INDIAN MODEL PRISON MANUAL

INDIAN MODEL PRISON MANUAL
MODEL PRISON MANUAL
FOR THE
SUPERINTENDENCE AND
MANAGEMENT
OF
PRISONS IN INDIA
Prepared By
Bureau of Police Research and
Development
Ministry of Home Affairs
Government of India
New Delhi
2003
CONTENTS
Pages
INTRODUCTION
i-viii
PERSPECTIVE
ix-xxii
CHAPTER I
DEFINITIONS
1-4
CHAPTER II
INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
5-14
CHAPTER III
HEADQUARTERS ORGANIZATION
14-18
CHAPTER IV
INSTITUTIONAL PERSONNEL
19-33
CHAPTER V
CUSTODIAL MANAGEMENT
34-51
CHAPTER VI
MAINTENANCE OF PRISONERS
52-66
CHAPTER VII
MEDICAL CARE
67-92
CHAPTER VIII
CONTACTS WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD
93-108
CHAPTER IX
TRANSFER OF PRISONERS
109-120
CHAPTER X
EXECUTION OF SENTENCES
121-132
CHAPTER XI
PRISONER SENTENCED TO DEATH
133-144
CHAPTER XII
EMERGENCIES
145-161
CHAPTER XIII
EDUCATION OF PRISONERS
162-169
CHAPTER XIV
VOCATIONAL TRAINING
PROGRAMMES.
CHAPTER XV
WELFARE OF PRISONERS
181-186
CHAPTER XVI
REMISSION
187-195
CHAPTER XVII
LEAVE AND SPECIAL LEAVE
196-201
CHAPTER XVIII
PREMATURE RELEASE
202-211
CHAPTER XIX
PRISON DISCIPLINE
212-219
CHAPTER XX
AFTER-CARE AND REHABILITATION
220-225
CHAPTER XXI
OPEN INSTITUTIONS
226-233
CHAPTER XXII
UNDERTRIAL PRISONERS
234-247
CHAPTER XXIII
HIGH SECURITY PRISONERS
248-253
CHAPTER XXIV
WOMEN PRISONERS
254-274
CHAPTER XXV
YOUNG OFFENDERS
275-285
CHAPTER XXVI
BOARD OF VISITORS
286-291
CHAPTER XXVII
STAFF DEVELOPMENT
292-312
CHAPTER XXVIII
MISCELLANEOUS
313-318
AND
WORK
170-180
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1
HEALTH SCREENING OF PRISONERS ON
ADMISSION
APPENDIX 2
SCALE OF DIET FOR A PRISONER PER DAY
APPENDIX 3
NOMINAL REGISTER OF HOSPITAL FOR
OUT PATIENT
APPENDIX 4
REGISTER FOR IN-PATIENT
APPENDIX 5
ROLL OF SICK, DIET IN THE PRISON
HOSPITAL
APPENDIX 6
CASE SHEET OF PRISONER
APPENDIX 7
HOSPITAL CASE BOOK
APPENDIX 8
REMISSION SHEET
APPENDIX 9
EXECUTION REPORT
INTRODUCTION
Since Independence, prison administration in the country has
been a matter of intense debate and criticism at various public fora. In
the recent years, the Supreme Court of India has come down heavily
on the sub-human conditions obtaining in prisons. In many States, the
problems of dilapidated prison structure, overcrowding and
congestion, increasing proportion of undertrial prisoners, inadequacy
of prison staff, lack of proper care and treatment of prisoners, etc., have
been engaging the attention of the press and social activists. With a
growing advocacy for the protection of human rights in the various
walks of lives, the plight of prisoners has emerged as a critical issue of
public policy.
In response, prison reforms are being addressed holistically. The
Government of India has been providing all possible financial and
technical assistance to State Governments to modernize prisons as also
to achieve more efficaciously the over all objective of prisons in terms
of the reformation and rehabilitation of offenders.
With the transfer of the work relating to prisons by the Ministry
of Home Affairs vide their O.M. No. VII. 11018/14/92-GPA. IV dated
November 16, 1995, the Bureau of Police Research and Development
has been seriously concerned about the modernization of the prison
system in the country in the light of the directives issued by the
Supreme Court in a number of judgments pronounced from time to
time. More recently, the apex Court in Ramamurthy Vs. State of
Karnataka (1996) brought to the fore an urgent need for bringing
uniformity in laws relating to the prisons and has directed the Central
and State Governments to formulate a new Model Prison Manual.
Earlier, the All India Committee on Jail Reforms (1980-83) had also
emphasized the need for a consolidated law on prisons.
Accordingly, with the approval of Ministry of Home Affairs, the
BPR&D constituted a Model Prison Manual Committee at the national
level for the formulation of a Model Prison Manual consisting of the
following:
1
2
3
Shri L.C. Amarnathan
Director General,
BPR&D,
New Delhi
Shri A.K. Sinha
Director (R&D),
BPR&D,
New Delhi
Director General of Prisons
Chairman
Co-Chairman
Member
Uttar Pradesh,
Lucknow.
4
Addl. Director General of Prisons,
Maharashtra,
Pune
Member
5
Inspector General of Prisons,
Tamil Nadu,
Chennai
Member
6
Dr. Hira Singh
Former Director,
National Institute of Social Defence,
New Delhi.
Member
7
Prof. M. Z. Khan,
Former Dean,
Faculty of Social Sciences,
Jamia Millia Islamia,
New Delhi
Member
8
Prof. B. B. Pande
Faculty of Law,
University of Delhi,
Delhi.
Member
9
Dr. B. V. Trivedi
Member-Secretary
Assistant Director,
BPR&D,
New Delhi
The terms of reference as laid down in the BPR&D office
memorandum no. 40/3/2000-Prisons/BPR&D dated November 15,
2000 were as under:
(i)
To review the laws, rules and regulations governing the
management of prisons, treatment of prisoners and to
make recommendations for devising good practices and
procedures on the basis of comparative analysis of the
provisions of the States Prison Manuals by identifying
gaps in their provisions for managing and administering
prisons.
(ii)
To examine various aspects relating to treatment of
prisoners with special reference to their basic minimum
needs compatible to the dignity of human life in the light
of the recommendations made by the All India
Committee on Jail Reforms (1980-83), Supreme Court
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
Judgments and various international instruments to
which India is a party.
To look into the procedure regarding the internal
management of prisons with a view to uphold the rights
of the prisoners and the development of prison staff in
terms of custody, security institutional discipline,
institutional programmes for the specialized treatment of
women, adolescents, children and mentally sick person,
staff recruitment and training and to suggest measures
with a view to develop prisons as correctional
institutions.
To scrutinize and analyse the implications of the
proposed Prison Management Bill being finalised by the
Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
To finalise the draft of Model Prison Manual by evolving
national consensus on the relevant issues relating to
Prison Reforms in India.
Any other matter relating to management of prison
administration that the committee may like to consider.
In its first meeting held on August 28, 2001 in BPR&D, the
Committee approved a tentative chapter scheme for the proposed
Model Prison Manual and decided to evolve a national consensus on
various aspects to be covered therein by appointing six Working
Groups comprising senior prison administrators from various states.
The composition of these Working Groups along with the subjects
assigned to them were as under:
1. Working Group on Organisational Structure
Composition:
DIG Prisons, Western Zone, Pune.
1.
Sh. T. S. Bhamre
2.
Mrs. Swati Sathe
3.
Sh. D. T. Gujar
Principal Borstal
Maharashtra
4.
Sh. L. V. Kharadi
Supdt.,
Gujarat
5.
Sh. H. D. Mashelkar
Supdt., Central Jail, Aguada, Goa
Convenor
Supdt, Central Jail, Byculla, Mumbai
Co-Convenor
Central
School,
Jail,
Nasik,
Member
Ahmedabad
Member
Member
2. Working Group on Living Conditions of Prisoners
Composition:
1.
Sh. L. Vijayanarayanan
2.
Ms.Bichitra Bhattacharjee
3.
Sh. A. Badarudeen
4.
Sh. B. S. Abbai
5.
Ch. Dinesh Kumar
DIG (Prisons), Tamil Nadu
Convenor
Supdt., Women Jail, Purlia,
Bengal
West
Co-Convenor
Dy. Supdt., Open Jail, Trivendrum,
Kerala
Member
DIG (Prisons), Mysore, Karnataka
Member
Chief Superintendent of Prisons,
Pondicherry
Member
3. Working Group on Under-trials, Detenus and High Security
Prisoners
Composition:
1.
Sh. M. R. Ahmed
DIG (Prisons), Andhra Pradesh
Convenor
2.
Ms. Rajni Sehgal
Supdt., Jail, Jammu & Kashmir
Co-Convenor
3.
Dr. Sohail Ahmed
Supdt., Central Jail, Ujjain (Madhya
Pradesh)
Member
4.
Dr. K. K. Gupta
Supdt.,
Central
Chhattisgarh.
Member
Jail,
Bilaspur,
4. Working Group on Remittance of Sentences, Open Institutions &
Young Offenders
Composition:
1.
Sh. S. P. Singh Addl. DG, Prisons, Uttar Pradesh
Pundhir
Convenor
2.
Sh. D. N. Tiwari
Co-Convenor
3.
Sh. Shyam Mohan
Prasad
Supdt., Central Jail, Buxar, Bihar
Asstt. Inspector General of Prisons, Jharkhand,
Ranchi.
Member
4.
Sh. Ashok Kumar
Rai
Sr. Supdt., Dr. Sampurnanand Open Camp,
Sitarganj, Distt. Udhamsingh Nagar,
Uttaranchal.
Member
5. Working Group on Prison Discipline, Women Prisoners
& Visitors
Composition:
1.
Sh. D. K. Choudhary
2.
Ms. Bela Dutta
3.
Sh. Dilip Kr. Neog
4.
Sh. S. Vaiphei
5.
Sh. R. K. M. Sanggima
Addl. IG (Prisons), West Bengal
Incharge, Women Jail, Tripura
DIG, (Prisons), Assam
Convenor
Co-Convenor
Member
Supdt., Central Jail Imphal, Manipur
Supdt., District Jail, Meghalaya
Member
Member
6. Working Group on Correctional Programmes
Composition:
1.
Sh. Sunil Gupta
2.
Sh. Sahibzada
Ahmed
3.
Sh. S. K. Dutta
4.
Sh. Ashok Shandil
5.
Mrs. Prita Bhargav
6.
Sh. Daya Nand Beniwal
Law Officer, Tihar Jail
Rafiq
Convenor
DIG (Prisons), Srinagar, J&K
Co-Convenor
DIG (Prisons), Punjab
Supdt., Model Prison,
Himachal Pradesh
Member
Kanda,
Supdt., Central Jail, Udaipur, Rajasthan
Supdt., District Jail, Rohtak, Haryana
On the basis of intensive discussions and deliberations on the
subjects assigned to it, each Working Group submitted the drafts for
consideration of the committee. In this process, the Working Groups
were duly assisted by the secretariat of the committee by way of all the
relevant research material including the following:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
A review of the existing laws, rules and regulations
governing prisons;
A comparative analysis of the provisions of the State
Prison Manuals;
A thorough study of the recommendations made by the
All India Committee on Jail Reforms, Supreme Court
Member
Member
Member
(iv)
(v)
Judgments and various international instruments on the
treatment of prisoners to which India is a party;
A close scrutiny of the implications of the proposed Bill
on the prisons being finalised by the MHA;
Identification of gaps in the provision of State Prison
Manuals.
Thus, the present draft of the Model Prison Manual has been
prepared on the basis of a national consensus evolved through a crosssection of prison administrators and experts drawn from various parts
of the country. The draft is further proposed to be circulated among all
the States and UTs to elicite their comments and suggestions, if any, for
incorporation. The final draft is likely to truly represent the best of
wisdom from all over the country to bring prison system in tune with
the Constitutional provisions, Supreme Court judgments and the
international instruments subscribed by India.
I am happy to record my deep appreciation for Sh. L. C.
Amarnathan, former DG, BPR&D under whose guidance the initial
draft of the manual was prepared. I would also like to record the
invaluable contributions made by the members of the All India Model
Prison Manual Committee especially Mrs. R. Bhama, representative of
the National Commission for women, as special invitee and of the Six
Working Groups constituted to assist the committee. I would also like
to acknowledge the hard work put in by the secretariat of the
committee established under Correctional Administration Division of
BPR&D.
I feel great pleasure to place on record the significant
contribution made by
Dr. Hira Singh, Advisor, Shri Rakesh Jaruhar,
IPS, Former Director, BPR&D, Shri. A. K. Sinha, IPS, Director, BPR&D,
Shri Sita Ram Meena, IAS, Former Director General of Prisons, Uttar
Pradesh, Dr. B. V. Trivedi, Assistant Director, BPR&D, Shri S. P. Singh
Pundhir, Addl. Director General of Prisons, Uttar Pradesh, Shri. T. S.
Bhamare, Deputy Inspector General of Prisons, Maharashtra, Shri. D.K.
Chowdhry, Addl. Inspector General of Prisons, West Bengal, Shri L.
Vijayanarayanan, Deputy Inspector General of Prisons, Tamil Nadu,
Shri M. R. Ahmed, Deputy Inspector General of Prisons, Andhara
Pradesh, Dr. Sohail Ahmed, Superintendent, Madhya Pradesh, Shri
Sunil Gupta, Law Officer, Tihar Jail, Delhi, Dr. (Mrs) Rita Tiwari, SA,
BPR&D, Mrs. Rajni Sehgal, Superintendent, Jammu & Kashmir, Mrs.
Bichitra Bhattacharjee, Superintendent, West Bengal, Mrs. Bela Dutta,
Incharge, Women Jail, Tripura, Dr. Ravi Ambast, Jr.Inv.,BPR&D, Sh.
Dinesh Chand, BPR&D and Shri Raman Kumar Singh, Stenographers
of the secretariat of the committee, in the formulation of this Manual
successfully.
I hope, this manual would prove a vital instrument for the states
in streamlining their prison administration and in bringing prison
reforms in tune with the current penological and criminological
thinking.
New Delhi
Sarabjit Singh, IPS
Director General
&
Chairman
All India Model Prison Manual Committee
PERSPECTIVE
Crime is the outcome of a diseased mind and jail must
have an environment of hospital for treatment and care.
-
- Mahatma Gandhi
Imprisonment as a mode of dealing with offenders has been in
vogue since time immemorial. Though the foundations of the
contemporary prison administration in India were laid during the
British period, the system has drastically changed over the years,
especially since the dawn of Independence. Apart from the native
genius which finds its expression in the Fundamental Rights and
Directive Principles of State Policy enshrined in the Constitution of
India, new ideas and correctional practices in various countries have
considerably influenced the texture of prison reforms in the country.
India shares a universally held view that sentence of imprisonment
would be justifiable only if it ultimately leads to the protection of
society against crime. Such a goal could be achieved only if
incarceration motivates and prepares the offender for a law-abiding
and self-supporting life after his release. It further accepts that, as
imprisonment deprives the offender of his liberty and selfdetermination, the prison system should not be allowed to aggravate
the suffering already inherent in the process of incarceration. Thus,
while certain categories of offenders, who endanger public safety, have
to be segregated from the social mainstream by way of imprisonment,
all possible efforts have to be made to ensure that they come out of
prisons as better individuals than what they were at the time of their
admission thereto.
OBJECTIVE OF PRISONS
As early as in the year 1920, the Indian Jails Committee had
unequivocally declared that the reformation and rehabilitation of
offenders was the ultimate objective of prison administration. This
declaration subsequently found its echo in the proceedings of various
Prison Reforms Committees appointed by the Central and State
Governments of the international influences. The United Nations
Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, formulated in
1955, provides the basic framework for such a goal. The international
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, propounded by United Nations
in 1977, to which India is a party, has clearly brought out that the
penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential
aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. It is,
however, seen that whereas India is second to none in terms of an
enlightened thinking with regard to the purpose and objective of
imprisonment, the gap between proclaimed principles and actual
practices appears to have been widening in recent years.
HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES
Never before in its history, prison administration in India was
subjected to such a critical review by the higher judiciary as in the last
few decades. Discarding its erstwhile “hands off” doctrine towards
prisons, the Supreme Court of India came strongly in favour of judicial
scrutiny and intervention whenever the rights of prisoners in detention
or custody were found to have been infringed upon. In Sunil Batra v.
Delhi Administration and Others (1978), Mr. Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer
pronounced: “prisoners have enforceable liberties, devalued may be
but not demonetised; and under our basic scheme, Prison Power must
bow before Judge Power, if fundamental freedoms are in jeopardy”.
Again in Sunil Batra v. Delhi Administration (1979), the Court asked
and affirmed: “Are prisoners’ persons? Yes, of course. To answer in
the negative is to convict the nation and the Constitution of
dehumanisation and to repudiate the world legal order, which now
recognises rights of prisoners in the International Covenant on
Prisoners’ Rights to which our country has signed assent”.
In a number of judgements on various aspects of prison
administration, the Supreme Court of India has laid down three broad
principles
(i)
a person in prison does not become a non-person.
(ii)
A person in prison is entitled to all human rights within the
limitations of imprisonment.
(iii) There is no justification in aggravating the suffering already
inherent in the process of incarceration.
Obviously, these principles have serious implications for prison
administration. They not only call for a thorough restructuring of the
prison system in terms of the humanisation of prison conditions,
minimum standards for institutional care, reorientation of prison staff,
reorganisation of prison programmes and rationalisation of prisons
rules and regulations. From this viewpoint, among the various
directives issued by the Supreme Court of India, in Sunil Batra v. Delhi
Administration (1979), the following deserve a special mention:
“It is imperative, as implicit in article 21, that life or liberty shall
not be kept in suspended animation or congealed into animal
existence without the freshening flow of fair procedure. Fair
procedure in dealing with the prisoners calls for another
dimension of access of law-provision, within the easy reach of
the law which limits liberty to persons who are prevented from
moving out of prison gates”.
“No prisoner can be personally subjected to deprivation not
necessitated by the fact of incarceration and the sentence of
court. All other freedoms belong to him – to read and write,
exercise and recreation, meditation and chant, creative comforts
like protection from extreme cold and heat, freedom from
indignities like compulsory nudity, forced sodomy and other
unbearable vulgarity, movement within the prison campus
subject to requirements of discipline and security, the minimum
joys of self-expression, to acquire skills and techniques and all
other fundamental rights tailored to the limitations of
imprisonment”.
“Inflictions may take protean forms, apart from physical
assaults, pushing the prisoner into a solitary cell, denial of a
necessary amenity, and, more dreadful sometime transfer to a
distant prison where visits or society of friends or relations may
be snapped, allotment of degrading labour, assigning him to
desperate or tough gang and the like, may be punitive in effect.
Every such affliction or abridgement is an infraction of liberty or
life in its wider sense and cannot be sustained unless Article 21.
There must be a corrective legal procedure fair and reasonable
and effective. Such infraction will be arbitrary, under Article 14,
if it is dependent on unguided discretion; unreasonable, under
Article 19 if it is irremediable and unappealable; and unfair
under Article 21 if it violates natural justice….”
“The prison authority has duty to give effect to the court
sentence. To give effect to the sentence means that it is illegal to
exceed it and so it follows that prison official who goes beyond
mere imprisonment or deprivation of locomotion and assaults
or otherwise compels the doing of things not covered by the
sentence acts in violation of Article 19. Punishments of rigorous
imprisonment oblige the inmates to do hard labour, not harsh
labour. ‘Hard labour in section 53, Prisons Act to receive a
humane meaning. So a vindictive officer victimising a prisoner
by forcing on him particularly harsh and degrading jobs,
violates the law’s mandate. The prisoner cannot demand soft
jobs but may reasonably be assigned congenial jobs”.
“The Prisons Act needs rehabilitation and Prison Manual total
overhaul, even the Model Manual being out of focus with
healing goals.
A correctional-cum-orientation course is
necessitous for the prison staff in calculating the correctional
values; therapeutic approaches and tension-free management”.
RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF PRISONERS
It is, therefore, high time that in the light of the observations
made by the Supreme Court of India, the rights and duties of prisoners
are clearly spelt out. In this respect, the All India Committee on Jail
Reforms, 1980-83has suggested as under:
RIGHTS OF PRISONERS:
(A)
Right to Human Dignity
(i)
Right to be treated as a human being and as
a person; this right has been stressed and
recommended by the Supreme Court of
India which has categorically declared that
prisoners shall not be treated as nonpersons;
(ii)
Right to integrity of the body; immunity
from use of repression and personal abuse,
whether by custodial staff or by prisoners;
(iii) Right to integrity of the mind; immunity
from aggression whether by staff or by
prisoners;
(iv) Right to non-deprivation of fundamental
rights guaranteed by the Constitution of
India, except in accordance with law
prescribing conditions of confinement.
(B)
Right to Basic Minimum Needs
Right to fulfillment of basic minimum needs
such as adequate diet, health, medical care
and treatment, access to clean and adequate
drinking water, access to clean and hygienic
conditions of living accommodation,
sanitation and personal hygiene, adequate
clothing, bedding and other equipment.
(C)
Right to Communication
(i)
Right to communication with the outside
world;
(ii)
(iii)
(D)
Right to periodic interviews; and
Right to receive information about the
outside world through communication
media.
Right to Access to Law
(i)
Right to effective access to information and
all legal provisions regulating conditions of
detention;
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Right to consult or to be defended by a legal
prectioner of prisoner’s choice;
Right to access to agencies, such as State
Legal Aid Boards or similar organisations
providing legal services;
Right to be informed on admission about
legal rights to appeal, revision, review
either in respect of conviction or sentence;
Right to receive all court documents
necessary for preferring an appeal or
revision or review of sentence or conviction;
Right to effective presentation of individual
complaints
and
grievances during confinement in prison to
the appropriate authorities;
Right to communicate with the prison
administration,
appropriate
Government and judicial authorities, as the
case may be, for redressal of violation of
any or all of prisoners’ rights and for
redressal of grievances.
(E)
Right against Arbitrary Prison Punishment
Right to entitlement in case of
disciplinary violation (i) to have
precise information as to the nature
of violation of Prisons Act and Rules,
(ii) to be heard in defence, (iii) to
communicate of the decision of
disciplinary proceedings, and (iv) to
appeal as provided in rules made
under the Act.
(F)
Right to Meaningful and Gainful Employment
(i)
Right to meaningful and gainful
employment
Note 1: No prisoner shall be required to
perform ‘begar’ and other similar
forms of forced labour which is
prohibited as a fundamental right
against exploitation under Article 23
of the Constitution.
Note 2: Undertrial prisoners volunteering to
do work may be given suitable work
wherever practicable. Such prisoners
should be paid wages as per rules.
Note 3: No prisoner shall be put to domestic
work with any official in the prison
administration. Such work shall not
be considered as meaningful or
gainful, even if some monetary
compensation is offered.
Note 4: Prisoners shall, in no case, be put to
any work which is under the
management, control, supervision or
direction of any private entrepreneur
working
for
profit
of
his
organisation. This will not apply to
open prisons and camps.
(ii)
Right to get wages for the work done in
prison.
(G)
Right to be released on the due date.
DUTIES OF PRISONERS:
It shall be the duty of each prisoner —
(a)
to obey all lawful orders and instructions issued
by the competent prison authorities;
(b)
to abide by all prison rules and regulations and
perform obligations imposed by these rules and
regulations;
(c)
to maintain the prescribed standards of
cleanliness and hygiene;
(d)
to respect the dignity and the right to live of
every inmate, prison staff and functionary;
(e)
to abstain from hurting religious feelings, beliefs
and faiths of other persons;
(f)
to use Government property with care and not to
damage or destroy the same negligently or
wilfully;
(g)
to help prison officials in the performance of
their duties at all times and maintain discipline
and order;
(h)
to preserve and promote congenial correctional
environment in the prison.
UNIFORMITY IN LAW
More recently, in Ramamurthy v. State of Karnataka (1996), the
Supreme Court of India has strongly brought out the need for
bringing in a basic uniformity in laws and regulations governing
prisons in the country. The apex Court has specifically directed the
authorities to deliberate about enacting of new Prison Act to replace
the century old Prisons Act, 1894 and to examine the question of
framing of a new model All India Jail Manual.
The question of enacting a central law to replace the Prisons Act,
1894, and other laws on prisons so as to bring it in tune with modern
criminological and penological thinking needs to be considered afresh.
As ‘Prisons’ come within the purview of State Governments, the All
India Committee on Jail Reforms, 1980-83, had recommended that the
subject of prisons and allied institutions should be included in the
Concurrent List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India
so that the Central Government can take steps to enact a law to be
uniformly applicable all over the country. The committee seems to
have missed the point that India is already a signatory to the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which under
Article 10 mandates the State signing this Covenant to ensure that the
penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential
aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation.
Therefore, there is a widespread opinion, that the Government of
India is well within its competence to initiate action towards the
formulation of a central law under Article 253 of the Constitution of
India and related entries in the Concurrent List of its Seventh
Schedule. Side by side, it is necessary that, as directed by the Supreme
Court of India, a new Model Prison Manual is drafted to pave the way
for evolving a national consensus to enact a uniform law.
THE NEED FOR A NATIONAL POLICY ON PRISONS
In preparing this manual, the present Committee has also kept
in view the draft of the proposed national policy on prisons as
suggested by All India Committee on Jail Reforms 1980-83, which in
brief are:
(i)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Prisons in the country shall endeavour to reform and
reassimilate offenders in the social milieu by giving them
appropriate correctional treatment.
MODALITIES
Incorporation of the principles of management of prisons
and treatment of offenders in the Directive Principles of
the State Policy embodied in Part IV of the Constitution
of India;
Inclusion of the subject of prisons and allied institutions
in the Concurrent List of the Seventh Schedule to the
Constitution of India; and
Enactment of uniform and comprehensive legislation
embodying modern principles and procedures regarding
reformation and rehabilitation of offenders.
There shall be in each State and Union Territory a
Department of Prisons and Correctional Services dealing
with adult and young offenders – their institutional care,
treatment, aftercare, probation and other noninstitutional services.
(v)
The State shall endeavour to evolve proper mechanism to
ensure that no undertrial prisoner is unnecessarily
detained. This shall be achieved by speeding up trials,
simplification of bail procedures and periodic and
periodic review of cases of undertrial prisoners.
Undertrial prisoners shall, as far as possible, be confined
in separate institutions.
(vi) Since it is recognized that imprisonment is not always the
best way to meet the objectives of punishments the
government shall endeavour to provide in law new
alternatives to imprisonment such as community service,
forfeiture of property, payment of compensation to
victims, public censure, etc., in addition to the ones
already existing and shall specially ensure that the
Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 is effectively
implemented throughout the country.
(vii) Living conditions in every prison and allied institution
meant for the custody, care, treatment and rehabilitation
of offenders shall be compatible with human dignity in
all aspects such as accommodation, hygiene, sanitation,
food, clothing, medical facilities, etc.
all factors
responsible for vitiating the atmosphere of these
institutions shall be identified and dealt with effectively.
(viii) In consonance with goals and objectives of prisons, the
State shall provide appropriate facilities and professional
personnel for the classification of prisoners on a scientific
basis. Diversified institutions shall be provided for the
segregation of different categories of inmates for proper
treatment.
(ix)
The State shall endeavour to develop the field of
criminology and penology and promote research on the
typology of crime in the context of emerging patterns of
crime in the country.
This will help in proper
classification of offenders and in devising appropriate
treatment for them.
(x)
A system of graded custody ranging from special security
institutions to open institutions shall be provided to offer
proper opportunities for the reformation of offenders
according to the progress made by them.
(xi)
Programmes for the treatment of offenders shall be
individualized and shall aim at providing them with
opportunities for diversified education, development of
work habits and skills, change in attitude, modification of
behaviour and implantation of social and moral values.
(xii) The State shall endeavour to develop vocational training
and work programmes in prisons for all inmates eligible
to work. The aim of such training and work programmes
shall be to equip inmates with better skills and work
habits for their rehabilitation.
(xiii) Payment of fair wages and other incentives shall be
associated with work programmes to encourage inmate
participation in such programmes. The incentives of
leave, remission and premature release to convicts shall
also be utilized for improvement of their behaviour,
strengthening, of family ties and their early return to
society.
(xiv) Custody being the basic function of prisons, appropriate
security arrangements shall be made in accordance with
the need for graded custody in different types of
institutions.
The management of prisons shall be
characterized by firm and positive discipline, with due
regard, however, to the maintenance of human rights of
prisoners. The State recognizes that a prisoner loses his
right to liberty but maintains his residuary rights. It shall
be the endeavour of the State to protect these residuary
rights of the prisoners.
(xv) The State shall provide free legal aid to all needy
prisoners.
(xvi) Prisons are not the places for confinement of children.
Children (under 18 years of age) shall in no case be sent
to prisons. All children confined in prisons at present
shall be transferred forwith to appropriate institutions,
meant exclusively for children with facilities for their
care, education, training and rehabilitation. Benefit of
non-institutional facilities shall, whenever possible, be
extended to such children.
(xvii) Young offenders (between 18 to 21 years) shall not be
confined in prisons meant for adult offenders. There
shall be separate institutions for them where, in view of
their young and impressionable age, they shall be given
treatment and training suited to their special needs of
rehabilitation.
(xviii) Women offenders shall, as far as possible, be confined in
separate institutions specially meant for them. Wherever
such arrangements are not possible they shall be kept in
separate annexes of prisons with proper arrangements.
The staff for these institutions and annexes shall comprise
of women employees only. Women prisoners shall be
protected against all exploitation. Work and treatment
programmes shall be devised for them in consonance
with their special needs.
(xix) Mentally ill prisoners shall not be confined in prisons.
Proper arrangements shall be made for the care and
treatment of mentally ill prisoners.
(xx) Persons courting arrest during non-violent socio-political
economic agitation for declared public cause shall not be
confined in prisons along with other prisoners. Separate
(xxi)
(xxii)
(xxiii)
(xxiv)
(xxv)
prison camps with proper and adequate facilities shall be
provided for such non-violent agitators.
Most of the persons sentences to life imprisonment at
present have to undergo at least 14 years of actual
imprisonment.
Prolonged incarceration has a
degenerating effect on such persons and is not necessary
either from the point of view of individual’s reformation
or from that of the protection of society. The term of
sentence for life in such cases shall be made flexible in
terms of actual confinement so that such a person may
not have necessarily to spend 14 years in prison and may
be released when his incarceration is no longer necessary.
Prison services shall be developed as a professional
career service. The State shall endeavour to develop a
well-organized prison cadre based on appropriate job
requirements, sound training and proper promotional
avenues. The efficient functioning of prisons depends
undoubtedly upon the personal qualities, educational
qualifications, professional competence and character of
prison personnel. The status, emoluments and other
service conditions of prison personnel should be
commensurate with their job requirements and
responsibilities. An all India service namely the Indian
Prisons and Correctional Service shall be constituted to
induct better qualified and talented persons at higher
echelons. Proper training for prison personnel shall be
developed at the national, regional and State levels.
The State shall endeavour to secure and encourage
voluntary participation of the community in prison
programmes and in non-institutional treatment of
offenders on an extensive and systematic basis. Such
participation is necessary in view of the objective of
ultimate rehabilitation of the offenders in the community.
The government shall open avenues for such
participation and shall extend financial and other
assistance to voluntary organisations and individuals
willing to extend help to prisoners and ex-prisoners.
Prisons are hitherto a closed world. It is necessary to
open them to some kind of positive and constructive
public discernment. Selected eminent public-men shall
be authorised to visit prisons and give independent
report on them to appropriate authorities.
In order to provide a forum in the community for
continuous thinking on problems of prisons, for
promoting professional knowledge and for generating
public interest in the reformation of offender, it is
necessary that a professional non-official registered body
is established at the national level. It may have its
branches in the States and Union Territories. The
Government of India, the State Governments and the
Union Territory Administrations shall encourage setting
up of such a body and its branches, and shall provide
necessary financial and other assistance for their proper
functioning.
(xxvi) Probation, aftercare, rehabilitation and follow-up of
offenders shall form an integral part of the functions of
the Department of Prisons and Correctional Services.
(xxvii) The development of prisons shall be planned in a
systematic manner keeping in view the objectives and
goals to be achieved. The progress of the implementation
of such plans shall be continuously monitored and
periodically evaluated.
(xxviii)
The governments at the Centre and in the States /
Union Territories shall endeavour to provide adequate
resources for the development of prisons and other allied
services.
(xxix) Government recognizes that the process of reformation
and rehabilitation of offenders is an integral part of the
total process of social reconstruction, and, therefore, the
development of prisons shall find a place in the national
development plans.
(xxx) In view of the importance of uniform development of
prisons in the country the Government of India has to
play an effective role in this field. For this purpose the
Central Government shall set up a high status National
Commission on Prisons on a permanent basis. This shall
be a specialized body to advise the Government of India,
the State Governments and the Union Territory
Administrations on all matters relating to prisons and
allied services. Adequate funds shall be placed at the
disposal of this Commission for enabling it to play an
effective role in the development of prisons and other
welfare programmes. The Commission shall prepare an
annual national report on the administration of prisons
and allied services, which shall be placed before the
Parliament for discussion.
(xxxi) As prisons form part of the criminal justice system and
the functioning of other branches of the system – the
police, the prosecution and the judiciary have a bearing
on the working of prisons, it is necessary to effect proper
coordination among these branches. The government
shall ensure such coordination at various levels.
(xxxii) The State shall promote research in the correctional field
to make prison programmes more effective.
The draft of the proposed National Policy on Prisons, quoted
above, would require some changes in view of the developments that
have taken place in the intervening period. For instance, the present
committee is of the opinion that the enactment of a uniform and
comprehensive legislation on prisons would be possible within the
existing provisions of the Constitution of India, as India is a party to
the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The question
of inducting alternatives to imprisonment such as community service,
forfeiture of property, payment of compensation to victims, public
censure, etc involves certain amendments in the substantive law. The
enactment of the Juvenile Justice (care and protection of children) Act,
2000 has raised the upper age limit of children to be kept away from
prisons upto the 18 years in case of boys as well, so as to bring parity
with girls. The suggestion for making sentence for life, even for those
covered under section 433- A, flexible in terms of actual confinement
also requires amendment of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
Similarly, the issues relating to the establishment of an All India
Service, namely the Indian Prisons and Correctional Service, bringing
Probation, Aftercare, Rehabilitation and follow-up of offenders within
the functions of the Department of Prisons and Correctional Services
and the setting-up of a high level National Commission on Prisons on a
permanent basis require a thorough review of the existing policy.
SCOPE OF THE MODEL PRISON MANUAL
For developing prison system in the country as an effective
instrument for the reformation and rehabilitation of offenders, the draft
Model Prison Manual aims at:
(j)
Bringing in basic uniformity in laws, rules and
regulations governing the administration of prisons and
the management of prisoners all over the country;
(ii)
Laying down the framework for both sound custody and
treatment of prisoners;
(iii) Rationalisation of prison practices to cater effectively to
various categories of prisoners;
(iv) Spelling out minimum standards of institutional services
for the care, protection, treatment, education, training
and resocialisation of incarcerated offenders;
(v)
Evolving such procedures for the protection of human
rights for prisoners as they are entitled to within the
limitations imposed by the process of incarceration.
(vi) individualisation of institutional treatment of prisoners
in keeping with their personal characteristics,
behavioural patterns and correctional requirements;
(vii) Providing a scientific basis for the treatment of special
categories of prisoners such as women, adolescents and
high security prisoners;
(viii) Outlining an organisation of the Department of Prisons
and Correctional Services which is conducive to its
declared objective and to delineating the duties and
functions of the staff at various levels
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
Developing coordination between the Department of
Prisons and Correctional Services and other components
of the criminal justice system;
Ensuring availability of the necessary service inputs from
other public departments in an efficient functioning of
prisons;
Forging
constructive
linkages
between
prison
programmes and community-based welfare institutions
in achieving the objective of the reformation and
rehabilitation of prisoners;
Leaving flexibility in the suggested provisions so as to
allow for adaptation to local conditions without
undermining uniformity in rights and duties of prisoners.
In recent years steps have been taken by some State
Governments to up-date their existing Prison Manuals and usher in
prison reforms. But prison reforms is a continuous process and the
present draft seeks to provide a framework for such reforms with
respect to treatment of prisoners of all categories and improved living
and working conditions for the prison personnel.
CHAPTER I
DEFINITIONS
Unless a different intention appears from the subject or context:
ACT
1.01. The Prisons Act of 1894 or any other law governing the
prisons.
ADOLESCENT PRISONER
1.02. Any person
a)
as who have been convicted of any offence
punishable with imprisonment, or who having
been ordered to give security under section 117,
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Central Act 2
of 1974) has failed to do so and who at the time of
such conviction or failure to give security, is not
less than 18 years, but not more than 21 years of
age.
b)
who has been committed to prison custody
during the pendency of his trial and who at the
time of commitment, is not less than 18 years, but
not more than 21 years of age.
ADULT PRISONER
1.03. Any prisoner who is more than 21 years of age.
CASUAL PRISONER
1.04 A convicted criminal prisoner other than a habitual
offender.
CIVIL PRISONER
1.05. Any prisoner who is not committed to custody under a
writ, warrant or order of any court or authority exercising
criminal jurisdiction, or by order of a court martial and who
is not a detenue.
COMPETENT AUTHORITY
1.06. Any officer having jurisdiction and due legal authority
to deal with a particular matter in question.
CONVICT
1.07. Any prisoner under sentence of a court exercising
criminal jurisdiction or court martial and includes a person
detained in prison under the provisions of chapter VIII of the
Code of Criminal Procedure of 1973 and the Prisoners Act of
1900.
CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION
1.08. The administration of services aimed at the reformation
and rehabilitation of the offender
CORRECTIONAL PERSONNEL
1.09.
Personnel
Administration.
employed
by
the
Correctional
COURT
1.10. A Coroner and any officer lawfully exercising civil,
criminal or revenue jurisdiction.
DETENUE
1.11. Any person detained in prison at the order of the
competent authority under the relevant preventive laws.
GOVERNMENT
1.12. Government as defined in the Indian Penal Code, 1860
(Central Act XLV of 1860).
HABITUAL OFFENDER
1.13. A prisoner classified as such in accordance with the
provisions of the law or rules.
HISTORY TICKET
1.14. The ticket exhibiting such information as is required in
respect of each prisoner by the act or the rules thereunder.
IMPRISONMENT
1.15 As defined in the Indian Penal Code
INMATE
1.16. Any person kept in an institution.
INSPECTOR GENERAL
1.17. The Head of Directorate of Prisons.
INSTITUTION
1.18. A place where prisoners are kept.
MAGISTRATE
1.19. Any person exercising all or any of the powers of a
Magistrate under the Code of Criminal Procedure.
MEDICAL OFFICER
1.20. In relation to prisons, this is a gazetted officer of the
government and includes qualified medical practitioners
declared by general or special orders of the government to be
a medical officer.
MILITARY PRISONER
1.21. A prisoner convicted by court martial.
OFFENCE
1.22. Any act or omission made punishable by any law for
the time being in force.
PRESCRIBED
1.23. As prescribed by rules.
PRISON
1.24. Any goal or place used permanently or temporarily
under the general or special orders of a State government for
the detention of prisoners, under Section 417 of Cr.P.C, 1973
and includes all land and buildings thereto, but does not
include:
(a) any place for the confinement of prisoners who are
exclusively in the custody of the police,
(b) any place specially appointed by the State government
under Section 541 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1882
(10 of 1882).
PRISONER
1.25. Any person confined in prison under the order of a
competent authority.
PROBATION OFFICER
1.26. An officer appointed as such by the State government
to undertake probation work under the Probation of
Offenders Act of 1958, or any other law.
PROHIBITED ARTICLE
1.27. An article which cannot be introduced or removed into
or out of a prison according to the Act or rules.
REMAND PRISONER
1.28. A person who has been remanded by court to prison
custody, pending investigation by the police.
REMISSION SYSTEM
1.29. The rules in force for regulating the remission of
sentence of prisoners.
SUPERINTENDENT
1.30. An officer who is appointed by the competent
authority to be in charge of a prison with such designation as
it may specify.
UNDER-TRIAL PRISONERS
1.31. A person who has been committed to prison custody
with pending investigation or trial by a competent authority.
YOUNG OFFENDER
1.32. A person who has attained the age of 18 years and has
not attained the age of 21 years.
CHAPTER II
INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
2.01. A diversified prison system is imperative to meet the custodial
and correctional needs of various categories of prisoners. Each prison
has to be constructed and maintained on the basis of certain welldefined norms. The prison structure should be designed to provide all
the necessary facilities for prisoners to be treated as human beings and
subject them to an environment conducive for their reformative
treatment.
2.02. The following criteria must be adopted for the establishment of
prisons:
i)
The State Government or the Union Territory
Administration will establish sufficient numbers of
prisons, as far as possible, and provide minimum needs
essential to maintain standards of living in consonance
with human dignity.
ii)
Prisons will ensure that prisoners retain all their rights as
human beings within the limitations of imprisonment.
iii)
Prisons will ensure separation of the following categories
of prisoners: a) Women (b) Young offenders (c) Undertrials (d) Convicts (e) Civil prisoners (f) Detenues (g) high
security prisoners.
iv)
The prisons' regime will prepare prisoners to lead a lawabiding, self-supporting, reformed and socially
rehabilitated life.
v)
Diversified institutions will be set up by each
State/Union Territory according to its requirements.
vi)
In order to make prisons efficiently manageable units,
norms regarding maximum population for different
types of prisons will be laid down.
vii)
Service conditions of prison personnel will be such as to
secure and retain the best-suited and qualified persons.
viii) Efforts will be made to enlist community participation in
effective administration of prison programmes.
Institutional Pattern
2.03. State governments will adequately provide for the
diversification of institutional resources to cater to the differential
requirements of prisoners in terms of custody and correction. The
factors to be considered will include age, sex, legal status of the
prisoner, nature of crime, length of sentence, security requirements,
state of health and correctional needs. Such a course implies the setting
up of separate institutional facilities for different categories of
prisoners, such as:
• Prisons/annexes/yards for under-trial prisoners
• Maximum security prisons/annexes/yards for security risk
prisoners and habitual or hardened offenders
• Open prisons, semi-open prisons and open colonies/camps
• Prisons/annexes/enclosures for women prisoners
• Prisons/annexes/yards for young offenders
• Prisons/annexes/yards for those suffering from infectious
diseases
• Prisons/annexes/yards for drug addicts
• Prisons for those arrested during non-violent socio-political and
economic agitation for a declared public cause.
2.04. State governments will establish a mechanism for the
classification of prisoners to be housed in various types of institutions
as enumerated above and will lay down the procedure to be followed.
They will also specify the authorised population for each type of
institution and norms with regard to area/space for prisoners as well
as the number of prisoners to be housed as suggested in this Model
Prison Manual. This may also include facilities for education,
vocational training, work programmes, and cultural activities, library
and recreation, both indoor and outdoor. It may also give specifications
for the staff to be appointed in each type of institution. Apart from
various types of prisons for specific categories of prisoners, State
governments may create temporary prisons to deal with emergent
situations.
Prison Architecture
2.05.
Prison architecture has to be based on the following:
i)
The location of a new institution will be decided on the
basis
of
(a) the functions which the institution has to perform, (b)
the training and treatment emphasis, and (c) programme
content of the institution.
ii)
New institutions will not be constructed near easily
flooded and inundated areas, frontiers and international
borders, sub-marginal land areas, sea-faces, airports and
congested urban localities.
iii)
While selecting the site for new institutions, factors like
transport facilities, water supply, electric lighting,
connections with high power electric transmission lines,
drainage and sewage, communication facilities (such as
posts, telegraphs, telephones and internet) climatic
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)
xi)
xii)
xiii)
conditions, facilities for the purchase of institutional
supplies, have to be taken into consideration. Also,
institutions like courts, civil hospitals, mental health
centres, educational facilities for children of prison
personnel, should as far as possible be within easy reach.
No building, other than the prison, will be constructed
within 150 mtrs of the prison wall of a Central Prisons,
within 100 mtrs of the prison wall of a District Prison and
within 50 mtrs. mtrs of the prison wall of Sub-Prison.
The architecture of institutions will be governed by two
principles viz. (a) adequate protection to society through
the establishment of security conditions; and (b) adequate
resources which would be necessary for the successful
implementation of various correctional programmes.
Institutional design and architecture have to be
functional.
The plan of an institution will be based on a careful
analysis of inmate population, age group, custodial,
requirement, diversified work, educational programmes,
etc.
Closed prisons are classified into three categories that is
central prisons, district prisons and sub-prisons.
Authorised population for these prisons will not exceed
1000, 500 and 300 prisoners, respectively.
There will be enough open space inside the perimeter
wall to allow proper ventilation and sunlight. The area
enclosed within the four walls of a prison will not be less
than 83.61 sq. mtrs per head of total capacity. Where land
is scarce the minimum area will be 62.70 sq. mtrs per
prisoner.
No building inside a prison will be nearer than 50 mtrs to
the perimeter wall.
The area of an institution will be fixed in accordance with
the needs of an institutional programme.
The requirements of segregation of inmate groups within
an institution in accordance with the prescribed
principles of classification will be provided for in every
building plan. The requirements of administration and
supervision will also be taken into account while
planning buildings.
Each region/division will have an institution for women
prisoners according to local requirements. Each central,
district and sub- prison will have an enclosure for
women-prisoners.
The existing enclosures for women in common prisons
will be renovated to ensure that women prisoners do not
come in view of male prisoners during their passage to
xiv)
and from these enclosures. These enclosures will have a
double lock system – one lock outside and the other
inside, the keys of the latter always remaining with a
woman guard inside. The institutions/enclosures for
women prisoners will have all the requisite facilities with
reference to their special needs such as segregation,
protection, pregnancy, child-birth and family care, health
care, training and rehabilitation, etc.
Under-trials and detenues will be lodged in separate
institutions away from convicted prisoners.
xv)
xvi)
Accommodation for prisoners will provide adequate
cubic contents of air, floor space, lighting, ventilation and
climatic protection. All constructions in prison
department will adhere to ISI standards.
A special cell with adequate technical staff will be set up
at the prison headquarter of each State to plan, monitor
and supervise all constructions and repair works in the
department.
Norms for Prison Buildings
2.06.
Prison buildings have to be constructed on the following norms:
Main Gate
2.06.1
The minimum dimension of the main gate and second
gate of all the closed prisons will be 3 mtrs in width
and 4 mtrs in height. Dimension of main and rear
gates should be wide that in case of fire exigencies a
fire tender, a bore well rig to dig bore well a lorry to
transport raw material/logs for factory and ration
articles could pass through these gates. The gate will
be made up of a strong steel frame having vertical
round or square steel bars of 25 mm. dia or thickness.
Each gate will have a wicket-gate of at least of 0.6 mtr
in width and 1.5 mtrs in height. The main gate and the
wicket-gates will have strong locking arrangements
from inside. Both gates will have arrangements for
easy opening and closing of shutters. The gates will be
covered with iron sheet from outside up to the height
of 2.5 mtrs. The wicket-gates will have peepholes
covered with lead at eye level. The main gate may be
painted with colours identical to that of departmental
flag if prescribed by the State Government.
2.06.2
Space between two gates will not be less than 16 mtrs
in length and 5 mtrs in width to facilitate gate
operations. It will have the following facilities:
(a) A cabin.
2.06.3
2.06.4
2.06.5
2.06.6
(b) Gatekeeper.
(c) Search.
Entry to the prison will only be through a single point,
that is the main gate, and all other entry points, if
existing, will be closed permanently.
There will be a properly designed administrative
block for each category of prison. The administrative
block will be located adjacent to the main gate and
will have office rooms, record rooms, conference hall,
common rooms, enquiry cabins and control rooms for
efficient functioning of the administration.
A court hall may also be set up to dispose of cases of
under-trials involved in petty offences.
The reception unit will have necessary facilities for
proper implementation of admission-quarantineorientation-classification
programme.
Physical
facilities will be set up in accordance with the number
and type of inmates to be received, and the
programme to be followed for proper segregation of
various types of inmates. The unit will have
dormitory and single room type accommodations.
Provision will also be made for following facilities: (i)
a building where the inmates will be initially received,
(ii) office room,
(iii) interview room and
exercise and recreational areas, etc. The buildings and
areas where the admission programme has to be
carried out will be located in close proximity of the
hospital.
Housing
2.07. All accommodation provided for use of prisoners, particularly
for sleeping, will meet basic requirements of healthy living.
Due
regard shall be paid to climatic conditions, cubic contents of air,
minimum floor space, lighting and ventilation.
2.08. There will be three types of living accommodations as
mentioned below:
(i)
Barracks with accommodation for not more than 20
prisoners
(ii)
Single room accommodation for prisoners needing
privacy for pursuing studies, etc.
(iii) Cells for segregation of prisoners for the purpose of
security and contagious diseases
2.09. The
minimum
accommodation
capacity
of
dormitories/barracks, cells cottages, and hospitals per-prisoner will
ordinarily be according to the following scale:
SLEEPING BARRACKS
Sq. mtrs Cu mtrs Sq. mtrs
of
of
air of lateral
ground space
ventilatio
areas
n
3.71
15.83
1.12
CELLS
Sq. mtrs Cu mtrs Sq. mtrs of
of
of
air lateral
space
ventilation
ground
areas
8.92
33.98
2.23
HOSPITALS
Sq. mtrs Cu mtrs
of
of
air
ground space
area
5.58
23.75
2.10. A plate indicating the authorised accommodations will be
attached to the housing unit. Ordinarily, the number of prisoners
confined in a housing unit will not exceed its authorised
accommodation.
Barracks
2.11.1
2.11.2
2.11.3
2.11.4
2.11.5
2.11.6
If a barrack is flat-roofed there will be ceiling ventilation
that is, opening at intervals close to the junction of wall
and ceiling 30 x 12.5 mtrs. If the barrack is gable-roofed,
there will be a ridge ventilator. The minimum height of
roofs or ceilings will not be less than 10 feet from the
floor.
The floor of the barrack will be made of impermeable
material such as cement concrete
All barracks will, if possible, be provided with verandas
not less than 2 mtrs in width
Though ventilation of the sleeping barracks is of the
greatest importance, prisoners will not be permitted to
close the windows and ventilation openings with shutters
or curtains at their discretion. In new barracks, the
ventilating area per head will be half a window. As
standard grated window is 7 feet x 3 ½ feet, half a
window will mean 1 sq. mtrs. The ventilation will,
however, be controlled according to the season wherever
necessary; otherwise the barracks will be too cold and
damp during winter and rainy season.
Where accommodation is overcrowded and does not
meet
the
prescribed
standards,
secure
corridors/verandas and worksheds may be used for
accommodating short term prisoners and under-trials
involved in minor and petty offences during night. If at
any prison over-crowding is likely to continue, the excess
number of prisoners will be transferred to other
institutions or camps as the case may be, with prior
approval of the Inspector General of Prisons.
The structural arrangements of fittings and fixtures and
locking devices of barracks will be secure enough to
prevent escapes. The existing wooden frames of the
2.11.7
2.11.8
2.11.9
2.11.10
doors, windows and ventilaters will be replaced by
iron/steel frames. The iron bars used in doors, windows
and ventilators will be of 25 mm. dia. and the clear
distance between two bars will be 7.5 cm.
A barrack will have only one door of 2.2 x 1 mtrs and will
have a single shutter. The door of a barrack will have
clear opening of 1 mtr. The iron frame will be made of
angle- iron of minimum of 10 mm. thickness.
The measurement of each berth in the ground floor will
normally be 2 x .75 mtrs with a height of 0.45 mtrs.
A fixed or in-built shelf will be provided for each inmate
so that he may keep his belongings there.
Sufficient artificial light will be provided to enable the
prisoners to work and read without difficulty in their
barracks after dusk.
Cells
2.12.1
2.12.2
2.12.3
2.12.4
2.12.5
There will be thorough ventilation of every cell. At the
back of the cell there may be a clerestory window.
The floor of the cell will be made of impermeable
material.
Each cell will have a yard attached to it where a prisoner
can have the benefit of sufficient air and light.
It will be provided with a flush latrine. Existing cells will
not be put into use till this facility is provided in them.
Cells will be provided with sleeping berths as prescribed
earlier.
Latrines
2.13.1
Each barrack used for sleeping will have sufficient
number of attached WCs, urinals and wash places. The
ratio of such WCs will be one unit per 10 prisoners. The
ratio of the WCs which can be used during day time will
be one unit per six prisoners.
2.13.2
Latrines will be of the sanitary type with arrangements
for flushing. They will be placed on an impermeable base
which will be higher than the surrounding ground and
will be so built that the sun’s rays can easily enter the
latrines and rain is kept out. The partitions separating the
latrines will be high enough to provide a reasonable
degree of privacy. Latrines will be so designed that all
excreta and wash materials will get into the receptacles
without fouling the sites. Every seat will be provided
with foot rests with an impermeable surface which will
be in the right position and not too far apart. The inside
walls of latrine will be fitted with glazed ceramic tiles up
to the height of 1 mtr from the floor level, as far as
possible.
Bathing places
2.14.1
2.14.2
2.14.3
2.14.4
Every prison will provide covered cubicles for bathing, at
the rate of one for every 10 prisoner, with proper
arrangements to ensure privacy. Every prisoner will be
required to have bath as frequently as necessary for
general hygiene according to climatic conditions.
Taking into consideration that the daily requirement of
water of an individual is about 135 ltrs., there will be an
arrangement for the adequate supply of water in every
prison. If feasible, new prisons will have arrangements
for rainwater harvesting and recycling of water, keeping
in view its cost effectiveness.
Each prison will have an independent stand by
arrangement for water supply.
All prison building should have rain water harvesting
system to improve the water supply to prison.
Kitchen
2.15.1
The general kitchen will ordinarily be located at a central
place inside the prison so that the distribution of food
among the prisoners may be finished quickly. The
kitchen will not be built close to the sleeping barracks. It
will be well ventilated and lighted. It must always be
kept clean and tidy. The oven will be of the type in which
the heat does not escape outside and the smoke is let out
by a suitable chimney regardless of the type of fuel used.
The kitchen will be protected by a fly proof wire mesh all
around. Sufficient number of exhaust fans will be
installed and artificial ventilation may be provided if
necessary. The kitchen must be provided with fly-proof
automatic closing doors. It will have floors made of an
impermeable material. Each kitchen shed will be
provided with adequate supply of pure water which will
be used for both cooking and washing. The water will be
collected from taps inside the kitchen. It is desirable that
no single kitchen caters for more than 250 prisoners.
Cooking and serving utensils will be made of stainless
steel. Management of kitchen or cooking of food on caste
or religious basis will be totally banned in prisons. Prison
kitchens will be modernized by introducing LPG and hot
2.15.2
2.15.3
2.15.4
2.15.5
plates. Kneading machines, chapati making machines,
mixers and grinders, will also be introduced.
There will be a provision for covered dinning space in
prisons so that prisoners may take their meals under a
roof and on a platform.
There will be two shifts of workers in the kitchen.
The minimum space requirement in the kitchen will be
150 sq. mtrs per 100 prisoners. It will facilitate sufficient
space for storage of provision articles, vegetables,
dressing and cutting food, containers and cooking
utensils etc.
The walls of the kitchen will be provided tiles up to a
height of 2 meters for easy cleaning.
Hospital
2.16.1
2.16.2
Worksheds
In every prison there will be separate hospitals with the
necessary number of beds for indoor treatment with
separate ward for men and women. All central and
district prisons will provide hospital accommodation for
5% of the authorised inmate population. The location of
the hospital will be as far away from the barracks as
possible. Every hospital ward will be so constructed as to
allow sufficient light and air. The floors and walls will be
made of impermeable material. Latrines and baths will be
provided close to the wards so that the sick prisoners do
not have to walk far to use them. There will be
arrangements for continuous supply of potable water in
the hospitals.
The prison hospital will be situated near the main gate of
the prison, the accommodation provided will include:
a)
Ward for patients
b)
Toilet and bathing facilities at the rate of one for
every five patients
c)
Store room for hospital furniture and equipment
d)
Dressing cum-injection room
e)
Room for minor surgery
f)
Room for laboratory
g)
Room for the Medical Officer.
h)
Isolation rooms for accommodating patients with
infectious and contagious diseases (such as T.B.,
Leprosy and H.I.V.+/AIDS).
i)
Isolation rooms for accommodating mentally ill
patients.
2.17. Areas where prisoners work will have a minimum space of 500
cubic feet per prisoner in structures that will be constructed as
workshops or factory buildings; for efficient ventilation the window
area will not be less than 20% of the floor area subject to such
variations as are found necessary in relation to particular industries or
locations to be organized.
Recreational Facilities
2.18. Proper recreational facilities like, grounds for outdoor games,
auditorium for cultural activities, library, indoor games, yoga, etc.
CHAPTER III
HEADQUARTERS ORGANISATION
3.01. The effectiveness of prison administration depends largely on
the quality of literacy and supervision of various institutions and the
programmes therein, for which the provisions of the necessary
manpower has an essential impact.
3.02. Prisons and correctional services will be under the control of the
Home Department as it is responsible for the services in this field.
There will be a separate division of the Home Department for dealing
with the matters connected with prisons and correctional services.
Components of the Headquarter Staff
3.03 The organisational set-up of the Headquarters of the
Department of Prisons and Correctional Services will be as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Director General/Inspector General of Prisons and
Correctional Service
Additional Director General/Additional Inspector General
of Prisons/ Director of Correctional Services and Deputy
Director of Correctional Services.
Deputy Inspector General of Prisons or Deputy Director of
Correctional Services.
Deputy/Assistant Inspector General of Prisons and
Correctional Service for women preferably a woman officer.
Assistant Inspector General of Prisons and Assistant Director
of Correctional Services.
Administrative Officer( Industries)
Administrative Officer( Correctional Services)
Administrative Officer( Medical Services)
Executive Engineer( Prisons Building)
Chief Probation Officer
Law Officer
Statistical officer for an ongoing collection, interpretation
and presentation of factual information and data with
computer back-up
Accounts Officer (Budget and Audit cell)
Administrative Officer (Establishment).
Intelligence –cum-vigilance Officer
Senior Superintendents of Prisons (Head of branches)
Senior Assistants (Selection Grade)/Assistant office
Superintendents
Senior Assistant/Senior clerks
•
•
•
•
•
Junior Assistant/Junior clerks
Security Aides to Inspector General/Additional Inspector
General of Prisons and Deputy Inspector Generals
Computer operators
Head peons, peons (Chaparasis – class iv servants)
Other supporting staff.
Note: Each State/Union Territory will fix the organisational set-up of
Headquarters office in accordance with its area, number of inmates and
number of institutions.
Authority and Powers of the Director General/Inspector General of
Prisons
3.04. State Government will appoint the Director General/Inspector
General of Prisons and Correctional Services who will exercise general
control and superintendence of all prisons situated in the state. The
Director General/Inspector General will ensure the implementation of
the provisions of the Prisons Act through other officers as appointed by
the government for assisting him at the headquarters, regional
organisation, at the prisons and at other institutions under his control.
He will have such administrative authority as is laid down in this
Manual and as may be determined by the government from time to
time.
3.05. The general functions of the Director General/Inspector General
shall be:
i)
To implement prison policies as laid down by the State
Government
ii)
To plan, organise, direct, coordinate and control the
various prison/ correctional services
iii)
To define the functions and fix lines of authority and
channels of command of the prison personnel
iv)
To inspect prisons institutions with special reference to
care, welfare, training and treatment of inmates, staff
discipline and staff welfare, etc.
3.06. The Director General/Inspector General will prepare the budget
for the various services under his control. Subject to the rules and
orders of the State Government and the requirements of the
Accountant-General, the expenditure of the Department of Prisons and
Correctional Services will be controlled by the Director/Inspector
General.
3.07. The Director General/Inspector-General may sanction any item
of expenditure provided in the budget, but the sanction of State
Government will be obtained to all special and unusual charges for
which distinct provision may not have been made or which are newly
entered in the budget. Subject to provisions of this rule, an adequate
grant will be placed at the disposal of Director General/Inspector
General to meet expenditure of a special nature.
3.08. As the Head of the Department, the Director General/Inspector
General will have all the necessary financial, administrative and
disciplinary powers.
Staff Functions of the Other Headquarters
3.09. The Additional Director General/Inspector General/Additional
Inspector General/ Director, Correctional Services, Deputy Inspector
General/Deputy Director, Correctional Services and Assistant
Inspector General/Assistant Director, Correctional Services will assist
the Head of the Prison Administration in all matters connected with
prison administration and correctional services. Their powers and
duties will be fixed by the State Government from time to time.
3.10. The Director, Correctional Services will be overall in charge of
prison training and correctional/vocational programmes in all prisons
in the State. He will not be from the uniformed prison cadre at all but
he will enjoy the rank status of the Addl. Director General/ Addl.
Inspector General of Prisons in the state headquarters in all respect. He
will be assisted by the Deputy Director, Assistant Director and
Administrative Officer at the headquarters and the Range/Regional
levels. Their powers and duties will be fixed by the State Governments
from time to time. Director, Correctional Services, Deputy Director,
Correctional Services and Assistant Director, Correctional Services will
be appointed from academicians of Social Sciences stream either on
deputation / transfer / transfer on deputation from the academic
institutions of the State.
Range/Regional Headquarters Organisation
3.11. Each large state will be divided into convenient ranges/regions
and all correctional institutions and programmes for adult and young
offenders in the range will be placed under the charge of a Deputy
Inspector General of Prisons. The range/regional Deputy Inspector
General of Prison will be vested with sufficient powers of direction,
control, inspection, supervision, and guidance through substantial
delegation of financial and administrative and disciplinary powers.
3.12. The Range/Regional Deputy Inspector General of Prisons will
be assisted by the following staff and officers:
•
•
•
Assistant Director of Correctional Services
Assistant Engineer (Building)
Other supporting staff.
CHAPTER IV
INSTITUTIONAL PERSONNEL
4.01. Each institution will have personnel in accordance with the
requirements of security, discipline and programme emphasis. The
personnel strength will be determined according to the duty posts,
taking hours of duty per day as the basis for each category of staff. The
institutional set-up will be fixed in accordance with the size of the
institution, the inmate population, workload and distribution of
functions.
4.02. The strength of custodial/guarding staff will be determined
keeping in view the requirements of security, discipline, programme
emphasis, duty posts, workload and distribution of functions. In
principle there has to be one guarding staff for every six prisoners.
4.03.
Institutional personnel will comprise of:
4.03.1 Executive
a)
Superintendents
b)
Additional Superintendent
c)
Deputy Superintendents
d)
Assistant Superintendents
e)
Guarding staff
- Chief Head Warders
- Head Warders
- Warders
4.03.2 Medical personnel
a)
Medical Officers
b)
Psychiatrist
c)
Nursing staff
d)
Pharmacist
4.03.3 Welfare Units
a)
Assistant Director, Correctional Services
b)
Welfare Officer
c)
Law Officer
d)
Counsellor
e)
Probation Officer
f)
Psychologist
4.03.4 Educational Personnel
a)
Teachers
b)
Physical Training Instructor
4.03.5 Technical Personnel
a)
Instructors
b)
Foremen
c)
Electricians
d)
e)
f)
g)
Plumbers
Mason
Drivers
Motor Mechanic
4.03.6 Agricultural
a)
Supervisors
b)
Agricultural Assistants
Note: Due to financial constraints if these technical posts are not
created or when created are not filled up, suitable guarding personnel
should be trained for these purposes and their services should be
availed of by giving them special allowances.
4.03.7 Ministerial
a)
Administrative Officer
b)
Office Superintendent
c)
Accountant
d)
Store Keepers
e)
Cashier
f)
Office Assistants
g)
Stenographers
h)
Typist/Computer Operators
i)
Miscellaneous Staff
Duties and Functions of Institutional Personnel:
4.04. The statutory duties and responsibilities of institutional
personnel will be as per the provisions of the laws and rules governing
prisons.
4.05. Custody, security, discipline and preventive and control action
during an emergency, are the fundamental duties and responsibilities
of every staff member.
4.06. The duties, responsibilities and functions will be assigned in
writing to every staff member on his initial appointment. Care will be
taken to ensure that the rules, regulations, and instructions to be
followed by institutional personnel are interpreted from time to time.
4.07. The general duties, functions and responsibilities of the
institutional personnel are detailed below:
i)
Executive
4.07.1
To ascertain that the compliance of human rights that the
prisoners are entitled to, are not impinged upon and restricted beyond
the limit inherent in the process of incarceration itself and to ensure
that prison programmes are geared towards the overall objective of
imprisonment in terms of reform and rehabilitation of prisoners.
4.07.2
The Superintendent will, subject to any order of the State
Government/ Director General/ Inspector General of Prisons and the
Regional DIG (Prisons), be in charge of the executive management of
the prison in all matters relating to economy, discipline, labour,
expenditure, punishment and control in general, among other things.
The Superintendent thus is responsible for developing an atmosphere
that is conducive and correctional in nature and providing leadership
in every aspect of prison management. He shall take care of the duties,
suggestions, planning, organising, directing, guiding, coordinating,
supervising and controlling all prison activities.
