P5 505 Overview

P5 505 Overview
Front cover
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q
Technical Overview and Introduction
High-performance server in a dense, 1U package
is ideal for data centers with limited resources
New option for support
Micro-Partitioning technology without
an HMC to help lower TCA and TCO
The raw computing power for
high-performance engineering and
scientific workloads
Charlie Cler
Carlo Costantini
Michal Wawrzynski
Yan ZHANG
ibm.com/redbooks
Redpaper
International Technical Support Organization
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and
Introduction
September 2006
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on
page vii.
Second Edition (September 2006)
This edition applies to IBM System p5 505 and 505Q (product number 9115-505), Linux, and IBM AIX 5L
Version 5.3, product number 5765-G03.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2005, 2006. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
The team that wrote this Redpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x
Chapter 1. General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 System specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Physical package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Rack-mount model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Minimum and optional features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4.1 Processor features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4.2 Memory features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.3 Disk and media features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.4 USB diskette drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4.5 Hardware Management Console models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 Express Product Offerings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.1 Express Product Offering requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.2 Configurator starting points for Express Product Offerings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6 System racks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6.1 IBM 7014 Model T00 Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6.2 IBM 7014 Model T42 Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6.3 IBM 7014 Model S11 Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6.4 IBM 7014 Model S25 Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6.5 S11 rack and S25 rack considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.6.6 The ac power distribution unit and rack content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.6.7 Rack-mounting rules for the p5-505 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.6.8 Additional options for rack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.6.9 OEM rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 The POWER5+ processor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Processor and cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 POWER5+ single-core module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 POWER5+ dual-core module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 p5-505Q quad-core module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 Processor capacities and speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Memory subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Memory placement rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 OEM memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 Memory throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 I/O buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Internal I/O subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 64-bit and 32-bit adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.1 LAN adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.2 SCSI adapters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.3 Internal RAID option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2006. All rights reserved.
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2.6.4 iSCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5 Fibre Channel adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.6 Graphic accelerator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.7 Asynchronous PCI-X adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.8 PCI-X Cryptographic Coprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.9 Additional support for owned PCI-X adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.10 System ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.11 Ethernet ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Internal storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1 Internal media devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2 Internal hot-swappable SCSI disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 External disk subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.1 IBM TotalStorage EXP24 Expandable Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.2 IBM System Storage N3000 and N5000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.3 IBM TotalStorage Storage DS4000 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.4 IBM TotalStorage DS6000 and DS8000 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 Logical partitioning and virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9.1 Dynamic logical partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10.1 POWER Hypervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11 Advanced POWER Virtualization feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.1 Micro-Partitioning technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.2 Logical, virtual, and physical processor mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.3 Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.4 Partition Load Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.5 Integrated Virtualization Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12 Hardware Management Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.1 High availability using the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.2 IBM System Planning Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13 Operating system support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.1 AIX 5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.2 Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14 Service information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.1 Touch point colors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.2 Securing a system into a rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.3 Fault identification button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.4 Operator control panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.5 Cable-management arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.6 System firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.7 Service processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.14.8 Hardware management user interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3. Reliability, availability, and serviceability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Reliability, fault tolerance, and data integrity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Fault avoidance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 First-failure data capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3 Permanent monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4 Self-healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.5 N+1 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.6 Fault masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.7 Resource deallocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.8 Serviceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Manageability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3.2.1 Service processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Partition diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Service Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4 IBM System p5 firmware maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Cluster solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Appendix A. Servicing an IBM System p5 system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Resource Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
IBM Systems Hardware Information Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Notices
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Preface
This IBM® Redpaper is a comprehensive guide covering the IBM System p5™ 505 and 505Q
server supporting the IBM AIX® 5L™ and Linux® operating systems. We introduce major
hardware offerings and discuss their prominent functions.
Professionals wanting to acquire a better understanding of IBM System p5 products should
consider reading this document. The intended audience includes:
򐂰 Clients
򐂰 Marketing representatives
򐂰 Technical support professionals
򐂰 IBM Business Partners
򐂰 Independent software vendors
This document expands the current set of IBM System p5 documentation by providing a
desktop reference that offers a detailed technical description of the p5-505.
This publication does not replace the latest IBM System p5 marketing materials, tools, or
product documentation. It is intended as an additional source of information that, together
with existing sources, can be used to enhance your knowledge of IBM server solutions.
The team that wrote this Redpaper
This Redpaper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the
International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center.
Charlie Cler is a Certified IT Specialist for IBM and has over 21 years of experience with IBM.
He currently works in the United States as a pre-sales Systems Architect representing IBM
Systems and Technology Group product offerings. He has been working with IBM System p
servers for over 16 years.
Carlo Costantini is a Certified IT Specialist for IBM and has over 28 years of experience with
IBM and IBM Business Partners. He currently works in Italy Pre-sales Field Technical Sales
Support for IBM Sales Representatives and IBM Business Partners for all pSeries® and
IBM eServer™ p5 systems offerings. He has broad marketing experience. He is a certified
specialist for pSeries and IBM System p™ servers.
Michal Wawrzynski is a Sales Support Specialist in Poland. He has six years of experience
in the IT industry. He has worked at IBM for two years selling and providing pre-sales support
for IBM eServer p5, pSeries, OpenPower™, and IBM TotalStorage® systems. He has written
extensively about system architecture and virtualization.
Yan ZHANG is an Advisory IT Specialist in IBM China. She has 14 years of experience in the
IT field. She has worked at IBM for 11 years. Her areas of expertise include selling and
providing pre-sales support for IBM System p5, eServer p5, pSeries, OpenPower, RS/6000®,
and IBM TotalStorage systems. She has written extensively about system architecture,
services, and reliability, availability, and serviceability (RAS).
The project that produced this document was managed by:
Scott Vetter
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2006. All rights reserved.
ix
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
Christopher J. Algozzine, Stephen Hall, John Hilburn, Lindy Legler, Bill Mihaltse,
Thoi Nguyen, Jan Palmer, Philip W. Sobey, Mike Stys, and Doug Szerdi
IBM U.S.
Gregor Linzmeier and Volker Haug
IBM Germany
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x
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
1
Chapter 1.
General description
The IBM System p5 505 and p5 505Q rack-mount server (9115-505) supports applications
such as file-and-print, Web serving, networking, systems management, and security. Its IBM
POWER5+™ processor is also ideally suited for high-performance compute clusters. To
simplify naming, this product is referred to as the p5-505.
The p5-505 server comes in a 1U rack drawer package and is available in a one-core or
two-core configuration using 64-bit, copper-based, and Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) IBM
POWER5+ microprocessors.
The p5-505 offers several POWER5+ processor options with the 1-core 1.9 GHz processor
with no L3 cache, the 2-core 1.9 GHz processor with a 36 MB L3 cache, and the 2-core 2.1
GHz processor with a 36 MB L3 cache. The System p5 505Q also offers a processor option
with the 4-core 1.65 GHz processor with two 36 MB L3 caches. The processors on the p5-505
allow you to configure either a 1-core or 2-core system, and the processor on the p5-505Q
allows you to configure a 4-core system.
The p5-505 has a base of 1 GB of main memory that can be expanded to 32 GB. The p5-505
contains three internal device bays. These three device bays are front-accessible; two bays
are for hot-swap-capable 3.5-inch disk drives and can accommodate up to 600 GB of disk
storage. The third bay is available for a slim-line DVD-ROM or DVD-RAM. Other integrated
features include two 64-bit PCI-X slots, an integrated service processor, integrated
10/100/1000 Mbps two-port Ethernet, one system port, two USB and two HMC ports,
integrated dual channel Ultra320 SCSI controller, external SCSI port, hot-swappable power
and cooling (redundant), and optional redundant power.
For partitioning, a Hardware Management Console (HMC) is recommended, but it is not
required with the Integrated Virtualization Manager available with IBM Virtual I/O Server
Version 1.3. Dynamic LPAR is supported on the p5-505, allowing up to two logical partitions
using dedicated resources. In addition, the optional Advanced POWER™ Virtualization
hardware feature supports up to 20 micropartitions using Micro-Partitioning™ technology.
IBM Cluster Systems Management V1.5.1 for AIX 5L and Linux and High-Availability Cluster
Multi-Processing (HACMP™) for AIX 5L are supported on the p5-505.
The p5-505 is backed by a three-year limited warranty. Check with your IBM representative for
the particular warranty availability in your region.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2006. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 System specifications
Table 1-1 lists the general system specifications of the p5-505.
Table 1-1 IBM System p5 505 server specifications
Description
Range
Operating temperature
5 to 35 degrees Celsius (41 to 95 degrees Farenheit)
Relative humidity
8% to 80%
Operating voltage
100-127 (12 A) or 200-240 volts ac (20A) auto-ranging
Operating frequency
50/60 plus or minus 0.5 Hz
Maximum power consumption
500 watts
Maximum thermal output
1707 BTU/hr (British Thermal Unit)
1.2 Physical package
Table 1-2 lists the major physical attributes found on the p5-505.
Table 1-2 IBM System p5 505 server physical packaging
Dimension
Height
43 mm (1.7 inches)
Width
440 mm (17.3 inches)
Depth
710 mm (28.0 inches)
Weight
Minimum configuration
17 kg (37 lb)
Maximum configuration
23.2 kg (51 lb)
1.3 Rack-mount model
The p5-505 is available only as a rack-mount model.
Figure 1-1 shows a p5-505 that has been removed from a rack.
Figure 1-1 The p5-505 rack-mount server removed from the rack
2
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
The p5-505 is a 1U high, rack-mount server, designed to be installed in a 19-inch rack. There
is no deskside model available. One of the following feature codes (FCs) must be ordered
with the system:
򐂰 FC 7927 IBM Rack-mount Drawer Bezel and Hardware
򐂰 FC 7932 OEM Rack-mount Drawer Bezel and Hardware
The p5-505 can be installed in either IBM or OEM racks. For OEM rack requirements, see 1.6,
“System racks” on page 8. There is one adjustable rack-mount drawer rail kit available for
both IBM and OEM racks: FC 7103 IBM/OEM Rack-mount Drawer Rail Kit.
To ease cable management, there are 6 ft, 9 ft, and 14 ft jumper power cords (between the
Central Electronic Complex, or CEC, drawer and the power distribution unit, or PDU)
available and a set of cable-management arms.
Included with the p5-505 rack-mount packaging are all of the components and instructions
necessary to enable installation in a 19-inch rack.
Figure 1-2 shows a more detailed view of the p5-505 rack-mount server, including
connectors, location codes, SCSI IDs, and major components.
DASD
DASD
SCSI ID 8
SCSI ID 5
PCI-X low profile
slot
10/100/1000 Mbps System USB
TX Ethernet Ports
Port
PCI-X long card
slot
External
SCSI
IDE Master Operator
Optical Drive
Power Supply
(standard)
Panel
USB
Power Supply
(optional)
HMC1 HMC2
Figure 1-2 Front and rear view of the p5-505 including location codes
Chapter 1. General description
3
1.4 Minimum and optional features
The IBM System p5 505 Express Product Offering is based on a flexible, modular design
featuring:
򐂰 1-core, 2-core symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) design using one POWER5+ or
POWER5™ processor and 4-core symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) design using one
POWER5+ packaged in a processor module soldered directly to the system planar
򐂰 1 GB of 533 MHz DDR-2 error checking and correcting (ECC) memory, expandable to
32 GB
򐂰 Two hot-swappable disk drive bays
򐂰 Two 64-bit, 3.3 volt, 266 MHz PCI-X 2.0 slots
򐂰 One slim-line media bay
򐂰 Service processor
򐂰 Redundant and hot-swap power supplies
򐂰 Hot-plug and redundant fans
The p5-505 includes the following integrated ports:
򐂰 Dual port 10/100/1000 Ethernet
򐂰 Integrated Dual Channel Ultra320 SCSI controller (one internal and one external VHDCI
LVD connector)
򐂰 Two USB ports
򐂰 One system port
򐂰 Two HMC ports
The system supports 32-bit and 64-bit applications and requires specific levels of AIX 5L and
Linux operating systems. See 2.13, “Operating system support” on page 50.
1.4.1 Processor features
The p5-505 and p5-505Q servers feature one or two POWER5+ processors with one, two, or
four active processor cores running at 2.1 or 1.9 GHz (1-core and 2-core) or 1.65 GHz
(4-core). Processors are installed on either a single-core module (SCM), dual-core module
(DCM), or quad-core module (QCM). For a list of available processor features, refer to
Table 1-3.
Table 1-3 Available processor options
4
Feature code
Description
8289
1-core 1.9 GHz POWER5+ Processor Card, no L3 cache
7679
2-core 1.9 GHz POWER5+ Processor Card, 36 MB L3 cache
8290
2-core 2.1 GHz POWER5+ Processor Card, 36 MB L3 cache
8288
4-core 1.65 GHz POWER5+ Processor Card, two 36 MB L3 caches
7650
1-core 1.65 GHz POWER5 Processor Card, no L3 cache
7652
2-core 1.65 GHz POWER5 Processor Card, 36 MB L3 cache
7674
2-core 1.5 GHz POWER5 Processor Card, 36 MB L3 cache
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
1.4.2 Memory features
The minimum memory requirement for the p5-505 is 1 GB, and the maximum capacity is
32 GB using 533 MHz DDR-2 DIMMs that are operating at 528 MHz. Memory DIMMs are
installed into eight DIMM sockets that are located on the system planar. DIMMs can be
installed in pairs or quad DIMM configurations. Note that an amount of memory is always in
use by the POWER Hypervisor™, even when the machine is not partitioned. The System
Planning Tool can be used to calculate the amount of available memory for an operating
system based on machine configuration:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/lpar/systemdesign.html
Table 1-4 lists the available memory features.
Table 1-4 Memory feature codes
Feature code
Description
1930
1 GB (2 x 512 MB) DIMMs, 276-pin DDR-2, 533 MHz SDRAM
1931
2 GB (2 x 1 GB) DIMMs, 276-pin DDR-2, 533 MHz SDRAM
1932
4 GB (2 x 2 GB) DIMMs, 276-pin DDR-2, 533 MHz SDRAM
1934
8 GB (2 x 4 GB) DIMMs, 276-pin DDR-2, 533 MHz SDRAM
1.4.3 Disk and media features
The p5-505 features two disk bays and one slim-line media bay. The minimum configuration
requires at least one disk drive. Table 1-5 shows the disk drive feature codes that each bay
can contain.
Table 1-5 Hot-swappable disk drive options
Feature code
Description
1968
73.4 GB ULTRA320 10 K rpm SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1969
146.8 GB ULTRA320 10 K rpm SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1970
36.4 GB ULTRA320 15 K rpm SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1971
73.4 GB ULTRA320 15 K rpm SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1972
146.8 GB ULTRA320 15 K rpm SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1973
300 GB ULTRA320 10 K rpm SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
Either the DVD-ROM or DVD-RAM drive can be installed in the slim-line bay:
򐂰 FC 1903, DVD-ROM drive
򐂰 FC 1900, DVD-RAM drive
A logical partition that is running a supported release of the Linux operating system requires a
DVD drive to provide a method for running the hardware diagnostic from the CD. Concurrent
diagnostics, as provided by the AIX 5L diag command, are not available in the Linux
operating system at the time of writing.
An internal redundant array of independent disks (RAID) enablement feature, FC 1908, is
also available.
Chapter 1. General description
5
1.4.4 USB diskette drive
The externally attached USB diskette drive provides storage capacity up to 1.44 MB
(FC 2591) on high-density (2HD) floppy disks and 720 KB on a double density floppy disk. It
includes a 350 mm (13.7 in.) cable with standard USB connector. This super slim-line and
lightweight USB V2-attached diskette drive takes its power requirements from the USB port.
The drive can be attached to the integrated USB ports, or to a USB adapter (FC 2738). A
maximum of one USB diskette drive is supported per integrated controller/adapter. The same
controller can share a USB mouse and keyboard.
1.4.5 Hardware Management Console models
A p5-505 and p5-505Q server can be either HMC-managed or non-HMC-managed. In
HMC-managed mode, an HMC is required as a dedicated workstation that allows you to
configure and manage partitions. The HMC provides a set of functions to manage the system
LPARs, dynamic LPAR operations, virtual features, Capacity on Demand, inventory and
microcode management, and remote power control functions. These functions also include
the handling of the partition profiles that define the processor, memory, and I/O resources
that are allocated to an individual partition.
Note: Non-HMC-managed modes:
򐂰 Are full system partition mode (only one partition with all system resources).
򐂰 Use the Integrated Virtualization Manager (see 2.11.5, “Integrated Virtualization
Manager” on page 44).
See 2.12, “Hardware Management Console” on page 47 for detailed information about the
HMC.
Table 1-6 lists the HMC options for POWER5+ processor-based systems that are available at
the time of writing. Existing HMC models can be also used.
Table 1-6 Supported HMC options
Type-model
Description
7310-C05
IBM 7310 Model C05 Deskside Hardware Management Console
7310-CR3
IBM 7310 Model CR3 Rack-Mount Hardware Management Console
Systems require Ethernet connectivity between the HMC and one of the Ethernet ports of the
service processor. Ensure that sufficient HMC Ethernet ports are available to enable public
and private networks if you need both. The 7310 Model C05 is a deskside model, which has
one native 10/100/1000 Ethernet port. They can be extended with two additional two-port
10/100/1000 Gb adapters. The 7310 Model CR3 is a 1U, 19-inch rack mountable drawer that
has two native Ethernet ports and can be extended with one additional two-port 10/100/1000
Gb adapter.
When an HMC is connected to the server, the integrated system ports are disabled. If you
need serial connections, for example, non-Ethernet HACMP heartbeat, you must provide an
Async adapter (FC 5723 or FC 2943).
Note: It is not possible to connect POWER4™ systems with POWER5, and POWER5+
processor-based systems simultaneously to the same HMC, but it is possible to connect
POWER5 and POWER5+ processor-based systems together to the same HMC.
