Technical Application Guide

Technical Application Guide
Section Overview
This Technical Application Guide or ‘Fuseology’ section provides the
information needed to select the correct types of Littelfuse POWR-GARD®
fuses for most applications. If there are any questions or if additional
data is needed for a specific use, call the Littelfuse Technical Support
and Engineering Service Group at 1-800-TEC-FUSE (1-800-832-3873)
or visit us online at www.littelfuse.com.
TECHNICAL APPLICATION GUIDE
Table of Contents
Fuseology Fundamentals..................................................... 181-182
Selection Considerations..................................................... 182-186
Time-current Curves and Peak Let-through Charts.............. 187-189
Selective Coordination......................................................... 189-191
UL/CSA Fuse Classes and Applications............................... 192-193
Additional Technical Information
An expanded Technical
Application Guide and
Fuseology section,
white papers, and
a library of technical
information is
available online at
www.littelfuse.com/technicalcenter.
www.littelfuse.com
Electrical Safety Guide......................................................... 194-195
Terms and Definitions.......................................................... 196-202
Motor Protection Tables...................................................... 203-205
Alphanumeric Index of Catalog Numbers............................ 206-207
Condensed Fuse Cross Reference............................................. 208
180
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Technical Application Guide
Fuseology fundamentals
I. OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
FUNDAMENTALS
(FUSES AND HOW THEY WORK)
Introduction
3. Minimizes overcurrent damage to property, equipment,
and electrical systems.
4. Provides coordinated protection. Only the protective
device immediately on the line side of an overcurrent
opens to protect the system and minimize unnecessary
downtime.
An important part of developing quality overcurrent protection
is an understanding of system needs and overcurrent
protective device fundamentals. This section discusses these
topics with special attention to the application of fuses. If
you have additional questions, call our Technical Support and
Engineering Services Group at 1-800-TEC-FUSE (1-800-8323873). Definitions of terms used in this section are located
towards the end of this Technical Application Guide.
5. Is cost effective while providing reserve interrupting
capacity for future growth.
6. Consists of equipment and components not subject to
obsolescence and requiring only minimum maintenance
that can be performed by regular maintenance personnel
using readily available tools and equipment.
Overcurrent Types and Effects
Why Overcurrent Protection?
An overcurrent is any current that exceeds the ampere rating of
conductors, equipment, or devices under conditions of use. The
term “overcurrent” includes both overloads and short-circuits.
All electrical systems eventually experience overcurrents.
Unless removed in time, even moderate overcurrents
quickly overheat system components, damaging insulation,
conductors, and equipment. Large overcurrents may melt
conductors and vaporize insulation. Very high currents
produce magnetic forces that bend and twist bus bars.
These high currents can pull cables from their terminals and
crack insulators and spacers.
Overloads
An overload is an overcurrent confined to normal current
paths in which there is no insulation breakdown.
Sustained overloads are commonly caused by installing
excessive equipment such as additional lighting fixtures
or too many motors. Sustained overloads are also caused
by overloading mechanical equipment and by equipment
breakdown such as failed bearings. If not disconnected
within established time limits, sustained overloads
eventually overheat circuit components causing thermal
damage to insulation and other system components.
Too frequently, fires, explosions, poisonous fumes and
panic accompany uncontrolled overcurrents. This not only
damages electrical systems and equipment, but may cause
injury or death to personnel nearby.
To reduce these hazards, the National Electrical Code®
(NEC®), OSHA regulations, and other applicable design and
installation standards require overcurrent protection that will
disconnect overloaded or faulted equipment.
Overcurrent protective devices must disconnect circuits and
equipment experiencing continuous or sustained overloads
before overheating occurs. Even moderate insulation
overheating can seriously reduce the life of the components
and/or equipment involved. For example, motors overloaded
by just 15% may experience less than 50% of normal
insulation life.
Industry and governmental organizations have developed
performance standards for overcurrent devices and testing
procedures that show compliance with the standards and
with the NEC. These organizations include: the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI), National Electrical
Manufacturers Association (NEMA), and the National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA), all of which work in
conjunction with Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories
(NRTL) such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL).
Temporary overloads occur frequently. Common causes
include temporary equipment overloads such as a machine
tool taking too deep of a cut, or simply the starting of an
inductive load such as a motor. Since temporary overloads
are by definition harmless, overcurrent protective devices
should not open or clear the circuit.
Electrical systems must meet applicable code requirements
including those for overcurrent protection before electric
utilities are allowed to provide electric power to a facility.
What is Quality Overcurrent Protection?
A system with quality overcurrent protection has the
following characteristics:
1. Meets all legal requirements, such as NEC, OSHA, local
codes, etc.
2. Provides maximum safety for personnel, exceeding
minimum code requirements as necessary.
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181
13 Technical
It is important to realize that fuses selected must have
sufficient time-delay to allow motors to start and temporary
overloads to subside. However, should the overcurrent
continue, fuses must then open before system components
are damaged. Littelfuse POWR-PRO® and POWR-GARD®
time-delay fuses are designed to meet these types of
protective needs. In general, time-delay fuses hold 500% of
the rated current for a minimum of ten seconds, yet will still
open quickly on higher values of current.
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Technical Application Guide
Fuseology fundamentals
temperature of 150°C. Any currents larger than this may
immediately vaporize organic insulations. Arcs at the point
of fault or from mechanical switching such as automatic
transfer switches or circuit breakers may ignite the vapors
causing violent explosions and electrical flash.
Even though government-mandated high-efficiency motors
and NEMA Design E motors have much higher locked rotor
currents, POWR-PRO® time-delay fuses such as the FLSR_
ID, LLSRK_ID, or IDSR series have sufficient time-delay to
permit motors to start when the fuses are properly selected
in accordance with the NEC®.
Magnetic stress (or force) is a function of the peak current
squared. Fault currents of 100,000 amperes can exert forces
of more than 7,000 lb. per foot of bus bar. Stresses of this
magnitude may damage insulation, pull conductors from
terminals, and stress equipment terminals sufficiently such
that significant damage occurs.
Short-Circuits
A short-circuit is an overcurrent flowing outside of its normal
path. Types of short-circuits are generally divided into
three categories: bolted faults, arcing faults, and ground
faults. Each type of short-circuit is defined in the Terms and
Definitions section.
Arcing at the point of fault melts and vaporizes all of the
conductors and components involved in the fault. The arcs
often burn through raceways and equipment enclosures,
showering the area with molten metal that quickly starts fires
and/or injures any personnel in the area. Additional short-circuits
are often created when vaporized material is deposited on
insulators and other surfaces. Sustained arcing-faults vaporize
organic insulation, and the vapors may explode or burn.
A short-circuit is caused by an insulation breakdown or
faulty connection. During a circuit’s normal operation, the
connected load determines current. When a short-circuit
occurs, the current bypasses the normal load and takes a
“shorter path,” hence the term ‘short-circuit’. Since there is
no load impedance, the only factor limiting current flow is
the total distribution system’s impedance from the utility’s
generators to the point of fault.
Whether the effects are heating, magnetic stress, and/or
arcing, the potential damage to electrical systems can be
significant as a result of short-circuits occurring.
A typical electrical system might have a normal load impedance
of 10 ohms. But in a single-phase situation, the same system
might have a load impedance of 0.005 ohms or less. In order
to compare the two scenarios, it is best to apply Ohm’s Law (I
= E/R for AC systems). A 480 volt single-phase circuit with the
10 ohm load impedance would draw 48 amperes (480/10 = 48).
If the same circuit has a 0.005 ohm system impedance when
the load is shorted, the available fault current would increase
significantly to 96,000 amperes (480/0.005 = 96,000).
II. Selection Considerations
Selection Considerations for Fuses (600 volts and below)
Since overcurrent protection is crucial to reliable electrical
system operation and safety, overcurrent device selection
and application should be carefully considered. When
selecting fuses, the following parameters or considerations
need to be evaluated:
As stated, short-circuits are currents that flow outside
of their normal path. Regardless of the magnitude of
overcurrent, the excessive current must be removed quickly.
If not removed promptly, the large currents associated
with short-circuits may have three profound effects on an
electrical system: heating, magnetic stress, and arcing.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Technical 13
Heating occurs in every part of an electrical system when
current passes through the system. When overcurrents
are large enough, heating is practically instantaneous. The
energy in such overcurrents is measured in ampere-squared
seconds (I2t). An overcurrent of 10,000 amperes that lasts for
0.01 seconds has an I2t of 1,000,000 A2s. If the current could
be reduced from 10,000 amperes to 1,000 amperes for the
same period of time, the corresponding I2t would be reduced
to 10,000 A2s, or just one percent of the original value.
Current Rating
The current rating of a fuse is the AC or DC current,
expressed in amperes, which the fuse is capable of carrying
continuously under specified conditions. Fuses selected
for a circuit must have ampere ratings that meet NEC
requirements, namely those found in NEC Articles 240 and
430. These NEC requirements establish maximum ratings
and in some cases, minimum ratings. When selecting a
fuse, it is generally recommended to select a current rating
as close as possible to the system’s normal running current.
If the current in a conductor increases 10 times, the I2t
increases 100 times. A current of only 7,500 amperes
can melt a #8 AWG copper wire in 0.1 second. Within
eight milliseconds (0.008 seconds or one-half cycle), a
current of 6,500 amperes can raise the temperature of #12
AWG THHN thermoplastic insulated copper wire from its
operating temperature of 75°C to its maximum short-circuit
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Current Rating
Voltage Rating
Interrupting Rating
Type of Protection and Fuse Characteristics
Current Limitation
Physical Size
Indication
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Technical Application Guide
Selection considerations
Voltage Rating
The recommendation to standardize on fuses with at least
a 200,000 ampere interrupting rating (AIR) ensures that all
fuses have an adequate interrupting rating while providing
reserve interrupting capacity for future increases in available
fault current.
The voltage rating of a fuse is the maximum AC or DC
voltage at which the fuse is designed to operate. Fuse
voltage ratings must equal or exceed the circuit voltage
where the fuses will be installed, and fuses used in DC
circuits must be specifically rated for DC applications. In
terms of voltage, fuses may be rated for AC only, DC only, or
both AC and DC. However, exceeding the voltage ratings or
using an AC only fuse in a DC circuit could result in violent
destruction of the fuse.
300,000 AIR Fuses
Littelfuse POWR-PRO® fuse series have a Littelfuse SelfCertified interrupting rating of 300,000 amperes rms
symmetrical. The 300,000 ampere testing was performed
in a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, and the tests
were UL witnessed. UL has ruled that fuses with a UL
interrupting rating greater than 200,000 amperes must be
marked as “Special Purpose Fuses” and may not be labeled
as UL Listed Class RK5, RK1, L, etc.
The standard 600 volt rated fuses discussed in this section
may be applied at any voltage less than or equal to their
rating. For example, a 600 volt fuse may be used in a 277
volt or even a 32 volt system, but not any system exceeding
600 volts.
Type of Protection and Fuse Characteristics
NOTE: This does not apply to semiconductor fuses and medium
voltage fuses. See the semiconductor and medium voltage
fuse application information on www.littelfuse.com for voltage
limitations of these fuses.
Time current characteristics determine how fast a fuse
responds to overcurrents. All fuses have inverse time
characteristics; that is, the fuse opening time decreases as
the magnitude of overcurrent increases. When properly rated
in accordance with NEC requirements, fuses provide both
overload and short-circuit protection to system conductors
and components. However, in some instances such as when
fuses are used to backup circuit breakers or to provide motor
branch circuit short-circuit and ground fault protection, fuses
provide only short-circuit protection. A fuse’s response to
overcurrents is divided into short-circuits and overloads.
Interrupting Rating
The interrupting rating of a fuse is the highest available
symmetrical rms alternating current that the fuse is required
to safely interrupt at its rated voltage under standardized test
conditions. A fuse must interrupt all overcurrents up to its
interrupting rating without experiencing damage. Standard
UL fuses are available with interrupting ratings of 10,000 A,
50,000 A, 100,000 A, 200,000 A, and 300,000 A.
Short-Circuits
NEC® Article 110.9 requires that all equipment intended
to break current at fault levels have an interrupting rating
sufficient for the system voltage and current available at
the equipment’s line terminals. Refer to Figure 1. It is vitally
important to select fuses with interrupting ratings which
equal or exceed the available fault current.
A fuse’s short-circuit response is its opening time on highervalue currents. For power fuses, higher-value currents are
generally over 500-600% of the fuse’s current rating. As
stated earlier, all fuses have inverse time characteristics: the
higher the current, the faster the opening time. Since shortcircuits should be removed quickly, inverse time is especially
important for short-circuit protection.
Main Switchboard
Overloads
Available Fault
Current = 125,000A
While fuses must disconnect overloaded conductors and
equipment before the conductors and components are
seriously overheated, they should not disconnect harmless
temporary overloads. To provide sufficient overload
protection for system conductors, UL has established
maximum fuse opening times at 135% and 200% of a
fuse’s current rating. All UL Listed fuses for application in
accordance with the National Electrical Code® must meet
these limits whether they are fast-acting or time-delay fuses.
All fuses in main switchboard
must have an A.I.R. of at least
125,000A. Next higher standard
rating is 200,000A.
Available Fault
Current = 85,000A
Fuses in panel must have at
least an 85,000 A.I.C. Next higher
standard rating is 100,000A., but
best choice is time-delay fuses
with 200,000 A.I.R.
Figure 1 – Interrupting Rating Requirements per NEC
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13 Technical
As just stated, a fuse is designed to respond to two types
of overcurrents – short circuits and overloads. As a result,
selecting the proper fuse for a given application usually
involves deciding whether to use a time-delay fuse or a
fast-acting fuse. A more in-depth review of both possible
scenarios is important at this time.
