time program monitor as
indicated] [be manually operated to monitor] the emissions. Submit reports
for emissions permit compliance. Emissions shall be indicated [and
recorded] in ppm and percent of sample.
2.15.1
Gas Sampling System
Sampling locations for air pollution control equipment performance shall be
in accordance with 40 CFR 60, Appendix A. A vacuum pump shall draw a gas
sample through a filter probe mounted inside the stack, a prefilter, and a
moisture separator/drier. It shall discharge the sample through a flow
meter on each analyzer to atmosphere as indicated. Equipment and necessary
tubing shall be provided for automatically purging pollutants from sampling
tubing, stack probe, and drier tubing, and for automatic regeneration of
the drier. Cleaning and drying operation shall be time programmed.
2.15.2
Analyzing System
System shall provide simultaneous measuring and analyzing of sample gas by
each analyzer with independent flow meters, valves, piping, and
accessories. Each analyzer shall indicate ppm of the measured pollutant.
[A recorder shall be provided for each analyzer with 30-day, 125 mm 5 inch
strip chart with pressure sensitive stylus.] Each analyzer shall be
provided with a visual color coded, panel mounted, high limit alarm with a
single audible alarm with silencing button for all alarms. A relay on each
analyzer shall be provided for connection to a remote alarm.
2.15.3
System Mounting
Gas sampling, analyzing [, and recording] systems shall be piped, wired,
and mounted within a factory fabricated 2.657 mm 12 gauge cold rolled black
steel enclosure with angle frame support and key-locked doors for [wall]
[floor] mounting. Entire system shall be suitable for 120 Vac, 60 Hz,
single-phase electric service.
2.15.4
Calibration
Calibration gas tanks of capacities indicated complete with regulators,
valving, and tubing shall be provided for the specified emissions.
2.16
FACTORY APPLIED INSULATION
**************************************************************************
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 44
NOTE: Insert equipment and related piping, casings,
and enclosures requiring insulation as applicable.
**************************************************************************
The following equipment and appurtenances shall be insulated with
materials, jacketing, and finishes, as specified in Section 23 07 00
THERMAL INSULATION FOR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS:
a.
[_____]
b.
[_____]
2.17
PAINTING AND FINISHING
Equipment and component items shall be factory primed and finish coated
with the manufacturer's standard finish. Items located outside the
building shall have weather resistant finish. Damaged finish surfaces
shall be refinished with an identical type of finish used at the factory.
PART 3
3.1
EXECUTION
EXAMINATION
After becoming familiar with all details of the work, verify all dimensions
in the field, and advise the Contracting Officer of any discrepancy before
performing the work.
3.2
INSTALLATION
Work shall be installed as indicated and in accordance with manufacturer's
diagrams and written instructions. [A factory installation specialist
shall be at the site for erection of [electrostatic precipitator,]
[baghouse,] [scrubber,] [wet flue gas desulfurization system] [spray dryer
flue gas desulfurization system] [selective catalytic reduction system]
[and] [petrol vapor recovery unit].] Field applied insulation shall be as
specified in Section 23 07 00 THERMAL INSULATION FOR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS.
3.3
OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Select the appropriate performance data forms
required for the equipment selected. Fill in the
data on the forms. Delete or retain the topic items
as appropriate. EPA Technical Report AP-42
including Supplements 1 through 9 (and later
supplements if issued) will be used to determine the
properties or qualities and quantities of
uncontrolled emissions from the various polluting
equipments, systems, and operations to be corrected
under this guide specification. Show in tables on
drawings operating performance requirements for
fans, pumps, motors, and other auxiliaries,
indicating cfm, gpm, hp, etc. Fill out separate
table for each air pollution control equipment
selected for a given project in accordance with the
following guide:
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 45
Table Type Effluent
Applicable Equipment
I
General Dust
Dry Dynamic Centrifugal
Fabric, Fabric, or Wet Dynamic
II
Boiler Fly Ash
Dry Dynamic, Centrifugal
Fabric, or ESP
III
Boiler Flue Gases &
Other Fume Sources
Scrubber, Flue Gas
Desulfurization System,
Selective Catalytic Reduction
System
IV
Petrol & Other Vapor
Refrigeration Unit or Sources
Fabric Prefilter with
Activated Carbon with
Regeneration
**************************************************************************
Air pollution control equipment shall process and remove pollutants from
exhaust gas streams to produce an effluent that will conform to 40 CFR 50
and other federal, state, and local regulations, without degrading the
performance of related system components. The air pollution control
equipment installed shall perform the cleaning operation as indicated on
the Air Pollution Equipment Performance Data forms attached to this section.
3.4
FRAMED INSTRUCTIONS
Framed instructions containing wiring and control diagrams under glass or
in laminated plastic shall be posted where directed. The instructions
shall show wiring and control diagrams and complete layout of the entire
system. The instructions shall include, in typed form, condensed operating
instructions explaining preventive maintenance procedures, methods of
checking the system for normal safe operation and procedures for safely
starting and stopping the system. The framed instructions shall be posted
before acceptance testing of the system.
