Access 2007 workbook
Microsoft®
Access 2007
Student Edition
Complete
University of Salford
© 2007 by CustomGuide, Inc. 1502 Nicollet Avenue South, Suite 1; Minneapolis, MN 55403
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Table of Contents
The Fundamentals.................................................................................................................................................... 9
Introduction to Databases..................................................................................................................................... 10
Starting Access 2007 ............................................................................................................................................ 12
The Getting Started Page and Opening a Database ............................................................................................ 13
What’s New in Access 2007 ................................................................................................................................. 14
Understanding the Access Program Screen ........................................................................................................ 15
Understanding the Ribbon .................................................................................................................................... 16
Using the Office Button and Quick Access Toolbar .............................................................................................. 17
Using Keyboard Commands ................................................................................................................................ 18
Using Contextual Menus ...................................................................................................................................... 19
Using Help ............................................................................................................................................................ 20
Database Basics ..................................................................................................................................................... 24
Working with Database Objects ........................................................................................................................... 25
Tour of a Table ...................................................................................................................................................... 27
Adding, Editing and Deleting Records .................................................................................................................. 29
Tour of a Form ...................................................................................................................................................... 30
Tour of a Query ..................................................................................................................................................... 32
Tour of a Report .................................................................................................................................................... 33
Previewing and Printing a Database Object ......................................................................................................... 34
Selecting Data ...................................................................................................................................................... 35
Cutting, Copying and Pasting Data ...................................................................................................................... 36
Using Undo and Redo .......................................................................................................................................... 38
Checking Your Spelling ......................................................................................................................................... 39
Using the Zoom Box ............................................................................................................................................. 41
Exiting Access 2007 ............................................................................................................................................. 42
Creating and Working with a Database ................................................................................................................ 45
Planning a Database ............................................................................................................................................ 46
Creating a New Database .................................................................................................................................... 48
Creating a Table ................................................................................................................................................... 50
Modifying a Table .................................................................................................................................................. 52
Creating a Query .................................................................................................................................................. 54
Sorting a Query .................................................................................................................................................... 56
Using AND and OR Operators in a Query ............................................................................................................ 57
Creating a Form with the Form Wizard ................................................................................................................ 58
Creating a Report with the Report Wizard............................................................................................................ 60
Creating Mailing Labels with the Label Wizard .................................................................................................... 62
Converting an Access Database .......................................................................................................................... 64
Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data ............................................................................................................... 68
Finding and Replacing Data ................................................................................................................................. 69
Sorting Records .................................................................................................................................................... 71
Using Common Filters .......................................................................................................................................... 72
Filtering by Selection ............................................................................................................................................ 74
Filtering by Form ................................................................................................................................................... 75
Creating an Advanced Filter ................................................................................................................................. 76
Adjusting and Rearranging Rows and Columns .................................................................................................. 78
Changing Gridline and Cell Effects....................................................................................................................... 80
Changing the Datasheet Font .............................................................................................................................. 82
Freezing a Column ............................................................................................................................................... 83
Hiding a Column ................................................................................................................................................... 84
Working with Tables and Fields ............................................................................................................................ 87
Understanding Field Properties ............................................................................................................................ 88
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Indexing a Field .................................................................................................................................................... 90
Adding a Primary Key to a Table .......................................................................................................................... 92
Inserting, Deleting, and Reordering Fields ........................................................................................................... 94
Adding Field Descriptions and Captions .............................................................................................................. 96
Changing the Field Size ....................................................................................................................................... 97
Formatting Number, Currency, and Date/Time Fields .......................................................................................... 99
Formatting Number, Currency, and Date/Time Fields by Hand .......................................................................... 101
Formatting Text Fields ........................................................................................................................................ 103
Setting a Default Value ....................................................................................................................................... 104
Requiring Data Entry .......................................................................................................................................... 105
Validating Data.................................................................................................................................................... 106
Creating an Input Mask ...................................................................................................................................... 108
Creating a Lookup Field ..................................................................................................................................... 110
Creating a Value List .......................................................................................................................................... 112
Modifying a Lookup List ...................................................................................................................................... 114
Creating Relational Databases ........................................................................................................................... 119
Understanding Table Relationships .................................................................................................................... 120
Creating Relationships Between Tables ............................................................................................................. 122
Enforcing Referential Integrity ............................................................................................................................ 124
Printing and Deleting Relationships ................................................................................................................... 126
Understanding Relationship Types ..................................................................................................................... 128
Working with Queries .......................................................................................................................................... 130
Understanding Different Types of Queries ......................................................................................................... 131
Creating a Multiple Table Query ......................................................................................................................... 132
Creating a Calculated Field ................................................................................................................................ 134
Working with Expressions and the Expression Builder ...................................................................................... 136
Using an IIf Function ........................................................................................................................................... 138
Summarizing Groups of Records ....................................................................................................................... 140
Display Top or Bottom Values ............................................................................................................................. 142
Parameter Queries ............................................................................................................................................. 143
Finding Duplicate Records ................................................................................................................................. 145
Finding Unmatched Records .............................................................................................................................. 146
Crosstab Queries ................................................................................................................................................ 148
Delete Queries .................................................................................................................................................... 150
Append Queries .................................................................................................................................................. 152
Make-Table Queries ........................................................................................................................................... 154
Update Queries .................................................................................................................................................. 156
Working with Forms ............................................................................................................................................. 160
Creating and Using a Form ................................................................................................................................ 161
Understanding Form Views ................................................................................................................................ 163
Modifying a Form in Layout View ....................................................................................................................... 164
Form Design View Basics ................................................................................................................................... 166
Changing Tab Order ........................................................................................................................................... 168
Working with Control Properties ......................................................................................................................... 169
Control Property Reference ................................................................................................................................ 171
Working with Form Properties ............................................................................................................................ 173
Form Property Reference ................................................................................................................................... 175
Changing a Control’s Data Source ..................................................................................................................... 177
Creating a Calculated Control ............................................................................................................................ 178
Changing a Control’s Default Value .................................................................................................................... 179
Creating a Subform ............................................................................................................................................ 180
Modifying and Working with Subforms ............................................................................................................... 182
Working with Reports .......................................................................................................................................... 185
Creating a Report ............................................................................................................................................... 186
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Working in Layout View ...................................................................................................................................... 187
Adding a Logo .................................................................................................................................................... 189
Working in Design View ...................................................................................................................................... 190
Adjusting Page Margins and Orientation ............................................................................................................ 192
Adding Page Numbers and Dates ...................................................................................................................... 193
Grouping and Sorting ......................................................................................................................................... 195
Summarize Data using Totals ............................................................................................................................. 197
Understanding Report Sections ......................................................................................................................... 198
Formatting Forms and Reports .......................................................................................................................... 201
Formatting Fonts ................................................................................................................................................ 202
Changing Text Alignment .................................................................................................................................... 204
Changing Colors ................................................................................................................................................. 205
Applying Special Effects ..................................................................................................................................... 206
Using Conditional Formatting ............................................................................................................................. 207
Adding Pictures, Lines and Gridlines ................................................................................................................. 208
Working with Number Formatting ....................................................................................................................... 210
Using AutoFormat ............................................................................................................................................... 211
Working with Macros ........................................................................................................................................... 214
Creating and Running a Macro .......................................................................................................................... 215
Editing a Macro ................................................................................................................................................... 217
Working with Macro Groups ............................................................................................................................... 218
Assigning a Macro to an Event ........................................................................................................................... 220
Creating Conditional Expressions ...................................................................................................................... 222
Assigning a Macro to a Keystroke Shortcut ....................................................................................................... 224
Macro Action Reference ..................................................................................................................................... 226
Advanced Topics .................................................................................................................................................. 230
Importing Information.......................................................................................................................................... 231
Exporting Information ......................................................................................................................................... 233
Linking Information from an External Source ..................................................................................................... 235
Using Hyperlink Fields ........................................................................................................................................ 237
Displaying Database Object Dependencies ....................................................................................................... 239
Setting a Password in Access ............................................................................................................................ 240
Compacting and Repairing a Database ............................................................................................................. 242
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Courseware Features
Working with Shapes and Pictures
Positioning Pictures
Whenever you insert a graphic into a document, it is
inserted inline with text by default. This means that the
text in the document moves in order to accommodate the
graphic. This lesson will show you how to adjust text
wrapping and how to use the grid to position objects.
Tips
 Exercise

Exercise File: AmericanHistory7-3.docx

Exercise: Select the header row containing
the month labels, the Income row, the Total
Exp. Row, and the Net Inc. row (use the Ctrl
key to select multiple rows). Create a 2-D
Clustered Column chart.
 If you want to use a graphic with other graphics or
objects, they must be on a drawing canvas. See the
lesson on Inserting Shapes for more information.
Adjust text wrapping
To adjust how text reacts to the objects in your documents,
change the object’s text wrapping.
1. Double-click the object whose text wrapping you
wish to adjust.
The Format contextual tab appears on the Ribbon.
Table 7-2: Text Wrapping Styles
In Line
with Text
This places the object at the insertion point in a
line of text in the document. The object remains
on the same layer as the text.
Square
Wraps text around all sides of the square
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Wraps text tightly around the edges of the actual
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bounding box).
Behind
Text
This removes text wrapping and puts the object
behind text in a document The object floats on
its own layer.
In Front
of Text
This removes text wrapping and puts the object
in front of text in a document. The object floats
on its own layer.
Top and
Bottom
Wraps text around the top and bottom of the
object, leaving the area to the right and left of
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Through
Similar to the Tight style, this style wraps text
throughout the image.
2. Click the Text Wrapping button in the Arrange group.
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3. Select a text wrapping style from the list.
The text wrapping style is applied to the image.
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To display/hide the grid
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Horizontal and vertical gridlines appear on the page.
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contextual tab on the Ribbon, click the Align
button in theArrange group, and select View
Gridlines from the list.
Figure 7-3: A document with the grid displayed.
Tip: Gridlines do NOT appear in the printed
document.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
T he
Fundamentals
Introduction to Databases ................................ 10
Database objects ..................................... 10
Starting Access 2007 ......................................... 12
Windows XP ............................................ 12
Windows Vista ......................................... 12
The Getting Started Page and Opening a
Database ............................................................. 13
Open an existing database ...................... 13
What’s New in Access 2007 .............................. 14
Understanding the Access Program Screen .. 15
Understanding the Ribbon ............................... 16
Tabs ......................................................... 16
Groups ..................................................... 16
Buttons ..................................................... 16
Using the Office Button and Quick Access
Toolbar ................................................................ 17
Office Button ............................................ 17
Quick Access Toolbar .............................. 17
Using Keyboard Commands ............................ 18
Keystroke shortcuts ................................. 18
Key Tips ................................................... 18
Using Contextual Menus................................... 19
1
Microsoft Access is a powerful database
program you can use to store all kinds of
information—from a simple list of
contacts to an inventory catalog with tens
of thousands of products. Once
information is stored in a Microsoft
Access database, it’s easy to find, analyze,
and print.
For 2007, Access has undergone a major
redesign. If you’ve used Access before,
you’ll still be familiar with much of the
program’s functionality, but you’ll notice
a completely new user interface and many
new features that have been added to
make using Access more efficient.
This chapter is an introduction to working
with Access. You’ll learn about the main
parts of the program screen, how to give
commands, use help, and about new
features in Access 2007.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
Using Help .......................................................... 20
Search for help ........................................ 20
Browse for help ........................................ 20
Choose the Help source .......................... 21
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The Fundamentals
Introduction to Databases
 Exercise
In its simplest form, a database is a collection of
information organized into a list. Whenever you make a
list of information, such as names, addresses, products, or
invoices, you are, in fact, creating a database.
• Exercise File: None required.
• Exercise: Understand the basic purpose of a database and
the types of database objects.
Technically speaking, you don’t even have to use a
database program to create a database. You can make a
list of information in all kinds of programs, such as
Microsoft Excel or Word.
A database program, however, is much more powerful
than a simple list you keep on paper or in a Microsoft
Word document. A database program lets you:
Store Information: A database stores lists of
information that are related to a particular subject or
purpose. A database stores personal information, such
as a list of aunt Mildred’s home recipes, or business
information, such as a list of hundreds of thousands
of customers. A database also makes it easy to add,
update, organize, and delete information.
Find Information: You can easily and instantly
locate information stored in a database. For example,
you can find all the customers with the last name
―Johnson‖ or all the customers who live in the 55417
zip code and are older than 65.
Analyze and Print Information: You can perform
calculations on information in a database. For
example, you could calculate what percent of your
total sales comes from the state of Texas. You can
also present information in a professional-looking
printed report.
Manage Information: Databases make it easy to
work with and manage huge amounts of information.
For example, with a few keystrokes you can change
the area code for hundreds of customers in the (612)
area code to a new (817) area code.
Share Information: Most database programs
(including Microsoft Access) allow more than one
user to view and work with the same information at
once. Such databases are called multi-user databases.
Database objects
Databases usually consist of several parts. A Microsoft
Access database may contain up to seven different
database object types.
Some objects you will use all the time (such as Tables),
while others you may hardly ever use (such as Modules).
Table 1-1: Database Objects identifies the database
objects you can use when creating a Microsoft Access
database.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Figure 1-1: A database is like an electronic file cabinet for
storing and managing information related to a particular
subject.
The Fundamentals
Table 1-1: Database Objects
Tables
Queries
Forms
Tables store a database’s data in rows (records) and columns (fields). For example, one table could store a list of
customers and their addresses while another table could store the customers’ orders. A database must always contain at
least one table where it can store information—all the other database objects are optional.
Queries ask a question of data stored in a table. For example, a query might only display customers who are from Texas.
Forms are custom screens that provide an easy way to enter and view data in a table or query.
Reports
Reports present data from a table or query in a printed format.
Macros
Macros help you perform routine tasks by automating them into a single command. For example, you could create a
macro that automatically opens and prints a report.
Modules
Like macros, modules automate tasks but by using a built-in programming language called Visual Basic or VB.
Modules are much more powerful and complex than macros.
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The Fundamentals
Starting Access 2007
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
In order to use a program, you must start—or launch—it
first.
• Exercise: Start the Microsoft Office Access 2007 program.
Windows XP
1. Click the Windows Start button.
The Start menu appears.
2. Point to All Programs.
A menu appears. The programs and menus listed here
will depend on the programs installed on your
computer.
3. Point to Microsoft Office.
4. Select Microsoft Office Access 2007.
The Getting Started in Microsoft Office Access
window appears.
Windows Vista
1. Click the Windows Start button.
The Start menu appears.
Figure 1-2: The All Programs menu in Windows XP.
2. Click All Programs.
The left pane of the Start menu displays the programs
and menus installed on your computer.
3. Click Microsoft Office.
4. Select Microsoft Office Access 2007.
The Getting Started in Microsoft Office Access
window appears.
Trap: Depending on how your computer is set up,
the procedure for starting Access 2007 might be a
little different from the one described here.
Tips

If you use Access 2007 frequently, you might
consider pinning it to the Start menu. To do this,
right-click Microsoft Office Access 2007 in the All
Programs menu and select Pin to Start Menu.
Figure 1-3: The All Programs menu in Windows Vista.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
The Fundamentals
The Getting Started Page and
Opening a Database
New for 2007, the Getting Started with Microsoft Office
page appears when you start Access. This page provides
three main options for creating or opening a database:
New Blank Database: Create a new blank database
from scratch for storing information.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
• Exercise: From the Getting Started page, open the
Employees database.
Templates
Blank database
Recent databases
Templates: Select a template stored locally on your
computer or from Office Online. Several categories
of templates are available: Featuring, Local
Templates, Business, Education, Personal, and
Sample. Within the categories are different types of
templates—for example: Assets, Contacts, and
Projects.
Recent Database: Open an existing database from a
list of recently opened databases or click the More
link to browse your computer or network for more
existing databases.
Tips

Get the latest news about Access from Office Online
at the bottom of the Getting Started page.
In this lesson, we’ll look only at the most basic of these
options—how to open an existing database.
Figure 1-4: The Getting Started with Microsoft Office
Access page.
Open an existing database
1. Once you’ve started Access, click the database you
want to open in the Open Recent Database section on
the right side of the page.
Other Ways to Open an Existing Database:
If the database you want to open doesn’t appear in
the Open Recent Database list, click the More
link and browse to the database file.
The database opens.
Figure 1-5: An open database window.
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The Fundamentals
What’s New in Access 2007
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
Access 2007 is very different from previous versions. The
table below gives you an overview of what to expect.
• Exercise: Review the new features in Microsoft Office
Access 2007.
Table 1-2: What’s New in Access 2007
New user interface
The new results-oriented user interface (UI) is the most noticeable change in Access 2007. Traditional
menus and toolbars have been replaced by the Ribbon, a single mechanism that makes all the
commands needed to perform a task readily available.
New file format
Access 2007 database files are given the .accdb file extension by default. This format is not compatible
with earlier Access versions. You can still choose to create files in earlier formats so that you can share
files with users who haven’t upgraded to 2007.
Getting Started with
Microsoft Office Access page
Appears every time you open Access. This page allows you to quickly open an existing database, create
a new database from scratch, or create a database using a template.
Database templates
Pre-designed templates give you a head start on creating a new database. Use a template as-is or modify
it to your specifications. Templates are available to track contacts, assets, and many other types of data.
Field and table templates
To save time designing fields, drag predefined fields such as Last Name or Description from the Field
Templates pane onto a datasheet. Access 2007 also includes table templates for Contacts, Tasks, Issues,
Events, and Assets, that provide you with ready-to-use tables, complete with common fields.
Improved Datasheet view
Click Table on the Create tab to easily create a table. As you enter data, Access automatically assigns
the best field type and the Add New Field column makes it easy to add a new field.
Object tabs
Open database objects such as tables and queries are now displayed as tabs in a single window.
New views
The new Layout view for forms and reports allows you to make design changes while also viewing the
data. Design view is still available for more detailed changes. The new Report view allows you to view
a finished report without using print preview.
Navigation Pane
Displays and allows easy access to all the objects in the open database. You can change the way objects
are organized in the Navigation Pane and minimize it to create more space in the window. Replaces the
Database window from previous versions of Access.
Better object creation tools
Quickly create tables, forms, reports and other objects with commands on the Create tab. In reports, the
new Group, Sort, and Total pane allows you to easily group and total report data. Control layouts allow
you to move or format several fields together as one unit and split forms allow you to create a form that
includes both a Datasheet view and a Form view. You can also embed macros in objects.
Improved Help
Allows access to both Access Help and Developer Reference content.
New data types and controls
Multi-valued fields can hold complex data—for example, more than one customer name. With
attachment fields you can store attachments such as a Word document or photo, and a new interactive
calendar button appears whenever you need to select a date.
Better tools for design and
analysis
The Field List pane now includes fields from other tables and Access will automatically create
necessary table relationships. Sorting is improved with a new AutoFilter feature that allows you to sort
and filter in common ways quickly and datasheets offer a total row and alternating background colors.
Better security and sharing
Integration with Windows SharePoint Services allows you to set data access permissions, recover
deleted information, and set up shared web access to your database. The Trust Center allows you to
disable unsafe database macros.
Outlook integration
Use the Data Collection feature to embed a form in an Outlook e-mail. As forms are returned, the data
is automatically saved to your Access database.
Export to PDF or XPS
Now you can install an Access add-in that allows you to export a database to a PDF or XPS file for
printing or e-mail distribution without using third-party software. These formats allow you to share
your worksheet with users on any platform.
Improved Spell Checker
Many spelling checker options are now shared among Office programs so if you change them in one
program, they affect all other Office programs.
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The Fundamentals
Understanding the Access
Program Screen
The Access 2007 program screen may seem confusing
and overwhelming at first. This lesson will help you
become familiar with the Access 2007 program screen as
well as the new user interface.
 Exercise Notes
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
• Exercise: Understand and experiment with different parts
of the Microsoft Office Access 2007 screen.
Office Button: Replaces the File menu found in previous
versions of Access.
View buttons: Use these buttons to quickly switch between
Normal, Page Layout, and Page Break Preview views.
Quick Access Toolbar: Contains common commands such as
Save and Undo. You can add more commands as well.
Scroll bar: Use the a scroll bar to view different parts of
your data.
Title bar: Displays the name of the workbook you are currently
working on and the name of the program you are using.
Status bar: Displays messages and feedback.
Close button: Click the close button in the Title bar to exit the
Access program.
Navigation Pane: Here you can see and open your
database objects such as tables, queries, forms, and reports.
Ribbon: The tabs and groups on the Ribbon replace the menus
and toolbars found in previous versions of Access.
Object tabs: A tab appears for each open database object.
Click a tab to view and work with that object.
Field Templates Pane: Insert pre-designed fields into your
database table.
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The Fundamentals
Understanding the Ribbon
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
Access 2007 provides easy access to commands through
the Ribbon, which replaces the menus and toolbars found
in previous versions of Access. The Ribbon keeps
commands visible while you work instead of hiding them
under menus or toolbars.
The Ribbon is made up of three basic components:
• Exercise: Click each tab on the Ribbon to view its
commands.
Command tab
Contextual tab
Tabs
Commands are organized into tabs on the Ribbon. Each
tab contains a different set of commands. There are three
different types of tabs:
Command tabs: These tabs appear by default
whenever you open the Access program. In Access
2007, the Home, Create, External Data, and Database
Tools tabs appear by default.
Button
Group
Dialog Box
Launcher
Figure 1-6: Ribbon elements.
Contextual tabs: Contextual tabs appear whenever
you perform a specific task and offer commands
relative to only that task. For example, whenever you
open a table object in Datasheet view, the Datasheet
tab appears on the Ribbon under Table Tools.
Program tabs: If you switch to a different mode,
such as Print Preview, program tabs replace the
default command tabs that appear on the Ribbon.
Groups
The commands found on each tab are organized into
groups of related commands. For example, the Font group
contains commands used for formatting fonts. Click the
Dialog Box Launcher ( ) in the bottom-right corner of a
group to display even more commands. Some groups also
contain galleries that display several formatting options.
Buttons
One way to issue a command is by clicking its button on
the Ribbon. Buttons are the smallest element of the
Ribbon.
Tips

You can hide the Ribbon so that only tab names
appear, giving you more room in the program
window. To do this, double-click the currently
displayed command tab. To display the Ribbon again,
click any tab (double-click it to permanently display
it again).

Based on the size of the program window, Access
changes the appearance and layout of the commands
within the groups.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Figure 1-7: Hiding the Ribbon gives you more room in the
program window.
The Fundamentals
Using the Office Button and
Quick Access Toolbar
Near the Ribbon at the top of the program window are
two other tools you can use to give commands in Access
2007: The Office Button and the Quick Access Toolbar.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
• Exercise: Click the Office Button to open it, then click
away from it to close it. Move the Quick Access Toolbar
below the Ribbon, then move it back above the Ribbon.
Office Button
The Office Button appears in the upper-left corner of the
program window and contains basic file management
commands including New, which allows you to create a
new database file; Open, which opens a file; Save, which
saves the structure of the currently opened file; and Close,
which closes the currently opened file.
Tips

The Office Button replaces the File menu found in
previous versions of Access.
Quick Access Toolbar
The Quick Access Toolbar appears to the right of the
Office Button and provides easy access to the commands
you use most frequently. By default, the Save, Undo and
Redo buttons appear on the toolbar; however, you can
customize this toolbar to meet your needs by adding or
removing buttons. To customize it:
1. Click the Customize Quick Access Toolbar button
at the end of the Quick Access Toolbar and select the
commands you want to add or remove.
Figure 1-8: The Office Button menu.
Tips

You can change where the Quick Access Toolbar
appears in the program window. To do this, click the
Customize Quick Access Toolbar button at the end
of the Quick Access Toolbar. Select Show Below the
Ribbon or Show Above the Ribbon, depending on
the toolbar’s current location.
Save Undo
Redo
Customize
Figure 1-9: The Quick Access Toolbar.
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The Fundamentals
Using Keyboard Commands
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
Another way to give commands in Access 2007 is using
the keyboard. There are two different types of keyboard
commands in Access 2007: keystroke shortcuts and Key
Tips.
• Exercise: Memorize some common keystroke shortcuts.
Then view Key Tips in the program.
Keystroke shortcuts
Without a doubt, keystroke shortcuts are the fastest way to
give common commands in Access 2007.
Table 1-3: Common Keystroke Shortcuts
<Ctrl> + <O>
Opens a database.
In order to issue a command using a keystroke shortcut,
you simply press a combination of keys on your
keyboard. For example, rather than clicking the Copy
button on the Ribbon to copy a cell, you could press and
hold the copy keystroke shortcut, <Ctrl> + <C>.
<Ctrl> + <W>
Closes a database.
<Ctrl> + <P>
Prints current view.
<Delete>
Deletes selected item.
<Ctrl> + <Z>
Undoes most recent action.
Key Tips
<F1>
Opens Access Help files.
New in Access 2007, Key Tips appear whenever you press
the <Alt> key. You can use Key Tips to perform just about
any action in Access, without ever having to use the
mouse.
<Ctrl> + <->
Deletes a record from a table.
<Ctrl> + <C>
Copies the selected text or object to the
Windows clipboard.
<Ctrl> + <X>
Cuts the selected text or object from its
current location to the Windows
clipboard.
<Ctrl> + <V>
Pastes any copied or cut text or object
in the Windows clipboard to the
current location.
<Ctrl> + <F>
Opens the Find feature.
<Ctrl> + <H>
Opens the Find and Replace feature.
<Page Down>
Pages down to the next screen.
<Page Up>
Pages up to the previous screen.
To issue a command using a Key Tip, first press the <Alt>
key. Tiny letters and numbers, called badges, appear on
the Office Button, the Quick Access Toolbar, and all of
the tabs on the Ribbon. Depending on the tab or command
you want to select, press the letter or number key
indicated on the badge. Repeat this step as necessary until
the desired command has been issued.
Key Tip badge
Figure 1-10: Press the <Alt> key to display Key Tips.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
The Fundamentals
Using Contextual Menus
There’s a new tool you can use in Access 2007 that makes
relevant commands even more readily available:
contextual menus.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
• Exercise: Right-click in different areas of the screen to
display different contextual menus.
A contextual menu displays a list of commands related to
a specific object or area. To open a contextual menu:
1. Right-click an object or area of the program screen.
A contextual menu appears, displaying commands
that are relevant to the object or area that you rightclicked.
2. Select an option from the contextual menu, or click
anywhere outside the contextual menu to close it
without selecting anything.
Figure 1-11: A contextual menu.
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The Fundamentals
Using Help
When you don’t know how to do something in Access
2007, look up your question in the Access Help files. The
Access Help files can answer your questions, offer tips,
and provide help for all of Access’s features.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb.
• Exercise: Search for the keywords ―create table‖. Change
the Help source to Access Help in the ―Content from this
computer‖ section and notice the change in results. Return
to the Help home page and browse topics in the ―Getting
Started‖ category of Help.
Search for help
1. Click the Microsoft Office Access Help button ( )
on the Ribbon.
Enter search
keywords here.
Browse help topic
categories.
Choose a
help source.
The Access Help window appears.
Other Ways to Open the Help window:
Press <F1>.
2. Type what you want to search for in the ―Type words
to search for‖ box and press <Enter>.
A list of help topics appears.
3. Click the topic that best matches what you’re looking
for.
Access displays information regarding the selected
topic.
Browse for help
Tips

Click the Home button at any time to return to the
Help home page, where you can browse topics.
Figure 1-12: The Access Help window.
1. Click the Microsoft Office Access Help button ( )
on the Ribbon.
The Access Help window appears.
2. Click the category that you want to browse in the
Browse Access Help area.
The topics within the selected category appear.
3. Click the topic that best matches what you’re looking
for.
Access displays information regarding the selected
topic.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
The Fundamentals
Choose the Help source
If you are connected to the Internet, Access 2007 retrieves
help from the Office Online database by default. You can
easily change this to meet your needs.
Table 1-4: Help buttons
Back
Click here to move back to the
previous help topic.
Forward
Click here to move forward to
the next help topic.
Home
Click here to return to the Help
home page, where you can
browse topics.
Print
Click here to print the current
help topic.
Change Font Size
Click here to change the size of
the text in the Help window.
Show Table of
Contents
Click here to browse for help
using the Table of Contents.
Keep On Top
Click here to layer the Help
window so that it appears behind
all other Microsoft Office
programs.
1. Click the Search button list arrow in the Access Help
window.
A list of help sources appears.
2. Select an option from the list.
Now you can search that source.
Tips

When a standard search returns too many results, try
searching offline to narrow things down a bit.

Office 2007 offers enhanced ScreenTips for many
buttons on the Ribbon. You can use these ScreenTips
to learn more about what a button does and, where
available, view a keystroke shortcut for the
command. If you see the message ―Press F1 for more
help‖, press <F1> to get more information relative to
that command.

When you are working in a dialog box, click the
Help button ( ) in the upper right-hand corner to
get help regarding the commands in the dialog box.
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The Fundamentals Review
Quiz Questions
1.
A database allows you to do which of the following?
A. Store information
B. Share information
C. Find information
D. All of these
2.
Access automatically opens with Windows. (True or False?)
3.
On the Getting Started page, you can create a database using a template. (True or False?)
4.
Which of the following is NOT a new feature in Access 2007?
A. SmartArt
B. Navigation Pane
C. New file format
D. Object tabs
5.
What is the Ribbon?
A. A string of code that enables XML compatibility.
B. The path name that refers to where a command is located in the program.
C. Another name for the title bar.
D. The command center that replaces menus and toolbars of previous versions.
6.
The Ribbon can be hidden so that only tab names appear. (True or False?)
7.
The Office Button contains basic file commands. (True or False?)
8.
What is the Quick Access Toolbar?
A. There are no toolbars in Access 2007.
B. What appears when you select data.
C. A customizable toolbar of common commands that appears above or below the Ribbon.
D. An extension of the Windows taskbar.
9.
Which of the following is NOT a common keystroke shortcut in Access?
A. <Ctrl> + <Alt> + <Delete>
B. <Ctrl> + <W>
C. <Ctrl> + <O>
D. <Ctrl> + <C>
10.
Contextual menus are only available when text is selected. (True or False?)
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
11.
What key can you press to get help in Access?
A. <Esc>
B. <Ctrl> + <H>
C. <F1>
D. <F11>
Quiz Answers
1.
D. A database allows you to do all of these functions.
2.
False. You must start Access to begin using it.
3.
True. On the Getting Started page, you can create a database from a template.
4.
A. SmartArt is not a new feature in Access 2007.
5.
D. The Ribbon is the command center that replaces menus and toolbars of previous versions.
6.
True. Double-click the active tab to hide the Ribbon, then click any tab to view commands once again.
7.
True. The Office Button contains basic file commands, similar to the File menu of previous versions.
8.
C. The Quick Access Toolbar is a customizable toolbar of common commands that appears above or below the
Ribbon.
9.
A. <Ctrl> + <Alt> + <Delete> is a Windows command, not an Access command.
10.
False. Contextual menus are available whenever you right-click something in the Access window.
11.
C. Press <F1> for help in Access.
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Database
Basics
Working with Database Objects ....................... 25
Navigation Pane ...................................... 25
Open a database object........................... 25
Modify a database object in Design View 26
Close a database object .......................... 26
Tour of a Table ................................................... 27
Open a table ............................................ 27
Navigate a table ....................................... 27
Adding, Editing and Deleting Records ............ 29
Tour of a Form.................................................... 30
Open a form ............................................. 30
Navigate a form ....................................... 31
Add a record ............................................ 31
Delete a record ........................................ 31
Tour of a Query .................................................. 32
Open a query ........................................... 32
Display a query in Design View ............... 32
Tour of a Report ................................................. 33
Open a report ........................................... 33
Previewing and Printing a Database Object ... 34
Selecting Data .................................................... 35
Cutting, Copying and Pasting Data ................. 36
Using Undo and Redo ....................................... 38
Undo a single action ................................ 38
Undo multiple actions .............................. 38
Redo an action ......................................... 38
Checking Your Spelling ..................................... 39
Using the Zoom Box .......................................... 41
Exiting Access 2007 .......................................... 42
Close a database ..................................... 42
Exit Access .............................................. 42
24
© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
2
This chapter will introduce you to Access
basics. We don’t get into great depth here,
but we make sure you understand key
Access functionality, such as entering data
and the basics of tables, forms, queries
and reports. This chapter will help you
build a solid foundation of Access
knowledge, and if you’re involved more
with data entry than database design or
administration, this chapter may be all
you need to do your job.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
Database Basics
 Exercise
Working with Database
Objects
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
Think of the Navigation Pane as the mission control
center for an Access database. You use the Navigation
Pane to open and manage the different types of objects in
your database. The Navigation Pane contains buttons for
each type of database object. To display a type of object,
double-click the appropriate button.
• Exercise: Open the Employees table in the Navigation
Pane. View the Employees table in Design View. Close the
Employees table (remember, this is different than closing
the entire database).
Shutter Bar
Open/Close
button
Navigation Pane
1. Click the arrow button at the top of the Navigation
Pane to change how objects are viewed in the pane.
Tip: If the Navigation Pane is minimized, click
the Shutter Bar Open/Close button to expand it.
Only Table objects are displayed by default in a new
database, but you can display all objects…
2. Select Object Type and make sure there’s a
checkmark next to All Access Objects.
Now you can see all the objects in the database.
Figure 2-1: Database objects in the Navigation Pane.
Tips

In Access 2007, the Navigation Pane replaces the
need for switchboards (forms with buttons that
helped you navigate older versions of Access). If
you’ve converted an old file that has switchboards,
you can continue to use them, but some actions may
no longer work in Access 2007.
Open a database object
1. Double-click an object in the Navigation Pane.
The object appears on the screen as a tabbed item.
Other Ways to Open a Database Object:
Right-click the object you want to open in the
Navigation Pane and select Open from the
contextual menu or, if you want to open it in
design view for editing, select Design View.
Tips

When you open an object in Access 2007, it appears
in the window with its own tab. As you open
additional objects, they stack on top of each other in
the same window. To bring a different object to the
top where its visible, click its tab.
Figure 2-2: Changing how objects are viewed in the
Navigation Pane.
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Database Basics
Modify a database object in Design View
You can modify any database object by opening it in
Design View. Design View displays the structure of a
database object and allows you to make changes to it. You
don’t have to know how to make changes to a database
object yet, but you will need to know how to open an
object in Design View. Here’s how:
Close button
1. With an object open, click the Home tab on the
Ribbon and click View button list arrow in the Views
group.
Here you have a few different view choices.
2. Select Design View.
The object appears in Design View where its
structure can be modified.
Other Ways to Open an Object in Design View:
With the object open, right-click the object’s tab
and select Design View from the contextual
menu.
Tips

You’ll learn more about additional types of views as
you learn how to work with each type of object.
Close a database object
1. Click an object’s tab to display it, if necessary, then
click the object’s Close button in the upper-right
corner of the window.
The object closes.
Other Ways to Close a Database Object:
Right-click the object’s tab in the window and
select Close.
Tips

To rename an object, right-click the object in the
Navigation Pane and select Rename. Type a new
name.

To delete an object, select the object in the
Navigation Pane and press <Delete>. Click Yes.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Figure 2-3: The Employees table in Design View.
Database Basics
Tour of a Table
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
Tables are the heart and soul of any database. Tables are
where a database stores all of its information. All the
other database objects—queries, forms, reports, pages,
macros, and modules—are merely tools to analyze and
manipulate the information stored in a table. Any of these
other database objects are optional, but without tables, a
database wouldn’t be a database. .
• Exercise: Open the Employees table in Datasheet View.
Study and understand fields, record selectors and record
navigation buttons.
Double-click a table
Table tab
here to open it.
Field (column) names
Each table in a database stores related information. Most
databases have more than one table: Each table is used to
store a different type of information. For example, one
table might contain a list of customers and their addresses,
while another table might contain any orders placed by
the customers, while yet another table might contain a list
of products.
Tables are made up of groups of fields (columns). A field
is a specific type of information, such as a person’s last
name, address, or phone number. Together, the related
fields for each individual person, place, or thing make up
a single record (row). If your company has ten employees,
your employee table would have ten records—one for
each employee.
Record
selector
Record Navigation bar Field (column)
Open a table
Record
Figure 2-4: The Employees table in Datasheet View.
1. Double-click the table you want to open in the
Navigation Pane.
The table opens as a tab in the window. Table
information is displayed, entered, and modified in a
datasheet. A datasheet is a grid that contains all the
records in a table. Records are stored in rows and
field names are stored in columns.
Tip: Of course, before you can open a table
someone will need to have already created the
table, or else you’ll need to be using a database
template that already has tables created for you.
Navigate a table
Let’s take a closer look at the current table. First notice
the squares that appear to the left of the table records.
Each of these is a record selector, and is highlighted next
to the record that you are currently working on.
Next, take a look at the record navigation buttons near the
bottom of the screen, as shown in Table 2-1: Table
Navigation Using the Record Navigation Bar. The record
navigation buttons on the Record Navigation bar display
the number of records in the current database and allow
you to move between these records.
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Database Basics
Tips

If a table has been ―related‖ to another table, you will
see expand buttons next to the records in the table.
Click one to view information from the related table
that is related to that record.
For example, if you have a table containing employee
names, and that table is related to another table that
lists the computers assigned to each employee, you
could click on the expand button next to the
employee and see the details of the computer
assigned to that employee.
Table 2-1: Table Navigation Using the Record Navigation Bar
Go to:
Navigation buttons
Next record
Click the
Next record
navigation button.
Previous record
Click the
Previous record
navigation button.
Last record in the table
First record in the table
New blank record
Search for record using
keywords
28
Keyboard
Mouse
Press the <↓> (down arrow) key.
Click the record you want to
select (if displayed).
Press the <↑> (up arrow) key.
Click the record you want to
select (if displayed).
Click the
Last record
navigation button.
Press <Ctrl> + <End> (when not
editing record).
N/A
Click the
First record
navigation button.
Press <Ctrl> + <Home> (when
not editing record).
N/A
N/A
Click in the (New) row at the
end of the table.
N/A
N/A
Click the
New (blank)
record navigation button.
Type a keyword in the
box next to the
navigation buttons.
© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Database Basics
Adding, Editing and Deleting
Records
You can easily add, change, or delete the records in your
table. For example, you might want to add a record to
store information about a new employee, change an
existing record when an employee’s address changes, or
delete a record for an employee who no longer works for
the company. In this lesson you’ll learn how to add, edit,
and delete a table’s records..
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
• Exercise: Open the Employees table in Datasheet View.
Go to the New record at the bottom of the table and enter
your last name in the LastName field. Complete the rest of
the fields in the record with your own information (enter
today’s date for the hire date). Then edit the Title field for
your record and change it to ―Inside Sales Coordinator‖.
Delete the record you just created. Close the table.
Add a record
1. Click the New Record button on the Record
Navigation bar.
The record selector jumps to the blank row at the end
of the table and the blinking insertion point ( )
appears in the first column.
Other Ways to Add a New Record:
If the New record row is in view, simply click in
that row.
Figure 2-5: Entering data in a table.
2. Click a field in the new record and enter data as
desired.
As you enter data, you don’t have to click a Save
button to save the information—Access automatically
saves the information as you enter it.
Tip: Press <Tab> or <Shift> + <Tab> keys to
quickly move between fields in a record.
Edit a record
You can also make changes to the records in a table at any
time.
1. Click the field you want to edit and make the
changes.
Delete a record
You can permanently delete records that you no longer
need from a table.
1. Click the record selector next to the record you want
to delete.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the Delete
button in the Records group and click the Yes button.
Other Ways to Delete a Record:
Click the record selector next to the record you
want to delete. Press the <Delete> key. Click the
Yes button.
Figure 2-6: Deleting a record by clicking the Delete button
in the Records group on the Home tab.
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Database Basics
Tour of a Form
 Exercise
Adding, viewing, and modifying information in a
database should be straightforward and easy. However,
information in a table is often difficult to understand and
manage. Access solves this problem by using forms to
display table and query data.
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
The forms in Access are actually quite similar to the
ordinary paper type of form you fill out with a pen or
pencil. Access forms have several major advantages over
the traditional paper type of forms, however—they save
you time, effort, and paper.
• Exercise: Open the Employees form. Click the Next
Record button on the Record Navigation bar to go to the
next record. Then click the New Record button and add
your own name and information to complete the record.
Make sure the record you just added appears in the form and
then delete the record. Close the form.
Forms can include fill-in-the-blank fields, check boxes,
lists of options—even information and prompts to help
users complete the form. Forms can also contain buttons
that allow you to perform other actions, such as running
macros to print reports or labels. Forms can even validate
data entry by automatically checking your entries for
errors.
There are a few different kinds of forms in Access 2007:
Form: A traditional form view. In Layout view, you
can edit the form design while also displaying data.
Split form: Creates a split screen that allows you to
view information through a Form view and Datasheet
view at the same time. You can use the datasheet to
locate a record and the form view to edit it.
Multiple items form: Allows you to view multiple
records at a time—unlike a regular form where you
can only work with one record at a time. Looks much
like a datasheet, but allows for more customization.
Other forms types: You may also come across forms
that look like datasheets, or Modal Dialog forms that
pop out in their own dialog box windows (instead of
appearing as tabbed items next to the other database
objects in the main database window).
Open a form
1. Double-click the form you want to open in the
Navigation Pane.
The form opens in the window in Form view.
30
© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Figure 2-7: The Employees form in Form View.
Database Basics
Navigate a form
1. Use the record navigation buttons near the bottom of
the screen.
Add a record
1. Click the New Record button on the Record
Navigation bar.
Some forms have only fill-in-the-blank style text
fields and display only one record, while others are
more complex and may display multiple records and
contain lists, combo boxes, check boxes, or subforms. Some forms look just like a table datasheet.
Figure 2-8: The New Record button on the Record
Navigation bar.
2. Enter data as desired.
Delete a record
1. Click the record selector to the left of the record or
form to select it.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Delete button in the Records group.
A dialog box appears, asking if you’re sure you want
to delete the record.
3. Click Yes.
Tips