6
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
1.5 Express Product Offerings
The Express Product Offerings are a convenient way to order any of several configurations
that are designed to meet typical client requirements. Special reduced pricing is available
when a system order satisfies specific configuration requirements for memory, disk drives,
and processors.
1.5.1 Express Product Offering requirements
When you order an Express Product Offering, the configurator offers a choice of starting
points that can be added to. Clients can configure systems with 1-core, 2-core, or 4-core
processors and up to 4 processor activations.
With the purchase of an Express Product Offering, for each paid processor activation, the
client is entitled to one processor activation at no additional charge, if the following
requirements are met:
򐂰 The system must have at least two disk drives of at least 73.4 GB each.
򐂰 There must be at least 1 GB of memory installed for each active processor.
When you purchase an Express Product Offering, you are entitled to a lower priced AIX 5L or
Linux operating system license, or you can choose to purchase the system with no operating
system. The lower priced AIX 5L or Linux operating system is processed through a feature
number on AIX 5L and either Red Hat or SUSE Linux operating system. You can choose
either the lower priced AIX 5L or Linux subscription, but not both.
If you choose AIX 5L for your lower priced operating system, you can also order Linux but you
must purchase your Linux subscription at full price versus the reduced price. The same is true
if you choose a Linux subscription as your lower priced operating system. Systems with a
reduced price AIX 5L offering are the IBM System p5 Express Product Offering, AIX 5L
edition, and systems with a lower priced Linux operating system are referred to as the
IBM System p5 Express Product Offering, OpenPower edition.
In the case of Linux, only the first subscription purchased is lower priced so, for example,
additional licenses purchased for Red Hat to run in multiple partitions are full price.
You can make changes to the standard features as needed and still qualify for processor
entitlements at no additional charge and a reduced price AIX 5L or Linux operating system
license. However, selection of total memory or DASD smaller than the total defined as the
minimum disqualifies the order as an Express Product Offering.
1.5.2 Configurator starting points for Express Product Offerings
All product offerings have a set of standard features for the rack-mounted and deskside
versions as listed in Table 1-7 on page 8 through Table 1-9 on page 8.
Chapter 1. General description
7
Table 1-7
Express Product Offering standard set of feature codes
Feature code description
Rack-mounted feature codes
Rack-mount bezel and hardware
7927 x 1
600 Watt power supply
7958 x 1
IDE DVD-ROM
1903 x 1
73.4 GB 10 k disk drives
1968 x 2
Language group specify
9300 or 93XX
Power cord
Select correct feature code
Table 1-8 POWER5+ Express Product Offering features - SCM, DCM, and QCM configurations
Description
1.9 GHz
2.1 GHz
1.65 GHz
Configuration
1-core
2-core
2-core
4-core
Processor cards
8289 x 1
7679 x 1
8290 x 1
8288 x 1
Processor activations
n/a
7689 x 1
7287 x 1
7288 x 2
Zero-priced Express Product
Offering activations
8489 x 1
8487 x 1
8490 x 1
8488x 2
Total active processors
1
2
2
4
Minimum memory
1 GB
2 GB
2 GB
4 GB
Table 1-9 POWER5 Express Product Offering features - SCM and DCM configurations
Description
1.5 GHz
1.65 GHz
Configuration
2-core
1-core
2-core
Processor cards
7674 x 1
7650 x 1
7652 x 1
Processor activations
7574 x 1
n/a
7372 x 1
Zero-priced Express Product Offering
activations
8634 x 1
8639 x 1
8641 x 1
Total active processors
2
1
2
Minimum memory
2 GB
1 GB
2 GB
1.6 System racks
The IBM 7014 Model S11, S25, T00, and T42 Racks are 19-inch racks for general use with
IBM System p rack-mount servers. The racks provide increased capacity, greater flexibility,
and improved floor space utilization.
If a System p5 server is to be installed in a non-IBM rack or cabinet, you must ensure that the
rack conforms to the EIA1 standard EIA-310-D (see 1.6.9, “OEM rack” on page 17).
1
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA). Accredited by American National Standards Institute (ANSI), EIA provides a
forum for industry to develop standards and publications throughout the electronics and high-tech industries.
8
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Note: It is the client’s responsibility to ensure that the installation of the drawer in the
preferred rack or cabinet results in a configuration that is stable, serviceable, safe, and
compatible with the drawer requirements for power, cooling, cable management, weight,
and rail security.
1.6.1 IBM 7014 Model T00 Rack
The 1.8-meter (71-inch) Model T00 is compatible with past and present IBM System p
servers. It is a 19-inch rack and is designed for use in all situations that have previously used
the earlier rack models R00 and S00. The T00 rack has the following features:
򐂰 36 EIA units (36U) of usable space.
򐂰 Optional removable side panels.
򐂰 Optional highly perforated front door.
򐂰 Optional side-to-side mounting hardware for joining multiple racks.
򐂰 Standard business black or optional white color in OEM format.
򐂰 Increased power distribution and weight capacity.
򐂰 Optional reinforced (ruggedized) rack feature (FC 6080) provides added earthquake
protection with modular rear brace, concrete floor bolt-down hardware, and bolt-in steel
front filler panels.
򐂰 Support for both ac and dc configurations.
򐂰 The dc rack height is increased to 1926 mm (75.8 inches) if a power distribution panel is
fixed to the top of the rack.
򐂰 Up to four power distribution units (PDUs) can be mounted in the PDU bays (see
Figure 1-3 on page 13), but others can fit inside the rack. See 1.6.6, “The ac power
distribution unit and rack content” on page 12.
򐂰 Weights:
– T00 base empty rack: 244 kg (535 pounds)
– T00 full rack: 816 kg (1795 pounds)
1.6.2 IBM 7014 Model T42 Rack
The 2.0-meter (79.3-inch) Model T42 addresses the client requirement for a tall enclosure to
house the maximum amount of equipment in the smallest possible floor space. The features
that differ in the Model T42 rack from the Model T00 include:
򐂰 42 EIA units (42U) of usable space (6U of additional space).
򐂰 The Model T42 supports ac only.
򐂰 Weights:
– T42 base empty rack: 261 kg (575 pounds)
– T42 full rack: 930 kg (2045 pounds)
Optional Rear Door Heat eXchanger (FC 6858)
Improved cooling from the heat exchanger enables the client to populate individual racks
more densely, freeing valuable floor space without the need to purchase additional air
conditioning units. The Rear Door Heat eXchanger features:
򐂰 A water-cooled heat exchanger door that is designed to dissipate heat generated from the
back of computer systems before it enters the room
Chapter 1. General description
9
򐂰 An easy-to-mount rear door design that attaches to client-supplied water, using industry
standard fittings and couplings
򐂰 Up to 15 KW (approximately 50,000 BTUs/hr) of heat removed from air exiting the back of
a fully populated rack
򐂰 One year, limited warranty
Physical specifications
The physical specifications for the Rear Door Heat eXchanger are:
򐂰 Approximate height: 1.945.5 mm (76.6 inches)
򐂰 Approximate width: 635.8 mm (25.03 inches)
򐂰 Approximate depth: 141.0 mm (5.55 inches)
򐂰 Approximate weight: 31.9 kg (70.0 lb)
Client responsibilities
The client responsibilities are:
򐂰 Secondary water loop (to building chilled water)
򐂰 Pump solution (for secondary loop)
򐂰 Delivery solution (hoses and piping)
򐂰 Connections: standard 3/4 inch internal threads
1.6.3 IBM 7014 Model S11 Rack
The Model S11 rack can satisfy many light-duty requirements for organizing smaller
rack-mount servers and expansion drawers. The 0.6-meter-high rack has:
򐂰 A perforated, lockable front door
򐂰 A heavy-duty caster set for easy mobility
򐂰 A complete set of blank filler panels for a finished look
򐂰 EIA unit markings on each corner to aid assembly
򐂰 A retractable stabilizer foot
The Model S11 rack has the following specifications:
򐂰 Width: 520 mm (20.5 inches) with side panels
򐂰 Depth: 874 mm (34.4 inches) with front door
򐂰 Height: 612 mm (24.0 inches)
򐂰 Weight: 37 kg (75.0 lb)
The S11 rack has a maximum load limit of 16.5 kg (36.3 lb) per EIA unit for a maximum
loaded rack weight of 216 kg (475 lb).
1.6.4 IBM 7014 Model S25 Rack
The 1.3-meter-high Model S25 Rack will satisfy many light-duty requirements for organizing
smaller rack-mount servers. Front and rear rack doors include locks and keys, helping keep
your servers secure. Side panels are a standard feature, simplifying ordering and shipping.
This 25U rack can be shipped configured and can accept server and expansion units up to
28-inches deep.
10
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
The front door is reversible and can be configured for either left or right opening. The rear
door is split vertically in the middle and hinges on both the left and right sides. The S25 rack
has the following specifications:
򐂰 Width: 605 mm (23.8 in.) with side panels
򐂰 Depth: 1001 mm (39.4 in.) with front door
򐂰 Height: 1344 mm (49.0 in.)
򐂰 Weight: 100.2 kg (221.0 lb)
The S25 rack has a maximum load limit of 22.7 kg (50 lb) per EIA unit for a maximum loaded
rack weight of 667 kg (1470 lb).
1.6.5 S11 rack and S25 rack considerations
The S11 and S25 racks do not have vertical mounting space that will accommodate feature
number 7188 PDUs. All PDUs required for application in these racks must be installed
horizontally in the rear of the rack. Each horizontally mounted PDU occupies 1U of space in
the rack and therefore reduces the space available for mounting servers and other
components.
FC 0469 Client Specified Rack Placement provides the client the ability to specify the
physical location of the system modules and attached expansion modules (drawers) in the
racks. The client’s input is collected and verified through the marketing configurator (eConfig).
The client’s request is reviewed by eConfig for safe handling by checking the weight
distribution within the rack. The Manufacturing Plant provides the final approval for the
configuration. This information is then used by IBM Manufacturing to assemble the system
components (drawers) in the rack according to the client’s request.
The CFReport from eConfig must be submitted to the following site:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/power/csp
Table 1-10 lists the machine types supported in the S11 and S25 racks.
Table 1-10 Models supported in S11 and S25 racks
Machine type-model
Name
Supported in
7014-S11 rack
7014-S25 rack
7037-A50
System p5 185
X
X
7031-D24/T24
EXP24 Disk Enclosure
X
X
7311-D20
I/O Expansion Drawer
X
X
9110-510
System p5 510
X
X
9111-520
System p5 520
X
X
9113-550
System p5 550
X
X
9115-505
System p5 505
X
X
9123-710
OpenPower 710
X
X
9124-720
OpenPower 720
X
X
9110-510
System p5 510 and 510Q
X
X
9131-52A
System p5 520 and 520Q
X
X
Chapter 1. General description
11
Machine type-model
Name
Supported in
7014-S11 rack
7014-S25 rack
9133-55A
System p5 550 and 550Q
X
X
9116-561
System p5 560Q
X
X
9910-P33
3000 VA UPS (2700 watt)
X
X
9910-P65
500 VA UPS (208-240V)
X
7315-CR3
Rack-mount HMC
X
7310-CR3
Rack-mount HMC
X
7026-P16
LAN-attached remote asynchronous
node (RAN)
X
7316-TF3
Rack-mounted flat-panel console kit
X
1.6.6 The ac power distribution unit and rack content
Note: Each server, or a system drawer to be mounted in the rack, requires two power
cords that are not included in the base order. For maximum availability, we highly
recommend to connect power cords from the same server or system drawer to two
separate PDUs in the rack. These PDUs could be connected to two independent client
power sources.
For rack models T00 and T42, 12-outlet PDUs (FC 9188 and FC 7188) are available. For
rack models S11 and S25, FC 7188 is available.
Four PDUs can be mounted vertically in the T00 and T42 racks. Figure 1-3 on page 13 shows
the placement of the four vertically mounted PDUs. In the rear of the rack, two additional
PDUs can be installed horizontally in the T00 rack and three in the T42 rack. The four vertical
mounting locations are filled first in the T00 and T42 racks. Mounting PDUs horizontally
consumes 1U per PDU and reduces the space available for other racked components. When
mounting PDUs horizontally, we recommend that you use fillers in the EIA units that are
occupied by these PDUs to facilitate proper air-flow and ventilation in the rack.
The S11 and S25 racks support as many PDUs as there is available rack space.
For detailed power cord requirements and power cord feature codes, see IBM System p5,
Eserver p5 and i5, and OpenPower Planning, SA38-0508. For an online copy, select Map
of pSeries books to the information center → Planning → Printable PDFs → Planning
at the following Web site:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp
Note: Ensure that the appropriate power cord feature is configured to support the power
that is being supplied.
The Base/Side Mount Universal PDU (FC 9188) and the optional, additional Universal PDU
(FC 7188) support a wide range of country requirements and electrical power specifications.
The PDU receives power through a UTG0247 power line connector. Each PDU requires one
PDU-to-wall power cord. Nine power cord features are available for different countries and
applications by varying the PDU-to-wall power cord, which must be ordered separately. Each
power cord provides the unique design characteristics for the specific power requirements.
12
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
To match new power requirements and preserve previous investments, these power cords
can be requested with an initial order of the rack or with a later upgrade of the rack features.
The PDU has 12 client-usable IEC 320-C13 outlets. There are six groups of two outlets fed by
six circuit breakers. Each outlet is rated up to 10 amps, but each group of two outlets is fed
from one 15 amp circuit breaker.
Note: Based on the power cord that is used, the PDU can supply from 4.8 kVA to 19.2
kVA. The total kilovolt ampere (kVA) of all the drawers plugged into the PDU must not
exceed the power cord limitation.
The Universal PDUs are compatible with previous IBM System p5, OpenPower, and pSeries
models.
Figure 1-3 PDU placement and PDU view
1.6.7 Rack-mounting rules for the p5-505
The p5-505 is a 1U rack-mounted server drawer. Consider the following primary rules when
mounting the p5-505 into a rack:
򐂰 The p5-505 is designed to be placed at any location in the rack. For rack stability, it is
advisable to start filling a rack from the bottom.
򐂰 Any remaining space in the rack can be used to install other systems or peripherals,
provided that the maximum permissible weight of the rack is not exceeded and the
installation rules for these devices are followed.
򐂰 Before placing or sliding a p5-505 into the service position, it is essential that the rack
manufacturer’s safety instructions are followed regarding rack stability.
򐂰 Considering only the maximum configuration of a single p5-505, a maximum of 24 model
p5-505 servers fit in the T00 rack, 28 p5-505 servers in the T42 rack, seven p5-505
servers in the S11 rack, and 24 p5-505 servers in the S25 rack due to weight and power
requirements.
Chapter 1. General description
13
Note: Carefully consider the following specifications during your rack planning for all
the drawers including servers, storage, and their peripherals to be installed in the
system.
The T00 rack’s maximum weight of drawers is 572 kg (1260 lb) and the T42 is 667 kg
(1470 lb). The minimum weight of the p5-505 is 17.0kg (37 lb) and the maximum weight
of the p5-505 is 23.2 kg (51 lb). Do not exceed the rack’s maximum weight of drawers.
There is a cable-management arm shipped with the p5-505 (refer to Figure 2-17 on
page 58), which helps you better arrange the cables at the back of the p5-505. There are
power cables, which have different lengths from the drawer to the PDU, available
(5 ft., 9 ft., and 14 ft.).
1.6.8 Additional options for rack
This section highlights solutions that are available to provide a single point of management
for environments composed of multiple System p5-505 or p5-505Q servers or other IBM
System p servers.
IBM 7212 Model 103 IBM TotalStorage storage device enclosure
The IBM 7212 Model 103 is designed to provide efficient and convenient storage expansion
capabilities for selected System p servers. The IBM 7212 Model 103 is a 1U rack-mountable
option to be installed in a standard 19-inch rack using an optional rack-mount hardware
feature kit. The 7212 Model 103 has two bays that can accommodate any of the following
storage drive features:
򐂰 Digital Data Storage (DDS) Gen 5 DAT72 Tape Drive provides a physical storage capacity
of 36 GB (72 GB with 2:1 compression) per data cartridge.
򐂰 VXA-2 Tape Drive provides a media capacity of up to 80 GB (160 GB with 2:1
compression) physical data storage capacity per cartridge.
򐂰 VXA-320 Tape Drive provides a media physical capacity of up to 160 GB (320 GB with 2:1
compression) physical data storage capacity per cartridge.
򐂰 Half-High LTO-2 Tape Drive provides media physical capacity of up to 200 GB (400 GB
with 2:1 compression) data storage per Ultrium 2 cartridge and a sustained data transfer
rate of 24.0 MB per second (48 MB per second with 2:1 compression). In addition to
reading and writing on Ultrium 2 tape cartridges, it is also read and write compatible with
Ultrium 1 cartridges.
򐂰 SLR60 Tape Drive (QIC format) comes with a media with 37.5 GB native data physical
capacity per tape cartridge and a native physical data transfer rate of up to 4 MB per
second and uses 2:1 compression to achieve a single tape cartridge physical capacity of
up to 75 GB of data.
򐂰 SLR100 Tape Drive (QIC format) comes with a media with 50 GB native data physical
capacity per tape cartridge and a native physical data transfer rate of up to 5 MB per
second and uses 2:1 compression to achieve single tape cartridge storage of up to 100
GB of data.
򐂰 DVD-RAM 2 drive can read and write on 4.7 GB and 9.4 GB DVD-RAM media. The
DVD-RAM 2 uses only bare media, which reduces media costs, and is also read
compatible with multi-session CD, CD-RW, and 2.6 GB and 5.2 GB DVD-RAM media. The
9.4 GB physical capacity of DVD-RAM allows storage of more data than on conventional
CD-R media. Fast performance also allows quick access to information, while downward
compatibility helps provide investment protection.