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Technical Application Guide
selection considerations
circuit protection, and often permits the use of smaller,
less expensive disconnect switches. Time-delay fuses
have gradually replaced most one-time (UL Class K5) and
renewable (UL Class H) fuses. Today, more than 50% of all
fuses sold by electrical distributors are time-delay fuses.
Fast-Acting (Normal-Opening) Fuses
Fast-acting fuses (sometimes called “Normal-opening”
fuses) have no intentional time-delay. Typical opening
times at 500% of the fuse ampere rating range from 0.05
second to approximately 2 seconds. Fast-Acting fuses
are suitable for non-inductive loads such as incandescent
lighting and general-purpose feeders, or branch circuits
with little or no motor load. When protecting motors and
other inductive loads, fast-acting fuses must be rated at
200-300% of load currents to prevent nuisance opening on
in-rush currents. Fuses with such increased ratings no longer
furnish adequate protection from overloads and only provide
short-circuit protection. Overload relays or other overload
protection devices must be provided to properly protect
conductors and equipment from overload conditions.
Dual Element Fuses
Littelfuse time-delay FLNR, FLNR_ID, FLSR, FLSR_ID, IDSR
(UL Class RK5), and LLNRK, LLSRK, LLSRK_ID (UL Class RK1),
and some JTD, JTD_ID (UL Class J) series fuses have true
dual-element construction meaning the fuse has an internal
construction consisting of separate short-circuit and overload
sections or elements. Time-delay elements are used for
overload protection, and separate fast acting fuse elements or
links are used to provide current-limiting short-circuit protection.
Very Fast-Acting Fuses
All fast-acting fuses provide fast short-circuit response
within their interrupting rating. Some are considered currentlimiting, such as UL Class T and Class J. Others are noncurrent-limiting, such as UL Class H.
This category of fuses exists for limited applications. The
principle use of very fast acting fuses is to protect solidstate electronic components, such as semiconductors. Fuse
series designated as ‘Semiconductor Fuses’ have special
characteristics including quick overload response, very
low I2t and Ipeak currents, and peak transient voltages, that
provide protection for components that cannot withstand
line surges, low value overloads, or short-circuit currents.
Very fast-acting fuses are designed for very fast response to
overloads and short-circuits, and are very current-limiting.
Time-Delay (SLO-BLO®) Fuses
Most UL Class CC, CD, G, J, L, RK5 and RK1 fuses, plus
some of the UL Listed Miscellaneous fuses are considered
time-delay. If so, they are identified as such on the fuse
label with the words “Time-Delay”, “T-D”, “D”, or some
other suitable marking. Minimum time-delay varies with
the fuse class, and to some degree with the fuse ampere
rating. UL standards for POWR-GARD® fuse series FLNR,
FLNR_ID, FLSR, FLSR_ID, IDSR (UL Class RK5), LLNRK,
LLSRK, LLSRK_ID (UL Class RK1), and JTD, JTD_ID (UL
Class J) require these fuses to carry 500% rated current for a
minimum of 10 seconds. Standards for CCMR and KLDR (UL
Class CC and CD) and SLC (UL Class G) fuses require them
to carry 200% rated current for a minimum of 12 seconds.
Effect of Ambient Temperature on Fuses
The current carrying capacity of fuses is 110% of the fuse
rating when installed in a standard UL test circuit and tested
in open air at 25°C ambient. This allows for derating to 100%
of rating in an enclosure at 40°C ambient. At higher ambient
temperatures, the continuous current carrying capacity will
be decreased as shown in Figure 2. This closely follows
the derating tables for all electrical equipment and can help
reduce equipment burnout due to high ambient conditions.
Technical 13
In addition to providing time-delay for surges and short time
overloads, time-delay fuses meet all UL requirements for
sustained overload protection. On higher values of current,
time-delay fuses are current-limiting; meaning they remove
large overcurrents in less than one-half cycle (0.00833
seconds). Time-delay fuses provide the best overall protection
for both motor and general purpose circuits, and eliminate
nuisance fuse opening and most situations of downtime.
KEY TO CHART:
Curve A - Slo-Blo® Fuse
Curve B - Medium and Fast-Acting Fuses
40
20
A
0
B
0
B
20
40
A
Compared to fast-acting fuses, time-delay fuses can be
selected with ratings much closer to a circuit’s operating
current. For example, on most motor circuits Class RK5 and
RK1 fuses can be rated at 125-150% of a motor’s full load
current (FLA). This provides superior overload and short-
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60
-60°C
-76°F
-40°C
-40°F
-20°C
-4°F
0°C
32°F
20°C
68°F
40°C
104°F
60°C
140°F
80°C
176°F
100°C
212°F
120°C
248°F
60
PERCENT OF DOWNRATING
PERCENT OF UPRATING
Although there is no UL Classification for time-delay Class
L fuses, it is still permissible for them to be marked “TimeDelay.” The amount of time-delay is determined by the
manufacturer. Littelfuse KLPC series and KLLU series fuses
will hold 500% current for 10 seconds or more.
140°C
264°F
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Figure 2 – Fuse Rerating Curve
184
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Technical Application Guide
selection considerations
Littelfuse time-delay (SLO-BLO) fuses derate quicker in
higher ambient conditions, thus acting as “self-protecting”
devices that maintain their integrity until after opening.
or more nuisance openings than their larger counterparts, so it is
always important to consider all factors involved.
Current Limitation
The newest consideration for selecting the best fuse for a
given application is indication. Many of the more commonly
used UL fuse classes are now available in both indicating
and non-indicating versions. Built-in, blown-fuse indication
that quickly identifies which fuse or fuses within an electrical
panel or system have blown can be found on the Littelfuse
POWR-PRO® LLSRK_ID Class RK1, FLNR_ID, FLSR_ID and
IDSR Class RK5, and JTD_ID Class J fuse series.
Indication
A current-limiting fuse is one that opens and clears a fault
in less than 180 electrical degrees, or in other words, within
the first half electrical cycle (0.00833 seconds). See the
definition of Current-limiting Fuse and Figure 13 in the Terms
and Definitions section.
NEC® Article 240.2 states that a current-limiting overcurrent
protective device must reduce the peak let-through current to a
value substantially less than the potential peak current that would
have occurred if the fuse were not used in the circuit or were
replaced with solid conductors of the same impedance. The total
destructive heat energy (I2t) to the circuit and its components is
greatly minimized as a result of using current-limiting fuses.
The indicating feature on these fuses provides reduced
downtime, increased safety, and reduced housekeeping or
troubleshooting headaches and delays. Littelfuse Indicator®
fuses will help lower the costs associated with downtime,
provide longer fuse life by minimizing nuisance openings,
increase system performance by minimizing equipment
damage, and improve safety by minimizing accidents.
It is important to note that UL Class H ‘Renewable’ fuses
designed decades ago are considered non-current limiting. Other
than Midget fuses, almost all other fuse types used in today’s
electrical systems and applications are considered currentlimiting per the above parameters. This selection consideration
now involves determining the degree or level of current
limitation required to properly protect a given device or system.
III. General Fusing Recommendations
Based on the above selection considerations, the following
is recommended:
Fuses with ampere ratings from 1/10 through 600 amperes
It is also important to point out that matching fuseholders
and/or fuseblocks must reject non-current-limiting fuses and
accept only current-limiting fuses of the stated UL Class.
• When available fault currents are less than 100,000
amperes and when equipment does not require the more
current-limiting characteristics of UL Class RK1 fuses,
FLNR and FLSR_ID Series Class RK5 current-limiting fuses
provide superior time-delay and cycling characteristics
at a lower cost than RK1 fuses. If available fault currents
exceed 100,000 amperes, equipment may need the
additional current-limitation capabilities of the LLNRK,
LLSRK and LLSRK_ID series Class RK1 fuses.
Physical Size
While often overlooked, the physical size or overall
dimensions of the fuse to be used in a given application is
another important selection consideration to evaluate. There
is a trend toward reduction of size in almost everything, and
electrical equipment is no exception. Fuse size is actually
determined by the size and dimensions of the fuseblock or
disconnect switch in which it is installed.
• Fast-acting JLLN and JLLS series Class T fuses possess
space-saving features that make them especially suitable
for protection of molded case circuit breakers, meter
banks, and similar limited-space applications.
While saving space may be an important factor when
selecting the proper fuses, other considerations should not
be overlooked. Some of these include:
• Time-delay JTD_ID and JTD series Class J fuses are used
in OEM motor control center applications as well as other
MRO motor and transformer applications requiring spacesaving IEC Type 2 protection.
• Does the smallest fuse have the most desirable
characteristics for the application?
• Does the equipment in which the fuse will be installed
provide adequate space for maintenance?
If looking at just physical dimensions, a 600 volt, 60 ampere,
200,000 AIR, time-delay, dual-element UL Class CD fuse is smaller
than a similarly rated UL Class J fuse, which is in turn, considerably
smaller than a similarly rated UL Class RK1 or Class RK5 fuse.
However, smaller-sized fuses can sometimes have less time-delay
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185
13 Technical
• Class CC and Class CD series fuses are used in control
circuits and control panels where space is at a premium.
The Littelfuse POWR-PRO CCMR series fuses are best
used for protection of small motors, while the Littelfuse
KLDR series fuses provide optimal protection for control
power transformers and similar devices.
• Do smaller fuses coordinate well with the system’s other
overcurrent protection?
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Technical Application Guide
selection considerations
Fuses with ampere ratings from 601 through 6,000 amperes
• Screw – for use with spade lugs or ring terminals.
For superior protection of most general-purpose and motor
circuits, it is recommended to use the POWR-PRO® KLPC
series Class L fuses. The Class L fuses are the only timedelay fuse series available in these higher ampere ratings.
• Screw with Pressure Plate – for use with solid or
stranded wire without terminal and recommended for
applications where vibration will be a factor.
• Box Lug – the most durable of the three options and
used with all types of solid wire and Class B and Class C
stranded wire.
Information on all the Littelfuse fuse series referenced above
can be found on the UL/CSA Fuse Classes and Applications
Charts found later in this Technical Application Guide.
There are a few additional aspects to keep in mind when
selecting the fuseholder or fuseblock needed for a given
application. UL Class H blocks accept Class H, Class K5, and
Class R fuses. Similarly, Midget-style fuseblocks accept both
Midget and UL Class CC fuses.
IV. Selection Considerations for
Fuseholders
Both UL Class R and Class CC fuseholders contain a
rejection feature which prevents the insertion of a different
Class or type of fuse. The physical size and dimensions of
UL Class J and Class T fuses accomplish the same thing in
preventing the insertion of a different Class of fuse as well.
Equally important to the selection of the proper fuse is the
correct selection of the proper fuseholder or fuse block for
a given application. Fuseholders are available using most of
the same Selection Considerations outlined above for UL
fuse classes. Considerations for fuseholders include:
• Current Rating
• Voltage Rating
V. CIRCUIT PROTECTION CHECKLIST
• Interrupting Rating
To select the proper overcurrent protective device for an
electrical system, circuit and system designers should ask
themselves the following questions before a system is
designed:
• Physical Size
• Indication
Additional selection considerations for fuseholders and
fuseblocks include:
• What is the normal or average current expected?
• What is the maximum continuous (three hours or more)
current expected?
• Number of poles
• What inrush or temporary surge currents can be
expected?
• Mounting configuration
• Connector type
• Are the overcurrent protective devices able to distinguish
between expected inrush and surge currents, and open
under sustained overloads and fault conditions?
Number of Poles
The number of poles for each set of fuses is determined by
the characteristics of the circuit. Most fuse block series are
available in 1, 2, or 3 pole configurations, although some are
also available with four or more poles. The option to gang
individual fuseblocks into longer strips will be determined by
the available space and type of wire being used.
• What kind of environmental extremes are possible? Dust,
humidity, temperature extremes and other factors need
to be considered.
• What is the maximum available fault current the
protective device may have to interrupt?
• Is the overcurrent protective device rated for the system
voltage?
Mounting Configuration
Technical 13
Depending on the fuse block design, another selection
consideration to evaluate is how the fuseblock is mounted
or inserted into the panel. Historically, fuseblocks simply
screwed into the back of the panel, but many newer designs
have now added (or replaced the screw-in design with) a DIN
rail mounting capability. The DIN rail mounting feature allows
the blocks to be quickly installed and removed from the rails.
• Will the overcurrent protective device provide the safest
and most reliable protection for the specific equipment?
• Under short-circuit conditions, will the overcurrent
protective device minimize the possibility of a fire or
explosion?
• Does the overcurrent protective device meet all the
applicable safety standards and installation requirements?
Connector Type
Answers to these questions and other criteria will help to
determine the type overcurrent protection device to use for
optimum safety, reliability and performance.
For Littelfuse fuseblocks, a choice of three connector types
or wire terminations is available:
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Technical Application Guide
Fuse characteristic curves and charts
1000
800
600
400
300
200
The performance capabilities of various fuses are graphically
represented by two different types of fuse characteristic
curves: time-current curves and peak let-through charts.
These curves and charts define the operating characteristics
of a given fuse, and assist system designers and engineers
in selecting the proper fuse to protect equipment and
electrical systems.
100
80
60
40
30
20
TIME IN SECONDS
Understanding Time-current Curves
Time-current curves provide a graphical representation
or plot of a fuse’s average melting (opening) time at any
current. Time-current curves for Littelfuse POWR-GARD®
fuses can be found online at
www.littelfuse.com/technicalcenter.
