A Highly Available Software Defined Fabric Aditya Akella Arvind Krishnamurthy ABSTRACT

A Highly Available Software Defined Fabric Aditya Akella Arvind Krishnamurthy ABSTRACT
A Highly Available Software Defined Fabric
Aditya Akella
Arvind Krishnamurthy
UW-Madison
[email protected]
University of Washington
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
promise shown by these efforts has spurred rapid adoption
of SDN in many production settings [6, 7, 11].
However, a critical examination of the SDN architecture
in its entirety has not been conducted to date. In particular, important availability-centric questions such as “can today’s SDNs always guarantee that routes can be established
between every pair of connected nodes in a network?”, and
more generally, “how can an SDN cope with link and node
failures?” are not as well understood as SDN’s flexibility
and performance benefits.
A clear understanding of the availability issues induced
by SDN is paramount as it helps put SDN’s other benefits in
context: for instance, if the management flexibility afforded
by SDN comes at a steep, and fundamental, availability cost,
then perhaps it does not make sense to adopt the SDN architecture in the first place.
In this paper, we examine the different components of existing SDN systems, and their reliance on a variety of networking and distributed systems protocols. We argue that
SDNs today cannot offer high network availability, as in
guarantee that routes can be established between a pair of
nodes as long as there is a physical path connecting the
nodes. Luckily, we find that it is possible to re-architect today’s SDNs in a more principled fashion to be fault-tolerant
from the ground up.
Existing SDNs rely on a collection of intricate, mutuallydependent mechanisms to implement a logically centralized
control plane. These cyclical dependencies and lack of clean
separation of concerns can impact the availability of SDNs,
such that a handful of link failures could render entire portions of an SDN non-functional. This paper shows why and
when this could happen, and makes the case for taking a
fresh look at architecting SDNs for robustness to faults from
the ground up. Our approach carefully synthesizes various
key distributed systems ideas – in particular, reliable flooding, global snapshots, and replicated controllers. We argue
informally that it can offer high availability in the face of a
variety of network failures, but much work needs to be done
to make our approach scalable and general. Thus, our paper represents a starting point for a broader discussion on
approaches for building highly available SDNs.
Categories and Subject Descriptors
C.2.1 [Network Architecture and Design]: Distributed networks
Keywords
software defined networks; distributed control
1.
SDN Availability Issues. We start by noting that existing
SDNs do not have a sufficiently clean separation of concerns
among their internal modules. In particular, three key modules of SDNs – distributed consensus protocols, mechanisms
for supporting switch-controller or controller to controller
communication, and transport protocols for reliable message
exchange – can have cyclical dependencies on each other.
These inter-dependencies imply that the failure of a handful of network links may temporarily disconnect switches
from controllers or controller instances from one another.
We advocate using reliable flooding to eliminate some of
these dependencies.
However, existing SDNs’ availability issues are rather intrinsic in nature, such that even with reliable flooding, it may
not be possible to achieve high availability. For example,
two switches in a connected minority component of a net-
INTRODUCTION
By enabling logically-central, software-based control of
a network, Software Defined Networking (SDN) improves
the agility of network management, lowers costs, and helps
operators roll out novel network control services. To date, a
number of research and development efforts have shed light
on how best to leverage SDN to fully realize these benefits
in operational settings big and small [6, 7, 8, 2]. The early
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1
work may not be able to communicate with each other even
though they have a physical path connecting them.
for availability. Based on events reported by data plane
elements (e.g., a link or switch failing), the current view
of network topology, and the current data plane state, the
control plane computes a new forwarding state and updates the data plane accordingly. In many SDN deployments, the controllers run distributed protocols (e.g., distributed consensus protocols such as Paxos [14]) to ensure they have a consistent view of network topology and
data plane state even in the presence of controller failures
or disconnections.
Why do these issues arise? Fundamentally, by extricating
the control plane out of network devices and implementing
it using a distributed system, SDNs inherit the weaknesses
associated with reliable distributed services. Furthermore,
because the distributed services are used to control the underlying network, the weaknesses become magnified.