14
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Note: Disc capacity options are 2.6 GB and 4.7 GB per side. The 5.2 GB and 9.4 GB
capacities can be achieved by using double-sided DVD-RAM discs.
Flat panel display options
The IBM 7316-TF3 Flat Panel Console Kit can be installed in the system rack. This 1U
console uses a 17-inch thin film transistor (TFT) LCD with a viewable area of 337.9
mm x 270.03 mm and a 1280 x 1024 pel2 resolution. The 7316-TF3 Flat Panel Console Kit
has the following attributes:
򐂰 A 17-inch, flat screen TFT color monitor that occupies 1U (1.75 inches) in a 19-inch
standard rack.
򐂰 Ability to mount the IBM Travel Keyboard in the 7316-TF3 rack keyboard tray
򐂰 Support for the new 1x8 LCM switch (FC 4280), the Netbay LCM2 (FC 4279) with access
to and control of as many as 64 servers and support of both USB and PS/2 server-side
keyboard and mouse connections
򐂰 IBM Travel Keyboard mounts in the rack keyboard tray (Integrated Track point and
UltraNav)
IBM PS/2 Travel Keyboards are supported on the 7316-TF3 for use in configurations where
only PS/2 keyboard ports are available.
The IBM 7316-TF3 Flat Panel Console Kit provides an option for the USB Travel Keyboards
with UltraNav. The keyboard enables the 7316-TF3 to be connected to systems that do not
have PS/2 keyboard ports. The USB Travel Keyboard can be directly attached to an available
integrated USB port or a supported USB adapter (2738) on System p5 servers or 7310-CR3
and 7315-CR3 HMCs.
The IBM 7316-TF3 flat-panel, rack-mounted console is now available with two console switch
options, which lets you inexpensively cable, monitor, and manage your rack servers: the new
1x8 LCM Console Switch (FC 4280) and the LCM2 console switch (FC 4279).
The 1x8 Console Switch is a cost-effective, densely-packed solution that helps you set up
and control selected System p rack-mounted IBM servers:
򐂰 Supports one local user with PS/2 keyboard, PS/2 mouse, and video connections
򐂰 Features an 8-port, CAT5 console switch for single-user local management
򐂰 Supports both USB and PS/2 server-side keyboard and mouse connections
򐂰 Occupies 1U (1.75 in) in a 19-inch standard rack
The 1x8 Console Switch can be mounted in one of the following racks: 7014-T00, 7014-T42,
7014-S11, or 7014-S25.
The 1x8 Console Switch supports GXT135P (FC 1980 and FC 2849) graphics accelerators.
The following cables are used to attach the IBM servers to the 1x8 Console Switch:
򐂰 IBM 3M Console Switch Cable (PS/2) (FC 4282)
򐂰 IBM 3M Console Switch Cable (USB) (FC 4281)
The 1x8 Console Switch supports the following monitors:
򐂰 7316-TF3 rack console monitor
򐂰 pSeries TFT monitors (FC 3641, FC 3643, FC 3644, and FC 3645)
2
Picture elements
Chapter 1. General description
15
Separately available switch cables convert KVM signals for CAT5 cabling for servers with
USB and PS/2 ports. A minimum of one cable feature (FC 4281) or USB feature (FC 4282) is
required to connect the IBM 1x8 Console Switch (FC 4280) to a supported server. The
3-meter cable FC 4281 has one HD15 connector for video and one USB connector for
keyboard and mouse. The 3-meter cable FC 4282 has one HD15 connector for video, one
PS/2 connector for keyboard, and one PS/2 connector for mouse. It is used to connect the
IBM 1x8 Console Switch to a supported server.
The 1x8 Console Switch is a 1U (1.75-inch) rack-mountable LCM switch containing eight
analog rack interface ports for connecting switches using CAT5 cable. The switch supports a
maximum video resolution of 1280x1024.
The Console Switch allows for two levels of tiering and supports up to 64 servers at a single
user location through switch tiering. The previous VGA switch (FC 4200), the LCM switch (FC
4202), and LCM2 switch (FC 4279) can be tiered with the 1x8 Console Switch.
Note: When the 1x8 Console Switch is tiered with the previous VGA switch (FC 4200) or
LCM (FC 4202) switch, it must be at the top level of the tier. When the 1x8 Console Switch
is tiered with the LCM2 (FC 4279) switch, it must be at the secondary level of the tier.
The IBM Local 2x8 Console Manager (LCM2) switch (FC 4279) provides users single-point
access and control of up to 1024 servers. It supports connection to servers with either PS/2 or
USB connections with installation of appropriate options. The maximum resolution is 1280 x
1024 at 75Hz. The LCM2 switch can be tiered; three levels of tiering are supported.
A minimum of one LCM feature (FC 4268) or USB feature (FC 4269) is required with an IBM
Local 2x8 Console Manager (LCM2) switch (FC 4279). Each feature can support up to four
systems. When connecting to a p5-520 or p5-520Q, FC 4269 provides connection to the
POWER5 USB ports. Only the PS/2 keyboard is supported when attaching the 7316-TF3 to
the LCM Switch.
When selecting the LCM Switch, consider the following information:
򐂰 The KVM Conversion Option (KCO) cable (FC 4268) is used with systems with PS/2 style
keyboard, display, and mouse ports.
򐂰 The USB cable (FC 4269) is used with systems with USB keyboard or mouse ports.
򐂰 The switch offers four ports for server connections. Each port in the switch can connect a
maximum of 16 systems:
– One KCO cable (FC 4268) or USB cable (FC 4269) is required for every four systems
supported on the switch.
– A maximum of 16 KCO cables or USB cables per port can be used with the Netbay
LCM Switch to connect up to 64 servers.
16
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Note: A server microcode update might be required on installed systems for boot-time
System Management Services (SMS) menu support of the USB keyboards. For microcode
updates, see:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/firmware/gjsn
We recommend that you have the 7316-TF3 installed between EIA 20 and EIA 25 of the
rack for ease of use. The 7316-TF3 or any other graphics monitor requires that a
POWER GXT135P graphics accelerator (FC 1980 and FC 2849) is installed in the server,
or some other graphics accelerator, if supported.
Hardware Management Console 7310 Model CR3
The 7310 Model CR3 Hardware Management Console (HMC) is a 1U, 19-inch
rack-mountable drawer supported in the 7014 racks. For additional HMC specifications, see
2.12, “Hardware Management Console” on page 47.
1.6.9 OEM rack
The p5-505 can be installed in a suitable OEM rack, provided that the rack conforms to the
EIA-310-D standard for 19-inch racks. This standard is published by the Electrical Industries
Alliance, and a summary of this standard is available in the publication IBM System p5,
Eserver p5 and i5, and OpenPower Planning, SA38-0508.
The key points mentioned in this documentation are as follows:
򐂰 The front rack opening must be 451 mm wide + 0.75 mm (17.73 inches + 0.03 inches),
and the rail-mounting holes must be 465 mm + 0.8 mm (18.3 inches + 0.03 inches) apart
on center (horizontal width between the vertical columns of holes on the two
front-mounting flanges and on the two rear-mounting flanges). See Figure 1-4 for a top
view showing the specification dimensions.
Figure 1-4 Top view of non-IBM rack specification dimensions
򐂰 The vertical distance between the mounting holes must consist of sets of three holes
spaced (from bottom to top) 15.9 mm (0.625 inches), 15.9 mm (0.625 inches), and
12.67 mm (0.5 inches) on center, making each three-hole set of vertical hole spacing
44.45 mm (1.75 inches) apart on center. Rail-mounting holes must be 7.1 mm + 0.1 mm
Chapter 1. General description
17
(0.28 inches + 0.004 inches) in diameter. See Figure 1-5 on page 18 and Figure 1-6 on
page 18 for the top and bottom front specification dimensions.
Figure 1-5 Rack specification dimensions, top front view
Figure 1-6 Rack specification dimensions, bottom front view
򐂰 It might be necessary to supply additional hardware, such as fasteners, for use in some
manufacturer’s racks.
򐂰 The system rack or cabinet must be capable of supporting an average load of 15.9 kg
(35 lb) of product weight per EIA unit.
򐂰 The system rack or cabinet must be compatible with drawer mounting rails, including a
secure and snug fit of the rail-mounting pins and screws into the rack or cabinet rail
support hole.
Note: The OEM rack must only support ac-powered drawers. We strongly recommend that
you use a power distribution unit (PDU) that meets the same specifications as the PDUs to
supply rack power. Rack or cabinet power distribution devices must meet the drawer
power requirements, as well as the requirements of any additional products that will be
connected to the same power distribution device.
18
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
2
Chapter 2.
Architecture and technical
overview
This chapter discusses the overall system architecture represented by Figure 2-1. This
chapter describes the major components of this diagram in the following sections. The
bandwidths provided throughout this section are theoretical maximums provided for
reference. We recommend that you always obtain real-world performance measurements
using production workloads.
33 MHz
PCI-X
66 MHz
133 MHz
SCSI BUS 0
Service
processor
USB
133 MHz
2-Port
SCSI
Ultra320
PCI-X to PCI-X
133 MHz
Slot 2, 64-bit, 266 MHz, 3.3 volts, non hot-plug
2-Port
10/100/1000
Mbps Ethernet
P3-C1 P2-C1
P1-T8
Slot 1, 64-bit, 266 MHz, 3.3 volts, non hot-plug
Port 2
Port 0
P1-T4
Port 1
RJ45 RJ45
P1-T1 P1-T2
Port 1
HMC HMC
P1-T6 P1-T7
Port 1
System Port
P1-T3
Port 2
External VHDCI LVD
SCSI connector
P1-T5
266 MHz
bridge
SCSI BUS 1, P1-T9
66 MHz
P5IOC
Operator Panel D1
Slim Line Media Device P1-D5
IDE controller
GX+ Bus
700 MHz
ratio 3:1
DIMM C11 J2A “A2”
P1-T9-L8-L0)
P1-D2
(P1-T9-L5-L0)
Disk backplane
SMI-II
DIMM C8 J2D “AE”
DIMM C7 J0D “AC”
DIMM C6 J0C “A4”
DIMM C5 J0B “A8”
2x8B
@528
MHz
P1-D1
DIMM C9 J2C “A6”
2x8B
@528
MHz
DIMM C10 J2B “AA”
DIMM C4 J0A “A0”
SMI-II
Processor
module
Core
Core
2.1 GHz 2.1 GHz
2x16B
36 MB L3 @1.05 GHz
Feature
1.9 MB shared L2 cache
Memory
controller
POWER5+
Distributed switch
1066 MHz
2x8B for read
2x2B for write
Figure 2-1 The p5-505 logic data flow with 2.1 GHz DCM
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2006. All rights reserved.
19
2.1 The POWER5+ processor
The IBM POWER5+ processor capitalizes on all the enhancements brought by the POWER5
processor. For a detailed description of the POWER5 processor, refer to IBM System p5 505
Express Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-4079. Figure 2-2 shows a high level
view of the POWER5+ processor.
POWER 5+ Processor
Core
2.1 GHz
Core
2.1 GHz
L3
Bus
L3
Intf
Mem
Bus
Mem
Cntrl
GX+
Intf
1.9 MB L2
GX+
Bus
SMP
Fabric
Bus
Enhanced Distributed Switch
(Fabric Bus Controller)
Vertical
Fabric
Bus
Figure 2-2 POWER5+ processor
The CMOS9S technology for the POWER5 processor used a 130 Nanometer (nm)
fabrication process. The CMOS10S technology for the POWER5+ processor uses a 90 nm
fabrication process, enabling:
򐂰 Performance gains through faster clock rates
򐂰 Physical size reduction (243 mm compared with 389 mm)
Compared to the POWER5 processor, the 37% smaller POWER5+ processor consumes less
power and therefore requires less cooling. This allows it to be used in servers that previously
used lower frequency processors because of cooling restrictions.
The POWER5+ design provides the following additional enhancements over its predecessor:
򐂰 New page sizes in ERAT and translation look-aside buffer (TLB) and two new page sizes
(64 KB and 16 GB), which were recently added in PowerPC® architecture.
򐂰 New segment size in SLB and one new segment size (1 TB) that was recently added in
PowerPC architecture.
򐂰 The doubling of the TLB size in the POWER5+ processor to 2048 entries.
򐂰 New floating-point round to integer instructions (frfin, frfiz, frfip, and frfim) that have been
added to round floating-point numbers with the following rounding modes: nearest, zero,
integer plus, and integer minus.
򐂰 Improved floating-point performance.
򐂰 Lock performance enhancement.
򐂰 Enhanced SLB read.
20
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
򐂰 True Little-Endian mode support as defined in the PowerPC architecture.
򐂰 Changes in the fabric, L2 and L3 controller, memory controller, GX controller, and RAS to
provide support for the QCM that have resulted in SMP system sizes that are double what
is available in POWER5 DCM-based servers. Current POWER5+ implementations
support single address loop.
򐂰 Several enhancements have been made in the memory controller for improved
performance. The memory controller is ready to support future DDR-2 667 MHz DIMMs.
򐂰 Enhanced redundancy in L1 Dcache, L2 cache, and L3 directory. Addition of:
– Independent control of the L2 cache and the L3 directory for redundancy to allow
split-repair action
– Wordline redundancy in the L1 Dcache
– Array Built-In Self Test (ABIST) column repair for the L2 cache and the L3 directory
2.2 Processor and cache
In the p5-505 and p5-505Q, the POWER5+ processors, associated L3 cache, and memory
DIMMs are packaged on the system planar. The p5-505 and the p5-505Q use different
POWER5+ processor modules.
Note: Because the POWER5+ and POWER5 processor modules are directly soldered to
the system planar, special care must be taken in sizing and selecting the ideal CPU
configuration.
2.2.1 POWER5+ single-core module
The 1-core p5-505 POWER5+ system planar contains a single-core module (SCM) and the
local memory storage subsystem for that SCM. The POWER5+ single-core processor is
packaged in the SCM. Figure 2-3 shows the layout of a p5-505 SCM and associated memory.
DIMM
SMI-II
DIMM
DIMM
Single-Core Module
SCM
GX+
Ctrl
POWER5+
core
GX+
Bus
DIMM
2x8B
@528 MHz
L3
Ctrl
DIMM
DIMM
DIMM
SMI-II
DIMM
Mem
Ctrl
1.9 MB Shared
L2 cache
Enhanced distributed switch
1056 MHz
2 x 8 B for read
2 x 2 B for write
Figure 2-3 p5-505 POWER5+ 1.9 GHz SCM with DDR-2 memory socket layout view
The storage structure for the POWER5+ processor is a distributed memory architecture that
provides high-memory bandwidth. The processor is interfaced to eight memory slots that are
controlled by two Synchronous Memory Interface II (SMI-II) chips, which are located in close
physical proximity to the processor module.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
21
I/O connects to the p5-505 processor module using the GX+ bus. The processor module
provides a single GX+ bus. The GX+ bus provides an interface to I/O devices through the
RIO-2 connections.
2.2.2 POWER5+ dual-core module
The 2-core p5-505 POWER5+ system planar contains a dual-core module (DCM) and the
local memory storage subsystem for that DCM. The POWER5+ dual-core processor and its
associated L3 cache is packaged in the DCM.
Figure 2-4 shows a layout of a p5-505 DCM and associated memory.
DIMM
SMI-II
DIMM
DIMM
DCM
POWER5+
core
2.1 GHz
DIMM
2x8B
@528 MHz
36 MB
L3 cache
DIMM
DIMM
SMI-II
DIMM
DIMM
2x16B
@1.05 GHz
L3
Ctrl
Mem
Ctrl
POWER5+
core
2.1 GHz
GX+
Ctrl
GX+
Bus
1.9 MB Shared
L2 cache
Enhanced distributed switch
1056 MHz
2 x 8 B for read
2 x 2 B for write
Figure 2-4 p5-505 POWER5+ 2.1 GHz DCM with DDR-2 memory socket layout view
The storage structure for the POWER5+ processor is a distributed memory architecture that
provides high-memory bandwidth, although each processor can address all memory and
sees a single shared memory resource. They are interfaced to eight memory slots that are
controlled by two Synchronous Memory Interface II (SMI-II) chips, which are located in close
physical proximity to the processor module.
I/O connects to the p5-505 processor using the GX+ bus. The processor provides a single
GX+ bus. The GX+ bus provides an interface to I/O devices through the RIO-2 connections.
The theoretical maximum throughput of the L3 cache is 16-byte read, 16-byte write at a bus
frequency of 1.05 GHz (based on a 2.1 GHz processor clock), which equates to 33600 MBps
or 33.60 GBps. Further details are on Table 2-3 on page 26.
2.2.3 p5-505Q quad-core module
The 4-core p5-505Q system planar contains a quad-core module (QCM) and the local
memory storage subsystem for that QCM. Two POWER5+ dual-core processors and their
associated L3 Cache are packaged in the QCM. Figure 2-5 on page 23 shows a layout of
p5-505Q QCM with associated memory.
22
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
2x 8B
@528 MHz
QCM
SMI-II
DIMM
DIMM
DIMM
DIMM
1056 MHz
2 x 8B for read
2 x 2B for write
SMI-II
DIMM
36 MB
L3 cache
DIMM
DIMM
DIMM
36 MB
L3 cache
Core
1.65 GHz
2 x 16B
@825 MHz
2 x 16B
@825 MHz
L3
ctrl
Core GX+
1.65 GHz Ctrl
1.9 MB
L2 cache
Mem
ctrl
Enhanced
distributed switch
Mem
ctrl
Enhanced
distributed switch
L3
ctrl
GX+
Bus
1.9 MB
L2 cache
Core
Core
GX+
1.65 GHz 1.65 GHz
Ctrl
Figure 2-5 p5-505Q POWER5+ 1.65 GHz QCM with DDR-2 memory socket layout view
The storage structure for the POWER5+ processor is a distributed memory architecture that
provides high-memory bandwidth. Each processor in the QCM can address all memory and
sees a single shared memory resource. In the QCM, one POWER5+ processor has direct
access to eight memory slots that are controlled by two SMI-II chips and located in close
physical proximity to the processor module. The other POWER5+ processor has access to
the same memory slots through the Vertical Fabric Bus.