A simple form may contain only fill-in-the-blank
style text fields, but many forms are more complex
and may contain lists, combo boxes, check boxes,
and sub-forms.
Figure 2-9: Deleting a record from a form in the Records
group on the Home tab.
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Database Basics
Tour of a Query
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
A query, by definition, is a question or inquiry. Queries in
Access ask a question of the information in a table and
then retrieve and display the results.
For example, if you wanted to know which employees
had worked for the company for more than five years, you
could create a query to examine the contents of the
HireDate field to find all the records in which the hire
date is more than five years old. Access would retrieve the
information that meets your criteria and display it in a
datasheet.
• Exercise: Open the USA Employees query, which displays
only employees from the USA, and display it in Design
View. Select the ―USA‖ text in the criteria box and replace
it with ―UK‖. Display the query in Datasheet View. Notice
that only UK employees appear. Close the query but don’t
save the changes.
Let’s take a closer look at queries.
Open a query
1. Double-click the query you want to open in the
Navigation Pane.
The query appears in the window in Datasheet view.
You’ll notice that the layout of a query doesn’t look
any different than a table—records appear in rows,
fields appear in columns, and the record navigation
buttons appear at bottom of the window. Some
queries even allow you to add, edit, and delete
records to and from the underlying tables. But, the
information in a query isn’t a duplication of the data
in a table—it’s just another way of looking at it.
Figure 2-10: The USA Employees query in Datasheet
View.
Display a query in Design View
In Design View you can see a query’s underlying tables,
which fields are included in the query, and the criteria
used to specify which records to display.
1. Open the query, click the Home tab on the Ribbon
and click the View button in the Results group.
The query appears in Design view. Here you can
change the criteria and fields that filter the table data.
Other Ways to Open a Query in Design View:
Right-click the query object in the Navigation
Pane and select Design View. Or, click the Design
View button in the Status bar.
Figure 2-11: The USA Employees query in Design View.
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Database Basics
Tour of a Report
Managers like paper. Don’t try explaining anything to
them—they’ll want to see it in printed hardcopy first.
Fortunately, with a report, you can print database
information from tables and queries and satisfy the
demands of even the most paper-hungry supervisor.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
• Exercise: Open the Employee List report. Display the
report in Layout View, then in Design view. Close the
report.
Although you can print table and query information
directly from their datasheets, reports give you many
more formatting and display options. Reports can be a
simple list of records in a table or a complex presentation
that includes calculations, graphics or even charts.
Reports are the most static of all the database objects.
Unlike tables and forms, which allow user interaction,
reports just sit there, waiting to be printed.
In this lesson we won’t actually create a report, but you
will learn how to use an existing report.
Open a report
1. Double-click the report you want to open in the
Navigation Pane.
The report appears in Report View.
Tip: To edit a report’s structure, you need to
change to Layout or Design View: Click the View
button arrow in the View group on the Home tab
and select a view. Most edits can be made in
Layout View, but complex tasks require Design
View.
Figure 2-12: A report in Report View.
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Database Basics
Previewing and Printing a
Database Object
Most database objects—tables, queries, forms, and
reports—and the information they contain can be printed.
Sometimes it’s a good idea to preview a database object
on screen to see if something needs to be changed before
sending it to the printer. You can preview a database
object by using the Print Preview feature.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
• Exercise: Open the Employee List report. Display the
report in Print Preview and zoom in and out. Print the report
(if you’re connected to a printer). Close the report.
Print Preview a database object
1. Make sure the object you want to preview is
displayed. Click the Office Button on the Ribbon,
point to Print, and select Print Preview.
The object appears in the window as it will look
when printed. The mouse pointer looks like a
magnifying glass. You can zoom in or out on the
previewed object by clicking the mouse.
Other Ways to Print Preview a Report:
Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the View
button arrow in the View group, and select Print
Preview. Or, click the Print Preview button on
the Status bar.
2. Click the mouse to zoom in or out on the previewed
object.
If you no longer want to view the object in Print
Preview View, you can close this view.
Figure 2-13: A report in Print Preview View.
Table 2-2: Print Dialog Box Options
Name
Used to select what printer to send your file
to when it prints (if you are connected to
more than one printer). The currently
selected printer is displayed.
Properties
Clicking on the Properties button displays a
dialog box with options available to your
specific printer such as the paper size you
want to use, if your document should be
printed in color or black and white, etc.
Print Range
Allows you to specify which pages you want
printed. There are several options:
3. Click the Close Print Preview button on the Ribbon.
The object returns to the view it was previously
displayed in.
Print a database object
1. Make sure the object you want to print is displayed.
2. Click the Office Button on the Ribbon and select
Print.
All: Prints the entire document.
Pages: Prints only the pages of the file that
you specify. Select a range of pages with a
hyphen (like 5-8) and separate single pages
with a comma (like 3,7).
The Print dialog box appears. Table 2-2: Print Dialog
Box Options describes the options available here.
3. Select any desired print options and click OK.
Other Ways to Print:
View the object in Print Preview View and click
the Print button on the Print Preview tab. Click
OK.
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Selected Record(s): Prints only the text you
have selected (before using the print
command).
Number of
Copies
Specify the number of copies you want to
print.
Database Basics
Selecting Data
 Exercise
Often, before you can do anything in Access, you must
select the data that you want to work with. Many common
tasks such as editing, formatting, copying, cutting, and
pasting all require you to know how to select information.
The procedure for selecting text in Access is no different
than selecting text in any other Microsoft Office program.
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
1. Move the insertion point to the beginning or end of
the text you want to select.
2. Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the
insertion point across the text, then release the mouse
button once the text is selected.
• Exercise: Open the Employees table. In the first row of the
Address column, select ―Moss Bay Blvd.‖ (but not 722).
Type ―East River Road‖. Practice using the record selectors
to select rows and the field headers to select columns. Select
the entire table. Close the table without saving changes.
Table 2-3: Data Selection Shortcuts
To select:
Do this:
A word
Double-click anywhere in the
word.
A cell
Position the mouse over the
left edge of the cell you want
to select and click to select
the cell.
A record or row
Position the mouse over the
record selector and click to
select the record. To select
multiple records, drag down
until you have highlighted all
the records you want to
select.
A field or column
Position the mouse over the
name of the field you want to
select and click to select it.
An entire table
Click the box to the far left of
the field names.
Table 2-3: Data Selection Shortcuts describes several
techniques for selecting data in Access.
Other Ways to Select Text:
Press and hold the <Shift> key while using the
arrow keys to select the text you want.
Tips

To replace text, select the text you want to replace,
then type the new text with which you want to
replace it.
Click here to select the entire table.
Figure 2-14: Click, drag, and type to select and replace
text in a table cell.
Figure 2-15: Selecting rows of data in a table.
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Database Basics
Cutting, Copying and Pasting
Data
You already know how to select database data. Once you
have selected some text, a cell, a record—or even an
entire database object in the Navigation pane—you can
cut it, removing it from its original location, and then
paste it in another location. Copying is similar to cutting,
except the information is copied instead of removed.
Whenever you cut or copy something, it is placed in a
temporary storage area called the Clipboard. The
Clipboard is available in any Windows program, so you
can cut and paste between programs.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
• Exercise: Open the Employees table. Copy ―Sales
Manager‖ from Steven Buchanan to Janet Leverling’s
record. Cut Robert King’s hire date and paste it into Anne
Dodsworth’s record. Save and close the table.
Copy
In Microsoft Access you can cut, copy, and paste any of
the following items: Text, Records, Database objects
(tables, queries, forms, and reports), or Controls (such as
text boxes and labels on forms and reports).
Cut or copy
Cutting and copying both make a copy of selected
information, but cutting also removes it from its original
location.
Select the destination
1. Select the information you want to cut or copy.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the Cut
or Copy button in the Clipboard group.
Other Ways to Cut or Copy:
Press <Ctrl> + <X> to cut or <Ctrl> + <C> to
copy.
Paste
Once you’ve cut or copied something to the Clipboard,
you can paste it to a new location.
1. Select the destination where you want to paste the
information.
Paste
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Paste button in the Clipboard group.
Other Ways to Paste:
Press <Ctrl> + <V>.
Tips

If you are entering a lot of records that are similar,
you can copy and paste entire records to create
records quickly. Then you can edit the new records to
make a few changes. To copy a record, select the
record’s row selector, copy the record, select an
empty row for the new record, and paste the copied
record.
Figure 2-16: Copying and pasting table data.
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Database Basics

You can also copy objects from one database to
another. Copy the database object, open the
destination database, and paste the copied object into
the other database.
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Database Basics
Using Undo and Redo
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
Undo undoes any previous actions as though they never
happened. But, it’s important to note that the Undo feature
in Access isn’t nearly as powerful as it is in other
Microsoft Office programs. Because Access saves updates
to data automatically, if you make a mistake and don’t
catch it right away, chances are you won’t be able to use
Undo to correct it. For example, if you’re editing the text
in a field and make a mistake, you’ll want to undo it
before you click out of the field and Access saves the
change.
• Exercise: Open the Employees table. Change Robert
King’s last name to ―Queen‖, then undo the action. Close
the table without saving.
If that weren’t bad enough, Access can’t even undo many
actions! For example, if you delete a record and then
decide you want to use Undo to retrieve the record, you’re
out of luck. (To its credit, Access does warn you
whenever you delete a record that you will not be able to
use Undo to bring it back.)
Undo a single action
Save Undo
Redo
Customize
1. Click the Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar.
Your last action is undone. For example, if you had
deleted text in a field and then decided you wanted to
keep it after all, undo would make it reappear (if you
hadn’t already clicked out of the field).
Other Ways to Undo:
Press <Ctrl> + <Z>.
Undo multiple actions
1. Click the Undo button list arrow on the Quick Access
Toolbar.
A list of the last actions in Access appears. To undo
multiple actions, point to the command you want to
undo. For example, to undo the last three actions,
point at the third action in the list. Each action done
before the one you select is also undone.
2. Click the last action you want to undo in the list.
The command you select and all subsequent actions
are undone.
Redo an action
Redo is the opposite of undo: it redoes an action you have
undone.
1. Click the Redo button on the Quick Access Toolbar.
Other Ways to Redo an Action:
Press <Ctrl> + <Y>.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Figure 2-17: The Undo command on the Quick Access
Toolbar.
Database Basics
Checking Your Spelling
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
You can use the spell checker in Access to find and
correct any spelling errors that you might have made in
your tables and forms. The spell checker in Access is
shared and used by the other programs in the Microsoft
Office suite, so any words you add to the custom spelling
dictionary in one Microsoft Office program will be
available to the other Microsoft Office programs.
• Exercise: Open the Employees table and check spelling.
Choose to ignore the LastName field and then the Address
field. Choose to change the spelling of ―Londan‖ to
―London‖. Ignore any remaining words. Save and close the
table.
Trap: Unfortunately, spell checking in Access is
not nearly as useful as it is in a word processor.
Most databases contain names, addresses, and
information that the spell checker may not
recognize. When this happens, click either Ignore
to ignore the word or Add to add the word to the
custom spelling dictionary.
1. Open a table or form. Click the Home tab on the
Ribbon and click the Spelling button in the Records
group.
Figure 2-18: The Spelling dialog box.
The Spelling dialog box appears and Access begins
checking spelling.
Tip: Click the Ignore Field button to ignore an
entire field (column). For example, if the field
contains proper names and you don’t want Access
to check every name individually.
Other Ways to Check Spelling:
Press <F7>.
If Access finds an error, the Spelling dialog box
appears with the misspelling in the ―Not in
Dictionary‖ text box. You have several options to
choose from in the Spelling dialog box:
Ignore Field: Accepts the spelling for that entire
field (column) and moves on to the next spelling
error. This is useful if, for example, the field
contains proper names and you don’t want Access
to check every name individually.
Ignore: Accepts the spelling and moves on to the
next spelling error.
Ignore All: Accepts the spelling and ignores all
future occurrences of the word in the worksheet.
Add: If a word is not recognized in the Microsoft
Office Dictionary, it is marked as misspelled. This
command adds the word to the dictionary so it is
recognized in the future.
Change: Changes the spelling of the word to the
spelling that is selected in the Suggestions list.
Change All: Changes all occurrences of the word
in the worksheet to the selected spelling.
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Database Basics
Trap: Exercise caution when using this
command—you might end up changing
something you didn’t want to change.
AutoCorrect: Changes the spelling of the word to
the spelling that is selected in the Suggestions list,
and adds the misspelled word to the AutoCorrect
list so that Access will automatically fix it
whenever you type it in the future.
2. If the word is spelled incorrectly, select the correct
spelling from the Suggestions list. Then click
Change, Change All, or AutoCorrect. If the word is
spelled correctly, click Ignore Field, Ignore, Ignore
All, Add.
Access applies the command and moves on to the
next misspelling.
Once Access has finished checking your table or
form for spelling errors, a dialog box appears, telling
you the spelling check is complete.
3. Click OK.
The dialog box closes.
Tips

Access cannot catch spelling errors that occur
because of misuse. For example, if you entered the
word ―through‖ when you meant to type ―threw,‖
Access wouldn’t catch it because ―through‖ is a
correctly spelled word.

The AutoCorrect feature automatically corrects
commonly misspelled words for you as you type. For
example, it will change ―hte‖ to ―the,‖ ―adn‖ to
―and,‖ and so on.
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Database Basics
Using the Zoom Box
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Employees.accdb
When you are viewing and working with data, sometimes
a column will not be wide enough to display all the text in
a cell or field. This is especially true for notes and memo
fields, which may contain several paragraphs of text.
Don’t worry—you can summon the Zoom box to make
the contents of any field easier to view and edit.
• Exercise: Open the Employees table. Using the Zoom box,
zoom in on the Notes field for any record. Close the Zoom
box and the table.
1. Select the field you want to zoom in on and press
<Shift> + <F2>.
The Zoom box appears and displays the contents of
the selected field. You can edit the field’s information
in the Zoom box. When you’re finished viewing or
editing the field…
2. Click OK to close the Zoom box.
The field will display any changes you made to the
data.
Figure 2-19: Zooming in on the Notes field with the Zoom
box.
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Database Basics
Exiting Access 2007
When you’re finished using a database, you should close
it. When you close a database, however, the Access
program doesn’t stop running. To stop using Access
completely, you need to exit the program.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Any Access database.
• Exercise: Exit the Microsoft Office Access 2007 program.
Close a database
1. Click the Office Button and select Close Database.
The database closes.
Exit Access
1. Click the Office Button and click the Exit Access
button.
Tip: You may be prompted to save changes before
exiting. If so, click Yes.
The Access program closes.
Other Ways to Exit Access:
Click the Close button on the title bar (if a
database is still open, it will close this as well).
Tips

Having too many programs open at a time could slow
down your computer, so it’s a good idea to exit all
programs that aren’t being used.
Exit Access
Close the open database
object (such as a table).
Figure 2-20: Two ways to exit Access.
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Database Basics Review
Quiz Questions
12.
You access database objects using the Navigation Pane. (True or False?)
13.
The related fields for each person, place, or thing make up a single _______.
A. Record
B. Table
C. Column
D. Field
14.
To add a new record to a table, you can simply click in the New record row and enter the data. (True or False?)
15.
You can view records in a form; however, you cannot change them in any way. (True or False?)
16.
A query would be suitable for which of the following?
A. Displaying invoices that are more than 30 days old.
B. Calculating last year’s sales
C. Adding records to a table.
D. All of these tasks.
17.
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Reports present information from a table or query in printed form.
B. Reports make it easy to add table information.
C. You can edit a report’s structure.
D. You can zoom in and out of a report.
18.
Which of the following is NOT a Print dialog box option.
A. Number of Copies
B. Properties
C. Preview
D. Print Range
19.
Once you have selected some text, you can replace it with new text by:
A. Simply typing the new text.
B. Clicking the New Text button on the Home tab.
C. You can’t replace selected text with new text.
D. Clicking the Replace Text button in the Navigation Pane.
20.
What is the keyboard shortcut to paste information?
A. Ctrl + V
B. Ctrl + C
C. Ctrl + P
D. Ctrl + X
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21.
The keyboard shortcut to undo an action is Ctrl + Z. (True or False?)
22.
Access will automatically mark any spelling errors you make with red underlining. (True or False?)
23.
To use the Zoom box, select the field you want to zoom and _________.
A. Press Shift + F4.
B. Press Shift + F2
C. Click the Zoom button on the Quick Access Toolbar.
D. Press Alt + F4.
24.
Closing a database and exiting Access are the same thing. (True or False?)
Quiz Answers
12.
True. You use the Navigation Pane to access database objects.
13.
A. The related fields for each individual person, place, or thing make up a single record.
14.
True. If the New row is visible at the bottom of the window, simply enter your data.
15.
False. You can view, add, edit, and delete records in a form.
16.
D. Queries can do all of these tasks.
17.
B. You can view table information, but you can't add, edit, or change it.
18.
C. Preview is not an option in the Print dialog box.
19.
A. Simply type the new text to replace any selected text.
20.
A. Ctrl + V pastes information.
21.
True. Press Ctrl + Z to undo an action.
22.
False. That is a feature available in Microsoft Word, but not Access.
23.
B. Press Shift + F2 to zoom in on the field.
24.
False. Closing a database closes the open database, but exiting Access closes the program itself.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Creating and
Wor king with a
Database
Planning a Database ......................................... 46
Creating a New Database .................................. 48
Create a new blank database .................. 49
Create a new blank database .................. 49
Create a database from a template ......... 48
Create a database from a template ......... 48
Creating a Table ................................................. 50
Create a table using a template ............... 50
Create a table in Design View ................. 50
Create a table in Datasheet View ............ 50
Modifying a Table .............................................. 52
Display a table in Design View ................ 52
Add a field in Design View ....................... 52
Change a field’s data type ....................... 52
Save table structure changes .................. 52
Creating a Query ................................................ 54
Create a query in Design View ................ 54
Sorting a Query .................................................. 56
Using AND and OR Operators in a Query ....... 57
Creating a Form with the Form Wizard ........... 58
Creating a Report with the Report Wizard ...... 60
Creating Mailing Labels with the Label Wizard
............................................................................. 62
3
Stop typing lists of information in
Microsoft Word or Excel! In this chapter,
you will learn how to create databases
that can store names, addresses, and any
other type of information that you can
think of. You will be pleasantly surprised
to find that creating a database isn’t all
that difficult. Access even includes
several wizards and templates to help you
out.
Because there are so many components
that constitute a database, this chapter will
cover a lot of ground—but thankfully not
in great detail. In this chapter, you will
learn to create and modify the major
database objects: tables, forms, queries,
and reports. You will also learn how to
create mailing labels and how to convert a
database to a different version.
If all you need is a simple, easy-to-use
database, look no farther than this
chapter—more than likely, everything you
need to know about creating databases is
here.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
Converting an Access Database ...................... 64
Convert a database to Access 2007 ........ 64
Convert from Access 2007 to an earlier file
format ....................................................... 65
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Creating and Working with a Database
Planning a Database
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
Although you can always make changes to a database, a
little planning ahead before you create a database can
save you lots of time and headaches later on.
Consider Figure 3-1: Examples of database design. In the
first table you can only sort by the name or address field.
If you sort the name field, the sort is performed by the
first name. If you sort by the address field, the sort is
performed by the street—you cannot sort by city, state, or
zip code. You couldn’t create a query or filter that only
displays people from a particular state because the states
are not stored in their own field. The fields are not
flexible.
Now take a look at the second table. Here you can sort
records by first name, last name, address, city, state, and
zip code. You can also query and filter records using any
of these fields. Here are some guidelines for creating a
well-designed database:
Determine the purpose of the database
The best way to do this is to write down a list of the
reports and lists that you want to come out of the
database. This may seem a little backward at first, but
if you think about it, these reports are really the
reason you’re creating the database. Make a list of
the reports and lists you want to see and then sketch
some samples of these reports and lists—be as
detailed as possible. This will help determine the
tables and fields to include in your database.
Determine the fields you need
This should be an easy step once you have
determined the purpose of your database and have
sketched some sample reports and lists. Think about
the data type for each type of your fields—Will the
field store text information? Numbers? Dates? Write
down the data type next to each field.
Determine the tables you need
Each table in the Database should be based on only
one subject. By breaking each subject into its own
table you avoid redundant information and make the
database more organized. Look at the second
database in Figure 3-1: Examples of database design.
It is broken down into two tables, Customers and
Invoices, so there isn’t any duplicated data. When
you brainstorm, try to break down your information
as much as possible. If your tables contain fields like
Item 1, Item 2, Item 3, Item 4, and so on, you should
probably break the information up into its own table.
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© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
• Exercise: Understand the guidelines for good database
design.
Name
John Smith
Angie Johnson
George Ecks
Address
408 W. Park, Lincoln, NE 68522
100 E. Central, Minneapolis, MN 55413
501 3rd Street, Houston, TX 77338
Bad Table Design
First
John
Angie
George
Last
Smith
Johnson
Ecks
Address
408 W. Park
100 E. Central
501 3rd Street
City
Lincoln
Minneapolis
Houston
State
NE
MN
TX
Zip
68522
55413
77338
Good Table Design
Customers and Invoices
Company
Phone
Invoice
Date
Cost
ACME Widgets
(800) 555-1818
1006
4/5/98
14,000
ACME Widgets
(800) 555-1818
1201
3/1/99
5,000
ACME Widgets
(800) 555-1818
1375
5/15/00
12,500
Green Tea Inc.
(612) 555-7688
1131
8/1/99
5,500
Green Tea Inc.
(612) 555-7688
1256
10/15/00
14,000
Bad Database Design
Customers
Invoices
ID
Company
Phone
ID
Invoice
Date
Cost
5
ACME
Widgets
(800) 555-1818
5
1006
4/5/98
14,000
20
Green Tea
Inc.
(612) 555-7688
5
1201
3/1/99
5,000
5
1375
5/15/00
12,500
20
1131
8/1/99
5,500
20
1256
10/15/00
14,000
Good Database Design
Figure 3-1: Examples of database design.
Creating and Working with a Database
Determine the primary key
Each record in a table should have a primary key that
uniquely identifies it. When you think about a
primary key field, think unique—each primary key
value must be the only one of its kind in a table. A
customer ID or invoice number would be two good
examples of fields that could be used as a table’s
primary key.
Determine the relationship between tables
Look at Figure 3-1: Examples of database design.
The ID field links the Customers and Invoices tables
together. One of the linked fields should be the
table’s primary key.
Sketch a diagram of your database
Create a diagram of your database. Draw a box for
each of your tables and write the table’s field names
inside that box. Draw a line between the related fields
in the tables. For example, look at Figure 3-1:
Examples of database design. Each record in the
Customers table is related to one or more records in
the Invoices table.
Table 3-1: Guidelines for Good Database Design
Each field or column should
contain the same type of
information
This makes the table more meaningful, more organized, and easier to understand.
Try to break up information
as much as possible
This gives you more power to sort, filter, and manipulate the list.
Use multiple tables so that
you don’t duplicate
information in the same
table
Organize your information into several tables—each one containing fields related to a specific subject—
rather than one large table containing fields for a wide range of topics.
Don’t use duplicate field
names
Duplicate field names can cause problems when entering and sorting information.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Creating a New Database
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
The Getting Started page, which appears when you start
Access, provides three main options for creating or
opening a database:
New Blank Database: Create a new blank database
from scratch for storing information.
Templates: Select a template stored locally on your
computer or from Office Online. Several categories
of templates are available: Featuring, Local
Templates, Business, Education, Personal, and
Sample. Within the categories are different types of
templates—for example: Assets, Contacts, and
Projects.
• Exercise: On the Getting Started page, create a new
database using the Contacts template in the Local Templates
category. Save it with the file name My Contacts. If
necessary, expand the Navigation Pane and change its view
to display all database objects. Explore the objects in the
new database. Use the Office Button to close the database
and return to the Getting Started page. Create a new blank
database. Close the database.
Recent Database: Open an existing database from a
list of recently opened databases or click the More
link to browse your computer or network for more
existing databases.
In this lesson, we’ll look at how to create a new database
from a template, as well as from scratch.
Create a database from a template
The easiest way to create a database is by using one of the
built-in database templates. A database template saves you
time and effort, providing you with ready-to-use tables,
forms, queries, and reports. There are templates available
for the most common types of databases, such as contact
management, inventory, and order taking. Once you
create a database with an Access template you can modify
it to better suit your needs.
1. On the Getting Started page, click a template
category button in the Template Categories list on
the left side of the page.
Figure 3-2: Creating a database with the Contacts
template.
Figure 3-3: Expanding the Navigation Pane and changing
the view to display all Access objects.
The templates for that category appear on the page.
2. Click template button for the template you want to
use.
The right side of the screen changes to display
information about that type of database.
Tip: Here you can give the new file a name of
your choosing. Access displays the file path to the
location where your file will be saved, but you
can change the location.
3. Click the Create or Download button.
Tip: If the template is a saved locally on your
computer, you will click Create. If it is an online
template, you will need to click Download so that
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Figure 3-4: A new database created with the Contacts
template.
Creating and Working with a Database
Access can retrieve the template from the
Microsoft Web site.
The database appears in the window.
Tip: If the Navigation Pane is minimized, click
the Shutter Bar Open/Close button to expand it.
Create a new blank database
The advantage of creating a blank database is that it gives
you the most flexibility and control over your database
design. The disadvantage of creating a blank database is
that you have to create every table, form, report, and
query yourself.
1. On the Getting Started page, click the Blank
Database button in the New Blank Database section.
Trap: You may need to expand your window to
see the Blank Database button and the New Blank
Database area.
Figure 3-5: Creating a new blank database.
The right side of the screen changes to display
information about creating a blank database.
Other Ways to Create a New Blank Database:
Click the Office Button and select New.
2. Enter a name for the new database file in the File
Name text box.
Access displays the file path to the location where
your file will be saved, but you can change the
location.
3. Click the Create button.
Access creates a new blank database and creates a
single blank table where you can start storing data.
Figure 3-6: A new blank database.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Creating a Table
You can create a new table using Access’s built-in
templates or you can create a table from scratch. The
templates are helpful because they include fields that are
ready to be used or edited.
Create a table using a template
Access offers the following pre-made table templates:
Contacts, Tasks, Issues, Events, and Assets. Each of the
templates has different fields that can be edited to fit your
exact needs. Pick the template that is closest to the type of
table you want to add.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
• Exercise: Open a new blank database and name it Contact
List. Create a new table using the Contacts template. Create
another table in Design View and name the first field Last
Name. Create a third table in Datasheet View and add the
Last Name field using the Field Templates pane. Close the
table you made with the Contacts template and save it with
the name ―Contacts‖. Close the rest of the tables without
saving. Close the database.
Create a table…
…in
Datasheet
View.
…in Design
View.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon, click the Table
Templates button in the Tables group, and select the
template you want to use.
The table appears in the window, complete with prebuilt fields. Now you can enter data or edit the table’s
structure as desired. You’ll also want to save the table
and give it a name.
…from a
template.
Tips

To change the name of a field header, double-click
the field header and type the field name you want to
use.
Create a table in Design View
The most straightforward way to build a table from
scratch is using Design View, where adding fields to a
table and specifying their data types is not much different
than basic data entry.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Table Design button in the Tables group.
A new table appears in the window in Design View.
Now all you have to do is add the fields you want
included in the table.
2. Enter a field name in the Field Name column, then
click the Data Type list arrow and select a data type
for the field. Repeat as desired.
Create a table in Datasheet View
You can also create a table in Datasheet View.
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Figure 3-7: Creating a table from a template.
Creating and Working with a Database
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Table button in the Tables group.
The table appears in the window in Datasheet View.
In this view, you can start entering data right away.
However, it’s usually smart to first add some fields
using the Field Templates pane. The Field Templates
pane contains many common fields that are
preformatted with the correct data type.
2. Click the Datasheet tab under Table Tools on the
Ribbon and click the New Field button in the Fields
& Columns group.
The Field Templates pane appears, displaying a list of
common fields.
3. Double-click the field you want to add from the Field
Templates list.
The field is inserted into the table.
Tips

To decide where the field is inserted, select the field
heading in the table next to where you want to add
the new field.

To change a field’s data type click the Data Type list
arrow on the Datasheet tab under Table Tools on the
Ribbon and select a different type.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Modifying a Table
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Customers.accdb
Once you have created a table, you can modify it later by
adding, deleting, and modifying its fields.
In this lesson, we’ll look at how to work with views,
fields and data types.
• Exercise: Open the Customers table in Design View.
Change the ―Phone‖ field so it reads ―Work Phone‖. Click
the field’s Data Type list arrow to view the other data types
but leave ―Text‖ selected. Save the change.
Display a table in Design View
1. Open the table in Datasheet View. Click the Home
tab on the Ribbon and click the View button in the
Views group.
Other Ways to Do Something:
Right-click the table in the Navigation Pane and
select Design View from the contextual menu.
The table appears in Design View. Here you can add,
delete, or modify the table’s structure and fields.
Add/modify a field in Design View
1. In Design View, enter or edit a field name in the Field
Name column, click in the Data Type column for that
row, click the Data Type list arrow and select a data
type for the field. Repeat as desired.
Change a field’s data type
Because there are so many different types of data, Access
offers several different types of fields. A field’s data type
determines the type of information that can be stored in a
field. A field’s data type restricts what type of information
you can enter in a field. For example, you cannot enter
text into a number field.
1. Display the table in Design View.
2. Click the field’s Data Type box, click the list arrow,
and select a data type from the list.
Table 3-2: Table Field Data Types provides
descriptions of the different data types.
Other Ways to Modify a Table:
You can add fields and change data types in
Datasheet view by using the commands on the
Datasheet tab under Table Tools and by inserting
predefined fields from the Field Templates pane.
Save table structure changes
Access automatically saves your work as you add or edit
data, but when you make a change to an object’s
structure—such as adding a field to a table—you’ll want
to save the change.
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Figure 3-8: Modifying a table field in Design View.
Creating and Working with a Database
1. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar.
Tip: If you try to leave the window before saving,
Access will prompt you to save your work. Click
Yes.
Other Ways to Save:
Press <Ctrl> + <S>.
Table 3-2: Table Field Data Types
Data Type
Example
Description
Text
Legal Name: John Doe
Stores text, numbers, or a combination of both, up to 255 characters long. Text fields
are the most common of all data types.
Memo
Notes: Sally displays a high
amount of…
Stores long text entries—up to 64,000 characters long (the equivalent of 18 pages of
text!). Use memo fields to store notes or anything else that requires a lot of space.
Number
Age: 31
Stores numbers that can be used in calculations.
Date/Time
Birthday: April 7, 1969
Stores dates, times, or both.
Currency
Price: $84.95
Stores numbers and symbols that represent money.
AutoNumber
Invoice Number: 187001
Automatically fills in a unique number for each record. Many tables often contain an
AutoNumber field that is also used as their primary key.
Yes/No
Employed? Yes
Stores only one of two values, such as Yes or No, True or False, etc.
Stores objects created in other programs such as a graphic, Excel spreadsheet, or
Word document.
OLE Object
Photo:
Hyperlink
Web Site:
www.customguide.com
Stores clickable links to files on your computer, on the network, or to Web pages on
the Internet.
Attachment
Document: Microsoft Word
document with related data.
Stores attachments such as a Word document or photo.
Lookup
Wizard
Purpose of trip:
A wizard that helps you create a field whose values are selected from a table, query,
or a preset list of values.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Creating a Query
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Customers.accdb
You can create a simple query in Design View or by using
the Query Wizard.
Create a query in Design View
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Design button in the Other group.
The Show Table dialog box appears.
Other Ways to Create a Query:
You can also use the Query Wizard to create a
query. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and
click the Query Wizard button in the Other
group. Follow the onscreen instructions to create
the query.
• Exercise: Create a new query in Design View to display
the first and last name of those employees who are from
London. Add the Employees table in the Show Table dialog
box. Add the LastName, FirstName, and City fields to the
design grid. Type ―London‖ in the City column’s criteria
row. Click the Show box for the City column to uncheck it.
Save the query as ―London Query‖. Run the query. Display
the query again in Design View. Delete the City column and
add the Region column. Type ―WA‖ in the Region column’s
criteria row. Move the FirstName field in front of the
LastName field. Run the query again. Close the query
without saving the changes.
Click here to create a query in Design View.
2. Select the table you want to add to the query and
click Add.
3. Repeat Step 2 as necessary for additional tables or
queries, and click Close.
The Query window appears in Design View. Notice
that the window is split. The top half contains a box
that displays all the fields in the table you added to
the query. The bottom half of the screen contains a
design grid, which is where you will add the fields
you want to appear in your query.
4. In the field list, double-click each field you want to
include in the query.
Often you will have to use the field list’s scroll bar to
scroll up or down the list in order to find a field.
Figure 3-9: Selecting a table to use to create a query in
Design View.
Run query button
Field list
Now you need to specify any criteria for the query.
You enter the criteria in the design grid’s Criteria
row. For example, you could select to see only
records whose City field contains ―London‖, or you
could enter K* to return only results that begin with
K.
Add query
fields to the
design grid
from the
field list
Table 3-3: Common Criteria Operators displays some
common criteria operators you can use.
Other Ways to Add a Field to a Query:
Drag the field from the field list onto the design
grid.
5. In the design grid, enter any desired search criteria
for the field in the Criteria box.
Tip: If you want to use a field in the query, but
you don’t want it to be displayed in the query
results, uncheck the Show box for that field.
Design
grid
Display/hide the field
in the query results
Search
criteria
Figure 3-10: Working with the design grid to create a
query.
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Creating and Working with a Database
6. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar,
enter a name for the query in the Save As dialog box
and click OK.
The query is saved and now appears in the
Navigation Pane.
Let’s run the query.
7. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Run button in the Results
group.
The query runs and the results appear in Datasheet
View.
Other Ways to Run a Query:
Switch to Datasheet View.
Tips

To delete a query field in Design View, click the top
of the field you want to delete and press <Delete>.