4.07.3 The Superintendent will be the head of the prison and all
officers will be subordinate to him.
a)
Superintendent Grade I and Grade II
(i)
General supervision over security and custody
arrangements
(ii)
Custody of secret and confidential documents
(iii) Supervision over care and welfare of inmates
(iv) Supervision over office administration
(v)
Control over financial matters
(vi) Implementing State policy pertaining to correctional
administration
(vii) Planning, organising, directing, guiding, coordinating,
supervising and controlling all institutional programmes
and operations
(viii) Inmate discipline and morale
(ix)
Classification of prisoners, training and treatment
programmes and correctional activities
(x)
Inspection and supervision of work, employment and
production programmes
(xi)
Inspection of the prison activities, prison hospital,
kitchen, canteen, etc.
(xii) Personnel matters, staff welfare and staff discipline,
allocation of duties to personnel under his control, safety
of the prison personnel, protection of human dignity,
rights and providing decent work conditions, acquainting
institutional personnel with current policies of
correctional administration and the role they have to play
in a welfare state; organizing personnel training
programmes at the institutional level
(xiii) Reports to the Director General/Inspector General and
liaison with other government agencies for the purpose
(xiv) Developing an institutional atmosphere conducive to the
correctional role and providing leadership in every aspect
of institutional management
(xv) Daily inspection round and weekly night inspection
round
(xvi) Control of stock and stores, maintenance.
b)
Additional/Deputy Superintendent
In the absence of Superintendent of prisons, he will perform all
the functions attached to the post of a Superintendent.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
(xv)
(xvi)
(xvii)
(xviii)
Admission and release of prisoners after verification and
checking of committal warrants
Disbursement of batta, subsistence allowance bus and
railway fares, etc., to release prisoners and attesting of
entries in the cash book, permanent advance register and
prisoner’s cash property register
Minor correspondence relating to prisoners
Checking of Appeal Registers
Attending to release on bail, appeals, fine payment, etc.
Attending to correction of sentences
Production of prisoners in courts
Checking the issue of raw materials to various workshops
according to data
Checking of stock book of raw materials and stock book
of manufactured articles.
Attending weekly inspection parade of prisoners along
with the Superintendent.
Checking the Ration Stock Book
Weightment of ration articles on purchase, subject to
supervision by the Superintendent
Any other work assigned by the Superintendent from
time to time
Visit to the prison once in the forenoon and once in the
afternoon every working day and on Sundays and
Holidays when special circumstances render it desirable
that he shall do so
Visit to the prison at night once in a week to satisfy him
that the guarding is being properly done and that
everything is in order, and submit a compliance report to
the Superintendent
Attend to unlocking and lockup once in a week, and
check all the aspects normally checked by the Deputy
Superintendent on the other days. It shall be so arranged
in consultation with the Deputy Superintendent under
the specific orders of the Superintendent
Check that all rules, instructions etc., are being followed
at locking time, that sufficient guards are posted for the
security that senior guards are detailed for tell tale clock
duties, that proper lighting is there and also ensure spare
tell tale clock is always kept ready. This he will attend to
once in a week.
Supervise once in a fortnight the lock up of high security
prisoners like condemned prisoner, naxalite, terrorist
prisoners etc.
(xix)
Segregate prisoners having escape, discipline risks and
prisoners of know bad characters and report to the
Superintendent
(xx) See that the walls, buildings, gates, dormitories, cells,
hospitals area and other places of the prison are properly
secured and ensure a system of good lighting in and
around the prison
(xxi) Ensure to place the sentry in blocks in which notorious
prisoners are confined
(xxii) Bring it to the notice of the Superintendent, wherever the
guarding arrangements are not satisfactory through his
report book
(xxiii) Visit to the prison hospital two days in a week other than
those on which the Superintendent makes such visits.
Such an arrangement shall be made in consultation with
the Superintendent as part of duty allotment
(xxiv) Bring it to the notice of the Superintendent any
defalcation on the part of the Prison Staff, if it be shown
that such defalcation were rendered possible by
negligence on the part of the staff
(xxv) At least twice in a week he should check the rations
issued to the kitchen and satisfy him that correct quantity
is issued
(xxvi) Go around the prison at least twice in a week, at odd
hours and check tht the sentries are posted correctly and
alert.
He will also check that the other
checking/supervisory officers have made proper rounds
of check of these sentries
(xxvii) Keep a report book in which he shall
(a)
Record the duties performed by him on every day
and submit the same to the Superintendent
(b)
Bring it to the notice of the Superintendent that his
assessment in general on the discipline among the
staff and prisoners
(c)
Record any inadequacy on the security
arrangements and suggest guidelines to set right
things, wherever necessary and
(d)
Bring it to the notice of the Superintendent any
other matter of importance
Supervise general supervision of the Remission
Branch in the Prison Office and frequent and
periodical check over all the registers and other
records of the Remission Section.
(xxviii)
Supervise the work of his subordinate officers’
viz., the Deputy Superintendent & the Assistant
Superintendent in respect of the Executive work attached
to them along with the supervision of all the registers
being maintained by them and initial them in token of
having checked them
(xxix) Since the Prisons Act 1894 defines the word “Jailor”, the
word “Deputy Superintendent” may be replaced for
“Jailor” in Prison Act and all Prison Rules and his duties
may be as follows:
c)
Deputy Superintendent
(i)
The Deputy Superintendent is the chief executive office of
the Prison and is subordinate to the Superintendent.
(ii)
Shall also be subordinate to the Additional
Superintendent and assist him wherever necessary
(iii) Shall be generally responsible for observance of all
prescribed rules and orders
(iv) Supervision over security, custody and discipline,
supervision over care and welfare of prisoners
(v)
Supervision over personnel matters, staff discipline and
staff welfare assisting the Superintendent in all matters
pertaining to institutional management
(vi) Inspecting kitchen and canteen visit to hospital
(vii) Admission and release work prison manufacturers
(viii) Classification of prisoners and their training
(ix)
Deputy Superintendent shall see that prisoners are clean
in their persons and clothes and that they have the
authorized amount of clothing and bedding and no more
(x)
Shall, at uncertain times but at least once a week, cause
every prisoner and all clothing, bedding workshops,
wards and cells to be thoroughly searched
(xi)
Shall be responsible for the execution of all orders
regarding the labour of prisoners. He shall assign to each
prisoner his work on the recommendation of the
classifying Committee constituted in each Central Prison
for the purpose. The said Board shall consist of the
Superintendent of the concerned prison, Medical Officer
and the Deputy Superintendent. He shall ensure that the
assigned works are performed by the prisoner
(xii) He shall supervise the cultivation of the garden and be
responsible for the adequacy of the supply of vegetables.
He shall supervise the prison farm and all other outside
operations
(xiii) He shall jointly with the Medical subordinate be
responsible for the proper preparation and distribution of
food to prisoners
(xiv) He shall supervise the working of the guards. At least
once a week, at uncertain time, he shall visit the prison
after 10.00 P.M. and satisfy himself that the standing
guard is present, the sentries posted are on the alert, and
that the rounds are properly maintained
(xv) He shall be responsible for custody of all warrants and
for the strict enforcement of their terms and that no
prisoner on any account be released before his due time
or kept in prison beyond the termination of his sentence.
d)
Assistant Superintendent
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
(xv)
(xvi)
(xvii)
(xviii)
(xix)
(xx)
To assist the Deputy Superintendent in studying the
psychological and mental make up of prisoners and
taking steps to reform them
To be in charge of the ration stores as generally stated
To be directly responsible for the storing and custody of
ration and other articles purchased and their issue from
the stores
To place indents and get supplies of all articles of diet
and articles required for the prisoners
To attend to the day-to-day maintenance of stock
registers and other connected records and to the proper
maintenance of stock
To attend to the maintenance of accounts for extra articles
purchase by civil debtors
To check the correctness of the kitchen slips, hospital
indents and other indents placed on him for issue of
ration and miscellaneous articles
To maintain separate accounts and to be responsible for
the safe custody of empty gunnies and other receptacles
received and disposed of
To weigh and issue ration and other articles for
consumption
To supervise the cleaning of grains, vegetables and other
dietary articles and their grinding, if any
To ensure that all ration articles taken to the kitchen are
actually utilized for the purpose they are meant
To be custodian of all civil store articles entrusted to the
ration stores
To assist the Deputy Superintendent and to be present
with him at the time of supply of food to condemned
prisoners
To assist the Deputy Superintendent in searching the
condemned prisoners and examining the cells where
condemned prisoners are locked-up
To conduct interviews with condemned prisoners
To assist the Deputy Superintendent in supervising the
work of all guarding staff warders in the gardens
To assist the Deputy Superintendent is supervision over
searches, counting opening, and closing of prisons
To assist the Deputy Superintendent in all matters
pertaining to institutional management
To attend to any other duty that may be assigned to him
by the Superintendent
Admission and search of prisoners on their admission
(xxi) Custody of prisoner’s property except cash
(xxii) The removal of private clothing from prisoners on their
admission, the issue of prison clothing and bedding, the
correct making of metal identification discs; and the
placing of prisoners in quarantine soon after their
admission
(xxiii) The custody of prisoner’s private clothing and prison
clothing stores; and the issue of fresh clothing to the
prisoners
(xxiv) The maintenance of the clothing and registers in the
prescribed form
(xxv) Conducting prisoners’ interview, if conversant with the
language spoken at the interview
(xxvi) The supervision over the proper maintenance of dairy
and poultry units in prisons except the maintenance of
accounts which shall be attended to by the live-stock
assistant. The Assistant Superintendent shall, however,
maintain the stock and the stock register for paddy straw,
cholam stalk, grass, etc
(xxvii) The charge of the quarantine and of the civil and leper
annexes where such annexes exist
(xxviii)
The censoring of letters addressed to and sent by
the prisoners and the disposal of such letters under the
order of the Superintendent.
e)
Guarding personnel
The guarding personnel will consist of Chief Warder, Head
Warder and Warders. Specific duties of each member of the guarding
staff on various sections/points will be assigned by the Superintendent
on a rotation basis in keeping with his/her status within the cadre in
the following areas:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Security, custody, discipline
Searches and counting of prisoners
Opening and locking-up of the prison
Reporting defects and short comings in prison buildings,
walls, locks, lighting arrangements, bars taking
immediate action for rectifying these and taking care of
the custody of locks and keys, handcuffs and other
security equipment
(v)
Care and welfare of prisoners
(vi) Maintenance of discipline in institutional premises, gates,
quarantine, barracks, dormitories, cells, worksheds,
punishment yards, segregation yards, hospital, kitchen,
farm and in every other section of the institution
(vii) Sanitation and hygiene in areas under his charge
(viii) Guarding and sentry duties
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
(xv)
(xvi)
(xvii)
Escorting prisoners for work, supervision of their work,
care and custody of tools, property, equipment, dead
stock and livestock
Supervision of distribution of food, canteen articles and
inmate equipment
Helping the technical personnel in worksheds,
management and discipline, helping agricultural
personnel in all related matters
Discipline in areas where educational, cultural and
recreational activities are conducted
Reporting violations of discipline to appropriate officers
for taking immediate action as per rules
Observing habits and behaviour patterns of inmates and
reporting the same to the authorities concerned, helping
inmates improve their habits and attitudes
Taking preventive and control measures for all
emergency situations
Discipline in staff quarters
P.T., drill parades and emergency practice
II)
Medical Personnel
4.07.4 The medical personnel will be directly responsible for the medicare and health of prisoners. They will also ensure the maintenance of
minimum standards of hygienic conditions in the prison premises. The
specific duties of each of the medical personnel will be assigned by the
prison authorities in the following areas:
a) Preventive Service
Examination of all inmates on admission and periodical reexamination, immediate provision of whatever treatment is indicated,
immunisation, segregation and treatment of those having contagious
or infectious conditions, inspection and advice regarding diet, clothing,
equipment, industrial safety, environmental and institutional
sanitation and hygiene, health education for inmates and personnel.
b) Curative Services
Treatment of diseases, dental care, treatment of skin ailments,
correction of defects of sight, hearing, speech and posture, provision of
artificial limbs, glass eyes, trusses and other prosthetic devices,
prescription of special diets and exercise and physiotherapy.
c) General
Hospital administration, hospital discipline, classification of
prisoners, assessing work and employment potential of inmates,
suggesting special precautionary measures where necessary for certain
types of offenders, daily visit to prisoners under punishment, prisoners
under sentence of death, inspection of kitchen, canteen provisions and
supplies, medical treatment of personnel, assisting the Superintendent
in matters pertaining to institutional management, liaison with local
officers of medical and health departments.
III) Welfare Unit
4.07.5 The welfare personnel will primarily be concerned with the wellbeing of prisoners, undertaking individualised care for those needing
institutional adjustment and responsiveness through correctional
programmes. The specific duties and welfare functionaries will relate
to the following areas:
a) Assistant Director Correctional Service
He will be the officer in charge of this unit and all officers in this
unit will be subordinate to him.
He will directly report to
Superintendent of Prisons and Deputy Director of Correctional
Services in the prisons headquarters.
b) Welfare Officer
(i)
(ii)
Coordinating the work of the welfare unit
Helping inmates in overcoming problems of institutional
adjustment
(iii) Assisting inmates in dealing with problems faced by their
families and dependents
(iv) Connecting correctional needs of prisoners with the
resources available within and outside the prison
(v)
Participating in the orientation, classification and
reclassification programme
(vi) Facilitating understanding between the inmate and
administration
(vii) Assisting prison authorities in maintaining prison
security discipline
(viii) Participating in the pre-release programme and helping
the inmate establish contacts useful to him after release
(ix)
Identifying the resources for rehabilitation of prisoners.
c) Law Officer
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Advising prison authorities on the protection of human
rights of prisoners within the limitations of imprisonment
Interpreting legal and procedural rights of prisoners
Assisting prison authorities in dealing with all prison
matters pending in courts
Arranging free legal aid for indigent prisoners
Preparing petition and appeals for deserving cases
(vi)
(vii)
Assisting prison authorities in holding special courts, lok
adalat and video-conferencing
To advise prison administration in all matters having
legal bearing including agreements, contacts, affidavits
and court documents keeping prison authorities abreast
with judicial pronouncements and directives on all prison
matters.
d) Counsellor
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Dealing with emotional and psychological problems of
inmates
Providing counseling to prisoners facing problems of
adjustment within the prison and in relation to their
families outside
Helping inmates develop their self-image, selfconfidence, and motivation for correctional treatment
Helping the staff in understanding the problems faced by
the inmates
Aiding the psychiatrist in related matters.
e) Probation Officer
He will look after all matters relating to pre-mature release
including probation service under the supervision of Assistant
Director, Correctional Services.
IV)
Educational Personnel
4.07.6. Education in prisons has to be pursued as an important means
of reformative treatment. It not only implies providing literacy but
also inculcating values among prisoners as are considered conducive to
their social mainstream. Therefore, education personnel have to offer a
comprehensive programme of education to prisoners in which various
educational functionaries will perform their specific duties in the
following areas:
(i)
Conducting diversified educational programmes for
health, academics, social and moral education
(ii)
Linking prison education with mainstream education
(iii) Screening of newly admitted inmates for the
determination of their educational aptitude, abilities and
interests
(iv) Participation in Classification Committee’s work
(v)
Conducting literacy, socio-cultural and spiritual
development programme
(vi) Arranging tests and examinations; periodically assessing
educational progress of inmates, changing educational
programmes when necessary
(vii) Maintenance of a library with sufficient reading material
(viii) Audio-visual facilities
V)
Technical Personnel
4.07.7. The technical personnel are responsible for the development of
vocational training and diversified programmes of productive work as
an important component of the reformative process. While technically
qualified and trained staff has to provide knowledge and skills for
economic rehabilitation, the other technical staff will have to ensure
proper maintenance of the prison infrastructure. The specific duties
are indicated below:
a) Instructors
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
(xv)
(xvi)
(xvii)
(xviii)
(xix)
(xx)
Giving vocational aptitude test to inmates, interviewing
and collecting data about inmates, vocational history,
skills abilities and interests
Suggesting work and vocational training programmes for
inmates
Preparing plans for vocational training projects
Imparting apprenticeship, on-the-job and vocational
training to inmates
Utilizing resources of service and maintenance unit for
training purposes
Arranging arts and handicrafts projects
Arranging vocational examinations for inmates
Training of newly admitted prisoners
Maintaining progress reports about the training of
prisoners
Suggesting improvements in work methods
Keeping the equipment and machines in the workshop in
good working condition, custody and maintenance of
shops and factories
Ensuring safety measures in workshops and factory areas
Maintenance of discipline in the area under their charge,
attending to emergency situations
Distribution of work to inmates
Maintaining muster rolls of inmates working in various
sections
Supplying inmates with production tools and materials
Supervision over quality and quantity of production
Maintaining work sheets
Measuring tasks and apportioning wages
Indenting raw material from the Store Keeper, storing
raw material in their charge, maintaining an account of
raw material and manufactured articles in their charge,
dispatch of manufactured articles to the Store Keeper,
monthly checking of stores under their charge and
reporting the same to the authorities concerned
(xxi)
Preparing work plans for worksheds under their control
and forwarding them to the officer in charge
b) Maintenance Staff
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Maintenance and repairs of prison buildings
Maintenance and service of machines, tools and
equipment and transport
Maintenance and service of electric lines, plumbing
facilities, water supply plant and power plant
Periodical testing of emergency equipment like fire
fighting equipment and accident prevention measures,
VI)
Agricultural
4.07.8. Keeping in view, the rural background of most of the prisoners,
training and development of agriculture in prisons, the agricultural
personnel have to be responsible for the upgradation of their skills in
this field. The specific duties to be performed by them are indicated as
under:
(i)
Dealing with all matters pertaining to agriculture, and
horticulture
(ii)
Distribution of agricultural work to prisoners,
maintenance of muster rolls, assessing the work done and
apportioning of wages
(iii) Planning of training projects, imparting training to
inmates in improved methods and practices of
agriculture and horticulture
(iv) Maintaining progress reports about the training of
inmates
(v)
Indenting of material from the Store Keeper; storing of
material, maintaining an account of the equipment,
material and produce, monthly stock taking
(vi) Preparing plans for agriculture and related work
(vii) Security and maintenance of tools and equipments,
livestock
(viii) Maintenance of discipline in area in their charge, daily
inspection rounds, weekly night inspection of forms and
attending to all emergency situations.
VII) Ministerial Staff
4.07.9. Ministerial staff will be so organised as not to leave any scope
for sharing their duties with prisoners. The members of ministerial
staff will be assigned by the Superintendent as per the position he/she
holds and the requirements.
a) Accountants / Cashier
Preparation of budget, maintenance of accounts of all branches
and stores, accounts and cash, daily checking of all stores and accounts
registers, financial returns, periodicals and statistics, monthly stock
taking of all stores.
b) Store Keeper
In charge of all stores that is, grain, provision, supplies, raw
material, accessories, manufactured articles, inmate equipment,
personnel equipment, dead stock and miscellaneous stores.
CHAPTER V
CUSTODIAL MANAGEMENT
5.01. Secure custody of inmates is the primary responsibility of the
prison. The overall objective of reform and rehabilitation has to be
pursued within the framework of custody. Further, prison custody
implies certain restrictions on the basic rights of prisoners as human
beings under the process of incarceration that prisoners are required to
undergo.
Security and Custody
5.02. Following norms in respect of security and custody in prisons
are given as under:(i)
Security measures will be adopted in accordance with the
specific requirements of each prison.
(ii)
Demarcation of an 'out-of bound' area as a sterile zone
around every prison premises – central prison 150 mtrs.,
district jails 100 mtrs, special sub-prisons and sub-prisons
50 mtrs.
(iii) Secure walls, building gates, barracks, cells, hospital
areas and other places, daily inspection of the same and
proper maintenance of prison buildings and premises
(iv) A system of good lighting inside and around the prison
(v)
A system of thorough searches of all incoming and
outgoing prisoners and articles vehicles. Daily searches
and periodical surprise searches of all prison sections and
equipment
(vi) A central-point monitoring for the control of the
movement of prisoners
(vii) A thorough system of the control of prohibited articles
(viii) A thorough system of counting prisoners
(ix)
A system of custody and control and inspection of locks,
keys, handcuffs and other security equipment,
maintenance and service of all security equipment
(x)
A system of custody, control, inspection and counting of
tools equipment
(xi)
A system of accident prevention and of meeting
requirements during emergencies such as escapes, riots,
assaults and fires
(xii) A system of fire arms control, quarter guard, magazine
and weaponry practice
(xiii) Adequate guarding and security measures by adopting
proper norms for staff and equipment, and periodical
testing and inspection thereof, by executive personnel
(xiv) Effective system of censoring prisoners' mail and
checking of interviews
(xv)
Utilization of local intelligence branches wherever
necessary and maintaining an intelligence system to
collect information within the prison
(xvi) Installation of close circuit television system and other
electronic gadgets to effectively monitor and maintain a
close watch for any breach of security inside the prisons.
(xvii) Watch towers, wherever necessary, to watch inside and
outside of the prison, to be constructed and searchlights
and binoculars made available
(xviii) Installing power fencing on the walls of prisons wherever
necessary to prevent escapes, ensuring safety of the
prisoners' lives.
(xix) A system of thorough search for unearthing explosives
and narcotic substances among prisoners
(xx) Effective wireless communication system and intercoms
to be established within the prison and also from one
prison to another
(xxi) Constructing a second security wall in every prison,
making the prison building as inaccessible an area to the
general public as possible, and also to avoid trespassing
also
(xxii) A good road inside and outside the main walls for better
patrolling
(xxiii) A modern interview room with sound absorption to
ensure smooth conversation and human dignity, without
overlooking the security
(xxiv) Effective segregation of prisoners on the basis of security
requirements
(xxv) Installation of high pitch sirens to alert prison staff,
public and nearby police stations about any untoward
happening
(xxvi) Untrained personnel not be posted inside the prison,
prison premises, under any circumstances for guarding
purposes
(xxvii) Electronic gadgetry may be used for guarding purposes.
Guarding Establishment
5.03. There will be a guarding establishment in every prison,
responsible for the guarding of prisoners, prison premises, gate and
carrying out any other duties which may be assigned to them. The
guarding establishment includes the warder performing their duties in
rotation.
Reserve Guard
5.04. In all Central and District Prisons, there will be a reserve guard
consisting of eight to twenty warders, who have undergone commando
training, with use of modern weapons and unarmed combat. This
reserve guard will always be ready in the guard room to meet any
emergency.
5.05. The Reserve Guard will be divided into two groups used on
alternate days to handle any emergency in the prison. They will be
kept on alert with facilities for fast movement. The Reserve Guard will
be used for its specified duties only. As far as possible, the Reserve
Guard must be selected from young warders.
5.06. The Reserve Guard will always be commanded by an officer
during day and night. There will be two officers in the rank of
Assistant Superintendent to look after the operations.
5.07. Personnel in the Reserve Guard will carry the required modern
weapons like pistols, carbines, S.L.R., pump action guns and
authorised quality of rubber bullets, plastic bullets and live
ammunition so that these can be used in emergencies.
5.08. The Superintendent will personally satisfy himself that the
Reserve Guard is properly trained, equipped and alert all the time.
When the Reserve Guard is detailed, each man under it will carry the
authorised ammunition.
5.09. When one set of the guard is relieved, all arms & ammunition
will be handed over to the relieving guards. The Assistant
Superintendent (Reserve Guard) in command will be responsible for
the correct handing over of arms & ammunition.
Armed Sentry
5.10. The watchtowers at the main gate will be guarded by armed
sentries and other portions of the prison will be guarded by warders
without arms. The warder establishment that will supply sentries and
guards to the internal and external posts. All these guards and sentries
will perform duties in rotation.
5.11. Armed sentries will perform duties in two hourly shifts. It is the
duty of a sentry, both in day and night, to challenge all unknown or
suspicious persons approaching his beat, forbidding them to approach
nearer unless they can satisfactorily account for themselves or, at night,
give the password. No convict will be permitted to approach within 5
mtrs of any sentry. It is the duty of a sentry to resist all attempts to
break into or out of the prison or of any part of it and to prevent
escapes or illicit communication with prisoners. At night every sentry
will report to the Patrolling Officer if anything suspicious or unusual
comes to his knowledge. He will give the required assurance that all is
well each time the Patrolling Officer passes by.
5.12. The sentry on duty will carry the required arms & ammunition,
which will later be handed over to the relieving sentry.
Relief and Supervision of Sentries
5.13. As a rule, sentries will be relieved at the end of every two hours.
During the day the Assistant Superintendent will conduct the relief,
and at the same time check and satisfy himself that the sentries are
alert and attending to their duties properly. To discharge these
functions during the night, two Patrolling Officers will be appointed
from among the senior second grade warders. Each Patrolling Officer
will record the hour of his visits by appropriate means.
Morning and Evening Muster of Reserve Guard
5.14. Before the prison is unlocked in the morning the Reserve Guard
and warders whose duties for the day have not been fixed will be
mustered under arms outside the main gate, and the Assistant
Superintendent will at once post the day sentries. The guard will be
drilled and afterwards shall remain under arms till the entire team is
marched out and dismissed to the guardroom. The Reserve Guard will
again be under arms from the hour fixed for the cessation of work till
the prisoners are locked up for the night.
Salutes by Armed Guards
5.15. Guards and sentries will necessarily salute to the persons
mentioned in column (1) of the table below in the manner mentioned in
column (2) thereof:TABLE
Person
Manner of salute
(1)
(2)
The Inspector General, the Deputy By presenting arms
Inspector General of Prisons, Official and
the
Superintendent,
Additional
Superintendent
All other gazetted officers, Official Visitors By sloping arms and placing the right
and Deputy Superintendent.
hand smartly on the butt, fingers
extended
Assistant Superintendent, Social Workers, By coming to in attention with ordered
Welfare Officer Ministerial staff
arms.
Explanation: The Guard Officer will always bring it to the notice of the
Dy. Supdt., any failure on the part of the sentry to comply with this
rule.
5.16. As a rule the guard will not be turned out under arms for
saluting purposes after sunset.
General Guarding Duties
5.17. The general guarding will be undertaken by the warder
establishment. They will carry on the internal and external guarding of
the prison, the supervision of the prisoners during labour hours as well
as the work of guarding and maintaining security of wards, blocks,
workshops, tools and plants and other government properties, posts
and tower.
Guarding Requirements
5.18.
The charter of functions of the guarding staff shall be:
(i)
The sentry or guard will on no account quit his post
without being relieved. In case he finds himself
incapacitated due to sudden illness or any other reason to
perform his duties, he will send an intimation to the
officer in charge who will make necessary arrangements.
(ii)
No sentry or guard while on duty will take off his
uniform – this does not apply while taking his meals or
while resting.
(iii) Guards and sentries will be made to understand their
duties and responsibilities. They will not hold any
communication with any prisoner, unless it is required
as a part of his official duty.
(iv) The officers and men of the Guard are strictly prohibited
to bring anything from outside the prison to any prisoner
and from receiving anything from a prisoner to be
conveyed outside the prison.
(v)
In case any prisoner attempts to escape, the guard will at
once raise an alarm and will also prevent damage to
government property.
(vi) All guarding personnel, being part of essential services,
will be deemed to be on duty round the clock and will
not to be allowed to leave the premises without
permission of the competent authority.
(vii) The Assistant Superintendent and Chief Head Warder
will maintain a daily report book in which they will
record all important events and reports of disposals or
incorporation to be shown for appropriate action.
Maintenance of Duty Roster
5.19. A Duty Roster will be maintained in each prison and Borstal
School. The authorised officer will be responsible for the proper
maintenance of this register. The register will contain all the names of
guards on duty with their hours of duty and their signature for having
understood the duty hours. The register will be sent to the
Superintendent through proper channel every day for checking and
getting his signature.
5.20 It shall be the responsibility of the Assistant Superintendent and
the Deputy Superintendent to ensure that the warders stick to their
post according to the Duty Roster and any violation in this regard will
be immediately brought to the notice of the Superintendent. The
Superintendent will also verify this during his surprise visits to
different parts during day and night. Care will be taken that the night
duty is allotted in rotation.
Custody of Arms
5.21. The concerned Assistant Superintendent will be responsible to
make sure that arms are never left within the reach of prisoners. All
necessary arms when not in use will be kept in the guardroom. The
approach to the guard room will be from outside the main gate.
Custody of Articles Facilitating Escape
5.22. The Dy. Supdt., Asstt. Supdt. and guards will be responsible to
ensure that no ladders, planks, bamboos and ropes, which are likely to
facilitate escape, are left lying about. If such materials are to be taken
inside for use these will be properly escorted and will be sent out of the
prison after use. Every warder in charge of a workshop will be
responsible to see that all such articles are properly secured and put
away when work ceases and give a certificate to that effect in the lockup register.
Use of Weapons Against Prisoners
5.23. Any officer, or member of the guarding staff, of a prison may
use bayonet, or any other weapon, against any prisoner when he is
found to be:
a.
escaping or attempting to escape if the officer or member
of the guarding staff has reasonable ground to believe
that he cannot otherwise prevent the escape
b.
engaged in any outbreak or attempt to force or break
open the outer gate or enclosure wall of the prison
individually or collectively, provided that he may use the
weapon only if such an outbreak or attempt continues.
c.
using violence against officers of the prison or other
persons, provided that there is reasonable ground to
believe that the officer of the prison or any other person
is in danger of loss of life or limb or that serious injury is
likely to be caused to such officer/person
5.24. Before using firearms against prisoner, the officer, or the
member of the guarding staff, will give a loud and clear warning to the
prisoner that he is about to fire on him.
5.25. No officer of the prison will use arms of any sort against a
prisoner in the presence of his superior officer, except under the orders
of such a superior officer, or if it is in self defence.
5.26. In all cases requiring the use of force only minimum force, in the
given circumstance, shall be used.
Transport of Arms and ammunition
5.27. All consignments of arms and ammunition sent by any means of
transport will be put in sealed boxes and escorted by an appropriate
armed guard. It will be the duty of the escort to guard the arms and
ammunition against any contingency.
5.28. When the arms of the Prison Department are to be dispatched to
stations outside the State for repairs they will be entrusted to the Police
Department. A police party will escort these arms along with the arms
of the Police Department, if any. When there are no arms of the Police
Department to be escorted and a police party has to be provided
exclusively for escorting the arms of the Prison Department, the
expenditure incurred in connection with the journey of the escort will
be borne by the Prison Department.
Security of Locks and Bars
5.29. All locks and bars and other fastenings must be regularly
checked by the warder in charge and a report to the effect must be
given to the Assistant/Deputy Superintendent.
5.30. All duplicate keys for the locks must be kept in a sealed box
under the custody of the concerned Deputy Superintendent. No keys
should be left behind unaccounted for and no prisoner will have any
access to the prison keys. All the block keys when not in use must be
kept in an almirah or key box at the gate or at the tower in the custody
of the gate keeper or Chief Head Warder (Tower), as the case may be.
5.31. Every prison will be equipped with a generator with an
automatic switch so that if power fails, the generator automatically
switches on and all security gadgets will function without any
interruption.
Dynamic Security
5.32. Prisons will be run on the basis of dynamic security. Dynamic
security depends on the use of alternative methods for which
interaction with prisoners will be a pre-requisite to make them aware
of what is going on and to ensure them that they are being kept in safe
and humane environment. It is not only means of preventing escape
but also maintaining constructive relations with prisoners. The staff
will also be made to understand that security not merely implies
guarding the wall and fence and electronic surveillance, but also action
engendering a sense of protection and mutual trust.
Admission of Prisoners
5.33. No person will be admitted in a prison as a prisoner unless
accompanied by a writ, warrant or order in the prescribed form,
signed, dated and sealed by the competent authority. There will be a
separate writ, warrant or order for every prisoner, even if two or more
prisoners have been jointly charged.
5.34. Before
admitting
a
prisoner,
the
Assistant/Deputy
Superintendent will examine the warrant and by questioning the
prisoner regarding his name and other particulars, and by verifying the
identification marks of the prisoner with those mentioned in the
warrant, will satisfy himself that he is the person referred to in the
warrant. In the event of a prisoner refusing to answer the
Assistant/Deputy Superintendent, or denying the accuracy or the
particulars entered in the warrant, the officer on duty will request the
officer in charge of the Police or Military escort to identify the prisoner
on the basis of information at his disposal as the person named in the
warrant.
Procedure of Warrant
5.35. If, in any case, the Superintendent is in doubt as to the legality of
any warrant or order of commitment received by him with any
prisoner admitted to the prison, or as to the competency of the person
whose official seal and signature are affixed thereto, to pass the
sentence and issue such warrant, he shall proceed in the manner
provided below.
5.36. If any error of omission, which in the opinion of the
Superintendent is due to mere oversight or mistake, is found in any
warrant or order or, if the sentence or order passed, though within the
competency of the tribunal or authority which passes it, is in any way
defective in form or otherwise irregular, he may receive the prisoner
subject to reference to such tribunal or authority, as the case may be,
for orders.
Examination of Warrant
5.37. All warrants shall be examined to ascertain whether these
conform to the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Orders of the
Supreme Court of India.
Note 1: A warrant ordering imprisonment without specifying whether
it is simple or rigorous imprisonment, or an undated, unsigned or
unsealed warrant shall be returned for correction.
Note 2: The amount of solitary confinement ordered on a warrant is
dependent on the term of sentence and should not be more than what
is allowed under Section 73 of the Indian Penal Code.
Note 3: The Superintendent of a prison is justified in refusing to receive
or detain a prisoner in prisons on a warrant to which a signature is not
affixed with a stamp.
Note 4: All warrants should be signed in full (not initials) by the judge
or magistrate who issues it and should have the seal of the court.
Note 5: In the case of persons, on whom separate sentences are passed,
care should be taken to state the dates from which each sentence is to
have effect in the warrant of commitment.
Note 6: In the case of under-trial prisoners, the warrant of commitment
for intermediate custody should be prepared with the greatest care
possible with reference to the above instructions.
Note 7: The Superintendent of a prison should not refuse to admit a
person where the above instructions have not been carried out, but he
should draw the immediate attention of the magistrate concerned to
the defect, and ask for its rectification at once. He should also send a
copy of his letter to the magistrate of the district for his information.
Note 8: Warrants for the release or remission of sentences of prisoners
confined in prison and for the release of prisoners on bail and
intimations of payment of fines sent to prison authorities should
always be prepared in the vernacular of the officer issuing the order
and should be signed in full by such an officer and sealed with the seal
of his court. They should be sent to the prison authorities through an
official messenger of the court or through the agency of the post and
not through the friends or relatives of prisoners.
Note 9: There should be a separate warrant or notice for every prisoner
even if two or more prisoners have been jointly charged or convicted.
Copy of Warrant Returned for Correction to be Kept
5.38. When a warrant is returned for correction, a copy shall be
retained in the appropriate compartment of the warrant almirah until
the original is returned. Blank forms of warrants shall be kept for this
purpose.
Procedure when the Legality of a Warrant is Doubted
5.39. When an officer in charge of a prison doubts the legality of a
warrant or order sent to him for execution, or the competency of the
person whose official seal and signature are affixed thereto to pass the
sentence and issue such warrant or order, he shall refer the matter to
the government, by whose order on the case he and all other public
officers shall be guided as to the treatment of the prisoner.
5.40. Pending a reference made under sub-section (1), the prisoner
shall be detained in such manner and such restrictions or mitigation as
may be specified in the warrant or order.
Checking of Prisoner's Property
5.41. The concerned prison officer/Superintendent will give a receipt
in a printed form to the officer who delivers a prisoner at the prison
noting therein the property received with the prisoner, which will be
carefully examined and shown to the prisoner at the time of his
admission. The prisoner's acknowledgement that he has seen the
property and that it is correctly recorded in the relevant register will, at
the same time, be noted in the Admission Register.
Prisoners to wash themselves and their clothing
5.42. On admission to prison every prisoner will be required to wash
his person and his clothing thoroughly. If an epidemic disease exists in
the neighbourhood from which he comes, his clothing will also be
disinfected. In such cases special care will also be taken to cleanse the
prisoner's person.
Search of Prisoners on Admission
5.43. Prisoners will be thoroughly searched by a prison official.
Female prisoners will be searched by female staff and their washing
will be conducted in the female yard. Prisoners will wash and be
searched in their yard or respective cell and not in the presence of other
prisoners. Searches of prisoners will be made, with due regard to
decency and with reasonable privacy.
Removal of Articles from Prisoners
5.44. During the search, every article, whether clothing, bedding,
jewellery, money documents or otherwise, will be taken away from
the prisoners to whom prison clothing and bedding will be issued in
accordance with the rules. From prisoners every article will be taken
away except personal clothing. Other necessities of life such as bedding
will be permitted by Director General/Inspector General of Prisons.
Reception Ward
5.45. Prisoners, on first admission to prison will be kept in a separate
reception ward until the initial formalities for his placement there are
completed. The procedure to be adopted on their admission will be as
under:
i.
Haircut and shave, issue of soap and disinfecting lotion
ii.
Disinfection and storing of prisoners' personal clothes
and other personal items
iii.
Issue of disinfected prison clothing, bedding and utensils
iv.
Issue of authorized personal belongings
v.
Housing as per the principles of basic segregation
vi.
A thorough medical examination within 24 hours
vii.
Attending to immediate and urgent needs of prisoners,
like letters, interviews, family welfare, immediate
personal problems, etc.
viii. Verification by the Deputy Superintendent/Assistant
Superintendent in charge of admission of committal
papers, identification marks, entries in registers,
prisoners' cash property, appeal and other legal matters,
etc.
ix.
Finger printing and photograph as per rules.
x.
Identification of drug addicts.
Orientation
5.46. Every newly admitted prisoner will be subjected to a
programme of orientation so as to inform him about the rules and
regulations. His rights and duties as a prisoner will be clearly
displayed at each part of the prison and explained to him in a language
he understands. A general assessment of his background and needs
will also be made by the officials to decide the appropriate placement
within the prison.
History Ticket
5.47. 'History Ticket' means the ticket exhibiting such information as
is required in respect of each prisoner by this Act or the rules
thereunder.
Preparation and Maintenance of History Tickets
5.48. Every prisoner shall, immediately on his reception into prison,
be provided with a History Ticket which shall be maintained, in the
manner hereinafter provided, throughout the period during which
such prisoner remains in confinement.
5.49.
Every History Ticket shall contain the following particulars:
(i)
The name, prisoner number and other particulars
necessary for the identification of the prisoner
(ii)
A brief entry of every order passed and direction given
relating to, and punishment inflicted on, the prisoner
(iii) A brief record of every other occurrence of any
importance, affecting the prisoner, which takes place
while he remains in confinement.
5.50.
The History Ticket of every convict shall also contain the
following:
(i)
The nature of the offence of which he has been convicted
and the provision of the law applicable thereto
(ii)
The date, nature and extent of the sentence passed.
5.51. Every entry made on the History Ticket shall be done at the time
of, or as soon as possible after, the occurrence of the event to which it
relates, and shall be dated and signed by the officer who makes it.
5.52. Subject to the requirements of the rule, the Inspector/Director
General may, from time to time, get History Tickets made.
5.53. A duplicate history ticket will be issued when original history
ticket is lost. The new history ticket will be marked duplicate and
signed by competent authority. The ticket will be reconstructed by
registering all previous entries.
Entries by Medical Officer in History Tickets
5.54. In the heading of the History Ticket of every prisoner, the
Medical Officer shall enter, or have entered under his supervision the
following:
(i)
The prisoner's weight on admission
(ii)
His state of health
(iii) The class of labour for which he is fit, if sentenced to
labour
(iv)
Whether he has been
inoculation for smallpox.
protected
by
vaccination/
5.55. The Medical Officer shall also subsequently enter, or have
entered the following :
(i)
Details of the vaccination given and the result
(ii)
Admission to and discharge from hospital on every
occasion, with the disease for which admitted
(iii) Admission to and discharge from the convalescent group.
5.56. The Medical Officer shall himself enter such other directions or
recommendations, as he may from time to time consider necessary, for
the maintenance of the health of the prisoner.
5.57. Particulars to be entered and the officers to enter them: On the
History Ticket of every prisoner entries may be applicable (i)
The date of admission into prison
(ii)
The number and name of every article of clothing and
equipment issued on admission and later
(iii) The particular work and task in weight, number or
measurement, to which the prisoner is put
(iv) Every change of work or task for reasons other than
medical
(v)
Any complaint made by the prisoner of sickness or report
of his sickness
(vi) The action taken on any direction or recommendation of
the Medical Officer or Medical Subordinate
(vii) Application for a copy of judgement, if the prisoner
desires to appeal
(viii) Receipt of the copy of judgement
(ix)
Dispatch of appeal
(x)
Substance of the order of the appellate court
(xi)
The fact of an appeal not having been made before the
expiration of the term allowed for appealing
(xii) The amount of remission awarded quarterly
(xiii) The total remission in days earned up to the end of each
quarter
(xiv) Every prison-offence alleged to have been committed
(xv) Every interview allowed and the receipt or dispatch of
private letters
(xvi) Dispatch to a court, or transfer, discharge, escape or
death
(xvii) Any recommendation of the Factory Manager or the
Deputy Superintendent
(xviii) Action taken on any order entered by the Superintendent
(xix) The fortnightly or weekly measurement of weight
(xx) The number of cells in which placed on account of
warrant confinement
(xxi)
The total confinement undergone on warrant on each
occasion of removal, etc.
5.58. Entries regarding point (i), (ii), (v), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii),
(xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xx) and (xxiii) above may be entered by the
Senior Assistant Superintendent or Assistant Superintendent. Point
(ix) may be entered by the Senior Assistant Superintendent or any
other officer authorised to award remission, and point (xxi) by the
Medical Subordinate or by an Assistant Superintendent or Dispenser if
deputed to assist him. Point (iii) shall be entered by the Factory
Manager, when there is not an officer of this grade, it shall be entered
by the Deputy Superintendent, but in large jails a portion of the duty
may, under the orders of the Superintendent, be performed by the
Senior Assistant or Assistant Superintendent. The duty of making
entries regarding point (iv), (vi) and (xviii) shall not be delegated to
any officer subordinate to the Deputy Superintendent.
Entries to be made by the Superintendent:
5.59. On the History Ticket of every convict, the Superintendent shall
record
(i)
Any special order he may have to give related to any
prisoner, e.g. the imposition or removal of fetters,
permission to hold an interview or write a letter,
separation by night
(ii)
The award of every punishment
(iii) Sanction for employment on extra - mural work
(iv) Promotion to the grade of Convict-watchman, Convictoverseer or Convict-warder
(v)
The award of special remission.
Custody and Management of History Tickets:
5.60. The History Ticket of each prisoner shall be kept in a proper
receptacle by the Convict-functionary in whose charge the prisoner is
placed, and shall be produced by him whenever required by any
officer of the prison or superior Convict-functionary. It shall go with
the prisoner whenever he is transferred from one group to another, or
from one kind of work to another or is sent to a hospital. At the
weekly parades, each prisoner shall hold his ticket in his hand for
inspection. The History Ticket shall be produced, with the prisoner,
whenever he is reported for an offence, or is brought before the
Superintendent or Medical Officer for any reason.
Note 1: Every under-trial and civil prisoner may be allowed to retain
possession of his History Ticket.
Note 2: At weekly inspections the tickets will be issued just before, and
removed immediately after, the inspection of the Superintendent.
Retention of History Ticket after release or death:
5.61. The
custody
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
History Ticket of every prisoner shall be retained in safe
in the event of his escape , for one year,
the event of his release, for one year,
in the event of his death, for two years after it occurs, and
in the event of release on bail, for a year after the result of
appeal is known.
Register
5.62. There will be an Admission Register for all prisoners admitted
to the prison. The admission register will contain basic description of
the prisoners in terms of name, parentage, home address, legal status,
date of admission and committal courts. This register will be
maintained by Assistant Superintendent or equivalent in prescribed
form. The entries in this register will be numbered serially.
Use of Register number
5.63. The register number thus given will be the means of identifying
the prisoner – a fresh number being given on every transfer to another
prison. The articles of clothing and bedding of each prisoner sentenced
to rigorous imprisonment for life will be marked with his number, and
in all official communications the number will precede the name, e.g.,
Convict No. 1736, Ashok. If a prisoner has to undergo two or more
sentences under different warrants it is not necessary to re-enter him in
the convict register on the expiry of one sentence or to give him
another number. However, every prisoner will be called by his name
and not by his number in the register.
Record of date of release, etc.
5.64. In the case of convicts, the date on which the sentence will
expire will be entered in the Convict Register. If the convicts are under
sentence for less than three months, an entry of his number will be
made in the release diary to be released under that date, but if the
sentence is for three months or more, the date of expiry will be entered
on his Remission Sheet. At the same time, the prisoners’ register
number, name, sentence, date of sentence and date of release will be
endorsed on his warrant and the endorsement will be signed by the
Competent Officer after examination and comparison with the body of
the warrant and with the entries in the Convict Register. In cases where
imprisonment is awarded in default of payment of fine, the alternative
dates of release will both be included in the endorsement on the
warrant, in the Convict Register, release diary and Remission Sheet.
Custody of Warrants
5.65. Prisoners‘ warrants will be arranged according to dates of
release and kept in monthly bundles, the warrants of prisoners to be
released in a particular month being placed in one bundle and each
bundle being docketed outside with the month and year. They will be
kept in a locked drawer or almirah of which the Assistant/Deputy
Superintendent will keep the key. Copies of judgements, orders of
appellate courts and orders of government, disposing of prisoner‘s
petitions, together with correspondence relating to payment of fine,
classification and the other connected records will be filed and kept
with the warrant of the prisoner to whose case they relate. The final
disposal of warrants will be made as prescribed in the rules.
Medical Examination of Prisoners
5.66. The weight of prisoners on admission will be taken in the
presence of the Medical Officer and be verified by him. If the Medical
Officer is not present when prisoners are admitted to prison, they will
be weighed by the medical subordinate on duty during admission if
possible and in any case not later than the following morning. Their
weight will be noted at the time in a book kept at the main gate, to be
subsequently verified by the Medical Officer when their examination
takes place. The Medical Officer will carefully examine the prisoner
and will himself record in the proforma (see Appendix-1) for health
screening on admission. The Medical Officer will also supervise the
entry of the prisoners’ identification marks, which may be noted by the
Medical Subordinate. Medical Examination of prisoners will be made
with due regard to decency and with reasonable privacy.
5.67. If a prisoner looks younger than his age, the matter may shall be
referred back to the court concerned after the due medical examination
on the determination of his/her age for further directions, as no
juvenile shall be kept in prison in any case and they are sent to the
juvenile institution laid down in the Juvenile Justice Act.
Certification of Appropriate Class of Labour
5.68. In the case of convicts sentenced to rigorous imprisonment or
imprisonment for life, the Medical Officer will enter the class of labour
on which he will be employed in the appropriate column of the
Convict Register and History Ticket. A corresponding entry will also
be made in the History Ticket of the convict.
CHAPTER VI
MAINTENANCE OF PRISONERS
FOOD
6.01. An average man requires approximately 2,000 to 2,400 calories a
day. A person who does heavy work requires not less than 2,800
calories per day.
6.02. An average woman having a body weight of 45 kg would
require about 2,400 calories, partly because her weight is lesser and
partly because she is expected to do less heavy work than a male
labouring prisoner.
Requirements of pregnant and nursing women
6.03. During pregnancy and lactation, a woman needs more protein
and minerals than otherwise. The extra protein can be obtained by
substituting a part of the cereal portion of the diet with more milk, fish,
meat and eggs, and in the case of vegetarians by concentrating more on
milk and milk products. This would also ensure the necessary
additional supply of minerals. Pregnant and nursing women need
about 3100 calories every day.
Nutrients required
6.04. The nutrients required in a person’s daily diet, their quantities
and the common sources of nutrients are indicated in the table below:
1
Nutrient
Protein
2.
Fat
3
Carbohydrate
4
Minerals:
a. Calcium
b. Iron
5.
Vitamins :
a. Vitamin A
Requirement
Sources
1g. per kg. of body Pulses, rice, wheat, milk, fish
weight
meat, eggs, etc.
50 g.
Oils, butter, ghee, milk, eggs,
etc.
300 g.
Cereals, sugar, jaggery, milk,
root vegetables such as
potato, etc.
0.65 g. for adult, 1 Milk, milk products, eggs,
g. for child
green, vegetables, unhusked
cereals and whole gram
12.15 mg.
Vegetables, fruits, fish and
meat
Leafy vegetables, milk, fish,
3,000 to 4,000 I.U. liver oils, yellow vegetables,
eggs, carrot and yellow sweet
potato
b. Vitamin C
50 mg.
c. Vitamin D
400 I.U.
Tamarind, amla, guava, all
citrus fruits, eggs, lime,
orange etc., and sprouted
pulses, leafy vegetables
Fish, liver oils, milk
d. Vitamin group
i. Thiamin
1to 2 mg.
ii. Riboflavin
1.8 to 3.0 mg
iii. Nicotinic acid
10 to 15 mg.
Undermilled cereals and
pulse, parboiled rice, whole
wheat
Leafy vegetables, eggs, fish,
milk and milk products
Undermilled cereals, pulses
and parboiled rice
Scales of diet
6.05. The scale of diet for prisoners may be prescribed by the State
Government. Due consideration is to be given to the principles
mentioned above, to the classified needs, habits and modes of living of
prisoners and the climatic conditions of the place, while prescribing the
scale of diet for prisoners. The State government may also modify the
scales at any time if it deems fit. (The scales of diet schedules to be
followed per prisoner per day have been given in Appendix-2).
6.06. No reduction or alteration in the prescribed diet and scales shall
be made except under special circumstances and with the prior
approval of the Inspector General. If, on the recommendation of the
Medical Officer, the Superintendent considers the prescribed diet to be
unsuitable or insufficient for a prisoner for reasons of his health or his
peculiar mode of living, he may order, in writing, a special diet, or add
extra calories in the diet of such a prisoner, subject to formal approval
of the Inspector General.
Food ration
6.07. Every prisoner shall have three meals a day according to the
scales prescribed. These shall be:
(i)
A light meal in the morning before the hour of work;
(ii)
A midday meal; and
(iii) An evening meal before prisoners are locked up for the night.
6.08. The quantity of ration to be issued for each meal shall be as
prescribed by the Inspector General. The articles of diet provided for
midday and evening meals may be suitably divided between the two
meals.
6.09 Variety in the diet may be introduced by issuing different kinds
of pulses, vegetables and antiscorbutics on different days of the week
or for different meals. The Superintendent may lay down menu for
different days of the week.
6.10. On the occasion of festivals, as specified by the State
governments, extra items of dietary articles may be given to every
prisoner.
6.11. Prisoners who observe religious fasts may receive extra articles
of food, or may have the whole or a part of their meal at a place and
time of day, as may be allowed by orders of the government for proper
observance of fasts by them.
Hospital diet
6.12. A suitable hospital diet may be prescribed by the State
Governments according to local food habits on the advice of Medical
Officers / Medical Officer (in charge).
6.13. When meat is recommended by the Medical Officer as an extra
diet, the weight of meat shall ordinarily be taken without bones.
Cleaning, Storage and Issue of Food Items
6.14. Care should be taken to see that all grains are properly cleaned
before issuing to the mill-house for grinding and that the flour is
carefully sieved and kept in covered bins.
6.15. Rice should be separated from husk, dust, or other particles,
before issuing for cooking. The quality and seasoning of rice should be
such that weight of the cooked rice is be about 3 times its weight in
uncooked state. This should be frequently tested by weighing.
6.16. All items of diet, as well as the fuel for cooking, shall be
weighed daily at the time of being issuing to the cooks by a responsible
officer not below the rank of an Assistant Superintendent, especially
appointed for the purpose by the Superintendent. They shall be issued
in a fully prepared state or, if this is not possible, with a full allowance
for any loss which might occur during preparation. The
Superintendent shall, however, be responsible for seeing that the
correct weight and quality of the ration is issued. The quality of these
items should be regularly checked by the Medical Officer.
6.17. Where chapatti/bread is given to prisoners, the same should be
prepared in prescribed weights for different classes of prisoners, and
cooks should be informed before hand of the prescribed weights.
6.18. Dal should be husked and unhusked grains properly cleaned
out before cooking.
6.19. Vegetables issued shall be free from stalks and leaves and shall
be cut for cooking before being weighed and delivered to the cooks.
Potatoes or other root vegetables should form at least one-third of the
total quantity of vegetables. All vegetables should be examined daily
by the Chief Medial Officer or his subordinate Medical Officer.
6.20. An allowance of 25% extra shall be given for heads, tails, fins,
scales and entrails when whole fish is issued and for bones when
mutton is used.
6.21. Antiscorbutics, in the requisite quantity, shall be issued daily
with the midday and evening meals to all prisoners. There should be
standing instructions for the preparation and issue of different kinds of
antiscorbutics which are commonly available.
6.22. Milk shall be stored in a properly cleaned and well-ventilated
place. Milk shall be issued to prisoners on special/medical diet only
after boiling. Boiling should be done in the hospital enclosure under
the supervision of a responsible officer who shall be responsible for its
proper usage from the time it is obtained till its final distribution.
6.23. In preparing curds no water should be mixed with the milk
before boiling.
Cooking
6.24. Cooking may be done in stainless steel vessels. All cooking
utensils must be kept clean and shinning and the kitchen and eating
area too must be clean and tidy.
6.25. Special care shall be taken to ensure that all vessels, in which
milk is kept, are perfectly clean. All vessels should be scalded and
cleaned with boiling water immediately after use. These must not be
left uncleaned.
6.26.
All cooked food should be kept covered until it is distributed.
6.27. The Superintendent and the Medical Officer shall exercise
utmost vigilance in the supervision of food supplies, and when the
food is cooked and is ready for distribution to prisoners, they shall
make surprise inspections, at least once a week, in addition to routine
inspections. At these inspections the weight and taste of the food
distributed shall also be checked.
6.28. Measuring equipment used for issuing ration to the mills, and
that used in the kitchen, shall be checked by the Superintendent at least
once a month if not more often.
6.29. Cooks found tampering with food or scales shall be severely
punished.
Cooks
6.30. Cooks shall carry out all preparations and processes necessary
after being issued the daily supplies and shall prepare the food with
due care and attention
6.31. Inmates undergoing imprisonment for six months or less,
wherever available, may be employed to clean rice, peal and cut
vegetables, clean cooking utensils and keep the kitchen clean and tidy.
Distribution and service of food
6.32. Inspector General of Prisons shall prescribe the time for serving
morning, mid-day and evening meals in prisons.
6.33. Meals should be served fresh and hot. The receptacles used for
carrying food shall be provided with well fitting lids. All food shall be
carefully protected from flies and other insects.
6.34. Fifteen minutes before the distribution of each meal, a bell may
be sounded. Prisoners should then cease work, wash their hands and
face and queue up for food distribution, after which the cooked food
shall be distributed by the cooks in the presence of a responsible prison
officer not below the rank of an Assistant Superintendent. They shall
see that food issued to any prisoner is not taken away by another or is
otherwise wasted.
6.35. After service of food at least twenty minutes time shall be
allowed to prisoner to eat the food.
6.36. Except with the permission of the supervising officer, no food is
to be taken away from the dining area by any prisoner to eat it
elsewhere.
6.37. When the meal is finished, the prisoners shall proceed to the
washing platform where two tubs shall be placed. Prisoners shall put
any refuse food left in his plate into these tubs, separating rice or
chapattis from curried food. They shall then wash their hands and
mouths as well as their utensils.
6.38. The floors and platforms shall be cleansed immediately after the
prisoners finish their meals.
Eating and drinking vessels
6.39. Every prisoner shall be provided with a set of eating and
drinking vessel. All vessels will be made of stainless steel and shall be
of a uniform material and pattern.
Complaint about Food
6.40. Any complaint regarding food shall be enquired into on the spot
by the supervising officer. He shall decide whether the complaint is
well founded or not and then take necessary action. Every complaint
regarding food shall be reported to the Superintendent. If the
complaint is valid and is due to the fault of any prison official, the
Superintendent shall take such action as he deems fit and shall record
his orders. Any prisoner making false or malicious complaints shall be
punished.
Daily inspection of food
6.41. The Superintendent and the Chief Medical Officer / Medical
Officer (in charge) shall exercise utmost vigilance in the supervision of
the food supplies and all articles issued for consumption shall be
inspected daily by the Medical Officer, or in his absence by his medical
subordinates. The inspecting officer shall especially see that the
vegetables issued are of good quality. He shall bring to the notice of
the Superintendent of Prison any defects in quality detected during
such inspections.
Inspection of cooked food
6.42. It is highly important that the food is properly cooked, and that
its full quantity reaches the prisoners. Once a week, when the food is
cooked and is ready for being served, it shall be inspected, without
prior notice, and its quality and weight shall be checked by the Prison
Superintendent and the Medical Officer. They shall record the result of
their inspection in their journal.
Weighing of articles of food
6.43. All articles of food issued for consumption shall be weighed
daily by the officer in charge of diet. He shall ensure that proper
quantity of food is issued for every prisoner. From time to time, the
Superintendent shall himself check the issue of ration. Metric weights
and measures shall be used for weighing or measuring rations and
food and a proper set of scales, weights and measures shall be
maintained in every prison. These shall be frequently tested by the
Superintendent for their correctness.
Disposal of complaint by prisoner
6.44. If any complaint is made by a prisoner regarding the quantity,
quality, and preparation of food, it shall be at once inquired into by an
Assistant Superintendent and made note of in his report book. If the
complaint relates to the quantity of food received, the ration shall at
once be weighed in front of the prisoner making such complaint.
Power to sanction change in diet
6.45. The government may direct a change in the diet, prescribed by
the convicting courts, in the case of individual prisoners. Other than
that change in the prescribed diet shall be made only in unavoidable
circumstances when the prescribed food items are not available. In
such events all changes in the prescribed diet shall be reported to the
Inspector General of Prisons.
6.46. When a prisoner is hospitalised, his diet may be changed or
modified by the Superintendent on the recommendation of the Chief
Medical Officer. In case this change of diet has to continue for more
than a month, the concurrence of the Director / Inspector General of
Prisons shall be obtained by the Superintendent.
Control of hospital diet
6.47. The control of diet of a prisoner in hospital shall be the
responsibility of the Chief Medical Officer control and he may order
such extras, as he considers necessary, while doing to be shall also keep
in mind the costs involved, which should not be excessive.
Clothing
6.48. Every convict under sentence of rigorous imprisonment or of
imprisonment for life shall be required to wear prison clothing as
prescribed in these rules and shall be supplied with prison bedding.
Other prisoners, such as undertrial prisoners and detenues, shall be
supplied with clothing and bedding if they make an application to the
Prison Superintendent for this purpose. Such clothing shall be of a
colour different from that issued to convicts so that the distinction
between convicts and other prisoners is visible.
6.49. The State will fix the scale of clothing and bedding according to
climatic conditions taking into account security and discipline of the
prison.
Clothes of convicts
6.50. The clothes of convicts shall have no pockets or openings in the
lining. All clothing will be according to the custom of the State. The
prisoners shall be provided with dresses to suit their physical
measurement.
Clothing of any category of prisoners not covered in these rules
6.51. The clothing of any other category of prisoners, not covered in
these rules, shall be decided by the Inspector General, provided that
the expenditure involved in it does not exceed the cost that would
otherwise be incurred if the articles admissible under the rules are
supplied to the class to which the prisoner belongs.
Clothing of convicts attending courts
6.52. Convicts in custody when sent to a court, either as a witness or
as an accused, shall wear ordinary private clothing. For this purpose,
the private clothes of convicts deposited in the prison, or those
provided by friends or relatives, shall be issued to them before they are
taken to the court, such clothes shall be taken back on their return
from court attendance.
6.53. In other cases, the Superintendent shall provide suitable
clothing.
Issue of sandals to prisoners
6.54. The sanction of the Superintendent of Prisons is necessary for
the issue of sandals to prisoners.
In charge of clothing store
6.55. The Assistant Superintendent shall be in charge of the clothing
store and shall be held responsible for custody and maintenance of all
clothings and beddings. He shall be allowed to take the help of
sufficient number of prisoners to clean and expose the clothing to sun
and air regularly. Due attention shall be paid to getting the clothes
washed thoroughly before being returned to the store.
Explanation: Used clothes, before being issued to prisoners, shall be
thoroughly fumigated and washed in hot water to exterminate bugs,
fleas etc.
Repair, Maintenance and inspection of clothing and bedding
6.56. A day shall be fixed for weekly maintenance and inspection of
clothing. At the weekly parade of prisoners the Superintendent shall
pay special attention to their clothing and bedding and shall satisfy
himself that each man’s kit is complete and is in proper condition.
Suitable arrangements shall be made for washing and cleaning of every
article of prisoners’ clothing and bedding.
Prisoners to wash their clothing once every week
6.57. Every prisoner shall be required to wash his clothing at least
once a week, usually on the Sunday mornings, and at any other time as
the Superintendent may direct. The Superintendent may ask prisoners
to wash specific items of prison clothing and may authorise the issue of
the necessary washing materials for the purpose.
Explanation 1: All male prisoners shall be supplied with half a bar of
washing soap weighing approximately 500 g. each per month and 50
gms of washing powder every week for washing their clothes.
Explanation 2: All female prisoners shall be supplied with a bar of
washing soap weighing approximately 1Kg. each per month and 50
gms. of washing powder per week for washing their clothes.
Prison laundry
6.58. All at least Central and District prisons to have their own
mechanized laundry to wash items of clothing and bedding at the time
of return of these items to the clothing store.
Disposal of Irrepairable clothing
6.59. Irrepairable clothing shall be struck off from the register under
the signature of the Superintendent once a month and need as rags for
cleaning the kitchen and for cleaning machinery in the workshop. If the
accumulation of such clothing is in excess, it shall be sold, after being
shredded into small pieces, to the paper making units of the Khadi or
other such agencies.
6.60. Unserviceable clothing shall be stocked separately and a proper
stock register shall be maintained for this purpose.
Disposal of clothing of discharged prisoners
6.61. Prison clothing shall not be given to discharged prisoners. Care
shall be taken to ensure that prisoners surrender their full kit at the
time of their release. If fit for further use such clothing shall be
thoroughly laundered and repaired, and taken into stock. Items of
unserviceable clothing shall be duly entered in the stock register of
such clothing and shall be disposed of in the manner prescribed in the
previous paragraph.
Submission of clothing and bedding indents
6.62. Indents for the clothing and bedding likely to be required
during the next six, nine or 12 months, shall be prepared in duplicate
and submitted to the Deputy Inspector General of Prisons for sanction.
6.63. No clothing or bedding shall be issued from the manufacturing
department of any prison unless the indent is approved by the Deputy
Inspector General of Prisons and no clothing or bedding shall be
purchased in the local market except in very special circumstances and
with the sanction of the Inspector General of Prisons.
I.
Accommodation and Ventilation
Capacity of ward to be inscribed near the door
6.64. Near the door of every ward the size of the room, and the
number of prisoners it is capable of accommodating, shall be recorded
on a plaque embedded in the outer wall of the ward. No ward shall
accommodate prisoners beyond its prescribed capacity.
6.65. The names and numbers of the blocks and other important
buildings and enclosures shall be displayed on them in a conspicuous
and suitable position. The date of white-washing shall also be shown
in distinct figures.
Ventilation of wards and workshops
6.66. The Superintendent and the Medical Officer shall pay special
attention to the ventilation of the wards. In all cases, care shall be
taken that there is sufficient lateral as well as roof ventilation. As the
condition of the atmosphere breathed by prisoners can only be judged
by visiting the wards a few hours after the prisoners have been lockedin, the Superintendent and the Medical Officer shall visit the prison at
night in all seasons, and at irregular intervals, to satisfy themselves that
the ventilation is adequate, and that the prisoners have not blocked the
ventilation in any way. The results of these visits shall be recorded by
them in their respective journals. The Additional Superintendent shall
also be deputed for this purpose.
6.67. Every possible arrangement shall be made for thorough
ventilation of the wards for several hours during the day. This is
necessary to remove organic matter from the walls, which gets slowly
oxidised. It is necessary that the beddings are removed out of the
barracks for several hours every day.
Walls to be colour or white-washed
6.68. The exterior walls of prison buildings shall be colour-washed,
and the interior walls white-washed from time to time. The interior of
barracks, wards and cells in which prisoners are confined, will be
white-washed once in a year.
Planting of trees
6.69. Grass shall be grown and trees planted and kept neatly trimmed
in and near the prison wherever possible. Gardens shall also be
maintained in each prison to have a salutary effect on the minds of
prisoners. However, trees shall not be planted too close to walls and
buildings as these may be used for escape from the prison.
6.70. After the rainy season, the inner and outer sides of the perimeter
wall, if the prison and wall of the wards shall be scrubbed. Pathways
inside the prison compound shall be de-weeded and relaid. Wherever
the paths are made of tarmac, the uneven surface shall be leveled
properly.
II.
Conservancy
Responsibility of all officers
6.71 It is also the duty of all prison officers to pay special attention to
conservancy, and official and non-official visitors are expected to
satisfy themselves that it is properly carried out.
Responsibility of Health Officer
6.72. The Municipal Health Officer, District Health Officer or the
health officers of the corporation, as the case may be, shall visit the all
prisons under their jurisdictions once a month and offer suggestions
for sanitation and hygiene.