GREEN = TIME DELAY FUSE
RED = NORMAL OPENING FUSE
BLUE = VERY FAST ACTING FUSE
20000
30000
40000
60000
80000
100000
2000
3000
4000
6000
8000
10000
200
300
400
600
800
1000
20
30
40
60
80
100
10
CURRENT IN AMPERES
Figure 5 – Comparison of Average Melting Times for Three Fuse
Types
of three fuse types: Littelfuse dual-element, time-delay
LLSRK series RK1 fuses; Littelfuse normal opening NLS
series fuses; and Littelfuse very fast acting L60S series
semiconductor fuses.
To better illustrate this point, Table 3 also compares the
opening times for each of these fuses.
Ampere
Rating
Fuse Type
100
Normal Opening
400 A
600 A
200 A
60 A
100 A
30 A
15 A
1
.8
.6
.4
.3
.2
.01
As discussed earlier in the Fuseology Fundamentals
section, time-delay, fast-acting, and very fast-acting fuses
all respond differently based on the overcurrents occurring
in the systems each is protecting. To illustrate the basic
differences between each type of fuse, Figure 5 compares
the average melting times for 100 and 600 amp ratings
Time-Delay
Very Fast-Acting
Time-Delay
600
100
80
60
40
30
20
TIME IN SECONDS
100 AMP
.1
.08
.06
.04
.03
.02
In order to make the curves more readable, the performance
information is presented on log-log paper. The overcurrent
values appear across the bottom and increase in magnitude
from left to right. Average melting times appear on the
left-hand side of the curve and increase in magnitude from
bottom to top. The ampere ratings of the individual fuses
for a given series are listed at the top and increase in rating
from left to right. Figure 4 shows the average melting time
curves for a typical time-delay fuse series.
1000
800
600
400
300
200
600 AMP
10
8
6
4
3
2
Normal Opening
Very Fast-Acting
Opening Time in Seconds
500% Rating 800% Rating 1200% Rating
12 secs.
2 secs.
1.3 secs.
14 secs.
10 secs.
2 secs.
0.9 secs.
0.7 secs.
0.02 secs.
0.7 secs.
3 secs.
0.05 secs.
0.14 secs.
0.3 secs.
>0.01 secs.
0.045 secs.
1.1 secs.
>0.01 secs.
Table 3 – Comparative Opening Times for Time-Delay, FastActing, and Very Fast-Acting Fuses
10
8
6
4
3
2
Peak Let-through Charts
Peak let-through charts illustrate the maximum instantaneous
current through the fuse during the total clearing time. This
represents the current limiting ability of a fuse.
1
.8
.6
.4
.3
.2
Fuses that are current-limiting open severe short-circuits
within the first half-cycle (180 electrical degrees or 0.00833
seconds) after the fault occurs. Current-limiting fuses also
reduce the peak current of the available fault current to a
value less than would occur without the fuse. This reduction
is shown in Figure 6.
.1
.08
.06
.04
.03
.02
CURRENT IN AMPERES
A fuse’s current-limiting effects are shown graphically on
Peak Let-through charts such as the one shown in Figure 7.
The values across the chart’s bottom represent the available
Figure 4 – Average Melting Time Curves for Typical Time-Delay
Fuse Series
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13 Technical
20000
30000
40000
60000
80000
100000
2000
3000
4000
6000
8000
10000
200
300
400
600
800
1000
20
30
40
60
80
100
10
.01
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Technical Application Guide
Current
Fuse characteristic curves and charts
The diagonal curves that branch off the A-B line illustrate the
current-limiting effects of different fuse ampere ratings for
a given fuse series. To continue the example from above,
enter the chart in Figure 7 on the bottom at 100,000 rms
symmetrical amperes and read upwards to the intersection
of the 200 ampere fuse curve. Now read from this point
horizontally to the left and read a peak let-through current of
approximately 20,000 amperes.
Peak Current which would occur
without current limitation
What this tells us is that the 200 ampere fuse has reduced
the peak current during the fault from 230,000 amperes to
20,000 amperes. In other words, this is the current-limiting
effect of the 200 ampere fuse. 20,000 amperes is less than
one-tenth of the available current. This is important because
the magnetic force created by current flow is a function of
the peak current squared. If the peak let-through current of
a current-limiting fuse is one-tenth of the available peak, the
magnetic force is reduced to less than 1/100 of what would
occur without the fuse.
Peak Let-through Current
Time
Figure 6 – Current limiting effect of fuses
(also referred to as potential or prospective) rms symmetrical
fault current. The values on the chart’s left side represent
the instantaneous available peak current and the peak letthrough current for various fuse ratings.
Using the Peak Let-through Charts
(“Up-Over-and-Down”)
To better explain the function of these charts, let’s run
through an example. Start by entering the chart on the
bottom at 100,000 rms symmetrical amperes and read
upwards to the A-B line. From this point, read horizontally
to the left and read the instantaneous peak let-thru current
of 230,000 amperes. In a circuit with a typical 15% shortcircuit power factor, the instantaneous peak of the available
current is approximately 2.3 times the rms symmetrical
value. This occurs since the A-B line on the chart has a
2.3:1 slope.
PEAK LET-THRU IN AMPERES
1000000
800000
600000
400000
300000
200000
For example, given an available fault-current of 100,000
rms symmetrical amperes, determine whether 600 amp
250 volt time-delay Class RK1 fuses can sufficiently protect
equipment that has a 22,000 amp short-circuit rating. Refer
to Figure 8.
Start by locating the 100,000 A available fault-current on the
bottom of the chart (Point A) and follow this value upwards
to the intersection with the 600 amp fuse curve (Point B).
Next, follow this point horizontally to the left to intersect
with the A-B line (Point C). Finally, read down to the bottom
of the chart (Point D) to read a value of approximately
18,000 amps.
B
FUSE
AMPERE
RATING
100000
80000
60000
40000
30000
20000
600
400
200
100
60
30
10000
8000
6000
4000
3000
2000
1000
800
600
400
300
200
Peak Let-through Charts for Littelfuse POWR-GARD® fuses
can be found online at www.littelfuse.com/technicalcenter.
These charts are useful in determining whether a given fuse
can properly protect a specific piece of equipment.
Can the fuse selected properly protect the equipment for
this application? Yes, the POWR-PRO® LLNRK 600 ampere
RK1 current-limiting fuses have reduced the 100,000
amperes available current to an apparent or equivalent
18,000 amps. When protected by 600 amp LLNRK RK1
fuses, equipment with short-circuit ratings of 22,000 amps
may be safely connected to a system having 100,000
available rms symmetrical amperes.
A
This method, sometimes referred to as the “Up-Over-andDown” method, may be used to:
Technical 13
200000
20000
30000
40000
60000
80000
100000
3000
4000
6000
8000
10000
2000
300
400
600
800
1000
200
100
100
1. Provide back-up short-circuit protection to large air
power circuit breakers.
AVAILABLE FAULT CURRENT
SYMMETRICAL R.M.S. AMPERES
2. Enable non-interrupting equipment such as bus duct to be
Figure 7 – Peak Let-through Charts
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Technical Application Guide
Fuse characteristics curveS and charts
Only the overcurrent device immediately on the line side of an
overcurrent will open for any overload or short-circuit condition.
B
100000
80000
60000
40000
30000
20000
B
C
600
400
100
60
30
In a selective system, none of this occurs. Overloads and
faults are disconnected by the overcurrent protective device
immediately on the line side of the problem. The amount of
equipment removed from service is minimized, the faulted
or overloaded circuit is easier to locate, and a minimum
amount of time is required to restore full service.
A
200000
3000
4000
6000
8000
10000
2000
300
400
600
800
1000
200
A
30000
40000
60000
80000
100000
D
100
100
Since the advent of electrical and electronic equipment,
businesses have become entirely dependent on the
continuous availability of electric energy. Loss of power
halts all production and order processing, yet expenses
continue to increase. Even many UPS systems become
unintentionally non-selective causing power loss to
computers and other critical equipment. Non-selectivity may
defeat otherwise well-engineered UPS systems.
200
10000
8000
6000
4000
3000
2000
1000
800
600
400
300
200
To further clarify, refer to the Terms and Definitions section
for the definition of Selective Coordination and Figure 15 for a
graphical example.
FUSE
AMPERE
RATING
20000
PEAK LET-THRU IN AMPERES
1000000
800000
600000
400000
300000
200000
AVAILABLE FAULT CURRENT
SYMMETRICAL R.M.S. AMPERES
For these and many other reasons, selectivity is the
standard by which many systems are judged and designed.
Figure 8 – Peak Let-through Chart for POWR-PRO® LLNRK Class
RK1 Dual-Element Fuses Using the Up-Over-and-Down Method
Fuse Selectivity
installed in systems with available short-circuit currents
greater than their short circuit (withstand) ratings.
To get a better sense of how to ensure that fuses are
selectively coordinated within an electrical system, refer
to Figure 4 shown earlier in this Technical Application
Guide. This figure shows typical average melting timecurrent curves for one class of fuses. Note that the curves
are roughly parallel to each other and that for a given
overcurrent, the smaller fuse ratings respond quicker than
the larger ratings. The heat energy required to open a fuse
is separated into melting I2t and arcing I2t (see definition of
Ampere-Squared-Seconds). The sum of these is the total
clearing I2t.
However, this method may not be used to select fuses for
backup protection of molded case or intermediate frame
circuit breakers. National Electrical Code® (NEC®) Article
240.86 requires Series Ratings. Refer to the NEC for more
information.
UL Listed fuse-to-circuit breaker series ratings are now
available from most national load center and panelboard
manufacturers. Listings are shown in their product digests,
catalogs, and online. Many local builders have also obtained
fuse-to-circuit breaker series ratings. For additional
information contact the Littelfuse Technical Support Group at
1-800-TEC-FUSE (1-800-832-3873).
For a system to be considered coordinated, the smaller
fuse total clearing I2t must be less than the larger fuse
melting I2t. In other words, if the downstream (branch)
fuse opens the circuit before the overcurrent affects
the upstream (feeder) fuse element, the system will be
considered selective. This can be determined by analyzing
curves displaying melting and total clearing I2t, or from
minimum melting and maximum clearing time-current
curves.
Short-Circuit Current Rating (SCCR)
Since 2005, the NEC has required Industrial Control Panels
to be labeled with their SCCR. These labels allow users and
inspectors to compare the SCCR of the equipment to the
available fault current in order to avoid potential hazards in
facilities. For additional information, the latest specific NEC
requirements, and solutions on how to increase the SCCR
for a panel, visit www.littelfuse.com/SCCR.
Selective Coordination
A “coordinated” or “selective” system is a system whose
overcurrent protective devices have been carefully chosen and
their time-current characteristics coordinated.
© 2010 Littelfuse POWR-GARD® Products Catalog
189
13 Technical
But the simplest method of coordinating low voltage power
fuses is by using a Fuse Coordination Table such as the
one shown in Table 4. This table is only applicable for the
Littelfuse POWR-PRO® and POWR-GARD® fuse series listed.
Tables such as this greatly reduce design time. For example,
the coordination table shows that POWR-PRO KLPC Class
L fuses coordinate at a two-to-one ratio with other Class L
fuses, with POWR-PRO LLNRK / LLSRK / LLSRK_ID series
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Technical Application Guide
selective coordination
Class RK1 fuses, and POWR-PRO JTD / JTD_ID series Class
J fuses.
properly protected by overcurrent protective devices that
will limit damage.
In the system shown in Figure 9, the 3000 amp Class L
main fuses are at least twice the ratings of the 1500, 1200,
and 1000 amp Class L feeder fuses. Using the 2:1 ratio
just referenced above, it is determined that these fuses
will coordinate. The Coordination Table also shows that the
LLSRK_ID series time-delay RK1 feeder and branch circuit
fuses coordinate at a two-to-one ratio with the Class L
feeder fuses, so the entire system in Figure 9 would be
considered 100% coordinated.
When a severe fault occurs in an unprotected circuit, current
immediately increases to a very high value. This is the
available or prospective fault current. Some fuses respond
so quickly to the increasing current that they interrupt
current within the first half-cycle - or before the current even
reaches its first peak. This is illustrated in Figure 6 found
earlier in the Technical Application Guide. Such fuses are
termed “current-limiting fuses.”
Current-limiting fuses stop damaging current faster than
any other protective device, and greatly reduce or totally
prevent component damage from high fault currents. This
performance capability helps users meet the NEC Article
110.10 requirements listed in Figure 10.
Circuit Breaker Coordination
As a result of the numerous types of circuit breakers
and circuit breaker trip units available in today’s market,
developing a coordinated circuit breaker system or
coordinating circuit breakers with fuses is beyond the scope
of this Technical Application Guide. For further questions,
contact the Littelfuse Technical Support Group.
Pre-Engineered Solutions
Applicable code requirements also continue to expand with
each new edition of the National Electrical Code®. As of the
2008 edition of the NEC, the following requirements need to
be met – and can be, utilizing Littelfuse POWR-GARD® PreEngineered Solutions:
NEC® Requirements for Selective
Coordination
Component Short-Circuit Protecting Ability
• NEC 517.26 – Healthcare Essential Electrical Systems
As shown in Figure 10, the NEC® requires equipment
protection to be coordinated with overcurrent protective
devices and the available fault current in order to prevent
extensive damage to the equipment. Essentially, this
means that electrical equipment must be capable of
withstanding heavy overcurrents without damage or be
• NEC 620.62 – Elevators
• NEC 700.27 – Emergency Systems
• NEC 701.18 – Legally Required Standby Systems
• NEC 708.54 – Critical Operations Power Systems
Line-Side Fuses
Technical 13
Ampere
Range
UL Class
601-6000
601-4000
601-2000
30-600
30-600
30-600
30-600
30-600
30-600
30-600
30-600
30-1200
30-1200
30-600
1-60
L
L
L
RK1
RK1
J
RK5
RK5
RK5
RK1
RK1
T
T
J
G
Littelfuse
Catalog No.