I/O connects to the p5-505Q QCM using the GX+ bus. The QCM provides a single GX+ bus.
Each processor in the POWER5+ processor has either a direct access to the GX+ Bus using
its GX+ Bus controller or uses the Vertical Fabric Bus controlled by the Fabric Bus controller.
The GX+ bus provides an interface to I/O devices through the RIO-2 connections. The
POWER5+ processor that does not have direct access to memory does have a direct access
to the GX+ Bus.
The theoretical maximum throughput of each L3 cache is 16-byte read, 16-byte write at a bus
frequency of 825 MHz (based on a 1.65 GHz processor clock), which equates to 26400 MBps
or 26.4 GBps per L3 cache. There are two L3 caches on the QCM, resulting in a total L3
cache theoretical maximum throughput of 52.8 GBps. Throughput rates are summarized in
Table 2-3 on page 26.
2.2.4 Processor capacities and speeds
Table 2-1 describes the available processor capacities and speeds for the p5-505 and
p5-505Q systems.
Table 2-1 The p5-505 and p5-505Q available processor capacities and speeds
p5-505 @
1.5 GHz
p5-505 @
1.65 GHz
p5-505 @
1.9 GHz
p5-505 @
2.1 GHz
p5-505Q @
1.65 GHz
1-core
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
2-core
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
4-core
No
No
No
No
Yes
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
23
To determine the processor characteristics on a running system, use one of the following
commands:
򐂰 lsattr -El procX
where X is the number of the processor (for example, proc0 is the first processor in the
system). The output from the command is similar to the following output (False, as used in
this output, signifies that the value cannot be changed through an AIX 5L command
interface):
frequency 1498500000
smt_enabled true
smt_threads 2
state enable
type powerPC_POWER5
Processor
Processor
Processor
Processor
Processor
Speed
SMT enabled
SMT threads
state
type
False
False
False
False
False
򐂰 pmcycles -m
The pmcycles command (AIX 5L) uses the performance monitor cycle counter and the
processor real-time clock to measure the actual processor clock speed in MHz. The
following output is from a 2-core p5-505 system running at 1.5 GHz with simultaneous
multithreading enabled:
Cpu 0 runs at 1498 MHz
Cpu 1 runs at 1498 MHz
Note: The pmcycles command is part of the bos.pmapi fileset. This component must be
installed before using the lslpp -l bos.pmapi command.
2.3 Memory subsystem
The p5-505 and p5-505Q servers offer pluggable DDR-2 memory DIMMs. The rate of DDR-2
DIMMs is double that of DDR DIMMs (DDR DIMMs have double the rate bits of SDRAM),
which enables up to four times the performance of traditional SDRAM. There are eight slots
that are available on the system planar for up to eight pluggable DDR-2 DIMMs. The
minimum memory for a server is 1.0 GB (2 x 512 MB) and 32 GB is the maximum installable
memory. All memory is accessed by two of SMI-II chips that are located between memory
and processor. The SMI-II supports multiple data flow modes.
2.3.1 Memory placement rules
In 1.4.2, “Memory features” on page 5, we list the memory features available at the time of
writing for the p5-505 and p5-505Q.
Memory must be pluggable in pairs. All the memory features consist of two DIMMs. Memory
feature numbers can be mixed within a system.
Table 2-2 on page 25 shows the memory installation rules. Memory must be balanced across
the DIMM slots. The service information label, located on the top cover of the system,
provides memory DIMMs slot location information.
24
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Table 2-2 Memory installation rules in the p5-505
Two-DIMM installation
Four-DIMM installation
Six-DIMM installation
Location order by slot
Preferred priority
C4, C11
1st
C6, C9
2nd
C5, C10
3rd
C7, C8
4th
C4, C11, C6, C9
1st
C5, C10, C7, C8
2nd
C4, C11, C6, C9, C5, C10
1st
C6, C9, C7, C8, C4, C11
2nd
To determine how much memory is installed in a system, use the following command:
# lsattr -El sys0 | grep realmem
realmem
524288
Amount of usable physical memory in Kbytes False
Note: A quad must be made of identical DIMMs. Mixed DIMM capacities in a quad will
result in reduced RAS.
2.3.2 OEM memory
OEM memory is not supported by IBM on the p5-505 or p5-505Q. OEM memory is not
certified by IBM for use in System p servers. If the p5-505 or p5-505Q is populated with OEM
memory, you might experience unexpected and unpredictable behavior, especially when the
system is using Micro-Partitioning.
All IBM memory is identified by an IBM logo and a white label printed with a barcode and an
alphanumeric string, illustrated in Figure 2-6.
Figure 2-6 IBM memory certification label
2.3.3 Memory throughput
The memory subsystem throughput is based on the speed of the memory. An elastic
interface in the POWER5+ processor buffers reads and writes to and from memory and the
processor. There are two SMI-II components, each with a single 8-byte read and a 2-byte
write, high- speed Elastic Interface-II bus to the memory controller of the processor. The bus
allows double reads or writes per clock cycle. Because the bus operates at 1056 MHz, the
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
25
peak processor-to-memory throughput for read is (8 x 2 x 1056) = 16896 MBps or 16.89
GBps. The peak processor-to-memory throughput for write is (2 x 2 x 1056) = 4224 MBps or
4.22 GBps, for a total of 21.12 GBps.
The 533 MHz DDR-2 memory DIMMs operate at 528 MHz through four 8-byte paths. Read
and write operations share these paths. There must be at least four DIMMs installed to
effectively use each path. In this case, the throughput between the SMI-II and the DIMMs is
(8 x 4 x 528) or 16.89 GBps.
These values are maximum theoretical throughputs for comparison purposes only. Table 2-3
provides the theoretical throughput values for different configurations.
Table 2-3 Theoretical throughput rates
Processor speed
(GHz)
Processor type
Cores
Memory
(GBps)
L2 to L3
(GBps)
GX+
(GBps)
1.9
POWER5+
1
21.1
n/a
5.1
1.9
POWER5+
2
21.1
30.4
5.1
2.1
POWER5+
2
21.1
33.6
5.6
1.65
POWER5+
4
21.1
52.8
4.4
2.4 I/O buses
The SCM, DCM, or QCM provides a GX+ bus. In the past, the 6XX bus was the front end
from the processor to memory, PCI Host bridge, cache, and other devices. The follow-on of
the 6XX bus is the GX bus, which connects the processor to the I/O subsystems. Compared
with the 6XX bus, the GX+ bus is both wider and faster and connects to the Enhanced I/O
Controller.
The Enhanced I/O Controller is a GX+ to PCI and PCI-X 2.0 Host bridge chip. It contains a
GX+ pass-through port and four PCI-X 2.0 buses. The GX+ pass-through port allows other
GX+ bus hubs to be connected into the system. Each Enhanced I/O Controller can provide
four separate PCI-X 2.0 buses. Each PCI-X 2.0 bus is 64 bits in width and individually
capable of running either PCI, PCI-X, or PCI-X 2.0 (DDR only).
Note: The p5-505 has no external RIO-2 ports; and therefore, additional external storage
must be attached using other connections, such as a SAN network or SCSI.
2.5 Internal I/O subsystem
PCI-X, where the X stands for extended, is an enhanced PCI bus that delivers a bandwidth of
up to 1 GBps, when running a 64-bit bus at 133 MHz or 266 MHz. PCI-X is compatible with
earlier systems and can support existing 3.3 volt PCI adapters.
The system provides two full-length PCI-X slots and several integrated I/O devices. Both of
these slots are PCI-X DDR and 64-bit capable. The slots run at 266 MHz and are directly
connected to the Enhanced I/O Controller. The internal PCI-X slots support a wide range of
PCI-X I/O adapters to handle your I/O requirements. The dual 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet
adapter (two external ports) and the Dual Channel SCSI Ultra320 adapter (a single external
port) are examples of integrated devices on the system planar.
26
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
The PCI-X slots in the system support EEH. In the unlikely event of a problem, EEH-enabled
adapters respond to a special data packet that is generated from the affected PCI-X slot
hardware by calling system firmware, which examines the affected bus, allows the device
driver to reset it, and continues without a system reboot.
2.6 64-bit and 32-bit adapters
IBM offers 64-bit adapter options for the p5-505 and p5-505Q, as well as 32-bit adapters.
Higher speed adapters use 64-bit slots, because they can transfer 64 bits of data for each
data transfer phase. Generally, 32-bit adapters can function in 64-bit PCI-X slots. For a full list
of the adapters that are supported in the systems and for important information about adapter
placement, see the IBM Systems Hardware Information Center. You can find it at:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp
2.6.1 LAN adapters
To connect a server to a local area network (LAN), the dual port internal 10/100/1000 Mbps
RJ-45 Ethernet controller that is integrated on the system planar can be used.
See Table 2-4 for the list of additional LAN adapters available for an initial system order at
the time of writing. IBM supports an installation with NIM using Ethernet and token-ring
adapters. The Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP), a specification for
PowerPC-based systems that can run multiple operating systems, is the platform type.
Table 2-4 Available LAN adapters
Feature code
Adapter description
Type
Slot
Size
Max
1954
4-port 10/100/1000 Ethernet
Copper
32 or 64
short
1
1978
Gigabit Ethernet
Fibre
32 or 64
short
1
1979
Gigabit Ethernet
Copper
32 or 64
short
1
5721
10 Gigabit Ethernet - short reach
Fibre
32 or 64
short
1
5722
10 Gigabit Ethernet - long reach
Fibre
32 or 64
short
1
1983
2-port Gigabit Ethernet
Copper
32 or 64
short
1
1984
2-port Gigabit Ethernet
Fibre
32 or 64
short
1
2.6.2 SCSI adapters
To connect to external SCSI devices, the adapters that are listed in Table 2-5 are available, at
the time of writing, for initial order configuration.
Table 2-5 Available SCSI adapters
Feature code
Adapter description
Slot
Size
Max
1912
Dual Channel Ultra320 SCSI
64
short
1
1913
Dual Channel Ultra320 SCSI RAID
64
long
1
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
27
Note: Previous SCSI adapters can also be used in the p5-505 or p5-505Q but cannot be
part of an initial order configuration. Clients that would like to connect existing external
SCSI devices can contact an IBM service representative.
For more information about the internal SCSI system, see 2.7, “Internal storage” on page 32.
2.6.3 Internal RAID option
An option is available to configure internal RAID on a p5-505 or p5-505Q server. The optional
SCSI RAID daughter card (FC 1908) plugs directly into the system board to enable this
function. FC 1908 is a bootable high performance SCSI RAID feature with RAID 0, 5, or 10
capability. A RAID implementation requires a minimum of three disk drives to form a RAID
set.
RAID Capacity limitation: There are limits to the amount of disk drive capacity allowed
in a single RAID array. Using the 32-bit AIX 5L kernel, there is a capacity limitation of 1 TB
per RAID array. Using the 64-bit kernel, there is a capacity limitation of 2 TB per RAID
array. For the RAID adapter and RAID enablement cards, this limitation is enforced by
AIX 5L when RAID arrays are created using the PCI-X SCSI Disk Array Manager.
2.6.4 iSCSI
iSCSI is an open, standards-based approach by which SCSI information is encapsulated
using the TCP/IP protocol to allow its transport over IP networks. It allows transfer of data
between storage and servers in block I/O formats (defined by iSCSI protocol) and thus
enables the creation of IP SANs. With iSCSI, an existing network can transfer SCSI
commands and data with full location independence and define the rules and processes to
accomplish the communication. The iSCSI protocol is defined in iSCSI IETF draft-20.
For more information about this standard, see:
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720
Although iSCSI can be, by design, supported over any physical media that supports TCP/IP
as a transport, today's implementations are only on Gigabit Ethernet. At the physical and link
level layers, systems that support iSCSI can be directly connected to standard Gigabit
Ethernet switches and IP routers. iSCSI also enables the access to block-level storage that
resides on Fibre Channel SANs over an IP network using iSCSI-to-Fibre Channel gateways
such as storage routers and switches.
The iSCSI protocol is implemented on top of the physical and data-link layers and presents
the operating system with the standard SCSI Access Method command set. It supports
SCSI-3 commands and reliable delivery over IP networks. The iSCSI protocol runs on the
host initiator and the receiving target device. It can either be optimized in hardware for better
performance on an iSCSI host bus adapter (such as FC 1986 and FC 1987 supported in IBM
System p5 servers) or run in software over a standard Gigabit Ethernet network interface
card. IBM System p5 systems support iSCSI in the following two modes:
28
Hardware
Using iSCSI adapters (see “IBM iSCSI adapters” on page 29).
Software
Supported on standard Gigabit adapters, additional software (see
“IBM iSCSI software Host Support Kit” on page 29) must be installed.
The main processor is utilized for processing related to iSCSI protocol.
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Initial iSCSI implementations are targeted for small to medium-sized businesses and
departments or branch offices of larger enterprises that have not deployed Fibre Channel
SANs. iSCSI is an affordable way to create IP SANs from a number of local or remote storage
devices. If there is Fibre Channel present, which is typically present in a data center, it can be
accessed by the iSCSI SANs (and vice versa) using iSCSI-to-Fibre Channel storage routers
and switches.
iSCSI solutions always involve the following software and hardware components:
Initiators
These are the device drivers and adapters that are located on the
client. They encapsulate SCSI commands and route them over the IP
network to the target device.
Targets
The target software receives the encapsulated SCSI commands over
the IP network. The software can also provide configuration support
and storage-management support. The underlying target hardware
can be a storage appliance that contains embedded storage; it can
also be a gateway or bridge product that contains no internal storage
of its own.
IBM iSCSI adapters
New iSCSI adapters in IBM System p5 systems offer the advantage of increased bandwidth
through the hardware support of the iSCSI protocol. The 1 Gigabit iSCSI TOE PCI-X adapters
support hardware encapsulation of SCSI commands and data into TCP and transport it over
the Ethernet using IP packets. The adapter operates as an iSCSI TCP/IP Offload Engine.
This offload function eliminates host protocol processing and reduces CPU interrupts. The
adapter uses Small form factor LC type fiber optic connector or copper RJ45 connector.
Table 2-6 lists the iSCSI adapters that can be ordered.
Table 2-6 Available iSCSI adapters
Feature code
Description
Slot
Size
Max
1986
Gigabit iSCSI TOE PCI-X on copper media adapter
64
short
1
1987
Gigabit iSCSI TOE PCI-X on optical media adapter
64
short
1
IBM iSCSI software Host Support Kit
The iSCSI protocol can also be used over standard Gigabit Ethernet adapters. To utilize this
approach, download the appropriate iSCSI Host Support Kit for your operating system from
the IBM NAS support Web site at:
http://www.ibm.com/storage/support/nas/
The iSCSI Host Support Kit on AIX 5L and Linux acts as a software iSCSI initiator and allows
access to iSCSI target storage devices using standard Gigabit Ethernet network adapters. To
ensure the best performance, enable TCP Large Send, TCP send and receive flow control,
and Jumbo Frame for the Gigabit Ethernet Adapter and the iSCSI target. Tune network
options and interface parameters for maximum iSCSI I/O throughput in the operating system.
IBM System Storage N series
The combination of System p5 and IBM System Storage™ N series as the first of a new
generation of iSCSI-enabled storage products provides an end-to-end set of solutions.
Currently, the System Storage N series features three models: N3700, N5200, and N5500
with:
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
29
򐂰 Support for entry-level and midrange clients that require Network Attached Storage (NAS)
or Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) functionality
򐂰 Support for Network File System (NFS), Common Internet File System (CIFS), and iSCSI
protocols
򐂰 Data ONTAP software (at no charge), with plenty of additional functions such as data
movement, consistent snapshots, and NDMP server protocol, some available through
optional licensed functions
򐂰 Enhanced reliability with optional clustered (2-node) failover support.
2.6.5 Fibre Channel adapter
The p5-505 and p5-505Q servers support direct or SAN connection to devices using Fibre
Channel adapters. Single-port Fibre Channel adapters are available in 2 Gbps and 4 Gbps
speeds. A dual-port 4 Gbps Fibre Channel adapter is also available. Table 2-7 provides a
summary of the available Fibre Channel adapters.
All of these adapters have LC connectors. If you are attaching a device or switch with an SC
type fibre connector an LC-SC 50 Micron Fiber Converter Cable (FC 2456) or an LC-SC 62.5
Micron Fiber Converter Cable (FC 2459) is required.
Supported data rates between the server and the attached device or switch are as follows:
Distances of up to 500 meters running at 1 Gbps, distances up to 300 meters running at 2
Gbps data rate, and distances up to 150 meters running at 4 Gbps. When these adapters are
used with IBM supported Fibre Channel storage switches supporting long-wave optics,
distances of up to 10 kilometers are capable running at 1 Gbps, 2 Gbps, and 4 Gbps data
rates.
Table 2-7 Available Fibre Channel adapters
Feature code
Description
Slot
Size
Max
1905
4 Gigabit single-port Fibre Channel PCI-X 2.0 Adapter (LC)
64
short
1
1910
4 Gigabit dual-port Fibre Channel PCI-X 2.0 Adapter (LC)
64
short
1
1977
2 Gigabit Fibre Channel PCI-X Adapter (LC)
64
short
1
2.6.6 Graphic accelerator
The p5-505 and p5-505Q support up to three enhanced POWER GXT135P (FC 1980) 2D
graphic accelerators. The POWER GXT135P is a low-priced 2D graphics accelerator for IBM
System p5 servers. This adapter supports both analog and digital monitors and is supported
for System Management Services (SMS), firmware, and other functions, and when AIX 5L or
Linux starts an X11-based GUI.