For instance, requiring controllers to assemble a majority
quorum to process network events could be impossible under partitions [3], a consequence of which is that switches
in a minority partition can no longer be controlled (see Figure 1 – covered in detail in §2). Such partitions are likely
to happen in practice [10]. One could potentially fix this
by reconfiguring the controller set and associating with each
partition its own controller set. However, this falls short in
other situations, e.g., where asynchronous delivery of network events leads to inconsistent topology views at different
controllers, leading some controllers to incorrectly initiate
reconfiguration and attempt to exercise independent control
over a subset of switches (see Figure 2 – discussed in §3).
Based on the observations above, we argue that thoroughly
addressing availability requires changes both to the design
of reliable distributed services as well as the SDN support
in the underlying network. To this end, we present a systematic rearchitecting of SDNs and present the design for a
highly available software defined fabric that addresses the
above weaknesses.
We borrow classical algorithms from the distributed systems community and presents a co-design of the network
layer protocols and the distributed management services that
provides a high degree of availability without compromising on safety or controller consistency even under arbitrary
network partitions. To complete this design, we need to address issues related to optimizing performance and interactions with network management protocols, and we leave this
to future work.
2.
• A control channel for communication between the data
plane and control plane elements. Implemented as a pointto-point TCP connection, the control channel is used by
switches to communicate events of interest to the controllers, for controllers to communicate with each other
for coordination purposes, and for controllers to push
forwarding state updates down to the switches. The control channel could be out-of-band: many SDNs rely on
legacy distributed protocols (e.g., VLANs/MST, BGP)
to install paths for implementing such out-of-band control channels [6, 7, 11]. The control channel can also be
in-band, i.e., the paths computed by the control plane are
themselves used to support the control channel.
2.1
Impact on Availability
The set of network and distributed systems protocols that
come into play in an SDN system have complex/critical dependencies. Consider in-band control channels, where intertwined dependencies between the transport, forwarding, and
distributed control plane modules become immediately apparent: distributed control plane protocols rely on forwarding and transport protocols for basic message delivery; in
turn, forwarding depends on transport (for switch-controller
and inter-controller communication) and on the distributed
control plane for route set-up. These dependencies not only
increase system complexity but also introduce complex failure modes; for example, the system might not be able to
react to a switch failure if the event notification is not reliably delivered to the controllers or if the controllers themselves cannot communicate with each other (due to the same
failure or other related failures) in order to achieve consensus regarding distributed control. In the case of out-of-band
control channels, distributed consensus protocols are forced
to depend on a separate suite of legacy protocols, the very
protocols that SDN solutions are supposed to replace and
simplify.
A second aspect of SDNs is that they are susceptible to
availability issues. One can imagine such availability issues
stemming from reliance on legacy protocols and the interdependencies referred to above. For example, failure of one
or a handful of links can make a BGP-based network control
channel dysfunctional as parts of the network may not be
routable from one another for extended periods of time due
to BGP reconvergence [13, 20], even though the physical
network has a live path connecting them.
BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
SDN is a popular approach because the “clean” separation it advocates between the control and data planes enables rapid prototyping of network control plane functions.
We observe that it is non-trivial to realize this separation in
practice without sacrificing availability today. We now substantiate this observation, starting first with an overview of
state-of-the-art SDN designs, followed by a discussion of the
problems that are inherent to them.
A typical SDN architecture comprises of:
• A simple data plane consisting of the forwarding state
at network elements, which perform match-action functions for each incoming packet (i.e., find matching forwarding state and take the appropriate action).
• A logically central control plane, often implemented by
a distributed collection of physical controller machines
2
However, the availability issues in SDNs are more deep
rooted than that and arise even in the presence of ideal control channels that don’t impose any dependencies.
Consider the network depicted in Figure 1. When the
S4 − S6 and S4 − S8 links fail and the network is partitioned, the data plane for the partition on the right cannot be
updated since the switches there can contact only a minority
group of a replicated control plane (i.e., C4 and C5). Crucially, S6 and S8 cannot communicate with each other if the
previously configured path between them is not wholly contained in the new partition. In §3, we argue that simple fixes
to this only address part of the availability issue.
Crucially, legacy distributed protocols such as OSPF do
not suffer from this issue: when partitions happen, OSPF
routers re-converge to new intra-partition routes. In other
words, current SDN designs fail to provide important faulttolerance properties, which renders SDNs less available than
traditional networks in some situations!
3.