KLPC
KLLU
LDC
LLNRK
LLSRK_ID
JTD_ID
IDSR
FLNR_ID
FLSR_ID
KLNR
KLSR
JLLN
JLLS
JLS
SLC
Load-Side Fuses
Time-Delay Fuses
Ampere Range, UL Class and Catalog No.
601-6000
601-4000
30-600
30-600
30-600
L
L
RK1
J
RK5
FLNR_ID
KLPC
LLNRK
JTD_ID
KLLU
FLSR_ID
LDC
LLSRK_ID
JTD
IDSR
2:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
4:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
4:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
4:1
N/A
N/A
2:1
2:1
8:1
N/A
N/A
2:1
2:1
8:1
N/A
N/A
2:1
2:1
8:1
N/A
N/A
1.5:1
1.5:1
2:1
N/A
N/A
1.5:1
1.5:1
2:1
N/A
N/A
1.5:1
1.5:1
2:1
N/A
N/A
3:1
3:1
8:1
N/A
N/A
3:1
3:1
8:1
N/A
N/A
3:1
3:1
8:1
N/A
N/A
3:1
3:1
8:1
N/A
N/A
3:1
3:1
8:1
N/A
N/A
3:1
3:1
4:1
Fast-Acting Fuses
Ampere Range, UL Class and Catalog No.
30-600
30-1200
30-600
1-60
RK1
T
J
G
KLNR
KLSR
JLLN
JLLS
JLS
SLC
2:1
2:1
2:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
1.5:1
1.5:1
1.5:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
1.5:1
1.5:1
1.5:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
1.5:1
1.5:1
1.5:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
2:1
N/A
N/A
N/A
4:1
4:1
4:1
1.5:1
1.5:1
1.5:1
4:1
4:1
4:1
4:1
4:1
2:1
Table 4 – Fuse Coordination Table. Selecting the Correct Fuse Ampere Ratio to Maintain Selectively Coordinated Systems. (Ratios are
expressed as Line-Side Fuse to Load-Side Fuse.)
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Technical Application Guide
selective coordination
The Littelfuse product line of Pre-Engineered Solutions
includes:
KLPC
3000
• LPS Series POWR-Switch (single elevator shunt-trip
disconnect switch)
• LPMP Series POWR-Switch Panel (multiple elevator
shunt-trip disconnect switches)
KLPC
1500
• LCP Selective Coordination Panel
KLPC
1200
KLPC
1000
These products continue to gain in popularity because they
meet NEC® requirements and offer simple, economical
solutions for a variety of applications.
Visit www.littelfuse.com/lcp for more information
on Littelfuse Pre-Engineered Solution products and
corresponding selective coordination requirements.
LLSRK
400
LLSRK
400
LLSRK
200
LLSRK
200
Figure 9 – Example of Selectively Coordinated Fused System
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE®
ARTICLE 110 – Requirements for Electrical Installations
I. General
110.3. Examination, Identification, Installation, and Use of Equipment.
(A)Examination. In judging equipment, considerations such as the following shall be evaluated:
(5) Heating effects under normal conditions of use and also under abnormal conditions likely to arise in service.
(6) Arcing effects.
(B)Installation and Use. Listed or labeled equipment shall be used or installed in accordance with any instructions included in the listing
or labeling.
110.9 Interrupting Rating. Equipment intended to interrupt current at fault levels shall have an interrupting rating not less than the
nominal circuit voltage and the current that is available at the line terminals of the equipment.
Equipment intended to interrupt current at other than fault levels shall have an interrupting rating at nominal circuit voltage not less than
the current that must be interrupted.
110.10 Circuit Impedance, Short-Circuit Ratings, and Other Characteristics. The overcurrent protective devices, the total
impedance, the equipment short-circuit current ratings, and other characteristics of the circuit to be protected shall be selected and
coordinated to permit the circuit protective devices used to clear a fault to do so without extensive damage to the electrical equipment of
the circuit. This fault shall be assumed to be either between two or more of the circuit conductors or between any circuit conductor and
the equipment grounding conductor(s) permitted in 250.118. Listed equipment applied in accordance with their listing shall be considered
to meet the requirements of this section.
ARTICLE 240 – Overcurrent Protection
240.1 Scope. Parts I through VII of this article provide the general requirements for overcurrent protection and overcurrent protective
devices not more than 600 volts, nominal. Part VIII covers overcurrent protection for those portions of supervised industrial installations
operating at voltages of not more than 600 volts, nominal. Part IX covers overcurrent protection over 600 volts, nominal.
(FPN): Overcurrent protection for conductors and equipment is provided to open the circuit if the current reaches a value that
will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature in conductors or con­ductor insulation. See also Articles 110.9 for requirements for
interrupting ratings and 110.10 for require­ments for protection against fault currents.
Figure 10 – National Electrical Code Requires Effective Overcurrent Protection
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191
13 Technical
(Reproduced by permission of NFPA)
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Technical Application Guide
UL/CSA Fuse Classes AND APplications
Overcurrent and short-circuit protection of power and lighting feeders and branch circuits
Current Limiting
Fuses which meet the requirements for current limiting fuses are required to be labeled “Current Limiting”. Fuse labels must
include: UL/CSA fuse class, manufacturer’s name or trademark, current rating, AC and/or DC voltage rating, and AC and/or DC
interrupting rating. “Time Delay”, “D”, “TD” or equivalent may also be included on the label when the fuse complies with the
time delay requirements of its class.
CLass l
CLass CC/CD
Standards: UL Standard 248-14,
CSA Standard C22.2, No. 106, classified as HRCI-L
Voltage rating: 600 volts, AC and/or DC
CURRENT ratings: 601-6000 amps
KLPC also available 200-600A; LDC also available 150-600A
Interrupting rating:AC: 200,000 amps rms symmetrical
DC: 50,000, 100,000, or 200,000 amps
Not interchangeable with any other UL fuse class.
Time delay: Class L fuses may be marked “Time-Delay” although UL does not
investigate time-delay characteristics of Class L fuses.
KLPC & KLLU: 10 seconds at 500% current rating
LDC: 4 seconds at 500% current rating
Standards: UL Standard 248-4,
CSA Standard C22.2, No. 106, classified as HRCI Misc.
Voltage rating: 600 volts, AC
CURRENT ratings: UL Class CC: 0-30 amps
UL Class CD: 35-60 amps
Interrupting ratings:200,000 amps rms symmetrical
Time delay optional: Minimum of 12 seconds at 200% current rating.
LF Series: Time Delay: CCMR (motors), KLDR (transformers)
Fast Acting: KLKR
PageS: 33-35
LF Series: KLPC, KLLU, LDC
Class T
PAGES: 11-13
Standards: UL Standard 248-15
CSA Standard C22.2, No. 106, classified as HRCI-T
Voltage ratingS: 300 and 600 volts AC, 125 and 300 volts DC
CURRENT ratings: 0-1200 amps
900 to 1200 amps UL Recognized for 600V version
Interrupting rating:200,000 amps rms symmetrical
Fast-Acting fuses. High degree of current limitation.
Very small fuses; space-saving and non-interchangeable with any other UL fuse class.
CLass R
Standards: UL Standard 248-12,
CSA Standard C22.2, No. 106, classified as HRCI-R
Voltage ratings: 250 and 600 volts, AC; 125 and 300 volts DC
CURRENT ratings: 0-600 amps
Interrupting rating:200,000 amps rms symmetrical
Two classes: RK1 and RK5
Time delay is optional for Class R fuses.
Time Delay fuses are required to hold 500% current rating for a minimum of ten seconds.
Same dimensions as UL Class H fuses, terminals modified to provide rejection feature.
Fits UL Class R fuseholders which reject non Class R fuses.
Physically interchangeable with UL Class H, NEMA Class H, and UL Classes K1 &
K5 when equipment has Class H fuseholders.
LF Series: JLLN, JLLS
PageS: 30-31
Class G
Standards: UL Standard 248-5
CSA Standard C22.2, No. 106, classified as HRCI Misc.
Voltage rating: 480 volts, AC
CURRENT ratings: 0-60 amps
Interrupting rating:100,000 amps rms symmetrical
Not interchangeable with any other UL fuse class.
Time delay optional: Minimum of 12 seconds at 200% current rating.
Class RK5
Class RK1
High degree of current limitation.
Provides IEC Type 2 (no damage)
protection for motor starters and
control components. Time Delay
optional, LLSRK_ID Series provides
visual indication of blown fuse.
Moderate degree of current limitation, adequate for most applications. Time delay optional.
FLNR_ID, FLSR_ID and IDSR series
provides visual indication of blown
fuse.
LF Series:Time Delay: LLNRK,
LLSRK, LLSRK_ID
Fast Acting: KLNR, KLSR
LF Series:FLNR, FLNR_ID,
FLSR, FLSR_ID, and IDSR
PAGES: 16-18
LF Series: SLC
Page: 32
CLass K
Standards: UL Standard 248-9; No CSA Standard
Voltage ratings: 250 and 600 volts, AC
CURRENT rating: 0-600 amps
Interrupting ratingS:Three permitted: 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 amps
rms symmetrical
Time delay is optional for Class K fuses.
Time Delay fuses are required to hold 500% current rating for a minimum of ten seconds.
Same Dimensions and Physically interchangeable with UL Class H fuseholders.
Class K fuses are not permitted to be labeled Current Limiting because there is no rejection feature as required by NEC Article 240-60(B).
PAGES: 19-22
CLass J
Standards: UL Standard 248-8,
CSA Standard C22.2, No. 106, classified as HRCI-J
Voltage rating: 600 volts, AC
CURRENT ratings: 0-600 amps
Interrupting rating:200,000 amps rms symmetrical
Not interchangeable with any other UL fuse class.
Time delay optional: Minimum of 10 seconds at 500% current rating.
Class K1
LF Series:Time Delay: JTD_ID, JTD
Fast Acting: JLS
Technical 13
PAGES: 27-29
Class K5
Same prescribed degree of current
limitation as RK1 fuses when
tested at 50,000 or 100,000 amps
rms symmetrical.
Same prescribed degree of current
limitation as RK5 fuses when
tested at 50,000 or 100,000 amps
rms symmetrical.
LF Series:
LF Series: NLN, NLS
Time Delay: LLNRK, LLSRK
Fast Acting: KLNR,
KLSR
Page: 24
Page: 16
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Technical Application Guide
UL/CSA Fuse Classes AND APplications
Overcurrent and short-circuit protection of power and lighting feeders and branch circuits
Fuses for Supplementary Overcurrent Protection
Special purpose fuses
Standards: UL Standard 248-14; CSA Standard C22.2,
No. 59-1. Three Classifications covered:
Note: Fuses may be rated for AC and/or DC when suitable for
such use.
(1) Micro fuses
Voltage ratings: UL, 125 volts; CSA, 0-250 volts
Current ratings: UL, 0-10 amps; CSA, 0-60 amps
Interrupting rating: 50 amps rms symmetrical
(2) Miniature fuses (CSA classifies these as Supplemental Fuses)
Voltage ratings: UL, 125 or 250 volts; CSA, 0-600 volts
Current ratings: UL, 0-30 amps; CSA, 0-60 amps
Interrupting rating: 10,000 amps rms symmetrical
(3) Miscellaneous Cartridge fuses (CSA classifies these as
Supplemental Fuses)
Voltage ratings: UL, 125 to 600 volts; CSA, 0-600 volts
Current ratings: UL, 0-30 amps; CSA 0-60 amps
Interrupting ratings:10,000, 50,000, or 100,000 amps rms symmetrical
Time delay (Optional); Minimum delay at 200% fuse rating:
5 seconds for fuses rated 3 amps or less
12 seconds for fuses rated more than 3 amps
There are no UL Standards covering this category of fuses. These fuses have
special characteristics designed to protect special types of electrical or electronic
equipment such as diodes, SCR, transistors, thyristors, capacitors, integrally fused
circuit breakers, parallel cable runs, etc.
Fuses may be UL Recognized for use as a component in UL Listed equipment.
UL Recognized fuses are tested for characteristics such as published interrupting
capacity. They are also covered by UL re-examination service.
Non-renewable
Voltage ratings: up to 1000 volts AC and/or DC
Ampere ratings: up to 6000 amperes
Interrupting ratings: up to 200,000 amperes
Many of these fuses are extremely current limiting. When considering application of
these fuses, or if you have special requirements, contact Littelfuse Technical Support
Group for assistance.
LF Series: KLC, LA15QS, LA30QS, LA50QS, LA60QS, LA60X, LA70QS, LA100P,
LA120X, LA070URD, LA130URD, L15S, L25S, L50S, L60S, L70S, JLLS 900 amp
through 1200 amp
PageS: 62-81
LF Series: BLF, BLN, BLS, FLA, FLM, FLQ, FLU, KLK, KLKD (600 Volts DC), SPF
NOTE: Littelfuse electronic fuses are also covered by these standards; see
electronic section of this catalog, or request Electronic Designer’s Guide (Publication
No. EC101) for complete listing.