2.6.7 Asynchronous PCI-X adapters
Asynchronous PCI-X adapters provide a connection for asynchronous EIA-232 or RS-422
devices. In the case of a cluster configuration or high-availability configuration, if the plan is to
connect the IBM System p5 servers using a serial connection, the use of the two default
system ports is not supported, and you should use one of the features in Table 2-8.
30
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Table 2-8 Asynchronous PCI-X adapters
Feature code
Description
2943
8-Port Asynchronous Adapter EIA-232/RS-422
5723a
2-Port Asynchronous IEA-232 PCI Adapter (9-pin)
a. In many cases, the FC 5723 async adapter is configured to supply a backup HACMP heartbeat. In
these cases, a serial cable (FC 3927 or FC 3928) must be also configured. Both of these serial cables
and the FC 5723 adapter have 9-pin connectors.
2.6.8 PCI-X Cryptographic Coprocessor
The PCI-X Cryptographic Coprocessor (FIPS 4) (FC 4764) for selected System p servers
provides both cryptographic coprocessor and secure-key cryptographic accelerator functions
in a single PCI-X card. The coprocessor functions are targeted to banking and finance
applications. Financial PIN processing and credit card functions are provided. EMV is a
standard for integrated chip-based credit cards. The secure-key accelerator functions are
targeted to improving the performance of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) transactions. The FC
4764 provides the security and performance required to support to support On Demand
Business and the emerging digital signature application.
The PCI-X Cryptographic Coprocessor (FIPS 4) (FC 4764) provides both cryptographic
coprocessor and secure-key cryptographic accelerator functions in a single PCI-X card. The
FC 4764 provides secure storage of cryptographic keys in a tamper resistant hardware
security module (HSM), which is designed to meet FIPS 140 security requirements. FIPS 140
is a U.S. Government National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) administered
standard and certification program for cryptographic modules. The firmware for the FC 4764
is available on a separately ordered/distributed CD. This firmware is an LPO product:
5733-CY1 Cryptographic Device Manager. The FC 4764 also requires LPP 5722-AC3
Cryptographic Access Provider to enable data encryption.
Note: This feature has country-specific usage. Refer to the IBM representatives in your
country for availability or restrictions.
2.6.9 Additional support for owned PCI-X adapters
The lists of the major PCI-X adapters that can be configured in a system when an initial
configuration order is going to be built are described in 2.6.1, “LAN adapters” on page 27 to
2.6.7, “Asynchronous PCI-X adapters” on page 30. The list of all the supported PCI-X
adapters, with the related support for additional external devices, is more extended.
Clients that would like to use their own PCI-X adapters can contact the IBM service
representative to verify if they are supported.
2.6.10 System ports
The system ports S1 and S2, at the rear of the system, are only available if the system is not
managed with an HMC. In this case, the S1 and S2 ports support the attachment of a serial
console and modem.
If an HMC is connected, a virtual serial console is provided by the HMC (logical device vsa0
for AIX 5L) and a modem can be connected to the HMC. The S1 and S2 ports are not usable
in this case.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
31
If serial port function is needed, optional PCI adapters are available, see 2.6.7,
“Asynchronous PCI-X adapters” on page 30.
2.6.11 Ethernet ports
The two built-in Ethernet ports provide 10/100/1000 Mbps connectivity over a CAT-5 cable for
up to 100 meters. Table 2-9 lists the attributes of the LEDs that are visible on the side of the
jack.
Table 2-9 Ethernet LED descriptions
LED
Light
Description
Link
Off
Green
No link; could indicate a bad cable, not selected, or configuration error.
Connection established.
Activity
On
Off
Data activity.
Idle.
2.7 Internal storage
One integrated dual-channel Ultra320 SCSI controller, managed by an EADS-X chip, is used
to drive the internal disk drives and the external SCSI port. The p5-505 and p5-505Q servers
provide two bays that are designed for hot-swappable disk drives. The disk drive backplane
docks directly to the system planar. The virtual SCSI Enclosure Services (VSESs)
hot-swappable control functions are provided by the integrated Ultra320 SCSI controller. The
two internal drives are on SCSI bus 0, which is connected to the internal port on the
integrated Ultra320 SCSI controller.
2.7.1 Internal media devices
The p5-505 and p5-505Q servers provide one slim-line media bay for optional DVD drives.
Table 2-10 lists available optical media devices. Alternate methods of maintaining and
servicing the system must be available if the DVD-ROM or DVD-RAM is not ordered; an
external Internet connection must be available to maintain or update system microcode to the
latest required level. This control panel/media bay is controlled by the integrated IDE
controller.
Table 2-10 Available internal media devices
Feature code
Description
1900
4.7 GB IDE Slimline DVD-RAM Drive
1903
IDE Slimline DVD-ROM Drive
Note: If SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 for POWER (or later) or Red Hat Enterprise Linux
AS for POWER Version 3 (or later) is being installed in the system. FC 1900, FC 1903, or
follow-on is required.
32
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
2.7.2 Internal hot-swappable SCSI disks
The p5-505 can have up to two hot-swappable disk drives. The hot-swap process is controlled
by the Virtual SCSI enclosure service (SES), which is provided by the integrated SCSI
Ultra320 controller. Table 2-11 on page 33 lists available hot-swappable disk drives.
Table 2-11 Hot-swappable disk drive options
Feature code
Description
1970
36.4 GB 15,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1968
73.4 GB 10,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1971
73.4 GB 15,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1969
146.8 GB 10,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1972
146.8 GB 15,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
1973
300 GB 10,000 rpm Ultra320 SCSI hot-swappable disk drive
The system configuration shipped will have the two SCSI disks installed in DASD slot 1 with
SCSI ID 8 and DASD slot 2 with SCSI ID 5. The drive at ID 8 is hardwired to spin up
immediately during the startup sequencing. The remaining drive spins up under software
control (typically at five second intervals). The disk drive placement priority is SCSI ID 8 and
then 5. See Figure 1-2 on page 3 for the SCSI ID location.
Hot-swappable disks and Linux
Hot-swappable disk drives on POWER5 systems are supported with SUSE LINUX Enterprise
Server 9 for POWER, or later, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 4 for POWER, or later.
2.8 External disk subsystem
The p5-505 and p5-505Q have internal hot-swappable drives. When the AIX 5L operating
system is installed in an IBM System p5 server, the internal disks are normally used for the
AIX 5L rootvg volume group and paging space. Specific client requirements can be satisfied
by the several external disk possibilities that the server supports.
2.8.1 IBM TotalStorage EXP24 Expandable Storage
The IBM TotalStorage EXP24 Expandable Storage disk enclosure, Model D24 or T24, can be
purchased together with the p5-505 or p5-505Q and provides low-cost Ultra320 (LVD) SCSI
disk storage. This disk storage enclosure device provides more than 7 TB of disk storage in a
4U rack-mount (Model D24) or compact desk side (Model T24) unit. Whether you require high
availability storage solutions or simply high capacity storage for a single server installation,
the unit offers a cost-effective solution. It provides 24 hot-swappable disk bays with 12 disk
bays accessible from the front and 12 disk bays accessible from the rear. Disk options that
can be accommodated in any of the four six-pack disk drive enclosures are 73.4 GB, 146.8
GB, or 300 GB 10 K rpm or 36.4 GB, 73.4 GB, or 146.8 GB 15 K rpm drives. Each of the four
six-pack disk drive enclosures can be attached independently to an Ultra320 SCSI or
Ultra320 SCSI RAID adapter. For high available configurations, a dual bus repeater card (FC
5742) allows each six-pack to be attached to two SCSI adapters that are installed in one or
multiple servers or logical partitions. Optionally, the two front or two rear six-packs can be
connected together to form a single Ultra320 SCSI bus of 12 drives.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
33
2.8.2 IBM System Storage N3000 and N5000
The IBM System Storage N3000 and N5000 line of iSCSI-enabled storage offerings provide
the flexibility for implementing a Storage Area Network over an Ethernet network. The N3000
supports up to 16.8 TB of physical storage and the N5000 supports up to 84 TB of physical
disk. Additional information about IBM iSCSI-based storage systems is available at:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/storage/nas/index.html
2.8.3 IBM TotalStorage Storage DS4000 Series
The IBM System Storage DS4000™ line of Fibre Channel-enabled Storage offerings
provides a wide range of storage solutions for your SAN. The IBM TotalStorage DS4000
Storage server family consists of the following models: DS4100, DS4300, DS4500, and
DS4800. The Model DS4100 Express Product Offering Model is the smallest model and
scales up to 44.8 TB; the Model DS4800 is the largest and scales up to 89.6 TB of disk
storage at the time of this writing. Model DS4300 provides up to 16 bootable partitions, or 64
bootable partitions if the turbo option is selected, that are attached with the Gigabit Fibre
Channel Adapter (FC 1977). Model DS4500 provides up to 64 bootable partitions. Model
DS4800 provides 4 GB switched interfaces. In most cases, both the IBM TotalStorage
DS4000 family and the IBM System p5 servers are connected to a SAN. If only space for the
rootvg is needed, the Model DS4100 is a good solution.
To learn more about the support of additional features and for further information about the
IBM TotalStorage DS4000 Storage Server family, refer to the following Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/storage/disk/ds4000/index.html
2.8.4 IBM TotalStorage DS6000 and DS8000 Series
The IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server® (ESS) DS6000™ and DS8000™ models
are the high-end premier storage solution for SANs. They use POWER technology-based
design so that they can serve data fast and efficiently.
The IBM TotalStorage DS6000 provides enterprise class capabilities in a space-efficient
modular package. It scales to 67.2 TB of physical storage capacity by adding storage
expansion enclosures.
The Model DS8000 series is the flagship of the IBM TotalStorage DS family. The DS8000
scales to 192 TB. The DS8000 system architecture is designed to scale to over one petabyte.
The Model DS6000 and DS8000 systems can also be used to provide disk space for booting
LPARs or partitions using Micro-Partitioning technology. ESS and the IBM System p5 servers
are usually connected together to a storage area network.
For further information about ESS, refer to the following Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/storage/disk/enterprise/ds_family.html
2.9 Logical partitioning and virtualization
Dynamic LPARs and virtualization increase the utilization of system resources and add a new
level of configuration possibilities. This section provides details and configuration
specifications about this topic. The virtualization discussion includes virtualization enabling
technologies that are standard in the system, such as the POWER Hypervisor, and optional
ones, such as the Advanced POWER Virtualization feature.
34
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
2.9.1 Dynamic logical partitioning
Logical partitioning was introduced with the POWER4 processor-based product line and the
AIX 5L Version 5.1 operating system. This technology offered the capability to divide a
pSeries system into separate logical systems so that each LPAR could run an operating
environment on dedicated attached devices, such as processors, memory, and I/O
components.
Later, dynamic LPAR increased the flexibility, allowing selected system resources, such as
processors, memory, and I/O components, to be added and deleted from dedicated partitions
while they are running. AIX 5L Version 5.2, with all the necessary enhancements to enable
dynamic LPAR, was introduced in 2002. The ability to reconfigure dynamic LPARs
encourages system administrators to redefine all available system resources dynamically to
reach the optimum capacity for each defined dynamic LPAR.
Operating system support for dynamic LPAR
Table 2-12 lists AIX 5L and Linux support for dynamic LPAR capabilities.
Table 2-12 Operating system supported function
Function
AIX 5L
Version 5.2
AIX 5L
Version
5.3
Linux
SLES 9
Linux
RHEL AS 3
Linux
RHEL AS 4
Dynamic LPAR capabilities (add, remove, and move operations)
Processor
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Memory
Y
Y
N
N
N
I/O slot
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
2.10 Virtualization
With the introduction of the POWER5 processor, partitioning technology moved from a
dedicated resource allocation model to a virtualized shared resource model. This section
briefly discusses the key components of virtualization in System p5 servers.
For more information about virtualization, see the following Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/about/virtualization/systems/pseries.html
See also the following IBM Redbooks:
򐂰 Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5, SG24-7940, available at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247940.html?Open
򐂰 Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM Eserver p5 Servers: Architecture and
Performance Considerations, SG24-5768, available at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245768.html?Open
2.10.1 POWER Hypervisor
Combined with features that are designed into the POWER5 and POWER5+ processors, the
POWER Hypervisor delivers functions that enable other system technologies, including
Micro-Partitioning technology, virtualized processors, IEEE virtual local area network (VLAN),
compatible virtual switch, virtual SCSI adapters, and virtual consoles. The POWER
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
35
Hypervisor is a basic component of system firmware that is always active, regardless of the
system configuration.
The POWER Hypervisor also:
򐂰 Provides an abstraction between the physical hardware resources and the logical
partitions using them
򐂰 Enforces partition integrity by providing a security layer between logical partitions
򐂰 Controls the dispatch of virtual processors to physical processors (see 2.11.2, “Logical,
virtual, and physical processor mapping” on page 39)
򐂰 Saves and restores all processor state information during logical processor context switch
򐂰 Controls hardware I/O interruption management facilities for LPARs
򐂰 Provides virtual LAN channels between physical partitions that help reduce the need for
physical Ethernet adapters for communication between partitions
The POWER Hypervisor is always active when the server is running, is partitioned (or is not
partitioned), and is not connected to the HMC. It requires memory to support the LPARs on
the server. The amount of memory required by the POWER Hypervisor firmware varies
according to several factors:
򐂰 Number of logical partitions
򐂰 Partition environments of the logical partitions
򐂰 Number of physical and virtual I/O devices used by the logical partitions
򐂰 Maximum memory values given to the logical partitions
Note: Use the System Planning Tool for estimate the memory requirements of the POWER
Hypervisor.
In AIX 5L V5.3, the lparstat command with the -h and -H flags displays the POWER
Hypervisor statistical data. Using the -h flag adds summary POWER Hypervisor statistics
to the default output of the lparstat command.
The minimum amount of physical memory for each partition is 128 MB, but in most cases the
actual requirements and recommendations are between 256 MB and 512 MB for AIX 5L,
Red Hat, and Novell SUSE Linux. Physical memory is assigned to partitions in increments of
Logical Memory Block (LMB). For POWER5+ processor-based systems, LMB can be
adjusted from 16 MB to 256 MB.
The following three types of virtual I/O adapters are provided by the POWER Hypervisor.
Virtual SCSI
The POWER Hypervisor provides a virtual SCSI mechanism for virtualization of storage
devices (a special LPAR to install the Virtual I/O Server is required to utilize this feature, see
2.11.3, “Virtual I/O Server” on page 41). The storage virtualization is accomplished with two
paired adapters: a virtual SCSI server adapter and a virtual SCSI client adapter. Only the
Virtual I/O Server partition can define virtual SCSI server adapters; other partitions are client
partitions. The Virtual I/O Server is available with the optional Advanced POWER
Virtualization feature (FC 7432).
Virtual Ethernet
The POWER Hypervisor provides a virtual Ethernet switch function that allows partitions on
the same server to communicate quickly and securely without a physical connection. The
36
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
virtual Ethernet allows a transmission speed in the range of 1 to 3 GBps depending on the
maximum transmission unit (MTU) size and CPU entitlement. Virtual Ethernet requires a
system with either AIX 5L Version 5.3 or an appropriate level of Linux supporting virtual
Ethernet devices (see 2.13, “Operating system support” on page 50). The virtual Ethernet is
part of the base system configuration.
Virtual Ethernet has the following major features:
򐂰 The virtual Ethernet adapters can be used for both IPv4 and IPv6 communication and can
transmit packets with a size up to 65408 bytes. Therefore, the maximum MTU for the
corresponding interface can be up to 65394 (65390 if virtual local area network (VLAN)
tagging is used).
򐂰 The POWER Hypervisor presents itself to partitions as a virtual 802.1Q-compliant switch.
Maximum number of VLANs is 4096. Virtual Ethernet adapters can be configured as either
untagged or tagged (following the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN standard).
򐂰 A partition supports 256 virtual Ethernet adapters. Besides a default port VLAN ID, the
number of additional VLAN ID values that can be assigned per virtual Ethernet adapter is
20, which implies that each virtual Ethernet adapter can be used to access 21 virtual
networks.
򐂰 Each partition operating system detects the VLAN switch as an Ethernet adapter without
the physical link properties and asynchronous data transmit operations.
Any virtual Ethernet can also have connection outside the server if a layer-2 bridging to a
physical Ethernet adapter is set in one Virtual I/O server partition (see 2.11.3, “Virtual I/O
Server” on page 41 for more details about shared Ethernet).
Note: Virtual Ethernet is based on the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN standard. No physical I/O
adapter is required when creating a VLAN connection between partitions and no access to
an outside network is required.
Virtual TTY console
Each partition needs to have access to a system console. Tasks such as operating system
installation, network setup, and some problem analysis activities require a dedicated system
console. The POWER Hypervisor provides the virtual console using a virtual TTY or serial
adapter and a set of Hypervisor calls to operate on them. Virtual TTY does not require the
purchase of any additional features or software such as the Advanced POWER Virtualization
feature.
Depending on the system configuration, the operating system console can be provided by the
HMC virtual TTY, Integrated Virtualization Manager virtual TTY, or from a terminal emulator
connected to a system port.
2.11 Advanced POWER Virtualization feature
The Advanced POWER Virtualization feature (FC 7432) is an optional, additional cost
feature. This feature enables the implementation of more fine-grained virtual partitions on
IBM System p5 servers.
The Advanced POWER Virtualization feature includes:
򐂰 Firmware enablement for Micro-Partitioning technology
Support for up to 10 partitions per processor using 1/100 of the processor granularity.
Minimum CPU requirement per partition is 1/10. All processors are enabled for
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
37
micro-partitions (the number of processors on the system equals the number of Advanced
POWER Virtualization features ordered).