To rearrange fields in Design View, click just above
the field name in the design grid to select the field.
Then click and drag the field to a new location.
Figure 3-11: A query in Datasheet View.
Table 3-3: Common Criteria Operators
=
=‖MN‖
Finds records equal to MN.
<>
<>"MN"
Finds records not equal to MN.
<
<10
Finds records less than 10.
<=
<=10
Finds records less than or equal to 10.
>
>10
Finds records greater than 10.
>=
>=10 AND < >5
Finds records greater than or equal to 10 and not
equal to 5.
BETWEEN
BETWEEN 1/1/07 AND 12/31/07
Finds records between 1/1/07 AND 12/31/07.
LIKE
LIKE "S*"
Finds text beginning with the letter ―S.‖ You can
use LIKE with wildcards such as *.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Sorting a Query
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Customers.accdb
Tables normally display records in the order they were
entered. Instead of working with a table’s jumbled record
order, you can create a simple query that sorts the table
information and presents it in an ordered, easy-to-read
display. You can sort records alphabetically, numerically,
or chronologically (by date) in ascending (A to Z) or
descending (Z to A) order. You can also sort by multiple
fields—for example, you could sort by LastName and
then by FirstName. This lesson will show you how you
can use a query to sort information in a table.
• Exercise: Create a new query in Design View to sort
employee information. Use the Employees table. Doubleclick the asterisk in the Employees field list to add all the
fields to the design grid. Then add the LastName and
FirstName fields to the design grid separately (we’ll be
using them to sort the query). Click the list arrow in the
LastName field’s Sort box and select Ascending. Repeat for
the FirstName field. Uncheck the Show box for the
LastName and FirstName fields. Save the query as ―AZ
Query‖ and run the query.
1. Display the query in Design view.
2. Add the field you want to use to sort the query to the
design grid, along with any other fields you want to
appear in the query results.
Tip: Double-click the asterisk at the top of a field
list to add all the table’s fields to the design grid at
once.
To sort a query, click the Sort row for the field you
want to use to sort the query and select either
Ascending or Descending.
3. Click the Sort list arrow for the first field you want to
use to sort the query, then select a sort order.
4. Repeat Steps 2-3 for each additional field you want to
use to sort the query, bearing in mind that the fields
will be sorted from left to right.
Figure 3-12: Sorting a query in Design View.
Tip: If you want to use a field to sort the table,
but you don't that field to appear, you can uncheck
it’s ―Show‖ box.
5. Save and run the query.
Figure 3-13: Sorted query results.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Using AND and OR Operators
in a Query
The longer you work with Access, the more you will want
to analyze your data. Before long you will want to create
queries that match two or more conditions, such as
―Which people have bought our products AND live in
Michigan?‖ You might also want to create a query that
matches only one of several conditions, such as ―Which
people have bought our beach balls OR water rafts?‖
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Customers.accdb
• Exercise: Open the Customers List query in Design view.
Let’s query the customers who are owners AND from
France. Click the ContactTitle column’s Criteria row and
type ―Owner‖. Click the Country column’s Criteria row and
type ―France‖. Run the query. Now let’s query customers
from France OR Mexico. In Design View, delete the
―Owner‖ criteria from the ContactTitle Criteria row. In the
Country column, click the second Criteria row and type
―Mexico‖. Run the query. Save the query.
To that end, this lesson introduces AND and OR
operators:
AND narrows your query, making it more restrictive.
For example, you could filter for employees who are
from Washington AND who have been with the
company for more than five years. To create an AND
query, enter the criteria for the fields on the same
Criteria row of the design grid.
OR relaxes your query, so that more records match.
For example, you could filter for employees who are
from California OR Minnesota. To create an OR
query, enter the criteria for the fields on different
Criteria rows of the design grid.
To create an AND statement, list each criteria on the same line.
This query will display records that contain “Owner” in the
ContactTitle field and “France” in the Country field.
Figure 3-14: An AND query and its results.
Use AND or OR criteria in queries
1. Display the query in Design View.
2. Enter your criteria in the appropriate field’s first
Criteria box.
3. Enter additional criteria as follows:
AND: Enter additional criteria for one or more
fields in the appropriate field’s ―Criteria‖ box. All
AND criteria should appear on the same row.
To create an OR statement, list each criteria on different lines. This
query will display records that contain “Mexico” or “France” in the
Country field.
OR: Enter additional criteria for one or more
fields in the appropriate field’s ―or‖ box, using a
different row for each OR criteria.
4. Save and run the query.
Figure 3-15: An AND query and its results.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Creating a Form with the Form
Wizard
You will usually want to use the Form Wizard to create
your forms. It’s almost always easier to create and modify
a form created by the Form Wizard than it is to create one
from scratch. This lesson will show you how to use the
Form Wizard to create a form.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Customers.accdb
• Exercise: Use the Form Wizard to create a form with the
Employees table. Add the LastName, FirstName, Title,
Address, City, Region, PostalCode, and Country fields to
the report. Leave the Columnar layout option selected,
select the Module style, and name the form ―Employees
Form‖. View the form.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon, click the More
Forms button in the Forms group and select Form
Wizard.
The Form Wizard appears. Anytime you create a
form, you have to tell Access which table or query
you want to use for your form.
2. Click the Tables/Queries list arrow and select the
table or query you want to use to create your form.
Now that you have specified the table, you need to
tell the Wizard which fields you want to display on
the form. To add a field to the form, you can either
double-click the field or select the field and click the
right arrow button.
Figure 3-16: Starting the Form Wizard.
3. Double-click the fields that you want to appear on the
form. Click Next when you’re finished.
Tip: If you selected fields from more than one
table, the Form Wizard would ask how you would
like to organize the data on your form. Make a
selection and click Next.
Next the Form Wizard asks how you want to lay out
the data on the form. Your options will depend on
what fields and tables you’re using, but may include
these options:
Columnar: Displays one record at a time in an
easy-to-read format.
Tabular: Displays many records at a time.
Datasheet: Displays many records at a time and
looks exactly like a table in Datasheet view.
Justified: Displays one record at a time in a
format similar to a tax return— interesting, but it
usually creates complicated forms that are
difficult to work with.
4. Select the layout you want to use for the form and
click Next.
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Figure 3-17: Adding fields to the form in the Form Wizard
dialog box.
Creating and Working with a Database
Now you need to select a formatting style for your
form.
5. Select a style for your form and click Next.
6. Enter a title for your form in the text box and select
to either open the form or modify the form’s design.
Click Finish.
The form appears in the window. In the form, you can
add, edit, and delete records, just like in a table—
except that you usually only see one record at a time.
Figure 3-18: A form created with the Form Wizard.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Creating a Report with the
Report Wizard
It’s almost always easier to create and modify a report
created by the Report Wizard than it is to create one from
scratch.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Report Wizard button in the Reports group.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Customers.accdb
• Exercise: Use the Report Wizard to create a report with
the Customers table. Add the CompanyName,
ContactName, Address, City, and Country fields to the
report. Group the report data using the Country field. Sort
the report based on the CompanyName field. Leave the
Stepped layout and Portrait orientation options selected.
Select the Module style, name the report ―Customers by
Country‖ and preview the report.
2. Click the Tables/Queries list arrow and select the
table or query you want to use to create your report
Now that you have specified the table, you need to
tell the Wizard which fields you want to display on
the form. To add a field to the form, you can either
double-click the field or select the field and click the
right arrow button.
3. Double-click the fields that you want to appear on the
form. Click Next when you’re finished.
Figure 3-19: The Report Wizard button in the Reports
group.
Tip: If you selected fields from more than one
table, the Form Wizard would ask how you would
like to organize the data on your form. Make a
selection and click Next.
Then the Report Wizard asks you if and how you
want to group the data in your report. For example,
you can group all the customers from the same
country together in your report. Grouping can help
organize and summarize the information in your
report. To use a specific field to group data, doubleclick the field you want to use.
4. Double-click any fields you want to group, in the
order you want to group them. Click Next.
Tip: Once you’ve added fields to group by, you
can move them around by using the Priority arrow
buttons.
Next the Report Wizard asks if you want to sort the
records in your report.
5. Click the list arrows and select fields to sort by and
click Next.
You can sort by up to four fields.
Tip: Click the button to the right of each list to
toggle between ascending and descending sort
orders.
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Figure 3-20: Adding grouping levels to the report in the
Report Wizard dialog box.
Creating and Working with a Database
Now the Report Wizard asks how you want to lay out
the data on the report. You can also specify the page
orientation here. Layout options include Columnar,
Tabular, and Justified. You can click a Layout option
to preview it.
6. Select a Layout option and an Orientation option for
the report, then click Next.
Now the Report Wizard offers several interesting
styles that you can use in your report. Click a style to
preview it onscreen.
7. Select a style from the list and click Next.
Finally, you need to give the report a name.
8. Enter a name in the text box and select whether you
want to preview the report or modify it’s design.
Click Finish.
Figure 3-21: Sorting the report.
If you chose to preview the report, it appears in Print
Preview view. If you chose to modify the report, it
appears in Design view, where you can make changes
to its structure.
Figure 3-22: A report created with the Report Wizard.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Creating Mailing Labels with
the Label Wizard
For bulk mailings, nothing beats a good stack of mailing
labels. The Access Label Wizard helps you quickly create
labels using data from your Access database. The Label
Wizard supports a huge variety of label sizes and brands.
In this lesson, you will use the Label Wizard to create a
set of mailing labels.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Customers.accdb
• Exercise: Use the Labels Wizard to create labels using the
Customers table. Select the default label size, font and color.
Add the ContactName, CompanyName, and Address fields
on separate lines of the prototype label. On the next line
down, enter the City, Region, and PostalCode fields.
Separate the City and Region with a comma and add
necessary spaces between the fields. Sort the labels by
PostalCode and name the label report ―Customer Labels‖.
View the labels on the screen.
1. Open the table or query that contains the data for
your labels.
For example, a Contacts table that contains names
and addresses is a common table for making labels.
2. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Labels button in the Reports group.
The Label Wizard dialog box appears, listing the
various types of labels by product number. Simply
scroll down and find the number that matches the one
on your label box.
Tip: If you can’t find your label type, click the
Customize button and tell the Label Wizard how
to set up your nonstandard labels.
3. Click the Filter by manufacturer list arrow and
select your label’s manufacturer, then select the
correct label size from the list. Click Next.
Figure 3-23: Selecting label size in the Label Wizard.
The next window of the Label Wizard lets you
change the font used in your label. You can format
the font type, size, weight, and color. If you’re
satisfied with the default font (Arial 8 point), you can
simply click Next.
4. Select the font and font formatting options you want
to use for your label and click Next.
It’s time to tell the Label Wizard which fields you
want to use.
If you want to place fields on separate rows, you’ll
need to press <Enter> in the Prototype label area to
move to the next row before inserting the field.
Also, if you want some certain text to appear on
every label—such as comma between the city and
state—you can type the text in the Prototype label
area.
5. Select each field you want to use from the list and
click the arrow button. Click Next.
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Figure 3-24: Adding fields to the prototype label.
Creating and Working with a Database
Next you can determine the order of your labels by
sorting.
6. Select the field you want to sort by from the list and
click the right arrow button to add it to the Sort by
area. Click Next.
Tip: You can sort by multiple fields if desired.
Finally, you can give your label report a name (when
you’re making labels, you’re really just creating a
report).
7. Enter a name in the text box and select whether you
want to preview the report or modify it’s design.
Click Finish.
If you chose to preview the report, it appears in Print
Preview view. If you chose to modify the report, it
appears in Design view, where you can make changes
to its structure.
Figure 3-25: Labels created with the Label Wizard.
The labels report is saved for you. You can now print
the labels at any time by simply loading the printer
with labels and printing the report.
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Creating and Working with a Database
Converting an Access
Database
If you’re working with a database created in a previous
version of Access (.mdb), you can convert it to the 2007
file format (.accdb) to take advantage of the new 2007
features.
On the other hand, if you’ve created a database with the
Access 2007 file type (.accdb), but you want to share it
with people using earlier versions of Access, you can
usually convert it to an earlier file format by saving it as a
different file type.
In this lesson, we’ll look at both scenarios.
Convert a database to Access 2007
To convert a file to the Access 2007 format, you need to
open the file in Access 2007 and Save As with the 2007
file format.
Trap: An Access 2007 file cannot be opened in
earlier versions of Access, so make sure everyone
who uses the file is running Access 2007 before
you convert it.
1. In Access 2007, click the Office Button and click
Open.
The Open dialog box appears. Here you need to
select the database you want to convert to Access
2007 format.
2. Select the database you want to convert and click
Open.
Trap: If you see the Database Enhancement
dialog box, the database is in a file format earlier
than Access 2000. See the Access Help files for
help converting this type of file.
The database opens.
3. Click the Office Button, point to Save As, and select
the Access 2007 Database file format in the ―Save
the database in another format‖ area.
Tip: If you have any open database objects, you’ll
see a message telling you to close them. Click
Yes. If Access is unable to convert the file, you’ll
also see that message at this point.
The Save As dialog box appears.
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 Exercise
• Exercise File: Customers.accdb
• Exercise: Convert the database from an Access 2007
database to an Access 2002 – 2003 database using the Save
As feature.
Creating and Working with a Database
4. Enter a name for the database in the File name box
and click Save.
A copy of the database is made and the copy is
opened. The original database is closed.
Convert from Access 2007 to an earlier file
format
Trap: Not all Access 2007 files can be converted
to an earlier format. If the database contains new
2007 features such as attachments, multi-valued
fields, offline data, or links to some external files,
Access may not be able to convert the file.
You can convert from Access 2007 to the Access 2002 –
2003 Database or Access 2000 Database file formats.
1. Open the Access 2007 file you want to convert, click
the Office Button, point to Save As, and select the
file format you want to convert to in the ―Save the
database in another format‖ area.
The Save As dialog box appears.
2. Enter a name for the database in the File name box
and click Save.
The Access 2007 database is closed and the
converted file opens. The original database still
exists—since all you did is save a copy in a different
format—but must be opened separately.
Figure 3-26: Converting an Access 2007 database by
saving it as an earlier file format.
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Creating and Wor king with a
Database Review
Quiz Questions
25.
You should always plan the design and structure of a database before you begin creating it. (True or False?)
26.
Once you create a database with an Access template you can modify it to better suit your needs. (True or False?)
27.
Which of the following is not a pre-made template for creating a table in Access?
A. Contacts
B. Tasks
C. Issues
D. Notes
28.
Which of the following determines the type of information that can be stored in a field?
A. A data type
B. A field size
C. A primary key
D. An index property
29.
You cannot add a field to a query without displaying the field in the query results. (True or False?)
30.
You want to sort a query by a table’s Last Name field. In order to do this, the Last Name field MUST appear in the
displayed results of the query. (True or False?)
31.
To specify OR criteria in a query, enter everything on the same criteria row. (True or False?)
32.
What is the first step in creating a form with the Form Wizard?
A. Selecting how the form should be formatted.
B. Reading several screens of mostly useless information and clicking Next.
C. Selecting the underlying table or query on which you want to base the form.
D. Selecting the fields you want to appear in the form.
33.
The Report Wizard button is found in the _______ group on the Create tab on the Ribbon.
A. Wizards
B. Reports
C. Labels
D. Documents
34.
Microsoft Word is required to print mailing labels with Access. (True or False?)
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35.
Access 2007 databases use the same file format as Access 2003 databases. (True or False?)
Quiz Answers
25.
True. You should always plan before creating a database.
26.
True. You can easily modify a database created from a template.
27.
D. Notes is not a table template in Access.
28.
A. A data type determines the type of information that can be stored in a field.
29.
False. You can include a field in a query without displaying it in the query results by unchecking its Show box.
30.
False. You can sort the results of a query without displaying the field you used to sort the query.
31.
False. To specify OR criteria, enter it on a different row.
32.
C. Selecting the underlying table or query.
33.
B. The Report Wizard button is found in the Reports group.
34.
False. The Label Wizard is included in Access and makes creating labels easy.
35.
False. Access 2007 databases use a new file format that is incompatible with Access 2003.
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Finding,
Filtering, and
For matting Data
Finding and Replacing Data ............................. 69
Find and Replace ..................................... 69
Sorting Records ................................................. 71
Sort records ............................................. 71
Clear a sort .............................................. 71
Using Common Filters ...................................... 72
Apply a common filter .............................. 72
Clear a filter ............................................. 73
Filtering by Selection ........................................ 74
Filtering by Form ............................................... 75
Creating an Advanced Filter ............................. 76
Adjusting and Rearranging Rows and Columns
............................................................................. 78
Adjust column width ................................. 78
Adjust row height ..................................... 78
Automatically adjust columns .................. 78
Rearrange columns ................................. 79
Changing Gridline and Cell Effects ................. 80
Change gridlines ...................................... 80
Apply background colors ......................... 80
Apply cell effects ...................................... 81
Changing the Datasheet Font ........................... 82
Freezing a Column ............................................ 83
Hiding a Column ................................................ 84
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4
As databases grow larger and larger,
finding a specific record or group of
records becomes harder and harder.
Fortunately, Microsoft Access is equipped
with an arsenal of Find, Sort, and Filter
commands that can track down and
organize a table’s information in record
time.
In this chapter you will learn how to use
these commands. First, you’ll learn how
to use the Find command to look up a
specific record. Next, you’ll learn how to
sort information in a table—in ascending
or descending order. Then, you’ll learn all
about filters: How they can find and
display only records that meet your
criteria, such as customers from the state
of Texas.
Once you’ve learned how to organize and
sort all that information, you’ll learn how
to make it look more professional. This
chapter explains how to format a
datasheet to change its font and
appearance. You will also learn how to
freeze and hide columns in a datasheet—
an important task if you need to view
large amounts of information.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Finding and Replacing Data
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
Although you can use a query to find data, sometimes you
just want to quickly find a small amount of data. The Find
feature allows you to quickly search tables, queries, and
forms for specified text. You can also use the Replace
command to quickly find and replace data.
• Exercise: Open the Employees table. Find ―Redmond‖ in
the City field. Then, in the Title field, find and replace all
instances of ―Sales Representative‖ with ―Sales Associate‖.
The Find command in Access is similar to the Find
command in other Office programs, but it contains some
additional features as well. For example, you can choose
to match part or all of the data in a field.
Find and Replace
The Find and Replace commands make it very easy to
find and replace specific words and values in your tables.
You can also find and replace information in forms and
find information (but not replace) in queries.
For these steps, we’ll assume you are working in a table’s
datasheet. First, you need to put the cursor in the field that
contains the data you want to look for.
Figure 4-1: The Find tab of the Find and Replace dialog
box.
1. Select the column header for the field you want to
search or click in any cell in the field you want to
search.
Tip: If you want to search the entire table, click in
any cell. Once you open the Find and Replace
dialog box, click the Look In list arrow and select
the table name.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the Find
button in the Find group.
Figure 4-2: The Replace tab of the Find and Replace
dialog box.
The Find tab of the Find and Replace dialog box
appears.
Other Ways to Find:
Press <Ctrl> + <F>.
3. If you want to replace data, click the Replace tab.
The Replace tab is displayed.
Other Ways to Replace:
Press <Ctrl> + <H>.
4. Type the text or value you want to find in the Find
what text box.
If you are replacing the data, you’ll need to enter the
replacement text or value as well.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
5. If desired, enter the replacement text or value in the
Replace With box.
Next, you have a few optional changes you can make
to the search.
6. If desired, click the Match list arrow and select an
option.
The Match options allow you to broaden or narrow
your search. See Table 4-1: Using the Match List
Options for a description of the Match options.
Table 4-1: Using the Match List Options
Whole Field
Example: John finds John, but not
Johnson, or Sue and John.
Any Part of Field
8. Make sure the Search Fields As Formatted box is
checked and click the Find Next button.
Access jumps to the first occurrence of the text or
value that you entered.
9. Click the Find Next button again to move on to other
occurrences or click Replace or Replace All if you
want to replace the data. When you’re finished, click
Close.
Tips

Finding or replacing data in a form works the same
way as in a table, except that you select controls to
search instead of fields. When you use the Find
command in a form, Access is actually searching the
underlying table.

You can find, but not replace, data in query results.

To find wildcard characters, type an opening bracket
([), the wildcard character you want to find, and a
closing bracket (]) in the Find What box. For
example, you would type [*] to find all instances of
an asterisk.
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Finds data anywhere in the field.
Example: John finds John, Johnson,
and Sue and John.
7. If desired, check the Match Case box.
If you check the Match Case box, Access finds only
text that has the same pattern of uppercase and
lowercase characters as the text you entered.
Finds only data that is exactly the same.
Start of Field
Finds data only at the beginning of the
field.
Example: John finds John and Johnson,
but not Sue and John.
Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Sorting Records
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
When you enter new records in a table they are added at
the end of the table in the order you enter them. Working
with information in such a jumbled order can be difficult
if not impossible.
Fortunately you can sort, or change, the order of records
in a table. You can sort records alphabetically,
numerically, or chronologically (by date). Additionally,
you can sort information in ascending (A to Z) or
descending (Z to A) order.
• Exercise: Open the Employees table. Sort the table by the
Last Name field in Ascending order. Then sort it in
Descending order. Sort the table by the Birth Date field in
Ascending order. Clear the sort.
Ascending
Descending
Tips

If you frequently sort a table the same way, you
should consider creating and using a query that
automatically sorts the table data for you. A query
that sorts a table alphabetically by name would be a
good example of such a query.
Sort records
1. Open the table you want to sort and click anywhere
in the column (field) you want to use to sort by.
Figure 4-3: The Sort & Filter group.
Table 4-2: Sort Examples
Ascending
A, B, C
1, 2, 3
1/1/07, 1/15/07, 2/1/07
Descending
C, B, A
3, 2, 1
2/1/07, 1/15/07, 1/1/07
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click either
the Ascending or Descending button in the Sort &
Filter group.
The table is sorted. See Table 4-2: Sort Examples for
examples of different types of sorts.
Other Ways to Sort:
Right-click in the field you want to sort by and
select a sort option.
Clear a sort
Figure 4-4: A table is normally displayed in the order its
records were entered.
1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Clear All Sorts button in the Sort & Filter group.
The sorted data returns to its original order.
Figure 4-5: The table sorted in ascending order by the
Last Name field.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Using Common Filters
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
Sometimes you may want to see only certain records in
your table. By filtering a table, you display only the
records that meet your criteria and hide the records that do
not. For example, you could filter a client list to display
only clients who live in California.
There are several filter methods:
Common Filters: A number of commonly-used
filters are available on a menu, making it easy for
you to quickly use these pre-defined filters.
Filter by Selection: Simply find and select the value
you want to use as the filter criteria, and then use the
Filter By Selection command to find all records with
the selected value.
Filter by Form: Here you type your filter criteria
into a blank form that contains all the field names in
the table. Works well if you have more than one
criteria.
• Exercise: Use the Filter button to filter the Title column to
display all values except for Sales Manager (hint: use the
check boxes on the contextual menu). Then clear the filter.
Filter
Filter by
selection
Advanced
filter options
Apply/remove
filter
Figure 4-6: The Sort & Filter group.
Advanced Filter/Sort: The most powerful and
complicated filter method. Creating an advanced
filter is really not any different from creating a query.
In this lesson, we’ll look at common filters you can access
quickly using the contextual menu, as well as how to
remove a filter.
Apply a common filter
1. Click anywhere in the column you want to filter by,
click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Filter button in the Sort & Filter group.
A contextual menu appears with two ways to filter:
Use the check box list. This list contains all the
values in that column. Uncheck a box and click
OK to filter out a particular value. If the box next
to a value is checked, it will appear in the filtered
table.
Point to [Data type] Filters, then point to an
option—such as Equals or Does Not Equal—on
the submenu that appears. Enter a filter criterion
in the Custom Filter dialog box. For example, if
you select Equals and enter Johnson, Access will
filter out all records except for those with Johnson
in that field.
Trap: These options aren’t available if you
selected multiple columns. To filter multiple
columns you need to filter each column
individually or use an advanced filter.
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Figure 4-7: Filter menu that appears when you click the
Filter button in the Sort & Filter group.
Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
2. Select a filter option.
The data is filtered.
Other Ways to Use Common Filters:
Right-click the field value you want to filter by
and select one of the filter options at the bottom of
the contextual menu or point to [Data type]
Filters and select an option from the submenu.
Clear a filter
1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the
Advanced button in the Sort & Filter group and
select Clear All Filters.
All data is once again displayed.
Other Ways to Clear a Filter:
Click in a filtered column, click the Filter button
in the Sort & Filter group on the Home tab, and
select Clear filter from [field name].
Tips

To unapply/reapply a filter (without clearing it), click
the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Apply/Remove Filter button in the Sort & Filter
group (called the Toggle Filter button when all filters
have been cleared). Or, click the Filtered/Unfiltered
button at the bottom of the window in the Record
Selector bar (called the No Filter button when all
filters have been cleared).
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
 Exercise
Filtering by Selection
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
A quick way you can filter a table is with the Filter by
Selection feature.
1. Click the field value on which you want to base the
filter.
• Exercise: Use the Filter by Selection feature to filter by
the WA value in the Region field. Select the Equals option.
Then clear the filter.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Selection button in the Sort & Filter group.
The menu that appears contains four filter-related
commands: you can read more about them in Table
4-3: Filter by Selection Menu Commands.
3. Select an option from the menu.
Other Ways to Filter by Selection:
Right-click the field value you want to filter by
and select one of the options at the end of the
contextual menu.
Figure 4-8: Filtering a table by selection to display only
records where the selected field equals “WA”.
Table 4-3: Filter by Selection Menu Commands
Equals [selected field value]
Displays only records with the selected value.
Example: If John is selected, only records with John in this column are displayed.
Does Not Equal [selected field value]
Displays all records that don't contain the selected value.
Example: If John is selected, records with John in this column are not displayed, but
Johnson is.
Contains [selected field value]
Displays all records that contain the selected value in any form.
Example: If John is selected, John and Johnson are displayed.
Does Not Contain [selected field value]
Displays records that don’t contain the selected value in any form.
Example: If John is selected, neither John nor Johnson is displayed.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Filtering by Form
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
Filtering by Form makes it easy to create a filter that uses
more than one criterion. The Filter by Form window
enables you to enter your filter criterion by picking values
that you want the filtered records to have. You can filter
by form when working in tables, forms or queries.
1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the
Advanced button in the Sort & Filter group, and
select Filter by Form.
The Filter by Form window appears.
Tabs with the names ―Look for‖ and ―Or‖ appear at
the bottom of the Filter by Form window. If you
specify more than one criterion on the first tab,
Access treats it as an AND criteria statement,
meaning a record must match all the criteria in order
to be displayed. For example, you could filter for
employees who are from Washington AND who had
been with the company for more than five years.
If you specify filter criterion on both tabs, Access
treats it as an OR criteria statement, meaning a record
has to match the criterion on one tab or the other to
be displayed. For example, you could filter for
employees from California OR Minnesota. Once you
add an OR criteria, another OR tab appears next to it
so that you can continue adding OR criteria.
• Exercise: Use the Filter by Form feature to display only
records for employees from London with the title ―Sales
Manager‖. Then add an OR criteria to also display records
of any employees with the title ―Vice President, Sales‖.
Clear the filters.
If you specify more than one criterion
on the same tab, Access treats it as
an AND criteria, meaning that a
record has to pass all the criteria in
order to be displayed.
Click a field’s list arrow to
select a value.
If you specify criterion on another OR tab,
Access treats it as an OR criteria, meaning
that a record has to pass the criteria on only
one tab in order to be displayed.
Figure 4-9: Filtering by Form.
2. Click the empty cell below the field you want to
filter, click the list arrow and select the value you
want to use to filter the records.
Other Ways to Enter Filter Criteria:
Instead of selecting a filter criterion from the list
arrow, you can type filter criteria yourself.
3. Repeat Step 2 for each additional field you want to
use to specify additional filter criteria.
4. If you want to use Or criteria, click the Or tab at the
bottom of the screen and specify additional filter
criteria in the same way.
5. Click the Apply Filter button in the Sort & Filter
group.
The data is filtered using the criteria you entered in
the form.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Creating an Advanced Filter
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
The most powerful type of filter is the Advanced Filter.
The Advanced Filter is so powerful that you can think of
it as a type of query. In fact, the procedure for creating an
Advanced Filter is virtually the same as it is for creating a
simple query. You can use an Advanced Filter when
working in tables, forms or queries.
• Exercise: Create an Advanced Filter that sorts the records
in Ascending order by Last Name and then First Name, and
also filters for employees from London who were hired after
1/1/93. Clear the filter.
Advanced Filters have many advantages. They have the
ability to:
Sort by multiple fields: You can sort records using
several fields. For example, you could sort a table
alphabetically by last name and then by first name.
Use complex filter criteria and expressions: You
can use advanced expressions and operators to search
for data. For example you could filter for dates that
fall Between 1/1/95 And 12/31/99.
Use multiple AND/OR statements: You can use
more than one criterion to sift through records. For
example, you could filter for employees who are
from Washington AND who have been with the
company for more than five years.
Figure 4-10: Creating an Advanced Filter.
This lesson explains how to get your own Advanced
Filters up and running.
1. Open the table that contains the data you want to
filter or sort.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the
Advanced button in the Sort & Filter group, and
select Advanced Filter/Sort.
The advanced filter window appears. Notice that the
window is split—just like a query in Design view.
The top half contains a box that displays all the fields
in the table. The bottom half of the screen contains a
design grid, which is where you will add the fields
you want to filter.
Often you will have to use the field list’s scroll bar to
scroll up or down the list in order to find a field.
3. Double-click each field you want to include from the
field list.
Other Ways to Add Fields to the Design Grid:
Drag the field from the field list onto the design
grid. Or, click the list arrow in the Field row of
the design grid and select a field.
To sort by a field, you can click the Sort row in the
column that contains the field that you want to sort
and select Ascending or Descending from the list.
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Figure 4-11: Filtered results.
Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
4. Click the Sort list arrow for the field and select a sort
order (optional).
If you use several fields to sort a table, Access
performs the sort in the order the fields appear in the
design grid.
Now you need to specify criteria for the filter. Table
4-4: Common Criteria Operators shows some
common criteria operators you can add to your
criteria to make them more useful.
5. In the design grid, enter any desired search criteria
for the fields in the Criteria row.
If you specify more than one criterion on the same
Criteria row, Access treats it as an AND criteria
statement, meaning a record must match all the
criteria in order to be displayed. For example, you
could filter for employees who are from London
AND who were hired after January 1, 2003.
If you specify filter criterion on the Or rows, Access
treats it as an OR criteria statement, meaning a record
has to match the criterion on one row or the other to
be displayed. For example you could filter for
employees from London OR Washington.
6. Click the Toggle Filter button in the Sort & Filter
group.
Table 4-4: Common Criteria Operators
=
= ―MN‖
Finds records equal to MN.
<>
< > ―MN‖
Finds records not equal to MN.
<
< 10
Finds records less than 10.
<=
< = 10
Finds records less than or equal to 10.
>
> 10
Finds records greater than 10.
>=
> = 10 AND
<>5
Finds records greater than or equal to 10 and not equal to 5.
BETWEEN
BETWEEN
1/1/07 AND
12/31/07
Finds records between 1/1/07 AND 12/31/07.
LIKE
LIKE ―S*‖
Finds text beginning with the letter ―S.‖ You can use LIKE with wildcards such as *.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Adjusting and Rearranging
Rows and Columns
Access is usually pretty smart about how wide to make
the columns of a table or query datasheet so hopefully you
won’t have to do much resizing. Sometimes, however,
you will discover that some of the columns or rows are
not large enough to display the information they contain.
This lesson explains how to change the width of a column
and the height of a row, as well as how to rearrange
columns.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
• Exercise: Drag the Birth Date column’s header to make it
slightly wider. Auto-adjust the Address column’s width.
Make all the rows twice as tall, then return them to their
original height. Move the Home Phone column so that it is
directly to the left of the Address column.
Tips

When you adjust the height of a row, all the rows
change, but when you adjust the width of a column,
only the selected column(s) change.
Adjust column width
1. Drag the column header’s right border to the left or
right.
Other Ways to Adjust Column Width:
Right-click the column header(s), select Column
Width from the contextual menu, enter the
column width, and click OK. Or, select the
column(s) you want to adjust, click the Home tab
on the Ribbon, click the More button in the
Records group, select Column Width, enter the
column width and click OK.
Adjust row height
1. Drag the row header’s bottom border up or down.
Other Ways to Adjust Row Height:
Right-click the row header(s), select Row Height
from the contextual menu, enter the row height,
and click OK. Or, select any row, click the Home
tab on the Ribbon, click the More button in the
Records group, select Row Height, enter the row
height and click OK.
Automatically adjust columns
You can also have Access automatically adjust the width
of a field or column so that it can hold the widest entry. To
do this, simply double-click the right edge of the column.
1. Double-click the right border of the column.
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Figure 4-12: Adjusting column width.
Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Rearrange columns
When you first created a table, hopefully, you thought
about its field order, so that most of the time your data
will appear in the order you want. Sometimes, however,
you may want to change the column order of a table.
Figure 4-13: Rearranging columns.
1. Click the field name of the column you want to
move. Then, click it again and hold down the mouse
button.
Now you have to drag the column to its new
destination. If the destination is too far to the left or
right to appear on the screen, drag the column to the
left or right of the window—the datasheet will scroll
in that direction.
2. Drag the selected column to its new location.
Tips
 As you move the column, a bar moves between
the columns, showing where the column will go
when you release the mouse button.
 Don’t worry that altering column order will affect
your data—it doesn’t.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Changing Gridline and Cell
Effects
There isn’t a lot of formatting you can do to tables in
Access, but you can change how gridlines appear, apply
background colors, and add 3-D effects to the table’s
cells.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
• Exercise: Remove gridlines and change the background
color to Light Gray 1. View the Datasheet Formatting dialog
box and look at the Cell Effect options. Click Cancel.
Change gridlines
By default, Access displays both horizontal and vertical
lines in a table, but you can select to show Horizontal,
Vertical, Both, or None.
Gridlines
1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the
Gridlines button in the Font group, and select the
gridline option you want to use.
Other Ways to Change Gridlines:
Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Dialog Box Launcher in the Font group. Check
or uncheck the Horizontal and Vertical boxes in
the Gridlines Shown area.
Tip: Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click
the Dialog Box Launcher in the Font group to
display the Datasheet Formatting dialog box. Here
you can change gridline color, change gridline
style (for example, a dotted line), and change the
direction of the table columns so that they go from
right-to-left.
Apply background colors
1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the
Fill/Back Color button arrow in the Font group, and
select a color.
The first row in the table and each alternating row is
displayed with the color you selected.
You can also apply a second color to the alternating
rows.
2. Click the Alternate Fill/Back Color button arrow,
and select a color.
The alternate rows are filled with the color you
chose.
Other Ways to Apply Background Colors:
Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Dialog Box Launcher in the Font group. Click
the Background Color or Alternate
Background Color list arrow and select the color
you want to use.
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Fill/Back
Color
Figure 4-14: The Font group.
Alternate
Fill/Back
Color
Dialog Box
Launcher
Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Apply cell effects
You can also add a 3-D effect to the table cells.
1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Dialog Box Launcher in the Font group.
The Datasheet Formatting dialog box appears.
2. Select Raised or Sunken in the Cell Effect area and
click OK.
The selected effect is applied to the table cells.
Figure 4-15: The Datasheet Formatting dialog box.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Changing the Datasheet Font
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
Being a practical business program, Access displays its
tables in a no-nonsense, easy-to-read font. However, you
can change the font used to display table data. You can
make the text appear darker and heavier (bold), slanted
(italics), larger, and in a different typeface or color.
• Exercise: Apply Bold, Red formatting, then remove the
Bold and return the font color to Automatic.
Tips

The font settings you change apply to the entire table,
not just a particular cell, column, or row.
Here’s how to change the font used in a table.
1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and format the
table data using the commands in the Font group.
Figure 4-16: Font formatting commands in the Font group.
Table 4-5: Font group commands describes the
specifics for using each of the font formatting
commands in the Font group:
Table 4-5: Font group commands
Font
Click the Font list arrow and select a font type—for example, Arial.
Font Size
Click the Font Size list arrow and select a font size.
Text Alignment
Click the Align Text Left, Center, or Align Text Right buttons to align text within the table cells.
Bold
Click the Bold button to bold the table text.
Italic
Click the Italic button to italicize the table text.
Underline
Click the Underline button to underline the table text.
Font Color
Click the Font Color list arrow and select a font color.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Freezing a Column
Most tables have so much information that it won’t all fit
on the same screen. When this happens, you have to scroll
through the datasheet to add, delete, modify, and view
information. The problem with scrolling and viewing
information in a large table is that it can be confusing
when you can’t see important information such as names
or product numbers.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
• Exercise: Freeze the Last Name column. Then unfreeze all
columns and move the Last Name column back to its
original position.
To overcome this problem, you can freeze a column so it
stays in the same place while you scroll to the right in a
table. Here’s how to freeze a column.
Freeze a column
1. Right-click the header for the column you want to
freeze and select Freeze Columns from the
contextual menu.
The column is now frozen and is moved to the left
side of the table. Here it will always remain visible as
you scroll to the right through the rest of the fields in
the table.
Tip: To freeze more than one column, freeze them
individually. Or, select all the columns you want
to freeze, right-click the field header area and
select Freeze Columns.
Other Ways to Freeze or Unfreeze a Column:
Select the column you want to freeze, click the
Home tab on the Ribbon, click the More button
in the Records group, and select Freeze or
Unfreeze.
Unfreeze a column
Figure 4-17: Before and after freezing the Last Name
column.
1. Right-click any column header in the table and select
Unfreeze All Columns.
All columns are unfrozen.
Tip: Once you unfreeze the column, you will still
need to move the column back to its old position,
if desired. Or, simply choose not to save changes
when you close the table—when you reopen it,
the columns will be in their previous positions.
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Finding, Filtering, and Formatting Data
Hiding a Column
 Exercise
• Exercise File: EmployeeList.accdb
You can temporarily hide a column when you want to
reduce the amount of information that is displayed on the
screen. Hiding a column doesn’t delete any information—
it only hides it. The procedure for hiding and unhiding a
column is almost the same as for freezing a column.
• Exercise: Hide the Last Name column, then unhide it.
Hide a column
1. Right-click the header for the column you want to
hide and select Hide Columns from the contextual
menu.
The column is hidden.
Tip: To hide multiple columns at once, select
them all, then right-click one of the selected
column headers and select Hide Columns.
Unhide a column
1. Right-click any table header and select Unhide
Columns from the contextual menu.
The Unhide Columns dialog box appears.
2. Click the check box next to each column you want to
redisplay. Click Close.
The column(s) are unhidden.
Figure 4-18: Before and after hiding the Last Name
column.
Figure 4-19: The Unhide Columns dialog box.
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Finding, Filtering, and For matting
Data Review
Quiz Questions
36.
The Replace command finds a string of text and replaces it with another string of text. (True or False?)
37.
How would you sort a Datasheet in ascending order by a date field?
A. Double-click the top of the Date field column header.
B. Select any Date field and click the Sort button in the Tools group.
C. Select any Date field and click the Ascending button in the Sort & Filter group.
D. Access can’t sort chronological information.
38.
Which of the following is not a filtering method in Access?
A. Filter by Table
B. Filter by Selection
C. Filter by Form
D. Advanced Filter/Sort
39.
Filter by Selection is the most difficult and advanced way to filter information. (True or False?)
40.
You should only use Filtering by Form when you want to use one filter criterion. (True or False?)
41.
How can you add fields to the design grid in an Advanced Filter?
A. Double-click the field from the Field List.
B. Select the field from the Add Field List on the Ribbon.
C. Right-click the grid and select Add Field from Menu.
D. Press Ctrl + X
42.
Double-click the left border of a column to automatically adjust the width of a column to fit the largest cell. (True or
False?)
43.
By default, Access displays both horizontal and vertical gridlines in a table. (True or False?)
44.
Which of the following is not a font-related option you can change in Access?
A. Font Size
B. Text Alignment
C. Bold
D. Zoom
45.
To freeze a column in Access, right-click the column’s header and select ___________.
A. Freeze Field
B. Pin Column
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C. Freeze Columns
D. Hide Column
46.
When you hide a column or field, you permanently lose all the information stored in the field. (True or False?)
Quiz Answers
36.
True. The Replace command finds a string of text and replaces it with another string of text.
37.
C. To sort a Datasheet by a date field select any Date field and click the Ascending button in the Sort & Filter group.
38.
A. Filter by Table is not a filtering option in Access.
39.
False. Filter by Selection is a fast and easy way to filter information.
40.
False. With Filter by Form you can easily filter with several criteria.
41.
A. Double-click the fields you want to add from the Field List.
42.
False. Double-click the right border of a column.
43.
True. Horizontal and vertical gridlines appear by default in Access tables.
44.
D. Zoom is not a font-related option.
45.
C. Select Freeze Columns from the contextual menu.
46.
False. The information is still there, it’s just hidden.
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Wor king with
Tables and
Fields
Understanding Field Properties ....................... 88
Indexing a Field ................................................. 90
Adding a Primary Key to a Table...................... 92
Inserting, Deleting, and Reordering Fields ..... 94
Insert a field ............................................. 94
Change field order ................................... 94
Delete a field ............................................ 95
Adding Field Descriptions and Captions ........ 96
Changing the Field Size .................................... 97
Formatting Number, Currency, and Date/Time
Fields .................................................................. 99
Format number and currency fields ......... 99
Change the number of decimal places .... 99
Formatting Number, Currency, and Date/Time
Fields by Hand ................................................. 101
Formatting Text Fields .................................... 103
Setting a Default Value .................................... 104
Requiring Data Entry ....................................... 105
Validating Data ................................................. 106
Creating an Input Mask ................................... 108
Creating a Lookup Field .................................. 110
Creating a Value List ....................................... 112
Modifying a Lookup List ................................. 114
Modify a lookup list ................................ 114
Modify a value list .................................. 115
5
Tables are by far the most important part
of any database. Tables are where a
database stores all of its information. All
the other database objects—queries,
forms, reports, pages, and macros—are
merely tools to analyze, manipulate, and
display the information stored in a table.
Any of these other database objects are
optional—but without tables, a database
wouldn’t be a database.
If you are interested in creating your own
databases, this may be one of the most
important chapters in the entire book.
Why? Because, at their heart, the most
useful and efficient databases consist of
well-structured tables.
This chapter explains just about
everything you will ever need to know
about tables and fields: how to link two or
more related tables, how to create indexes
for faster performance, and how to create
a primary key field, which uniquely
identifies each record in a table. This
chapter also explains how to change all
the properties and settings for your tables’
fields, such as how they are formatted and
what kind of information they can store.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Understanding Field
Properties
A property is an attribute that defines an object’s
appearance, behavior, or characteristics. For example, a
car’s properties would include its color, make and model,
and shape. A property for a numeric field might be the
number of decimal places displayed or the maximum
number of characters a field can hold.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
• Exercise: Open the tblCustomers table. Click in the
LastName field and view the field’s properties in the bottom
half of the window.
Click the field name
whose properties you
want to view/change…
Just about every object in Access—every heading on a
report, every label on a form, every field in a table—has
its own set of properties that you can view and change.
This property concept might seem a little confusing at
first, but it’s something you have to learn if you want to
become proficient at using Microsoft Access. Because
you can almost always change object properties, you can
also think of an object’s properties as its settings.
To view and modify the Field Properties for a table, open
the table in Design View.
1. Double-click the table you want to open in the
Navigation pane.
The table opens in Datasheet View.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the View
button in the Views group.
The table is displayed in Design View and the Design
contextual tab appears under Table Tools on the
Ribbon.
Other Ways to Open a Table in Design View:
Right-click the table you want to open in the
Navigation pane and select Design View from the
contextual menu.
As you can see, the table design window is broken
into two sections. The top section contains the table’s
field names and the bottom section displays the
properties for the selected field. Simply click the field
name whose properties you want to view.
3. In the top part of the window, click the field name
whose properties you want to view.
To change a field property…
4. Click the property box you want to change and enter
or select the new settings.
Table 5-1: Important Field Properties describes many
important field properties. Don’t worry if some of
them seem confusing—you’ll get plenty of practice
adjusting them in other lessons.
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…and the properties for
that field appear here.
Figure 5-1: Viewing field properties in Design View.
Working with Tables and Fields
Tips

The Property Sheet displays some additional, highly
technical table properties. To hide or show the
Property Sheet, click the Design tab under Table
Tools, and click the Property Sheet button.

It’s important to note that certain types of fields have
their own sets of properties. For example, number
fields have a Decimal Places property while text
fields do not.
Table 5-1: Important Field Properties
Field Size
Text fields: The maximum number of characters (up to 255) that can be entered in the field. The default
setting is 50.
Number / Currency fields: Stores the number as a Byte, Integer, Long Integer, Single, Double, or
Replication ID, or Decimal. The default setting is Long Integer.
Format
How the data in the field will be displayed on the screen.
Input Mask
Creates a format or pattern in which data must be entered.
Decimal Places
The number of decimal places in Number and Currency fields.
Caption
A label for the field that will appear on forms. If you don’t enter a caption, Access will use the field
name as the caption.
Default Value
A value that Access enters automatically in the field for new records.
Validation Rule
An expression that limits the values that can be entered in the field.
Validation Text
The error message that appears when an incorrect or restricted value is entered in a field with a
validation rule.
Required
Specify whether or not a value must be entered in the field. The default is No.
Allow Zero Length
Specify whether or not the field allows zero-length text strings (a string containing no characters). Zerolength text strings are useful if you must enter data in a field, but no data exists. For example, if a Social
Security field requires data, but you don't know the social security number, you would enter a zerolength text string in the field. To enter a zero-length text string type "" in the cell. The cell will appear
empty. The default is No.
Indexed
Specify whether or not you want to index the field to speed up searches and sorts performed on the field.
The default is No.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Indexing a Field
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
Just like an index in a book, when you index a field, it
helps Access find and sort information quickly—
especially in large tables. You can index any field in a
table to dramatically speed up queries and sorts. When
you sort or query a large table using an indexed field,
Access finds or sorts the information by consulting the
index instead of sifting through the entire table.
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table, index the LastName
and ZipCode fields, choosing the ―Yes (Duplicates OK)‖
option. Save the changes.
Here are some more important notes about indexes:
Since indexes speed up searching and sorting, you
should index the fields you frequently use to search
or sort. For example, if you often search for specific
last names, you should create an index for the
LastName field.
Don’t index too many of a table’s fields. The more
fields you index, the slower your searches and sorts
will be—defeating the entire purpose of an index.
Only index the fields you use to search and sort data.
Any field can be indexed except memo, OLE, and
hyperlink fields.
Primary key fields are indexed automatically (we’ll
discuss primary keys more in future lessons).
If you choose, indexes can prevent duplicate entries
in your table (for example, if you don’t want to allow
two customers to have the same social security
number).
This lesson will show you how to add indexes to your
tables.
1. Open the table you want to index in Design view.
Indexing a field is a fairly simple operation. First you
need to click the name of the field you want to index.
You will want to index a field that is frequently used
to find and sort information—for example, a Last
Name field.
2. Click the field name you want to index in the top part
of the screen.
3. Click the Indexed row in the Field Properties section
and click its list arrow.
The Indexed list gives you three choices:
No: The field is not indexed. This is the default
setting.
Yes (Duplicates OK): The field is indexed and
Access will allow records in this field to have the
same value.
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Figure 5-2: Indexing a field.
Working with Tables and Fields
Yes (No Duplicates): The field is indexed and
Access won’t allow records in this field to have
the same value (for example, if you don’t want to
allow two customers to have the same social
security number).
Most of the time you will want to choose the ―Yes
(Duplicates OK)‖ option. For example, if you’re
indexing a Last Name field, you’ll want to select
―Yes (Duplicates OK)‖ since some people may have
the same last name.
4. Select an indexing option from the list.
Most of the time Access creates the index in a matter
of seconds. If you have a huge table with thousands
of records, it will take longer to create the index.
When you’re done indexing, save the changes you’ve
made to your table.
5. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar.
The indexing is saved.
Tips

If you need to remove an index from a field, select
the field, click the Indexed row’s list arrow, and
select the No option. Access will delete the field’s
index.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Adding a Primary Key to a
Table
A primary key is a special kind of indexed field that
uniquely identifies each record (row) in a table. When you
think about primary key fields, think unique—each
primary key value must be the only one of its kind in a
table. A customer ID or invoice number would be two
good examples of fields that could be used as a table’s
primary key.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table, add a primary key to
the CustomerID field. Save the change.
Here are some things you need to know about primary
keys:
A table can have only one primary key.
The values in the primary key fields must be unique.
For this reason, many people use an AutoNumber
field as their primary key. AutoNumber fields
automatically add a new, unique number to each
record in a table. Another reason to use AutoNumber
fields for your primary keys is because they are
―factless‖—meaning they don’t contain factual
information that describe the row. Factless fields are
better than factual fields like Last Name because they
are less likely to change.
A primary key field needs to always contain a value
and should rarely or never change.
Every table you create should have a primary key
because it helps keep your data organized and easy to
work with.
The primary key field is automatically indexed.
Yes/No, OLE, and hyperlink fields can’t be used as
the primary key.
The primary key is normally a single field, but two or
more fields can act together as the primary key, so
long as their combined values are unique. Such multifield keys are usually difficult and confusing to work
with, however.
Primary keys are especially important in creating
relationships between tables.
So what makes a good primary key field? The most
important consideration for a primary key is its
uniqueness. A primary key field must always be different
in every record, so you might be able to use a Customer
ID, Invoice Number, or Social Security Number field as
your table’s primary key.
Fortunately, in Access 2007 you won’t usually have to
worry about assigning a primary key because Access does
it for you. When you create a new table, Access
automatically creates a primary key with the field name
ID and the AutoNumber data type.
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Figure 5-3: Assigning a primary key to the CustomerID
field.
Working with Tables and Fields
However, if you have an existing table to which you want
to add a primary key field, you’ll want to pay close
attention to the steps in this lesson, which explain how to
add a primary key.
Tips

If a table doesn’t already have a unique field that is
suitable as the primary key, add an AutoNumber field
to your table. The AutoNumber field will
automatically add a new, unique number to each of
the records in a table.
1. Open the table you want to add a primary key to in
Design view.
2. Click the name of the field you want to use as your
primary key in the top part of the screen.
3. Under Table Tools on the Ribbon, click the Design
tab and click the Primary Key button in the Tools
group.
A key symbol appears next to the field, indicating
that it is the table’s primary key. Notice that Access
also sets the Indexed field to ―Yes (No Duplicates).‖
Access automatically indexes the field so that sorts
and queries using the field will be faster and so that
you cannot enter duplicate values in the field.
Tips

If a field appears in more than one table and is a
primary key in one table, it is called a foreign key in
the other table (because it is another table’s primary
key).