Prison area to be kept clean
6.73. The prison area shall be cleaned daily and kept free from all
unwanted plants and weeds, accumulation of broken bricks,
manufacturing waste, etc. Kitchen waste shall not be permitted to be
thrown on the ground, nor shall garbage of any kind be allowed to
accumulate in or near the prison.
Prohibition of cess pools and open drains
6.74. Cess pools, and open drains for accumulation and disposal of
sewage are prohibited inside or near a prison.
Precaution against malaria
6.75. All pits and pools of water stagnant, near the prison shall be
covered or filled up. Open drains if any around the prison shall be
carefully attended to and drainage cuts shall be cleaned wherever
necessary, to prevent accumulation of water.
Medical Officer to approve drainage
6.76. The Medical Officer shall bring to notice of the Prison
Superintendent any defects in the drainage within or around the
prison. If he does not do so, it shall be presumed that he is satisfied
with it. All drainage in prison should be underground which should
be connected directly to the public drainage system.
Injurious conditions in the prison neighbourhood
6.77. If anything occurs, or is likely to happen in the prison
neighbourhood, that might injuriously affect the health of the prisoner,
it shall be reported immediately to the Inspector General of Prisons.
The construction of public latrines and sewage drains near a prison is
objectionable and measures shall be taken to prevent such
constructions.
6.78. No sewage or effluent drains from mills and factories or other
public sources, that may affect the health of the prisoners, should be
allowed near any prison.
.
Cleaning of latrines
6.79. The latrines shall be thoroughly cleaned twice a day or more
often if necessary, with disinfectants.
Kitchen
6.80. The inmates engaged in cooking should be regularly examined
to make sure that they are not carrying of any infection. There should
be adequate arrangements for cooks to wash their hands with soap and
water before they start cooking. Cooks should change into clean
uniforms before they are permitted to cook or serve food. Manual
handling of food is undesirable and must be avoided.
Stores
6.81. Stores or godowns must be kept clean, well arranged, and well
ventilated. Their contents should be aired as often as possible.
Godowns or grain stores should be treated with suitable insecticides to
prevent the growth of weevil.
Baths
6.82. All prisoners should be required to bathe as frequently as
necessary. In the temperate climate they should be encouraged to have
daily baths unless medically exempted from doing so. In hot climate,
facilities should be provided for the prisoners to have a bath in the
afternoon as well.
III.
Water Supply
Selection of source of water supply
6.83. Wherever corporation, municipal, panchayat, township or
cantonment water supply exists, arrangements shall be made to
connect the prison with it by a pipe line.
6.84. If water from a well or tube-well is use in a prison such wells
should be well-protected from being polluted by percolation of surface
water.
6.85. The mouth of every drinking water well shall be completely
closed and the water shall be raised by a pump. The surface
surrounding the well at its mouth shall be covered with a sloping
cement platform with a drain around it to carry spilt water, and the
well shall be lined to a sufficient depth to render the tube impermeable.
6.86. Every well shall be cleaned out once a year, and the date on
which it is done shall be recorded.
6.87. Once a week, the depth of water in each drinking water well
shall be tested and a record of the results maintained.
Filtration of Water
6.88. Drinking water may be filtered as per the directions of the
Inspector General, on the advice of medical and municipal authorities.
6.89. There shall not be any garbage dump or sanitary wastes within
a radius of 15 mtrs of any ring well or tube well.
Drawing of water
6.90. Distribution of clean water is of paramount importance.
Buckets used for filling water for drinking and for use in kitchen shall
not be used for any other purpose. Water vessels, barrels, tanks and
reservoirs shall be frequently cleaned. Every water storage receptacle
shall be covered and the lid fastened after it is filled. These shall also
be filled with taps to facilitate drawing of water from them.
Supply of Drinking Water
6.91. Suitable arrangements shall be made to supply every inmate of
a ward and cell with sufficient quantity of fresh drinking water
through taps during day and night. It shall be the responsibility of the
warder on duty to see that sufficient drinking water is available before
the prisoners are locked-in.
6.92. Prisoners at work shall be supplied with an adequate quantity of
drinking water. If water is to be stored, it shall be done in covered
receptacles which must be thoroughly cleaned every day.
Analysis of water
6.93. Samples of the water in use for domestic purposes in every
prison shall ordinarily be submitted to the State Water Analysing
Authority twice a year, for both chemical and bacteriological
examination.
6.94. In the event of outbreak of an epidemic in any prison, which
might be due to contamination of the water supply, and which calls for
an immediate examination of drinking water, the Medical Officer
should immediately make a written request to the Director of Public
Health and Preventive Medicine who shall make arrangements to
obtain the necessary samples for analysis. In addition immediate steps
shall be taken to ensure supply of water from an alternative source at
such prisons.
6.95. The State Water Analysing Authority shall, in due course,
forward a copy of its report of analysis, through the Director of Public
Health and Preventive Medicine to the Superintendent of prison and
another to the Inspector General.
Disinfection of wells
6.96. Whenever there is reason to believe that any of the wells, from
which drinking water is obtained, is a source of contamination, it shall
be treated at intervals of three days with Potassium Permanganate and
other disinfectants, as may be deemed necessary, in consultation with
the local health officer.
Provision of water to staff quarters
6.97. Adequate supply of water shall also be ensured to the
residential quarters of the prison staff. The conditions of the
cleanliness of water mentioned above shall apply here as well. Every
officer occupying staff quarters shall be held responsible for the
cleanliness of his premises. The Superintendent and the Medical
Officer shall periodically inspect the staff quarters to check general
cleanliness.
CHAPTER VII
MEDICAL CARE
Medical Administration
7.01. Medical administration is one of the most important concerns of
prison management. The Medical Officer of a prison has to give careful
attention not only to the treatment of sick prisoners but also to every
matter connected with the health of prisoners and over all hygiene of
the prison. Nothing will count more to the credit of the Medical
Officers of prisons than their success in maintaining best health
standards in the prisons under their charge.
Prison Hospitals
7.02. Hospital accommodation should be provided on the scale of 5%
of the daily average of the inmate population in all Central and District
Prisons. The prison hospitals may be of Types ‘A’ and 'B'. Big hospitals,
with 50 beds and above shall be called 'A' type hospitals. Other
hospitals, with less than 50 beds, shall be called ‘B’ type hospitals. The
staff and equipment for the two types of hospital shall be:
1
Officers
'A' Type
Chief Medical Officer (in the rank of Civil 1
Surgeon with Post Graduate Qualification)
'B' Type
1
2
Assistant Civil Surgeons
7
4
3
4
5
6
Staff Nurses
Pharmacists
Male/Female Nursing assistants
Laboratory Technicians
(to be trained in handling all equipments
including E.C.G., X-ray and portable X-ray
machines)
Psychiatric Counsellors
Junior Assistant
6
4
6
3
3
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
7
8
7.03. All the Assistant Civil Surgeons in the two types of hospital
shall be from different specialties as under:
Specialty
'A' Type
'B' Type
1
M.D. General Medicine
1
1
2
M.S. General Surgery
1
1
3
M.S. Orthopedics
1
-
4
M.D. Dermatology
1
-
5
1
1
6
M.D. Psychiatry
(Mental and de-addiction cases)
M.D.S. Dentistry
1
-
7
M.D. Gynecology
1
1
Note: One Ambulance shall be provided in each prison hospital.
Appointment of Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (In Charge)
7.04. The Government shall appoint a Chief Medical Officer/ Medical
Officer (In Charge) for every prison. During the absence of the Chief
Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (In Charge) other officers shall attend
to his duties in the prison. These Chief Medical Officers shall be under
the administrative control of the Superintendent of Prisons.
7.05. The Chief Medical Officer/ / Medical Officer (In Charge) shall
be assisted by Assistant Civil Surgeons attached to the prison hospital.
These Assistant Civil Surgeons shall be under the administrative
control of the Superintendent of the prison, except while performing
medical/clinical functions when they shall be subordinate to the
Medical Officer.
7.06. The Chief Medical Officer and Assistant Civil Surgeons,
deputed to a prison hospital, shall be entitled for rent 'free staff
quarters'.
Channel of Communication
7.07. The Chief Medical Officer will be the technical head of all the
medical officers and will be in charge of the entire Medical
Administration. He along with his subordinates will be jointly
responsible for the health-care of the prisoners. The superintendents of
prisons will be the administrative head. All correspondence to the
Inspector General of Prisons or to the Director of Medical Services and
Director of Medical Education will be routed through him. All leave,
except earned and medical leave, pertaining to the Medical Officer will
be regulated by the Chief Medical Officer.
7.08. The Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (in charge) shall
submit indents for medicines to the Inspector General through the
Superintendent of prison. In all administrative matters he will
correspond with the Inspector General through the Superintendent of
Prison. He may, however, correspond directly with the Inspector
General, on matters relating to sanitation, sick prisoners' food and
clothing and discipline in the prison hospital. He may also do so if he
notices on the person of any prisoner injuries which are alleged to have
been caused by prison officials. He shall accompany the Inspector
General during his inspection of the prison.
General Duties
7.09. The general duties of the Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer
(In Charge) shall cover every matter connected with the health of the
prisoners, their treatment when sick, and the sanitation and hygiene of
the prison.
Daily visits to prison
7.10. The Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (In Charge) shall
visit the prison and shall see sick prisoners everyday. He shall visit the
prison on Sundays and holidays as well, whenever necessary.
7.11. He shall inspect every part of the prison and check all prisoners
at least once in a week and record his observations in his report to be
sent to the Superintendent of Prisons and Inspector General of Prisons
periodically.
7.12. He shall also make a full medical inspection of all the prisoners
once a month.
7.13. If any epidemic or unusual sickness prevails, or any serious case
of illness occurs, he shall visit the prison as often as may be necessary.
7.14. If he is unable to himself undertake these inspections for any
reason, he shall record the fact and the reason for it in his journal. At
the same time he shall depute an Assistant Civil Surgeon to conduct
such inspections.
Special Needs of Aged Prisoners:
7.15. The Chief Medical Officer shall ensure that the medical needs of
aged prisoners in terms of ophthalmological care, dental care,
physiotherapy, and clinical testing for diabetics are regularly attended
to.
Treatment of Drug Addicts
7.16. The Chief Medical Officer shall organize de-addiction
programmes for such prisoners who are known to be drug-addicts. He
shall also organize training in Transcendental Meditation and Yoga for
them.
Attendance at Weekly Inspection
7.17. The Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (In Charge) shall be
present during the Superintendent's weekly inspection and shall over
see the general health and hygienic conditions prevailing in the prison.
He shall pay special attention to any signs of a scorbutic or anemic
tendency, any deterioration in health conditions, and skin diseases. He
shall also examine the prisoner's clothing and bedding to see that they
are adequate and cleaned. He will examine the drainage, ventilation,
drinking water and conservancy arrangements of the prison.
7.18. He shall, at the same time, examine the record of prisoners'
weights, to satisfy himself that the weight test is being properly done.
He shall thoroughly examine all prisoners who have lost their weight
substantially and give necessary instructions to the Assistant Civil
Surgeon of the prison regarding the action to be taken in such cases.
Attending to Prison Officers
7.19. The Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (In Charge) shall
attend to the medical needs of all prison officials and their families
residing in the prison’s staff quarters and barracks.
7.20. The Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (In Charge) shall
bring to the notice of the Superintendent any facts (about the cause of
illness of the officers and subordinate prison staff) that may be of
importance, and which shall enable him to determine their fitness for
continued employment in the prison.
7.21. The Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (In Charge) shall
maintain a minute book in which he shall enter all directions given by
him concerning the duties of the medical staff under him, the
management of the hospital, and any other instruction of importance
regarding the treatment of patients, or any other matter.
Duties of Chief Medical Officer / Medical Officer (In Charge)
7.22. The Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (in charge) shall
verify the accuracy of the records made by the Assistant Civil Surgeons
of the prison.
7.23. He shall inspect the medicines kept in store once in every six
months and satisfy himself that their weights and quantities are
entered correctly in the stock register. He shall also ensure that the
medicines are used before their date of expiry. He shall also inspect the
instruments and equipment to see that they are being maintained
properly and sufficient stock is kept in reserve.
7.24. All indents by the Assistant Civil Surgeons shall be scrutinized
and countersigned by the Chief Medical Officer/ Medical Officer (In
Charge).
7.25. He shall examine all cases coming for release on medical
grounds.
7.26. Whenever the mortality of a prison in a month exceeds 1% per
annum, he shall record an explanation of the cause of such excess of
mortality in the monthly return. In the event of unusual mortality, he
shall make a special report on the subject for transmission to the
government through the Inspector General.
7.27. The Chief Medical officer/Medical Officer In-charge shall also
be responsible for conducting medical examination of candidates
selected for appointment to various posts in the prison.
Maintenance of Journals
7.28. The Chief Medical Officer shall keep a journal in which he shall
record every visit he pays to the prison, time of entering and leaving
the prison, the parts of the prison or classes of prisoners visited, the
number of sick persons in prison and any other point which he
considers should be brought to the notice of the Superintendent. While
doing so he shall make specific note of the following:
(i)
Any defects in the food, clothing or bedding of prisoners
or in the cleanliness, drainage, ventilation, water supply
or other arrangements of the prison which the Chief
Medical Officer considers likely to be injurious to the
health of prisoners, together with suggestions for
removing such defects
(ii)
Any occurrence of importance connected with the
hospital administration.
(iii) Any marked increase in the number of in or out door
patients and its apparent causes.
7.29. After each visit this journal shall be sent immediately to the
Superintendent for his perusal. Thereupon the Superintendent may
issue any orders he thinks fit. When the Chief Medical Officer himself
is the Superintendent of the Prison the points required to be referred to
in his journal shall be recorded in the journal maintained by the
Superintendent of Prison.
Submission of Returns
7.30. The Chief Medical Officer shall punctually submit the
prescribed returns and shall furnish any other information regarding
the medical administration of the prison, which the Inspector General
may call for. A report regarding the sanitary condition prevailing in
prison shall also be furnished to the Inspector General along with the
annual returns.
Maintenance of Registers
7.31. The Medical Registers and Forms other than the Journal shall be
kept under the orders of the Medical Officer, who is responsible for
their correctness. At the Inspector Generals’ inspection, the Medical
Officer shall produce before him, every register and record, connected
with the Medical Department of the Prison.
Clinics and Labs for Prison Hospitals
7.32. The following equipment shall be made available to prison
hospitals.
i.
Dental clinic with all equipment
ii.
Ophthalmology Clinic with all equipment
iii.
Minor operation theatre with all surgical equipment
iv.
Clinical laboratory with required equipment
v.
X-ray lab with dark room and equipment
vi.
Physiotherapy unit with equipment.
vii.
De-toxification unit.
viii. Psychiatric unit with equipment.
Appointment of Assistant Civil Surgeons
7.33. In each prison and Borstal School, one or more Assistant Civil
Surgeons, as may be necessary, shall be appointed to be Medical
Subordinates.
Terms of Appointment
7.34. The Assistant Surgeon shall be appointed to the prison service
from the State Directorate of Medical Services and his postings and
transfers shall be made by the Director of Medical Services in
consultation with the Inspector General of Prisons.
Conditions of Service
7.35. Assistant surgeons, staff nurses, pharmacists, nursing assistants
and lab technicians attached to prisons shall not, while on duty, leave
the prison premises without the permission of the Chief Medical
Officer and the Superintendent of the prison.
Uniform
7.36. The Assistant Surgeons shall be supplied with four coats per
year as uniform. These coats shall be made from a prison-made drill
and tailored in the tailoring section of the prison. The coats shall be the
property of the Prison Department and will be kept in the prison.
Leave
7.37. All leave, except casual leave, will be granted by the Director of
Medical Services on the recommendation of the Inspector General. The
Inspector General shall also address the Director of Medical Services
for the posting of a substitute, except where the absence is short and
local arrangements can be made.
7.38. The Superintendent of the prison shall have the authority to
grant casual leave to the Assistant Surgeon attached to the respective
prison. However, in case a substitute from outside is necessary during
the leave period, the Chief Medical Officer shall be consulted before
such leave is granted.
Maintenance of Report Book
7.39. Every Assistant Surgeon shall maintain a report book in which
he shall record all matters of importance that he wishes to bring to the
notice of the Chief Medical Officer.
7.40. This report book shall be produced for inspection and orders of
the Chief Medical Officer. The Chief Medical Officer will sign his
report book every day.
Hours of Duty
7.41.
In prisons where there are more than one assistant surgeons a.
The hours of duty during the day shall be equally
distributed between them by the Medical Officer,
ensuring that one of them is always present in the prison
b.
One of the assistant surgeons shall be on night duty on
rotation basis to attend to the prisoners in the event of an
emergency.
7.42. In prisons where there is only one Assistant Surgeon he shall
remain inside the prison throughout the day, except when permitted to
absent himself for meals or other valid reasons. He shall visit the
hospital occasionally at nights and may, under the orders of the Chief
Medical Officer, be required to remain on duty there if there are any
cases under treatment which are likely to render his presence
necessary.
Custody of Keys
7.43. An Assistant Surgeon on duty inside the prison at night shall be
responsible for the safe custody of the keys of the hospital and of any
other place in which prisoners are confined for medical treatment. But,
he shall not unlock any door except in the presence of the Assistant
Superintendent. Only in a case where unlocking of the hospital ward
is urgently required he shall unlock doors in the presence of the
patrolling officer on duty.
7.44. Every Assistant Surgeon entrusted with the keys shall be held
responsible for making sure that they are kept in his personal
possession and are not improperly used. He shall report at the earliest
opportunity to the Deputy Superintendent and Medical Officer every
instance in which he has had occasion to unlock the door of any
compartment occupied by the prisoners during his term of duty at
night.
Duties of the Assistant Surgeon:
7.45.
It shall be the duty of an Assistant Surgeon
a.
to be available to attend to any prisoner who complains
of illness or who appears to be ill, and have him
removed to the hospital or the place for medical
examination by Chief Medical Officer, as the case may be,
b.
to attend to sick prisoners and out-patients visiting the
hospital and supervise the preparation and issue of
medicines, food and extra diet. He shall satisfy himself
that the Chief Medical Officer's orders in their regard are
properly carried out,
c.
to make a daily round of the prison cells and report to
the Chief Medical Officer the conditions in the prison
which have any bearing on the health of the inmates and
every such complaint made to him.
d.
to ensure that all medicines indented for the hospital are
properly arranged, labelled and stored in a safe place.
e.
to take proper care of instruments, appliances, and
equipment in his charge.
f.
to see that sick prisoners are clean and tidy.
g.
to see that the hospital clothing and bedding are marked
in a distinctive manner.
h.
to see that all articles in use in the hospital are safely
stored and kept clean.
i.
to allow no property in his charge to leave the prison
premises.
j.
not to permit any convict attendant to handle instruments
or distribute drugs whose misapplication may be
dangerous,
k.
to ensure that the pharmacist attends to the clerical work
connected with the hospital, such as the upkeep of
registers, the preparation of returns and the punctual
submission of indents,
l.
m.
n.
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p.
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r.
s.
t.
u.
v.
w.
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y.
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to satisfy himself that the food for the sick is properly
prepared and distributed.
to ensure that order, cleanliness and discipline is
maintained in and around the hospital.
to ensure that the staff nurses and others employed in the
hospital perform their duties properly.
to ensure that any excess or deficiency of attendants is
brought to the notice of the Chief Medical Officer.
to visit the prison kitchen everyday, inspect the food
supplied, both raw and cooked (both in bulk and after
distribution) and see that the salt, oil and condiments are
added and thoroughly mixed, satisfy himself that the
food is of good quality and that the quantity of each
article is according to the sanctioned scale. He shall also
see that the kitchen and its surroundings are maintained
in a sanitary condition, that the drains are flushed and
free from refuse, that the water stored in the tanks for
cooking and washing utensils is changed frequently, and
that the utensils in use are clean and in good condition,
to supervise the supply of milk to the hospital, to test the
milk in the prescribed manner, to see that it is properly
boiled before issue.
to inspect the food supplied to civil and un-convicted
criminal prisoners by their friends,
to keep a watch on prisoners suspected of malingering
and to report the result of his observations,
to be present at various parades and separate for
examination and treatment any prisoner who appears to
be in need of attention or who is known or suspected of
leaving part of his food uneaten.
To bring to the notice of the Chief Medical Officer any
female whom he may suspect to be pregnant,
to see the bathing of prisoners suffering from skin
infections,
to examine all newly admitted prisoners and to record in
the admission register and medical sheets particulars
regarding their health, and the kind of labour and they
can perform in view of their health conditions,
to satisfy himself that the person, and private clothing, of
newly admitted prisoners are properly cleaned, and that
the clothing is, if necessary, disinfected before keeping in
the store rooms,
to vaccinate newly admitted prisoners, and (if so
directed) infants admitted with their mothers or born in
prison,
to bring promptly to the notice of the Superintendent and
Chief Medical Officer any case of suspected cholera or
other contagious or infectious diseases that may appear
amongst the staff or inmates of the prison,
aa.
bb.
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to examine the wells and other sources of water supply,
to bring to notice any defects with regard to the quantity
or quality of water supplied, to examine every day all
tanks and vessels in which water is stored or conveyed,
and to prepare samples of water for analysis as and
when required,
to inspect the surroundings of the prison at least once a
week. He shall pay particular attention to manner in
which filth is trenched or otherwise disposed of,
to attend to the ventilation, with due regard to the season,
of the hospital, sleeping wards and workshops and to
satisfy himself that prisoners are not unnecessarily
exposed to draught or rain.
The weighing of Prisoners
7.46. The Assistant Surgeon shall be present during the fortnightly
weighing of prisoners. He shall record each prisoner's weight in his
weight chart and shall parade, as soon afterwards as possible, for
inspection by the Chief Medical Officer all prisoners who are losing
weight to any noticeable extent.
7.47. Provided that in cases when the subordinate medical
establishment is small for the number of prisoners, or in cases where
the medical work is heavy, an officer of the executive staff of the prison
may be deputed by the Superintendent of the prison to assist the
Assistant Surgeon in carrying out the work of recording the weight of
prisoners.
Examination of Prisoners Complaining of Illness
7.48. Every prisoner complaining of illness, or appearing to be ill,
shall be sent to the prison hospital for immediate examination and
further treatment by the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) or, in his
absence, by the Medical Subordinate.
7.49. On the advice of the CMO, and with due approval of the DG/IG
Prisons, the Superintendent may transfer any sick prisoner to the local
government hospital. If the CMO is of opinion that prior approval of
the DG/IG Prisons will take such time as will endanger the life of a
sick prisoner, the transfer may be made in anticipation of sanction of
the DG/IG Prisons. No prisoner should be allowed to stay in an
outside hospital except on ground of dire medical needs. In deserving
cases, the opinion of Medical Board constituted by the CMO of the
district shall be obtained while sending prisoners outside the prison on
medical grounds.
Diet of a Prisoner
Control of Hospital Diets
7.50. The diet of prisoners in hospital shall be entirely under the
control of the Chief Medical Officer who may either keep the prisoner
on the ordinary prison diet, or may place him on one of the regular
hospital diets, or may order any modifications of the prison or hospital
diet, or may prescribe extra diet he may think necessary, according to
the scales of diet prescribed, if any, under the rules.
Preparation of Hospital Diets
7.51. Hospital diets requiring special preparation shall be cooked in
the hospital kitchen, and the Medical Officer shall examine the diet
frequently and satisfy himself by weighing that the full quantities of
the prescribed articles are present, and are well cooked.
Precaution Regarding Milk
7.52. Special care shall be taken with articles such as milk that can
easily be adulterated or stolen. Fresh milk shall be used, wherever it
can be obtained, in preference to tinned milk. Milk shall be frequently
tested to ensure that it is pure. If the specific gravity of the milk
supplied is below 1,025, the milk should not be accepted.
Special Diet for Prisoners not in Hospital
7.53. The Chief Medical Officer may recommend special diet for any
prisoner in the invalid group after recording reasons for
recommending that in his register. But such recommendations shall not
be made as a matter of routine. The Medical Subordinate can
recommend the issue of special diet to a prisoner in the absence of the
Chief Medical Officer, but he shall report this to him and obtain his
approval. Issue of special diet shall always be in lieu of the regular diet
to which a prisoner is otherwise eligible. If it is continued for more
than a fortnight, it shall be reported to the Inspector General. The Chief
Medical Officer owns the responsibility to economise the expenditure
on this account and shall exercise utmost care in recommending special
diet to the prisoners.
Indent for Hospital Diets
7.54. An indent showing the number of hospital diets and extras
required, shall be sent not later than by 9 AM every day to the officer in
charge of ration and care shall be taken that diets and extras reach the
prisoners promptly. Emergent indents, in cases of urgency, may be sent
at any hour of the day. This shall be generally avoided except in cases
of extreme urgency.
Detention of a Prisoner for Observation
7.55. A prisoner may be detained for observation in the hospital for
24 hours without his name being noted down in any register if his
disease has not been diagnosed. After the expiry of that period,
whether or not his disease is diagnosed, his name shall be entered in
the proper register. The number of prisoners detained under
observation shall be recorded in the Hospital Roll and the treatment
prescribed for them in the prescription book. If the Chief Medical
Officer finds a prisoner to be malingering, he shall at once report the
fact to the Superintendent for punishment.
Medical Treatment of Sick Prisoners
7.56. Every prisoner suffering from any active disease shall be
brought under medical treatment, either as an out-patient or an in-door
patient, and his name shall be recorded in the register of out patients in
a prescribed form (Appendix.3) or in the register of in-patients in a
prescribed form (Appendix.4).
Maintenance of Case Book
7.57. The number of sick in hospital shall be daily recorded in the
Hospital Roll of Sick in a prescribed form (Appendix-5). Their
treatment and diet shall be recorded in the Case Sheet in a prescribed
form (Appendix-6).
7.58. In addition to these records, there shall be maintained in every
hospital a case book in a prescribed form (Appendix-7) in which the
history of every case admitted into hospital shall be recorded.
7.59. The case book is intended to be a contemporaneous record or
diary of each prisoner’s symptoms, treatment and diet. All entries in it
shall, therefore, be immediate and direct. The practice of keeping
notes, to be afterwards copied into the case-book, is prohibited.
7.60. The entries in the case-book will usually be made by the Medical
Subordinate, as symptoms appear or treatment is applied. The Medical
Officer will add notes of his own observations and orders as and when
he examines the patient. The Medical Officer shall see the case-book
every day and initial the entries regarding each case in token of him
having seen them.
7.61. As a general rule the entries in the case-book shall be made
every day, but in chronic cases, where there is little or no change from
one day to another, the Medical Officer may, by entry in his own hand
in the case-book, record that daily entries are not necessary.
Bathing of Patients
7.62. Prisoners who are not too ill shall be required to bathe daily, at a
time the Medical Officer may direct.
Proper Place of Washing
7.63. A proper place for washing and boiling dirty clothing and
sheets shall be provided. Blankets and work clothings too shall be
frequently washed in boiling water.
Cleanliness of the Hospital
7.64. Every hospital shall be kept clean and well ventilated. The walls
of the hospital shall be scraped and white washed once in six months,
or more often necessary.
Disinfections of Wards
7.65. A ward or a cell in which a case of infectious disease has
occurred or been treated shall be immediately cleared thoroughly
using disinfectants as prescribed.
Explanation: Disinfestation shall be carried out under the personal
direction of one of the Assistant Surgeons to be nominated by the Chief
Medical Officer.
Supply of Medicines When Under Treatment at Hospitals outside
the Prison:
7.66. Where a prisoner is undergoing special treatment in a hospital
outside the prison and any medicine prescribed by the Medical Officer
of such outside hospital, which is absolutely necessary, and is not
available at the said hospital, the same shall be purchased by the
hospital authorities locally and the cost reimbursed by the
Superintendent immediately.
Allotment of Labour on Medical Opinion
7.67. When the Assistant Surgeon is of the opinion that the health of
any prisoner suffers from employment of any kind or class of labour,
he shall record such opinion in the prisoner's sheet and the prisoner
shall not be employed on that labour. But he shall be placed on another
kind or class of labour as the Chief Medical Officer may consider
suitable for him.
Duty of Assistant Surgeon on Occurrence of Death
7.68. The Assistant Surgeon shall immediately report every death that
occurs in the prison to the Chief Medical Officer and shall assist him at
the postmortem examination. He shall ensure that the body is suitably
prepared for burial/cremation before removal from the mortuary.
Medical Aid to Prison Officers
7.69. The Assistant Surgeon shall, under the direction of the Chief
Medical Officer, accord medical aid to all members of the prison
establishment and others living on the prison premises.
To assist Medical Officer
7.70. He shall render assistance to the Chief Medical Officer by
reporting to him all matters affecting health, such as:
a.
Overcrowding
b.
Unsuitable, worn out or dirty clothing
c.
Neglect of personal cleanliness
d.
Undue exposure to weather
e.
Unpunctuality of meals
f.
Neglect to air-dry or clean clothes and bedding
g.
Unsuitable tasks.
Appointment of Staff Nurse and Pharmacist
7.71. As far as practicable, only staff nurses and pharmacists, who
have passed the tests prescribed by the Medical Department shall be
employed in prisons.
7.72. Staff nurses and pharmacists shall be posted to prison duty for a
period of three years exclusive of any long leave availed by them and
then reverted to the Civil Medical Department. The said period of three
years may either be extended at the option of the individual, and with
the approval of the District Medical Officer, or the Superintendent, of
Government General Hospital, as the case may be, and the
Superintendent of the prison concerned, by such further period that
these officers may consider desirable. This period can also be reduced
on the recommendation of the District Medical Officer or the
Superintendent of the Government General Hospital, as the case may
be, or of the Superintendent of the prison concerned. All leave,
excepting casual leave, shall be granted by the District Medical Officer
or by the Superintendent, Government General Hospital, as the case
may be, on the recommendation of the Chief Medical Officer of the
prison.
7.73. Casual leave may be granted to the Staff nurses and Pharmacists
by the Chief Medical Officer of the prison in accordance with the rules
relating to the grant of such leave.
Duties of the Staff Nurse and the Pharmacists
7.74. The Staff nurses and the pharmacists shall obey the lawful
orders of the Chief Medical Officer and the Assistant Surgeon in all
matters connected with the medical work of the prison and of the
Superintendent, Additional Superintendent and Dy.Supdt. in other
matters.
7.75. Their duties shall be to help the Assistant Surgeon in the
maintenance of the health of the staff and prisoners by compounding
and distributing medicines, vaccinating and weighing prisoners,
performing clerical work, maintaining order and discipline in the
hospital and by carrying out such other duties as may be allocated to
them by the Chief Medical Officer.
Chief Medical Officer to Supervise Treatment of Out-patients
7.76. The Chief Medical Officer shall daily inspect the out-patients
register, and shall order the admission of a patient to prison hospital, if
in his opinion the patient’s medical condition necessitates such
hospitalization. The Medical Officer shall himself examine all outpatients at least once a week.
7.77. Prisoners suffering from only minor ailments shall be treated as
out-patients. The Chief Medical Officer shall be responsible that all
other patients are admitted to the prison hospital. Under no
circumstances prisoners suffering from dysentery shall be treated as
out-patients.
Assistant Civil Surgeons to Treat Out-Patients
7.78. Subject to the foregoing provisions, the examination and
treatment of out-patients may be conducted by Assistant Civil
Surgeons.
Treatment of Sick Prisoners in the Hospital
7.79. The treatment of sick prisoners in the prison hospital shall be
under over all supervision of the Medical Officer. If, in his absence, the
Assistant Civil Surgeon takes any action for the treatment of a prisoner,
he shall record the action taken in his Report Book and submit it to the
Medical Officer immediately on his return.
Chief Medical Officer’s Daily Visit
7.80. The Chief Medical Officer shall visit all prisoners kept in
hospital under observation every day and shall decide whether a
prisoner needs to be discharged from hospital.
Supply of Hospital Clothing and Bedding
7.81. Every prisoner shall be supplied with hospital clothing and
bedding on admission to hospital. His convict clothing and bedding
will be taken from him. These shall be returned to him on his
discharge from hospital. Care shall be taken that clothing and bedding
are changed regularly to maintain cleanliness, and that in cases of
infections disease all clothings and beddings are thoroughly
disinfected.
7.82. Every patient in hospital shall be provided with a proper
mattress, a pillow and white sheets.
7.83. If any epileptic is placed in a cell but he shall be provided with a
mat of a thicker pattern and shall sleep on the floor. He shall not be
made to sleep on a raised masonary berth.
Segregation of Infectious Cases
7.84. Every case, or suspected case, of infectious diseases shall
immediately be segregated and the strictest isolation shall be
maintained until the Chief Medical Officer considers it safe to
discontinue the precautions. The Medical Officer shall give written
instructions as to the clearing, disinfecting or destroying of any
infected clothing or bedding, and shall satisfy himself that the same are
carried out.
Segregation of Prisoners in the Prison Hospital
7.85. Cases of dysentery and diarrhoea shall be treated in a separate
ward, if possible. Loose stool of such patients shall be disinfected and
destroyed by fire. All wards, beds, bedding, clothes and latrine vessels
used by them shall be thoroughly disinfected.
7.86. Prisoners suffering from veneral diseases shall be segregated.
7.87. All cases of pulmonary tuberculosis shall be segregated in
special wards. All necessary precautions shall be taken to guard
against the spread of infection to other prisoners.
7.88. All prisoners suffering from malarial fever shall be segregated
and provided with mosquito nets.
7.89. All cases with abnormally enlarged spleen shall have
boundaries marked on the skin and shall be provided with some
distinctive clothing. Care shall be taken that the spleen is not hurt.
7.90. Minor infectious diseases such as scabies, mumps, measles, etc.,
must on no account be neglected. Segregation for the full period must
be enforced. Cases of scabies need not, as a rule be admitted into
hospital, but segregated from other prisoners.
7.91. Prisoners showing signs of lunacy shall not, if they are
dangerous, noisy or filthy, be kept in the hospital but shall be kept in a
separate cell.
7.92. In some cases, it may be considered for prisoners in hospital to
be given some employment. Light work shall, therefore, be provided
for them.
7.93. Wherever necessary, cases of inmates shall be referred to
specialised medical institution with the prior sanction of the competent
authority.
Treatment of Malingerers
7.94. If the Chief Medical Officer is of opinion that a prisoner is
malingering he shall at once report the fact to the Superintendent. No
treatment shall be given to prisoners feigning illness.
Treatment of Prisoners discharged from Hospital
7.95. Every prisoner on discharge from hospital shall either be put to
labour or placed in the 'Invalid Group', as the Chief Medical Officer
may direct.
Composition of the Invalid Group
7.96.
The invalid group shall consist of:
i.
Those who are permanently incapacitated from
performing hard or medium labour because of age, or
bodily infirmity. They will be the permanent members of
the group,
ii.
Those who have been discharged from hospital as
convalescents, but are temporarily unfit to perform hard
or medium labour,
iii.
Men who are generally out of health even if not falling
under the above two categories. This category shall
include prisoners passed as fit for light labour only,
prisoners exhibiting scorbutic or malaric scorbutic gums,
prisoners found to be steadily failing in weight, and
prisoners who are anaemic.
Treatment of the Invalid Group
7.97. Prisoners in the invalid group shall be given some light work
suited to their strength and shall, as far as possible, be kept together for
the purpose of diet and observation, both by day and night. A register
of such prisoners shall be kept and no prisoner shall be placed in or
discharged from this group without the permission of the Chief
Medical Officer. They shall be examined daily by the Medical
Subordinate, and once a week by the Chief Medical Officer.
Procedure on Death of a Prisoner
7.98.1 In the event of death of any prisoner, the Chief Medical Officer
shall see and, if necessary, examine the body of the deceased prisoner
so that he may be in a position to certify the fact and cause of death.
When the Chief Medical Officer is in any doubt as to the cause of
death, or if the death appears to have been the result of an offence
punishable under the Indian Penal Code (Central Act XLV of 1860), he
shall make a complete and regular postmortem examination of the
body of the deceased. In the event of several deaths resulting from any
prevailing epidemic, postmortem examinations shall be made in one or
more cases to be selected by the Chief Medical Officer.
7.98.2 Whenever the mortality in the prison during a month exceeds
1% per annum, he shall record an explanation of the cause of such
excess of mortality in the monthly return. In cases of unusual mortality,
he shall make a special report on the subject for the government
through the Inspector General.
7.98.3 The provisions of sub-rule (1) shall, with necessary changes,
apply to the case of a death of an officer of the prison while employed
on duty.
7.98.4 The record required by Section 15 of the Prisons Act, 1894
(Central Act IX of 1894) shall be made by the Chief Medical Officer in
the case book.
Death of Prisoners Transferred on Ground of Health-Filing of
Returns:
7.99. If any prisoner transferred to another prison hospital for the
benefit of his health, dies of the disease with which he was transferred
within three months of his transfer, or if he dies of T.B. at any time, his
death shall be borne on the return by the transferring prison. But, if he
dies from a different disease or after the lapse of three months, then it
shall be borne by the receiving prison.
Registration of Birth or Death In Prison
7.100. The Dy. Superintendent of Prisons shall send intimation of birth
or death in a prison in writing to the Registrar of the locality appointed
for the purpose under the Registration of Births and deaths Act, 1969
(Central Act XVIII of 1969).
Death in Custody
7.101.1
Deaths of all prisoners whose fingerprints have been
taken and if known in prisons, shall be intimated immediately to the
Finger Print Bureau.
7.101.2
When a military prisoner dies in prison, immediate
report thereof shall be given to the Commanding Officer who sent him
to the prison.
7.101.3
When a foreign prisoner dies in prison immediate report
shall be sent to the District Magistrate of the district and the Inspector
General for further communication to the government.
The
government shall inform the embassy or the appropriate authority
about the death.
7.101.4
Where a woman prisoner dies in prison and leaves a
child behind, notice shall at once be sent to the District Magistrate of
the district who shall make arrangements for further care of the child
as may be deemed fit.
7.101.5
Where a convicted prisoner dies in prison his warrant
shall be returned to the court from which it was issued with an
endorsement certifying the cause and date of death. Where a remand
or an under-trial prisoner dies in prison, the court or courts in which
the case or cases are pending, against the deceased shall immediately
be informed of the fact of death in writing.
Recording of Death
7.102. Entries relating to the death of a prisoner shall be made in the
concerned registers, in the History Ticket in detail and in the hospital
records. All records relating to the death of a prisoner shall be
preserved for at least two years.
Disposal of the Dead Bodies of Prisoners
7.103. The body of any prisoner, including that of a child residing with
a female prisoner, who dies in a prison or in a civil hospital or asylum,
shall be disposed
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Only after a postmortem in the hospital-the body may be
handed over to the relatives if available. For this purpose
it may be kept in the hospital mortuary for 24 hours.
If there is no chance of relatives or friends reaching
within 24 hours, the prison authorities shall dispose of
the body in accordance with the hospital rules.
The delivery of a body to relatives or friends shall be
subject to the conditions that there shall be no public
demonstration of any nature in regard to its removal.
The Superintendent of the prison in every case shall
conduct an identification test to ensure that the dead
body is the body of the particular prisoner and satisfy
that the marks of identification mentioned in the convict
register tally with those on the dead body and furnish a
certificate to that effect in the register.
7.104. The relatives of prisoners, if poor, may be paid a maximum
amount of Rs. 750/- for transporting the dead body of the prisoner to
their native place or for performing last rites.
Intimation to inquiring Magistrates and Police Officers
7.105. Intimation of all deaths, including that of children residing with
female prisoners, occurring from whatever cause in the prison shall be
sent to:
a.
the nearest Magistrate empowered under sub-section (4)
of Section 174 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
(Central Act 2 of 1974) to hold inquests;
b.
the officer in charge of the police station having
jurisdiction, who is required to make a preliminary
investigation.
7.106. The body of the deceased prisoner or the deceased child of the
female prisoner shall be kept for inspection and orders of the officer
holding the inquests. No prison officers shall be a member of a
panchayat formed to express an opinion as to the cause of death of any
prisoner or deceased child of the female prisoner.
Postmortem Examination
7.107. A postmortem examination shall be carried out by the Medical
Officer for all cases of death of prisoners or their children who reside
with them, occurring inside the prison premises, in prison hospitals, in
transit from one prison to another or from the prison to an outside
hospital, or in an outside hospital. A full report on the circumstances of
the death shall be sent by the Superintendent without any delay to the
Inspector General of Prisons for submission to the government.
Reports made by the police and magistrate, the nominal roll, copies of
judgements, the reports required by Section 15 of the Prisons Act, 1894
(Central Act IX of 1894) and the deposition of witnesses with this
report, shall be submitted.
Indent for Clothing and Bedding
7.108. The quantities of clothing and bedding required for hospital use
shall be reported in fixed time by the Chief Medical Officer to the
Superintendent who shall include them in the general indent as the
case may be of prison clothing submitted for sanction by the Inspector
General.
Indent for Other Articles
7.109. For articles other than diet, clothing and bedding, the Chief
Medical Officer shall indent by letter or by entry in his journal.
Local Purchase of Medicines
7.110. In cases of exceptional illness, and in order to meet
extraordinary demands, the Superintendents of Prison, on the
recommendations of the Medical Officers of the Prisons and Borstal
School, are authorized to purchase medicines locally after observing
codal formalities up to a limit of Rs. 1,000/-(Rupees one thousand
only) per month. The Inspector General is empowered to exercise
similar power up to a limit of Rs.5, 000 (Rupees five thousand only) per
month for any one prison. Such purchase shall, in no case, result in
unnecessary stocking of medicines and it is the responsibility of the
Superintendent to use his discretion properly and to economise the
expenditure.
7.111. In case of medicines where the validity is about to lapse, the
Chief Medical Officer after proper assessment shall, and in
consultation with the Superintendent of prisons and the Inspector
General arrange for their disposal to the best advantage of the
government before the validity lapses. In no case the medicines
purchased shall be allowed to deteriorate and become ineffective. In
the same manner hospital equipment not required for use in prisons
shall also be disposed off.
Placing Indents for Supply of Medicines
7.112. The Medical Officers in prison shall forward necessary indents
for the supply of medicines, to the Medical Stores Depot and other
sources specified from time to time, through the Superintendents of
prisons and the Inspector General, duly countersigned by the latter.
Such indents shall be the proper assessment of requirements for a year
and shall reach the Medical Stores Depot well in advance in order to
give sufficient time for getting the supplies. The indents shall be so
prepared to restrict the purchase of medicines from the local market to
the barest minimum and to avoid unnecessary stocking of medicines.
Supplementary indents shall also be forwarded wherever necessary. In
all cases, the matter shall be pursued till the receipt of the medicines
indented for. In case of delay the matter shall be reported to the
Inspector General for suitable action.
Stock Verification by the Superintendents of Prisons
7.113. The Superintendents of prisons shall conduct stock verification
of medicines, instruments and equipment in the prison hospitals
annually in the first week of January. They shall also do surprise stock
checking of medicines and medical appliances in the prison hospitals.
All differences between the actual weighments and quantities with
those shown in the stock books shall be reported to the Inspector
General through the District Medical Officer concerned.
Stock Verification of Medicines and Medical Appliances
7.114. The Chief Medical Officer shall for himself conduct an annual
stock verification of medicines, medical appliances, in July every year
and report the difference to the Inspector General through the
Superintendent of prisons or Borstal School. He shall also make
surprise checks at least once a month and record the differences in the
report book, and intimate the fact to the Superintendent of prisons or
Borstal School for necessary action.
7.115. There shall also be an annual stock verification of these stores by
the Deputy Inspector General of Prisons.
Appointment of Attendants and Training of Nursing Orderlies
7.116. For the purpose of attending to sick prisoner a few educated
convicts of good conduct and undergoing long sentences shall be
selected by the Superintendents in consultation with the Medical
Officer and trained as nursing orderlies. A brief syllabus for their
training shall be prepared as a guide to the Assistant Surgeons who,
under the direction of the Medical Officer, shall be responsible for
conducting such training. The number of convicts employed as nursing
orderlies shall ordinarily be in the ratio of one for every ten patients. In
times of epidemics and other emergencies this proportion may be
increased and special orderlies may be allowed for very serious cases
or for bed-ridden patients. Convict nursing orderlies, who perform
their duties satisfactorily, shall be allowed extra remission and gratuity
at the same rate and scale as prescribed for a convict night watchman.
Appointment of Hospital Menials
7.117. The Superintendent shall detail sufficient number of convict to
perform the menial duties at the hospital. Such convicts shall work
under the orders of the Medical Officer. Only prisoners serving long
sentences, and who are of good conduct, shall be sent for such duties.
Case Sheet
7.118. A case sheet and temperature chart shall be placed over every
occupied bed showing the required particulars. In every case of fever
entries shall be made in the temperature chart.
Vaccinations of Prisoners on Admission
7.119. Every prisoner admitted to prison shall be vaccinated on
admission, or as soon as possible afterwards, unless:
a.
he shows clear evidence of being protected against small
pox either by having had it before, or by a previous
vaccination, or
b.
he is undergoing a sentence which will detain him in
prison for a period not exceeding one month.
7.120. The Chief Medical Officer may, at his discretion, dispense with
vaccination or re-vaccination in cases he considers undesirable or
unnecessary.
7.121. Every prisoner admitted to a prison shall be inoculated against
typhoid immediately on admission or soon afterwards. Other
preventive inoculations such as against cholera shall be given
whenever the Chief Medical Officer considers it necessary in the
interest of the health of the prison population.
Vaccination Register
7.122. A vaccination register shall be maintained and the particulars of
those vaccinated shall be entered in it. When a failure is not attributed
to immunity arising from previous vaccination or from previous
occurrence of small-pox, the operation shall be repeated. All attempts
to render the operation unsuccessful shall be brought to the notice of
the Superintendent.
Medical Examination of the Members of the Staff
7.123. Medical examination of the members of the staff may be done at
least once a year in consultation with the Superintendent of the Prison.
Reports of such medical examination shall be kept in the office of the
Superintendent.
Fortnightly Weighing
7.124. Care shall be taken that the fortnightly weighings, under Section
35(2) of the Prisons Act, 1894 (Central Act IX of 1894), are done at
approximately the same time of day to avoid as far as possible, the
variatations that naturally take place throughout the day.
7.125. Since no labour is done on Sundays, Sundays will be most
suitable for taking weights. When the number of labouring prisorners
is large, they can be divided into two groups, with each group being
weighed on alteranate Sundays. Assistance of the pharmacist and a
member of the executive staff detailed by the Superintendent may be
taken for the purpose.
Explanation: The body weight varies to a certain extent from time to
time under normal conditions. Therefore, small differences of weight
up to 1kg would not necessarily indicate that the weights were taken
carelessly.
Record of weights
7.126. The initial weight on admission to prison and the final weight
before release shall be recorded in the Convict Register and these, as
well as all the intermediate fornightly weights, shall be recorded in the
prisoner's History Ticket and weight chart.
7.127. Before recording the prisoner's weights, it shall be ascertained
that the weighing machines are accurate.
Treatment of Prisoners Losing Weight
7.128. All prisoners who have lost more than 1.5 kg since the last
fortnightly weighing, or more than 3.0 kg since admission to prison,
shall be paraded with their weight charts for the inspection of the
Superintendent and the Chief Medical Officer on the day following the
day the weighing is done.
7.129. Special care shall be taken in case of prisoners with a poor
physique on admission, for whom even small loss of weight may be of
serious concern.
Check by Chief Medical Officer
7.130. The Chief Medical Officer shall, as soon as possible after the
fortnightly weighing, check the weights of a dozen or more prisoners
picked randomly to satisfy himself of their accuracy and shall record in
his journal any remarks he may consider necessary.
CHAPTER VIII
CONTACT WITH OUTSIDE WORLD
Reasonable facilities to be allowed for interviews and letters
8.01. Every prisoner shall be allowed reasonable facilities for seeing
or communicating with, his/her family members, relatives, friends and
legal advisers for the preparation of an appeal or for procuring bail or
for arranging the management of his/her property and family affairs.
He/she shall be allowed to have interviews with his/her family
members, relatives, friends and legal advisers once in a fortnight. The
number of letters a prisoner can write in a month shall be fixed by the
Government under the rules.
8.02. The same facilities shall be allowed to every prisoner committed
to the prison in default of payment of a fine, or furnishing security
under Chapter VIII of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Central
Act 2 of 1974), to enable him to arrange for payment of the fine or
furnishing security.
8.03. On admission, every prisoner should submit a list of persons
who are likely to interview him/her and the interview shall be
restricted to such family members, relatives and friends.
The
conversation at the interviews shall be limited to private and domestic
matters and there shall be no reference to prison administration and
discipline and to other prisoners or politics. The number of persons
who may interview a prisoner at one time shall ordinarily be limited to
three.
Privileges Contingent to Good Conduct
8.04 The contents of all letters shall be limited to private matters.
Postage stamps may be allowed to be purchased for letters addressed
by prisoners to their relatives in foreign countries at their cost. If the
prisoners have no cash in credit, it shall be supplied at government cost
in deserving cases, and at reasonable intervals, at the discretion of the
Superintendent of Prison. The prisoners shall not be allowed to misuse
such privileges. In addition to the number of letters allowed in a
month the prisoners shall be allowed, if they so desire, a special letter
in order to inform their friends or relatives of their transfer from one
prison to another. This shall be in addition to the letters allowed to
them. Ex-prisoners and habitual prisoners, who apply to see their
friends lodged in a prison may not be permitted such interview by the
Superintendent unless and until there exist a genuine reason for such
interview.
8.05. These privileges of interviews with visitors, and of writing and
receiving letters, are contingent to good conduct. These privileges may
be suspended or withdrawn by the Superintendent of Prison on
grounds of bad conduct.
Explanation (1): Every prisoner shall be given the option of informing
his/her family of his/her committal to the prison immediately on
his/her admission, he/she shall be provided with a post card or inland
letter for this purpose.
Explanation (2): A letter merely arranging an interview shall not be
counted as a letter for the purpose of this rule.
Explanation (3): A prisoner may substitute a letter with a reply for an
interview or vice versa with the permission of the Superintendent.
Explanation (4): Prisoners shall not be allowed to correspond with prisoners in
other prisons. If, however, a prisoner has got his/her relatives in another
prison, he/she may be permitted to write to them, subject to the restrictions
contained in these rules.
Superintendent’s Discretion to Grant Privileges at Shorter Intervals
8.06. If he considers that special or urgent grounds exist for such concession,
the Superintendent may at his discretion, grant interviews or allow the
dispatch or receipt of letters at shorter intervals than provided in spite of a
prisoner’s misconduct. This could be in the event of the prisoner being
seriously ill, or the death of a near relative, or when his/her friends or relatives
have come from a distance to see the prisoner and it would inflict undue
hardship on them if they are refused an interview, or if the prisoner is nearing
release and wishes to secure employment, or for any other sufficient cause.
Matters of importance, such as the death of a relative may also be
communicated at any time to the Superintendent who will, if he thinks it
expedient, inform the prisoner about it.
Prisoners Allowed to Sign a Power of Attorney
8.07. Every convicted prisoner may at the discretion of the Superintendent
be permitted to sign and attest a power of attorney or other
statements/conveyances concerning his/her properties. Each such transaction
shall be treated as an interview.
Interview with Prisoners in the Same Prison or in Hospitals Outside
the Prison
8.08. Subject to the provisions of the above rules, the Superintendent
shall also permit interviews between men and women prisoners who
are related to each other by marriage or blood, when they happen to be
confined in the same prison, or when one is in the Central Prison and
the other in the Special Prison for Women. If a prisoner is to be sent
out of the prison for the purpose of such interviews, he/she shall be
sent under adequate escort.
8.09. The Superintendent shall permit a prisoner, other than a
condemned prisoner, to see a prisoner in a hospital outside the prison
subject to the following conditions:
(i)
The prisoner in the hospital is a relative and is seriously
ill
(ii)
The hospital is situated in the same city or town
(iii) The prisoner is sent under adequate escort as the
Superintendent decides.
(iv) The prisoner shall return to the prison immediately after
seeing the prisoner in the hospital.
8.10. Provided that nothing contained in this rule shall apply to
persons detained under preventive detention laws or prisoners who
habitually commit offences punishable under sections 224, 376, 396 to
400, 402, 467, 471, 472, 474, 489, 489-A, 489-B and 489-D of the Indian
Penal Code, 1860 (Central Act XLV of 1860) and who are convicted
under the above mentioned sections of the Indian Penal Code.
Superintendent's Permission for Interviews Required
8.11. No prisoner shall be allowed to have an interview without the
permission of the Superintendent of Prison. Such permission shall be
recorded in writing.
8.12. Applications for interviews with prisoners may be either oral or
in writing. If the prisoner is not entitled to have an interview, the
applicant shall be informed at once.
Waiting Rooms
8.13. Suitable waiting rooms may be provided in every prison to
enable visitors to await their turn for interview. They may be given a
token to await their turn.
Interviews on Prison Holidays
8.14. Interviews shall not ordinarily be granted on Sundays and other
government holidays. The Superintendent may, however, under very
exceptional circumstances, grant interviews on these days as well. The
reasons for granting such interviews on Sundays or Holidays shall be
recorded by the Superintendent in the report book.
Time for Interviews
8.15. The Superintendent shall fix the days and hours at which all
interviews shall be allowed. No interviews shall be allowed at any
other time, except with the special permission of the Superintendent.
A notice indicating the interview hours shall be posted outside the
prison.
Place of Interview
8.16. Every interview shall take place in a special part of the prison
appointed for this purpose. If possible such a place should be at or near
the main gate to ensure the safety and security of prisoners. The
interview room will have fiber glass partition with intercom facilities,
so that the prisoners can have a peaceful interview. The interview
room shall be divided into cubicles and should have sound-proofing
materials covering its walls and ceiling.
8.17. Interviews with female prisoners shall, if practicable, take place
in the female enclosure/ward.
8.18. If a prisoner is seriously ill, the Superintendent shall permit the
interview to take place in the prison hospital. A condemned prisoner
shall ordinarily be interviewed in his cell
8.19. The Superintendent may, however, for special reasons to be
recorded in writing, permit an interview to take place in any other part
of the prison.
8.20. The interview should be conducted twice a week according to
alphabetical order of names.
Prevention of Passage of Prohibited articles during interview
8.21. Screens or wire mesh partitions shall be put up, if necessary,
between the prisoners and the persons interviewing them, to prevent
the passage or exchange of any prohibited articles between them.
Interview to take place in the presence of a prison officer
8.22. Every interview with a convicted prisoner shall take place in the
presence of an experienced prison officer, who shall be positioned at a
place from where he can see and hear what passes between the
prisoner and his interviewer and he shall prevent any article being
passed between the two parties. A lady Deputy Superintendent, a
Matron, an Assistant Matron or a female warder shall be present when
female prisoners are interviewed.
Note: Every interview with a terrorist or militant, whether serving a sentence
or kept as an under-trial, prisoner, or a prisoner detained under Preventive
Detection Laws, shall take place in the presence of an Intelligence Officer or
an Investigating Officer conversant with the case against the prisoner. An
experienced prison officer shall also be present during such interview.
Relatives and friends of such prisoners, who desire to interview them, shall
produce a certificate from the head of the concerned Village Panchayata or a
member of the State Legislative Assembly, as proof of their residence and
relationship with the prisoners, or duly authenticated identity documents like
a family ration card, voters identification card, driving license and/or
passport.
Communication with or Visit to Foreign Nationals
8.23. If any foreign national is committed to prison, or to custody
pending trial, or is detained in any other manner, the Superintendent
of Prison shall, immediately inform the Inspector General of Prisons.
Any communication addressed to a Consulate, by a prisoner or
detenue, shall be forwarded to the Ministry of External Affairs through
proper channel without undue delay. Such communication shall be
subject to scrutiny/ censorship as per rules. The particulars of
incoming and outgoing letters of a foreign national, if found
objectionable shall be censored and also furnished to the government.
8.24. Whenever Consulate Officials of a foreign country seek
permission to visit or interview a prisoner for arranging legal
representation for them, or for any other purpose, the Superintendent
of Prison shall inform the Government of such request from the
Consulate. Only on receipt of orders from the government the
Superintendent of Prison shall permit Consulate officials to visit the
prisoner.
Note: The right to interview a foreign national in prison does not mean a
private interview and does not include the right to inspect the living quarters
of the prisoner/detenue. This is also subject to general regulations regarding
interviews in prisons.
Termination of Interview
8.25. An interview may be terminated at any moment if the prison
officer present considers that there is sufficient cause for terminating it.
In every such case, the reasons for terminating the interview shall be
reported at once to the senior most prison officer present in the prison.
Duration of Interview
8.26. Ordinarily, the time allowed for an interview shall not exceed
half an hour. However, this may be extended by the Superintendent of
Prison at his discretion.
Search before and after Interview
8.27. Every prisoner shall be carefully searched before and after an
interview.
Powers to refuse an interview
8.28. The Superintendent of Prison may refuse to allow any
interview, to which a prisoner would ordinarily be entitled under these
rules, if in his opinion it is not in public interest to allow a particular
person to interview the prisoner, or if, there are other sufficient reasons
to refuse an interview. In every such case, the Prison Superintendent
shall record his reasons for such refusal in his journal.
Withholding of Letters and their disposal
8.29.
Criteria for withholding of letters of prisoners is as under:
8.29.1. Prisoners may be allowed to write letters only to their
family members, relatives and close friends. In case it is found
that the prisoner is corresponding with undesirable persons or
receiving letters from them, or if any correspondence is found
detrimental to the prisoner's rehabilitation, such letters, both
incoming and outgoing, shall be withheld. Prisoners should be
informed of such action without divulging the contents of the
letters received. If necessary, they may also be warned in this
regard.
8.29.2. There may be no limit on the number of incoming letters
to a prisoner.
8.29.3. Prisoners shall not be allowed to correspond with
inmates of other prisons. However, if a prisoner has his/her
relative lodged in another prison he may be permitted to send
letters to them informing them to his/her welfare.
8.29.4. The Superintendent of Prisons shall have the right to
disallow letters to prisoners for reasons of security and
discipline or during periods of emergencies, if he considers it
necessary.
8.29.5. For the purpose of these rules applications sent by
prisoners should not be treated as letters.
8.30. No letter shall be delivered to, or sent by a prisoner, until the
Superintendent has satisfied himself that its transmission is not
objectionable. No letter written in a secret language shall be allowed.
The Superintendent may withhold any letter which seems to him to be,
in any way, improper or objectionable. He may also cause such
passages in the letters to be erased. If a letter is written in a local
language and cannot be satisfactorily translated in the prison
concerned, it shall be sent to some other officer for translation, in
accordance with the procedure laid down for this purpose by the
Inspector General of Prisons. Subject to the approval of the
government, arrangements may also be made to send such letters for
translation to other Government departments. If a letter is written in a
language not ordinarily used in the State, it shall be sent for translation
to the Criminal Investigation Department of the State. A slip marked
Urgent shall be attached to any letter sent outside the prison for
translation so that unnecessary delay does not take place in their
translation and examination.
8.31. If a letter addressed to a prisoner is improper or objectionable it
may be withheld under intimation to the prisoner and kept in the
custody of the Superintendent of Prison, or it may be returned to the
sender under intimation to that prisoner. The Superintendent of Prison
may, if he deems it necessary, communicate the contents of such a
letter to the prisoner.
Prisoners May Keep Letters
8.32. A prisoner may retain any letter which has been delivered to
him under due authority.
Supply of Writing Materials and Other Facilities
8.33. Writing material, including service post cards, shall be supplied
in reasonable quantities to any convict, who has permission to write
letters. All letters by prisoners shall be written at such time and place
as the superintendent may appoint. A fixed day of the week,
preferably Sunday, shall be set apart for letter writing. Service postage
stamps shall also be provided to prisoners.
8.34. Prisoners shall be allowed to purchase writing material at their
own expense. All notebooks provided to them should have their pages
numbered to keep a check on their misuse and to prevent secret
correspondence.
Exclusion from Privileges
8.35. If any prisoner abuses any privilege relating to the holding of an
interview, or writing of letters, or of communication with persons
outside the prison, he shall be liable to be excluded from such
privileges and may be subjected to other restrictions as the Prison
Superintendent may consider necessary.
Facilities to be granted to Under Trial and Civil Prisoners for
Interviews and for writing and receiving letters
8.36. Under mentioned facilities may be granted to under trial and
civil prisoners:
8.36.1. Under-trial and civil prisoners shall be granted all
reasonable facilities to interview, or write letters to their
family members, relatives, friends, and legal advisers.
8.36.2. Every interview between an under-trial prisoner and his
legal adviser shall take place within sight, but out of
hearing, of a prison official. A similar concession shall be
allowed by the Superintendent in the case of an interview
with any near relative of an undertrial.
8.36.3. When any person desires an interview with an undertrial prisoner in the capacity of the prisoner’s legal
adviser, he shall apply in writing, giving his name and
address and specifying the purpose of the interview. He
must satisfy the Superintendent of Prison that he is the
bona-fide legal adviser of the prisoner with whom he
seeks interview and that he has legitimate business with
him.
8.36.4. Any bona-fide written communication prepared by an
under-trial prisoner as instructions to his legal adviser
(i.e. a legal practitioner within the meaning of Legal
Practitioners Act, 1879 Central Act XVIII of 1879) may be
caused to be delivered personally to such legal advisor,
or to his authorized nominee, by the Superintendent of
Prison. If such communication is confidential it shall be
delivered without being previously examined.
8.36.5. Civil prisoners may see their family members, friends,
relations and legal advisers at such time, and under such
restrictions, as the Superintendent may decide and the
presence of a prison officer shall not be necessary. No
such visitor shall, however, be allowed to take eatables
without the permission of the Superintendent inside the
prison
Communications from a Prisoner who is a Member of the State
Legislature or of Parliament
8.37. All communications addressed by a prisoner, who is a member
of the State Legislature or of the Parliament, to the Speaker or
Chairman of the House of which he is a member, or to the Chairman of
Committee (including a Committee on Privileges) of such a House, or
of a Joint Committee of both houses of the State Legislature, or of
Parliament, shall be immediately forwarded by the Superintendent of
prison to the government to deal with it in accordance with the rights
and privileges of the prisoner as a Member of the House to which he
belongs.
Telephone Facilities
8.38. At the discretion of the Superintendent of Prison a prisoner may
be allowed the use of telephones on payment, to contact his family and
lawyers, from time to time, wherever such facility is available. The
prisoner can use this facility under the supervision of a prison officer to
be designated by the Superintendent. While permitting a prisoner the
use of telephone the Superintendent shall ensure that such permission
is not given to prisoners who have a record of unruly behaviour and
bad conduct.
Other Amenities Relating to Prisoners
8.39. A copy of the rules relating to prisoners shall be placed in each
cell and one copy of the Do's and Don'ts for prisoners shall be given to
them. An abstract of the rules shall also be displayed inside the prison
gate and on the walls of important prison buildings.
8.40. All prisoners shall be allowed to receive soap, oil and tooth
powder, fruits and sweet from their friends and relatives, subject to the
condition that the quantity received is limited to their personal
requirements for a fortnight and that a thorough examination of the
articles, to be passed to the prisoners, is done by a senior officer of the
prison.
Facilities for Appeal shall be explained
8.41. All relevant rules about appeals, and the facilities available in
the prison for preparing and sending appeals, shall be explained to the
prisoners at the time of their admission by the Welfare Officer.
Welfare Officer shall Record the Desire of the Prisoner to Prefer an
Appeal
8.42. The Welfare Officer shall ascertain whether the prisoner desires
to file an appeal or not and record it in the convict register and on the
History Ticket of the prisoner and the prisoner shall be required to
sign the History Ticket or affix his left thumb impression thereon. This
shall be verified and confirmed by the Deputy Superintendent and the
Superintendent or Additional Superintendent at the time of the
prisoner's physical verification.
Superintendent to Forward Petitions of Appeal
8.43. Under section 383 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
(Central Act 2 of 1974), an appellant, who is in prison, may present his
petition/appeal, and the documents accompanying it, to the
Superintendent who shall, thereupon, countersign and forward them
to the proper appellate court at government cost. All such appeals shall
always be sent by registered post.
Application for Copy of Judgement
8.44. If the copy of the judgement is not received by the prisoner, the
Superintendent shall immediately address the court, on his behalf, for
sending its transcript. In the event of any such transcript of the
judgement being sent to the prison authorities for delivery to a
prisoner by the appellate, revisional or other court, the official
concerned shall get it delivered to the prisoner and obtain a written
acknowledgement thereof from the prisoner. If, before the receipt of
the transcript of the judgement, the prisoner had been transferred to
another prison, or to the custody of any other officer, the transcript of
the judgement shall on receipt, be forwarded without delay to the
Superintendent of such prison or such officer, as the case may be. Till
such time as the copy/transcript of the judgement is received by the
prisoner, the Superintendent of Prison shall ensure that a reminder for
sending a copy of the judgement is sent to the concerned court every
week. If the copy of the judgement is not received within 1 month of
forwarding the application to the court, the Superintendent of Prison
shall detail a prison officer to visit the court personally and collect a
copy of the judgement and have it delivered to the prisoner.
Prisoners to be assisted in Preferring Appeals
8.45. Where the prisoner seeks help to file an appeal or revision
petition, every facility for the excise of this right shall be provided to
the prisoner by the Superintendent of Prison. If a prisoner desires to
file an appeal and declares that he has no friends or relatives or agents
who can file an appeal on his behalf, he/she shall be provided with
writing materials and allowed to write his own petition or appeal.
