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SHOP WORK
Joinery
— Cabinet-Making — Carpentry
BT
HERMAN
F.
RUSCH
Director of Manual Training,
Oldalioma City, OTcla.
CLAUD CARLTON CONWAY
Director of Iron Worlc,
OJclahonm City High School, Oklahoma
Industrial Book
& Equipment Company,
Indianapolis
191S
COPYRIGHT
1918
By
INDUSTRIAL BOOK & EQUIPMENT COMPANY,
Indianapolis.
OCT -7
isifi;
:
©CI.A503728
INDUSTRIAL AND VOCATIONAL TEXTS
BEING A SERIES OF TEXT-BOOKS DESIGNED FOR
USE IN THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY
SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES OFFERING
COURSES OF INSTRUCTION IN THE TRADES, CRAFTS,
WAGE-EARNING PURSUITS AND HOME ECONOMICS.
Edited
By
Charles Kettleborough, Ph. D.
Director, Indiana Legislative Bureau.
EDITOR'S PREFACE
and vocational training has long
since been recognized by the leading educators of the country and has
now been formally installed in the public schools by the necessary statutory action of the federal government and most of the states. Its
necessity has been emphasized and its introduction greatly facilitated
by the acute exigencies produced by the World War. In the period of
reconstruction and re-adjustment following the war, the amplification
The importance
of industrial
of courses of vocational instruction will doubtless be greatly accelerated.
fruition of industrial training has been
The complete and successful
somewhat retarded by a lack
of satisfactory scientific texts and other
indispensable instrumentalities. In offering this series to the public,
it is the confident belief of the editor that a rational approach to a
knowledge of the fundamental principles and technique of the various
and industrial pursuits will be afforded. This text, which
a treatise on shop work in its various aspects, has been compiled by
Herman F. Rusch and Claud Carlton Conway. Both authors possess
an accurate scientific knowledge of the principles of cabinet-making,
carpentry and joinery, to which has been added extensive experience
in the application of these principles to practical work, supplemented
by a working knowledge of the most approved methods of imparting
information to students. This treatise is put forth as the first of a series
of texts dealing with industrial and vocational subjects in the confident
belief that it will prove successful as a working manual in the subject
trades, crafts
is
to
which
it is
devoted.
The
Editor.
AUTHORS' PREFACE
This book
the outgrowth of eighteen years of teaching in high
spent in practical construction work, in wood
and iron, before our affiliation with industrial school work began. It
consists of a compilation of such notes and lectures as we believe are
important to the wood-worker. It is not intended in any way to supplant any of the work at the bench, but is designed to be used in connection with bench work to enable the student to approach his work more
intelligently.
The book is not designed as a self-instructor, but as a
student's text to be used by the teacher, just as he would use a text in
mathematics. To secure the best results in the use of any text, supplementary work must be done, and wood-working is no exception to the
schools and
is
many more
rule.
The work presented in this text is so designed as to require two
working two hours per day, in its completion, and is intended
years,
as a ready reference for the pupil and the teacher. It will be observed
that in this text cabinet-making follows joinery. It is not necessary
that cabinet work should be taken before carpentry. If the student
so desires, he may take either cabinet-making or carpentry or both,
after he has finished joinery. All joint exercises should be worked out
by the teacher in class demonstrations.
The following brief, synoptical analysis may be of service to the
teacher in the development of the subject as a whole.
Part I deals exclusively with the tools used in manual training
shops, and with illustrations relative to the correct positions. Chapter
III, Development of a Project, is worthy of careful analysis, since it
indicates a general method of approach and order of work, and since
the constructive work involves the use of so many methods. Care must
be taken that too many tools are not presented to the pupil at once. Do
not take up the use of a new tool for the sake of the tool but for the
sake of the exercise which calls for the use of that particular tool.
Part II outlines a course in bench work, beginning with a series
of joints which are standard the world over.
Just how many joints
the pupil shall make is a matter the teacher himself must determine.
They are arranged in an order such that there is a gradual rise from
the simpler to the more difficult and complex joints. This continuity
should be followed in the presentation. In this series of joints, the
fundamentals of all joint construction, whether they are in cabinetmaking, in common carpentry, or in bridge building, will be found. The
extended list of suggested projects for construction Should prove of
AUTHORS' PREFACE
viii
great value to the instructor.
Just enough
is
presented on each project
to start the student in its development.
a series of talks which cover a wide field in
and which present many other things of vital importance to the artisan. It gives information which may be applied
daily by the mechanic. These talks should be taken up, not necessarily
Part
III consists of
practical tool usage,
in the order given, but in the order best suited to the teacher's
own
For example, a demonstration is given on how to sharpen a
plane iron. It would naturally follow that this would be the proper time
course.
on "Abrasives" or if the first lesson on sandpapering
before the class, the talk on "Sandpaper" should be given.
Part IV deals with miscellaneous topics as applied to shop work.
The questions should be given in class, in oral recitations, so that each
pupil may familarize himself with the technical terms. The problems
may be assigned for work outside of recitation, and others may be
substituted to embody certain features of the pupil's own exercise under
to present the talk
;
is
construction.
The glossary is intended for the use of those who are not familiar
with certain technical terms and phrases.
There is no special reason for numbering the Blue Prints as they
are, beginning with 400. It will be observed that the number of illustrative Figures is just under three hundred. To avoid duplication in
numbering and
to facilitate the location of the cuts, figures
and draw-
ings referred to were the only considerations observed in assigning
numbers beginning with 400 to the Blue Prints. The letters B. P.,
which
will be
found at the end of the paragraphs in the chapter on
Joinery, refer, of course, to the Blue Prints.
It is
the belief of the authors that the working drawings, lectures,
tool references, constructive information, suggested projects, questions
If the book
this book.
prove to be of material assistance in the unification of a course
of study, embodying both practical and cultural training, it will have
served its purpose. While we believe that the cultural side of industrial
work should not be overlooked, yet "the search-light of practical experience should illuminate the dark places of theory".
In conclusion, the authors wish to acknowledge their obligations
and indebtedness to the many persons whose generous contributions
and problems amply justify the publication of
shall
and suggestions have aided materially in making possible the publication of this work, and in particular to Helen Ferris, English critic,
Oklahoma City High School, for valuable assistance in correcting and
clarifying the English.
H. F. RuscH.
Oklahoma
June
City,
14, 1918.
Oklahoma.
C. C.
Conway.
SHOP ETHICS AND REGULATIONS.
other deparUiient of educational work offers a better chance
work harmoniotisly with others than the
Industrial Department. The following suggestions will help those who
try to observe the proper ethics of work shops.
No
for the student to learn to
Be prompt
to
begin work, and
work
faithfully until quitting time.
tool list and make sure all your tools are in the proper
In case of shortage^ report it at once to the instructor in charge,
so you will not be held responsible for those missing.
Check your
place.
Tools that are b^'oken by carelessness are to be replaced by the
students breaking them.
Each student must furnish
the "individual equipment."
Borrow no private tools and be neat and considerate with the tools
for general use. Return the tools for general use to their special rack
or cabinet as soon as you are through with them. Lock up your private
tools only.
Be
deliberate
and thoughtful.
Work
for quality, not quantity.
At the close of the period, put your tools away, brush the shavings
end of the bench, have everything neat and in good order, so you
the
to
will not be called back when you leave.
Both enjoy and make a business of your work.
Demonstrations of the uses of the woodworking machinery will be
made, but no students will be permitted to run any of the machines,
except the tool grinder, unless it is- under the direct supervision of the
instructor in charge.
The department
is
not responsible to any of the students in case
of a breach of its regulations.
RESAWS.
It is easier to criticise
Courtesy costs
Confidence
Many
a
is
man
than
to create.
and buys much.
little
the companion of success.
shortens his days by lengthening his nights.
To be successful, you nntst plan the
The
If
devil tempts all
you resent
Inspiration
Failure
is
is
men, but the
authority,
more
start as well as the finish.
idle
man
teinpts the devil.
you stand a small chance of assuming
liable to strike
a busy
man than an
it.
idle one.
not the worst thing in the world; the very worst
is
not
to try.
It is a little farther
road
around the corners of a square
deal, but the
is better.
A
bold front
is
a good thing only when anchored
to
a
stiff
back-
hone.
Bad
luck ruins one
man
in a hundred, good luck ruins the other
ninety-nine.
The man of good judgvient
is like
a pin, his head prevents his going
too far.
The nuan who thinks ahead of
one who works ahead of his think.
his
work
is
a sure winner over the
True efficiency will come only to the man whose heart
work, and tuill never come with discontent.
is
in his
—
—
CONTENTS
Editor's
Preface
_
t
.
Authors' Preface
__
vii
_
Shop Ethics and Regulations
Resaws
Part
ix
xi
^
Drawings, Equipment, Projects and Accidents.
I
CHAPTER
I
Working Drawings
— Scale—Blue Prints—Elevation— Lines—Plan
Working Drawings
CHAPTER
of
Work
3
II
Shop Equipment
—Bench Design and Construction— —Bench Stop
—Bench Dog— Bench Hook—Drawing Board, Triangles and T-Square—Bench
Brush—Bench Types, Equipment and Methods—Historic Measures— Standard Yard —Metric Standard— Units— Linear Measure — Graduated Measuring
Tools— Steel Square—Try Square—Rule—Marking Gauge—TrBevel—Level
Wing Divider or Compass— Sloyd Kiiife—^Awl — Saws—Ripsaw—Use of
Handsaw—Backsaw— Use of Backsaw—Planes—Bench Planes—Block Plane
—Cabinet Scraper—Burnisher—Draw Knife— Spoke Shave—Cornering Tool
— Squaring Stock—Wood Chisel—Tang and Socket Firmer Chisels—Chisel
Handles — Chisel Blades— Sharpening Tools— Halving Joints—Concave Surfaces—End Beveling—Beveling—Mortises— Circular Pieces —Mallets —Hammers—Driving Nails—Nail Sets—Pulling Nails— Carpenters' Pincers— Screw
Drivers—Driving Screws—
—Hand Screws—Clamps—C-Clamps—Improvised Clamp —Use of Braces and Bits —Locating Centers— Securing Bored
Stock —Boring Through—Depth Gauge—Ratchet—Tool Sharpening— Chisel
Sharpening—Plane Iron Sharpening— Gouge Sharpening—Knife Sharpening
—Cabinet Scraper Sharpening
Tool and Machine Equipment
^Vises
^Vises
CHAPTER HI
.
5
.
Development of a Project
—
—
—
—
Plans and Specifications Construction of Rack Parts Laying Out the Back
Shaping the Back The Support The Arms Cross Rail and Dowel Assembling Finishing
—
—
CHAPTER
—
—
33
IV
Machinery
—Hand
—Universal Saw Bench— Band Saw— Surfacer
—Lathes—Trimmer—Oil Stone Edge Grinder—Machine
Tools—Wrenches—Oiler—Pliers— Snips— Safe Guards
Woodworking
Machinery
Planer and Jointer
40
—
——
CONTENTS
xiv
CHAPTEPt V
Accidents and Theik Treatment
Accidental Injuries—Wounds
—Fractures—Bums
Part
and Scalds
— Sprains
,
46
Shop Work.
CHAPTER I
II
JOINEBT
Joints
—Joint
—
—
—Plain Butt Joints
—Rabbet Joints—DoveDado Joints—Plain Dado Joints—Multiple Dovetail Joints—Half Blind
Dovetail Joints—Ledged Miter Joints—Miter and Butt Joints— Framing
Joints—Butt Joints—Draw-Bolt Joints—Cross Lap Joints —Beveled Halving
Joints—Lap-Dovetail Joints— Cogged Joints —Mortised and Tenou Joints
Blind Mortise and Tenon Joints—Doweled Mortise and Tenon Joints—Keyed
Mortise and Tenon Joints— Open Mortise and Tenon Joints—Mortise and
Tenon Joints with Relish—Trussed Mortise and Tenon Joints —Wedged Mortise and Tenon Joints— Fox-Tail Tenon Joints—Double Mortise and Tenon
Joints— Single Dove-Tail Joints—Thrust Joints—Housed Brace Joints
Oblique Mortise and Tenon Joints—Bridle Joints — Scarf Joints— Splice
Joints—Bird's Mouth Joints— Surface Joints—Plain Miter Joints— Splined
Miter Joints — Stretcher Joints — Edge-to-Edge Joints — Stress — Tensional
Stress — Compressional Stress—Transverse Stress— Computation of Stress
Types Classification; of Joints Box Joints
Butt Joints, Blocked and Glued Hopper Butt Joints
—
tail
CHAPTER
51
II
Cabinet Making as Applied in Fuenituee Consteuction
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Legs Panel Leg Mission Style Leg Modified Mission Style Leg
French Leg Turned and Fluted Leg Back Legs Rails Straight Rails
Curved Rails Turned Rails Chair Arms and Rockers Shelving Foot
Boards Panels and Paneling Rabbeting Panel Effects Moulding Batting
Drawer Fronts Tops Cleating Edging Surfacing— Forms of Tops Assembling Laying Tops Designs ^Ascertaining Cost Specimen Bill
Furniture
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CHAPTER
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
61
III
Caepentey
——
—
—
—
—
—
—
House Planning
—
— ——
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Estimate of Cost Procedure Staking out for Foundation
Sills
Plates
Joists
Beams
Bridging
Foundation
Excavation
Studs Floor Lining Boxing Cornice Classification of Roofs Rafters
Sheathing Shingling Comb-Boards Window and Door Frames Window
Frames
Door Frames Jambs Grounds Corner Strips Siding Base
Floor Stairs Pitch Risers Landing Risers, Treads and Skirting Boards
Newel Posts, Hand Rails and Spindles Well Hole Porches Scaffolding
Snapping Lines
—
—
CHAPTER
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
75
IV
Beads and Mouldings
Beads
—Mouldings— Crown
Mouldings
—Intermediate Mouldings—Base Mouldings
Designation of Moulding Forms
89
CHAPTER V
Veneek and Its Application
— Sawed and Rotary Cut Veneer—Veneer and Solid Built Stock—Core
—Preparing Veneer—Veneering Regular and Irregular Surfaces
Veneer Designs—Veneering Cylinders and Cones—Panel Work Veneer
Veneering
Stock
91
CONTENTS
XV
Part III— Shop Talks.
CHAPTER I
Steel Square
Steel
Square— Scales and Tables—Essex Board Measure— Octagon Scale—Angle
Cuts for Polygons—Brace Measure—Rise of Rafters—Run of RaftersValley
Pitch of Rafters—Rafter Cuts—Hip Rafters— Plumb and Side Cuts—
Rafters— Jack and Cripple Rafters
9'^
.
CHAPTER
II
Saws
and Web Saws—Butcher Saws— Hack
Handy Saw— Compass
Saws-Band Saws— Circular Saws— Coping Saws— Cylinder Saws—Miter
Box— Saw Construction-Material—Process of Manufacture—Tempering—
Smithing— Grinding— Final Touches—Vanadium Saws— Saw Parts— Sharpening— Sharpening Rip Saws— Finishing— Sharpening a Two-Man Cross-Cut
Saw— Sharpening Circular Saws— Sharpening Cut-ofC Saws— Sharpening
Saws— Scroll
Special
—History
Band Saws
Saw Sets—Use
of
of
Saw
Sets
104
CHAPTER nil
Fastening Devices
Nails— Classification of Nails— Common Nails—Casing Nails— Finish Nails— Brads
—Wrought Nails— Cut Nail&— Standard Gauges— Screws— Sizes of Screws—
Kinds of Screws—Lag Screws— Corrugated Steel Fasteners—Tacks— Glue113
Glue Material—Liquid Glue Glue Joints
—
CHAPTER IV
Braces
Brace— Carpenters'
Parts of
—Cap—Reciprocating
Bit
Drill
Brac^-Chuck— Ratchet— Cranked Handle Swing
—Breast
119
Drills
CHAPTER V
Auger Bits
—
Boring Tools— Cutting Action—Manufacture Head, Nib, Lip and Spur— Sizes of
Auger Bits— Resharpening of Auger Bits— Shanks—Dowel and Ship BitsExtension Bit— Irwin Bit—Russell Jennings Bit— Ford Bit— Fostner BitExpansion Bit— Gimlet Bit— Counter and Gauge Sinks— Reamers— Screw
Drivers— Spoke Pointers, Fore Augers, Hollow Augers and Dowel Sharpeners 121
CHAPTER
VI
Abrasives
Grindstones— Composition— Truing— Speed
Emery
Corundum
of
Stones— Oil Stones—Artificial Stones
—Carborundum— Speed
^
CHAPTER
125
of Artificial Stones
VII
Sandpaper
Details of Manufacture— Strength— Gluc^-Ingredients—Process
Quality and Care Steel Wool
—
—
of
Manufacture
128
—
—
CONTENTS
xvi
CHAPTER
VIII
Files and Rasps
—Hand Cut Files—Machinery Cut Files— Sizes and. Kinds—Features
Cuts— Length, Tang, Thickness and Kind —File Cleaners —Use of Files
Historical
Machine and Hand-made Files
131
CHAPTER IX
Facts Aboxjt Wood
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Uses and Nature of Wood Logging Transportation Sawmills Timber Milling
Seasoning Warping and Cracking Decay of Woods Methods of Preservation Strength of Timber Gtrain—Markings Board Measure Tulip or
Yellow Poplar The White Ash The Sugar Maple American Elm The
Chestnut The Hickory Basswood The American White Oak Black
Walnut Western Red Cedar Red Gum The Redwoods White Pine The
Longleaf Pine The Shortleaf Pine The Bald Cypress Spruce Douglas
Fir—Birch
135
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CHAPTER X
Facts About Brushes
and
Brushes
Materials
Methods
—Dusters
and
P.rushes
Artists'
—Bristles—Care
of
159
CHAPTER XI
Wood Finishing
—Classes of Finishes—Exterior Finishes—Pigments—White Lead—Dutch
Process— Carter Processi—Linseed Oil— Chinese Wood Oil — Colors— Color
Shades— Composition —Application of Paint— Interior Finishes— Stains
Stain Shades— Fuming— Fillers—Use of Liquid Fillers— Use of Paste Fillers
—Application of Fillers— Shellac—Use of Shellac —Turpentine—Varnishes
—Rubbing Varnish—Pitting of Varnish—Cracking or Checking of Varnish—Chilling of Varnish—Kauri Gum — Manilla
Gum—Zanzibar Copal
—Damar Gum—Filtering and Aging of Varnish—Uses of Varnish—Wax
—^Application of Interior Finishes—Natural Finish— Stains—Order of Application—Things to Remember
163
I'urpose
CHAPTER
XII
Period Furniture
—
—
—
—
—
—
Furniture Types Egyptian Early European Renaissance Lines and Harmony
Jacobean William and Mary Queen Anne Louis XIV. XV, and XVI
Chippendale The Brothers Adam— Hepplewhite Sheraton—The Empire
Period Mission Craft
174
—
—
Part IV
—
I
187
.
CHAPTER
II
Problems
190
CHAPTER
Glossary
—
Questions, Problems, Glossary.
CHAPTER
Questions
—
III
194
PART
I
DRAWINGS, EQUIPMENT, PROJECTS AND ACCIDENTS
CHAPTER
I
WORKING DRAWINGS
—
Working Draivings. Working drawings are
representations of objects, in whole or in part,
frequently enlarged, to a convenient scale they are
and c<?nvenience of one person who is developing
;
exact projections or
usually reduced, but
used for the guidance
problems created by
another.
Scale.
—The
term
"scale", as used in mechanics,
means the
ratio
or relative proportion of the size or linear dimensions of the parts of a
drawing to the size or dimensions of the corresponding parts of the
object represented.
It will
be seen quite readily that the working draw-
ing of a house would be too large to be drawn on paper the actual size
of the house, and that the details of a small machine so drawn would
be too small to insure accuracy. Scales so drawn as to represent one-
fourth and one-half of an inch to the foot, one-half size, one-fourth
two and four times the size of the object are most commonly used.
size,
—
Blue Prints. In creating data, the working drawings or sketches
become the plans, and the written descriptions of material, finishes and
known as the specifications. In developing
problems, it becomes necessary quite frequently to reproduce the plans.
This is done by making prints which generally are shadows of the lines
and characters of the original plans. In developing prints, a sensitive
paper is placed in a printing frame behind the original drawing and
exposed to the light. The length of exposure depends on the kind and
other necessary details are
and the transparency
upon which the original drawing is made. The sensitive
paper, after being properly exposed, is washed in water. The process
thus observed develops an accurate reproduction of the original drawing known as a blue print in which the white lines are the shadows.
Since blue print paper shrinks unevenly when drying, it is safer, whenever possible, to use the measurements given by the figures on the blue
disposition of the light, the character of the paper
of the material
print or in the specifications than to scale the blue print.
is often necessary to represent different sides of an
working drawings. This is done by revolving the object
and drawing the view of the side presented. The outline of a side and
Elevation.— It
object in the
3
—
—
;
SHOP WORK
is called an elevation.
There are end elevations, side
and top elevations. C, in Fig. 1, represents an end elevation
B a side elevation looking down upon an( object develops the plan A
its
modifications
elevations,
;
or a top elevation.
-
--
S^j-
d'
\
\
^
2^
/J
z^
_-)L_L
Y\G.
I
JL
Working Drawing.
1.
—
Lines.
Each line used in a drawing has a distinct and well defined
meaning. The lines used in common practice are represented below in
A is a solid line and indicates the visible edge of an object.
a solid line, usually light, broken only for figures, as 8'-6", and has
arrow heads at its ends. These arrows indicate the measurements repre-
Fig. 2.
B
is
—
By
£
5-6^
-^
-
-
H
£
Fig.
2.
Drawing Lines.
-
senting 8'-6" (eight feet six inches). C
is a dotted line used to indicate hidden
parts. D is a dash line used in projecting
the elevations and plans.
E is a dashand-dot line used as means of representing
projection centers,
The
and below the working drawings of the object.
lines as
used in Fig.
revolving solids,
etc.
lines are usually placed to the right
Point out these various
1.
—
Plan of Work. Much time and material will be saved by a careful
study of the plans and specifications before the work on any project is
started.
Before beginning tool work on the material, be fully advised
as to what to do and how to go about it.
;
CHAPTER
II
SHOP EQUIPMENT
(Representing the equipment items for the average well equipped
school shop. See Fig. 3.)
BENCH
TOOLS.
Clamps
Draw Knife
Planes
Jack
Spoke Shave
Smooth
Snips
Pincers
Block
Chisels (One inch; five-eighth
three-eighth inch
inch
;
Pliers
Cornering Tool
one-eighth inch).
Wrench
Tang
Glass Cutter
Nail Set
Socket
Back Saw
Try Square
Hammer
Marking Gauge
Rule
T-Bevel
Screw Driver
Mallet
Bench Hook
Brush
Drawing Board
INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT FOR
STUDENT.
Cap
Apron
Pocket Knife
Pencil
Plane Iron (Furnished by Department)
GENERAL TOOLS.
Awl
Dowel Plate
Dowel Sharpener
Sloyd Knife
Cabinet Scraper
Burnisher
Divider
Bit Braces
Automatic Boring Tool
Wing
Bits
Saws
Miter Box
Rasps and Files
Abrasives
MACHINE EQUIPMENT.
Universal Saw Bench
Band Saw
Wet Tool Grinder
Jointer
Surfacer
Steel Square
Trimmer
Level
Wood
Lathes
—
Fig. 3.
^Tool Kit.
THE WORK BENCH.
—
Bench Design and Construction. In their etisentials, work benches
and in the methods used in fastening tlie parts together.
It is generally agreed that the most practicable work bench
for manual training shops is a single (individual) bench, wholly inclosed, and equipped with individual lockers, tool locker, side and end
vises, bench stop, bench dog and a tool recess.
To insure absolute
stability, the material used in constructing work benches should be
clear, selected, hard wood
preferably maple. The rigidity of the bench
is dependent on the design and construction of the frame.
Therefore
all joints should be doweled and glued and fastened with drav/ bolts.
To prevent checking and warping, the top should be built of strips,
securely fastened together, either by dovetailing or by dowels and glue,
and firmly attached to the frame by means of lag screws. It is generally
agreed that a top should be one and three-fourths inches or more in
thickness as this will insure a solid working surface. In the construction of tops, two distinct plans are followed.
One plan is to build the
top of strips, from three-fourths to one and three-fourths inches in
thickness, and as much as two or three inches in width, laid flat. The
other plan necessitates the use of strips from three-fourths to seveneighths of an inch in thickness and stood on edge, thus exposing the
differ only in size
—
—
—
—
SHOP EQUIPMENT
7
edge grain for a working surface. The lockers should be nailed and
glued. When completed, the work bench should be given an oil finish
which will bring out the wood coloring and preserve the material. A
coat of shellac should be applied occasionally to help preserve the wood.
This bench, complete as described, presents a neat appearance in the
(See
room, is dust proof, and meets the demands of a modern shop.
Fig. 4.)
dtM^
1'
!
Fig.
4.
Typical
Work Bench,
BENCH EQUIPMENT.
Each work bench should be
equipped with vises, bench stop,
bench dog, bench hook, a drawing
board, a T-square and a bench
r^.
brush.
Fig.
5.
Rapid-Acting Vise.
Bench Stop.
—The bench
—
Each bench should be
Vises.
equipped with rapid acting side
and end vises to hold stock that is
being worked upon. (See Fig. 5.)
stop
is
a device,
rectangular in shape, made of metal, and so designed as to be raised and lowered by a spring,
and when not in use remains level with the top
of the bench. It is used to hold stock that is
being surfaced. The stock is butted against the
stop when raised. Small extensions on the stop
sink into the end grain and hold the stock.
Fig. 6.
Bench
Stop.
—
;
SHOP WORK
—
Bench Dog. The bench dog is .a metal device, rectangular in shape, and is fastened in holes at regular intervals on the top of the bench. It is used in conjunction
with the vises to hold the stock firm. (See Fig. 7.)
Fig.
7.
Bench
Dog.
—
Bench Hook. The bench hook is a tool designed to
hold light stock and to prevent the scarring of the bench
during the process of sawing. It consists of a board with
a cross cleat screwed on each side at opposite ends. One cleat prevents
from slipping over the top of the bench and the other
serves as a top for the piece being sawed.
the bench hook
—
Drawing Board, Triangles and T-Square. A drawing board, 60and 45-degree triangles, and a T-square are essential in every bench
equipment. They are used in sketching, designing and in making working drawings.
Bench Brush.
FIG.
s.-Bench Beush.
—A bench brush
as a means of
cleaning the top of the work bench.
Brushes of the duster type, with
handles, are the best for this class
is
indispensible
of work. Methods of manufacturing brushes will be found in Chapter X, Part III, entitled "Facts About
Brushes." (See Fig. 8.)
—
Bench Types, Equipment and Methods. A common way to hold
sawing is illustrated in Fig. 9 where a board is placed on
a pair of saw horses. This is a form of primitive bench still in general
use for laying out and working up large stock. Fig. 10 shows a bench
especially adapted for carpentry. It is long and provided with a wide
skirting board in which are bored holes. A, for pins that help to steady
long boards when planing. Fig. 11 is a bench used largely in school
shops. It is provided with both side, A, and end, B, rapid acting vises
stock for
also a benchstop, C, a
bench dog, D, and a
to do efficient sawing, the stock
tool recess, E.
must be held
In order
and Fig. 9 shows
how it is fastened on saw horses. A in Fig. 9 shows the correct position of a saw in relation to' the stock when ripping, and B shows the
position of the saw when cross cutting.
Fig. 10 shows a method of
fastening a long board in a carpenter's bench and the position of the
cross-cut saw, B. Fig. 11 shows how a board, F, may be held in a vise
while cutting with a rip saw, G, and H shows the bench hook when
used in connection with the back saw, I, while making a finished cut on
a piece of stock, J,
firm,
SHOP EQUIPMENT
Fig.
9.— Saw Horses.
Fig.
10.— Carpenter's Bench.
Fig.
11.— School Shop Bench.
SHOP WORK
10
MEASURES.
—Formerly
measurements and weights were
and varying weights. King
Charles I commanded that the length of his arm should define a yard.
Again, in the year 1266, the weight of an English penny was referred
to as the weight of thirty-two wheat grains taken from the middle of
the ear.
Of course the length of King Charles' arm could have been
taken as a yard, but if the standard had been lost, it would have been
impossible to re-establish the measurement with any degree of certainty.
As for wheat grains, they shrink in weight and size and are very seldom
the same at maturity.
Standard Yard. It became apparent that standards which could
be replaced at any time should be established. To do this, a commission
was appointed, and as a result of a great deal of experimental work with
a swinging pendulum, the unit of measure, known as the yard, was established.
The standard yard is made of platinum with gold plugs
sunk near each end. Across each plug is a fine line, drawn at right anThe distance between these parallel lines, when the
gles to the yard.
Historic Measures.
compared with objects of
indefinite lengths
—
temperature of the platinum is at 62 degrees Fahrenheit, is the United
States and the English Standard yard. As all metals, including platinum, expand and contract in response to the changing temperature of
the atmosphere, it is necessary to take the measurement at a positive
The original standard yard is preserved in
degree of temperature.
England, and a number of exact reproductions are kept in the United
States.
Metric Standard.
—The metric standard, of which the metre
is
the
Weights and
The ratio of the English Standard to the
unit, is the international standard,
and
is
on
file
in the
Measures Building in Paris.
Metric Standard is as 36 is to 39.37.
Units.
Units are of two kinds simple and derived. The yard is
a simple unit the square yard a derived unit. The relation which a derived unit bears to the simple unit is called its dimension of the derived
—
—
;
unit.
Linear Measure.— ¥ot convenience and as a means of more accurate measuring, the English standard yard
etc.
The following
is
is divided into feet, inches,
the linear table developed from the yard.
12 inches ('0
3 feet
5| yards
40 rods
8 furlongs
1760 yards
1
foot
(ft.)
1
yard
(yd.)
1
1
rod (rd.)
furlong (fur.)
mile (mi.), or
1
mile
1
(')
—
SHOP EQUIPMENT
11
—
Graduated Measuring Tools. There are many tools in every day
use which have graduations in inches stamped upon them.
The steel
square, rule, yard stick, try square, tape-line, etc., are the most common.
HAND
TOOLS.
—
Steel Squxure.
The steel square is used in measuring lumber and
laying off lengths as illustrated in Fig. 20. See Steel Square, Chapter I,
Part
III.
—
'#Ul
...
2
3
4
5
Try Square. The try square is a
contracted form of the square and is
used extensively for testing and laying
out work. In testing, the butt of the
.
try-square
is
held against a surfaced
and the inside edge of the blade
brought to rest on the edge of the
side
is
If the blade touches ail the way
across the block of wood, the piece is
square (See Figs. 12 and 26.)
piece.
Fig. 12.
Rule.
—^Tey
Square.
—The rule
is
made
of wood,
ivory, or celluloid, ranging
from six inches to five feet in length.
The ordinary two-foot folding rule
(Fig. 13) has the inch divided into
Fig. 13. —Two Foot Folding Rule.
sixteenths on one side and into eighths
on the other. It is a common practice to use the rule as a gauge for
The rule is held in one hand ^the finger
pencil lining as in Fig 21.
serving as a gauge or guide. A pencil held at the end of the rule is
drawn along the surface of the board leaving a line parallel to the
metal,
—
edge
—
Marking Gauge. A
is a wood working
gauge
only to lay out work.
Fig. 14.
thumbscrew.
Marking Gauge
It is
used to
draw lines parallel to a given edge
and works best with the grain of the
wood.
The parts of the marking
gauge are the head, bar, point, and
The bar has graduations on one
measurements. To draw a
laying-off of definite
marking
tool used
side
which permit
thte
a given
edge is not a simple operation. In untrained hands, the point of the
gauge has a tendency to follow the grain of the wood, and the resultant
line may not be true.
To get the best results, with a little practice, hold
line parallel to
—
—
SHOP WORK
12
the head
—
—
tipped at a slight angle squarely against the edge of the
board thus giving cutting action. Mark very lightly at first until the line
is established.
Then, if necessary, a heavier line may be made with a
second stroke. (See Figs. 25 and 14.)
T-Bevel.
—
It is necessary, in
>\ construction, to
work
many
classes of
to given angles, or build
up
work to fit an angle. In either case, the tool most
commonly used for this purpose is a T-Bevel.
The bevel is similar in construction to a trysquare, except that
it has no graduations on the
and the blade is free so that it may be set
Fig. 15.— T-Bevel.
at any angle and locked with a thumbscrew. These
angles and pitches are generally taken from the steel square.
(See Fig.
Bevels differ in size, form and material. Some are made entirely
22.)
of metals; others of a combination of hard wood and metal.
(See
blade,
Fig. 15).
Level.
—The
level is a tool con-
sisting either of a steel or of a
wooden frame with a
Levels are
inset.
lengths,
and
equipped with a
level
made
are
level
in
glass
many
sometimes
glass on a
Fig. 1G.
—Plumb
and Level.
protractor scale for special work. In case there are two glass insets
one set at an angle of 90 degrees to the other the tool is called a plumb
and level. Levels are used for testing perpendicular and horizontal sur-
—
faces during the process of building construction, in installing machinand in many other branches of engineering work.
(See Figs. 23
and 16).
ery,
—
Wing Divider or Compass.
The wing divider is a tool used to
divide lines, draw arcs, or trans-
Fig. 17.
Wing
Divider.
pose measurements.
It is sometimes called a compass. For laying
off a definite measurement with a
pair of wing dividers, clamp one
leg to the wing, approximately correct, and adjust it to the correct
measurement by the spring and thumbscrew attachment. Fig. 24 clearly illustrates one method of establishing angles.
These angles may be
established on a block and transposed to the work by the use of the T-
Bevel.
(See Fig. 17).
SHOP EQUIPMENT
il.l.l.l.l'l.l.lllil.,.
13
SHOP WORK
14
—
is
Sloyd Knife. A sloyd knife is
an excellent tool for laying out, whitIt is
tling, or any other light work.
properly
steel,
carbon
high
of
made
Fig. is. — Sloyd Knife.
tempered, and is handled. The knife
in most grades of fine work.
try-square
used in conjunction with a
(See Fig. 18.)
'
AiuL—The Awl, commonly called "Scratch
Awl", is a tool used to make fine lines, point off
measurements, and to start holes for small nails
or screws it is especially adapted to enlarging
holes in leather belting during the process of
;
(See Fig. 19.)
lacing.
Fig.
19.—Awl.
—
Saws. Saws of different kinds
occupy an important place among
the tools used on hand-work of all
kinds, and of these the hand saws
are of the first importance. Hand
saws are made from 14 to 28 inches
in length of blade. For all work of small and moderate size, the 20 or
22 inch saw shown in Fig. 27 is the most convenient. Hand saws are
rip saws and crosscut saws.
of two kinds
Fig. 27.
—Typical
Hand Saw
—
Ripsaw. —The
ripsaw, as the name indicates, is for cutting with
For pine or other
of the board to be sawed.
lengthwise
the grain, or
points
to the inch, may
or
four
teeth,
three
having
soft wood, a ripsaw
hardwood,
a ripsaw havfor
especially
work,
be used but for ordinary
recommended.
is
the
inch
to
points
nine
of
ing six points, and a crosscut
;
—
not the intention to suggest any work for
practice in the use of the handsaw, as the correct use will be acquired
gradually while cutting out stock for different articles required later.
Do not press on or force the
In general, it is well to say to the beginner
Use of Handsaw.
It is
:
Hold the saw firmly in the hand with the first
finger pressed against the side of the handle and run it lightly and freeTake time to see that the line is followed exactly,
ly in the kerf, or cut.
and crooked edges on the work, which must
wasteful
all
thus avoiding
saw
to cut too rapidly.
afterward be planed off. While sawing, be careful to stand in a position
This position
to saw the edge square with the surface of the board.
on the board
try-square
setting
a
time
by
to
time
from
may be tested
Fig.
9.
A,
at
shown
as
the
saw,
of
and against the side
—
— —
SHOP EQUIPMENT
15
— The
backsaw,
on the
bench, and is a bench saw, being
used for light, fine work and
for fitting and dove-tailing. The
Back Saw.
Fig. 28.
metal back is provided to stiffen
to
saw with exceptional accuracy.
possible
the blade, thus making it
Backsaw.
shown
Backsaws are made
in
many
sizes.
A
in Fig. 28, is used
10 or 12 inch backsaw
is
a con-
venient size for general use.
—
Use of Backsaw. ^When using
the backsaw, hold tv'ith one hand only.
Never, under any circumstances, press
on the saw with the other hand, but
run the saw lightly on the wood.
Should any trouble be found in start-
; °
o ]t^/
--loO>
ing the cut, first draw the saw backleft
ward against the finger of the
hand, which hand grips the block of
wood being sawed. This steadies the
saw and holds it firmly to the correct
Use or Back Saw.
Fig. 20.
place for beginning the cut. Much
trouble is sometimes experienced by
the beginner in starting the cut, the tendency being to cut too deeply into the wood, especially if the saw is sharp. This makes it hard to begin
the cut close to the line, and often splits off a corner from the wood. To
avoid this trouble, hold the handle of the saw high as shown in Fig. 29,
drawing the saw backward toward the operator with a pulling stroke,
and steadying the blade of the sav/
with the first finger of the left hand.
This will make a slight kerf, which
can be increased with a light pushing stroke. At each succeeding
stroke, gradually lower the handle
end of the saw until a horizontal
The sawing in
with a light
done
all cases must be
iTfj/nH+ffi^
lifting stroke, without any forcing
Practice Exercise.
Fig. 30.
into the wood, using long steady
strokes so as to use the entire length of the saw, and to bring all of the
To use a back-saw in such a way as to follow closely
teeth into use.
to the dimension line, and to do exact and closely fitting work, requires
from the beginner a considerable amount of careful practice. To all
position
is
gained.
—
—
.
SHOP WORK
16
who wish
mend the
to acquire skill in the use of this
important
tool,
we recom-
Take any block of wood,
one
and
three-quarters
wide,
about
inches thick, and
inches
about two
inches
long,
and
with
try-square
and a sharp
ten
a
about eight to
lines
on
the
front,
out
upper
and
back
sides of the
pointed knife, lay
in
Fig.
The
knife
30.
cuts must be at least
block as partially shown
one-sixteenth of an inch deep, and one-fourth to three-eights of an
Next, proceed to saw up the block
inch distant one from the other.
in thin sections thus marked, sawing each time so that the saw kerf
will be just outside of, and close to, the knife line as shown by the first
partial cut at a in Fig. 30. Each saw-cut through the block should be
true to each of the three lines. While the saw passes along one side
'following exercise for practice.
(the outside) of the line, its teeth should not scratch the opposite side
of the knife cut, but should leave the smooth, clean cut of the knife on
the block, as
shown at h, in Fig. 30. At the same time it should be
no wood to be smoothed off with plane or chisel.
so
close as to leave
is
tools.
—
To a woodworker the
one of the most important
Planes.
plane
It is
made
either
of cast
Besides the regular
are many other
there
bench planes,
Fig. 31.