PageS: 37-39
Non-Current Limiting
CLASS H
Plug Fuses
Standards: UL Standard 248-6
CSA Standard C22.2, No. 59.1
Also known as NEMA Class H, and sometimes referred to as “NEC” or “Code”
fuses
Voltage ratings: 250 and 600 volts, AC
Ampere ratings: 0-600 amps
Interrupting ratings: 10,000 amps rms symmetrical
Two types: one-time and renewable
Physically interchangeable with UL Classes K1 & K5;
Fits UL Class H fuseholders which will also accept K1, K5, RK5, and RK1 fuses.
Manufacturers are upgrading Class H One-time fuses to Class K5 per UL Standard
248-9D, See Class K fuses.
ONE-TIME FUSES
(NON-RENEWABLE)
Time delay: Optional
Time-delay fuses must hold 500%
current rating for a minimum of ten
seconds.
LF Series: NLKP
PageS: 25-26
Standards: UL Standard 248-11,
CSA Standard C22.2, No. 59.1
Voltage ratings: 125 volts AC only
Ampere ratings: 0-30 amps
Interrupting ratings: 10,000 amps rms symmetrical. Interrupting rating
need not be marked on fuse.
Two types: Edison-base and Type S
Edison-base: Base is same as standard light bulb. All amp ratings interchange
able. NEC permits Edison-base plug fuses to be used only as replacements for
existing fuses, and only when there is no evidence of tampering or overfusing.
type s: Not interchangeable with Edison-base fuses unless non-removable Type
S fuse adapter is installed in Edison-base fuse socket. To prevent overfusing,
adapters have three ampere ratings: 10-15, 16-20, and 21-30 amps.
Time delay: Fuses may be time delay, if so, they are required to hold 200% of rating
for 12 seconds minimum.
NOTE: Plug fuses may be used where there is not more than 125 volts between
conductors or more than 150 volts from any conductor to ground. This permits their
use in 120/240 volts grounded, single-phase circuits.
RENEWABLE FUSES
Only Class H fuses may be renewable. While time delay is optional,
no renewable fuses meet requirements for time delay.
Some renewable fuses have a moderate amount of time delay, referred
to as “time lag” to differentiate
from true time delay.
LF Series: Edison-base: TOO, TLO
Type S: SOO, SLO
Type S Adapters: SAO
Page: 63
LF Series: RLN, RLS
Replaceable links serIes:
LKN, LKS
PageS: 25-26
13 Technical
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Technical Application Guide
Electrical safety guide
Introduction
Steps to Electrical Safety Compliance
Electrical safety is an important issue for employers and
employees alike. Unfortunately, thousands of electrical
accidents continue to occur each year resulting in permanent
disabilities to personnel and excessive medical and
equipment replacement costs.
• Define the project scope and identify any current safety
program gaps
OSHA requirements are often the motivating factor
increasing electrical safety in the workplace. OSHA
continues to increase enforcement activities and is seeking
to increase penalties for violations.
• Identify hazards and re-engineer to reduce hazards
• Collect data and document your electrical system
• Evaluate your electrical system through engineering
analysis
• Label equipment to communicate hazards
• Update or develop an Electrical Safety Program
• Obtain Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) and
insulated tools
Typical OSHA violations related to electrical safety include
improper Lockout/Tagout, faulty electrical wiring, failure to
follow electrical safe work practices, failure to assess and
identify hazards, failure to train employees and failure to
provide PPE (personal protective equipment) to workers.
• Train Personnel
• Maintain and Audit One-Line Drawings and Electrical
Safety Programs
Industry consensus standards such as NFPA 70E, Standard
for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, has been created
at the request of OSHA to define and quantify electrical
hazards including Shock, Arc-Flash and Arc-Blast.
WHAT: OSHA REQUIRES YOU...
HOW: NFPA 70E MUST BE FOLLOWED...
TO COMPLY WITH 1910 SUBPART S
TO COMPLY WITH 1910 SUBPART S
You MUST assess and identify all hazards above 50 volts
NFPA 70E explains how to perform a Shock & Arc-Flash Hazard
Assessment down to 50 volts using tables and calculations
NFPA 70E establishes Hazard Risk Categories, Protection
Boundaries, LO/TO, PPE requirements and the use of Energized
Work Permits
You MUST put safeguards in place for hazards above 50 volts
You MUST train employees on safe work practices
NFPA 70E defines Qualified and Unqualified workers along with
training requirements
Table 5 - Comparison of OSHA and NFPA 70E
OSHA Standard 29 Part 1910 Subpart S (electrical)
generally addresses electrical safety standards, work
practices, and maintenance requirements.
Technical 13
NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
is an industry consensus standard that focuses on safety
requirements to protect employees. OSHA commonly is
referred to as the “What” or “Shall” and NFPA 70E as the
“How” with regards to electrical safety compliance.
OSHA and NFPA 70E reinforce the need for Electrical
Hazard Analysis. Electrical Hazard Analysis should address
all potential hazards including Shock, Arc-Flash, Arc-Blast
and burns. OSHA’s general duty clause requires a workplace
free from hazards and OSHA 1910.132(d) requires employers
to identify hazards and protect workers. NFPA 70E Article
110.8(B)(1) specifically requires Electrical Hazard Analysis
within all areas of the electrical system that operate at 50
volts or greater.
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Technical Application Guide
electrical safety guide
Sources of Electrical Hazards and Faults
Reducing Electrical Hazards
• Exposed energized parts
There are many methods and practices for reducing ArcFlash and other electrical hazards while conforming to
OSHA, NEC®, and NFPA 70E regulations and guidelines.
Circuit designers and electrical engineers should carefully
consider the following recommendations:
• Equipment fatigue or failure
• Accidental contact with energized parts
• Worn or broken insulation
• Loose connections
• Improperly maintained equipment or circuit breakers
• Design the hazard out of the system through engineering
design and component selection
• Water or liquid near electrical equipment
• Identify and assess electrical hazards
• Obstructions near or on equipment
• Use and upgrade to current-limiting overcurrent
protective devices
• Improper grounding
• Implement an Electrical Safety Program
Types of Electrical Faults
• Observe safe work practices
It is well documented and estimated that 95% of electrical
faults start as ground faults. The remaining 5% are either
phase-to-phase or three-phase faults. So in essence, if we
are able to eliminate phase-to-ground faults, or 95% of all
faults, we have essentially reduced the potential for 95%
of the Arc-Flash Hazard, making the electrical system much
safer.
Leading Initiators of Faults
% of All Faults
Exposure to moisture
22.5%
Shortening by tools, rodents, etc.
18.0%
Exposure to dust
14.5%
Other mechanical damage
12.1%
Exposure to chemicals
9.0%
Normal deterioration from age
7.0%
• Use properly selected Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE) including insulated tools
• Use Warning Labels to identify and communicate
electrical hazards
• Enforce Lockout/Tagout procedures and use Energized
Electrical Work Permits
• Increase system protection by achieving Selective
Coordination and using Ground Fault Protection devices.
WARNING
Arc-Flash and Shock Hazard
Appropriate PPE Required
9 inches
Flash Hazard Boundary
0.35 cal/cm 2 Flash Hazard at 18 inches
ˆ
Table 6 - Leading initiators of electrical faults
For more information on Electrical Safety, visit
www.littelfuse.com/services
Category 0
Untreated Cotton LS Shirt/ Pants,
Safety Glasses, Ear Plugs, V-Rated Tools/
Gloves (AN), Leather Gloves (AN)
480 VAC
00
42 inches
12 inches
1 inch
Shock Hazard–when cover is removed
Glove Class
Limited Approach
Restricted Approach
Prohibited Approach
TX-38 Pri
Equipment:
NE-38
Protection:
Prepared on:
7/26/10
By:
Warning: Changes in equipment settings or system
configuration will invalidate the calculated values and
PPE requirements
Example of warning label
13 Technical
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Technical Application Guide
terms and definitions
Arc Gap – The distance between energized conductors or
between energized conductors and ground. Shorter arc gaps
result in less energy being expended in the arc, while longer
gaps reduce arc current. For 600 volts and below, arc gaps of
1.25 inches (32 mm) typically produce the maximum incident
energy.
Adjustable Alarm Level – A setting on a protection relay at
which an LED or an output contact operates to activate a visual
or audible alarm.
Adjustable Time Delay – A setting on a protection relay that
determines the time between the fault detection and relay
operation.
Arc Rating – A rating assigned to material(s) that relates to the
maximum incident energy the material can resist before break
open of the material or onset of a second-degree burn. The arc
rating is typically shown in cal/cm².
AIC or A.I.C. – See Interrupting Capacity.
AIR or A.I.R. – See Interrupting Rating.
Alarm Relay Contact – The output of the relay that acts as a
switch and is connected to a visual or audible alarm.
Arcing Current (See Figure 11) – The current that flows
through the fuse after the fuse link has melted and until the
circuit is interrupted.
Current
Ambient Temperature – The air temperature surrounding a
device. For fuses or circuit breakers in an enclosure, the air
temperature within the enclosure.
Ampacity – The current in amperes that a conductor can carry
continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding
its temperature rating. It is sometimes informally applied to
switches or other devices which are more properly referred to
by their ampere rating.
Ampere Rating – The current rating, in amperes, that is
marked on fuses, circuit breakers, or other equipment.
Arcing Energy (l2t)
Melting Energy (l2t)
Time
Melting
Current
Melting
Time
• Melting I2t is the heat energy passed by a fuse after an
overcurrent occurs and until the fuse link melts. It equals
the rms current squared multiplied by the melting time in
seconds. For times less than 0.004 seconds, melting I2t
approaches a constant value for a given fuse.
Arcing
Time
Figure 11 – Arcing and melting currents plus arcing, melting and
clearing times
Arcing I2t – See Ampere-Squared-Seconds (I2t).
Arcing Fault – A short-circuit that arcs at the point of fault. The
arc impedance (resistance) tends to reduce the short-circuit
current. Arcing faults may turn into bolted faults by welding of
the faulted components. Arcing faults may be phase-to-phase
or phase-to-ground.
• Arcing I2t is the heat energy passed by a fuse during its
arcing time. It is equal to the rms arcing current squared (see
definition below), multiplied by arcing time.
• Clearing I2t (also Total Clearing I2t) is the ampere-squared
seconds (I2t) through an overcurrent device from the
inception of the overcurrent until the current is completely
interrupted. Clearing I2t is the sum of the Melting I2t plus the
Arcing I2t.
Arcing Time (See Figure 11) – The time between the melting
of a fuse link or parting of circuit breaker contacts, until the
overcurrent is interrupted.
Arc Voltage (See Figure 12) – Arc voltage is a transient voltage
that occurs across an overcurrent protection device during
the arcing time. It is usually expressed as peak instantaneous
voltage (Vpeak or Epeak), or on rare occasion as rms voltage.
Analog Output – A 0–1 mA, 4–20 mA or 0–5 Vdc signal from
a protection relay used to pass information to a device or
controller.
Arc-Blast – A pressure wave created by the heating, melting,
vaporization, and expansion of conducting material and
surrounding gases or air.
Technical 13
Peak Let-through Current
Arcing
Current
Ampere-Squared-Seconds (I2t) – A means of describing the
thermal energy generated by current flow. When a fuse is
interrupting a current within its current-limiting range, the term
is usually expressed as melting, arcing, or total clearing I2t.
Asymmetrical Current – See Symmetrical Current.
Available Short-Circuit Current (also Available or
Prospective Fault Current) – The maximum rms Symmetrical
Current that would flow at a given point in a system under
bolted-fault conditions. Short-circuit current is maximum during
the first half-cycle after the fault occurs. See definitions of
Bolted Fault and Symmetrical Current.
Arc-Flash – The sudden release of heat energy and intense
light at the point of an arc. Can be considered a short-circuit
through the air, usually created by accidental contact between
live conductors.
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Peak Current which would occur
without current limitation
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Technical Application Guide
terms and definitions
Coordination or Coordinated System – See Selective
Coordination.
PEAK
INSTANTANEOUS ARC VOLTAGE
183% OF CYCLEPEAK
Continuous Load – An electrical load where the maximum
current is expected to continue for three hours or more.
RESTORED VOLTAGE
CT Loop – The electrical circuit between a current transformer
and a protection relay or monitoring device.
Current-Based Protection – Protection parameters (trip-levels/
data collection etc.) derived from current levels in a circuit.
Figure 12 – Transient overvoltage during arcing time
Blade Fuse – See Knife Blade Fuse.
Current-limiting Fuse (See Figure 13) – A fuse which, when
interrupting currents within its current-limiting range, reduces
the current in the faulted circuit to a magnitude substantially
less than that obtainable in the same circuit if the device was
replaced with a solid conductor having comparable impedance.
To be labeled “current limiting,” a fuse must mate with a
fuseblock or fuseholder that has either a rejection feature or
dimensions that will reject non-current-limiting fuses.
Body – The part of a fuse enclosing the fuse elements and
supporting the contacts. Body is also referred to as cartridge,
tube, or case.
Current which
would flow if
not interrupted
Current
Bolted Fault – A short-circuit that has no electrical resistance
at the point of the fault. It results from a firm mechanical
connection between two conductors, or a conductor and
ground. Bolted faults are characterized by a lack of arcing.
Examples of bolted faults are a heavy wrench lying across two
bare bus bars, or a crossed-phase condition due to incorrect
wiring
Boundaries of Approach – Protection boundaries established
to protect personnel from shock and Arc-Flash hazards.
Calorie – The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature
of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.1 cal/cm² is
equivalent to the exposure on the tip of a finger by a cigarette
lighter for one second.
Current before fault
Cartridge Fuse – A fuse that contains a current-responsive
element inside a tubular fuse body with cylindrical ferrules (end
caps).