8.46. If a prisoner cannot write, the Legal Aid Cell attached to the
prison shall prepare his/her appeal petition. The Superintendent shall
not be obliged to give assistance in the preparation of appeals of
prisoners who omit to give notice of their intention to appeal before the
period of limitation has expired. A prisoner, whose petition or appeal
is written by someone else on his/her behalf shall be given full
opportunity of expressing himself/herself and his/her case shall, as far
as possible, be recorded in his/her own words. Printed forms of appeal
petitions shall not be used.
Special Leave to Appeal
8.47. The procedure governing the submission of petitions of special
leave to appeal is contained in rules 1, 2, 3 and 4 of Order XIII and
Rules 1 and 4 of Order XVIII read with Rule 2 of Order XXI of the
Supreme Court Rules of 1950. These rules lay down that a petition for
special leave to appeal should be drawn up in the proper form and
should be accompanied by the following documents:
i. certified copy of the judgement of the court appealed
from
ii. An affidavit to the effect that notice of the intended
petition for special leave to appeal has been served
upon the respondents
iii. An affidavit in support of the petition as required by
Rule 4 of Order XVII of the Supreme Court Rules,
1950
iv. An application for condonation of delay in filling the
petition, if it is presented after the expiry of the period
of limitation prescribed by Rule 1 of Order XIII read
with Rule 2 of Order XXI
v. Certified copies of the judgements of the lower courts.
8.48. The Superintendent shall communicate a list of prisoners of the
following categories to the Duty Counsel, State Legal Services
Authority at the High Court, and Legal Services at Supreme Court, in
addition to contacting with District Legal Services Authority on
continuous basis, for providing of legal aid and assistance to them:
i.
Under-trial prisoners who are old and infirm, including
women who are pregnant or have babies to be nourished
ii.
Under-trials who have spent more than three months in
prisons and who have no means to engage a counsel
iii.
Persons arrested on suspicion under Section 41 of the
Code of Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (Central Act 2 of
1974) who have been in prison beyond a period of 15
days
iv.
Under-trials who, the Superintendent has reasons to
think, have not completed 18 years of age and who
should ordinarily be kept away from adults
v.
Any convicted prisoner who has already filed an appeal
through prison authorities, as provided in the Code of
Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (Central Act 2 of 1974)
and who has given in writing his/her desire to avail free
legal aid. The Superintendent shall also supply
information to the Duty Counsel regarding such appeal
along with a copy of memorandum of appeal, if available
vi.
Prisoners, or the members of their family, requiring legal
assistance in any civil or criminal matters.
8.49. Information regarding seeking of legal aid may be passed on by
the Superintendent to the Duty Counsel if the concerned prisoner has
given in writing his/ her desire to avail of free legal aid. If the Duty
Counsel so desires, he/she may interview the prisoner with regard to
these matters.
8.50. The provisions which are applicable to petitions for Special
Leave to appeal to the Supreme Court on behalf of the condemned
prisoners, shall also apply to such petitions on behalf of other convicts.
Exclusion of Time Taken in Obtaining Copy of Judgement
8.51. The date on which a prisoner expresses his intention to appeal
shall be entered at the appropriate space in his/her History Ticket. The
time between that date, and the date on which the copy of judgement is
delivered to the prisoner, shall be treated as the time required for
obtaining a copy of the order or sentence appealed against, within the
meaning of Section 12 of the Limitation Act, 1963 (Central Act 36 of
1963).
8.52. The period allowed under the Limitation Act 1963 (Central Act
36 of 1963) for filing of appeals to different courts are as follows:
Period of limitation
Limitation
Description of appeal
starts from
(1)
(2)
(3)
Under the Code of
Criminal Procedure Code,
1973 (Central Act 2 of
1974)
a
From a sentence of death
passed by a Court of
Session or by a High
Court in the exercise of its
original
criminal
jurisdiction
B
from any other sentence
or any order not being an
order of acquittal
30 days
i. to the High Court
60 days
ii. to any other Court
30 days
The date of
the sentence
The date of
the sentence
or order
The date of
the sentence
or order
8.53. In order to enable the appellate courts to calculate the period of
limitation prescribed for criminal appeals under the Limitation Act,
1963 (Central Act 36 of 1963), every appeal petition shall be endorsed
with the following notice, signed by the Superintendent of Prison :
"The period requisite for obtaining a copy of the order appealed
against to be excluded from the period of limitation under section 12 of
Limitation
Act
1963
(Central
Act
36
of
1963),
was
………………….days."
Delay in Preparing Petition to be Noted
8.54. If any delay has occurred in preparing the appeal or revision
petition after the receipt of the copy of judgement, a note of such delay
shall also be made on the appeal or revision petition.
Maintenance of Appeals Register by the Welfare Officer
8.55. The Welfare Officer shall maintain an Appeal Register in Form
No. 8.1. He shall cause the register to be placed before the
Superintendent of Prison or Additional Superintendent as frequently
as may be necessary. Starting from the date on which the prisoner
expresses his/her desire to file an appeal, till the date of receipt of the
order of the appellate court disposing of the appeal, all such dates on
which action is taken during the entire process shall be entered in the
Appeals Register and attested by the Superintendent or Additional
Superintendent. This would include dates on which requisition for
judgement copy is sent, the date of the receipt of judgement copy; the
date of delivery of the judgement copy to the prisoner or other
nominated party, and date of receipt of appeal from the prisoner.
8.56. The Superintendent or Additional Superintendent shall ensure
that there is no delay in the process of disposing of appeals/petitions.
The Welfare Officer is directly responsible to the Superintendent or
Additional Superintendent in these matters. After forwarding the
appeals/petitions, the superintendent shall send reminders to the
Clerk/Registrar of the appellate court as under:
Session Court
High Court or
Supreme Court
..
..
Once in 15 days
Once in a month
Notice of the Date of Hearing shall be Communicated to the Prisoners
8.57. When notice of the date of hearing of an appeal or petition is
received, it shall be communicated to the convict who shall affix
his/her signature or left thumb impression is token of receipt of such
notice, on the notice. The notice shall then be attested by the
Superintendent or Additional Superintendent and returned to the
concerned court.
Personal Appearance of the Prisoner in the Appellate Court
8.58. When notice to show cause why a prisoner's sentence should
not be enhanced is received from the appellate court, the prisoner shall
be asked whether he/she wishes to apply for permission to appear in
person before the court concerned. If he/she says so, the
Superintendent shall forward his/her application to the court for
orders. Arrangements shall be made for his/her personal appearance
in the court if such permission is granted.
Appeal Procedure with Regard to Persons Convicted by Court Martial
8.59. No appeal lies from a sentence passed by a court martial under
the Army Act, 1950 (Central Act XLVI of 1950). The prisoner has a
right to submit one petition only, against the judgement or sentence,
for disposal by the highest authority to whom he/she is authorized to
apply. His/her legal rights to submit a petition and the authority to
which a petition shall be addressed are explained to every accused at
the time of the pronouncement of sentence. Such a petition shall be
forwarded to the authority to whom it is addressed. Appeals or
petitions addressed to the Government of India, or to any civil
authority, shall be forwarded to the Central Headquarters of the
concerned Armed Force for disposal.
Record of the Result of Appeal
8.60. In every case in which a sentence is modified or reversed on
appeal, the Superintendent of Prisons concerned, on receiving the
warrant prepared by the appellate courts in terms of the order passed,
shall inform the prisoner of the decision of the appellate court and
make a note of it in the History Ticket and the other connected records.
The sentences shall be accordingly corrected and the revised dates of
release shall be entered and got attested by the Deputy Superintendent
and the Superintendent or Additional Superintendent.
8.61. In every case in which a sentence is confirmed on appeal, the
Superintendent of Prison shall receive information to this effect from
the Appellate Court. The confirmation of sentence or appeal shall be
entered in the History Ticket and other connected records and attested
by the Deputy Superintendent and the Superintendent or Additional
Superintendent.
Communication of Appellate Orders
8.62. On receipt of an order disposing of an appeal, the purport
thereof shall be communicated to the prisoner concerned in the
presence of the Superintendent who shall enter on the order a
certificate to the effect that it has been so communicated. Whenever a
prisoner has been transferred before the receipt of orders on his/her
appeal, such orders shall be forwarded, without delay, to the
Superintendent of the prison in which the prisoner is confined.
Record of the Appellate Order
8.63. The order and judgement of the Appellate Court, the copy of the
original judgement, and other connected records, shall, be filed and
kept along with the prisoner's warrant.
CHAPTER IX
TRANSFER OF PRISONERS
Reasons and Circumstances for Transfer
9.01. Prisoners may be transferred from one prison to another for the
following reasons:
(i)
For custody and treatment in a suitable institution in
accordance with the classification procedure
(ii)
For attendance in court for the purpose of standing trial
or giving evidence
(iii) On medical grounds
(iv) On humanitarian grounds, in the interest of their
rehabilitation
(v)
For post-release vigilance by the police
(vi) For providing essential services
(vii) On grounds of security, expediency, etc
(viii) To be nearer to his/her home district
(ix)
For other special reasons, if any.
Home State
9.02.
In the case of a prisoner, who has long ceased to have any link
with the State of his/her birth, and who is domiciled in the State where
he/she is imprisoned and where his/her close relatives live, the latter
State may be treated as his/her home State for the purpose of transfer.
This shall be ascertained from his/her antecedents, or by enquiries
regarding his/her relatives, before deciding to transfer such prisoner.
Powers of Inspector General
9.03.
Inspector General of Prisons has following powers:
9.03.1. Subject to the order and control of the State Government,
the Inspector General is authorized to sanction the
transfer of such prisoners as are referred to in section 29
of the Prisoners Act, 1900 (except those under sentence of
death), from one prison to another within the State.
9.03.2. The powers to transfer any prisoner under sentence of
death from one prison to another shall rest with the State
Government.
9.03.3. The sanction of the Inspector General however will not be
necessary for transfer of prisoners in the following cases,
where the Superintendent of Prison can order such
transfer:
(i)
Transfer of prisoners required to give evidence or
to undergo trial for an offence in another State
(ii)
Transfer of prisoners en-route
(iii) Transfer of prisoner to a classified institution in
accordance with a standing order issued for this
purpose.
Explanation: Copy of Intimation regarding the transfer of a prisoner in
the above three circumstances shall, however, be submitted to the
Inspector General immediately.
Transfer of sick Prisoners
9.04. Prisoners may be transferred from one prison to another prison
on following grounds:
9.04.1. No prisoner who is sick shall be transferred except for the
benefit of his/ her health.
9.04.2. When the Medical Officer is of the opinion that the
transfer of a sick prisoner to another prison is likely to
lead to his/her recovery, or will help in prolonging
his/her life, he shall forward a brief statement of the case
to the Superintendent, mentioning the prison to which a
transfer is desirable. The Superintendent shall thereafter
submit the case to the Inspector General for his orders.
9.04.3. The Superintendent shall, on a requisition in writing from
the Medical Officer, supply extra food, clothing and
bedding to prisoners for such journies. Medicines, with
instructions for their use, shall if necessary, be supplied
to the officer escorting such prisoner.
9.04.4. The Medical Officer shall be responsible to ensure that
the medical case sheet of a prisoner is up-to-date at the
time of his/her transfer.
9.04.5. No prisoner, who is incapable of ordinary hard labour on
account of age, sickness or infirmity, shall be
recommended for transfer except under special
circumstances.
Prisoners convicted in the same case
9.05. Prisoners convicted in the same case may be transferred to
different prisons if, in the opinion of the Superintendent, it is
absolutely essential to do so in the interests of discipline and
maintenance of order in the prison.
Transfer of habitual prisoners
9.06. The Superintendent may apply to the Inspector General for
transfer of a habitual prisoner from the prison on the ground that the
prisoner is familiar with the locality and surroundings because of
previous imprisonment there or otherwise. However, the Inspector
General shall order transfer of such prisoners only in special cases,
treating every such application on its merit, and after satisfying himself
that sufficient reasons for transferring the prisoner exist.
Transfer of adolescent prisoners
9.07. Adolescents (in the age group of 18 to 21) admitted to a prison
shall be transferred to a Borstal School or other suitable institutions for
young offenders, under the orders of the Inspector General. They shall
be transferred back to the prisons of their origin after they attain the
age of 21 years if his sentence of imprisonment is not complete. Special
arrangements must be made for them in such cases to continue getting
the borstal treatment, till their normal release.
Transfer of prisoners convicted by civil courts of competent
jurisdiction on reciprocal basis
9.08. Every prisoner convicted by a civil court of competent
jurisdiction in a State, other than that of his/her origin, may be
transferred to his State of origin, if his/her unexpired portion of
sentence is at least three months at the time of his/her transfer. He/she
would be moved either to a prison in the district to which he/she
belongs or to a prisoner nearest to his/her native place. In the case of
any such prisoner to be transferred to his/ her native State, the
Superintendent of Police of that district of the state shall confirm the
fact that the prisoner is native of that district of the state.
9.09. In the case of any such prisoner to be transferred to another
State, the Superintendent of the prison, where the prisoner is confined,
shall obtain from the prisoner a written declaration giving details of
his/her address as also addresses of his/her relatives in his/her State
of origin and send a nominal roll to the Inspector General of Prisons of
that State. The Inspector General shall also ascertain the name of the
prison, in the State of origin to which the prisoner has to be transferred
from the Inspector General of that State and then issue orders for the
transfer of the prisoner.
Explanation: (i) Due consideration shall be given to the wishes of a
prisoner regarding transfer to his/her home State, unless there are
adequate reasons against it – for instance, his/her being out of mind or
obstreperous or an aged parent wishing to be able to see his/her
children during the last days.
Explanation: (ii) The transferring State shall bear the cost of transfer of
the prisoner. The cost of maintenance of the prisoner shall be borne by
the State of his/her origin from the date he/she is received.
Explanation: (iii) The prisoners' property and wages earned by
him/her in the prison till the date of his/her transfer shall be sent,
along with the prisoner, to the prison to which he/she is transferred.
Transfer of prisoners convicted by court martial overseas or in India
on reciprocal basis
9.10. Every ex-military prisoner convicted by a court martial
overseas, or in India, and confined in any prison, other than a prison in
his/her State of origin, may be transferred to a prison in his/her State
of origin. The Superintendent of Prison, where the prisoner is
confined, shall immediately after his/her admission, send the nominal
roll and written declaration of the ex-military prisoner in duplicate to
the Inspector General, who shall, in consultation with the Inspector
General of the State of origin of the prisoner, decide that the prisoner
shall be transferred and issue orders to this effect. The Inspector
General of Prisons shall also entertain requests from prisoners of his
State confined in prisons of other states, and after proper verification
by the Superintendent of Police of the district to which the prisoner
belongs, inform the respective Inspector General about the prisons to
which such prisoner should be transferred.
Explanation: (i) Ex-military prisoners should be transferred
immediately to their State of origin irrespective of the unexpired
portion of their sentence.
Explanation: (ii) The cost of maintenance of ex-military prisoners shall
be borne by the States of their origin from the date they are received in
their prisons and the cost of transfer should be borne by the Central
Government from the Defence Service Estimates.
Transfer of prisoners prior to release
9.11. Every habitual prisoner, police registered prisoner, prisoner
ordered to pay a fine, a prisoner required to notify residence
subsequent to his/her release, a person ordered to undergo
imprisonment in default of furnishing security for maintaining peace
or good behaviour, a prisoner certified to be mentally ill, and a female
or juvenile prisoner, if confined in a far away prison, shall be
transferred to the prison nearest to his/her home, one clear week
before the date of the expiry of his/her substantive sentence.
9.12. The prisoners so transferred shall be confined in the outer
quarantine block of the receiving prison and released therefrom. The
release list shall, however, be sent by the Superintendent of the
transferring prison to the Superintendent of Police of the district in
which the prisoner will be released one month prior to his/her
transfer.
9.13. This provision is subject to the condition that the prison to
which the transfer is ordered is on or near the route which the prisoner
would ordinarily take to his/her home and contains accommodation
for his reception.
9.14. The provisions of this rule may be relaxed in the case of
prisoners willing to receive help from the local Discharged Prisoners’
Aid Society on release, and for habitual and police registered prisoners,
and for those who are leprosy patients.
Transfer of prisoners belonging to other States
9.15. Prisoners belonging to other States may be transferred on
following grounds:
9.15.1. As a general rule police registered criminals, not being natives
of the State in which they are undergoing sentence, shall be
removed, without regard to their wishes in the matter at any
time if they are sentenced to imprisonment for three months or
less, and two months before their release if they are sentenced to
imprisonment for more than three months, either to the prison
of the district to which they belong or to the prison nearest to
their native place, provided that such prison is declared by the
State Government concerned as the receiving depot for
prisoners removed from the State. A prisoner sentenced to more
than three months of imprisonment shall be transferred to a
prison in his/her home district earlier than two months if
he/she is willing, or if there are adequate reasons requiring such
transfer. All such cases, as mentioned above, shall ordinarily be
intimated by the police to the Superintendent of Prison in the
form of a Police Registered Slip. When a Police Registered Slip is
received, the details to be filled in at the prison shall be
completed and the slip attached to the prisoner’s warrant and
sent with him/her to any prison to which he/she may be
transferred. At the same time an entry of the letters “P.R.T.”,
signifying Police Registered Prisoners for Transfer shall be made
in red ink in the Convict Register and Register of Prisoners to be
released. The Superintendent shall forward to the Inspector
General a nominal roll of such prisoner with an application for
his/her transfer one month before the date on which the transfer
is to be effected in accordance with the rules. The Inspector
General is authorized to order the removal of such prisoner, as
required above, and shall pass a formal order sanctioning the
transfer in consultation with the Inspector General of the State
with the consent of that Government to which the prisoner is to
be removed. On the death or escape of a Police registered
prisoner, the Police Registered Form attached to his warrant
shall be returned to the Superintendents of Police of his district
with an endorsement showing the date of his death or escape.
Similarly any prisoner, whose detention in a prison of the State
in which he/she is undergoing sentence, is deemed inexpedient;
he/she may be removed with the previous consent to the
Inspector General of the State and the Government of that State
to which it is proposed to remove him.
9.15.2 Police Registered Prisoners for transfer (or briefly P.R.T.
Prisoners) belonging to Jammu and Kashmir, Nepal and Bhutan
shall be transferred to the prisons in India nearest to their native
places, at anytime not exceeding two months prior to their
release. The prisons to which they are to be transferred being
decided in consultation with the Inspector General of Prisons of
the respective State, and after verification of the facts.
Intimation regarding release of P.R.T. Prisoners belonging to
Jammu and Kashmir shall be sent direct to Jammu and Kashmir
Government. In the case of P.R.T. prisoners belong to Bhutan
and Nepal, such intimation shall be sent to the Governments of
these countries through India’s Political Officers or the Indian
Embassy, as the case may be.
Transfer during epidemics
9.16. Prisoners shall not be transferred while cholera or any other
epidemic disease is present in either the transferring or the receiving
prison. Transfer along a route where cholera or any other epidemic is
prevalent, shall also be avoided as far as possible.
Grounds of re-transfer to be stated
9.17. When a prisoner has been transferred for any special reason by
the Inspector General, the Superintendent shall, bring to notice the
special reason for which the original transfer was made when
proposing the re-transfer of such prisoner. There shall not be any
suppression of facts.
Police to escort prisoners
9.18.
Police escort to the prisoners is given on following grounds:
9.18.1 The responsibility of escorting prisoners rests with the police.
The Superintendent of Prison shall endeavour to reduce the calls
upon the police as far as possible, by transferring prisoners in
batches. Prisoners shall not ordinarily be dispatched so as to
reach the prison of destination on any of the recognized
holidays for prisons. If such a contingency is likely to arise due
to unavoidable circumstances, the Superintendent of the
transferring prison shall forward a written request to the
Superintendent of the receiving prison. The Superintendent of
the receiving prison shall, however, entertain such admission on
holidays even in the absence of any such request, but bring the
irregularity to the notice of the Inspector General of Prisons.
9.18.2 The authorities at the transferring prison shall, as far as possible,
avoid sending prisoners of different categories in the same
batch. However, if circumstances make this unavoidable, they
shall give clear instructions to the officer in charge of the escort
to prohibit communication amongst such prisoners.
Application for escort
9.19. When prisoners are to be transferred, the Superintendent shall
apply to the Superintendent of Police of the district where the Central
Prison is located, sufficiently in advance for the requisite guard,
intimating the number of prisoners and the date and hour of their
intended dispatch and the station they are being transferred to.
Precautionary measures
9.20.
Criteria for precautionary measures is as under:
9.20.1 Full details of the following types of prisoners shall always be
supplied to the escorting party before they are handed over to
the police by the Superintendent of the transferring prison,
namely:
(i)
Prisoners with sentence of five years and above
(ii)
Prisoners whose conduct in prison is bad or who have
been found to be dangerous
(iii) Prisoners involved in heinous offences.
(iv) Prisoners sentenced under section 224 (Indian Penal Code
(Central Act XLV of 1860), and those who are known to
have escaped or have attempted to escape in the past.
(v)
Any other important information.
9.20.2 The District Collector, Superintendent of Police and the
Superintendent of Prison shall be informed in advance when
prisoners likely to attract public attention and cause a stir are
being transferred.
Provision of Female Warders
9.21. When a female prisoner is transferred, a female
Warder/Woman Police Constable shall accompany her. But, her
presence does not relieve the responsibility of the police for the safe
custody of the prisoner in transit.
Intimation of prisoners transferred to be given
9.22. The Superintendent shall furnish to the officer in charge of
escort a memorandum showing the number of prisoners being
dispatched, their state of health, the route they are to take, and the date
of dispatch. He shall also send all these details to the Superintendent
of the receiving prison, along with the probable date of their arrival
well in advance, and if necessary, by telegram.
Procedure prior to transfer
9.23. The Superintendent shall, before transferring a prisoner, verify
all the entries regarding him/her and certify on the back of the
warrant, the number and date of the order directing the transfer and
the date of transfer.
Dispatch of prisoner’s property
9.24.
Prisoner’s property is transferred:
9.24.1 On the transfer of a prisoner, the Jailor/Deputy Superintendent
of the dispatching prison shall get a list of the prisoner's
property prepared in triplicate, as entered in the Convict
Register, and obtain the signature of the officer in charge of the
escort for the property on the counterfoil as a token of receipt.
The duplicate and triplicate forms, the former signed by the
Jailor of the dispatching prison, together with the property, shall
be given to the officer in charge of the escort to be handed over
to the receiving prison, where the duplicate list shall be retained
and filed. The triplicate shall be signed by the Jailor of the
receiving prison and handed over to the officer in charge of the
escort.
9.24.2 If it is found that there is any discrepancy in the cash, jewellery
or property, immediate notice of the same shall be given to the
Superintendent of the dispatching prison who shall begin an
enquiry into the matter.
Documents to accompany prisoners
9.25. The following documents relating to each transferred prisoner
shall be given to the officer in charge of the escort to be delivered to the
Superintendent of the receiving prison namely:
(i)
His/her original warrant or warrants duly endorsed
(ii)
A copy of the committing court's judgement, if available,
the order of any appellate court and of the government
on any petition made by the prisoner
(iii) A nominal roll
(iv) His/her history ticket
(v)
His/her remission sheet, if any
(vi)
(vii)
His/her medical case sheet
Duplicate and triplicate lists of all private property
belonging to the prisoner
(viii) A list of clothing, bedding and other government
property sent with the prisoner.
9.26. The total amount of remission earned by every transferred
prisoner up to the end of the preceding month shall be endorsed on
his/her History Ticket, remission sheet and on the warrant, and the
entries shall be signed by the Superintendent. The Jailor of the
transferring prison shall be responsible that the above information is
duly and correctly supplied and that all documents to accompany the
prisoners are correctly sent.
Prisoners to be searched before dispatch
9.27. Every prisoner shall be searched in the presence of the Deputy
Superintendent and escort party before dispatch.
Supply of food and clothing on journey
9.28. Every prisoner, during transit, shall be allowed to wear his
private clothing. Whenever the private clothing of a prisoner has been
destroyed or sold, he/she shall, on transfer, be provided with civilians
clothing at government cost.
9.29. Subsistence allowance shall be paid to all remand and undertrial prisoners, at rates as fixed by government from time to time.
Duty of the escorting officer
9.30. The officer in charge of escort shall see that prisoners do not
communicate with outsiders and have no opportunity of obtaining
forbidden articles, including cash, from their friends or relatives while
in transit. During the transit period, the prisoner shall not be allowed
to handle any cash, jewellery or other private property, except his/her
private clothing.
9.31. If any breach or neglect of duty on the part of the officer in
charge of escort is noticed, the Superintendent of the receiving prison
shall send a report to the Inspector General of Prisons.
Not to be admitted to Central Prisons en route
9.32. Prisoners in transit shall not be admitted into Central Prisons.
They may however be admitted to a transit yard if such a facility is
attached to Central Prisons for the purpose.
Custody of females and juveniles
9.33. During transit, female and adolescent prisoners shall be
separated from adult male prisoners.
Search during transit
9.34. Male prisoners shall be searched by the officer in charge of the
escort daily during transit.
Transfer by rail or water
9.35. Prisoners shall ordinarily be transferred by rail where facilities
for travel by rail exist. The fares of prisoners and of the warder, if any
in charge, shall be included in the railway warrant prepared by the
Police Department. The accommodation to be provided shall be of the
lowest class.
9.36. When prisoners are to be transferred by rail, timely notice shall
be given to the police of the intended date and hour of dispatch with a
view to make suitable arrangements with the railway authorities for
their safe custody in transit, and for the provision of necessary
accommodation.
Transfer by road
9.37. The police escort party, which is transporting prisoners by road,
shall provide necessary conveyance even for a shorter distance. Taking
into consideration the safety and security of the prisoners, the police
shall chalk out the routes and places of halt, in advance. Any accident
on transit should be promptly intimated to the Superintendent of the
Prison from where the prisoner has been moved.
Procedure if prisoner falls sick
9.38. If, during such transfer by road, a prisoner becomes so ill as to
be unable to continue his/her journey, he/she shall be taken to the
nearest hospital, or to any place where there is a public dispensary, for
treatment by a Medical Officer. A report of the circumstances shall
immediately be made to the Superintendent of the dispatching prison
and of the prison to which the prisoner was being moved.
Procedure in case of death of a prisoner in transit
9.39. When a prisoner dies in transit, the officer in charge of the escort
shall at once report the circumstances to the nearest police station,
which in turn will inform the Executive Magistrate. The Executive
Magistrate shall enquire into the case and submit his/her report
directly to the Inspector General and shall arrange for the disposal of
the dead body. The officer in charge of the escort shall also intimate
the death of a prisoner to the Superintendent of the prison to which the
prisoner was being transferred, and the Superintendent of the
transferring prison immediately. The latter shall inform the deceased
prisoner’s relatives, the Government, and the National Human Rights
Commission, of the death of the prisoner.
Procedure if prisoner escapes
9.40. If, during transit, a prisoner escapes, intimation shall at once be
given by the officer in charge of the escort to the nearest police station
to enable them to take steps for recapture of the prisoner. The
Superintendent of the prison to which the convict was being taken and
of the transferring prison, shall also be informed of the escape, and the
latter shall take the prescribed measures for the prisoner’s reapprehension. On recapture such a prisoner shall be sent to the prison
from where he was originally being transferred.
Admission of transferred prisoners
9.41. On arrival at the receiving prison, the usual procedure for the
admission of prisoners shall be followed. The Superintendent shall
satisfy himself that the correct number of prisoners has been received
and that they have been properly fed and cared for during transit.
Verification of lists accompanying prisoners
9.42. When the authorized prison officer of the receiving prison has
satisfied himself that the prisoner’s documents and property have been
correctly received, he shall countersign the memorandum and the
triplicate copy of the list of property and shall return them, together
with any clothing and item issued at government cost, to the
transferring prison.
Facilities in the matter of letter writing
9.43. Special facilities for writing letters to family, before and after
transfer, may be extended to prisoners at the discretion of the
Superintendent of Prison.
CHAPTER X
EXECUTION OF SENTENCES
Method of calculating a sentence
10.01. The duration of a sentence shall be calculated in calendar years,
months, a fortnight, a week or days. The term 'year' means a year
according to the British calendar, a 'month' means thirty days, a
'fortnight' means fourteen days and a 'week' means seven days.
10.02. When a prisoner's sentence includes a fraction of a month, the
date of release shall be calculated by reducing such fraction to days. A
month, for this purpose, shall consist of thirty days. For example, if a
prisoner is sentenced to one and half months' imprisonment on 2nd
February. The date of his release shall be 16th March.
Serving of sentences
10.03. In whatever order the sentences are served, a prisoner is liable
to serve the aggregate of the terms of all the sentences, provided that
under no circumstances shall a prisoner be detained in prison beyond
the period indicated by the terms of the warrant of commitment.
10.04. In case of doubt, as to the order in which the sentences shall take
effect, instructions shall be taken from the court imposing the last
sentence.
Commencement of, and breaks in, imprisonment how reckoned
10.05. In calculating the date of expiry of a sentence of imprisonment
in a criminal case, the day on which the sentence was passed and the
day of release shall both be included as days of imprisonment. A
prisoner who is punished till the rising of the court only, shall be
released from the court itself and not admitted to prison. In the case of
a prisoner who is punished till the rising of the court and is awarded
another sentence on the same day, the latter sentence shall start from
the date on which the sentence is awarded. If a prisoner is sentenced to
imprisonment for 24 hours, he must be kept in prison for the exact
number of hours. In such cases, the sentence shall be deemed to
commence from the hour indicated in the warrant.
Prisoners
sentenced to one day's imprisonment shall be admitted in prison and
released on the same day.
Example 1: A prisoner sentenced on 1st January to one month's
imprisonment shall be released on 31st January and not on 1st February.
Example 2: A prisoner sentenced on 28th February to one month's
imprisonment shall be released on 27th March.
Illustration 3: A prisoner sentenced on 1st January to one day's
imprisonment shall be released on the same day. But if he is sentenced
to imprisonment for 24 hours he shall be kept in confinement for that
period and not released before the hours are up on 2nd January.
10.06. The period of imprisonment to be undergone shall be reckoned
from the date on which the sentence is passed, except in cases which
fall under sections 31, 426 and 427 of the Code of Criminal Procedure,
1973 (Central Act 2 of 1974), where the directions of the Court shall be
followed.
Explanation: In the case of a prisoner sentenced to imprisonment in
default of fine, the period of imprisonment shall be reckoned from the
day on which he was re-arrested for failing to pay the fine imposed.
10.07. If the month in which the sentence of a prisoner expires has no
date corresponding to the date of sentence, the last day of the said
month shall be taken as the day of expiry of sentence. The same
principle shall apply when the sentence is reduced due to reduction in
sentence or payment of fine or grant or remission.
Date of release when two or more sentences run consecutively
10.08. When a prisoner is sentenced to two or more periods of
imprisonment to be served consecutively, the date of release shall be
calculated considering both terms as one.
Example 1: A prisoner sentenced on 21st November, 2000 to two
substantive terms of imprisonment of one year each shall be released
on 20th and not on 19th November 2002.
Example 2: A prisoner is sentenced on 1st January to two months
imprisonment and a fine of Rs. 200 or, in default, to one month’s
imprisonment. If the fine is not paid, he shall be released on 31st March,
but if the fine is paid, then on the last day of February.
Date of release in the case of prisoners sentenced to imprisonment for
life
10.09. The imprisonment for life technically means imprisonment for
the whole life. The sentence of all prisoners sentenced to imprisonment
for life or to more than twenty years imprisonment in the aggregate,
shall, for administrative purposes of calculation of the normal date of
release, be deemed to be sentences of imprisonment for twenty years.
10.10. If a sentence of death is commuted to one of imprisonment for
life, or imprisonment for a term, the sentence of imprisonment for life
or imprisonment for a term shall be deemed to commence from the
date on which the sentence of death was passed.
Unexpired Sentence of an escaped convict
10.11. In the case of an escaped prisoner, subsequently arrested in
connection with another offence, any period spent on that account in
police custody, or as an under-trial prisoner, shall not be reckoned as
imprisonment under the original sentence.
10.12. Necessary entries shall be made in the Register of Prisoners to
be released in place of the original date of release in respect of all such
prisoners.
Date of release of prisoners sentenced for escape
10.13. If a prisoner receives a sentence for escape from prison the date
of release shall be re-calculated in accordance with Section 426 of the
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
(Central Act 2 of 1974) and
entered in the Register of Prisoners to be released in place of the
original date of release.
Periods that will not count towards sentence
10.14. In the following cases, the period spent by prisoners outside the
prison, known as at large period, shall not count towards sentence:
i.
Escape.
ii.
Bail.
Iii
Suspended period of sentence, including emergency
leave.
Iv
Unauthorized extension of temporary release.
V.
Suspended period of sentence if directed by the court.
vi.
Suspension of sentence for police investigation.
vii.
Violation of conditional release.
viii. Extradition.
10.15. A prisoner released on bail in court on the day he is sentenced
without having been sent to prison, shall not be deemed to have served
any part of his sentence.
10.16. Convicted prisoners removed from a prison in one State to a
prison in another State under the provisions of the Transfer of
Prisoners Act, 1950 (Central Act XXIX of 1950) shall be deemed to be
undergoing their original sentence in the prison where they have been
transferred.
10.17. When a conditionally released prisoner is readmitted in prison
owing to an infringement of the terms on which he was released, the
unexpired portion of his sentence shall be carried out without waiting
for the receipt of the government orders, which shall be applied for
through the Inspector General immediately on admission of such
prisoner. In such cases, the unexpired portion of sentence shall be
deemed to have commenced from the date of the prisoner’s readmission in prison.
10.18. In the case of a prisoner released on bail on a day subsequent to
that on which he/she was committed to prison, but who is again
committed to undergo sentence in the same case, every day of
admission and every day of release shall be counted as days of
imprisonment in respect of such sentence.
10.19. In cases where there are more than one “at large” periods, the
aggregate total of all such periods shall be worked out in terms of days
and added to the substantive sentence. The date on which the sum of
these periods elapses, counting from the date of conviction, shall be the
date of expiry of sentence.
10.20. In the case of a convict who has to attend the court on the very
day of his/her release, for a case for which he is not on bail, he shall be
treated as released in the morning and sent to court as an under-trial
prisoner. If the prisoner is sentenced to further imprisonment, on that
very date, the sentence shall be calculated from the following day.
When a foreigner is sentenced to a term of imprisonment
10.21. If a foreigner, apprehended and detained under Section 4 of
Foreigners Act, 1946 (Central Act 31 of 1946), has to undergo a term of
imprisonment, the period of detention under the Foreigners’ Act shall
be exclusive of and additional to the period of any sentence of
imprisonment which may be imposed upon him/her.
Calculations of date of release on re-arrest and recapture of a prisoner
10.22. The following method shall be adopted in calculating the date of
release of a prisoner who, after conviction, is released on bail but is
afterwards recommitted to prison to serve his sentence, or who escapes
and is subsequently recaptured:
10.23. Add the number of days for which the prisoner was on bail, or
was at large, to the term of the sentence, exclusive of the day of release
and re-arrest, or of escape and re-capture. The date on which the sum
of these periods will elapse, counting from the date of conviction, shall
be the date of expiry of sentence.
Example: A prisoner sentenced on 1st January to one month's
imprisonment escapes on 15th January and is re-captured on the 16th.
He shall be entitled on the original warrant to be released on the 31st
January.
10.24. If a convicted prisoner, who has been released on bail, commits
an offence during his bail period and is readmitted to the prison, the at
large period shall be counted up to his date of readmission.
Calculation of sentence of imprisonment in default of payment of fine
10.25. Sentences awarded in default of payment of fine shall be
calculated as follows:
(i)
Sentences imposed in default of payment of fines cannot
run concurrently
(ii)
If a prisoner sentenced to imprisonment in default of
payment of fine receives another sentence while
undergoing such imprisonment, the second sentence
shall begin from the date on which the first sentence
expires or if the fine is paid, from the date of payment.
Example: A prisoner is sentenced on 31st January to pay a fine of Rs.
300 or in default to two months' rigorous imprisonment and on 12th
February of the same year he is sentenced on another account to an
additional imprisonment for four months. The fine is paid in full on
28th February. The sentence of four months of imprisonment shall
begin from 28th February and not from 31st January.
(iii) If a prisoner, sentenced to a term of imprisonment in
default of payment of fine is also, either at the same time
or subsequently, sentenced to another term or terms of
imprisonment, the initial sentence shall be kept in
abeyance till the expiration of all the absolute sentences
of imprisonment. It shall be annulled wholly or partially
by the payment of the fine in whole or in part, before the
expiry of that period or so long as imprisonment
continues.
Explanation: This rule covers the case of a prisoner whose first
sentence of imprisonment is only in default of payment of fine. The
substantive sentences of imprisonment, subsequently imposed, shall
count from the date of the first sentence and the imprisonment in
default of payment of fine shall take effect last, although a portion of it
may have been already served when the substantive sentence were
awarded, unless the imprisonment is of a different denomination to
that of the substantive sentences. In such a case the imprisonment in
default of payment of fine shall be completed before the substantive
sentences take effect.
(iv) The imprisonment, which is imposed in default of
payment of a fine, shall terminate whenever that fine is
either paid or levied by the process of law.
(v)
If a prisoner is sentenced to imprisonment, of which the
whole or any portion thereof is in default of the payment
of any fine, and if the fine or a portion of it is not
immediately paid, the dates of release shall be calculated
and entered on the prisoner's warrant and History Ticket
and in the Registers so as to correspond both with
payment and with non-payment of fine.
(vi)
If a prisoner, who is sentenced to a fine and in default to
imprisonment, pays a portion of the fine, the date of
release shall be proportionally altered. If the
imprisonment in default of payment of fine is expressed
in calendar months, reduction of imprisonment to be
made in consequence of such payment, shall be
calculated in calendar months and not in days. Any
fraction of a month obtained by such calculation shall be
reduced to days. When the fraction thus obtained is not
exactly equal to any number of days or is less than a
single day, the portion of a day which results shall be
considered and treated as being equal to a full day.
Example: A prisoner is sentenced on 1st January to a fine of Rs. 300 or
in default to six months' imprisonment. No part of the fine is realized
except a sum of 75 paise. He shall be released on 29th June, even though
the amount realized is less than the full amount due for a single day.
(vii) When a prisoner is sentenced to fine and the fine is paid
in installments, the period of sentence to be remitted shall
not be calculated on the individual payments but on the
aggregate of the several previous payments.
Example: If a prisoner is sentenced on 1st January to six months'
imprisonment and to a fine of Rs. 300 and it is ordered that if the fine is
not paid he shall be imprisoned for a further period of six months, then
if the prisoner immediately on conviction pays Rs.100 the date of
release shall be first fixed at 31st October (six months plus four months
as equivalent of the fine unpaid), or if he afterwards pays another
Rs.100 the date will be changed to 31st August and on his paying the
entire amount of the fine, to 30th June.
(viii) If a prisoner who is sentenced to a fine and in default
imprisonment for a certain number of years, months and
days, pays a part of the fine, the remission for the
payment shall be calculated in year and months and not
in days, and any fraction of a month, obtained by such
calculation shall be reduced to days. When the fraction
thus obtained is not exactly equal to any number of days,
or is less than a single day, the portion of a day which
results shall be considered and treated as being equal to a
full day, in favour of the prisoner.
Payment of fines to prison
10.26. If a fine or its portion, imposed on a prisoner as a sentence or
part of a sentence by a magistrate, is tendered at the prison it shall be
received by the concerned officers during office working hours, except
on Sundays and prison holidays, provided the prisoner is due for
immediate release. The Superintendent shall at once remit the sum
received to the court or treasury and send intimation of the payment to
the adjudicating court.
Liability of prisoner to payment
10.27. If an offender, who has undergone the full term of
imprisonment to which he was sentenced in default of payment of fine,
is still liable to have the fine levied by distress and sale, the
Superintendent of Prison shall accept the whole fine, if tendered, even
though a part of the alternative imprisonment has been undergone.
Intimation of payment of fine
10.28. When fines imposed on prisoners are recovered by a court,
intimation of the same will be received by the Superintendent from the
Court. If the convict has been transferred elsewhere, the
Superintendent shall forward such intimation by registered post to the
prison in which the convict is confined. All fine intimations shall be
acknowledged.
10.29. No action shall be taken on fine intimations which do not bear
the seal of the court. Such intimation shall be returned to the court for
proper authentication and affixing seal of the court. Telegrams shall
not be accepted as intimations of recovery of fine. When intimation of
payment of fine by a prisoner is received from a Police Officer, it shall
be returned to that officer with a request that it may be forwarded
through the court awarding the sentence.
Prisoners to be informed
10.30. When the fine has been paid, the prisoner concerned shall be
informed and the payment shall be duly noted in the register, on the
warrant and on the prisoner's History Ticket. The entries in the register
and the warrants and History Tickets shall be signed by the
Superintendent or the Additional Superintendent and the Dy.Supdt. A
separate Inward Register for the receipt of the fine intimation shall be
maintained.
Imprisonment in default of giving security plus a substantive sentence
10.31. When a person, in respect of whom an order requiring him to
furnish security is made under section 106 or 117 of the Code of
Criminal Procedure 1973 (Central Act 2 of 1974), is at the time of such
order is sentenced to or is undergoing a sentence of imprisonment, the
period for which such security is required shall commence on the
expiry of such sentence. In other cases such period shall commence on
the date of such order being passed, unless the Magistrate, for
sufficient reasons, fixes a later date. If such a person fails to give
security on or before the date of expiry of his substantive sentence, he
shall be detained in prison until the expiry of the period for which
security is required to be furnished, or until the requisite security is
furnished. It is not necessary in such cases that a formal warrant shall
be issued by the Magistrate for the detention of such person in the
prison after the expiry of the substantive sentence.
Illustration
10.32. A prisoner, while undergoing three month's imprisonment, is
ordered by a competent Court to execute a bond under section 106 of
the code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Central Act 2 of 1974) for
keeping peace for a term of six months and execute a bond in a sum of
Rs.25 with one surety for a like amount, fails to give security on or
before the date on which the three months substantive imprisonment
expires, he/ she shall be detained in prison until he furnishes the
required security, or until the term for which such security is to be
given is completed, but no formal warrant is necessary for such
detention.
10.33. If a person while undergoing imprisonment under an order
under section 122 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Central Act
2 of 1974) in default of furnishing security, is convicted of an offence
committed prior to the making of such order, and is sentenced to
undergo imprisonment, such sentence shall commence from the date
on which it was passed ; and if such sentence expires before the period
for which the person is undergoing imprisonment in default of giving
security, he shall be detained for the remainder of such period. If,
however, a person while undergoing imprisonment in default of
furnishing security is convicted of an offence committed after issue of
the order under section 122 of the Code of Criminal Procedure 1973
(Central Act 2 of 1974), and is sentenced to imprisonment, such
sentence shall commence at the expiration of imprisonment for failure
to furnish security, unless the Court directs that such Sentence shall
run concurrently with the imprisonment for failure to furnish security.
10.34. Sentences awarded under section 52 of the Prisons Act, 1894
(Central Act IX of 1894) shall commence on the expiry of imprisonment
in default of furnishing security or from the date of receipt in the
prison of an intimation that the security has been furnished.
10.35. Where a prisoner, who is already undergoing substantive
sentence of imprisonment, has been ordered to undergo a further
sentence in default of furnishing security for keeping peace or good
behaviour under Chapter VIII of the Code of Criminal Procedure. 1973
(Central Act 2 of 1974), the order shall be brought to the notice of the
sessions Judge to whom such Judicial Magistrate is subordinate.
10.36. The period mentioned in section 122(2) of Code of Criminal
Procedure 1973(Central Act 2 of 1974) shall be counted from the date of
the order of the Sessions Judge or High Court, unless the latter
specifically directs in the warrant that it is to be counted from some
other date. In such a case, the direction of the superior court shall be
complied with.
10.37. Detention for failure to give security is not a substantive
sentence of imprisonment within the meaning of section 427 of Code of
Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (Central Act 2 of 1974)
Procedure when sentence is suspended
10.38. When an Appellate Court directs that the execution of a
sentence, or order appealed against, be suspended, the appellant shall,
if detained in prison pending further orders of such Courts, be treated
in all respects as an undertrial prisoner.
10.39. Should the appellant be ultimately sentenced to imprisonment or
imprisonment for life, the period during which the original sentence
was suspended shalla.
if passed while the prisoner in prison, be included,
and
b.
if passed when the prisoner was at large be
excluded, in computing the term for which he is
sentenced by the Appellate Court.
When retrial is ordered
10.40. When a court passes a sentence after a retrial, or after original
sentence is reversed and retrial (fresh trial) is ordered on appeal, the
previous sentence, or portion thereof, already undergone by the
prisoner before the fresh trial, should also count, unless otherwise
specifically directed, towards the sentence imposed after the fresh trial,
excluding any period during which the prisoner was at large.
10.41. If a convicted prisoner is to be handed over to police for the
purpose of investigation, Government orders suspending his sentence
are necessary.
Procedure when a sentence is modified or reversed on appeal
10.42. When a sentence on a prisoner is reversed or modified on
appeal by a court, other than the High Court, a fresh warrant will be
issued by the Appellate Court to the officer in charge of the prison and
such order will also be communicated to the lower court.
10.43. Provided that when the Appellate Court orders the retrial, or
committal for trial, of a prisoner under section 386 of the Code of
Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Central Act 2 of 1974) it shall communicate
its order to the Court whose decision has been reversed and that court
shall thereupon make such orders as are conformable to the judgement
of the appellate Court.
10.44. When a case is decided on appeal or revision by the High
Court, the Court or Magistrate to which the High Court certifies its
order will proceed, under the provisions of section 388 or 405 of the
Code of Criminal Procedure,1973 (Central Act 2 of 1974) to issue, when
necessary, fresh warrant or order to the prison officer.
10.45. In all cases in which a sentence or order is modified or reversed,
whether in appeal or revision, a separate warrant shall be issued as
regards each prisoner whose sentence has been so modified or
reversed.
Procedure when a sentence is confirmed
10.46. When an appeal is rejected, or a sentence is confirmed by an
Appellate Court other than the High Court, intimation to that effect
will be sent to the Officer in charge of the prison by such Appellate
Court and such order will also be communicated to the lower court for
record.
10.47. When the rejection by the High Court of an appeal or revision
application from a prisoner is communicated to the court by which
such prisoner was convicted, such court shall at once to cause the
intimation of such decision to be given to the prisoner.
10.48. In cases referred by the Court of Sessions for the confirmation
of a sentence of death by the High Court, the High Court will send a
copy of its order to the Court of sessions which will then issue
warrant's to the Officer in charge of the prison.
Prisoner shall be informed of the result of his appeal or application
10.49. In all cases the Superintendent of Prison shall acknowledge by a
letter the receipt of any warrant or order or intimation, and shall also
inform the prisoner of the result of his appeal or application.
Calculation of sentence modified on appeal
10.50. When an Appellate Court simply modifies a sentence passed by
a lower court without change of section, or when an appellate court
passes a new sentence by changing the conviction section or the
punishment section or otherwise, the sentence finally passed shall
count, unless otherwise specially directed, from the first day of
imprisonment under the original sentence.
Effect of annulling the first of two sentences
10.51. When a prisoner has been committed to prison at one trial under
two separate warrants, and the sentence in one warrant is to take effect
from the expiry of the sentence in the other warrant, the date of the
second sentence shall, in the event of the first sentence being set aside
in appeal, be presumed to take effect from the date on which he was
committed to prison under the first or original sentence;
10.52. When separate sentences have been passed in separate trial and
the sentences run consecutively under section 427 of the Code of
Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (Central Act 2 of 1974), the operation of
the second sentence will, in the event of the first sentence being set
aside on appeal, shall commence from the date of conviction in the
second case.
Illustration:
10.53. A prisoner is sentenced on 1st July to two periods of six months'
imprisonment for two offences. On appeal the first sentence is quashed
on 31st August the prisoner will be entitled to be release on 31st
December.
Illustration:
10.54. A prisoner is sentenced on 1st July to six month's imprisonment
and on 1st August to another period of six months imprisonment. On
appeal the first sentence is quashed on 31st August. The prisoner will
be entitled to release on 31st January.
10.55. If however an appeal is also filed in the second case, it will be
within the powers of the court hearing the second appeal to direct that
credit shall be given for such period as is covered between the date of
the second conviction and the date on which the first appeal was
accepted.
10.56. No credit, however, shall be given in the second case for any
period passed in prison under the first sentence prior to the date of the
conviction in the second case by the court of original jurisdiction.
When an Appellate Court annuls a sentence and orders retrial
10.57. When an Appellate Court annuals a sentence and directs that
the prisoner be retried, and a warrant for the prisoner's release on bail
is not received, the prisoner shall be remanded to the undertrial yard
(unless he be undergoing some other sentence), and the
Superintendent shall apply to the committing court for warrant for his
custody pending trial if such warrant is not at the same time furnished.
Such warrant should set forth the Court by which the prisoner is to be
tried and the date on which he is to be produced before the Court.
CHAPTER XI
PRISONERS SENTENCED TO DEATH
Search of prisoners sentenced to death on admission
11.01. “Every prisoner under sentence of death shall, immediately on
his arrival in the prison after sentence, be searched by, or by order of
the Deputy Superintendent, and all articles which the Deputy
Superintendent deem it dangerous or inexpedient to be left in his
possession shall be taken away from him/her”.
11.02. “Every such prisoner shall be confined in a cell separate from all
other prisoners, and shall be placed under the charge of a guard by day
and by night.”
Cell to be examined
11.03. Every cell in which a convict under sentence of death is to be
confined, shall, before such convict is lodged in it, be examined by the
Deputy Superintendent, or by an officer appointed in that behalf, who
shall satisfy himself that it is secure and contains no article of any kind
which the prisoner could, by any possibility, use as a weapon of
offence or as an instrument with which to commit suicide, or which is,
in the opinion of that officer, it is inexpedient to be permitted to remain
in such cell.
11.04. When there are two or more condemned prisoners confined in a
prison at the same time, in cells situated at some distance from one
another, a separate guard shall be posted for each cell. However, if the
cells are contiguous one Warder shall be posted to guard a maximum
of four such prisoners. For any number of cells in excess of four, an
extra guard shall be posted even when the cells are contiguous.
11.05. With two rows of cells facing and within a reasonable distance
of each other, one Sentry may be given charge of up to four cells on one
side and four on the other.
11.06. When two or more cells are occupied, the Sentry shall walk up
and down past them, so that each prisoner guarded by him comes into
his view at short intervals.
11.07. The Sentry guarding these cells shall be relieved every two
hours.
Guarding
11.08. Every prisoner sentenced to death shall be under observation by
a Sentry on a twenty four hour basis. Convicts shall not be employed
on this duty.
11.09. The Sentry shall in no case be given more than two hours duty
at a stretch. The strength of the guards may be regulated accordingly.
Note: When required, the Superintendent may appoint extra prison
guards.
11.10. The Sentry shall be equipped with a regulation baton. He
should not be armed with a fire-arm, bayonet or any sharp weapon.
The Sentry shall be posted in front of the grated door of the cell. The
key of the cell lock shall be kept with the Sentry/prison guard on duty
so as to be immediately available in case of emergency. The lock must
be such which cannot be opened by any other key in use in the prison.
The Sentry/Woman prison guard shall be so posted that the prisoner
sentenced to death is under continuous watch. A prisoner sentenced to
death shall not be taken out of his cell unless the requisite numbers of
guards are present.
11.11. If the Sentry on duty notices a prisoner attempting to commit
suicide he shall raise alarm for help and enter the cell.
11.12. The special guard on prisoners sentenced to death shall allow no
one to approach the cell or communicate with the prisoners except the
Superintendent of Prison and any other official authorized by the
Superintendent.
Search
11.13. Prisoner under sentence of death shall be thoroughly searched:(i)
Every time he is taken out of or is put inside his cell;
(ii)
every time the contingent of guards on the duty is
changed in the presence of the guard commander; and
Restriction on removal
11.14. Prisoners sentenced to death shall not be removed to the prison
hospital for treatment without the special sanction of the Inspector
General. The Superintendent may, however, order the removal of a
prisoner to the prison hospital, in anticipation of sanction, if the
Medical Officer of the prison certifies that the prisoner is in danger of
dying and requires treatment in the prison hospital. If a prisoner, who
is sentenced to death, is removed to a prison hospital, he shall be
segregated from all other prisoners in the hospital and a special guard
should be posted according to requirements.
Special Treatment
11.15. A prisoner sentenced to death shall not be put in fetters or
handcuffed unless he is so violent as to be dangerous to the guard or to
himself. If it is deemed necessary to put on fetters or handcuffs, the
reasons for such action shall be reported to the Inspector General.
11.16. The Superintendent is authorized to issue suitable diet to
prisoners sentenced to death after consultation with the Medical
Officer.
11.17. Prisoners sentenced to death should be allowed facilities of
exercising in the open air in the court, one hour in the morning and one
hour in the evening under proper security arrangements. The guard
should be present when the prisoner is taking exercise. The period of
exercise should be regulated in accordance with the opinion of the
Medical Officer.
Interviews
11.18. Prisoners under sentence of death should be granted interviews
with their family/ relatives / friends / legal advisors, once a week or
more often when considered necessary. The prisoner should remain in
the cell at the time of interview. An Assistant Superintendent shall
remain present. All precautionary and security measures shall be
taken. A prisoner sentenced to death may be visited by a priest of the
faith to which he belongs.
Facilities
11.19. A prisoner sentenced to death may be allowed the following
facilities with the approval of the Superintendent of Prison:(i)
Religious books;
(ii)
Religious pictures;
(iii) Rosary and essential religious emblems in accordance
with security measures;
(iv) Newspapers and books; and
(v)
Stationary articles.
11.20. In case of prisoners who have no private cash, the
Superintendent is authorized to incur an expenditure up to an amount
to be fixed by Government for giving certain facilities like tea, etc. from
the prison canteen.
11.21. The Superintendent is authorized to incur an expenditure up to
an amount to be fixed by Government in a deserving case for the
purpose of giving reasonable solace to the prisoner, for instance
securing the presence of his near relatives before his execution.
Observation
11.22. The Assistant Superintendent in charge should every day record
his observations of a prisoner under sentence of death. Such record
may prove useful for psychological study and research purposes.
Insanity
11.23. If any prisoner awaiting sentence of death shows signs of
insanity which, in the opinion of the Medical Officer, are not feigned,
or which require observation to determine whether they are feigned or
not, the circumstance shall at once be reported to Government, through
the Inspector General of Prisons for orders along with the following
documents:(i)
The Nominal Roll of the prisoner;
(ii)
A copy of the warrant under which he is confined (in
duplicate);
(iii) The Medical Officer’s certificate in the prescribed from;
and
(iv) The medical history sheet (in duplicate).
Note: A copy of the judgement should also be sent as soon as possible.
11.24. If Government orders the appointment of a Special Medical
Board, for the purpose of examining the mental condition of a convict
sentenced to death, the convict shall be kept under observation in the
prison by the Mental Specialist in charge of the nearest Mental Hospital
/ Civil Surgeon for a period of ten days or longer if considered
necessary prior to an examination by the Medical Board.
11.25. The Superintendent and the Medical Officer of the prison, in
which the convict may be confined, shall give all facilities to the Mental
Specialist/Civil Surgeon for a physical examination of the convict
including serological tests and for observation of the convict without
his knowledge.
11.26. As soon as possible, after the Medical Board is appointed and
the convict is placed under observation, the Superintendent of the
prison shall collect information about the convict through the police or
other sources and place it at the disposal of the Mental Specialist /
Civil Surgeon.
11.27. The history of the convict shall be obtained from institutions or
individuals with whom he has had contacts. The Mental Specialist
shall furnish the Superintendent of the prisons with a questionnaire for
collecting the information. Factual material concerning the mental
condition of the convict shall be obtained either from records or from
eye-witnesses including the officer who arrested him. For the purposes
of an estimation of the convict’s state of mind just prior to, at the time
of, and soon after the commission of the offence, reports shall be
obtained from eyewitnesses including relatives of the convict.
Note:-Evidence regarding the behaviour of the prisoner at the time of
the trial, and especially during examination in Court, will be available
from the proceedings of the Court including the evidence, the
summing up and the judgement. Reports on the convict shall be
obtained from individuals who have been in contact with him during
the remand period and subsequent detention in prison. While
collecting this information, utmost care shall be taken to see the object
with which it is collected is not divulged. It should also be
remembered that the relatives of the convict are likely to be specially
interested and the information supplied by them should be used with
the greatest care.
11.28. As soon as the Medical Specialist / Civil Surgeon is ready with
his report, he shall request the Superintendent / Director of Heath
Services to fix a date for the Special Medical Board.
11.29. The Medical Specialist / Civil Surgeon shall place all the records
before the Medical Board. The President of the Board shall forward the
proceedings of the Medical Board to the Secretary, Home Department,
through the Inspector General of Prisons.
Pregnancy
11.30. If the Medical Officer finds a women prisoner sentenced to
death to be pregnant, the matter shall at once be brought to the notice
of the Inspector General of Prisons who shall seek the order of the
Government for commutation of the death sentence or for
postponement of execution till she gives birth to the child. The
execution shall not be carried out before the orders of Government are
received.
11.31. When a woman prisoner sentenced to death declares herself to
be pregnant, and Medical Officer is unable to certify the truth or
otherwise of the statement, immediately, he shall state the interval of
time necessary to enable him to satisfy himself on the point. The
Superintendent should immediately report the case to the Government
and seek orders.
11.32. When execution of a capital sentence on a woman prisoner has
been suspended under either of the situations mentioned above, the
sentence shall not afterwards be executed without the express order of
the Government for which the Superintendent shall apply.
Appeal facilities
11.33. The Deputy Superintendent shall explain to the convict his/her
right of appeal and the facilities available and shall record the
statement of the prisoner whether he/she wishes to appeal and to have
his/her appeal forwarded by the prison authorities. If he/she desires
to do so, the Deputy Superintendent shall at once get the appeal
prepared for him/her as far as possible in his own words and shall
forward it under registered cover to the Registrar of the High Court.
The Deputy Superintendent shall explain to the prisoner the procedure
relating to petition for special leave to appeal to the Supreme Court
and the facilities available for this purpose. If the prisoner desires to
appeal or apply for special leave to appeal, the intention shall be
recorded and he/she should be helped to prepare the necessary
petitions which should be immediately forwarded to the Registrar,
Supreme Court of India, under intimation to the Government and the
Inspector General of Prisons.
Stay of execution — petition for mercy
11.34. Execution of a prisoner sentenced to death should be stayed in
the following cases after the date of execution has been fixed by
Government:(i)
If the prisoner desires to send an appeal to a higher
Court, if he/she has not done so previously,
(ii)
In the case of a prisoner desiring to send mercy petition,
if he has not done so previously, and
(iii) In the case of a telephonic order for execution received
from competent authority, if confirmation thereof has not
been received.
11.35. On receipt of an intimation from the State Government that the
appeal, or application to the Supreme Court, has not been lodged
within the period prescribed by the Supreme Court Rules, the
execution of the sentence shall not thereafter be postponed, unless a
petition for mercy has been submitted by or on behalf of the convict.
11.36. Immediately on receipt of intimation of the confirmation by the
High Court of a sentence of death on a prisoner or of the dismissal by
the Supreme Court of the prisoner’s appeal or his application for
special leave to appeal, the Superintendent shall personally inform the
prisoner that if he desires to submit a petition for mercy, it should be
submitted in writing within seven days.
11.37. If the prisoner submit a petition within the period of seven days,
it should be addressed to the Governor or the State and to the
President of India and dispatched by registered post with
acknowledgement due, to the Secretary to Government, Home
Department, together with a covering letter bearing in red ink, the
words ‘Death Sentence’, ‘Petition for Mercy’ and ‘Urgent’ reporting
the date fixed for the execution and certifying that the execution has
been stayed pending receipt of the orders of the Government on the
petition. If no reply is received within 15 days from the date of
dispatch of the Petition, the superintendent shall send an express letter
to the Secretary to the State Government drawing attention to the fact.
He shall in no case carry out the execution before receipt of a reply
from the State Government.
11.38. If at any time before the execution of the sentence it comes to the
knowledge of the Superintendent that exceptional circumstances have
arisen which plainly demand a reconsideration of the sentence, he
should report the circumstances by wireless to the State Government
and ask for its orders. In such a case the Superintendent shall defer
execution of the prisoner till Government orders are received.
Communication to have special marking
11.39. The words ‘Death sentence’ should be inserted before the
address in telegrams relating to capital sentence.
11.40. In all cases receipts of orders communicating the rejection of
petitions shall invariably be acknowledged by registered letter. The
orders of Government postponing the execution shall immediately be
acknowledged by telegram.
11.41. Telephonic orders regarding prisoners shall be got confirmed by
telephoning back to the concerned authority in the Government.
11.42. A distinctive red envelop with the words ‘Death Sentence’ and
‘Immediate’ marked on the top left and right hand corners
respectively, shall be used in death sentence cases.
All
Superintendents shall make special arrangements to ensure that
communication received in these distinctive envelopes are received in
the prison at any time of the day or night either by the Deputy
Superintendent or in his absence by the Assistant Superintendent in
charge who:(i)
shall note the time and date of receipt of the
communication in the receipt register, and
(ii)
shall immediately place the communication before the
Superintendent, or in his absence the officer next below
him, for orders.
11.43. The Superintendent shall see that prompt replies and
acknowledgements are furnished where these are required and that in
the case of orders staying execution acknowledgements are promptly
sent to the Government by special messenger or telegram and well in
advance of the time fixed for execution of the sentence.
Action on final confirmation of sentence
11.44. The State Government shall fix the date of execution if Mercy
Petition is rejected.
11.45. On receipt from the Government of the final confirmation and
the date of execution of the prisoner sentenced to death:(i)
the prisoner and his relatives will be informed about the
date of execution by the Superintendent, and
(ii)
The prisoner’s will may be prepared in accordance with
his wish.
Note: No prisoner sentenced to death shall be executed on a public
holiday.
Arrangement for execution
11.46. On receipt of the date of execution of the prisoner, the
Superintendent shall be authorized to fix the time of execution
sufficiently in advance. A report intimating the time of the execution
shall be sent to the Inspector General, the Sessions Judge and the
Government.
Note:- The execution shall take place early in the morning before it gets
bright. The latest time of the day for different seasons will be in
accordance with orders passed separately by the Government.
11.47. The Executive Engineer shall arrange the inspection of the
gallows every quarter and before the date of a hanging as and when
intimated by the Superintendent.
11.48. The Medical Officer shall report in the medical report about the
drop to be given to the prisoner at least four days before the date on
which the prisoner is to be executed.
11.49. The Medical Officer of the prison shall work out the details of
the length of the drop to be given to a prisoner on principles shown
below:(i)
if the prisoner weighs less than 100 lbs. or 45 kgs, he
should be given a drop of 8 feet or 2.5 mtrs.;
(ii)
If the prisoner weighs from 100 to 133 lbs. or 45 to 60 kgs,
he should be given a drop of 7 feet 8 inches or 2.3 mtrs.
(iii)
If the prisoner weighs more than 133 lbs. or 60 kgs, but
not more than 166 lbs. or 75 kgs, he should be given a
drop of 7 feet or 2.2 mtrs.;
(iv) if the prisoner weighs more than 166 lbs. or 75 kgs. but
not more than 200 lbs. or 91 kgs, he should be given a
drop of 6 feet 6 inches or 2 mtrs.;
(v)
if the prisoner weighs more than 200 lbs. or 91 kgs, he
should be given a drop of 6 feet 1.83 mtrs.;
11.50. Provided that so long as the extreme limits of 6 feet or 1.83 mtrs
on the one hand and 8 feet or 2.5 mtrs on the other hand are adhered to
if, owing to physical peculiarity of the prisoner, the Medical Officer is
of opinion that the drop should be increased or decreased, effect
should be given to the Medical Officer’s opinion.
Note:- The above calculations are based on the assumption that the
execution rope will be made of cotton yarn / manila of 1 inch to 1-½
inches or 2.59 to 3.81 cms Diameter.
11.51. The following measures shall be adopted regarding the fixing of
the length of the rope to permit the required drop. The height of the
prisoner to the angle of the jaw immediately below the left ear shall be
accurately measured, as should also be the height from the drop
shutter, when fixed in position, to the lower portion of the ring in the
beam to which the rope will be affixed. These two measurements will
determine the distance when the prisoner is standing in position on the
drop, from the point of the latter’s jaw to the ring in the beam. The
measurement of the prisoners neck shall also be carefully taken, the
neck measurement and the height measurement to angle of jaw being
carried out immediately after the prisoner has been admitted. The
length of rope for any given drop shall be the length of the drop plus
the distance from the angle of the prisoner’s jaw to the ring in the
beam.
11.52. The gallows shall be inspected and the rope tested in the
presence of the Superintendent the evening before the execution; he
being personally responsible that these arrangements are properly
made. A new rope need not necessarily be used for every execution
but the Superintendent shall see that the rope is carefully tested. As a
rule, a dummy or a bag of sand weighing 1½ times the weight of the
prisoner, hung and dropped between 6 and 8 feet or 1.83 and 2.50 mtrs.
will afford a safe test of the rope. Two spare ropes for each prisoner
shall always be kept ready in reserve on the scaffold to meet any
contingency.