Jack Plane.
work, such
special
planes used for
as the router, rabbet, dado, beading and matching, circular, carriage
(See Fig. 31)
maker's, tongue and groove, core box, scraper plane, etc.
iron or wood.
Fig. 32.
lA Double Plane
1
2
3
Iron.
Single Plane Iron.
Plane Iron C^p.
Cap Screw.
4 Lever Cap.
o JLever
Cap Screw.
G Frog
Jack Plane And Parts.
Complete.
7 "Y" A(i.1usting Lever.
S Adjusting Nut.
9 Lateral Adjusting Lever.
11 Plane Handle.
12 Plane Knob.
13 Handle Bolt and Nut.
14 Knob P>olt and Nut.
15 Piano Handle Screw.
IG Plane Bottom.
4G Frog Adjusting Screw.
——
—
SHOP EQUIPMENT
17
—
The bench planes commonly found in school shops
Smooth, jack, jointer and block. The smooth plane is used for
finishing or smoothing off flat surfaces, where the uneven spots are of
slight area. Its short length will permit it to locate these irregularities,
leaving the work with a smooth surface when it is finished. The jack
plane is used to true up edges of boards in the rough and prepare them
for the jointer. The jointer plane is a finishing plane for large surfaces
and is invariably used to true up the edges of boards so that they can
be closely fitted or joined together; hence the name. (See Fig. 32.)
Bench Planes.
are:
Block Plane.
which can
—The
block plane,
easily be held in one hand,
used to plane the ends of boards.
The cutter on the block plane rests
on a seat, at an angle of 20 degrees,
Block Plane.
Fig. 33.
as against 45 degrees in the ordinary
bench plane, and the cutter bevel is made on the upper instead of the
lower side. All iron planes have adjustable throats which permit of
the opening or closing of the mouth as coarse or fine work may require.
Experience has proved that the proper bevel for grinding the cutter is
This angle should be observed when
at an angle of about 25 degrees.
(See Fig. 33.)
regrinding or rehoning the cutter.
is
—A
cabinet scraper may be in the form of a plane
Cabinet Scraper.
or merely a thin piece of steel, usually rectangular, with rounded corners. It is used, as its name indicates, to scrape surfaces (as in Fig. 43)
and
is
indispensible in
working curly or twisted grain wood.
(See Fig.
34.)
\
j^
Fig. 34.
Adjustable.
Cabinet Sceapees.
Concave-Convex.
Convex.
—
Burnisher. A burnisher is a tool
of steel, variously shaped, with
a hard, smooth, rounded end or surface, and is used to smooth, polish,
and turn up edges. (See Fig. 35.)
made
Fig. 35.
Burnishek.
—
SHOP WORK
18
Draw
is
Knife.
—The draw knife
used for roughing out forms rap-
The
as shown in Fig. 44.
handles are so placed that the
workman draws the tool toward
him
and can thus regulate the cutDeaw Knifk.
ting edge quite easily. Draw knives
with folding handles protect the cutting edge and are best for tool kits.
(See Fig. 36.)
idly,
—
Spoke Shave. The spoke shave
what similar to the draw knife. It
either of
wood
or metal.
in a frame, is adjusted
Its blade,
with a
is
some-
is
made
fastened
set screw.
Spoke Shave.
Fig. 37.
The spoke shave is used for irregular work
There are a number
as shown in Fig. 45.
of designs of spoke shaves, but their method of operation is identical.
(See Fig. 37.)
—
Cornering Tool. ^A tool used
to slightly bevel or round the corners of porch rails, stair treads,
It is
etc., is a cornering tool.
made
Fig.
3S.— Coeneeing Tool.
(^^^
of a
strip
of sheet
steel.
-^^^- ^°'>
—
Squaring Stock. In squaring stock, the following method should
be observed. Fig. 39 represents a piece of stock to be squared. Use the
smoothing plane over side A in the direction of the grain, and remove all
rough places. Test with the square as in Fig. 40, or with any straight
edge, to determine if the entire side A lies in the same plane. Then, using
the jack plane, work side B to make it at right angles to side A. Test
with a try square, as in Fig. 26, mark for width, as shown in Fig. 25,
then plane side C in the same manner as you did side B, at right angles
Test with try square as side B. Mark for thickness with
to side A.
marking gauge, as shown in Fig. 25, and, with a smoothing plane, work
side D parallel to side A and at right angles to sides B and C. Using try
square, measure for length and mark ends as shown in Fig. 41, then saw
as shown by H, I, J, Fig. 11. When planing end grain, move the plane
only part way across the end, stopping about one inch from the back
Reverse the plane and work back
edge as shown at arrow in Fig. 42.
This prevents the
first edge.
the
inch
from
one
about
again, stopping
edges from splitting.
—
— —
SHOP EQUIPMENT
Fig.
—
—
19
39.— Squaring Stock. Fig. 40. Testing With Square. Fig. 41. Marking
Fig. 43.
Use of Cabinet Scraper. Fig. 44. Use of Draw Knife.
Fig, 45,
Use of Spoks Shave,
End.
— —
—
SHOP WORK
20
—
Wood Chisel. No tool has yet
been devised to replace the wood
chisel, and for years to come it will
be used universally for gaining,
mortising,
beveling
and for
ducing wood generally.
Wood and
the construction of chisels.
Fig. 46.
Typical Wood Chisel.
resteel are the materials
The parts
of the
wood
necessary for
chisel are the socket
or tang and bolster, according to classification, blade, cutting edge and
handle.
Tang and Socket Firmer Chischisels are of two kinds
tang and socket firmer, the
names being derived from the way
the handles are attached. The tang
chisel has the shank, bolster and
els.
—
Fig. 47.
Chisel Types.
Upper,
Lower, Socket Firmer.
material for the tang set
made
Tang
down
;
—Wood
in dies, while the socket firmer has the
form to the proper
shape and welded to a "mood" which is a piece of steel properly set
down for welding purposes. Some of the sockets of the chisels and
gouges are made by the boss and punch method, a process which involves the use of machinery.
Socket firmer chisels are designed for
heavy work. Tang chisels are
Bocket or barrel
of sheet metal rolled over a
better balanced, and betdesigned for cabinet work.
Most of the carving tools, many
flat
chisels,
and many of the
gouges are of this type.
Chisel Handles.
The handles
of chisels are made of wood, usual- Fig. 48.- Chisel Handles. Upper, Tang;
Lower, Socket Firmer.
ly maple or hickory, highly polished, and very commonly capped with leather to prevent the shattering
of the wood by the blows of the
In case the handle is for
mallet.
a tang chisel, there is a brass or
iron ferrule slipped on the end.
V
f^^^^MiiBii^a»i''^^^i
This goes over the tang to prevent it from splitting the wood.
lighter,
ter
—
•
J
Fig.
Special Chisel Types. Gouge,
Carving Tool, Butt Chisel,
Corner Chisel.
49.
—
The blades of
be of any width or
length.
Some have the edges of
one side beveled. Other blades are
worked over forms and are known
Chisel Blades.
chisels
may
SHOP EQUIPMENT
21
corner chisels, turning chisels, carving tools, etc.
Like
other tools, chisels are ground, tempered, polished and handled
before they are ready for the market.
(See Fig. 49.)
as gouges,
many
—
Sharpening Tools. In sharpening any tool, care should be taken
it inj the proper position, to retain the original bevel, and to
The two first mentioned operations
keep from drawing the temper.
are very important, yet, even if they are done correctly, and the temper
is drawn, the tool is worthless.
Keep the tool as cool as possible while
grinding, for, if it becomes hot, and the steel turns blue, the temper
is drawn, and the tool is too soft to do satisfactory work.
The sharpening of the wood chisel furnishes no exception to these rules. In addition,
attention should be paid to the angles made by the various edges, each
with another. The ordinary wood chisel should be ground with the
cutting edge at 90 degrees to its long axis. A bevel should be made on
one side only, and the plane of this bevel should make an included angle with the plane of the reverse side, of 15 to 80 degrees, the variation
depending upon the class of work for which the chisel will be used.
More chisels are ruined by over grinding than in any other way. Never
grind one unless it is out of true, or the bevel has become rounded by
whetting, and then only enough to make it true. Put the keen cutting
edge on by the use of the oil stone and the leather strop. Never grind
a tool on a dry stone.
to keep
Halving Joints.
—Fig.
50 illustrates the method used with a chisel
The work is carefully laid out, and
made. Saw kerfs prevent splitting. The chisel
B is then started about one-fourth of the depth of the saw kerfs— and
upward at a slight angle. This cut is to test the direction of the grain
of the wood. This cut should be carried down on one side and returned
cuts made from the back side. The edge of the chisel may be used for
in reducing stock for halving joints.
the
saw
kerfs, A,A, are
—
—
testing the trueness of the surface.
Concave Surfaces.
—Fig.
51 shows the method
commonly used to
kerfs are made about
an inch apart and the chisel is used in removing the stock. These cuts
With the chisel in a straight grained piece should be made in the direction of the grain, as from
to C and from B to C.
cut out concave surface on light short stock.
—
Saw
—
A
—
End Beveling. Fig. 52 shows the method used in cutting a bevel
across the end of a piece. If the best results are desired, the tool must
have a keen edge and be given a shearing position.
Beveling.
a bevel.
—Fig. 53
The ends are
illustrates the practice of laying out
first
and making
cut as at A, and the stock removed on the
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SHOP WORK
22
Fig. 50.
End
Cutting Concave Surface. Fig. 52. Cutting
Cutting Edge Bevel. Fig. 54. Cutting Mortise.
Testing Mortise. Fig. 56. Cutting Circular Piece.
Halving Joints.
Bevel.
Fig. 55.
Fig.
53.^
FIg. 51.
—
SHOP EQUIPMENT
23
edge with a chisel. Where the bevel runs the length of the edge, a jack
plane may be used to advantage.
—
Fig. 54 illustrates the manner in which a mortise is
Mortises.
with a chisel which is a little
cut with a chisel. The cut is started at
narrower than the mortise, and cuts are made from side to side, each
A
deeper than the one before, until the end is reached. The
should
be light, square, and the corners cut clean. The return
end cuts
cut from A to C may be made in the same manner. This will leave
the mortise packed with fine chips about half way through the piece.
The piece may then be turned over and the same method practised on
the other side until all cuts are through, after which the chips may be
forced out and the walls trued. This chisel as shown in Fig. 55 may be
cut a
little
used to test the trueness of the walls.
—Occasionally
it is necessary to cut out a circular
be done by careful use of the chisel as illusAs far as possible, the chisel cuts should be made
trated in Fig. 56.
wood, shearing cuts, as shown in Fig. 52, being
of
the
grain
the
with
In case the grain runs in the direction of the
grain.
end
made across the
make the cuts from A to B, from A to D,
to
necessary
arrow, it will be
Circular Pieces.
piece of wood.
from C
to
This
may
B and from C
to D.
Mallets.
used
for
—The mallet
driving
is
a tool
cutting
tools
which have wooden handles. Various materials are used in the construction of mallets, chief of which
are wood, lignum-vitae, raw-hide, a
combination of wood and metal,
and rubber. Rubber mallets are
used in setting up cabinet work.
Eadial Face Mallet.
Fig. 57.
Mallets are manufactured in many
forms, but the best form for ordinary work is the one with the faces cut
radial.
(See Fig. 57.)
Haimners. Hammers are designed to meet all classes of work
such as driving nails, pounding
—
metal and working in stone; they
are most commonly found in forms
suitable for the carpenter, black-
mason and tinThe materials used in constructing hammers are wood and
steel.
The stock of the hammer is
smith, machinist,
ner.
fig.
5S.-Claw Hammers, ball
maydole.
Pein.
SHOP WORK
24
of high grade crucible steel, forged into the proper shape, ground,
tempered, and finally polished. The handles are put in afterwards.
Hammer
handles should be straight
tough, and should be
finished in such a way that they
Fig. 59.—HAMMEE HANDLE.
will not become sticky when held in a
moist hand. In order to secure a straight grained piece of young,
heavy hickory, trees are selected and cut into lengths suitable for turning into handles. These pieces are split not sawed into blanks and
permitted to air dry, or season, for about six months before they are
turned into proper shape. Air drying leaves them tough, while kiln
drying makes the wood brittle. A common method of finishing handles
is to hold them on sanding, filling, and polishing belts, each doing its
grained
and
—
work
—
in turn.
—
Driving Nails. It will be found that nails driven into wood at a
See Fig. 64 have a greater resisting capacity than those
driven straight in. This is true because it is necessary either to bend
the nails or to split the pieces held together in this fashion to separate
them. In driving a nail, hold it at a slight angle, tap it lightly with the
hammer to start it, follow with several sharp blows squarely on the
head, thus forcing it into the material, until the top of the head becomes
flush with the surface of the wood. Be careful not to mar the wood. Fig.
slight angle
—
—
63 indicates the position of the hammer to the face of the wood to prevent scarring. Fig. 65 shows a method of toe-nailing one piece to another. Nails that are to be set should never be driven home with a ham-
mer, but the head should be left partly above the surface of the wood;
the nail then may be set with a nail set and hammer.
Nail
made
Sets.
—The
nail
set
is
and has its point
cup shape to prevent it from slipping off of the head of the nail and
of tool steel
Fig.
60.—nail
Set.
scarring the wood.
—
Pulling Nails. To pull a nail, place the claws of the hammer under
the head of the nail and then place a block of wood under the eye of the
hammer ^to prevent the scarring of the material as well as to increase
the leverage; pull the handle back over the block; if the nail is not
—
clinched or rusted,
it
can be easily removed.
1^61.—Carpenter's
PinceksT^
—
Pincers.
Carpenwhich are used in cutting and pulling nails, should be
made of good steel. The arrange-
Carpenter's
ter's pincers,
SHOP EQUIPMENT
merit of the jaws
makes
it
25
possible to pull short broken nails with but
little effort.
Screw Drivers.
—A screw driver
is
a tool used for turning screws into material.
It is designed especially for this
62.— Screw Dkivek.
work, having a blade, A, Fig. 66, formed
so that it will fit the slot B of the screw
E, a shank, and a handle. The sides of the end of the blade should be
(See
parallel in order to prevent the scarring of the head of the screw.
Fig. 67)
Screw drivers with shanks from three to eighteen inches long
are very common.
Screw driver handles are made of wood, leatherwashers, wood fibre and metal, all of which are designed to give the best
possible grip 'to the hand.
A very convenient form is that with the
shank bent at right angles and a blade on each end.
Fig.
.
—
Driving Scretvs. To secure the greatest efficiency, screws must be
driven home with care. Screws may be driven into soft wood with an
ordinary screw-driver, but in tough or twisted grain or hard wood, it is
best to bore a hole to receive the screw. In fastening two boards together with screws (See Fig. 66), bore a hole in the first board a little
larger than the gauge of the screw D bore a hole in the second piece the
size of the short diameter of the threads of the screw, F. Countersink C
in the first board to receive the head and slip the point of the screw
through the first board and start it into the second. By revolving the
screw E to the right clock wise the screw will pull the two boards
Care should be taken not to strip the threads
together at that point.
in the wood, especially in the end grain, A little soap or grease on the
point of the screw will cause it to enter the wood more easily.
Some
screws are designed to be driven with a hammer, but most screws in
common use should never be more than well started with a hammer.
To do more, one incurs the danger of closing the slot of a round head
screw and the possibility of breaking off half of or the whole head of a
flat head screw.
;
—
—To
—
handling of wood during the prohandscrews and clamps are used.
Vises are made of both wood and metal and are constructed
in many forms. Probably the oldest and most used form is the wooden
jaw vise, the one that has one jaw built to the bench. Rapid acting metal
vises are very common and save much time in changing the stock in the
vise.
They are usually bolted to the bench and may have the jaws lined
with wood to prevent the scarring of the piece to be held.
Vises.
cess
of
facilitate the better
construction,
vises,
—
—
—
—
SHOP WORK
26
63
Jcreiv--
driver
Slot
H
^
^ c
1/
xn.
Screw
'U.-J.
\^-i\
1^
U
/y
B'iG.
63.
Hammer
Fig. 66.
66
Position.
Fig.
Driving Screws.
64.— Method of. Nailing. Fig. 65. Toe-Nailing.
Adjustment of Screw and Driver.
Fig. 67.
—
—
SHOP EQUIPMENT
Hand
nUMta-
27
Screws.
—Hand
Screws
are used to hold pieces of wood together while laying out work, gluThe jaws are
ing, chiseling, etc.
made
of wood, but the better
and
Hand Sckews.
the more convenient hand screws
have the spindles made of metal,
and so arranged that the jaws may be set at an angle for special work.
In all cases where possible, the jaws should be worked in a parallel posi(See Figs. 70 and
tion, so as to distribute and gain the most pressure.
Fig. 68.
68.)
—
hand screws, clamps are used because of their capacity to hold wood together. The better clamps are made of steel and
range in size from the small C-clamp to the carpenter's door and trestle
These larger clamps are used in the gluing of table tops, and
clamp.
in clamping together large frames. The long clamps have a tail stop
Clamps.
^Like
Clamps. C-Clamp and Bar Clamp.
Fig. 69.
This makes the clamp quick
acting.
Most of the clamps are worked with a screw, but some of
them secure their pressure by the use of an eccentric. Fig. 72 illustrates
a method commonly used in clamping boards together with a carpenter's
clamp. It is necessary to face the jaws A with the blocks B to prevent
bruising the pieces C to be held.
which
slides the length of the steel bar.
—
C-Clamps. The C-clamp, or screw clamp,
work together temporarily while it is being laid
(See Fig.
ly used toiiold work to the bench.
—
is
used most in holding
out.
It is also
common-
71.)
Improvised Clamp. An improvised clamp is illustrated in Fig. 73
by which the pressure is secured by wedges. The boards to be glued,
C and D, are backed against the strips B. Wedges A, A are driven up
tight thus forcing the two boards tightly together. If the surface to be
glued is wide, it will be necessary to put weights on the boards C to
prevent their buckling.
—
SHOP WORK
28
FlG. 70.
—
—
Use of Hand Screws.
Clamp.
Fig. 71.— Use of 0-Clamp.
Fig. 73.
Improvised Clamp.
Fig. 72.
Use of Bar
SHOP EQUIPMENT
29
—
Use of Braces and Bits. Braces and bits are thoroughly discussed
However, a few illustrations here
Chapters IV and V in Part III.
may not be amiss.
in
Locating Centers.
— Fig. 74 shows the method of locating or laying
The measurements for holes are always
unless
otherwise
specified, and usually from two dithe
center,
given to
rections. In case of a series of holes the measurements are given from
out centers for bored work.
center to center.
—
Securing Bored Stock. Work to be bored should be held securely
most convenient to the workman, so as not to slip or bend
This will materially assist in boring the hole true.
and break the bit.
Fig. 75 illustrates one method of shifting the cap of the brace so the
bit is square to the place of the piece being bored. A try-square may be
placed beside the bit to insure accuracy.
in a position
Boring Through.
—Extreme
care should be taken with finished
by boring through. To prevent this, stop boring when the spur (See A in Fig. 76) has come
through. Return the cut from the back side. Another method is to
clamp a piece of scrap material securely behind the board and bore
through into the scrap material. This will leave a clean cut hole.
pieces to prevent splitting on the back side
_
Depth Gauge.
—Fig. 77
illustrates the use of the depth gauge. This
prevents the bit from feeding in farther than
it was adjusted.
This gauge is used in boring
deep mortises. The cuts should be overlapping.
(See Fig. 78.)
The
overlapping cuts make the walls easy to true "with a chisel.
serves as a stop since
the distance to which
Ratchet.
—
It is
it
often necessary to bore a hole in a corner or close to
an obstacle where it is impossible to get a full swing with the brace.
This is done by the use of the ratchet. Fig. 79 illustrates a corner in
which the cranked-handle moves through a quadrant of a circle.
Tool Sharpening.
—In sharpening
tain the grind or bevel.
tools,
If the original bevel
must be taken to re^
has not been retained, the
care
must be put on the grindstone as in Fig. 80. A shows an adjustwhich the tool is held while being ground. The stone
must revolve in the direction of the arrow and against the cutting edge
tool
able tool rest on
of the tool.
It is not the function of the grindstone to sharpen tools,
but to remove metal so the desired bevel may be given. Fig. 81 shows a
tool, the bevel of which has not been retained, and which must be put on
the grindstone and ground to the dotted line.
—
—
—
—
—
—
SHOP WORK
30
4
,
t-
_ i_
_1
Bgrsgr:
75
15\^4'-\
74
Fig,
74.
Locating Centers.
Fig. 77.
Fig.
75.
Starting Bit.
Fig.
76.
Boring Through.
Use of Depth Gauge. Fig. 78. Boring Mortise.
Fig. 79.
Use of Ratchet Brace.
—
—
—
———
—
—
SHOP EQUIPMENT
31
—
Chisel Sharpening.- Fig. 82 shows how the chisel must be held
on the oil stone to put on the cutting edge. Bear on the chisel when
pushing it in the direction of the arrow. Fig. 83 shows how to lay the
chisel on the oil stone when removing the wire edge that may have reCare must be taken that the oil
sulted from the operation in Fig. 80.
stone retains its flat sides. However, if the surfaces become irregular,
place it on the side of the grindstone and grind until the sides are flat.
Fig. 80.
^Adjustment of Tool to Grindstone.
Fig. 81.
Impkoper Bevel.
Fig. 82.
Adjustment of Tool to Oil Stone. Fig. 83. Removing Wire Edge. Fig. 84.
Rounded Plane Iron Edges. Fig. 85. Plane Iron and Cap Attached. Fig. 86.
Sharpening Outside Beveled Gouge. Fig. 87. Sharpening Inside Beveled Gouge.
Fig. 88.
Sharpening Knife. Fig. 89. Sharpening Cabinet Scraper.
—
Plane Iron Sharpening. The bevel or grind on a plane iron is from
3/16" to Y', depending upon the thickness of the tool and the character
of the wood for which it is intended. The sharpening of the plane iron
is the same as the chisel.
Test the cutting edge for squareness vdth a
try square. Fig. 84 shows the edges slightly rounded. This avoids
Fig 85
ridges which would otherwise result from a square corner.
shows the plane iron cap fastened to the plane iron. How near the cap
is to be set to the cutting edge is determined by the character of the
work.
—
SHOP WORK
32
—
Fig. 86 shows how a gouge beveled on the outbe sharpened with a shp stone, and Fig. 87 shows how a gouge
beveled on the inside may be sharpened with a slip stone.
Gouge Sharpening.
side
may
give
—To sharpen a
a circular motion
Fig.
—as shown dotted
Fig,
shows how
sharpen
Cabinet Scraper Sharpening. —A,
Knife Sharpening.
knife,
both clockwise and anti-clockwise
it
in
in
89,
88.
circle.
to
a cabinet scraper. Run the file horizontally along the edge of the scf aper
until the edge forms a right angle to the sides. If, during this process,
remove it on the oil stone. After this operation,
run the burnisher across the edge of the scraper, forming a convex surface a burr on each side of the edge, as shown in B and C of Fig. 89.
The angle at which the scraper is used, is determined by the angle of the
a wire edge has formed,
—
burr.
(See Fig. 43.)
:
CHAPTER
III
DEVELOPMENT OF A PROJECT
(A
typical line of procedure to follow in the construction of
any
article.)
—
Plan^ and Specifications. In making any project, the first and most
important consideration is a clear understanding of what the piece is
really to be. This should be followed by a knowledge of the purpose it
is to serve, and lastly one should know definitely what parts are necessary for the construction of the whole. All of this information is, or
should be, included in the plans and specifications.
—
Construction of Rack. In this chapter, the article proposed for
development and construction is a rack. The project was chosen neither
for its intrinsic value when completed nor for its utility but because its
construction involves the use of so many tools and the sequence of the
operations is so clearly marked. The development of this project is a
typical line of procedure. In this case the name itself indicates that it is
to be a complete article, assembled and finished; perhaps to match
some piece of furniture. The purpose which it is to serve is implied in
the name.
The plan (Fig. 90) shows the parts needed in its construction.
Paints.
—This rack
is
composed of
six parts
A—back
(1)
—support
C —arms
D—
E — dowel pin
B
crossrail
'
(1)
(2)
(1)
(1)
These parts are carefully worked out and assembled so that the
frame C D E swings on E as the bearing. F is a ^" hole bored at a point
equidistant from the sides of the frame and one inch from the top so
that the rack
may
be hung on a nail or hook.
—
Laying Out the Back. The back should be of clear wood and of
the same kind as the piece of furniture the project is designed to match.
Dress this part to measurements ^x5|^x7 inches as given on .the plans.
The
rule,
saw, try-square, and plane will be all the tools necessary for
work. The board is now ready for laying out the
33
this part of the
—
SHOP WORK
34
Fig. 90.
Working Drawing of a Rack.
—
—
DEVELOPMENT OF A PROJECT
S5
The
(See Fig. 91.)
layout
in
making
a
first step
for a design is drawing the
center lines; from these center lines all centers are placed,
as for centers of arcs, holes,
etc.
Draw both center lines,
design.
as
XX
and 00, the former
running
O—
vertical,
horizontal.
the
From
latter
line
00
measure down one and threeeights inches and draw a line
parallel with line 00 on this
line, from the intersection of
;
line
XX, each
side
of
XX,
measure off If inches. At
these two points your large
arcs will be swung. From
line 00 measure up 2'' and
draw a
Fig. 91.
From
these points
00.
The Back.
the
measure up from intersection of line
parallel with line 00.
On this line, each
From
these points
draw
with
line
this line, each side
of XX, measure
two small upper arcs are swung.
XX
If.
line parallel
On
off
On
1^^\
line
00 If.
side of
Draw a light line
line XX, measure off
tangent to large arcs. With compass point set at 6 inches, with one point on line XX produced, scribe
the upper arc, being careful that this arc is tangent to the two small
After scribing the four arcs with a light line, connect the arcs
arcs.
with tangent lines as shown in Fig. 91. The bevel, J, f inch, should be
laid out by the use of a fine pointed pencil and the hand, a finger of
which serves as a guide or gauge. Making gauge lines will leave a
scratch after the bevel is cut.
Since the above provides for all
the work to be laid out on this part
of the project, the shaping may
lines
C^
^
begin.
—
Shaping the Back. The holes
F and G in Fig. 91 may be bored
with an ordinary auger bit, but
extreme care should be taken not
•
•f
Fig. 92.
1
Counteesinking eor Screw.
36
SHOP WORK
—
DEVELOPMENT OF A PROJECT
37
On this end, draw diagonal lines from corintersection of these lines locates the center, at
back piece just completed.
ner to corner.
which a
The
hole, equal to the short
diameter of the screw thread, should be
bored deep enough to receive the screw.
—
The Arms. A careful study of the plan will reveal that the
length of the arms (C in Fig. 90) is not given, but that the run and rise
The run is 2| inches and the rise is 6 inches, plus | inch, or 6f
is.
inches. It is best to make a cardboard pattern with the use of the steel
square. Lay the square on the cardboard, and at the point 6| inches on
the blade of the square, square out a line | inch, and on the tongue at
2f inches make a mark. Scribe a
line on the inside edge of the square
forming the plumb and level cuts.
f^rr-r^/
miu^
The curves may be developed free
hand and the pattern may be cut out
and used for both pieces. This ashaving the two arms similar. Brad two pieces of the right
Laying Ol't the Arms.
Fig. 95.
sures one of
width and thickness together and tack the pattern on the face side as
may be made at irregular intervals
illustrated in Fig. 95. Saw kerfs
and the surplus stock removed with a chisel or draw knife, but a better
way is by the use of a band or jig saw. (See B. P. 400.) All cuts of the
X
chisel should be in the direction of the
arrows.
The saw kerfs prevent
split-
ting.
The round corners may be
formed with a chisel as shown in
Fig. 96. The edge of the tool must
have a shearing motion.
The centers for
seive
the
dowels
holes which re-
and
cross
rails
FlG.
9t).
FOEMING THE AeMS.
should be carefully laid out and bored.
Cross Rail and DoweL-
The method used in making the cross rail
(D Fig. 90) and the dowel, (E Fig.
90) are exactly identical and since
the are the same size, | inch, they
may be made
First,
in one piece.
square up a piece of the necessary
Dowel.
length to f inch. On each end, form
an octagon, and run pencil lines
(See Fig. 97.) These corners
on the stock connecting the octagons.
may be removed by the use of a plane.
Fig. 97.-rLAYiNG
Out the Rail and
—
—
SHOP WORK
38
A
while
device used to hold the stock
the,
corners are planed off
called a chute board.
is
Two
boards,
Y-Y (Fig. 98) having their inner
edges beveled at 45 degrees, are nailed
together, and a stop or pin is set in at
one end of the groove thus made. The
chute board is clamped in the vise
and the piece is laid in the groove
with one end against the stop. Now
plane off the edges by changing position of piece in chute board.
Next
drive the stock through a dowel plate,
Use of a Chute Boakd.
Fig. 98.
which, as a rule, is a rectangular
piece of low carbon steel with holes
drilled in it as shown in Fig. 99. This illustration shows the method of
driving the stock through. Care should be taken to hit the stock square
with a mallet, and, if the stock is long, it should be held about the middle to prevent buckling. If the stock is well worked down, it will come
Fig. 99.
Use of a Dowel Plate.
out clean, smooth and round. Improvised plates may be made by boring holes in hard wood. The piece may now be cut into suitable lengths
for the cross rail and the dowel, or D and E in Fig. 90.
—
Assembling. All of the pieces should be gone over carefully with
sand paper to make them smooth and clean. Always sand paper with
DEVELOPMENT OF A PROJECT
39
may be screwed to the support B, but the point
the grain. The back
taken to see that
of contact should be coated with glue. Care should be
screw is finally
the
before
parallel
the sides of the support and back are
the hole in the
in
rotate
to
made
driven home. The dowel E should be
the cross rail
arms,
the
by
formed
end of the support so that the frame
in positogether
glued
be
should
and the dowel, will swing. This frame
The
support.
the
in
hole
tion, but no glue should find its way into the
twenty-four
for
set
should
frame should be free from wind. The work
streaks, bruises
hours to permit the glue to dry. Then remove all glue
finishing.
for
or scars with sand paper. The rack is now ready
.
A
shellac
Finishing.—A very good finish for this rack is one coat of
and
on
brushed
be
should
shellac
The
(white) and two coats of wax.
down
worked
be
should
it
Then
thoroughly.
given plenty of time to dry
smooth. Over this
with fine, or worn-out, sandpaper until the surface is
When it sets, that
rag.
a
with
on
add a coat of wax. This may be put
or totally evapopartially
is
solvent
is when it has become dull and its
Another coat of
rag.
soft
a
with
rated, it may be polished by rubbing
wax may be added in the same manner.
:
—
;
;
CHAPTER
IV
machinery;
—
Woodworking Machinery. For the rapid shaping and reproducMachines detion of similar forms, woodworking machinery is used.
signed for practically all classes of work are on the market, and new
machines, as well as improvements on the old, are developed readily.
Probably the most common machines used in industrial schools are the
following
Saw bench with ripsaw and cross-cut saw;
Band saw
Surf acer
Hand
planer and jointer;
Speed lathes;
Trimmer;
Tool grinder.
These machines vary in form and
size
and
in their
equipment with
special parts best suited for diversified kinds of work.
—
saw
Universal Saw Bench. The rip
is indispensable in a modern
The accompanying cut
shows a modern saw
bench which can be fitted up with
school shop.
(Fig.
100)
attachments for many classes of
special work. The base is cast in one
piece,
making the machine
rigid.
which is provided with a
tilting mechanism, and is operated
Univeesal Saw Bench.
Fig. 100.
by hand, and which has a stationary
and rolling section, is also made of
metal. This machine is provided with a yoke, having two arbors, on
which the saws are mounted and revolved by a hand wheel, engaging
worm and gear. The latter is protected by a dust-proof casing. The
saw can be fitted with either direct motor or countershaft drive. The
equipment consists of a rip saw, a cross-cut saw, a universal ripping
fence, a miter cut-off gauge, a universal miter gauge, and a clearance
The
block.
40
table,
;
;;
—
;
;
—
:
MACHINERY
41
—
Fio. lUl.
Band Smu. The band saw is a piece of
woodworking machinery, consisting of a
steel band, from whence the name is derived, which runs over two wheels in the
same manner as a belt. It is used in pattern shops, saw mills, planing mills, and in
wood novelty shops. It is used extensively
for sawing curves, ripping, and sawing irregular work in general. With the band
saw blade in motion, the wood is fed to it.
The operator slides the wood over a table,
which can be tilted to any angle, thus making it easy to hold and guide the piece of
wood. The important parts which make up
a band saw are the following
Band Saw.
Frame
Saw
Guide post
Wheels
Safety guards
tension;
Special equipment for re-
sawing,
Table
etc.
blades are made in all widths, and in lengths suitable for the
capacity of the machine. By capacity is meant the working clearance
under the guide and between the blade and column. (See Fig. 101.)
Band saw
—The
surfacer is a
extensively
used
machine which is
by cabinet makers, pattern makers,
and manufacturers of pianos, orSurfacer.
gans, vehicles, cars, doors, sashes,
boats, blinds,
all
and wood novelties of
kinds, for planing or surfacing
stock.
It does,
same kind
of
on a large
scale, the
work which may be
done with smooth and jack planes.
a great time saver. The frame
It is
of the surfacer
is
made
of cored sec-
tion sides, and heavy ribbed girts,
Fig. 102.
Surfacer.
machine jointed and bolted. The
bed is raised and lowered by a hand
wheel. The surfacer can be fitted with either direct motor or countershaft drive. The rough stock is fed through the machine by means of
four rollers. The cylindrical head, which makes 5,000 revolutions per
minute, cuts from beneath the surface, thus retaining the keen cutting
42
SHOP WORK
edge longer. Experience has proved that the knives should be ground
(See
at an angle of 42 degrees in order to obtain the best results.
Fig. 102.)
Hand Planer and
Jointer.
—The
hand planer and jointer is used in
all woodworking shops for dressing
and joining wood. The principal
parts of the machine are the following
Bed;
:
—
;
;
A
;
—
;
MACHINERY
A
hand
43
pattern maker's lathe is generally provided with a tool carriage,
which has a longitudinal and cross feed. All cylindrical and
fed,
spherical work, with their variations, can be done on the lathe.
The
swing of the lathe is determined by the distance between the live center
and the top of the bed, this being one-half the size of the stock worked.
The distance between the centers determines the length of stock that
can be worked. (See Fig. 104.)
Trimmer. The wood trimmer is
a tool used in all pattern, cabinet and
novelty shops for trimming the ends
—
of small pieces of wood.
The cutting
done by knives. These knives are
forced through the wood which is
is
held against a stop at the correct angle.
The
principal parts of the
wood
trimmer are the following:
Knife carriage;
Gauges
Bed;
Standard
The knives have a shearing motion
which leaves a clean unbroken cut.
The points of the knives should always be shielded, and only one pera time should operate the wood trimmer. (See Fig. 105.)
Fig. 105.
son at
Driving mechanism;
Trial gauges;
Column.
Oilstone Tool
Tkimmee.
Edge Grinder.
tool grinder is indispensable in
—
any
shop, no matter whether natural or
artificial stones
artificial stones
are used. However,
must be used with the
Grinders
with two wheels, one of medium and
one of fine grit, are most desirable.
The principal parts of the edge tool
knife grinding attachment.
grinder are the following:
Base
Oil pan;
Oil reservoir;
Wheels
Wheel arbor;
Knife grinding attachment
Driving mechanism;
Special equipment.
;
Fig. lOG.
Tool Grinder.
—
—
SHOP WORK
44
New
wheels should be thoroughly soaked with kerosene before using
and a little added from time to time. They readily absorb the oil and
will appear to be dry when not running, but the centrifugal force will
when
bring the oil to the face of the wheel
(See Fig. 106.)
Machine
have
Tools.
—In
the upkeep of machinery,
making adjustments,
tools for
ciency of the machine
the proper speed
may
reached.
necessary to
is
it
in order that the
is
maximum
be developed and maintained.
effi-
Wrenches,
large screw drivers, scrapers and oilers are the tools
pliers, chisels,
most frequently used.
Wrenches.
—Many machines have wrenches made for
special
work;
but it will be found that the ordinary monkey wrench may be used
to advantage on most woodworking
Monkey Wrench.
FlG 107.
in
in turning nuts
Oiler.
—The
This wrench
machinery.
and lag screws.
many
styles
and
sizes
is
and
made
is
used
(See Fig. 107.)
more commonly called the oil can,
properly lubricating the moving
oiler,
is indispensable
parts of machinery. It is made in many sizes and some
have long spouts, designed for oiling locomotives, etc.
in
(See Fig. 108.)
Pliers.
— Pliers
are used in cutting,
twisting and handling wire or small
Fig. 109.
Pliers.
Fig.
108.— Oil Can.
The
jaws
are made in many forms for special classes of work. Probably the most
common and best adapted design for work in general is the pair with
nails.
flat
jaws.
(See Fig. 109.)
Snips.
— Snips are used by
tin-
ners, sheet metal workers, copper-
smiths,
and
sizes
FiG.
110.— Snips.
Safe Guards.
workman
as
—Many
much
to cut metal rapidly
They are made in many
and designs and must be eas-
operated to do efficient work.
(See Fig. 110.)
i\y
machines are so designed as to protect the
as possible; in fact
machinery be properly
etc.,
easily.
shielded.
many
states require that the
But even these safe guards
will not
!
MACHINERY
totally eliminate all of the accidents in industrial
plants.
45
and manufacturing
Carelessness, working too rapidly, and taking big risks are, in
a way, responsible for three-fourths of the accidents. The following
suggestions should be carefully observed.
All gearing should be properly encased;
An old style set screws should be replaced with hollow set screws;
Hand
jointers should be equipped with cylindrical heads
and care-
fully shielded;
The band saw should be screened;
Table saws should be run in wooden
shields;
Cleated floors, to prevent slipping, should be built in front of saws
and planers;
Plenty of help should be employed in overhauling high piles of
lumber or moving heavy pieces.
All these things have been found most essential and effective in
preventing serious accidents.
REMEMBER
SAFETY
FIRST,
CHAPTER V
ACCIDENTS AND THEIR TREATMENT
—
Accidental Injuries. Wounds, fractures, scalds, burns and sprains
are the most common accidents likely to call for treatment in a school
shop.
—
Wounds. ^Wounds are divided into five classes: (1) Incised
wounds, which consist of simple divisions of the fibers made by cutting
instruments; (2) lacerated wounds, in which the edges of the wound are
torn, usually irregularly; (3) contused wounds, those in which the
edges are bruised (contused wounds are usually lacerated)
(4) punctured wounds, inflicted with the point of a weapon they are generally
narrow and deep and are usually followed by much swelling and inflammation; (5) poisoned wounds, caused by the bites of animals, the
;
;
stings of insects, etc.
Wounds
are dangerous, according to their char-
whether incised, lacerated, poisoned or otherwise the extent
of the soft parts which they involve; the place where they are located
in the body; the age, habits, surroundings and state of health of the
patient and the treatment they receive. The attendant consequences of
a wound are pain, hemorrhage, displacement, loss of function and shock.