򐂰 Installation image for the Virtual I/O Server software that is shipped as a system image on
DVD. Client partitions can be either AIX 5L V5.3 or Linux. It supports:
– Ethernet adapter sharing (Ethernet bridge from virtual Ethernet to external network)
– Virtual SCSI Server
– Partition management by Integrated Virtualization Manager (Virtual I/O Server V1.2 or
later)
򐂰 Partition Load Manager (AIX 5L Version 5.3 only) with:
– Automated CPU and memory reconfiguration
– Real-time partition configuration and load statistics
– A GUI
For more details about Advanced POWER Virtualization and virtualization in general, see the
following Web site:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/ondemand/ve/resources.html
2.11.1 Micro-Partitioning technology
The concept of Micro-Partitioning technology allows you to allocate fractions of processors to
the partition. The Micro-Partitioning technology is only available with POWER5 and
POWER5+ processor-based systems. From an operating system perspective, a virtual
processor cannot be distinguished from a physical processor, unless the operating system
has been enhanced to be made aware of the difference. Physical processors are abstracted
into virtual processors that are available to partitions. See 2.11.2, “Logical, virtual, and
physical processor mapping” on page 39 for more details.
For a shared partition, several options have to be defined:
򐂰 Minimum, desired, and maximum processing units. Processing units are defined as
processing power, or fraction of time, that the partition is dispatched on physical
processors.
򐂰 The processing sharing mode, either capped or uncapped.
򐂰 Weight (preference) in the case of an uncapped partition.
򐂰 Minimum, desired, and maximum number of virtual processors.
POWER Hypervisor calculates a partition’s processing entitlement based on its desired
processing units and logical processor settings, sharing mode and also based on other active
partitions’ requirements. The actual entitlement is never smaller than the desired processing
unit’s value and can exceed the desired processing unit’s value if the LPAR is an uncapped
partition.
A partition can be defined with a processor capacity as small as 0.10 processing units. This
represents one-tenth of a physical processor. Each physical processor can be shared by up
to 10 processor partitions and the entitlement of a partition can be incremented fractionally by
as little as one-hundredth of the processor. The shared processor partitions are dispatched
and time-sliced on the physical processors that are under the control of the POWER
Hypervisor. The shared processor partitions are created and managed by the HMC or
Integrated Virtualization Management (included with Virtual I/O Server software version 1.2 or
later). There is only one pool of shared processors at the time of this writing and all shared
partitions are dispatched by the Hypervisor in this pool. Dedicated partitions and
38
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
micro-partitions can coexist on the same POWER5+ processor-based server as long as
enough processors are available.
The server supports up to a 4-core processor configuration; therefore, up to four dedicated
partitions, or up to 40 micro-partitions, can be created. It is important to note that the
maximums that are stated here are those supported by the hardware, but the practical limits
depend on the demands of the application workload.
2.11.2 Logical, virtual, and physical processor mapping
The meaning of the term physical processor in this section is a processor core. For example,
in a 2-core server with a DCM (dual-core module) there are two physical processors.
In dedicated mode, physical processors are assigned as a whole to partitions. The
simultaneous multithreading feature in the POWER5+ processor core allows the core to
execute instructions from two independent software threads simultaneously. To support this
feature, the concept of logical processors was introduced. The operating system (AIX 5L or
Linux) sees one physical processor as two logical processors if the simultaneous
multithreading feature is turned on. It can be turned off while the operating system is
executing (for AIX 5L, use the smtctl command). If simultaneous multithreading is off, then
each physical processor is presented as one logical processor, and thus only one thread is
executed on the physical processor at a time.
In a micro-partitioned environment with shared mode partitions, an additional concept, virtual
processors, was introduced. Shared partitions can define any number of virtual processors
(maximum number is 10 times the number of processing units assigned to the partition).
From the POWER Hypervisor point of view, the virtual processors represent dispatching
objects (for example, the POWER Hypervisor dispatches virtual processors to physical
processors according to the partition’s processing units entitlement). At the end of the
POWER Hypervisor’s dispatch cycle (10 ms), all partitions should receive total CPU time
equal to their processing units entitlement. Virtual processors are either running (dispatched)
on a physical processor or standby (waiting). An operating system is able to dispatch its
software threads to these virtual processors and is completely screened from the actual
number of physical processors. The logical processors are defined on top of virtual
processors in the same way as though they are physical processors. So, even with a virtual
processor, the concept of logical processor exists and the number of logical processors
depends on whether the simultaneous multithreading is turned on or off.
The following additional information is related to virtual processors:
򐂰 There is one-to-one mapping of running virtual processors to physical processors at any
given time. The number of virtual processors that can be active at any given time cannot
exceed the total number of physical processors in the shared processor pool.
򐂰 A virtual processor can be either running (dispatched) on a physical processor or standby
and waiting for a physical processor to become available.
򐂰 Virtual processors do not introduce any additional abstraction level, they are really only a
dispatch entity. When running on a physical processor, virtual processors run at the same
speed as the physical processor.
򐂰 Each partition’s profile defines the CPU entitlement that determines how much processing
power any given partition should receive. The total sum of CPU entitlement of all partitions
cannot exceed the number of available physical processors in the shared processor pool.
򐂰 A partition has the same amount of processing power regardless of the number of virtual
processors that it defines.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
39
򐂰 A partition can use more processing power, regardless of its entitlement, if it is defined as
an uncapped partition in the partition profile. If there is spare processing power available in
the shared processor pool or other partitions are not using their entitlement, an uncapped
partition can use additional processing units if its entitlement is not enough to satisfy its
application processing demand in the given processing entitlement.
򐂰 When the partition is uncapped, the number of defined virtual processors determines the
limitation of the maximum processing power it can receive. For example, if the number of
virtual processors is two, then the maximum usable processor units are two.
򐂰 You are allowed to define more virtual processors than physical processors. In that case,
the virtual processor will be waiting for dispatch more often and some performance impact
caused by redispatching virtual processors on physical processors should be considered.
It is also true that some applications can benefit from using more virtual processors than
the physical processors.
򐂰 The number of virtual processors can be changed dynamically through a dynamic LPAR
operation.
Virtual processor recommendations
For each partition, you can define a number of virtual processors set to the maximum
processing power that the partition can request. If there are, for example, four physical
processors installed in the system, one production partition and three test partitions, then:
򐂰 Define the production LPAR with four virtual processors so that it can receive full
processing power from all four physical processors during the time that the other partitions
are idle.
򐂰 If you know that the test system is never going to consume more than one processor
computing unit, then the test system should be defined with one virtual processor. Some
test systems might require additional virtual processors, such as four, so that they can use
idle processing power left over by a production system during off-business hours.
Figure 2-7 shows logical, virtual, and physical processor mapping, and an example of how the
virtual processor and logical processor can be dispatched to the physical processor.
40
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
virtual
processor
(VP3)
dispatched
dispatched
virtual
processor
(VP4)
virtual
processor
(VP0)
virtual
processor
(VP0)
virtual
processor
(VP1)
.
dispatched
physical
CPU
(proc0)
physical
CPU
(proc1)
logical CPU 1
logical CPU 0
logical CPU 3
logical CPU 2
logical CPU 1
logical CPU 0
logical CPU 0
logical CPU 9
logical CPU 8
logical CPU 7
logical CPU 6
logical CPU 5
virtual
processor
(VP2)
LPAR4 dedicated
1 physical CPU
SMT ON
shared mode
2 virual CPU's
SMT ON
allways
dispatched
virtual
processor
(VP1)
logical CPU 4
logical CPU 3
logical CPU 2
logical CPU 1
OS level - operating
sytem (AIX, Linux) only
sees logical processors
logical CPU 0
virtual
processor
(VP0)
LPAR3 -
LPAR2 shared mode
1 virual CPU
SMT OFF
shared mode
5 virual CPU's
SMT ON
physical level
virtual level
LPAR1 -
physical
CPU
(proc2)
physical
CPU
(proc3)
shared pool
dedicated
HW - physical resources driven by Hypervisor
sample
time
0
msec
LPAR1
VP0
LP0+1
LPAR1
VP2
LP4+5
LPAR1 entitlement = 0.5
LPAR2 entitlement = 0.5
LPAR3 entitlement = 1.0
Physical CPU proc1
LPAR1
VP2
LP2+3
LPAR1
VP3
LP6+7
Physical CPU proc2
LPAR3
VP0
LP0+1
LPAR1
VP4
LP8+9
Spare
Processing units
LPAR2
VP0
LP0
Spare
Physical CPU proc0
Dispatching example with:
10
msec
LPAR3
VP1
LP2+3
LPAR3
VP1
LP2+3
LPAR3
VP0
LP0+1
Spare
Processing units
Spare
Processing units
Figure 2-7 Logical, virtual, and physical processor mapping
In Figure 2-7, a system with four physical processors and four partitions is presented; one
partition (LPAR4) is in dedicated mode and three partitions (LPAR1, LPAR2, and LPAR3) are
running in shared mode. Dedicated mode LPAR4 is using one physical processor and
therefore three processors are available for that shared processor pool. LPAR1 defines five
virtual processors and the simultaneous multithreading feature is on (so that LPAR1 sees 10
logical processors), LPAR2 defines one virtual processor and simultaneous multithreading is
off (one logical processor). LPAR3 defines two virtual processors and simultaneous
multithreading is on. Currently (sample time), virtual processors 2 and 3 of LPAR1 and virtual
processor 0 of LPAR2 are dispatched on physical processors in the shared pool. Other virtual
processors are idle, waiting for dispatch by Hypervisor. When more virtual processors are
defined in a partition, any virtual processor shares equal parts of partition processing
entitlement.
2.11.3 Virtual I/O Server
The Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) is a special purpose partition that provides virtual I/O resources
to other partitions. The Virtual I/O Server owns the physical resources (SCSI, Fibre Channel,
network adapters, and optical devices) and allows client partitions to share access to them,
which minimizes the number of physical adapters in the system. The Virtual I/O Server
eliminates the requirement for every partition to own a dedicated network adapter, disk
adapter, and disk drive.
Figure 2-8 shows the organization of a micro-partitioned system, including the Virtual I/O
Server. The system also has virtual SCSI and Ethernet connections and mixed operating
system partitions.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
41
POWER5 Partitioning
Network
2 CPUs 3 CPUs 3 CPUs
AIX
v5.2
AIX
v5.3
AIX v5.3
Linux
Linux
Virtual
adapter
AIX v5.3
Virtual
SCSI
Linux
Virtual I/O
Server
External
storage
6 CPUs
Micro-Partitioning
AIX v5.3
2 CPUs
Virtual Ethernet
POWER Hypervisor
I/O
Storage Network
I/O
I/O
I/O
Sto Net Sto Net Sto Net
I/O
HMC
S N
Figure 2-8 Micro-Partitioning technology and VIOS
Because the Virtual I/O Server is an operating system-based appliance server, redundancy
for physical devices attached to the Virtual I/O Server can be provided with capabilities such
as Multipath I/O and IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation.
Installation of the Virtual I/O Server partition is performed from a special system backup DVD
that is provided to clients who order the Advanced POWER Virtualization feature. This
dedicated software is only for the Virtual I/O Server (and Integrated Virtualization Manager if it
is used) and is only supported in special Virtual I/O Server partitions.
The Virtual I/O Server can be installed with:
򐂰 Media (assigning the DVD-ROM drive to the partition and booting from the media)
򐂰 The HMC (inserting the media in the DVD-ROM drive on the HMC and using the
installios command)
򐂰 The Network Install Manager (NIM)
Note: To increase the performance of I/O-intensive applications, use dedicated physical
adapters using dedicated partitions.
We recommend that you install the Virtual I/O Server in a partition with dedicated
resources or at least 0.5 processor entitlement to help ensure consistent performance.
The Virtual I/O Server supports RAID configurations and SAN-attached devices (possibly
with a multipath driver). Logical volumes that are created on RAID or JBOD configurations
are bootable, and the number of logical volumes is limited to the amount of storage
available and the architectural limits of the Logical Volume Manager.
Two major functions are provided with the Virtual I/O Server: a shared Ethernet adapter and
Virtual SCSI.
Shared Ethernet adapter
A shared Ethernet adapter is a Virtual I/O Server service that acts as a layer 2 network bridge
between a physical Ethernet adapter or aggregation of physical adapters (EtherChannel) and
42
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
one or more virtual Ethernet adapters that are defined by the Hypervisor on the Virtual I/O
Server. With a shared Ethernet adapter, LPARs on the virtual Ethernet can share access to
the physical Ethernet and communicate with stand-alone servers and LPARs on other
systems. The shared Ethernet network provides this access by connecting the internal
Hypervisor VLANs with the VLANs on the external switches. Because the shared Ethernet
network processes packets at layer 2, the original MAC address and VLAN tags of the packet
are visible to other systems on the physical network. IEEE 802.1 VLAN tagging is supported.
The virtual Ethernet adapters that are used to configure a shared Ethernet adapter must have
the trunk setting enabled. The trunk setting causes these virtual Ethernet adapters to operate
in a special mode so that they can deliver and accept external packets from the POWER5
internal switch to the external physical switches. The trunk setting should only be used for the
virtual Ethernet adapters that are part of a shared Ethernet network setup in the Virtual I/O
Server.
A single shared Ethernet adapter setup can have up to 16 virtual Ethernet trunk adapters and
each virtual Ethernet trunk adapter can support up to 20 VLAN networks. Therefore, it is
possible for a single physical Ethernet to be shared among 320 internal VLANs. The number
of shared Ethernet adapters that can be set up in a Virtual I/O Server partition is limited only
by the resource availability, because there are no configuration limits.
For a more detailed discussion about virtual networking, see:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/whitepapers/aix_vn.pdf
Virtual SCSI
Access to real storage devices is implemented through the virtual SCSI services, a part of the
Virtual I/O Server partition. This is accomplished with a pair of virtual adapters: a virtual SCSI
server adapter and a virtual SCSI client adapter. The virtual SCSI server and client adapters
are configured with an HMC or through Integrated Virtualization Manager on smaller systems.
The virtual SCSI server (target) adapter is responsible for executing any SCSI commands
that it receives. It is owned by the Virtual I/O Server partition. The virtual SCSI client adapter
allows a client partition to access physical SCSI-attached and SAN-attached devices and
LUNs that are assigned to the client partition.
Physical disks that are owned by the Virtual I/O Server partition can either be exported and
assigned to a client partition as a whole device, or can be configured into a volume group and
partitioned into several logical volumes. These logical volumes can then be assigned to
individual partitions. From the perspective of client partitions, these two options are
equivalent.
The Virtual I/O Server provides mapping between backing devices (physical devices or logical
volumes that are assigned to client partitions in VIOS nomenclature) and client partitions by a
command line interface. The appropriate command is the mkvdev command. For syntax and
semantics, see Virtual I/O Server documentation.
All current storage device types, such as SAN, SCSI, and RAID are supported. SSA and
iSCSI are not supported at the time of writing.
For more information about the specific storage devices supported, see:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/vios/home.html
Important: We do not recommend using Mirrored Logical Volumes (LVs) on the Virtual I/O
Server level as backing devices. If mirroring is required, two independent devices (possibly
from two separate Virtual I/O (VIO) servers) should be assigned to the client partition and
the client partition should define mirroring on top of them.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
43
Virtual I/O Server version 1.3
Virtual I/O Server version 1.3 brings a host of new enhancements including improved
monitoring such as additional topas and viostat performance metrics and the bundling of the
Performance ToolKit (PTX®) agent. Virtual SCSI and virtual Ethernet performance increases,
command line enhancements, and enablement of additional storage solutions are also
included.
Virtual I/O Server 1.3 introduced several enhancements for Virtual SCSI and shared Fiber
Channel adapter support:
򐂰 Independent Software Vendor/Independent Hardware Vendor Virtual I/O enablement
򐂰 iSCSI TOE adapter
򐂰 iSCSI direct-attached n3700 storage subsystem
򐂰 HP storage
򐂰 Virtual SCSI functional enhancements:
– Support for SCSI Reserve/Release for limited configurations
– Changeable queue depth
– Updating virtual device capacity non-disruptively so that the virtual disk can "grow"
without requiring a reconfiguration
– Configurable fast fail time (number of retries on failure)
– Error log enhancements
Virtual I/O Server 1.3 also introduced several enhancements for virtual Ethernet and shared
Ethernet adapter support, including TCP/IP Acceleration: Large Block Send.
2.11.4 Partition Load Manager
Partition Load Manager provides automated processor and memory distribution between a
dynamic LPAR and a Micro-Partitioning technology-capable logical partition that is running
AIX 5L. The Partition Load Manager application is based on a client/server model to share
system information, such as processor or memory events, throughout the concurrent present
logical partitions.
The following events are registered on all managed partition nodes:
򐂰 Memory-pages-steal high thresholds and low thresholds
򐂰 Memory-usage high thresholds and low thresholds
򐂰 Processor-load-average high threshold and low threshold
Note: Partition Load Manager is supported on AIX 5L Version 5.2 and AIX 5L Version 5.3.
It is not supported on Linux.
2.11.5 Integrated Virtualization Manager
In order to ease virtualization technology adoption in any IBM System p5 environment, IBM
has developed Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM) — a simplified hardware
management solution that inherits some HMC features, thus avoiding the necessity of a
dedicated control workstation. This solution enables the administrator to reduce system setup
time. IVM is targeted at small and medium systems.
44
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
IVM supports up to the maximum 16-core configuration. The IVM provides a management
model for a single system. Although it does not provide the full flexibility of an HMC, it enables
the exploitation of the IBM Virtualization Engine™ technology. IVM is an enhancement of the
Virtual I/O Server offered as part of Virtual I/O Server Version 1.2 and follow-on versions,
which is the product that enables I/O virtualization in POWER5 and POWER5+ systems. It
provides the same Virtual I/O Server features plus a Web-based graphical interface that
enables the administrator to remotely manage the System p5 server with an Internet browser.
Integrated Virtualization Manager can be used to complete the following tasks:
򐂰 Create and manage logical partitions.
򐂰 Configure the virtual Ethernet networks.
򐂰 Manage storage in the Virtual I/O Server.
򐂰 Create and manage user accounts.
򐂰 Create and manage serviceable events through Service Focal Point.
򐂰 Download and install updates to device microcode and to Virtual I/O Server software.