S3
C1
S6
S7
S8
S9
C4
C5
S4
S5
C3
C2
Figure 1: Impact of network partitions.
long as a majority are alive) and can also reliably handle
communications between controllers and switches even if
the point-to-point forwarding rules are stale with respect to
the current topology.
Pitfalls: While the baseline design provides resilience towards certain types of failures (e.g., the network is operable
even if some of the controllers fail or if there is a failure in
some of the paths between controllers and switches), it is
not robust to failures that partition the controller set. Consider for example the network depicted in Figure 1. If the
S4 − S6 and S4 − S8 links fail, then the network is partitioned. In this case, the routing and network policies for
the partition on the right cannot be updated. This is particularly debilitating if the existing routes connecting pairs of
switches in the right hand side partition are not fully contained inside the partition. For example, if the route from
S6 to S8 is S6 → S4 → S8 when the network becomes
partitioned, then the route cannot be updated to the working
path S6 → S7 → S9 → S8 since the switches S6 and
S8 can contact only two of the five controllers (i.e., C4 and
C5) and would therefore not be able to put together a majority quorum to process the topology update. Even if the
switches are configured to use fast-failover in the form of a
pre-configured backup path, connectivity between S6 to S8
is not guaranteed as the backup path might also not be fully
contained inside the partition.
Thus, the baseline design ensures consistent handling of
dynamic changes to network topology, but it does not provide high availability in the case of network partitions. In
retrospect, it is apparent that the baseline design inherits
the strengths and weaknesses associated with reliable distributed services; this is just a direct consequence of software
defined networking and its separation of the control plane
into a logically centralized controller service. The ability
to perform network management operations is contingent on
the controller service being able to assemble quorums to process network events. The availability limits associated with
distributed services (e.g., the CAP theorem [3]) can be overcome only with some form of support from the underlying
network, which is the focus of the remainder of this section.
DESIGN
In this section, we outline the design of a fault-tolerant
SDN fabric that can provide a high degree of availability in
the presence of various kinds of network failures. Our design presents a rethinking of the SDN architecture, from the
control channel up to the control plane, to address dependencies and avoid pitfalls intrinsic to SDNs today. We present
the design as a series of refinements starting from a baseline design, with each refinement addressing some aspect of
availability or controller consistency.
3.1
S2
S1
Baseline Design
We start with a baseline design that guarantees consistency of controller state and allows for switches/controllers
to communicate reliably but does not necessarily provide
high availability. It incorporates two sets of mechanisms.
Reliable Flooding: To completely free the control channel
from all dependencies, we advocate a control channel based
on reliable flooding. Such a control channel can be established without depending on routing or transport protocols.
Replicated Controllers: Controllers are made robust to failures using state machine replication and reliable flooding.
In particular, controllers use a consensus protocol such as
Paxos [14] to obtain consensus from a quorum (typically a
simple majority of controllers) before responding to changes
in topology and system configuration. For example, whenever there is a topology change (e.g., a link down or a link
recovery event), the controllers come to a consensus that the
corresponding event will be the next event that will be handled by the controllers and communicate to the switches the
new set of forwarding rules based on the updated topology.
All communications between controllers in order to reach
consensus and communications from controllers to switches
are handled using reliable flooding.
This baseline design is robust to controller failures (as
3.2
Partitioned Consensus
A simple modification to the above design is to allow for
3
dynamic reconfiguration of the controller set. When a partition takes place, we can try to split up the controller set into
two or more groups of controllers and associate with each
partition its own controller set. Topology updates to a given
network partition need only be handled by the controllers
residing inside of the partition and need not require a majority quorum over all of the controllers in the network. This
allows each individual partition to independently tear down
old routes, install new routes, and be reactive to local network changes. We briefly outline below a refinement to the
baseline design that allows for partitioned operation.
S3
C1
S6
S7
S4
S8
S9
C3
C4
C5
S2
S1
S5
C2
Figure 2: Handling of concurrent network events.
Link down: When a link between two network elements X
and Y fails, both X and Y flood the topology update through
the network. When this topology update is received by a
controller, it computes the impact of the topology update
and identifies other controllers that reside in the same network partition as itself. The controller then uses the consensus protocol to have the corresponding controller set process
this link failure as the next update to the network topology.