The loss of function may be temporary or permanent and may manifest
acter,
i. e.,
;
;
itself in stiffness,
paralysis, deformities or death.
As
a precaution,
prompt and proper attention and more serious wounds should be carefully treated and dressed.
In treating wounds, it is essential first of all to remove any accumulation of blood, dirt or other foreign matter by washing. When the wound
is thoroughly cleansed place some absorbent cotton over the bleeding
portion. The cotton may be moistened with an antiseptic such as dioxygen. Finally the wound should be carefully bandaged. If the wound
is serious such as the severing of an artery, the bleeding may be controlled by a compress between the wound and the heart. In the latter
scratches, bruises
and
light cuts should receive
event, a good physician should be called immediately.
—
Fractures. Bones may be broken by force resulting from various
causes. Fractures are either complete, simple, comminuted, compound,
or impacted. The symptoms of fractures are pain, swelling, the crack
felt or heard by the patient when the fracture occurs, abnormal mobility, displacement, crepitation, and loss of function and injury to the
neighboring soft parts. The repair of fractured bones should be at46
ACCIDENTS AND THEIR TREATMENT
tempted only by
skilled surgeons.
The treatment
47
of the fracture, of
course, consists, first, in restoring the broken ends to their natural position and, second, bandaging and splinting to keep them in position.
;
—
Burns and Scalds. Burns are produced by dry heat and scalds by
hot liquids, but the lesions of both are essentially identical. The effects
of burns or scalds vary with the degree of the injuries. If the injury
to the patient is not severe, nothing but local treatment is required if
severe, all clothing near the injured part should be removed at once.
It is imperative that all dirt, shreds of clothing, etc., be removed from
the burned surface. If the burn is deep, it has been found satisfactory
to immerse the burned part or the patient, as the case requires, in a
warm bath. A solution, consisting of equal parts of lime water and linseed oil, applied to the burned surface, will give very satisfactory
;
results.
Sprains.
—A sprain results from the wrenching of a
joint,
causing
some of the ligaments
(the bands of tissue that unite the bones) to be
torn or severely stretched. In many cases, the bones are also injured.
In treating sprains, measures should be taken to prevent inflammation
by restoring healthy action. A most valuable means of reducing the
swelling and pain resulting from sprains, consists in wrapping the joint
with cloths saturated with water as hot as can be comfortably endured.
These fomentations should be continued for three or four hours. As
soon as the pain and swelling have somewhat subsided, an elastic bandage should be placed around the joint. When the acute symptoms have
disappeared, absorption should be promoted by systematic rubbing and
the application of stimulating liniments.
PART
II
SHOP WORK
—— —
;
;
CHAPTER
I
JOINERY
Joints.
—A
joint, in
wood
craft, is the place
timber are joined or united together. The joining
as in Fig. Ill
Fig. 111.
it
may
where two pieces of
may
be edge-to-edge,
EdgetTO-Edge Joint.
be in the direction of the length, as in Fig. 112
^^^=2
Fig. 112.
it
may
be at right angles, as in Fig. 113;
Fig. 113.
or
it
End-to-End Joint.
may
^Right Angle Joint.
be at an angle, other than a right angle, as in Fig. 114.
Fig. 114.
Joint Types.
tiveness
and
—For
^Angle Joint.
the purpose of increasing the strength, effecand fastening devices, such as
rigidity of joints, adhesive
51
SHOP WORK
52
Before these modern
fastening devices came into use, dowels, mortises and wedges, which are
glue, nails, screws, bolts, dowels, etc., are used.
found in old wooden structures, especially in the hulls of old vessels
which have been floating a half century or more, were used exclusively.
The fundamentals of joint construction, with their manifold variations,
which are found in modern joints, were evolved by necessity many years
ago, and those types of joints and joint construction which have stood
the test of centuries are now recognized by artisans the world over as
standard and as suitable for all kinds of construction work, whether
cabinet making, carpentry, shipbuilding or pattern making. As joints
are designed for utility, they should be so constructed as to weaken the
uniting pieces as little as possible; to distribute the load uniformly; to
fit accurately without winding strain
and the supporting timber should
be directly under, and perpendicular to, the load sustained. A careful
study of the construction of joints and their application to practical
;
problems will soon teach the beginner the proper proportions of
joints,
as well as the selection of stock for joint construction.
In the description of the types of joints which follows, no attempt has been made to
name and describe all joints, but all the fundamentals of joint construction are given and minor details may be varied to satisfy individual
tastes or needs.
—
Classification of Joints.
In this treatise, joints are grouped, according to their use in practical construction work, under three divisions,
namely, box joints, framing joints and surface joints.
BOX JOINTS.
Box
Joints.
—Box
name
joints, as the
implies, are used in the con-
struction of boxes and other similar articles such as cases, cabinets,
hoppers, bins and filing cases. They are used mainly, however, in constructing boxes to be used in storing and transporting merchandise. In
their general construction, box joints have return sides at right angles
The method of forming the joint is largely determined
to each other.
by the use and strain to which it is to be put in commercial use.
Plain Butt Joints.
—In common usage, a plain butt
joint is
formed
by the end of one piece meeting or butting against the
side of another
at right angles, without overlapping.
commonly used
This
is
the joint
by wholesale grocery houses in constructing boxes and
cases.
(See
B. P. 401.)
—
Butt Joints, Blocked and Glued. A butt joint blocked and glued is
like a plain butt joint, with the addition of an angle block which
may be square as in Fig. 115, and which is glued in the corner to add
firmness. The joint may be glued or nailed, or both. This joint is used
made
—
—
——
A
JOINERY
53
For wholesale
in cabinet work, furniture making and stair building.
dry goods and hardware houses, this joint is reinforced by cleats attached to the outer edges to withstand the rough handling in transportation.
(See Fig. 116 and B. P. 402.)
Fig. 115.
Butt Joint (.Blocked and
Glued).
Fig. 116.
Butt Joint (Cleated).
Hopper Butt Joints.—A hopis formed by two
pieces which do not meet each
per butt joint
other
at right angles
on account
of the slant of the sides.
Fig. 117.
It
may
be cut at a miter, as in Fig. 117.
Hoppers are used for corn grinders, for grain drills, bins, chutes,
(See
elevators and flouring mills.
Hopper Joint.
B. P. 403.)
—
Rabbet Joints. A rabbet joint is one in which the side of one
This method of
is grooved to receive the end tenon of the other.
the
joint
stronger. This
therefore
makes
joining adds glue surface and
It
presents
a neat, finjoint is used in box and drawer construction.
piece
ished appearance.
Dovetail
(See B. P. 404.)
Dado
Joints.
—
dovetail dado joint has one of the
pieces grooved on the side
and the
other piece has a tenon to fit the
This groove must have
groove.
one or both sides cut at an angle
and the tenon cut to match, as in
This joint prevents
Fig. 118.
Dovetail Dado Joint.
Fig. lis.
spreading.
It is used in making
china closets, book cases, in partitions for drawers and in filing cases.
(See B. P. 405.)
—
—
SHOP WORK
54
Plain
dado joint
Dado
is
Joints.
—A
plain
used for shelf fasten-
bottom of drawer conand for water-tight
boxes, tanks and ice boxes. (See
ing, for the
struction
Fig. 119.)
—
Multiple Dovetail Joints. ^A
multiple dovetail joint (through) is
one in which the projections and indentations on the ends of the two
pieces alternate and fit one another. This joint is used in constructing
tool chests, fine boxes for jewelry cases, etc.
(See B. P. 406.)
Fig. 119.
Plain Dado Joint.
—
Half Blind Dovetail Joints. A half blind dovetail joint is one in
which the projections of one piece do not show through the face side
of the other. This joint is used to fasten the sides of drawers to the
front. The blind dovetail shows no projections on either side, being on
the order of a mitered joint. This style of joint is used' in making fancy
and highly finished boxes. (See B. P. 407.)
—
hedged Miter Joints. A ledged miter joint is one with rabbeting
and mitering combined, the miter being on the outer edge to give the
joint a finished effect.
The large glue surface makes it a strong and
durable joint.
It is
used for costly boxes.
(See B. P. 408.)
—
Miter and Butt Joints. A miter and butt joint is similar to the
ledged miter joint, only more simple. It is used in joining pieces of
different widths or thicknesses.
(See B. P. 409.)
FRAMING JOINTS.
Framing
Joints.
—Framing
joints are those applied in frame-skele-
They may be used
in light framing such as desks,
heavy framing, such as house and barn
construction, trestle work, shipbuilding,^ etc. These joints are formed
by the timbers meeting each other at any angle desired or in the direc-
ton-construction.
tables
and taborets, as
well, as in
tion of the length.
Butt Joints.
der
this
—A butt
division
of
joint,
joinery,
un-
[
7
is
formed with heavier stock than
box joints. It is fastened by nails
set at an angle
toenailing and
by dowels, as in Fig. 120. This
—
—
joint is used in carpentry for fast-
ening the stud to the plate.
(See
Fig. 120.
B. P. 410.)
Butt Joint (Doweled).
JOINERY
55
—
Draw-Bolt Joints. A draw-bolt joint is a butt joint with a hole
bored through the one piece into the end of the other and a bolt inserted
to receive a nut which is put in from the side. It is a very strong joint
and is used in bench making, wooden frames for machines, and farm
implements. (See B. P. 411.)
—
Cross-Lap Joints. A cross-lap joint is one in which both pieces are
notched so that one fits into the other. The surfaces may or may not
be flush. This mode of joining prevents side lashing. It is used in cabi(See B. P.
net work and carpentry where timbers cross each other.
.
412.)
Beveled Halving Joints.
—A beveled halving joint
made at
The pieces
cross-lap joint except that the joining
is
joining cheeks are beveled to match.
(See B. P. 413.)
It is used in carpentry.
is
the same as a
the ends and the adare held in place by
nails.
—
Lap-Dovetail Joints. A lap-dovetail joint has a dovetail notch cut
a tenon to match. This
into one timber and on the other a projection
mode of fastening prevents spreading. It is used in rig construction
and in bridge and shipbuilding. (See B. P. 414.)
Cogged
Joints.
—
—A cogged joint
—
one with only parts of the notch
is
cut on the lower piece, leaving a portion uncut. The upper piece is cut
The joint prevents side lashing,
to fit the uncut portion of the lower.
is
strong and-is used in heavy framing.
(See B. P. 415.)
—
Mortised and Tenoned Joints. Joints of the mortised-and-tenoned
type are of the same general construction. The tenon is made by cutting slabs from the sides at the end of the timber, leaving cheeks and
shoulders. The cheeks are the sides of the tenon and the shoulders are
the parts abutting against the mortised piece. The shoulders serve as
depth gauges. The mortise is the hole cut to receive the tenon. In
general construction, the rails are tenoned and the stiles are mortised
to hide the grain of the wood.
—
Blind Mortise and Tenon Joints. A blind mortise-and-tenon joint
does not permit the tenon to project through the mortise. The cheeks
may be cut on two, three or four sides. This joint is used in fastening
studdings to plates. It is used extensively in furniture construction.
(See B. P. 416.)
Doweled Mortise and Tenon
Joints.
—A doweled mortise-and-tenon
joint (through) is one that has the mortise cut through one piece
and
the tenon cut equal to or more than the depth of the mortised piece. A
pin or dowel is driven into a hole bored through both mortise and tenon
SHOP WORK
56
(when in position) to keep the tenon from pulling out. The tenon may
have two or four cheek cuts. This joint is used in constructing wooden
machine frames, bridges, wagons and window sash. (See B. P. 417.)
—
Keyed Mortise and Tenon Joints. A keyed mortise-and-tenon joint
constructed the same as a doweled mortise and tenon joint except that
the tenon projects far enough through the mortise to admit the insertion
of a tapering key which draws the mortised piece firmly against the
shoulder of the tenon. This joint is used in bench building and in furis
niture of the knock-down type.
(See B. P. 418.)
—
Open Mortise and Tenon Joints. An open mortise-and-tenon joint
one with the mortise cut through the side and end of the mortised
When used singly, it is
It may be made single or in series.
piece.
adapted for window screens, frames for panels, etc. Articles such as
machine-made boxes are commonly fastened with this joint, used in
is
series.
(See B. P. 419.)
—
Mortise and Tenon Joints with Relish. A mortise-and-tenon joint
with relish is one in which a part of the tenon is cut shorter than the
rest. This device adds glue surface and therefore strengthens the joint.
This joint is commonly used where a rail is joined to a leg, as in table
(See B. P. 420.)
construction.
—
Trussed Mortise and Tenon Joints. ^A trussed mortise-and-tenon
which both ends of the cheeks have shoulders. It is used
in cabinet work on tea tables, taborets, etc., and for ornamentation.
joint is one in
(See B. P. 421.)
Wedged Mortise and Tenon
Joints.
—A
wedged mortise-and-tenon
joint is one with the mortise cut wider on the outer edge than on the
inner.
Saw kerfs are cut into the end of the tenon to admit wedges,
which, when driven home, will spread the tenon and fill the mortise. It
is used in carpentry, also for fastening handles in axes, hammers,
sledges, etc.
(See B. P. 422.)
—
Fox-Tail Tenon Joints. A fox-tail tenon joint is constructed the
same as a wedged mortise-and-tenon joint, except that the tenon does
not come through, but is blinded. It is used where the mortised piece
is already a fixture and the tenoned piece must fit close to the mortised
ane.
It is also
used in strong door construction.
—
(See B. P. 423.)
Double Mortise and Tenon Joints. A double mortise-and-tenon
joint is one which has two tenons and two mortises, side by side. It is
used in constructing door frames. (See B. P. 424.)
JOINERY
Single Dovetail Joints.
—A
57
single dovetail joint (through) is simi-
open mortise-and-tenon joint. However,
the sides of the mortise-and-tenon are cut at an angle. This angle or
bevel, cut on the sides, keeps the joint from pulling apart in one direction.
It is used in heavy framing.
Machine-made boxes for packing
small merchandise are constructed by using this joint in series.
(See
lar in construction to a single
B. P. 425.)
—
Thrust Joints. A thrust joint is formed by two beams meeting at
an oblique angle. It is held in place by spikes, bolts or iron strappings.
This joint is used in heavy timber construction to distribute the load and
give stiffness to the frame.
(See B. P. 426.)
—
Housed Brace Joints. A housed brace joint is made by cutting a
mortise into the timber at the desired angle to receive the brace. The
housing of the brace prevents it from falling out if the timbers shrink
for want of thorough seasoning. Its use is the same as a thrust joint.
(See B. P. 427.)
—
Oblique Mortise and Tenon Joints. An oblique mortise-and-tenon
from the general mortise-and-tenon type only in that the
timbers join each other at an oblique angle. This joint is commonly
used to fasten braces in heavy frames. The tenon and mortise prevent the brace from working out of position sidewise, and the shoulders
on the mortised and tenoned piece prevent the brace from slipping down
when the load is applied. (See. B. P. 428.)
joint differs
Bridle Joints.
—A bridle
joint has a notch cut into one timber at
angle, leaving a tongue or cog in the notch,
and the brace timber
is
an
cut
The tongue prevents the brace from
and the shoulder prevents the brace from slipping
out when the load is applied. It is used in heavy framing.
(See B.
to
fit
into the notched timber.
falling out sidewise,
P. 429.)
—
Scarf Joints. A scarf joint is formed where two timbers lap each
other in the direction of the grain, with flush surfaces. This joint is
so constructed as to resist tension and compression. A key is inserted
The joint may be bolted or strapped
used in heavy construction and shipbuilding.
(See
to h"old the timbers firmly together.
with iron.
It is
B. P. 430.)
Splice Joints.
scarf joint, and
—A
its
splice joint is
one constructed similarly to a
functions are the same.
—
(See B. P. 431.)
Bird's Mouth Joints. A bird's mouth joint has a notch cut at an
angle to fit a piece on which it rests. This joint is used in rafter cutting
and is determined by the pitch of the roof. (B. P. 432.)
SHOP WORK
58
SURFACE JOINTS.
Surface Joints.
same plane
—Surface
joints are used to unite pieces lying in the
form large surfaces or frames.
to
These surfaces may be
In most cases these
circular or flat; paneled or lapped as in siding.
joints are
formed by edge-to-edge contact, and in other cases the miter
contact
used.
is
Plain Miter Joints.
—A plain miter
of the beveled ends of the
joint is formed by the junction
two pieces which are secured by glue or nails.
used in picture framing,
It is
etc.
(See B. P. 433.)
Splined Miter Joints.—A splined miter joint is the same as a plain
miter with the exception that it has a slit cut across the end of the miter
and a spline inserted. This prevents ripping and buckling, and therefore, increases the efficiency of the joint. It is used in heavy framing.
(See B. P. 434.)
—A
Stretcher Joints.
stretcher joint is constructed the same as a
One or both sides may be mitered. B. P. 436 shows both
sides mitered.
They are used in making frames for stretching painters'
canvas and lace curtains.
(See B. P. 435 and 436.)
slip joint.
—Edge-to-edge
Edge-to-Edge Joints.
wide surfaces are desired.
mined by their use.
A.
there
A
joints are used
The mode of fastening these
when
large or
joints is deter-
plain butt joint is used in the construction of pieces
is little
strain, as the tops of taborets, tea tables
and
where
articles of
similar nature.
B.
flush.
C.
A
It is
A
rabbeted joint overlaps the edge» with the side remaining
used in sub-floors and boxing of houses and granaries.
spline joint is grooved
inserted to prevent lateral rising.
heavy tops and heavy
on the adjoining sides with a spline
It is used in making water tanks,
floors.
A
tongue-and-groove joint has one edge grooved to admit the
tongue of the other edge. It is used in flooring, ceiling, partitions, etc.
D.
A
doweled joint has holes bored in the uniting pieces at interIf the boards are not
well seasoned this, device prevents cupping at the joint. This method of
joining is used in gluing table tops.
E.
vals along the edges to admit the dowels or pins.
A
F.
dovetail edge joint is similar to the tongue-and-groove joint,
only the tongue-and-groove is dovetailed. It is used in building tops
for benches, doors and patterns for cores.
——
JOINERY
59
A matched and beaded joint is a tongue-and-grooved joint with
G.
the beads. The beads serve the purpose of breaking wide plain surfaces.
This joint is used for wainscoting and ceihng.
H. A lap siding joint is one with the edges overlapping to keep
the water from getting into the cracks. It is used in putting lap siding
on buildings, roofing for cheap sheds and for shingling. (See B. P. 437.)
RESISTING POWER OF WOODS.
—Stress
the force exerted in any direction or manner between contiguous bodies, and taking specific names according to its
direction or mode of action.
Stress.
is
—Stresses
in wood construction may be apTensional stress which pulls in the direction of the grain of the wood, as in a wagon tongue, coupling pole, lifting rod on a windmill, rails, etc. (See Fig. 121.)
a.
Tensional Stress.
plied in three diflferent
ways
:
.^
Fig. 121.
b.
Dikectton of Tensional, Stress.
which
—Compressional
—reducing in length—as in
Compressional Stress.
stress,
in the direction of the grain
posts, supports", etc.
pressure
(See Fig. 122.)
Fig. 122.
c.
is
pillars, studs,
Direction of Compkessionai, Stress.
Transverse Stress.
—Transverse
stress
which
is
applied across
the grain and has a tendency to bend, as in joists, flooring,
Fig. 123.)
Fig. 123.
Direction of Transverse Stress.
etc.
(See
SHOP WORK
60
Computation of Stress.
—
Stresses are generally computed at so
per square inch. The following table gives the average
safe load or allowable working unit stresses, in pounds, per square inch
of some of the common woods.
many pounds
AVERAGE SAFE ALLOWABLE WORKING UNIT STRESSES IN POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH.
Recommended by
the Committee on Strength of Bridge
bers, Association of
and Trestle Tim-
Railway Superintendents of
Bridges and Buildings.
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CONSTRUCTION
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—
CHAPTER
11
CABINET MAKING AS APPLIED IN FURNITURE CONSTRUCTION.
—
Furniture. Any movable equipment for the house, either useful or
ornamental, may properly be called, furniture.
Hence an ordinary
kitchen stool is a piece of furniture just as much as a handsomely finished Chippendale table. The purpose the piece of furniture is intended
to serve and the features needed to portray some historical period in furniture making, determine the design which is characterized and exemplified by the lines, trimmings, workmanship and finish. Often pieces of
furniture are so similar in construction that it is a common practice to
combine the features of two or more in a single article. Such combinations economize floor space and place the price of the one article within
the reach of those who could not afford to buy the two or more if con-
E^G. 124.
Parts of a Piece of Fuenituee.
A, Top; B, Rail; C, Panel; D, Leg or Sup£>ort.
structed separately.
The combination davenport and bed affords the
most common example, while combinations of chairs and tables, chairs
and sewing cabinets and music racks and bookcases are not at all uncommon. All pieces of furniture have legs, rails, panels and tops, although these parts are often modified in shape and proportion so as to
61
SHOP WORK
62
produce the various designs. The rails and legs form the frame of any
piece of cabinet work, while the addition of a top and panels give it
character. In the creation of pleasing patterns, care should be taken
same idea of design is carried out in the entire piece, i. e.,
the leg is curved in its length, or tapers, the rails, top and panels
should be' so fashioned as to harmonize with it. (See Fig, 124.)
to see that the
if
Legs.
—A suitable foundation or support
is
the first thing to be conSince the sup-
sidered in the construction of any piece of furniture.
porting timbers in cabinet work are the legs, they form the real foundaand should be given first attention. The legs of a piece of cabinet
work may be of any length or diameter suitable for the article to be constructed. They may be of such length as to serve as a stile for a panel,
as in the case of a chair, roll top desk, etc. Frequently they are modified to serve as a combination of pretty designs in foot stools.
tion
—
Panel Leg. A, in Fig. 125, illustrates the simplest kind of support.
used for the ends of book-racks, stools, taborets and cellarets, and
is a combination of a leg and a panel.
Many pretty designs are cut in
or built upon it, and sometimes a mould is used in forming a rectangle
on the outside to give a more striking effect. The relief at the bottom
adds stability in that it localizes the weight over rough floors and has a
suggestion of the ancient Egyptian feature ^the claw or foot. This feature may be made even more pronounced by gluing on blocks and shaping them with a hand turning saw. These ends are built into the frame
by the use of screws and nails or by the use of keyed mortise and tenon
It is
—
joints.
—
Mission Style Leg. B, in Fig. 125, is characteristic of the Mission
Its very appearance speaks stability.
The stock for the leg is
either solid, built up or veneered.
If not properly seasoned, the solid
stock is liable to cause trouble after the project is put together If of
hardwood, it makes a very cumbersome structure. The built-up piece is
better than the solid because well seasoned pieces and prettier grain may
be selected. The veneered leg is the best, as it is lighter in weight, is
easier to work, and the veneer will show the same grain on all four sides.
A light bevel should be cut around the bottom of these legs to prevent
splitting in moving them around.
Legs of this type are usually built
into the frame by the use of the mortise and tenon joint.
Style.
—
Modified Mission Style Leg. The leg illustrated by C, in Fig, 125,
a modified form of B. It is usually of solid stock and has a portion
tapered.
Square brass or bronze ferrules at the bottom give a very
is
pleasing
effect.
—
—
CABINET MAKING
63
—
French Leg. D, in Fig. 125, is commonly known as the French
Leg, and should be built only in such patterns as have circular or ellipPatterns using the
tical tops or seats, and swelled or curved rails.
French leg are usually void of panel effects. These legs are of many
proportions and lengths. Carving found its way into these patterns,
since the top swell and foot offered an exceptional opportunity for the
wood carver. Glue, screws, dowel pins and light mortises and tenons
are used in building up the frame of a structure including legs of this
type.
<c=p\
^..^
Ir
z=^
Fig. 125.
Turned and Fluted Leg.
Types of Legs.
—
E, in Fig. 125, is a turned and fluted leg.
kinds of furniture construction, including such forms
as tables, stools, chairs, pedestals, etc. Modifications of this form of leg
are found in the dining room pedestal-table in which the leg is split and
spreads when additional leaves are added to the top.
Glue, screws,
dowel pins and light mortise and tenon joints are used in framing this
into a piece of furniture.
It is
used in
all
—
Back Legs. F, in Fig. 125, is the back leg of a chair, settee, etc.
The upper part serves as a stile for the back panel, the lower part as a
support for the seat. It is made fiat or turned and is built into the frame
by the use of dowels, round tenons, screws, etc. This curved back effect
is typical of those designs introduced in the latter part of the seventeenth
century for the purpose of rest and comfort.
Rails.
—Those parts of
articles
of furniture which connect support-
ing timbers and
a
rule,
stiles
run in a horizontal plane,
There are front,
rails.
are called
D
and which, as
Fig. 126.
Common
Rail.
—
——
SHOP WORK
64
back, top and bottom rails,
Fig. 127.—^Anchoring
all
of
be found in many
modified forms.
The most common type of rails is that shown in
Fig. 126. This rail is either turned
to fit the mortise in the legs, or
doweled, or put on by the use of
screws and draw bolts. It is a common practice to stiffen the joint by
the addition of angle blocks as in
which are
the Rail.
to
Fig. 127.
—
Straight Rails.
Straight rails
legs
match square
and will go well
with turned or turned and fluted
legs if a mould is cut on the Ipwer
outside edge of the rails. Openings
are often cut in the rails to receive
draws, sliding brackets, extension
Fig. 128.
Trimming the Rail.
Curved
Rails.
—Curved
(See Fig. 128.)
leaves, etc.
rails
are used for circular or elliptical
tops, for tables or fronts, for side-
wash stands with
curved fronts, and for backs of
chairs. They are attached to the
boards, dressers,
legs
in the
same manner as the
Swell or French
straight rails.
predominate if curved
used in the frames of the
structures. (See Fig. 129.)
legs usually
rails are
Turned
Rails.
—Turned
Curved Rail (Back op
Fig. 129.
Chair).
rails or spindles are
used in the construc-
tion of stools,
ders, etc.
chairs,
cribs,
lad-
If beads are turned
on
the rungs they should match those
Fig.
130.
on the legs.
Round tenons are
turned on these rails and the rails
are built up or assembled by in-
Turned Rail.
serting the ends into bored holes.
—
(See Fig. 130.)
Chair Arms and Rockers. Rails take many and widely different
forms, but perhaps an arm of a chair and a rocker afford examples of
——
—
—
CABINET MAKING
65
Classi-
the greatest dissimilarity.
fication of rails
cording- to use,
must be made acand as arms and
rockers connect supporting
bers, they are truly rails.
Figs. 131
Fig. 131.
Arm
of a Chair.
and
tim(See
132.)
Fig. 132.
Chair Rocker.
—Stationary
shelving in a magazine stand, if anchored
be called rails; but as a general rule it is classified as
multiple tops, especially if the frame is stiffened by the use of brackets.
Shelving.
may
to the legs,
—
mon
Foot Boards. A very comform of bottom rail or
stretcher, used especially in table
building,
Fig. 133.
Stretcher or Foot Rail.
is
the foot board.
As
a
runs between two cross
rails, and is often anchored with
keyed joints, as in Fig. 138. Other
modifications of this type of foot
board are such forms as the subtop, used for magazines, papers,
rule,
etc.,
it
which
is
built
in
place
by
notching a seat in the leg and then
anchoring it either with a dowel
or screw.
PANELS AND PANEL EFFECTS.
—
is
Panels and Paneling. Paneling
the art of applying useful deco-
rations in cabinet
work by
screen-
ing objects. Panels are found in
doors, wainscoting, stairs, desks
and many other classes of cabinet
work. Panels are of many classes,
Fig. 134.
Panel.
including opaque and transparent
materials, and even just sufficient material to produce a panel effect.
Panels are produced in three ways: By rabbeting, by moulding and
by
batting.
—
—
SHOP WORK
66
Rabbeting.
—By
meant that the
rails
rabbeting
is
and
in
stiles,
case of a door, are grooved enough to
receive the edges of the panel. The
panel itself may be thick, and cut
down on the edge to fit the rabbet, as
in Fig. 135, forming a raised panel,
HV
or
Fig. 135.
Drawer
it
may
be perfectly
flat
and made
of cross laminated veneer, such as is
Rabbeted Panel
used in office desks,
bottoms, in first-class construction work are set in as
panels of this class.
—
Panel Effects. Panel effects (Fig, 136) are produced by the method illustrated in Fig. 135. The slats are nailed together, then cut from
one pattern and slipped into place before the end is finally put together.
The grooves between the slats are filled with scrap pieces made to match
the
rails.
Fig. 136.
—Moulding
Panel Effects.
a method of anchoring or holding the
panel in place, and is a cheaper means of construction than rabbeting;
moreover, it serves a purpose that rabbeting will not permit when
That is, the panel may be removed
once the frame is finished.
Moulding.
is
——
CABINET MAKING
67
any time by
ing
on one
mouldMoulding is a
taking- out the
side.
common way
of putting glass in
windows and doors and in building up the sides of bookcases.
(See Fig. 137.)
—
M
Fig. 137.
Panel Anchored With
Mouldings.
Batting.
Batting is the method of producing a panel effect over
surfaces by stripping boards
flat bats as illustrated in Fig.
138.
This is the method used in
paneling stairways, in constructing
flat
with
built-in
seats,
and
in
producing
pleasing designs on unbroken surfaces.
(See Fig. 138.)
—
rawer
Drawer Fronts. D
fronts produce panel effects and
are therefore classified as panels.
Some are made to appear as raised
panels and others are perfectly flat,
except for the drawer pulls, which
made either of wood or metal
and serve the purpose indicated by
are
their name.
lection of
Fig. 139
drawer
shows a
col-
pulls suitable for
most styles of furniture. The sides
and back should be dadoed to receive the bottom.
The drawer
should slide on dadoed or built-up
cross-rails as guides, the flange on
the front of the drawer serving as a
stop.
If the drawer front is flush
with the face of the rail, glue
blocks or stops are placed on the
rails at the
end of the drawer
to
prevent the drawer from sliding in
Fig. 139.
—
Drawer Fronts.
too far.
TOPS AND MODIFIED FORMS.
Tops. Tops, in their many forms, afford convenient places for
writing, sitting, laying books, etc.
They are made in shapes to har-
—
SHOP WORK
68
monize with the rest of the pieces of furniture, and, as a rule, are the
most prominent. They are constructed of selected wood, the grain of
which is often matched to form beautiful figures. Solid stock, built
edge-to-edge, is the general plan of construction followed, but, in the
more expensive tables and other articles of furniture, the tops are laminated and finished with a selected veneer both on the top and edges.
Laminated pieces are lighter than solid stock and have but little tendency to warp. Great care should be exercised in the selection of the
If the best results are desired, the stock should be
stock for a top.
thoroughly dry and of a similar grain, i. e., of a uniform texture and
similar color. It will be necessary, in many cases, to rip off the sapwood
in order to produce a uniform color, and to use narrow stock in quar-
FiG. 140.
Gluing, Showing Use of Clkats,
Hand Screws and Clamps.
wood in order to produce a uniform flake. (See Fig. 140.) The
in Fig. 140,
building of a top should be carefully done. The edges,
must be perfectly straight and square in order to afford a perfect joint.
This joint is usually put together with dowels, B in Fig. 140^ the dpw
tered
A
—
—
CABINET MAKING
69
els serving as guides to keep the boards in alignment.
Glue should be
brushed on the dowels and edges much in the same fashion as a coatof paint is brushed on boards. The boards E to be glued may be pulled
together lightly at first, then the cross-cleats D may be added and
clamped in place with the hand-screws C which prevent the boards from
buckling.
Then pressure may be applied by the use of carpenter's
clamps, F, equally distributed along the edge, but blocks should face the
iron jaws in order to prevent scarring or bruising the edges. Gluing of
large flat pieces is usually done on saw horses, or trestles, G.
Another method of building
up
the
solid tops is to joint carefully
edges
dovetail
and plow a wedge
joint.
This
was
for-
merly done by machinery, but
tools which will do this rapidly
Fig. 141.
Wedge Dovetail Joint.
and accurately by hand are on
the market. The dovetail tenon
is driven home.
The parts form their own clamps while drying. Cleats
to hold them straight should be placed at each end. All glue work should
set for twenty-four hours before the clamps are removed.
Cleating.
—
It
often
is
neces-
sary to reinforce wide pieces in order to prevent warping. This is
done by cleating. Three m.ethods
are employed, namely, common
cleating,
cleating.
core cleating and spline
A, in Fig.
142,
shows
method commonly used in
rough or hidden work. A stiif strip
of wood is dressed, beveled and put
on by the use of nails or screws.
B, in Fig. 142, illustrates a method
the
ised in the
making
Fig. 142.
Cleats.
of cores for ve-
leered doors, tops,
etc.
The
cor-
lers are mitered, leaving a finished
edge
all
the
way around
glue and screws.
the piece. These strips are put on by the use of
shows the common method used in
C, in Fig. 142,
They are usually made by feeding
saw and then cutting a spline to match.
cleating thin doors, sliding leaves, etc.
the end of the door into a circle
——
SHOP WORK
70
Edging.
—Adding
strips,
by
gluing them on the edge of the bottom or cutting a base mould on the
edgej'^will give to pieces such as
tops, etc., the
appearance of thick-
ness.
Surfacing.
— Surfacing
means
the act of reducing the stock so
that every point in the surface will
lie
Fig. 143.
Trimming the Top.
in a regular plane, so
it
will
be
smooth, true and free from deSurfacing is done by running the glued-up stock through
fects.
sometimes it is worked
it to a definite thickness
The latter process is primarily to free the piece of glue
streaks.
The surface should then be planed with a jack plane diagonally across (with the grain), until the surface is flat and free from
wind. Then it should be dressed, with the grain, with a smoothing plane, leaving the surface smooth and true. Torn spots are likely
to show up after the smoothing plane is used. These places should be
the planer and sizing
;
by hand.
carefully scraped until
all
the ragged fibers disappear.
.
—
Forms of Tops. There are many forms of tops, so modified from
the usual form that they assume diif erent names. The lamp shade offers
a suggestion. The surface is raised, and designs are cut into the sides,
The width of the sides may be
as rafters, and the corner is the same as
permitting the light to shine through.
figured
from the run and
rise,
a hip rafter, described under the
"Steel Square", Chapter I, Part
III.
Ribs are sometimes used
at the comers, into which the
sides are paneled.
Fig. 144.
L.amp Shade.
Cross-plied
chair
bottoms,
glued into comfortable forms, make
another diversion from the flat top.
Shelving, though often used as
rails, is a series of tops usually
called multiple tops.
(See Fig.
144.)
—
CABINET MAKING
71
ASSEMBLING.
Assembling.
—The assembling of a piece of furniture
up of the frame and parts necessary for
is
the building
Of course the
trimmings, such as mouldings, glass, hinges, locks and drawer pulls, are
All the pieces for the frame
the final touches before it is finished.
should be properly proportioned, surfaced and tested to be sure they
will fit together so that no trouble will be experienced after the glue
Ends of such pieces as taborets, foot-stools, settees,
is once spread.
completion.
its
davenports, tables, dressers, sideshould be built up
etc.,
first.
All panels should be set and
the tenons driven home in a coat of
boards,
Clamps, such as the carhandscrews, and screw
glue.
penter's
clamps suitable for this work may
be used. Care should be taken to
keep the piece square and out of
wind. These ends may be connected by rails, and clamped in the
same maimer as the ends. This
forms the frame of the structure,
to which the top, shelving, drawers
and doors may be added.
The
doors are only swinging panels and
may be hung on hinges any time
after the frame is assembled. All
shelving should be put in as soon
as possible in order to help stiffen
the frame. The top may be added
any time after the frame is set,
although it is often deferred long
enough
to build in shelving,
drawer
slides, partition panels, etc.
Laying Tops.
in
many
most
—Tops are put on
vfays, but usually in a
suitable to the pattern.
way
As a
rule, the edges of the top overhang
the rails, forming a cornice effect.
Fig. 145 presents several methods.
FiG. 145.
Methods of Laying on the
Top.
A
illustrates a common method of
seating the top on the rails, allow-
—
SHOP WORK
72
The tops of the
it in between the legs.
capped with a piece to match the grain of
These caps are made with rounded or beveled edges.
the table.
B shows a more common way of laying on a top. It has a pleasing
appearance and permits the anchoring of the top, leaving the surface
ing
an overhang and cutting
Legs, if of solid stock, are
unbroken.
top
top
C shows the corner of a table, using the French leg. D is a sub-'
and is joined to the legs by the use of dowel pins.
E shows a method commonly used in cheap chairs, stools, etc. The
of the legs have round tenons and are glued in holes bored in the
bottom of the seat.
Anchoring the top to the frame
The top must
is a particular job.
be so placed that the edges are parallel to the rails with equal projection on sides and ends, and it must be touching all along the rails to
which it is to be fastened.
Fig. 146 illustrates a very neat
way
of putting on the top with
screws.
It is easier, too, if
the top
and frame are turned upside down
and the two clamped together. The
rail, G, should have recesses cut as
at A, with either a Fostner bit or
.
FiG. 146.
Anchoring thk Top.
with a gouge, forming a seat, B,
for the head of the screw, D. Holes
may be bored for the shank, C, of
the screw, and a smaller hole
started into the table top.
The
upper edge of the rail should be
coated with glue and then the
screws driven home. Angle blocks, F, may be glued in the angle formed
by the rail and top, E. These will stiffen the rails.
After the piece is entirely assembled it should be gone over care-
removing any surface glue and touching up any bruised or
scratched places that may have been made in the assembling. This
should leave the piece ready for finishing.
fully,
PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Designs.
—The
designs in cabinet
work are
usually optional, but
one should remember that a large piece of work is not necessarily the
text of good workmanship. The first step to take is to select the piece
of furniture you want, i. e., a foot-stool, taboret, etc. Sketch, or show
your cut to the instructor in charge, and if he approves, make a work-
CABINET MAKING
73
ing drawing of the piece also write out the specifications, setting forth
the kind of wood to be used, how constructed, kind of hardware to be
used, the kind of finish, how many coats of the various materials, how
each coat is to be applied and worked. The complete plans and specifications should be gone over carefully with the instructor before the
work is started. No change in the plans and specifications should be
permitted 'after the work is once started, unless it is approved by the
instructor, and the waste, if any, paid for by the student.
;
—
Ascertaining Cost To make out the lumber bill, classify the like
materials, starting with the heaviest pieces first. That is, if there are
four pieces 3 inches square and 20 inches long, also other sizes, with
more than one
piece of each size, group the bill so that it may be easily
computed by combining the lengths of pieces of the same width and
thickness, so as to eliminate as much waste as possible. Read over the
wood finishes carefully, selecting just what you want. Class talks
should be given on the cost of this material *o that you will be able to
make
a conservative estimate as to the cost of the finished project. Figure the cost of the lumber, add the cost of the finish and hardware, allowing for any waste, and this should total the cost of the material for
the piece.
—
Specimen Bill. The following specimen statement of materials,
construction, hardware, finish and cost is recommended, and should be
attached to the working drawing of the pieces.