򐂰 Back up and restore logical partition configuration information.
򐂰 View application logs and the device inventory.
The requirements for an Integrated Virtualization Manager-managed server are as follows:
򐂰 A server managed by Integrated Virtualization Manager cannot be simultaneously
managed by an HMC.
򐂰 Integrated Virtualization Manager (with Virtual I/O Server) must be installed as the first
operating system.
򐂰 An Integrated Virtualization Manager partition requires a minimum of one virtual processor
and 512 MB of RAM.
Virtual I/O Server Version 1.3 introduced enhancements to IVM. The Integrated Virtualization
Manager (IVM) adds an industry leading function in this release: support for Dynamic Logical
Partitioning (DLPAR) for memory and processors in managed partitions. Additionally, a
number of usability enhancements include support through the browser-based interface for IP
configuration of the Virtual I/O Server:
򐂰 DLPAR support for memory and processors in managed partitions
򐂰 GUI support for System Plan management, including the Logical Partition (LPAR)
Deployment Wizard
򐂰 Web User Interface (UI) support for:
– IP configuration support
– Task Manager for long-running tasks
– Various usability enhancements, including the ability to create a new partition based on
an existing one
The major considerations of Integrated Virtualization Manager in comparison to an
HMC-managed system are as follows:
򐂰 All physical adapters are owned by Integrated Virtualization Manager, and LPARs use
virtual devices.
򐂰 There is only one profile per partition.
򐂰 A maximum of four virtual Ethernet networks are available inside the system.
򐂰 Each LPAR can have a maximum of one Virtual SCSI adapter assigned.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
45
򐂰 IVM supports a single Virtual I/O Server to support all your mission critical production
needs.
򐂰 Service Agent (see 3.2.3, “Service Agent” on page 73) for reporting hardware errors to
IBM is not available when using the Integrated Virtualization Manager.
򐂰 Integrated Virtualization Manager cannot be used by HACMP software to activate
Capacity on Demand (CoD) resources on machines that support CoD.
Integrated Virtualization Manager provides advanced virtualization functionality without the
need for an extra-cost workstation. For more information about Integrated Virtualization
Manager functionality and best practices, see Virtual I/O Server Integrated Virtualization
Manager, REDP-4061:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/p/hardware/meetp5/ivm.pdf
Figure 2-9 on page 46 shows how a system with Integrated Virtualization Manager is
organized. There is a Virtual I/O server and Integrated Virtualization Manager installed in one
partition that owns all physical server resources and four client partitions. Integrated
Virtualization Manager communicates to the POWER Hypervisor to create, manage, and
provide virtual I/O for client partitions. But the dispatch of partitions on physical processors is
done by the POWER Hypervisor as in HMC-managed servers. The rules for mapping the
physical processors, virtual processors, and logical processors apply as discussed in 2.11.2,
“Logical, virtual, and physical processor mapping” on page 39 for shared partitions that are
managed by the HMC.
Figure 2-9 Integrated Virtualization Manager principles
Note: Integrated Virtualization Manager and HMC are two separate management systems
and cannot be used at the same time; Integrated Virtualization Manager targets cost of
ownership, while HMC targets flexibility and scalability. The internal design is so different
that no HMC must ever be connected to a working Integrated Virtualization Manager
system. If a client wants to migrate an environment from Integrated Virtualization Manager
to HMC, the configuration setup has to be manually rebuilt.
Operating system support for advanced virtualization
Table 2-13 lists AIX 5L and Linux support for advanced virtualization.
46
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Table 2-13 Operating system supported functions
Advanced POWER
Virtualization feature
AIX 5L
Version 5.2
AIX 5L
Version 5.3
Linux
SLES 9
Linux
RHEL AS 3
Linux
RHEL AS 4
Micro-partitions
(1/10th of processor)
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Virtual Storage
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Virtual Ethernet
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Partition Load Manager
Y
Y
N
N
N
2.12 Hardware Management Console
The HMC is a dedicated workstation that provides a graphical user interface for configuring,
operating, and performing basic system tasks for the System p5 servers in either
non-partitioned, LPAR, or clustered environments. In addition, the HMC is used to configure
and manage partitions. One HMC is capable of controlling multiple POWER5 and POWER5+
processor-based systems.
At the time of writing, one HMC supports up to 48 POWER5 and POWER5+ processor-based
systems and up to 254 LPARs using the HMC machine code Version 5.1. For updates of the
machine code and HMC functions and hardware prerequisites, refer to the following Web site:
https://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/hmc/home.html
POWER5 and POWER5+ processor-based system HMCs require Ethernet connectivity
between HMC and the service processor of the server; moreover, if dynamic LPAR
operations are required, all AIX 5L and Linux partitions must be enabled to communicate over
the network to HMC. Ensure that sufficient Ethernet adapters are available to enable public
and private networks, if you need both:
򐂰 The HMC 7310 Model C05 is a desk side model with one integrated 10/100/1000 Mbps
Ethernet port and two additional PCI slots.
򐂰 The 7310 Model CR3 is a 1U, 19-inch rack-mountable drawer that has two native
10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet ports and two additional PCI slots.
For any partition in a server, it is possible to use the shared Ethernet adapter in the Virtual I/O
Server for a unique connection from the HMC to partitions. Therefore, client partitions do not
require their own physical adapters to communicate with HMC.
It is a good practice to connect the HMC to the first HMC port on the system, labeled as HMC
Port 1; although other network configurations are possible. A second HMC can be attached to
HMC Port 2 of the server for redundancy (or vice versa). Figure 2-10 shows a simple network
configuration for the connection from HMC to server and Dynamic LPAR operations. For more
details about HMC and the possible network connections, refer to Hardware Management
Console (HMC) Case Configuration Study for LPAR Management, REDP-3999, which is at
the following Web site:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/redp3999.html
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
47
Management LAN
HMC 1
Service
Processor
LPAR n
eth0
LPAR...
`
LPAR 2
eth1
LPAR 1
eth0 eth0 eth0 eth0
HMC 2
HMC
p5 System
Figure 2-10 HMC to service processor and LPARs network connection
The default mechanism for the allocation of the IP addresses for the service processor HMC
ports is dynamic. The HMC can be configured as a DHCP server, providing the IP address at
the time that the managed server is powered on. If the service processor of the managed
server does not receive the DHCP reply before timeout, predefined IP addresses will set up
on both ports. Static IP address allocation is also an option. You can configure the IP address
of the service processor ports with a static IP address with the Advanced System
Management Interface (ASMI) menus. See 2.14.7, “Service processor” on page 61 for
predefined IP addresses and additional information.
Note: If you have to access ASMI (for example, to set up the IP address of a new
POWER5+ processor-based server when HMC is not available or not providing DHCP
services), you can connect any client to one of the service processor HMC ports with any
kind of Ethernet cable, and use a Web browser to access the predefined IP address, such
as the following example:
https://192.168.2.147
The functions performed by the HMC include:
򐂰 Creating and maintaining a multiple partition environment
򐂰 Displaying a virtual operating system session terminal for each partition
򐂰 Displaying a virtual operator panel of contents for each partition
򐂰 Detecting, reporting, and storing changes in hardware conditions
򐂰 Powering managed systems on and off
򐂰 Acting as a service focal point
The HMC provides a graphical and a command-line interface for all management tasks.
Remote connection to the HMC using Web-based System Manager or SSH is possible. For
accessing the graphical interface, you can use the Web-based System Manager Remote
Client running on AIX 5L, Linux, or Windows®. The Web-based System Manager client
installation image can be downloaded from the HMC itself from the following URL:
http://<hmc_address_or_name>/remote_client.html
Both unencrypted and encrypted Web-based System Manager connections are supported.
The command line interface is also available with the SSH secure shell connection to the
HMC. It can be used by an external management system or a partition to perform HMC
operations remotely.
48
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
2.12.1 High availability using the HMC
The HMC is an important hardware component. HACMP Version 5.3 High Availability cluster
software can be used to automatically activate resources (where available), thereby
becoming an integral part of the cluster. For some environments, working with redundant
HMCs is recommended.
POWER5 and POWER5+ processor-based systems have two service processor interfaces
(HMC port 1 and HMC port 2) that available for connections to the HMC. We recommend that
you use both of them for redundant network configuration. Depending on your environment,
you have multiple options to configure the network. Figure 2-11 shows one possible highly
available configuration.
eth1
HMC2
eth0
HMC1
eth0
eth1
LAN3 - outside connection
LAN 1
1
2
LAN 2
1
LAN1 –
hardware management network for
first FSP ports (private)
LAN2 –
hardware management network for
second FSP ports (private), separate
network hardware than LAN1
LAN3 -
management network for WebSM
acces to HMC from outside (public) and
for HMC to LPAR communication
2
FSP
FSP
p5 System A
p5 System B
LPAR A1
LPAR B1
LPAR A2
LPAR B2
LPAR A3
LPAR B3
Figure 2-11 Highly available HMC and network architecture
Note that only the hardware management network (LAN1 and LAN2) is highly available for
the sake of simplicity. However, the management network (LAN3) can be made highly
available using a similar concept and adding more Ethernet adapters to LPARs and HMCs.
2.12.2 IBM System Planning Tool
The IBM System Planning Tool (SPT) is the next generation of the IBM LPAR Validation Tool
(LVT). It contains all of the function from the LVT and is integrated with the IBM Systems
Workload Estimator (WLE). System plans generated by the SPT can be deployed on the
system by the Hardware Management Console (HMC). The SPT is available to assist the
user in system planning, design, validation, and to provide a system validation report that
reflects the user’s system requirements while not exceeding system recommendations. The
SPT is a PC-based browser application designed to be run in a stand-alone environment.
You can download the IBM System Planning Tool at no additional charge from:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/support/tools/systemplanningtool/
The System Planning Tool (SPT) helps you design a system to fit your needs. You can use
the SPT to design a logically partitioned system or you can use the SPT to design an
unpartitioned system. You can create an entirely new system configuration, or you can create
a system configuration based upon any of the following:
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
49
򐂰 Performance data from an existing system that the new system is to replace
򐂰 Performance estimates that anticipate future workloads that you must support
򐂰 Sample systems that you can customize to fit your needs
Integration between the SPT and both the Workload Estimator (WLE) and IBM Performance
Management (PM) allows you to create a system that is based upon performance and
capacity data from an existing system or that is based on new workloads that you specify.
You can use the SPT before you order a system to determine what you must order to support
your workload. You can also use the SPT to determine how you can partition a system that
you already have.
Important: We recommend using the IBM System Planning Tool to estimate Hypervisor
requirements and determine the memory resources that are required for all partitioned and
non-partitioned servers.
Figure 2-12 on page 50 shows the estimated Hypervisor memory requirements based on
sample partition requirements.
Figure 2-12 IBM System Planning Tool window showing Hypervisor requirements
2.13 Operating system support
The p5-505 and p5-505Q are capable of running AIX 5L and Linux. AIX 5L has been
specifically developed and enhanced to exploit and support the extensive RAS features on
System p servers.
50
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
2.13.1 AIX 5L
If installing AIX 5L on the p5-505 or p5-505Q, you must meet the following minimum
requirements:
򐂰 POWER5+ Processors:
– AIX 5L for POWER V5.2 with the 5200-09 Technology Level (APAR IY82425), or later
– AIX 5L for POWER V5.3 with the 5300-05 Technology Level (APARIY82426), or later
򐂰 POWER5 Processors:
– AIX 5L V5.2 with the 5200-07 Recommended Maintenance Package (APAR IY67914),
or later
– AIX 5L V5.3 with the 5300-03 Recommended Maintenance Package (APAR IY71011),
or later
Note: The Advanced POWER Virtualization feature (FC 7432) is not supported on AIX 5L
V5.2; it requires AIX 5L V5.3.
IBM periodically releases maintenance packages for the AIX 5L operating system. These
packages are available on CD-ROM or you can download them from the Internet at:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/support/unixservers/aixfixes.html
The Web page provides information about how to obtain the CD-ROM.
You can also get individual operating system fixes and information about obtaining AIX 5L
service at this Web site. In AIX 5L V5.3, the suma command is also available, which helps the
administrator automate the task of checking and downloading operating system downloads.
For more information about the suma command functionality, refer to:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/suma/home.html
If you have problems downloading the latest maintenance level, ask your IBM Business
Partner or IBM representative for assistance.
AIX 5L is also available on DVD. Table 2-14 lists the order numbers.
Table 2-14 Order numbers for AIX 5L media
Order number
Description
Media
LCD4-7544-00
AIX 5L V5.3 Base media Maintenance Level 3
DVD
LCD4-7549-00
AIX 5L V5.2 Base media Maintenance Level 7
DVD
Electronic Software Delivery (ESD) for AIX 5L V5.2 and V5.3 for POWER5 systems was
made available. This is a way for clients to receive software and associated publications
online versus waiting for a physical shipment to arrive. Clients requesting ESD should order
new FC 3450.
ESD has the following requirements:
򐂰 POWER5 system
򐂰 Internet connectivity from a POWER5 system or PC
򐂰 Connectivity speeds greater than 56 Kbps for downloading large products such as AIX 5L
򐂰 Registration on the ESD Web site
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
51
For additional information, contact your IBM sales representative.
2.13.2 Linux
For the p5-505 and p5-505Q, Linux distributions are available through Novell SUSE and Red
Hat at the time of writing this publication. The p5-505 requires the following version of Linux
distributions:
򐂰 SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9 for POWER, or later
򐂰 Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 4 for POWER, or later
Note: Not all p5-505 features available on AIX 5L are available on Linux.
For information about the features and external devices supported by Linux on the p5-505,
refer to:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/linux/
For information about SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 9, refer to:
http://www.novell.com/products/linuxenterpriseserver/
For information about Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS, refer to:
http://www.redhat.com/software/rhel/details/
Many of the features described in this document are operating system dependent and might
not be available on Linux. For more information, see:
http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/p/software/whitepapers/linux_overview.pdf
Note: IBM only supports the Linux systems of clients with a SupportLine contract covering
Linux. Otherwise, contact the Linux distributor for support.
New discounted Linux subscriptions
Linux subscriptions are now available when ordered through IBM and combined with an IBM
System p5 Express Product Offering configuration. Clients can purchase a one-year
discounted subscription or a greater discount for a three-year subscription.
These new Linux options, available on System p5 Express Product Offering servers, bring
improved pricing and price performance to our clients interested in Linux as their primary
operating system. Clients interested in AIX 5L can also obtain an Express Product Offering
that fits their needs.
Clients are still encouraged to purchase support for their Linux subscription either though IBM
Global Services or through the distributor to receive updates and technical assistance as
needed. Support is not included in the price of the subscription.
The new lower-priced Linux subscriptions, when combined with the lower package prices of
the System p5 Express Product Offerings, make these products an exceptional value for our
smaller to mid-market clients, as well as larger enterprises.
Refer to the following Web site for Red Hat information:
http://www.redhat.com/software/
For additional information about Linux running on OpenPower systems, visit:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/openpower/
52
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
For additional information about Linux on POWER, visit:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/linux/power/
2.14 Service information
The p5-505 is a client setup server and is shipped with materials to assist in the general
installation of the server. The server cover has a quick reference service information label
that provides graphics that can aid in identifying features and location information. This
section provides some additional service-related information.
2.14.1 Touch point colors
Blue (IBM blue) or terra-cotta (orange) on a component indicates a touch point (for electronic
parts) where you can grip the hardware to remove it from or install it into the system, open or
close a latch, and so on. IBM defines the touch point colors as follows:
Blue
This requires a shutdown of the system before the task can be
performed, for example, removing the PCI riser book to install PCI
adapters in the p5-505.
Terra-cotta
The system can remain powered on while this task is being
performed. Keep in mind that some tasks might require that other
steps be performed first. One example is deconfiguring a physical
volume in the operating system before removing the disk from the
p5-505.
Blue and terra-cotta
Terra-cotta takes precedence over this color combination, and the
rules for a terra-cotta-only touch point apply.
Important: It is important to adhere to the touch point colors on the system. Not doing so
can compromise your safety and damage the system.
2.14.2 Securing a system into a rack
The optional rack-mount drawer rail kit is a unique kit designed for use with the p5-505. No
tools are required to install the p5-505 or drawer rails into the system rack.
The kit has a modular design that can be adapted to accommodate various rack depth
specifications. The drawer rails are equipped with thumb-releases on the sides, toward the
front of the server, that allow for easy slide out from its rack position for servicing.
Attention: Always exercise standard safety precautions when installing or removing
devices from racks.
To place or slide the p5-505 or p5-505Q in the service position:
1. If necessary, open the front rack door.
2. If they are present, remove the two thumbscrews, A, that secure the server unit to the
rack, as shown in Figure 2-13 on page 54.
3. Release the rack latches, B, on both the left and right sides, as shown in the same figure.
4. Review the following notes, and then slowly pull the server unit out from the rack until the
rails are fully extended and locked:
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
53
– If the procedure that you are performing requires you to unplug cables from the back of
the server, do so before you pull the unit out from the rack.
– Ensure that the cables at the rear of the system unit do not catch or bind as you pull the
server out from the system rack.
– When the rails are fully extended, the rail safety latches lock into place. This action
prevents the server from being pulled out too far.
Figure 2-13 Pull the p5-505 to the service position
54
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
5. Continue to release the p5-505 or p5-505Q out of the rack. Press the rail safety latches, A,
to release the server from the system rack, as shown in Figure 2-14.
Figure 2-14 Release the p5-505 or p5-505Q out of the rack
6. Grasp each side of the server unit and pull the server out of the system rack.
Attention: This unit weighs approximately 17 kg (37 pounds). Ensure that you can
safely support this weight when removing the server unit from the system rack.
7. Place the server on a sturdy flat surface capable of safely supporting the server while you
are servicing it.
2.14.3 Fault identification button
After the service person powers off the p5-505 or p5-505Q and removes it from the rack,
there is a button in the middle of the server planar that lights the LEDs of any failed
component that is on the planar. This process is accomplished by pushing the button once.
