815/816 Rock Mechanics Testing

815/816 Rock Mechanics Testing
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MTS Model 815 and 816 Rock Mechanics Test Systems
Fully integrated high-force test systems optimized for carefully controlled characterization of brittle materials
be certain.
F O R NEARLY HALF A CENTURY, GEOLOGICAL TEST PROFESSIONALS HAVE
M A D E MTS THE INDUSTRY STANDARD FOR HIGHLY ACCURATE AND
R E L I ABLE ROCK TESTING. TODAY, WE CONTINUE TO APPLY MORE THAN
F O U R DECADES OF EXPERIENCE AS WE ENGINEER AND MANUFACTURE
I N N O VATIVE ROCK MECHAN ICS TESTING SYSTEMS THAT ADDRESS AN
A R R AY OF APPLICATIONS AND BUDGETS.
Engineered for Accuracy and Reliability
Proven systems for rock mechanics testing
The MTS Model 815 and 816 rock mechanics test systems deliver exactly what geological
materials experts need to work with confidence: fully integrated solutions that can be
configured to test all types of rock in both basic and highly complex applications.
Designed to test everything from soft sandstone to high-strength brittle rock, these
systems combine versatile servohydraulic load frames with precise digital controls,
flexible software and specialized accessories for uniaxial and triaxial testing. Expect
these complete solutions to help you effectively manage and control the forces, pressures
and temperatures required for today’s most demanding geological materials evaluations.
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MTS Model 815 system
MTS Model 816 system
Flexible, modular design
The MTS Model 815 system is ideal for
uniaxial and triaxial rock tests that are
critical to fossil fuels exploration and
production, mining and rock mechanics
research. It offers high axial force capacity,
with compression ratings up to 4600 kN
and tension ratings up to 2300 kN. Overall,
its highly stiff load frame, fixed crossheads
and single-ended actuators make this
system particularly suitable for carefully
controlled studies of post-failure behavior.
The MTS Model 816 system is engineered
for rock mechanics research testing that
involves smaller samples. It can be
configured for uniaxial, triaxial or direct
shear testing, and its compact frame is
easy to locate in the lab. The 816 system
provides lower force capacity than the
815 system, but it offers a significantly
more affordable way to add rock testing
capabilities to your lab’s repertoire.
The MTS Model 815 and 816 test systems
include a number of features that help
test professionals perform a wider variety
of tests with a single system. Spacer
plates allow you to choose from a range
of specimen sizes. Load frames are
pre-engineered for installation of triaxial
cells. Other accessories are designed for
easy installation in multiple configurations,
depending on your needs. Plus, MTS can
customize either system to accommodate
unique requirements.
MTS Model 815 test
system with a Model
656 triaxial load cell
MTS Model 816 test
system with the direct
shear apparatus
MTS can help you fully
characterize rock specimens
in the high-temperature,
high-pressure extremes
common to “downhole”
environments.
Unrivaled Experience
Decades of rock testing expertise
Dedicated service and support
MTS has installed more high-force
servohydraulic rock testing systems
around the world than any other
manufacturer. To design these systems,
we collaborate with the industry’s most
respected rock mechanics researchers
and geomechanical modeling experts.
We also leverage the extensive knowledge
and hands-on experience gained through
engineering and manufacturing
high-quality test solutions for many
other materials testing industries, from
aerospace to biomechanics.
To ensure you receive expert assistance,
MTS fields the largest, most experienced
service, support and consulting staff of
any testing solution provider. In addition
to essential service and maintenance, we
offer expert application engineering
from professionals who understand the
nuances of rock testing. Our global team
also offers complete life cycle management
to maximize the return on your technology
investment and help you address new
test requirements as cost-effectively as
possible.
Servohydraulic specialists
World-class industrial design
Servohydraulic load frame technology
is essential to rock mechanics testing.
MTS pioneered this technology decades
ago and continues to lead the way in
servohydraulic innovation. The 815 and
816 systems represent the culmination of
our collective knowledge and experience,
which is why they provide the accuracy
and reliability test professionals need to
perform a diverse and growing number
of rock mechanics tests.