Time
Fault occurs
Fuse opens and
clears short circuit
in less than cycle Arc is extinguished
Case Size (also Cartridge Size) – The maximum allowable
ampere rating of a cartridge fuse having defined dimensions
and shape. For example, case sizes for UL Listed Class H, K, J,
RK1, and RK5 are 30, 60, 100, 200, 400, and 600 amperes. The
physical dimensions vary with fuse class, voltage, and ampere
rating. UL Standards establish the dimensions for each UL
Fuse Class. This catalog’s product section contains case size
dimensions for all Littelfuse POWR-GARD® fuses.
Figure 13 – Current-limiting Fuse
Clearing I2t – See Ampere-Square-Seconds (I2t).
Current Rating – See Ampere Rating.
Clearing Time (see Figure 11) – The time between the
initiation of an overcurrent condition to the point at which the
overcurrent is interrupted. Clearing Time is the sum of Melting
Time and Arcing Time.
Current Transformer (CT) – A transformer that produces a
current in its secondary circuit in a known proportion to current
in its primary circuit.
Current-limiting Range - For an individual overcurrent
protective device, the current-limiting range begins at the
lowest value of rms symmetrical current at which the device
becomes current-limiting (the threshold current) and extends
to the maximum interrupting capacity of the device. See
definitions of Threshold Current and Interrupting Capacity.
Data Logging – Collecting and storing information in a
format that can be reviewed for trending, troubleshooting and
reporting.
Conformal Coating – Coating used to protect circuit boards
from pollutants, corrosion, and mildew.
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13 Technical
DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) Harmonic Filter – An
algorithm used to measure the fundamental component of
current and voltage and reject harmonics. This allows lower trip
settings and eliminates nuisance trips due to harmonics.
Contacts (Fuse) – The external metal parts of the fuse used to
complete the circuit. These consist of ferrules, caps, blades or
terminals, as shown in this catalog.
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Technical Application Guide
terms and definitions
Distance to Arc – Refers to the distance from the receiving
surface to the arc center. The value used for most calculations
is typically 18 inches.
Flash Protection Boundaries, and required PPE. It also helps
define safe work practices.
Flash Protection Boundary – A protection boundary
established to protect personnel from Arc-Flash hazards.
The Flash Protection Boundary is the distance at which an
unprotected worker can receive a second-degree burn to bare
skin.
Dual-Element Fuse – A fuse with internal construction
consisting of a separate time-delay overload element(s) that
interrupts overcurrents up to approximately 500%-600% of its
nominal rating, plus separate fuse links that quickly open higher
value currents. All dual-element fuses have time delay, but,
since there are other methods of achieving time delay, not all
time-delay fuses have dual-element construction. See TimeDelay Fuse.
Fuse – An overcurrent protective device consisting of one
or more current carrying elements enclosed in a body fitted
with contacts, so that the fuse may be readily inserted into or
removed from an electrical circuit. The elements are heated
by the current passing through them, thus interrupting current
flow by melting during specified overcurrent conditions.
EFCT (Earth Fault Current Transformer) – A current
transformer engineered to accurately detect low level groundfault current.
Ground Continuity Monitor - A protection relay that
continuously monitors a ground conductor and trips if this
conductor opens or shorts to the ground-check conductor.
Electrical Hazard Analysis – A study performed to identify the
potential electrical hazards to which personnel may be exposed.
The analysis should address both shock and Arc-Flash hazards.
Ground-Fault – Unintentional contact between a phase
conductor and ground or equipment frame. The words
“ground” and “earth” are used interchangeably when it comes
to electrical applications.
Electrically Safe Work Condition – Condition where the
equipment and or circuit components have been disconnected
from electrical energy sources, locked/tagged out, and tested to
verify all sources of power are removed.
Ground-Fault Current – The current that returns to the supply
neutral through the ground-fault and the ground-return path.
Element – A fuse’s internal current-carrying components that
melt and interrupt the current when subjected to an overcurrent
of sufficient duration or value. Also called fuse link.
Ground-Fault Protection – A system that protects
equipment from damaging ground-fault current by operating
a disconnecting means to open all ungrounded conductors of
a faulted circuit. This protection is at current levels less than
those required to operate a supply circuit overcurrent device.
Fail-Safe Mode (also known as Under Voltage or UV) –
Output relay is energized during normal (not tripped) operation.
If the protection relay loses supply voltage, the system will trip
or alarm.
Ground-Fault Relay – A protection relay designed to detect
a phase-to-ground-fault on a system and trip when current
exceeds the pickup setting for greater than the trip time setting.
Fast-Acting Fuse – May also be termed Normal-opening fuse,
this is a fuse that has no intentional or built-in time delay. Actual
opening time is determined by the fuse class, the overcurrent,
and other conditions. Fast-acting is indicated on the fuse label
by “Fast-Acting”, “F-A”, “F”, or other suitable marking.
Hazard Risk Category – A classification of risks (from 0 to
4) defined by NFPA 70E. Each category requires PPE and is
related to incident energy levels.
Fault – Same as Short-Circuit and used interchangeably.
High-Resistance Grounding – Achieved when a neutralground resistor (NGR) is used to limit the current to a low level.
Typically high-resistance grounding is 25 A and lower. See LowResistance Grounding.
Fault Current – The current that flows when a phase conductor
is faulted to another phase or ground.
Feeder Protection – Overcurrent or overvoltage devices
installed on a feeder circuit to supplement, compliment or
replace downstream protective devices.
I2t – See Ampere-Squared-Seconds (I2t).
IEEE Device Numbers – The devices in switching equipment
are referred to by numbers, according to the functions they
perform. These numbers are based on a system which has
been adopted as standard for automatic switchgear by IEEE.
This system is used on connection diagrams, in instruction
books and in specifications.
Technical 13
Filler – A material, such as granular quartz, used to fill a section
or sections of a fuse and aid in arc quenching.
Filter – An algorithm used to measure the fundamental
component of current and voltage and reject harmonics. This
allows lower trip settings and eliminates nuisance trips due to
harmonics.
IEC Type 2 Protection – Fused protection for control
components that prevents damage to these components under
short-circuit conditions. See definition of No Damage.
Flash Hazard Analysis – A study that analyzes potential
exposure to Arc-Flash hazards. The outcome of the study
establishes Incident Energy levels, Hazard Risk Categories,
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Technical Application Guide
terms and definitions
Incident Energy – The amount of thermal energy impressed on
a surface generated during an electrical arc at a certain distance
from the arc. Typically measured in cal/cm2.
Melting Time (see Figure 11) – The time span from the
initiation of an overcurrent condition to the instant arcing begins
inside the fuse.
Instantaneous Peak Current (Ip or Ipeak) – The maximum
instantaneous current value developed during the first half-cycle
(180 electrical degrees) after fault inception. The peak current
determines magnetic stress within the circuit. See Symmetrical
Current.
Motor Protection – Overload protection designed to protect
the windings of a motor from high current levels. Modern
motor protection relays add many additional features, including
metering, data logging and communications.
NEC – In general, the National Electrical Code® (NEC®).
Specifically, as referenced herein, NEC refers to NFPA
Standard 70, National Electrical Code, National Fire Protection
Association, Quincy, MA 02269.
Insulation Monitoring – Monitoring the resistance from phase
to ground to detect insulation breakdown on a system.
Interrupting Capacity (AIC) – The highest available
symmetrical rms alternating current (for DC fuses the highest
direct current) at which the protective device has been tested,
and which it has interrupted safely under standardized test
conditions. The device must interrupt all available overcurrents
up to its interrupting capacity. Also commonly called
interrupting rating. See Interrupting Rating below.
Sections of the NEC reprinted herein, and/or quotations
there from, are done so with permission. The quoted and
reprinted sections are not the official position of the National
Fire Protection Association which is represented only by the
Standard in its entirety. Readers are cautioned that not all
authorities have adopted the most recent edition of the NEC;
many are still using earlier editions.
Interrupting Rating (IR, I.R., AIR or A.I.R.) – The highest RMS
symmetrical current, at specified test conditions, which the
device is rated to interrupt. The difference between interrupting
capacity and interrupting rating is in the test circuits used to
establish the ratings.
Neutral Grounding Resistor (NGR) – A current-limiting
resistor connecting the power-system neutral to ground.
No Damage – A term describing the requirement that a system
component be in essentially the same condition after the
occurrence of a short-circuit as prior to the short-circuit.
Inverse-time Characteristics – A term describing protective
devices whose opening time decreases with increasing current.
Non-renewable Fuse – A fuse that must be replaced after
it has opened due to an overcurrent. It cannot be restored to
service.
IR or I.R. (also AIR or A.I.R.) – See Interrupting Rating above.
Kiloamperes (kA) – 1,000 amperes.
Normal-opening Fuse – See Fast-Acting Fuse.
Knife Blade Fuse – Cylindrical or square body fuses with flat
blade terminals extending from the fuse body. Knife blades may
be designed for insertion into mating fuse clips and/or
to be bolted in place. Knife blade terminals may include a
rejection feature that mates with a similar feature on a fuse
block of the same class.
Nuisance Trip – An undesired change in relay output due to
misinterpreted readings.
One-time Fuse – Technically, any non-renewable fuse.
However, the term usually refers to UL Class H fuses and
to fast acting UL Class K5 fuses. Such fuses are not currentlimiting and do not have a rejection feature. One-time fuses are
also referred to as “Code” fuses.
Leakage Current – Very low level ground-fault current, typically
measured in milliamperes (mA, thousandths of amperes).
Limited Approach Boundary – An approach boundary
to protect personnel from shock. A boundary distance is
established from an energized part based on system voltage. To
enter this boundary, unqualified persons must be accompanied
with a qualified person and use the proper PPE.
Open CT Hazard – An open-circuited CT secondary can
develop a dangerously high voltage when the primary is
energized.
Overcurrent – Any current larger than the equipment,
conductor, or devices are rated to carry under specified
conditions.
Low-Resistance Grounding – A Resistance Grounded System
that allows high currents to flow during a ground-fault. Typically
100A and higher is considered Low-Resistance grounding. See
High-Resistance Grounding.
Melting Current (see Figure 11) – The current that flows
through the fuse from the initiation of an overcurrent condition
to the instant arcing begins inside the fuse.
Melting I2t – See Ampere-Squared-Seconds (I2t).
© 2010 Littelfuse POWR-GARD® Products Catalog
199
13 Technical
Overload – An overcurrent that is confined to the normal
current path (e.g., not a short-circuit), which if allowed to
persist, will cause damage to equipment and/or wiring.
Additional information regarding fuse applications for overload
protection can be found earlier in this Technical Application
Guide.
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Technical Application Guide
terms and definitions
Protection Boundaries – Boundaries established to protect
personnel from electrical hazards.
Current
Peak Let-through Current (See Figure 14) – The maximum
instantaneous current that passes through an overcurrent
protective device during its total clearing time when the
available current is within its current-limiting range.
Pulsing – Modulating the ground-fault current on a resistance
grounded system using a contactor to short out part of the NGR
elements (or to open one of two NGRs connected in parallel).
Another version of pulsing is imposing a higher frequency signal
on power lines and using a wand detector to locate the point of
fault on a conductor.
Peak Current which would occur
without current limitation
QPL (Qualified Products List) – A list of approved fuses and
holders that meet various Military specifications.
Qualified Person – A person who is trained, knowledgeable,
and has demonstrated skills on the construction and operation
of the equipment, and can recognize and avoid electrical
hazards that may be encountered.
Peak Let-through Current
Time
Rating – A designated limit of operating characteristics based
on definite conditions such as current rating, voltage rating and
interrupting rating.
Figure 14 – Peak Let-through Current
Phase Current – The current present in a phase conductor.
Rectifier Fuse – See Semiconductor Fuse.
Phase Voltage – The voltage measured between a phase
conductor and ground.
Rejection Feature – The physical characteristic(s) of a fuse
block or fuseholder that prevents the insertion of a fuse unless
it has the proper mating characteristics. This may be achieved
through the use of slots, grooves, projections, or the actual
physical dimensions of the fuse. This feature prevents the
substitution of fuses of a Class or size other than the Class and
size intended.
Power Factor (X/R) – As used in overcurrent protection,
power factor is the relationship between the inductive
reactance (X) and the resistance (R) in the system during a
fault. Under normal conditions a system may be operating at
a 0.85 power factor (85%). When a fault occurs, much of the
system resistance is shorted out and the power factor may
drop to 25% or less. This may cause the current to become
asymmetrical. See definition of Symmetrical Current. The
UL test circuits used to test fuses with interrupting ratings
exceeding 10,000 amperes are required to have a power factor
of 20% or less. Since the power factor of test circuits tends to
vary during test procedures, actual test circuits are usually set
to a 15% power factor. The resulting asymmetrical current has
an rms value of 1.33 times the available symmetrical rms. The
instantaneous peak current of the first peak after the fault is
2.309 times the available symmetrical rms.
Relay – An electrical switch that opens and closes a contact
(or contacts) under the control of another circuit. Typically an
electromagnet.
Renewable Element (also Renewable Link) – A renewable
fuse current-carrying component that is replaced to restore
the fuse to a functional condition after the link opens due to an
overcurrent condition.
Renewable Fuse – A fuse that may be readily restored to
service by replacing the renewable element after operation.
PPE – An acronym for Personal Protective Equipment. It can
include clothing, tools, and equipment.
Resistance-Grounded System – An electrical system in
which the transformer or generator neutral is connected to
ground through a current-limiting resistor. See Solidly Grounded
System, Ungrounded System.