11.53. Wax / butter shall be applied to the loop of the rope. After
testing, the ropes and other equipment shall be securely locked and
sealed in a steel box and shall be kept in charge of the Deputy
Superintendent.
Venue and presence of officers and others
11.54. All executions shall take place at the prison to which the
warrant is directed, unless expressly ordered otherwise. Executions
shall usually be carried out in a special enclosure attached to, or within
the walls, of the prison.
11.55. The Superintendent, Deputy Superintendent, Assistant
Superintendent in charge and Medical Officer shall be present at all
executions.
An Executive Magistrate deputed by the District
Magistrate shall attend the execution and countersign the warrant. If
the prisoner so desires, a priest of his faith may be allowed, at the
discretion of the Superintendent, to be present at the place of
execution, subject to the requirements of security and prison discipline.
11.56. Relatives of the prisoner and other prisoners shall not be
allowed to witness the execution. The Superintendent may, however,
permit social scientists, psychologists, psychiatrists, etc. who are
conducting research to be present. The Superintendent’s discretion
shall prevail in the matters relating to grant of permission to witness
execution. As a matter of general policy, other persons shall not be
permitted to be present.
11.57. A police guard of not less than ten constables and two Head
Constables or an equal number from the prison Armed Guards, shall
be present at every execution. The Superintendent of Police will
supply the guard on application, where no armed guard of the prison
exists.
11.58. Prisoners of all categories shall be kept locked up until the
execution is over.
Execution
11.59. The Superintendent, the Executive Magistrate, The Medical
Officer and the Deputy Superintendent will visit the prisoner in his cell
before the hour fixed for execution. The Superintendent and the
Executive Magistrate shall then identify the prisoner as the person
named in the warrant and read over to him a translation of the warrant
in his mother tongue. Any other documents requiring attestation by
the prisoner such as his will etc. shall be signed and attested in the
presence of Superintendent and the Executive Magistrate. The hands
of the convict shall be pinioned behind his back.
11.60. A cotton cap with flap shall be put on the prisoners face just
before he enters the gallows-enclosures. The prisoner should not be
allowed to see the gallows.
11.61. On the arrival of the prisoner at the scaffold, he shall be a made
over to the batch of executioners.
Note:- The required number of executioners may always be posted at
the Headquarters / Central Prison / Prison where executions have to
be carried out. The executioners shall be trained in all matters
pertaining to execution of prisoners.
At fixed intervals, the
executioners shall be required to practice on dummies.
Duty of Executioners
11.62. The duty of the executioner or executioners shall be:(i)
to place the prisoner exactly under the part of the beam to
which the rope is attached,
(ii)
to strap the prisoner’s hand tightly, and
(iii) to put the noose round the neck tightly, the knot or metal
eye being just in front of and below the angle of the jaw,
so as to run up behind the ear when the prisoner falls and
receives the jerk. Care must be taken to adjust the rope so
that the part to which the metal eye belongs shall pass in
front of the throat. The noose should be kept tight,
having been adjusted by means of a stiff leather washer
on the rope. The flap of the cap should hang in front free
from the rope.
11.63. The Superintendent shall see that the rope round the neck of the
prisoner is adjusted properly and the knot is in proper position.
11.64. The operations mentioned above should be done
simultaneously and as quickly as possible. On completion of all these
operations the Superintendent shall give a signal, on seeing which the
executioner in charge shall push the lever to let down the trap-door.
11.65. The body shall remain suspended for half an hour and shall
then be taken down only after the Medical Officer has certified that life
is extinct.
Note:- For each execution, the executioner shall be paid requisite
execution fees.
Disposal of body
11.66. The body of the executed prisoner shall be disposed of
according to the religious requirements.
11.67. If the executed prisoner’s relatives make a written application
for performing the last rites, the Superintendent may, in his discretion,
allow such request, provided that the relatives give an undertaking in
writing that they will not make a public demonstration at cremation /
burial. In cases where the Superintendent thinks that there is a
likelihood of a public demonstration, he has the authority to refuse
such permission. In cases of disposal of the body of executed prisoner,
in whose case there is likelihood of public demonstration, the
Superintendent shall consult the District Magistrate and arrangements
for the disposal of the body shall be made according the requirements
of the situation. In such event, the Superintendent shall act in
accordance with the instructions of the District Magistrate.
11.68. The body of the executed prisoner shall be taken out of the
prison with all solemnity. A municipal hearse or ambulance shall be
used for the transportation of the body to the cremation / burial
ground. The Superintendent is authorized to incur all reasonable
expenditure required for the transportation and disposal of the dead
body.
Subsequent action
11.69. The Superintendent shall return the warrant, to the Court which
issued it with an endorsement in the prescribed form (Appendix-9) to
be countersigned by the Medical Officer and the Executive Magistrate.
11.70. The Superintendent shall submit the execution report to the
Inspector General of Prisons
CHAPTER XII
EMERGENCIES
Situations to be handled on an emergency basis
12.01. The following situations shall be handled as emergencies:
i.
Escape from prison
ii.
Outbreak
iii.
Riots
iv.
Strikes
v.
Hunger Strikes (individual or mass)
vi.
Assault
vii.
Suicide
viii. Accidents
ix.
Fire
x.
Epidemic
xi.
Food poisoning
xii.
Overcrowding
xiii. Failure of water supply, electric lighting arrangements,
and other essential prison services like conservancy and
plumbing ;
xiv. Non-supply of food or raw materials resulting in the
interference of prison routine
xv.
Flood
xvi. Earthquake
xvii. Terrorist Attack
xviii. Bomb Explosion
xix. War/Bombing
xx.
Chemical Disasters
xxi. Nuclear Disasters
Measures to prevent and control emergency situations
12.02. It is the responsibility of the Superintendent to take
sufficient measures for preventing and controlling
emergency situations. These measures may include:
i. demarcation of an out-of-bound area around the perimeter wall
of the prison,
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
adequate guarding and security measures and periodical
inspections,
system of thorough searches,
proper maintenance of the prison building and premises,
proper custody of tools and equipment,
vi.
vii.
proper control of movement of prisoners ;
timely segregation of prisoners who are instigators, or of
bad character ,and are potential risks to prison discipline,
viii. prompt and strong but considerate handling of all
discipline problems,
ix.
attending to care and welfare requirements of prisoners,
x.
system of good discipline,
xi.
careful handling of plant and equipment,
xii.
periodical inspection of plant equipment and emergency
operation,
xiii. accident preventive measures,
xiv. fire preventive measures,
xv.
fire fighting equipment at all vulnerable points,
xvi. good environmental and institutional sanitation and
hygiene,
xvii. proper procedure of quarantine for newly admitted
prisoners,
xviii. segregation
of prisoners suffering from contagious
diseases,
xix. proper storage and inspection of articles of food,
xx.
observance of the required minimum standards in
kitchen and canteen operations, service of food and
eatables,
xxi. wire guards on trees to discourage prisoners climbing
them for escape,
xxii. standby arrangements for water storage, power plant,
and emergency lighting,
xxiii. concealing all drainage and water pipes in the buildings.
xxiv. Delegation of powers to prison officers (Assistant
Superintendent,
Deputy
Superintendent
and
Superintendent of Prisons) to use force in emergent
situations as is given to the police.
Equipment for emergencies
12.03. Each prison shall be properly equipped with the following to
meet various types of emergencies:
i.
Fire fighting equipment
ii.
Emergency lighting arrangements like electric
torches , gas lights, kerosene lamps and oil torches
iii.
Search lights
iv.
Steel helmets
v.
Canes
vi.
Tear gas equipment
vii.
Water hoses
viii. Telephones, inter-communication system and
walkie-talkies
ix.
Arms and ammunition
x.
xi.
Ladders, axes, knives, ropes, chains, handcuffs,
alarms and sirens
First Aid kit
12.04.The Superintendent shall obtain the necessary sanction of the
Inspector General of Prisons for the purchase of articles listed above.
12.05. It shall be the responsibility of the Superintendent of Prison to
ensure that all these equipments are always kept in good condition for
use in emergency.
Preparations for emergencies
12.06. Institutions where dangerous prisoners are kept, or where there
is a likelihood of any kind of serious disturbances, should be fully
equipped in all respects. In such institutions, the security arrangements
should also be very strict.
12.07. Each central and district prison should organise an Emergency
Squad. This squad should consist of personnel below forty years of
age. The personnel of this squad should be given special training in
handling various emergencies or unforeseen situations. The squad
should also be properly equipped and ready for action.
12.08. Drills for handling emergencies should be held at fixed intervals
and a report should be submitted to the Inspector General of Prisons in
the prescribed form.
General instructions for handling emergencies
12.09. The general instructions to be followed in handling
emergencies:
i.
Giving immediate first aid to the injured
ii.
Preventing entry into the affected area,
iii.
Immediate action to counter the spread of trouble
to other areas
iv.
Quick intimation to all authorities concerned
v.
Reporting to authorities concerned for help, if
necessary
vi.
If the Superintendent is not present in the prison
when the problem occurs, he shall reach there as
soon as he gets its information of such emergency
and take suitable measures for controlling it.
Information should also be sent to the Additional
or Deputy Superintendent who shall reach the
prison immediately and either assists the
Superintendent or take charge of the situation.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
Use of control measures, such as handcuffing,
locking prisoners, segregating the trouble makers
and mob dispersal
Tightening all security measures according to the
requirements of the situation
Mustering all possible help for effective handling
of the emergency
Obtaining all necessary assistance from the District
Collector, the Police and the Fire Brigade.
ESCAPE
Sounding an alarm
12.10. A siren (or an alarm bell) that can be easily heard at the quarters
of the subordinate officials shall be kept near the main gate of every
prison, and in places where prisoners are employed in large numbers.
In the latter case the alarm should be loud enough to be heard at the
main gate.
12.11. The sequence of alarms starting with the blowing of a whistle,
followed by the sounding of the bugle and then striking of the alarm
gong shall indicate the need for urgent help because of an escape or its
attempt.
Escape attempts
12.12. Should any prisoner attempt to escape, the guard or sentry shall
at once raise the alarm if the help of other guards is essential to prevent
the prisoner’s escape. He shall at the same time take all necessary steps
to prevent the prisoner’s escape. The armed guard shall be ready at a
moment’s notice to prevent any group attempt to escape from the
prison.
When an escape takes place from an extramural group
12.13. On the alarm being sounded because of an escape from a work
site from outside the prison, the officer in charge of the standing guard
at the main gate shall dispatch as many warders as he can spare for
assistance. The remaining warders shall wait for orders from the senior
officer present.
12.14. The warder in charge of the outside group, from which a
prisoner has escaped, shall, after sounding the alarm, send one of his
escorts to apprehend the prisoner and after collecting the remaining
prisoners shall march them back to the main gate of the prison where
he shall report the escape to the senior officer on duty.
Duty of the Deputy Superintendent
12.15. As soon as a report of an escape is received, the Deputy
Superintendent or another senior officer on duty shall:
12.15.1.
12.15.2.
dispatch a party of sufficient strength to search the
locality where the escape has occurred, and
inform the Superintendent and the Additional
Superintendent of the escape who in turn shall take
suitable action for apprehending the escaped
prisoner/prisoners.
Escape during night
12.16. If the escape takes place during night and there is possibility of
the prisoner still being inside the prison, search shall be made with
torch lights inside the prison.
Duty of Superintendent
12.17. The Superintendent shall give prompt notice of the escape to the
nearest police station, the Executive Magistrate of the area and the
District Magistrate such information shall be accompanied by a
nominal roll giving a description of the escaped prisoner. He shall also
send immediate intimation, by telegraph, to the police station near the
prisoner’s home. If the prisoner belongs to a district other than that in
which he was in prison, intimation shall be sent to the Magistrate of his
district or to the Commissioner of Police of that area.
Report to the Inspector General
12.18. If a prisoner escapes, the Superintendent, or in his absence the
Additional Superintendent or Deputy Superintendent, shall
immediately convey the message over phone to the Inspector General
and in his absence to the next officer available in the headquarters,
followed by a detailed report within 24 hours from the time of escape.
A copy of this report shall also be sent to the government. It shall
contain information on the time and circumstances in which the escape
occurred, the party or parties by whose neglect it occurred, whether the
prisoner has been recaptured and if not, the measures taken to
recapture him. When the prisoner is recaptured, another report shall be
sent to the Inspector General of Prisons.
Publication of escapes
12.19. Notice of escape of prisoners and of the rewards offered for their
recapture shall be published in the District Gazette, if so ordered by the
Inspector General.
Power to sanction reward
12.20. The Inspector General of Prisons may take decisions regarding
the sanctioning of rewards in such cases.
Reward to prisoners preventing an escape
12.21. All cases in which prisoners prevent an escape, either by
warning the officials about any plot or preparation, or by seizing a
prisoner attempting to escape, or In any other manner, shall be brought
to the notice of the Inspector General, with a view to giving them
suitable rewards.
Punishment for facilitating an escape
12.22. Every officer of the prison, because of whose assistance,
connivance, or neglect, an escape takes place, shall be prosecuted
under sections 222, 223 or 225 A of the Indian Penal Code (Central Act
XLV of 1860) unless very extenuating circumstances are present or the
Superintendent considers the evidence insufficient to procure a
conviction.
Procedure on recapture
12.23. The recapture of the prisoner shall be informed to all those who
were informed of the escape originally.
12.24. A recaptured prisoner may be received back into prison on his
original warrant.
Disposal of warrants of escaped prisoners
12.25. The warrant of a prisoner who escapes from prison shall be
retained in the prison for 10 years from the date of his escape. If he is
not recaptured within that period, it shall be returned to the
committing court with an endorsement giving the reasons.
OUTBREAKS
Alarm to be sounded on outbreak
12.26. Whenever there is a jail outbreak, or and agitation inside a
prison, the concerned Superintendent / Addl. Superintendent of
Prison should inform the District Police who will take necessary action
to control the situation and bring order inside the prison. However, till
the arrival of the District Police, the prison guards and security
personnel guarding the prison shall initiate steps to control the
situation and prevent further untoward incidents.
12.27. In the event of an outbreak or disturbance, the prison official
present at the scene of occurrence shall raise an alarm by blowing his
whistle hearing which the warder staff shall blow their own whistles. It
will be followed by sounding of gong or siren at the main gate. Every
prison official outside the prison shall proceed at once to the guard
room and arm himself with a baton. A messenger shall be sent by the
senior officer present to the Superintendent, Additional
Superintendent and Deputy Superintendent who shall summon every
available man.
When the alarm is sounded
12.28. At the sound of the alarm the reserve guard shall arm
themselves with firearms, fully loaded and fixed with bayonets and
stand outside the prison on alert. The main gate sentry along with
other warders shall be posted between gates and unless the prisoners
are actually threatening the main gate, the rest of the force available
shall enter the prison armed with batons and proceed at the double to
the scene of the disturbances. But if the prisoners are threatening the
main gate, it must be defended until the guard is strong enough to
enter and drive the prisoners back. The armed reserve guard shall not
enter the prison or arrive at the scene of the disturbance until specially
sent for by the officer in command.
Duty of convicts on hearing an alarm
12.29. When the alarm is given it shall be the duty of every convict to
run at once to previously defined places of security, usually the nearest
sleeping barrack, where they shall be locked in by the warders inside
the prison. Prisoners should be warned in advance that neglect of this
rule shall render them liable to be treated as participating in the
outbreak.
Methods of quelling disturbances
12.30. On reaching the scene of disturbance, the guard shall proceed to
quell it by using batons or tear gas, if available, as the officer in
command may decide. Action shall first be directed to prevent any
attempt at escape, to isolate the rioters from other convicts, and to
rescue any prison officer who may be in danger. If the disturbance is
accompanied by an attack on any prison official, or by a combined
attempt to escape, the officer in command shall warn the prisoners that
they will be fired upon if they do not submit. If circumstances permit,
this warning shall be repeated three times. If the prisoners do not
submit, or the outbreak or disturbance cannot be quelled, the officer in
command may summon the reserve guard and open fire on these
prisoners. He shall stop the firing as soon as the prisoners cease
resistance or submit. Only minimum force necessary shall be used in
all circumstances.
12.31. On arrival of the Superintendent, or Additional Superintendent,
their orders shall be taken and all officers from the rank of Deputy
Superintendent and below shall act as per their orders.
12.32. Prison officials shall not attempt to disperse a mob outside the
prison unless the prison staff is threatened.
12.33. Enquiries on incidents like assaults on prison officials shall be
conducted by the Superintendent, or such other officer as the Inspector
General may direct.
Defence of main gate
12.34. The main gate sentry and the additional warders posted
between gates shall defend the main gate. If prisoners cannot be driven
back by any other means, firing shall be resorted to after due warning.
It shall be stopped as soon as the prisoners are driven back.
Disturbance within wards
12.35. If the disturbance occurs within the wards, the available force
shall enter the prison armed with batons and shall proceed at the
double to the yard gate. A party shall be detached to enter the ward
and quell the disturbance while the remaining force waits at the yard
gate.
Treatment of extramural groups
12.36. Groups which are outside the prison when the alarm is sounded
shall at once be collected and made to sit close together under the
charge of their escort till the disturbance is over. If the situation permits
these groups shall be taken in and locked up in a ward so that the
warders in charge of the group can be released for other duty.
Rehearsal of procedure on alarm
12.37. It is of importance that if an outbreak occurs, every man knows
precisely what he has to do. In order to perfect this procedure, an
alarm parade shall be held once in two months or more often in each
prison. All steps laid down in the rules shall be rehearsed as accurately
and promptly as possible. The convicts too shall be trained to run at
once to the assigned place of security when the alarm is sounded. No
arms shall be taken inside the prison during practice alarm parades.
The Superintendent shall make a record of each practice session and its
results in his register.
ACCIDENTS AND SUICIDES
Procedure when unnatural death occurs
12.38. Whenever a sudden or violent death or suicide takes place in a
prison, immediate notice shall be sent to the Superintendent and the
Medical Officer. The body shall be left untouched in the position in
which it was found for inspection by these officers.
12.39. If there are chances that the person is still alive, measures shall
be taken at once for the prisoner’s first-aid and treatment and revival.
12.40. In the case of a prisoner found suspended by a rope in an
attempt to commit suicide, and there is reason to believe that he may
still be alive, the body shall be raised at once to relieve pressure and
laid gently on the grounds. All measures shall be taken to restore
consciousness, without waiting for assistance, which however shall be
called for without delay. In all events of a death procedures laid down
in the chapter on death should be followed.
Custody of articles used for suicide
12.41. Knives and tools used in worksheds and barber’s or tailor’s
equipment shall be counted and locked by the warders everyday.
Ropes for wells shall be properly secured or locked up, and the wells
themselves protected to prevent persons falling or throwing
themselves in. Care shall be taken that nothing is left about in the
prison that may be used for suicidal purposes.
Precautions against the prisoners with apparently suicidal tendencies
12.42. Prisoners with apparently suicidal tendencies shall be carefully
watched and not left alone in a cell.
Employment of convicts on dangerous work
12.43. When prisoners are employed in blasting, excavation or other
work of a dangerous character, it shall be the duty of the officer
conducting the work to take every reasonable precaution to guard
against accidents. In blasting operations, no convict shall be employed
to fire the charge. In excavations, the walls shall be sloped or cut in
steps.
Custody of poisons
12.44. Poisonous drugs and drugs inducing drowsiness, surgical
instruments and other similar things shall not be left within the reach
of prisoners. Every receptacle containing any poisonous drug shall be
labelled “Poison” in large printed characters. All these shall be kept
under lock and key. Under no circumstances such key shall be
entrusted to a prisoner.
Precaution against drowning
12.45. A strong rope and grappling irons shall be kept in the guard
room of every prison, to be at hand in case of accidents in wells.
FIRE
Prevention of fire
12.46. Special care shall be taken while using kerosene and gas lights
in any office or store room. Even in the maintenance of electric lights,
any leakage shall be immediately brought to the notice of the Deputy
Superintendent and rectified without delay.
12.47. All staff in charge of offices and stores shall take a round of the
offices and store rooms before they are closed for the night and satisfy
themselves that everything is safe.
12.48. Fire shall be used in the workshops in properly constructed fireplaces and the senior officer, who locks up the prison, shall satisfy
himself before leaving that these fires are properly extinguished. The
concerned senior technical staff of the section shall also be responsible
in this regard.
12.49. No burning coal, wood or other fuel used in kitchen shall be
allowed to be taken out. Those in charge of the kitchen shall be
responsible for any violation. If liquefied petroleum gas is used in
kitchen it shall be ensured that gas cylinders are stored in a secured
room in accordance with the safety rules for storage of LPG cylinders
and that no prisoner has access to such place. If any fire occurs no
body should be allowed near the gas room until the fire is completely
quelled.
12.50. There shall be fire hydrants and fire fighting equipment (sand
and water buckets) in all parts of the prison, and especially at all
vulnerable points decided in consultation with the District Fire Officer.
12.51. Electric installations in the prison shall be inspected at regular
intervals.
12.52. In extramural camps and open institutions, precautions such as
provision of a large supply of water and fire fighting equipment shall
be kept ready at hand.
12.53. Each Superintendent shall draw up instructions on fire safety
and the drill to be adopted in his prison, showing the respective duties
of all members of the prison establishment on an alarm of fire being
given. He shall make the staff rehearse the fire drill at least once in six
months.
This would include fire fighting safety measure and
evacuation techniques.
12.54. In the event of a fire immediate information to fire brigade shall
also be sent. Till help from the fire brigade is received, every attempt to
quell the fire shall be made. In the event of fire breaking out in the
prison by day or night, the alarm shall be sounded.
12.55. Steps shall be taken to ensure that fire does not spread to other
parts of the prison and the lives of prisoners and of members of the
staff are not endangered.
In the event of an injury to a prisoner, or a member of the staff on duty,
because of fire (a) medical attention to the injured shall be given and
(b) an inquiry shall be immediately held and statements of the injured
prisoner or member of the staff and other witnesses shall be recorded.
EPIDEMICS
Epidemics and precautions against them
12.56. Epidemics which are likely to occur in prisons are cholera,
enteric fevers, gastro-enteritis, chicken pox, measles, mumps,
influenza, cerebrospinal meningitis, pneumonia, plague, beriberi,
scurvy and epidemic dropsy.
12.57. When an epidemic is present in the vicinity of a prison,
communication between the staff and the infected locality shall be, as
far as possible, prevented and special care shall be taken that all
arrangements to meet an outbreak are completed.
Removal to a segregation shed
12.58. Every prison shall be provided with a permanent segregation
shed outside the prison walls. On the occurrence of a case, or a
suspected case, of cholera or any other infectious disease, the patient
shall not be taken to hospital but shall be immediately removed to one
of these sheds while all orderlies and scavengers attending on the case
shall be strictly isolated in another shed. On no pretext shall they be
allowed to enter the prison or communicate with other prisoners until
all risk of infection is over. If possible, the prisoners shall be removed
to an infectious disease hospital outside the prison.
Treatment of prisoners after contact with infection
12.59. All prisoners employed in cleaning a ward in which a case of
suspected infectious disease has occurred, or who have been in contact
with the patient, shall be detained under medical observation in a
separate building to prevent their mingling with other prisoners.
Special care shall be taken that they bathe and feed separately.
Prison officers’ clothing, if infected
12.60. If there is any reason to think that the clothing of any warder or
other prison officer is likely to have been polluted by any cholera
discharge, it shall be at once withdrawn from use and disinfected.
Treatment of the infected barrack
12.61. The barrack in which a case occurs shall be immediately vacated
and the inmates kept together and not allowed to go near other
prisoners. The vacated barrack shall be thoroughly disinfected.
Vaccination or inoculation
12.62. Whenever a case of an epidemic occurs, the Medical Officer
shall at once arrange for vaccination or inoculation, as the case may be,
of all prisoners, prison personnel and members of their families.
Accommodation of patient
12.63. Overcrowding must be strictly avoided both in the hospital as
well as in every cell and ward. If the epidemic is severe then it may be
desirable use the entire hospital for treatment of epidemic cases,
removing all other cases to a temporary hospital that can be set-up in a
ward or workshed, (if no better place is available). Minor cases of colic
or ordinary diarrhoea shall also be treated separately and not admitted
to the hospital until the characteristic symptoms of cholera and
diarrhoea have disappeared.
Sterilisation of drinking water
12.64. On the recommendation of the Medical Officer drinking water
shall be thoroughly boiled. Gas or Firewood shall be made available
for this purpose to the minimum extent necessary as decided by the
Inspector General of Prisons. Care shall also be taken to ensure that
sufficient appliances for boiling of water are also provided.
Observation of prisoners
12.65. The general condition of prisoners shall be carefully watched to
detect incipient cases. Any person attacked by premonitory symptoms
shall be removed for treatment at once. Convict officers shall be
required to report any sign of sickness at once. A prisoner visiting the
latrine more often than usual shall be placed under observation.
Treatment of hospital floor
12.66. The floor of the segregation hospital shall be washed or
sprinkled liberally with 2% saponified cresol or izal lotion.
Disposal of dejecta
12.67. The dejecta shall be placed in a vessel with a close fitting cover
containing an equal part of 4% cresol or izal lotion for two hours and
then buried. The dejecta can also be incinerated with saw dust, paddy
husk or kerosene.
Cleanliness of prisoners
12.68. Special attention shall be given to the cleanliness of prisoners
and their clothing. The water used for washing shall not be allowed to
remain within the prison walls.
Treatment of clothing and bedding
12.69. The clothing and bedding of the inmates of an infected ward
shall be either immersed for 30 minutes in boiling water or kept in 20%
carbolic or cresol lotion and then aired and returned to them after they
have bathed. Hospital clothing and bedding used by infected patients
shall be burnt.
Disposal of a infected corpse
12.70. The body of a person who has died of an infectious disease shall
be wrapped completely in a sheet saturated with 2% carbolic or cresol
lotion and buried/cremated without the least delay.
Report to the Inspector General
12.71. The first occurrence of a case of cholera or any other infectious
disease shall be at once reported to the Inspector General by telegram
which shall be followed by a written report on the same day, stating
the circumstances of the case and the measures taken to arrest the
progress of the diseases.
12.72. The next two cases too shall likewise be reported by telegram to
the Inspector General.
On the occurrence of the second case, the
Superintendent shall submit a report stating whether he proposes a
large scale segregation of prisoners within the prison premises. If he
does then he shall elaborate the measures he is taking for it. If he does
not plan segregation, he shall reasons for that as well. If the Inspector
General is absent from the Headquarters, the report shall be
telegraphed to him.
When shall a disease be deemed epidemic
12.73. If three or more cases occur within one week of the occurrence
of the first case of cholera, it shall be concluded that the disease has
assumed an epidemic form.
Rules generally applicable to epidemics
12.74. The above rules relate for segregation are also applicable to
other disease, such as small pox and plague. In these cases, the
necessity for segregation is equally important. In case of typhoid fever,
changing the water supply is of primary importance.
Daily report during epidemic
12.75. Whenever an epidemic prevails in a prison, a daily report shall
be furnished to the Inspector General. In this report the Medical
Officer shall briefly note the progress of the epidemic, the measures he
is taking to arrest it, and any information he may consider of
importance. A copy of this report shall also be sent to the Director of
Medical Services.
Special epidemiological inquiry
12.76. The Inspector General, in consultation with the Director of
Public Health and Preventive Medicine, may call for an
epidemiological inquiry or report from the Superintendent whenever
he considers it advisable. A copy of such an inquiry report shall be
furnished to the Director General of Health Services, Government of
India, New Delhi.
HUNGER STRIKES
Procedure to be followed in cases of hunger strikes
12.77. Prisoners who go on hunger strike shall be warned that no
redress of any alleged grievances shall be allowed as long as the strike
continues and that they shall be liable to any prison punishment or to
prosecution under Section 52 of the Prisons Act, 1894 (Central Act XI of
1894).
12.78. After sufficient warning, and before the refusal to take food has
adversely affected them, and if any other punishment appears unlikely
to deter them, they may be prosecuted under Section 52 of the Prisons
Act, 1894 (Central Act IX of 1894). The usual concession in the matter of
interviews and letters of such prisoner shall be restricted to members of
the legal profession only. If any such prisoner proposes to engage a
member of the legal profession to represent him, a vakalatnama shall be
executed by the prisoners in favour of the member of the legal
profession and only that member shall be permitted to interview the
prisoner in this regard.
12.79. In the event of mass hunger strike by the prisoners, the
Superintendent shall permit reasonable number of members of the
legal profession to interview the prisoners. For easy identification, the
members of the legal profession should be in their formal lawyers’
dress and give requisition for interview on their letter-heads. If a mass
hunger strike amounts to mutiny, the prisoners shall be isolated from
each other, and from other prisoners, as far as possible.
12.80. When prosecutions are instituted under Section 52 of the Prisons
Act of 1894
(Central Act IX of 1894), the proceedings shall be held
within the prison and shall be started and completed with as little
delay as possible.
Forcible feeding of prisoners on hunger strike
12.81. It is the duty of the prison authorities to do what they
reasonably can to keep prisoners in their charge in good health and to
save them from death. Therefore, if a prisoner is likely to cause his
own death by continuously refusing to take food, the Medical Officer
may direct that the prisoner be forcibly fed to keep him alive. Forcible
feeding shall not be attempted with unnecessary violence. But till such
a stage is reached, food approved by the Medical Officer shall be
regularly placed beside the prisoner on hunger strike for his
consumption.
Daily report to the government
12.82. The Medical Officer shall furnish daily reports to the
Superintendent on the health of the prisoner who is on a hunger strike.
He in turn shall forward it to the government through the Inspector
General. The Superintendent shall send a report to the Collector and
the Superintendent of Police concerned.
OVERCROWDING
Overcrowding shall be reported to the Inspector General
12.83. If a prison becomes overcrowded, the Superintendent shall take
suitable action for accommodating all the prisoners properly, duly
reporting the circumstances leading to overcrowding to the Inspector
General. Any other matter pertaining to overcrowding shall always be
referred to the Inspector General for orders.
Measures to relieve overcrowding
12.84. As soon as prisoners in excess of the available accommodation
are received in any prison or hospital, the Superintendent shall submit
a report to the Inspector General with a statement of the measures
which he proposes to adopt to relieve the overcrowding, and such
temporary arrangements, as he thinks best, shall at once be adopted for
this purpose.
Keeping prisoners in sheds or tents
12.85. Prisoners in excess of the accommodation shall not, except as a
temporary measure, be placed in worksheds or verandahs, but shall be
kept in sheds or tents inside the prison. The Superintendent shall
always obtain prior sanction, whenever necessary, for incurring
expenditure in this regard and shall ensure economy in every aspect.
Earth Quake
12.86. In the event of an earthquake the following action shall be taken:
(i)
The prisoner shall be asked to take cover (kneel down, and
cover head with arms)
(ii)
The prisoners shall be asked to remain in the same position for a
few minutes, due to after-shocks.
(iii) The prisoners shall be kept at least 14 feet away from windows,
mirrors, chimneys, tall book cases, furniture, old and high
buildings, poles, trees and electric wires.
(iv) The prisoners shall be asked to walk towards an open place, in a
calm and composed manner
(v)
Evacuation and rescue measures should be undertaken on
instructions from an evacuation team and unnecessary
crowding of affected area should be avoided.
Other emergencies
12.87. Suitable action shall be taken according to the requirements in
cases of other emergencies as well. The Superintendent shall report the
circumstances to the Inspector General.
CHAPTER XIII
EDUCATION OF PRISONERS
13.01. Education is vital for the overall development of prisoners.
Through education their outlook, habits and total perspective of life
can be changed. Education of prisoners benefits the society as well as it
leads to their rehabilitation and self-suffiency. Education reduces the
tendency to crime. This would mean less crime, fewer victims, fewer
prisoners, more socially productive people, and less expenditure on
criminal justice and law enforcement.
13.02. Education is harmonious and all round development of human
faculties—mental as well as physical. It is a tool by which the
knowledge, character and behaviour of the inmate can be moulded. It
helps a prisoner to adjust to the social environment and his ultimate
resettlement in society.
13.03. Life in prison is extremely monotonous, routinised and
regimented. The educational activities offer opportunity to a prisoner
to remove from his mind depressing thoughts leading to relaxation
and joy. We must accept the reality that to confine offenders behind
walls, without trying to change them through education and other
activities, is an expensive folly.
Objective
13.04. The objective behind educational programmes in prisons should
be to channelise prisoners’ energies into constructive and creative
pursuits, instilling in them a sense of confidence, developing amongst
them social responsibility and consciousness, fostering amongst them
habits and attitudes necessary for adjusting in the community, creating
amongst them an awareness of the futility of leading a criminal life and
uplifting them morally, mentally and socially. A comprehensive
educational programme in a prison should aim at:
(i)
providing opportunities to the illiterate inmates to
achieve at least a certain minimum level of education,
(ii)
extending facilities to literate inmates to advance their
educational standards,
(iii) developing a better understanding of the duties and
obligations of a citizen,
(iv) improving the attitude of inmates towards society and
fostering a desire to live as good citizens,
(v)
assisting the development of good social and ethical
habits and attitudes so that the inmates may properly
adjust their lives in the community,
(vi) helping them to improve their personalities and ability
for social adjustment through individual and group
guidance in social living,
(vii)
developing a point of view which will make the futility of
a criminal way of life apparent to the inmates, making
them aware of the advantages of a law abiding life,
(viii) stimulating sustained interest and effort towards selfimprovement, and
(ix)
developing social consciousness and a sense of social
responsibility and obligations.
Planning
13.05.
Educational plan for prisoners will be so that:
(i) Each prisoner should be given a programme of education which
will help the process of his socialization and rehabilitation. In order
to achieve these objectives an adequately trained educational staff
and minimum facilities like class rooms and library should be
provided in every prison.
(ii)
Education of illiterate adolescents and adult prisoners shall be
compulsory. Correctional Services will pay special attention to
educational programmes.
(iii)
Because of wide variations in intelligence level and individual
interests of inmates, it is essential to organize diverse
educational programmes to suit the needs of the larger groups.
(iv)
Educational programmes should cover subjects which would
help develop the inmate as affective members of social groups.
The programmes should also help develop insight on the part of
the inmates.
(v)
The nature of the educational programmes in an institution
should be related to the size and type of the inmate population
and the time earmarked for these programmes. Educational
activities should be developed in conjunction with the overall
programme of an institution.
(vi)
As far as practicable, the education of prisoners shall be
integrated with the educational system of the State so that after
their release they may continue their education without
difficulty. These programmes should be related to after-care
programmes also.
(vii)
The education policy should be formulated in a manner which is
adjustable to social environment, leading to ultimate
resettlement of a prisoner in the society. Education should be
organised at three levels:
(a)
For the beginners and illiterate inmates
(b)
For the intermediates
(c)
For advanced education.
(viii) Educational personnel should be oriented, through special
training courses, to correctional policies, programmes and
methods as far as practicable.
(ix)
Non-Governmental Organizations should be
involved in the educational programmes.
Nature of an Educational Programme
13.06. The educational programme should consist of:
extensively
(i)
Physical and health education
(ii)
Academic education
(iii) Social education
(iv) Vocational education
(v)
Moral and spiritual education
(vi) Cultural education
Educational Policy for Inmates
13.07. On admission to the prison, the criteria for initial classification
of prisoners should be done on the basis of their educational
background, their aptitude to follow further studies, their social
background and vocational education.
13.08. The policy behind academic education should aim at:
(i)
Making every illiterate prisoner literate
(ii)
Developing educational qualifications of prisoners
13.09. If a prisoner, who was pursuing studies before his
imprisonment, expresses his intention to continue his studies and
appear for an examination of any Board/University or institution, he
should be given due facilities for it. He should be allowed to receive
books and writing material from his friends and relatives from outside
and purchase books and such materials out of his personal cash kept in
the custody of the prison, or at government expense. Such facilities
should also be extended to a prisoner who has given up his studies
before his imprisonment, but expresses his intention to proceed with it
with a view to appear in an examination conducted by any university
or other statutory body or a recognized institution.
13.10. A prisoner should be encouraged and provided with facilities
for enabling him to appear in competitive examinations conducted by
various government departments.
Classification of Prisoners
13.11. Prisoners should be classified on the basis of their
academic/educational qualification and their aptitude for further
learning at the time of admission in the prison. It should be made
compulsory for each prisoner to sit in the educational classes, arranged
as per their qualification, for at least two hours in the day, preferably in
the morning hours.
13.12. The classification committee and educational personnel should
together decide the amount of time to be devoted for academic
education, vocational education and work for each inmate. As there
will be variations in the educational level, intelligence and interests,
diverse educational programmes should be organised for different
groups of inmates.
Compulsory Education
13.13. The education of all adult prisoners shall be compulsory and a
time-frame should be laid down under which an illiterate prisoner will
be able to write his name at least.
13.14. The help of educated prisoners should be liberally obtained for
carrying out educational programmes, in addition to the help taken
from regularly employed teachers, and utilizing similar facilities
offered by N.G.Os.
Language Classes
13.15. Language classes should be encouraged. These classes could be
run by the educated prisoners, regular teachers and N.G.Os. This will
help the prison administration in harmonising relations between
prisoners of different cultures and communities and would improve
discipline in the prison.
13.16. Keeping in view the special needs of prisoners, a booklet should
be prepared which would enlist various educational programmes
being carried out in the prison.
Schools for Adolescent Prisoners
13.17. Every prison should have a regular school where adolescent
prisoners can attend regular classes in shifts. This school could be a
branch of any government school being run by the Education
Department of the State, with the Education Department providing
teachers, equipment and material for teaching adolescent prisoners.
The school should provide education for primary, secondary and
senior secondary levels. It should be mandatory for each adolescent to
attend classes. The staff posted in the prison should be paid special
incentive for maintaining prisoners’ interest in attending school.
13.18. The prisoners who pass various examinations should be given
certificates as are given to students studying in regular schools. Care
should be taken to ensure that there is no mention of the adolescent’s
imprisonment on such certificates.
Education for Short Term Prisoners
13.19. For Under-trial prisoners, and prisoners sentenced to short term
imprisonment, educational classes could be organized in the
yards/enclosures where such prisoners are kept. This would facilitate
better organization of regular classes for prisoners who are required to
undertake educational programmes on a short, medium or long term
basis.
Personnel and Equipment
13.20. Following personnel and equipment for educational programme
for prisoners are provided:
(i)
Teachers should be provided for running and guiding the adult
educational programmes in prisons. Teachers from Education
Department
could
be
posted
to
the
prison
on
transfer/deputation basis. Inmates, who are educated and
whose conduct has been good, should be given training in
imparting education to others. These trained inmates should
assist the regular teachers in organizing diversified educational
programmes. The services of retired teachers or N.G.Os. could
also be obtained in running the educational programmes.
(ii)
Necessary equipment for education like books, stationery,
writing material, furniture, etc., should be provided at
Government cost. In each prison, a building should be
earmarked/constructed as a school for carrying out educational
activities. Buildings and areas for educational programmes
should be earmarked in accordance with the minimum
standards as fixed by the Education Department for similar
purposes.
(iii) Study/examination centres of National Open School/Indira
Gandhi National Open University should be established in
every Central/District Prison.
The strength of educational
personnel should be fixed in accordance with the inmate
population and the educational programmes to be organised.
(iv) The educated prisoners, who help the prison administration in
conducting educational programmes, should be given
wages/honorarium by the Prison Authorities.
(v)
Audio-visual equipment should be used for educational
purposes.
(vi) The lodging arrangement of prisoners can also be done as per
their educational requirements so that suitable environment is
created in the barrack/cell to enable them to carry out the
assignments given to them by their teachers.
Curriculum
13.21. Curriculum should be drawn up in accordance with the needs
of each inmate group. It should be in line with the educational
programmes conducted in other educational institutions in the state. It
should be planned in such a way as to synchronize with the length of
sentence of the inmates. Educational schedules and time tables should
be drawn to fit the total programme of the prison.
Tests and Examinations
13.22. Following concessions shall be given to prisoners for pursuing
their higher education.
(i) At the end of each educational project, inmates should be given
tests and examinations. These tests/examinations should be
conducted
inside
the
prison
by
the
Education
Department/National Open School/Indira Gandhi National
Open University.
(ii) No fees, including examination fee, should be charged from
students appearing in various examinations. Cases of brilliant
students should be recommended to Education Department and
other agencies for grant of scholarship.
Liaison
13.23. The institution should establish liaison with the Department of
Education/ NOS/IGNOU and other approved educational institutions
for obtaining educational material and other help.
Library
13.24. Following facilities in prison library should be provided:
(i)
Books in the library should cater to the needs of different
educational standards, satisfaction of intellectual needs, and
development of knowledge, of the inmates.
(ii) The prison library shall be properly equipped with books,
magazines, and newspapers. These shall be issued to the
prisoners. Prisoners should be encouraged to develop reading
habits.
(iii) A librarian should be employed for the management of books
and other reading material. Help of educated prisoners could
also be obtained, under the supervision of the librarian, to run
the library. The librarian shall arrange for and make available
books on various subjects for satisfying the needs of prisoners.
The librarian should keep details of books and periodicals
available in the library subject/title wise for use by prisoners
and for the information of the Superintendent of Prison.
(iv) Donation of books by N.G.Os. should be encouraged and
welcomed.
Public and Government schools should be
encouraged to adopt the educational programmes being run
inside the prison for prisoners.
Social, Moral, Cultural and Spiritual Education
13.25. Meditational therapy should be used to erase the memory of
past bad experiences among prisoners.
Prison Publication
13.26. There should be a monthly/quarterly publication for the
inmates in select institutions for internal circulation. The publication
may be printed or cyclostyled according to the facilities available.
Accountability
13.27. It should be one of the primary responsibilities of the prison
Superintendent and other prison personnel that the programme of
education is implemented in its proper spirit. The success or failure of
the programme, and the extent of the educational activities in each
institution, should be one of the principal factors on which the
performance of these officers should be evaluated
CHAPTER XIV
VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND WORK PROGRAMMES
Objectives of Work Programmes and Vocational Training
14.01. Vocational training and work programmes should be treated as
essential features of the correctional programmes. The objective of
such programmes should be:
(i)
Imparting discipline and work culture among inmates.
(ii)
Developing right attitudes towards work and dignity of
labour.
(iii) Promoting
(a)
physical and mental well-being of inmates,
(b)
proper development of mind through intelligent
manual labour,
(c)
spirit of fellowship and a cooperative way of living,
and
(d)
a sense of group adjustment
(iv) Developing capacity for sustained hard work.
(v)
Building habits of concentration, steadiness, regularity and
exactness in work,
(vi) Imparting and improving work-skills.
(vii) Awakening the self-confidence and self-reliance of inmates.
(viii) Training and preparing inmates for achieving lasting social
readjustment and rehabilitation,
(ix)
Imparting an occupational status and thus creating a sense of
economic security among inmates,
(x)
Keeping inmates usefully employed in meaningful and
productive work,
(xi)
Preventing idleness, indiscipline and disorder amongst
them.
(xii) Maintaining a good level of morale amongst them and thus
promoting a sense of self-as well as institutional discipline
among them.
Policy of the Government
14.02. Every State and Union Territory should have a clear policy for
work programmes and vocational training of prisoners. This policy
should be incorporated in the Prison Manual/Rules.
14.03. The employment and production policy in prison should be
designed to cater to the needs of prisoners coming from both rural and
urban areas. The emphasis should be on the kinds of skills and jobs
that would ensure employment, or self-employment when the inmate
is released from prison.
14.04. A “Board of Work Programme and Vocational Training”, under
the chairmanship of Inspector General of Prisons, should be set up at
the Prison Headquarters and vested with full fiscal and administrative
powers. The function of the Board should be to:
(i)
plan and implement programmes of work and vocational
training,
(ii)
arrange funds required to run such programmes,
(iii) fix a policy of production,
(iv) examine the economic aspects of the work programmes,
(v)
put prison work, programmes on a sound commercial
footing,
(vi) ensure coordination at all levels,
(vii) evaluate the performance of the work programme each
institution,
(viii) introduce practices and procedures of modern management
of production,
(ix)
guide, supervise, direct and control all matters relating to
institutional work programmes and vocational training,
(x)
organise workshops in after-care homes for discharged
prisoners, and
(xi)
promote marketing of prison products.
14.05. Government departments, semi-government departments,
cooperatives and public undertakings should purchase articles
produced in prison industries as per requirements from the
Department of Prisons and Correctional Services.
14.06. Clear rules for the purchase of raw material, consumable articles,
tools and equipment should be laid down to eliminate chances of
misappropriation or waste.
14.07. A policy should be laid down for the employment of carefully
selected prisoners in public undertakings, co-operative farms of the
State, and agro-based industries organized in the cooperative sector
when they are released from prison.
Vocational Training
14.08. Vocational training programmes, in self-employing trades and
occupations, should be organised in every central and district prison
for employable convicts.
(i) Such programmes be open to under-trial prisoners who
volunteer to undergo such training.
(ii)
The help of local Industrial Training Institutes could be
obtained in training the prisoners.
(iii) The prison should have adequate staff for efficient organisation of
various training projects. It should be properly equipped with
training aids and classrooms for conducting multifarious projects to
suit the training needs of its inmates.
(iv) The prison should have a properly defined organisation for
training projects in terms of formation of homogeneous groups
and setting down routine and time schedule of projects.
(v) The cost incurred in the training projects, expenditure on staff,
equipment and material, should be treated as essential
investment for the purpose of training and resettlement of
offenders.
(vi) Special emphasis should be given to vocational training of
adolescent offenders, young adult offenders, and others who
may derive benefit from the training projects.
14.09. Qualified technical personnel should be appointed in adequate
numbers in every production unit and for every programme of
vocational training. Such personnel could be posted in the prison on a
transfer-cum-deputation basis from the Industrial Training Institutes of
the State.
14.10. Vocational training programmes should be designed to suit the
needs of prisoners sentenced to short, medium and long term
imprisonment.
14.11. Liaison should be established with the department of Technical
Education, Directorate of Industries (including Cottage Industries),
Industrial Training Institutes, Polytechnics and Vocational Training
Institutions to develop vocational training programmes on a practical
and pragmatic basis.
14.12. On the completion of vocational training courses, inmates
should be examined by the Department of Technical Education of the
State/Union Territory concerned and on passing the examination they
should be awarded a regular Certificate/ Diploma by that department.
14.13. As a measure of incentive inmates demonstrating good progress
in work programmes and vocational training should be allowed to visit
important undertakings and other government owned industries.
14.14. The prison industry should be given preferential treatment in
the matter of granting permission to run various industrial/production
units by the State Government.
14.15. The executive and supervisory personnel should be given
training in modern methods of management.
14.16. Diversification of programmes of vocational training should be
given due priority when the Master Plan for diversification of work
programmes is designed.
Employment of Prisoners
14.17. Apart from convicts, under-trial prisoners, who volunteer to
work, should also be employed on work programmes and be given
vocational training. The under-trial prisoners employed in prison
industry, or agriculture, should be given fair and equitable
remuneration on the same scale as prescribed for convicts. They
should also be given labouring diet and other facilities.
14.18. No criminal prisoner sentenced to labour, or employed on
labour at his own desire, or under-trial doing labour, shall, except in an
emergency, and with the sanction in writing of the Superintendent, be
made to labour for more than nine hours in a day.
14.19. The Medical Officer shall, from time to time, examine the
prisoners while they are employed, and shall, at least once in every
fortnight, get their weights recorded in their history tickets.
14.20. When the Medical Officer is of the opinion that the health of a
prisoner suffers from employment on any kind or class of labour, he
shall not be employed on that labour but shall be placed on such other
kind or class of work as the Medical Officer may consider suitable for
him.
14.21. Prisoners sentenced to medium and long terms of imprisonment
should be given training in multiple skills so that they are able to
compete with the conditions in the labour market outside the prisons.
14.22. For planned employment of inmates the following factors
should be taken into consideration while organising work
programmes:
(i)
Mental and physical health
(ii)
Requirements of security, custody and discipline
(iii) Age
(iv) Length of sentence
(v)
Inmates’ skills and abilities and also potential for acquiring
skills
(vi) Urban and rural background of the inmate.
14.23. Prisoners sentenced to less than one year of imprisonment
should be employed in prison maintenance services, gardening, workcentres and work camps.
14.24. Prisoners sentenced to imprisonment for one year or more
should be employed in production units in closed or open prisons.
Prison Industries and Work Programmes
14.25. Prison industries should be organised on business-cumcommercial basis. Preference to prison products, while purchasing
articles for office use, should be given by the various government
departments.
14.26. The work programmes should also include essential
institutional maintenance services like culinary, sanitary and hygienic
services, prison hospital, other prison services, repairs and
maintenance services.
14.27. Prison work programmes should consist of services required by
the community such as construction work, masonry, carpentry,
plumbing, electric fitting, tailoring, fabrication of ready-made
garments, leather work, driving, prison servicing, agriculture,
horticulture, dairy, poultry, floriculture, maintenance of diesel engines,
maintenance of electric pumps, tractor repairing, automobile servicing
and repairing, cane work, basket making, pottery, book binding,
typing, computer-operating, handicrafts, stenography, cloth printing,
embroidery, hosiery, bakery, namkeen making, paper making,
printing, tailoring, weaving, soap making, candle making, toy making,
sewing machine repair, food processing, etc.
14.28. Every prisoner, on being first put to do any kind of work with
which he is not acquainted, shall be allowed a reasonable time to
acquire the necessary skills, to enable him to perform the task. Mental
and physical capabilities must be taken into consideration. The time
will vary from a few days to three to four months. In every case, when
allotting new work, the Superintendent, or subject to his control the
Factory Manager or Deputy Superintendent, shall note the task the
prisoners begins, and every subsequent progress, in his History Ticket.
14.29. Every inmate should be given training and work experience in
the use of hand tools in different services, jobs and production units.
14.30. Every prisoner sentenced to undergo simple imprisonment shall
ordinarily be employed on hard labour of a kind that is most suitable
for him and for which he/she is, for the time being, fit. No convict
shall be put on medium labour if he/she is fit to perform hard labour,
or on light labour as long as he is fit to perform either hard or medium
labour.
14.31. Provided that no prisoner of the casual class shall ordinarily be
required to perform hard labour during the first month after his/her
admission to prison. Every convict of the habitual class shall,
throughout the period of imprisonment to which he/ she is sentenced,
be required to perform the severest form of hard labour which he is
capable of performing, with due regard to his/her health.
14.32. No consideration of profit or convenience shall be permitted to
influence the class or form, of labour which any convict sentenced to
undergo rigorous imprisonment is at any time required to perform. It
shall be fixed with reference solely to the health of the convict and the
regulations of the prison regarding the employment of prisoners.
14.33. A standard list of equipments, tools, accessories and spare parts,
which each production unit must always have, should be prepared and
maintained.
14.34. In every institution there should be a separate and properly
organized maintenance workshop to repair the machinery and
equipment in time and to prevent breakdown.
14.35. Products manufactured by Prison Industries should be
varied/changed depending on market trends and demands.
14.36. The organization of accounts and inventory should be
modernized on business lines.
Standardisation of Products
14.37. Various products of prison industries should be standardised.
A handbook containing details of standardization, and the
manufacturing process of various production units, should be
prepared for the guidance of personnel.
14.38. Catalogues of standardised products of prison industries should
be prepared for securing orders from the market for various
production units.
14.39. Technical supervision should be improved and a system of
quality control introduced at every stage of production, so that market
competitiveness can be maintained.
14.40. Costing of prison products should be done on a rational basis
taking into account various limitations and handicaps of prison
management. The percentage of profit should not be the motive
behind production by prison industries.
14.41. Showrooms should be opened outside the prison gates, and at
other places, for promoting sale of products of prison industry. A
brochure should also be kept in which information is provided to the
public about the products being sold along with their rates.
Targets of Production for Prison Industries
14.42. The targets of production for each unit for the ensuing year
should be fixed in accordance with the employable inmate population
and production potential of the unit. These targets should be
communicated to the respective institutions in advance. The unit’s
production, according to the target, should be reviewed on a monthly
basis.
14.43. It should be the responsibility of the Superintendent of Prison to
meet the targets of production as set above.
14.44. The task sheet of each prisoner should be correctly maintained
by the technical personnel in-charge of the production units.
Wages
14.45. Wages should be fair and equitable and not merely nominal and
paltry. These rates should be standardized keeping in view the
minimum wages given as notified by the government from time to
time.
14.46. With a view to keep the wage system in prisons in harmony
with that in the free community, the wages should be reviewed once in
every three years and revised whenever necessary.
14.47. A portion of wages payable to the convict should be deducted
for the victim or his family in accordance with rules to be framed for
this purpose by the State Government.
14.48. The wages should be deposited in the prisoner’s saving bank
account on a fixed date every month and the passbook shall be kept
with prisoner concerned.
Safeguards for Prisoners Engaged in Work
14.49. The following facilities should be provided in work-sheds and
other places where prisoners work:
(i)
Protection from heat, cold, rain, dust, smoke, fumes, gases
and chemicals
(ii)
Protection from seepage and dampness
(iii) Safe drinking water
(iv) Spittoons, urinals and latrines
(v)
Washing and bathing facilities
(vi) First-aid facilities
(vii) Fire extinguisher and other fire fighting equipment
(viii) Sufficient ventilation and lighting
(ix)
Safety equipment and accident prevention measures.
Note: The standards adopted in outside factories in this respect should
be adopted in prison factories. These should be fixed in consultation
with the Chief Inspector of Factories;
14.50. Periodical medical examination of prisoners, working in
production units having hazards of occupational diseases, should be
carried out.
14.51. Payment of compensation to prisoners who meet with accidents
resulting in physical or mental disability, serious injury, death, or loss
of health due to occupational diseases, as certified by the Chief Medical
Officer.
14.52. Hours of work for each group of prisoners should be prescribed
in accordance with the programme content of each institution, but total
hours of work should not exceed nine hours in a day.
14.53. A daily time schedule should be worked out for each institution.
14.54. Prisoners may be allowed to work in the production unit after
the locking time depending upon the work-load.
Tasks to be Imposed on Female and Adolescent convicts
14.55. The tasks to be imposed on females or adolescent convicts
respectively shall not in any case exceed two thirds of the maximum
task for hard and medium labour, prescribed in respect of adult male
convicts.
Female Prisoners not to Work Outside Female Enclosures
14.56. No female prisoner shall, under any pretext, be employed
outside the female enclosure of any prison.
No Prisoner to be Employed for Private Work
14.57. No prisoner shall, at any time, be employed by any officer of the
prison, or any other person, for any private work or service of any kind
whatsoever.
Execution of Work for Outside Agencies
14.58. Private parties/industrial units can be allowed to approach
prisons to get their manufacturing work done by prison labour inside
the prisons if capacity and know-how for such manufacture is
available. It should be ensured that appropriate wages and other
expenses are paid by such private parties and industrial units.
Yearly Audit of the Accounts
14.59. The accounts of the production/work unit will be systematically
audited by the government auditors for each financial year.
Agriculture
14.60. Following infrastructural facilities in terms of agriculture should
be made available to the prisoners:
(i)
Agriculture, agro-based industries and other allied activities
should be given high priority in the planned development of
work programmes and vocational training in correctional
institutions.
(ii)
The land available with an institution should be thoroughly
surveyed in terms of soil analysis, availability, fertility, salinity,
and requirement of drainage, so that it is put to optimum use.
The help of Block Development Officers, officers of the State
Agriculture Department and other allied agencies should be
taken in this regard.
(iii) Each new prison building in rural areas should have a properly
fenced farm wherever land for this purpose is available.
(iv) It should be ensured that proper irrigation facilities are available
at the farmland.
(v)
The required building structure should be constructed on each
farm and internal roads should be laid.
(vi) All required farming equipment and spare parts should be
made available at each farm. A maintenance shop should also
be set up in large farms.
(vii) Prisoners detailed for labour at agricultural farms should be
distributed at various places in the farm by forming groups,
with a leader nominated for each group.
(viii) Guidelines should be issued by the Prison Headquarters stating
the eligibility criteria of an inmate who may be deployed on
open agricultural farms.
(ix)
The subsidy available to the farmers for purchasing fertiliser,
equipment and electricity should also be made available to
prison farms.
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
(xv)
(xvi)
(xvii)
(xviii)
Adequate funds should be provided for development of
agriculture and allied activities and its accounts should be
maintained separately.
Requisite security personnel should be provided at each
agricultural unit and their duties and responsibilities should be
clearly laid down.
The farm products should be first consumed in the prison and
the remaining should be sold to the government departments
and in the open market.
The efficiency of each unit should be evaluated annually in
terms of the targets fixed and achieved.
The number of prisoners employed in farming activities in
closed prisons should not exceed 5% of total prison population.
Prison personnel should be imparted training in various aspects
of agricultural and allied activities.
Bio-gas plants, windmills, solar-cooking ranges, etc., should be
introduced in the prison farms.
Costing of agricultural and other produce should be done on
strict commercial basis.
Open agricultural institutions, and institutions having attached
agricultural farms, should diversify work programmes
according to cropping schemes such as mixed farming, irrigated
crops, dry farming, etc. In some open prisons work can be
diversified into agricultural activity, industrial units and agrobased production units.
Dairy and Poultry Farms
14.61. Dairies should be developed on open prison farms on
commercial lines under proper technical guidance. These should not
be operated from closed prisons.
14.62. Poultry farms should also be organized at open farms. These
should be run on commercial lines under proper technical supervision.
CHPATER XV
WELFARE OF PRISONERS
Basic Elements of Welfare Programmes
15.01. The objects of welfare programmes in prisons should be to:
(i)
Develop a relaxed, positive and constructive atmosphere in
the institution,
(ii)
Ensure good personnel-inmate relationship based on mutual
trust and confidence,
(iii) Ensure care and welfare of inmates,
(iv) Ensure firm and positive discipline,
(v)
Attend to immediate and urgent needs and problems of
inmates,
(vi) Attending to long term needs of prisoners,
(vii) Help the inmates maintain regular contact with their families,
and communities in the outside world,
(viii) Ensure a good system of incentives for self-discipline such as
remission, leave transfer to semi-open and open institutions,
and premature release,
(ix)
Provide individual guidance and counseling,
(x)
Encourage group activities, group guidance, group work,
(xi)
Implant proper habits, attitudes and approaches and prepare
them for a normal social life,
(xii) Provide supportive therapy including Psychotherapy,
15.02. The starting point of all welfare programmes shall be the initial
classification of the prisoner and the study of individual inmates. The
welfare programme should include periodical review of progress and
re-classification of prisoners, review of sentence and pre-mature
release, planning for release, pre-release preparation and after-care.
Positive influence of institutional personnel will play an important role
in this process. Community participation will be an important feature
of welfare programmes.
Counseling
15.03. Counseling facilities should be extended to the prisoners as
follows:
(i) The mental status of a prisoner should be studied before his
classification at the time of admission in the prison,
(ii)
If a prisoner is depressed he should be given counseling by the
prison staff/Welfare Officer/Psychiatrist, or by N.G.Os., or
some by some other authorized person.
(iii) A depressed prisoner should be kept under strict watch by the
prison staff.
(iv) If counseling is having no effect on the mind of a prisoner
he/she should be treated by a Psychiatrist.
Psychotherapy
15.04. Psychotherapy should be used in prisons as it has been
recognized as an effective measure for the treatment of prisoners
suffering from some degree of mental disorder and defects.
Guidance
15.05. Pamphlets containing the rights, duties, entitlement, discipline
and daily routine of a prisoner should be printed and distributed so
that a prisoner may follow the `dos’ and `don’ts’ and maintain
discipline during his/her confinement
15.06. The above literature should also be kept in the prison library
and issue to prisoners who can read
15.07. Illiterate prisoners should be made to understand the contents
of the literature by the prison staff themselves or with the help of other
literate prisoners engaged for educational programmes.
Recreation, Sports, Cultural Activities, Films, Library
15.08. Cultural and recreational activities should be organized in all
institutions for maintaining the mental and physical health of
prisoners. These activities are the basic elements of rehabilitation
programmes for prisoners. These should form the integral part of an
institutional regime.
15.09. Recreational and cultural activities should be organised
depending upon various conditions such as availability of space, the
climate and weather, composition of inmates and arrangements for
security. Such activities can include:
(i)
Outdoor games like, Cricket, kabaddi, wrestling, volley ball,
badminton, football and basket-ball.
(ii)
Gymnastics.
(iii)
Indoor games like Chess, Ludo and Carrom.
(iv)
Film Shows: Historical, patriotic, biographical, scientific and
educational films, travelogues, documentaries, newsreel, and
films dealing with social themes should be shown. Films
depicting crime, sex, violence, suspense, and such other
subjects that may have a damaging effect on the minds of
inmates and should not be shown to them. Each Central and
District prison, and Kishore Yuva Sadan, should have a film
projector for showing films to the prisoners/ inmates. A
library of good films should be developed at the
headquarters of the Inspector General of Prisons and
Director of Correctional Services and these films should be
circulated to various institutions. Close liaison should be
established between the Department of Prisons and
Correctional Services and the Films Division, Department of
Information and Broadcasting, Film and T.V. Institutions,
Film Societies and other organisations which can supply
good films for the inmates.
(v)
Music: Music has a special significance in the confined
atmosphere of a prison. It can bring relief to lonely,
distressed and unhappy inmates. It can relieve boredom and
promote interest in institutional programmes.
Music
programmes could consist of radio music, recorded music,
group singing, folk music, instrumental music and orchestra.
(vi)
Community and folk dances: Group and Folk dances could
be performed on festivals and social occasions.
(vii)
Drama: Useful social values and models of behaviour can be
presented
before
the
inmates
through
dramatic
performances.
Dramas dealing with social problems,
pageants, musical dramas, tableau, soliloquies, dialogues,
radio plays and humorous skits could be performed for the
benefit of inmates. Inmates themselves can be encouraged to
take part, and organize these activities.
(viii) Arts and crafts: Arts and crafts can play an important role in
imparting useful values to prisoners. The prisoners can
maintain their individuality through these activities. Such
activities can also serve as supportive theraputic measures in
the monotonous life of a prison.
(ix)
Prisoners can be provided with necessary facilities for
pottery, basket making, wood carving, carpentary,
marquetry and veneers, wood turning, fret-work, leatherwork, home decoration, lamp-shade making, metal-craft,
plastics, toy-making, artificial flower making, horn-craft,
clay-modelling, lacquer-work, drawing, painting, stenciling,
paper-craft, papier-mache, rug making, felt-work, knitting,
embroidery, needle-work, crochet, etc.
(x)
Reading: Inmates can be encouraged to read books,
newspapers and magazines. Group reading and guided
reading can also be useful for them.
(xi)
Television: This is the biggest entertainer for prisoners. The
channels to be shown, and their timings, should be carefully
selected by the Superintendent of Prison.
15.10. Every prison and allied institution should have an annual
sports/cultural meet. Inter-Institution and Inter-State sports meets of
inmates should also be organised. The sports groups from outside
could be invited into the prison for playing various games with the
prisoners.
15.11. Yoga and meditation should be daily practiced for which the
hours should be fixed. Permanent centres of meditation could be
opened inside the prison. The services of N.G.Os. could be availed in
this regard. It should be ensured that discourses during meditation
sessions are secular in nature.
15.12. Well known personalities in the fields of art, sports, literature,
culture and music should be invited to the prison as guests on various
occasions to inspire the prisoners and be role-models for them.
15.13. There shall be a play ground for outdoor games and a
community hall for cultural programmes in every prison.
Role of N.G.Os.
15.14. N.G.Os. should be extensively involved in organising sports and
cultural meets. They could be encouraged to lend various items and
equipment for the smooth conduct of such events.
15.15. Care shall be exercised in the selection of welfare
agencies/N.G.Os. for carrying out welfare programmes. Only those
N.G.O.s/welfare agencies which have a proven track record, and
which are known for their dedication and selfless service, should be
selected for associating in prison programmes.
15.16. No member of a Welfare agency/N.G.O. shall be associated
with a prison if he/she has a criminal record. For this purpose an
undertaking may be obtained from the Agency/N.G.O.
15.17. The good work done by welfare organizations and N.G.O. in
prisons should be publically appreciated.
Prisoners’ Panchayat
15.18. Every prison and allied institution should have prisoners’
panchayats. These panchayats should consist of very carefully selected
inmates, who are of good conduct and who have the potential and
ability to organize events and activities. These panchayats should plan
and execute daily recreational programmes for inmates. This will give
the prisoners a sense of participation in the prison management, which
is an important component of any policy of welfare and reformation.
These panchayats should also be used for giving the prisoners an
opportunity to express their problems and seek redressal.
15.19. The working of these panchayats should be continuously
monitored by the prison administration. The Superintendent or Dy.
Superintendent of Prison should as far as possible should personally
participate in the panchayat meetings.
15.20. A ‘Mahapanchyat’ of all the panchayats should be held in the
presence of the Superintendent at least once in a quarter for the
redressal of prisoners’ grievances and implementation of their
suggestions. The Inspector General of Prisons should also participate
in such Mahapanchayat in different prisons in the State from time to
time.
Celebration of Festivals
15.21. Independence Day, Republic Day and Mahatama Gandhi’s
birthday should be celebrated in each prison to inculcate a feeling of
the patriotism among the prisoners. Cultural programmes could also
be organised on such occasions and special food can be served to the
prisoners.