The servohydraulic load frames that
form the core of the 815 and 816 systems
are the result of a world-class industrial
design program. No matter which system
fits your needs best, you can expect to
perform rock mechanics tests safely
and efficiently in a tightly controlled
environment that emphasizes precision
as well as easy operation.
MTS Systems Corporation
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Superior Performance
Integrated technology that maximizes
precision, reliability and repeatability
MTS rock mechanics test systems
provide precise, repeatable and durable
performance. Known worldwide for
high uptime and dependable results,
MTS test systems are designed, improved
and fine-tuned as we help customers
address tough challenges in many markets.
This depth and breadth of practical
experience results in a comprehensive
product line that enables rock testing
professionals to meet all testing objectives
with a single, reliable source.
Highly stiff load frames
For the 815 system, the load frame
assembly includes a fixed crosshead
mounted on two rectangular columns
bolted to the base plate, creating an
extremely rigid yet free-standing frame.
Integrated in the base plate is a singleended, double-acting actuator with a
100 mm (4 in.) stroke for tests requiring
large displacements. The frame assembly
includes two feedback transducers – a
differential pressure (∆P) transducer and
an internal linear variable differential
transformer (LVDT) that provides control
and measurement of actuator displacement.
An impact-resistant Lexan™ door and
sliding back panel retain debris without
compromising visibility.
For the 816 system, the load frame
assembly includes a fixed crosshead
mounted on four columns bolted to the
base plate, creating a rigid, free-standing
frame that allows easy insertion and
removal of a wide range of specimen
sizes and fixtures. The system incorporates
the same single-ended, double-acting
actuator as the 815 system. The test area
is enclosed with Lexan panels on all sides,
and the frame itself rests on a rigid table
for a convenient working height.
Clean, quiet hydraulic distribution
SilentFlo™ hydraulic power units (HPUs)
deliver superior performance in a compact
footprint with exceptionally low-noise
operation. They are small and quiet
enough to be installed virtually anywhere
in the lab. In fact, SilentFlo HPUs are up
to 30 dB(A) quieter than conventional
HPUs and require minimal floor space.
In addition, the 815 system features
remote-mounted hydraulic service
manifolds (HSMs) to mitigate interference
with acoustic measurements.
Powerful software
MTS Geomechanics Application Software
provides a complete set of test templates
that follow standard test sequences and
analyses described by ASTM and ISRM.
These templates guide you through testing,
data acquisition and report generation.
The software also makes it easy to create
your own custom templates. Based on
MTS Series 793 Application Software,
the MTS Geomechanics package uses a
highly flexible, drag-and-drop user
interface that simplifies the process of
building standard and nonstandard tests.
Run-time rate control lets you increase
or decrease loading or strain rate during
testing for tighter control of post-failure
tests and improved throughput. Run-time
plotting displays selected feedbacks to
monitor test progress continuously.
Digital controls
Versatile FlexTest® digital controllers
provide the flexibility you need to
address a full spectrum of testing needs
and adapt readily to evolving standards.
Scalable and easy-to-use, FlexTest
controllers provide the high-speed
closed-loop control, data acquisition,
function generation and transducer
conditioning required to conduct
reliable single- and multi-channel rock
mechanics tests across multiple stations.
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Uniaxial accessories
Uniaxial test packages are available for
compression, strain measurement,
circumferential strain measurement,
indirect tension (Brazil Test), direct
tension and fracture toughness. These
packages include test-specific fixtures
and related hardware, plus transducers
and application software.
Triaxial accessories
MTS triaxial rock testing assemblies
help achieve high-fidelity simulation
of in-situ conditions such as high
confining pressures, high temperatures,
high-pressure pore fluids and various
specimen stress states, including extension.
Accessories are available to support
triaxial testing, including compression,
creep, extension and deformational
stress pathways.
Rock extensometers
Direct shear apparatus
Specifically created for measuring rock
strains at high pressures and temperatures,
the Model 632.9X family of MTS
extensometers provides outstanding
accuracy, control and durability for
uncovering the deformative characteristics
of geological materials.