Technical 13
Primary Rating (for CTs) – The current rating of the primary
side of a current transformer. The first number in the ratio 500:5
is the primary rating. Under ideal conditions 500 A of primary
current flow through the CT will produce 5 A of current out the
secondary terminals.
Restricted Approach Boundary – An approach boundary
to protect personnel from shock. A boundary distance is
established from an energized part based on system voltage.
Only qualified persons are allowed in the boundary and they
must use the proper PPE.
Prohibited Approach Boundary – An approach boundary
to protect personnel from shock. Work in this boundary
is considered the same as making direct contact with an
energized part. Only qualified persons are allowed to enter this
boundary and they must use the proper PPE.
Selective Coordination (See Figure 15) – In a selectively
coordinated system, only the protective device immediately
on the line side of an overcurrent opens. Upstream protective
devices remain closed. All other equipment remains in service,
which simplifies the identification and location of overloaded
Prospective Current – See Available Short-Circuit Current.
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200
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Technical Application Guide
terms and definitions
Most short-circuit ratings are based on tests which last three
complete electrical cycles (0.05 seconds). However, if the
equipment is protected during the test by fuses or by a circuit
breaker with instantaneous trips, the test duration is the time
required for the overcurrent protective device to open
the circuit.
equipment or short-circuits. For additional information, refer
to the Selective Coordination pages of this Technical
Application Guide.
A
D
E
In a selective system:
For a fault at "X" only fuse "C" will open.
For a fault at "Y" only fuse "F" will open.
X
F
G
H
J
CURRENT FLOW
Y
Figure 15 – Selective Coordination Example
In a "normal" circuit,
current is determined by
load IMPEDANCE
Semiconductor Fuse – A fuse specifically designed to protect
semiconductors such as silicon rectifiers, silicon-controlled
rectifiers, thyristors, transistors, and similar
components.
Sensitive Ground-Fault Protection – Protection designed
to accurately detect extremely low ground-fault current levels
without nuisance tripping.
(Heavy lines indicate
increased current)
Shock – A trauma subjected to the body by electrical current.
When personnel come in contact with energized conductors, it
can result in current flowing through their body often causing
serious injury or death.
GEN.
GEN.
Accidental
connection
creates fault
In a short-circuit, current is limited
only by impedance of fault path.
Current may increase to many times
load current.
Short-Circuit (See Figure 16) – A current flowing outside its
normal path, caused by a breakdown of insulation or by faulty
equipment connections. In a short-circuit, current bypasses the
normal load. Current is determined by the system impedance
(AC resistance) rather than the load impedance. Short-circuit
currents may vary from fractions of an ampere to 200,000
amperes or more.
Figure 16 – Current Flow in Normal and Short Circuit Situations
Solidly Grounded System – An electrical system in which
the neutral point of a wye connected supply transformer is
connected directly to ground.
Short-Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) – The prospective
symmetrical fault current at a nominal voltage to which an
apparatus or system is able to be connected without sustaining
damage exceeding defined acceptance criteria.
201
13 Technical
Symmetrical Current – The terms “Symmetrical Current”
and “Asymmetrical Current” describe an AC wave symmetry
around the zero axis. The current is symmetrical when the
peak currents above and below the zero axis are equal in value,
as shown in Figure 17 (next page). If the peak currents are
not equal, as shown in Figure 18, the current is considered
asymmetrical. The degree of asymmetry during a fault is
determined by the change in power factor (X/R) and the point
in the voltage wave when the fault occurs. See definition of
Power Factor. In general, lower short-circuit power factors
increase the degree of asymmetry.
Short-Circuit Rating – The maximum RMS symmetrical
short-circuit current at which a given piece of equipment has
been tested under specified conditions, and which, at the end
of the test is in essentially the same condition as prior to the
test. Short-circuit ratings (also called withstand ratings) apply to
equipment that will be subjected to fault currents, but which
are not required to interrupt them. This includes switches,
busway (bus duct), switchgear and switchboard structures,
motor control centers and transformers.
© 2010 Littelfuse POWR-GARD® Products Catalog
LOAD
C
LOAD
B
When protected as such during testing, the equipment
instructions and labels must indicate that the equipment
shall be protected by a given fuse class and rating or by a
specific make, type, and rating of circuit breaker. Circuit
breakers equipped with short-delay trip elements instead of
instantaneous trip elements have withstand (short-circuit)
ratings in addition to their interrupting rating. The breaker must
be able to withstand the available fault current during the time
that opening is delayed.
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Technical Application Guide
terms and definitions
Threshold Ratio – Consists of the threshold current divided
by the ampere rating of a specific type or class of overcurrent
Z ro Axis
device.
equal A fuse with a threshold ratio of 15 becomes currenteaks
limiting at 15 times its current rating.
Zero Axis
Equal
Peaks
Time-Delay Fuse – Fuses designed with an intentional, built-in
delay in opening. When compared to fast-opening fuses, timedelay fuses have an increased opening time for overcurrents
between approximately 200% and 600% of the fuse’s current
rating. Time-delay is indicated on the fuse label by “TimeDelay”, “T-D”, “D”, or other suitable marking. Time-delay in the
overload range (200%-600% of the fuse rating) permits the fuse
to withstand system switching surges, motor starting currents,
and other harmless temporary overcurrents.
Figure 17 – Symmetrical Current
A
Zero Axis
Unequal
Peaks
Figure 18 – Asymmetrical Current
Threshold Current – The minimum current for a given fuse
size and type at which the fuse becomes current-limiting. It is
the lowest value of available rms symmetrical current that will
cause the device to begin opening within the first 1/4 cycle (90
electrical degrees) and completely clear the circuit within 1/2
cycle (180 electrical degrees). The approximate threshold current
can be determined from the fuse’s peak let-through charts. (See
Figure 19.)
Peak Let-Through in Amperes
B
UL Standards require time-delay Class H, K, RK1, RK5, and J
fuses to hold 500% of their normal current rating for a minimum
of 10 seconds. They must also pass the same opening time
tests (135% and 200% of current rating) as fast acting fuses.
Time-delay Class CC, CD, G, Plug, and Miscellaneous fuses
have different requirements. For more information, please
refer to the corresponding descriptions provided in the Product
Information Section.
For the UL Standard, Class L fuses have no standard timedelay. The time-delay varies from series to series for a given
manufacturer, as well as from manufacturer to manufacturer.
For reference, Littelfuse KLPC series POWR-PRO® fuses hold
500% of rated current for a minimum of 10 seconds.
Ungrounded System – An electrical system in which no point
in the system is intentionally grounded. This was most common
in process industries where continuity of service during a singlephase-to-ground-fault was required.
Unqualified Person – A person that does not possess all the
skills and knowledge or has not been trained for a particular
task.
Peak let-through current
4000
Voltage Rating – The maximum rms AC voltage and/or the
maximum DC voltage at which the fuse is designed to operate.
For example, fuses rated 600 volts and below may be applied
at any voltage less than their rating. There is no rule for applying
AC fuses in DC circuits such as applying the fuse at half its AC
voltage rating. Fuses used on DC circuits must have DC ratings.
Fuse approximate
threshold current = 4000A
Withstand Rating – See Short-Circuit.
1000
A
Technical 13
Available Fault Current Symmetrical RMS Amperes
Figure 19 – Determining Threshold Current from Peak
Let-through Chart
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© 2010 Littelfuse POWR-GARD® Products Catalog
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Technical Application Guide
motor protection tables
Selection of Class RK5 Fuses (FLNR_ID / FLSR_ID / IDSR Series) or POWR-PRO® Class
RK1 Fuses (LLNRK / LLSRK / LLSRK_ID Series) Based on Motor Full Load Amps
Using AC Motor Protection Tables to Select Fuse
Ratings
Motor Running Protection
(Used Without Properly Sized
Overload Relays)
Motor Full-Load Amps
Time-delay RK1 and RK5 fuse ratings selected in accordance
with the following recommendations also meet NEC®
requirements for Motor Branch circuit and Short-Circuit
Protection.
Time Delay
UL Class RK1
Motor Service
Motor Service
Motor Service
Motor Service
or RK5 Fuse
Factor Less
Factor Less
Factor of 1.15 or
Ampere Rating Factor of 1.15 or
Than 1.15 or
Than 1.15 or
Greater or With
Greater or With
with Temp. Rise
with Temp. Rise
Temp. Rise Not
Temp. Rise Not
Greater
Greater
over 40°C.
Over 40°C.
Than 40°C.
Than 40°C
Selecting Fuses for Motor Running Protection
Based on Motor Horsepower
⁄
⁄
15 100
⁄
2 10
⁄
14
⁄
3 10
⁄
4 10
⁄
12
⁄
6 10
⁄
8 10
⁄
1 10
18
Motor horsepower and motor Full Load Amperes (FLA)
shown are taken from NEC Tables 430.248 through
430.250 covering standard speed AC motors with normal
torque characteristics. Fuse ratings for motors with special
characteristics may need to vary from given values.
If motor running protection will be provided by the fuses,
select fuse ratings for correct type of motor from Motor
Protection Table Columns headed, “Without Overload
Relays.”
Selecting Fuses for Motor Running Protection
Based on Motor Actual Full Load Currents
Better protection is achieved when fuse ratings are based on
motor actual FLA obtained from motor nameplates. Locate
motor nameplate FLA in the column appropriate for the
type of motor and type of protection required. Then select
the corresponding ampere rating of the fuse from the first
column of that line.
203
0.08-0.09
0.10-0.11
0.12-0.15
0.16-0.19
0.20-0.23
0.24-0.30
0.32-0.39
0.40-0.47
0.48-0.60
0.64-0.79
0.80-0.89
0.90-0.99
1.00-1.11
1.12-1.19
1.20-1.27
1.28-1.43
1.44-1.59
1.60-1.79
1.80-1.99
2.00-2.23
2.24-2.39
2.40-2.55
2.56-2.79
2.80-3.19
3.20-3.59
3.60-3.99
4.00-4.47
4.48-4.79
4.80-4.99
5.00-5.59
5.60-5.99
6.00-6.39
6.40-7.19
7.20-7.99
8.00-9.59
9.60-11.99
12.00-13.99
14.00-15.99
16.00-19.99
20.00-23.99
24.00-27.99
28.00-31.99
32.00-35.99
36.00-39.99
40.00-47.99
48.00-55.99
56.00-59.99
60.00-63.99
64.00-71.99
72.00-79.99
80.00-87.99
88.00-99.99
100.00-119.99
120.00-139.99
140.00-159.99
160.00-179.99
180.00-199.99
200.00-239.99
240.00-279.99
280.00-319.99
320.00-359.99
360.00-399.99
400.00-479.99
480.00-600.00
0.09-0.10
0.11-0.125
0.14-0.15
0.18-0.20
0.22-0.25
0.27-0.30
0.35-0.40
0.44-0.50
0.53-0.60
0.70-0.80
0.87-0.97
0.98-1.08
1.09-1.21
1.22-1.30
1.31-1.39
1.40-1.56
1.57-1.73
1.74-1.95
1.96-2.17
2.18-2.43
2.44-2.60
2.61-2.78
2.79-3.04
3.05-3.47
3.48-3.91
3.92-4.34
4.35-4.86
4.87-5.21
5.22-5.43
5.44-6.08
6.09-6.52
6.53-6.95
6.96-7.82
7.83-8.69
8.70-10.00
10.44-12.00
13.05-15.00
15.22-17.39
17.40-20.00
21.74-25.00
26.09-30.00
30.44-34.78
34.79-39.12
39.13-43.47
43.48-50.00
52.17-60.00
60.87-65.21
65.22-69.56
69.57-78.25
78.26-86.95
86.96-95.64
95.65-108.69
108.70-125.00
131.30-150.00
152.17-173.90
173.91-195.64
195.65-217.38
217.39-250.00
260.87-300.00
304.35-347.82
347.83-391.29
391.30-434.77
434.78-500.00
521.74-600.00
0-0.08
0.09-0.10
0.11-0.12
0.13-0.16
0.17-0.20
0.21-0.24
0.25-0.32
0.33-0.40
0.41-0.48
0.49-0.64
0.65-0.80
0.81-0.90
0.91-1.00
1.01-1.12
1.13-1.20
1.21-1.28
1.29-1.44
1.45-1.60
1.61-1.80
1.81-2.00
2.01-2.24
2.25-2.40
2.41-2.56
2.57-2.80
2.81-3.20
3.21-3.60
3.61-4.00
4.01-4.48
4.49-4.80
4.81-5.00
5.01-5.60
5.61-6.00
6.01-6.40
6.41-7.20
7.21-8.00
8.01-9.60
9.61-12.00
12.01-14.00
14.01-16.00
16.01-20.00
20.01-24.00
24.01-28.00
28.01-32.00
32.01-36.00
36.01-40.00
40.01-48.00
48.01-56.00
56.01-60.00
60.01-64.00
64.01-72.00
72.01-80.00
80.01-88.00
88.01-100.00
100.01-120.00
120.01-140.00
140.01-160.00
160.01-180.00
180.01-200.00
200.01-240.00
240.01-280.00
280.01-320.00
320.01-360.00
360.01-400.00
400.01-480.00
0-0.09
0.10-0.11
0.12-0.13
0.14-0.17
0.18-0.22
0.23-0.26
0.27-0.35
0.36-0.43
0.44-0.52
0.53-0.70
0.71-0.87
0.88-0.98
0.99-1.09
1.10-1.22
1.23-1.30
1.31-1.39
1.40-1.57
1.58-1.74
1.75-1.96
1.97-2.17
2.18-2.43
2.44-2.60
2.61-2.78
2.79-3.04
3.05-3.48
3.49-3.91
3.92-4.35
4.36-4.87
4.88-5.22
5.23-5.43
5.44-6.09
6.10-6.52
6.53-6.96
6.97-7.83
7.84-8.70
8.71-10.43
10.44-13.04
13.05- 15.21
15.22-17.39
17.40-21.74
21.75-26.09
26.10-30.43
30.44-37.78
37.79-39.13
39.14-43.48
43.49-52.17
52.18-60.87
60.88-65.22
65.23-69.57
69.58-78.26
78.27-86.96
86.97-95.65
95.66-108.70
108.71-130.43
130.44-152.17
152.18-173.91
173.92-195.62
195.63-217.39
217.40-260.87
260.88-304.35
304.36-347.83
347.84-391.30
391.31-434.78
434.79-521.74
13 Technical
1
11⁄ 8
11⁄ 4
14 ⁄10
11⁄ 2
1 6 ⁄10
1 8 ⁄10
2
2 1⁄ 4
2 1⁄ 2
2 8 ⁄10
3
3 2 ⁄10
3 1⁄ 2
4
4 1⁄ 2
5
5 6 ⁄10
6
6 1⁄ 4
7
71⁄ 2
8
9
10
12
15
17 1⁄ 2
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
110
125
150
175
200
225
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
If overload relays will provide principal motor running
protection, select fuse ratings for correct type of motor
from Motor Protection Table Columns headed, “Back-up
Running Protection” or “With Overload Relays.” Fuse ratings
selected from these columns coordinate with most UL Class
10 and 20 overload relays which covers over 90% of motor
applications.