If the link failure results in a partition, then the controller
sets in the two partitions will process the link failure and
subsequent topology changes independently.
let the link recovery event be the first event processed by the
controllers C1, C2, and C3. From their perspective, they
view this link recovery as a normal topology update (i.e.,
one which doesn’t repair network partitions) and can rely on
a simple majority quorum of C1, C2, and C3 to process this
update. We now have two different controller sets who can
independently perform network management operations on
switches S6, S7, S8, and S9, which can result in conflicting
management operations, inconsistent routing, and degraded
availability.
3.3
Link recovery: When a link between two network elements
X and Y becomes available, the new link might restore connectivity between two network partitions. In such cases, we
might have to reconcile the state associated with the controller sets of the two partitions. This requires the following
(more elaborate) protocol that can be concisely characterized as a two-phase commit protocol layered over consensus. Let CX and CY be the controller sets associated with
the two partitions containing X and Y . We first pass a consensus round in each of X and Y regarding the introduction
of the new link (i.e., we require a separate quorum consensus within CX and CY ). If both of these consensus operations succeed, we view the two partitions to be prepared
for the merger of the two network partitions, and we then
pass an additional consensus round on each of the controller
sets to commit the merged topology. If either of the initial
prepare rounds don’t succeed (say due to a concurrent failure/network event), then the consensus operations are rolled
back and retried.
Pitfalls: While this refinement allows for dynamic partitioning of controller sets and independent management of
network partitions, there are consistency pitfalls especially
in the presence of concurrent network events. Consider the
network topology depicted in Figure 2 and let the network
link (S2, S6) fail just as the link (S4, S8) comes back online. The corresponding network events will be flooded to
the controller sets, and there might be race conditions in how
they are handled. One possible outcome is that the link failure event is received first by controllers C4 and C5, who
will then proceed to process this event as the onset of a network partition and elect themselves as the sole controllers
managing switches S6, S7, S8, and S9. At the same time,
Whole Quorum Controller Consensus
The incorrect operation of controller nodes in the example outlined above illustrates the challenges associated with
splintering the controller set especially when a link failure is
erroneously flagged as a network partition event; the larger
controller set might still be able to manage all of the switches
since they have a sufficient quorum with respect to original
controller set, while the smaller splinter group operates under the assumption that it is managing its own separate network partition.
One possible refinement is to use whole quorum consensus over a controller group as opposed to a simple majority
quorum consensus, i.e., actions performed by the controllers
require consensus involving every member of a controller
set. This would prevent the majority set from achieving
consensus without requiring consent from the members of a
splinter group, and thus we will not have scenarios where dueling controller sets are managing the same set of switches.
It is worth noting that whole quorum consensus is typically not meaningful for distributed systems since the purpose of replicating a service is to allow it to operate in the
presence of failures of service nodes using simple majority
quorums. Our setting deals with controller failures by refining the controller set to exclude failed nodes and requiring
whole quorum consensus on the remaining controller nodes.
This means that controller failures are explicitly handled,
and this failure processing has to be performed before any
other network management operations are effected by the
controller set. Note that a temporarily unreachable controller
node would be first removed from the controller set and then
explicitly added later when connectivity to it is restored.
Pitfalls: While the use of whole quorum controller consensus can prevent conflicts in how switches are managed
4
by different controller groups, there are complications in
how state reconciliation can be performed across controller
groups. Consider again the scenario depicted in Figure 2
where the link failure event is handled by C4 and C5 (which
would result in the formation of a splinter group), and the
link recovery event is received by C1, C2, and C3 before the
link failure event. In such a setting, {C1, C2, C3} view the
link recovery as an ordinary topology update while {C4, C5}
believe that it is a partition repair operation. Further,
{C1, C2, C3} and {C4, C5} disagree on the existence of
the (S2, S6) link and might also have diverging views on
other link failure/recovery events processed independently
by {C4, C5} if they had happened in the interim.
3.4
7. reset all nssn() to null.
Controllers collect all of the link state messages from the
nodes and perform the following local consistency check:
• If a controller receives a link state message from ni indicating that ni received a take snapshot message from nj ,
then it should have received a link state message from nj
as well.
• Further, nj should report that it received a take snapshot
from ni .