Extend the capabilities of the 816 system
with an integrated MTS Direct Shear
Package that subjects cylindrical, prismatic
or irregularly shaped specimens of intact
or jointed rock to normal and shearing
stresses simultaneously. The package
includes a stiff, compact load reaction
frame, shearing actuator, load cell
optimized for direct shear, and shear box.
Extensive Capabilities
The MTS Model 815 and 816 rock mechanics test systems are designed for a specialized
set of demanding applications. They are available in multiple models and force capacities
to deliver high accuracy and reliability across a wide range of specific testing needs.
Model 815 system
»» Lifting eyes
»» Differential pressure (∆P) transducer
provides force readout without
affecting load frame stiffness and is
accurate to within ±1% of calibrated
range at loads above 1000 kN
»» Integrated construction ideal for
testing brittle materials
»» Rigid fixed crosshead
»» Rectangular columns
»» Precision, parallel alignment between
crosshead and actuator surface to
ensure proper loading
»» Front security door for easy access to
test space
»» Accessory attachment plates
»» Fatigue-rated, single-ended, doubleacting actuator with proprietary seal
and bearing designs for durability,
plus direct-bonded polymer bearings
for less friction and maximum heat
dissipation
»» Internal LVDT calibrated to
full-scale actuator travel for complete
positioning control
»» Remote-mounted hydraulic service
manifold to mitigate interference
with acoustic measurement equipment
»» Large test area for uniaxial and
triaxial testing
»» Impact-resistant Lexan panels
»» Stiff base plate
»» Emergency stop button
»» Vibration isolation pads
Specifications
Load Frame Model
Compression rating
kN
kip
Tension rating*
kN
kip
Actuator displacement
mm
in
Load frame spring rate
N/m
lb/in
Estimated Weight
kg
lb
Floor Loading Footprint (width x depth)
mm
in
815 Test System
315.01
315.02
315.04
1600
350
2700
600
4600
1000
1050
240
1350
300
2300
500
100
4
100
4
100
4
7.0 x 109
4.0 x 107
9.0 x 109
5.0 x 107
10.5 x 109
6.0 x 107
2614
5762
4218
9300
7590
16,700
737 x 432
29 x 17
889 x 521
35 x 20.5
991 x 610
39 x 24
* Although the Load Frame assembly is capable of producing the indicated force in tension, the actual tensile
force limit is dependent on the attachment hardware (e.g., threaded connectors) that attach the gripping
fixtures to the crosshead and actuator).
Specifications
Load Frame Model
Model 816 system
»» Crosshead-mounted actuator
»» Close-coupled accumulators
»» Servovalve
»» Four-column, fixed-crosshead design
»» Single-ended, double-acting actuator
»» Low-profile, high-stiffness force
transducer accurate to within ±0.5%
of calibrated range
»» Differential pressure transducer
(standard on 316.04 load frames)
accurate to within ±1% of calibrated
range at loads above 1000 kN
»» Internal LVDT calibrated to
full-scale actuator travel for
complete positioning control
»» Lexan panels on all sides for easy
access to test space
»» Emergency stop button
»» Stiff base plate
»» Rigid support table
»» Vibration isolation pads
Compression rating
kN
kip
Tension rating*
kN
kip
Actuator displacement
mm
in
Load frame spring rate
N/m
lb/in
Estimated Weight
kg
lb
Floor Loading Footprint (width x depth)
mm
in
816 Test System
316.01
316.02
316.04
500
110
1045
235
2046
460
291
65
667
150
1374
309
100
4
100
4
100
4
1.1 x 109
6.2 x 106
2.6 x 109
1.5 x 107
3.0 x 109
1.7 x 107
2380
5250
3252
7170
3822
8426
1168 x 813
46 x 32
1168 x 813
46 x 32
1295 x 1168
51 x 46
* Although the Load Frame assembly is capable of producing the indicated force in tension, the actual tensile
force limit is dependent on the attachment hardware (e.g., threaded connectors) that attach the gripping
fixtures to the crosshead and actuator).