STATEMENT OF MATERIALS AND COST OF LIBRARY TABLE.
—
Material
All
wood
to be kiln dried quartered red oak.
Legs— One
Top—One
And
of 3''x3"xl0', at 12c
I''xl2''xl0', at 12c
$ .90
1.20
strips for thickness.
Rails and slats I''xl0''x6', at 12c
Stretcher, Ii''xl0''x3i', at 15c
Drawer, ^''xl2"x28'', at 7c
.60
.66
.15
$3.51
The frame is to be put together with mortise and tenon joints,
properly glued and doweled. The top is to be doweled and glued. Cleats,
adding thickness, are to be screwed on the sides and ends. End grain
SHOP WORK
74
show on the ends. The top is to be put on with screws, toed in
through the inside of the rails, and glue blocks added.
miist
Screws, nails and glue
.15
—
Finish
Light golden oak (dull gloss), one coat of stain, one coat
of paste filler to match stain, two light coats of white
shellac, each to be sanded down, two coats of wax.
Estimate cost
Estimate material
Time
to construct
.90
$4.56
bill
:
hours
SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDENTS
The following pages present a series of projects arranged in the
proper sequence with respect to the intricacy of the plans and to the
complexity of the joints involved. The construction of these projects
will afford practical application of the fundamentals presented in the
subject-matter of the text. Line drawings with dimensions only are
given, it being intended that the teacher exercise independence of
thought in arranging his course. At the same time the student is given
no aid which will rob him of his own initiative in making working
drawings, in making up his bills of material and in estimating the cost of
construction of the projects.
PLATE
I
Sled
Suggestions Foe Children,
<
Oh
PLATE IV
blackincf
3 aw
C^a^se
and Jtool
Horse
30
Chicken Feeder
^o
Top IZXJZ
_
Base IZtlZ
Top IZXJZ
Base
Waste Paper Baskets
Essentials For the Fakm, Yard and Home.
id'xiO^
<
Ah
PLATE VI
n\
4
Shaving Mirror
Top
IZ
X IZ
Top
Heijht Z4"
iz"x IZ
Heijht Z4"
Top si" Dia
Height 24"
Glasses
Top 10X14
Heijht 24
6"XI0''& 8")^I0"
W
HI
Odd Pieces For the Den and Bath Room.
"v.
w
-
^
PLATE
Top 10X10
Base
/o"x/0
Top IZXIZ
Top I0"XI0
Base
Base
IZ'XIZ'
IZXIZ
Pedestals
\
Porch Swing
-^^
Pedestals and Poech Swing.
VIII
PLATE IX
Booh and na^Qzine Racks
LiBRAEY FUENITUEE.
PLATE X
14X14 Base
S7 Hioh
19^2
Base
67"Hijh
fJ K/3" Base
sr" Hijh
Lamp Standards.
PLATE XI
I
Z" Base
/¥sq. Col.
5-7"Hijh
14
Base
IZ
6'Hijh
Base
Z'scj.
Col.
5'Hijh
10
Base
1%' sq.CoL
S'
14
Hi^h.
Base
6'Hijh
Hall Trees.
PLATE
IZ
Base
6'
Height
12X14 Base
s'e" Heiohi
Table Lamps and IIaxl Tkees.
XII
<
PLATE XIV
^
Top
I0"XI0^^
tie/jht
Top
IS
X
Z4i'
18
Height 30
Top
16
XZ2
Height JO"
Top IS'XJS
Height 50"
Telephone Stands.
PLATE XV
Z3 XZ3
19X19
Chairs For the Living Boom.
PLATE XVI
/j-^
;<
I5hy.i5^4
15^4
DO
fr ^
15
XI5
CO
10X10
Adjuncts of
tpie
Hall.
PLATE XVII
Dining TtooM Pieckr.
PLATE
XVIII
Medicine Cabinet
5"kI5"xI3"
Glass /£"XI4"
^
b
18
Medicine Cabinet
s"xzo"xz9"
Panel
Heijht
Glass
ejf
Bath Room
Accessories.
IZ"xi4"
X
X
<
H
Ah
PLATE XXII
Bedstead
^1
4-6 X6-6
.11
^11
4>
3^
Chiffonier
I8"XJ0"
Stand
I6"X25"
\Mash
Bed Room Furnittjee.
PLATE
XXIII
18
X35
39" hijh
35" Hijh
Z0''X4Z"
Zl
X50
45"Hi^h
15
x48
54" Hi oh
Dining Room Fubnituke,
PLATE XXIV
rioor
or
Walk
Forms
Grade
Forms
For Concrete
Fence
Posts
Cement Construction,
PLATE XXV
Cross
in
Cement Construction.
Section
Mould
;
CHAPTER
III
CARPENTRY
There are many things of
even in the simplest house
or even a single operation, in detail, is
beyond the scope of this text. But to present carpentry general woodwork as applied to house construction so that the student may be able
to plan, estimate and construct, as well as to talk intelligently of genconstruction.
To describe
vital interest
all,
—
—
eral construction, is the purpose of this chapter.
.
House Planning.
parts that go to
—To plan a house, one must be familiar with the
make up
a house.
to afford the greatest convenience
;
The rooms should be so arranged as
the stairways and chimneys located
the plumbing, heating and electric wiring given due consideration; the
porches, steps, doors and windows arranged in their proper order and,
in fact, the whole house should be planned to be healthful and con;
and its general appearance pleasing. These ideas, sketched
upon paper, become plans, and the written descriptions of materials,
details, etc., are the specifications, which are, in turn, the working instruments in the hands of the builder.
venient,
Estimate of Cost.—To be able to estimate the cost of building, one
to read a blue print or working drawing and to interpret the specifications accurately; to make out a conservative lumber
bill; to estimate the labor necessary for the construction; and to total
the sub-contractor's bids on painting, plastering, plumbing, etc., not
overlooking a single item necessary for the completion of the building.
It is a common practice for contractors to let out
sub-contract different parts of the work as the masonry, plastering, etc., and to accept
bids on the work as part of the estimate for the construction of the
must know how
—
—
house.
—To
Procedure.
one must be able
according to the
firmly anchored.
is complicated in
insure durability in the construction of a house,
and other materials
plans and specifications so that they are rigidly and
The order of procedure in the construction of a house
to distribute the timbers, boards
that there are times when it is necessary for masons,
carpenters, electricians, plumbers and steamfitters to be working at one
time, i. e., when the framing of the house has reached a stage most
75
SHOP WORK
76
convenient for these various parts to be installed. However, by a little
ingenuity on the part of the contractor or building superintendent, the
work of each may progress without interfering with the work of others.
—
Staking Out for Foundation. A very good start toward the erecis to be sure that the front of the house is parallel with
tion of a house
o_
Fig. 147a.
Squaring tee Foundation.
the street or highway on which it is located. In laying out the foundation of a house, begin by establishing the location of one corner of the
proposed building at the proper distance from the street. Mark this
VA.
Fig. 147b.
Squaring the Foundation.
location by driving a stake. To this stake attach a line and run it past
the next corner of the building and parallel with the street. Run a line
back from the street from the first corner. A, in Fig. 147a, at right
CARPENTRY
77
AB. To do this, measure 6 feet from A on AB and 8
Swing the line AC at C until the distance between
This makes the front corner at A square. The
is 10 feet.
E
other corners at B, C and D may be squared in the same way. Fig. 147b
shows the same method except that the lines are fastened securely to
batter boards. A cloth measuring tape is held with the zero mark at A,
angles to the line
from
and F
feet
A
on AC.
Measure out 3 yards to the
out 9 additional yards of tape. While holding the tape
at a point 5 yards from B secure the 9-yard mark at A. Draw the tape
taut and a right triangle will be formed the sides of which are 3 yards,
4 yards and 5 yards, respectively. With this completed it will be a simthe point of intersection of the two lines.
point
B and
let
ple task to establish the lines square with each other.
A
method
of
squaring the corners by the use of a steel tape is to describe an arc, RS,
with C as the center and the width of the building as the radius; describe a second arc, OP, intersecting the arc, RS, with B as the center
and the length of the building as the radius. The intersection of the
two arcs at D locate the back corner of the house with the walls, DB
and DC, square to BA and CA, respectively. The lines should be run
for all outside and inside walls, cellar excavation, footing, etc.
EXCAVATION y^ND FOUNDATION.
Excavation.
—The excavation for the masonry work should be made
deep enough to give a firm foundation, the depth depending upon the
character of the soil. It is a common practice to make the trenches
-much wider than the thickness of the walls for the purpose of establishing a footing that will assist in distributing the weight of the structure over a greater surface. This arrangement retards the settling of
the building which is quite common, especially in rainy weather.
Foundation.
sists
and
able
D,
wall,
footing
—A foundation con-
two parts:
of
is
in
usually
concrete
Footing,
C,
The
Fig.
148.
made
of a suit-
mixture;
the
wall
made of stone, brick or
cement blocks. The walls should be
is
generally
plumb, and the top surfaces of those
of the same height should lie in the
plane.
properly
same
Vents,
screened, should be constructed in
Fig. 148.—Cross Section of a Foundation the Walls for the purpose of giving a
A B, Gronnci Level c, Footing D, Wall free circulation of air. These vents
are usually placed near the top of
—
SHOP WORK
78
the foundation in opposite walls. If there is no basement, one opening
should be left usually under a porch in order that the plumbing or
wiring may be changed without the necessity of cutting into the finished
foundation.
—
—
FOUNDATION FRAME.
Plates.
They
—
Plates, B, in Fig. 149, serve as the footing for the joists.
directly on the foundation
and should be set in green, unset
mortar.
The snug articulation thus secured serves as a protection
against cold winds. Good, straight, sound planks should be selected for
the plates and they should be spiked securely to the sills.
lie
Sills.—HYiQ
Fig.
in
sills,
hold
149,
joists in position
C,
the
and help
to carry the load of the
outside walls. They, too,
should
planks.
be
of
selected
The end joists
become sills. The kind of
construction
as
illus-
150 and
determines
trated in Fig.
Fig.
149,
whether the sill will form
a "T" with the plate (Tsill), or whether it will
be the shape of a box
Fig. 149.
Foundation FSame.
A— Foundation
B —foundation plate
C—
sill
D —lower
—stud
F—
E
^pier
plate
(Box
G
Sill.)
—beam
—bridging
H—joist
I
The T-sill
(box-sill).
makes a stronger construction than the boxsill
tle
but the frame is a
harder to raise.
lit-
—
The timbers which have their bearing upon the foundation
and upon which the flooring is nailed, are called joists, H, in Fig.
149. The stiffness of the floors will depend largely on the dimensions
and spacing of the joists and the length of the span. "Lower joists are
spaced either 16 or 24 inches from center to center. All joists, studs
and rafters that are to be plastered over are spaced 16 inches from
Joists.
plates
center to center.
—
Beams. It is often necessary to support the ends of joists, over an
excavation, broken foundation, etc., by the use of a beam, G, in Fig. 149.
The beams are supported in turn by piers, F, in Fig. 149. Sometimes,
CARPENTRY
79
where they are
beams are secured by additional support.
in the case of a long span of the joists,
loads,
to carry
heavy
—
Bridging. To prevent the joists from buckling, and to assist in distributing the load, bridging, I, in Fig. 149, is nailed into place, between
the joists.
FRAME OF HOUSE.
Studs.
—The
studs, F, in Fig. 150,
when
erected, serve as the
frame
Studs for the outStuds are divided into three classes
The
side walls, studs for partitions, and studs for bearing partitions.
length of the studs forming the Outside walls is determined by the
height of the ceilings, and the thickness of the second story joists. Studs
for the outside walls are spaced 16 inches apart, and nailed in place by
means of a lower plate, D, in Fig. 149, at the bottom, and a similar plate,
The upper plate is usually doubled,
called the upper plate, at the top.
as it is the main bearing support for the roof. In case of a second story,
a ribbon, G, in Fig. 150, usually l"x4", is set in the inside edge^ of the
studs, on the side walls, in order to afford a suitable footing for the
second story joists. The ends of the upper joists are nailed directly
to the studs. This stiffens the frame greatly and affords a nailing place
for the flooring. Openings, K, in Fig. 150, are cut in the frame for all
main entrances and windows, the sizes depending upon the size of the
windows and doors to be set in. After the outside walls are raised,
nailed in place, and plumbed, they should be securely braced by nailing
strips of wood diagonally across the walls on the inside. These braces
may be removed after the boxing is nailed on. Over the outside walls,
boxing, building paper and siding are nailed.
The inside walls are
lathed and plastered. Bearing partitions serve as partitions and at the
same time carry the load of the second story joists. Partition studding
carry no load, as the walls run parallel to the run. of the upper joists.
They serve as room divisions only. Openings are cut in all inside partitions. Inside walls are lathed and plastered on both sides.
of the house.
:
—The
may be laid when the
Floor lining or sub-floor lining, as it
is sometimes called, is a layer of boards, usually boxing material, laid
on diagonally across the entire building. This makes the house much
The bearing partitions may be laid over this substiffer and warmer.
floor and the second story joists nailed in place. These joists should be
spaced sixteen inches on center, the outside ends resting on the ribbon
and spiked to the studs the inside ends resting on the bearing partition
and spiked to the joist coming from the opposite wall. Care should be
Floor Lining.
floor lining, E, Fig. 150,
structure has reached this stage.
;
—
SHOP WORK
Fig. 150.
A—foundation
B —foundation
dow
of
House (With
—
G—
H—upper
—corner post
E
F— stud
floor lining
plate
C— sill
D —^trimmer
Feame
^I'ibbon
sill
for win-
opening-
joists
I
T-Sill).
—end upper joist
L—Slower joist
M—boxing
J
K— opening
;
CARPENTRY
81
taken to see that the walls are left absolutely straight. If the bearings
of the upper story joists are far apart, it is advisable to cut in bridging
between the joists before nailing on the floor lining. The bearing parti-
on the second floor may be raised in the same manner as those on
the first floor; then the ceiling joists are properly spaced and nailed in
place, allowing a projection over the walls for the cornice.
tions
—Boxing, M,
in Fig. 150, of rough boards, usually l"xl2",
on the outside of the frame when the building has reached
There are many ways of laying on boxing
this stage of construction.
but perhaps the method most common is that of running it diagonally
Boxing.
may be nailed
from the
corners.
CORNICE.
Cornice.
of
shown
ing
:
—The
following
the
in Fig. 151
Plancia,
F
;
cornice
consists
which are
parts,
by proper
frieze,
H
;
letter-
facia,
E
G; and the crown moulding, D.
These parts are run around the house
in hip roofs and along the sides, and
bed,
short returns on the ends, in gable
end roofs. The plancia may be made
of a single 'board, or
of
it
matched boards, as
may
be built
ceiling, floor-
It is nailed directly to the
projecting ceiling joists, all of which,
should be of the same length and in
The frieze is usually a
alignment.
ing, etc.
Fig. 151.-
wide board, although a double frieze
is sometimes used, and is nailed to
the boxing^ with its upper edge
The moulding cut in the angle formed by the
against the plancia.
Moulding gives a finfrieze
is called the bed mould.
plancia and the
usually
a single board,
facia
is
The
cornice.
ished appearance to the
the
edge of the
also
to
and
joists
nailed to the ends of the projecting
crown
mould
finish,
a
and,
as
a
plancia. The shingles overhang the facia,
Sometimes
shingles.
the
is cut in the angle formed by the facia and
guttering is substituted for mould.
FRAMING OF THE ROOF.
Classification of Roofs.
—Roofs may be
The three most common and
roof,
and the gambrel
roof.
classified
according to shape.
distinct classes are the hip roof, gable end
The
difference is entirely in the design of
—
SHOP WORK
82
the roof, and different roofs therefore require different framing of the
timbers necessary for the construction.
These timbers are rafters,
The timbers are finished over with
ridge, collar beams and braces.
sheathing, shingles and comb boards (see Fig. 152) to make the finished
roof.
Fig. 152.
Roof Fokms.
(1)
Hip Roof;
(2)
Gambeel;
(3)
Gable.
—
Rafters. The pitch of the roof, run and length of rafters, plumb
and heel cuts are described under the "Steel Square" in Part
III, but it will be well to observe that it is not necessary to place the
rafters 16 inches on center unless they are to be plastered over.
As
sheathing cuts to advantage on even
rafters at 24 inches
and as
it
will be necessary for the rafters.
M,
A
be well to space the
be readily seen that a footing
This is made by nailing a ribbon,
feet, it will
will
in Fig. 151, to the top of the projecting joists, J, in Fig.
hook or shoulder at the heel cut of the rafters
will assist
151.
mate^
rially in raising the rafters in place, as the rafters are usually nailed at
the plumb cut first, and then raised in pairs. The shoulder will prevent
the rafters from slipping over the ribbon. Sometimes the rafters are
tied together by nailing a board across. These boards are called collar
beams. A, in Fig. 152. Collar beams prevent the roof from spreading
and braces, B, in Fig. 152, prevent the roof from sagging in the center.
Sheathing.
—Sheathing, B, in Fig. 151,
ties all
the rafters together
and serves as a base for the shingles. The better grade of houses have
the sheathing water tight; but, as a general rule, narrow strips, l''x4'%
are nailed on, leaving a space between the strips equal to the width of
the strips. In the latter case, the estimate for the board feet necessary
for the sheathing is equal to one-half the square feet in the roof surface.
—
Shingling.
Too much care in the shingling, C, in Fig. 151, of a
house is almost impossible, as the shingles must stand the brunt of the
weather. Shingles are easier to put on when damp, but if they are put
on when dry they should be laid with some space between them to prevent buckling when they expand on getting wet. Shingles are laid on in
CARPENTRY
SI
straight rows, commencing at the bottom with a double row, and breaking joints, exposing a part of the shingle to the weather. Usually four
and one-half inches of the shingle is exposed on roofs, and more is
exposed on the sides of the house if the specifications call for shingles
on the outside walls. It will take nine hundred shingles laid four and
one-half inches to the weather to cover one square. A square is the
term or unit of measure used in determining the quantity of shingles
necessary for a roof and contains one hundred square feet.
Three
pounds of shingle nails will lay one thousand shingles.
—
Comb-Boards. Comb-boards serve as a divide; they also tie
the last few rows of shingles and prevent leakage at the ridge.
down
The house is now entirely enclosed, openings are cut, partitions set
the plumbers have run their stacks, vents, water and gas lines; the
electricians have placed their wires
;
for lights and bells, and put in their
may
switches; and the lather
started his
work for the
have
plasterer.
The carpenters may now cut in the
make frames and jambs
and get out the material for the stairflue stands,
ways.
FRAMES AND JAMBS.
Windoiv and Door Frames. Outside window and door frames are
—
alike in many respects.
Several of
the parts are similar and have similar names; the frames are set in
openings in the same manner, and
neither is trimmed until the plastering is done.
Window
frames
Frames.
consist
header, sub-sill,
A— stud
B —^lath and
Fig. 153.
-Ckoss Section of a
Frame,
Window
—glass
G
H— check
I
sill,
rail
—window
stool
i
nd
o
w
stiles,
outside casing,
—apron
K— head
(in-
laead.
—W
pulleys,
J
plaster
—
casing
side)
D—opening header
E —window stop
F—^parting stop
C
of
casing (out-
side)
—casing
L
M—blind
N—
—
—
—
(outside)
stop
sill
O sub-sill
P trimmer
Q siding
sill
:
SHOP WORK
84
In the more expensive houses a weight box is
This frame is properly set in an opening
blind and parting stops.
built as part of the frame.
and afterwards trimmed with inside casing, window stool, apron and
The sashes are fitted and hung on weights, but
inside
stop.
care should be taken to hang the upper sash on weights heavier than
may
be held in place. Pulley stiles are the sides of the
is dadoed into the stiles at the top and the subThe sub-sill serves as a footing for the outside
sill at the bottom.
The sill/ serves as a seat for the sash.
casing, also as a water table.
The blind stop is nailed to the edge of the stiles, and the outside casing
This offset is a seat for the
over the blind stop, leaving an offset.
The parting stop, together with the blind and winblinds, or screens.
dow stop, serve as guides for the sash. The parting stop is rabbeted
into the pulley stiles. In this shape the frame is set in the openThe inside trim
ing, the outside casing being nailed into the boxing.
is added to give, a pleasing appearance and to cover the rough edges
of the plaster.
itself so
that
frame.
The header
it
—
Door Frames. Outside door frames have only the stiles and sill.
The frame is trimmed with inside casing and threshold, and the door is
then properly hung.
—
Jambs. Jambs are inside frames for doors,
stiles and header the trim is added later.
They have only the
;
—
Grounds are gauges for plastering. They are strips of
usually three-fourths of an inch thick, nailed on the inside edge
of the frames, on both edges of the
Grounds.
wood
jambs,
and
frequently
across
the
studding, at the base, as a straight
edge for the plasterer to work to.
—
Corner Strips. Comer strips or
corner casings are nailed on the corners to afford a stop against which
the siding may be butted,
(See Fig.
153.)
Siding is of two classes
siding and drop siding. Lap sid-
ing
is
and
is
Siding.
Fig.
154.— Siding.
A— drop
B— building paper
c—lap
siding
D—boxing
—
Lap
tapering in its cross-section,
put on by lapping the bottom
edge of one board over the top edge
Drop siding is milled so
that the joint will turn water. Sidof another.
CARPENTRY
85
ing is nailed to the boxing over building paper, and is cut between casings and corner strips. It is the outside finish and should be of selected
material. All siding should be on before the plastering is started.
Base.
—The
base F,
in Fig. 155, is a protec-
tion to the plastering
and
should be nailed to the
through the
studding
the finbefore
plastering
ished flooring is put on.
The
central
location
of
be
should
all
marked with short lines
on the floor-lining, and
the
to
perpendicular
studs
walls, before the plaster-
completed. There
will then be no difficulty
Fig. 155. Laying the Floor.
in nailing on the base.
A stud
be
should
Allowance
made for the thickness of
the flooring, and a moulding-base-shoe is cut in
the angle formed by the
base and the floor.
Floor.
In laying the floor, H, in Fig. 155, extreme care should be
taken to drive all joints up tight with a block, to prevent br using, and
to see that all boards are nailed down. Flooring is often finished after
it is nailed in place by planing and then scraping.
ing
is
—
—
—
STAIR BUILDING.
—The
points to be determined in building stairs are
approximate pitch, complete rise of stairs, complete run of stairs, the.
well-hole, and head clearance. The parts which make up the stairs are
the stair horses,
risers, B treads, C ; skirting boards, D, E platform,
Stairs.
A
F newel
;
posts,
G
first
;
;
;
The stairway must be
built
;
H
shown in Fig. 156.
as part of the house, and the pitch of the
handrails,
;
and
spindles,
I,
as
depend largely on the height of the second floor above the
first floor, together with the run of the stairs, or that distance from the
In many
first riser to a plumb line dropped from the point of landing
cases the stairways are made winding or are cut into the ceiling of the
stairs will
next room in order to obtain a suitable pitch.
:
S6
SHOP WORK
Fig.
A—stair horses
B —riser
C
(back)
F—platform
G—^uewel post
—tread
D—^skirting
^
156.— Stairs.
E— skirting board
board (front)
H—liand
rail
—spindle
—base
K—corner of room
L—^mitered riser cut
M—moulding
I
J
Pitch.—Pitch is the degree of incline, based
upon the height of the
and the width of the tread. Note the following
table
riser
Very steep pitch
Steep pitch
Medium
Low
pitch
pitch
Riser
12 inches
7 inches
7 inches
61 inches
Tread
4 inches
7 inches
10 inches
11 inches
CARPENTRY
87
Risers.— Suwose that the height from the floor-hning on the
first
second story is just nine feet, four
seven inches is desired. It will
of
about
riser
(9'
4'0
that
a
and
inches
risers of seven inches each.
sixteen
will
be
there
readily be seen that
of risers. Why? If a
number
the
than
tread
There will be one less
of 10 inches each
treads
take
15
will
it
tread of 10 inches is to be used,
or 12^ feet for the run of the sleepers.
Distance between floors divided by width of riser equals number of
floor to the finished floor of the
risers.
Number
of risers,
minus
run of
one, times width of tread, equals
stairs.
Counting the landing as the sixteenth tread, in this case, the rise
of sixteen risers and the run of sixteen treads forms a right angled
the exact length of the sleepers, or
tongue
as they are sometimes called, stair-horses. The pitch—7 on the
and 10 on the blade of the square— of the stairs will give the plumb
heel cuts of the sleepers as well as the cuts for the risers and treads
triangle, the diagonal of
which
is
and
applied in their order.
pitch
and
nail
them
It is
a common practice
to cut blocks the
to dimension stock, for sleepers.
should be exactly alike and in perfect alignment
when
The
proper
sleepers
in place.
—
Landing. In case of a landing, extreme care should be taken to
for the
get the landing anchored so the risers will be the same height
run.
upper run as for the lower
and Skirting Boards.—The sleepers carry the load,
skirting
but on good stairs they are encased by risers, treads, and
only
boards. The front skirting board faces the front sleeper. The
Risers, Treads
that the skirting board is of one inch stock
and the riser cut mitered. The back skirting board serves as a base.
The risers are next in order. They are mitred across the end to fit the
The
skirting (front) board and nailed to the face of the sleepers.
to
order
in
sleepers
the
of
cut
the
than
wider
treads should be a little
skirting
front
The
sleepers.
the
to
nailed
give an overhang. They are
small
board and the risers are nailed to them from underneath. A
and
front
the
both
on
overhang
the
moulding is often cut in the angle of
effect.
pleasing
end of the treads. This gives a very
Newel Posts, Hand Rails and Spindles.—'Newel posts, hand rails,
and spindles are the last pieces to be built in before the stairs are comThey serve as a
pleted and ready to be turned over to the finisher.
difference between
them
is
of
fence and are always run around open well-holes as well as the face
hollow.
a stairway. The newel posts are usually built up
SHOP WORK
88
—The well hole
the opening in the upper joist cut to
After the well-hole is cut and the
sleepers are in place, the plastering is done before any finished (surfaced) lumber is nailed in place. This protects the finish from the plas-
Well Hole.
make head room
is
for the stairway.
ter stains.
—
Porehes. The parts which make up a porch are joists, flooring,
columns, ceiling joist, ceiling, cornice, rafters, sheathing, shingles, box
and steps. These parts are built into the porch as they are into the main
part of the house; only the column and box are extra items. It mighj
be well to add that the porch floor should drop about one-fourth of an
inch to the foot for drainage, and the flooring should be laid in oil or
some other good wood preservative. The columns are the timbers that
support the roof. Over the tops of the columns is built a U-shaped box
which serves as a plate for the upper joist. It distributes the load of
the roof to the various columns.
—Scaffolding
used to render the various parts of the
work accessible. It is used to stand on, and consists of a few boards
laid across saw-horses, a long, narrow plank swung from the roof, or
boards laid across supports which are in turn nailed at one end to corners, openings or blocks, and at the other end to light dimension stock.
Scaffolding.
—
is
Snapping Lines. No other line of work offers a better field for the
use of snapping lines than carpentry. A line is chalked by drawing it
across a piece of colored chalk, held and turned in the hand, and it is
then stretched over the desired place to be marked. By holding the ends
to the surface and then pulling the center back in a line perpendicular
to the surface and letting it "snap," the chalk will form a straight line.
Chalked lines are used in laying shingles, cutting off lookouts, cutting
off upper joist for the cornice, and in trimming porch floors.
—
—
—
CHAPTER
—
IV
BEADS AND MOULDINGS
Beads.
—Beads and mouldings are used for decorative rather than
constructional purposes.
It is the
function of beads to conceal cracks
by their shadows and break the
large smooth surfaces on stock
used
wainscoting, ceiling,
not practicable to use
glued joints on wide surfaces, as
Beads.
Fig. 157.
the swelling and shrinking is so
great that it is better, when
joining the boards, to tongue and groove them and use the bead to hide
the crack, as in Fig. 157.
etc.
for
It is
Mouldings.—Mouldings, which are larger
and more complex than beads, give light and
shade effects the same as the latter, and make
more distinct certain prominent features of cabiOgee
Fig. 15S.
net work. The common forms of mouldings are
the ogee (Fig. 158) and the round nose (Fig.
159). From these two forms, all other designs
of mouldings are evolved. Mouldings may be roughly
Crown' mouldings,
classified under three divisions
intermediate mouldings, and base mouldings.
:
Fig. 159.
Round Nose
Crown
Mouldings.
— Crown
Mouldings are used for finishing the
tops of wardrobes, sideboards, book
cases, tops of door and window casings, etc. Fig. 160 illustrates a few
possible forms.
Fig. 160.
—
Ceown Moulds.
Intermediate Mouldings. Intermediate mouldings, when used, are
placed so as to be more or less on the level with the eye of a person
standing or sitting.
Caps for wainscoting, window stools, picture
mouldings, etc., are of this class. (See Fig. 161.) Sometimes this class
89
—
—
SHOP WORK
90
of mouldings
is
placed on the edge of table tops and articles
them the appearance of extra
of similar nature to give
thickness.
Note in Fig. 162 that the figures are of the same
A appears to be thicker than B.
thickness but
—
Base mouldings, as the name indiused at the foot or bottom of base boards in house
construction, on base boards for cupboards, wardrobes,
Base Mouldings.
cates, are
etc.,
as
shown
in Fig. 163.
—
Designation of Moulding Forms. These forms do not
go by names but by numbers which manufacturers use in
common, and refer
to as stock
num-
Small moulds are usually
made of resawed strips which utilFig. 161.—
Intermedi- ize material otherwise wasted. The
ate Moulds strips
are sized and then fed
through moulding
bers.
Comparison of
Trimmings.
Fig. 162.
machines (stickers)
which have cutters mounted on revolving
Heavier moulds, such as crown
arbors.
and base, are made in gang moulding
machines, which cut the boards to the deBase Moulds.
Fig. 163.
Mouldings are
sired width and shapSo
quoted at so much per hundred lineal feet.
CHAPTER V
VENEER AND
APPLICATION
ITS
—
Veneering. Veneering is the art of overlaying or facing a piece
of material with a thin layer of wood or other material to secure a better
outer finish or decoration. It is generally employed in overlaying inferior wood with the leaf of superior wood and the outside veneer is
attached by means of glue.
—
Sawed and Rotary Cut Veneer. There are two kinds of veneer in
general use: Sawed and rotary cut. Sawed veneer is so cut as to bring
out the quartered effect, flake-like spots, on the leaf. It is more costly
than the rotary cut, being thicker, and more lumber is wasted in cutting.
Rotary cut veneer is produced by thoroughly steaming the log, then
placing it in a suitable lathe with an automatically operated cutter. As
the log turns in the lathe, the cutter removes a thin sheet of wood the
length of the log. In fact, this sheet rolls off in the same manner as
paper comes off a roll. By this method of cutting, the leaf is thinner
than the sawed cut, and, there being no waste, it is therefore cheaper.
It is
used largely in core and cross banding work.
—
Veneer and Solid Built Stock. The increased use of veneers by the
woodworking industries proves the superiority of veneer built stock
over the old method of solid stock. There are three reasons why the
former is better than the latter. First, the heavier the stock, the more
difficulty there is in holding it in shape, owing to the imperfect seasoning as well as the climatic conditions second, a combined advantage of
using waste material sawed into small pieces and distributing the working strain as compared with the solid board; third, the superior effect
of design in the laying of the veneer.
;
—
Core Stock. Core stock may be of any kind of wood, properly seasoned, well glued, and surfaced on both sides to the proper thickness.
The side or sides to be veneered are toothed, a process which disturbs
the fibre of the
of the surface.
wood
sufficiently to enable the glue to take a strong hold
—
Preparing Veneer. In preparing the veneer, make the side adjoining the core stock smooth, tooth it with a toothing plane, or sand it
91
—
SHOP WORK
92
with No. 3 garnet paper (sand with the grain). If garnet paper is
used, care must be taken to see that all grains of garnet are removed
before applying the veneer. If possible, have both core and veneer at
working temperature, and apply the glue with a brush. Put on the
veneer counterwise, and clamp firmly until all the surplus glue is
squeezed out. It is well to place paper between the veneer and the heavy
flat top or weight, an arrangement which helps to distribute the pressure uniformly. The paper absorbs any glue that may be forced through
the thin veneer. If cross banding is desired, it should be done before
the top or bottom of the core is veneered, as the top overlaps the cross
band.
Veneering Regular and Irregular Surfaces.
veneering flat surfaces, which has
just been described, there are many other
regular forms to be veneered, such as swell
—Besides
drawer
fronts,
cones, etc.
half
round,
ogee,
All irregular surfaces
cylinders,
must have
a caul, an opposite of the side to be veneered,
shown
A
In this Figure,
repreis the caul.
If the
Fig. 164.
Core and Caul.
caul is small, it may be cut on the band saw,
but if large, it must be built up from sections
and placed at regular intervals over the core.
These sections are fastened, one-half to threefourths of an inch apart, to a piece of canvas
or heavy paper which, with strips nailed to the
back of these sections, helps to hold them in
place and distribute the pressure uniformly.
The canvas or paper side is placed against the
veneered side as shown in Fig. 165. When the
Fig. 165.
Built-up Caul.
irregularities are too abrupt, the veneer must
first be made pliable by forming it over hot steam pipes or soaking it in
water and then clamping it between the core and caul to dry. This prevents splitting and gives the desired form before gluing.
as
in Fig. 164.
sents the core stock
and B
—
Veneer Designs. In applying veneer, designs may be
worked out in swell drawer
fronts as shown in Fig. 166,
In this figure A shows the
veneer applied in one piece,
horizontally to the half round
drawer front;
B shows
the
Fig 166.— Swell
Drawee Fronts.
—
VENEER AND
ITS
APPLICATION
93
halved and the grain
radiating from the horizontal
C precenter to the vertical
sents a surface with the grain
veneer
;
radiating from two lines which
are at right angles to each other.
same effects may be
worked out on cylinders and
cones as shown in Fig. 167.
These
;7.
Veneeked Cyt,indees and Cone.
Veneering Cylinders and Cones.
—The device commonly used in holding veneer on cylinders and cones is
made of sheet metal with blocks fastened to the ends. Clamps are placed
on these blocks as shown in the cross
section in Fig. 168.
Jointing veneers
on cylinders and cones may be done
by over-lapping the edges and, with a
thin bladed knife, cutting
overlap as in Fig. 169.
down
the
Panel Work Veneer.
—Veneering
is
exten-
sively used in panel
on
desks,
work
sideboards, ^^*^-
^^'-
-Veneer Clamp for Cylinders.
and backs of chairs.
The core stock in these panels is often built up of three or
more thin layers or leaves, known in commercial use as
seats
169.—
Veneering
A Cylinder
Fig.
three-ply, four-ply, etc.
These layers are so placed that
the grain in the adjoining sides cross each other. This arrangement prevents cupping and buckling and therefore the side or sides
same place. Veneers may be put on the cores by heating
a sack of sand and placing it on the glued surface and leaving until cold.
remain
in the
PART
111
SHOP TALKS
CHAPTER
I
STEEL SQUARE.
Square.—The face of the steel square is the side
reupon which the manufacturer's name is stamped; the
blade,
or
body
the
is
arm
larger
The
verse side is the back.
in most
the shorter arm the tongue. The steel square
Steel
use has a blade 24"x2" and a tongue IQ^'xlV^'having the
Scales and Tables.Steel squares, while
in
dimensions given, vary greatly
|ini
ni
common
y
i|ii
ii
|
ii
i
|
ii
[ii|
i
i[ii|ii|ii|
|
i
i
|
graduations shown on their
edges. Figure 170 represents the
\iiiiliiiiliiiiliiiiP
particular square which has the
widest sale, for the graduations are the ones
the
used most frequently. Its number is 14. It
bear the
is left to another one, however, to
number of
The number for
distinction of having the greatest
useful scales
and measures.
It includes graduations in
sixteenths, thirtytwelfths,
eighths, tenths,
an inch, also the
of
seconds and hundredths
this
form
is
100.
Essex Board measure, an eight-square measure, a brace measure and a rafter table.
—
Essex Board Measure. The Essex
Board Measure table is designed for the
calculation of the number of board feet in
any board. The figure 12 in the graduation
marks on the outside edge, represents a one
inch board 12 inches wide and is the starting point for all calculations, the smaller
figures under the 12 representing the length.
A board 12 inches wide and 8 feet long
measures 8 square feet and so on down the
table.
To ascertain the number of square
in
board 8 feet long and 6 inches wide, j^^^ i7i._essex
a
SQUAEE^^et
Steel
find the figure 8 in the scale under the 12 board measure.
No. 14
Tfjp
-1
yA
97
—
—
SHOP WORK
98
inch graduation mark and pass the
pencil along to the graduation mark
6, representing the width of the
board ; stop on the scale at 4, which
indicates 4 feet, the board measure
A
required.
board
I''xl0i"xl4'
equals 11 8/12 square feet and so
on.
In determining the number of
board feet in a plank or timber,
Fig. 172.
Cutting an "Eight Square'
multiply the result obtained by the
calculation on the square by the
thickness of the piece.
Stick
Octagon Scale.
Scale
|ijf|i|i|ili|i|i|i|i|i|i|i|t|i|i|i|i|i|i|i|i
'|||i|'pi|'|i|i|ijiiij'|i|i|i
5
41
fhiil
ililih
is
—The
Octagon
along the middle of the face
i'|i|<|i|>|i||iT>H'i'l'i'l'''|"Ti'l'i
6
7
ihlili ihlililililili
Fig. 173.
Octagon Scale.
is used for laying off lines to cut an
"eight square" or octagon stick of timber from a square
stick.
Suppose ADBC in Fig. 172 is the butt of a stick of timber 10
inches square. With dividers, take from the scale as many spaces (10)
as there are inches in the width of the stock, and lay off points on both
of the tongue and
sides of A, B,
G and D.
Connect the points ab, cd, ef and gh.
and the stick will be octagonal.
Dress
off the corners to these lines
—
Angle Cuts for Polygons (Example). For a figure of six sides,
place along the edge of a board, 16%'' on the body, and 9%'' on the
tongue of the square. Mark along the tongue. Saw six pieces of equal
and the pieces
a six sided figure, the size depending upon the
length, having this angle cut at each end of each piece,
will
fit
together to
make
length of the pieces.
Tongue.
12
131/8
—
9%
8%
7%
6%
5%
—
——
STEEL SQUARE
99
|ii{n|ii{iiiii|ii|ii|ii|ii|ii|ii|imi|ii|ii|ii|ii|ii|iijii|ii|ii|ii[ii|ii|ii|ii|u|ii|iijii|ii|ii|in^
ll|ii|
i
ill
i
i
im
|
l|2
Ii3
III
l|o
I9
I7
la
'
'l«
i
ii
i
|
|
I*
I5
|iii
i
ng
I:
)l''il'llllll'llllllllllllllMllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllMllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll/illlMII
Fig. 175.
Bkace Measltee-Steel Square.
—
Brace- Measure. The
Brace Measure table is
along the center of the
back of the tongue and gives the
length of
common
braces.