• Finally, the nssn(nj ) reported by ni should be the same
as the ssn value reported by nj .
If these consistency checks fail or if the controller fails
to receive a link state message from a node nj that was included in some other node ni ’s link state message within a
given timeout, then the controller will initiate a new partitionwide snapshot operation by sending a take snapshot message
to itself. This operation could be triggered by any of the controllers in the system. On the other hand, if the local consistency check succeeds, each controller has its local report
regarding the topology of its network partition and the controllers contained inside of the partition. A controller then
attempts to achieve whole quorum consensus across all of
the controllers contained in the partition regarding the link
state messages received from the nodes. This whole quorum
consensus succeeds only if all of the controllers had received
matching link state updates from the nodes. If whole quorum
consensus cannot be reached, then any one of the controllers
can initiate a new partition-wide snapshot to obtain more upto-date and complete information from all of the nodes.
Finally, when controllers install new rules on switches,
they send along with the update the most recent ssn obtained
from the switch. If the ssn value is stale, the switch would
disregard the update as it is likely based on stale network
topology information. Rule installation happens only after
the controllers have obtained the results of a partition-wide
snapshot and ensured that this collected information is consistent across all controllers in the partition.
Observations: While a formal correctness and liveness analysis of the design is beyond the scope of this paper, we now
outline a few observations regarding the design. Concurrent
network events can trigger snapshots from different nodes at
about the same time. The snapshot operation can gracefully
handle this case as it is based on the Chandy-Lamport snapshot algorithm, which doesn’t require a designated node to
initiate snapshots. Concurrent changes in topology are also
dealt with consistently by different controllers. Consider
again the example depicted in Figure 2. The use of the snapshot mechanism ensures that the link failure and the link recovery events are either considered as part of the same snapshot or as part of two different snapshots that are ordered by
the ssn values associated with the link state messages. If they
are part of the same snapshot or if the link recovery event is
captured in an earlier snapshot, then there is no splintering of
the controller group. Otherwise, the link failure is handled
Network-wide Transactional Updates
We present a complete design that pulls together the mechanisms presented in the earlier iterations. In particular, we
use a network-wide topology snapshot operation (heavily
based on the consistent snapshot algorithm [4]) along with
the mechanisms of reliable flooding, replicated controllers,
and whole quorum consensus. The resulting design ensures
consistent state management, preserves a high degree of availability, and facilitates reconciliation of partitions.
The network comprises of switches, end-hosts, and controllers. We will refer to these using the generic term nodes.
Each node maintains the following local information: a snapshot sequence number (ssn) (initialized to zero when the
node is first introduced into the network), the set of links to
neighbors, and the most recent ssn value received from each
of its neighbors (nssn). We will assume that at the beginning
of an epoch node ni has initialized its nssn(nj ) to null for
each of its neighbors nj . When a node detects a change in
its connectivity state (e.g., failure or recovery of an adjoining
link), it triggers a partition-wide snapshot operation by sending a take snapshot message to itself. The following actions
are performed by a node ni upon receiving the take snapshot
from nj for the first time in this snapshot epoch (i.e., when
nssn(nj ) is null for all of the node’s neighbors):
1. If the message is from a neighboring node (as opposed
to a initial snapshot message sent by a node to itself),
set nssn(nj ) to the neighbor’s ssn value received with
the message;
2. increment its own local ssn;
3. send a take snapshot message to each of its neighbors
along with the incremented ssn value that replaces the
neighbor’s ssn value received with the original message;
4. set a timeout for receiving a take snapshot message
from the other neighbors (except nj );
5. upon timing out or after collecting all nssn values, compose a link state message that contains the following
information: (a) local ssn value, (b) the neighbors from
which it received a take snapshot message, and (c) the
nssn() values received along with them;
6. flood this message to all of the controllers; and
5
independently by {C1, C2, C3} and {C4, C5} and then the
controller groups are merged when the link recovery event
is identified as part of the subsequent snapshot. Additional
node failures might prevent controllers from receiving the
flooded link state updates or from achieving partition-wide
consensus. In such cases, liveness but not safety is compromised. That is, a subsequent snapshot operation will result
in more up-to-date information that is reliably delivered to
the controllers. The liveness guarantee that is provided by
the design is that controllers will be able to control switches
in their partitions as long as there is a quiescent period in
which no further node failures occur, and this is similar to
the liveness guarantees associated with distributed protocols
such as Paxos or BFT. Note however that controllers are able
to eventually perform network management operations even
when partitions occur (as in Figure 1), and this is possible
only because the distributed management protocols are codesigned with the network layer.