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Versatile Applications
Uniaxial testing
UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION AND
POST-FAILURE COMPRESSION
Compression and deformation tests
for cylindrical rock specimens require
a compression platen fixture, a force
transducer for low-force testing (below
1000 kN/200 kip) or a differential
pressure (∆P) transducer for high-force
testing (above 1000 kN/200 kip), signal
conditioners and cables, spacers and
axial and circumferential strain
measurement kits.
The load train for high-force compression
is designed to be as stiff as possible to
minimize the amount of deformation
energy stored in the frame and load
train components during tests on brittle
materials. This is especially important for
testing post-failure behavior, where the
integrity of the test depends on preventing
the loss of control of a failing specimen.
The force transducer is fatigue-rated for
accurate measurement of applied loads
(±0.1%), with a one-piece sensing
structure that is heat-treated to improve
repeatability and linearity and minimize
hysteresis. Its multi-column design
enhances sensitivity while retaining high
axial stiffness, overload capacity and
long-term stability. It resists extraneous
forces and moments to increase accuracy
and allow high lateral and overturning
moment stiffness. The transducer also
features massive, low-stressed ends to
ensure low hysteresis and minimal end
attachment effect.
Tests/Standards
»» Uniaxial Compressive Strength Test
(ASTM D2938-86 and ISRM Suggested
Method for Determining the Uniaxial
Compressive Strength of Rock)
»» Deformability of Rock Materials in
Uniaxial Compression (ASTM
D3148-86 and ISRM Suggested
Method for Determining the
Deformability of Rock Materials
in Uniaxial Compression)
»» Creep of Cylindrical Hard and Soft
Rock Specimens in Uniaxial
Compression (ASTM 4341-84 and
ASTM 4405-84)
INDIRECT TENSION (BRAZIL TEST)
An Indirect Tension Test configuration
uses an indirect tension fixture, a force
transducer with load frame attachment
kit, a signal conditioner, a cable from the
force transducer to the load frame and six
to eight spacers, depending on specimen
size and load frame model.
The indirect tension fixture has a
lightweight yet robust aluminum body
(>Rc 58) with hardened end caps that are
ground flat (less than 0.0005 mm/mm
over line of contact) to minimize stress
concentrations. These specially designed,
size-specific end caps have an arc radius
that matches the specimen contact area
to further minimize stress concentrations
and off-axis loading. In addition, the
fixture’s self-aligned design does not
depend on the alignment of the load
train. Instead, it ensures proper alignment
over the full travel range of the fixture
with large-diameter, chrome-plated
columns guided through low-friction
bearings. Bending moments are avoided
with a retained spherical seated washer
at the top of the fixture.
The force transducer is the same fatiguerated model used for compression testing.
Tests/Standards
»» ASTM Standard D3967-86
»» ISRM Suggested Methods for
Determining Indirect Tensile
Strength by the Brazil Test
DIRECT TENSION
Direct tension testing involves a direct
tension fixture, a force transducer and
spacers. The fixture has robust, orthogonally
mounted leaf chains and spherically
seated upper and lower joints to ensure
alignment of load along the center axis of
the specimen. Clevis pin attachment of
end caps makes changing specimens fast
and easy, and eliminates the need for
fixture disassembly. End cap design
ensures strong, even distribution of
epoxy across specimen end surfaces, as
well as around the circumference of the
specimen end when greater adhesive
strength is required. Alignment hardware
is provided to ensure end-cap-to-end-cap
alignment when attaching end caps to the
specimen. Four sets of specimen end caps
are provided. The force transducer is the
same fatigue-rated force transducer used
for compression and indirect tension testing.