To remove a primary key, just click the Primary Key
button again. However, if the primary key is involved
in any table relationships, you’ll first need to delete
the relationships before you can remove the primary
key.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Inserting, Deleting, and
Reordering Fields
You can insert, delete, and reorder fields in your tables in
Design View. Remember that in Design View, each row
corresponds to a field in the table. You add a field by
inserting a new row and delete a field by deleting its
corresponding row.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table in Design View, insert
a field called ―MI‖ above the Phone field. Move the MI
field down before the City row. Then delete the MI field.
Tips

You can also insert, reorder, and delete fields in
Datasheet View.
Insert a field
1. Display the table you want to work with in Design
View.
To insert a new field, you must first click the row
selector for the field that will appear below the new
field you want to insert.
Figure 5-4: The Insert and Delete Rows commands in the
Tools group.
2. Click the row selector for the field that will be below
the new field you want to insert.
3. Under Table Tools on the Ribbon, click the Design
tab and click the Insert Rows button in the Tools
group.
A new row is added.
Other Ways to Insert a Field:
Right-click in the row below where you want to
insert the new field and select Insert Rows from
the contextual menu.
4. Enter a Field Name for the new field, then click the
Data Type list arrow and select a data type.
Change field order
1. In Design View, click the row selector for the field
you want to move.
2. Click and drag the selected row up or down to the
desired location.
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Figure 5-5: Inserting a new row in Design View.
Working with Tables and Fields
Delete a field
1. In Design View, click the row selector for the field
and press <Delete>.
2. Click Yes.
Other Ways to Delete a Field:
Right-click the field’s row and select Delete
Rows. Click Yes.
Tips

Once you leave Design View, you’ll need to save the
changes you’ve made to the table design.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Adding Field Descriptions and
Captions
Descriptions provide extra instructions to users about a
field, while captions allow you to create nicknames for
fields, making their names more meaningful to users..
Add a description to a field
Descriptions make your database fields easier to fill out
and use by providing users with onscreen instructions and
help. Whenever a user selects a field, anything you type in
that field’s Description box will appear in the Status bar.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table, change the DOB
field’s data type to Date/Time. Add the description ―Enter
the Customer’s Last Name‖ to the LastName field, and
―Enter the Customer’s First Name‖ to the FirstName field.
Add the caption ―Date of Birth‖ to the DOB field and
―Social Security No.‖ to the SSN field. Save the changes.
View the table in Datasheet View and notice the message in
the status bar when you click in the LastName and
FirstName fields, and the new headings for the DOB and
SSN fields.
There really isn’t anything complicated about adding a
description to a field—just type the text you want to
appear in the field’s Description box.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design View,
click the field’s Description box, and type the
description.
When you return to Datasheet View, and click
anywhere in that field, you will see the Description
appear in the Status bar.
Add a caption to a field
Think of the Caption property as a field’s pseudonym or
stage name. When you view a table in Datasheet View or
create forms and reports, Access uses the field’s Field
Name as the field’s heading. When you add a caption to a
field, however, it appears as the heading for the field
instead of the field name.
Captions are useful when you want to provide more
detailed headings for your field names. For example,
instead of displaying the rather ambiguous DOB field
name, you could add a more meaningful ―Date of Birth‖
caption to the DOB field to make the field name easier to
read and understand. The original DOB field name is not
affected in any way.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design View.
2. Click the field you want to add a caption to.
3. Click the Caption box in the Field Properties section
and type the caption.
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Figure 5-6: Once you enter a description in Design View,
it appears in the Status bar in Datasheet View.
Working with Tables and Fields
Changing the Field Size
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
The Field Size property determines the maximum size of
information that can be stored in a text or number field.
For example, if you set the size of a text field to 2, you
could enter ―MN‖ but not ―Minnesota.‖ There are several
reasons why you would want to change the size of a field:
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table in Design View,
change the State field’s size to 2 and the ZipCode field to
11. Save the changes.
Changing the field size reduces data-entry errors.
Access can process smaller field sizes more quickly.
Smaller field sizes require less hard-drive storage
space.
Field sizes work a little differently for text and number
fields. In text fields, the Field Size property determines
the maximum number of characters the field can accept.
In numerical type fields, the Field Size property
determines what type of number the field will accept.
In this lesson you will change the size of a table’s fields.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view.
2. Select the field whose size you want to change.
3. Click the Field Size box in the Field Properties
section.
Now you’re ready to change the field size. If the field
is a text field, you can type the field size value, but if
it’s a number field, you’ll need to click the list arrow
and select an option.
4. Type or select the field size. If prompted, click Yes to
complete the action.
Figure 5-7: Changing the ZipCode field’s Field Size.
Trap: Be very careful when changing the Field
Size of a field that already contains data. Access
will truncate or delete data that is larger than the
new field size.
Table 5-2: Number Field Sizes describes the field
sizes available for use with the Number data type.
Table 5-2: Number Field Sizes
Byte
Integers from 0 to 255.
Very small – not usually a good choice.
Integer
Integers from –32,768 to 32,767.
Good for small numbers with no decimals.
Long Integer
Integers from –2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647.
Works for most numbers without decimals.
Single
Positive or negative numbers up to 38 zeroes and
7 decimal places.
Good for large numbers with decimals.
Double
Positive or negative numbers up to 308 zeroes and
15 decimal places.
For really big numbers with decimals.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Table 5-2: Number Field Sizes
Replication ID
Long unique codes.
Used when you want to merge copies of a
database.
Decimal
Positive or negative numbers up to 28 zeroes and
28 decimal places.
Good for numbers with lots of decimals.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Formatting Number, Currency,
and Date/Time Fields
A field’s Format property changes how information
appears in the field, not how the data is actually stored in
the field. For example, a date field could be formatted to
display the same value as 6/10/2000; Saturday, June 10,
2000; or 10-Jun-00. Each field type has its own set of
formats. For example, number fields have a different set
of formats than date/time or text fields.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
• Exercise: Open the tblCustomerTours table in Datasheet
View and study the formats of the Date and Cost fields.
Switch to Design View. Format the Date field to Medium
Date. Format the Cost field so that it has 0 decimal places.
Save the changes, then switch back to Datasheet View and
notice how the formatting has changed in the Date and Cost
fields.
There are two ways to format a number, currency and
date/time field:
Selecting a ready-made format from the Format list
(the easy way). For most people, the ready-made
formats listed in Table 5-3: Number and Date/Time
Formats will be all you will ever need to format your
fields.
Typing a series of formatting characters by hand in
the Format box (the hard way).
This lesson explains the first way—how to format
number, currency, and date/time fields by selecting a
ready-made format. We’ll also look at how to change the
number of decimal places.
Figure 5-8: Formatting the Date field in Design View.
Format number and currency fields
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view and
click the field you want to format.
2. Click the Format box in the Field Properties section.
A list arrow appears in the Format box. You can
format this field the easy way by clicking the arrow
to select from a list of ready-made number formats.
3. Click the list arrow and select a number format.
Change the number of decimal places
You can also specify how many decimal places you want
numbers in a field to display. To change the number of
decimal places in a number field, enter the number of
decimal places you want displayed in the Decimal Places
box.
Figure 5-9: Before and after formatting the Date and Cost
fields.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view and
click the field you want to format.
2. Click the Decimal Places box in the Field Properties
section.
A list arrow appears.
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Working with Tables and Fields
3. Click the list arrow and select the number of decimal
places you want to display.
Now Access will only display the number of
decimals you selected.
Table 5-3: Number and Date/Time Formats
Number Format:
Example:
Date/Time Format:
Example:
General Number
1234.567
General Date
6/10/2000 6:35:21 PM
Currency
$1,234.57
Long Date
Saturday, June 10, 2000
Euro
€1,234.57
Medium Date
10-Jun-00
Fixed
1234.57
Short Date
6/10/2000
Standard
1,234.57
Long Time
6:35:21 PM
Percent
123456.70%
Medium Time
6:35 PM
Scientific
1.23E+03
Short Time
18:35
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Working with Tables and Fields
 Exercise
Formatting Number, Currency,
and Date/Time Fields by Hand
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
• Exercise: Open the tblCustomerTours table Design View,
enter ―ddd mmm d‖ in the Format box for the Date field.
Save the change and view the Date field in Datasheet View.
If none of the ready-made number, currency, or date/time
formats meet your needs, you can format fields the oldfashioned way—by hand. Formatting fields requires that
you tell Access how you want the field to be formatted by
typing the appropriate formatting characters in the Format
box. Manual formatting is difficult, but it gives you
complete flexibility on how the field displays its
information.
In this lesson you will learn how to format number,
currency, and date/time fields by hand.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view and
click the field you want to format.
2. Click the Format box in the Field Properties section.
You can use Table 5-4: Number, Currency, and
Date/Time Formatting Characters to help you know
what characters to enter. You can mix and match any
of the characters—for example, you could add
―mmmm‖ (full name of month) to ―yy‖ (last two
digits of the year) to get ―January 00.‖
Figure 5-10: Manually changing the format of the Date
field.
3. Enter the appropriate formatting characters or
symbols for how you want the date or number to be
formatted.
Table 5-4: Number, Currency, and Date/Time Formatting Characters
Date/Time Formatting Characters:
Character
Description
Format
Display
:
Time separator
h:nn
8:45
/
Date separator
m/d/yy
10/8/00
-
Date separator
m-d-yy
10-8-00
d
Day in one or two numeric digits
m/d/yy
10/8/00
dd
Day in two numeric digits
m/dd/yy
10/08/00
ddd
First three letters of the weekday
ddd, m/d/yy
Sun, 3/8/00
dddd
Full name of the weekday
dddd, m/d/yy
Sunday, 3/8/00
m
Month in one or two digits
m/d/yy
3/15/00
mm
Month in two digits
mm/dd/yy
03/15/00
mmm
First three letters of the month
mmm-d-yy
Mar-15-00
mmmm
Full name of the month
mmmm d, yyyy
March 15, 2000
yy
Last two digits of the year
m/d/yy
3/15/00
yyyy
Full year
mmmm d, yyyy
March 15, 2000
h
Hour in one or two digits
h:n
8:45
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Table 5-4: Number, Currency, and Date/Time Formatting Characters
hh
Hour in two digits
hh:nn
08:45
nn
Minute in two digits
hh:nn
13:09
ss
Second in two digits
hh:nn:ss
10:45:07
AM/PM
Twelve-hour clock (uppercase)
hh:nn AM/PM
08:45 AM
am/pm
Twelve-hour clock (lowercase)
hh:nn am/pm
08:45 am
Number Formatting Characters:
Character
Description
Data
Format
Display
#
Display a digit or nothing
50
#
50
0
Display a digit or 0
50
#.00
50.00
.
Display a decimal separator
50
#.
50.
,
Display thousands separator
5000
#,###
5,000
$
Display the $ currency symbol
50
$#.00
$50.00
%
Multiply the value by 100 and
add a percent sign
0.5
#%
50%
E-, E+, e-, e+
Scientific notation
500000
#.00E+00
5.00E+05
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 Exercise
Formatting Text Fields
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
Just like number, currency, and date/time fields, a text
field’s Format property changes how information appears
in the field. The Format property only changes how data
is displayed on screen, not how the data is actually stored
in the field.
• Exercise: Open the tblCustomers table in Datasheet View
and enter a new record. Add your own personal information
to the fields, but enter the abbreviation in the State field in
all lowercase letters. Display the table in Design View and
type ―>‖ in the State field’s format box. Save the changes
and return to Datasheet View, where the State abbreviation
is now uppercase.
Unfortunately, unlike number fields, text fields don’t have
any ready-made settings built into them and must be
formatted manually. Luckily, text fields don’t have nearly
as many formatting options as number, currency, and
date/time fields. The most common of these text
formatting characters are the greater than symbol (>),
which makes all text in the field appear in uppercase, and
the less than symbol (<), which makes all text in the field
appear in lowercase, regardless of how it was entered. In
both cases, Access actually stores the data exactly as it
was typed.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view and
click the text field you want to format.
2. Click the Format box in the Field Properties section.
3. Enter the appropriate text formatting symbols.
Tips

Remember that the Format property only changes
how data is displayed onscreen, not how the data is
actually stored in the field.
Figure 5-11: Formatting the State field to display only
uppercase letters.
Table 5-5: General and Text Formatting Symbols
Character
Description
Text
Format
Display
!
Aligns text from the right
Hello
!
Hello
<
Lowercase
Hello
<
hello
>
Uppercase
Hello
>
HELLO
"ABC"
Always displays quoted text
4
&" oz."
4 oz.
@
Character is required
5558000
@@@[email protected]@@@
555-8000
*
Fill available space with next character
Alert
&*!
Alert!!!!!!!!!!
[color]
Displays value in color
Hello
[red]
Hello
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Working with Tables and Fields
Setting a Default Value
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
You can enter a default value to specify a value that is
automatically entered in a field when a new record is
created. For example, if most of your clients are from
Texas, you could set the default value for the State field to
―TX.‖ When a user adds a record to the table, they can
either accept the ―TX‖ default value for the State field or
enter their own value.
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table, make the default
value for the State field ―MN‖. Save the change, switch to
Datasheet View, scroll down to the New record row, and
notice that MN is automatically entered in the State field.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view and
click the field you want to add a default value to.
2. Click the Default Value box in the Field Properties
section.
3. Enter the default value you want to appear in the field
for new records.
Tips

A common default value used in Date fields is the
current date. To automatically add the current date,
type =Date() in the field.
Figure 5-12: A default value is automatically entered in a
new record.
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Default value
Working with Tables and Fields
Requiring Data Entry
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
In most tables, there are usually at least a few fields that
absolutely must contain data in order for the record to be
meaningful. For example, at the absolute minimum, a
customer record needs to have the customer’s first and
last name—otherwise, why bother entering it? You can
specify that a field must contain data to prevent users
from leaving out important information when they are
entering data.
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table, make LastName a
required field. Add a new field to the table, leaving the
LastName field blank. Try to save the record (Access won’t
let you). Delete the new record.
This lesson explains how you can make sure that a field
has a value for each record.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view and
click the field you want to require data entry for.
2. Click the Required box in the Field Properties
section.
Here’s how to prevent a user from leaving out data in
a field.
3. Click the list arrow and select Yes.
From now on, if a user tries to add a record without
entering a value for this field, Access will display a
dialog box stating that the field cannot contain a null
value.
Figure 5-13: Making the LastName field required.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Validating Data
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
Without a doubt, data validation is the most powerful tool
you can use to prevent data-entry errors. With data
validation, Access actually tests data to make sure that it
conforms to what you want to appear in the table. If the
incoming data doesn’t meet your requirements, Access
rejects it and displays an error message. For example, in
an Employees table you could specify that the DOB field
cannot be later than today’s date. (You can’t have
employees with birthdays in the future, after all.)
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table, add the validation rule
―<Date()‖ to the DOB field. Add the validation text ―Date
must not be later than today’s date.‖ Save and switch to
Datasheet View. Try to change the Date of Birth field for
any record to tomorrow’s date and press <Enter>. Click OK
and press <Esc> to cancel the change.
Data validation works best in number, currency, and
date/time fields. You can create a validation rule for text
entries, but doing so can be complicated—especially if
you want to test a lot of text variables.
There are actually two boxes that relate to data validation:
Validation Rule box: Used to specify the
requirements for data entered into the field.
Validation Text box: Used to specify the message
that will be displayed to the user when data that
violates the validation rule is entered.
Figure 5-14: Adding a validation rule and text in Design
View.
Creating data validation rules can be a little tricky—you
create a data validation using the same hard-to-remember
operators that you use in filters and queries. Here’s how:
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view and
click the field you want to apply a validation rule to.
2. Click the Validation Rule box in the Field Properties
section.
3. Enter an expression you want to use to validate the
field’s data.
Table 5-6: Data Validation Examples describes some
data validations that you can modify and use in your
tables.
Next you have to specify the error message that
Access will display if someone tries to break your
validation rule by entering a future date.
4. Click the Validation Text box in the Field Properties
section.
5. Type the text that Access will display when the user
tries to enter incorrect data for the field.
Now whenever a user violates the validation rule,
Access will display the validation text.
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Figure 5-15: If you break a validation rule, Access
disallows the action and displays the validation text.
Working with Tables and Fields
Consider Table 5-6: Data Validation Examples your data
validation ―cheat sheet.‖ It contains samples of the most
common types of validation rules. Feel free to copy,
modify, or mix and match these examples to create your
own validation rules.
Table 5-6: Data Validation Examples
Validation Rule
Description
<100
Must be less than 100.
<=100
Must be less than or equal to 100.
Between 1 and 10
Must be between 1 and 10.
<>0
Must not equal 0.
<1/1/95
Must be a date before 1/1/95.
>= Date( )
Must be today’s date or later.
<= Date( )
Must be today’s date or earlier.
"Business" Or "Pleasure"
Or "Other"
Must be ―Business‖ or ―Pleasure‖ or ―Other.‖
Like "??"
Must have two characters.
Like "####"
Must have four numbers.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Creating an Input Mask
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
An Input Mask limits the amount and type of information
that can be entered in a field. You have probably already
seen an example of an input mask on an ordinary paper
form—the type of form that wants you to write down your
phone number or social security number a certain way
and thus provides you with a guide like (___) ___ - _____
or ____-___-______. Look familiar? That’s an input
mask, pure and simple. There are two ways to create an
input mask:
• Exercise: In the tblCustomers table, create an input mask
for the Phone field using the Phone Number input mask.
Select the ―With the symbols in the mask‖ option. Save the
change and switch to Datasheet View. Go to the New record
row and click in the Phone field to see the input mask.
Use the Input Mask Wizard to create the input
mask for you (the fast and easy way). The only
problem with the Input Mask Wizard is that it can
only help you create input masks for phone numbers,
social security numbers, Zip Codes, and date and
time fields.
Create the input mask yourself by typing a series of
characters in the Input Mask box (the hard way). If
you want to use this method, refer to Table 5-7: Input
Mask Characters to see what you have to enter in
order to create an input mask.
In this lesson you will learn how to use the Input Mask
Wizard to add an input mask to a field.
1. Make sure the table is displayed in Design view and
click the field you want to create an input mask for.
Figure 5-16: The Input Mask Wizard.
2. Click the Input Mask box in the Field Properties
area (the bottom half of the window).
The Build button appears next to the Input Mask box.
Other Ways to Create an Input Mask:
Enter characters directly into the Input Mask box
in the Field Properties area.
3. Click the Build button to start the Input Wizard.
The first step of the Input Mask Wizard appears. All
you need to do here is select the input mask you want
to choose.
If you want to try an input mask to see how it works,
click the input mask you want to use and then type
some sample text in the ―Try It‖ box.
4. Select an input mask from the predefined list and
click Next.
Here you can customize the input mask to your
specifications.
5. Make modifications to the characters in the Input
Mask box, if desired. Click the Placeholder
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Figure 5-17: An input mask in the Phone field.
Working with Tables and Fields
character list arrow to select a different placeholder,
if desired. Click Next.
The next step of the Input Wizard is very important—
specifying how Access should store your data. You
have two choices:
With the symbols in the mask: This will store
only the text you type in the field and the input
mask symbols. For example, if you enter
5555555555 in a Phone field, Access will save the
input mask symbols with the text you enter, so
(555) 555-5555 would be saved.
Without the symbols in the mask: This will
store only the text you type in the field. For
example, if you enter 5555555555 in a Phone
field, Access will display (555) 555-5555 but only
store the numbers you typed (5555555555).
This may not seem like much of an issue, and really
isn’t unless you want to export your table. Then you
will have to work with the results of the decision you
made here: the phone numbers will be in either
5555555555 or (555) 555-5555 format.
6. Select an option for storing your data and click Next.
Click Finish.
Now whenever you enter data into that field, the
input mask will appear to guide you.
Table 5-7: Input Mask Characters
Character
Description
Character
Description
0
Numbers 0 to 9 required; plus and minus signs
not allowed.
&
Character or space required.
9
Number or space optional; plus and minus signs
not allowed.
C
Character or space optional.
#
Number or space optional; plus and minus signs
not allowed.
<
Converts the following characters to lowercase.
.,:;-/
Decimal point, thousands, date, and time
separators.
>
Converts the following characters to uppercase.
A
Letter or number required.
!
Displays characters from right to left, rather than
left to right.
a
Letter or number optional.
\
Displays the following input mask character. For
example, \* would display *.
L
Letters A to Z required.
Password
Displays an asterisk( * ) for each character you
type.
?
Letter or number optional.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Creating a Lookup Field
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
Lookup fields are definitely one of the coolest and most
powerful features in Access. A lookup field lets you pick a
field’s entry from a list of values. There are two ways that
a lookup field can get its list of values:
From a Lookup List: A list of values in a table or
query. For example, instead of entering a CustomerID
number, you could select it from a list of customers.
From a Value List: A list of values or options that
you enter yourself. For example, you could add the
values ―FedEx,‖ ―UPS,‖ and ―AirBorne‖ to a
Shipping field.
• Exercise: Open the tblCustomerTours table in Design
View. Click the Data Type box next to the CustomerID
field, click the list arrow, and select Lookup Wizard. Select
the tblCustomers table, add the CustomerID, LastName, and
FirstName fields to the Selected Fields list, and finish the
Lookup Wizard. Save the changes and switch to Datasheet
View. Click the CustomerID field for any record, then click
the list arrow that appears to access a list of customers.
Press <Esc>.
In this lesson, we’ll look at the first way—using a list of
values in a table or query.
1. Display the table in Design view.
2. Click the field’s Data Type box, click the list arrow,
and select Lookup Wizard.
The Lookup Wizard dialog box appears, asking if you
want your lookup field to get its values from another
table or query or if you want to type a list of options
yourself.
3. Click the I want the lookup column to look up the
values in a table or query option and click Next.
The next step in the Lookup Wizard is to select the
table or query that contains the values for your
lookup field. Because you can use queries to sort and
filter information, consider using them as the source
for your lookup fields.
4. Select the table or query you want to use for the
lookup list and click Next.
Now you have to select the fields that contain the
values you want to display in your lookup field.
This step can be a little confusing at first. You need to
add the field that contains the value you want to
enter—for example, the CustomerID field—but you
also want to add several fields that will display more
meaningful information in the value list, such as the
LastName and FirstName fields.
5. Double-click the fields you want to add to the lookup
field and click Next.
Other Ways to Add Fields:
Select the field in the Available Fields list and
click the arrow buttons to add or remove them
from the Selected Fields list.
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Figure 5-18: The Lookup Wizard.
Working with Tables and Fields
The next step in the Lookup Wizard dialog box is
selecting a sort order for your list. You can sort
records by up to four fields, in either ascending or
descending order.
6. Select a sort order for your list (optional) and click
Next.
This next step allows you to adjust the width of the
columns in your lookup list. To adjust the width of a
column, drag its right edge to the width you want, or
double-click the right edge of the column heading to
get the best fit.
You can also indicate whether or not to include the
primary key in the column by checking or
unchecking the ―Hide key column‖ check box. Any
primary key fields will be hidden by default to make
the lookup field less confusing.
Tip: If the table or query you are working with
does not have a primary key, the ―Hide key
column‖ check box will not appear. The Lookup
Wizard will instead include an additional step
where you will be prompted to select the column
that uniquely identifies the row.
7. Adjust the width of the columns that will appear in
the lookup list and, if necessary, select whether or not
to hide the key column. Click Next. If necessary,
click Next again.
Figure 5-19: A Lookup List.
8. Enter a label for the lookup column and click Finish.
Tip: New for 2007, you can select to Allow
Multiple Values. If you check this box, Access
allows you to select multiple values from your list
and store them in a single field (a multi-value
field) For example, if a single product is made in
two different countries, you can display both
countries.
Now you can use the lookup list.
9. Click the Design tab under Table Tools on the Ribbon
and click the View button in the View group to return
to Datasheet View. Click Yes to save the table.
10. Click any record in the column where you created the
lookup list. Click the list arrow and select a value
from the list.
Tip: You can also select an option from a lookup
field by typing the first few letters of the entry.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Creating a Value List
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
Similar to the lookup list, a value list displays a list of
values in a drop-down list. Unlike a lookup list, which
displays data in a table or query, a value list displays a list
of options that you manually enter. A value list is useful if
you enter the same data in a field again and again. For
example, if you ship a product using three different
courier services, you could create a value list that displays
the three courier services, such as AirBorne, FedEx, and
UPS.
• Exercise: View the tblCustomerTours table in Design
View. Use the Lookup Wizard to create a value list for the
Ship Via field. In Col1, enter Airborne, FedEx, and UPS.
Save the changes and switch to Datasheet View. Click the
Ship Via field for any record, then click the list arrow that
appears to access the list of shipping options you just
entered.
Although it’s possible to change the options displayed in a
value list, doing so is a rather cumbersome process. For
that reason, you should only use value lists for values that
will not change very often. If you want to display a lot of
options, such as a list of state abbreviations or values that
may change frequently, you should create a table to store
those values and then display them with a lookup list
instead. It’s a lot easier to change values in a table than it
is to change options in a value list.
This lesson will show you how to create a value list that
contains several static options.
1. Display the table in Design view.
2. Click the field’s Data Type box, click the list arrow,
and select Lookup Wizard.
Figure 5-20: Entering values into the Lookup Wizard.
The Lookup Wizard dialog box appears, asking if you
want your lookup field to get its values from another
table or query or if you want to type a list of options
yourself.
3. Click the I will type in the values that I want option
and click Next.
The next step of the Lookup Wizard appears. This
step is pretty easy—simply enter the options you
want to be displayed in the value list.
4. In Col1, enter the values you want to be displayed in
the value list. Resize the column if necessary and
click Next.
Tip: There is only one column of values by
default, but you can add more. If you do so, an
extra screen will appear after you click Next,
asking you which of the column contains the
values you actually want to store in the database
(the other columns will just be there to give you
more information about which value to select).
5. Enter a label for the lookup column and click Finish.
Tip: Here you can select to Allow Multiple
Values. If you check this box, Access will allow
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Figure 5-21: Selecting an option from a value list.
Working with Tables and Fields
you to select multiple values from your list and
store them in a single field.
Once you return to Datasheet View and click the list
arrow in any record in the column, you’ll be able to
see the value list you entered and select a value to
populate the field.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Modifying a Lookup List
Modifying an existing lookup field isn’t nearly as
straightforward as creating one. You can display and
modify the properties for a lookup field by clicking on the
Lookup tab in the Field Properties section. There are a
many different reasons why you would want to modify a
lookup field, including:
 Exercise
• Exercise File: CustomerTours.accdb
• Exercise: View the tblCustomerTours table in Design
View. Open the CustomerID field’s lookup field in the
Query Builder window and sort Ascending by the LastName
field. Close the Query Builder window and save your
changes. Then add another option, ―US Mail‖ to the Ship
Via field’s value list. Save your changes.
To sort the records in a lookup list. For example, to
sort the records in a lookup list alphabetically by last
name.
To add, change, or delete the static options in a value
list. For example, you could add ―U.S. Postal
Service‖ to a Ship Via value list.
Modify a lookup list
1. Display the table in Design view.
Display and change the properties for a lookup field
by clicking the Lookup tab in the Field Properties
section.
2. Click the field name for a field that contains a lookup
list based on a table or query, then click the Lookup
tab in the Field Properties section.
The properties for the field’s lookup field are
displayed. You can learn more about these properties
in Table 5-8: Lookup Field Properties.
Row Source button
to launch the Query
Builder window.
3. Click the Row Source box.
The data in this box (which should look something
like SELECT [tblCustomers].[CustomerID]) is a SQL
statement. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a
language most database programs use to create
queries; it tells lookup fields where to get their
values. Fortunately, you don’t have to know how to
write SQL to modify a lookup field—you can use the
familiar query grid to create the SQL statement for
you.
Figure 5-22: Modifying a lookup list.
4. Click the Row Source button.
The Query Builder window appears, displaying a
query grid. Here you can change the fields included
in the lookup list, or you could add or remove a sort.
5. Make the desired changes and then click the Query
Builder window’s Close button. Click Yes to save the
changes.
Figure 5-23: The Query Builder window.
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Working with Tables and Fields
Modify a value list
1. Display the table in Design view.
Display and change the properties for a lookup field
by clicking the Lookup tab in the Field Properties
section.
2. Click the field name for a field that contains a value
list, then click the Lookup tab in the Field Properties
section.
The properties for the field’s lookup field are
displayed.
3. Click the Row Source box.
The Row Source box contains the value list options.
For example, it could contain the text
"Airbone";"FedEx";"UPS". You can add or edit
options in the value list by typing in the Row Source
box—just make sure that the options are enclosed by
quotation marks (") and separated by a semi colon (;).
Figure 5-24: In Design View, modify a value list on the
Lookup tab in the Field Properties area.
4. Edit the value list options as desired in the Row
Source box.
5. Save your changes.
Table 5-8: Lookup Field Properties
Property:
Description:
Display Control
Determines whether the lookup field is a text box, combo box, or list box.
Row Source Type
Determines how Access provides data to the lookup field: from a table or query, from a list of values
specified in the Row Source box, or from a list of field names in a table or query.
Row Source
Determines what is displayed in the lookup field. The Row Source property setting depends on the Row
Source Type property setting.
Bound Column
The column in the lookup list that contains the value that is actually stored in the field. The bound
column is the first column (1) by default.
Column Count
The number of columns that are displayed in the lookup field list.
Column Widths
The width of each column that is displayed in the lookup field list. Setting a column width to 0 hides the
column.
Limit to List
Determines whether a field can accept a value that is not in the lookup list.
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Review
Quiz Questions
47.
To view and modify the Field Properties for a table, open the table in ________ View.
A. Table
B. Property
C. Design
D. Datasheet
48.
Indexing fields speeds up searching and sorting. (True or False?)
49.
Which of the following fields would NOT make a suitable primary key?
A. A memo field
B. A social security number
C. An AutoNumber field
D. An invoice number
50.
In Design View, commands for inserting and deleting columns are found on the Design tab in the _______ group.
A. Show/Hide
B. Tools
C. Add
D. Insert
51.
Text entered in a field’s Description box will appear in a pop-up window whenever a user selects that field. (True or
False?)
52.
The Field Size property works differently, depending on whether the field is a text or number field. (True or False?)
53.
Changing the formatting of a field changes how the information is stored in the field. (True or False?)
54.
Which of the following Format properties would display the full name of the month?
A. mmmm
B. mm
C. FULLMONTH
D. MONTH
55.
What would adding a > to the Format box of a text field do?
A. Require all characters entered in the field to be uppercase.
B. Display the text in the field in uppercase.
C. Require all characters in the field to be numbers.
D. Display the text in the field in a larger font.
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56.
Which of the following can you use to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is
created?
A. A lookup value
B. A numeric value
C. An automatic value
D. A default value
57.
The Required property determines if a user must enter a value in a field or not.
58.
There are two properties that relate to validation. (True or False?)
59.
An input mask only affects how information is displayed in a field - not how it is actually stored. (True or False?)
60.
You want to create a field that lets you add a customer's name by picking it from a list arrow. Which of the following
fields would let you do this?
A. A memo field
B. An OLE field
C. A lookup field
D. A hyperlink field
61.
A value list looks up values in a table or query. (True or False?)
62.
Where in the Field Properties can you go to modify a Value or Lookup list?
A. The Lookup tab
B. The General tab
C. The Lookup field
D. The SQL field
Quiz Answers
47.
C. Display a table in Design View to see its Field Properties.
48.
True. Indexing allows you to search or sort fields faster.
49.
A. You can’t use memo fields as primary keys.
50.
In Design View, commands for inserting and deleting columns are found on the Design tab in the Tools group.
51.
False. Text in the field’s Description box will appear in the Status bar when a user selects that field.
52.
True. Text fields and Number/Currency fields have a different set of Field Size properties.
53.
False. Formatting a field only changes how the field displays information, not how it stores it.
54.
A. mmmm would display the full name of the month.
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55.
B. Adding a > to a text field’s Format box would display all its text in uppercase.
56.
D. A default value lets you specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is created.
57.
True. The required property does determine if a user must enter a value in a field or not.
58.
True. The Validation Rule and Validation Text properties both help you create a validation.
59.
False. Depending on your preferences, an input mask can store information with or without symbols (i.e. (800) 5551212 vs. 8005551212).
60.
C. A lookup field lets you select a value from a list arrow.
61.
False. A value list contains a list of preset values. A lookup list looks up values in a table or query.
62.
A. The Lookup tab lets you modify a Value or Lookup list.
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Creating
Relational
Databases
Understanding Table Relationships .............. 120
Planning a relational database .............. 120
Creating Relationships Between Tables ....... 122
Enforcing Referential Integrity ....................... 124
Printing and Deleting Relationships .............. 126
Understanding Relationship Types ............... 128
6
This chapter covers what many people
agree is one of the most difficult database
concepts—how to create and work with
relational databases. A relational database
contains two or more tables that are
related to each other in some way. For
example, a database might contain a
Customers table and an Invoices table that
contains the customer’s orders.
In this chapter you will learn how to link
tables in an existing database together in a
one-to-many relationship to create a
relational database. You will also learn
how to enforce referential integrity
between those tables to keep records in
related fields valid and accurate.
Relational databases can be confusing at
first, so we’ll take things slowly and
explain everything in great detail as we
go. Let’s get started!
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
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Creating Relational Databases
Understanding Table
Relationships
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
• Exercise: Understand the steps of planning a database.
There are two basic types of databases:
Flat File: Think of a Rolodex when you think of a
flat-file database. A flat-file database stores all of its
information—names, addresses, etc.—in the same
place, just like addresses are stored on a Rolodex
card. Flat-file databases are incredibly simple to
create and use, but they’re not very powerful or well
suited to many business tasks.
Relational: A relational database contains multiple
tables that are related through matching fields. Figure
6-1 illustrates the design of a relational database. It
has two tables—one that stores customer names and
addresses, and another that stores customer orders.
The two tables are related or linked by a common
field. Relational databases are very powerful, but
developing one takes a lot of skill, a lot of practice,
and a strong understanding of tables and fields.
Microsoft Access can create either type of database—flat
file or relational. However, most Access databases tend to
be of the relational type.
Still fuzzy about how relational databases work? Look
closer at Figure 6-1. To track customers and their orders,
the database uses two tables: Customers and Orders. Each
table contains fields that store similar information. The
Customers table contains only information about
customers and their addresses. The Orders table contains
only information about any orders that were placed—it
doesn’t contain any information about the customers. The
two tables both have an ID field, and it’s this ID field that
relates or links the two tables.
Relational databases save storage space by cutting down
on duplicate data. For example, the database in Figure 6-1
stores information in two related tables and eliminates the
need to reenter a customer’s name and address each time
that customer places a new order.
Planning a relational database
Relational databases require lots of planning ahead.
Before you attempt to create one, sit down with a pen and
paper and walk through the following steps:
Determine the Purpose of the Database: Write
down a list of the reports and lists that you want to
come out of the database. This may seem a little
backward at first, but these reports are the reason
you’re creating the database.
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Figure 6-1: This example of a relational database tracks
customers and their orders in two separate—but related—
tables.
Primary Key
Related Field
Figure 6-2: Before creating table relationships, sketch a
diagram of your database, including its tables and how
they relate to each other.
Creating Relational Databases
Make a list of the reports and lists you want to see
and then sketch some samples of these reports and
lists—be as detailed as possible. This will help
determine the tables and fields to include in your
database.
Write Down the Fields You Need: This should be an
easy step once you have determined the purpose of
your database and have sketched some sample reports
and lists.
Organize and Group Related Fields into Separate
Tables: Each table in the database should be based on
only one subject. By breaking each subject into its
own table, you avoid redundant information and
make the database more organized. If your table
contains fields like Item 1, Item 2, Item 3, Item 4, and
so on, you should probably break each item up into
its own table.
Identify and Add Fields Common to Each Table:
In Figure 6-1, the Customers table’s ID field links to
the Orders table’s ID field. One of the linked fields
should be the table’s primary key.
Sketch a Diagram of Your Database: Create a
diagram of your database similar to the one shown in
Figure 4-3. Draw a box for each of your tables and
write the table’s field names inside that box. Draw a
line between the related fields. Most table
relationships are a one-to-many relationship. This
means that a record in one table may be related to one
or more records in another table.
For example, in Figure 6-1, each record in the
Customers table is related to one or more records in
the Orders table. This makes sense because,
hopefully, most customers will place more than one
order. You should indicate the two sides of the
relationship by drawing a ―1‖ on the ―one‖ side of the
relationship line and an infinity symbol on the
―many‖ side of the relationship line.
All this writing and planning may seem like a lot of work,
but they’re both critical steps in creating a sound
database.
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Creating Relational Databases
Creating Relationships
Between Tables
Once you begin to understand the concept of relational
databases, the process of actually linking the tables in a
database is rather simple. You link related tables by
connecting the table’s common fields in Access’s
Relationships window. The Relationships window lets
you view, create, and modify relationships among tables
in a database.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Company.accdb
• Exercise: Open the Relationships window and add the
tblCustomers, tblCustomerTours, and tblTours tables to the
window. Link the TourID field in the tblTours table to the
TourID field in the tblCustomerTours table. Save the
change.
Keep the following rules in mind as you link two tables:
Linked fields should be (almost) identical.
Related fields must have the same data type and field
size and must contain the same kind of information.
Related fields don’t have to have the same field name
but they should, to avoid confusion. The most
common problem people have when they try to link
two tables is caused by fields with different data
types and/or sizes.
Figure 6-3: The Show/Hide group.
The primary key in one table is usually linked with a
matching field in the other table.
Fields related to an AutoNumber primary key field
must be Number fields with the Long Integer Field
Size.
Now you’re ready to create a relationship between the
tables in your database. Here’s how:
1. Click the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon and click
the Relationships button in the Show/Hide group.
The Design contextual tab appears under
Relationship Tools and a Relationships window
appears.
Figure 6-4: The Edit Relationships dialog box.
Tip: If relationships already exist between the
tables in your database, each of these tables will
appear in a small box with lines connecting the
table’s linked fields.
First you have to add the tables that you want to
relate using the Show Table dialog box.
2. Click the Show Table button in the Relationships
group.
The Show Table dialog box appears.
3. Click the table you want to add and click Add.
Repeat as necessary.
The table appears in the Relationships window.
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Figure 6-5: Linked tables in the Relationships window.
Creating Relational Databases
4. Click the Close button in the Show Table dialog box.
Now you’re ready to start relating the tables you
added. Relating tables may sound difficult, but it’s
really nothing more than dragging and dropping the
field you want to use to link one table to the other.
Tip: Before you can drag and drop the matching
field from one table to the other, you have to
make sure the linking fields in both tables are
visible.
5. Click the related field in the first table and drag it to
the related field in the second table.
Dragging a field from one table to another in the
Relationships window links the two tables using the
selected field.
Tip: Access is very picky about where you point,
click, drag, and drop. You need to be very
accurate and drag the pointer right next to the
field you’re linking to.
The Edit Relationships dialog box appears. What’s
especially important here is the Enforce Referential
Integrity check box. Referential integrity helps you
avoid ―orphan‖ records and maintains database
accuracy. For example, checking the Enforce
Referential Integrity box would ensure that you could
not enter an invoice for a customer in an Invoice
table unless that same customer existed in a
Customers table. We’ll discuss referential integrity
more in another lesson.
6. Check the Enforce Referential Integrity (optional),
then click the Create button to create the
relationship.
The tables are now linked.
7. Click the Close button in the Relationships group on
the Design tab and click Yes to save the changes.
Other Ways to Relate Tables:
Display a table in Datasheet View, click the
Datasheet tab under Table Tools on the Ribbon,
and click the Add Existing Fields button in the
Fields & Columns group to display the Field List.
Drag a field from a different table from the Field
List pane onto the datasheet.
Tips