42
59.40 in the scale
means that
42
on the post, and the
same on the beam, then the brace will
be 59 40/100 inches, as shown in the
if
^C3
Fig. 174.
the run
diagram.
Brace Measure.
is 42''
(See Fig 174.)
'
RAFTER CUTTING AND ROOF FRAMING.
|ij^i|i|i|i^^i|i|i|i^iti|ig|i|l|l|l|i|l||j^l|l|l|l|l|l|l|^l|l|l|^^^
17 09
16 22
24 33
11%
P*T JAN 22 1907
100
JJJL
Fig. 17G.
Rise.
—The
hl
i
l
i
^llllh jIlLlLl
Rafter Table Steel Square.
rise of the rafter is the distance
found in following a
from the center of the ridge to the level of the top of the
plate.
(See Fig. 177 and PO in Fig. 179.) The seeming discrepancy in
the rise as shown in the two figures is brought about by the necessity
of showing the exact vertex of the angle formed by the plate and the
plumb
line
mid-line of the rafter.
Run.
—The run
is the shortest horizontal distance from this plumbedge of the plate. It is one-half the span of the roof
which is the same as the width of the building.
(See Fig. 177 and
PX in Fig. 179.) The diagonal from the outside point on the plate to
line to the outer
the nearest point in the central line of the top of the ridge is the length
of the common rafter.
(See Fig. 177 and OX in Fig. 179.)
10
—
—
SHOP WORK
100
--Post
Fig. 177.
Pitch.
Run and
—
Rise
—Common
^The angle of incline of the
common
is
called the
The most common rafter pitches are given
the
rise and run of the common rafter.
by
in the fol-
pitch of the roof.
lowing table
Rafter.
Pitch.
1/6
1/4
1/3
5/12
1/2
5/8
3/4
Fig. 178.
Pitch of Roofs.
rafter
—
STEEL SQUARE
To
a common rafter by means of the rafter
down the column headed by the graduation on the blade,
number of feet in the run, to the line having the desired
find the length of
table, follow
which
101
is
the
pitch at the left end.
The
figures give the proper length.
the table as explained will give the figures 14,
1,
Following
8; or 14 feet, 1
and
8/12 inches, the length of the rafter.
/7-
FiG.
ITG.^RooF Frame.
—
Rafter Cuts. The rafter ends are
cut to roof angles to rest respectively
against the ridge and plate. The cut
against the ridge is called the plumb
cut the cut against the plate is called
the heel cut. The rule given for finding plumb and heel cuts is to place the
;
square upon the rafter so that a porarm of the square represents the run, and a portion of the,
and Heel of Raf- other arm, the rise, as in the following illustration: Mark at A for the
tion of one
Fig.
ISO.
(a)
Pij:tmb
plumb cut
(b)
heel cut
plumb cut and at B for the heel cut.
(See Fig. 180.)
The table giving the
is stamped upon the square, but in actual practice it is necessary to deduct for one-half of the ridge-board, and to add for any
lengths
projection beyond the plate for eaves.
—
The hip rafter, G in Fig. 179, represents the hypo111%) Rafters.
thenuse or diagonal of a right angled triangle, one side being the
common rafter, and the other side that part of the plate lying between
the foot of the hip rafter and the foot of the adjoining (common)
rafter.
The rise of the hip rafter is the same as that of the common
:
SHOP WORK
102
The run of the hip rafter is the horizontal distance from the
plumb-line of its rise to the outside of the plate at the foot of the hip
If the pitch is the same on both sides of the hip rafter the
rafter.
run of the hip rafter is to the run of the common rafter as 17 is to 12.
For 1/6 pitch, the common rafter run and rise are 12 and 4, while
For the plumb and heel
the hip rafter run and rise are 17 and 4.
figures
rafter
the
17
and
of
the
hip
use
cuts
4, 17 and 6, etc., the rise
and run of the hip rafter.
rafter.
Plumb and Side
—
Cuts.
It is often necessary to nail the plumb
This will necessitate a side cut on the hip to fit the
The following table will give the proper angle for the common
cut to a ridge.
ridge.
pitches
Tongue.
Body.
7
Pitch.
1/6
1/4
1/3
5/12
71/4
15
16
9
10
13
15
.1/2
8
11
5/8
3/4
6
10
16
11
the top or plumb cut and then the side cut. Make one
Hip rafters should be cut in "rights and lefts"
so that the side cuts will seat on the ridge.
To find the length of the
hip rafter, lay off on the blade of the square, the length of the common
rafter (scaled to 1 ft. to the inch) and the distance between the foot
of the hip to the first common rafter on the tongue of the square.
Measure across and multiply by twelve. Deduction foi? thickness of
ridge and extra length for overhang should be made.
Lay
off
sawing do for both.
Valley Rafter.
E
in Fig. 179,
—The valley
is
rafter,
the hypothenuse of
the right-angled triangle formed by
common rafter with the ridge,
corresponding with the right-angled
triangle formed by the hip rafter,
the
common
Fig.
181.— Side ctiTs of eaftkrs.
A— Square
B — Square
set for side cut.
set for
plumb
cut.
rafter and plate; therefore,
the rules for the lengths and cuts for
valley rafters are the same as for hip
The side cuts are also the
rafters.
^^^ne as for hip rafters.
:
STEEL SQUARE
103
—
Jack and Cripple Rafters. The jack rafters, F, in Fig. 179, are
usually spaced either 16 or 24 inches apart, and, as they lie against
the hip or valley and are equally spaced, the second will be twice as
long as the first, the third three times as long as the first, and so on.
The lengths for the shortest jack or cripples are given in the following
table
16 inches on center.
—
—
CHAPTER
II
SAWS
The saw, in its different forms, is one of the most important tools
wood worker. The three saws most cotamonly used, the rip
for the
saw, cross-cut saw, and back saw, are discussed in Part I, and onlyspecial saws, the making of saws, saw setting and filing, and the care
of saws are treated in this chapter.
Special
Handy Saw.
—Fig. 182 shows
a handy-saw, adopted by manual training schools throughput the land, which
has amply proved its worth. The handle acts
on a
pivot,
and may be adjusted
instantly for the use of either tooth.
The blade
Fig.
182.
Double Edgk Saw.
is
toothed on one side for
cross cut and on one side for rip or
dovetail sawing.
Compass Saw.
—The
compass saw
used for miscellaneous sawing. As
the nature of the work for which
compass saws are used consists of
is
about as much cross-cutting as of
ripping, and as a cross-cut saw will
rip better than a rip saw will cross-cut,
Fig.
it is
18.3.
Compass Saw
apparent that the shape
of the teeth should be between the two. These saws are all ground
(See Fig. 183.)
thinner at the back side, the same as any hand saw.
—
and Web Saws. Scroll and web saws are ground, filed and
same manner, and should have pitch, according to the work
If more ripping than cross-cutting is done, as in large
to be done.
felloes, more pitch is given that in the compass saws, and vice versa,
though these saws are almost universally run with a rip-saw tooth and
Scroll
set in the
have very
little
variation in the pitch.
104
——
—
SAWS
105
Butcher
Saws.
—Butcher
saws
are used for cutting bones. The
pitch and number of points are
about the same as a fme tooth hand
saw for medium hard wood, but
are filed straight through without
fleam, or bevel, to tooth, with light even set, the same as in fine hand
(See Fig. 184.)
saws.
Butcher Saw.
Fig. 184.
Hack Saws.
—Hack
saws are used
for cutting metal, such as brass, iron
or untempered
and should have
than the average
Fig. 185.-vHack Saw.
butcher saw. They are so hard that
none but the very best metal saw file
will sharpen them.
Like the butcher saw, the filing must be straight
through with no bevel. (See Fig. 185.)
a
little
steel,
finer teeth
Band Saws.
—Band
for machine scroll
saw
saws are used
for band
work and
and consist of continuous
steel running over two
wheels like a belt. The large band
saws used in saw mills are sometimes
mills,
bands
of
sharpened on both edges.
(See Fig.
186.)
Circular Saws.
—Circular saws are
either rip or cross-cut saws.
They
are always mounted on an arbor and
are usually power driven.
Circular
Band Saw Blade.
Fig. 186.
saws are used
saw
mills.
in cabinet shops
and
(See Fig. 187.)
Fig.
188.— Coping Saw.
—
Coping Saws. Coping saws are
used for hand scroll and grill work.
(See Fig. 188.)
Fig. 187.
Cibculae Saw.
106
SHOP WOKK
.
—
Cylinder Saws. Cylinder saws are used for sawing spheres and
There are many other saws on the market for special work.
discs.
Miter Box.
—A miter
box consists
of one solid casting, used as a base,
and two uprights, used as guides for
the saw, which works on a pivot, and
on an arc with graduations. The uprights swing back and forth on this
any angle between 90 degrees
and 45 degrees however, with a spearc, at
Fig.
189.—Miteu Box.
;
attachment, the angle range is
much greater. This box is used in cutting miters, picture frames,
(See
mouldings of all styles, and in cutting kerfs to certain depths.
cial
Fig. 189.)
SAW MAKING.
Saw
Construction.
—There
is
perhaps no tool in a woodworking
kit that is used as constantly as a saw.
It is important, therefore,
that the saws used should be of the very best quality in order that
the workman may be able to do the greatest amount of work with the
From the very first, saw manufacturers had great
obtaining steel of uniform quality, free from flaws having
spared no expense in bringing the saw to its present state of perfecHigh grade saws are
tion, this difficulty finally has been overcome.
not made of high carbon steel, as is the general belief among woodworkers. They are put through a process that makes them flexible,
and therefore they can be coiled like a clock spring without any injury
least exertion.
difficulty in
;
whatever. Many saw manufacturers claim that they have a "secret
process" by which they make their particular brand of saw flexible, and
Since the "processes" are secrets, no attempt will
yet serviceable.
be made to divulge any "secrets."
—
Material. The Disston Saw Works was the first concern to manufacture saws from the raw material to the finished article. Its crucible
steel plant was the first establishment to produce saw steel in America,
and Disston saws are considered standard everywhere. The silver
steel saw, manufactured by the Atkins Saw Works, is one of the
highest grade saws on the market. Its steel is also prepared by a
special process.
—
Process of Manufacture. All steel for saws is rolled, then trimmed
under shears, and cut into blanks, either for straight or hollow back
saws. The next operation is that of cutting the teeth, which is done
by machines of special design, the blanks being fed by hand.
SAWS
Temvpering.
is,
—The saw
107
then placed in a hardening furnace which
by fuel, oil or gas; it is then taken
into a special hardening bath.
is
at this time, generally heated
out and plunged, edge
first,
—Smithing
is a process about which very little is known
not used in the manufacture of a great many cheaper
saws, because it does not show. It does not add to the appearance of
the saw. In the operation of smithing, the saw is tensioned so that
the tight spots in the steel are opened up, permitting the saw to run
true to the line. A boy shakes a thin piece of tin to hear it rattle.
This is because certain portions of the metal have full spots that are
Looking across it, you will find ridges and hollooser than others.
Smithing removes these conditions and makes the saw run true.
lows.
Smithing.
and which
is
.
Grinding.
The
—The
blades
of saws are ground by taper
grinding.
an inch (scant)
thick along the entire tooth edge, one gauge thinner at the butt on the
back, and four gauge thinner on the back at the point.
They gradually
taper throughout the entire blade toward the thinnest part. This,
scientifically, renders them stiff, but gives the blade clearance, permitting them to drop easily into the cut without binding and enabling the
saw to run free and easy with but little set.
finished blades are about nineteen gauge, or 3/64 of
—
Final Touches. The saws then pass through the etching room,
where the name and brand of the manufacturer are put on, then they
are ready for the setting of the teeth. Each tooth is set by one or
more strikes of the hammer. The teeth are then filed. This is done
after the saw is set, so that no damage will be done to the teeth.
The
saw is then handled and ready for use.
Vanadium S'aws.—Vanadium is an ore found in South America.
was found in small quantities at first, which made it impossible to
use it in the manufacture of steel for high class work; but in recent
years vast quantities have been found. It can be mined at a price
It
which enables the steel manufacturers to use it in the manufacture of
steel and for almost any kind of work.
The Vanadium saw is a
product of this ore. The element vanadium has, in fact, almost revolutionized the
saw
business.
GENERAL INFORMATION.
Saw
point,
Parts.
back and
—The
gullet.
elements of a saw tooth are
The channel cut by the saw
its
is
face or front,
called the kerf.
—
SHOP WORK
108
The
is called set.
The heel or butt
the end nearest the handle, and the opposite end is called
Saws are designated according to the number of
the toe or point.
saw points to the inch.
side inclination of alternate teeth
of the
saw
is
4 Points
4-Vz
Points
5
Points
8 Points
(/VVV\A/WWV\^^^
9 Points
11.
Fig. 190.
(There
is
Points
Size of Teeth.
always one more point than there are teeth.)
Figures 191 and 192 show the method of laying out rip saw teeth
and cross-cut saw teeth. The angles for the teeth remain the same
as in these figures for
all sizes
of teeth.
Rip saws usually have one less point to the inch at the heel than
and are listed according to the number of points at the
heel.
The number of points to the inch of the saw is usually stamped
on the butt. The length of a tooth is its height from base to point.
The pitch, rake or hook is the angle of the cutting edge of the tooth
at the toe,
— —
—
—
SAWS
to the line of points.
109
The bevel or fleam is the angle of the front or
side.
The crown of the saw is the slight out-
back of the tooth to the
ward curve
Fig. 191.
of the line of the points.
Rip-Saw Teeth, Showing
One-Half Pitch.
One-Fourth Pitch.
=^
Fig. 193.
(a) front or tbroat
;
Geoss-Cut Teeth, Showing
Fig. 192.
=^
=fc=i
Paets of Teeth.
(b) back; (cd) pitch of tooth; (e) set.
Sharpening.
saw
consists
filing
the
saw
—Sharpening or
of jointing,
fitting a
setting
teeth so that the
saw
and
will
clean and smooth with the
expenditure of power. Jointing
is the process by which the points of
the saw teeth are made to lie in the same
cut fast,
least
line.
Setting is the process by which
the teeth are alternately set to the right
Fig. 194.
Saw Clamp.
and left. Filing is the process of putting the proper shape, rake and fleam
on the tooth. The saw should first be
secured in a saw clamp, or held in a vise between two strips of board.
(See Fig. 194.)
First, joint the saw by running lengthwise lightly
over the points of the teeth with a jointer or file until the teeth are all in
same line and have a slight crown. Second, set the saw. The depth
of set should not be greater than half the length of the tooth ; if it is
the
greater, the
body of the saw
will
be sprung or the tooth so weakened
SHOP WORK
110
as to cause it to be easily broken out. The width of set is determined
by the work. For average work, about 1/100 of an inch on each side
for hard work or dry wood, a little less ; and for green,
is sufficient
wet or soft woods, a little more. In any case, the saw should be given
;
just
enough
the
saw and
set to clear.
The best way
is
to go
down one
side of
set the alternate teeth to one side, then, reversing the
Care should be taken
saw, set the remaining teeth to the other side.
that the teeth are set in the same direction as they were originally.
The set should be uniform, as the proper working of a saw depends
on the setting. A sharp saw improperly set will not cut, but a dull
saw properly set will. A hand saw should be set several times between filings. Third, file the saw. The saw should be filed from heel
No one saw will do all kinds of
to toe, with a three-cornered file.
carefully
selected for each class of work.
be
should
work, and a saw
The manner in which the teeth are filed should be noted when the saw
is bought, and followed whenever the saw is sharpened.
—
Sharpening Rip Saws. A slitting or ripping saw has its cutting
edge at right angles to the fibre of the wood, severing it in one place,
A 4-point rip saw for soft wood,
the throat wedging out the piece.
or a 5-point rip saw for medium hard wood should have rake in
front and be filed straight across, filing one-half the teeth from each
For ripping hard and cross-grained woods, a finer
side after setting.
(See
tooth rip saw, with the teeth filed slightly beveled, is needed.
Fig. 184.)
—
After the saw is set and filed, it should be laid on a
surface and the sides of the teeth lightly rubbed over with an
To sum up: The
old file or oil stone to remove any feather edges.
same principles of dressing apply throughout, whether the saw is
The teeth on saws used for soft wood should
coarse or fine toothed.
Finishing.
flat
have
little
or no pitch, should have a fleam back and front, and a
large set; those for
medium hard woods should have more
pitch, less
fleam on the back, and medium set; for hard woods, still more pitch,
no fleam on the back, and a small set. Too much pitch and too heavy
a set are bad, for they will cause a saw to take hold so keenly that
frequently it hangs up suddenly in the thrust and kinks or breaks the
The usual amount of pitch is 60 degrees. When a cross-cut
hand saw is properly fitted, a needle can be slid along the groove
blade.
between the tooth edges.
Sharpening a Two-Man^Cross Cut Saw.
man
cross-cut saw,
sharpening a two-
pass a jointer over the teeth until it touches
Second, file down the raker teeth until they
For very hard and dry wood the raker should
first,
the shortest cutting tooth.
are the proper length.
—In
—
.
SAWS
111
be 1/100 inch shorter than the cuttmg teeth; for hard, green wood,
Fig. 195.-
-Teeth of Two-Man Ckoss-Cut
Saw.
1/64 inch, and for green wood,
1/32 inch. Third, file each tooth
to a keen cutting edge, taking
care to preserve the original form
and size of the teeth. The amount
of bevel to the tooth depends upon
work to be done. Hard wood requires less bevel than soft
Fourth, the angle of the set should extend about 1/4 inch down
from their point. The amount of set will depend on the class of work
and the manner in which the saw is ground. Thin back saws require
about 1/100 inch set on each side of the saw straight back saws, about
1/50 inch.
the class of
wood.
;
Sharpening Circular Saws,
large circular saws, that
is,
—In the usual gauges
(7,
8 and 9)
,
of
manner on the
the saw is about
those used in the ordinary
average feed and timber, 3/64 inch on each side of
the least set that should be used. Hard, dry and frozen timber requires
less set; very soft, wet or green timber, more.
Thin saws require as
much set as thick ones. See that the
saw
is
and
file
round, and if not round, joint
the teeth until they are all of
same length, shape and size. If a
saw sharpener is not available, the
the
jointing can be done by holding a stone
against the saw teeth while the saw is
Teeth of Kip Saw
Fig. 196.
revolving at a moderate speed, taking
care not to grind beyond the length of
the shortest tooth. After jointing, file
the teeth to a sharp point, using a gauge
or templet, or, if none is handy, file as
(
Cikculak )
near to the original shape and size of
the tooth as can be remembered. Next
set the teeth about 1/16 inch alternately
to each side of the saw.
Then file the Fig. 197. -Teeth of Cut-Off Saw
teeth straight through or square to the
(Circular).
side of. the saw, on the fronts, and bevel
each alternate tooth slightly on the back. If fit properly, a circular
saw will saw easily and true until dull. It should be re-sharpened before
it pulls hard, runs askew or heats up.
A saw should be sharpened from
two to four times in a full day's run. A saw properly set will stand
from two
to five filings before
it
requires resetting.
—
SHOP WORK
112
—
Cut-Off Saivs. Cut-off saws are
dressed the same as rip saws, except
that the teeth are given more bevel,
both front and back. Bevel only a
Fig. 198. Teeth of Band Saw.
small portion of the tooth from the
point and dress the remainder of the
tooth and the gullet straight across, rounding out the gullet with either
a gummer or a file.
Sharpening Band Saws.
The
—After a band saw has been tensioned,
it
and filing of the teeth is practically the
should be
The
amount of set for a 14 gauge saw should
same as a circular saw.
not exceed 1/32 inch on each side. The less set the better. Band saws
should be resharpened frequently, a two and one-half hour's run being
about the limit.
fitted.
setting
—
Saw Sets. Saws were first set by a hammer and anvil,
hammer and punch, but these methods left no two teeth at the
History of
or by a
same angle, or depth of set. Besides, the frequent hammerings injured
the teeth, and, if the steel was soft, sprung it so that the teeth dulled
quickly if hard, crystallized it so that
they broke out easily. The notched
;
plate
and
saw
set
sprung the saw blade
and the
set the teeth in a curve,
saw sets was
The modern type
of saw sets dates from 1878, when
Fig. 199.— Saw Set.
Charles Morrill invented a saw set,
in which the power applied to the handles was multiplied and transmitted by a cam and without loss to the
This saw set was an instant success, displacing all other
plunger.
types. In the Morrill saw sets the principal of compression is employed, making the steel stronger
and more homogenous. (See Fig. 199.)
chief fault of the lever
a lack of strength.
Use of Saiv
of the
Fig.
200.— Saw
Set
Showing Degree
OF Set.
saw
Sets.
—Set the number on the anvil
set to the point of the plunger corre-
sponding to the number of saw tooth points to the
inch. For example, if there are seven points, turn
seven on the anvil to the point of the plunger.
Then, placing the saw set on the saw, turn up the
gauge screw until the desired amount of set is
obtained.
Lock the gauge screw and proceed to
set the saw.
(See Fig. 191.)
CHAPTER
III
FASTENING DEVICES.
—
Nails.
Probably no other fastening device has passed through as
great an evolution in the methods of manufacture, of materials involved,
and of general shapes as ordinary nails. Originally, nails were cut
from metal sheets by hand, and headed in a vise; an output of a few
hundred was a competent day's work. Today nails are machine made.
A steel wire is fed into an automatic machine which cuts the proper
lengths, heads and points the wire into a perfect nail at such speed that
the cost of the nail is greatly reduced and is no longer a luxury, but
the most common of fastening devices.
—
Nails are spoken of as "8-penny", "6Classification of Nails.
penny", etc. "Penny" is supposed to be a corrupt form of pound. An
"eight-penny" nail means that a thousand nails of that particular kind
and size weigh eight pounds; "six-penny" weigh six pounds per thousand nails, etc. This is an approximation only. Nails are classified
according to the modes of manufacturing, size and use, as well as the
material from which they are made. The nails most common to the
journeyman are the common, casing, and finish nails, although these
types are modified to meet all classes of work.
Common
a heavy
flat
Nails.
head.
—The common
It is stiff,
nail is made of the larger wire, with
with a wonderful pulling capacity, which
adapts it for many classes of rough
work. The larger sizes, that is,
from 12d (or penny) to 60d, are
201.-COMMON NAiu
Fig.
^^.y.^^^ ^j^jj^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^
ones from 3d to 6d are called box,
shingle or lath nails. Like the finish and the casing 'nails, the common
nail is cylindrical in shape, which minimizes the splitting tendency.
(See Fig. 201.)
Casing Nails.
^
—
-^--.
lipi iiiTiiiiiiM
FiG.
—The casing
-^_
^^
_.
_,^ __,_^,„^
^^jj^^
nail is
rr^mm-
202.— Casing Nail.
made and
classified in the
common
fashion as the
nail.
same
The
^^^j difference lies in the construc-
tion of the head.
113
Casing nails have
—
—
SHOP WORK
114
small, conical heads
which adapt them for interior
and cabinet construction.
finish, floor
laying
(See Fig. 202.)
—
Finish Nails. The finish nail is of finer gauge wire than the casing nail, has a very small head, and is used in cabinet work or any
class of work where the heads should
G^jwMMm
^ be "set" or where there is a likelihood of splitting the wood. By setFinish Nail.
Fig. 203.
ting a nail is meant to drive the
head below the surface of the wood
may be finished over. (See Fig. 203.)
Any nails of the finish type that range from
so that the head
—
Brads.
14 iiich to
2 inches in length are referred to as brads. They are used a great
deal in trimming cabinet work with moulding and in any light work
where there is a tendency to split the wood.
—
Wrought Nails. Wrought nails are made of commercially pure
They are soft and may be clinched easily, which makes them in
demand for car and barn door construction, as well as for hanging
iron.
strap hinges.
—
Cut Nails. Cut nails are cut from sheet metal and have two
tapering sides. They are strong and will carry heavy loads, but will
split the wood if not driven with the
parallel sides of the nail parallel to
They are
the grain of the wood.
of
framing
fig. 204.— cut nail.
the
generally used in
conheavy
heavy timbers and in
(See
struction such as the building of wooden bridges, derricks, etc.
Fig. 204.)
Standard Gauges.
wire, but
it is
well to
—Nails are seldom bought by the gauge of the
know
that there
is
a standard gauge and that the
^•••••••••«
5
6
7
Fig. 205.
8
9
10
11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Steel Wire Gauge.
FASTENING DEVICES
115
diameter of the wire from which the nail is made is given in number^
which refer to the standard gauge. However, one must not forget that
the gauge of the wire for nails is different from that for screws, in that
the smaller the number of the gauge of the wire from which the nail
(See Fig. 205.)
is made the larger the nail is in diameter.
STANDARD STEEL WIRE NAILS.
Approx. No.
Size
to Lb.
—
—
SHOP WORK
116
B
A
Machine Screws.
Fig. 206.
—Flat Head
a
er's
;
Head;
c
;
&— Oval
—Fillister
are placed
where they will not show,
while round-headed screws
are used in cabinet construction where the heads will be
over,
ished
visible.
ABC
PlumbHead.
or
Fig. 207.
D
Wood Screws.
—Drive Screw (Round Head) &—French Head
Screw c—Flat Head Screw d — Round Head.
a
;
;
;
(See Figs. 206 and 207.)
—A
form of screw in very common use in framing
heavy timbers and in anchoring machinery is the lag screw. It has
threads like the ordinary screw, but has a square head which permits
Lag Screws.
it
to be driven
with a wrench.
—Corrugated
used
during the process
of turning. They are also used to lace joints,
as in the bottom side of table, counter tops, etc.
As the name indicates, they are made of thin
sheet steel. This sheet has one edge sharpen.ed
The
it is then corrugated and cut into lengths.
Corrugated Steel Fasteners.
steel fasteners are
in pattern shops to hold the split patterns together
Fig.
208.— Corrugated STEELwidth of the steel, as well as the
fasteners.
mean
number
of cor-
determines the size of the corrugated steel fastener. A l^ inch No. 6 would
a fastener that is 1/4 i^^ch wide and six corrugations in length.
rugations,
(See Fig. 208.)
Tacks.
—Tacks are
used to fasten cardboard, leather, sheet metal,
or any thin material to wood. They
are
made by machine and
materials.
Fig.
209.— Tacks.
of
many
Many
tacks have fancy
metallic heads for
composition or
use in upholstery work. Originally,
the size of tacks was designated by
FASTENING DEVICES
particular
which meant that a thousand tacks of that
(See Fig. 209.)
weighed two ounces.
2
oz.,
etc.,
SIZE OF TACKS.
1
11'7
size
—
SHOP WORK
118
The glue should
Fig. 210.
Glue Heatek.
—
all go into solution, should
be hot, not too thick or too thin, but
should drip from a brush in a fine stream
to be about the right consistency to deGlue
velop the maximum of efficiency.
deteriorates after it has been heated. In
fact, it loses about 90 per cent of its
strength, that is, its value to work, after
it has been melted and has stood over
night; and it also lowers the quality of
the fresh glue that may be added to it.
(See Fig. 210.)
Glue Joints. The most important things necessary for the proper
holding of glue joints are: (1) fit; (2) freshly heated, properly prepared, good glue; and (3) freedom of the surfaces from grease. The
first item is the most important of all.
The fit of the two surfaces must
be very carefully made, and the surface of the joint must be free from
grease, as grease is the greatest enemy of glue.
Do not use a thick
solution for joint work. It congeals quickly and naturally will fail to
penetrate the pores of the wood, giving a weak joint as a result. In
every case the glue must be well worked into the pores of the wood with
a brush, much in the same manner as a coat of paint. Heating of the
wood will do no good, as the hot wood will absorb the water of the glue
solution, leaving an inadhesive coat of glue at the surface of the joint.
This will hold only a limited length of time. The spreading of the glue
should be done as quickly as possible, and in a warm room free from
draught. It is important that the glue be at the proper temperature
when applied, as the molecules are then vibrating at their maximum
speed, and will therefore penetrate better into the pores of the wood,
thus making a better joint. It is best to test the pieces first, to make
sure that they will go together, and to have all the clamps and hand
screws ready that there will be no need of delay in placing the pieces
under pressure after the glue is applied. The glued pieces should be
left under pressure of the clamps about twenty-four hours.
:
CHAPTER
IV
BRACES.
Parts of Brace.—The parts of a
brace are the following
1.
2.
4.
5.
Head
E
—A Bkace.
of chuck.
Section of chuck and ratchet.
Handle.
Bit shanks.
3.
Fig. 211.
End
F
or cap.
Screw.
Cup washer.
bit brace is so modified in
Carpenter's Bit Brace.-The carpenter's
sweeping statement as to what a
form that it is impossible to make a
a
described as a tool to gm^e and drive
b?t brace really is, unless it be
a
of
form
simplest
and
oldest
wood-boring tool by hand. Probably the
seldom
very
is
that
brace
of
bitbrace was the "Fiddle Bow", a form
light work. As
small holes
piercing
for
efficient
is
that
seen yet one
which is wound
of
bow, the string
the name indicates, it is made like a
back and forth
pulled
bow is
around the shank of the bit, and, as the
the mos
Probably
cutting action.
?he bit is rotated, thus giving it
and
chuck
the
which
common type of carpenter's bit brace is the one
of the distance betw^^^^th^^J^^
cap are in axial alignment. A portion
a ratchet constructed between
has
handle-and
in an offset-a cranked
clamping the shank of the bit
the chuck and cranked handle. By
the brace frame at the angle
a chuck and holding the axial line of
into the P^e^^; ^^ is an easy
according to which the hole is to be bored
the spur of the bit to pull
forcing
matter to rotate the handle, thus
m
m
m
itself into
the wood.
constructed of two tongues held at
a
at their outer ends. There is
their inner ends by springs, and coned
the
up
screwing
that
so
corresponding cone in the threaded sleeve,
of
it true and independent
holds
and
shank
tool
the
grips
sleeve firmly
that
tongue
the
of
inner portion
the squared end which fits into the
drives it.
119
Chuck.—VsuaWy,
the chuck
is
—
SHOP WORK
120
—
Ratchet. The ratchet enables the operator to use the brace in a
corner or any other place where it is impossible to get a full swing
with the cranked handle. The ratchet can be set so that the chuck
can be operated either to the right or to the left, or as an ordinary brace
without the ratchet. This adjustment is accomplished by making a
portion of a revolution of the sleeve which is between the chuck and
the cranked handle.
,
Cranked Handle Swing.
—The
offset, or
tion that determines the size of the brace.
more power
large. The swing
take
cranked handle,
is
the por-
If the offset is small,
to revolve the bit in the
wood than
it
will
the offset is
of the brace is equal to twice the length of the offset
of the cranked handle, or equivalent to the diameter of the circle
described by revolving the cranked handle.
Cwp.
the
bit,
—The cap
is
in alignment
with the chuck and
if
is
used to guide
as well as to supply a suitable point to apply pressure in the
driving of
drills,
or bits without a spur.
SPECIAL FORMS OF BRACES.
Reciprocating Drill.
FiG.
helical
212.—ejecipeocating deill.
groove in the stem of the
—The
tool.
drill
affords
(See Fig. 212.)
—
Fig. 213.
Breast Drill.
recipro-
an interesting
study, in that it has no cranked handie, but operates a wood piercing
tool by forcing a handle down a
cating
Breast Drills. Breast drills,
while designed for use in metal,
offer another mode of driving bits.
They are operated by a cranked
handle attached to a bevel gear
which, in turn, meshes with another bevel gear, attached to, and
in a plane at right angles to, the
spindle of the drill. (See Fig. 213.)
—
;
CHAPTER V
AUGER
Boring Tools.
BITS
—Tools used for making holes
wood and
in
enlarg-
tools; while those for metals,
ing holes in metal are termed boring
except the tools for enlarging holes, are termed
Cutting
tools
drills.
Action.
must have
—Wood-boring
their
edges
shaped that they will sever the
so
fiber
wood before dislodging it;
otherwise the cutting edges will
wedge themselves in the fiber. This
is accomplished in cutting across
the grain of the wood in two ways
either, by severing the fiber around
the walls of the hole and in a line
parallel to the axial line of the borof the
ing tool, and removing it afterward
with a second cutting edge at a
right angle to the axis of the bor-
ing tools; or else, by employing a
cutting edge curved in its length, so
as to begin to cut at the center and
operate on the walls of the hole,
gradually enlarging it, as in the
operation of the gimlet
—
bit.
Manufacture, ^There are many
auger bits on the market, all of
which are of high-grade steel, properly designed, forged and tempered,
each having its distinctive features,
Cutting Action of a Bit.
Fig. 214.
which adapt it either to general
or special work. It is difficult, therefore, to individualize and say that
one bit is better than another. There are varous ways of manufacturing auger bits, but perhaps the most common is the method of band
twisting.
121
-
122
SHOP WORK
—
Head, Nib, Lip and Spur. The steel selected for bits is forged
under heavy trip hammers and then twisted into the desired shape.
This is followed by the heading process, that is, the
forming of the nibs, lips and spur. The nibs serve,
FiG.
while the bit is revolving in the piece of wood, as a
pair of knives, in that they sever the fibre around the
walls of the hole. The lips are like a pair of revolv215.—Pitch op j^g chisels and lift the severed portion of wood
out of
Spite.
^j^^ hole; the spur pulls the bit into the piece being
bored. (See Fig. 215.)
—
Auger bits are measured in sixteenths of an inch, and the
Sizes.
numerator of the fraction is stamped upon the shank; that is, a halfinch bit IS stamped 8, the denominator, expressed in sixteenths, being
implied. Gimlets are measured in thirty-seconds of an inch, and drills
in thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths; in each case the denominator, expressed in thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths, is implied as in auger bits.
—
Resharpening of Auger Bits. Care should be taken in filing auger
change the cutting angles of the nibs and lips. The nibs
should be filed on the inside and the lips only on the side toward the
bits not to
shank.
—
Shanks. Different classes of work demand different shapes of bit
General carpenter's work requires a square, tapering shank
suitable for clamping in a brace jaw.
Round shanks are used extensively for power boring machines. Nut shanks are used to fasten wood
handles to bits. This kind of bit is used in framing green timbers.
shanks.
—
Dowel and Ship Bits. Bits are made to suit the requirements of
work to be done. A cabinet worker heeds a short bit for dowel
work, and hence the dowel bit has been devised. Dowel bits are usually
short and range from l^ to I/2 iiich in diameter. A shipbuilder needs
the
a longer bit than the ordinary commercial bit; accordingly, he is supplied with the ship auger, which is long and may be used in any stock
diameter.
—
Bit Extension. It is often necessary to bore a deep hole with a
fig. 216.— bit extension.
short bit. To do this, an extension,
which is similar to the shank of a
carpenter's bit on one end, and has a bit chuck to receive the tongue of
the bit on the other, is used.
(See Fig. 216.>
——
—
AUGER
BITS
123
—
Fig. 217.
Irwin
Irwin Bit. The Irwin bit is
sometimes called the solid center bit.
It is a fast borer, having a coarse
pitch spur, and may be used for most
classes of ordinary work. (See Fig.
Bit.
217.)
Fig. 21S.
Russell Jennings
Bit.
—
Russell Jennings Bit. The RusJennings bit is a band twisted bit
that may be used in all classes of ordinary work. This bit, like the Irwin, is a double cutter, having two
sell
Fig.
211).
Foed Bit.
nibs and two
lips.
(See Fig. 218.)
—
Ford Bit. The Ford bit differs
from most auger bits in that it has
but one lip and one nib. Its spur has
a coarse pitch, hence it is a fast cutter. It bores well in the end grain of
wood. (See Fig. 219.)
—
Fostner Bit. The Fostner bit is
fundamentally different from the
twisted bit. It must be fed by force,
as it has no spur. It is guided by its
rim and hence it will bore almost any
arc of a
circle,
regardless of knots,
a slow borer but has
no splitting tendencies. The Fostner bit is used in pattern making
grain, etc.
It is
shops, for mortising, veneers, fancy
scroll,
work.
—
classes of special
(See Figs. 220 and 221.)
—
Bit.
The expansion bit may be
compound head. It has a loose
a combination of a nib and a lip that
Expansion
said to have a
cutter
and most
—
slides in a slot, perpendicular to the axis of the
shank. By sliding the cutter toward the center
of the bit or away from it, the bit has a range
many size holes. Another bit of this type
has a screw feed cutter which prevents the cutter from slipping while cutting through, thus
avoiding a tapering hole. (See Fig. 222.)
of
Fig.
222.— Expansion Bit.
—
—
—
—
SHOP WORK
124
—
Fig. 223.
Gimlet
Gimlet Bit. A gimlet bit is
used in piercing wood for screws and
nails, and for boring end grain in
light pieces where there is danger of
splitting the wood.
(See Fig. 223.)
Bit.
—
Counter and Gauge Sinks.
There are many special tools fitted
fitummmaiiumimimmium
with bit shanks to be driven with a
Fig. 224.
Counter Sink.
bit brace that do not bore wood, but
are termed bits.
The counter sink.
which is one of these special tools, is fitted with
a square tapering shank and has a fluted conical point, with an included angle, usually of 60
Coxintek Sink
Fig. 225.
degrees, on the opposite end. This bit is used
With Gauge Atin countersinking recesses for the reception of
tached.
flat
^
screw heads. The conical head of the screw
(See Fig. 224.)
seats in the recess cut out by the counter sink.
225 shows a sink with a gauge attached.
Reamers.
—Reamers of
all
types are used as
structed as to enlarge a hole by shearing
bits,
They are
Fig.
so con-
its walls.
—
Screw Drivers. The screw driver bit is one of the most common
cools driven by a brace. It is forged similar to the ordinary hand screw
driver, except that its shank is fitted for a brace instead of a handle.
Spoke Pointers, Fore Augers, Hollow Augers
and Dowel Sharpeners. Spoke Pointers, fore augers, hollow augers and dowel sharpeners are used
As the name indiin carriage and wagon shops.
—
J\g.
226.
Dowel,
Shabpenee.
they are so constructed as to point spokes
round
leaving
a
stick
of
the
end
a
and cut around
tenon. Fore augers are used in reducing large spokes to smaller sized
(See Fig. 226.)
tenons.
cates,
—
—
CHAPTER
VI
ABRASIVES
—
Grind Stones. The material for grindstones comes from some of
the large sandstone quarries, and the varying thickness of the strata
makes it possible to secure many thicknesses for grindstones.
Composition. The sandstone best suited for abrasive purposes is
—
that which
is
composed of sharp quartz sand, bonded in a lime cement
or a silicate bond,, of such matter and strength
that it will yield the particles of sand that
have become smooth by friction, and expose
angular grains. These stones are cut intq circular forms, mounted and driven toward the
operator by hand or motive power. They are
run in water, which acts as an agent for carrying off the heat generated by the friction of
the stone and tool. The water also serves another purpose, that of keeping the pores of
the stone open; otherwise the stone would be-
Fig.
227.
Grind Stone.
come glazed and smooth which would seriously reduce the cutting efficiency, as well as
increase the liability of burning or drawing
Stones should not
the temper of the tool.
stand partly in the water, as water softens
the stone, and the wearing of the softened portion will naturally be
more rapid than the rest. This uneven attrition will throw the stone
out of true and make it almost impossible to do a good job of grinding.