Tests/Standards
»» ASTM D-2936-84
»» ISRM Suggested Method for
Determining Tensile Strength of
Rock Materials
Triaxial testing
F R A C TURE TOUGHNESS
TRIAXIAL COMPR E S S I O N / T R I A X I A L C R E E P
Fracture toughness testing helps determine
the Critical Stress Intensity Factor (KIc)
of chevron-notched core specimens in
the three-point bend configuration. This
configuration uses a bend fixture, force
transducer, three to seven spacers
(depending on specimen size, force
transducer and load frame), strain
measurement kit, clip-on gage, four
knife edge sets for mounting the clip-on
gage to the specimen, dual LVDTs with
averaged output for load point displacement
measurement, LVDT mounting fixture and
alignment tools, four signal conditioners
and cables.
Triaxial compression/creep tests combine
the uniaxial compression accessories
described previously with a triaxial cell
assembly to simulate in situ stresses,
temperatures and pore fluid pressures,
and then investigate the effects of changes
in these conditions on the specimen.
The bend fixture helps locate strain and
displacement transducers on the specimen
to obtain accurate, repeatable results. It
includes a strain measurement kit for
accurate measurement of specimen strain.
Alignment hardware helps locate the
displacement gage and dual LVDTs on
the specimen, and correctly orients the
specimen on the fixture. The fatiguerated force transducer is the same model
used in compression, indirect and direct
tension testing.
Tests/Standards
»» Fracture Toughness Test (ISRM
Suggested Method for Determining
Fracture Toughness of Rock on
Chevron Bend Specimens, Level I
and Level II)
The MTS triaxial cell assembly features
a fatigue-rated cell with hydraulically
controlled lift and lock cylinders for
quick opening and closing. A bolted
flange connection at the base plate
ensures easy and secure vessel closure.
The track and carriage assembly are
integrated with the load frame for easier
cell installation and removal. The load
train itself is designed to accommodate
extension testing. Electrical and fluid
feed-throughs are rated for high pressure
and temperature, and specimen endcaps
are available for high-force compression
tests, extension tests and pore fluid and
permeability tests.
Tests/Standards
»» ASTM D2664-86 (Triaxial Compressive
Strength of Undrained Rock Core
Specimens Without Pore Pressure
Measurements)
»» ASTM D4406-84 (Creep Test of
Rock Core Specimens in Triaxial
Compression at Ambient or Elevated
Temperature)
»» ISRM Suggested Method for
Determining the Strength of Rock
Materials in Triaxial Compression
TRIAXIAL DEFORM AT I O N A L S T R E S S PAT H WAY S
It is possible to map deformational stress
pathways using MTS rock mechanics test
systems, triaxial accessories and FlexTest
digital controls. Hydrostatic compression
and triaxial compression are performed
using standard equipment and direct
transducer inputs to the FlexTest
controller. The remaining stress
pathways use the transducer inputs, as
well as the calculated input feature of
the FlexTest controller.
The hydrostatic compression pathway
enables direct measurement of the
bulk modulus. It allows you to obtain
Skempton’s coefficient B and Biot’s
coefficient α if the pore fluid volumes
and pressure were measured, as well as
the hydrostatic compaction point for
pore collapse. The triaxial compression
pathway provides direct measurement of
Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio
from the stress/stain curves, along with
data useful for determining the shear
failure surfaces and ductile yield surfaces.
The uniaxial strain compression pathway
involves a test that represents the
deformation that occurs when a rock is
buried in a depositional basin or deforms
as a response to fluid withdrawal during
production from oil and gas reservoirs.
This pathway provides data representing
the approximate deformation of a reservoir
rock during production, approximates
the deformation of a sediment or rock in
a depositional basin, and provides data
about the pore collapse region.
Constant K ratio compression represents
the deformational pathway followed by a
producing reservoir rock. It provides
data about the pore collapse region and
can generate a constant differential stress
pathway or constant mean pressure
pathway. The constant differential stress
pathway provides data to compare the
effect of axial stress σ1 on the material
characteristics with similar data obtained
from the hydrostatic pathway (equal
stress condition).
11
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MTS Systems Corporation
14000 Technology Drive
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-2290 USA
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©2014 MTS Systems Corporation
100-213-761 Rock Mechanics 815-816 Printed in U.S.A. 10/14
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