If you can’t see all your table relationships, click the
All Relationships button in the Relationships group
on the Design contextual tab under Relationship
Tools on the Ribbon.
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Creating Relational Databases
Enforcing Referential Integrity
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Company.accdb
When you create a relationship between two tables, it is
usually a good idea to enforce referential integrity. What
does that mean? Referential integrity keeps records in
related fields valid and accurate. Referential integrity
ensures that you don’t accidentally change or delete
related data in one table but not in the other. For example,
say you were using two related Social Security fields to
link two tables. Referential integrity would not allow you
to change the Social Security number in one record
without changing the Social Security number in the other
related records.
• Exercise: In the Relationships window, link the
CustomerID field in the tblCustomers table to the
CustomerID field in the tblCustomerTours table, and check
the Enforce Referential Integrity, Cascade Update Related
Fields and Cascade Deleted Fields boxes. Save the changes.
Access is very picky about when you can set referential
integrity. You can only use referential integrity when all
of the following conditions are met:
One of the linked fields is a primary key
The related fields are the same data type and size. (If
you are using an AutoNumber field, you can relate it
to a Number field with a Long Integer Field size.)
Both tables are in the same Access database.
You can’t have a record in a related table unless a
matching record already exists in the primary table.
Orphan data in a related table is the most common
problem people encounter when attempting to
establish referential integrity.
Once you have established referential integrity, the
following rules are set:
Figure 6-6: The Edit Relationships dialog box with
Referential Integrity enforced.
You can’t add a record to a related table unless a
matching record already exists in the primary table.
You can’t change the value of a primary key in the
primary table if matching records exist in the related
table (unless you select the Cascade Update Related
Fields option).
You can’t delete a record from a primary table if
matching records exist in a related table (unless you
select the Cascade Delete Related Records option).
One-to-many relationship: The 1 symbol indicates that each
CustomerID number can be listed only one time in the
tblCustomers table and the infinity symbol indicates that each
CustomerID number can be listed many times in the
tblCustomerTours table.
In this lesson you will learn how to enforce referential
integrity.
1. Click the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon and click
the Relationships button in the Show/Hide group.
The Relationships window appears.
2. If necessary, click the Design contextual tab, click the
Show Table button in the Relationships group, and
add tables to the Relationships window.
Once you have more than one table added, you can
relate the tables and enforce referential integrity.
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Figure 6-7: Related tables.
Creating Relational Databases
3. Click the related field in the first table and drag it to
the related field in the second table.
The Edit Relationships dialog box appears.
Other Ways to Display the Edit Relationships
Dialog Box:
To edit (instead of create) a relationship, doubleclick the line connecting the tables to display the
Edit Relationships dialog box. Or, click the Edit
Relationships button in the Tools group on the
Design tab.
Now let’s enforce referential integrity.
4. Check the Enforce Referential Integrity box.
If you get an error message, it’s because your tables
and fields don’t meet all required conditions.
There are two other very important boxes in the Edit
Relationships dialog box:
Cascade Update Related Fields: When you
change data in the main field of one table, Access
will automatically update the matching data in the
related table.
Cascade Delete Related Records: When you
delete a record in the main table, Access will
automatically delete any matching records in the
related table.
Think twice before using these powerful options.
5. If you want changes to the primary field of the
primary table copied to the related field in the related
table, check the Cascade Update Related Fields
box.
6. If you want Access to automatically delete orphan
records in the related table, check the Cascade
Delete Related Records box.
7. Click Create to create the relationship (or click OK
if you are editing an existing relationship).
Access creates the relationship between the two
tables and enforces referential integrity between
them. Notice that the join line between the tables
looks different than normal. This relationship
indicates that referential integrity is being enforced
between the two tables and that the tables have a oneto-many relationship (more about that in another
lesson).
8. Click the Close button in the Relationships group on
the Design tab and click Yes to save the changes.
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Creating Relational Databases
Printing and Deleting
Relationships
Sometimes you may want to print a hard copy of the
Relationships window or you may want to delete the
relationship between two tables.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Company.accdb
• Exercise: Display a Relationship Report in Print Preview.
Right-click the join line between the tblTours table and the
tblCustomerTours table and select Delete, but then click No
to cancel deletion of the link.
Print the Relationships window
1. Click the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon and click
the Relationships button in the Show/Hide group.
The Design contextual tab appears under
Relationship Tools.
2. Click the Relationship Report button in the Tools
group.
A report showing the tables and relationships appears
in Print Preview mode.
Tip: If you want to modify the report before
printing, click the Close Print Preview button
and edit the report in Design View.
Figure 6-8: A Relationship Report in Print Preview mode.
3. Click the Print button in the Print group on the Print
Preview tab.
The Print dialog box appears.
4. Select desired print settings and click OK.
The Relationships report is printed.
5. Click the Close Print Preview button in the Close
Preview group.
The report appears in Design View.
6. Click the Relationships report’s Close button and
save changes if you want to use the report in the
future.
Delete a table relationship
Access is very restrictive about letting you modify a
related table, and often you must temporarily delete the
relationship between two tables, modify one of the tables,
and then re-connect them. Here’s how to delete a table
relationship.
1. Click the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon and click
the Relationships button in the Show/Hide group.
The Design contextual tab appears under
Relationship Tools.
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Figure 6-9: Deleting a table relationship.
Creating Relational Databases
2. Click the join line that connects the tables and press
<Delete>.
3. Click Yes to confirm the deletion.
The table relationship is removed.
Other Ways to Delete a Table Relationship:
Right-click the join line connecting the related
tables and select Delete. Click Yes.
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Creating Relational Databases
Understanding Relationship
Types
When you link two tables together, they form one of three
possible relationships. This information is rather
technical, but it’s good to know if you’re working with
related or linked tables. Look over Table 6-1: Types of
Relationships to get a better understanding of table
relationships.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
• Exercise: Study the table in the lesson to understand the
types of table relationships.
Table 6-1: Types of Relationships
Relationship:
Description:
One to One
Each record in a table relates to one record in another
table. This is the simplest type of relationship, but it
doesn’t occur very often because it’s usually easier to store
such information in one table instead of two.
Example: Each customer has one credit report.
One to Many
Each record in a table relates to one or more records in
another table. This is the most common type of
relationship.
Example: Each customer has one or more invoices.
Many to Many
One or more records in a table relate to one or more
records in another table. Many-to-many relationships can
be very confusing. To create a many-to-many relationship,
use a third intermediate table that contains the primary
keys from each of the two tables in the relationship. Such
an intermediate table is called a junction table.
Example: Each sales representative sells several products,
and each product is sold by several sales representatives.
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Creating Relational Databases
Review
Quiz Questions
63.
A flatfile database stores information in a single table. (True or False?)
64.
You can use fields with different data types to link two tables. (True or False?)
65.
If the Cascade Delete Related Records referential integrity option is selected, when you delete a record in the main
table, Access will automatically delete any matching records in the related table. (True or False?)
66.
Once you create a relationship between tables, that relationship can never be deleted. (True or False?)
67.
Which of the following is NOT a type of table relationship in Access?
A. One to One
B. One to Many
C. Infinite
D. Many to Many
Quiz Answers
63.
True. A flatfile database stores information in a single table. A relational database stores information in multiple tables.
64.
False. With the exception of AutoNumber and Number fields, related fields must always have the same data type in
order to be used to join two tables.
65.
True. The Delete Cascade Related Records option automatically deletes records in any related tables.
66.
False. You can delete table relationships.
67.
C. Infinite is not a type of table relationship in Access.
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Wor king with
Queries
Understanding Different Types of Queries ... 131
Creating a Multiple Table Query ..................... 132
Creating a Calculated Field ............................ 134
Working with Expressions and the Expression
Builder .............................................................. 136
Using an IIf Function ....................................... 138
Summarizing Groups of Records .................. 140
Display Top or Bottom Values ........................ 142
Parameter Queries ........................................... 143
Finding Duplicate Records ............................. 145
Finding Unmatched Records.......................... 146
Crosstab Queries ............................................. 148
Delete Queries ................................................. 150
Append Queries ............................................... 152
Make Table Queries ......................................... 154
Update Queries ................................................ 156
7
Queries are the stars of Microsoft Access.
Queries make sense out of all the
thousands of jumbled records and display
exactly what you need to know. Queries
can tell you the average price of tea in
China or which customers bought the
most parakeet food from your company.
Queries can even make widespread
changes to the records in your database
without wearing out your mouse and
keyboard! For example, a delete query
can automatically delete a whole bunch of
records that meet your criteria.
In this chapter you will learn how to
harness the power of queries. First you
will learn about all the different types of
queries: simple select queries, parameter
queries that prompt you for more
information, crosstab queries that
summarize records in an easy-tounderstand format, and action queries that
actually modify the records in your
database.
All this power comes with a price tag:
Many people find that queries are one of
the more difficult database objects, and
learning how to fully utilize queries isn’t
something you can learn in an afternoon.
By the time you finish this chapter,
however, you will be on your way toward
understanding and mastering queries.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
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Working with Queries
Understanding Different Types
of Queries
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
• Exercise: Study and understand the different query types.
Up until now, when you thought of a query, you were
actually probably thinking of a select query—a particular
type of query. Select queries are by far the most common
and useful type of query in Access; however, there are
other types of queries that are also important. Table 7-1:
Types of Queries provides a quick overview of different
types of queries you’ll find in Microsoft Access..
Figure 7-1: The Query Type group on the Design tab.
Table 7-1: Types of Queries
Select Query
The most basic and common type of query, select queries find and display the data you want from one or
more tables or queries.
Parameter Query
Prompts the user for specific information every time the query is run.
Crosstab Query
Summarizes data in a table format that makes it easy to read and compare information.
Action Queries
While select queries display information that matches your criteria, action queries do something to the data that matches your
criteria—such as change or delete it.
Make Table Query
Creates a new table from all or part of the data in one or more tables. Useful for backing up and
exporting information.
Append Query
Appends or adds selected records from one table to another table. Useful for importing information into
a table.
Delete Query
Deletes selected records from one or more tables.
Update Query
Updates selected information in a table. For example, you could raise the prices on all trips to Europe by
15 percent.
Union Query
Combines fields from two or more tables or queries into one field and is written directly in SQL.
Pass-Through Query
Allows you to work directly with tables on an ODBC database server, instead of having the Access
database on your local computer process the data.
Data Definition Query
Does not retrieve data (unlike other types of queries). Can be used instead of the Access graphical
interface to create tables, constraints, indexes, and relationships. Should only be used by users who are
experienced with SQL statements and who plan to delete and re-create these items regularly.
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Working with Queries
Creating a Multiple Table
Query
In Access you will often need to look at and analyze
information that comes from not one but several different
tables. Since Access is a relational database, it’s easy to
establish a relationship between two or more tables and
look at the information that goes together.
Just like it sounds, a multiple-table query blends together
information from two or more related tables. Working
with a multiple-table query usually isn’t much different
from working with a single-table query. You tell Access
which tables you want to use in your query and specify
the fields and criteria you want to see. The main
difference between a multiple-table query and a singletable query is that with multiple-table queries, Access
creates a link between related tables. When the query is
displayed in Design View, this link (called a join) appears
as a line that connects two or more tables.
When you create a multiple-table query, Access will
usually link or join the tables automatically. Sometimes,
however, you will have to manually join two tables in the
query design window. You can manually join two tables
by dragging a field from one table’s field list to the
matching field in the other table’s field list. If the tables
don’t have any fields in common, you must add another
table to act as a bridge between them.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Design button in the Other group.
The Show Table dialog box appears. Here you need
to choose the tables or queries you want to use for the
query.
2. Select the table or query you want to use and click
Add.
3. Repeat Step 2 as necessary for additional tables or
queries. Click Close when you’re finished.
If two tables are related, Access will automatically
connect their common fields with a join line. If the
tables aren’t related you will have to manually join
the tables by dragging a field from one table’s field
list to the matching field in the other table’s field list.
Tip: To remove a join line, click the join line and
press <Delete>.
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 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
• Exercise: Create a multiple table query with limiting
criteria:
Create a query in Design View. Add the tblEmployees,
tblCustomerTours, and tblTours tables to the query. Link the
EmployeeID field in the tblEmployees table with the
Employee field in the tblCustomerTours table.
Add the following fields to the design grid:
tblEmployees
LastName
FirstName
tblTours
TourName
tblCustomerTours
Date
Cost
Add the criteria ―Between 1/1/00 and 3/31/00‖ to the Date
column. Sort the Date column Ascending. Save the query as
qryFirstQuarterTours. Run the query.
Working with Queries
4. If Access doesn’t automatically join the tables, click
the related field in the first table and drag it to the
related field in the second table. Repeat as necessary
to connect all the tables.
Next you need to specify the fields you want to
appear in the query results. Because field lists don’t
have much room to display their contents, you may
have to scroll up or down the list in order to find the
field you want.
5. Double-click each field you want to include in the
query from the field list.
Other Ways to Add a Field to a Query:
Drag the field from the field list onto the design
grid.
Next you need to specify any criteria for the query.
6. In the design grid, enter any desired search criteria
for a field in the Criteria row.
7. If desired, click in the Sort box for a field, click the
list arrow, and select a sort order.
8. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar,
enter a name for the query, and click OK.
9. Click the Run button in the Results group.
The query results appear in Datasheet View.
10. Click the query window’s Close button.
Figure 7-2: Creating a multiple table query in Design
View.
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Working with Queries
Creating a Calculated Field
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
Normally, when you create a database, you should only
have to enter the information you need and not have to
worry about data or values that Access calculates based
on information that is already stored in the database. A
calculated field performs some type of arithmetic on one
or more fields in a database to come up with a completely
new field. For example, if your database has an Order
Total field and a Tax Rate field, Access can calculate
these two fields to find out the Sales Tax for each order:
[Order Total] x [Tax Rate] = [Sales Tax].
You must create an expression (or formula) to perform a
calculation. To enter fields in an expression, type the field
name in brackets ([Order Total]). If a field name exists in
more than one table, you will need to enter the name of
the table that contains the field in brackets ([Customer
Tours]) followed by an exclamation mark (!). Then type
the field name in brackets, such as [Order Total]. For
example if an Orders table and a Shipping table both
contain a Date field, you would tell Access which of the
two Date fields you want to use by typing the table name
([Orders]), an exclamation mark (!), and then the field
name ([Date]) or, in other words, [Orders]![Date].
• Exercise: Create a calculated field to calculate employee
bonuses:
Open the qryEmployeeSales query in Design View.
Create a calculated field that multiplies the Cost field in the
tblCustomerTours table by the Commission field in the
tblEmployees table (hint: Bonus:[Cost]*[Commission]).
Run the query and save it as qryEmployeeBonus (hint: use
the Save Object As command on the Office Button menu).
Figure 7-3: Creating a calculated field.
This lesson will show you how to add a calculated field to
a query.
1. Display the query in Design view.
2. Click the Field row of a blank column in the design
grid.
3. Enter the field name for the field that will display the
results of the calculation, followed by a : (colon).
4. Enter the expression you want Access to calculate,
using the proper syntax.
Figure 7-4: To enter fields in an expression, type the field
name in brackets [Cost].
For example, the expression
Bonus:[Cost]*[Commission] will create a new
calculated field named ―Bonus‖ that will display the
results of the Cost field from one table multiplied by
the Commission field from another table.
Tip: Use arithmetic operators such as
multiplication (*), addition (+), subtraction (-),
division (/), and exponentiation (^) to create your
expressions.
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Figure 7-5: If a field name exists in more than one table,
you will need to enter the name of the table that contains
the field in brackets [tblCustomerTours] followed by an
exclamation mark (!). Then type the field name in brackets
[Cost].
Working with Queries
5. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Run button in the Results
group.
Access displays the results of the query. The ―Bonus‖
calculated field multiplies the Cost field by the
Commission field in each record and displays the
results.
If you’ve been modifying an existing query, you can
save the changes as a new query.
6. Click the Office Button, point to Save As, and select
Save Object As. Enter a query name and click OK.
Access saves your changes in a new query.
Other Ways to Create a Calculated Field:
You can also use the Expression Builder—
covered further in another lesson—to help you
create your calculated fields.
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Working with Queries
Working with Expressions and
the Expression Builder
You can add calculations to queries, forms, and reports by
typing an expression. An expression is simply a formula
that tells Access exactly what to calculate. An expression
can be any combination of values, identifiers (such as the
value in a field), and operators that result in a value.
Here’s an example of an expression that calculates profit
from two fields called Income and Expenses:
Profit: [Income] – [Expenses]
You can also use constants in an expression, such as:
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
• Exercise: Manually create an expression to combine the
FirstName and LastName fields:
Open the qrySales query in Design View. In the design grid,
insert a new column before the Normal Price column. In the
new column, enter Agent:[FirstName]&― ‖&[LastName] in
the Field row.
Use the Expression Builder to create an expression that
calculates the cost of a tour:
Click in the field row of a blank column and display the
Expression Builder. Multiply Normal Price by Number of
Tickets and click OK. Replace ―Expr1‖ in the field name
with ―Total‖. Run the query and save the changes.
Commission: [Sales] * .15
Number fields aren’t the only types of fields that you can
use in expressions—you can also perform calculations
with dates, times, and text data. Here’s an example of an
expression that combines text:
Agent:[FirstName]&" "&[LastName]
In this example, the ampersand (&) symbol is used to
combine or concatenate two or more text fields. The " "
adds a space between the [FirstName] and [LastName]
fields.
The problem with creating expressions is that you have to
enter a formula so that Access understands it. For
example, when you create an expression, some types of
information must be enclosed between special characters
so that Access knows what type of information it is—
table names and field names must be enclosed in
[brackets], text strings in "quotation marks," and so on.
Table 7-2: How Types of Data Should Look in an
Expression has more information about how to use
various elements in an expression.
Figure 7-6: Expressions in the design grid.
If you know what you want an expression to do but not
how to write it, you can try using the Expression Builder.
The Expression Builder lets you pick the fields,
mathematical symbols, and functions you can use to
create an expression.
Use the Expression Builder
1. Display the query in Design view.
Tip: In this lesson, we’ll look at how to use the
Expression Builder with a query, but you can also
use it to create expressions in tables, forms, and
reports.
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Figure 7-7: The Expression Builder dialog box.
Working with Queries
2. Click the Field row of a blank column in the design
grid.
Now you need to enter the expression. You can enter
it manually, but let’s look at how to use the
Expression Builder tool to make it easier.
3. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Builder button in the Query
Setup group.
The Expression Builder appears. The Expression
Builder contains an area where you can build the
expression, buttons you can use to build the
expression, and the fields and controls in the current
query, report, or form.
Other Ways to Open the Expression Builder:
Right-click an empty field in the design grid and
select Build from the contextual menu.
4. Select a field to use in the calculation, click the
button that corresponds to the calculation you want,
and then click or type any other fields or values you
want to use.
5. Click OK.
The Expression Builder closes. Add a meaningful
label to the new calculated field.
6. In the new calculated field, replace the Expr1: label
with a more meaningful field name.
7. Save and run the query.
Microsoft Access is very strict about how you write
your expressions. If your expressions aren’t written in
the correct syntax, they won’t work. Use the
following table as a guideline for adding fields, text,
and constants to your expressions.
Table 7-2: How Types of Data Should Look in an Expression
Text
"Minneapolis"
Date/Time
#20-Mar-99# (Access will add the # symbols)
Field Name
[Price]
Field Name in a Specific Table
[Products]![Price]
Concatenated (Combined) Text and Fields
[Last]& ", "&[First]
Calculated Field (Using Two Fields)
[SalePrice]-[Cost]
Calculated Field (Using a Field and a Constant)
[SalePrice]*0.1
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Working with Queries
Using an IIf Function
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
Functions are used to create complicated calculations or
expressions. For example, the SUM function adds several
values together, and the IPmt function calculates the loan
payments based on an interest rate, the length of the loan,
and the principal amount of the loan.
There are several hundred functions in Access, but all of
them are used in a similar way: the name of the function,
followed by the arguments in parentheses. An argument in
Access is the value a function uses to perform its
calculation. For example, the argument in the formula πr2
would be r, or the radius, used to find the area of a circle.
This lesson introduces a very useful database function: the
IIf function. The IIf function is a conditional function or
logical function because it evaluates a condition and
returns one value if the condition is true and another value
if the condition is false. For example, you could use the
IIf function in an invoice to create a formula that would
subtract a 5-percent discount from the invoice if the total
were more than 500 dollars—otherwise, the IIf function
wouldn’t subtract anything. Or, you could create an IIf
function to create a field that gives passengers a 50-dollar
rebate if they fly first class and a 25-dollar rebate if they
fly coach.
The IIf function contains three arguments, but since you
can use the Expression Builder to help you create IIf
function formulas, you really don’t need to memorize the
syntax of the function.
• Exercise: Use the IIf function to provide a $50 rebate to
first class passengers and a $25 rebate to coach passengers:
Open the qrySales query in Design View. In the design grid,
click in the first open Field column and display the
Expression Builder. Add the IIF function to the expression
box. Replace the «expr» argument with the First Class field
from the tblCustomerTours table. Type ―=True‖. Replace
«truepart» with 50 and «falsepart» with 25. Click OK. In the
new calculated field, replace ―Expr1‖ with ―Rebate‖. Run
and save the query.
Figure 7-8: The syntax for the IIf function.
If First Class =
True (or 1)…
…then Rebate
= 50…
1. Display the query in Design view.
2. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Builder button in the Query
Setup group.
The Expression Builder appears. In the bottom-left of
the window, the Expression Builder displays a list of
several folders that contain information.
For example, the Tables folder contains a list of all
the tables in the current database. These folders are
displayed in a hierarchical view. A plus symbol or a
minus symbol next to a folder means a folder
contains several subfolders. Normally, these
subfolders are hidden. You can display the hidden
folders within a folder by double-clicking the folder.
To see the contents of a folder, simply select the
folder—its contents will appear in the middle and left
windows.
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…otherwise (if First
Class does not = True
or 1) Rebate = 25)
Figure 7-9: Here the IIf function evaluates the value in the
First Class field and returns 50 if the First Class field is
True and 25 if the First Class field is False.
Working with Queries
3. Double-click the Functions folder in the bottom-left
window.
The Functions folder expands and displays its
contents. The Built-In Functions folder contains
several hundred functions that are included in Access.
4. Click the Built-In Functions folder, scroll down the
middle window and click the Program Flow
category, double-click the IIf function in the right
column.
Access adds IIf («expr», «truepart», «falsepart») to
the expression box. Now that you know the proper
syntax of the IIf function, you need to replace the
argument names with the data values. You can
double-click to select any argument name so that you
can replace it with your own value.
5. Replace the argument placeholders with the fields
and values you want to use.
Tip: Use the folders in the Expression Builder to
replace the «expr» field with the field to which
you want to apply the logical test. Replace the
«truepart» and «falsepart» arguments with the
values you want to use if the IIf statement is true
or false.
6. Click OK.
The Expression Builder closes. Now you can give the
new calculated control a more meaningful name.
7. In the new calculated field, replace the Expr1: label
with a more meaningful field name.
8. Save and run the query.
Other Ways to Use the IIf Function:
To enter the IIf function manually, without using
the Expression Builder, click the Field row of a
blank column in the design grid. Enter the field
name followed by a : (colon). Type the expression
using the syntax IIf(«expr», «truepart»,
«falsepart»).
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Working with Queries
Summarizing Groups of
Records
When you work with queries, you will often be less
interested in the individual records and more interested in
summarized information about groups of records. A query
can calculate information about a group of records in one
or more tables. For example, you could create a query that
finds the total amount of tea your company sold to China
in 2007 or how much all that tea cost. The Total row lets
you group and summarize information in a query. The
Total row normally is tucked away from view in the query
design window—you can make the Total appear by
clicking the Totals button in the Show/Hide group on the
Design tab under Query Tools on the Ribbon. Once the
Total row is displayed, you can tell Access how you want
to summarize the fields.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
• Exercise: Use the Total row to calculate the total sales and
number of tickets sold for each tour during a certain period:
Display the qryTourSales query in Design View. Add the
following fields to the design grid:
tblTours
TourName
tblCustomerTours
Number of Tickets
Cost
Date
Display the Total row on the design grid and sum the
Number of Tickets and Cost columns. Select ―Where‖ in the
Total row of the Date column. Enter Between 4/1/00 and
6/30/00 in the Date column’s Criteria row. Save the query as
qryTourTotals (hint: use the Save Object As command on
the Office Button menu) and run the query.
1. Display the query in Design View.
2. If necessary, click the Design tab under Query Tools
on the Ribbon and click the Totals button in the
Show/Hide group.
The Total row appears in the design grid.
First you need to add the field that you want to group
data by onto the design grid. If, for example, you sell
tours and want to calculate the total sales and number
of tickets sold for each tour package, you might
group the query by the TourName field.
3. Move the field that you want to group data by onto
the design grid. Make sure Group By appears in that
field’s Total row.
Tip: The field(s) you want to group by must
appear first in the design grid and have Group By
in their Total row.
Next you need to select the fields you want to
summarize.
4. Move the field that you want to summarize and
perform calculations on onto the design grid.
Now you need to choose the type of calculation that
you want to perform.
5. Click the field’s Total row, click the list arrow, and
select a calculation from the list.
Table 7-3: Total Options describes the calculations
that are available.
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This field will
group the query.
The query will find
the sum of these
fields.
This field will be used
to limit the records
grouped and calculated
in the query. Notice the
Show box is
unchecked.
Figure 7-10: Summarizing records in a query using the
Total row.
Working with Queries
You can specify criteria to limit the records you want
to be calculated—simply enter the criteria in the
Criteria row of any grouped or calculated fields. For
example, you could calculate only records from the
second quarter of the year by adding criteria to the
Date field.
If the field you want to use for the criteria isn’t one of
the grouped or calculated fields, you must use the
―Where‖ option in the field’s Total row.
Tip: The ―Where‖ option is used only to limit
records—its results cannot be displayed in the
results of the query. Access automatically
unchecks the ―Show‖ check box.
6. If desired, add criteria to the Criteria row of any of
the fields. If the field isn’t grouped or calculated,
click the field’s Total row’s list arrow and select the
Where option.
7. Save and run the query.
Access displays the results of the query.
Table 7-3: Total Options
Group By
Groups the values in the field so that you can perform calculations on the groups.
Sum
Calculates the total (sum) of values in a field.
Avg
Calculates the average of values in a field.
Min
Finds the lowest value in a field.
Max
Finds the highest value in a field.
Count
Counts the number of entries in a field, not including blank (Null) records.
StDev
Calculates the standard deviation of values in a field.
Var
Calculates the variance of values in a field.
First
Finds the values from the first record in a field.
Last
Finds the values from the last record in a field.
Expression
Tells Access that you want to create your own expression to calculate a field.
Where
Specifies criteria for a field to limit the records included in a calculation.
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Working with Queries
Display Top or Bottom Values
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
If all you care about is the highest or lowest values
produced by a query, you can display only these records.
For example, you could display the ten largest or smallest
orders in the Invoices table. If you’re working with dates,
you can display the most recent or oldest results.
• Exercise: Display the five most expensive nonsmoking
tours:
Display the qryTourSales query in Design View. Add the
following fields to the design grid:
tblTours
This lesson explains how you can use the Top Values list
to display the top or bottom values in a query.
TourName
tblCustomerTours
Cost
Smoker
Enter the criteria ―False‖ in the Smoker column. Sort the
Cost column in Descending order and choose to display the
top 5 values. Run the query.
1. Display the query in Design View.
2. Add the fields you want to see in your query.
Modify the query so that it calculates the total sales of
nonsmoking tours: Display the Total row in the design grid
and sum the Cost column. Select Where in the Total row of
the Smokers column. Sort the cost column in Ascending
order. Save the query as qryTopValues and run the query.
Now you need to sort the field that you want to
display the top or bottom values for. The Sort row
works a little differently when you’re using top or
bottom values:
Ascending: Displays bottom values.
Descending: Displays top values.
3. Click the appropriate Sort field, click the list arrow,
and select either Ascending or Descending.
Next you have to use the Return list to specify the
number of top values you want to be displayed in
your query results.
4. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Return list arrow in the Query
Setup group. Select an option from the list.
Table 7-4: Return List explains the options in the
Return list.
Tip: If you don’t like any of the options, you can
type your own in the Return box.
5. Save and run the query.
Access displays the query results.
Figure 7-11: A query that displays the five tours with the
lowest total sales.
Table 7-4: Return List
Do This…
…to Display This
Click 5, 25, or 100 from the Return list
The top 5, 25, or 100 records
Type a number, such as 15 in the Return box
The top 15 (or specified number of) records
Click 5% or 25% from the Return list
The top 5 or 25 percent of records
Type a percentage, such as 20%, in the Return box
The top 20 percent (or specified percent) of records
Click All from the Return list
All of the records
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Working with Queries
Parameter Queries
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
Getting tired of modifying a query every time you want to
use a new criterion? A parameter query is your answer. A
parameter query prompts the user for the query’s criteria.
For example, you could create a Regional Sales query that
would ask for the name of the state you want to filter by.
Creating a parameter query is easy. All you have to do is
click the Criteria row for the field that you want to use as
a parameter and type a message, enclosed in [brackets],
that you want Access to display when you run the query.
1. Display the query in Design View.
2. Add the fields you want to use onto design grid.
• Exercise: Use a parameter query to summarize total
employees sales for certain dates and states:
Display the qryTourSales query in Design View. Add the
following fields to the design grid:
tblEmployees
FirstName
LastName
tblCustomerTours
State
Cost
Date
Display the Total row and sum the Cost column. Enter the
parameters ―Between [Enter start date] and [Enter end
date]‖ in the Date column and ―[Enter the state]‖ in the
State column. Select ―Where‖ in the Date and State
columns’ Total rows. Run the query and enter ―WA‖,
―1/1/00‖, and ―6/30/00‖ when prompted for the parameters.
Save the query as qryParameter.
For example, if you want to create a query that
summarizes total employee sales, you might add the
FirstName, LastName, State, Cost, and Date fields.
Tip: Depending on the goal of your query, you
may need to tell Access to group and summarize
some of the query fields. This is covered in
another lesson.
In our example, you may want to use the Date field
as the criteria to limit records to those that fall
between two dates. Instead of entering a criteria
expression with two fixed date values, such as
―Between 1/1/07 and 3/31/07,‖ you could create two
parameters that will prompt the user to enter the two
date values each time they run the query.
Figure 7-12: A parameter query in Design View.
3. Click the Criteria row for the field you want to use
for your parameter criteria and enter the text of the
prompt, surrounded by square brackets [ ].
For example, you could enter Between [Enter start
date] and [Enter end date] in the Date field’s
criteria row.
Tip: If you are using Total rows and are only
using a field—such as the Date field—as a criteria
field, you’ll also want to select the Where option
from its Total row so that the field won’t appear in
the query results.
Figure 7-13: The parameter query prompts the user to
enter the state.
4. Save and run the query.
Access prompts you to enter the parameter(s).
5. Enter a criteria value in response to the prompt and
click OK. Repeat for additional parameters.
Access displays the results of the parameter query.
Figure 7-14: The results of the parameter query.
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Working with Queries
Tips