(See Fig. 227.)
—
most
Truing. Probably
the
commonly adopted plan of truing
by the use of a piece
of pipe or the tang of a file, or both.
The stone can be softened with water
and roughed down with the tang of
an old file. By using a piece of pipe
the sand from the stone imbeds itgrindstones
is
125
Fig. 228.
^Truing Device.
—
—
SHOP WORK
126
metal of the pipe and acts, in truing up the grindstone,
as stones cutting stones. Fig. 228 illustrates a modern truing device.
Speed of Stones. A safe working speed of grindstones is one which
For grindwill not throw water from the wheel by centrifugal force.
ing woodworking tools, a speed of about 500 to 600 circumferential
feet per minute is recommended.
self in the soft
—
Oil
oil
Stones.
—Like
grindstones
stones are found free in nature
and contain quartz sand, only of a
finer texture. The bond differs from
Oil Stone in Case.
Fig. 229.
that of the grindstone, in tkat
silica of a glassy nature.
a
stones are called
oil
pHed with a coat of
stones because they cut better and faster
oil.
Artificial Stones.
when
it
is
The
sup-
(See Fig. 229.)
—The range of work for which the natural grind-
as it must be run slowly, and its cutting effia
safe
operating
ciency, at
speed, is too slow to be operated economiAccordingly, our ever ready inventive genius created for us sevcally.
stone
is
used
is limited,
which seem to meet all of the requirements to date, that
be operated at high rate of speed, are fast cutters, are free
from glazing, have different sizes of grit, and are uniform in work.
These artificial stones are the emery, corundum, and carborundum
eral abrasives
is,
they
may
stones.
—
Emery. Emery is found in the
form of rock and is crushed into different grades of fineness.
This crushed
rock is classified and collected by passing it through a series of sieves. The
over which this crushed rock
passes range from 8 to 90 wires to tiie
sieves
inch, and that portion which goes
through a wire screen 40 wires to the
inch, but too large to go through 41, is
graded No. 40. A finer grade is produced by floating the dust on water.
This grade is called "F. F.", that is, flour
Fig. 230.
Emeey Wheel.
fine, and is used in making hones and
grinding compounds for lenses. This material is then mixed with a
suitable bond and placed in moulds to form wheels, scythe stones, slips,
cones, etc. ,and is dried and baked at a high temperature. Such a compound is called an emery stone. (See Fig. 230.)
ABRASIVES
127
—
Corundum. Corundum is a mineral similar to emery and it is
worked after the same fashion and into the same class of moulds as
emery.
It is lighter
than emery, therefore,
it
can be run at a higher
rate of speed and develops a greater cutting efficiency.
—
Carborundum is
Carhorundum.
an abrasive, similar in appearance to
is
It
the emery and corundum.
graded, moulded, and used in the
same way, but the cutting particles
are obtained by an entirely different
Carborundum
process.
is
the trade
name
for carbide of silicon, that is,
a chemical combination of carbon and
The element carbon is supsilicon.
plied
by crushed coke and the element
^'^^«-
231.-Caeboeundum Stone.
silicon
by sand.
-
Accordingly,
these two materials are mixed in certain proportions and loaded into
A
little sawdust is added to the mixture to make
the electric furnace.
certain
that
gases, which form in heating the material,
it porous, so
can escape. Hence those wonderful abrasive crystals, "near diamonds,"
are made of every day materials such as sand, coke and sawdust. This
mixture is treated in a temperature of 7,500 degrees Fahrenheit, during
which all the undesirable material is vaporized. After cooling, the
crystalized mass is crushed, graded, and worked similar to the emery.
emery and corundum, is slightly brittle; consecomes in contact wtih metal, it breaks slightly, form(See
ing new crystals, and each new crystal gives new cutting edges.
Carborundum,
quently,
when
like
it
Fig. 231.)
Speed of
Artificial Stones.
may
—
Artificial stones,
whether
fine,
medium
be run dry or in water, the water serving the same
purpose as it does with grind stones. There is no positive rule regarding the speed at which these wheels should run, as so many elements, such as bonds, etc., enter into the design, but, as a rule, they
do the best work when run with a peripheral speed of from 4500 to
5000 feet per niinute. High speed wheels should always be shielded.
or coarse,
CHAPTER
VII
SANDPAPER
—
Details of Manufacture.
That there should be a great many demanufacture of sandpaper seems, at first thought, rather
tails in the
remarkable; but when one stops to consider the large variety of ma-
which goes to make paper, the different ways of making it, the
innumerable substances which are used in glue, and the wide range
in their prices, not to mention the various factory methods, it is not
If the different grades of paper were limited to ten, and
strange.
the glue to ten, we would still have one hundred possible combinations,
terial
without even considering the sand, grading, or care in manufacture.
The process of making sandpaper has been specialized to a degree
which seemingly allows but little possible improvement, and the product
is so low in price that it is poor economy to use inferior paper, especially since quality is so important that it outweighs every other consideration.
Strength.
—The most important quality of
sandpaper
is
strength;
not strength in one direction merely, but in every direction. Paper
designed for sandpaper is of two kinds: cylinder and Fourdrinier.
The cylinder paper has its strength all in one direction; the Fourdrinier paper has no grain, the fibres being distributed in such a
manner that the strength
Fourdrinier.
is equal in every direction.
paper will not tear in a straight line. It is made in combinations of
fibre in different thicknesses, according to the grit to be applied.
—
Glue.
Few people realize the adhesive power of the best glue,
and sandpaper demands the very finest. It has to be specially made, and
must be very elastic. When it is remembered that fine glue has cohesive power equal to and even superior to glass, the importance of the
The glue acts not only as a binder,
right glue can be easily understood.
but aids materially in strengthening the paper.
—
Ingredients.
The term "sandpaper" is a misnomer, as sand is
not used, the material being crushed flint rock, or quartz. Flint rock,
when fractured, presents the sharpest edges procurable, whereas, natural
sand, examined under a microscope, will be found to have a rounded
128
SANDPAPER
.
129
appearance, the cutting edges being considerably dulled by the action
of wind and water. The garnet paper is made by the use of garnet
ore, which is secured in the United States and abroad.
It is not
quite as sharp as flint rock, the particles fracturing at right angles,
but the edges are more durable than flint. In grinding flint or garnet,
the material, in the form of large chunks, is first passed through
crushers, which are graduated to produce the desired grit. The material is then carried to sifting rollers, which are, in reality, skeleton
cylinders, covered with fine bolting cloth.
The material passes through
the inside of the cylinders, which are placed at an angle, the larger
pieces passing out at the opposite end, only the finest material being
sifted through.
The sifted product is then passed through a series
of vibrating separators, which determine the different sizes with extreme exactness and uniformity.
—
Process of Manufacture. All kinds of sand, emery paper, and
cloth are made in rolls as large as those used in the printing of
a daily paper. The process is continuous to such an ejctent that, while
the paper is still coming from the roll at one end, the finished product
is being rer oiled at the other end.
The first step in the process is
the printing of the brand, which is done by passing the paper through
a roller press. The paper next dips into the glue, which is applied
very hot, rubber buffers preventing its spreading to the other side
From this it passes under brushes which distribute
of the paper.
the glue evenly. It next passes under a shower of the grit desired,
the surplus falling off by gravity at the first turn. A further application of a thin solution of glue gives an extra coating which thoroughly
cements all the particles. From this the paper passes over a hot blast
drier, and is suspended in long loops, traveling slowly for a considerable distance, to be finally rolled in a finished state. The sheets are
cut by running the paper from the rolls through a cutter which drops
them out, automatically counted, and delivered so that they can be
easily assembled in quires and reams.
emery
—
QuMity and Care. To determine the quality of sandpaper, tear
from each edge. Good paper will not readily tear straight. It
does not tear cleanly, but the fibre pulls away, leaving an irregular
This characteristic should be the same, tearing from all four
edge.
it
When bent, the paper should give a good snapping sound,
and when bent sharply, the particles should not loosen and drop off.
Another test is to rub two pieces from the same sheet together. This
is a very severe test, but good paper will give up its grit with extrem.e
reluctance, not showing the paper beneath without considerable rubdirections.
SHOP WORK
130
Above all things, sandpaper should be kept in a dry place, away
from an open window where there is the possibility of its absorbing
moisture from the air. If the paper gets too dry, and ci"acks or breaks
when fastening it to the drums, moisten the paper on the back before
bing.
attempting to place it on the drums. This will do away with the trouble.
Steel wool is fine steel shavings.
It is manufactured
Steel Wool.
Steel wool is used
in many ways and in many degrees of coarseness.
—
in the finish room to work
rapidly and will expose the
down coats of shellac, varnish,
wood if care is not taken.
etc.
It cats
CHAPTER
FILES
VIII
AND RASPS
—In writing the story of
one wonders at the little
change that has been made in their construction since they were first
put into use by the originators, supposedly the Swiss. The saying
that necessity is the mother of invention seems to be true of files,
as it is apparent, from the chronicles of the early makers of watches,
who also seem to have been the Swiss, that files were put to universal
use in southern Europe about four or five centuries ago. The shapes
of files at that time, were about the same as they are today, except
the tang, which resembled the Swiss pattern of today so far as the
The
heel and tang are concerned, there being practically no heel.
tang, commencing from the width of the file and tapering to a point,
was about one-third the length of the file itself. Soon after files appeared in southern Europe, traveling journeymen mechanics introduced
them to England, and it was only a short time before factories sprang
up all over the country but it remained for Lancashire to manufacture
them on a large scale and lead the world in that staple, until about a
half century ago.
Historical.
files,
;
—
Hand Cut Files. Up to that time all files were cut by hand.
Blanks were forged to the proper shape, then the cutters, highly proficient, were seated in front of a block of wood, upon which rested
a block of lead, and began the laborious task of cutting with chisel
and hammer. There is little wonder that some teeth were cut deeper
than others, and some not cut at all, when you consider that each tooth
depended not only upon the skill of the operator but also upon the
mental and physical condition of the hammer wielder as well.
—
Machinery Cut. It remained for American ingenuity as well as
necessity to invent machinery that, in cutting files, never varies the
millionth part of an inch, and the diagonal cut upon the steel-blank
The operator still sits upon his
is absolutely the same on every file.
seat before the block, but
all
his efforts are directed exclusively to
feeding the ravenous machine that
is
—
ever hungry for more.
and Kinds. There are more than 3,000 sizes and kinds of
and to describe them all, or even any considerable part of them,
would be beyond the scope of this chapter.
Sizes
files,
131
12
—
SHOP WORK
132
—Files
and rasps have three distinguishing features:
which is measured exclusive of the tang; second, the
kind or name, which has reference to the shape or style; third, the
cut, which has reference not only to the character, but also to the relaFeatures.
First,
length,
tive degree of coarseness of the teeth.
—The cuts with which
The rasp
all must be familiar are
and smooth; double cut coarse, bastard,
second-cut and smooth; single cut coarse, bastard, second cut and
Cuts.
coarse, bastard, second cut
smooth.
:
—
—
(See Fig. 232.)
•
t
Rasp Coarse
Double Cut Coarse
Single Cut Coarse
Rasp Bastard
Double Cut Bastard
Single Cut Bastard
Rasp Second Cut
Dbl. Cut Second Cut
'
't
'»
Single Cut Second Cut
>
'».<
f
Rasp Smooth
Double Cut Smooth
Fig,
232.— Cuts of Files.
Single Cut Smooth
—
FILES
AND RASPS
-too
ioo
—
Length, Tang, Thickness and Kind. The length of a file is the
distance between the heel and the point. The tang, or portion of the
file prepared for the reception of the handle, is never included in the
length.
In general, the length of files bears no fixed proportion to
either their width or thickness, even though they be of the same kind.
By kind is meant the varied shapes or styles of files which are distinguished by certain technical names, as, flat, mill, half-round, etc.
These kinds are divided, from the form of their cross sections, into
geometrical classes, namely: quadrangular, circular, and triangular sections, v/hile odd and irregular sections are classified under
miscellaneous sections. These sections are in turn, subdivided, according to their general contour or outline, into taper or blunt. Taper
designates a file, the point of which is more or less reduced in size, both
in width and thickness, by a gradually narrowing section extending to
the point. Blunt designates a file that preserves its sectional shape
throughout, from point to tang.
(See Fig. 233.)
three
12
3
4
5
Fig. 233.
(1) Slim
6
S
7
9
Kinds of Files.
Taper; (2) Taper; (3) Square; (4) Blunt Band; (5) Mill; (6) Flat Bastard;
(7) Half-Rouml; (S) Round; (9) Half-Round Wood Rasp.
File Cleaners.
together, or card
—File
and scorer
free from
used to remove the
cleaners, consisting of card, brush,
and scorer
alone, are used for keeping a
file
is made of soft iron, and is
up and clog the teeth, causing scratches in the work,
The brush will be found a most efficient annex to the
if not removed.
card, especially upon finer files, and removes the filings much more
effectually than can be done by the card alone.
(See Fig. 234 and 235.)
filings.
The
pins which
scorer
fill
—
SHOP WORK
134
Fig. 234.
File Card,
Fig.
235.— File Brush.
—Very few mechanical operations are more
difficult than that
Unlike the tool fixed in the iron-planer, whose movement is guided by unyielding ways, the file must be guided by the hand,
and the accuracy with which this is done will depend largely upon the
While a perfect file is necessary to
skill and patience of the operator.
Use.
of filing well.
secure the best results in filing, knowledge as to the selection of the
file for the work in hand and practice in handling are equally
proper
essential.
Machine and Hand-Made
Files.
—In
conclusion, it is well to call
attention to the fallacy of the old-fashioned idea that
made are pre-eminently the best. In the case of the
idea is without foundation.
No hand-made
file
all
things hand-
file
at least, this
of today compares favor-
ably with machine-made files. The machine-made file of today is as far
superior to the old style hand-made file as the electric light is to the
tallow candle. It is one of the most staple articles in the hardware
The file is now, as ever, the same old reliable tool it was on
store.
its introduction, when the mechanical age, of which the present day
is
the apex,
was ushering
into the world.
—
CHAPTER
IX
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
—
Uses and Nature of Wood. Wood is now, has ever been, and will
continue to be, the most widely useful material of construction. It
has been at the base of all material civilization. In spite of all the
substitutes for it in the shape of metal, stone, and other materials,
the consumption of wood in civilized countries has never decreased.
Although wood has been in use so long and so universally, there still
Fig. 236.
Log Skidway, Showing Method of Scaling.
knowledge regarding its nature in detail,
among laymen, but among those who might be expected to
know its properties. Experience has been the only teacher, and notions
sometimes i-ight, sometimes wrong rather than well substantiated
exists a remarkable lack of
not only
—
—
135
—
SHOP WORK
136
facts, lead the
wood consumer.
Iron, steel
and other metals are much
The reason for
in regard to their properties than wood.
this imperfect knowledge lies in the fact that wood is not a homogenous
material like the metals, but a complicated structure, and so variable
better
known
that one stick will behave very differently from another stick, although
cut from the same tree. Not only does the wood of one species differ
from that of another, but the butt cut differs from the top log; the
heart wood from the sapwood; the wood of the quickly grown sapling
Fig. 237.
of the
abandoned
Even
the forest.
from that of the slowly grown old monarch of
manner in which the tree was sawed and the conwood was cut and kept influence its behavior and
field
the
dition in
which the
quality.
It
is,
Tkansporting Logs by Team.
therefore, extremely difficult to study the material for
the purpose of establishing general laws, and it becomes necessary to
make specific inspection of the individual stick which is to be applied
to a certain purpose.
—Logging
or "felling" timber should be done as much
the tree has reached its maturity, if the
The
service the tree is capable of producing, is desired.
Logging.
as possible at the time
maximum
when
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
137
age of maturity varies with different trees. The best season for felling
timber is either in midsummer or midwinter. The conducting or growing cells during this season are less active, or practically dormant, and
durable wood can be secured at this time. The ax and the saw are
After the tree is felled it is cleared of
the tools used in felling trees.
branches and sawed into lengths and then taken to the saw mill.
Transportation.
drawing the logs
—Transporting
to a railroad or a
is done first by
stream with a team of horses or
logs to the mill
If taken to a stream the logs are drifted to a sawmill, v/hich
usually stands near the stream or pond.
oxen.
Fig. 2^38.— Tkanspokting
Sawmills.
— Sawmills
Logs by Kail.
cut the logs into timber, planks or boards
and these constitute lumber. There are two different types of saws
used in sawmills, circular saws and band saws.
—
Timber. Timber includes all large sizes, such as beams and joists.
Planks are wide and always thicker than one inch. Boards vary in
width and length, and are always one inch or less in thickness.
SHOP WORK
138
—
Milling.
Milling is the process followed up after the lumber leaves
the sawmill and is properly seasoned. Two types of machines are used
in milling
a planer, to surface the sides, and a jointer, to straighten
and surface the edges.
—
Fig.
239.— Log Slide.
Seasoning.— Seasoning lumber consists in rernoving the moisture.
may be done by air seasoning or kiln drying. Air seasoning is
done by piling (sticking) the lumber in large square piles in the open
Thus by permitting
air, with the layers separated by narrow strips.
the air to circulate freely through the pile, the lumber dries gradually
and uniformly. The air drying is a slow process, but more satisfactory.
The time varies with the species of wood and climatic conditions.
From two to four years is considered sufficient for air drying. Water
seasoning is done by permitting the timber to lie in water for a considerThis dissolves the sap in the pores and is replaced by water
able time.
which readily evaporates when the timbers are laid out to dry. Water
This
seasoned timber is used mostly for the spars of ships. Kiln drying is
an artificial process used in seasoning lumber. The wood is placed
in a chamber which is heated by steam or hot air and at a certain
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
139
—
SHOP WORK
140
Artificial preservatives are used
to infest these unprotected places.
Wood-tar and coal-tar
successfully in arresting the decay of woods.
are coipmionly used on wood adapted to out-of-door structures, because
of their cheapness.
Paints, also, are used on timber that does not
in contact with the
come
in the
coal, is
sote is
—
Charring, resulting from exposing the
the whole surface is covered with a coat of charvery successful when applied to well seasoned lumber. Creoa liquid used extensively for dipping railroad ties, telegraph
Methods
wood
soil.
of Preservation.
fire until
.
and telephone poles to prevent decay.
Fig. 241.
Mill and Yard on Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, Arizona.
Strength of Timber.
its
power
—The
strength of timber is determined by
and shearing of external
to resist pressure, tearing, twisting
force applied in any form.
—
Grain. The terms ''fine grained," "coarse grained," "straight
grained," and "crossed grained" mre frequently applied in wood working.
In common usage, wood is "coarse grained" if its annual rings
are wide, "fine grained" if they are narrow; in the finer wood indus-
—
—
,
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
141
a "fine grained" wood is capable of high poUsh while a "coaijse
grained" wood is not, so in the latter case the distinction depends
chiefly on hardness, and in the former on an accidental case of sic w
or rapid growth.
Markings. Markings on the board
are determined by the way the board is
A plain sawed board
cut out of the log.
is one that shows the annual rings approximately parallel, if the tree is
This kind of cut is
straight grained.
used on all construction work. A bastard sawed board is cut tangential to
the annual rings.
This cut warps readily because the outer layer of wood is
younger and newer. A bastard cut can
never be made at the center or near the
Fig. 243. Methods of Quartercenter of the log.
Quarter-sawed wood
Sawing Lumber.
is cut from a log that has been previously cut into quadrants.
Each quadrant
is then cut at nearly right angles to the annual rings.
This style of
sawing is done on all material for high class cabinet and interior work,
and reduces warping to a minimum, but is very wasteful in lumber.
The cross section of a tree is composed of bark a protective layer,
then follows the bast, cambium layer zone of growth sapwood and
heartwood.
tries
—
—
—
—
—
Lumber is bought and sold by the 1000 feet (M)
board measure, at so much per thousand. The term "board feet" means
a piece of lumber whose flat surface contains 1 square foot and whose
thickness is one inch or less. In common practice, lumber is always
less in width and thickness than called for by the customer.
This loss
is due to sawing and dressing, i. e., planing of the stock.
The standard
length of lumber is 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 ft. and, if special lengths are
Lumber in the rough is more
desired, additional charges are made.
nearly the full size than the dressed. In measuring the width of rough
lumber, a fraction of an inch that is equal to or greater than a half
inch is counted as a full inch; anything less than a half inch is discarded. If a common rough board is 8% in. wide, it is considered as an
9 in. board; if it is 8% in. wide, it is considered as an 8 in. board.
Stock one-half inch thick is less per board foot than stock one inch thick.
Ask a dealer the price per board foot of plain, red oak one inch thick,
also the price of the same kind and grade of wood one-half inch thick.
To find the number of board feet, multiply the number of boards by the
Board Measure.
—
SHOP WORK
142
thickness in inches, by the width in inches, by the length in feet, and
divide the product by 12.
How many board feet in 7 boards, 1 inch thick, 6 inches
Example
:
wide and 16 feet long?
7x1x6x16=5^ bo^^d
feet.
WOODS.
—
Tulip or Yellow Poplar. The tulip
or yellow poplar is a large handsome
tree, native of the Eastern United
States from northern Florida to Massachusetts and the Great Lakes west-
ward beyond the Mississippi. Ordinarily it grows to a height of 80 feet
in the
open,
and
in
a forest to a
height of near 120 feet, with a tall,
straight, unbranched trunk. Its leaves
are markedly different from all cithers
and once recognized will never be
confused with any other.
It
as though half of the leaf
away by
cutting the apex
appears
were cut
off,
leaving
the remaining portion notched.
Outline of Leaf, Bud and
Flowee of Tulip ok Yellow
Poplar Tree.
Fig. 245.
Courtesy American Forestry Magazine.
It is
angular, has four points and a sharp
lobe on each side.
redwood of the
Aside from
i.he
Pacific slope there is
no tree from which the lumberman can secure such broad boards and
planks of clear stuff that have so great an economic value for so many
purposes. While neither so soft nor so strong nor so easily worked
as white pine, it shrinks little when seasoning, does not warp, does not
split when a nail is driven near the end, takes glue and stain well
and actually presents a better surface for paint than pine. It yields
Yellow popthe longest, clearest planks of all American hardwoods.
material
for
furniture,
though
for highest
favorite
long
been
a
lar has
cherry,
class
with
mahogany,
walnut
and
the
same
is
not
in
grades it
enters
finish
into
which
of
furniture
and
it
maple. The list of articles
would include almost every piece in a well furnished residence, school,
office
or church, including chairs, mantels, benches, desks, tables, bed-
and many more.
In some of these it is the outside exposed material which receives the
polish or paint; in others it is the framework over which other woods
are laid. Yellow poplar furnishes an excellent backing for veneer because it retains its shape and holds glue well. It is also an excellent
veneer in the highest grade work.
steads, pianos, organs,
book
shelves, molding, paneling
—
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
Fig. 244.
143
Tangential and Quaktek-Sawed Silky Oak.
Photographed from Specimens
in
"American Woods," Courtesy B. B. Hough, Lowville, N. Y.
The White Ash.
a
tall,
bole
branches
length.
and
—The white ash
is
slender tree with a smooth
which is often free from
more than half its
home is in the eastern
for
Its
parts
central
of
the
United
States as far south as the nof^thern
limits of the Gulf coastal plain. For
the variety of
its uses white ash has
no equal. The wood is heavy, even
grained, hard and strong. Medullary
rays are numerous and obscure. The
heart wood
brown while the
sapnearly white. It
shrinks moderately, seasons with little drying, and takes a good polish.
wood
FIG.
247.-THE WHITE Ash.
Courtesy American Forestry Magazine.
Handles of
VehiclcS,
is
often
is
all
descriptions, parts of
interior
WOOd WOrk, parand even some
ticularly car construction, parts of musical instruments
parts of aeroplanes employ white ash in their construction.
—
SHOP WORK
144
Fig. 246.
Poplar,
Chestnut and Water Oak
in Cove National Forest,
Gkaham
County, N. Cae.
Photographed from Specimens
in
"American Woods," Courtesy R. B. Hough, Lowville, N.
Y.
—
Sugar Maple. The maple
over seventy species, but
has
family
maple
is by far the most
the sugar
It is widely distributed
valuable.
through Eastern North America frorn
Newfoundland to Texas, but the most
abundant growth is found in the New
England States, New York, northern
and western Pennsylvania and westward through the region of the Great
Lakes to Minnesota. The wood of
the sugar maple is hard, heavy, fine
grained and strong. It has a satiny
surface which takes a high polish.
Curly maple and bird's-eye maple are
not distinct species but are merely
common sugar maple with unusual
marking caused by some exterior inThe
248.— The Leaves, Seeds and Flow- fluence.
The largest demand for
EEs of sugar maple
f^^^ ^j^g industry which
^^^gg
J
'^
Courtesy American Forestry Maga^me.
FiG.
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
145
turns out planing* mill products. These include flooring, ceiling, wainNo
scoting, stairwork and many other articles of interior house finish.
wood surpasses maple
the ease with
which
for flooring either in point of long service or in
may
be kept in repair.
Atmospheric changes
remain tight and sanitary. For
stair treads, rails and balusters it is unsurpassed.
Large quantities
of rotary cut maple veneer are used on doors and in wainscoting and
other parts of interior construction where panels are employed.
The
second greatest demand for maple comes from furniture makers. For
enameled furniture, it has no equal as its surface takes the smoothest
and flnest polish and enamel adheres to it perfectly. Most maple furChair factories deniture, however, is finished in the natural colpr.
quantities.
wood for parts ol
this
timber
in
enormous
As
a
mand
and
shoe
findings,
musical instruagricultural implements, for boot
ments, and wooden ware, maple has no equal.
affect it
very
little
it
so that its joints
—
American Elm. The American
elm has a wider range than practically
any other native
found in
of
the
all
tree.
It is
of the United States east
arid
region
bordering
the
Rocky Mountains and extends
into
the southern portion of Canada.
The
elm
conspicuous because of its popularity as a shade tree.
It grows in
almost any soil, but it is subject to
is
many
FIG.
249.-THE American Elm.
insect
pests.
gpecies, the white
Two
and the
distinct
red, exist,
Uourtesv the American Forestry Magazine.
^^^ ^^^ j^^^^^ .^ ^^ j.^^j^ Commercial
importance. The white elm wood
building,
into
ship
the
cooperage
industry and to some extent in
enters
making.
Recently
elm has been finished to imitate some of
furniture
the more expensive woods but this has been done by staining rather
than by producing the figure. Elm's place is in cheap furniture or in
the interior parts of the more expensive kinds.
The wood is employed
in the manufacture of kitchen tables and other furniture because of
the ease with which it may be kept white by scrubbing.
—
The Chestnut, Our native chestnut tree is one of our best known
and best loved trees because of its beauty and its utility. It grows from
southeastern Maine to southern Michigan and south to northern Virginia, southern Indiana and along the Appalachian mountains to northern Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi.
Commonly, the mature trees
SHOP WORK
146
are from 3 to 5 feet in diameter and
from 60 to 90 feet in height, but
there are numerous specimens much
The heartwood of chestnut
larger.
is Ught brown in color while its
sapwood is yellowish or whitish.
Chestnut belongs to the same plant
family as the oaks yet its wood can
be easily distinguished from them
by the apparent absence of medullary rays which are the markings
that give such a pleasing appearance to quartered oak. These rays
are present but they are not easily
seen.
Chestnut is neither a very
strong
nor a very hard wood, but
Chestnut,
Feuit
of
250.—
Leaf
and
Fig.
Courtesy of the American Forestry Magazine, It is VCry CVCU grained and durable.
It will outlast almost all the oaks and most other hardwoods,
its durability being due to the high percentage of tannin which it contains.
Its lightness, freedom from warping, durability and reasonable
strength, together with its great abundance have given chestnut a great
In carpentry its use is confined chiefly to interior work.
variety of uses.
It takes paint well and finishes attractively in the natural wood, but is
too soft for flooring or other places where there is excessive wear. For
furniture making it probably surpasses any one of the oaks in volume
used, yet, with the exception of panels in wooden bedsteads, kitchen
furniture and less expensive tables, little furniture is finished in chestThere are two reaIts great use is as a core stock for veneers.
nut.
sons for its popularity in the furniture industry. First, it is light,
does not warp, is little affected by moisture and can be obtained in wide
Second, its open porous structure and its freedom from knots
widths.
Chestnut
enables the glue which binds the veneer to take a good grip.
also has an advantage when used with oak in that its resemblance to
that wood in plain section enables it to be finished on sides and ends
of pieces of furniture whose tops are veneered with oak.
—The
hickory is a characteristic American tree.
grows covers about one-third of the area of the
United States, although all species are most usually found in one
"Tough as hickory" is a phrase suggesting the peculiar
locality.
strength and elasticity of the hickory wood. It is heavy and strong
The Hickory.
The area in which
but
is
ibility
not durable
and
it
when exposed
elasticity.
to the weather.
Hickory has
long
It is
been
noted for
and
will
its flex-
continue
—
—
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
147
to bQ a favorite for handles of all
kinds.
Many modern
farm
tools
could not dispense with the hickory
that forms various parts of them.
The Leaves, Flowers
AND Seeds op Basswood.
Fig. 252.
Fig.
251.
The Mockernut Hickoky.
Courtesy the American Forestry Magazine.
Courtesy the American Forestry Magazine.
—The
natural range of the basswood is from New
Brunswick south along the Alleghany Mountains to Alabama, and westward to eastern Texas, Nebraska, and southern Minnesota. The tree
is commonest about the Great Lakes but attains to best development
on the bottom lands of the Ohio River. The light brown wood is soft,
straight grained, and easily worked but not durable. Large quantities
Basswood.
are used for house lumber, wooden
ware, carriage bodies, panel work
and paper pulp.
—
-The White Oak.
Courtesy the American Forestry Magazine,
13
The American White Oak. Both
sentiment and intrinsic value have
long given the oak the most important place among the hardwoods. At
an early date it was associated with
the gods. It is symbolic of strength,
permanence and independence. Poets
have sung its praise and have referred to it as "the builder oak, sole
king of forests all." Nearly 300
species are known and many of these
are commercially useful, but it is
necessary to confine ourselves to the
most important. The white oak is
our most important oak and is one
SHOP WORK
148
"^
£^
—
—
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
149
deepens with age and exposure. The wood shrinks moderately in drying and if care is taken, dries without checking. It works and stains
Walnut
well, takes a good polish and is valuable as a cabinet wood.
was formerly used extensively for furniture and interior finish, for gun
At present the supply is so
stocks, tool handles and carriage hubs.
small that
it is
being conserved for the manufacture of
rifle
stocks only.
—
Western Red Cedar. Next to
Douglas fir, Western red cedar is the
most important timber tree of the
northern Pacific slope. Its ability to
resist decay has won it many names.
One tree which fell and over which
others extended their roots was found
in excellent preservation even though
the living trees showed an age of
1500 years. Indians early used it in
making canoes and today it is the
The
greatest shingle wood we have.
wood is soft, straight grained, easily
worked and
little
subject to check'
Only small quantities of the
wood are used in house construction
except for siding and shingles but it
ing.
Fig. 257.
The Westeen Red Cedar. is used extensively
Courtesy the American Forestry Magasine, and fence posts.
for poles, piling
—
Red Gum. Red gum is perhaps the commonest timbeir tree in the hardwood bottoms
and drier swamps of the South. In most
favorable conditions it reaches a heighth of
150 feet and a diameter of 5 feet.
Red gum
3ame into prominence in quite recent times.
Owing chiefly to its tendency to warp and
Lwist, and also to the fact that the supply of
hardwoods was so large, there was no
incentive to work so low priced and supposedly unsatisfactory a wood as gum. HowDther
,
with the supply of various finishing
woods in use growing scarcer, red gum was
ever,
looked to as a possible substitute.
objectionable qualities of red
Certain^^c!
gum lumber
have been eliminated by careful handling
258.
Leaves and Fbuit
THE Red Gum.
ob
—
SHOP WORK
150
its beauty, adaptability and fine working qualities have promoted
use with great rapidity. The wood is about as strong and as stiff
as chestnut; it splits easily and is quite brash; it is about as hard as
yellow poplar and works about as easily; its structure is so uniform
that it can be stained, painted or glued, without absorbing much of
the material.
One of the most important uses of red gum is for inIt may be obtained in either plain or quarter-sawed
terior finish.
lumber or selected for figure. The figure is different from the charOrdinarily they are due to the
acter of the figure in most woods.
medullary rays and the variations of annual rings. Gum's figure
is due to neither, soil and situation being the determining factors.
One-third of the whole supply of veneer is made from red gum. Especially is it used in panel work, both for interior decoration and for
panels in many pieces of the best furniture.
and
its
Fig. 255.
Tangential and Quartee-Sawed White Oak.
in "American Woods" Courtesy R. B. Hough, Lowville, N.
Photographed from Specimens
The Redwoods.
—The
Y.
forest of redwoods are limited in area to the
coast regions of northern California and the extreme southwest corner
of Oregon. It is rarely found farther than 20 or 30 miles from the
ocean and is limited to localities where heavy sea fogs are frequent.This family boasts of having the largest trees in the world. Redwood
—
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
151
lumber was first cut in an extensive
way about fifty years ago. Its chief
use has been and still is for house
Being practically imconstruction.
pervious to decay its use for exposed
parts
make
use.
For
range of
from
it
well fitted for exterior
interior use
possibilities.
it
has a wide
Since
pitch, it is especially
it is
free
adapted to
hold paint and enamel. However, the
beauty of the grain is so great that
it is now a common practice to finish
the wood in its natural state. Redwood produces excellent imitations of
rosewood and mahogany. It is easy
to work and can be secured in boards
of great length
and width.
The decwood
orative effects of the natural
Fig.
are richly varied and the shades of
a wide range.
Magazine.
259.—The Red Wood.
Courtesy the American Forestry
color cover
.
ai'i..ifi''E.'»'.*.i
£'i^aaK'sih.xiss!rM--i, 5«&.'«^JMfi[g
Fig. 260.
^Tangential and Quartee-Sawed Redwood.
Photographed from Specimens in "American Woods," Courtesy R. B. Hough, Lowville, N. Y,
SHOP WORK
152
—
White Pine. The habitat of the white pine is east and west 1800
from Newfoundland to Manitoba. Approximately half of its
range is in the United States and half in Canada. This species of pine
has been the most important building wood in the world. Its softness
and weakness have barred it from some places in modern manufacturing and its lack of figure has disqualified it for others, but its range
of usefulness has been so wide and the supply so great that it held
first place in forest materials during two and a half centuries.
White
pine has given good service everywhere. It has always been the wood
of universal excellence for constructing houses, barns, and other buildings.
The wood is less affected by moisture than other woods, it
neither checks nor warps, holds paint and other finishes well and its
soft even grain makes it an easy wood to work.
For a long period it
served as material for furniture and while not so well adapted for
miles,
the various articles of furniture
it
served
its
purpose.
The Longleaf Pine.
—The
longleaf
one of the three most valuable
timber pines in the United States.
The others are the white pine and the
shortleaf pine.
The longleaf pine is
found from the foothills of the Appapine
is
lachian Mountains to the coast from
southeastern Virginia to central Florida,
and thence westward in the Gulf
States to eastern Texas.
gion
it
grows
In this re-
in a belt about 125 miles
tall tree, free from
more than half its
height.
The wood is heavy, exceedingly hard and strong. It is usually
fine-grained and durable, orange col-
wide.
It
branches
is
a
for
sometimes of a very deep shade.
has
become popular with workers
Fig. 261.- -Long Leaf Pine -Male and
Female Flowers.
who demand timbers of exceptional
Courtesy the American Forestry Magazine.
size as it is common for one tree to
furnish a log 70 feet long which can be squared to 15 inches It is largely
used for building, both framing, flooring and interior finishing; also
bridging, railway ties, fencing, and for masts and spars.
or,
It
—
The Shortleaf Pine. The region of the natural growth of shortleaf
pine extends from southeastern New York through the southern limits of
—
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
Fig. 262.
Long Leaf Pine, Georgia.
153
—
154
SHOP WORK
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Missouri, and southward to eastern
Texas and northern Florida. This
species of pine grows to moderate
proportions for a member of the pine
family, the ordinary tree growing to
a height of 80 to 100 feet with a
diameter of 2 to 3 feet. Since it can
grow rapidly in height when young
trees are crowded together, trees in
woods have
While
the
trunks.
long, clean, straight
definitely
restricted
good qualities of
shortleaf pine are so varied and its
in
area,
its
the
adaptability so superior that its distribution extends through the whole
More than 39 per cent of all
lumber used in the United States is
shortleaf pine. Its annual production—more than 14,000,000,000 board
world.
feet
merican Forestry Magazine,
—
is
over three times as great as
^ny other One WOOd.
Fig. 264.
Veneer Panels of Shortleaf Pine.
Courtesy of the American Forestry Magasine, Washington, D. C.
One
of
itS
best
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
155
known uses is for interior finish, the grade of lumber used being manufactured from the thick, clear sapwood. So popular has it become that
architects are specifying it and builders are using it more and more for
the finest homes all over the country.
It is demanded because of its
beautiful
texture
which
particularly
grain and
adapt it for fine joinery.
No other wood oifers such a wide choice in grain and figure. Shortleaf
pine does not show knife marks in the milling process so it requires
The wood hardens with
little labor to obtain a satisfactory surface.
age and its beauty is not surpassed by the hardwoods. Owing to the
absence of pitch it takes paint well and it is an excellent base for enamel.
For flooring it is unsurpassed for it meets all the requirements of
strength, smoothness
and staying
qualities.
The Bald Cypress.
—The
interest-
ing habits of the bald cypress invite
It is one of few coneattention.
bearing trees which drop their leaves
annually, it has the power to send up
vigorous sprouts when the tree is
felled
a rare thing in conifers and
it alone can live and thrive with its
Ten years
roots always submerged.
ago cypress was ^'lumber." Suddenly, it ceased to be just lumber, a piece
of wood of specified dimensions, and
became cypress, "The Wood Eternal."
Cypress was the first wood to be ad-
—
—
vertised nationally.
It is necessary,
take into considerathat intelligent adtion
the
effect
o^r
m
"'t>
^
FiG. 265.— The Bald Cypress.
/I
the aemand.
had
On +i,
VertlSing
haS
Courtesy the American Forestry Magazine.
The natural range of cypress is a region made up of the Atlantic and
Gulf Coastal Plains and extending up the Mississippi Valley to a point
therefore,
to
way to Canada. Cypress has a variety of uses and for
preferred above other material. The key to its usefulness
is its resistance to decay and the fact that it is easily worked.
Great
buildings,
ceiling,
flooring,
quantities are used for outside finish of
molding and finish. Abundant proof of its resisting qualities is given.
In South Carolina a grave marker was so well preserved after 140
years' exposure to the weather that the letters could be easily read.
Roofs of cypress shingles withstand centuries of exposure. A roof of
more than
many
half
it is
cypress shingles placed on
pipe laid in
New
Mount Vernon was removed in 1913. Water
was sound when dug up in 1914,
Orleg-ns in 1798
SHOP WORK
156
Spruce.