15.22. The main festivals of all religions should be celebrated. In these
every prisoner should be encouraged to participate. Any special
treatment to a group of prisoners belonging to a particular caste or
religion is strictly prohibited.
Spiritual Development
15.23. Well known personalities from all religions should be invited to
deliver lectures to prisoners for their moral upliftment. The help of
N.G.Os. and welfare agencies could be taken in this regard. It should
be ensured beforehand that the content and tenor of such lectures is
not such as would cause resentment among people of other religions.
15.24. No undue interference with the religion or caste prejudices of
prisoners should be permitted. Every prisoner should be allowed to
perform his devotions in a quiet and orderly manner.
Implementation of Welfare Activities
15.25. The Superintendent shall be responsible for the smooth and
orderly implementation of welfare activities in the prison.
15.26. The Superintendent shall submit quarterly reports of welfare
activities being conducted in his prison to the Inspector General of
Prisons.
CHAPTER XVI
REMISSION
16.01. Remission system aims at the reformation of a prisoner. The
scheme is intended to ensure prison discipline and good conduct on
the part of the prisoners, and to encourage them to learning and better
work culture, with the prospect of their early release from prison as an
incentive.
16.02. Remission is a concession, which can be granted to prisoners by
the State Government or by the Head of the Prison Department and
Superintendent of Prisons. This concession is subject to subsequent
withdrawal/forfeiture/revocation. The State Government reserves the
right to debar/withdraw any prisoner, or category of prisoners, from
the concession of remission.
Purpose
16.03. Remission is intended to be an incentive for good behaviour and
work. It should be granted on the basis of an inmate’s behaviour, work
and general response to various institutional activities.
16.04. In the context of this chapter:
(i)
‘Prisoner’ includes a person committed to prison in
default of furnishing security for maintaining peace or
good behaviour and also includes persons convicted
by a Military Court,
(ii)
‘Sentence’ means a sentence as finally fixed on appeal
or revision or otherwise, and includes an aggregate of
more sentences than one, and an order of committal to
prison in default of furnishing security for
maintaining peace or good behaviour.
Kinds of Remission
16.05. Remission will be of the following types:
(i)
Ordinary remission
(ii)
Special remission
(iii) State Government remission
Ordinary Remission
16.06. Authority to grant ordinary remission: The Superintendent, or
an officer nominated by him on his behalf, is authorized to grant
ordinary remission
16.07. Eligibility: The following types of convicted prisoners shall be
eligible for ordinary remission:
(a) Prisoners having substantive sentences of two
months and more,
(b)
Prisoners, sentenced to simple imprisonment
for two months or more, who volunteer to
work,
(c)
Prisoners employed on prison maintenance
services requiring them to work on Sundays
and Holidays, e.g. sweeping, cooking etc.,
irrespective of the length of their sentence,
(d) Prisoners admitted for less than one month in
hospital for treatment or convalescence after
an ailment or injury not caused willfully.
(Those admitted for such purpose for more
than one month should be entitled to
remission for good conduct only).
Note: It will be the responsibility of the prison administration to
provide work to all eligible prisoners. If for any reason the prison
administration fails to do so the prisoners who are otherwise eligible
for remission for work should be granted it as per their normal
entitlement under the orders of the Inspector General of Prisons.
16.08. Non Eligibility: The following types of prisoners should not be
eligible for ordinary remission:
(a)
Prisoners having substantive sentence of
less than two months,
(b)
Prisoners sentenced in default of payment
of fine only,
(c)
Prisoners whose sentence is reduced to less
that two months (in such cases remission
already earned, if any, should stand
forfeited),
In the case of prisoners transferred from one
prison to another on disciplinary grounds,
during the period of their stay in the latter
prison,
(d)
(e)
Prisoners debarred
punishment,
from
remission
(f)
Prisoners specifically debarred
remission under any law or rule, and
as
from
(g)
Prisoners out on special leave for the
duration of such leave.
16.09. Scale of remission for convicted prisoners: Ordinary remission
may be granted to prisoners who are eligible for it at the scale shown
below:
(a)
Three days per calendar month for good
behaviour, discipline and participation in
institutional activities,
(b)
Three days per calendar month for
performance of work according to the
prescribed standards,
One day per calendar month for prisoners
employed on prison maintenance services
requiring them to work even on Sundays
and holidays e.g. sweeping, cooking etc.,
(c)
(d)
Eight days per calendar month for those
working as night watchmen,
(e)
10 days per calendar month to convict
overseers and convict warders (until these
two categories are abolished),
(f)
One day for each day’s stay in open
institutions to prisoners sentenced to
imprisonment of one year or more and
transferred to such institutions,
(g)
Any prisoner eligible for ordinary
remission, who for a period of one year
from the date of his sentence, or the date on
which he was last punished (except by way
of warning) for a prison offence, has not
committed any prison offence, should be
awarded 30 days annual good conduct
remission in addition to any other
remission.
Special remission
16.10. Authority to grant special remission: Superintendent of the
prison concerned and Inspector General/Head of the Prisons
Department will be the competent authorities to grant special
remission.
16.11. Criteria to grant special remission: Meritorious work by
inmates should be rewarded by grant of special remission in addition
to the annual good conduct remission to create a spirit of healthy
competition among prisoners. Such special remission may be granted
to prisoners eligible for ordinary remission on the following
considerations:
(a) Saving the life of a government employee, a
prison visitor or an inmate,
(b)
Protecting a government employee or prison
visitor or inmate from physical violence or
danger,
(c)
Preventing or assisting in prevention of
escape of prisoners, apprehending prisoners
attempting to escape, or giving material
information about any plan or attempt by a
prisoner, or a group of prisoners, to escape,
(d) Assisting prison officials in handling
emergencies like fire, outbreak of riots and
strike,
(e)
Reporting of, or assisting in, prevention of
serious breach of prison regulations,
(f)
Outstanding contribution in cultural activities
or education,
(g)
Specially good work in industry, agriculture
or any other work programme, or in vocational
training.
16.12. Scale: Subject to the fulfillment of any one or more of the
conditions aforementioned, special remission not
exceeding 30 days in a year may be granted by the
Superintendent of prison to those prisoners who are
eligible for ordinary remission. The Inspector General of
Prisons may grant special remission up to 60 days per
annum in exceptional cases. He may grant special
remission within his powers, even to a prisoner who is
not eligible for ordinary remission, in special
circumstances.
State Government Remission
16.13. Remission granted by the State Government shall be called State
Government Remission:
Eligibility
16.14. The State Government remission can be awarded to such
prisoners, or categories of prisoners, as the State Government may
decide;
16.15. In case of prisoners who, at the time of general grant of State
Government remission, are released on temporary or emergency
release, specific orders of the State Government about the award of this
remission to such prisoners are necessary;
Scale
16.16. State Government remission will be granted at such scale, or in
such quantum, as may be fixed by the State Government from time to
time.
Remission Committee
16.17. The Remission Committee of each institution will consist of:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Superintendent-in charge of the institution – Chairman,
Deputy Superintendent or senior most prison officer
available in the institution,
Assistant Superintendent/Deputy Jailor/Assistant Jailor
in charge of remission section,
Officer in charge of Industries/ Vocational Training.
Functions of Remission Committee
16.18. The functions of this committee are:
(i)
to attend to all matter pertaining to remission,
(ii)
to recommend cases of prisoners to the Inspector
General/Head of Prisons Department for the grant of
special remission as per provisions of this manual, and
(iii) to grant special remission as per provisions of this
manual.
Procedure
16.19. The members of the committee should assist the Superintendent
in all matters pertaining to the award of remission. The decision of the
Superintendent should be treated as final. The Remission Committee
should meet on fixed days in the last week of every month, or as and
when required.
Notes: (i)
In view of the importance of remission work, it is
essential that the committee meets as per fixed schedule
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
so that remission may be granted in time. Special
remission should be granted leaving a margin of at least
seven days prior to a prisoner’s release.
Entries regarding remission should be made, under
proper attestation of the Superintendent, in the Remission
Register and the History Ticket of the prisoner concerned
as soon as it is granted.
Prisoners with substantive sentences from two months to
five years should be sanctioned remission each month
while those sentenced to more than five years (including
life convicts) should be granted remission once in a
quarter.
Ordinary remission should be calculated for full calendar
months. It should not be granted for a fraction of a
calendar month.
Special remission may be granted for any fraction of a
year accordingly.
Maximum limit of remission which a prisoner can earn
should be half of the substantive sentence (to be
calculated from the date of his conviction).
Grant of remission to prisoners sentenced by court
martial should be on the same principles as those
applicable to other prisoners.
Life Convicts
16.20. Life sentence shall be taken as imprisonment for twenty years
for the purpose of calculation of remission (vide Section 57, Indian
Penal Code). In the case of a prisoner serving more than one life
sentence, twenty years shall be treated as the total of all his sentences
for calculating remission. Grant of remission to a life convict shall not
mean actual remission in his sentence. When his case will be examined
by the Review Board, the remission to his credit will be one of the
factors on the basis of which the review of his sentence will be
considered.
Miscellaneous
16.21. Prisoners sentenced by court martial shall be granted ordinary
remission of the period they pass in transit, or in military custody,
before their admission in prison on the same scale as laid down in
these rules.
16.22. In the case of a prisoner, transferred from one prison to another
while undergoing imprisonment, the period spent by him in the first
prison, excluding the period spent as an under trial prisoner, shall be
calculated along with the period spent by him in the second prison, for
remission.
16.23. Ordinary remission shall be calculated from the first day of the
calendar month after the date of the prisoner’s sentence. Ordinary
remission shall not be granted for the broken period of a calendar
month. A prisoner, unless sentenced on the first day of a month, will
not get remission for the month in which he has been sentenced.
16.24. Period spent outside the prison, such as release on leave/parole
which are included as part of a sentence, should not be treated as
broken periods. During such periods the prisoner shall be eligible for
earning ordinary remission. For periods spent outside the prison
which are not included as parts of a sentence (such as, bail, emergency
release, escape and extradition) prisoners shall not be eligible for
earning remission. In such cases, the prisoners should be considered as
eligible to earn remission from the first day of the calendar month
following the date of their re-admission.
Note- In all such cases the date for eligibility for annual good conduct
remission will be duly postponed. Prisoners who have been released
on bail, or whose sentence have been temporarily suspended, shall, on
their readmission to prison, be credited with any remission they may
have earned before their release on bail, or to the suspension of the
sentence. They will be brought under the remission system again on
the first day of the calendar month after their readmission.
Removal and Revocation of Prisoner from Remission
16.25. The State Government, the Inspector General of Prisons and the
Superintendent may remove any prisoner from remission, for a
specified period, for committing prison offences. The Superintendent
may remove a prisoner from remission for three months. However, the
sanction of the Inspector General will be necessary for such removal
from remission for any period exceeding three months.
16.26. With prior sanction of the Inspector General the Superintendent
may re-admit any prisoner to remission who has been removed from
there. The prisoner who is re-admitted to remission shall earn
remission under these rules from the commencement of the month
following his re-admission.
Conditions for Forfeiture of Remission
16.27. Remission earned by a prisoner may be forfeited by the State
Government or the Inspector General of Prisons or the Head of Prisons
Department or the Superintendent of Prisons;
(i)
If the prisoner is convicted of an offence committed after
admission to prison, under sections 147, 148, 152, 224, 302, 304,
304-A, 306. 307, 308, 232, 324, 325, 326, 327, 332, 333,352, 353 or
377 of the India Penal Code or convicted of an assault
(ii)
committed on a prison official, a prison visitor, a prisoner, or
any other government employee after admission to prison. All
the ordinary and special remission, of whatever kind, earned
by him under these rules up to the date of the said conviction
may be forfeited in part, or in whole, with the sanction of the
Inspector General of Prisons or the Head of the Prisons
Department,
For prison offences Superintendent is empowered to forfeit
earned remission up to 30 days for one offence. Earned
remission beyond 30 days may be forfeited with the sanction
of the Inspector General of Prisons or the Head of the Prisons
Department.
Note:
(i)
All entries about forfeiture of remission shall be promptly made
in the remission sheet and in the Remission Register.
(ii)
State Government remission is granted on occasions of national
importance or public rejoicing under Section 432 of Criminal
Procedure Code. An order of unconditional remission of such
sentence under this section cannot be rescinded except in cases
of fraud or mistake in its grant.
Record
16.28. Following records will be maintained by the prison authority:
(i)
Assistant Superintendent, or any other official in charge of
yards or sections, shall maintain sheets for prisoners
eligible to earn remission. On the appointed days, these
sheets shall be forwarded to the officer dealing with
remission work and to the Deputy Superintendent, or to
any other officer in charge of admission and release of
prisoners for inspection. These sheets shall be attached to
the remission sheet of the prisoners.
(ii)
A Remission Register shall be maintained in a prescribed
Form (Appendix 8) in which all entries about grant and
forfeiture, if any, of remission shall be promptly made and
duly attested by the officers concerned.
(iii)
Entries in the Remission Register shall be made at the end
of each quarter. In case a prisoner is due for release before
the completion of a quarter, these entries shall be made
during relevant months, and action regarding his/her
release may be taken accordingly.
(iv)
At the end of each quarter, prisoners should be informed
about the remission they have earned during the quarter
and also the total of their remission.
(v)
Grant or forfeiture, if any, of all types of remission should
be recorded in the remission sheet.
(vi)
The Deputy Superintendent, or officer in charge of
admission and release, shall inspect the Remission Register
or Remission Sheets at fixed intervals.
(vii)
(viii)
Except for the communication mentioned in Rule 13 (iv),
remission record shall be treated as confidential. It shall
not be allowed to be handled by the prisoners.
Prisoners should be released on such dates, as would be
worked out, after allowing for the remission granted.
CHAPTER XVII
LEAVE AND SPECIAL LEAVE
17.01. Leave and special leave to inmates are progressive measures of
correctional services. The release of a prisoner on leave not only saves
him from the evils of incarceration but also enables him to maintain
social relations with his family and the community. It also helps him
maintain and develop a sense of self-confidence. Continued contacts
with family and the community sustain in him a hope for life. The
provisions for grant of leave should be liberalised to help a prisoner
maintain a harmonious relationship with his family. The privilege of
leave should, of course, be allowed to selective prisoners on the basis of
well-defined norms of eligibility and propriety.
Objectives
17.02. The objectives of releasing a prisoner on leave are:
(i)
To enable the inmate to maintain continuity with his
family life and deal with family matters,
(ii)
To save him from the evil effects of continuous prison
life,
(iii) To enable him to maintain and develop his selfconfidence,
(iv) To enable him to develop constructive hope and active
interest in life.
Leave
17.03. Leave is not a right but a concession which may be granted to
convicts. This concession is subject to cancellation. The State
Government/Inspector General reserves the right to debar/withdraw
any prisoner, or category of prisoners, from the concession of leave.
17.04. The following categories of prisoners shall not be eligible for
being released on leave:
(i)
Prisoners whose presence is considered dangerous or
otherwise prejudicial to public peace and ordered by the
District Magistrate and Superintendent of Police,
(ii)
Prisoners who are considered dangerous or have been
involved in serious prison violence like assault, outbreak,
riot, mutiny or escape, or who have been found to be
instigating serious violation of prison discipline,
(iii) Prisoners convicted for offences such as dacoity, terrorist
crimes, kidnapping, smuggling including those convicted
under NDPS Act and foreigners
(iv) Prisoners committed for failure to give security for
maintaining peace or good behaviour
(v)
Prisoners suffering from mental illness, if not certified by
the Medical Officer to have recovered
(vi) Prisoners whose work and conduct have not been good
during the preceding 12 months
(vii) Prisoners convicted of an offence against any law relating
to matters to which the executive power of the Union
Government extends, unless approved by the Union
Government
(viii) Prisoners whose release on leave is likely to have
repercussions elsewhere in the country.
17.05. Subject to the provisions of rule 2 above eligibility for leave
should be regulated as follows:
Sentence
When due for first When due for When due for
release on leave
second release
subsequent
releases.
Not exceeding On completion of one After completion After
five years
year of actual imp- of six months of completion of
risonment -- to be actual
six months of
counted from the imprisonment -- actual
date of admission to to be counted imprisonment prison as convict
from the date his -to be counted
last return from from the date
his last return
leave.
from leave.
Duration of
Leave
per
year
21 days
Exceeding five
years but not
more than 14
years
On completion of
two years of actual
imprisonment -- to
be counted from the
date of admission to
prison as convict.
After completion
of one year of
actual
imprisonment -to be counted
from the date of
his last return
from leave.
21
days
during
the
first
five
years
of
confinement
and 28 days
for the rest of
term.
Prisoners
sentenced to life
or
imprisonment
exceeding
14
years
On completion of
three years of actual
imprisonment — to
be counted from the
date of admission to
prison as convict
After completion
of one year of
actual
imprisonment—
to
be counted
from the date of
his last return
from leave
After
completion of
six months of
actual
imprisonment - to be counted
from the date
of
his
last
return
from
leave.
After
completion of
six months of
actual
imprisonmentto be counted
from the date
of
his
last
return
from
leave
21
days
during
the
first
five
years
of
confinement
and 28 days
for the rest of
term
17.06. For calculation of sentences for the purpose of eligibility for
leave, ‘sentence’ shall mean a sentence as finally fixed on appeal, or
revision, or otherwise, and includes an aggregate of one or more
sentences.
17.07 A register shall be maintained in the prison in the prescribed
form in which all cases of prisoners eligible for leave shall be posted
three months in advance of the date on which they become eligible for
it. A proper record of the release of prisoners on leave will be kept in
the office of the Head of the Prisons Department/Inspector General of
Prisons. Appropriate entries in this regard will also be made in the
History Tickets of the inmates concerned.
Special Leave
17.08. Special leave may be granted to a prisoner in special situations
such as:
(a)
Death
or
serious
illness
of
father/mother/brother/sister/spouse/children.
(b)
Marriage of brother/sister/children.
17.09. Prisoners eligible for the grant of special leave should not get it
for a period of more than 30 days at a time. However in special
circumstances such leave can be extended up to a maximum period of
90 days, but in no case such leave should be extended further.
Competent Authority to Sanction Leave/Special Leave
17.10. Head of the Prisons Department/Inspector General of Prisons
will be the competent authority for granting release on leave.
17.11. Head of the Prisons Department/Inspector General of Prisons
will be the competent authority for granting release on special leave for
a maximum period of 30 days at a time. For the extension of such leave
beyond 30 days, order of the State Government will be obtained by the
Head of the Prisons Department/Inspector General of Prisons.
17.12. Special leave may be granted by the Superintendent of the
prison concerned to a prisoner in the event of an emergent situation
like death of a member of his family. Such leave will be given after
verifying the facts of the case by contacting the concerned police
authority by the quickest mode of communication available. Such
leave can be for a maximum period of 14 days, excluding journey time.
For the purpose of granting special leave, the family will include
parents, brother, sister, son, daughter and spouse of the prisoner.
17.13. The period spent on leave will be counted as sentence served,
while that spent on special leave will not count as such. The period
spent on special leave will be treated as ‘out days’ or sentence
suspended for all purposes.
Procedure
17.14. A prisoner desiring to avail the concession of leave or special
leave will submit his application in the prescribed form to the
Superintendent of the prison. The Superintendent will examine each
case carefully with regard to the eligibility for leave with particular
reference to conduct, work, attitude towards family and community,
and the manner in which the previous period of leave, if any, was
utilized. He will then forward the application to the concerned District
Magistrate and the Superintendent of Police for report.
17.15. The police of the concerned district will submit its report
through the District Magistrate to the Inspector General of Prisons
within 4 weeks of receipt of such reference. In case the police disagree
with the proposed release of a prisoner on leave, reasons for such
disagreement should be specified.
17.16. The opinion of the district authorities should be obtained only
for the first release of a prisoner on leave. For the second and
subsequent releases no such opinion would be necessary provided that
the prisoner had surrendered in time and there had been no adverse
report from the police about the behaviour of the prisoner during the
earlier leave period.
17.17. Prisoners whose conduct is found unsatisfactory should not be
considered for this concession. However, the period after which such a
case will be reviewed will be decided by the Head of Prison
Department/Inspector General of Prisons depending upon the nature
of the case.
Conditions of Leave
17.18. Head of Prison Department/Inspector General of Prisons may
make an order for the release of a prisoner on leave or special leave
subject to the following conditions:
(a)
That the prisoner will give cash security for the amount
ordered by the Head of Prison Department/Inspector
General of Prisons, or execute a personal recognisance
bond, or execute a bond with one or more sureties
according to the directions of the Head of Prison
Department/Inspector General of Prisons,
(b)
That the prisoner shall reside at the place designated by
the Head of Prison Department/Inspector General of
Prisons and will not go beyond the specified limits,
(c)
That the prisoner will keep good behaviour and will not
commit any offence during leave,
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
That the prisoner will report to the Probation Officer, if
any, of the area of his stay during leave,
That the prisoner will neither associate with bad
characters nor lead a dissolute life,
That the prisoner will be liable to be recalled immediately
to prison in case he violates any of the conditions,
That the prisoner will surrender himself to the
Superintendent of the prison on expiry of the leave
granted, or on recall.
Release on Leave
17.19. On receipt of an order from the Head of Prison
Department/Inspector General of Prisons, the prisoner should be
released on leave/special leave after he has executed the necessary
bond and has signed the conditions of release. At the time of release
the prisoner should be supplied with an identity card and certificate of
release on leave.
Authorities to be Informed
17.20. Release of prisoner on leave should be intimated to the
following authorities:
(a)
District Magistrate and Superintendent of Police of the
district in which the prisoner proposes to spend the leave,
(b)
District Magistrate and the District Superintendent of
Police of the home district of the prisoner,
(c)
Probation Officer in whose jurisdiction the prisoner
proposes to spend the leave.
Sureties
17.21. For release of prisoners surety should be secured in one of the
following ways:
(a)
On executing a personal bond,
(b)
The wages earned by the prisoners may be taken as cash
security,
(c)
The Probation Officer may be asked to arrange necessary
surety,
(d)
Panchayat of the home village of the prisoner may stand
surety for him,
(e)
Family members/relatives/friends of the prisoners, if of
good antecedents, may stand surety for him.
Travel Expenses
17.22.
The prisoner will himself meet all expenses, including
those on journey to and from the place of his stay, during
leave.
CHAPTER XVIII
PREMATURE RELEASE
18.01. The primary objective underlying premature release is
reformation of offenders and their rehabilitation and integration into
the society, while at the same time ensuring the protection of society
from criminal activities. These two aspects are closely interlinked.
Incidental to the same is the conduct, behaviour and performance of
prisoners while in prison. These have a bearing on their rehabilitative
potential and the possibility of their being released by virtue of
remission earned by them, or by an order granting them premature
release. The most important consideration for pre-mature release of
prisoners is that they have become harmless and useful member of a
civilised society. For the purpose of recommending the pre-mature
release of prisoners in each state a Sentence Review Board should be
set up to advise the government.
Composition of the State Sentence Review Board
18.02. Each State shall constitute a Sentence Review Board to review
the sentences awarded to prisoners and for recommending premature
release in appropriate cases. This shall be a permanent body having
the following members:
(i)
Principal Secretary/Secretary
Chairman
In-charge of Prisons
(ii)
Judicial Secretary/Legal
Member
Remembrancer
(iii) Director Probation Services /Chief
Probation Officer.
Member
(iv) A Senior police officer nominated
Member
by the DGP/IGP of the State
not below the rank of DIG of Police.
(v)
Inspector General of Prisons (Head of Member
Prisons Department)
(vi) A Senior Prison Officer nominated by
Member
Secretary
Head of Prison Department (from among
the senior most cadre officers available in the state)
Note: The NHRC is finalizing the guidelines regarding pre-mature release.
These guidelines shall be incorporated as and when finalized by NHRC.
Quorum
18.03. The cases put forward to the Sentence Review Board shall be
reviewed even when one or more members of the Board are not able to
attend the meeting or when there is a vacancy on the Board. The
quorum shall comprise of 4 members and the Board shall not take any
decisions when the quorum is not complete.
Periodicity of the board’s meetings
18.04. The State Sentence Review Board shall meet at least once in two
months at the State Headquarter on a date to be notified to its members
at least 10 days in advance by the Inspector General of Prisons. The
notice of such a meeting shall be accompanied by complete agenda
papers.
18.05. However, the Chairman of the Board can convene a meeting of
the board more frequently, even at short notices, if necessary.
Eligibility for Premature Release
18.06. The following categories of prisoners shall be eligible to be
considered for a review of sentences and premature release by the State
Sentence Review Boards:
(i)
Women offenders sentenced for infanticide: their cases should
be reviewed immediately on admission in prison and they
should be sent to the care of voluntary organisations of good
repute for a reasonable period of time.
(ii)
Women offenders who have committed crime under
compulsion and/or under social and cultural pressures: their
cases should also be reviewed immediately on admission in
prison for sending them to the care of voluntary organisations of
good repute.
(iii) Women offenders sentenced to life imprisonment: on
completion of seven years of imprisonment, including
remission, except those covered under Section 433-A of CrPC
1973, whose cases will be considered only after completing 14
years of actual imprisonment.
(iv) Life convicts (men and adolescent offenders) on completion of
10 years of imprisonment, including remission, except those
covered under Section 433-A of CrPC 1973, whose cases will be
considered after completing 14 years of actual imprisonment.
(v)
Non-habitual male and adolescent offenders, (other than those
sentenced to imprisonment for life), sentenced to undergo more
than one year of imprisonment, on undergoing half of their
substantive sentence, including remission, subject to the
condition that they shall not be actually released unless they
have undergone at least one year of sentence including
remission.
(vi) Non-habitual women offenders, (other than those sentenced to
imprisonment for life), sentenced to a term of imprisonment of
more than one year, on undergoing half of their substantive
sentence, including remission, whichever is less. This would be
subject to the condition that they shall not be actually released
unless they have undergone at least one year’s imprisonment
including remission.
(vii) Habitual offenders, (other than those sentenced to
imprisonment for life) sentenced to five years or more of
imprisonment, on completion of two-thirds of their sentence
including remission, subject to the condition that they shall not
be released unless they have undergone at least five years of
imprisonment including remission.
(viii) Prisoners convicted of offences such as rape, dacoity, terrorist
crimes, kidnapping, smuggling (including those convicted
under NDPS Act), Prevention of Corruption Act, Immoral
Traffic Prevention Act, offences against State, and undergoing
life imprisonment, after completion of 14 years of sentence
inclusive of remission.
(ix)
Prisoners convicted of offences mentioned in para (viii), other
than those sentenced to imprisonment for life, or to a term of
imprisonment of five years and above, after completing threefourths of the sentence including remission, subject to the
condition that they shall not be released unless they have
undergone at least five years of sentence including remission.
(x)
Old (above 65 years of age) and infirm offenders (other than
those serving life imprisonment) sentenced to imprisonment for
one year and more, on completion of one third of the
substantive sentence including remission, subject to the
condition that they shall not be actually released unless they
have undergone at least one year of imprisonment including
remission.
(xi)
Offenders certified by a designated Medical Board to be
suffering from incurable diseases likely to prove fatal, whenever
such a situation arises.
Review Board
18.07. On admission into a prison of a prisoner eligible for eventual
consideration by the Board under the rules, the Superintendent shall
write to the convicting court for copies of the judgement of the original
court as well as the appellate courts. He shall also write to the District
Magistrate of the district in which the prisoner’s home is situated, or in
which the prisoner usually resides, for information regarding his/her
antecedents.
(i)
Every Superintendent in charge of a prison shall initiate the case
of a prisoner at least three months in advance of his/her
becoming eligible for consideration for premature release as per
the criteria laid down by the State Government.
(ii)
The Superintendent of prison shall prepare a comprehensive
note for each prisoner, giving his/her family and societal
background, the offence for which he/she was convicted and
sentenced, and the circumstances under which the offence was
committed. The Superintendent shall also reflect fully on the
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
conduct and behaviour of the prisoner in the prison during the
period of his/her incarceration, and during his/her release on
probation/leave, change in his/her behavioural pattern, and
prison offences, if any, committed by him/her and punishment
awarded to him/her for such offences. A report shall also be
made about his/her physical and mental health or any serious
ailment with which the prisoner is suffering, entitling him/her
for premature release as a special case. The note shall also
contain recommendation of the Superintendent, i.e., whether he
favours the premature release of the prisoner or not. In either
case such recommendation shall be supported by adequate
reasons.
The Superintendent shall make a reference to the District
Magistrate/ Superintendent of Police of the district where the
prisoner was residing at the time of committing the offence (for
which he/she was convicted and sentenced) or where he/she is
likely to resettle after release from the prison. However, in case
the place of his/her residence is not where he/she committed
the offence, a reference shall also be made to the District
Magistrate/Superintendent of Police of the district in which the
offence was committed. The Superintendent shall forward a
copy
of
the
note
to
enable
the
District
Magistrate/Superintendent of Police to express their views
regarding the desirability of the premature release of the
prisoner.
On receipt of the reference, the concerned District
Magistrate/Superintendent of Police shall have an inquiry made
in the matter through senior officers of appropriate ranks and
shall make their recommendations based on their assessment
from such inquiry. While making the recommendations the
District Magistrate/Superintendent of Police shall not act
mechanically and oppose the premature release of a prisoner on
untenable and hypothetical assumptions.
In case the
Superintendent of Police is not in favour of premature release of
the prisoner, he shall justify the same with cogent and material
reasons. They shall return the reference to the Superintendent
of the concerned prison within 30 days of the receipt of the
reference.
The Superintendent of prison shall also make a reference to the
Probation Officer in charge of the district. On receipt of the
reference, the Probation Officer in charge shall either hold an
enquiry, or get an enquiry done through a Probation Officer, for
the desirability of premature release of the prisoner, taking into
consideration his family and social background, his/her
acceptability by his/her family members and the society,
prospects of his/her rehabilitation and leading a meaningful life
as a good citizen. While giving the report the Probation Officer
will not act mechanically and recommend each and every case
for premature release. In every case the Probation Officer
(vi)
should justify his/her recommendation with cogent and
material reasons. The Probation Officer shall furnish his/her
report/recommendations to the Superintendent of the prison
within 30 days of the receipt of the reference.
On receipt of the report/recommendations of the District
Magistrate/ Superintendent of Police and the Probation Officer,
the Superintendent of the prison shall put up the case to the
Inspector General of Prisons at least one month in advance of
the proposed meeting of the Sentence Review Board. The
Inspector General of Prisons shall examine the case, bearing in
mind the report/recommendations of the Superintendent of the
prison, the District Magistrate/Superintendent of Police, and the
Probation Officer, and make his/her recommendations
regarding the premature release of a prisoner or otherwise.
While doing so he/she shall keep in view the general or special
guidelines laid down by the government for the Sentence
Review Board. The various norms laid down and guidelines
given by the Supreme Court of India and various High Courts in
the matter of premature release of prisoners shall also be given
due consideration.
Other Cases of Premature Release
18.08. When a convicted prisoner, in the opinion of a Medical Board, is
in danger of death from sickness (not due to an infectious disease) with
no hope of recovery within or outside the prison, the Superintendent
shall report the fact to the Inspector General of Prisons if it is
considered desirable to allow such prisoner the comfort of dying at
home.
18.09. If the unexpired period of the prisoner’s sentence does not
exceed six months, the Inspector General of Prisons may direct his/her
immediate release, after making personal inquiries into the case and
consulting the District Magistrate of that district.
18.10. If the unexpired period of the prisoner’s sentence exceeds six
months, the Inspector General of Prisons shall immediately report the
facts of the case, along with his recommendations, to the Government.
18.11. No prisoner, without any friends or relatives willing to take
charge of him/her, shall be released under this rule.
18.12. This rule shall not apply to a prisoner who goes on a hunger
strike. A prisoner on hunger strike shall in no circumstances be
released.
18.13. If a Medical Board considers that a convicted prisoner is in
danger of dying from illness (not due to an infectious disease), and that
there is a probability of his/her recovery when released, he shall
furnish a certificate to that effect. On receipt of the certificate the
Superintendent shall immediately report the fact to the Inspector
General of Prisons. He shall also at the same time send for the
prisoner’s relatives or friends and ascertain whether they are willing to
look after him. If so, he shall take from them a security bond to the
effect that in the event of the prisoner being prematurely released on
account of illness, they will give him/her up at any time they may be
required to do.
18.14. If the unexpired period of sentence of the prisoner does not
exceed two years, the Inspector General of Prisons may direct his/her
immediate release after making personal inquiries into the case and
consulting the concerned District Magistrate.
18.15. If the unexpired sentence of the prisoner exceeds two years, the
Inspector General of Prisons shall immediately report the facts of the
case with his recommendations, to the Government.
18.16. If the unexpired portion of the sentence exceeds two years, or if
the Inspector General of Prisons thinks the prisoner should not be
released, he shall report the facts of the case, with his opinion, to the
government for orders.
18.17. If a prisoner detained solely under a sentence of Imprisonment
in default of furnishing security to maintain peace or for good
behaviour, is so seriously ill that he/ she is likely to die, whatever be
the term of his unexpired sentence, the Superintendent shall refer the
case to the District Magistrate of the District, in case the order is passed
by an Executive Magistrate, or to the Court of Sessions, in case the
order has been passed by a Judicial Magistrate, for necessary orders of
release under Section 123 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
18.18. Every case of release under these rules shall immediately be
reported to the Inspector General, who shall report to the Government
all such releases that have been made without the special sanction of
the government. A descriptive roll of the prisoner released shall also
be submitted in duplicate along with such report.
18.19. If the friends or relatives of a sick or dying prisoner, whose
release has been sanctioned under above rules, express their inability
to meet the expenses of a journey to the prison, the prisoner may be
transferred, if fit to travel, in anticipation of sanction of the Head of
Prisons Department/Inspector General, to the prison of the district
where he/she shall stay, provided that no prisoner shall be so
transferred to any district beyond the jurisdiction of the State without
the special sanction of the State Government concerned.
18.20. In the event of such a prisoner dying before he/she can be
released, the death shall be recorded in the records of the prison from
which he/she was transferred.
Procedure and Guidelines for the Review Board
18.21. The Head of Prisons Department/Inspector General of Prisons
shall convene a meeting of the Sentence Review Board on a fixed date
and time at the State Headquarters. Notice of such meeting shall be
given to the Chairman and Members of the Board at least ten days in
advance and such notice shall be accompanied by complete agenda
papers, i.e. the note of the Superintendent of Prison, recommendations
of the District Magistrate/Superintendent of Police/Probation Officer
and that of the Inspector General of Prisons along with copies of other
necessary documents, if any.
18.22. The meeting shall ordinarily be chaired by the Chairman and if,
for some reasons, he/she is unable to be present, it shall be chaired by
the Judicial Secretary-cum-Legal Remembrancer.
The Member
Secretary shall present the case of each prisoner under consideration
before the Sentence Review Board. The Board shall consider each case
and give its views. As far as practicable, the Sentence Review Board
shall make unanimous recommendations. However, in case of dissent,
the majority view shall prevail and will be deemed to be the decision of
the Board. If equal numbers of members are of opposing views, the
decision of the Chairman will be final.
18.23. While considering the case of premature release of a particular
prisoner the Board shall keep in view the general principles of amnesty
remission of sentences, as laid down by the State Government or by the
courts, as also the earlier precedents in the matter. The paramount
consideration before the Sentence Review Board being the welfare of
the prisoner and the society at large. The Board shall not ordinarily
decline a premature release of a prisoner merely on the ground that the
police have not recommended his/her release on certain far-fetched
and hypothetical assumptions. The Board shall take into account the
circumstances in which the offence was committed by the prisoner and
whether he/she has the propensity to commit similar or other offences
again.
18.24. Rejection of the case of a prisoner for premature release on one
or more occasions by the Sentence Review Board will not be a bar for
its reconsideration. However, the reconsideration of the case of a
convict, rejected once, shall be done only after a period of one year, or
as specified by Review Board, but not more than three years from the
date of its last consideration. A fresh report from the Superintendent
will be necessary for such reconsideration. However, fresh reports
from the District Magistrate, Superintendent of Police and Probation
Officer will be required after five years only. Reconsideration of the
case will be done on the basis of the conduct of the prisoner in the
intervening period, rather than on the material on the basis of which
his/her case was rejected earlier.
18.25. The recommendation of the Sentence Review Board shall be
placed before the competent authority without any delay for
consideration.
The competent authority may either accept the
recommendations of the Sentence Review Board or reject the same on
the grounds to be stated or may ask the Sentence Review Board to
reconsider a particular case. The decision of the competent authority
shall be communicated to the concerned prisoner and in case the
competent authority has ordered to grant remission, and order his
premature release, the prisoner shall be released forthwith (with or
without conditions).
Monitoring of Cases
18.26. A computerised record of all the prisoners serving sentence in
the prisons, for a follow up of their cases, is extremely desirable in
every prison as well as at the Prisons Headquarters and at the Home or
Prison Department of the State Government. The monitoring system
should be based on the following guidelines:
(i)
There should be a single file system for the case of every
prisoner. Such files shall be maintained at the prison institution.
(ii)
This file will have a complete record of information regarding
the consideration of a prisoner’s premature release on any
grounds on previous occasions and the date of reconsideration
of the case.
(iii) Only one ground for a prisoner’s premature release shall be
considered at a time.
(iv) Full record of information regarding the stage of each prisoner’s
premature release shall be kept in a register prescribed for the
purpose as well in computers.
(v)
Monitoring of all cases shall be done every month at the prison
level, every three months at Prisons Headquarter level and
every six months at the government level.
Record Relating to Review of Sentences and Premature Release
18.27. Immediately on admission of a convict, eligible for being
considered for premature release, the Superintendent of the institution
should get a copy of the judgement in his/her case from the court and
open a file. This file should contain:
(i)
Copies of the judgements of the original court and the
appellate court.
(ii)
A data sheet containing information, viz. name of the
convict, his/her number, age at the time of the sentence,
previous occupation, offences, sentences, date of
sentence, sentencing court, sentence undergone,
unexpired sentence and remission earned.
(iii) History of his/her family background, economic
background, habits, attitudes, etc.
(iv) Report of the Superintendent giving particulars about the
educational progress, performance at work and
vocational training, interest in recreational and cultural
activities, discipline, group adjustability, conduct,
attitude towards society and family members, conduct
during release on leave, need for an after-care
programme, and the manner in which the convict
proposes to resettle after his/her premature release.
(v)
Medical report about the physical and mental condition
of the offender, serious illness, if any, suffered by
him/her, and his/her fitness for premature release.
(vi) Opinion of the District Magistrate and Superintendent of
Police of district of residence, or of the place of
committing the crime, about the suitability of the
offender for premature release.
(vii) Report from the Probation Officer or any other agency,
about the after-care programme for the convict.
(viii) Recommendation of the Institutional Classification
Committee.
(ix)
Recommendation of the Review Board.
(x)
Order of the government.
(xi)
Bond furnished by the prisoner.
(xii) Conditions of release duly signed by the prisoner
CHAPTER XIX
PRISON DISCIPLINE
Principles:
19.01. Prison discipline is the prime mover of a dynamic and
interactive human mechanism called the correctional process, which an
offender undergoes to get reformed into a law-abiding and dignified
citizen, who can become self-reliant after his/ her release and deserve a
rightful place in the mainstream of the society.
19.02. An offender, after release, always faces cold treatment and
rejection from the society at large. On account of such rejection and
dislike, the gap between an offender and the society becomes wider.
This sends the offender back into the world of crime, and from there
again to custody, making a vicious circle. This is how crime recurs.
Correctional work aims to bridge the gulf between the offender and the
mainstream society.
19.03. Prison discipline should not be retributive but reformative; not
repressive but curative; and should be carried on with a view to foster
the basic values and virtues of life and humanity.
19.04. Prison discipline is the collective responsibility of all the prison
personnel who are actually supposed to usher in reformation to the
offender.
19.05. Prison discipline should also ensure impeccable security in the
prison so that the safe custody and well being of the prisoners is not in
jeopardy.
19.06. Prison discipline shall also envisage a tidy ambience in the
premises, which is conducive to creative work in the field of culture,
literacy and vocational training.
19.07. Prison discipline shall be supported and given a human face by:
(i)
Sympathetic and patient understanding of the predicaments of
the inmates, with follow-up guidance and counselling, which
will act as an emotional support base to them. Counselling will
also act as a preventive measure against despondency in their
psyche.
(ii)
Introducing a system of incentives and rewards which will be
accorded to the deserving inmates making rapid progress on the
path of correction.
(iii)
Exemplary conduct on the part of the Superintendent, Deputy
Superintendent and other prison personnel will go a long way
to encourage prisoners to return to the society at large and make
it a better place for posterity.
Scope
19.08. Prison discipline shall cover all aspects of Institutional life such
as:
i)
Discipline of good health,
ii)
Discipline of work,
iii)
Discipline of proper behaviour,
iv)
Discipline of education and learning,and
v)
Discipline of interest in finer aspects of life.
Prison Offences and Punishments
19.09. Following acts of the prisoners shall constitute prison offences:
(i)
Endangering the security of the prison in any way, by a
wilful or negligent act and shall include tampering in any
way with prison walls, building, bars, locks and keys, lamps
or lights or with any other security and custody measure.
(ii)
Doing any act calculated to create unnecessary alarm in the
minds of other prisoners.
(iii)
Doing or omitting to do any act with intent to cause to
oneself any illness, injury or disability.
(iv)
Omitting to report the commission of any prison offence.
(v)
Breaking law and order and prison discipline.
(vi)
Planning, instigating and abetting, directly or indirectly, the
commission of any prison offence.
(vii)
Refusing, omitting to abide by standards of behaviour, rules
and regulations and lawful instructions and orders.
(viii)
Failing to assist in the maintenance of prison discipline.
(ix)
Failing to give assistance to a prison official when called to
do so.
(x)
Making false, malicious and groundless, written or verbal,
complaints against prison officials.
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
Committing nuisance or mischief of any sort.
Quarrelling with other prisoners.
Smoking at places, or at times, other than appointed places.
Attacking, assaulting, and causing injuries to others.
(xv)
Participating in a riot or mutiny, abetting another prisoner to
do the same.
(xvi)
Escaping or attempting to escape from prison or legal
custody or failing to report to prison officials about
attempted escapes.
(xvii)
Possessing, hiding, smuggling, attempting to smuggle,
obtaining, giving or receiving and bartering contraband
articles.
(xviii)
Failing to report to prison officials about contraband articles.
(xix)
Stealing/damaging/destroying/disfiguring/misappropriati
ng any government property or another prisoners’ articles
and property.
(xx)
Failing to report at once any loss, breakage or injury, which
the prisoner may
accidentally have caused, to prison
property or implements.
(xxi)
Tampering with or defacing identity cards, records or
documents.
(xxii)
Breach of the conditions of leave and emergency release.
(xxiii)
Refusing to eat food or going on a hunger-strike.
(xxiv)
Eating or apportioning any food not assigned to him or
taking from or adding to the portions assigned to another
prisoner.
(xxv)
Wilfully or negligently destroying or spoiling food, or
throwing it away without orders.
(xxvi)
Introducing into food or drink anything likely to render it
unpalatable, unwholesome, or dangerous for human
consumption.
(xxvii)
Cooking unauthorisedly.
(xxviii) Violating rules and regulations framed for the systematic
running of the canteen.
(xxix)
Bartering canteen articles.
(xxx)
Being idle, careless or negligent at work, refusing to work,
malingering, disturbing other prisoners at work, or in
barracks.
(xxxi)
Manufacturing any article without the knowledge or
permission of a prison officer.
(xxxii)
Performing any portion of the task allotted to another
prisoner or obtaining unauthorised assistance of another
prisoner in the performance of one’s own task.
(xxxiii) Apportioning to any prisoner any part of the task to be
performed by him/her.
(xxxiv) Mixing or adding a foreign substance to the materials issued
for work.
(xxxv)
Wilfully disabling himself from labour.
(xxxvi) Converting, or attempting to convert, a prisoner to a
different religious faith.
(xxxvii) Wilfully hurting other's religious feelings, beliefs and faiths.
(xxxviii) Agitating or acting on the basis of caste or religious
prejudices.
(xxxix)
(xl)
(xli)
(xlii)
(xliii)
(xliv)
(xlv)
Having any communication, in writing or by word or by
signs, without permission, with any outsider, an under trial
prisoner, detenus, civil prisoners, and approvers.
Sending messages surreptitiously by writing or verbally.
Participating in, or organising, unauthorised activities like
gambling and betting.
Using indecent, abusive, insolent, threatening or improper
language; being disrespectful, making indecent or vulgar
acts or gestures.
Soiling or befouling any place or article.
Loitering or lingering, leaving the appointed area or workgroup without permission.
Failing to assist, or preventing another person from assisting,
prison officials in suppressing violence, assault, riot, mutiny,
attack, gross personal violence or any other emergencies.
Punishments
19.10. The Superintendent may award punishment as noted below,
provided that no solitary confinement, no hard labour, no dietary
change as a painful additive, no other punishment or denial of
privileges and amenities, or no transfer to other prisons with penal
consequences, shall be imposed on a prisoner without judicial
appraisal of the Sessions Judge. Where such intimation, on account of
emergency is difficult, such information shall be given within two days
of taking such action.
Note: Reference Rule of the Supreme Court in Sunil Batra vs. Delhi
Administration Case.
19.11. Punishments may
punishment as follows:
be
classified
into
minor
and
major
Minor Punishments
19.11.1. Formal warning
19.11.2. Loss of privileges given to the prisoners in detention for a
maximum of one month
19.11.3. Forfeiture of wages up to earnings of three days once in a
month.
19.11.4. Forfeiture of earned remission up to ten days.
19.11.5. Fatigue drill/work for a period not exceeding one hour a day
up to seven days subject to the prisoner’s physical fitness being
certified by the Medical Officer.
Major Punishment
19.11.6. Loss of privileges given to the prisoners in detention from
one month to three months
19.11.7. Forfeiture of wages up to earnings of four to seven days in a
month
19.11.8. Transfer to greater security prisons and consequent loss of
privileges
19.11.9. Not counting period of leave towards sentence in case of
breach of conditions of leave
19.11.10. Forfeiture of earned remission beyond 10 days
19.11.11. Postponement of privileges of leave for a period not
exceeding one year starting from the date of the inmate’s next
eligibility for release on leave
19.11.12. Solitary confinement up to 30 days.
Procedure for Awarding Punishment
19.12. For award of major punishment the prisoner should be given
notice in writing, calling him to show cause with reference to the
alleged violation of the jail rule. The order of punishment should
also be communicated to the concerned prisoner.
19.13. In respect of offence committed by the prisoners which are
punishable both under the existing criminal laws or jail offences, it
should be the discretion of the Superintendent either to use his own
powers of punishments or to prosecute the offender before a court of
law.
19.14. No prisoner should be punished twice for the same offence.
Duties of Prisoners
19.15. At the time of admission, prisoners should be asked to obey
the rules and their duties shall be explained to them as below:
(i)
(ii)
Obey the orders of all officers of prison (including clerks,
medical and technical staff) and convict officers
Remain strictly with their groups and within the part of the
prison in which they are confined, unless ordered by proper
authority to leave it.
(iii) Abstain from talking when in a file at unlocking or at latrine and
bathing or other parades, or at any time when ordered by an
officer of the prison to desist; also abstain from abusing, singing,
quarrelling, laughing loudly, talking loudly and indecent
behaviour at any time
(iv) Not hold any communication with outsiders, women, civil or
undertrial prisoners or prisoners of a class different from their
own, or with the guards, beyond what is absolutely necessary
(v)
Not receive or possess ganja or other drugs, money or jewellery,
or any article of food or clothing prohibited by the rules, books,
papers, writing materials of any description, rope, knife, or
other implement (except during working hours and when the
implement is required for work). When they find any of these
articles in the prison or know of any other prisoner having
possession of any such articles, they shall report the matter to
the Deputy Superintendent or Warder
(vi) Report any plot or conspiracy, and any attempt to escape, or any
planned attack upon any prisoner or officer of the prison
(vii) Help the officers of prison in the event of any attack upon them
(viii) Keep their clothes, blankets, beddings, and utensils clean and in
proper order
(ix)
Keep their persons clean
(x)
Perform their assigned tasks willingly and carefully and take
proper care of any property of government entrusted to them
for any purpose
(xi)
Be orderly in their behaviour; march when moving about the
prison; when addressing or being addressed by an officer of the
prison or visitor stand at attention with their hands down; and
salute when ordered
(xii) Not to remove provisions from the kitchen or food servicing
platforms without authority, or conceal any article of food in the
wards or cells
(xiii) Not to remove any unconsumed food from the place where the
meal is taken
(xiv) Stick to the bed, ward, yard, and the seat assigned to them while
at meals or at work
(xv) Not to loiter about the yards, or in the wards, after the doors
have been opened, or bathe or visit the latrine beyond the
specified hours
(xvi) Not commit any nuisance or urinate in any part of the prison
which has not been assigned for that purpose, or spoil any part
of the prison or any article in the prison in any way
(xvii) Show respect to all officers. Not to strike, assault or threaten
any officer or prisoner
(xviii) Not to gamble or barter or play any game (unless specially
permitted by the Superintendent) within the prison; nor keep
animals, birds or other pets;
(xix) Wear the clothing given to them and not to exchange clothing or
any part of their prison kit, with any other prisoner.
Grievance Redressal System
19.16. Voicing resentment/grievance is an elementary human instinct.
If it is suppressed, it can lead to an aberrant frame of mind which will
be detrimental to natural and healthy growth of body and mind.
(i)
Therefore, there shall be an active Grievance Redressal System
(G.R.S.) in every prison which will provide every inmate the
legitimate opportunity to voice his grievances.
(ii)
The system will also act as a safety valve against any possibility
of sudden outbursts of suppressed grievances.
(iii) There shall be one or more complaint boxes in every prison
installed in centrally located and convenient places, within easy
reach of the inmates. Such complaint box shall also be installed
in an easily accessible place in the female ward.
(iv) The inmates may drop their complaints in the form of written
petitions addressed to the Superintendent, or to the higher
authorities, into such boxes.
(v)
The box shall remain under lock and key and the key shall
remain in the custody of the Deputy Superintendent, who shall
unlock the complaint box at least twice a week on the days fixed
and approved by the Superintendent.
(vi) The complaint box shall be opened at appointed time before the
evening locking up of the prison.
(vii) The Superintendent shall form a permanent Committee of
G.R.S., comprising himself, the Deputy Superintendent (the
senior most Deputy Superintendent in the event of more than
one Deputy Superintendent being posted there), the Medical
Officer, and the Welfare Officer. If the prison happens to have a
female enclosure then one lady officer, not below the rank of
Deputy Superintendent, shall be included in the committee.
(viii) The committee shall meet as and when necessary, but at least
twice a week to look into all the complaints of the inmates.
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
The Superintendent shall preside over the committee which
shall enquire into all the complaints at the earliest.
The decision of the committee shall be executed forthwith.
Complaints addressed to the higher authorities shall be
forwarded to the addressee with comments of the
Superintendent without delay.
Letters addressed by prisoners to the Government, Judiciary,
Inspector General of Prisons or other high functionaries should
be forwarded to them immediately without being censored and
a dated receipt of it should be given to the prisoner. The
receiving authority should acknowledge letters immediately
and look promptly into them.
(xiii) The District Judge should visit each prison in his jurisdiction
once a month and give an opportunity to all the prisoners to
present their grievances or requests, if they so desire, in the
absence of prison offices. This should be a statutory function
of the District Judge.
(xiv) The system of taking weekly rounds of inspection of prisons
by the Superintendents should be made statutory by including
it in Prisons Act. If a prisoner is not satisfied by the action
taken by the Superintendent on his complaint, he should be
allowed to approach higher authorities for redressal of his
grievances.
(xv)
The Board of Visitors should be activated. The visitors should
receive and enquire into prisoners’ complaints and grievances
and send their suggestions to appropriate authorities.
CHAPTER XX
AFTER-CARE AND REHABILITATION
20.01. The process of after-care and rehabilitation of offenders is an
integral part of institutional care and treatment. These two should
never be de-linked. The after-care of a prisoner is an extension of the
institutional treatment programme; hence the administrative
machinery for carrying out these programmes should be effectively
integrated with the department of prisons.
20.02. It is clear that after-care, and follow-up service is not required
by each and every inmate leaving the prison. A large number of
prisoners coming from the rural areas and agrarian and business
communities are generally accepted back into their family. They are
reassimilated in the social milieu without much difficulty. They
require only some continued contact with their kin and some prerelease counselling to bridge the gap between their life in the prison
and that in the free society.
20.03. There are other prisoners who resist follow-up action as they
consider it a kind of surveillance on them. But majority of the inmates
would welcome such programmes which help them settle in the
society after their release, and get themselves rehabilitated beyond the
possibility of reverting to crime.
Objectives
20.04. The objectives of the after-care services are:
(i)
Extending help, guidance, counselling, support and protection
to all released prisoners, whenever necessary.
(ii)
Helping a released person to overcome his/her mental, social
and economic difficulties.
(iii) Helping in the removal of any social stigma that may have been
attached to the inmate or his/her family because of his
incarceration.
(iv) Impressing upon the individual the need to adjust his/her
habits, attitudes, approaches and values to a rational
appreciation of social responsibilities and obligations and the
requirements of community living.
(v)
Helping the individual in making satisfactory readjustment with
his/her family, neighbourhood, work group, and the
community.
(vi) Assisting in the process of the individual’s physical, mental,
vocational, economic, social and attitudinal post-release
readjustment and ultimate rehabilitation.
Process
20.05. After-care services should be extended to all needy persons
released from prisons, conditionally or unconditionally or on license.
A minimum of five years of imprisonment should be necessary to
enable a prisoner to avail after-care services.
20.06. After-care problems of an individual should be treated in their
totality and not in isolation. Not only the individual but his/her whole
social situation must be tackled at the same time.
20.07. After-care work should broadly be phased as follows:
(i) While the individual is under institutional care and treatment
(ii) Immediately after release from the institution
(iii) Post-release period.
20.08. There should be full coordination between the Correctional
Services and the after- care services.
20.09. While extending help, the after-care services should devote
special attention to the protection and post-release care and help of
children, adolescents, women, sick, old, infirm and handicapped
persons. Special emphasis should be laid on the after-care of habitual
offenders, if they so request.
Planning
20.10. Planning for after-care should be initiated immediately after an
inmate’s admission in the institution.
20.11. After-care should be in the interest of the individual, and based
on his/her needs. The Classification Committee should plan after-care
programmes. While planning post-release assistance, factors like the
inmate’s personality, his weaknesses and strengths, limitations and
capabilities, and his/her rehabilitation needs should be taken into
consideration. The inmate’s desires for post-release help should be
considered on a practical and realistic basis.
20.12. The inmate should be told what type of assistance would best
suit his/her needs. He/she should be encouraged to plan his/her
post-release life, as this would be helpful in his/her willing acceptance
of the after-care plan. He/she should be prepared for his post-release
life.
20.13. From the time of a prisoner’s admission into prison,
consideration should be given to his/her post-release needs and
he/she should be encouraged and assisted to maintain or establish
such relations (with persons or agencies outside the institution) as may
promote the best interests of his/her family and his/her own social
rehabilitation. Special attention should be paid to the maintenance and
improvement of such relations between a prisoner and his/her family,
as are desirable in the best interest of both.
Functioning of a Welfare Officer
20.14. The Welfare officer should contact the inmate during his/her
admission-quarantine period. Such an early contact will be helpful in
planning over-all help for the inmate and his/her family. The Welfare
Officer should meet the inmate at least once a month throughout
his/her stay in the institution.
20.15. The Welfare Officer should extend all possible assistance in
maintaining the inmate’s continued relationship with his/her family,
employer and community. The welfare of the family members and
dependants of offenders, as well as of their victims, should be looked
after.
20.16. The Welfare Officer should be associated with the prisoner's
welfare services at the headquarter level.
The Role of N.G.Os
20.17. The participation of N.G.Os. in the rehabilitation programmes
should be extensively encouraged. Voluntary organisations, which
wish to help the government in rehabilitation projects, should be given
necessary financial and other help. Their services should be given due
appreciation by the Inspector General of Prisons.
20.18. The public should be educated about the need for rehabilitation
of ex-prisoners through print and audio-visual media.
20.19. Continuous liaison should be maintained with the
agencies/individuals which are willing to give employment to the
released prisoners.
Scope of after-care assistance
20.20. The following matters should be kept in view while planning
after-care assistance or help to released prisoners:
(i)
Subsistence money to cover initial expenditure after release,
till such time as the released person reaches his/her family
or obtains employment.
(ii)
Provision of food.
(iii) Temporary accommodations till housing arrangements are
made.
(iv) Stay in a District Shelter/After-care Hostel/State Home,
wherever available.
(v)
Assistance in securing housing in urban areas.
(vi) Assistance
in
securing
apprenticeship
in
a
workshop/technical institute/ industry/trade.
(vii) Supply of artisan’s tools or trade equipment.
(viii) Assistance in starting a cottage industry, any small business
trade, a small or a stall.
(ix)
Assistance in getting employment
(x)
Assistance in getting land, agricultural equipment, draught
or milk cattle, and seeds for those opting to take up
agriculture
(xi)
Assistance in starting a small dairy, poultry, duck, or sheep
farm/piggery/
vegetable
gardening/seri-culture/beekeeping.
(xii) Liaison with and assistance to prisoner’s family during the
period he/she is serving a prison sentence.
(xiii) Help in maintaining continuity in relationship with family,
neighbours, employers and community.
(xiv) Preparing the family, employer and neighbours for receiving
the individual after release.
(xv) Guidance in getting married and setting up a home and
resettling in life.
(xvi) Liaison with local police so that h/she is not harassed
unnecessarily.
Family or Marital Adjustments
20.21. The following adjustments would be required:
(i)
Explaining to the police the background and problems of the
individual and getting help and cooperation from the police
in the process of resettlement.
(ii)
Communicating to the Panchayat/Community Development
authorities about the background, problems and needs of the
released person. Getting the cooperation and help of the
Panchayat, Community Development Officer, National
Extension Service Worker, and Gram Sevak, in the
resettlement of a prisoner.
(iii) Reference to a Social Service Organisation in the
neighbouring area where the prisoner is likely to settle after
release.
(iv) Assistance in continuation of education and vocational
training.
(v)
Creating interest in education and study. Motivating them to
acquisition and improvement of skills, healthy recreation,
and constructive use of leisure.
(vi) Encouragement in building good habits.
(vii) Help in planning and balancing his budget.
(viii) Encouraging thrift and savings. Making them leave costly
habits.
(ix)
Medical treatment on long-term basis for tuberculosis,
venereal diseases, leprosy and cancer, in an outside hospital.
(x)
Posting the released person under the care of a person or
family interested in his welfare and resettlement.
(xi)
Protection from getting associated with anti-social groups,
agencies of moral hazards (like gambling dens, drinking
places and brothels) and with demoralised and deprived
persons. Help in establishing contacts, acquaintance and
friendship with reliable neighbours, co-residents or coworkers.
Legal Aid and Protection
20.22. The following aid and protection may be required:
(i)
Help in all matters relating to the resettlement and
rehabilitation of the released person.
(ii)
The After-care agency should be closely associated with the
planning of the after-care programme for the inmate.
20.23. The plan of after-care of a prisoner should be subject to such
changes as would be found necessary by the after-care service.
20.24. The Welfare Officer should intensify his work during the prerelease period. He should maintain all the prescribed records under
the direction of the Superintendent.
20.25. After release from the institution, the case of a released person
should be followed up for a period ranging from one to five years
according to the requirements of each case.
20.26. The Welfare Officer shall establish follow-up study through
interviews or correspondence. A six monthly report evaluating the
released person’s adjustments and resettlement should be prepared by
him and copies of it should be sent to the correctional institution where
the individual had undergone treatment and to the record branch in
the headquarters organisation.
20.27. The record branch in the headquarters should maintain all the
case files and follow-up reports according to the central indexing
system.
Eligibility
20.28. Only a convict who is sentenced to five or more years of
imprisonment should be brought under the ambit of after-care and
rehabilitation programmes.
Formulation of Schemes
20.29. The Industries Department of the government should formulate
schemes for the employment of released convicts in small scale
industrial units.
20.30. Big industrial houses should be motivated at the level of the
Prisons Headquarters to give preference in jobs to released prisoners in
the interest of their rehabilitation and social adjustment
CHAPTER XXI
OPEN INSTITUTIONS
21.01. All Open and Semi-open institutions are intended to put into
practice the contemporary ideology of reformation, correction and
rehabilitation of convicted prisoners so that they may lead a selfdisciplined and cultured life after release. These institutions provide
the prisoners opportunities of employment and living a life in the
open. This restores dignity of the individual and develops in him/her
self-reliance, self-confidence and social responsibility, which are
necessary for his/her rehabilitation in the society.
1.
General Provisions
21.02. The following provisions shall apply to all Open Work Camps,
Semi-open Training Institutions, Open Training Institutions and Open
Colonies:
21.03.1.The below mentioned categories of prisoners shall not be
eligible for transfer to any of the open institutions:
(a)
Offenders classified as habitual, provided they have not
earned a higher grade in the proposed progressive
system.
(b)
Prisoners who are considered dangerous or are involved
in serious prison violence like assault, outbreak, riot,
mutiny or escape, or who have been found instigating
serious violation of prison discipline.
(c)
Prisoners convicted for offences such as dacoity, terrorist
crimes, kidnapping, and smuggling including those
convicted under NDPS Act, foreigners, escape risks and
members of organised criminal gangs.
(d)
Prisoners committed for failure to give security for
maintaining peace or good behaviour.
(e)
Prisoners suffering from mental illness.
(f)
Prisoners convicted of offences against any law relating
to matters to which the executive power of the Union
Government extends, unless approved by the Union
Government.
(g)
Prisoners whose transfer is likely to have repercussions
elsewhere in the country.
21.03.2. The Classification Committee should thoroughly screen the
case of each casual prisoner on the following points before
recommending them for transfer to an open institution:
(a)
Physical fitness and mental health required for living in a
semi-open or open institution.
(b)
Behaviour and conduct in the prison.
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Progress in work vocational training and education.
Group adjustability.
Character and self-discipline.
Extent of institutional impact (Whether the inmate has
reached peak points of training and treatment).
Whether the inmate can be further helped in the
institution. Whether he will benefit by training and
treatment in Semi-open or Open Institutions.
Whether the inmate is getting institutionalised.
Sense of responsibility.
Note:
(i)
If there is no Semi-open Training Institution or Semi-open
Institution in the State, prisoners may be transferred directly to
Open Institutions as per directions laid down by the State
Government. The State Government may also lay down
directions for direct admission to other institutions.
(ii)
Only such prisoners, whose behaviour and progress in the
institution has been good, and who are fit for a regime based on
trust, responsibility and self-discipline, should be considered for
transfer to a semi-open or Open Institution. Prisoners who are
dangerous to society, who are members of professional and
organised criminal gangs, who are habitual offenders, or who
are suffering from mental unsoundness or physical diseases,
and those who are an escape or discipline risks, should not be
transferred to Semi-open or Open Institutions.
2.
Transfer
21.04. Transfer to Semi-open/Open Institutions, Work
Colonies will be governed by the following guidelines:
(i)
Camps,
Transfer to Semi-open Institutions
21.05. On completion of two years of actual imprisonment in case of a
life convict, and six months or one-fourth of sentence as convict,
whichever is more but subject to not more than two years in case of a
terminal convict the Classification Committee shall examine in detail,
the case of every convict on the points mentioned in note (ii) to para 1
above.
21.06. If the Classification Committee is of the opinion that the inmate
is fit for being transferred to a semi-open institution, a report in the
prescribed form should be submitted to the Inspector General. On
receipt of sanction from the Inspector General, the inmate should be
oriented to his new responsibilities in a semi-open institution.
21.07. On admission at a Semi-open Institution, the inmate should be
kept in the reception yard for at least six months. During this period,
he should be further acquainted with the requirements of living
standards, standards of behaviour under Semi-open conditions, basic
education and work skills.
21.08. A programme suitable for the inmate’s training should be
organised at the Semi-open Institution. He should be given necessary
facilities to further improve his educational and cultural level and
vocational skills. Suitable work should be given to him so that he may
further improve his work habits and skills.
(ii)
Transfer to an Open Training Institution/Open Work Camp
21.09. On completion of two years’ stay in the case of a life convict,
and six months or one-fourth of the sentence as a convict, whichever is
more but not more than two years in case of a terminal convict, at the
Semi-open Institution the Classification Committee should study the
inmate’s case for his eligibility for an open institution. If there is no
Semi-open Institution in the State, prisoners may be transferred
directly to an Open Training Institution or Open Work Camp after
completing four years of stay in case of a life convict, and in the case of
a terminal convict one year or half of the sentence, whichever is more.
If the Classification Committee is convinced that the inmate is fit for
treatment in a open institution, a report in the prescribed form should
be sent to the Inspector General for his transfer. On receipt of sanction
of the Inspector General, the inmate should be oriented for his life in
the open institution. He should be made to understand that failure to
satisfactory behaviour there would entail his retransfer to the Semiopen or Closed Institution.