© 2010 Littelfuse POWR-GARD® Products Catalog
Back-up Motor Running
Protection (Used With Properly
Sized Overload Relays)
Motor Full-Load Amps
www.littelfuse.com
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Technical Application Guide
motor protection tables
Selection of Class RK5 Fuses (FLNR_ID / FLSR_ID / IDSR Series) or POWR-PRO® Class
RK1 Fuses (LLNRK / LLSRK / LLSRK_ID Series) Based on Motor Horsepower
Motor
HP
Full Load
Amps
16
⁄
14
⁄
13
⁄
12
⁄
3 4
⁄
1
12
1⁄
2
4.4
5.8
7.2
9.8
13.8
16
20
24
⁄
⁄
13
⁄
12
⁄
3 4
⁄
1
11⁄2
2
3
5
71⁄ 2
10
2.2
2.9
3.6
4.9
6.9
8
10
12
17
28
40
50
⁄
⁄
1
11⁄ 2
2
3
5
7 1⁄2
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
100
125
150
2.5
3.7
4.8
6.9
7.8
11
17.5
25.3
32.2
48.3
62.1
78.2
92
120
150
177
221
285
359
414
⁄
⁄
1
11⁄ 2
2
3
5
7 1⁄ 2
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
100
125
150
200
2.2
3.2
4.2
6.0
6.8
9.6
15.2
22
28
42
54
68
80
104
130
154
192
248
312
360
480
16
14
12
3 4
12
Technical 13
3 4
www.littelfuse.com
Without Overload
With Overload Relays
Relays
S.F. = Less
S.F. = Less Switch or
S.F. = 1.15 Or
S.F. = 1.15 Or
Than 1.15 Or
Than 1.15 Or Fuse Clip
More, Temp
More, Temp
Temp Rise
Temp Rise
Rating
Rise Not
Rise Not
More Than
More Than
Over 40°C
Over 40°C
40°C
40°C
120 VOLT 1-PHASE MOTORS (120V CIRCUIT)
5
5
5 6 ⁄ 10
7
6 1⁄4
7 1⁄2
9
8
9
12
10
15
15
15
17 1⁄ 2
20
20
171⁄2
25
20
25
30
25
30
230 VOLT 1-PHASE MOTORS (240V CIRCUIT)
2 1⁄2
2 1⁄2
2 8 ⁄ 10
3 1⁄2
3 2 ⁄ 10
4
4 1⁄2
4
4 1⁄2
5 6 ⁄ 10
5 6 ⁄ 10
6 1⁄4
8
7 1⁄2
9
10
9
10
12
10
15
15
12
15
25
20
17 1⁄2
35
30*
35
50
45
50
60
50
70
200 VOLT 3-PHASE MOTORS (208V CIRCUIT)
8 10
3
2 ⁄
3 2 ⁄ 10
4 1⁄ 2
4
5
6 1⁄ 4
6
5 6 ⁄ 10
8
7 1⁄2
7 1⁄ 2
9
8
10
12
12
15
20
20
25
30*
25*
35
40
35
45
60
50
70†
75
70
80
90
80
100
110
100*
125
150
125
150
175
150
200
200*
200*
225
250
250
300
350
300
400
400*
400*
450
500
450
600
230 VOLT 3-PHASE MOTORS (240V CIRCUIT)
2 8 ⁄ 10
2 1⁄2
2 8 ⁄ 10
4
3 1⁄2
4
5 6 ⁄ 10
5
4 1⁄ 2
7 1⁄2
6 1⁄4
7 1⁄ 2
9
8
7 1⁄2
12
10
12
17 1⁄2
20
17 1⁄2
25
25
30
35
30*
35
50
45
60
60*
60*
70
80
75
90
100
90
100
125
110
150
150
150
175
175
175
200
225
200*
250
300
250
350
350
350
400
450
400*
450
600
500
600
5 6 ⁄ 10
7
9
12
17 1⁄2
20
25
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
2 8 ⁄ 10
3 1⁄2
41⁄2
6
8
10
12
15
20
35
50
60
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
60
60
60
3
4 1⁄2
6
8
9
15
25
30*
40
60
75
90
110
150
175
225
300
350
450
500
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
60
60
60
100
100
200
200
200
400
400
400
600
600
2 8 ⁄ 10
4
5
71⁄2
8
12
17 1⁄2
30
35
50
70
80
100
125
150
200
225
300
400
450
600
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
60
60
100
100
100
200
200
200
400
400
400
600
600
Motor
HP
Full Load
Amps
12
⁄
3 4
⁄
1
12
1⁄
2
3
5
71⁄2
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
100
125
150
200
1.1
1.6
2.1
3.0
3.4
4.8
7.6
11
14
21
27
34
40
54
65
77
96
124
156
180
240
⁄
⁄
1
12
1⁄
2
3
5
7 1⁄2
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
100
125
150
200
0.9
1.3
1.7
2.4
2.7
3.9
6.1
9
11
17
22
27
32
41
52
62
77
99
125
144
192
12
3 4
Without Overload
With Overload Relays
Relays
S.F. = Less
S.F. = Less Switch or
S.F. = 1.15 Or
S.F. = 1.15 Or
Than 1.15 Or
Than 1.15 Or Fuse Clip
More, Temp
More, Temp
Temp Rise
Temp Rise
Rating
Rise Not
Rise Not
More Than
More Than
Over 40°C
Over 40°C
40°C
40°C
460 VOLT 3-PHASE MOTORS (480V CIRCUIT)
14 ⁄ 10
11⁄4
14 ⁄ 10
2
18 ⁄ 10
2
21⁄4
2 8 ⁄ 10
2 1⁄2
12
2 10
3⁄
3 ⁄
4
4 1⁄2
4
3 1⁄2
6 10
5
6
5 ⁄
9
8
10
12
12
15
15
17 1⁄2
171⁄2
25
20
30
30*
30*
35
40
35
45
50
45
50
60*
60*
70
80
70
90
90
80
100
110
110
125
150
125
175
175
175
200
225
200*
225
300
250
300
575 VOLT 3-PHASE MOTORS (600V CIRCUIT)
11⁄8
1
11⁄8
16 ⁄ 10
14 ⁄ 10
16 ⁄ 10
2 1⁄4
2
18 ⁄ 10
3
2 1⁄2
3
2 8 ⁄ 10
31⁄2
3 2 ⁄ 10
12
4
5
4⁄
7
8
7 1⁄2
10
10
12
12
12
15
25
20
17 1⁄2
25
25
30
30*
30*
35
40
35
40
50
45
60
60
60
70†
75
70
80
90
80
100
110
110
125
150
125
175
175
150
200
225
200*
250
14 ⁄ 10
2
2 1⁄2
3 1⁄2
4
5 6 ⁄ 10
9
15
17 1⁄2
25
35
40
50
60*
75
90
125
150
200
225
300
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
60
60
60
100
100
100
200
200
200
400
400
11⁄8
16 ⁄ 10
2
3
2 10
3 ⁄
41⁄2
7 1⁄2
12
15
20
30
35
40
50
60
75
90
125
150
175
225
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
60
60
60
60
100
100
200
200
200
400
NOTES
S.F. = Motor Service Factor
* Fuse Reducers Required
† 100 Amp Switch Required
204
© 2010 Littelfuse POWR-GARD® Products Catalog
Courtesy of Steven Engineering, Inc.-230 Ryan Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080-6370-Main Office: (650) 588-9200-Outside Local Area: (800) 258-9200-www.stevenengineering.com
Technical Application Guide
motor protection tables
Selection of POWR-PRO® Class J Fuses (JTD_ID / JTD Series)
Based on Motor Full Load Amps
Motor F.L.A.
JTD_ID / JTD
Ampere Rating
0.00 – 0.60
0.61 – 0.80
0.81 – 1.00
1.01 – 1.20
1.21 – 1.65
1.66 – 2.00
2.01 – 2.40
2.41 – 3.30
3.31 – 4.10
4.11 – 4.90
4.91 – 6.40
6.41 – 8.00
8.01 – 9.80
9.81 – 12.0
8
⁄ 10
1
11⁄4
1 1⁄2
2
2 1⁄2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
15
Motor F.L.A.
JTD_ID / JTD
Ampere Rating
Motor F.L.A.
JTD_ID / JTD
Ampere Rating
12.1 – 14.5
14.6 – 17.0
17.1 – 21.0
21.1 – 25.0
25.1 – 28.5
28.6 – 34.0
34.1 – 37.0
37.1 – 41.0
41.1 – 48.0
48.1 – 52.0
52.1 – 59.0
59.1 – 66.0
66.1 – 76.0
17 1 /2
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
76.1 – 84.0
84.1 – 90.0
90.1 – 102
103 – 125
126 – 144
145 – 162
163 – 180
181 – 204
205 – 240
241 – 288
289 – 312
313 – 360
361 – 432
110
125
150
175
200
225
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
NOTE: For severe motor starting conditions, fuses may be sized up to 225% motor F.L.A. (See NEC ® Article 430.52 for Exceptions)
Selection of CCMR Time-Delay Fuses Based on Motor Full Load Amps
Motor Full Load Current (F.L.A.)
For Motors With An Acceleration
Time Of 2 Seconds Or Less
For Motors With An Acceleration
Time Of 5 Seconds Or Less
For Motors With An Acceleration
Time Of 8 Seconds Or Less
Min. F.L.A. (1)
Max F.L.A. (3)
Min. F.L.A. (1)
Max F.L.A. (3)
Min F.L.A. (2)
Max F.L.A. (3)
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.3
2.6
2.9
3.3
3.5
3.6
4.1
4.3
4.6
5.2
5.8
6.9
8.9
11.5
14.3
20.7
23.7
26.6
30.0
35.5
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.7
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.4
2.1
2.6
3.0
3.4
3.9
4.3
4.8
5.2
5.4
5.7
5.8
6.2
6.9
7.7
8.9
10.0
13.5
15.8
17.8
23.3
26.7
30.0
33.3
40.0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.3
2.6
2.9
3.3
3.5
3.6
4.1
4.3
4.6
5.2
5.8
6.9
8.9
11.2 (2)
13.4 (2)
16.1
18.4
20.7
23.0
27.6
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
2.1
2.6
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.7
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.6
5.2
5.8
6.6
7.7
10.0
11.8
13.4
17.9
20.5
23.1
25.6
30.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.8
3.2
3.4
3.6
4.0
4.5
5.4
6.7
6.8
9.0
10.0
15.6
17.8
20.0
22.3
26.7
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.8
2.3
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.8
3.1
3.4
3.5
3.7
3.8
4.2
4.5
4.9
5.5
6.7
9.0
11.0
15.0
15.9
18.2
20.4
22.7
27.3
⁄
⁄
8 10
⁄
3 10
12
1
11⁄4
1 1⁄2
18 ⁄ 10
2
21⁄2
3
3 1⁄2
4
4 1⁄2
5
5 6 ⁄ 10
6
6 1⁄4
7
71⁄2
8
9
10
12
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
NOTE: These values were calculated for motors with Locked Rotor
Current (LRA), not exceeding the following values:
Motor F.L.A.
0.00 – 1.00
1.01 – 2.00
2.01 – 10.0
10.1 – 17.8
*LRA
850%
750%
650%
600%
*If motor LRA varies from these values, contact Littelfuse.
© 2010 Littelfuse POWR-GARD® Products Catalog
205
13 Technical
1 Based on NEC requirement limiting the rating of time-delay fuses to 175% of motor
F.L.A., or next higher rating.
2 Based on NEC exception permitting fuse rating to be increased, but not to exceed,
225% motor F.L.A., however per NEC Article 430.52 Class CC (0-30) fuses can now be
sized up to 400% of motor F.L.A.
3 Based on Littelfuse CCMR time-delay characteristics.
CCMR
Ampere Rating
www.littelfuse.com
Courtesy of Steven Engineering, Inc.-230 Ryan Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080-6370-Main Office: (650) 588-9200-Outside Local Area: (800) 258-9200-www.stevenengineering.com
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