—The
"North Woods," a
storied land so frequently described
by writers,
is
the
home
of spruce.
This forest stretches from the eastern
provinces of Canada to Alaska. In
the United States its growth is confined to portions of Maine, New
Hampshire and Vermont, the Adirondacks and certain portions of the Appalachian Mountains. Spruce is an
Its outaristocrat among woods.
standing characteristics are strength
With these qualities
lightness.
are combined elasticity and ability to
and
withstand sudden strain and shock.'
This wood came into the market as a
Fig. 26G.—The Spruce.
Courtesy the American Forestry Magazine. substitute for pine.
Although it has
chief
to
1914 was as a
use
had a place of its own as a lumber wood its
adapting
especially
it for
pulp wood, the length and toughness of fiber
this
wood
suddenly
that purpose. With the opening of the world war
Fig.
267.— Felling Spkuce.
Fig.
268.— a V;kgin Fokest of Spkuce.
—
FACTS ABOUT WOOD
157
sprang into prominence, for of all known materials including both
metal, it best meets the requirements for the supporting
frame-work of air-craft v/ings. The demand is great but forests are
measuring up to the task and are supplying practically all the spruce
needed by the allies.
wood and
—
Douglas Fir. Douglas fir is a western tree growing throughout the Pacific Coast region.
Except the giant
redwood no other tree of our continent
attains larger size.
from 4
It
commonly grows
diameter and from
180 to 250 feet high, although many
have been found much larger. The
color of the wood is light red or yellow.
The wood is heavy, hard and strong but
usually is coarse grained and hard to
work. It has a pleasing grain because
of the marked contract between its
spring and summer rings of growth. It
to 6 feet in
Fig. 270.
Douglas
Fir.
Courtesy American Forestry Magazine.
158
SHOP WORK
has small medullary rays so quarter-sawing will not add to its beauty.
The most common method of cutting is to cut the log into veneer using
care to cut across the rings of growth at a very small angle. This
exposes large irregular areas of the dark and light rings thus creating
many irregular designs. Douglas fir is adapted to construction throughFully fifty per
It has strength, durability and holds paint v/ell.
out.
cent of the cross arms used by telephone and telegraph companies are
of Douglas fir. It is now used for boxes and heavy crates and recently
has been found to be of exceptional value in the construction of wood
pipes, stave tanks and stave silos.
—The birch
a native of the greatrange extending into
the states of the United States bordering on
that country. There are several species but
the sweet birch is of greatest importance.
The wood is stiff and strong. Its most important use is for various kinds of furniture.
The advantages of the wood for this purpose
are that it is dense and even grained, has
good milling qualities and will take and hold
almost any kind of finish. Birch wood can
Fig. 271.— The Birch.
be so treated as to imitate mahogany and it
can also be treated so that it closely resembles cherry. As a furniture
wood, chairs of all descriptions consume the largest quantity of sweet
birch, but tables, bookcases and filing cabinets are often made wholly
or in part of this lumber.
Birch.
er part of Canada,
is
its
CHAPTER X
FACTS ABOUT BRUSHES
—
Materials and Methods. There are many methods employed in the
construction of brushes and a variety of ways in reaching the same
Before the manufacturer can assemble
results in forms and details.
and combine the parts that make a brush, much time and labor is given
Bristles are washed clean
to the selection and preparation of materials.
and separated into sizes. Mixtures of different kinds, in the proper
proportions, are prepared to make brushes suited to various purposes.
For paint brushes, the mixture is different from that used in varnish
brushes, and whatever kind the user demands should be made of the
grade of bristles best adapted to his special purpose. The quantity of
bristles for each brush is carefully weighed; this insures uniformity in
respect to fullness, and enables the manufacturer to compute the cost
Handles and woods used in brushes are of selected
of his product.
The principal raw matefrom which brushes are made are the products of distant countries.
Eastern Germany, Russia, Siberia and China produce almost all the
bristles and hair used in making brushes.* The manufacturer who buys
kinds, best adapted to their special purposes.
rials
raw material cheaper than elseMisrepresentation
quality
as
to
the
of brushes exists now to a
where.
extent
than
heretofore
and
cheap
substitutes
for bristles and
greater
other materials are mixed in brushes more extensively than formerly.
It IS to be expected that when a scarcity of any natural product develops and consequently when increased cost takes place, substitutes will
be used. When substitutes are used and goods are sold under proper
representation as to quality, the buyer knows what to expect. The use
of horse hair as an adulterant of bristles has increased much lately and
many tons are mixed with the bristles in brushes which are sold as all
bristle brushes.
White, gray or black horse hair is skillfully mixed with
corresponding kinds of bristles so that the finisher rarely discovers the
fact until he is using the brushes and then he wonders why the bristles
at the source of production, obtains
* At the present time, the bristle situation, like that of many other raw materials
of foreign origin, is in a very uncertain condition. German bristles and hair are, of
course, unobtainable; Russian goods are scarce and unreliable as to length and quality; and hence most of our present supply is obtained from China.
After the conclusion,
of the World War, conditions will doubtless adjust themselves to normal.
159
SHOP WORK
160
are not as elastic and effective in working as they were formerly, and
the bristles wear so quickly. It may be interesting to know that
while thousands of patents for brushes have been taken out in the United
States during the past fifty years, there has been little change in the
methods used in Great Britain and Europe. Not all of the brush inventions in the United States have been successful, but enough have been
successful to make radical changes in the methods of making them and
why
economy of materials and lower prices for better
brushes to those who use them. Today, brushes with chisel ends are
very common. Not many years ago they were a novelty, and the feature
of pushing back bristles was a secret.
The advantage to the varnisher
to result in great
of having his brush broken in
when bought
is
readily seen.
To make
a chisel end brush, the bristles are actually pushed back, on the side of
the brush, by a clever device, and the soft ends of the bristles are not
cut off, as is often thought to be the case.
One of the most useful
features attached to brushes is the metallic bridle, rendering the old
way of bridling with twine almost a lost art. Among the more recent
inventions of note is the method of fastening the bristles in the ferrule
so that they will not fall out and so that they can be used in all kinds
of materials. In using this method, the bristles are first imbedded in
soft rubber and then vulcanized or hardened so that it is impossible for
them to fall out. The hard rubber cannot be dissolved by turpentine,
benzine, alcohol, shellac, hot water or any liquid in which a brush may
be used. Another method is to set the bristles in a steel band and then
place it under high pressure.
This device holds the bristles in place
quite successfully.
Dusters and Artists' Brushes.
made by methods
—Painters'
dusters and other kinds
from those used in
making paint brushes. Knots of bristles are crowded into holes, which
are bored in a hard wood block, after being saturated with cement pitch.
Some kinds of brushes have their bristles fastened into the holes with
of dusters are
entirely different
copper wire, each tuft of bristles being forced tightly into a hole.
Artists' brushes are of many kinds and practically all are made by
drawing the bristles into tapering ferrules, each knot having been wound
with cord and cemented. The business of manufacturing brushes requires expert knowledge of materials and methods of making, and details must be carefully worked out.
There are only a few large successful brush manufacturers in the world.
Bristles.
When
—A brush may be only a
collection of crude,
towards brush construction.
Many
raw
materials.
have only taken the first step
things must be done to the bristles
bristles leave the hog's back, they
PACTS ABOUT BRUSHES
161
before they will do the work that is expected of brushes. Bristles must
be washed, straightened, and attached to handles by experts. They are
as carefully and as expertly treated as any article which receives mechanical assistance before being put to its final service by an artist or
artisan.
Every bristle has a natural bend or curve which cannot be
taken out of it. And therein lies an important secret of good brush
making. The hair of each animal bends toward its tail, and when
assembling brushes, skilled hands must arrange each bristle so that this
natural curve, or bend, points to the center of the brush. If this is
not done, it will not work well. This is true of the small, fine artist's
pencil, as well as of the largest paint brush.
When the artist's brush
or pencil does not paint, or when the paint brush crawls and does not
cling after once broken in, it is because the natural bend of the bristles
is not properly pointed toward the center of the brush before locking
them in the ferrule. Each bristle, too, has a large coarse end that is
locked in the ferrule. The same skilled hands are required to see that
this coarse end is not reversed and allowed to interfere with the working end of the brush. The large coarse end is solid but the thin end
"with the flag" is split. If properly set this produces the very fine
taper on the better grade brushes. Up to a certain point, hand work
cannot approximate the accuracy of machinery. Most
now in use is of the automatic kind. Russian bristles
are considered the best for long stock purposes, as they are longer and
have considerably more elasticity than most others although many German bristles are found as long, the elasticity is not so great. Unscrupulous persons often substitute them for the genuine Russian.
Climatic
conditions are the direct cause of this difference.
Nature provides the
necessary coat for the climate, and hogs are no exception to this rule.
Chinese bristles are replacing the rapidly depleting supply of Russian
bristles.
While Chinese bristles are not quite as long as Russian the
quality as a rule is almost equal.
Most of the brushes used in housepainting, varnishing and enameling are made from Chinese stock.
The
Russian stock, used mostly in kalsomine and other brushes, requires
extra long length. Almost all bristles used now are black as the original
white stock is almost unobtainable. Some of the finer hair used in
artist's and fine painting and varnishing brushes comes from the colder
is efficient,
but
it
of the machinery
;
countries.
Ox
hair comes from Siberia.
The
so-called camel's hair
is
nothing more than hair from squirrels' tails and comes mostly from
eastern Germany and Russia. Wood-fibre is much used in the manufacture of cheap brushes, as for instance, the palm fibre known generally
as palmetto.
As stated before, the bristles are imported from foreign
countries, since the bristles of the
American hog are
so short that
it is
SHOP WORK
162
impossible to use them in making brushes. The American hog is not
absolutely worthless as far as his bristles are concerned, as in the mortar
for plastering is a place to use this otherwise useless commodity.
Care of Brushes. Brushes in which the bristles are set in glue
should never be used in a stain or paint made of water, as the water will
—
Again if the bristles are set in cement, they should
be used in material in which alcohol is used. But a brush in which
bristles are set in rubber may be used for any purpose which does
injure the bristles themselves. Brushes should never be kept in too
a place, or in excessive heat as they are liable to shrink and come
Before using a new brush
apart, no matter how well they are made.
always remove the loose bristles which were too short to catch in the
ferrule.
Never put a new brush in water "to soak" as this will destroy
the life of the bristles and cause them to become flabby and to twist out
dissolve the glue.
not
the
not
hot
of shape.
CHAPTER
XI
WOOD FINISHING
—To
preserve and beautify the wood is of prime imporhowever, so much stress is frequently placed on
the beautifying of the piece that the preservation of the wood, which ig
the essential feature, is often overlooked, and, as a result, the aesthetic
effect will be short lived.
To secure good results in wood finishing, the
pores of the wood must be sealed to insure against warping, twisting,
expansion, contraction or any physical change that may be effected by
Purpose.
tance in
wood
finishing
;
The preservation of the
wood must not be overlooked but, while chemicals are applied to do this,
other chemicals may be worked harmoniously with them to give a
the fluctuation of the atmospheric conditions.
;
finished
appearance that will be pleasing to the eye.
—
Exterior Finishes. — Exterior
Classes of Finishes.
Briefly speaking, finishes
exterior and interior.
two classes
may
be divided into
:
finishes are usually opaque, consisting
color matter and a little drier.
This
mixture is called paint. The pigment is stirred with the oil until it has
^one into solution. Then enough oil or pigment is added to make the
mixture a good working consistency, after which the colors are added.
The colors are usually stirred into the paint, but a very common practice
is to "box them in", at the same time working the oil and pigment by
pouring them back and forth from one container to another. If necessary, enough drier may be added to make the paint dry rapidly.
of a pigment, or base, linseed
oil,
—
Pigments. There are many paint pigments, all of which serve their
purpose, and do it well, but the one in most common use, the one of the
longest standing, and probably the best by actual test, is white lead.
—
White Lead. The use of white lead is handed down to us by the
Romans, but the Dutch are responsible for the scientific manufacture
The Dutch Process is used largely today, although a
of this pigment.
better and quicker process, known as the Carter Process, is rapidly
taking
its place.
Dutch Process.
—To change pig lead
Process, the pigs are moulded
by the Dutch
These
into perforated discs or buckles.
163
14
into white lead
SHOP WORK
164
buckles are properly stacked in pots, the bottoms of which are covered
with acetic acid, or vinegar these pots are placed in a corroding house,
which is lined with spent tan bark. The bark ferments, throwing off
carbonic acid gas, and generating a hQat that evaporates the acetic acid.
The vaporized acetic acid, together with the carbonic acid gas, attacks
the buckles and corrodes them into a white porcelain substance, called
white lead. This substance is ground with high speed mill stones and
passed through fine silk bolting cloth. This product is dried in copper
;
pans, with exhaust steam, and the resulting product is the dry white
lead of commerce.
The dry white lead is mixed with linseed oil and
ground by large burr mills
to a paste form,
and
is called,
"White lead
in oil of commerce.'*
Carter Process.
—The Carter Process, or the new process,
modern and
scientific
construction
is
is
more
than the old Dutch method, while the chemical
the same. Under the Carter Process, the corrosion is
under perfect control at
all
times.
The pig
into revolving cylinders or barrels.
lead is pulverized and loaded
Into these cylinders the purified
carbonic acid gas flows, and, at intervals, the lead is sprayed with a
solution of acetic acid and water.
As the cylinders revolve, the
lead is shifted around, exposing every grain to the corroding agencies.
This corroded lead is watched carefully, taken out at the proper time,
and treated by the grinders to a process similar to the Dutch Process.
The method of producing white lead by the Carter Process takes about
fifteen days while it takes from one hundred to one hundred and thirty
weak
;
days by the old Dutch Process.
Linseed
Oil.
—Linseed
oil is
produced from flax-seed and
valuable, with the exception of Chinese
Wood
Oil, of all
is
the most
the drying
oils.
crushed and ground to a fine meal, heated with steam and
then submitted to an extreme hydraulic pressure, which eliminates the
The latter is maroil and leaves a solid mass, known as linseed cake.
keted as a live stock food. The new process of producing linseed oil is
to take the crushed flax-seed and submerge it in naptha, which, under
gentle heat, extracts most of the oil from the meal. After this, it undergoes a process of distillation which separates the naptha from the linseed
The seed
oil.
This
seed
oil
is
is
the most satisfactory and economical method Imown. Linis refined by a bleaching process
for varnish makers' purpose
which eliminates all foods, or albumen, leaving an almost water white
oil which can be heated to 625 degrees Fahrenheit without the slightest
Ordinary commercial linseed oil will not stand this heat,
discoloration.
present in it, decompose and cause the oil to turn
albumen,
as foods, or
very dark.
WOOD
Chinese
in China.
Wood
The
Oil.
FINISHING'
165
— Chinese Wood
fruit of this tree
is
oil is the product of the tung tree
a peculiar bottle shaped nut. When
ripe the seeds are collected and the oil is extracted.
It is used in preference to linseed oil in the making of the greater part of our varnishes.
The Chinese and Japanese have known the valuable properties of this
oil
for
many
centuries and have used
it
on their boats as a wood preser-
vative.
Colors.
—Colors are divided
as are used in paints
into
and soluble
;
two
colors,
classes
Pigment colors, such
which are soluble in water, oil,
:
or spirits. The latter thoroughly dissolving in their solvents, produce
deep, but clear and transparent, colors. Pigment colors are made largely
by the blending of clays and oxides, produced by heat in cupolas or
ovens while colors soluble in water, oil or spirits are bi-products of coal
;
tar,
and are
classified as anilines.
Color Shades.
soluble, is the
—The application of
same; that
certain shades.
The
is,
colors
all colors,
whether pigment or
the blending of certain colors to produce
most common to the painter and
finisher are
the following:
Burnt and Raw Umber,
Burnt and Raw Sienna,
Vandyke Brown,
Tuscan Red,
Canary Yellow,
Crome Yellow,
India Red,
Para Red,
Prussian Blue,
Cobalt Blue,
Chrome Green,
Bronze Green.
Drop Black,
Lamp
Black.
pleasing shades may 'be worked out.
These colors may be darkened by the addition of lamp black, or lightened
by the addition of a "thinner".
By experimental work many
will be seen, by chemical analysis, that ordinary
made
of such every day material as white lead, linseed
are
house paints
drier.
little
oil, colors and a
Composition.— It
Application of Paint.— When applying paint, be sure that the wood
Water is the greatest enemy an oil paint
is free from water and dirt.
In painting houses, barns, etc., it is necessary that a quantity of
has.
On
filler.
linseed oil is added to the paint. The added oil serves as a
knots and sappy places should be given a coat of shellac
etc., is done
before applying the paint. Puttying the nail holes, cracks,
dry boards
the
This is done after the filler coat is applied so that
next.
new lumber
all
;
;
:
;
SHOP WORK
166
absorb the oil in the putty and let it fall out. Two or three coats
Each
of paint are enough, depending on the consistency of the paint.
dry
of
time
to
before
anplenty
applying
given
should
be
of
paint
coat
will not
other but do not allow the building to stand too long between coats.
Interior Finishes.
—The
scope of interior finishing
is
far greater
embodies staining, shellacing, varnishing, waxing, and the working of these materials on floors, pianos, furniture, carriages, etc., as well as a knowledge of much of the material
which goes to make up paints.
than exterior finishing, in that
Stains.
—Except
it
medium by which wood may be
in fuming, a
col-
the grain and characteristics of the
wood must show through the coloring. The wood coloring stains are
the following:
ored
is
called a stain.
In
all cases,
Spirit soluble stains
Water
soluble stains
;
and
Oil soluble stains.
Water and spirit stains penetrate the grain of the wood better than
and water stains better than spirit stains, because spirits
oil stains,
evaporate so rapidly that it has but little time to penetrate the wood.
Care should be taken with water stains on thin veneer, because, if care
is not taken, the water may weaken the hold of the glue and cause the
veneer to blister. Any of these stains, especially the water stains, may
raise the grain of the wood. If it does, take a piece of 00 sandpaper
and sand off the thread-like fibers very lightly and color the filler to
match the stain. However, a safe way is to raise the grain of the wood
This may be done with a light coat of warm water, applied with
first.
a rag; a weak solution of alum water is still better. After the grain
is raised, sand it down, dust off thoroughly and then the stain may be
applied.
Stain Shades.
red, green, etc.,
—Stain
shades
may
be had in any shade of brown,
and are marked as
Golden Oak;
Weathered Oak
Early English;
Flemish Oak;
—Any
Mission Oak;
Bog Oak
Fumed Oak;
Mahogany.
wood that contains tannic acid and is unfinished,
This is due to the chemical reaction of the free ammonia in the air with the tannic acid in the wood. To get the same
results in a short time, the furniture is subjected to ammonia fumes, or
Fuming.
mellows with age.
WOOD FINISHING
the
ammonia
box
is
167
applied with a brush, and the piece is held in an air tight
This process, as the name indi-
until it reaches the right shade.
cates, is called
"fuming".
—
—
Liquid fillers
Fillers.
Fillers are of two classes
liquid and paste.
are best adapted for close grained wood such as maple, gum, etc., and
to classes of work where it is impossible to work with a paste filler, as
on intricate carvings. The purpose of the filler, whether liquid or
paste, is to positively seal and to level the pores with the surface
of the wood so that there will be absolutely no chance for moisture
Its application is the most important operation in
to enter the wood.
the finishing room, as it is the real preservative, as well as the base over
which an artistic finish may be applied.
—
Use of Liquid Fillers. A liquid filler is applied with a brush.
Care should be taken to cover the entire surface with a light coat and
This time varies according to the
to give it plenty of time to dry.
humidity of the air. Before another coat of filler can be applied the
liquid filler must be worked down with steel wool or fine sand paper.
This operation removes the dust particles which may settle on it while
Never use liquid filler on floors or surfaces
the filler is still sticky.
exposed to the weather.
—
Use of Paste Fillers. The paste filler is far superior to the liquid
It will actually
for open grain woods such as oak, ash, chestnut, etc.
fill and level the pores of the wood with one application, if properly apThe paste is worked into a solution by the addition of gasoline
plied.
or turpentine, of a good working consistency, and is then applied to the
surface and permitted to set long enough for the gasoline or turpentine
partially evaporate which leaves a thin film of the paste spread over
the surface. This film should be worked into the pores by rubbing the
surface across the grain of the wood and finished with a light stroke with
*to
Give this plenty of time to dry thoroughly and work with
sandpaper before applying another finish coat.
Application of Fillers. Fillers may be applied over any stain or
the grain.
fine
—
In many cases the colors
dye, but should be colored to match the stain.
the bare wood, omitting
applied
on
and
filler
paste
the
with
are mixed
the stain coat.
—
Shellac.
Shellac is a product of the East Indies, coming principally
from Bengal and Siam. It is a resinous incrustation formed on the
twigs and branches of various trees by an insect which infests them.
This insect is closely allied to the cochineal insect, which yields a red
dye color. The term "lac" in Sanskrit means 100,000, and is indicative
of the countless hosts of these insects which make their appearance
—
SHOP WORK
168
twice a year, in July and December. These minute insects breed in
myriads on the twigs and branches, and feed from the sap. The insects
begin at once to exude the resinous secretion, which forms a cocoon,
from which exudes the Lac Dye of commerce, over their entire bodies.
Lac incrusted twigs, called "gatherers", are known in commerce as
"Stick-Lac".
The
resin
coloring matter, and
is
is
crushed into small pieces, washed free from
as "Seed-Lac". When melted, strained
known
through canvas, and spread out in thin layers, it is known as Shell-Lac.
Shellac varies in color from dark amber to almost pure black, but is
bleached by dissolving it in caustic potash and passing chlorine gas
through it. This material is used in combination with copal varnishes,
and from it is manufactured a very fast drying and durable material,
used principally where quick results are desired.
—
Use of Shellac. Owing to its peculiar nature of resisting oily
materials, such as varnishes of all kinds, shellac is not a desirable matepiece of finishing
rial to use in combination with oil varnishes.
A
should be done either with shellac varnish exclusively, or oil varnish
Owing to their directly opposite natures, the two should
exclusively.
never be mixed. For example To finish a floor, say for instance, maple,
if the work must be hurried through, by all means use a good quality
of white shellac varnish.
On darker woods use orange shellac varnish.
If time can be spared, as it should be, owing to the
:
far greater durability of oil finish for floors, use a floor finish of some
reputable make, which has for its base linseed or Chinese Wood Oil.
Shellac is also used in the manufacture of sealing waxes and cements.
Shellac "sets" very quickly, and if a dark shellac is used, one must be
very careful not to let the liquid lap by the strokes of the brush. When
necessary to thin shellac, always use denatured alcohol.
—Turpentine
comes from the swamp pines of North
What is known as Canada Balsam is
also a turpentine. The last named material is of very heavy gravity
about the consistency of glucose and is quite expensive arid very
Its principal use is for pharmaceulittle used in varnish making.
Turpentine is separated from the resin by distillation,
tical purposes.
in combination with water solutions of alkaline carbonates. The water is
removed further by distillation over calcium chloride. The specific
gravity of turpentine is .865 as compared with water. It is the best
solvent yet produced for gums except shellac gum as alcohol is used in
Turpentine.
Carolina, Georgia and Alabama.
—
dissolving the latter.
for
oil
paste.
soluble stains
;
It is used for a thinner of paints; as a solvent
with paste fillers as a medium for spreading the
WOOD FINISHING
169
—
Varnishes.
In modern, progressive times, chemistry has entered
extensively into the science and art of varnish making, in which industry
gum copal, linseed oil, spirits of turpentine, naptha and, in recent years,
Chinese
Wood and Soya Bean
enter as the essential compotents of
varnishes, with the exception of those classed as "spirit varnishes".
The principal oxidizing agents used in producing the hard, quick drying
Oil,
all
properties in varnishes are the following
Oxide of manganese, borate
of manganese, sulphate of manganese, red lead, litharge, sugar of lead
:
and umber.
In recent years, resinates of these materials, which have
proved of great value to the varnish maker, have been placed upon the
market. These materials are incorporated in the oil and, under continued, excessive heat, reaching as high as 600 degrees Fahrenheit,
and continuing for a period of from six to ten hours, liberate their
atoms of oxygen, which are completely taken up by the oil and which
are then converted into what is known as drying or prepared oil, ready
for use and amalgamation with the gums.
—
Rubbing Varnish. Rubbing varnish should always be made of
what is known as hard copal, such as Kauri, Zanzibar, North Coast or,
Benguela, and the foundation upon which it is laid must be good, harddrying paste filler, or varnish that is absorbed by the pores of the wood,
make the surface for successive coats of the rubbing varnish. It is
therefore very im.portant that this foundation coat be thoroughly hard,
or seasoned, before applying the first coat of varnish. If coats of rubbing varnish are applied prematurely, or ovei" a soft foundation, there
will be a tendency to sweat, or enamel, as it is sometimes called.
The
to
time required for the hardening of a rubbing varnish depends upon
climatic conditions, temperature and the quantity of oil used, and varies
from 7V2> 10, and up to 15 gallons to the 100 pounds of gum, and depending on whether a quick, medium, or durable rubbing varnish is
required.
—
Pitting of Varnish.
Pitting of varnish is due to moisture, the presence of albumen in the oil, too much drier in the oil, and too much body
to the varnish when well spread.
—
Cracking or Checking. Cracking of varnish is caused chiefly because the undercoat is not well seasoned or thoroughly hard.
There is
a tension underneath the top surface, or finishing coat, which the finishing coat cannot withstand. It is also caused by sudden changes of temperature, lack of oil, the presence of rosin, too much drier, or by the
varnish as applied having too much body, or thickness.
SHOP WORK
170
—
Chilling of varnish is principally due to its
Chilling of Varnish.
or in a room where the temperature is
surface,
application to a cold
To
Fahrenheit.
obtain the best results, varnish should
below 70 degrees
be of the same temperature as the room in which it is used, and this
temperature should never be under 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
—
Kauri Gum. Kauri gum is the most important and most extenany of the fossil gums. It is obtained from the Kauri
tree which has its growth in New Zealand, in the northern island only.
The Kauri tree attains a height of 160 feet and ranges from 5 to 12 feet
in diameter. These trees are largely exported to Great Britain for use
as ship masts. The exportation of the Kauri tree, together with that
of the Kauri gum, forms one of the principal industries of New Zealand.
About $3,000,000 worth of Kauri gum is exported annually from that
country.
This material is dug from, the ground at a depth varying
from 6 to 18 inches, and is the product of an exudation from trees exThe area over which the digging is
tinct for possibly a thousand years.
conducted is perfectly barren. The supply of this gum is becoming
sively used of
more scarce each
year.
—
Manilla Gum. This gum, while not as hard as Kauri Gum, is
used extensively because of the plentiful supply. In fact it is coming
rapidly into favor for general use. The melting point is somewhat lower
than Kauri Gum but a good varnish is made from it.
—Zanzibar Copal
is the hardest and most expensive
maker. This gum comes from the east coast
of Africa, is fossil copal, and is found imbedded in the earth over a
wide belt of the mainland coast, where not a tree is visible. It is dug
from the ground at a depth of 4 feet and occurs in pieces varying in
size from that of a small pebble to masses of several ounces, while,
In this gum,
pieces weighing from 4 to 5 pounds have been found.
perfectly preserved insects, such as flies, spiders, mosquitoes, and other
forms of animal life, are sometimes found, though quite rarely. After
freeing the gum from foreign matter, it is submitted to various chemical operations for the purpose of clearing the *'goose-skin", the name
given to the peculiar pitted-like surface of the fossil copal. This "gooseskin" effect is supposed to have been formed by the impression of the
sand into which the resin fell in its soft, raw condition. The digging
is conducted by the natives in a careless manner, owing to the fact that
the work is done by untutored tribes. This makes the gum very difli-
Zanzibar Copal.
gum known
to the varnish
cult to obtain.
WOOD FINISHING
171
Many other gums are also used in making various varnishes such
as Sierra Leone, Bengulla, Brazil, Accra, Congo, Kameron, Borneo, Singapore and Amber Colophony.
Damar Gum.
—Damar gum comes from India and the islands of the
It is the product of a huge pine tree which
grows principally in Java, Sumatra and Borneo. This gum is very soft,
has a veiry low melting point, and is readily soluble in turpentine, forming an almost colorless varnish. It is used principally in making white
enamels and should not be used for any other purpose.
East Indian Archipelago.
Filtering and
Aging of Varnish.
—The questions of the
filtering
and
aging of varnish enter very seriously into the product of the varnish
maker. When the varnish is being made, and while at a temperature
of 300 degrees, it is passed through a filter press, under 90 lbs. pressure
to the square inch, which forces the varnish through a series of 22
sheets of canvas duck of the thickness and texture of an ordinary sail,
such as are used on vessels. Recent inventions have improved filtering
devices. The most successful device now used is one which employs the
principle of the cream separator. After passing through this process of
filtration, the varnish is pumped into storage tanks and allowed to stand
for at least six weeks before being offered to the trade, for the purpose
of incorporating all of the various ingredients which enter into its formula. The highest grade varnishes, such as carriage, piano and railway varnishes, are a^ed six months before they are matured for use
in these particular industries.
—
Uses of Varnish. The varnish maker is called upon almost every
day for some special varnish to meet the requirements of the almost
numberless uses to which varnish is put. It is a fact well known that
it is almost impossible nowadays to market any article manufactured by
the carpenter or cabinet maker without calling upon the varnish maker
for some particular finish or result necessary to be accomplished before
the product is marketable.
Some people have the erroneous impression that all varnish is drawn from the same tank.
As a matter of
fact, there are on file over 100 distinct standard samples of these products, which, in some cases, are sent out as made, and, in many other
cases, are blended with other goods. to meet the almost unlimited requirements and demands of twentieth century progress.
—
Wax. Wax is a paste, based with Caranauba Wax and paraffin, and
used in polishing. It should be put on either with a rag or a brush, and
permitted to set until it becomes stiff and then polished by rubbing with
rags or felt.
:
SHOP WORK
172
—
Application of Interior Finishes. It is well to remember that a
good finish over a poorly prepared piece of wood is next to impossible.
The secret of wood finishing lies in getting the wood ready, as well as
in the exercise of extreme care and patience which are necessary for the
The wood must be smooth,
correct application of finishing material.
free
from
dust,
and free from glue and water.
—
Natural Finish. For a natural filler, paste or liquid filler should be
used, depending on the grain of the wood, and should be applied carePlenty of
fully as described above in the section treating of fillers.
should
surface
time should be given for the filler to dry thoroughly the
shellac,
then be sandpapered with 00 sandpaper, and two coats of white
or more if necessary, should be applied, giving each coat plenty of time
Each coat should be worked down with steel wool or sandpaper
to dry.
before applying another coat. Extreme care should be taken not to
cut through to the bare wood with the steel wool, especially on colored
After the last coat of white shellac is properly worked, the
pieces.
Two coats of
piece may be finished either with wax or with varnish.
wax, well rubbed, will produce a beautiful dull gloss; but the surface,
Varto retain its lustre, should be rewaxed about every six months.
nish may be applied similarly to shellac, but better results may be had
by working it down with pumice and oil. Several coats of thin varnish,
properly worked down, and with the final polish put on by rubbing with
;
burnt
flour,
are required to obtain the looking glass polish.
—
To stain wood properly, select any of the stains, as they
put on in the same manner. Apply the stain to the wood with
a brush and wipe to the desired shade with a rag, thus bringing out the
grain of the wood. Follow this, after the stain is dry, with a filler,
colored to match the stain, unless a liquid filler is used, in which case
an orange shellac should be used. Permit this application to dry thoroughly and then sand lightly, being careful not to cut through the
coloring. If desired, several thin coats of shellac may be applied, allowing each plenty of time to dry, and working each well before the next
AlShellac should never be applied in heavy coats.
coat is put on.
It
advisable
to
use
good
is
a
varthin
coats.
in
very
shellac
use
ways
nish wherever possible. The finish will last longer, hence it is more
economical. A wax or varnish finis hmay be worked over this.
Stains.
are
all
—
Order of Application. The student will observe that the natural
order of procedure in the finish room is as follows
WOOD FINISHING
^
,
r
Color J
natural.
,
]^
173
J
.
stained.
Filler fP^^^.^:
1^
Body
liquid.
shellac.
r
varnish.
Finish J hard
oil.
[wax.
Things to Remember.
That the wood must be in the best condition.
It takes time and patience to put on a good finish.
Wax should not be put on over a stain, as the solvent of the wax cuts
the stain. Apply a light coat of shellac over the stain and then apply
the wax.
The brush must be free from foreign material.
It is better to apply several thin coats of shellac or varnish than one
thick coat.
Water
is detrimental to any oil stain.
Glue will show through any stain.
Keep the piece worked upon in a warm place, free from dust.
When you are imitating woods with finishes, it is better to select a
wood with a similar grain.
Never hurry the work. Give each coat plenty of time to dry, except
the paste filler. This coat must be worked while it is soft as it sets
very hard.
There are varnishes made for outside service.
For tables and chairs, use a varnish that sets hard and that will
not show scratches easily.
Use only denatured alcohol to thin shellac.
Do not get shellac on the hands.
A varnish will not stick over a wax, but a wax will stick over a
varnish.
Homemade
a
stains are good, if
mixed in a paste
filler
and applied as
filler.
When you are through, put away your stains, etc. Clean out the
brush, and anchor it in, a can of oil so that the weight of the brush
will not be on the bristles.
CHAPTER
XII
PERIOD FURNITURE
—
Furniture Types. Within the scope of a single chapter it is impossible to go into detail regarding the development of the various types
of furniture. A whole volume would not be sufficient to give a clear
understanding of the subject since there are so many angles from which
Furniture making began simply to fill a need; yet
it may be viewed.
along with the need came a disposition to regard it as an art. To find
the reasons for the various types of furniture one must go to the history of the times in which the types were created. Various impulses
led to the creation of these various types. One can readily see a reflection of the history of the period, suggestions of the social and economic
conditions and everywhere evidence of the ability of the craftsmen who
created the designs.
Egyptian.
—Even in primitive times,
furniture, though exception-
Egypt has furnished many rare examples of hei
The numerous excavations in that country
handiwork.
craftsmen's
have materially increased our knowledge of what the Egyptians really
The artisans sought their inspirations for their designs from
did.
nature herself. Beauty was their goal. Vegetable forms were used
as guiding impulses for exterior work while animal forms furnished
the lines for household furniture. The claw foot, so frequently used
ally crude,
was
used.
on the legs of furniture,
is
a product of these times.
furnished the details for Greek and
was
Roman
Egyptian designs
furniture making while
it
at its best.
—
Early European. European styles prior to the thirteenth century furnished but little suggestion in the way of interior fittings.
Every man's house at that age was a fortress. The chest, an absolute necessity, was the most valued piece of furniture, for it was the
family's storehouse. Architecture flourished as an art before furniture
174
—
—
PERIOD FURNITURE
175
As- a result, the first furniture
designs harmonized distinctly with European buildings. For example, a back
of a chair often took the design of a
making.
Gothic window.
Renaissance.
brought with
—The renaissance
it
new
ideas in architec-
were carried out in their
The tables, cupfurniture designs.
boards, beds and chests were all treated
more or less like miniature buildConsequently, the column and
ings.
ture and these
pilaster played important parts in fur-
niture design.
The
fronts of presses
and cupboards were treated as facades
of palaces and temples. Both oak and
walnut were used extensively because
these
yielded,
woods, especially the latter,
with beautiful effect, to the
carver's chisel.
—
Lines and Harmony. As previously
stated, our chief interest in period furniture must necessarily lie in the study
of lines and harmonies.
In cabinet
making it is not intended that one shall
confine himself wholly to a type of fur-
I
FiG. 272.
u
Fig, 273.
Elizabethan Chest,
Gothic Chaie.
—
SHOP WORK
176
which embraces nothing more than the work involving a series
of joints. Pleasing lines, symmetry and decoration, are to receive proper
attention with a view to embodying them in the projects created. It
may not be possible or advisable to attempt to make an exact reprotiiture
duction of a piece of period furniture but
as
accurately as possible
its
it is
wisdom
to reproduce
characteristics so that the student also finds
himself a real artisan rather than a shop worker only.
—
Jacobean. By the very nature oi
the furniture of the earlier times, reproduction is inadvisable. With the
year 1603 begins a period where there
is a type of furniture making, distinctly different from the preceding
periods, which have now become obsolete.
We refer to the Jacobean period
which dates from 1603 to 1688. The
furniture was stout, clumsy and severe in form, even though there was
considerable
Fig.
274.
the course
ornam'ent.
It
matched
Jacobean Chaie.
manners and the earnestStraight lines pre-
ness of the people.
dominated and the low forms were in
keeping with the low-ceiled rooms.
Heavy rails and posts were mortised
and tenoned and frequently pinned together with wooden pins.
—
William and Mary. The William
and Mary period, 1688 to 1702, was of
short duration. With the accession of
these rulers in England we can see a
marked increase in popular appreciation of refinement
queen had
and simplicity. The
judgment in mat-
excellent
p^^,
275.—William AND Maby Chaie.
—
—
PERIOD FURNITURE
177
and decoration and her taste, through its influence in
court circles, had great weight in determining styles for the whole
kingdom. The contour of William and Mary furniture was distinctly
different from any which preThe curvilinear eleceded it.
ment came into play for the first
time. Legs had inverted cup or
ters of furniture
spindle turnings.
Stretchers be-
were common.
Seats of chairs were nearly
square with a slight narrowing
Backs were high
to the back.
and usually straight across. All
tween the
cabinet
legs
work
simple.
of the period
was
There were no shaped
fronts to complicate the joinery.
Legs
were always braced by
stretchers so that the whole
was
quite substantial,
Fig. 276.
William and Mary Cabinet.
—
Queen Anne. With the reign of
Queen Anne we pass to a period entirely
different from the preceding ones. People
seemed to have been possessed with a cerModern
tain sturdy, wide-awake spirit.
spirit
modern
The
begun.
was
England
asserted itself especially in the evident desire and determination to improve condi-
The change
people of
of
houses
was noticeable in the
comforts
for
This demand
all classes.
and
chair
and conveniences meant that
alone
cabinet-makers were called upon, not
tions of domestic comfort.
Fig.
277.
Queen Anne Chair.
SHOP WORK
178
for increased production, but for changes in models and styles. The
constructive features of the furniture are easy to see. The perpendicular legs with inverted cup-turnings were replaced with the cabriole leg
and shaped stretchers went out of fashion. The typical Queen Anne chair
a strongly characteristic piece of
The uprights of the back, a
few inches above the seat, break at a
sharp angle and curve inward only tO'
swell again in a graceful curve at the
top which goes over in a bow and Joins
without break of line to the other upright. A similar curve forms the leg.
Stools were in popular use. They folQxjEEN lowed styles prevalent in chairs but
they were often fitted with loose
is
furniture.
Fig.
278.-
-Stool
—Pekiod
Anne.
cushions.
.