3.5
3.5.1
FIELD QUALITY CONTROL
System Performance Test
Upon completion, and prior to acceptance of the project, the air pollution
control equipment and monitoring system shall be tested in accordance with
40 CFR 60, Appendix A and state and local codes by [the Contractor] [an
independent testing organization] to demonstrate indicated performance. [A
factory startup specialist shall be at the site to direct and monitor
startup for testing of [electrostatic precipitator,] [baghouse,]
[scrubber,] [wet flue gas desulfurization system] [spray dryer flue gas
desulfurization system] [selective catalytic reduction system] [and]
[petrol vapor recovery unit].] Notify the Contracting Officer [_____] days
in advance of the test date. [An independent testing organization shall
furnish all instruments and personnel required for the tests. ]Submit a
proposed performance test procedure, 30 days prior to the proposed test
date, containing a complete description of the proposed tests and sample
locations, with calibration curves or test results by an independent
testing laboratory of each instrument, meter, and gauge to be used in the
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 46
tests. The test shall not commence until the procedure has been approved.
Electricity and water will be furnished by the Government.
3.5.1.1
Retesting
If any deficiencies are revealed during test, such deficiencies shall be
corrected and the tests reconducted.
3.5.1.2
Reporting
Submit test reports in booklet form showing all field tests performed to
adjust each component and all field tests performed to provide compliance
with the specified performance criteria, upon completion and testing of the
installed system. Each test report shall indicate the final position of
controls.
3.5.2
Manufacturer's Field Service
Services of a manufacturer's representative who is experienced in the
installation, adjustment, and operation of the specified equipment shall be
provided. The representative shall supervise the installing, adjusting,
and [testing] [testing start-up] of the equipment.
3.6
3.6.1
CLOSEOUT ACTIVITIES
Training
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Insert number of hours required to train
personnel for the equipment operations.
**************************************************************************
Conduct training course for operating staff as designated by the
Contracting Officer. The training period, of a total of [_____] hours of
normal working time, shall start after the system is functionally
completed, but prior to final acceptance tests. The field instructions
shall cover all of the items contained in the operating and maintenance
instructions, as well as demonstrations of routine maintenance operations.
Submit training course curriculum and training instructions [14] [_____]
days prior to the start of training.
3.6.2
Operations and Maintenance
Submit complete copies of operation manual outlining the step-by-step
procedures required for system startup, operation, and shutdown. The
manuals shall include the manufacturer's name, model number, service
manual, parts list, and brief description of all equipment and its basic
operating features. Also, submit complete copies of maintenance manual
listing routine maintenance procedures, possible breakdowns and repair, and
troubleshooting guides. The manuals shall include piping layout, equipment
layout, and simplified wiring and control diagrams of the system as
installed. Operation and maintenance manuals shall be approved prior to
training course.
3.7
a.
SCHEDULES
TABLES I and II: List any or all properties of particulate materials
such as corrosive, toxic, abrasive, sticky, flammable, explosive,
abrasive, friable, spherical fibrous, and hygroscopic.
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 47
b.
TABLES I and III: Delete reference to particulates if the scrubber is
to be installed with a particulate precleaner.
c.
TABLE III: Delete reference to water supply data if not applicable for
equipment selected.
d.
TABLES III and IV: The volume to be listed here is the total volume of
exhaust or ventilation air flow with which the pollutant is mixed. Add
or delete items under Analysis of Gaseous Pollutants.
TABLE I.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Type Collector:
[_____]
Contaminate Stream:
[_____]
Collector Inlet Conditions:
Elevation:
[_____] meters feet
Gas Density:
[_____] kg per cubic meter pcf
Volume:
[_____] actual cubic meters per second cfm
[stoichiometric] [pitot]
Pressure:
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Temperature:
[_____] degrees C F
Grain Loading:
[_____] mg per actual cubic meters
grain/acf
[_____] mg per standard cubic meter
grains/scf
[_____] nanograms per J pounds/106 Btu
Moisture:
[_____] percent
Analysis of Particulates:
Specific Gravity:
[_____]
Bulk Density:
[_____] kg per cubic meter pcf
Physical Properties:
[_____]
Paricle Size Distribution, µm microns
Percent by Weight of Dust in Range
0-5
[_____]
5-10
[_____]
10-20
[_____]
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 48
TABLE I.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
20-30
[_____]
30-40
[_____]
<40
[_____]
Chemical Analysis
Collection Efficiency:
[_____] percent
Allowable Outlet Emission:
[_____] mg per actual cubic meters
grains/acf
[_____] mg per standard cubic meter
grains/scf
[_____] nanograms per J pounds/106 Btu
Allowable Collector Pressure Drop:
[_____] Pa inches water gauge Inlet Flange
to Outlet Flange
Hopper Capacity:
[_____] cubic meter feet
Collector Internal Pressure Relative to Atmosphere
Positive
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Negative
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Water Supply:
Pressure:
[_____] kPa psig
Flow Rate:
[_____] L/sec gpm
Water Analysis:
TABLE II.