Some advanced Access developers use custom-made
forms to provide parameter queries with their
information. If developers bind a parameter to the
controls on a form (such as [frmCustomers]![Name]),
users can fill out one dialog box instead of having to
fill out five or six pop-up dialog boxes.
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Working with Queries
Finding Duplicate Records
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
The Find Duplicates Query Wizard helps you find records
that have the same value in one or more fields. So when
would you need to use a Find Duplicates Query? Here are
a few scenarios:
To search for duplicate values in an Orders table to
find out which customers have placed more than one
order.
• Exercise: Create a new query using the Find Duplicates
Query Wizard: Use the tblCustomers table and add the
LastName and FirstName fields to the Duplicate-value
fields list. In addition, display the City and State fields. Save
the query with the default name and view the query.
To search for duplicate values in several fields to
locate any data-entry errors. For example, if you and
another user accidentally entered the same customers
into a table, you could search for duplicate values in
the LastName and FirstName fields to find and delete
the duplicated records.
Access provides a wizard to make creating a query that
finds duplicate information in a snap.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Wizard button in the Other group.
The New Query dialog box appears, displaying
different kinds of query wizards.
Figure 7-15: Step One: Select the table or query you want
to search for duplicate values.
2. Select Find Duplicates Query Wizard and click
OK.
Next, choose the table or query that you want to sift
through for duplicate records.
Tip: To change the options displayed in the list,
click the Tables, Queries, or Both option in the
View area.
3. Select the table or query you want to search and click
Next.
Now you need to tell Access which field or fields
might contain the duplicate information.
4. Double-click the field(s) that may contain the
duplicate values and click Next.
Next you can select any field (other than the ones you
just specified as possible duplicates) that you want to
be displayed in the query.
Figure 7-16: Step Two: Select the field or fields that
contain the duplicate values.
5. Double-click any additional fields that you want to
appear in the query results and click Next.
6. Give the query a name and click Finish.
Access saves the query with the name you specified
and displays the results of the query.
Figure 7-17: The query displays those records that have
duplicate values in both the LastName and FirstName
fields.
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Working with Queries
Finding Unmatched Records
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
The Find Unmatched Query Wizard helps you find the
records in one table that do not have matching records in
another table. Some scenarios when you might need to
create such a query include:
To find customers who have never placed an order.
To find products that have never been purchased.
• Exercise: Use the Find Unmatched Query Wizard to create
a query to find customers who have never booked a tour:
Select to display the tblCustomers table, then select the
related tblCustomerTours table. Verify that the CustomerID
field is selected in both tables and join the tables. Add the
LastName, FirstName, City, and State fields to the query,
save the query with the default name and view the results.
To find ―orphan‖ records. If you haven’t enforced
referential integrity in your related tables, deleting a
record in one table could leave one or more orphan
records in a related table. For example, if you delete a
customer record from a Customer table, you may
leave several unmatched records for that customer in
an Order table.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Wizard button in the Other group.
The New Query dialog box appears, displaying
different kinds of query wizards.
2. Select Find Unmatched Query Wizard and click
OK.
Now you need to choose the table or query whose
values you want to display in the query. For example,
if you ran a tour company and wanted to find
customers without any tour packages, you would
select the tblCustomers table.
3. Select the table whose values you want to display and
click Next.
Here you have to tell Access which table contains the
related records. In our example, you might select the
tblCustomerTours table.
4. Select the table that contains the related records and
click Next.
Here you have to specify the related field to join the
records in the first table to the records in the second
table. To do this, you need to select the same field in
both lists.
5. Select the same field in both tables, then click the
<=> button to join the two tables and click Next.
Now you have to specify which fields you want to
see in the query.
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Figure 7-18: Joining tables in the Find Unmatched Query
Wizard using matching fields
Working with Queries
6. Double-click any additional fields that you want to
appear in the query results and click Next.
7. Give your query a name and click Finish.
Access saves the query with the name you specified
and displays the results.
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Working with Queries
Crosstab Queries
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
There are many ways that queries can help you
summarize and analyze the information in your database.
A crosstab query displays summarized information in a
table format that makes it easy to analyze and compare
data.
You can create a crosstab query in Design view or by
using the Crosstab Query Wizard. The Crosstab Query
Wizard is usually much easier, but it does have some
limitations:
• Exercise: Use the Crosstab Query Wizard to create a query
that summarizes monthly ticket sales by tours: Use the
qryToursByName query as the source. Use the TourName
field for row headings and the Date field for column
headings. Specify a monthly interval. Choose to calculate
the sum of the Number of Tickets field. Save the query as
―qryTicketsByDate‖ and view the query.
If you need to use more than one table or query in the
crosstab query, you will first need to create a separate
query that contains the tables you want to use.
You can’t specify any limiting criteria when using the
Crosstab Query Wizard. (But you can always modify
the crosstab query in Design view and add the criteria
yourself.)
In this lesson we’ll look at using the Crosstab Query
Wizard.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Wizard button in the Other group.
The New Query dialog box appears, displaying
different kinds of query wizards.
Figure 7-19: Specifying the crosstab query’s calculation.
2. Select Crosstab Query Wizard and click OK.
The first step of the Crosstab Query Wizard appears.
Here you need to select the table or query that
contains the values you want to use.
Row headings
Column headings
Calculated values
Tip: If you want to include fields from multiple
tables, you’ll first need to create a query
containing all those fields, and then select that
query during this step in the Crosstab Query
Wizard.
3. Select the table or query you want to use and click
Next.
The second step of the Crosstab Query Wizard
requires you to select which field you want to use as
the row headings for the crosstab.
4. Select the field you want to use as the row heading,
click the right arrow button and click Next.
The next step is to determine which field you want to
use for your column headings.
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Figure 7-20: The results of a crosstab query.
Working with Queries
5. Select the field you want to use as the column
heading and click Next.
Tip: If you select a date field, the Wizard will also
ask you how you want to group the dates.
Probably the most important step in the Crosstab
Query Wizard is determining which field you want to
calculate where columns and rows intersect and the
type of calculation you want to use to summarize the
fields.
6. Select the field you want to summarize from the
Fields list, select the type of calculation you want to
use to summarize the field from the Functions list,
and click Next.
7. Enter a name for the crosstab query and click Finish.
Access saves the query with the name you specified
and displays the results.
Tip: Once you’ve created the Crosstab query, you
can display it in Design View to make
modifications such as adding limiting criteria to
certain fields.
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Working with Queries
Delete Queries
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
A delete query is the most dangerous of all queries. Once
you have deleted records using a delete query, you cannot
undo the results—the records are gone forever! Creating a
delete query is no different than creating a simple select
query—with one very important difference: While a select
query displays the records that match your criteria, a
delete query deletes those records.
If you want to delete records from multiple tables—for
example, a customer and all of that customer’s orders—
you need to do a few things first:
Define relationships between the tables.
• Exercise: Create a new delete query in Design View to
delete all the tours sold by LeAnne Chang: Add the
tblEmployees, tblCustomerTours, and tblTours tables to the
query. Link the EmployeeID field in the tblEmployees table
to the Employee field in the tblCustomerTours table. Click
the Delete button in the Query Type group on the Ribbon.
Drag the asterisk (*) from the top of the tblCustomerTours
table onto the design grid. Also add the LastName field
from the tblEmployees table. Enter the criteria ―Chang‖ in
the LastName column. Preview the query in Datasheet
View. Return to Design View and run the query. Close the
query without saving.
Establish referential integrity for the join(s) between
the tables and turn on the ―Cascade Delete Related
Records‖ option.
In this lesson you will learn how to create a delete query.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Design button in the Other group.
The query design window and Show Table dialog box
both appear. Now you have to select the tables and/or
queries you want to use in the delete query.
2. Select the tables and queries you want to add and
click Add. When you’re finished, click Close.
Figure 7-21: The Delete button in the Query Type group.
If the tables are related, Access automatically
connects their common fields with a join line. If the
tables aren’t related, you will have to manually join
them by dragging a field from one table’s field list to
the matching field in the other table’s field list.
3. Connect any unrelated tables.
Next, tell Access that this is a delete query.
4. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Delete button in the Query Type
group.
Access converts the select query to a delete query and
displays the Delete row in the query design grid.
Now you have to tell Access what you want to delete.
5. Drag the asterisk (*) from the top of the table field
list for the table from which you want to delete
information onto the design grid.
Notice that From appears in the Delete cell for the
asterisk field, indicating that the records will be
deleted from this table. Unless you want the delete
query to delete each and every record in the table,
you will need to add some limiting criteria.
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The delete query
will delete FROM
this table…
…and use this field as the
criteria to select the records
you want to delete.
Figure 7-22: A delete query in Design View.
Working with Queries
For example, if you’re deleting information from a
Customers table, you could use the Last Name field
as a limiting criterion to delete only records with a
certain last name.
6. Drag the field you want to use as the limiting criteria
onto the design grid.
This time Where appears in the Delete cell for the
field you added, indicating that the field will be used
as the criteria to select which records will be deleted
from the table you added earlier.
Next you need to tell Access the specific data to
delete. For example, if you were using the Last Name
field as your criteria, you could enter the name
―Smith‖ to delete all records that contain ―Smith‖ in
the Last Name field.
7. Click the field’s Criteria row and type the specific
data you want to delete and press <Tab>.
Access will add the ―quotation marks‖ around the
text string Chang for you. That’s all there is to
creating a delete query.
Trap: Before you run a delete query, always
preview the results in Datasheet View first.
8. Click the View button in the Results group on the
Design tab to display the delete query in Datasheet
View.
The delete query displays the results of the delete
query. Let’s switch back to Design View.
9. Click the View button in the View group on the
Home tab to display the delete query in Design View.
Now run the delete query to delete the records.
10. Click the Run button in the Results group on the
Design tab.
Access asks if you really want to delete the records.
11. Click Yes.
Access silently deletes the records.
12. Close the query without saving.
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Working with Queries
Append Queries
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
An append query takes a group of records from one or
more tables or queries in your database and adds them to
another existing table. Append queries are especially
useful for importing information into a table. For
example, you could use an append query to import several
dozen customer records from an Excel spreadsheet into an
existing table. Of course, you would have to know how to
import the Excel spreadsheet first—and that’s another
lesson in itself.
There are several rules that you must follow when using
an append query:
• Exercise: Create an append query to add a new group of
tours to the tblCustomerTours table: Create a new query in
Design View using the tblCaribbeanTours table. Then make
the query into an Append query that appends to the
tblCustomerTours table. Add all of the fields in the
tblCaribbeanTours table individually to the design grid. In
the Append To row of the No Tickets field, select Number
of Tickets. Preview the query results in Datasheet View,
then return to Design View and run the query. Close the
query without saving. Open the qryToursByName query and
notice that records have been appended to it.
The appended data must meet the data validation and
referential integrity rules of the table to which it is
being added.
The appended data must have its own unique
primary-key values. If the primary-key field in the
table to which the data is being added is an
AutoNumber field, do not append that field—Access
will generate new numbers for the new records.
The type of data in the records you’re adding must
match the type of data in the table to which you’re
adding them.
Figure 7-23: The Append dialog box.
In this lesson you will learn how to create an append
query.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Design button in the Other group.
The query design window and Show Table dialog box
both appear. Here you have to select the tables and/or
queries containing the data you want to append to
another table.
2. Select the tables and queries you want to add and
click Add. When you’re finished, click Close.
Now you need to make the query an append query.
3. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Append button in the Query
Type group.
The Append dialog box appears. Here you need to
select the table to which you want the results of the
query to be added. First, though, you need to select
the database where the table is located. You have two
options:
Current Database: If the table is in the currently
open database.
Another Database: And browse to the other
database.
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The Field row
shows the source
fields of the
append query…
…and the Append
To row shows the
destination fields.
If the field names
in the two tables
are different, you
must specify the
field in the
Append To row.
Figure 7-24: An append query in Design View.
Working with Queries
4. Select the Current Database or Another Database
option.
Now select the table.
5. Click the Table Name list arrow and select the table
to which you want to add the results of the query.
Click OK.
The append query will add the results of its query to
the table you just specified. Notice that an Append To
row appears in the design grid. Now you have to
specify the fields you want to append.
6. Add to the design grid the fields you want to append
to another table.
If the field(s) you added are present in the destination
table, Access automatically fills in the Append To
row. If the field is not present in both tables, you will
have to select the name of the field to which you
want to append.
7. If Access doesn’t automatically match a field, click
the Append To row for that field and select the field
in the destination table to which you want to append.
Trap: As with any action query, you should
always preview the results in Datasheet View first.
8. Click the View button in the Results group on the
Design tab to display the append query in Datasheet
View.
The append query displays the records it will add or
append. Let’s switch back to Design View.
9. Click the View button in the Views group on the
Home tab to display the append query in Design
View.
Now run the append query to append the records.
10. Click the Run button in the Results group on the
Design tab.
Access asks you to confirm the addition of the
records to the table.
11. Click Yes.
Access adds the records.
12. Close the query without saving.
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Working with Queries
Make-Table Queries
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
Like all queries, a make-table query asks a question
regarding the information in one or more tables and then
retrieves the results. Instead of displaying the results,
however, a make-table query creates a new table with the
results of the query. Make-table queries are useful for:
Exporting a table to another database or application.
Creating a backup copy of a table.
Creating an archive table that stores old records.
Creating a table that includes information or fields
from more than one table.
In this lesson you will create a make-table query.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Design button in the Other group.
• Exercise: Create a make-table query to create a table
containing information regarding all China tour records:
Open the qryTourSales query in Design View. Add the
following fields to the design grid:
tblTours
tblCustomerTours
TourName
Number of
Tickets
Date
tblEmployees
Cost
LastName
FirstName
Enter the criteria ―China‖ in the TourName column. Make
the query a Make Table Query and enter tblChinaTours as
the name of the new table. Preview the query results in
Datasheet View, then return to Design View and run the
query. Close the query without saving. Open the new
tblChinaTours table to see the result.
These will be the field
names in the new table.
The query design window and Show Table dialog box
both appear. Here you have to select the tables and/or
queries containing the data you want to include in
your new table.
2. Select the tables and queries you want to add and
click Add. When you’re finished, click Close.
Now add the fields you want to use in your new
table.
3. Add to the design grid the fields you want to use to
create the new table.
Figure 7-25: The make-table query will create a table
using the tables, fields, and criteria you specify.
4. As desired, add any limiting criteria in the Criteria
row.
Now you need to change the query type to make it a
make-table query.
5. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Make Table button in the
Query Type group.
Access displays the Make Table dialog box. Here you
need to tell Access the name of the new table.
6. Enter a name in the Table Name box and click OK.
Tip: In the Table Name box, you can also choose
to replace an existing table instead of creating a
new one. To do this, click the Table Name list
arrow and select a table. If the table you’re
replacing is in another database, first select the
Another Database option and browse to the
database.
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Figure 7-26: Type the name of the table you’re creating in
the Make Table dialog box.
Working with Queries
Now you’re ready to have the make-table query
create the new table. Preview the results of the query
first.
7. Click the View button in the Results group on the
Design tab to display the make-table query in
Datasheet View.
The make-table query displays the records it will use
to create the new table.
8. Click the View button in the Views group on the
Home tab to display the make-table query in Design
View.
Now let’s run the query to create the new table.
9. Click the Run button in the Results group on the
Design tab.
Access asks you to confirm the creation of the table.
10. Click Yes.
Access creates the new table based on the results of
the make-table query.
11. Close the query without saving.
Now you can open and view the new table, which
contains the results of the make-table query.
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Working with Queries
Update Queries
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Query.accdb
You can use an update query to change a bunch of records
at the same time. For example, you could create an update
query to lower prices by eight percent or to change the
sales representative for all your clients in Oregon from
―Ralph Potter‖ to ―George Bailey.‖ Just like other action
queries, you create an update query by first creating a
select query and then converting the select query to an
update query.
In this lesson you will create an update query.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Query Design button in the Other group.
• Exercise: Create an update query to raise the prices of all
trips to Europe by 10 percent: Create a new query in Design
View using the tblTours table. Change the query to an
Update Query. Add the TourID, Normal Price, and First
Class Price fields from the tblTours table to the design grid.
Enter ―[Normal Price]+([Normal Price]*.1)‖ in the Normal
Price column’s Update To row and ―[First Class
Price]+([First Class Price]*.1)‖ in the First Class Price
column’s Update To row. In the TourID column, on separate
criteria rows, enter ―1‖, ―2‖, ―3‖, and ―9‖, respectively. Run
the query to update the records in the tblTours table. Close
the query without saving changes.
The query design window and Show Table dialog box
both appear. Here you have to select the tables and/or
queries you want to use in the update query.
2. Select the tables and queries you want to add and
click Add. When you’re finished, click Close.
Specify which field you want to update,
and then specify what it should be
updated to in the Update To row.
Now you need to convert the select query to an
update query.
3. Click the Design tab under Query Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Update button in the Query
Type group.
Access converts the select query to an update query.
Notice an Update To row appears in the design grid.
Now you have to specify the fields you want to
update.
4. Add to the design grid the fields you want to update.
The next step is a little bit tricky—you have to tell
Access which fields to update and how to update
them. For example, if you wanted to raise the price of
the Normal Price field by 10 percent you would write
an expression—like [Normal Price]+([Normal
Price]*.1)—in the field’s Update To row to make this
happen.
5. Click the Update To row for the field you want to
update and type an expression.
Next you need to specify any limiting criteria. For
example, if you wanted to raise prices for only
certain products, you would need to enter a limiting
criterion, such as a product number, in the field that
identifies the products.
6. As desired, add any limiting criteria in the Criteria
row.
Now let’s run the query.
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This expression multiplies the First Class Price field by
0.1 and then adds the results to the First Class Price.
Figure 7-27: An update query.
Working with Queries
7. Click the Run button in the Results group on the
Design tab.
Access asks you to confirm the update.
8. Click Yes.
Access updates the records.
9. Close the query without saving.
Now you can open the updated table and view the
update data.
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Wor king with Queries Review
Quiz Questions
68.
Which type of query makes it easy to read and compare information by summarizing data in a table format?
A. A Crosstab Query
B. A Union Query
C. An Append Query
D. A Parameter Query
69.
Access will automatically join related tables when they are added to a query. (True or False?)
70.
Which of the following expressions is NOT written in the correct syntax?
A. [Order Total]*[Tax Rate]
B. (Order Total)*0.1
C. [tblCustomerTours]![Cost]*[tblEmployees]![Commission]
D. 100+10
71.
If you are having trouble remembering how to write expressions using the correct syntax, you can use the Expression
Builder to help you create the expression. (True or False?)
72.
Rebate: IIf([Age]>65,Senior,Adult) This expression is an example of:
A. A conditional expression.
B. Something I learned back in high school algebra and thought I would never see again.
C. A financial expression.
D. Something that belongs in Microsoft Excel training.
73.
The field(s) you want to group by must appear first in the design grid and have Group By in their Total row. (True or
False?)
74.
A query must be ______ before you can display the top values.
A. Filtered
B. Saved
C. Sorted
D. Destroyed
75.
A parameter query could prompt a user for a date and then display only records that contain the specified date. (True
or False?)
76.
To find duplicate records, use the Find Duplicates Query Wizard. (True or False?)
77.
The find unmatched records query helps identify duplicate records in a table. (True or False?)
78.
You can’t specify any limiting criteria when using the Crosstab Query Wizard. (True or False?)
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79.
You can restore the records a delete query erases by using the Undo command. (True or False?)
80.
An append query can extract records from one table and copy them into another existing table. (True or False?)
81.
Make-table queries are NOT useful for which one of the following tasks?
A. Creating a backup copy of a table.
B. Creating an archive table that stores old records.
C. Creating a table with information from more than one table.
D. Updating a bunch of table records at once.
82.
You could use an update query to change all 612 area codes in a table to 952. (True or False?)
Quiz Answers
68.
A. A Crosstab Query makes it easy to read and compare information by summarizing data in a table format.
69.
True. Access automatically joins related tables when they are added to a query.
70.
B. (Order Total)*0.1 is incorrect. Fields should be enclosed in [ ] brackets, not parentheses.
71.
True. The Expression Builder helps you create expressions in your queries (and in forms, reports, and macros too!)
72.
A. This is a conditional expression.
73.
True. The field(s) you want to group by must appear first in the design grid and have Group By in their Total row.
74.
C. A query must be sorted before you can display the top values.
75.
True. A parameter query could prompt a user for a date and then display only records that contain the specified date.
76.
True. The Find Duplicates Query Wizard will help you find duplicate records.
77.
False. The find unmatched records query helps find the records in one table that do not have matching records in
another table.
78.
True. In order to add criteria, you have to modify the query after creating it in the Wizard.
79.
False. A delete query permanently deletes any records, so be careful!
80.
True. An append query lets you copy records from one table and add them to another table.
81.
D. Make-table queries are not useful for updating a bunch of table records at once.
82.
True. An update query changes batches of records at the same time.
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Wor king with
For ms
Creating and Using a Form............................. 161
Create a form with AutoForms ............... 161
Use a form ............................................. 161
Understanding Form Views ............................ 163
Change Form views ............................... 163
Modifying a Form in Layout View .................. 164
Understand controls ............................... 164
Move a control ....................................... 164
Resize a control ..................................... 164
Edit a label ............................................. 164
Delete a control ...................................... 165
Add a field .............................................. 165
Form Design View Basics ............................... 166
Add a control .......................................... 166
Resize the form area ............................. 167
Changing Tab Order ........................................ 168
Change a form’s tab order ..................... 168
8
A form created in Access is similar to the
ordinary paper forms that you fill out with
a pen or pencil—only you don’t have to
worry about trying to read poor
penmanship. In Access, forms provide an
easy way to enter and view data in a table.
Here are just a few examples of how
forms make working with data easier.
Easier to View and Use: Instead of
scrolling back and forth in a table’s
datasheet, a form lets you focus on one
record at a time.
See Data Any Way You Want: You can
design forms to present information any
way you like.
Combine Data from Linked Tables:
One form can display data from several
related tables or queries—and your users
will never know that they are working
with two sources!
Working with Form Properties ....................... 173
Change form properties ......................... 173
Change the form’s Deafult View property
............................................................... 173
And that’s just for starters. No doubt
about it—forms make your database
easier to use. Just like a Windows dialog
box (which is really what a form is),
Access forms can include fill-in-the-blank
fields, check boxes, drop-down lists, and
more.
Form Property Reference ............................... 175
Let’s start working with forms.
Working with Control Properties ................... 169
View and edit properties ........................ 169
Control Property Reference............................ 171
Changing a Control’s Data Source ................ 177
Creating a Calculated Control ........................ 178
Changing a Control’s Default Value ............... 179
Creating a Subform ......................................... 180
Modifying and Working with Subforms ......... 182
Modify a subform ................................... 182
Display a subform’s properties .............. 182
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Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
Working with Forms
Creating and Using a Form
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
A fast and easy way to create a form in Access is by using
one of the AutoForm tools. Autoforms automatically
create a form by arranging all the fields from a table or
query.
• Exercise: Create a regular form with data from the
Customers table.
The AutoForms are fast and easy to use, but limited—
there are only a few kinds of them. Of course, you can
always modify the forms once you’ve created them.
Create a form with AutoForms
1. In the Navigation Pane, click the table or query that
contains the data you want the new form to use.
Now you’re ready to select an AutoForm. Table 8-1:
Forms describes the different types of AutoForms
that are available.
Click the Next and Previous
Record buttons to view
different records.
Click the New Record
button to add a new record.
Record Navigation bar
2. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Form, Split Form, or Multiple Items button in the
Forms group.
Figure 8-1: An Access form.
Access creates the form for you using the data from
the table or query you specified.
Use a form
Once you create a form, you can use the buttons on the
Record Navigation bar (First, Previous, Next, Last, or
New) to display or add records.
1. Click a button on the Record Navigation bar to
display or add a new record.
Other Ways to Display a Certain Form:
Enter a keyword in the Search box to locate the
record you want to display.
Table 8-1: Forms
The Forms group on the
Create tab under the
Ribbon
Form
Displays only one record at a time. If the form has a related child table, that data will be displayed as
well.
Split Form
Displays all records in datasheet format on half the screen, and a form displaying the currently selected
record on the other half, useful for data entry.
Multiple Items
Displays all records in a datasheet format. Each field is a column.
PivotChart
Dynamically analyzes information and summarizes it into a chart.
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Working with Forms
Table 8-1: Forms
Lets you place controls anywhere you want them. You do all the work. Blank Form button opens the
form in Form View, while the Form Design button opens it in Design View, where you can work with it.
Form Design
Same as Blank Form, but appears in Design View instead of Layout View.
Form Wizard
Asks you a series of questions and then designs the form based on your answers.
Datasheet
Modal Dialog
PivotTable
162
Click the More Forms
button to access these
Blank Form/Form Design
Looks like a table’s datasheet view. Allows you to customize the datasheet—for example, you could
view only certain columns.
Instead of displaying data from a table, this form allows you to create a dialog box that pops up and asks
the user a question. Used with macros.
Dynamically analyzes information and summarizes it into a datasheet-like table.
© 2007 CustomGuide, Inc.
Working with Forms
Understanding Form Views
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
Before modifying a form, you need to know that forms
can be viewed several different ways in Access:
Form View: The normal view where you can view, add,
and edit records. You can’t modify the form’s structure in
this view.
• Exercise: View the form you just created in Form View,
Design View, and Layout View. Close the form without
saving.
Layout View: New for Access 2007, Layout View allows
you to apply formatting and rearrange fields while also
displaying data.
Design View: Use for in-depth modification and
customization of your form. Live data is not visible—
you’re only working with the structure of the form.
Datasheet, Pivot Table, Pivot Chart: These views are
available only for certain types of forms.
Print Preview: Displays a form as it would look when
printed, although you’ll rarely need to print a form—
that’s why you have reports.
Change Form views
Make sure the form is displayed, then follow these
instructions:
Figure 8-2: Selecting a form view.
1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the View
button list arrow and select a view option.
Other Ways to Change Views:
Click a view button on the right side of the Status
Bar.
Form View
Layout View
Design View
Figure 8-3: A form displayed in different views.
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Modifying a Form in Layout
View
You can modify forms in either Layout View—for simple
modifications—or in Design View—for more complex
changes where you want total control over form elements.
Unless you need to make detailed modifications, you’ll
want to use Layout View. Layout View is easy to use
because, for the most part, you can simply click and drag
items around the form, and you can see your live data
while you work.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Layout View.
Delete the DOB text box and label. Then add the DOB field
using the Field List pane. Move the Phone field after the
ZipCode field and move the DOB field after the Phone
field. Change the DOB label to BirthDate. Resize all the
text boxes until they are half as wide. Save the changes.
Tips

The modifications in this lesson can also be
performed in Design View, but using Layout View is
easier.
Understand controls
Any graphic object that appears on forms and reports is
called a control. A text box used to enter and display
information, a text label, and a button you click to print a
report would all be examples of controls.
Tips

Usually text boxes and labels are anchored by
default—meaning they are grouped for the purpose of
sizing or moving them. To ungroup them and modify
them individually, select the control(s), click the
Arrange tab under Form Layout Tools on the
Ribbon, and click the Remove button in the Control
Layout group.
Move a control
1. Click and drag a control to move it to a new location.
Resize a control
1. Select the control you want to resize, then click and
drag the edge of the control to resize it.
Edit a label
1. Select the label you want to edit.
2. Select the text within the label control.
A cursor appears in the label.
3. Edit the text as desired.
4. Click outside the label.
The edit is confirmed.
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Figure 8-4: Add a field using the Field List pane.
Working with Forms
Delete a control
1. Select the control you want to delete, then press the
<Delete> key.
Add a field
1.
Make sure the Field List pane is displayed.
Tip: If you don’t see the Field List pane, click the
Format tab under Form Layout Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Add Existing Fields button
in the Controls group.
2. Click and drag the field you want to add from the
Field List onto the form.
The field is added to the form wherever you placed it,
and Access automatically moves the other fields to
accommodate it.
Tip: The Field List pane can be used in either
Layout or Design View.
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Form Design View Basics
Don’t let Design View scare you. It looks more
complicated than it really is. In some ways, Design View
is similar to many Paint programs. Think of the form as
your canvas and the control buttons as paintbrushes for
adding fields, text boxes, and buttons to the form.
Any graphic object that appears on forms and reports is
called a control. A text box used to enter and display
information, a text label, and a button you click to print a
report would all be examples of controls. Let’s look at
how to add controls in Design View.
Add a control
1. In Design View, click the Design tab under Form
Design Tools.
Form controls are located in the Controls group. As
you will notice, there are lots of different controls to
choose from.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
• Exercise: Add a Combo Box control to the frmCustomers
form using the Control Wizard. Place the control on the
right side of the form’s header, and make it 1 inch tall by 2
inches wide. Select the ―Find a record on my form based on
the value I select in my combo box‖ option. Add the
CustomerID, LastName, and FirstName fields to the combo
box. Give the combo box a label named ―Lookup Name‖.
Save the changes, then try out the combo box in Form View.
Controls group
Click a button to create a control on
the form. See Table 8-2: Controls.
Form Selector
Click to select
the entire form.
Double-click to
display the form’s
properties.
Detail Divider
Drag down to
enlarge the
form’s header.
Form Header
Appears at the
top of the form.
Property Sheet
button
Click to
display/hide the
Property Sheet.
Field List button
Click to
display/hide the
Field List.
Tip: Some controls, such as buttons or lists, have
a wizard that helps you set them up. By default
the Use Control Wizards button should be selected
in the Controls group.
2. Click the control button you want to add.
The cursor changes its look.
3. Click and drag on the form in the location where you
want to place the control.
If the control you added uses a Control Wizard, the
wizard appears at this point. Or, if you added a label,
you’ll need to enter text.
4. If necessary, enter text into a label or follow the
Control Wizard to set up the control.
Tip: You can copy, cut and paste controls using
the buttons in the Clipboard group on the Home
tab.
Figure 8-5: A form in Design View.
5. In the Property Sheet pane, change settings for the
control as desired.
For example, if the intent of a control is to display a
database field’s value, you’d select the desired source
from the Control Source box on the Property Sheet.
Tip: If the Property Sheet pane isn’t already
displayed, click the Property Sheet button in the
Tools group on the Design Tab.
Table 8-2: Controls provides more information about
controls.
Figure 8-6: A form with a combo box control.
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Working with Forms
Resize the form area
Sometimes you may need to make the form area larger in
order to fit a new control.
1. Click the top edge of the Detail divider or Form
Footer divider and drag the divider to resize the
desired form area.
Table 8-2: Controls
Select Objects
Click this button and then click the control you want to select. To select multiple controls, click this
button and hold down the <Shift> key as you click each control, or drag a rectangle around all controls
you want to select.
Control Wizards
Click to use Control Wizards when you add controls to your form.
Label
Creates a static text label that is the same for every record, such as a heading. Most controls already
have a text label attached.
Text Box
Creates a text box that displays information from a table and query. You can also use text boxes to
simply enter text.
Option Group
Creates a box around a group of option buttons so that the user is only allowed to make one selection
from the group box.
Toggle Button
Creates a toggle button that allows you to display and enter data from a Yes/No field.
Option Button
Creates an option button (or radio button) that allows the user to make a single selection from two or
more choices. Option Buttons are normally used with the Option Group control.
Check Box
Creates a box that is checked or unchecked. Use to enter data from a Yes/No field.
Combo Box
Creates a drop-down box that lets the user enter text or select an item from a list of options.
List Box
Creates a box that lets the user select an item from a list of options.
Command Button
Creates a button that runs a macro or Visual Basic function.
Image
Displays a picture or graphic file that you specify.
Unbound Object Frame
Inserts an OLE object that is not bound to a field in the current database. Use an Unbound Object Frame
to display information from an external source or program, such as a spreadsheet, graphic, or other file.
Bound Object Frame
Inserts an OLE object that is bound to a field in the database. Use Bound Object Frames to display
pictures or other OLE information in the database.
Page Break
Inserts a page break.
Tab Control
Enables you to create tabs (like the ones found in some dialog boxes) to include more than one page of
controls on the form.
Subform/Subreport
Inserts another form within the main form. Use when you want to show data from a one-to-many
relationship.
Line
Enables you to draw a line.
Rectangle
Enables you to draw a rectangle.
Insert Chart
Inserts a Chart.
Insert Hyperlink
Inserts a link to a Web page or file.
Logo
A logo is added to the form’s header.
Title
Adds a title label to the form’s header.
Page Numbers
Adds page numbers to the Page Header section of the form. Page numbers are only visible when the
form is printed.
Date and Time
Adds the date and time that the form was opened.
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Changing Tab Order
If you add, remove, or move fields on a form, you’ll want
to change the form’s tab order. A form’s tab order
determines the order in which you advance from one field
to the next when you press the <Tab> key. When a form is
first created, the order of the fields determines the initial
tab order. Even when you reposition the fields on a form,
the form’s tab order remains the same.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Form View.
Press the <Tab> button to move the cursor through all the
text boxes (notice that SSN is out of order). Change to
Layout View to change the tab order. Open the Tab Order
dialog box and use the Auto Order feature to make the tab
order match the physical order on the form. Save the
changes.
In this lesson, we’ll look at how to change the tab order.
Tips

Tab order can be changed in either Layout or Design
View.
Change a form’s tab order
1. In Layout View, click the Arrange tab under Form
Layout Tools on the Ribbon and click the Tab Order
button in the Control Layout group.
The Tab Order dialog box appears. The order of the
fields in the list is the order in which you will
advance from one field to the next when you press
the <Tab> key. There are a couple of ways to change
the tab order. The fast and easy way is to click the
Auto Order button, which automatically rearranges
the tab order to correspond with the order in which
controls appear on the form.
Tip: If you don’t see the fields listed, you may
need to click Detail in the Section area of the
dialog box.
2. Click the Auto Order button. Click OK.
Access looks at the order in which fields appear on
the form and adjusts the tab order accordingly.
Other Ways to Change Tab Order:
In the Tab Order dialog box, click the row select
for the field you want to move and drag it to the
desired location. Repeat as necessary.
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Figure 8-7: The Tab Order dialog box.
Working with Forms
Working with Control
Properties
Every control on a form—every text box, every label, and
every check box—has a set of properties that you can
modify. A property is an attribute that defines an object’s
appearance, behavior, or characteristics. For example, the
properties of a house would be its color, square footage,
and shape. A property for a field on a form might be the
number of decimal places displayed or the default value
for the field. Because you can almost always change an
object’s properties, you can think of them as the object’s
settings.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Design View.
Make sure the Property Sheet pane is displayed. Select the
LastName text box control, and display the Format tab on
the Property Sheet. Change the border style to Dashes, then
view the form in Form View. Go to Layout View and
change the text box’s border style back to Solid. Save the
changes.
Different types of controls have different properties. For
example, label controls have a Caption property that
determines the text that is displayed in the label, while
text box controls have a Control Source property that
determines which field is displayed in the control. Most
controls have several dozen different properties or
settings. Fortunately, Access organizes these properties on
different tabs, as shown in Table 8-3: Tabs in the Property
Sheet.
This lesson explains how to view and change a control’s
properties.
View and edit properties
1. Display the form in Design View.
Tip: You can also work with properties in Layout
View.
Properties are displayed and edited in the Property
Sheet pane.
Figure 8-8: The Property Sheet pane.
2. If the Property Sheet isn’t displayed, right-click the
control and select Properties from the contextual
menu.
Other Ways to Display the Property Sheet:
In Design View, click the Design tab under Form
Design Tools on the Ribbon and click the
Property Sheet button in the Tools group.
In Layout View, click the Arrange tab under
Form Layout Tools on the Ribbon and click the
Property Sheet button in the Tools group.
3. Select a control.
The Property Sheet displays the properties for the
selected control.
Other Ways to Select a Control:
Click the Selection type list arrow at the top of
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the Property Sheet and select the control whose
properties you want to view or edit.
Tip: To select multiple controls to edit at once,
press and hold down the <Shift> key as you click
each control that you want to select.
Now let’s look at how to edit a property.
4. In the Property Sheet pane, click the appropriate
property box and make the changes.
Some property boxes will display one of the
following buttons when clicked:
Click to display a list of options to change the
settings for the selected property.
Click to invoke a Wizard or display a dialog
box that you use to change the settings for the
selected property.
Tip: Most controls have dozens and dozens of
properties. You will often have to click the
appropriate tab and then do some scrolling to find
the property box that you’re looking for.
Table 8-3: Tabs in the Property Sheet
Format
Properties that determine the object’s appearance, such as color, text formatting, line and border
color/thickness, and special effects. The purpose of many Formatting properties should be pretty
obvious—for example, Font Size determines the font size of the control.
Data
Properties that determine where a control get its data, its default value (if any), and data validation rules
for the control.
Event
Actions to which you can assign a macro or Visual Basic procedure. For example, clicking a button or
entering information in a particular field could trigger a macro to run.
Other
Miscellaneous but important properties, such as the name of the control, if tabbing to the control is
allowed, and if a message should appear in the Status bar when the control is selected.
All
Displays all the properties for the control.
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Working with Forms
Control Property Reference
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
Every control on a form or report has dozens of different
control properties or settings—so how do you keep them
all straight? Here’s how—this lesson is really a cheat
sheet that you can use whenever you’re not sure what
exactly a particular control property is or does. The most
important properties are marked with a .
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Design View.
Make sure the Property Sheet pane is displayed. Select
different controls and explore the tabs and properties on the
Property Sheet.
Table 8-4: Common Form and Report Control Properties
Caption 
Format
Displays a descriptive caption for a form or text label.
Format 
Format
Customizes the way numbers, dates, times, and text are displayed and printed.
Decimal Places 
Format
Determines the number of decimal places displayed.
Visible 
Format
Shows or hides a control. Useful if you want to use information on the form without it
being visible. For example, you could use the value in a hidden control as the criteria for a
query.
Display When
Format
Determines whether a section or control always appears or only appears when it is
displayed on screen or printed.
Scroll Bars
Format
Determines whether scroll bars appear in the control.
Left 
Format
Determines the horizontal position of the control.
Top 
Format
Determines the vertical position of the control.
Width 
Format
Determines the width of a control.
Height 
Format
Determines the height of a control.
Back Style
Format
Determines whether a control is transparent or not.
Back Color
Format
Determines the color of a control. Click the
Special Effect
Format
Applies a 3-D effect to a control.
Border Style
Format
Determines the line style of a control’s border—select from transparent lines, solid lines,
dashed lines, etc.
Border Color
Format
Determines the color of a control’s border. Click the
palette.
Border Width
Format
Determines the width of a control’s border (in points).
Fore Color
Format
Determines the color of text in a control or the fill color of an object. Click the
to select a color from a palette.
Font Name
Format
Determines the font used in a control (such as Arial or Times New Roman).
Font Weight
Format
Determines the thickness (boldface) of text in a control.
Font Italic
Format
Determines whether the text in a control appears in italics.
Font Underline
Format
Determines whether the text in a control is underlined.
Text Align
Format
Determines how text should be aligned in a control.
Control Source 
Data
Determines the data that appears in the control.
Input Mask 
Data
Limits the amount and type of information that can be entered in a field, such as ( ___ )
____-______ for a phone number. Click the
button to create an input mask using the
Input Mask Wizard.
Default Value 
Data
Specifies a value that is automatically entered in this field for new records.
button to select a color from a palette.
button to select a color from a
button
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Table 8-4: Common Form and Report Control Properties
Validation Rule 
Data
Allows you to enter an expression that is evaluated when data in the field is added or
changed.
Validation Text 
Data
Allows you to enter a message that is displayed when data doesn’t meet the Validation Rule
property.
Locked 
Data
Determines whether changes can be made to a field’s data.
Event Tab
Event
Allows you to assign a macro or Visual Basic procedure to a specific event, such as when
you click or update a control.
Name 
Other
Specifies the name of the control that identifies it in expressions, macros, and Visual Basic
procedures.
Status Bar Text
Other
Specifies a message to display in the Status bar when the control is selected.
Enter Key Behavior
Other
Determines if pressing the <Enter> key adds a new line of text in a control or if it moves to
the next field.
Allow AutoCorrect
Other
Determines if AutoCorrect (i.e., ―teh‖ > ―the‖) is used in a control.
AutoTab
Other
Used with the Input Mask property. Determines whether an automatic tab to the next field
occurs when the last character permitted by a text box control’s input mask is entered.
Tab Stop
Other
Determines whether users are able to tab to the control.
Tab Index
Other
Determines the tab order.
Shortcut Menu Bar
Other
Specifies a user-created shortcut menu that appears when the control is right-clicked.
ControlTip Message
Other
Specifies a brief message that appears when a user points at the control for a couple of
seconds.
Help Context Id
Other
Specifies an identifier number for a user-created Help file that appears when the user
selects the control and presses <F1>.
Tag
Other
Specifies extra, user-defined information that is stored in the object.
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Working with Form Properties
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
In this lesson you will learn how to view and change the
properties and settings not for controls, but for the form
itself. That’s right—just like controls, forms also have
their own set of properties that you can view and
manipulate. So why would you want to change a form’s
properties? Modifying a form’s properties can be
especially important if you are creating a database that
will be used by novice users. For example, by modifying
a form’s properties you can:
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Design View.
Make sure the Property Sheet pane is displayed. Change the
form’s tab to read ―Customers‖ instead of ―frmCustomers‖:
Click the Form Selector to select the whole form. On the
Format tab, enter ―Customers‖ in the Caption box. Next
change the form’s default view: On the Format tab, select
―Split Form‖ as the Default View. Change to Form View
and notice the effects of the two property changes you
made. Close the form without saving.
Allow users to edit exiting records in a table or
query—but not add any additional records.
Display one record at a time on each form or display
many records at once.
Form Selector
Determine the size and location of the form.
In this lesson you will learn how to work with a form’s
properties.
Change form properties
1. Display the form in Design View. Double-click the
Form Selector.
Access displays the properties for the form.
Other Ways to View Form Properties:
You can also view and edit form properties in
Layout View. Click the arrow button that runs
along the left side of the form to select the entire
form in Layout View.
2. Click the appropriate property tab and property box
and make the desired changes.
Change the form’s Default View property
Figure 8-9: Working with form properties in Design View.
One of the most important form properties is the Default
View property, which determines how many records a
form can display at once. Let’s take a closer look at this
property…
1. Click the Format tab, click the Default View box,
and click the down arrow.
Here you have six options. They are:
Single Form: Displays one record at a time on a
form.
Continuous Forms: Displays multiple records on
a form. The main difference between Datasheet
and Continuous Forms is that a continuous form
can be customized.
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Datasheet: Displays multiple records in a table,
using one line per record. Tables and queries
display information in datasheets.
PivotTable: Dynamically analyzes information
and summarizes it into a datasheet-like table.
PivotChart: Dynamically analyzes information
and summarizes it into a chart.
Split Form: Displays a single record on a form
and multiple records on a datasheet at the same
time.
2. Select a different Default View option, if desired.
You’re probably wondering how you are going to get a
handle on all these form properties. Don’t worry—you
will probably never touch 95 percent of them.
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Form Property Reference
Here’s a ―cheat sheet‖ that lists the various form
properties. Some of the most important properties are
marked with a .
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Design View.
Make sure the Property Sheet pane is displayed and the
Form Selector is selected. Select different controls and
explore the tabs and properties on the Property Sheet.
Table 8-5: Important Form Properties
Caption 
Format
Displays a descriptive caption in the form’s title bar.
Default View 
Format
Determines the view the form is in when opened.
Single Form: Displays one record at a time.
Continuous Forms: Displays multiple records in a form.
Datasheet: Displays multiple records in a Datasheet.
PivotTable: Dynamically analyzes data, summarizes into a table.
PivotChart: Dynamically analyzes data, summarizes into a chart.
Split Form: Displays a single record on a form and multiple records on a datasheet at
the same time.
Format
Determines if users can switch to this view.
Scroll Bars 
Format
Determines whether scroll bars appear on the form.
Record Selectors 
Format
Determines whether a form contains a record selector.
Navigation Buttons 
Format
Determines whether a form has navigation buttons.
Dividing Lines
Format
Determines if lines appear between records in continuous forms.
Auto Resize
Format
Resizes the form automatically to display a complete record.
Border Style 
Format
Determines the type of window the form appears in: None, Thin, Sizable, or Dialog.
Control Box
Format
Determines if a control menu appears in the form.
Min Max Buttons
Format
Determines if minimize and/or maximize buttons appear in the form.
Close Button
Format
Determines if a close button appears on the form.
Width 
Format
Determines the width of the form.
Height 
Format
Determines the height of the form.
Picture
Format
Adds a graphic or picture for the form or report background. Click the Build button to
browse for the folder and file.
Picture Type
Format
Determines if the picture is embedded or linked.
Picture Size Mode
Format
Determines how the contents of a picture frame are displayed: Clip, Stretch, or Zoom.
Picture Alignment
Format
Determines the alignment of a picture within a frame.
Picture Tiling
Format
Determines whether a picture is tiled within a frame.
Grid X
Format
Determines the number of subdivisions (horizontal) in a grid.
Grid Y
Format
Determines the number of subdivisions (vertical) in a grid.
Allow Form View
Allow Datasheet View
Allow PivotTable View
Allow PivotChart View
Allow Layout View
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Table 8-5: Important Form Properties
Layout for Print
Format
Determines whether the form uses printer fonts.
Palette Source
Format
Specifies the path and file name for the graphic file used as a palette.
Record Source 
Data
Specifies the table or query whose data will be used in the form.
Filter
Data
Specifies a filter that is loaded automatically with the Form/Report.
Order By
Data
Specifies a sort order that is loaded automatically with the Form/Report.
Allow Filters
Data
Determines whether filters may be applied to the form.
Allow Edits 
Data
Determines whether records can be modified in the form.
Allow Deletions 
Data
Determines whether records can be deleted in the form.
Allow Additions 
Data
Determines whether records can be added in the form.
Data Entry 
Data
Allows you to select ―Yes‖ if you only want to use the form to add new records.
Event Tab
Event
Allows you to assign a macro or Visual Basic procedure to a specific event, such as
when you click or update a control.
Pop Up
Other
Determines whether the form appears in a pop-up window that remains on top of all
other windows.
Modal
Other
Determines whether the form keeps the focus (you can’t switch to any other windows
or forms) until it is closed.
Cycle
Other
Determines how the tab key should cycle.
Menu Bar
Other
Allows you to select a custom menu bar that you created that should appear when the
form is active.
Toolbar
Other
Allows you to select a custom toolbar that you created that should appear when the
form is active.
Shortcut Menu
Other
Determines if right mouse button contextual menus are permitted in the form.
Shortcut Menu Bar
Other
Specifies a user-created shortcut menu that appears when a user clicks the right-mouse
button.
Help File
Other
Specifies the name of the custom Help file for the form.
Help Context Id
Other
Specifies an identifier number for a user-created Help file that appears when the user
selects the control and presses <F1>.
Has Module
Other
Specifies if the form has Visual Basic code behind it.
Fast Laser Printing
Other
Print the form using optimized laser-printer formatting.
Tag
Other
Specifies extra user-defined information that is stored in the form.
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Changing a Control’s Data
Source
There are three types of controls that you can add to your
forms. They are:
Bound Controls: Bound controls are bound or
connected to an underlying field in a table or query.
You use bound controls to display, enter, and update
field values in your database. The fields that you can
add to a form using the Field List are all examples of
bound controls.
Unbound Controls: Unbound controls are not bound
or connected to an underlying field in a table or
query. You use unbound controls to display
information. Labels, text boxes, and buttons can all
be inserted on a form as unbound controls.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
• Exercise: Delete the First Class label and text box. Add a
check box control below the Smoker label. Bind the check
box to the First Class database field using the Control
Source box on the Data tab of the Property Sheet. Change
the check box’s label so it reads ―First Class‖. View the
form in Form View and try checking and unchecking the
First Class box. Save and close the form.
Figure 8-10: Adding a check box control to a form.
Calculated Controls: Calculated controls are based
on an expression and are used to calculate values in a
form, such as arithmetic problems. Technically,
calculated controls are unbound controls because
they do not update any table fields.
A control’s Control Source property determines what is
displayed in a control:
A bound control’s Control Source property contains
the name of the underlying database field to which it
is bound.
An unbound control’s Control Source property does
not contain the name of an underlying database field.
A calculated control’s Control Source property
contains an expression that calculates the values
displayed in the control.
This lesson explains how you can change a control’s
Control Source property.
1. Display the form in Design View or Layout View and
make sure the Property Sheet is displayed.
2. Select the desired control.
You can find the Control Source property on the Data
tab on the Property Sheet.
3. Click the Data tab on the Property Sheet.
Set the Control Source property to determine what is
displayed in the control. You can bind the control to a
field in the form’s underlying query or table by
clicking the arrow button, or you can type text or an
expression directly into the Control Source box.
Figure 8-11: Binding a control to an underlying database
field.
4. Click the Control Source box and edit the source as
desired.
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Working with Forms
Creating a Calculated Control
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
A calculated control is an unbound control that displays
totals and other arithmetic computations on a form. You
create calculated controls by entering an expression (or
formula) to perform the calculation in the control’s
Control Source property.
In forms, expressions start with the equal sign (=), which
tells Access that you want to perform a calculation. After
the equal sign, you must specify two more types of
information: the values you want to calculate and the
arithmetic operator(s) or function name(s) you want to use
to calculate the values. Expressions can contain explicit
values, such as the numbers ―4‖ or ―5‖ or can reference
the values contained in database fields. For example, the
formula =[Cost]*[Commission] would multiply the
values in the Cost and Commissions fields. To enter fields
in an expression, type the field name in brackets ([Order
Total]). If a field name exists in more than one table, you
will need to enter the name of the table that contains the
field in brackets ([Customer Tours]) followed by an
exclamation mark (!) and then the field, such as [Order
Total].
• Exercise: Display the frmTours form in Design View.
Create a calculated control in the Total text box that finds
the total cost of each tour by multiplying the Number of
Tickets field by the Cost field: Display the Expression
Builder in the Control Source box on the Data tab on the
Property sheet. Enter the expression =[Number of
Tickets]*[Cost]. View the form in Form View and click the
Next Record button to scroll through records and see the
Total calculation at work. Save the form.
In this lesson we’ll look at how to create a calculated
control.
1. Display the form in Design View or Layout View and
make sure the Property Sheet is displayed.
Figure 8-12: Creating a calculated control in Design View.
2. Select the desired control.
3. Click the Data tab on the Property Sheet and click in
the Control Source box.
Start expressions
with the equal (=)
symbol.
Existing field names used
in the calculation must be
enclosed by brackets [ ].
4. Type the expression, using proper Access syntax.
Other Ways to Enter an Expression:
Click the
button in the Control Source box and
use the Expression Builder to create the
expression.
Arithmetic operator
Tips

You can also use expressions to create calculated
controls and fields in queries and reports.