4.
on the network is a subject of future research. In practice, it
makes most sense to employ reliable flooding in conjunction
with traditional unicast, as a fall back when unicast cannot
offer the desired reachability.
Our description of the protocol and arguments for the properties it offers have largely been informal. Formally proving
correctness of our protocol is left for future work. A related
issue is that the mechanisms we proposed appear to be sufficient to ensure availability in the face of partitions. However,
we are as yet unsure if they are all necessary. This is an important issue because the mechanisms have a direct bearing
on the complexity of switch-side implementation. It may be
possible to just rely on a subset of mechanisms, e.g, just distributed snapshots and not whole quorum consensus, but we
are yet to establish this formally.
Our protocol assumed that the network is implementing
simple end-to-end routing. In practice, the network may
wish to implement a different function, e.g., monitoring, isolation, traffic steering (i.e., middlebox traversal), or traffic
engineering. Each function places a different requirement
on the nature of consensus that the controllers must arrive at.
For example, routing requires consensus over actual topology, but filtering implemented at network end-points requires
controllers simply to agree on which partition an end-host
belongs to. Thus the function in question may affect the
mechanisms needed to ensure high availability; these could
be simpler or more complex than what we proposed.
We must also consider how our protocol interacts with
various consistent update schemes [18, 15]. Consider the
protocol described in §3.3, where we stated that switches accept a state update from a controller only if the sequence
number included therein matches the current local sequence
number. It is quite possible that among multiple switches
on a path, some may accept an update corresponding to the
path, whereas others reject it (as they initiated new snapshots that are as yet unaccounted for at the controllers). The
simplest way to accommodate this is to enhance the update
mechanism to prevent the new path from taking effect until
all switches have accepted an update and to use state version
numbers (similar to [18]). However, this could inflate the latency for a path update to execute fully. Thus, an interesting
avenue for research here is the design of faster staged update
schemes satisfying global properties such as congestion- or
drop-freedom [15].
In essence, our paper does not provide a final answer, but
rather it forms the basis for a rich discussion of various issues surrounding availability in SDN.
RELATED WORK
Prior works have examined specific facets of the availability issues imposed by SDN. In particular, recent studies
have considered how to leverage redundancy to improve the
reliability of controller-switch communication [19]. Along
the same lines, [9] focuses on availability issues due to flaky
switch-side functionality, for example switches stalling on
state updates, or crashing suddenly, and advocates dealing
with such issues at the SDN application layer (e.g., by provisioning multiple node-disjoint paths). Others have considered ensuring availability of network state data [12, 21],
with one popular idea being to use reliable distributed storage. However, none of these attempt to address the intrinsic
availability issues afflicting SDN designs that we focus on.
In [17], the authors consider the inter-play between network policies and the ability of SDNs to offer partition tolerance. They show that arbitrary policies, e.g., isolation policies, cannot be implemented correctly on arbitrary topologies when the network is partitioned. In contrast, we show
that even simple policies – i.e., reachability among network
nodes – cannot be realized within current SDN designs; we
offer foundational prescriptions on how to overcome this.
As indicated earlier, we draw inspiration from decades of
rich distributed systems research. A key idea we employ
- distributed snapshots - has been used in many distributed
systems. Many of the follow-on works on making snapshots
efficient [16] and scalable [5] are relevant to our work. Finally, our reliable flooding approach is inspired by OSPF’s
link-state flooding [1].
5.
Acknowledgments We thank the HotNets reviewers and
our shepherd, Marco Canini, for their feedback. This research was supported by NSF grants CNS-0963754, CNS1040757, CNS-1302041, CNS-1314363, and CNS-1318396.
DISCUSSION AND OPEN ISSUES
We advocated using reliable flooding as one of the mechanisms to ensure controllers can always communicate with
switches and amongst each other as long as a path is available. Reliable flooding can be expensive, and developing
techniques to improve its efficiency and mitigate its impact
6
6.
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