Louis XIV, XV, Z7/.—England was
never able to escape the French influence in her furniture designs. At times
the workmen copied very little, at other
times they were carried away by French
influence.
To copy French types is impossible; they are too ornate. But since
some of the period types so clearly reflect the political, social and economic
history of France, they deserve at least
brief mention. The reigns of the three
Louis'—XIV, XV, XVI—produced furniture which, while possessing certain
common
characteristics,
differences.
When
showed marked
XIV came to
Louis
the throne he burst forth into extrava-
gances which have never been equalled.
His ministers supplied him with enor-
mous sums and
craftsmen
the greatest artists and
France produced put forth
their
efforts
Fig.
The
best
follow his plans.
workshops were in the Louvre and
to
;T9.
—Louis
XV
Chair.
they not only supplied that structure
with furniture but the many other court buildings as well. Louis' idea
of pomp was reflected in the lines of all this cabinet work. Lines were
perpendicular or horizontal, giving a sternness and a touch of severity.
PERIOD FURNITURE
At
Louis' death
we
find that his successor
ality into the furniture created in his reign.
179
was able to put his personEvery one quit the straight
The ideal form of beauty was the female figure and its curves
were the ones used. There was an abundance of carving and
and
In the reign of
little of the work gives one the idea of great stability.
Both
the king and
decoration.
had
less
cabinet
work
Louis XVI the
of home
quiet
the
pleasures
and
enjoying
simple
queen were cultured,
paltheir
adorned
which
furnishings
life.
All this was reflected in the
homes.
other
ace and which were taken as types for the furniture of
line.
lines
—
Chippendale. Previous to the time of Thomas Chippendale, furniture styles took the names of the historical periods in which they were
The personality of the cabinet-maker was lost to view. Chipcreated.
pendale attached his name to the furniture he made. He was able to
do this, for he was a business man as well as a cabinet-maker. He knew
the art of advertising as it was then practiced and he made his workshop a meeting place for the folk for
whom he worked. Moreover, he was
the first one to publish a reliable book
of furniture designs.
From
this time,
was
the fashion for the best cabinetmakers to prepare books of designs,
it
wherein they were sure to call attention
to the styles which they themselves creChippendale did not create so
ated.
many designs he took existing styles
and adapted them to his own tastes.
In all of his furniture we note an advance in general shapeliness and grace
of proportion. He u^ed mahogany and
since it was stronger, tougher and more
elastic then the native woods, a heavy
His
framework was unnecessary.
backs
fretted
with
chairs were fitted
The
often filled with Gothic designs.
Chaie.
Seats
were
top was usually square.
Fig. 280.—^A Chippendale
of the square type with slight taper
toward the back. He rarely missed an opportunity to plan some ornamentation of which the letter C was a part. Many pieces of Chippendale furniture are in excellent condition today for he did his work so
well.
His joinery was without a fault and he knew exactly where- to
make the strongest parts so that the strains would be overcome.
—
15
—
—
SHOP WORK
180
The Brothers Adam.
—The
Brothers
Adam
were architects and
designers and not makers of furniture.
They created the designs;
others did the work. Not content with prevaihng styles they sought
the classic types, chiefly Italian, and made these the framework of
their own designs. Their success was largely due to their close atten-
The
same care was given
tion to details.
to the pattern of a
chair that
in
the
was used
creation
of
the plans for a palace-
Their
ence
was
influ-
evident,
all the leading cabinet makers
who were their con-
for of
temporaries, Chippendale
was the
only one who did
Range Table
Fig. 2S1.
—Brothers Adam.
not yield
to
their
influence. The
was indeed new. Curving structural lines were practically
dropped and a form almost angular came into use. All the furniture
was lighter and more graceful in character. A vase or urn often
adorned a piece of cabinet work. The typical Adam table was rect-
Adam
style
angular, semi-circular or semi-oval.
and were fluted.
swags or drops.
Legs were either square or round
straight and decorated with
The under framing was
—
Hepplewhite. There was
period,
for
Hepplewhite
no
Hepplewhite lived and worked
while Chippendale and the
Brothers Adam were doing
their
woi"k.
however,
style
to
which
It
is
possible,
characterize
was
a
distinctly
Hepplewhite's creation. While
he copied from other designs
he did add touches which gave
them a distinct individuality.
Frequently the Brothers Adam
turned designs to him which,
from a structural point of
Fig. 2S2.
Hepplewhite Table.
—
PERIOD FURNITURE
view, were not perfect.
181
Hepplewhite made
the needed changes, often adding something
of his own.
was
The whole Hepplewhite
influence
for grace, lightness and beauty of con-
Partly because of his
tour.
own
personality,
partly because of the influence of the Brothers
Adam,
the use of the straight line predomi-
There were numerous curved drawers,
but the top and bottom lines of the piece were
nated.
horizontally straight and their side lines were
vertically straight, so that all the curving
had
done in one direction. In his chairs,
Hepplewhite was original in his patterns.
The legs were square, tapered, and either flat
or grooved.
Seats were square.
The backs
took a variety of shapes, but the shield back
was the most common form. Hepplewhite is
credited with having used a great variety of
to be
woods
in the construction of his furniture,
B~'iG.
283.
Hepplewhite
Chaie.
being inclined to employ lighter and more
ones than his predecessors.
common
Sheraton.
—To speak of a "Sheraton Period" would be as incorrect
as to speak of a "Hepplewhite Period," for while Sheraton
was putting
forth his designs, the designs of Hepplewhite and the Brothers Adam were
also occupying attention.
However, at
the very end of the eighteenth century
there were a few years in which
we
must regard Sheraton's as the influence*
which determined the style of English
and American furniture. He was the
champion of the straight line in furniture making. His chair designs are excellent examples, nearly all of which
were
made with rectangular
When
not using vertical or horizontal
he employed diagonal lines with
lines,
backs.
good effect. Legs were either square
and tapered or were round turned and
fluted.
In all we note an excellent proportion. For decoration, Sheraton made
fig. 2S4.
—sheeaton
Chaie.
—
SHOP WORK
182
use of inlay and veneer. In one field he was distinctly a pioneer. Partly
taste, partly because of a demand, he gave considerable time
to the creation of mechanical devices which made possible the building
of combination pieces of furniture.
Folding beds and couches, and
through
washstands that might be converted into book cases were held in high
esteem, and were eagerly sought for.
Fig. 285.
Empire Couch.
—
The Empire Period. Again we must turn to France for the source
of inspiration for designers and cabinet makers.
Wholly unlike the"
style of the Louis', the French styles of this period were created, not
because of social or economic conditions nor because of the individuality
of the French cabinet makers, but they were determined by the Emperor.
Napoleon saw the
political necessity of creating a
national art and of furniture.
new
style of
He
put the matter in the hands of the
great French artists. In their work they were inspired by the pompous military spirit of the times, and seeking to achieve the heroic,
they sometimes utterly failed to produce anything artistic. Nearly all
of the furniture was heavily built, being often adorned with mouldings
of meaningless patterns.
While there was variety in the work produced, the sofas and couches were among the best pieces of furniture.
There was variety of shape, but the lines of the backs were usually
straight.
Frequently the arms ended in a scroll and the legs turned
outward. Decoration on the various pieces of furniture included carving, turning, veneering and painting. Despite the lack of dignity, grace
and refinement in this furniture the glamour of the French court and
the military spirit caused the English to lay aside their own designs
and to imitate these. Sheraton once deplored the fact that no matter
how artistic a piece of furniture might be, it received no consideration
after the French influence began to be visible. Through an admiration
—
PERIOD FURNITURE
183
American people, at the beginning of the
French modes in dress, manners and styles
However, in the adoption of styles of furniture,
for all things French, the
nineteenth century, adopted
making.
Americans made distinct modifications
in furniture
to suit their
own
tastes.
—
Mission
Craft.
of furmodification
craft is a
early
in
niture forms which
Mission
times were used in the missions
of the West and Southwest.
was exfurniture
Mission
tremely heavy, being built on
straight lines and without ornament. For years it was used
without modification in California, being selected to harmonize with the bungalow
type of house.
ever, mission
found to be
At
length,
furniture
howwas
impractical.
It
was entirely too heavy for the
housewife to move, so a modification
—mission
craft
—came
into vogue. This held to the
game structural lines, but the
PiCt.
286.
Mission Craft Chair
weight was
considerably lesFor years this type has been most popular in manual training
sened.
there is an absence
shops. The lines are plain, the joinery is simple and
as it is desirable
required,
finish
little
Besides, there is
of ornament.
to finish
the project in the natural color of the wood.
PART IV
QUESTIONS, PROBLEMS, GLOSSARY
CHAPTER
I
QUESTIONS
General Tools.
What
tools
do you consider necessary for a tool kit ?
How must
a plane be adjusted to enlarge
Name two
kinds of chisels.
How
its throat?
should chisels and plane irons be
sharpened ?
What
What
a T-bevel and how should it be used ?
are the essential features of a work bench?
bench be constructed ?
is
How
should a
Where do we get our standards of measurements? On what tools
are the graduations stamped, and for what purposes are these tools used ?
Name the different kinds of clamps and give their uses.
Saws.
Name
joint, set
the different kinds of saws, giving their uses.
Tell
how
to
How
are saws made?
giving the principles of operation.
and sharpen a cross-cut saw.
Describe a saw set,
are the real differences between a rip- and a cross-cut saw?
What
Bits.
Name
the different kinds of bits, giving the construction of each.
Describe the cutting action of an auger bit. Of a gimlet bit.
How are the sizes of augers and gimlets designated ?
What are the essential parts of the head of an auger bit ? In what
shapes are the shanks made ?
Bit Braces.
Name
the different parts of a carpenters' bit brace, giving their
functions.
Name
the different
modes of driving
bits.
Files.
For what purpose is a file made?
Name the
is meant by the cut of a file ?
What
How
are
By what
according to kind ?
the length of a file determined ?
187
files classified
is
cuts.
SHOP WORK.
188
Abrasives.
What is an abrasive?
What purpose does water
serve in grinding tools ?
in factories?
'
Why are artificial stones so popular
How are artificial stones made ?
Sandpaper.
How is
What
sandpaper made ?
the real difference between flint and garnet paper ?
is glue in the making of sandpaper ?
the kinds of paper used in the production of sand paper.
is
Of what importance
Name
When and how should
sandpaper be used?
Brushes.
What materials are necessary for brush
Where do the best bristles come from ?
How
are chisel brushes
construction ?
made? Dusters?
Woods.
How are the
trees prepared for the sawmill ?
What work
is done in the sawmill ?
Discriminate between timber, planks and boards.
How is lumber seasoned ? How does this effect the wood ?
What causes the wood to warp ? What bokrds will warp the most ?
What is'a preservative and how is it applied?
Define plain, bastard and quartered wood.
How are these cuts
secured ?
What is meant by "grain"?
How
is
What
Name
Why?
is
«
lumber bought and sold?
a board foot?
five
woods, giving uses for which they are well adapted.
Wood
What
What
is
the purpose of
wood
Finishes.
finishing?
is white lead and how is it made ?
Discuss linseed oil-, turpentine and colors.
How are paints made ?
What is a stain? Fumed wood?
Of what materials are varnishes made?
Where do
from?
Name two fillers and tell how
What is shellac? Wax?
Why do we thin shellac with
they are applied.
denatured alcohol?
the
gums come
QUESTIONS
189
Fastening Devices.
Name
the fastening devices.
Why
How
How
should a nail be driven at an angle?
should a screw be driven into hard wood ?
are the sizes of nails determined ? Of screws ?
steel fasteners?
What advantage has a wire nail over a cut nail ?
How is glue made? How is hot glue prepared?
Of corrugated
Define toe-nailing.
Joinery, Cabinet-Making
What is
and Carpentry.
a joint?
How should joints be constructed?
Define box-joints, surface-joints, framing-joints.
What
meant by stress of timber ?
main divisions of cabinet
panel effects.
and
anchoring the top,
is
Name
the four
pieces.
Define assembling,
Name the
What
What
parts of a door.
are glue blocks and how are they used ?
are plans and specifications and how are they related?
Name three
distinct types of furniture.
caused radical changes in the forms of chairs, tables, etc. ?
How are mouldings made? How used?
What is the difference between a bead and moulding?
Name the timbers necessary for raising the frame of a house.
How does a T-sill differ from a box-sill ?
Name two kinds of siding and tell how each is put on.
What is meant by well-hole, tread, riser, skirting board, newel post
What
and landing?
Name
Name
the timbers necessary to raise a hip roof.
the parts of a cornice. Of a window frame.
How should wood be squared? Why?
How should a shallow mortise be cut? A
deep mortise?
What should be the cutting action of a chisel across the end grain?
chamfer ? Hov/ should they be laid out ?
What is a bevel ?
tools
used for measuring.
Name the different
A
Dratving.
Name
five lines
used in mechanical drawing.
How are the elevations and plans developed?
Why is it necessary to have more than one view ?
Machinery.
Name
the most important woodworking machinery.
Describe the cutting action of saws. Of surfacers.
.
CHAPTER
II
PROBLEMS
The rule for finding board measure is found in Chapter IX, Part III.
The following problems are merely suggestions of what is possible in this line for manual training shops. We would recommend that
every exercise made in the shop be put in the form of a problem to
determine the value of the material used.
How many board feet in a piece of lumber 1 inch thick, 10
1.
inches wide and 8 feet long?
2.
How many board feet in a piece of lumber 1% inches thick,
16 inches wide, and 14 feet long?
inch thick,
3.
How many board feet in 23 pieces of lumber
9% inches wide, and 121/2 feet long?
6
4.
Find the total number of board feet in the following
1/6
12 (meaning 6 boards 1 inch thick, 6 inches wide, and 12 feet long)
%
:
—
—
10—1/8—16.
4—1/2/10- 14.
13—2/4—18.
2— 11/2/12— 10.
and
5.
How many
1%
inches thick?
board feet in a piece 14 feet long, 914 inches wide,
How many board feet will it take to construct a platform 15
6.
wide and 24 feet long, if the stock is 11/2 inches thick and there is
a waste of 7 board feet in squaring up the ends?
inch thick, 12 inches wide at one
If a piece of lumber is
7.
end and 8 inches on the other, and 16 feet long, how many board feet
feet
%
does
it
8.
contain?
A timber 8 inches thick, 10 inches wide, and 12 feet long, con-
how many board feet?
How many board feet
widths are 6, 7%,
whose
lumber
tains
9.
are there in five pieces of ll^-inch
9l^, and 12 inches, respectively, and
9,
14 feet long?
10.
Find the number of board feet in a stack of lumber that is
6 inches wide, 11 feet, 3 inches high, and 16 feet long; the
8 feet,
boards being 1 inch in thickness.
190
:
PROBLEMS
11.
A
wagon box whose
inside
191
measure
3 feet, 3 inches wide,
many board feet, if the
is
26 inches high, and 12 feet long, contains how
boards are 14 inch thick?
Inclose a 24-foot square with stock 1 inch by 8 inches by
12.
16 feet. The inclosure is 4 feet, 8 inches high and has uprights, 2x4's
placed every 6 feet with corners doubled. How many board feet does
it
contain?
13.
At $28.00 per M, how
inclosure in problem No. 12?
much
will
it
cost for lumber for the
Find the surface of an enclosed manual training bench whose
22 inches wide, 4 feet long, and 30 inches high; whose top is
2 inches by 2 feet, by 5 feet, 4 inches long.
15.
At 14 cents per board foot for quartered white oak, how much
will the following bill of material for a taboret cost?
14.
frame
is
16.
What
1
top
4
legs
l"xl8" xl8''
2''x 2^' x24"
4
rails
l^'x 2i''xl4"
4
rails
I'^x lV'xl4''
is
the diagonal of a 12-inch square?
Find the diagonal of a rectangular piece of wood 8 inches by
12 inches by 18 inches.
How many lineal feet of 1/0 i^^ch by 1/2 inch stock may be cut
18.
i^-inch
by 12 inch by 12-foot board allowing 1/16 inch saw kerf?
from a
Find the largest square timber that can be cut from a 1719.
17.
inch log.
must be matched, that is, by tongueand-groove joint. This matching causes waste and must therefore be
considered in making the lumber bill. In general practice, it is customary to add one-fourth to the bill in flooring and ceiling that runs in
widths from 21/2 inches to 51/2 inches. If more than one-fourth is added
All floor and ceiling lumber
for waste,
it
will be so designated in the following
problems
$60.00 per M, how much will it cost for lumber to floor a
room 24 feet inches by 16 feet 6 inches?
Find the cost of flooring and wainscoting a house 328 feet
21.
The house is divided into four equal sized
inches.
inches by 28 feet
inches high, and capped with
rooms. The wainscoting is to be 4 feet,
per M, of wainscoting,
is
$72.00
flooring
of
cost
The
mould.
flat
a
Inside
lineal feet.
hundred
per
$2.65
moulding
the
and
M,
per
$46.00
20.
At
partitions to be 6 inches thick.
How many feet of cypress will
22.
it
take to build a circular
silo
with a 6-foot radius and 26 feet high? The stock is 11/2 inches thick.
Add 5 per cent for waste in cutting flooring and one-fourth for matching.
SHOP WORK
192
At $38.50 per M, how much
23.
porch that
is
9 feet
is
wide and 31
will
it
cost for the ceiling of a
feet, 6 inches
long and whose rise
4 feet?
A man wishes to lay a 4-foot board walk outside a city block
300 feet square. He uses 2-inch by 6-inch for the walk and
2 inch by 4 inch for the supports of which there are three to each board.
Each board is fastened down with six 20d spikes. (Thirty spikes in a
pound, at 3i^ cents per pound.) How much will it cost to lay this sidewalk at $38.00 per M, allowing $42.35 for labor?
25.
How many board feet of solid sheathing is necessary to cover
a gable end roof, if the spread of the rafters at the base is 28 feet and
the pitch of the roof is 5/12? Length of the ridge is 36 feet.
5/12
pitch means that the roof rises 5/12 the span of the base of the rafters.
26.
How many bundles of 250 shingles each, will it take to shingle the foregoing roof?
24.
that
is
27.
How many cubic feet in a foundation wall 9 inches thick, 36
inches high and enclosing a rectangular building site 24 feet by 36 feet?
28.
How many board feet necessary for 7-inch risers and 11-inch
treads of a stairway built between floors 8 feet, 9 inches apart? The
stairway
29.
is to
be 40 inches wide.
If the rise of the stair horses is 9 feet, 4 inches
and the risers
are 7 inches and the treads are 11 inches, find the run of the stair
horses.
30.
If it costs 10 cents a cubic foot to complete a house, what will
a building 28 feet wide, 36 feet long, 12 feet to the eaves, and a gable
end roof that rises 12 feet above the eaves cost?
A
31.
house is 24 feet square and has two cross partitions at right
angles to each other and both are one foot from the centre of the building.
How many yards of plaster are necessary to cover the walls and
ceiling in all four rooms? Let the ceiling be 8 feet high.
32.
gallon of paint covers 700 square feet. How much paint
will it take to cover the walls of a barn 20 feet wide, 30 feet long and
16 feet high? Figure the gable ends triangular shape 20 feet wide and
8 feet high.
A
33.
4-inch
What
safe load (tension strain) will a half-lap joint
by 4-inch white
made
of
pine, carry ?
34.
How long will a roll of screening be that will screen three
openings on a porch, using screening that is 42 inches wide ? Openings,
36 inches by 8 feet, 36 inches by 12 feet and 36 inches by 6 feet. Count
fractions of strips as whole strips.
35.
cylinder 2 inches by 6 inches is to be covered with veneer.
Find the measurements of the veneer necessary to cover the cylinder.
A
PROBLEMS
36.
minute.
193
grindstone 6 inches in diameter makes 274 revolutions per
How far will a point on the circumference travel in a half
A
hour ?
band saw has wheels 36 inches in diameter and 4 feet, 6
inches from centre to centre. How long a band saw blade is necessary
37.
to
A
run over these wheels?
38.
The
cross-section of an
oil
can
is
a
semi-circle.
Its radius is
2 inches. How much oil will it hold?
A planer head rotates at a speed of 5,000 revolutions per min39.
pulley, which in turn
ute. The head is directly connected with a 4-inch
revolutions per minmany
How
is driven by a 12-inch motor pulley.
ute does the motor make?
CHAPTER
III
GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS.
—Medium by which material may be smoothed and reduced by
Adjustable Throat—The opening- through a plane which may be so regulated as
admit any sized shaving.
Alignment—True
a
Ammonia
gas used in fumof hartshorn) —A pungent
ing wood.
Anchoring the Top — Fastening; attaching
the
Annular—Ring shaped.
Arbors — Spindles upon which
stones and saws are mounted.
Stones—Manufactured
such as carborundum.
Automatic —^Mechanically operated.
Back Saw — Small rigid bench saw, with heavy, reinforced back.
Band Twisting —To twist a
bar method of making
Bast—A layer of wood.
Beads—Trimmings on boards
hide
Bench Dog — Mechanical
attached rigidly
bench, and used
against.
to butt
Bench Hook—Device used at the bench to hold small pieces of wood
while sawing.
Bevel—A
used
establish angles.
Bevel Gears— Gears which run at angles to each
Blue Prints —Usually working drawings plans for construction, so
developed as to expose white
on a blue background.
handle part of a tang
Bolster— Seat for a
Boss—A form.
Brace Jaw —Part of a brace chuck that holds a
Breast Drill—A small portable
Bristles—Hair from a hog's back.
Burnisher—A
used for sharpening cabinet scrapers.
Burr—Metal, projecting from an edge.
Cambium Layer— The growing part of a stem of a
Carborundum —An
stone used as an abrasive.
Carter Process— Quick process for forming white
Caul—An opposite used in gluing veneer on curved work.
Celluloid—Imitation
Centrifugal—Proceeding from the
the plane of two edges on
Chamfering —The act of reducing^ stock
Abrasive
friction.
to
to
(spirits
line.
volatile
to
rails.
cutters,
stones,
Artificial
flat
bits.
;
to
device,
joints.
to
stock,
tool
to
other.
;
lines
chisel
chisel.
;
bit.
drill.
tool
plant.
artificial
lead.
;
ivory.
center.
to
adjoining sides.
C/iarcoa^— Charred wood.
Charring Burning; scorching wood.
Checking of Wood Cracks caused by shrinkage.
194
—
—
GLOSSARY
195
forming- wood.
—Tools for paring orholding
—Devices used for
—Holding
of wood used
a surface.
Cleat—A
hold
bend a spent
Clinch — To make firm
Column—A support.
Coned—Having been formed
each cross
Chisels
Chucks
C lamps
objects.
devices.
to stiffen
;
to
strip
;
to
section at right angles to
to
the axis,
is
a
nail.
and the longitudinal section at the center
circle,
is
a triangle.
Compass Tool used in drawing circles.
Compass Saw Saw used in sawing curves.
Core Box Form for inner part.
Cored Built up with parts hidden.
Cornice Trim for overhang for roof of a house.
Corrugated Bent into a series of alternate parallel ridges and grooves.
—
—
—
—
—
—
Corundum—
receive the head of a screw.
Countersink—To ream a hole
Cranked Handle—Mechanical device for turning an
Creosote—A wood preservative.
Cripple Rafter— Timber forming part of a roof a rafter with no bearing on the
Cross-Cut Saw — One for sawing across the grain of the wood.
and
Cross Feed—Automatic regulation for advancing the cutting
from the work.
comparison of their cutting
Cut of Files— Character of
Cutting Efficiency — Degree of
whose transverse
Cylinder— A geometrical
diameter throughout
not change
and which d
circular
form.
Disc—Thin
of
a
Double Cut—Pertaining
Dovetail—Method of joining wood.
Dowel—A guide for bringing pieces of wood together.
making dowels.
used
Dowel Plate —A
building heavy wooden frames.
used
Draw Bolt—A
Drawing the Temper—Reducing the toughness of
by the use
Driving Mechanism—Medium by which energy may be transmitted
the position intended for
Driving Home— Forcing an object
the manufacturing of abrasives.
Emery—A mineral used
Essex Board Measure —Means for the rapid calculation of board
Exterior Finish, Paints, Etc. —Media suitable for the preservation and
decoration of wood.
Felling Timber— Cutting down
Felloes—Parts forming the rim of a wheel.
used as a clamp for wood.
Ferrule—Metal
—Chemical compound used wood
Fleam— Side bevel of a saw
Forged— Formed while hot by hammering.
Foundation Frame — Part of the buiMing resting on the foundation.
Artificial stone.
to
object.
;
plate.
tool to
files; relative
ability.
ability to cut.
figure
section
its
ves
in
class
objects,
to
is
its
circular,
length.
files.
in
tool
bolt
in
of
steel
heat.
into
it.
in
feet.
trees.
collar
;
in
Filler
tooth.
finishing.
GLOSSARY
196
House— Structure composed of dimension
—A machine used in making paper.
Fuming —Aging wood by the use of chemicals.
sand paper made of garnet.
Garnet paper—A paper similar
Gasoline—A bi-product of crude
Gauge—A measure.
Gearing —A means of transmitting energy by the use of cogged wheels.
for piercing wood.
Gimlet—A small
Glued—Having been put together with an adhesive medium.
Gouges —Tools used in the forming of wood.
Grain—Direction of
Hacksaw —A saw used for cutting metal.
saws for wood, that are to be
Handsaw —Term usually applied to
operated by hand.
Helical Groove —A groove generated with a constant lead around a
cylinder.
Hip Rafter— Timber forming the conjunction of two sides of a roof—
built at that point.
no T or L
Inset—To
suitable for the preservarnishes,
Interior Finish— Stains,
vation and decoration of the wood on the inside of a house.
Joiner— One who does interior woodwork.
Jointer—A machine for straightening the edges of boards.
Joints—The part or place where two or more pieces are joined or united.
method of drying wood.
Kiln-drying —
the shape of the cross-section of the
Kinds of Files—Referring
getting
Kinks— Short cuts
Lagscrews—Large wood screws, driven with a wrench, and used
anchoring machines.
Lathe—A machine used in turning concave, convex, and cylindrical
the shavings out of the
Lips— (Auger) Chisel-like blades which
hole being bored.
Live Center—Part of the equipment of a wood lathe that drives the
wood.
Master-keyed— Controlled by one key.
Meshes— Openings formed by crossing strings or wires.
Miter— Cut at 45 degrees.
Mood—A form.
Mortise—A recess cut to receive a tenon.
Motor Drive—Method of transmitting energy.
Moulding — Specially formed wood for decorative purposes.
of the wood.
Nibs— (Bit) —Knife-like structures which sever the
designed
be used with large wooden
Nut Shanks— Shanks of
handles.
over.
Offset— To
Opposite— Form used in clamping veneer.
Overhead Shafting —A medium by which energy may be distributed.
medium or pigment used to preserve or decorate.
Paints— Opaque
Panels— Screens parts of furniture, on stairways.
Frame
stock.
of the
Fourdrinier
to
;
oil.
bit
fiber.
all
if
is
set in.
etc.,
fillers,
Artificial
to
file.
results.
to
in
objects.
lift
fiber
bits
set
finish
;
;
to
GLOSSARY
197
— biproduct of crude
—Objects spaced equally apart.
Periphery — Circumference.
Pitch— Degree of
Plans and Specifications—^Working drawings and
for the construction of buildings,
Protractor—Instrument for establishing degrees.
Quadrant— Quarter of a
Rafter— Part of the frame of a
Rails— Stretchers connecting supporting timbers.
Rectangular—^With
angles right
Renaissance—Revival of learning.
Resin—A vegetable
Revolution— Complete turn around a
Rigid—Made
Ripping— Severing with the
Ripsaw —A saw designed
saw with the grain.
Rise and Run—Terms used in carpentry
indicate thq degree of
Rotate—To swing any number of degrees with a
point as
Sandpaper— Flint coated paper used in smoothing wood and wood
Sanding—Act of applying sandpaper.
Sapwood— Outer layer of wood of a
Scale— Propartion.
Scraper Plane—Tool used in smoothing rough surfaces by scraping.
Seasoning of Lumber—Drying.
holding one piece
Set Screws — Screws serving as clamps
another.
Shearing Motion— Cutting
Smithing a SaW'—Hammering a saw.
Snapping Lines—Establishing
by the use of a
(cord) and
Specifications—Description of
Spindle—Arbor.
Spoke Shave—A form of the plane used for
work.
the wood.
Spur of the Bit—That part which leads the
Stains —Transparent
Stair Threads—The parts of a stairway
walk
Wool—
shavings used to work down
Strata—Layers usually layers of
Stress—Ability of material to withstand strain applied pressure or
Strips—Narrow pieces of wood and metal.
Tang —Part of a
Tempered—Toughened.
Tenon—A tongue cut to
a mortise.
Threaded Sleeve— Part of a brace chuck.
Thumb Screw— Set screw driven by use of the thumb.
Table —Table which may be tipped at an
Toenail— Fastening two pieces together with
by driving them in
Paraffin
^A
oil
Parallel
incline.
details
etc.
circle.
roof.
angles.
all
secretion.
fixed point.
firm.
fiber..
to
to
in-
cline.
center.
fixed
finishes.
tree.
in
to
action.
lines
line
chalk.
plans.
special
bit into
coloring.
built to
Steel
Steel
on.
finish.
stone.
;
;
chisel.
fit
Tilting
angle.
nails
at an angle.
pull.
GLOSSARY
198
—A support; saw horse.
a
Clamps — Clamps fastened
Try Square — Tool for testing squareness.
Turnery —Pertaining to the turning of wood.
Turpentine —An
Universal Saw Table —A saw table with many
Upholstery —The art of applying cushions, trimmings and hangings.
Valley Rafter—Part of the frame of a
VaTiadium—A quality of
Veneers—Thin layers usually of wood.
Vise —A holding device.
Warping —Bending, caused by unequal shrinking.
Waterjacket—An outer case of a glue
Whetting — Removing metal by friction on
used to draw arcs and to transpose measureWing Dividers—A
ments.
Wood Finishing—The act of preserving and decorating wood.
Wonn and Gear—Means of transmitting energy.
Trestle
Trestle
to
trestle.
oil solvent.
possibilities.
roof.
steel.
pot.
stone.
tool
INDEX
Abrasives
Accidents and treatment
125
Brads
46
Brazil
Accra
171
180
171
138
171
126
160
143
106
121
14
Adam
Brothers, furniture
Aging varnish
Air seasoning
Amber Colophony
Artficial stones
Artists' brushes
Ash
tree
Atkins saws
Auger
bits
Awl
Backsaw
15
155
Bald cypress
Band saw
Band twisting
Base
Base mouldings
Basswood
41
,
.
Batting
Beads
dog
equipment
hook
plane
8
7
8
17
7
stop
tools
5
types
8
Bengulla
Beveled halving joints
Beveling
Birch
.
Bird's-Eye Maple
Bird's mouth joint
Bits
Bit braces
Black Walnut
Blind mortise and tenon joints
Block plane
Blue prints
Board feet
Board measure
Boring tools
Borneo gum
Boxing
Box
85
90
147
67
89
78
Beams
Bench
Bench
Bench
Bench
Bench
Bench
Bench
105
121
joints
Brace and bits, use
Brace measure
Braces
171
55
21
158
144
57
121
119
148
55
17
3
141
97, 141
121
171
81
52
29
99
119
114
171
120
gum
Breast drills
Bridging
79
57
Bridle joints
Bristles
Brothers Adam furniture
Brushes
Burnisher
Burns
Butcher saws
Butt joints
Cabinet scraper
Cabinet scraper sharpening
Carborundum
Carpenters' pincers
Carpentry
Carter Process
Casing nails
C-Clamps
Cedar tree
Charring
Chestnut tree
Chilling of varnish
Chinese Wood Oil
Chippendale furniture
Chisels
Chisel blades
Chisel handles
Chisel sharpening
Chuck of brace
Chute board
Circular saws
Clamps
Cleating
Cogged
Colors
Comb-boards
•
nails
Compass
Compass saw
Compressional stress
Computation of stress
Congo
gum
Copal
Coping saws
Core stock
Cornering tool
Corner strips
Cornice
Corrugated steel fasteners
199
17
32
127
24
75
164
113
27
149
140
145
170
165
179
20
20
20
31
119
38
105
27
69
joints
Common
160
180
159
17
47
105
54
52,
55
165
83
113
12
104
59
60
171
170
105
91
18
84
81
116
200
INDEX
Corundum
127
Cost accounting
Counter sink
Cracking of varnish
Creosote
Cripple rafter
Cross-lap joints
73
124
169
140
103
55
Crown moulding
jCypress
joints
Damar gum
Depth gauge
Disston saws
Door frames
Double mortise and tenon joints
Douglas fir
Dovetail dado joints
Dowel bit
Doweled mortise and tenon joints
Dowel plate
Dowel sharpeners
Draw
bolt joints
_
Edge-to-edge joints
Egyptian type furniture
Elevation
29
106
83
56
157
53
122
—
55
38
8
58
174
3
Elm tree
Emery
145
126
182
Empire Period furniture
Essex board measure
European furniture
Expansion bit
97
174
123
122
Extension bit
Fostner bit
Fourdrinier paper
Fox-tail tenon joints
Gimlet bit
160
163
Dusters
Dutch Process
Ford bit
Fore auger
53
171
120, 121
Drills
Floor
Floor lining
Gable roof
Gambrel roof
Garnet paper
4
18
knife
Files
File brush
File card
File cleaners
Fillers
Filtering varnish
Finishers
Finish nails
Fir
leg
Furniture
Furniture legs
Furniture tops
144
114
128
106
155
124
55
67
Drawer fronts
Drawing board
Drawing lines
Draw
46
54
63
166
61, 174
62
67,
70
89
Curly maple
Cut nails
Cylinder paper
Cylinder saws
Dado
Fractures
Framing joints
French furniture
Fuming
'
131
133
133
133
167
171
172
114
157
85
79
123
124
123
128
56
81
81
129
11
124
114
124
122
194
117, 128
118
32
140
43
107
125
84
44
149
Gauge
Gauge sinks
Gauges of nails
Gimlets,
measurement
Glossary
Glue
Glue joints
Gouge sharpening
Grain
Grinder
Grinding saw
Grindstones
Grounds
Guards
Gum
Hacksaws
105
Half blind dovetail joints
Halving joints
54
21
23
42
87
27
175
180
146
101
Hammers
Hand planer and
Hand rails
Hand screws
jointer
.
Harmonies
Hepplewhite furniture
Hickory
Hip rafters
Hip roof
Hollow augers
Hopper butt joints
Housed brace joints
House foundation
House frame
House planning
81
124
53
57
76
78
75
Improvised clamps
Individual equipment
27
Injuries
46
89
5
Intermediate mouldings
Irwin bit
123
Jack rafter
Jacobean furniture
103
176
Jambs
84
51
51
78
Joinery
Joints
Joists
Kameron gum
Kauri
gum
.-,
171
170
INDEX
Keyed mortise and tenon joints
Kiln drying
Knife sharpening
56
138
32
201
Plane iron sharpening
Planer and jointer
31
42
78
44
98
88
190
33
^
Plates
Pliers
Lag screws
116
55
42
54
12
10
Lap-dovetail joints
Lathes
Ledged miter joints
Level
Linear measure
Lines
Linseed oil
Longleaf pine
Louis period furniture
4
164
152
178
Polygon cuts
Porches
Problems __1
Project
Quarter-sawing
141
177
187
Queen Anne furniture
Questions
Rabbet
joints
53
33
82, 101
99
102
Rack construction
Machine equipment
Machine tools
Machinery
5
Mallets
Manilla
gum
Maple
Marking gauge
Measures
Measuring tools
Metric standard
Mission craft furniture
Mission style legs
Miter and butt joints
Miter box
Mortises
Mortise and tenon joint
Mortise and tenon joints with relish-
44
40
23
170
144
11
10
11
10
183
62
54
106
23
55
Mouldings
56
89
Multiple dovetail joints
54
Nails
Nail sets
Newel posts
113
24
87
122
Nibs
Rafters
Rafter cutting
Rafter pitches
Rails
147
57
Oblique mortise and tenon joints
Octagon scale
Ogee mouldings
98
89
44
Oiler
Oil stones
Open mortise and tenon
Painting
Panels
Period furniture
Picket point
Pigments
Pincers
Pine
Pitch
Pitches of rafters
Pitting of varnish
Plain butt joints
Plain dado joints
Plain miter joints
Plane
126
56
joints
165
____62,
65
174
36
163
24
152
86, 100
102
169
52
54
58
16
63
Rasps
Ratchet
Reamer
Reciprocating
drill
Red Cedar
Red Gum
Redwood
Renaissance furniture
Ripsaw
Risers
:
131
29, 120
124
120
149
149
150
174
14
87
Roofs
Roof framing
Round nose mouldings
Rubbing varnish
Rule
Russell Jennings bit
Safe guards
Sandpaper
Saw bench
Saw
Oak
;
parts
Saws
Saw
sets
81
99
89
169
11
123
44
128
40
107
14, 104
112
Scaffolding
Scalds
Scale
Scarf joints
88
47
3
57
133
25
124
105
104
122
109
Scorer
Screw drivers
Screw driver bit
Screws
Scroll saws
Shanks
Sharpening saws
Sharpening tools
Sheathing
Shellac
21,
29
82
Sheraton furniture
167
181
Shingling
Ship auger
122
Shop equipment
Shortleaf pine
Siding
82
5
152
84
INDEX
202
l"^!
Sierra Leone
"^8
Sills
Singapore
171
gum
57
14
joints
dovetail
Sloyd knife
Single
107
88
44
20
123
Smithing saws
Snapping lines
Snips
Socket firmer chisel
Solid center bit
Spindles
,
Splice joints
Splined miter joints
Spoke pointer
Spoke shave
Sprains
Spruce
Spur
Square
Squaring stock
^^'
l»
166. IJ^
Stains
Stairs
Standard yard
Steel square
Steel wool
—
Studs
T-Bevel
Tacks
chisel
Tensional stress
Thrust joints
Tool grinder
Tool sharpening
Tools
Transverse stress
Triangles
IJ^
Ya
i**
41
Sugar maple
Surfacer
Surfacing
Surface joints
°^
iqa
1^^
^°
^^
Stretcher joints
Stress
Tang
Tang
^'
—
7,
Walnut
Water seasoning
Wedged mortise and tenon joints
Well hole
White ash
White lead
White oak
White pine
William and Mary furniture
Window frames
Wing
Wood
divider
^^
^^
Wood
finishing
12
Woodworking machinery
116
^^^
f^
59
57
43
29
^
^^
^
102
107
169
Veneer
Veneer designs
Wax
Web saws
H
10
Vanadium saws
Vises
56
8
Units of measure
Varnishes
125"
142
168
Turpentine
Valley rafters
1^5
122
—
tree
5°
1^
47
——
Tulip
^
^'
124
43
Trimmer
Truing
Trussed mortise and tenon joints
Try square
T-square
—
91
92
25
148
138
171
104
56
88
143
163
147
152
176
83
12
135
163
40
Work bench
6
Working drawings
Working stress
3
Wrenches
Wrought nails
60
46
44
114
Yellow poplar
142
Zanzibar copal
170
Wounds
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