If a database field name exists in more than one table,
you will need to enter the name of the table that
contains the field in brackets, followed by an
exclamation mark (!). For example,
=[tblTours]![Cost]*0.15.
Figure 8-13: The Expression Builder dialog box.
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Working with Forms
Changing a Control’s Default
Value
You can enter a default value to specify a value that is
automatically entered in a field when a new record is
created. For example, if most of your clients are from
Texas, you could set the default value for the State field to
―TX.‖ When users add a record using a form, they can
either accept the ―TX‖ default value for the State field or
enter their own value.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Design View.
Enter the default value ―MN‖ for the State text box. Change
to Form View, add a new blank record, and notice that MN
is already filled in. Save your changes.
1. Display the form in Design View or Layout View and
make sure the Property Sheet is displayed.
2. Select the desired control.
For example, you could select the State text box to
create a default value that enters the state.
3. Click the Data tab on the Property Sheet.
4. Click in the Default Value box and type the default
value you want to appear for new records.
Now when you add a new record to the form, the
default value will appear automatically. You can
always replace the default value with your own data
if desired.
Figure 8-14: Setting the Default Value property for a
control.
Tips

Control properties in a form are inherited, or passed
down, from the original properties in the underlying
table or query. For example, if you set the Default
Value property for a table’s State field to ―TX,‖ the
―TX‖ Default Value property will be passed on to a
related State control on a form by default.
Figure 8-15: The default value appears in the control
when you add a new record with the form.
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Working with Forms
Creating a Subform
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
A subform is a form within a form. The primary form is
called the main form, and the form within the form is
called the subform. Subforms are especially useful when
you want to show data from tables or queries with a oneto-many relationship. For example, a Customer form
might have a subform that displays each customer’s
Orders.
The main form and subform are linked so that the
subform displays only records that are related to the
current record in the main form. For example, when the
main form displays a particular customer, the subform
displays only orders for that customer.
• Exercise: Display the frmEmployees form in Design View.
Make sure the Control Wizards button has been pressed.
Add a subform to display the tours that each employee has
sold. Resize the form area to add about 3 inches of space
below the current data. Add the subform in this new space
(make it about 2 inches tall by 5 inches wide. In the Wizard,
select Query:qryCustomerTours as the source for the
subform and select the EmployeeID, Date, TourID,
CustomerID, and Number of Tickets fields to the Selected
Fields list. Finish the Wizard. Save your changes and
display the form in Form View.
Let’s look at how to create a subform.
1. Open the form you want to use in Design View.
Usually you will want to have the Control Wizard
assist you when you add a subform.
2. Make sure the Control Wizards button is selected in
the Controls group on the Design tab on the Ribbon.
Before you add a subform, make sure that you have
enough room for it on the main form.
3. Resize the form if necessary.
Now you’re ready to add the subform.
4. Click the Design tab under Form Design Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Subform/Subreport button in
the Controls group.
The mouse pointer changes to a , indicating that
you can click and drag the subform onto the main
form.
5. In the form, click and drag where you want the
subform to appear.
The Subform Wizard appears and asks if you want to
use an existing form for your subform or if you want
to build a new form, using tables or queries. In this
lesson, we will have the Wizard build us a new form
using tables and queries to use as our subform.
6. Click Next.
The next step of the Wizard appears. Here you have
to select the table or query and fields that you want to
display in your subform.
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Figure 8-16: Selecting the table or query and fields that
you want to include on your subform.
Working with Forms
7. Click the Tables/Queries list arrow and select the
table or query you want to use for the subform.
Now you need to select the fields you want to appear
in the subform. You must select the related field used
to join the main form and subform. This related field
must appear on both the main form (where it is called
the parent field) and on the subform (where it is
called the child field).
Main Form
Shows data from the
“one” side of the
relationship.
Subform
Shows data from the
“many” side of the
relationship.
Tip: It’s very important that the underlying tables
or queries of the main form and subform have a
related field and that the related field appears
somewhere on both forms.
8. Select the fields you want to appear in the subform
and click Next.
The next step in the Wizard is to define the fields that
link the main form and the subform. The Subform
Wizard is often smart enough to recognize the field
and use it to link the two forms. If not, you will have
to click the Define my own option and select the two
related fields.
9. If necessary, specify the parent and child fields that
link the main form and subform.
Figure 8-17: Subforms are great for working with data in
multiple tables with one-to-many relationships. Here the
subform displays all the tours sold by each employee.
10. Click Next, then click Finish.
Access creates the subform and adds it to the main
form.
11. Save your changes to the form.
Subforms created with the Subform Wizard are
usually a little rough around the edges and may
require a little clean-up work.
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Modifying and Working with
Subforms
Subforms rarely come out the way you want them to the
first time: They may be too small or too large and must be
resized so that the main form and subform fit together
nicely. Or, if you’re using an existing form as a subform,
you may need to change the subform layout.
This lesson covers the basics of modifying and working
with subforms.
Modify a subform
1. Click anywhere in the subform.
To edit the subform’s structure or size, you need to be
in Design View.
2. Edit the subform as needed.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Form.accdb
• Exercise: Display the frmEmployees form that you
modified in the previous lesson open in Form View. Practice
clicking back and forth between the main and subforms.
Then add a new record to the subform using the following
information:
EmployeeID
Date
TourID
CustomerID
Number of
Tickets
(Current)
9/2/07
China
Ali
2
Change to Design View and delete the subform’s label.
Select the subform’s Form Selector and view its properties
on the Property Sheet. Change the subform’s Default View
to Continuous Forms. View the form in Form View and save
your changes.
Click a subform’s Form
Selector to view its properties
in the Property Sheet.
Select a subform, then click
and drag the corner to resize it.
Tips

The main form and sub form each have their own set
of navigation buttons that you can use to add and
move between records.

If you have set referential integrity between two or
more related fields in a subform’s underlying table or
query, you will have to obey those referential
integrity rules in order to add or edit a record in the
subform. For example, you can’t enter a number in
the TourID field unless that number exists in the
qryCustomerTours query.
Display a subform’s properties
1. In Design View, double-click the subform’s Form
Selector.
The subform’s properties are displayed in the
Property Sheet.
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Figure 8-18: Modifying a subform in Design View.
Wor king with For ms Review
Quiz Questions
83.
Which of the following is not used to create a report?
A. Report button
B. Report Design button
C. Report Wizard
D. Report Add-in
84.
You can resize report columns in Layout View. True or False?
85.
You can only add one of Access’s three built-in logos to a report—you can’t add your own. (True or False?)
86.
To display a report in Design View, right-click the report in the Navigation Pane and select Display Design. (True or
False?
87.
In Layout View, the commands for adjusting page margins and orientation are found in the ________ group
A. Page Setup
B. Page Format
C. Page Layout
D. Adjust Page
88.
You can place page numbers only at the top of a report page. (True or False?)
89.
You can group and sort a report using the _________ pane.
A. Group Report
B. Group, Sort, and Total
C. Group and Sort
D. Summarize
90.
The Total feature creates a calculated control for you. (True or False?)
91.
Which of the following is NOT a report section?
A. Report Header
B. Report Title
C. Detail
D. Page Footer
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Quiz Answers
83.
D. Using the Report Add-in is not a way to create a report.
84.
True. You can resize columns and controls in Layout View.
85.
False. You can add your own logo to a report.
86.
False. Right-click the report in the Navigation Pane and select Design View.
87.
C. They’re found in the Page Layout group of commands.
88.
False. You can place page numbers at either the top or bottom of a report page.
89.
B. You can group and sort a report using the Group, Sort, and Total pane.
90.
True. The Total feature creates a calculated control that summarizes the field you specify.
91.
B. Report Title is not a section in a report.
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Wor king with
Repor ts
Creating a Report ............................................ 186
Create a report with the Report button .. 186
Working in Layout View .................................. 187
Change report view................................ 187
Understanding controls .......................... 187
Work with report layouts ........................ 187
Resize, move, and delete controls or
columns ................................................. 188
Add a field .............................................. 188
Add a field .............................................. 188
Adding a Logo ................................................. 189
Working in Design View .................................. 190
Display a report in Design View ............. 190
Controls ................................................. 190
Adjusting Page Margins and Orientation ...... 192
Adjust page margins .............................. 192
Adjust orientation ................................... 192
Adding Page Numbers and Dates .................. 193
Add a page number ............................... 193
Add a date and time information ............ 194
9
It’s easy to print a simple list of records in
a table or query. But if you want your
printed hard copies to look professional,
you’ll need to create a report. Reports
present information from tables and
queries in a format that looks great when
printed.
Reports can also summarize and analyze
the information in your database. For
example, a report might tell you which of
your employees has used the most sick
days for the past year.
This chapter explains how to create and
work with reports.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
Grouping and Sorting ..................................... 195
Group or sort on a field .......................... 195
Work with the Group, Sort, and Total pane
............................................................... 195
Summarize Data using Totals ......................... 197
Total a field ............................................. 197
Understanding Report Sections ..................... 198
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Working with Reports
Creating a Report
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb
There are two quick ways to create a report:
The Report Wizard is a good choice if you want to
create a report from more than one table, or if you
want to influence the design of the report while you
create it.
The Report button instantly creates a report based
on the currently selected table or query.
• Exercise: Use the Report button to create a report based
on the qryCustomers query. Save the report as
―rptCustomers‖.
Report button
We’ve covered the Report Wizard in another lesson, so
we’ll look at the Report button here.
Create a report with the Report button
You can instantly create a report with the Report button.
1. Select the table or query you want to base the report
on.
You can select the table or query either in the
Navigation pane or, if the table or query is already
open, in the database window.
2. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Report button in the Reports group.
A report is instantly created based on the active table
or query, and appears in Layout View.
Other Ways to Create a Report:
You can also create a blank report. Click the
Create tab on the Ribbon and click either the
Blank Report button (to create and display the
report in Layout View) or the Report Design
button (to create and display a blank report in
Design View).
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Figure 9-1: Creating a report based on the qryCustomers
query with the Report button.
Working with Reports
Working in Layout View
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb
Much like with forms, you can modify reports in either
Layout View (for simple changes) or Design View (for
more complex changes). One advantage of Layout View
is that it displays the report much as it will look when
printed—unlike Design View, which displays all the
messy, behind-the-scenes report structure. Layout View
does still display field, row, column, header, footer, and
page borders so you can easily work with the layout. In
this lesson, we’ll look at some of the simple modifications
you can make in Layout View.
• Exercise: Change the rptCustomers report to Report View,
then back to Layout View. In the Control Layout group on
the Arrange tab, change the Control Padding to None.
Change to a Stacked layout, then undo that action. Delete
the CustomerID, ZipCode, DOB, SSN, Smoker, and First
Class columns. Delete the Date and Time fields from the top
of the report and the page number field from the bottom of
the report. Add the DOB field back to the report as the last
column. Manually resize each column to make the report
one page wide (use the dotted page lines for guidance). Edit
the ―qryCustomer‖ title label so it reads ―Customers‖. Save.
Tips

The modifications in this lesson can also be
performed in Design View, but using Layout View is
usually easier.
Table 9-1: Report Views
Report
Layout
Design
Print Preview
Change report view
1. Click Home tab on the Ribbon and click the View
button list arrow in the View group.
Here you have view options such as Report View,
Print Preview, Layout View, and Design View.
2. Select a view.
Other Ways Change Report View:
Click one of the view buttons on the Status bar.
Understanding controls
Just like with forms, any object that appears on a report is
called a control. A text box used to display record
information (usually fields from a table or query) or a
column label are both examples of controls.
Work with report layouts
You can easily change the layout of the report using the
commands in the Control Layout group on the Arrange
tab.
1. Click the Arrange tab on the Ribbon.
The Control Layout group contains some quick and
easy commands for changing your layout:
Tabular, Stacked, Remove: Click these buttons to
change the way controls are arranged on your
report—in a spreadsheet-like tabular format, or a
vertically stacked arrangement. Experiment to find
the best layout for your report.
Figure 9-2: The Arrange tab.
Control Margins, Control Padding: Click these
buttons to change the location of data within fields,
and also the distance between fields.
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Working with Reports
2. Click a command in the Control Layout group.
Tip: If you decide you don’t like a change you’ve
made to your report’s layout, you can always use
the Undo feature to return to where you started.
View button
list arrow
Controls
Resize, move, and delete controls or
columns
You can easily move and resize columns of data or
individual controls such as labels or logos simply by
clicking and dragging them with the mouse. You can also
delete these items with the press of a key.
Tips

In Layout View, data is grouped together in columns
and rows by Access so that it can be easily modified
together.
Resize: Click and drag the right or left border of a column
or control to make it larger or smaller.
Other Ways to Resize a Column:
Access can automatically resize a column to fit
the widest record: Click the Arrange tab on the
Ribbon and click the Size to Fit button in the
Position group.
View buttons
Figure 9-3: Resizing a column in Layout View.
Move: Click and drag a column’s heading to a new
location to move a column, or simply click and drag a
control to a new location.
Delete: Select a column or control and press the <Delete>
key.
Add a field
If you create a form with the Report button, the report will
already contain all the fields from the table or query on
which you based the report. But if you’ve created your
report with the Report Wizard, by using the Blank report
option, or if you’ve deleted some fields, you may want to
add more fields at some point. Here’s how:
1.
Make sure the Field List pane is displayed.
Tip: If you don’t see the Field List pane, click the
Format tab under Report Layout Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Add Existing Fields button
in the Controls group.
2. Click and drag the field you want to add from the
Field List onto the report.
The field is added to the report wherever you placed
it, and Access automatically moves the other fields to
accommodate it.
Tip: To change a field label’s text, select the label,
click inside the label, then edit or replace the text.
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Figure 9-4: Adding a field to a report.
Working with Reports
Adding a Logo
In this lesson, we’ll look at how you can easily add your
logo to a report in Layout View.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb, Logo.jpg
• Exercise: Add a logo to the rptCustomers report (insert the
logo.gif file). Save.
Tips

If you created your report using the Report button, a
logo placeholder will already be inserted in the
upper-left corner of the report. When you insert your
own logo, it will replace it automatically

You can also add a logo in Design View.
Add a logo
1. Display the report in Layout View.
2. Click the Format tab under Report Layout Tools on
the Ribbon and click the Logo button in the Controls
group.
Figure 9-5: The Controls group on the Format tab.
The Insert Picture dialog box appears.
3. Browse to the logo file and double-click it.
The logo is added to the report’s header.
Tips

Once you’ve added the logo, you can move it or
resize it like any other field or control.
Figure 9-6: Selecting a logo file in the Insert Picture dialog
box.
Figure 9-7: A logo inserted into a report.
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Working with Reports
Working in Design View
To make more complex report modifications, you’ll want
to work with your reports in Design View. If you have
already worked with forms in Design View, you should be
in familiar territory—Design View is remarkably similar
for both forms and reports.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb
• Exercise: Display the rptCustomers report in Design View
and familiarize yourself with the parts of the screen and the
controls in the Controls group.
Display a report in Design View
Control
commands
1. Right-click the report in the Navigation Pane and
select Design View.
The report opens in Design View.
Other Ways Display a Report in Design View:
If the report is already open in the database
window, click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click
the View button list arrow in the Views group, and
select Design View.
Controls
1. Click the Design tab under Report Design Tools on
the Ribbon.
Control commands are found in the Controls group.
Figure 9-8: A report displayed in Design View.
Tips

Use the Anchoring button in the Size group on the
Arrange tab to tie controls together so they can be
sized as a unit.

For more details about controls, see the lesson about
adding controls to forms.
Table 8-2: Controls provides more information about
controls.
Table 9-2: Controls
Select Objects
Click this button and then click the control you want to select. To select multiple controls, click this
button and hold down the <Shift> key as you click each control, or drag a rectangle around all controls
you want to select.
Control Wizards
Click to use Control Wizards when you add controls to your form.
Label
Creates a static text label that is the same for every record, such as a heading. Most controls already
have a text label attached.
Text Box
Creates a text box that displays information from a table and query. You can also use text boxes to
simply enter text.
Option Group
Creates a box around a group of option buttons so that the user is only allowed to make one selection
from the group box. Normally used in forms, not reports.
Toggle Button
Creates a toggle button that allows you to display and enter data from a Yes/No field. Normally used in
forms, not reports.
Option Button
Creates an option button (or radio button) that allows the user to make a single selection from two or
more choices. Option Buttons are normally used with the Option Group control. Normally used in
forms, not reports.
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Working with Reports
Table 9-2: Controls
Check Box
Creates a box that is checked or unchecked. Use to enter data from a Yes/No field. Normally used in
forms, not reports.
Combo Box
Creates a drop-down box that lets the user enter text or select an item from a list of options. Normally
used in forms, not reports.
List Box
Creates a box that lets the user select an item from a list of options. Normally used in forms, not reports.
Command Button
Creates a button that runs a macro or Visual Basic function.
Image
Displays a picture or graphic file that you specify.
Unbound Object Frame
Inserts an OLE object that is not bound to a field in the current database. Use an Unbound Object Frame
to display information from an external source or program, such as a spreadsheet, graphic, or other file.
Bound Object Frame
Inserts an OLE object that is bound to a field in the database. Use Bound Object Frames to display
pictures or other OLE information in the database.
Page Break
Inserts a page break.
Tab Control
Enables you to create tabs (like the ones found in some dialog boxes) to include more than one page of
controls on the report. This control is normally used in forms, not reports.
Subform/Subreport
Inserts another report within the main report. Use when you want to show data from a one-to-many
relationship.
Line
Enables you to draw a line.
Rectangle
Enables you to draw a rectangle.
Insert Chart
Inserts a Chart.
Insert Hyperlink
Inserts a link to a Web page or file.
Logo
A logo is added to the report’s header.
Title
Adds a title label to the report’s header.
Insert Page Number
Adds page numbers to the report’s Header or Footer section.
Date and Time
Adds the date and time that the report was opened.
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Working with Reports
Adjusting Page Margins and
Orientation
You’re probably already aware that margins are the empty
space between the text and the left, right, top, and bottom
edges of a printed page. The default margins for a report
are .25 inches at the top, bottom, left, and right. If you
don’t already know how to adjust a page's margins, you
will after this lesson. You will also learn how to change
the page orientation.
Adjust page margins
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb
• Exercise: Display the rptCustomers report in Layout View.
Change the page margins to Wide, then to Narrow. Change
the page orientation to Landscape. View the report in Print
Preview View. Change the orientation back to Portrait.
Save.
Change page orientation
There are many reasons to change a report’s margins: To
make room for more data, to add some extra space if
you’re binding a document, or to leave a blank space to
write in notes.
1. Display the report in Layout or Design View.
2. Click the Page Setup tab under Report Layout Tools
on the Ribbon and click the Margins button in the
Page Layout group.
Here you have a few choices for margin size:
Normal, Wide, or Narrow (the default choice).
3. Select the option you want to use.
Tip: If you want to fine-tune the margin size,
click the Page Setup button in the Page Layout
group, click the Print Options tab, and enter the
exact top, bottom, left, and right margin sizes you
want to use.
Figure 9-9: Selecting a page margin size in the Page
Layout group.
Adjust orientation
Everything you print uses one of two different types of
paper orientations: portrait and landscape. In Portrait
orientation (the default for Access reports), the paper is
taller than it is wide—like a painting of a person’s
portrait. In Landscape orientation, the paper is wider than
it is tall—like a painting of a landscape.
Portrait
1. Display the report in Layout or Design View.
2. Click the Page Setup tab under Report Layout Tools
on the Ribbon and click the Landscape or Portrait
button in the Page Layout group.
The page’s orientation changes.
Landscape
Tips

You can also change the size of the page from the
default Letter size. Click the Size button in the Page
Layout group and select a size.
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Figure 9-10: Portrait vs. landscape orientation.
Working with Reports
Adding Page Numbers and
Dates
Reports that are several pages long often have information
such as the page number or the date located at the top
(header) or bottom (footer) of every page. In this lesson
you will learn how to use the Page Number command and
Date and Time command to add page numbers and/or the
current date to your report.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb
• Exercise: Display the rptCustomers report in Layout View.
Add a page number in ―Page N of M‖ format to the bottom
of the page (center alignment). Add the date in
―xx/xx/xxxx‖ format but don’t include the time. View the
report in Print Preview to see the page number and date
displayed. Save and close the rptCustomers report.
Tips

When you create a report based on a table or query
using the Report button, Access automatically adds
fields for the date, time and page number to the
report. If you use the Report Wizard, only the date
and page number are included by default.
Add a page number
Figure 9-11: The Page Numbers and Date and Time
buttons in the Controls group.
1. In Layout View, click the Format tab under Report
Layout Tools on the Ribbon and click the Page
Numbers button in the Controls group.
The Page Numbers dialog box appears, giving you
several choices for formatting the page numbers:
Page N: Prints only the page number (for
example, ―Page 5.‖)
Page N of M: Prints the page number and the
total number of pages (for example, ―Page 5 of
15.‖)
Other Ways to Add a Page Number:
You can add a page number or date the same way
in Design View, except that the buttons are
located in the Controls group on the Design tab.
Figure 9-12: The Page Numbers dialog box.
2. Select the option you want to use in the Format
section.
Next you need to specify where on the page you want
the page number to appear—at the top or bottom of
the page—and how you want the page numbers
aligned.
3. Select the option you want to use in the Position
section, then click the Alignment list arrow and
select an alignment option. Click OK.
The Page Numbers dialog box closes, and Access
adds a text box with a page number expression.
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Add date and time information
1. In Layout View, click the Format tab under Report
Layout Tools on the Ribbon and click the Date and
Time button in the Controls group.
The Date and Time dialog box appears. You can
specify to add the date, time, or both to your reports.
2. Check or uncheck the Include Date and Include
Time check boxes as desired.
Just like the Page Number dialog box, the Date and
Time dialog box gives you several choices for how
the date and/or time can be formatted.
3. Select desired formatting options, then click OK.
The Date and Time dialog box closes and Access
adds the date or time as you specified.
Tip: Access may place the date, time, or page
numbers on top of an existing control. If so, click
and drag the text box to move the control to a new
location on the report.
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Figure 9-13: The Date and Time dialog box.
Working with Reports
Grouping and Sorting
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb
If you create a report using the Report Wizard, you
specify which fields you want to use to group and/or sort
your report by. If you’re modifying an existing report or
creating a report from scratch, you’ll need to use the
methods presented in this lesson.
• Exercise: Display the rptAnnualSales report in Layout
View. Group the report on the TourName field. Use the
Group, Sort, and Total pane to add a sort level that sorts by
date from oldest to newest. View the report in Print Preview
View. Save.
There are two ways to group and sort:
Right-click fields in Layout View and select an
option from the contextual menu. This is the easier—
and hence, preferred way—to group and sort.
Report data grouped by TourName.
Display the Group, Sort, and Total pane in either
Layout or Design View, and use the commands in the
pane to make advanced adjustments to grouping and
sorting.
Group or sort on a field
Organizing records into logical groups often makes them
easier to read and understand. For example, you could
group a sales report by the date field to quickly see how
many sales occurred in a particular month.
Group, Sort,
and Total pane
1. In Layout View, right-click the field you want to
group or sort on, and select Group On or a sort
option from the contextual menu.
A grouping level is added to the report and a group
header is created—which you can see if you change
to Design View.
Tip: Sort options may include Sort A to Z or Sort
Largest to Smallest, depending on the type of data
you’re sorting.
A group level
A sort level
Add a group or sort level
Figure 9-14: A report grouped by the TourName field and
sorted by date.
Work with the Group, Sort, and Total pane
You can also group and sort your report data using the
Group, Sort, and Total pane. Using the pane allows you to
add multiple levels of grouping and sorts.
1. Display the report in Design or Layout View.
2. Click the Design tab (or Format tab in Layout View)
on the Ribbon and click the Group & Sort button in
the Grouping & Totals group.
Access displays the Group, Sort and Total pane at the
bottom of the screen. Here you’ll see any fields that
are currently being used for sorting or grouping your
report.
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Working with Reports
3. Click the Add a group or Add a sort button in the
Group, Sort and Total pane and select a field for
grouping records.
The records are grouped or sorted, and each level of
sorting or grouping that you add contains several
options. These options allow you to change the sort
order, create a group header or footer section, or add
totals.
4. Select options you want to use by clicking on the
option on the group or sort level.
Tip: If you want to see even more options, click
More on the desired level.
Tips

You can set up to 10 grouping and sorting levels in a
report.
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Working with Reports
Summarize Data using Totals
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb
A calculated control displays totals and other arithmetic
computations on a form or report. In this lesson, we’ll
look at how to add use the Total feature to add calculated
fields to summarize information on a report.
• Exercise: Display the rptAnnualSales report in Layout
View and add totals to the Tickets and Total fields using the
Sum operation. View the report in Print Preview View to see
the group and grand totals. Save.
With the Total feature you could, for example, total the
number of phone calls each telemarketer at your company
made and the number of phone calls made by all your
telemarketers.
Table 9-3: Common Total Operations describes the
operations you will use most often to total your reports.
Total a field
With the Total feature, Access can calculate a sum,
average, or count for a field.
1. In Layout View, right-click the field you want to
total, point to Total [field name] on the contextual
menu, and select an operation.
Figure 9-15: Totaling the Total field using the contextual
menu.
A grand total appears at the end of the report, and if
you have created any groups in the report, group
totals are added after each group as well.
Tips

The operations that are available will vary depending
on the type of data in the field.

You can modify the totals using options found on the
Group, Sort, and Total pane.
Table 9-3: Common Total Operations
Sum
Totals all the values
listed in a field.
Sum([InvoiceTotal])
Maximum
Finds and displays
the largest value
listed in a field.
Max([InvoiceTotal])
Minimum
Finds and displays
the smallest value
listed in a field.
Min([InvoiceTotal])
Average
Calculates the
average of all the
values listed in a
field.
Avg([InvoiceTotal])
Count
Counts how many
values are listed in a
field.
Count([InvoiceTotal])
Totals
Figure 9-16: A report grouped by TourName and
displaying totals.
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Working with Reports
Understanding Report
Sections
As if reports weren’t confusing enough as a whole,
Access breaks them up into separate parts called sections.
Each section has its own specific purpose and always
prints in the same order on a report.
If you’ve worked with headers and footers in a wordprocessing program, you’re familiar with the section
concept.
Table 9-4 describes each of the sections, which are most
easily seen when you view the report in Design View.
Tips

To change the size of a section, click and drag its
section line up or down.
Group header section
Group footer section
Figure 9-17: Report sections
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Click and drag a section
line to change the
section size.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Report.accdb
• Exercise: Display the rptAnnualSales report in Design
View and study each of the report sections. Using the label
control in the Controls group, add a label with the text
―Detail‖ to the left side of the Detail section, then add a
―Group Footer‖ label to the left side of the TourName
Footer section. View the report in Report View and notice
where the ―Detail‖ and ―Group Footer‖ labels appear.
Table 9-4: Report Sections
Report
Header
Contains text that appears at the top of the first
page of a report, such as the name of the report.
Page
Header
Contains text that appears at the top of each page of
a report, such as the report’s column headings.
Group
Header
Used to place text, such as a group name, at the
beginning of each group of records.
Detail
Contains text and the actual fields that are
displayed for each record. This would be equivalent
to the main body in a word-processing document.
Group
Footer
Used to place text and numeric summaries, such as
totals or averages, at the end of each group of
records.
Page
Footer
Contains text that appears at the bottom of each
page of a report, such as page numbers.
Report
Footer
Contains text that appears at the end of the last
page of a report. Often also contains numeric
summaries for the report, such as a grand total.
Wor king with Repor ts Review
Quiz Questions
92.
Which of the following is not used to create a report?
A. Report button
B. Report Design button
C. Report Wizard
D. Report Add-in
93.
You can resize report columns in Layout View. True or False?
94.
You can only add one of Access’s three built-in logos to a report—you can’t add your own. (True or False?)
95.
To display a report in Design View, right-click the report in the Navigation Pane and select Display Design. (True or
False?
96.
In Layout View, the commands for adjusting page margins and orientation are found in the ________ group
A. Page Setup
B. Page Format
C. Page Layout
D. Adjust Page
97.
You can place page numbers only at the top of a report page. (True or False?)
98.
You can group and sort a report using the _________ pane.
A. Group Report
B. Group, Sort, and Total
C. Group and Sort
D. Summarize
99.
The Total feature creates a calculated control for you. (True or False?)
100. Which of the following is NOT a report section?
A. Report Header
B. Report Title
C. Detail
D. Page Footer
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Quiz Answers
92.
D. Using the Report Add-in is not a way to create a report.
93.
True. You can resize columns and controls in Layout View.
94.
False. You can add your own logo to a report.
95.
False. Right-click the report in the Navigation Pane and select Design View.
96.
C. They’re found in the Page Layout group of commands.
97.
False. You can place page numbers at either the top or bottom of a report page.
98.
B. You can group and sort a report using the Group, Sort, and Total pane.
99.
True. The Total feature creates a calculated control that summarizes the field you specify.
100. B. Report Title is not a section in a report.
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For matting
For ms and
Repor ts
Formatting Fonts ............................................. 202
Change font size .................................... 202
Change font type ................................... 202
Format text with bold, italics, or underlining
............................................................... 202
Changing Text Alignment ............................... 204
Changing Colors .............................................. 205
Applying Special Effects ................................. 206
Using Conditional Formatting ........................ 207
Adding Pictures, Lines and Gridlines ........... 208
Insert a graphic ...................................... 208
Add gridlines .......................................... 208
Draw a line ............................................. 209
10
This chapter guides you through the
process of creating sharp-looking forms
and reports that have colorful fonts,
sharp-looking borders, and even controls
with 3-D effects.
This chapter explains how to format your
forms and reports to make them more
visually attractive and easier to read. You
will learn how to change the appearance,
size, and color of fonts and how to align
text inside a control. This chapter also
describes how you can add pictures and
graphics to your forms and reports.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
Working with Number Formatting.................. 210
Using AutoFormat ........................................... 211
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Formatting Forms and Reports
Formatting Fonts
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Formatting.accdb
You can emphasize text on a form or report by making the
text darker and heavier (bold), slanted (italics), larger,
or in a different typeface (or font.) The Font group of
commands makes it easy to apply character formatting.
Tips

• Exercise: Display the rptTourSales report in Layout View.
Tip: Close the Property Sheet pane if it’s in your way.
Change the ―Tour Sales‖ title label to 22 pt Arial font. Bold
each of the column headings (TourName, Date, Tickets,
Cost). Save.
You can format fonts in either Layout or Design
View.
Change font size
Font
Font
Size
Font sizes are measured in points (pt.), which are 1/72 of
an inch. The larger the number of points, the larger the
font.
1. Click the control that contains the text you want to
format.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the Font
Size list arrow in the Font group, and select the
desired font size.
Bold Italics Underlin
e
Format
Painter
Figure 10-1: Font formatting commands in the Font group.
The font size changes.
Tip: When you change a control’s font size, you
will often need to resize the control so that it can
properly display its contents.
Change font type
1. Click the control that contains the text you want to
format.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the Font list
arrow in the Font group, and select the desired font.
The font type changes.
Format text with bold, italics, or underlining
1. Click the control that contains the text you want to
format.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Bold, Italics, or Underline button in the Font group.
The text is formatted as specified.
Tips

The Font group of commands can also be found on
the Format tab in Layout View and on the Design tab
in Design View.
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Figure 10-2: Changing font size in Layout View.
Formatting Forms and Reports

The Format Painter allows you to copy the formatting
attributes from one control and then apply them to
another. Click the control with the formatting you
want to copy, click the Format Painter button in the
Font group, then click a control to apply the
formatting. Click the Format Painter button twice to
apply formatting more than once.
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Formatting Forms and Reports
Changing Text Alignment
This lesson explains how to align a control’s text to the
left, center, or right. Alignment only affects what’s inside
of a control: If you apply center formatting to a text box,
Access will center the text inside the text box—it won’t
center the text box control on the form or report.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Formatting.accdb
• Exercise: Display the rptTourSales report in Layout View.
Apply center text formatting to the ―Date‖ and ―Cost‖
column labels. Save.
Left-Aligned
Tips

You can change text alignment in either Layout or
Design View.
1. Click the control that contains the text you want to
align.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon and click the
Align Text Left, Center, or Align Text Right button
in the Font group.
Centered
Right-Aligned
Figure 10-3: Examples of text alignment.
The text is aligned as specified.
Tips

Besides aligning text within a control, you can also
align controls themselves within a form or report.
Select the controls you want to align and use the
commands in the Control Alignment group on the
Arrange tab.
Figure 10-4: Applying center formatting.
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Formatting Forms and Reports
Changing Colors
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Formatting.accdb
In this day of color printers and high-resolution monitors,
choosing an appropriate color for your report or form is
an important formatting decision. If used tastefully, colors
can make your forms and reports look more visually
attractive. You can add color to lines, text, or even the
background of your headers and footers.
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Layout View.
Change the Font color of the ―Customers‖ title label to the
color called ―Highlight‖, found under Access Theme Colors
(it’s an orange color). Change the Fill/Back color of the
form detail area to the color called ―Background‖ (a light
gray color). Save.
In this lesson, you will learn how to apply color to your
reports and forms.
Tips

You can change colors in either Layout or Design
View.
1. Click the control or area (like a Header) you want to
color.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the color
formatting button list arrow you want to use in the
Font group, and select a color.
The color is applied. It can be a little confusing to
figure out which color button to use at first, so you
can refer to Error! Reference source not found.
until you get the hang of it.
Other Ways to Change Colors:
In Design View, right-click a field or area (such as
a header area) of a form or report, point to
Fill/Back Color or Font/Fore Color and select a
color.
Figure 10-5: Selecting a color from the Font Color list .
Table 10-1: Color Commands
Applies color to the text in the
selected control(s).
Font Color
Applies color to the background of
the selected control(s).
Fill/Back Color
Alternate Fill/Back
Color
Applies a complementary
background color to set off alternate
records or rows.
Figure 10-6: Font color and back color formatting applied.
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Formatting Forms and Reports
Applying Special Effects
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Formatting.accdb
You can apply special effect formatting to the controls in
your forms and reports to give them a polished
appearance. For example, you can give a form a threedimensional look by applying a sunken or raised effect to
its controls.
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Design View.
Add the Raised special effect to the CustomerID label and
field. View the form in Form View. Save.
1. In Design View, click the control to which you want
to add special effects.
Tip: Normally, you will want to apply specialeffect formatting to both a control and its
corresponding text label, so you will want to
select both controls before applying the effect.
2. Click the Design tab under Form Layout Tools on the
Ribbon, click the Special Effect list arrow in the
Controls group, and select the option you want to use.
The special effect is applied to the control. See Table
10-2 for a description of the six special-effect
options.
Table 10-2: Special-Effect Options
Flat
Figure 10-7: Applying the Raised special effect in Design
View.
Raised special effect formatting
Raised
Sunken
Etched
Shadowed
Chiseled
Figure 10-8: Raised special effect formatting.
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Formatting Forms and Reports
Using Conditional Formatting
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Formatting.accdb
Conditional Formatting allows you to set a condition for a
field, and then specify formatting based on that condition.
For example, you could tell Access to format a field’s text
with red coloring if the field value is less than 0, or black
if it’s greater than or equal to 0.
Tips

• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Layout View.
Apply conditional formatting to the First Class field so that
if the value is equal to 0, the font color is red, otherwise it’s
black. View the form in Form View. Change Patricia
Ventosa’s First Class status to –1 and notice the formatting
change. Change it back to 0. Save.
You can apply conditional formatting in either Layout
or Design View.
1. Click the field you want to format.
You need to select a field that’s bound to an
underlying value or text. For example, you can’t use
conditional formatting on a label that contains text
that has simply been typed in.
2. In Layout View, click the Format tab under Form
Layout Tools on the Ribbon and click the
Conditional button in the Font group.
The Conditional Formatting dialog box appears. Here
you need to specify default formatting (the formatting
used by Access if no conditions are met), as well as a
condition and the format to use if the condition is
true.
Figure 10-9: The Conditional Formatting dialog box.
3. In the Default Formatting section of the dialog box,
select a formatting option or option(s)
4. In the Condition 1 section of the dialog box, click the
first list arrow and select an option.
The available options are:
Field Value Is: Usually you’ll want to leave Field
Value Is selected, so you can set a condition based on
the field’s value.
Figure 10-10: Conditional formatting applied so that 0
values appear in red.
Expression Is: Allows you to set a condition based
on an expression in a control.
Field Has Focus: Set a condition so that the a form’s
field takes on formatting only when it is selected. For
example, you could set all forms in a field to turn
yellow when they are selected, making data entry
easier.
5. If you selected Field Value Is, click the second list
arrow and select an option, then enter a value or
value(s) and select formatting options. Click OK.
For example, you could select ―Field Value Is‖, ―less
than‖, enter ―0‖, and then select red formatting to
format any value less than 0 with red text.
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Formatting Forms and Reports
Adding Pictures, Lines and
Gridlines
Pictures and lines can make your reports and forms more
professional looking. You can insert graphics and pictures
created with graphics programs, scanned pictures, or
graphics from a clip-art library. This lesson explains how
to insert graphics and lines.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Formatting.accdb
• Exercise: Display the frmCustomers form in Design View.
Insert the Plane graphic from your practice folder next to
the Customers label in the Form Header. Draw a horizontal
line across the entire form at the top of the Detail area.
Change to Layout View. Add horizontal gridlines, then undo
the action. Save.
Insert a graphic
1. In Design View, click the Design tab under Report
Design Tools on the Ribbon and click the Image
button in the Controls group.
The pointer changes.
2. Click and drag on the form or report where you want
to place the graphic.
The Insert Picture dialog box appears.
3. Browse to and select the graphic file you want to use
and click OK.
The graphic is inserted and can be modified like any
other control.
Add gridlines
Reports with lots of information can sometimes be
difficult to read. You can quickly add vertical and/or
horizontal gridlines to make forms or reports more
organized.
Tips