21.10. On admission at the Open Institution, the inmate should be kept
in the reception yard of the Institution for at least three months.
During this period he should be further educated to the requirements
of living under open conditions and a regime based on self-discipline.
21.11. A Programme suitable for the inmate’s needs should be
organised at the open institution. He should be given necessary
facilities to further improve his educational and cultural levels and
vocational skills. Suitable work should be given to him so that he
further may improve his work habits and skills.
(iii)
Transfer to Open Colony
21.12. On completion of seven years’ stay in case of a life convict, or in
the case of a convict sentenced to seven years of imprisonment or more
after the convict having undergone half of the sentence, excluding
remission as a convict, the Classification Committee shall examine the
inmate’s case for being transferred to an Open Colony. If there is no
Semi-open or Open Institution in the State, a prisoner may be
transferred directly to an Open Colony after completion of nine years
stay in a closed Institution in case of a life convict, or on completion of
three-forth of the sentence in the case of other convicts. If the
Classification Committee is satisfied that the inmate is fit for a transfer
to an Open Colony, a report in the prescribed form, along with the
inmate’s case file, should be forwarded to the Inspector General. On
receipt of sanction from the Inspector General of Prisons the inmate
should be transferred to an Open Colony.
21.13. Inmates should initially be treated in Semi-open Institutions and
then in Open Institutions. Transfer to an Open Colony should be made
only after ensuring that the inmate has satisfactorily responded to the
treatment in Semi-open and Open Institutions. These transfers should
be done on a highly selective basis. Care should be taken to see that
selection for treatment in an Open Colony does not become routinised
and mechanical.
21.14. Before being transferred to an Open Work Camp/Semi-open or
Open Institutions/Open Colony, the inmate should be informed about
the requirements and responsibilities of living in the new institution.
On admission at these institutions, the inmate should be kept in the
reception yard under observation. During this period he should be
further oriented to institutional standards of behaviour and other
requirements of institutional life.
21.15. The conditions which an inmate shall have to observe at these
places should be laid down. Before being transferred to these
institutions the inmate will be required to sign a bond prescribed by
the Inspector General.
21.16. Minimum standards, as prescribed for the Closed Institutions,
regarding accommodation, equipment, sanitation, hygiene, medical
services, diet and welfare services, shall be maintained at each Semiopen Training Institution, Open Training Institution, Open Work
Camp and Open Colony. These institutions should have good
communication and transport facilities. Emergency equipment shall be
provided in accordance with the requirements of each institution.
21.17. Security arrangements in these institutions should be
established in a way that the possibility of escape gets minimised and a
sense of security prevails in the neighbouring community.
21.18. The programmes at these institutions should be very carefully
planned so that the inmates remain occupied in useful activities.
Special attention should be devoted to:
(i)
Care and welfare of inmates
(ii)
Individual attention to inmates’ problems
(iii) Education, work, vocational training and cultural
activities
(iv) Self-discipline and character training,
(v)
Release planning, pre-release preparation, and after-care.
21.19. Wages should be paid as prescribed by the State Government.
However wages at the Semi-open, Open Training Institutions, Open
Work Camps and Open Colonies should be higher than those at the
Closed Institutions.
21.20. Extra concessions like remission, leave and review, should be
granted to the inmates at Semi-open/Open Training Institutions, Open
Work Camps and Open Colonies.
21.21. All these institutions shall have a properly demarcated area
beyond which inmates shall not be allowed to go. Standards of
behaviour and discipline in these institutions shall be maintained at a
high level. Emphasis should be laid on the development of sense of
responsibility and self-discipline.
21.22. Inmates should be encouraged to maintain their family contacts.
The Superintendent may use his discretion in granting the facility of
additional letters and interviews according to the merits of each case
21.23. While an inmate is living in open conditions in a Semi-Open or
Open Training Institution or Open Work Camp, he should be allowed
to stay with his family members for one week every six months.
Arrangements for such stay should be made in a family hutment in a
suitable place outside the Semi-open or Open Training Institution.
These huts should be so located that the inmate and his family
members get the required privacy while at the same time the
requirements of discipline and security are also fulfilled. The period of
stay in the family hutments should be treated as leave period and
should count towards the sentence.
Note: Such a periodical stay with his family will be helpful in keeping
the inmate close to his family group. This concession should, however,
be granted on a selective basis and after a thorough study of each
inmate’s case. Initially this concession should be tried on an
experimental basis. In due course, and after having gained enough
experience, it may be further developed to suit local conditions in each
State. The State Government should issue detailed instructions in the
respect.
21.24. Inmates working in open conditions in Semi-open Prisons will
get concessions/remissions as permissible in Open Work Camps.
21.25. The Classification Committee should examine the case of every
inmate at least once in three months.
3.
Personnel
21.26. Only personnel who have the capacity for handling inmates
under semi-open or open conditions and have the requisite calibre and
leadership for imparting training and treatment in these conditions
should be posted at these institutions.
21.27. Unless they volunteer to do so, personnel should not be
required to remain at these institutions for more than two years at a
time. Staff members posted at these institutions shall be given all
necessary facilities for the education of their children and welfare of
their families. Medical and transport facilities should be granted
according to requirements. The staff posted at these institutions
should be given an additional allowance of about 25% of the basic
salary to be fixed by the government.
4.
Open Work Camps/Open Training Institutions
21.28. Open Work Camps should be started in places where nation
building activities, like digging canals, water channels, construction of
dams, roads, government buildings and prison buildings, projects of
land reclamation, land development and bringing uncultivated land
under cultivation, soil conservation and afforestation, can be
organised. Open Training Institutions should be situated in place
where land and vocational training facilities are available for inmates’
training and after that for work either in collaboration of some
Industry/Organisation/Department or by Prison Department.
21.29. Non-habitual adult offenders, who have been sentenced upto
one year of imprisonment and are not dangerous to society, may be
considered for being transferred to Open Work Camps. Before transfer
each case should be thoroughly screened.
21.30. The population of these Open Work Camps/Open Training
Institutions should not normally exceed 500. Temporary hutments
should be provided. Security arrangements should be adequate.
21.31. In addition to nation building work, the programme should
consist of literacy projects, social education, recreational and cultural
activities.
21.32. Prisoners working in these camps should be given wages as
may be prescribed by the State Government.
21.33. Prisoners who do not respond properly to the standard of
discipline in these camps should be transferred back to Closed
Institutions or Semi open Institutions.
5.
Semi-open Training Institutions
21.34. Non-habitual adult offenders sentenced to imprisonment
exceeding one year who are not dangerous to society and have been
recommended by the Classification Committee of a Semi-open
Training Institution, should be considered as eligible for being
transferred to an Semi-open Training Institution. The main criteria for
selecting prisoners for this shall be (a) how he has responded to the
programme in a closed prison and (b) whether he is fit for a regime
based on trust, confidence, responsibility and self-discipline;
21.35. The population of a Semi-open Training Institution shall not
normally exceed 500. Concrete buildings should be provided for them
and security arrangements should be adequate;
21.36. Prisoners should mainly be employed in suitable industries,
agriculture and allied work. Emphasis shall be laid on programmes
like literacy project, social education, cultural and recreational
activities;
21.37. Inmates will be gradually relaxed from the condition of closed
prison in the beginning to that of an Open Institution in the final stage.
6.
Open Colonies
21.38. Non-habitual adult offenders sentenced to imprisonment for
three years and above and who have still to undergo one year’s
imprisonment, and who have been recommended by the Classification
Committees of the Open Training Institutions, may be considered as
eligible for being transferred to Open Colonies.
21.39. As an Open Colony should consist of huts built on a family unit
basis, it shall have adequate land and other facilities for agricultural
and allied activities or other suitable means of livelihood. Concrete
buildings should be provided and security arrangements should be
adequate.
21.40. Inmates should be allowed to bring their family members to the
Open Colony. Inmates and their family members should be given
opportunities to work in agriculture or allied fields or in such cottage
industries or other allied suitable means of livelihood as can be
conveniently organised. Work programmes in the colony should be
organised on a cooperative basis. Inmates and their family members
who will be working in the colony should be paid wages as prescribed
by the State. These wages should be at par with outside wages. The
inmates should maintain themselves and their families with the wages
earned by them in the colony.
21.41. Main emphasis should be given on work, literacy projects, social
education, training in agriculture and allied fields and cultural
activities.
Note: The State Government should frame detailed rules regarding the
administration of Open Work Camps, Semi-open Training Institutions,
Open Training Institutions and Open Colonies. Contents of this
chapter are of a general nature. Details about the administration of
Open Institutions should be fixed by each State in accordance with the
local conditions.
CHAPTER XXII
UNDERTRIAL PRISONERS
Classification of Under Trial
22.01. The classification of undertrial prisoners should be done only on
the basis of security, discipline and institutional programme.
No
classification on the basis of social status should be attempted. The
entitlement of diet, clothing, bedding and interview will be the same as
applicable to other categories of prison. Undertrial prisoners should be
classified as under:
Category ‘I’:
Prisoners involved in terrorist and extremists
activities (special security prisoners (limited and with the
permission and higher authority)
Category ‘II’:
Dangerous prisoners involved in murders, dacoity,
robbery, rape cases, habitual offenders, previous escapes and drug
peddlers.
Note: (i)
(ii)
(iii)
Mentally sick prisoners, young offenders and women
under protective custody will not be lodged with
undertrial prisoners although classified as under trial.
Courts will send intimation to prison authorities about
under trial prisoners who have turned approvers or have
made confessions.
An accused person detained under section 122 (2) of the
Criminal Procedure Code, must be treated as an
undertrial prisoner until his case has been decided by the
Sessions Court or High Court.
Admission
22.02. An Assistant Superintendent should be in charge of all work
pertaining to undertrial prisoners;
22.03. No person shall be admitted into a prison as an undertrial
prisoner unless accompanied by the following documents: (a)
A remand warrant in the prescribed form, signed dated
and sealed by the competent authority. There should be
separate writ, warrant or order for every prisoner, even if
two or more prisoners have been jointly accused;
(b)
Identification roll containing at least two specific
permanent identification marks like deep scars, birth
marks, moles indicating their exact location on the body;
(iii) Discrepancies in remand warrant. - The officer on duty
is authorized to refuse admission of an undertrial prisoner
in whose case the remand warrant is not sent in the
appropriate form or the warrant is found to contain (i)
discrepancies in name or identification, (ii) omissions of the
signature of the competent authority. In such a case, a
report should be sent in the prescribed form to the
authorities concerned;
(iv) The property of an undertrial prisoner shall remain in
the court;
(v) Children. - Children of women undertrial prisoners
may be admitted if suitable arrangements for their care
cannot be easily made outside;
(vi) Food. - If an undertrial prisoner has not been in the
prison previously, it is the duty of the police, or the military
escort officer, to see that the undertrial prisoner is given
food before he is taken to the prison, if he is likely to arrive
there too late for the prison meal. If the police or military
escort reports that the undertrial prisoner has not been
supplied with food, prison authorities should make
necessary arrangements for the issue of food to him. In case
the undertrial prisoner is admitted after the prison meals
have been served, or after lock-up, food stuff like parched
rice, parched gram, groundnuts, etc., should be issued to
him as per prescribed scale;
(vii)
Admission hours
(a)
Undertrial prisoners should be admitted
during
usual working hours of the prison.
After lock-up, no undertrial prisoners should
be admitted except women offenders and
prisoners in whose case identification parade is
to be held. Prisoners received after the lock-up
hour should be confined in a separate place
specially earmarked for such purpose.
(b)
While undertrial prisoners are being escorted,
care should be taken to see that they reach the
destination before the lock-up hour.
If
undertrial prisoners are likely to reach the
destination after lock-up hour, the transferring
prison or sub-prison or the police or military
officials should send sufficient advance
intimation to the prison where the undertrial
prisoners are being escorted.
(viii) It is the duty of every prison officer to endeavour to
ascertain whether an undertrial prisoner has been
previously convicted. Such information, as and when
it is available, should be immediately forwarded to
the Superintendent of police for necessary action.
Approvers
22.04. When an undertrial prisoner has been admitted by the court as
an approver or a confessing accused he should be kept separate from
others concerned in the same case. Where there are separate cells or
compartment in the undertrial ward, these should be utilized for the
purpose. If there is no separate compartment, such prisoners may be
kept in separate cells by day and in separate wards by night, but care
must be taken that they are not kept in solitary confinement.
22.05. Any special direction as to the separation of an undertrial
prisoner given by the Judge or Magistrate should be carried out. Such
separation should be unaccompanied by any irksome condition
beyond those necessary to secure the object in view, namely, to
prevent him from communicating directly or indirectly with other
prisoners concerned in the same or other case.
Identification for court purposes
22.06. Undertrial prisoners shall not be allowed to cut or shave their
hair on their heads or faces or in any way to alter their personal
appearance, so as to make it difficult to recognize them. They shall
not, however, be prevented from changing their clothes, provided that
their appearance is not materially altered when they are presented for
identification in the prison or sub-prison, or when sent to court for
trial;
22.07. The police shall give intimation to prison authorities of cases in
which identification of under trial prisoners is to be carried out and
shall give full description of growth of hair, moustache, beard, etc.,
which the undertrial prisoners had at the time of arrest;
22.08. Test identification should be held as per rules framed for this
purpose.
Police interrogation
22.09. Only such police officers as have been authorized by the Judge
or Magistrate, should be allowed to interrogate an undertrial prisoner
while in prison custody. Such interviews should be held in the
presence and within the hearing of a prison officer.
Facilities
22.10. The following facilities should be extended to all undertrial
prisoners:(a)
Legal defence,
(b)
Interviews with lawyers or family members
(for legal purposes ) ,
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Signing Vakalatnama,
Delegation of power of attorney,
Execution of will,
Essential religious necessities as per rules,
Applications to courts for legal aid at
Government cost as per provisions of law.
Other applications to courts,
Application to Legal Aid Societies for free
legal aid,
22.11. Such facilities as are sanctioned by the State Government
should be extended to undertrial prisoners.
Food.
22.12.
Food from outside may be allowed subject following
conditions:(a)
A written undertaking shall be given by the
undertrial prisoner and the supplier of food that they
are entirely responsible for the wholesomeness of such
food and that prison administration will not be
responsible for any mishap that may happen. Food for
only one day’s requirement of the undertrial prisoner
shall be allowed at one time. Food articles will be
tasted by the person who delivers the food. The food
will be delivered at hours prescribed by the prison
authorities. Food shall be eaten in the prescribed area
and during prescribed hours only.
During
emergencies or epidemics or for reasons of health of
the undertrial prisoner, outside food may be
disallowed. The Superintendent has the authority to
disallow or discontinue this concession at any time.
(b)
Prisoners allowed to receive outside food,
shall not be given prison food.
(c)
Undertrial prisoners should not be allowed to
cook their food separately in the institution;
Clothing
22.13. Usual private clothing to meet reasonable requirements should
be allowed to undertrial prisoners. Such articles of clothing as will
affect the security requirements of the institution should not be
allowed. An undertrial prisoner who has no sufficient clothing of his
own may be provided with the same at Government cost at the
prescribed scale. Such clothing may be allowed to be retained by the
undertrial prisoner even after his release. Private articles bearing marks
or symbols of political affiliations shall not be allowed to be kept or
used by undertrial prisoners;
Letters
22.14. On the initial admission of a prisoner, a printed card should be
sent at Government cost to his family. This card should contain
information on the following points; the inmate’s institutional number
and address, brief summary of rules regarding interviews, letters, etc.,
22.15. Four letters per calendar month, two at his cost, and two at
Government cost, shall be allowed to be written by an undertrial
prisoner,
22.16. Additional letters for legal purposes such as arranging defence,
bail, and security may be allowed normally at the prisoner’s own cost,
22.17. Undertrial prisoners may be allowed to purchase from the prison
canteen, a reasonable supply of stationery and writing material which
should be marked and serially numbered by the prison authorities.
Interviews
22.18. When a legal adviser desires an interview with an undertrial
prisoner, he shall apply in writing, giving his name, address and
profession and satisfy the Superintendent as to his bona fides. Every
interview between an undertrial prisoner and his legal adviser shall
take place within the sight but out of hearing of a prison official. One
interview per calendar week with family members or relatives or close
friends may be allowed. In deserving cases additional interviews for
legal purposes may be granted in the discretion of the Superintendent.
Undertrial prisoners should not be granted interviews with convicted
prisoners unless they are very close relatives;
Canteen
22.19. An undertrial prisoner may make purchases from the canteen up
to Rs.20per month as per canteen rules;
Undertrial prisoners of category I.
22.20. All facilities given to category-2 undertrial prisoners should be
extended to undertrial prisoners placed in category-I. The following
additional concessions should be granted to undertrial prisoners
placed in category:a.
Permission to make purchases from the
canteen facilities up to Rs.30 per month as per
canteen rules.
b.
Getting clothes laundered from the prison
laundry once a week at their own cost.
c.
Haircut once in two weeks,
d.
Necessary furniture and bedding,
e.
One additional interview per calendar week.
Production before court
22.21. An undertrial prisoner shall be produced before the court, on the
due date of hearing, in person. However, for extension of detention in
custody, the prisoner may be produced before the court either in
person or through electronic media like, video-linkage. For this
purpose a court diary shall be maintained in which all relevant entries
of production before various court shall be made. These entries should
be made daily by the officials concerned and should be daily
supervised by the officer in charge of undertrial work.
Requisition of escort
22.22. On the basis of the court diary, requisition for police escort
should be sent sufficiently in advance. Information about women,
adolescent, juvenile undertrial prisoners and as far as possible about
violent, dangerous and notorious undertrial prisoners should be sent to
the police authorities while requisitioning the escort.
Sick prisoners
22.23. If an undertrial prisoner is sick and the Medical Officer certifies
the prisoners inability to attend the court, he should not be produced
before the court. In such an event, the medical certificate should be
forwarded to the court.
Feeding
22.24. Before undertrial prisoners are sent to the court, the usual
morning meals should be served.
Articles allowed to be taken while going to the court
22.25. While going to the court, the undertrial prisoner should return
all prison articles issued to him. Excepting clothes on his person and
papers pertaining to his case, the undertrial prisoner shall not be
allowed to carry any other articles with him. In case the undertrial
prisoner wants to take his cash for legal purposes, the same should be
forwarded to the court through the police escort. This amount may be
utilized by the undertrial prisoner under orders of the court for
purpose like legal defence, cost of copies, etc. The disposal of this
amount should be certified by the police and the prisoner in the
appropriate column of the register prescribed for such purpose. Under
no circumstances, should the undertrial prisoner be allowed to carry
cash or valuable, if any, on his person.
Search
22.26. Before being sent to the court, and after having been received
back from the court, all undertrial prisoners shall be thoroughly
searched.
Transport
22.27. For transporting undertrial prisoners to and from the court and
other destinations, necessary arrangements for conveyance should be
made by the police authorities. If a separate conveyance is not
provided for women and adolescent undertrial prisoners, the common
conveyance should have separate compartments for women and
adolescent undertrial prisoners.
Handcuffing
22.28. All undertrial prisoners are liable to be handcuffed except (a)
Women (b) juveniles, (c) undertrial prisoners who are seriously ill, (d)
undertrial prisoners in whose case Government orders have been
issued directing that such prisoner or group of prisoners should not
be handcuffed:
22.29. Undertrial prisoners should not normally be handcuffed
except:(a) Prisoners involved in serious and violent offences,
(b) Prisoners having notorious or dangerous background,
(c) Violent, aggressive and refractory prisoners,
(d) Prisoners who have previously escaped.
22.30. Handcuffing of undertrial prisoners may be done in the
discretion of the produced before the court, except with the permission
of the court.
Court Premises
22.31. Only under written orders of the court, undertrial prisoners may
be granted interviews for legal purposes by the officers in charge of
police escort on the court premises. Proper record of such interviews
should be maintained at the courts concerned and intimation sent to
prison authorities in the prescribed form:
22.32. Undertrial prisoners shall not be allowed directly to receive any
cash valuable articles while under escort or while on the court
premises.
Such cash or articles should be credited, under proper
authorization;
22.33. The police escort shall not allow any eatables or prohibited
articles to undertrial prisoners during their journey between the court
and the prison or on the court premises;
22.34. Undertrial prisoners should be thoroughly searched before being
taken into the court-room;
Return to the prison
22.35. As soon as the court work is over, such undertrial prisoners as
have been remanded to prison custody should be brought back to the
prison at least one hour before lock-up.
22.36. On return of an undertrial prisoner from the court to the prison
gate, if any unauthorized article is found or a special circumstance or
an irregularity is noted by the prison officer on duty, he shall forthwith
report the matter to the senior officer on duty and if necessary, to the
District Superintendent to Police for action. Such cash as is brought by
the police escort should be recorded in the register and deposited in
the prison office under intimation to the undertrial prisoner.
Production of undertrial prisoners in other States
22.37. When an undertrial prisoner is required to be sent to another
State for trial, the State from where the undertrial prisoner is sent
should arrange for the escort. Travel and other incidental expenses of
the escort and of the undertrial prisoner should be borne by the
requisitioning State.
Production of undertrial prisoners before court in civil suit proceedings
22.38. Unless ordered by the District Judge, no undertrial prisoner
shall be produced before court for civil suit proceedings.
Prevention of undue detention
22.39 .An undertrial prisoner whose case is being tried by a
Magistrate shall be produced before the Magistrate at least once in
fifteen days for the purpose of further order Upon the expiry of each
period of remand, the prisoner shall be placed before the Magistrate;
22.40. A statement in the prescribed form showing details of undertrial
prisoner whose cases have been pending for more than three months
should be sent on the fifth day of each month to the Sessions Judge or
District Magistrate with relevant extracts to the court concerned.
Additional Cases
22.41. When additional case/cases are pending against a prisoner, the
following action should be taken:-
(a)
(b)
(c)
Entries of additional cases in red ink on the remand
warrant in appropriate columns of undertrial register and
court diary should be made;
Intimation to the court/courts concerned about pending
cases stating whether the prisoner is on bail or not in
connection with that case or those cases should be sent;
Intimation to police escort in the prescribed form should
be sent;
22.42. When an undertrial prisoner is wanted for trial in another
case/cases for which he is not on bail, the court concerned will issue
separate remand warrants. In the event of grant of bail in the second
case or other cases, due intimation shall be sent by the courts to the
prison authorities;
22.43. When an undertrial prisoner confined in a prison or sub-prison
is required for another case/cases for which he is on bail, the court
concerned will duly intimate the prison authorities;
22.44. In the case of an undertrial prisoner having two cases pending
against him, for which he is not on bail, an endorsement in red ink
should be made each time he is sent to the court.
Discipline
22.45. No convicted prisoner shall be kept in the same area in which
undertrial prisoners are kept, or be allowed to have contact with
undertrial prisoners. Except prisoners working in essential prison
services like conservancy, etc. no convicted prisoner shall be allowed to
enter the under-trial yard or block. As soon as the work is over, these
prisoners should be withdrawn from the yard or block. In all matters
where undertrial prisoners are concerned, no convicted prisoner shall
be used for supervision or similar purpose. All such matters should be
handled by staff members.
Work
22.46. Undertrial prisoners shall clean the yards, barracks and cells
where they are kept. Undertrial prisoners should be detailed for this
work. Such work may be allotted on a group basis, so that through the
cumulative work of all the undertrial prisoners, the yards, barracks,
cells will get cleaned up. It will also be incumbent on all undertrial
prisoners to keep their own clothing, bedding and equipment properly
washed, cleaned, and disinfected;
22.47. If undertrial prisoner volunteer to work, suitable work, if
possible, be given to them. Wages may be paid to them according to
schedules of standard tasks and wages, as fixed by the State
Government. Employment of under trial prisoners on extramural work
is strictly prohibited. In no case, should undertrial prisoners be
employed outside their own enclosure or in work-sheds and areas
where other convicted prisoners are working.
Transfer
22.48. During an emergency or on administrative grounds, the
Inspector-General is authorized to transfer undertrial prisoners from
on prison to another within the State, provided that if a prisoner is
transferred to a place outside the jurisdiction of the court concerned,
prompt intimation should be sent to the court. The prisoner shall be
produced before the court on the due date.
Serious Illness
22.49. When an undertrial prisoner is seriously ill, the Superintendent
shall send a report, along with a medical report, to the court concerned
in order that if the law permits and the court thinks fit, the prisoner
may be released on bail.
Transfer to an Outside Hospital
22.50. When the prison Medical Officer recommends that in the
interest of the health of the undertrial prisoner, he should be
transferred to a hospital outside the prison, immediate action should
be taken and the matter reported to the court concerned.
Death
22.51. The death of an undertrial prisoner shall be promptly reported
to the court under whose orders he was detained.
Conviction
22.52. When an undertrial prisoner is convicted, the officer in charge of
undertrial prisoners should hand over all connected papers and
records together with cash and private property if any to the officer in
charge of admission of convicted prisoners who will attend to the usual
routine in this respect. On conviction, an undertrial prisoner should be
transferred to the yard meant for newly admitted convicts.
Release
Release from the court
22.53. When an undertrial prisoner is discharged or released from the
court, an endorsement to that effect will be made by the court in the
prescribed form. On receipt of such intimation, entries in the
appropriate columns of the undertrial register should be made;
22.54. If the undertrial prisoner is released from the court he should
claim his personal property if any from the prison authorities within
three months, failing which the same should be forwarded to the police
for disposal.
Release from prison
22.55. Release orders and bail bonds will be sent through post or
through the peon of the court. If any private person brings such
documents, the same should not be accepted at the prison office;
22.56. On receipt of a bail bond or release order prompt action should
be taken. In a Central or a large District prison, an undertrial prisoner
should normally be released within four hours of the receipt of the bail
bond or release order. A bail bond or release order reaching the prison
after lock-up should not be received.
Release Procedure
22.57. While releasing an undertrial prisoner the officer in charge
should attend to the following points:(a)
Scrutiny of the bail bond or release order with relevant
original papers and record,
(b)
Checking whether any other case is pending against the
undertrial prisoner,
(c)
Checking of the identify of the undertrial prisoner,
(d)
Handing over of the cash and property of the undertrial
prisoner;
22.58. The undertrial prisoner should be informed of the contents of
the bail bond prior to his release;
22.59. If the undertrial prisoner has not got sufficient money, he/she
may be given travel warrant and if his/her journey home is likely to
take more than 12 hours; he may be given subsistence money;
22.60. After release the bail bond should be duly returned to the court
concerned along with a certificate of release.
Women Undertrial Prisoners
22.61. Women undertrial prisoner should normally be escorted by
women police. When there are no women police available, they should
be accompanied by woman Prison Guard. As far as is practicable,
separate conveyance should be provided for the transport of women
undertrial prisoners;
22.62. Women staff members shall be in charge of women undertrial
prisoners. The Lady Assistant Superintendent or Senior Matron should
be present at the time to admission and release of women undertrial
prisoner. She should attend to all work pertaining to the women
undertrial prisoners;
22.63. As far as possible, women undertrial prisoners should be handed
over to their relatives after release. If this is not possible, a woman
police or woman prison guard should escort the released woman
undertrial prisoner to the nearest station or transport bus stand.
Daily Routine And Programme For Undertrial Prisoners
22.64. The following daily routine should be adjusted to suit local
conditions:
(i)
Early Morning
Toilet,
Meditation,
Preparation for opening,
Unlocking according to conditions of visibility
Counting,
Search,
Leaving the barrack or cell.
(ii)
Morning
Toilet,
Prayers,
P.T.drill,individual and group exericise,
Morning light meal,
Cleaning of barracks cells, yards, open spaces
Cleaning of equipment,
Work on voluntary basis,
Educational classes,
Washing of clothes and bath,
Meal and rest.
(iii) Afternoon
Newspapers, library books,
Educational classes,
Social education,
Toilet,
Games and reaction for one hour according to institutional
facilities.
(iv) Early evening
Wash,
Evening meal,
Preparation for lock-up
Counting,
Search,
Lock-up at dusk.
(v)
Evening
Reading newspapers – library books,
TV/Radio music,
Meditation,
To bed.
Programmes on Sundays and Prison Holidays
22.65. On Sundays and prison holidays the following routine should
be followed subject to adjustment to suit local conditions:(i)
Early morning
As in rule 22.64.(i)
(ii)
Morning
Toilet,
Exercise,
Light meal,
General cleaning of barracks, cells open spaces,
Cleaning of equipment,
Washing of clothes and bath,
Inspection of equipment,
Meal and rest.
(iii) Afternoon
Educational Films :
As per schedule for each group and
in
Group Music,
:
accordance with institutional
facilities.
(iv)
(v)
Newspapers, Library books, radio/TV
Toilet,
Games (one hour).
Early evening
As in rule 22.64.(iv)
Evening
As in rule 22.64.(v)
CHAPTER XXIII
HIGH SECURITY PRISONERS AND DETENUES
23.01. High security prisoners will include the undertrial prisoners of
category ‘I’ and ‘II’, that is prisoners and detenues involved in terrorist
and militant activities. These types of prisoners will be lodged in
separate enclosures demarcated as high security enclosures within the
existing prisons. If possible, separate high security prisons can be
constructed in every district with the lodging capacity of 50-100
inmates. Under no circumstances should the High Security Prisoners
be kept with other undertrial prisoners and convicts.
Classification of High Security Prisoners
23.02. High security prisoners can be classified on the basis of factors
like class of prisoners, criminal behaviour, escape risk, requirement of
gradation in custody, and educational and vocational needs. They can
be categorised as below:
Category ‘I’: Will include the under-trials, convicts and detenues
involved in terrorist and extremist activities, violent and habitual
criminals and those prisoners who have escape earlier.
Category ‘II’: Under-trials, convicts and detenues involved in murder,
dacoity, robbery, rape and prisoners who are professional
killers/organisers, drug peddlers.
In this category violent and
indisciplined inmates and inmates who are an escape risk should also
be included.
Category ‘III’: Prisoners not involved in offences referred in category I
and II above and the first offenders in murder, dacoity or robbery, and
who are not an escape risk, can be lodged in security zone grade II in
barrack type accommodation.
Building Structure
23.03. High security enclosures/prisons should have a thick outer
masonry wall at least 20 feet in height, with watch towers at all its
corners and one central tower within the enclosure.
The
enclosures/prisons should be provided with anti-tunnelling slabs and
all spaces open to the sky should be covered with iron grill. These
enclosures can be divided into security zone grade I and security zone
grade II.
23.04. Security zone grade I should have a cellular type of
accommodation with a minimum space of 10’ x 9’ which will have the
facility of an inbuilt WC and bath and a strong dividing wall. Front
portion of cells should be of iron grill, the flooring should be of RCC
slab, high ventilators should be provided instead of windows. The
building should have a separate entry lobby with visitors’ room on one
side, MI room, and food distribution room. The hardcore militants,
terrorists, professional killers, habitual offenders of heinous crimes,
violent and dangerous prisoners and prisoners who pose great threat
of escape will be lodged in security zone grade I.
23.05. Security zone grade II will have a single room accommodation
(cellular and the association barracks). This accommodation can be of
16’ x 9’ size where two or three prisoners can be lodged at a time. The
barracks should have a maximum capacity of lodging 10 to 15 prison
inmates. They should also have an inbuilt toilet and bath. The size of
one barrack can be 27’ x 10’. This security zone can have a common
kitchen. Security zone grade II will also have a separate entry lobby;
the space open to the sky should be covered with iron grills.
23.06. The building pattern should be oval and covered with watch
towers on all sides. In this zone, first offender militants and terrorists
both convicts and under-trial prisoners, who pose lesser threat of
escape, can be lodged.
Staff Pattern
23.07. Well trained staff should be detailed for watch and ward duty of
High Security enclosures. An officer not below the rank of Deputy
Superintendent should be in charge of these enclosures. Provisions
should be made that no staff on duty comes in direct contact with the
prisoners except as a requirement of duty.
Facilities (Interviews, Letters, Communication)
23.08. They will enjoy all the facilities admissible to the under-trial
prisoners or convicts, but the interviews will be held in the presence of
an officer. It will be advisable if close circuit televisions with sound
recording facilities are fitted in the interview room. Moreover the
room should be near the entrance lobby and within the high security
enclosure. In any case, high security prisoners will not be allowed in
the main interview blocks. Interviews should be allowed to only blood
relations and authorised lawyers.
23.09. All letters should be properly censored.
Food, Toilet, Clothing and Bedding
23.10. No cooked food from outside shall be allowed for the high
security prisoners. No individual shall be allowed to cook for himself.
However, the high security prisoners falling in ‘II’ grade security can
have a common kitchen. No under-trial, detenue or convict should be
allowed to enter the high security enclosure. Admissibility to toilet
articles, clothing and bedding shall be the same as that given to other
undertrials and convicts.
Medical Care
23.11. Medical care shall be the same as for other inmates but within
the enclosures of the inbuilt MI room. In case of an emergency, with
the permission of the Inspector General of Prison, they can be shifted to
the local hospital for treatment but under proper police escort and
guard.
Sports, Games and Recreation
23.12. Subject to prison security and discipline, prisoners lodged in
grade I security zone can be provided with books, newspapers and
journals. Writing material can also be provided as and when required.
If possible, TV/Radio sets can be provided outside the cells with such
restrictions as found necessary from the view point of security.
Regular physical exercise and yoga can be allowed within the cell itself.
Prisoners can be allowed to stroll within the place inside the block in
the evening before being locked-up.
23.13. Similarly, prisoners lodged in security zone grade II can be
provided with radio and television in their barracks, indoor games like
carom and chess can be given to them. Books, newspapers, journals
and magazines along with stationary can be provided to them. At
intervals, seeing their behaviour, cultural programmes can also be
allowed.
23.14. High security prisoners should not be allowed to receive any
money from their families or friends.
Canteen Facility
23.15. No canteen facility shall be provided to high security prisoners.
The main aim of these restrictions is to minimise movement of the
officials and other working staff, giving them minimum access to these
enclosures except for those who are detailed for duties.
Reform and Treatment Programmes
23.16. The reform and treatment programmes can be extended to the
prisoners lodged in the security area grade II. Minimum technical
education with the main stress on handicraft work should be given.
Basic education should form an essential part of the programme.
These activities and programmes should be conducted within the
enclosure itself. These prisoners shall not be taken out to mix with
other inmates.
Security
23.17. A double ring of security shall be provided to all security
enclosures. Inner security of the enclosures should be manned by
highly trained staff of the prison, while the outer security, including
the watch towers and security wall, should be the duty of an special
armed guard.
23.18. The enclosures should be equipped with walkie-talkies, alarms
and jammers with remote control devices.
(i)
ID machines hand-held and doorframe, metal detectors and all
other electronic devices should be made available.
(ii)
The armoury of the prison should be well equipped with all
types of sophisticated and automatic weapons.
(iii)
Every barrack and cell, especially the interview room, should be
fitted with closed circuit T.V. cameras.
(iv)
The sentries guarding the watch tower should always be alert.
(v)
A no man’s area should be identified near the high security
enclosures which should not be accessed by any prison inmate
and the staff, except those who are detailed for duties.
(vi)
Proper search of barracks, cells and prisoners should be
conducted everyday. The high security prisoners of category ‘I’
and ‘II’ should be searched twice a day whereas category ‘III’ at
least once a day.
(vii)
The locking up and opening should be conducted in the
presence of the officer in charge and no barrack cell should be
opened during night hours except in the presence of the
Superintendent of the prison.
(viii) Besides checking the locks, bars, grills, mess, ventilator, floors,
walls of barrack/cells, its ceiling should also be checked.
(ix)
The guards posted in the yards of the enclosure should not hold
conversation with each other more than what may be required
to perform their duty. The entrance door of the yard should
always be kept locked from inside.
(x)
The keys of the locks of the cells/barracks doors shall always be
carried by the person entrusted with the duty. They shall under
no circumstances be handled by any unauthorised person.
(xi)
The cells and barracks should be well lighted to avoid dark
spots and corners inside.
(xii)
The guard on duty should be thoroughly searched while going
in and coming out. He should be briefed adequately from time
to time about non-acceptance of articles like eatables, articles for
smoke, even water from these prisoners.
(xiii) The inmates of high security enclosures should be counted at
least twice in a day besides the counting done during locking up
and opening.
Court Hearing
23.19. Video linkage should be provided to these high security
enclosures. In any case no under-trial, convict or convict officer or
detenue should be allowed to enter these enclosures. The regular
prison staff or the paramedical staff will not have access to these
enclosures unless they are accompanied by the officer in charge of the
block.
Convicts for Rigorous Imprisonment
23.20. High security convicts who are undergoing rigorous
imprisonment, will do all sort of work assigned to them inside the
security enclosures.
Punishment
23.21. All high security prisoners can be punished in case of breach of
discipline and security of prison by the Superintendent. If he commits
frequent breaches, the Superintendent can recommend his shifting to
any other prison to the Inspector General of Prisons. Facilities like
interviews and letters can be withdrawn for a limited time, or forever,
by the Inspector General.
Provision of Modern Gadgets
23.22. All necessary gadgets such as breath analyser, lie detector, dog
squad may also be procured as per the requirements to check any
breach of prison discipline.
CHAPTER XXIV
WOMEN PRISONERS
24.01. The State Government shall establish separate prisons for
women offenders. Till separate prisons for women are established,
both male and female inmates can be confined in the same prison on
the condition that female offenders are to be kept in a strictly secluded
female enclosure. Such enclosure should be, to the extent possible,
independent in terms of infrastructural set-up.
Classification and Separation
24.02. Women prisoners shall be classified and kept separately as
under:
(i)
Under-trial prisoners shall be kept completely separated
from convicted offenders, even when their number is
small.
(ii)
Habitual prisoners shall be separated from casual
offenders
(iii) Habitual offenders, prostitutes and brothel keepers must
also be confined separately.
(iv) In no circumstances should adolescent girls be confined
with adult women prisoners.
(v)
Political and civil prisoners shall be kept separately from
convicts and undertrial prisoners.
Notes:
(i)
No criminal, or non-criminal, lunatic will be kept in the prison.
Those currently there shall be immediately transferred to
appropriate mental health institutions.
(ii)
No classification of prisoners shall be allowed on grounds of
socio-economic status, caste or class.
Register
24.03. A register shall be maintained in every place of imprisonment
with numbered pages where the following details of women prisoners
shall be entered:
(i)
Information concerning their identity.
(ii)
The reasons for their imprisonment and the authority
ordering such imprisonment with full details of such
order.
(iii) The day and hour of their admission and release.
Note
No person shall be received in an institution without a valid
commitment order.
Restriction on Women Prisoners
24.04. No female prisoner shall, on any pretext, leave or be removed
from the female enclosure except for release, transfer, or attendance at
court, or under the order of the superintendent for other legitimate
purposes.
24.05. Every female prisoner authorised to leave her enclosure will
ordinarily be accompanied by a matron or assistant matron, chief
warder or female warder from the time she leaves till she returns.
Exclusion of Males
24.06. No male shall be permitted to enter the female ward of any
prison, at any time, unless he has a legitimate duty to attend therein.
No adult male shall enter it at all by night except in an emergency, and
even then only along with the female warder/female officer. He shall
thereafter record a clear report of his visit with the reasons for such
visit, and the hour thereof, in his report book.
24.07. Male warders and other male staff, acting as escort to lady
visitors and officials, shall remain outside the enclosure.
24.08. If at any time a male prison officer or warder or prisoner enters,
or of attempts to enter, any ward or portion of a prison reserved for
female prisoners, without proper authority, it shall be reported to the
Deputy Superintendent forthwith.
Locks of Female Enclosures
24.09. The locks of enclosure and barracks, where women are confined
shall, be different from those in use in other parts of the prisons, so that
there is no possibility of keys for locks of other enclosures being
misused for opening enclosures for women prisoners.
Photography and Fingerprints
24.10. Photographs, foot-prints, finger-prints and measurements of
women prisoners shall be done in the presence, and with the
assistance, of women prison officers or women warders.
Night Inspection
24.11. Night inspection rounds shall be made by women officers and
warders. Reports of such night inspections shall be recorded in the
report book immediately on completion of such Inspection.
Prisoners Requiring Mental Health Care
24.12. Female prisoners needing treatment for mental diseases shall not
be admitted in prison. They shall be kept in separate enclosures for
female patients at the mental health hospital, or in other mental health
facilities, under the supervision of a lady Medical Officer.
Custody of the Female Enclosure
24.13. There shall be round the clock duty of female head warders and
female warders in the female enclosures.
Admission of Under- Trial Prisoners
24.14. The admission rules for under-trial and convicted prisoners in the
prison Manual shall be applicable to under trial and convicted women
prisoners also.
Search of Women Prisoners on Admission
24.15. Women prisoner shall be searched by female warders in the
presence of other senior women personnel/women officer with due
regards to consideration of privacy and decency.
Quarantine on Admission to Prison and Medical Aid
24.16. Women prisoners on admission to prison shall be medically
examined and, if the examining lady Medical Officer deems it
necessary, kept separately in the female enclosure on medical grounds
for the period prescribed by the medical officer.
24.17. After admission to prison, all women prisoners shall be required
to wash themselves and their clothing thoroughly as soon as possible.
Their personal clothing shall be disinfected before being stored.
24.18. Part-time lady medical officers of the District Government
Hospital shall be engaged for medical examination of female prisoners
on admission. Only lady doctors shall look after the medical care of
women prisoners during their stay in prison.
24.19. Every woman prisoner shall be examined by a lady Medical
Officer. Such examinations shall also be conducted on readmission
after bail, parole and furlough.
In case a woman
officer/matron/female warder suspects a prisoner to be pregnant, the
woman prisoner shall be sent to the District Hospital for detailed
examination and report.
Pregnancy
24.20. When a woman prisoner is found, or suspected, to be pregnant
at the time of admission or later, the lady Medical Officer shall report
the fact to the Superintendent. Arrangements shall be made at the
earliest to get her medically examined at the female wing of the District
Government Hospital for ascertaining the state of her health,
pregnancy, duration of pregnancy and the probable date of delivery.
After ascertaining all necessary particulars, a detailed report shall be
sent to the Inspector General of prisons.
24.21. Gynaecological examination of the female prisoner shall be
performed in the District Government Hospital. Proper pre-natal and
ante-natal care shall be provided to the prisoner as per the advice of
qualified medical officer.
Child Birth in Prison
24.22. As far as possible (provided the prisoner has a suitable option)
arrangements for temporary release (or suspension of sentence in the
case of a casual offender) will be made to enable a prisoner to deliver
child outside the prison. Only when there is high security risk in the
case of any particular woman prisoner, the facility to deliver child
outside the prison shall be denied.
24.23. Births in prison shall be registered at the local birth registration
office. The fact that the child has been born in prison shall not be
recorded as the place of birth. Only the address of the locality shall be
mentioned. As far as the circumstances permit, all facilities for
performing the naming rites of the child born in a prison shall be
extended to the mother.
Property of Women Prisoners
24.24. All money, jewellery, and articles of clothing, received with or
found on the person of a woman prisoner on her admission to the
prison, or sent subsequently by the police, or tendered by her relatives
or friends on her behalf prior to her release, shall be received and taken
over by the Deputy Superintendent or other officer on duty. A list of
all such articles shall be entered in the Admission Register and in the
convict’s warrant and read over to the convict in the presence of the
Superintendent who shall countersign the entries in the register and in
the warrant. Method of storing the prisoner’s money, etc., shall be
according to the general rules laid down in the Prison Manual of
respective state.
Certain Ornaments to be allowed to Women Prisoner
24.25. Female prisoners shall be allowed to retain, in moderation,
certain ornaments of small value such as mangal sutras, bangles and
toe rings. The Superintendent may, however, at his discretion, refuse
to allow the retention of these ornaments in any particular case for
disciplinary/security reasons.
Children of Women Prisoners
24.26. A child up to six years of age shall be admitted to prison with his
mother if no other arrangements, for keeping him with relatives or
otherwise, can be made. Children born in prison may remain with
their mothers up to six years of age, if they cannot otherwise be
suitably placed. The Medical Officer shall determine the age of
children not born in prison for the purpose of this provision.
24.27. No child shall be admitted into or retained in prison if he has
attained the age of six years. The Superintendent shall inform the
Directorate of Social Welfare about all children of that age for placing
them in a home run by the Social Welfare Department. Such children
shall be kept in protective custody until their mother is released or the
child attains such an age as to be able to earn his own livelihood.
24.28. Children kept under protective custody in a home of the
Department of Social Welfare shall be allowed to meet their mothers at
least once a week. The Director, Social Welfare Department will ensure
that such children are brought to the prison on the dates fixed for this
purpose by the Superintendent of Prison.
Welfare of the children of the Women Prisoners
24.29. There shall be a creche and a nursery school attached to a prison
for women where the children of women prisoners shall be looked
after. Children below three years of age shall be allowed in the creche
and those between three and six years shall be looked after in the
nursery school.
24.30. The creche and nursery school shall be run by the prison
administration preferably outside the prison.
24.31. Children in prison shall be provided with adequate clothing
suiting the local climatic requirements.
For this the State/UT
Government shall lay down appropriate scales.
24.32. Scales of diet for children shall be decided keeping in view the
calorific requirements of growing children as per medical norms and
climatic conditions.
24.33. Children shall be regularly examined by a Lady Medical Officer
to monitor their physical growth who shall also be vaccinated for
various diseases including polio and small-pox at the appropriate time.
Extra clothing and diet may also be provided to such children on the
written recommendations of the Medical Officer.
Education and Recreation for Children of women Prisoners
24.34. The children of women prisoners living in the prison shall be
given proper education and recreational opportunities. While their
mothers work in prison, the children shall be kept in crèches/nursery
schools under the charge of a matron/female warder. These facilities
will also be extended to the children of warders and other female
prison staff.
Diet
24.35. Management of kitchens or cooking food on caste or religious
basis should be totally banned in prisons for women.
24.36. Adequate and nutritious diet should be given to nursing women
and to children accompanying women prisoners.
24.37. Food articles should be of a good quality.
24.38. Pregnant and nursing women prisoners should be prescribed a
special diet.
24.39. Women prisoners should get special diet on festivals and
national days, as may be specified in the rules.
24.40. Medical Officer should ensure that food is cooked under
hygienic conditions and is nutritious.
24.41. There should be a separate kitchen for every 100 prisoners.
24.42. Some women staff should be given special training in
management of diet and kitchens and such trained staff should
supervise the kitchens and cooking in prisons for women.
24.43. Prison officers, including the Superintendent, must supervise
every aspect of the prison diet system, i.e., issue of rations,
management of kitchens and distribution of food.
24.44. There should be a separate kitchen for women prisoners.
24.45. Women prisoners should not be allowed to have their own mini
kitchens inside the prison barracks.
24.46. Clean drinking water should be supplied to prisoners and it
should be tested periodically.
Scale of Diet
24.47. State/UT Government shall lay down dietary scales for women
prisoners keeping in view their calorie requirements as per medical
norms. The diet shall be in accordance with the prevailing dietary
preferences and tastes of the local area in which the prison is located.
Prisoner to Receive Diet According to Scale
24.48. Every prisoner shall be entitled to receive every day food at
prescribed times and according to the scale laid down.
24.49. The State/UT Government may, at any time, vary either
temporarily or permanently, the scale laid down in the Prison Manual
of the respective state, provided reasons for doing that are recorded in
writing by the authorities concerned.
Special Extra Diet on Medical Grounds
24.50. Where the lady Medical Officer, for reasons of health, considers
the prescribed diet to be unsuitable or insufficient for a women
prisoner, or her child, she may order in writing a special diet or extra
diet, for a specific period of time. Special consideration shall be given
in this regard to pregnant/nursing prisoners.
24.51. Rules relating to diet of prisoners, those on specific medical
advice for expectant and nursing mothers, and infants and children,
shall be scrupulously observed.
Clothing
24.52. Women prisoners sentenced to six months imprisonment or
below should be issued two sarees, two blouses, two petticoats, a towel
and two sets of customary undergarments.
24.53. Women prisoners sentenced to more than six months of
imprisonment should be issued three sarees, three petticoats, three
blouses, two towels and three sets of customary undergarments.
24.54. Adequate warm clothings, according to local conditions and
change of seasons, shall also be provided.
24.55. Children allowed to stay with women prisoners should be given
suitable clothing similar to what is normally used by children in the
local community.
24.56. Every women prison should maintain a repair unit where
prisoner’s clothing can be repaired.
24.57. Sterilised sanitary pads should be issued to women prisoners as
per their requirements.
24.58. Clothing of prisoners should be sterilised at government cost
once in two months. Prisoners should be allowed to get their clothes
washed through prison laundries at their own cost.
24.59. All clothing shall be cleaned and kept in a proper condition.
Underclothing shall be changed and washed as often as necessary for
maintenance of hygiene.
Bedding
24.60. Every woman prisoner shall be provided with a sleeping berth
and sufficient bedding in accordance with local standards, these shall
be clean when issued, kept in good order, and changed often enough to
ensure their cleanliness.
24.61. Women prisoners should be given one pillow with pillow cover
and woolen blankets according to climatic conditions.
24.62. Women prisoners shall be provided two cotton sheets for every
six months.
24.63. All articles of prisoner’s bedding, clothing and other equipment
should be inspected by a women officer at least once a week to ensure
that proper standards are maintained.
Accommodation
24.64. There should be four types of living accommodation:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Barracks with accommodation for 20 women prisoners.
Dormitory accommodation for four to six women
prisoners each.
Single room accommodation for women prisoners
needing privacy for pursuing studies.
Cells for segregation of women prisoners for the purpose
of security and
punishment.
24.65. All accommodation provided for women prisoners, and in
particular all sleeping accommodation, shall meet basic requirements
of health. Due regard being paid to climatic conditions, the cubic
content of air, minimum floor-space, lighting and ventilation.
24.66. Prisoners kept in dormitories shall be carefully selected, so that
they are able to adjust with one another in those conditions. There
shall be regular supervision by night, in keeping with the nature of the
institution.
24.67. Sleeping berths in the women’s barracks shall not be at a height
beyond the comfortable reach of women prisoners.
24.68. There should be sufficient number of toilets and that should be
maintained in a clean and decent state.
24.69. Where women prisoners they are required to live or work, the
windows shall be large enough to enable the prisoners to read or work
by natural light. The place should be sufficiently ventilated to allow
the entrance of fresh air.
24.70. Sufficient artificial light too shall be provided for the prisoners to
read or work.
24.71. Adequate number of baths and showers shall be provided so
that every prisoner may have a bath or shower at a temperature
suitable for the climate, as frequently as may be necessary, for
maintaining general hygiene according to season and climate.
24.72. All parts of the institution, regularly used by prisoners, shall be
properly maintained and kept scrupulously clean at all times.
Cleanliness of Women Enclosure
24.73. All parts of the women’s enclosure in a prison shall be properly
maintained and kept scrupulously clean at all times.
24.74. No menial duties, or conservancy work, connected with the
women’s enclosure shall be carried out by the women prisoners.
Specific staff for this purpose shall be employed.
Personal Hygiene
24.75. Women prisoners shall be required to keep their persons clean,
and to this end they shall be provided with sufficient water and toilet
articles necessary for maintaining health and cleanliness.
24.76. A woman prisoner‘s hair shall not be cut without her consent.
However if, on account of vermin or dirt, the lady Medical Officer
deems cutting of hair necessary on the ground of health and
cleanliness. Even then it shall not be cut any shorter than required.
Amenities
24.77. All valuable ornaments should be removed from women in
custody and should be safely deposited. They should be permitted to
retain their mangal sutra, plastic bangles and toe-rings.
24.78. Clothing and linen provided to women should include
undergarments, upper and other clothes, towels and socks in cold
climates. Adequate quantity of toilet and washing soap should be
provided to them.
24.79. Each adult woman prisoner shall be supplied suitable number of
sanitary napkins for use during menstruation.
24.80. Women prisoners shall be provided kumkum according to their
custom, sufficient quantity of hair oil and a comb.
24.81. Sufficient number of looking glasses should be fitted in their
barracks.
Interview
24.82. The number of interviews for convicts and under trial prisoners
should be liberalized in the case of women.
24.83. Every women prisoner shall be allowed, assisted and
encouraged to write a letter and have interview with her
relatives/neighbours once a week during her term of imprisonment. A
senior female officer in charge of interviews should be responsible for
grant of interviews as per rules.
24.84. There should be no limit on incoming letter of women prisoners.
24.85. Illiterate or semi-illiterate prisoners should be provided help in
writing letters.
24.86. A waiting room for visitors should be provided at each prison
for women.
24.87. Every newly admitted prisoner shall be allowed facilities for
seeing or communicating with her relatives/friends/legal advisors,
with a view to preparation of an appeal or revision petition or for
procuring bail. She shall be allowed to have interviews with, or write
letters to, her relatives more often, if the Superintendent considers it
necessary, to enable her to arrange for the management of her property
and other family affairs.
Books
24.88. Every institution shall have a separate library and a reading
room for women with both recreational and instructional books.
Prisoners shall be encouraged to make full use of these facilities.
Religious Books
24.89. A woman prisoner shall be allowed to keep, at a time, up to five
books with her. The restriction on the number of the books is on
account of administrative convenience only (i.e. consideration of space
per prisoner) and not for any other reason.
Education
24.90. Every woman prisoner should be offered a suitable educational
programme during her stay in prison.
Education shall be a
compulsory activity in prisons for at least one-hour everyday. It shall
aim to enhance their functional capability. Every prison should
organise adult education, social, moral and health education, family
welfare programmes, and training in various skills for making women
self-reliant. For interested prisoners, appropriate facilities for formal
and advanced education shall also be provided.
Recreational and Cultural Programmes
24.91. Recreational programmes should be organised for women
prisoners which may include simple outdoor games, bhajans, music,
folk dances, drama, TV, radio and film shows. Women prisoners shall
be provided facilities for meditation and yoga for the benefit of their
mental and physical health.
Vocational Training
24.92. As far as possible women prisoners shall be imparted training
suited to their aptitude and background, making them economically
self-reliant. Vocational training in useful trades shall be provided to
women prisoners. The selection of vocational programmes shall be
made in accordance with the marketability and profitability of the
product, enhancing the prisoner’s ability to earn their livelihood after
release. Sufficient work or vocational trades shall be provided to keep
prisoners actively employed for a normal working day. These may
include:
1.
Tailoring
2.
Embroidery
3.
Needle-craft
4.
Spinning
5.
Handloom
6.
Weaving
7.
Soap making
8.
Hosiery work
9.
Cane and bamboo work
10.
Candle making
11.
Toy making
12.
Pottery
13.
Stationery articles
14.
Local handicrafts
15.
Cottage industries
16.
Gardening
17.
Sewing machine repair
18.
Typing
19.
Computer training
20.
Beautician’s work
21.
Telephone operation and secretarial practice
22.
Agricultural, horticultural, diary projects
23.
Poultry
24.
Sericulture
25.
Fishery
26.
Mushroom cultivation
27.
Fruit preservation
28.
Local projects
Labour
24.93. Prisoners shall be paid equitable remuneration for their work
and no disparity in wages shall accrue on account of gender
differences.
24.94. The system should also provide that a part of the earnings is set.
aside by the administration to constitute a savings fund to be handed
over to the prisoners on their release.
24.95. Under the system the prisoners shall be allowed to spend at least a part
of their earnings on approved articles for their own use and to send a
part of it to their family.
24.96. Unless medically advised not to work, all prisoners shall be
engaged in work and activity in the prison, for which they will be paid
proper wages.
Medical Facilities
24.97. Every woman prison shall have a 10 bed hospital for women.
Treatment programmes should be properly planned and developed in
every woman’s prison. At least one and more woman gynecologist and
psychiatrist shall be provided. Modern equipments for X-ray, ECG,
ultrasound and sonography should be available.
24.98. Female offenders suffering from mental disorders, anxiety, drug
addiction are sex perversion should get proper medical treatment and
psychotherapy.
Legal Aid
24.99. Socio-legal counselling cell shall be set up in each institution to
be managed by volunteers from a designated law school, school of
social work, or a non-governmental voluntary agency. Work done by
students while working in such a cell shall be given academic credit
and shall form a part of the student’s graded curriculum.
24.100. Assistance of lady members of the district legal aid committee
shall be made available to women prisoners to help them with their
procedural and legal problems.
24.101. The practice of fortnightly or weekly nari bandi sabhas (women
prisoner’s councils) shall be utilised as a modality for orientation of,
and interaction with, prisoners and for training in participative
custodial living.
Facilities for Foreign Nationals
24.102. Women prisoners, who are foreign nationals, shall be allowed
reasonable facilities to communicate with their diplomatic and
consular representatives. Those who are nationals of other countries,
or refugees, shall be allowed similar facilities to communicate with any
agency whose task is to protect such persons.
Premature Release
24.103. Special consideration shall be given to premature release of
women prisoners particularly in cases where she has been the sole
breadwinner, or where no surrogate care is possible for the dependents
of women prisoners. As far as possible to release on suspended
sentences, or otherwise, of expectant mothers shall be ensured avoid
delivery of their child inside the prison.
Probation of Offenders Act, 1958
24.104. Probation of Offenders Act, 1958, shall be extensively used in
case of women offenders to provide suitable non-institutional
corrective treatment to them.
Transfer of Women Convicts to Women Prisons
24.105. Women prisoners sentenced for three or more months of
imprisonment shall be transferred to a women’s prison to facilitate
their rehabilitation. Setting up such a prison shall be mandatory for
every State.
Transfer of Women Convicts for Release
24.106. Every woman confined in a prison, other than that of the
district of her residence, shall be transferred to the latter 10 days before
her release. The sanction of Inspector General of Prisons for such
transfers within the State shall not be required.
Release of Women Prisoners
24.107. Before a woman prisoner is released, sufficient advance notice
shall be given to her relatives or friends to be present at the prison and
receive her. If no relative appears on the day of her release, she shall
be sent to her home under the charge of female escort. The Deputy
Superintendent shall record in her report book about arrangements
made for the safe release and escort of woman prisoner to her home.
After care, Rehabilitation and Follow-up
24.108. After care/ Half-way homes should be established to meet the
immediate needs of released women prisoners.
24.109. After care services should include all kinds of help which could
result in proper readjustment of the released women prisoners in the
society.
24.110. Women prisoners willing to get married after their release
should be rendered all necessary help.
24.111. There shall be at least one designated voluntary organization in
each district to which the work of extending help to a released prisoner
could be entrusted.
24.112. The approved representatives of such agencies shall have
necessary access to the institutions and to women prisoners, and shall
be taken into confidence from the start of their sentences.
24.113. It is desirable that the activities of such agencies are centrally
monitored and coordinated in order to secure the best use of their
services.
24.114. After-care of women prisoners, discharged from prisons and
allied institutions, should be the statutory function of the Department
of Prisons and Correctional Services.
24.115. There should be women staff in the aftercare and follow-up
units in the headquarters of the Department of Prisons and
Correctional Services in each State/UT.
24.116. Woman Probation Officers should be in charge of after-care and
follow-up work.
24.117. The after-care and follow-up unit should evolve an objective
method of assessing the post -release needs of women prisoners.
24.118. Restriction on employment of women released from prisons in
government or public service undertakings should be removed by
suitable amendment of the rules.
Linkages with Outside Welfare Agencies
24.119. The Superintendent of Prison shall establish a functional
linkage and co-operational relation with a select group of social
activists/N.G.Os serving and taking up the cause of women in general
and women offenders in particular, so that the prison administration
and the N.G.Os can together wage a war against social stigma attached
to women in custody. As this is a battle to be fought more in minds
than in fields, frequent seminars/symposia shall be conducted to
elaborate on the need of after-release rehabilitation of women
offenders, and to create a favourable public opinion.
24.120.Comprehensive, intensive and incessant counseling of women
offenders and members of their families shall be carried out by these
groups of social activists/N.G.Os to preempt/overcome the aversion
of the society to women prisoners, which otherwise might deter and
derail proper rehabilitation of women in custody.
24.121. Counselling of women prisoners in prisons shall be taken up in
such a manner that it will:
i)
ii)
iii)
Give her the right feeling that a prison is not a dumping
ground where she has been thrown; rather it is a
residential center for occupational therapy wherefrom
her return journey to the free world shall begin.
Adjust/rectify her pro-crime attitude into an inclination
and resolve to wards lawful and decent living.
Help her in convincing herself that all the ingredients
required for a normal life in the mainstream are still
intact in her, awaiting manifestation.
24.122. The literacy and vocational training for women offenders shall
be conducted
In such a manner that it will:
i)
Dismantle the stubborn web of criminality in her psyche.
ii)
iii)
iv)
Endow her with professional capabilities and expertise in
one, or more than one, vocation, so as to enable her to
earn a living after her release.
Eradicate the poverty-crime nexus.
Finally germinate the seeds of desire in her mind to her
tryst with mainstream life, a tryst that will unfold new
vistas in the exploration of a colossal pool of human
resource hitherto untapped.
24.123. Arrangements for public display of the products made by the
women prisoners will boost their morale, instil confidence into them,
and rekindle the flames of hope for a normal life at large.Moreover, it
will pave the way for the much needed social awareness, supportive
and sympathetic to the women living behind the bars.
Lunatics
24.124. Women who are found insane and mentally ill shall not be detained in
prison.
Arrangements shall be made for the removal to mental
homes/institutions of mentally ill prisoners who happen to be admitted in
prisons.
Escort of Insane Women
24.125. When transferring a insane women prisoner to a mental home
and back to the prison, a female warder shall accompany the police
escort, provided to such prisoner, wherever possible. The families of
such prisoners shall be traced and informed of the prisoners’
whereabouts and health status.
After-care of Insane and Mentally Challenged
24.126. Steps shall be taken, by arrangement with the appropriate agencies, to
ensure the continuation of psychiatric treatment after release and provisions of
social psychiatric after-care, wherever it is deemed necessary.
Bar to Fetters
24.127. No woman prisoner shall be awarded any form of corporal
punishment under any circumstances whatsoever.
Discipline and Punishment
24.128. Discipline and order shall be maintained with firmness but with
no more restriction than is necessary for safe custody and well ordered
institutional life.
24.129. No woman prisoner shall be punished in the prison untill she
has been informed of the offence alleged against her and given proper
opportunity of presenting her defence. The competent authority shall
conduct a thorough investigation of the case before awarding
punishment.
Requests and Complaints
24.130. During the weekly parades, every woman prisoner shall have
an opportunity of making requests/complaints to the Superintendent
who in turn, shall promptly deal with such complaints/requests.
24.131. A complaint box shall be fixed at a prominent place in the
woman’s enclosure which shall be opened in the presence of the
Superintendent at least twice a week. Every complaint or request
found in it shall be registered and properly dealt with and replied to
without undue delay. The prison social welfare and legal aid
counseling staff, or literate prisoners, shall be utilized to assist illiterate
prisoners in recording their complaints. All such complaints shall be
received and tackled in an understanding manner without the risk of
retribution to the complainant.
Women Personnel
24.132. Each State should have at least one separate prison for women.
There should be separate custodial facilities for convicts and undertrial
prisoners. In a prison for convicted women prisoners there shall be
one post of a lady Superintendent.
24.133. The woman’s enclosures attached to the sub-prisons and
district prisons shall be in the charge of a lady Deputy/Assistant
Superintendent. They will be assisted by a female Chief Head Warder,
Head Warder and female Warders.
24.134. The following officials shall be posted in every prison for
women as per recruitment in accordance with the direction of State /
UT Government.
(i)
Lady Superintendent,
(ii)
Deputy Superintendent,
(iii) Assistant Superintendent,
(iv) Chief Welfare Officer,
(v)
Welfare Officer,
(vi) Law Officer,
(vii) Probation Officer,
(viii) Chief Head Warder,
(ix)
Head Warder,
(x)
Warder/Matrons,
(xi)
Teachers,
(xii) Instructors,
(xiii) Psychiatrist,
(xiiv) Doctor, specially gynecologist,
(xv) Clerks,
(xvi) Aftercare Officer, and
(xvii) Warders.
Lady DIG at the headquarter
24.135. There shall be one post of lady DIG attached to the prison
Department’s Headquarters to look after women prisons, women
prison staff and women prisoners. Inquiries pertaining to women
prisoners shall be conducted by the lady DIG, who shall submit her
finding to the Inspector General of Prisons with her recommendations.
Terms of Service and Training
24.136. Women warders and all other women prison officers shall be
provided, basic initial training, in-service training and refresher
courses to keep them in touch with contemporary developments in the
field of their work.
24.137. Every woman member of prison staff shall be provided training
in Human Rights and various aspects of correctional work.
24.138. All promotions up to the level of Deputy Superintendent
should be made subject to a pre-promotional qualifying examination.
All those who qualify in this examination should be eligible for
promotion to the next higher post.
24.139. Physical fitness and psychological tests should be essential prerequisites for direct recruitment.
24.140. All new recruits should be given basic initial in-service training.
Officers and staff on deputation should be put through short duration
orientation courses.
24.141. Adequate training reserve should be provided in each cadre of
the prison service.
24.142. Basic initial training, in-service training, refresher courses
should be organized by the training institutions for various categories
of personnel.
Other facilities for Women Staff
24.143. Study teams of senior women officers should be deputed to
visit prison institutions in various states in the country as also those in
other countries.
24.144. Staff meetings and conferences should be regularly held.
24.145. A welfare fund should be established in each State / UT.
24.146. Proper forum should be provided at the institutional and state
levels for women prison staff to ventilate their grievances.