[_____]
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Type Collector:
[_____]
Contaminate Stream:
[_____]
Type of Fuel-Percent by weight as fired:
Volatile Matter:
[_____]
Fixed Carbon:
[_____]
Moisture:
[_____]
Sulfur:
[_____]
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 49
TABLE II.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Ash:
[_____]
J/kgBtu/pound
[_____]
Fuel Firing Rate
[_____] kg per hour pounds per hour
Collector Inlet Conditions:
Elevation:
[_____] meters feet
Volume:
[_____] actual cubic meters per second acfm
[stoichiometric] [pitot]
Pressure:
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Temperature:
[_____] degrees C F
Grain Loading:
[_____] [mg per actual cubic meter] [mg
per standard cubic meter] [nanograms per
J] [grains/acf] [grains/scf] [pounds/106
Btu]
Analysis of Paticulates:
Specific Gravity:
[_____]
Bulk Density
[_____] kg per cubic meter pcf
Physical Properties:
[_____]
Paricle Size Distribution, µm microns
Percent by Weight of Dust in Range
0-5
[_____]
5-10
[_____]
10-20
[_____]
20-30
[_____]
30-40
[_____]
<40
[_____]
Chemical Analysis
Collection Efficiency:
[_____] percent
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 50
TABLE II.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Allowable Outlet Emission:
[_____] mg per actual cubic meters
grains/acf
[_____] mg per standard cubic meter
grains/scf
[_____] nanograms per J pounds/106 Btu
Allowable Collector Pressure Drop:
[_____] Pa inches water gauge Inlet Flange
to Outlet Flange
Hopper Capacity:
[_____] cubic meter feet
Collector Internal Pressure Relative to Atmosphere
Positive
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Negative
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
TABLE III.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Maximum Outlet Emission:
[_____] mg per actual cubic meters
grains/acf
[_____] mg per standard cubic meter
grains/scf
[_____] nanograms per J pounds/106 Btu
Type Collector:
[_____]
Contaminate Stream:
[_____]
Type of Fuel-Percent by weight as fired:
Volatile matter:
[_____]
Fixed Carbon:
[_____]
Moisture:
[_____]
Sulfur:
[_____]
Ash:
[_____]
Fuel Firing Rate:
[_____] kg per hour pounds per hour
Collector Inlet Conditions:
Elevation:
Volume:
Pressure:
[_____] meters feet
[_____] actual cubic meters per second cfm
[stoichiometric] [pitot]
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 51
TABLE III.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Temperature:
[_____] degrees C F
Grain Loading:
[_____] mg per actual cubic meters
grain/acf
[_____] mg per standard cubic meter
grains/scf
[_____] nanograms per J pounds/106 Btu
Moisture:
[_____] percent
Analysis of Particulates:
Specific Gravity:
[_____]
Bulk Density:
[_____] kg per cubic meter pcf
Physical Properties:
[_____]
Paricle Size Distribution, µm microns
Percent by Weight of Dust in Range
0-5
[_____]
5-10
[_____]
10-20
[_____]
20-30
[_____]
30-40
[_____]
<40
[_____]
Chemical Analysis
Analysis of Gaseous Pollutants:
Sulfur Dioxide
[_____] ppmv dry
Nitrous Oxide
[_____] ppmv dry
Hydrocarbons
[_____] ppmv dry
Moisture Content
[_____] percent
Collection Efficiency:
[_____] percent
Allowable Outlet Emission:
[_____] mg per actual cubic meters
grains/acf
[_____] mg per standard cubic meter
grains/scf
[_____] nanograms per J pounds/106 Btu
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 52
TABLE III.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Allowable Collector Pressure Drop:
[_____] Pa inches water gauge Inlet Flange
to Outlet Flange
Collector Internal Pressure Relative to Atmosphere
Positive
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Negative
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Water Supply:
Pressure:
[_____] kPa psig
Flow Rate:
[_____] L/sec gpm
Water Analysis:
TABLE IV.
[_____]
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE DATA
Type Collector:
[_____]
Contaminate Stream:
[_____]
Collector Inlet Conditions:
[_____] actual cubic meters per second cfm
[stoichiometric] [pitot]
Volume:
Pressure:
[_____] Pa inches of water gauge
Temperature:
[_____] degrees C F
Relative Humidity:
[_____] percent
Analysis of Gaseous Pollutants:
Sulfur Dioxide
[_____] ppmv dry
Nitrous Oxide
[_____] ppmv dry
Paint Solvents
[_____] ppmv dry
Hydrocarbons
[_____] ppmv (by species) dry
Moisture Content
[_____] percent
Analysis of contaminants which must be filtered out upstream of carbon bed.
Allowable Emissions (by species).
-- End of Section --
SECTION 44 10 00
Page 53
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