You can add gridlines to a form or report in either
Layout or Design View.
Figure 10-11: Adding a graphic to a form.
1. Select the field(s) to which you want to add gridlines.
Rows of records or heading rows often look good
with gridlines.
2. In Layout View, click the Format tab under Report
Layout Tools on the Ribbon and click the Gridlines
button in the Gridlines group.
You have several gridline options: Both, Horizontal,
Vertical, Cross Hatch, Top, Bottom, Outline, None.
3. Select the gridline option you want to use.
Gridlines are added around the field(s).
Tip: You can change the thickness, type, and
color of gridlines using the buttons in the
Gridlines group.
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Figure 10-12: The Insert Picture dialog box.
Formatting Forms and Reports
Draw a line
Line
Graphic
Although gridlines are usually more useful and easier to
use, you can also manually draw lines anywhere you want
them in forms and reports.
1. In Design View, click the Design tab under Report
Design Tools on the Ribbon and click the Line button
in the Controls group.
The pointer changes.
2. Click and drag on the form or report where you want
to place the line.
The line is added.
Tip: You can change a line’s thickness, type, and
color using the buttons in the Controls group.
Figure 10-13: A form with a line and a graphic.
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Formatting Forms and Reports
Working with Number
Formatting
You can quickly change the formatting of values in forms
and reports to display dollar signs, percent signs, or to
change the number of decimal places.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Formatting.accdb
• Exercise: Display the rptTourSales report in Layout View.
Select the Cost field and apply the Comma number format,
then decrease the decimal places by 2. Save.
1. In Layout View, click the field you want to format.
2. Click the Format tab under Report Layout Tools on
the Ribbon and click one of the formatting buttons.
The formatting is applied.
You can choose from the following formatting
buttons:
Figure 10-14: Formatting group.
Apply Currency Format: Formats the value with a
dollar sign and marks the thousands place with a
comma.
Apply Percent Format: Displays the value as a
percentage with a percent symbol.
Apply Comma Number Format: Similar to
Currency format, but without the dollar sign.
Increase Decimals: Increases the number of decimal
places that are displayed.
Decrease Decimals: Decreases the number of
decimal places.
Other Ways to Apply Number Formatting:
Click the Formatting list arrow in the Formatting
group and select a number format.
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Figure 10-15: Values formatted in Comma format with no
decimal places.
Formatting Forms and Reports
Using AutoFormat
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Formatting.accdb
AutoFormat is a built-in collection of formats such as font
sizes, colors, and alignments you can quickly apply to a
form or report. AutoFormat is a great feature if you want
your forms and reports to look sharp and professional but
don’t have the time to format them yourself.
• Exercise: In Layout View, apply the Apex AutoFormat to
both the frmCustomers form and the rptTourSales report.
Save.
1. In Layout View, click the Format tab under Report
Layout Tools on the Ribbon, click the More button in
the AutoFormat group, and select the AutoFormat
you want to use.
The AutoFormat is applied to the form or report.
Tip: If the screen isn’t maximized, the
AutoFormat group may appear as a single
button—in which case you must click the
AutoFormat button instead of clicking the More
button to view the different autoformats.
Other Ways to AutoFormat:
Click the More button in the AutoFormat group
and select AutoFormat Wizard. Select an option
to preview it. If desired, click the Options button
and uncheck a box if you want AutoFormat to
skip that formatting category. Click OK to apply
the AutoFormat. Or, to apply an AutoFormat in
Design View, click the Arrange tab under Form
Design Tools on the Ribbon, click the
AutoFormat button in the AutoFormat group, and
select an AutoFormat.
Figure 10-16: Selecting an AutoFormat.
Figure 10-17: A report with Apex AutoFormat applied.
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Review
Quiz Questions
101. Fonts are measured in points. The larger the number of points, the smaller the size of the font. (True or False?)
102. Which of the following is NOT a type of text alignment found in Access forms and reports?
A. Justified
B. Center
C. Left
D. Right
103. You can change colors in either Layout or Design View. (True or False?)
104. What do the Special Effect commands do?
A. Let you apply a 3-D effect to a selected control.
B. Let you select a transitional effect for how a form opens and closes.
C. Let you add animation to forms and reports.
D. None of these.
105. Which of the following is not a conditional formatting option?
A. Field Value Is
B. Calculation Is
C. Expression Is
D. Field Has Focus
106. With gridlines, you can quickly add vertical and/or horizontal lines to make forms or reports easier to read. (True or
False?)
107. Which of the following is not a number format button in the Formatting group?
A. Currency
B. Percent
C. Comma
D. Justified
108. AutoFormat automatically applies formatting options as you type. (True or False?)
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Quiz Answers
101. False. It’s true that fonts are measured in points, but the larger the number of points, the larger the size of the font.
102. A. Justified is not a type of text alignment in Access forms and reports.
103. True. You can change colors in either view.
104. A. The Special Effect commands allows you to apply a 3-D effect to a selected control.
105. B. CalculationIs is not a conditional formatting option.
106. True. Gridlines allow you to quickly add lines to organize forms and reports.
107. D. Justified is not a number format button in the Formatting group.
108. False. AutoFormat lets you quickly format a form or report using a set of predefined formatting options.
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Wor king with
Ma c r o s
Creating and Running a Macro ...................... 215
Editing a Macro ................................................ 217
Working with Macro Groups ........................... 218
Create a macro group ............................ 218
Run the first macro in a group ............... 219
Run an individual macro from a group ... 219
Assigning a Macro to an Event ...................... 220
Creating Conditional Expressions ................. 222
Assigning a Macro to a Keystroke Shortcut . 224
Macro Action Reference.................................. 226
11
If you find yourself doing the same
routine task over and over again, you
might want to consider creating a macro
to complete the task for you. A macro
helps you perform routine tasks by
automating them. Instead of manually
performing a series of time-consuming,
repetitive actions, you can record a single
macro that does the entire task all at once
for you. For example, instead of finding
and opening a specific report, printing it,
and then closing it, you could create a
macro to print the report with the click of
a single button.
A macro is a set of one or more actions
that perform a particular operation, such
as opening a form or printing a report.
In a way, you can think of macros as a
very simple introduction to programming
because you can use them to create
automated tasks and somewhat complex
procedures. Best of all, you don’t have to
know a single line of code—Access
provides you with everything you need to
write a macro.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
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Working with Macros
Creating and Running a Macro
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Macros.accdb
In some programs, such as Microsoft Excel or Word, you
can create macros with a ―macro recorder‖ to record your
commands, keystrokes, and mouse clicks. Unfortunately,
there isn’t a ―macro recorder‖ or Macro Wizard to help
you create a macro in Microsoft Access. Instead, you
create macros by entering the actions and arguments
directly in Macro Design view. Don’t worry—it’s not as
difficult as it sounds. Working in Macro Design view
really isn’t all that different from working in Table Design
view—it’s where you define and edit your macro objects.
Macros that automate a single task, such as opening a
form or report, are very simple to create. More
complicated macros with several steps or procedures may
require a little bit of planning. Before you create a
complicated macro, think about what you want the macro
to do and the individual actions that are required to
complete the operation. Practice the steps needed to carry
out the operation and write them down as you go—it will
make writing the macro a lot easier.
Create a macro
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Macro button in the Other group.
• Exercise: Create a new macro that uses the OpenForm
action to open the frmEmployees form. Add the comment
―This macro opens the frmEmployees Form.‖ Save the
macro as mcrEmployees. Run the macro.
Figure 11-1: The Macro button in the Other group on the
Create tab on the Ribbon.
Action List
Select from a
list of all
actions you
can perform
with a macro.
Action Arguments
Give Access
information about
how to carry out the
action. For
example, with the
OpenForm action,
you need to specify
which form to open.
Comment
Add
optional
notes that
make your
macro
easier to
understand.
Help Area
Provides
you with
help and
feedback.
Tip: If the Macro button isn’t visible, click the
Module or Class Module button arrow and select
Macro.
The macro window appears. The Action cell is where
you tell Access what you want the macro to do.
2. Click the first blank Action cell, then click the list
arrow.
A list of actions appears. An action, or command, is
the basic building block of a macro—it’s an
instruction that tells Access what you want the macro
to do. There are more than 50 different actions you
can choose from. Refer to the Macro Action
Reference lesson to see descriptions of common
macro actions.
Figure 11-2: Macro window in Design View.
3. Select the action you want to perform.
For example, you could select OpenForm to create a
macro that opens a form.
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Working with Macros
Most of the time you will have to give Access more
information about how to execute each action—for
example, if you are using the OpenForm action,
you’d need to select a specific form so that Access
knows which form to open. You use arguments to
supply Microsoft Access with information about how
to carry out the action. Each type of action has its
own set of arguments, which appear in the Action
Arguments panel, located at the bottom of the macro
window.
4. Specify any required arguments for the action in the
Action Arguments area.
For example, if you were using the OpenForm macro,
you’d click the Form Name text box in the Action
Arguments panel, click the list arrow, and select the
form you want the macro to open.
5. Repeat Steps 2-4 for each additional action you want
the macro to execute.
Tip: You can type a comment to explain the
action in the Comment column. Comments are
completely optional, but they do make your
macros easier to understand, especially if other
users will edit them. If you’ve ever had any
programming experience, the Comment column is
the same as a remark statement.
6. Save and close the macro.
Run a macro
Once you’ve created and saved a macro, it appears in the
Navigation Pane in the Access window, ready to use.
1. Double-click the macro in the Navigation Pane.
The macro runs and performs the desired action. If,
for example, the macro is meant to open a specific
form, Access will make that happen at this time.
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Working with Macros
 Exercise
Editing a Macro
• Exercise File: Macros.accdb
Some Microsoft Access tasks require several steps. For
example, a particular task might require you to (1) open a
form, (2) select a specific record, (3) select a specific field
in that record, and then (4) copy the information in that
field to the Windows clipboard. Macros can contain as
many actions as necessary to automate even the most
complicated tasks. Each action appears in its own row and
is evaluated and executed in the order in which it appears
in the Macro window, from top to bottom.
• Exercise: Open the mcrEmployees macro in Design View.
Add the action MsgBox below the OpenForm action. In the
Message argument box, enter ―Please make sure that you
remember to add the employee’s phone number!‖ Select
Information in the Type argument box and type ―Notice‖ in
the Title argument box. Save and close the macro. Run the
mcrEmployees macro.
Let’s look at how to edit a macro to change its arguments
and add more steps or actions.
1. In the Navigation Pane, right-click the macro you
want to open and select Design View.
The macro appears in Design View.
2. Click the list arrow in the first blank Action box and
add an additional action, then specify any required
arguments for the action. Repeat as desired.
Figure 11-3: Editing a macro.
Refer to the Macro Action Reference lesson to learn
more about common macro actions.
3. Save and close the macro.
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Working with Macro Groups
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Macros.accdb
If you are creating lots of macros, you might want to
consider organizing them into a macro group to help you
manage them. A macro group stores several related
macros together in a single macro object. When you
create a macro group, you must give each macro in the
macro group its own unique name to identify where each
macro starts and ends. You do this by entering the macro
names in the Macro Name column.
In this lesson you will learn how to group several related
macros together in a macro group.
Create a macro group
• Exercise: Create a macro group: Open the mcrEmployees
macro in Design View. Display the Macro Name column
and type ―Open frmEmployees‖ in its first blank cell. Then,
in the first row with no action, enter ―Print
rptEmployeeSales‖. Make OpenReport the action in that
row and select the rptEmployeeSales report in the Action
Arguments area. Enter the comment ―This macro prints the
rptEmployeeSales report.‖ Next, add the action MsgBox
and in the Message argument box enter ―The Employee
Sales report has been sent to the printer.‖ Select Information
in the Type box and type ―Notice‖ in the Title box. Select
Print in the View box. Save the macro. Use the Run Macro
dialog box to run the mcrEmployees.OpenfrmEmployees
macro.
1. Open an existing macro or create a new one.
2. Click the Design tab on the Ribbon and click the
Macro Names button in the Show/Hide group.
The Macro Name column appears in the window.
Tip: Macro names are needed to identify
individual macros in a macro group. The macro
name needs to be on the same line as the macro's
first action. The macro name column is left blank
for additional actions in the macro, and the macro
ends when you come to the next macro name.
Figure 11-4: Clicking the Macro Names button in the
Show/Hide group to display the Macro Names column.
3. In the Macro Name column, type a name for the first
macro in the macro group.
4. Add the actions you want this first macro to perform,
along with accompanying arguments.
5. Go to the next empty row and type a name for the
next macro in the Macro Name column.
6. Add the actions you want this next macro to perform,
along with accompanying arguments.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for additional macros you want
to include in the group.
When you save a macro, the name you give it is the
name for the macro group (and this is the name that
appears in the Navigation Pane, identifying the macro
object). The names in the Macro Name column
identify the individual macros within the group.
8. Save the macro.
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Figure 11-5: Creating a Macro Group.
Working with Macros
Run the first macro in a group
1. Double-click the macro group in the Navigation
pane.
Access executes only the first macro in the group.
Other Ways to Run Only the First Macro:
Right-click the macro group in the Navigation
Pane and select Run. Or, open the macro group in
Design View, click the Design tab on the Ribbon
and click the Run button in the Tools group.
Run Macro button
Run an individual macro from a group
You can also select which individual macro you want to
run from the group.
1. Click the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon and click
the Run Macro button in the Macro group.
The Run Macro dialog box appears.
2. Click the Macro Name list arrow.
Here you can see the individual macros stored within
the macro group.
3. Select the individual macro you want to run.
The macro runs.
Tips

To refer to an individual macro in a group, Access
uses the syntax macrogroupname.macroname. For
example, mcrEmployees.OpenfrmEmployees would
refer to the OpenfrmEmployees macro in the
mcrEmployees macro group.
Figure 11-6: Running a macro in a group using the Run
Macro button and the Run Macro dialog box.
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Working with Macros
Assigning a Macro to an Event
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Macros.accdb
Running macros from the Navigation Pane can be a pain
in the neck. That’s why database developers often assign
macros to controls—particularly, buttons—so that when a
user clicks the button or control, a macro is activated.
1. Open the form or report in Design View to which you
want to add an embedded macro.
For example, you could open an Employees form so
that you could add a command button to open a
report that displays the sales for each employee.
• Exercise: Create a button on the frmEmployees form that
runs the mcrSales macro and displays a Sales Report for the
current employee: Open the frmEmployees form in Design
View. Add a button to the form’s detail area and click
Cancel to close the Command Button Wizard. Edit the
button’s label to read ―Sales Report‖. On the Property Sheet
select mcrSales in the On Click box. Save the form and
change to Form View. Click the Sales Report button.
2. Press <F4> to display the Property Sheet, if
necessary.
The Property Sheet pane appears. If the form or
report doesn’t already have a control to assign the
macro to, you’ll first need to add one using the
Controls group on the Design tab.
3. Click the control (often a button or field) to which
you want to assign the macro and click the Event tab
in the Property Sheet pane.
4. Click in the box for the type of event you want to
assign to the macro.
A list arrow appears in the box.
Tip: For example, you could select ―On Click‖ (to
run the macro with one click of the mouse) or
―Dbl Click‖ (with two clicks).
Figure 11-7: Assigning a macro to a button.
5. Click the list arrow and select the macro you want to
assign to the event.
6. Save the form or report.
Now whenever you perform the event you specified
(such as clicking a button in a form once) the macro
will run. Table 11-1 describes the different types of
events that can be used to run macros.
Figure 11-8: Running the macro.
Table 11-1: Event Properties That Can Trigger Macros
Before Update
Macro or function that runs when data in a field or record is changed but before the changes are actually
saved to the database. Often used to validate data.
After Update
Macro or function that runs when data in a field or record is changed and is saved to the database.
On Change
Macro or function that runs when the contents of a text box or combo box changes or when you move
from one page to another page in a tab control.
On Enter
Macro or function that runs when a control first receives the focus (is selected). The Enter event occurs
before the focus moves to a particular control (before the GotFocus event). You can use an Enter macro
or event procedure to display instructions when a form or report first opens.
On Exit
Macro or function that runs when a control loses focus (is deselected) on the same form.
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Table 11-1: Event Properties That Can Trigger Macros
On Got Focus
Macro or function that runs when a control receives the focus (is selected).
On Lost Focus
Macro or function that runs when a control loses the focus (is deselected).
On Click
Macro or function that runs when a control is clicked.
On Dbl Click
Macro or function that runs when a control is double-clicked.
On Mouse Down
Macro or function that runs when the user presses the mouse button.
On Mouse Move
Macro or function that runs when the user moves the mouse over a control.
On Mouse Up
Macro or function that runs when the user releases the mouse button.
On Key Down
Macro or function that runs when the user presses a key on the keyboard.
On Key Up
Macro or function that runs when the user releases a key on the keyboard.
On Key Press
Macro or function that runs when the user presses an ANSI key on the keyboard.
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Working with Macros
Creating Conditional
Expressions
A condition takes action based on a certain condition. For
example, if an employee’s weekly sales are more than
$2,500, then a condition could calculate a 5-percent
commission bonus for the employee; otherwise, it
wouldn’t calculate a bonus. If you’re at all familiar with
programming, a condition is similar to an If…Then
statement.
You enter conditions in the Condition column in the
Macro window. If a condition is true, Access executes the
action in that row. If a condition is false, Access skips the
action in that row and moves to the next row. Conditions
often compare values in a specific control to a number,
date, or constant. For example, an expression could
evaluate the value in a City field that is not equal to
―Minneapolis.‖ Make sure that you use proper Microsoft
Access syntax when referring to controls in forms or
reports.
1. Create a new macro or open an existing one in
Design View.
2. Click the Design tab under Macro Tools on the
Ribbon and click the Conditions button.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Macros.accdb
• Exercise: Modify the macro assigned to the Sales Report
button so the report opens only if the employee selected in
the form is not from Minneapolis:
Open the frmEmployees form in Design View, select the
Sales Report button, click in the On Click box on the
Property Sheet, and click the Build button. Display the
Condition column and click in the first cell. Display the
Expression Builder. Select Forms > All Forms >
frmEmployees in the bottom-left window. Double-click City
in the middle window, then type < > ―Minneapolis‖. Click
OK. Next, edit the macro window as follows:
Condition
Action
[Forms]![frmEmployees]!
[City]<>"Minneapolis"
OpenReport
[Forms]![frmEmployees]!
[City]<>"Minneapolis"
MsgBox
Message: Sales for non-Minneapolis
employees.
MsgBox
Message: Call Linda Ross for
Minneapolis Sales report.
[Forms]![frmEmployees]!
[City]="Minneapolis"
Save the macro. View the form in Form View. Find a record
whose City field is NOT ―Minneapolis‖ and click the Sales
Report button. Repeat with a record whose City field IS
―Minneapolis‖.
The Condition column appears. This is where you
need to add the conditions you want Access to
evaluate before it executes an action.
3. Click the Condition cell next to the action you want
to evaluate.
4. Enter the conditional expression in the Condition
cell, using proper Access syntax.
Remember that the condition should follow an
If…Then type of format.
Tip: To use the Expression Builder to help you
create the expression, click the Builder button in
the Tools group. If you are not very familiar with
Access syntax, this is the easiest way to enter
macro conditions.
The condition you enter only affects that specific row
or action in the macro—the other actions in the
macro will execute without being evaluated. If you
want to evaluate the other actions, they must each
have their own statement in the Condition column.
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Figure 11-9: The Expression Builder.
Working with Macros
5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for each action you want to
evaluate.
6. Save the macro.
Enter
conditions
here.
If the city is not
“Minneapolis”, Access will
execute these actions…
…otherwise,
Access will execute
this action…
Figure 11-11: Creating a condition in a macro.
Figure 11-10: The message that appears when the macro
encounters a Minneapolis employee.
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Working with Macros
Assigning a Macro to a
Keystroke Shortcut
Sometimes, instead of assigning a macro to a command
button, you may want to assign it to a specific keystroke
combination, such as <Ctrl> + <D>. Assigning a
keystroke combination to a macro makes it fast and easy
to access—you can execute the macro at any time by
pressing its assigned keystroke combination.
Assigning a keystroke combination to a macro can be a
somewhat complicated process. There are two things you
need to know about assigning a macro to a keystroke
combination:
You must create a special macro group, named
AutoKeys, that contains all your keystroke
combination macros.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Macros.accdb
• Exercise: Create a macro to run the mcrEmployees.Open
frmEmployees macro using the keyboard shortcut <Ctrl> +
<L>: Create a new macro and display the Macro Names
column. Type ^L in the first Macro Name cell. Select
RunMacro in the Action cell. Select the
mcrEmployees.Open frmEmployees macro in the Macro
Name box in the Action Arguments area. Save the macro as
AutoKeys. Press <Ctrl> + <L> to test out the keyboard
shortcut.
Type the macro’s keystroke
combination in the Macro
Name column.
The AutoKeys macro contains
all macros assigned to a
keystroke combination.
You type the keystroke combination to which you
want to assign the macro in the Macro Name column
of the AutoKeys macro window. Enter the keystroke
combinations using the examples in Table 11-2:
AutoKeys .
Tips

If you assign a macro to a keyboard shortcut that is
already assigned in Access, such as <Ctrl> + <V>,
the macro replaces the original Access shortcut
action.
Figure 11-12: The AutoKeys macro.
1. Click the Create tab on the Ribbon and click the
Macro button in the Other group.
The Macro window appears.
2. Click Macro Names button in the Show/Hide group.
The Macro Name column appears.
3. In the Macro Name column, use AutoKeys syntax to
enter the key or keys you want to assign to the action.
For example, to assign a macro to the keystroke
combination <Ctrl> + <D>, you would name the
macro ^D.
4. Click the list arrow in the Action column and select
the action you want the keyboard shortcut to perform,
then complete any necessary action arguments.
For example, to run a certain macro that’s already
been created, you could select RunMacro from the
Action list arrow and then select the macro’s name in
the Action Arguments area.
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Working with Macros
5. Add additional actions as desired in additional rows.
These additional actions will also run when you use
the keyboard shortcut.
6. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for other key shortcut
assignments, as desired. Save the macro as
AutoKeys.
Table 11-2: AutoKeys Syntax
Ctrl + Any Key
^
(For example, enter ^E for <Ctrl> + <E>.)
Shift + Any Key
+
(For example, enter +E for <Shift> + <E>.)
Alt
%
(For example, enter %E for <Alt> + <E>.)
Enter
{ENTER}
Esc
{ESC}
Tab
{TAB}
Insert, Delete
{INSERT} or {INS}, {DELETE} or {DEL}
Page Down, Page Up
{PGDN}, {PGUP}
Home, End
{HOME}, {END}
Arrow Keys
{UP}, {DOWN}, {LEFT}, {RIGHT}
Caps Lock
{CAPSLOCK}
Function Keys
{F1}, {F2}, {F3}, etc…
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Working with Macros
Macro Action Reference
 Exercise
• Exercise File: None required.
Following is an overview of common macro actions and
their descriptions.
• Exercise: Acquaint yourself with common macro actions.
Table 11-3: Macro Actions and Descriptions
AddMenu
Adds a menu to a custom menu bar for a form or report. Each menu on the menu bar requires a separate
AddMenu action.
ApplyFilter
Applies a filter or query to a table, form, or report.
Beep
Causes the computer to beep.
CancelEvent
Cancels the event that caused the macro to run.
Close
Closes the specified window or the active window if none is specified.
FindNext
Finds the next record that meets the criteria specified with the most recent FindRecord action or Find
dialog box. Use to move successively through records that meet the same criteria.
FindRecord
Finds the first or next record that meets the specified criteria. Records can be found in the active form or
datasheet.
GoToControl
Selects the specified field on the active datasheet or form.
GoToPage
Selects the first control on the specified page of the active form.
GoToRecord
Makes the specified record the current record in a table, form, or query. Use to move to the first, last,
next, or previous record.
Hourglass
Changes the mouse pointer to an hourglass while the macro runs.
LockNavigationPane
Allows you to lock or unlock use of the Navigation Pane.
Maximize
Maximizes the active window.
Minimize
Minimizes the active window.
MoveSize
Moves and/or changes the size of the active window.
MsgBox
Displays a message box containing a warning or informational message.
NavigateTo
Navigates to a specified group and category in the Navigation Pane.
OpenForm
Opens a form in Form view, Design view, Print Preview, or Datasheet view.
OpenModule
Opens the specified Visual Basic module in Design view.
OpenQuery
Opens a query in Datasheet view, Design view, or Print Preview.
OpenReport
Opens a report in Design view or Print Preview or prints the report immediately.
OpenTable
Opens a table in Datasheet view, Design view, or Print Preview.
OutputTo
Exports the specified database object to a Microsoft Excel file (.xls), rich-text file (.rtf), text file (.txt), or
HTML file (.htm).
Quit
Quits Microsoft Access.
RepaintObject
Completes any pending screen updates or pending recalculations of controls on the specified object or
on the active object if none is specified.
Requery
Forces a requery of a specific control on the active database object.
Restore
Restores a maximized or minimized window to its previous size.
RunCode
Runs a Visual Basic Function procedure.
RunCommand
Runs a command from Microsoft Access’s menus—
RunMacro
Runs a macro.
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Table 11-3: Macro Actions and Descriptions
SearchForRecord
Searches for a record in an object based on a condition you enter.
SelectObject
Selects a specified database object. You can then run an action that applies to that object.
SendObject
Sends the specified database objects as an attachment in an e-mail.
SetMenuItem
Sets the state of menu items (enabled or disabled, checked or unchecked) on custom menus. Works only
on custom menus created using menu bar macros.
SetProperty
Sets control property.
ShowAllRecords
Removes any applied filter from the active table, query, or form.
StopAllMacros
Stops all currently running macros.
StopMacro
Stops the currently running macro. Use to stop a macro when a certain condition is met.
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Wor king with Macros Review
Quiz Questions
109. The fastest and easiest way to create a macro in Access is with the Macro Recorder. (True or False?)
110. A(n) ______, or command, is the basic building block of a macro.
A. Expression
B. Action
C. Procedure
D. Function
111. Macro names are needed to indentify individual macros in a macro group. (True or False?)
112. You can assign a macro to a button, so that when a user clicks the button or control, a macro is activated. (True or
False?)
113. Conditions entered in an Action row in the macro affect all actions in the macro. (True or False?)
114. Type a macro’s keystroke combination in the ______ column.
A. Macro Name
B. Action
C. Arguments
D. Comment
115. The ApplyFilter macro action applies a filter or query to a table, form or report. (True or False?)
Quiz Answers
109. False. Microsoft Excel and Word both have macro recorders you can use to create macros, but with Microsoft Access,
you create macros in the Macro Design window.
110. B. An action is the basic building block of a macro.
111. True. Macro names identify individual macros in a group.
112. True. You can assign a macro to a button.
113. False. Conditions only effect the corresponding Action row in the macro. If you want to evaluate the other actions,
they must each have their own statement in the Condition column.
114. A. Macro keystroke shortcuts are entered in the Macro Name column.
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115. True. The ApplyFilter macro action applies a filter or query to a table, form or report.
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Advanced
Topics
Importing Information ..................................... 231
Import Access objects ............................ 231
Import Excel data ................................... 231
Exporting Information ..................................... 233
Linking Information from an External Source
........................................................................... 235
Link to another Access database ........... 235
Link to Excel data .................................. 236
Using Hyperlink Fields .................................... 237
Displaying Database Object Dependencies .. 239
Setting a Password in Access ........................ 240
Set a password ...................................... 240
Remove a password .............................. 240
Compacting and Repairing a Database ......... 242
Manually Compact and Repair .............. 242
Automatically Compact and Repair ....... 242
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12
With Microsoft Access, you can easily
share information between different
databases and even different programs. In
this chapter, you’ll learn how to import
and export data from external sources,
and you’ll learn the difference between
importing and linking to outside data.
You’ll also learn how to use Access to
collect data from e-mails, how to repair a
database, how to set a password to protect
your data, and how to create a
Switchboard to make navigating a
database easier.
Using Exercise Files
This chapter suggests exercises to practice
the topic of each lesson. The exercises in
the chapter build upon one another,
meaning the exercises in a chapter should
be performed in succession from the first
lesson to the last.
Advanced Topics
Importing Information
You can import information into a database from other
file formats, such as Excel, or from other Microsoft
Access databases. You can quickly and easily import
tables, forms, reports, queries, macros, and modules from
one Access database into another Access database. This
saves a lot of time: Instead of creating a new object (such
as a form) from scratch, you can import an object from
another database and then modify it as needed.
Import Access objects
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Advanced.accdb, Promotions.accdb,
America Expenses.xlsx, Europe Expenses.txt
• Exercise: Import the tblPromotions table from the
Promotions database into the Advanced database (don’t save
the import steps for any imports in this lesson). Import the
data from the America Expenses Excel worksheet into a
new table called ―America Expenses‖ in the Advanced
database. Import the data from the Europe Expenses text
document into a new table called ―Europe Expenses‖ in the
Advanced database (be sure to select the First Row Contains
Field Names check box in the Import Text Wizard).
1. Click the External Data tab on the Ribbon and click
the Access button in the Import group.
The Get External Data dialog box appears. Here you
need to specify the Microsoft Access database that
contains the object(s) you want to import into the
current database.
2. Browse to the appropriate drive and/or folder and
double-click the database that contains the object(s)
you want to import. Click OK.
Figure 12-1: The Import group.
The Import Objects dialog box appears. Here you
need to choose the type(s) of object(s) you want to
import.
3. Click the tab that corresponds to the type of database
object you want to import.
You can import more than one database object at a
time—simply click the appropriate object tab(s) and
select the database objects you want to select.
4. Click OK.
Access imports the selected objects into the current
database.
Other Ways to Import Database Objects:
Open the database containing the object you want
to import, copy the object, then paste the object in
the current database. Or, right-click a table object
in the Navigation Pane of the current database,
point to Import, and select the type of data source
you want to use.
Figure 12-2: The Get External Data dialog box.
Import Excel data
1. Click the External Data tab on the Ribbon and click
the Excel button in the Import group.
The Get External Data dialog box appears. Here you
need to specify the Microsoft Excel file that contains
the data you want to import into the current database.
Figure 12-3: The Import Objects dialog box.
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Advanced Topics
2. Browse to the appropriate drive and/or folder and
double-click the Excel file that contains the data you
want to import.
Now you need to choose from a couple options:
Import the source data into a new table in the
current database. Or…
Append a copy of the records to the table: [Table
name].
3. Select an option for how you want to store the data in
the current database and click OK.
The Import Spreadsheet Wizard dialog box appears.
4. Follow the onscreen instructions to finish importing
the Excel data.
Tip: When you finish the Wizard, Access will ask
if you want to save the import steps so you can
repeat them in the future. Select the Save import
steps option and click the Save Import button. To
access the saved steps in the future, click the
Saved Imports button in the Import group.
Tips

You can also import data from sources such as
SharePoint Lists, text files, XML files, or ODBC
databases such as SQL Server. Just click the desired
button in the Import group.

You can also create e-mails to gather information for
your Access databases. Click the Create E-mail
button in the Collect Data group and follow the
Wizard’s instructions. Later, click the Manage
Replies button to view replies from recipients and
update Access with the collected data.
Figure 12-4: The Import Spreadsheet Wizard.
Imported tables (in red)
appear the same as
other tables.
Figure 12-5: Imported tables.
Figure 12-6: The Collect Data group.
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Advanced Topics
Exporting Information
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Advanced. accdb
When you export an Access database object, you can save
its information in a different format so that it can be
understood and opened by different programs. For
example, you might export an Access table to an Excel
worksheet.
• Exercise: Export the tblCustomers table to a new Excel
workbook. Export data with formatting and layout and
choose to open the destination file after the export operation
is complete. Don’t save the export steps.
1. Select the database object you want to export in the
Navigation Pane or open a database table and select
only the specific records you want to export.
For example, you could export an entire table of
customers or only the records for a few select
customers.
Next you need to select where you want to export the
data: Choose from Excel, SharePoint List, PDF or
XPS, Word, Text File, or more formats—such as
another Access database.
Figure 12-7: The Export group.
2. Click the External Data tab on the Ribbon and in the
Export group click the button for the type of file to
which you want to export.
The Export dialog box wizard appears. By default,
Access will create a new file—named the same as the
object you’re exporting—to hold the exported data.
3. Browse to the appropriate drive and/or folder where
you want the new exported file to be saved.
Tip: If desired, you can also edit the name of the
new file by changing it at the end of the file path
found in the File name box.
Now you need to specify export options:
Figure 12-8: The Export dialog box.
Export data with formatting and layout.
Open the destination file after the export operation
is complete.
Export only the selected records.
4. Select desired export options and click OK.
Access copies the data to the new location, but
doesn’t delete it from the old database.
Tip: When you finish exporting, Access will ask
if you want to save the steps so you can repeat
them in the future. Select the Save export steps
option and click the Save Export button. To
access the saved steps in the future, click the
Saved Exports button in the Export group.
Figure 12-9: Access table data exported to Excel.
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Advanced Topics
5. Click Close.
Other Ways to Export Data:
In the Navigation Pane, right-click the database
object you want to export, point to Export, and
select the type of file to which you want to export.
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Advanced Topics
Linking Information from an
External Source
Another way that you can access information from an
outside source is by creating a linked table. Linking data
may sound a lot like importing, but there are some very
important differences between the two:
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Advanced.accdb, States.accdb
• Exercise: Link the tblStates table from the States database
into the Advanced database. Add the data ―Florida, FL‖ to
the linked tblStates table in the Advanced database.
Imported: When you import data, you copy data
from an external data source and place it in a new
table in your database.
Linked: When you link to data, the data stays in its
original location. If you link to another database,
changes made in either Access or in the other
database will flow back and forth. But if you link to
an Excel source, changes made in Excel flow to
Access, but not vice versa.
Tips

Many databases use a front-end database file, which
contains forms, reports, and queries. Front-end
database files are linked to a back-end database file,
which contains the actual tables. Such designs work
great when you want several users on several frontend databases to be able to access the same
information in a single back-end database.
Figure 12-10: Linking to another database in the Get
External Data dialog box.
Link to another Access database
1. Click the External Data tab on the Ribbon and click
the Access button in the Import group.
The Get External Data dialog box appears. Here you
need to specify the Microsoft Access database that
contains the object(s) you want to import into the
current database.
2. Browse to the appropriate drive and/or folder and
double-click the database that contains the object(s)
you want to import.
3. Select the Link to the data source by creating a
linked table option. Click OK.
Linked table
The Link Tables dialog box appears. Here you need
to choose the tables to which you want to link.
4. Select the tables you want to link to and click OK.
Figure 12-11: A linked table in the Navigation Pane.
The linked table appears in the Navigation Pane with
an arrow icon, indicating that it is linked.
Tip: You can link to more than one table at a
time—simply select all the tables you want to
select.
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Advanced Topics
Link to Excel data
You can also link to non-Access data sources, such as an
Excel worksheet.
1. Click the External Data tab on the Ribbon and click
the Excel button in the Import group.
The Get External Data dialog box appears. Here you
need to specify the Microsoft Excel file that contains
the data you want to import into the current database.
2. Browse to the appropriate drive and/or folder and
double-click the Excel file that contains the data you
want to link.
Now you need to create a linked table.
3. Select the Link to the data source by creating a
linked table option and click OK.
The Link Spreadsheet Wizard dialog box appears.
4. Follow the onscreen instructions to finish linking to
the Excel data.
The Excel data appears in Access as a linked table in
the Navigation Pane.
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Advanced Topics
Using Hyperlink Fields
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Advanced.accdb
In this lesson you will learn how to use hyperlinks in
Microsoft Access. A hyperlink can point to any file on
your computer, the network, or even a Web page on the
Internet. Whenever you click on a hyperlink, you jump to
the hyperlink’s destination (if it’s available). A hyperlink
is usually indicated by colored and underlined text.
• Exercise: Create a hyperlink to the Canada Memo
document: In the tblTours table, add a Link column with the
Hyperlink data type. Link the Western Canada record to the
Canada Memo.docx file. Use the link to open the Canada
Memo document.
In this lesson you will learn how to use hyperlink fields in
tables to create links that point to files on your network or
the Internet.
Create a hyperlink
1. Display the table to which you want to add the
hyperlink in Design View.
First you need to create a column to hold the
hyperlinks.
2. Click the first blank Field Name row and enter a
name such as Link.
3. Click the Data Type list arrow and select Hyperlink.
Return to Datasheet View.
The hyperlink field is created. Now you can set up
hyperlinks for certain records as desired.
Figure 12-12: Creating a hyperlink field in Design View.
4. Right-click in the Link field in the record for which
you want to create a hyperlink, point to Hyperlink,
and select Edit Hyperlink.
The Insert Hyperlink dialog box appears. This is
where you will specify the name and location of the
file or Web page you want to add as a hyperlink.
5. Browse to a file on your computer or network, or
enter a Web address in the Address box.
The name of the file or Web site appears in the Text
to display box. This is the text that will appear in the
field on your table, and which you will click to
activate the hyperlink.
6. Edit the text in the ―Text to display box‖, if desired,
then click OK.
Figure 12-13: The Insert Hyperlink dialog box.
The dialog box closes and you return to the datasheet,
where hyperlink text now appears in the field.
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Advanced Topics
Use a hyperlink
Once you’ve created a hyperlink, you simply click the
hyperlink text in the field to go to the linked file or Web
site.
1. Click the desired hyperlink text in the table field.
The hyperlink opens the destination file or Web site.
Tip: Depending on your computer’s security
settings, you may have to click Yes to view it.
Edit a hyperlink
You can easily change either the hyperlink text that
appears in the table or the hyperlink’s destination.
1. Right-click the hyperlink text, point to Hyperlink,
and select Edit Hyperlink.
The Edit Hyperlink dialog box appears, allowing you
to make changes to the hyperlink.
Tips

To remove a hyperlink, right-click the linked text in
the field, point to Hyperlink, and select Remove
Hyperlink.

Similar to hyperlink fields, you can also create OLE
Object fields. These fields allow you to store files
created in other programs—such as graphics, Excel
worksheets, or Word documents. To create an OLE
Object field in a table, select the OLE Object field
type instead of Hyperlink in Design View. The rest of
the process is very similar to inserting a hyperlink.
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Figure 12-14: A hyperlink in a table.
Advanced Topics
Displaying Database Object
Dependencies
Databases can often be complicated and interconnected.
For example, a form might be based on a query, which in
turn is based on a table. So, how do you keep track of all
these interconnected database objects? By viewing object
dependencies.
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Advanced.accdb
• Exercise: Select the tblCustomers table and display the
Object Dependencies pane. Expand the table relationships
in the pane, then select the ―Objects that I depend on‖
option and expand the relationships again.
That way, before you delete or rename a query, you can
view every database object—every query, form, and
report—that is dependent on that query. You can also do
the reverse and view every database object that the query
requires in order to function.
Here’s how to view object dependencies.
Figure 12-15: The Show/Hide group.
1. Open the database in which you want to view
dependencies.
2. Click a database object in the Navigation Pane.
3. Click the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon and click
the Object Dependencies button in the Show/Hide
group.
The Object Dependencies pane appears.
Tip: You may need to click OK to update
dependency information or to turn on the Track
name AutoCorrect info option before the pane will
appear.
You have a couple options for how to view objects in
the pane:
Objects that depend on me: Select this option to
view objects that use the selected object.
Objects that I depend on: Select this option to
view objects that the selected object uses.
4. Click the expand icon next to an object in the pane to
see that object’s dependencies.
Figure 12-16: The Object Dependencies pane.
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Advanced Topics
Setting a Password in Access
 Exercise
• Exercise File: Advanced.accdb
You can encrypt a database using a password to keep
unauthorized users from opening the database.
• Exercise: Set a password to encrypt the file, then access
the file and remove the password.
Set a password
To encrypt a database, you first need to open it in
Exclusive mode.
1. Start the Access program.
The Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access
screen appears.
2. Click the Office Button and select Open.
3. Browse to and select the Access file you want to
open. Click the Open list arrow and select Open
Exclusive.
Figure 12-17: Opening a database in exclusive mode.
The database opens in exclusive mode.
4. Click the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon and click
the Encrypt with Password button in the Database
Tools group.
The Set Database Password dialog box appears.
5. Type a password in the Password box, enter it again
in the Verify box, and click OK.
Figure 12-18: The Database Tools group.
The password is set. In the future, whenever anyone
tries to open the database, they will first be prompted
to enter the password.
Trap: Make sure you remember the password—
Microsoft can’t help you if you forget.
Remove a password
To remove a password, you once again need to open the
database in Exclusive mode.
Figure 12-19: The Set Database Password dialog box.
1. Start the Access program.
The Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access
screen appears.
2. Click the Office Button and select Open.
3. Browse to and select the Access file you want to
open. Click the Open list arrow and select Open
Exclusive.
The database opens in exclusive mode.
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Advanced Topics
4. Click the Database Tools tab on the Ribbon and click
the Decrypt Database button in the Database Tools
group.
The Unset Database Password dialog box appears.
5. Type the password in the Password box and click
OK.
The password is removed from the database.
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Advanced Topics
Compacting and Repairing a
Database
Cars require maintenance to keep running at peak
performance, and databases are no different. Your Access
databases require some routine maintenance to prevent
and/or correct problems and to keep them running at top
performance. This lesson covers the two Access utilities:
Compact Database: When you delete a database
object or record, it leaves behind an empty hole that
the object previously occupied. This isn’t a big deal
unless, over time, you have deleted lots of database
objects and records. Compacting a database
rearranges how the database is stored and reduces its
file size./.
Repair Database: Over time, normal wear and tear
causes errors to appear in your database, thus
affecting its performance. Usually these errors are
very minor and can easily be fixed by repairing the
database.
If you have been busy adding, editing, and deleting
records for a while or if your database seems buggy,
sluggish, or is generating error messages, it would be a
good idea to run the Compact and Repair Database
command.
Tips

Before using the Compact and Repair Database
command, it’s a good idea to back up your database.
To do this, click the Office Button, point to Manage,
and select Back Up Database.
Manually Compact and Repair
1. Open the database you want to compact and repair.
2. Click the Office Button, point to Manage, and select
Compact and Repair Database.
Access compacts the database and repairs any errors
it finds.
Automatically Compact and Repair
When you set up Access to automatically compact and
repair a database, only the database that is currently open
is affected. To set up others, you need to set up each
database individually.
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 Exercise
• Exercise File: Advanced.accdb
• Exercise: Manually run the Compact and Repair Database
command.
Advanced Topics
1. Open the database you want to set up to compact and
repair automatically.
2. Click the Office Button, and select Access Options.
The Access Options dialog box appears.
3. Click Current Database, then select the Compact
on Close option in the Application Options area.
Now Access will automatically compact and repair
the database each time you close the database.
Figure 12-20: Setting up a database to automatically run
the compact and repair function.
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Advanced Topics Review
Quiz Questions
116. You can import data into Access from which of the following sources?
A. Excel
B. Another Access database
C. Text file
D. All of these.
117. To export from Access, use the commands found in the _______ group on the Ribbon.
A. Import
B. External
C. Export
D. Send
118. When you create a link to a table in an external database, Access imports the table into the current database. (True or
False?)
119. A hyperlink can point to…
A. A file on your computer.
B. A file on a network.
C. A Web page on the Internet.
D. All of these.
120. The Object Dependencies command is found in the ______ group.
A. Objects
B. Panes
C. Show/Hide
D. Relationships
121. To set a password, you first need to open the database in _________ mode.
A. Exclusive
B. Password
C. Sharing
D. Read-Only
122. When you set up Access to automatically compact and repair, that setting applies to all Access databases. (True or
False?)
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Quiz Answers
116. D. You can import data into Access from any of these files.
117. C. Use the commands in the Export group to export data from Access.
118. False. When you link to a table, the data stays in its original location.
119. D. Hyperlinks can point to any of these items.
120. C. The Object Dependencies command is found in the Show/Hide group.
121. A. Open a database in Exclusive mode to set a password.
122. False. You need to set up the automatic feature individually for each database.
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