24.147. In case of death of a women prison staff in lawful discharge of
her duties, a lump-sum of Rs. 2 lakh should be paid to her survivors/
family.
24.148. All good work done by women prison personnel should be
given proper publicity and should be highlighted through the media.
24.149. Residential quarters should be provided to all members of the
women prison.
24.150. Adequate leave-reserve should be provided while fixing
staffing norms.
24.151. Every member of the women staff shall be allowed a day off
once a week.
24.152. Women prison personnel should be paid salaries and
allowances at par with those of equivalent ranks in the police
department.
24.153. Every direct recruit in service should have opportunities of at
least three promotions during the span of her career.
24.154. Proper forum should be provided at the prisons, and the state
level, for women prison personnel to ventilate their problems
grievances common to them.
Creche and Canteen Facilities to Staff
24.155. Some prison female staff should be given special training in the
management of canteen and such officials should be put in charge of
supervising the canteen.
24.156. Female staff shall be provided services of creche for proper care
of their young children while they are on duty.
24.157. Canteen facilities should be made available.
24.158. Female prison staff shall be allowed the option to take their
meals during duty hours with prisoners free of cost.
Escorting of Women Prisoners
24.159. The matron / female Head warder shall escort every female
prisoner leaving the women’s enclosure, and shall remain with the
prisoner until the prisoner returns to the enclosure.
She shall
accompany the female prisoner under transfer. Wherever necessary,
services of women police will be utilized for escort duty with due
regard to security considerations.
Search of Women Prisoners
24.160. The matron / female Head warder shall conduct the search of
women prisoners. Such search shall not be conducted in the presence
of any male person.
Matrons or Women Warders not to allow a Male to Enter Woman
Enclosure
24.161. The matrons or women warder shall not allow any male prison
officer, or male prisoner, to enter the women’s enclosure without
proper authority. If any male prison officer / warder / prisoner,
without proper authority, at any time enters, or attempts to enter, any
ward or portion of the prison reserved for occupation by female
prisoners, the Matron/Warder shall make a report forthwith to the
Deputy Superintendent/ Superintendent of Prison.
Matron or Female Head Warder not to Communicate with Male
Prisoners
24.162. No matron / female Head warder shall at any time, and on any
pretext, hold any interview or communicate/interact in any way, with
any male prisoner or visit any part of the prison allotted, reserved for,
or occupied by male prisoners, except in the discharge of her duties.
Keys of Woman’s Enclosure
24.163. The matron or the woman warder shall have custody of the
keys of the wards and enclosures in which female prisoners are
confined during the day. After the locking up, she shall deliver the
keys to the Lady Deputy/Assistant Superintendent who shall lock
them up in the key chest. The Lady Deputy/ Assistant Superintendent
shall hand over the keys again to the matron or female Head warder in
the morning at the time of unlocking.
CHAPTER XXV
YOUNG OFFENDERS
25.01. Young persons are impressionable. A young offender of today
can be a hardened recidivist of tomorrow. Such offenders can be
reclaimed as useful citizens and can have better prospects for being reeducated to a socially useful way of life. A scientific and progressive
approach needs to be adopted if these offenders are to be saved from
the damaging and traumatic experiences of incarceration.
Guiding principles
25.02. As far as possible young offenders should not be kept in
institutions meant for adult and habitual offenders.
25.03. Institutions for young offenders should be so classified that
diverse training programmes, designed to suit each homogeneous
group, can be conveniently organized.
Training and Treatment
25.04. Special emphasis should be given on a studied evaluation of
individual offender’s personality and careful planning of training and
treatment programmes, to suit the needs of each inmate. Training and
treatment shall include education, work and vocational training,
recreational and cultural activities, discipline, case-work approach,
group work activities, group guidance, individual guidance,
counseling, character building, periodical review, release planning,
prerelease preparation, after-care on a comprehensive basis, and
follow-up study. The personal influence of the members of the prison
staff will have considerable bearing on the reformation of young
offenders.
Non Institutionalized treatment
25.05. It is necessary to save the young offenders from evils of
incarceration. Non-Custodial treatment for young offenders should be
preferred to imprisonment. Under mentioned process should be
followed for young offenders:
A.
When any young offender if found guilty and is likely to be
punished with imprisonment not exceeding one year, the court should
take recourse to any of the following non-custodial measures:
(i)
Release on admission
(ii)
Release on taking a bond of good conduct, with or
without conditions from the young offenders and from
parents/guardians/approved voluntary agencies.
(iii)
Release on probation under the Probation of
Offenders
Act on any of the following conditions:(a)
continuation
of
education/vocational
training/employment;
(b)
obtaining
guidance
from
probation
officer/teacher/counselor:
(c)
getting work experience in work camps during
week-ends and on holidays;
(d)
doing useful work in work centers (agricultural
farms, forestry, housing projects, road projects and
apprenticeship in work-shops.)
(e)
Young offenders released on probation shall be
kept under constant supervision.
Note: Suitable cases of young offenders likely to be sentenced to periods above
one year of imprisonment should also, as far as possible, be processed through
the above-mentioned non-institutional approach. Young offenders should be
sent to prison only as a last resort.
B(i) Courts to be known as ‘Courts for young offenders’ exercising
the powers, and discharging the duties conferred on such
courts, in relation to the trial and commitment of young
offenders between 18-21 years of age, should be set up for
specified areas according to requirements in each State/Union
Territory. Before making any order, the court should take into
account the pre-sentence investigation report of the probation
officer. This report should be a statutory requirement for
deciding the cases of young offenders.
(ii)
Pre-sentence investigation report should include information
about the social, economic and psychological background of the
offender so as to identify the sequence of his criminal behaviour.
It should also seek to determine the degree of the young
offender’s involvement in vice and crime. This report should
attempt a prognosis in regard to the young offender’s
resettlement in a socially useful way of life.
(iii) Young offenders involved in minor violations should not be
kept in police custody. Instead, they should be kept with their
families/guardians/approved voluntary agencies on the
undertaking that they will be produced before the police, as and
when required, for investigation.
(iv) Young offenders involved in serious offences, while in police
custody, should be kept separate from adult criminals and the
police custody should be only for the minimum period required
for investigation.
(v)
The investigation of cases of young offenders must be
expeditiously completed.
(vi) Bail should be liberally granted in cases of young offenders.
(vii) When it is not possible to release a young offender on bail, he
should be kept in a Reception Centre /Kishore Sadan/Yuva
Sadan during the pendency of his trial.
(viii) In case it becomes necessary to keep young offenders in a subprison during investigation and trial, it should be ensured that
they do not come in contact with adult criminals there.
Reception centers/Reception units
25.06. There should be separate institutions for young offenders, to be
called Reception Centres and Kishore/Yuva Sadans. There should be
separate reception centres for young female offenders.
25.07. Reception Centres should be organized at district or regional
level as per the requirements of each State/Union Territory to provide
safe custody for young offenders, who cannot be released on bail or
probation for their initial classification and subsequent placement.
Note: The period of detention in a Reception Centre should be from two to
eight weeks. It should not exceed eight weeks.
25.08. Young offenders sentenced to periods of imprisonment of six
months and above should be collected at the reception
centers/reception units
Note: States having a large number of prisoners under admission on a
regular basis should establish separate institutions as reception centers. When
is not practicable, to set up a reception centre part of an institution for young
offenders should be earmarked as reception centre.
25.09. Programmes in the reception center/reception unit should
consist of:
(a)
Admission, quarantine and orientation
(b)
Study and evaluation of individual offender’s personality.
Note- Inmates admitted in the reception centers should be studied by
a team consisting of Correctional Administrators, Sociologists,
Psychologists and Social-Case Workers. Whenever necessary, the
inmate may be referred to a psychiatrist.
(c)
Initial classification
25.10. After initial classification is over, the inmate should be
transferred to a suitable institution. The Superintendent in charge of
the reception center/reception unit will only indicate the lines of
training and treatment. The discretion as to how to implement the
suggestions given by the reception center, and also to make necessary
modifications therein, rests with the Superintendent in charge of the
institution where the inmate has been transferred.
Annexes for young offenders
25.11. Each Central/District Prison should have an annexe for young
offenders. Young offenders sentenced to periods of imprisonment up
to six months may be kept in this annexe.
Reception Center and KishoreYuva Sadan
25.12. Kishore Yuva Sadans should be categorized on the following
lines:(a)
An institution recognized as an approved Kishore Yuva Sadan
by the State Government
(i)
a hostel run by Government;
(ii)
a hostel run by a voluntary agency;
(iii) a hostel of an Industrial Training Institute;
(iv) a hostel of an Agricultural School.
(b)
Open Kishore Yuva Sadan
(c)
Semi-open Kishore Yuva Sadan.
(d) Special Kishore Yuva Sadan (medium security institution).
25.13. The following treatment should be given to young offenders at
Reception Centre/ Kishore Yuva Sadan:
(i)
Initial admission.
(ii)
A system of proper custody and positive, constructive and firm
discipline.
(iii) Care and welfare of inmates.
(iv) Basic segregation according to requirements.
(v)
Attending to immediate and urgent needs and problems of
inmates.
(vi) Orientation to institutional life.
(vii) Study of the individual offender—History taking, caserecording, tests and observation.
(viii) Scientific classification.
(ix) Attending to long-term needs of inmates like education and
vocational training.
(x) Reprocessing of the inmate from admission till release; social
implantation of proper habits, attitudes and approaches;
preparation for social living; and psychotherapy where
necessary.
(xi) Guidance, counselling and support.
(xii) Release planning.
(xiii) After-care.
(xiv) Follow-up.
25.14. Use should be made of resources of the community and outside
agencies in providing such treatment. The personal influence of prison
personnel will play a very positive role in this process.
25.15. Initially all young offenders, offering good prognosis, may be
kept in institutions recognized as approved Kishore Yuva Sadans or in
semi-open Kishore Yuva Sadans. Later, on the basis of their responses
to training and treatment, suitable young offenders should be
transferred to Open Kishore Yuva Sadans. Difficult, disciplinary and
problem cases, and escape risks, should be sent to special
Kishore/Yuva Sadans. In due course, after observing their responses
to institutional programme, these young offenders may be transferred
to semi-open Kishore Yuva Sadans and later to open Kishore Yuvas
Sadans. By adopting this approach many young offenders can be
spared the bad experience of living with hardened criminals in closed
institutions.
25.16. Decisions about placement of young offenders in the diversified
Kishore Yuva Sadans should be taken by the classification committee
which may comprise trained and experienced correctional
administrators.
25.17. Young offenders should be sent to special Kishore Yuva Sadans
as a last resort.
25.18. At each institution there should be a Review Board consisting of
the following:
(i)
The District Judge
Chairman
(ii)
Two Members of the State Legislature
(iii) The District Magistrate
(iv) The Superintendent of Police
(v)
The
District
Medical
Officer/Civil
Surgeon/Medical
Superintendent of the Government Hospital
(vi) The Deputy Director of Correctional Services (Young Offenders)
(vii) Two social workers interested in the welfare of young offenders
(viii) The District Education Officer
(ix)
The Prison Welfare Officer
(ix)
The Superintendent of the Kishore Yuva Sadan Membersecretary
25.19. The Review Board should meet once in every two months to
examine the case of each young offender. The Review Board will
review the cases from the point of view of the progress and response of
young offenders. The Review Board must decide the case of every
young offender as to whether it is necessary to continue him under
institutional treatment.
In suitable cases, the question of his
conditional release on license should also be examined. The members
of the Review Board should visit the Kishore Yuva Sadan to see that
the care and welfare of inmates are properly attended to.
25.20. The problem of young offenders, who are sentenced to
imprisonment for periods above 5 years, will have to be considered in
a different perspective. In deserving cases, even such young offenders
should be conditionally released on license. However, a young
offender, in whose case prognosis is not favourable, should be
transferred to a suitable prison. Only such young offenders, as are
intractable, violent, psychopaths and hardened or dangerous criminals,
should be transferred to prisons.
25.21. Specially selected and adequately trained personnel should be
made available for implementing various programmes for young
offenders.
Staff organization
25.22. At the headquarters of the Department of Prisons and
Correctional Services a separate wing should be created under a senior
officer of the rank of Dy. Director of Correctional Services for dealing
with the problems of young offenders. In so far as the work of
treatment and training of young offenders is concerned, he shall work
independently. However, for purposes of co-ordination and
integration with other wings of the Department, he shall be under the
control of the Head of the Prisons Department.
25.23. The following staff should be provided at institutions for young
offenders:
(a)
Principal.
(b)
Senior Vice-Principal.
(c)
Vice-Principal.
(d)
House Master Grade I.
(e)
House Master Grade II.
(f)
Chief Supervisor.
(g)
Senior Supervisor.
(h)
Supervisor.
(i)
Psychologist.
(j)
Psychiatric social workers/case-workers.
(k)
Staff for education, physical training, vocational training,
industrial training and agricultural training.
(l)
Staff for medical and psychiatric care.
(m) Ministerial, accounts, and other staff.
(n)
Security Staff.
House system
25.24. There should be a House system for institutions for young
offenders. Each House should be under the control and supervision of
a House Master. Normally each House should normally comprise of
not more than 40 inmates.
Note: Suitable age groups of offenders should be organized within the
Houses. As far as possible each House should have a mixed group.
25.25. The House staff should consist of: House Master, Assistant
House Master and Supervisors. House Master and Assistant House
Masters can be from among Teachers or Vocational Teachers or P.T.
and Game Instructors.
25.26. Leaders- Each House should elect three inmate leaders every
quarter. These leaders should help the administration in matters like
cleanliness, sanitation, distribution of food and in organizing games,
recreational, and cultural activities.
Note: The system of house leaders aims at giving the inmate an opportunity to
share responsibility.
25.27. House Committees- Each House should have a House
Committee consisting of House staff members.
25.28. This Committee should meet once a week. The functions of this
Committee shall be:(a)
To study each inmate individually and understand the various
problems presented by him.
(b)
To assist and advise the Superintendent and the Classification
Committee in all matters pertaining to the inmates.
(c)
To gauge inmates’ response to training and treatment.
(d)
To extend help and guidance to inmates at the individual level.
(e)
To look after the welfare and discipline of inmates.
(f)
To associate the inmate leaders with House problems like
sanitation, hygiene, welfare and planning of recreational and
cultural activities.
Education
25.29. Educational needs of young offenders must be adequately met.
Special emphasis should be laid on the following aspects in education
of young offenders: (a)
Physical and health education.
(b)
Social and moral education.
(c)
Literary education.
(d)
Vocational education.
(e)
Arts and handicrafts education.
25.30. Necessary facilities for the overall educational development of
young person should be provided in institutions. The educational
programmes should be so designed that young offenders of various
age groups and intelligence levels can derive benefit from them. For
illiterate and educationally backward young offenders special
educational classes should be organized.
25.31. Necessary opportunities for the self-education of young
offenders should be provided in the institutions. Those who have the
requisite capacity and desire to appear at examinations conducted by
the State Education Department or by a University or by any other
recognized institution should be permitted to do so.
Work and employment
25.32. Young offenders should be taught such crafts, skills and
vocations, as would be useful to them after release.
25.33. Young offenders may be employed, by rotation, as assistants in
running the institution’s essential services, like sanitation and hygiene,
kitchen and canteen, laundry and plumbing services.
Such
engagements should aim at imparting vocational training to the
inmates in these areas of work.
Vocational training
25.34. Special emphasis should be laid on the vocational training of
young offenders in trades suitable for their rehabilitation in the society.
Cultural activities
25.35. Special emphasis should be given on the cultural development of
young offenders. Programmes of recreational nature and cultural
activities should be so planned as to suit the needs of various groups of
young offenders.
The following activities can be selected for
organizing recreational and cultural programmes:Indoor games, outdoor games, gymnastics, athletics, films, music,
community and folk dances, dramatics arts and crafts, reading,
writing, debating, quiz programmes, sports-meet, participation in local
tournaments and matches, excursions and camps, scouting, philately
and gardening.
Diet
25.36. Adolescence being the age of growth and development, proper
attention
should be given to provide balanced diet to such
prisoners.
Discipline
25.37. Special emphasis should be given on the discipline of young
offenders. As far as possible, minor offences should be dealt with by
withdrawal of concessions. When this approach fails, recourse should
be taken to other forms of punishment
Pre-release and release
25.38. Provisions of Chapter XVIII should be applied for pre-release
preparations and release of young offenders.
25.39. At least a fortnight before a young offender is due for release, a
letter shall be sent to his relatives/friends intimating the date of his
release and asking them to be present at the prison to receive him after
release. As far as possible, young offenders should be handed over
after their release to their relatives, friends or a recognized After-care
Agency. If the Principal of the Institution or Superintendent of Prison
thinks it necessary, the released young offender may be sent to his
home or after-care agency under the care of a Prison Guard or a
Supervisor.
Aftercare and rehabilitation
25.40. After-care facilities should be extended as per provisions of
Chapter XX. Special attention should be given to all aspects of
aftercare of young offenders.
Programme and daily routine
25.41. Programme and daily routine should consist of the following:(a)
Early morning
Preparation for opening.
Unlocking according to conditions of visibility.
Counting and searching.
Leaving the barrack or cell.
Toilet.
Prayers and meditation in group.
P.T.,drill, individual and group exercises, light
Yogasanas, etc.
Morning light meal.
Educational classes.
Vocational training.
Bath.
Meal and rest.
(b)
Afternoon
Work.
Toilet.
Outdoor games or gymnastics.
(c)
Evening
Wash.
Evening meal.
Social education.
Newspapers, books, radio, T.V.
Group music, dramatics, educational films and other
cultural activities according to weekly programme for
each group.
Group prayers.
Preparation for lock-up.
Searching and counting.
Lock-up.
Note- Agricultural work should preferably be done in the
morning. Inmates engaged in agricultural work should
attend the educational and vocational training classes in
the afternoon. Details of work and education schedules
should be fixed by each institution in accordance with
available facilities.
Programme on Sundays and prison holidays
(a)
Morning
Toilet.
Prayers in group.
Morning light meal.
General cleaning of barracks, cells, open spaces etc.
Cleaning of equipment.
Washing clothes.
Bath.
Inspection of equipment.
Meal and rest.
(b) Afternoon
Education films, Group Music, Folk dances, Dramatics.
Newspapers, books, radio and TV.
Toilet.
Games.
( c ) Evening
Wash.
Evening meal.
Preparation for lock-up.
Searching and counting.
Lock-up.
Note- Subject to the approval of the Head of the Prisons Department
the Principal/Superintendent is authorized to make necessary changes
in the daily routine/programme to suit the needs of the institution.
25.42. Non-institutional approach should be the main thrust of the
programmes for the treatment of young offenders so that they are
saved from unhealthy experience of incarceration. Where incarceration
is imperative, young offenders should be exposed for reasonable
lengths of time to programmes of re-education, vocational training,
social adjustment and positive discipline through a diversified system
of Kishore Yuva Sadans.
CHAPTER XXVI
BOARD OF VISITORS
26.01 The State Government shall, by notification, constitute a Board of
Visitors comprising Official and Non-official members at District and
Sub-divisional level.
26.02. The task of the Board of Visitors shall include: a) Monitoring the Correctional work in Prisons, with special
attention to the degree and quality of training and the
effectiveness of infrastructure/facilities in the Prisons.
b) Suggesting new avenues leading to improvement in correctional
work.
c) Going into individual or collective grievances of Prisoners and
providing redressal in consultation with the Prison authorities.
26.03. The Board of Visitors shall comprise the following official
members:
a) The District Magistrate, at the District level or Sub-Divisional
officer at Sub-Divisional level.
b) The District Judge at the District level, or the Sub-Divisional
Judicial Magistrate exercising Jurisdiction, at Sub-Division level.
c) The Chief Medical Officer of the Health Department, at the
District level or the Sub-Divisional Medical Officer at SubDivision level.
d) The Executive Engineer, PWD at the District level, or Assistant
Engineer PWD at Sub-Divisional level.
e) The District Inspector of Schools at the District level or any of
his nominees not below the rank of a Head Master of a high
School of the locality at the Sub-Division level.
f) District Social Welfare Officer.
g) District Agricultural Officer.
26.04. The Board of Visitors shall also comprise the following NonOfficial Members:a) Three Members of the Legislative Assembly of the state of which
one should be a woman.
b) A nominee of the State Commission for Women.
c) Two social workers of the District/Sub-Division of whom one
shall be a woman
26.05. The District Judge shall be the Chairman of the Board of visitors
at District level and the Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrate shall be the
Chairman at Sub-Division level.
26.06. The Board of Visitors shall meet in the office of the
Superintendent of prisons at least once in every quarter.
26.07. The minute of every meeting of the Board of Visitors shall be
recorded in the Visitors’ Minute Book, and the same shall be forwarded
to the Inspector General of Prisons with comments of the
Superintendent. A copy of the minutes shall also be dispatched to
every member of the Board of Visitors. The Inspector General of
Prisons shall place a copy of the minute of the last meeting/meetings
of the Board of Visitor of all the prisons before the State Advisory
Board.
26.08. When a non-official member of the Board of Visitors visits a
prison he shall be accompanied by at least one more member (official
or non-official). The Chairman of the Board of Visitors shall make a
monthly roster of visits to be paid by the members of the Board to the
Prison, in consultation with the Superintendent.
26.09. The roster shall be made in such a manner as will envisage at
least one visit by a member in every month.
26.10. Every non-official visitor is expected to interest himself in the
upkeep of prisoners and visit the prison of which he is a visitor, once a
month, and oftener, if possible. Intimation of the intended visit need
not be given.
26.11. During visits a Visitor (Member of the Board of Visitors) shall
enjoy the right to converse secretly and separately with any prisoner
who is willing to talk to the Visitor. However such separate interaction
between a Visitor and a prisoner shall be held in a place within the
prison well within sight of a prison officer. The Visitor, immediately
after such conversation with a prisoner, shall inform the Chairman of
the Board in writing about what transpired in the conversation with
the prisoner. The Chairman, if he thinks it necessary, shall take up the
matter with the Superintendent of Prison.
26.12. Any observations/comments made in the Visitors’ Minute Book,
by any member of the Board, shall be forthwith brought to the notice of
the Inspector General of Prisons by the Superintendent, along with his
own comments. The copy of the same shall also be sent to the Visitor
concerned and the Chairman of the Board of Visitors.
26.13. The Members of the Board of Visitors shall specially attend to the
quality and quantity of Prison diet, condition of the kitchen and
hospital, availability of medicines, hospital management, medical
treatment of the prisoners, sanitary arrangements, aspects of vocational
trainings, literacy program, and library facility for the prisoners.
26.14. The Superintendent shall present before the visiting
member/members of the Board of Visitors any paper /document
pertaining to correctional work, recreation and trainings of prisoners,
prison diets/ medicines, grievances of prisoners and follow redressal
of such grievance, if it is sought by a visiting member of the Board .
26.15. The Superintendent shall not be bound to present any
Register/Document/paper pertaining to financial accounts before a
member of the Board of Visitors without written approval of the
Inspector General of Prisons.
26.16. The Superintendent shall ensure that the prisoners lodging
complaints with the visiting member/members of the Board of visitor
do not subsequently fall prey to vendetta of the accused or prison staff
complained against.
26.17. Following any such visits by member/members of the Board of
Visitors, the Superintendent shall inform the Inspector General of
Prison regarding the details of the visit.
26.18. For the purpose of a meeting of the Board of Visitors One official
Visitor and two non-official Visitors shall form a quorum.
26.19. A Non-official Member of the Board of Visitors shall hold office
for a period of two years from the date his appointment to the Board,
and may be considered for reappointment.
26.20. State Government retains the right to cancel appointment of any
non official Visitor at any time.
26.21. A non-official member of the Board of Visitors shall receive
allowances as may be sanctioned by the government from time to time,
for attending meetings of the Board of Visitors.
Duties of Visitors
26.22. All Visitors, official and non-official, at every visit shall
(a)
examine the cooked food;
(b)
inspect the barracks, wards, work-sheds and other
buildings of the prison generally;
(c)
ascertain whether considerations of health, cleanliness
and security are attended to, whether proper
management and discipline is maintained in every
respect and whether any prisoner is illegally detained, or
is detained for undue length of time while awaiting trial;
(d)
examine prison registers and records, except secret
records and records pertaining to accounts;
(e)
hear and attend to all representation and petitions made
by or on behalf of the prisoners; and
(f)
direct, if deemed advisable, that any such representation
or petition be forwarded to the Government.
Visitors to Records Remarks
26.23. The Visitors should record their remarks in the Visitors’ Book
after every visit. A copy of these remarks shall be forwarded to the
Inspector General who should pass such orders as he think necessary.
A copy of the Inspector General’s order should be sent to the visitor
concerned.
Visitors to be facilitated
26.24. All Visitors shall be afforded every facility for observing the state
of the prison and the management thereof, and shall be allowed access,
under proper regulations, to all parts of the prison and every prisoner
confined therein. They shall ordinarily not visit high security areas
unless the instructions in this behalf are given by the Inspector General
of Prisons.
26.25. Every Visitor should have the power to call for and inspect any
book, or other record, in the prison unless the Superintendent, for
reasons to be recorded in writing, declines on the grounds that its
production is undesirable. Similarly every visitor should have the
right to see any prisoner and to put any question to him out of hearing
of any prison officer.
Visit to High Security Prison
District & Session Judge to Visit and Inspect Prisons
26.26. It shall be the duty of the District & Session Judge to visit and
inspect high security and other prisons and to satisfy himself that all
rules, regulations, directions and orders made or issued to such
prisons, are duly observed and enforced.
Record of Inspection
26.27. A record of the result of each visit and inspection made shall be
made in a register to be maintained by the Superintendent for this
purpose.
District & Sessions Judge to Communicate only with the
Superintendent of Prisons
26.28. The District & Sessions Judge shall not ordinarily address any
communication or order to any officer of any prison below the
Superintendent. All orders issued by the District & Sessions Judge
shall be in writing.
26.29. The District & Session Judge’s orders should ordinarily be issued
in the form of an entry in the Visitor’s Book. The judge is not required
to interfere in matters of detail effecting management of a prison. He
should refrain from any action which may tend to weaken the
authority of the Superintendent over subordinate prison officers and
prisoners.
26.30. If the District & Session Judge gives an order to which the
Superintendent of Prison or his senior takes exception, the concerned
office may represent the matter through the Inspector General (Prisons)
to the State Government, but he shall forthwith obey any order which
is not inconsistent with the Prison Act of the State, or any rule made
there under, and does not involve any immediate risk or danger.
Date of Visit to be Recorded and Copy of Remarks to be Sent Certain
Officers
26.31. Every Visitor shall, after he has completed his visit to the prison,
record in the visitors’ book, the date and hour of his visit, and may
enter therein any remarks or suggestions he may wish to make.
26.32. A copy of the remarks made by every Visitor, together with
Superintendent’s reply thereto, or the action taken by the
Superintendent thereon, shall be forwarded to the Inspector General.
In case the remarks relate to the long detention of an under-trial
prisoner, a copy of such remark shall also be forwarded to the Sessions
Judge.
Disposal of the Remarks Made by a Visitor
26.33. Any remarks made by a Visitor under the preceding section
should be limited to a statement and fair criticism of actual facts, which
may come to his knowledge, and to such suggestions, as he may desire
the Superintendent or Inspector General to consider. Criticism should
be confined to such aspects of the ordinary administration and
management of the prison which, in the opinion of the visitor, can be
improved. On no account the visitor should directly or indirectly
reflect, either favourably or adversely, on the character or conduct of
any of the prison staff. If the visitor wants to bring to notice the good
or bad work of any prison official he should do so by a letter addressed
to the Inspector General of Prisons.
26.34. The Inspector General of Prisons may pass orders on any
remarks made by a Visitor, and shall, if any issue of importance
requires the orders of the Government, forward such record to the
State Government.
26.35. A copy of any order passed by the Inspector General, or by the
State Government on any record made by a Visitor shall be
communicated to the Visitor concerned through the Superintendent of
Prison
CHAPTER XXVII
STAFF DEVELOPMENT
27.01. A concerted approach towards staff development should be
made an integral part of the legal framework that regulates prisons.
Correctional work being a specialized field, and a social service of great
importance, all posts in the department of Prisons and Correctional
Services, except where supporting staff is required, should be manned
by persons belonging to the prison department.
Prison Cadre
27.02. The prison personnel should comprise of following staff cadres:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
Executive.
Custodial/Guarding.
Technical: Technical Supervisors and Instructors borne on
prison establishment.
Ministerial: From Administrative Officer down to the Lower
Division Clerk.
Class IV Government Servant: As per the nomenclature in each
state.
27.03. Cadre strength of various categories of personnel should be fixed
in accordance with the needs of the department. While fixing the
strength of each cadre, care should be taken to see that enough
openings for promotions become available to the personnel. With this
in view the following ratio for determining cadre strength of various
posts should be laid down:
i)
Warders, Head Warders and Chief Head Warders should be in
the ratio of 25:5:1
ii)
Assistant Superintendent and Deputy Superintendent should be
in the ratio of 3:1
iii)
For Superintendent Grade II, Superintendent Grade I and
Deputy Inspector General of Prisons the ratio should be 9:3:1
Recruitment and Selections
27.04. There should be an inbuilt mechanism in the prison department
for continuous and systematic study of manpower needs, so that there
should be a regular intake of new recruits in order to maintain a
continuos flow of qualified and trained personnel in the department
27.05. In order to maintain the necessary level of morale, discipline and
efficiency of the prison staff, only those persons possessing requisite
aptitude and attributes should be appointed on various posts in the
prison department
27.06. The fundamental requirements for recruitment of the
correctional personnel shall be as under:
(a)
Physical fitness.
(b)
Capacity for endurance and hard work.
(c)
Courage, leadership and trust-worthiness.
(d)
Balanced personality.
(e)
Capacity for man management.
(f)
Capacity for maintaining and developing constructive
and firm discipline.
(g)
Interest in human welfare, desire to help and guide
inmates; belief in the
philosophy of correctional
treatment.
27.07. Direct entry into prison service should be restricted to three
levels viz.
(a)
Warders.
(b)
Assistant Superintendents.
(c)
Superintendent, Grade II / Assistant Director,
Correctional Services.
27.08. Physical fitness and psychological tests should be made essential
pre-requisite for direct recruitment at each of the three levels
mentioned above.
27.09. Fifty percent of the posts of Assistant Superintendents and
Superintendents Grade II shall be filled by direct recruitment and the
remaining fifty percent by promotion.
27.10. A directly recruited warder/officer should not be placed on job
until he successfully completes the prescribed basic initial training.
27.11. Psychologist, social workers / case-workers and correctional
staff should also be recruited directly.
Note
i)
The recommendations with regard to direct recruitment and
promotion quota have been made to ensure that deserving
persons, with requisite qualification training, experience, and
professional competence, are available in the service at all
levels and that they get at least three promotions during the
entire span of their service.
ii)
Promotion to the post of Assistant Superintendent will be done
on the basis of the following criteria:
a) 50% of promotion quota posts will be filled from among
Chief Head Warders on merit cum seniority basis.
b) The remaining 50% of promotion quota posts will be
filled in from among the Warders, and Head Warders who
have completed minimum three years of service in the
iii)
(iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
department along with requisite amount of training and
have educational qualifications prescribed for direct
recruitment to the post of Assistant Superintendent. They
should have good service record and reputation for integrity.
They shall be selected on the basis of a written test
conducted by the Departmental Promotion Committee.
Similarly the recruitment for the post of Superintendent of
Prison will be made both by direct recruitment and by
promotion on 50:50 basis.
Promotions to the post of Superintendent Grade II will be made
on the basis of the following criteria:
a) 25% of the promotion quota posts will be filled in from
among the Deputy Superintendents on the basis of merit
cum seniority and the remaining 25% promotion quota will
be filled in from among the Assistant Superintendents who
have completed minimum three years service in the cadre of
Assistant Superintendent along with requisite amount of
training and have educational qualifications prescribed for
direct recruitment to the post of Superintendent of Prison,
Grade II.
They must have good service record and
reputation for integrity and remarkable performance in the
written test conducted by the Departmental Promotion
Committee
Educational qualifications for various categories of posts will be
prescribed keeping in view job requirements for each post.
Basic initial training, in-service training and refresher courses,
prescribed with a view to keep personnel in touch with
contemporary development in the field of their work, shall be
given weightage.
The general policy as laid down by the State Government
regarding the relaxation of the upper age limit in case of
deserving departmental candidates should be followed.
Creation of National Prison Service Cadre
27.12. With a view to bring in uniform development of prison
personnel in the country and making correctional services an All India
Service to be called as Indian Prisons and Correctional Services, should
be constituted by the Union Government under Article 312 of the
Constitution of India.
Service Conditions
27.13. Personnel assume paramount importance in an effective system
of correctional administration. The conditions of service in the prison
department shall be such that they attract and retain the best suited
persons.
27.14. Secondly, the effectiveness and utility of correctional institutions
will largely depend upon the level of satisfaction that prevails in the
service. A contended staff will be able to implement correctional
policies in the proper spirit. Better service conditions will produce
better personnel which, in turn, will develop better institutions.
Salary and allowances
27.15. Salaries and other employment benefits should not be arbitrarily
fixed but should be related to the work to be performed in a modern
correctional system, which is complex and arduous and is in the nature
of an important social service. The correctional staff should be paid
salaries and allowances at par with those of equivalent ranks in the
Police Department.
Uniform
27.16. Uniform should be prescribed for all custodial and executive
staff, including the Inspector General of Prisons. Badges of rank for all
uniformed cadres in the prison service should be similar to that in the
police service.
Service Board
27.17. Each state should set up a Service Board under the
Chairmanship of the Principal Secretary, Prison Department, for a
periodic review of all matters pertaining to the service conditions of
prison staff.
Probation period
27.18. Persons directly appointed to any post in the prison service shall
be on probation for two years. Wherever necessary the Appointing
Authority may extend the probation period.
27.19. On selection, each incumbent shall sign the oath of allegiance in
the prescribed form.
27.20. Probation period will include the period of institutional and
practical training and the period during which the probationer will be
given an opportunity to display his capacity for wielding responsibility
and exercise judgement.
27.21. During, and at the end of the probation period, the probationer
should be evaluated on the following points:
a)
Physical fitness and capacity for physical endurance and hardwork.
b)
Courage and leadership.
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
Interest evinced in work.
Efficiency.
Attitude towards the public, senior personnel, colleagues,
subordinates and inmates.
Capacity for correctional work.
Character and integrity.
NOTE: The question of extending the period of probation, or of
confirming, reverting or discharging an incumbent, should be decided
invariably before the expiry of the period of probation.
Appointment
27.22. On the successful completion of training, and after the
probationer has been tried and tested through a phased programme of
assigning responsibilities, his initial appointment and posting orders
should be issued.
27.23. As and when appointments are made on purely temporary basis,
they should be made under specific orders.
Confirmation
27.24. There should be a system of departmental examinations for
various categories staff categories for the purpose of confirmation.
These examinations should be organized to suit each cadre. Each State
should fix details of such examinations.
27.25. For being confirmed in service, the probationer should fulfill the
following conditions:
a)
Passing various tests and examinations during the training
period.
b)
Successful completion of the probationary period.
c)
Passing the departmental examinations.
Seniority
27.26. Seniority should be fixed on the basis of the date of appointment
in the cadre, and date of promotion to a higher cadre in accordance
with guidelines issued by the Government. Cadre-wise seniority and
gradation lists of the prison personnel should be published annually.
Promotions
27.27. Special care should be taken in giving timely promotion to
eligible personnel. Efficiency merit, integrity and trustworthiness of
every incumbent should be evaluated and reflected in his annual
confidential report. The mechanism indicated under the caption
‘Recruitment and Selection’ in this chapter should be followed while
giving promotions to the personnel in the respective cadre.
Incumbents who qualify for higher jobs should be listed in accordance
with merit in the eligibility lists for promotions
27.28. Promotions to higher cadres should be based on seniority-cummerit.
Transfer
27.29. The minimum tenure of non-gazetted and gazetted staff, at one
station, should be five years and three years, respectively.
27.30.While deciding on transfers, factors like: (i) needs of the
department and the institution, (ii) suitability of the incumbent to the
post to which he is being transferred, and iii) reasonable needs of the
government servant such as availability of educational facilities for his
children, domestic difficulties of a special nature, etc should be
considered.
Hours of Work
27.31. There should be a well-planned and properly regulated
timetable of work hours for every category of personnel. Normally no
staff member, including guarding personnel, shall be required to work
for more than eight hours a day. There should be a schedule of
institutional duty, day duty, night duty, sectional duty, premises duty,
off duty, etc. Responsibilities pertaining to premises duty, duty-onholidays, etc should be clearly defined. Every incumbent should get 24
hours off-duty once a week.
27.32. Guarding personnel should be allowed at least four night’s rest
each week. As far as possible, duty on consecutive nights should be
avoided. Night patrol duty should not exceed two hours at one time.
After every such duty, the guard should be given at least two hours of
rest. In one night a guard should not be given more than three patrol
duties
Note (i)
Note(ii)
The Superintendent of Prison is authorized to make all reasonable
adjustments in hours of work.
In times of emergencies like escapes, riots, assaults, fire, etc., all
personnel on the premises, whether off-duty or otherwise, will
instantaneously report for duty.
Additional Staff during Emergencies
27.33. In the event of sudden influx of inmates or epidemics, additional
staff, according to recruitment rules should be appointed on purely
temporary basis.
Facilities While on Duty
27.34. The following facilities should be extended to the personnel on
duty:
i)
Rest rooms with beds for the use of staff members who
are required to wait in the institution between their duty
periods.
ii)
Staff canteen.
iii)
Bathrooms, lavatories and w.cs.
iv)
Lockers.
v)
First-aid boxes including necessary equipment for
snakebites, at remote duty points/prison farms/outposts,
etc.
vi)
Torches and boots for night duty personnel.
vii)
Raincoats, umbrellas, overcoats, gumboots, etc.
Holidays
27.35. Holidays will be observed in accordance with the local custom in
each State as specified by the State Government.
27.36. Those who work on holidays should be allowed additional offdays.
Housing
27.37. Rent free residential accommodation for all prison personnel
should be provided in the prison campus.
27.38. Housing for prison staff should be developed on modern lines
with adequate community services and facilities.
27.39. Each institution should have provisions for lodging officials,
guests, and other visitors, visiting the institutions.
27.40. Prison personnel who are entitled to rent free accommodation,
but are not provided with such accommodation, should be paid houserent allowance at par with government employees in other
departments.
27.41. The following facilities should also be extended to staff quarters
and premises:
a)
Periodical disinfection.
b)
Conservancy and sanitation services in staff quarters.
c)
Maintenance of parks and other utilities on the premises.
Medical Facilities
27.42. The following medical facilities should be extended to the staff
and their families:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
A properly equipped hospital and maternity ward, with
ambulance facilities.
Free medical attendance and treatment at the institutional
hospital, at the Civil Hospital and at special institutions like T.B.
sanatoria, Infirmaries, etc.
Special medical facilities to prison personnel suffering from
tuberculosis, leprosy, cancer, heart disease, etc. at par with other
government servants.
Facilities during convalescence period such as leave, medical
aid and concession in hours of work.
Anti-rabies treatment
Educational Facilities
27.43. The following educational facilities for the benefit of children of
prison personnel should be extended:
(i)
Schools near the institutional premises.
(ii)
A school bus for children of the staff in institutions
situated at a distance from the city.
(iii) Transport at government cost for educational needs of
children of the staff or an alternative suitable Transport
Allowance for school/college-going children of the staff.
(iv) Hostel accommodation for children of transferred and
other staff members, in institutional premises.
Miscellaneous Facilities
27.44. In case an institution is located at a distance from the city or town,
the administration shall make necessary arrangements for the housing
of staff members within the prison premises.
27.45. Medical facilities should be provided in cases of medical
emergencies and sickness.
27.46. Mess for unmarried staff members.
27.47. Use of institutional transport on payment at the time of transfer.
27.48. Leave travel concession to all categories of prison personnel to
their home town or village once in two years, along with their family
members. Such concession should also be given to all staff members to
travel anywhere in India once in four years.
27.49. Sports facilities, annual sports meets, and travelling allowance
incidental to the above.
Rewards
27.50. The Government of India should institute medals for rewarding
prison personnel in recognition of acts of gallantry and meritorious
and distinguished services. All good work done by prison personnel
should be given proper publicity and highlighted through the media
27.51. The Inspector General/Deputy Inspector General of Prisons
(range) and the heads of institutions should have powers to sanction
suitable cash rewards to deserving staff members in appreciation of
outstanding work and special services such as capture of escaped
prisoners, exhibition of high degree of courage, loyalty and
trustworthiness, devotion to duty and initiative and resourcefulness
during times of emergency, and other meritorious services. For this
purpose adequate funds should be made in the annual budget of the
department.
Financial Assistance and Compensation
27.52. In the event of prison personnel suffering serious injury and
accident in the discharge of their duties, the Inspector General of
Prisons should have powers to sanction immediate financial
assistance up to Rs. 10,000/-. In deserving cases, where assistance
beyond this limit is necessary, the Inspector General of Prisons should
refer the matter to the State Government/Union Territory
Administration.
27.53. In case of death of prison personnel in lawful discharge of his
duties, a sum of Rs. Two lakh should be paid to survivors in his family.
Protection from Damages
27.54. Necessary facilities at government cost should be extended to
staff members to defend themselves in the event of criminal
prosecution/civil proceedings arising out of bona-fide discharge of
official duties. Legitimate protection should be extended to personnel
in matters related with recovery of damages for bona fide delays,
errors of judgement and false allegations.
Pension
27.55. All pension formalities should be completed fairly in advance of
the date superannuation of a prison officer. Delays in completion of
pension papers should be avoided in all cases.
Staff meetings
27.56. The Superintendent will convene a monthly meeting of the
institutional staff members. The objectives of this meeting should be:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Coordination in institutional activities.
To improve methods of work.
To interpret governmental policies to staff members.
To explain new procedures, rules and regulation and policies
regarding inmate discipline, treatment of prisoners and
institutional management.
To explain policies relating to personnel management, staff
discipline and morale
in the staff lines.
To explain welfare programmes chalked out by the Staff Welfare
Committee.
To give opportunities to staff members to discuss their common
problems.
To communicate appreciation of good work as and when
necessary.
To reward staff members as and when necessary.
27.57. Minutes of the proceedings of the meeting should be recorded
and a copy of it should be forwarded to the Inspector General/Deputy
Inspector General of Prisons (Range) with the remarks of the
Superintendent.
Conference
27.58. Conferences of departmental personnel should be held annually.
The objective of such conferences should be:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
To take stock of achievements.
To evaluate current procedures, practices and
methods of the organization.
To plan for future development of the department.
To understand staff problems and staff aspirations.
To promote best practices in custodial
management.
27.59. Minutes of the conferences should be recorded and the Inspector
General should forward the same to the government, along with his
suggestions and appropriate proposals. Action taken on these minutes
and a proposal will be communicated to the institutional personnel by
the Prison Headquarter.
Staff Training
27.60. Correctional Administration shall constantly seek to awaken and
maintain in the minds of the personnel the conviction that correctional
work is a social service of great importance, and to this end all
appropriate means should be used.
27.61. Correctional work is a specialised field. The principle job of the
correctional personnel is social re-education of offenders.
The
effectiveness of institutional discipline and the impact of treatment
mainly depend on the quality of the correctional staff. Untrained and
uninstructed personnel are not only ineffective, but quite often become
detrimental to the proper implementation of correctional policies. The
training of correctional personnel is, therefore, of paramount
importance in any system of Correctional Administration. Training
programmes will aim at:
(i)
Acquainting correctional personnel with scientific and
progressive methods of
Correctional Administration.
(ii)
Making them conscious of their responsibilities, and the role
they have to play in
a Welfare State.
(iii)
Broadening their cultural and professional interests, expanding
their experience,
refining their abilities and skills, improving
their performance of administrative
duties and providing
them with experience to meet future needs of the
department in positions of higher responsibility.
(iv)
Inculcating
personnel.
an
esprit-de-corps
amongst
the
correctional
27.62. Correctional personnel should be properly trained in the theory
and practice of correctional work. After entering the service and
during their career, the personnel shall maintain and improve their
knowledge and professional capacity by attending various training
programmes, and through their own individual efforts.
27.63. Correctional personnel shall be given special training (in P.T.,
drill, unarmed combat, cane drill and mob-dispersal drill) to enable
them to restrain aggressive prisoners by the means prescribed by the
authorities in accordance with the relevant rules and regulations.
Personnel who are provided with arms shall be trained in their use and
instructed in the regulations governing their use.
27.64. Training is a continuous process. The initial basic training
imparted at the training school shall be continued at the correctional
institutions. Suitable training programmes should be organized so that
the institutional personnel are in constant touch with current
development in the field of corrections.
27.65. The training process will reveal individual capabilities.
Through such knowledge, the right person can be given the right job.
This will ultimately lead to proper utilisation of human resources.
27.66. Training of correctional personnel will not only be helpful in
creating a proper cultural atmosphere in the department but will go a
long way in establishing good traditions and practices of institutional
management and correctional processes. A properly trained staff will
be an asset for the proper implementation of prison reforms. With the
impact of training, the attitudes and abilities of the personnel will
improve. The expenditure incurred for staff training will ultimately
result not only in departmental gains but also in social gains in terms of
better institutional impact and ultimate rehabilitation of offenders.
27.68. All new recruits to the prison department, whether inducted as
security, custodial, executive, treatment or supervisory staff should be
imparted basic training of sufficient duration appropriate to their job
requirements. All officers and staff taken on deputation from other
departments should be given a short orientation course for one week
with regard to the functioning of the prison department.
27.69. Adequate training reserve should be provided in each cadre of
the Prison and Correctional Service so that in-service training can be
organized for them. The number of such staff can be assessed in each
State/Union Territory as per local requirement.
Training Institutes
27.70. Training of staff should be taken up at three levels: State,
Regional, and National.
(i)
For training of security and ministerial staff, a training school
should be set up in each State by the State Government. Smaller
States and Union Territories can avail the training facilities of
the training schools of neighbouring States
(ii)
For training of executive staff Regional Institutes of Correctional
Administration should be set up.
(iii) A National Academy of Correctional Administration should be
established by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of
India under the control of BPR&D to cater to the training needs
of supervisory staff and other senior officers concerned with
planning and policy formulation. When the Indian Prisons and
Correctional Service is constituted, this academy would meet
the training needs of the members of that service
Functions
27.71. The functions of a Training School/Regional Institute of
Correctional Services will be:
a)
Training,
b)
Research,
c)
Studies on Organization and methods,and
d)
Publication of pamphlets, papers, hand books, Correctional
Service Journals.
27.72. Only qualified persons with an aptitude for training and
teaching should be posted at these institutions.
27.73. Directors of Regional Institutes of Correctional Administration
should be from the Prisons and Correctional Service and should be of
the rank of Additional Inspector General of Prisons. Principals of State
level training schools should be of the rank of Superintendent of
Central Prisons.
27.74. Experts invited to deliver lectures at the training institutes
should be provided with a set of guidelines about the content of
training. Permanent academic staff of the training institutes should
also be oriented to the training requirements of various aspects of
correctional work. Teaching facilities and faculty at the training
schools of other States, Universities and Schools of Social Sciences
should be utilized for training purposes. The visiting lecturers should
be paid suitable honorarium and travelling allowances.
27.75. Details of syllabi, course content, methods of examination, and
the mode of awarding certificates/diplomas on successful completion
of training, should be evolved by the Bureau of Police Research and
Development in consultation with the training institutions at various
levels. These matters should be reviewed once every three years.
27.76. Proper literature should be prepared for meeting the training
needs of various categories of personnel of the Department of Prisons
and Correctional Services.
Training courses:
27.77. Training courses for Correctional Services should be organized
on the basis of Training Needs Analysis to be conducted by the experts
in this field. The following training courses should be organized at the
training institutes:
i)
On recruitment all correctional officers i.e. Superintendent
Grade II, Assistant Superintendent and warder shall undergo an
initial basic training course which will be phased as shown
below:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Initial basic training at the Training School/ Institute for
one year.
After the successful completion of basic in training the
trainee officers should be posted for duration of six
months for practical training in various branches of
institutional management at a Central Prison in their
respective States/Union Territories.
On completion of practical training, the trainee officers
should be given independent charge of the post for which
they have been recruited, for a period of six months.
ii)
Serving officers, who have had no opportunity to get the initial
training as stated in sub-rule (a), shall undergo a training course
for three months. For such officers, placement for practical
training and holding of independent charge as stated in subrules (b) and (c) will not be necessary.
iii)
Serving Superintendents, Deputy Superintendent, Assistant
Superintendent, and other correctional officers of all grades will
undergo refresher courses of one month duration once in every
five years.
Vertical Interaction Courses (thematic) for prison officers
Short-term courses on various aspects of Correctional
Administration and Treatment of Offenders.
iv)
v)
vi)
All newly recruited and untrained serving warders shall
undergo an initial basic training course for six months. During
this period they will be given practical training in every aspect
of institutional management.
vii)
Refresher courses of two months duration for custodial/
security personnel. It should be obligatory for them to undergo
such training once in every five years.
viii)
The Inspector General of Prisons and Director of Correctional
Services should prepare a panel of officers having special merit
and capabilities for attending conferences and special training
courses, within the country and abroad.
ix)
The Bureau of Police Research and Development should
organize regional meetings/conferences of Inspectors General of
Prisons and other senior officers of the Department of Prisons
and Correctional Services at regular intervals at the national
level.
x)
Study teams of senior officers should be deputed to visit other
States in the country. Such teams may also visit countries where
innovative correctional programmes and practices have been
successfully introduced. Officers with outstanding performance
in the department should be given preference for such visits.
Facilities during training
27.78. The following facilities should be extended to personnel
undergoing training:
(i)
Full pay for newly recruited personnel.
(ii)
Usual emoluments for in-service personnel.
(iii) Training allowance for in-service personnel.
(iv) Rent-free quarters.
(v)
Mess arrangements.
(vi) Free medical aid.
(vii) T.A. and D.A. facilities for travel incidental to training.
(viii) Grant for purchase of books.
(ix)
Study leave for going abroad, or to another State, for training.
(x)
Periods of training should be counted as on duty for all
purposes
Discipline
27.79. The Director/Principal of the Training Institution will frame
necessary rules regarding discipline and will be authorised to take
disciplinary action in the event of breach of discipline.
27.80. The trainees will wear the prescribed uniform during the
training period.
Tests and Examinations
27.81. The Director/Principal will fix details about examinations and
tests. Trainees of all cadres shall be required to pass the prescribed
examinations and tests. In case a trainee fails to reach the required
standards during a training course, the Principal will forward a report
to the Inspector General for suitable action. Failure to pass the
examination and to complete the training courses satisfactorily will
make the trainee liable for such disciplinary action as the Inspector
General may think fit. In case of newly recruited personnel, such
failure may result in discharge from service.
27.82. The evaluation of a trainee should be made on the basis of his
total performance in all the tests and examinations. The trainees will
be evaluated in respect of the following, amongst other points:
(a)
Turn-out and discipline.
(b).
Capacity for hard work and physical endurance.
(c).
Performance in each test and examination.
(d). Special capacities shown during the training
course.
(e). Leadership.
(f).
Conduct, integrity and trustworthiness.
Library-journal-recreational facilities
27.83. Training schools should have a good library and reading room
facilities. Provision for purchase of books and periodicals, should be
made in the annual budget of the institution.
27.84. A Correctional Services Journal should be published by the
training schools.
27.85. Recreational facilities should be organized.
27.86. A museum showing the historical development of Prison
Administration and other aspects of institutional management should
be set up at the training schools.
Continuation of training at the place of work
27.87. The following training facilities should be organised at the
institutions:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
Interpretation of policy by senior officers from the Headquarters
during visits.
Library and reading room facilities for staff members.
Lectures by professors from the Universities and Schools of
social work on subjects related to correctional work.
Fortnightly talk on correctional methods by the Superintendent
or any other officer.
Reading of papers, case histories, etc., by institutional staff
members.
Monthly discussions on improvement in administrative
procedures, methods and organisation, etc.
27.88. In order to keep the officers and men in good shape, the training
given at the training school in drill, parades, musketry, unarmed
combat, cane-drill and mob-dispersal drill should be continued at the
institution also. Particular attention should be paid to games. Efforts
should be made to instill interest and enthusiasm in the personnel by
the introduction of new items and methods of training. Opportunities
should be provided to stimulate initiative, intelligence, independent
judgement and resourcefulness among the personnel.
27.89. Subject to general or specific orders, which may be issued in this
behalf by the Inspector General of Prisons, the training programme will
consist of physical exercises, squad drill, weapon training, bayonet
fighting, ceremonial parade, unarmed combat, baton and cane drill,
mob-dispersal, obstacle course, inspection of guard and sentry duties,
saluting, kit inspection and emergency drill.
27.90. Musketry practice for officers and guarding personnel shall be
held once every six months. All security measures shall be adopted on
such occasions. An officer well-versed in all these matters shall be
made in charge of such training. Wherever required, necessary
assistance may be obtained from the local police authorities.
27.91. Assistant Superintendents will do physical training and drill at
least twice a week. They shall participate in the weekly parades.
27.92. The following training programmes will be conducted for the
guarding personnel:
(a)
Physical training and drill for 45 minutes a day, four days a
week.
(b)
Instruction in rules, procedures, etc., once a week to be given by
an Assistant Superintendent or a senior member of the guarding
personnel.
(c)
Practice in preventing and controlling emergency situations
once a month.
(d)
Games like cricket, hockey, volleyball, basketball, may be
organized in accordance with available facilities at each
institution.
27.93. The Superintendent will send the following reports to the
Inspector General of Prisons:
(a)
Monthly report about training in P.T. drill, lectures, discussions,
emergency practice, etc.
(b)
Six monthly report on musketry practice.
Staff Welfare
Welfare Committee
27.94. There will be a Welfare Committee at each Institution consisting
representatives
of
executive,
technical,
ministerial
and
guarding/custodial personnel. The Superintendent will be the exofficio Chairman of the committee. The Welfare Committee will meet
at least once a month. Minutes of its meetings will be recorded.
27.95. There will also be a Central Welfare Committee in the Inspector
General’s office with the Inspector General of Prisons as its President
and the following as its members:
(i)
Deputy Inspector General (Headquarters) – Vice President
(ii)
All Range Deputy Inspector Generals.
(iii) Principal, Prison Officers Training School.
(iv) Superintendent of the Prison located at the Department’s
Headquarters.
Functions
27.96. The functions of the Welfare Committee shall be:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
To chalk out a programme for staff welfare.
To build a welfare fund.
To prepare an annual budget for the utilization of the welfare
fund.
To run a staff canteen
To organize a Cooperative Credit Society and a multipurpose
cooperative shop for the institutional staff.
To impress upon the staff members the necessity of
programmes of postal savings, small saving schemes, postal
insurance, Janata Insurance policy, etc.
To supervise the maintenance of the welfare fund, its accounts,
and to get them audited annually.
To prepare an annual report about welfare work.
To advice the Central Committee regarding the utilization of the
fund.
Welfare Fund
27.97. A welfare fund will be created at each institution for providing
amenities to staff members and their families. The fund will be
developed from the following sources:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
Monthly subscriptions from staff members.
Voluntary donations subject to rules framed by the government.
Interest accruing from investments.
Benefit performances by artists, theatrical parties, cinema, etc.
Donations from a Co-operative Credit Society.
Profits from of the co-operative shop.
Subsidies from the Government.
Welfare Unit
27.98. In large institutions there will be a separate staff unit which will
attend to all aspects of welfare work such as staff canteen, cooperative
society, etc.
Welfare benefits
27.99. The following benefits will be provided to the personnel out of
the welfare fund:
i)
Relief in the case of sudden illness.
ii)
Medical aid where more than ordinary medical help is required
and which is beyond the economic capacity of the staff
member.
iii)
Aid for the education of children of the staff.
iv)
Facilities to family members of the staff for running cottage
industries and handicrafts like sewing, spinning, manufacture of
matches, etc.
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)
Reservation of seats in hostels and educational institutions for
children of staff members.
Staff canteen.
Recreational and cultural activities.
Staff club.
Staff libraries.
Staff sports, institutional and inter-institutional fixtures, etc.
27.100. A proper forum should be provided at the institutional and the
State level for prison personnel to ventilate their grievances common to
the entire service/cadre and to hold meaningful discussions for their
redressal.
Note: Detailed rules for the collection and operation of this fund
should be embodied in the prison manual of each State.
CHAPTER XXVIII
MISCELLANEOUS
Inclusion of Prisons in Development Plans
28.01. Since prison administration has a direct bearing on the
improvement of the quality of life of those who deviate from the
accepted social norms, the development of prisons shall be pursued as
an integral part of the National Development Plans. Investment on
prisons shall lead not only to the reformation and rehabilitation of
offenders as law-abiding citizens, but also to safeguarding the life of
those adversely affected by crime. Therefore, each State shall take
steps to formulate schemes for development of prisons in their entirety
in the Central and State Plans. Such schemes should not only relate to
the correctional content of prison programmes but also to
improvement in the quality of prison staff, which is the main tool of
correctional administration.
State Advisory Board
28.02. There shall be a State Advisory Board to advise the State
Government and the Prison Administration on matters relating to
correctional work in prisons, rehabilitation of inmates and, redressal of
grievances of prisoners or of their relatives.
28.03. The state Advisory Board shall also act as a meeting ground of
departmental heads of Prison, Law and Justice, Police, Education,
Technical Education, Health and Public Works Department of the State
Government, in order to bring about effective inter-departmental cooperation and co-ordination.
28.04. The State Advisory Board shall also play the role of opinion
leaders creating Social awareness in all walks of life and stressing the
need for rehabilitation of offenders.
28.05. The state Advisory Board shall comprise of the following
officials of the State:a) Principal Secretary , Department of Prisons - as Chairman
b) Inspector General of Prisons as Member Secretary.
c) Judicial Secretary or any of his nominee not below the rank of Joint
Secretary.
d) Inspector General of Police (HQ).
e) Director, Social Education.
f) Director, Technical Education.
g) Director, Health Service.
h) Chief Engineer, Public Works Department.
i) Special Secretary Finance, as nominated by Secretary Finance
Department.
j) Director, Social Welfare.
28.06. The following Non-Officials shall also be appointed by the
Government as Members of the State Advisory Board:a)
Three members of the Legislative Assembly of the State, of
whom one shall be a woman and one belonging to the principal
opposition parts in the State Legislature Assembly.
b)
Two elected Members of Parliament from the State.
c)
Three eminent members of the public working in the field of
social reform. Among them one shall be a woman.
d)
A retired officer of prison service of the State, not below the rank
of Deputy Inspector General.
28.07. The Principal Secretary of the Jail Department shall be the
Chairman of the State Advisory Board, where as the Inspector General
of Prisons or his nominee, not below the rank of Deputy Inspector
General, shall be the Member Secretary.
28.08. The State Advisory Board shall hold at least three meetings in a
calendar year. In the wake of any extraordinary situation, the Member
Secretary is authorized to convene a special meeting of the Members of
the State Advisory Board to apprise the Members of details of the
situation warranting such meetings.
28.09. The proceeding of every meeting of the State Advisory Board
shall be recorded in the Minute Book, and a copy of the same shall be
forwarded of the Principal Secretary/Secretary of the Prison
Department.
28.10. The Members of the State Advisory Board shall enjoy the right to
pay visit to any prison of the State, individually or in a group, with or
without prior notice to the Superintendent of the Prison.
28.11. The Members of the State Advisory Board, however, shall refrain
themselves from visiting any prison during the period between
evening locking-up and morning un-locking.
28.12. The Superintendent shall present before the visiting
Member/Members of the State Advisory Board any paper/document
in connection with the correctional work, recreation, training of
prisoners, prison diet, health-care of prisoners, grievances of prisoners
and redressal of prisoners, if the same is sought for by the visiting
Member/Members of the State Advisory Board.
28.13. The Superintendent shall not be bound to present any
Register/Document paper pertaining to financial accounts, before the
visiting Member/Members of the State Advisory Board without
written approval of the Inspector General of Prisons.
28.14. The Superintendent shall ensure that the prisoners lodging
complaints with the visiting Member/Members of the State Advisory
Board do not subsequently fall prey to vendetta of the persons
complained against.
28.15. Following any such visit by Member/Members of the State
Advisory Board, the Superintendent shall inform the Inspector General
of Prisons.
28.16. For the purpose of the meetings of the State Advisory Board six
members, including at least two official and two non-official members,
shall comprise a quorum.
28.17. If a non-official member of the State Advisory Board fails to
attend the meetings of the Board, despite prior intimation and notice,
on three successive occasions, his/her membership of the Advisory
Board shall stand cancelled automatically and the Member Secretary of
the Board shall move the State Government for appointing a new nonofficial member in his/her place.
28.18. A Non-Official member of the State Advisory Board shall hold
office for a period of three years from the date his/her appointment to
the Board, and may be considered for reappointment.
28.19. The State government reserves the right to cancel the
appointment of any non-official member of the State Advisory Board at
any time.
28.20. A non-official Member of the Board shall receive allowances, as
prescribed by the State Government from time to time, for attending
the meetings of the Board.
28.21. During visits to a prison, a member of the State Advisory Board
shall not carry any arm/firearms, nor shall he/she be accompanied by
his official/personal security guard, armed or unarmed. The
Superintendent shall provide proper security to the visiting
member/members of the State Advisory Board.
Planning, Research and Development Mechanism
28.22. Each State shall evolve a mechanism for providing the necessary
feedback on the efficacy of prisons and correctional services in
achieving their objectives and goals through monitoring, study,
analysis and research, and to keep the system abreast of the new trends
and developments in the field. Such a mechanism should clearly spell
out the specific objectives and goals not only for the organisation, but
also for individual institutions, in terms of functional renovation and
reconstruction of prison buildings, diversification of correctional
institutions, classification of prisoners, rehabilitative reorientation of
prison industries, correctional content of prison programmes,
recruitment and training of prison personnel and modalities of
coordination with other branches of the Criminal Justice System. It
should set quantitative targets for the correctional system such as:
reduced crime; number of criminals rehabilitated; number of exoffenders; number of prisoners educated; increase in productivity of
prisons; sale proceeds of prison manufacture; amount of loan extended
to inmates/ex-inmates under innovative banking schemes and other
sources, etc. There shall be an established procedure for reviewing the
organisational and institutional goals by the department at least once a
year.
Prisons Development Board
28.23. In order to improve and modernise the infrastructural facilities
in prisons, a high powered Prison Development Board may be set up
in each State to have an institutional arrangement conducive to speedy
decision making and to take full advantage of modern technology and
managerial practices.
28.24. The board may consist of the following members:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Chief Minister
Minister for Prisons
Registrar of the High Court
(d)
Prl. Secretary to Govt., Home
Department
Prl. Secretary to Govt., Finance Department
Prl. Secretary to Govt., Revenue Department
Secretary to Government, Law Department
Director General and Inspector General of Police
Director of Prosecution
Two persons to be nominated by the Govt., out
of whom one shall be a woman, from among
non-officials who have distinguished themselves
in the field of prison administration or prison
reforms or service to prisoners or human rights
Inspector General of Prisons
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
28.25. The functions of the board shall be:
Chairman
Vice-Chairman
Ex-officio
Director
(Prisons) Ex-officio Director
Ex-officio Director
Ex-officio Director
Ex-officio Director
Ex-officio Director
Ex-officio Director
Members
Ex-officio
Managing
Director
(a)
to examine the living conditions of prisoners in all the prisons, with
specific reference to their basic needs and provision of facilities
compatible with the dignity of human life.
(b)
to build new prisons where the existing prisons are not in a
satisfactory condition, or are beyond repairs.
to review and suggest measures for the development of
programmes for the ‘treatment of prisoners’, including education,
vocational training and productive work, with a view to developing
prisons as correctional centres.
to efficiently manage prisons by inducting modern technology,
methods and apparatus.
(c)
(d)
28.26. The board shall have, and maintain, its own fund as the Prisons
Development Fund to which shall be credited:
(a) all money received by the board from the State and Central
Governments by way of grants, loans, advances, etc.
(b) all money borrowed by the Board by way of loans or debentures.
(c)
all money generated by the agricultural, horticultural, industrial or
manufacturing activities undertaken by prisoners.
(d) all fees, charges and profits received by the Board.
(e) all money received by the Board from the disposal of lands,
buildings and other properties (movable or immovable), and
(f)
all money received by the Board by way of rents or profits or in any
other manner or from any other source.
28.27. The concerned State Government shall frame detailed rules for
the functioning of the Board.
Publication of Annual Report
28.28. Each State shall publish an annual report on the functioning and
progresses achieved by the Department of Prisons and Correctional
Services and place the same before the legislature.
Formulation of State Prison Manual
28.29. Each State Government shall formulate its own State Prison
Manual on the lines indicated in this Model Prison Manual, to
adequately cater to the indigenous conditions, without diluting the
concept of basic uniformity in law and procedure.
Exchange of Expertise
Each State Government shall promote the exchange of technical knowhow and professional expertise with other States to be able to adopt the
best practices in the administration of prisons and correctional services
in various parts of the country, either on its own initiative or with the
assistance of the Central Government.
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