The power used for these diagnostics is provided by an internal battery pack. This feature is
based on client feedback that indicated the need to reaffirm the location of a failed component
after the system is powered down and safely disconnected from an external power source.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
55
The arrow in Figure 2-15 points to the fault identification button.
Figure 2-15 Fault identification button
For more information, see the IBM eServer pSeries and AIX 5L Information Center:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp
2.14.4 Operator control panel
The service processor provides an interface to the control panel that is used to display server
status and diagnostic information. The p5-505 and p5-505Q control panels are packaged so
that they fit into a smaller space. In the normal position, the control panel is seated inside the
chassis on the right top of the DVD optical device (if viewed from the front of the server). The
LCD display is invisible from the front. To read the LCD display, the client or engineer needs
to pull the operator panel out toward the front.
Note: For servers managed by the HMC, use it to perform control panel functions.
Accessing the p5-505 or p5-505Q control panel
To access all of the control panel's features, perform the following steps (refer to Figure 2-16):
1. Press inward on the spring-loaded tab, B, located on the right side of the control panel, B,
so that it pops out slightly.
2. Pull out the control panel toward the front of the server until it can be pivoted downward on
its hinge.
56
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Figure 2-16 Accessing the p5-505 or p5-505Q control panel
3. To move the control panel back into the device enclosure, lift the control panel up to align
it with the opening and push it into place until you feel the tab lock.
Primary control panel functions
The primary control panel functions are defined as functions 01 to 20, including options to
view and manipulate IPL modes, server operating modes, IPL speed, and IPL type.
The following list describes all of the available primary functions:
򐂰 Function 01: Display selected IPL type, system operating mode, and IPL speed
򐂰 Function 02: Select IPL type, IPL speed override, and system operating mode
򐂰 Function 03: Start IPL
򐂰 Function 04: Lamp Test
򐂰 Function 05: Reserved
򐂰 Function 06: Reserved
򐂰 Function 07: SPCN functions
򐂰 Function 08: Fast Power Off
򐂰 Functions 09 to 10: Reserved
򐂰 Functions 11 to 19: System Reference Code
򐂰 Function 20: System type, model, feature code, and IPL type
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
57
All of the functions mentioned are accessible using the Advanced System Management
Interface (ASMI), HMC, or the control panel.
For detailed information about each control panel function and the available values, select
Service provider information → Reference information → Service functions → Control
panel functions from the IBM Systems Hardware Information Center Web site at:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?lang=en
2.14.5 Cable-management arm
The p5-505 and p5-505Q are shipped with a cable-management arm. To install the
cable-management arm, refer to Figure 2-17 and follow these steps:
1. From the back of the system rack, locate the cable-management arm flange, A, located on
the fixed back portion of the left server rail assembly.
Figure 2-17 Cable-management arm and system unit
2. Attach the cable-management arm clasp, B, to the rail by pushing the clasp onto the rail
until it locks into place.
3. Attach the other end of the cable-management arm to the back of the server by performing
the following steps:
a. Align the tabs, D, on the cable-management arm with the slots, E, on the back of the
server.
b. Slide the cable-management arm to the left, securing it in place. Make sure that all the
tabs fit into the slots.
c. Push the locking lever, F, into the locked position.
Note: Ensure that the cable-management arm, C, is level so that it moves freely.
58
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
2.14.6 System firmware
Server firmware is the part of the Licensed Internal Code that enables hardware, such as the
service processor. Depending on your service environment, you can download, install, and
manage your server firmware fixes using different interfaces and methods, including the
HMC, or by using functions specific to your operating system.
Note: Normally, installing the server firmware fixes through the operating system is a
nonconcurrent process.
Temporary and permanent firmware sides
The service processor maintains two copies of the server firmware:
򐂰 One copy is considered the permanent or backup copy and is stored on the permanent
side, sometimes referred to as the “p” side.
򐂰 The other copy is considered the installed or temporary copy and is stored on the
temporary side, sometimes referred to as the “t” side. We recommend that you start and
run the server from the temporary side.
The copy actually booted from is called the activated level, sometimes referred to as “b”.
Note: The default value, from which the system boots, is temporary.
The following examples are the output of the lsmcode command for AIX 5L and Linux,
showing the firmware levels as they are displayed in the outputs:
򐂰 AIX 5L:
The current permanent system firmware image is SF220_005.
The current temporary system firmware image is SF220_006.
The system is currently booted from the temporary image.
򐂰 Linux:
system:SF220_006 (t) SF220_005 (p) SF220_006 (b)
When you install a server firmware fix, it is installed on the temporary side.
Note: The following points are of special interest:
򐂰 The server firmware fix is installed on the temporary side only after the existing
contents of the temporary side are permanently installed on the permanent side (the
service processor performs this process automatically when you install a server
firmware fix).
򐂰 If you want to preserve the contents of the permanent side, you need to remove the
current level of firmware (copy the contents of the permanent side to the temporary
side) before you install the fix.
򐂰 However, if you get your fixes using the Advanced features on the HMC interface and
you indicate that you do not want the service processor to automatically accept the
firmware level, the contents of the temporary side are not automatically installed on the
permanent side. In this situation, you do not need to remove the current level of
firmware to preserve the contents of the permanent side before you install the fix.
You might want to use the new level of firmware for a period of time to verify that it works
correctly. When you are sure that the new level of firmware works correctly, you can
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
59
permanently install the server firmware fix. When you permanently install a server firmware
fix, you copy the temporary firmware level from the temporary side to the permanent side.
Conversely, if you decide that you do not want to keep the new level of server firmware, you
can remove the current level of firmware. When you remove the current level of firmware, you
copy the firmware level that is currently installed on the permanent side from the permanent
side to the temporary side.
For a detailed description of firmware levels, select Customer service, support, and
troubleshooting → Fixes and upgrades → Getting fixes and upgrades from the IBM
Systems Hardware Information Center Web site at:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?lang=en
System firmware download Web site
For the system firmware download Web site for the p5-505, go to:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/firmware/gjsn
Receive server firmware fixes using an HMC
If you use an HMC to manage your server and you periodically configure several partitions on
the server, you need to download and install fixes for your server and power subsystem
firmware.
How you get the fix depends on whether the HMC or server is connected to the Internet:
򐂰 The HMC or server is connected to the Internet.
There are several repository locations from which you can download the fixes using the
HMC. For example, you can download the fixes from your service provider's Web site or
support system, from optical media that you order from your service provider, or from an
FTP server on which you previously placed the fixes.
򐂰 Neither the HMC nor your server is connected to the Internet (server firmware only).
You need to download your new server firmware level to a CD-ROM media or FTP server.
For both of these options, you can use the interface on the HMC to install the firmware fix
(from one of the repository locations or from the optical media). The Change Internal Code
wizard on the HMC provides a step-by-step process for you to perform the procedure to
install the fix. Perform these steps:
1. Ensure that you have a connection to the service provider (if you have an Internet
connection from the HMC or server).
2. Determine the available levels of server and power subsystem firmware.
3. Create optical media (if you do not have an Internet connection from the HMC or server).
4. Use the Change Internal Code wizard to update your server and power subsystem
firmware.
5. Verify that the fix installed successfully.
For a detailed description of each task, select Customer service, support, and
troubleshooting → Fixes and upgrades → Getting fixes and upgrades from the IBM
Systems Hardware Information Center Web site at:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?lang=en
60
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Receive server firmware fixes without an HMC
Periodically, you need to install fixes for your server firmware. If you do not use an HMC to
manage your server, you must get your fixes through your operating system. In this situation,
you can get server firmware fixes through the operating system regardless of whether your
operating system is AIX 5L or Linux.
To do this, complete the following tasks:
1. Determine the existing level of server firmware using the lsmcode command.
2. Determine the available levels of server firmware.
3. Get the server firmware.
4. Install the server firmware fix to the temporary side.
5. Verify that the server firmware fix installed successfully.
6. Install the server firmware fix permanently (optional).
Note: To view existing levels of server firmware using the lsmcode command, you need to
have the following service tools installed on your server:
򐂰 AIX 5L
You must have AIX 5L diagnostics installed on your server to perform this task. AIX 5L
diagnostics are installed when you install AIX 5L on your server. However, it is possible
to deselect the diagnostics. Therefore, you need to ensure that the online AIX 5L
diagnostics are installed before proceeding with this task.
򐂰 Linux
– Platform Enablement Library: librtas-nnnnn.rpm
– Service Aids: ppc64-utils-nnnnn.rpm
– Hardware Inventory: lsvpd-nnnnn.rpm
Where nnnnn represents a specific version of the RPM file.
If you do not have the service tools on your server, you can download them at the
following Web site:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/lopdiags
2.14.7 Service processor
The service processor is an embedded controller running the service processor internal
operating system. The service processor operating system contains specific programs and
device drivers for the service processor hardware. The host interface is a 32-bit PCI-X
interface connected to the Enhanced I/O Controller.
The service processor is used to monitor and manage the system hardware resources and
devices. The service processor offers connections through two Ethernet 10/100 Mbps ports:
򐂰 Both Ethernet ports are only visible to the service processor and can be used to attach the
server to an HMC or to access the Advanced System Management Interface (ASMI)
options from a client Web browser, using the HTTP-server integrated into the service
processor internal operating system.
򐂰 Both Ethernet ports have a default IP address:
– Service processor Eth0 or HMC1 port is configured as 192.168.2.147 with netmask
255.255.255.0.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
61
– Service processor Eth1 or HMC2 port is configured as 192.168.3.147 with netmask
255.255.255.0.
For the major functions of service processor, see 3.2.1, “Service processor” on page 71.
2.14.8 Hardware management user interfaces
In this section, we provide a brief overview of the different p5-505 or p5-505Q hardware
management user interfaces available.
Advanced System Management Interface
The Advanced System Management Interface (ASMI) is the interface to the service
processor that enables you to set flags that affect the operation of the server, such as auto
power restart, and to view information about the server, such as the error log and vital product
data.
This interface is accessible using a Web browser on a client system that is connected to the
service processor on an Ethernet network. It can also be accessed using a terminal attached
to the system port on the server. The service processor and the ASMI are standard on all
System p5, eServer i5, eServer p5, and OpenPower servers.
You might be able to use the service processor's default settings. In that case, accessing the
ASMI is not necessary.
Accessing the ASMI using a Web browser
The Web interface to the Advanced System Management Interface is accessible through, at
the time of writing, Microsoft® Internet Explorer® 6.0, Netscape 7.1, or Opera 7.23 running on
a PC or mobile computer connected to the service processor. The Web interface is available
during all phases of system operation including the initial program load and run time.
However, some of the menu options in the Web interface are unavailable during IPL or run
time to prevent usage or ownership conflicts if the system resources are in use during that
phase.
Accessing the ASMI using an ASCII console
The Advanced System Management Interface on an ASCII console supports a subset of the
functions provided by the Web interface and is available only when the system is in the
platform standby state. The ASMI on an ASCII console is not available during some phases
of system operation, such as the initial program load and run time.
Accessing the ASMI using an HMC
To access the Advanced System Management Interface using the Hardware Management
Console, complete the following steps:
1. Ensure that the HMC is set up and configured.
2. In the navigation area, expand the managed system with which you want to work.
3. Expand Service Applications and click Service Focal Point.
4. In the content area, click Service Utilities.
5. From the Service Utilities window, select the managed system with which you want to
work.
6. From the Selected menu on the Service Utilities window, select Launch ASM menu.
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
System Management Services
Use the System Management Services (SMS) menus to view information about your system
or partition and to perform tasks such as setting a password, changing the boot list, and
setting the network parameters.
To start System Management Services, perform the following steps:
1. For a server that is connected to an HMC, use the HMC to restart the server or partition.
If the server is not connected to an HMC, stop the system, and then restart the server by
pressing the power button on the control panel.
2. For a partitioned server, watch the virtual terminal window on the HMC.
For a full server partition, watch the firmware console.
3. Look for the Power-on self-test (POST) indicators for memory, keyboard, network, scsi,
and speaker that appear across the bottom of the screen. Press the numeric 1 key after
the word keyboard appears and before the word speaker appears.
HMC
The Hardware Management Console is a system that controls managed systems, including
IBM System p hardware, logical partitions, and Capacity on Demand. To provide flexibility
and availability, there are different ways to implement HMCs, including a local HMC, remote
HMC, redundant HMC, and the Web-based System Manager Remote Client.
Local HMC
A local HMC is any physical HMC that is directly connected to the server it manages through
a private service network. An HMC in a private service network is a Dynamic Host Control
Protocol (DHCP) server from which the managed server obtains the address for its firmware.
Additional local HMCs in your private service network are DHCP clients.
Remote HMC
A remote HMC is a stand-alone HMC or an HMC installed in a rack that is used to remotely
access another HMC. A remote HMC can be present in an open network.
Redundant HMC
A redundant HMC manages a server that is already managed by another HMC. When two
HMCs manage one server, those HMCs are peers and can be used simultaneously to
manage the server. The redundant HMC in your private service network is usually a DHCP
client.
Web-based System Manager Remote Client
The Web-based System Manager Remote Client is an application that is usually installed on
a PC. You can then use this PC to access other HMCs remotely. Web-based System
Manager Remote Clients can be present in private and open networks. You can perform most
management tasks using the Web-based System Manager Remote Client.
The remote HMC and the Web-based System Manager Remote Client allow you the flexibility
to access your managed systems (including HMCs) from multiple locations using multiple
HMCs.
For more detailed information about the use of the HMC, refer to the IBM Systems Hardware
Information Center.
Chapter 2. Architecture and technical overview
63
Open Firmware
A System p5 server has one instance of Open Firmware both when in the partitioned
environment and when running as a full system partition. Open Firmware has access to all
devices and data in the server. Open Firmware is started when the server goes through a
power-on reset. Open Firmware, which runs in addition to the Hypervisor in a partitioned
environment, runs in two modes: global and partition. Each mode of Open Firmware shares
the same firmware binary that is stored in the flash memory.
In a partitioned environment, Open Firmware runs on top of the global Open Firmware
instance. The partition Open Firmware is started when a partition is activated. Each partition
has its own instance of Open Firmware and has access to all the devices assigned to that
partition. However, each instance of Open Firmware has no access to devices outside of the
partition in which it runs. Partition firmware resides within the partition memory and is
replaced when AIX 5L or Linux takes control. Partition firmware is needed only for the time
that is necessary to load AIX 5L or Linux into the partition server memory.
The global Open Firmware environment includes the partition manager component. That
component is an application in the global Open Firmware that establishes partitions and their
corresponding resources (such as CPU, memory, and I/O slots), which are defined in partition
profiles. The partition manager manages the operational partitioning transactions. It responds
to commands from the service processor external command interface that originates in the
application running on the HMC.
The ASMI can be accessed during boot time or by using the ASMI and selecting the Boot to
Open Firmware prompt.
For more information about Open Firmware, refer to Partitioning Implementations for IBM
eServer p5 Servers, SG24-7039, at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247039.html
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
3
Chapter 3.
Reliability, availability, and
serviceability
This chapter provides information about IBM System p5 design features that help lower the
total cost of ownership (TCO). IBM reliability, availability, and serviceability (RAS) technology
allow you to improve your TCO architecture by reducing unplanned down time. This chapter
includes several features based on the benefits that are available when using AIX 5L. Support
of these features using Linux can vary.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2006. All rights reserved.
65
3.1 Reliability, fault tolerance, and data integrity
Excellent quality and reliability are inherent in all aspects of the IBM System p5 processor
design and manufacturing. The fundamental objective of the design approach is to minimize
outages. The RAS features help to ensure that the system operates when required, performs
reliably, and efficiently handles any failures that might occur. This is achieved using
capabilities that are provided by both the hardware and the operating system AIX 5L.
The p5-505 or p5-505Q as a POWER5+ server enhances the RAS capabilities that are
implemented in POWER4-based systems. RAS enhancements available on POWER5 and
POWER5+ servers are:
򐂰 Most firmware updates allow the system to remain operational.
򐂰 The ECC has been extended to inter-chip connections for the fabric and processor bus.
򐂰 Partial L2 cache deallocation is possible.
򐂰 The number of L3 cache line deletes improved from two to ten for better self-healing
capability.
The following sections describe the concepts that form the basis of leadership RAS features
of IBM System p5 systems in more detail.
3.1.1 Fault avoidance
IBM System p5 servers are built on a quality-based design that is intended to keep errors
from happening. This design includes the following features:
򐂰 Reduced power consumption and cooler operating temperatures for increased reliability,
which is enabled by the use of copper circuitry, silicon-on-insulator, and dynamic clock
gating
򐂰 Mainframe-inspired components and technologies
3.1.2 First-failure data capture
If a problem should occur, the ability to diagnose that problem correctly is a fundamental
requirement upon which improved availability is based. The p5-505 and p5-505Q incorporate
advanced capability in start-up diagnostics and in run-time First-failure data capture (FDDC)
based on strategic error checkers built into the processors.
Any errors detected by the pervasive error checkers are captured into Fault Isolation
Registers (FIRs), which can be interrogated by the service processor. The service processor
has the capability to access system components using special purpose ports or by access to
the error registers. Figure 3-1 on page 67 shows a schematic of a Fault Register
Implementation.
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Error Checkers
CPU
Fault Isolation Register (FIR)
(unique fingerprint of each
error captured)
L1 Cache
L2/L3 Cache
Service
Processor
Log Error
Memory
Non-volatile
RAM
Disk
Figure 3-1 Schematic of Fault Isolation Register implementation
The FIRs are important because they enable an error to be uniquely identified, thus enabling
the appropriate action to be taken. Appropriate actions might include such things as a bus
retry, ECC correction, or system firmware recovery routines. Recovery routines can include
dynamic deallocation of potentially failing components.
Errors are logged into the system non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) and the
service processor event history log, along with a notification of the event to AIX 5L for capture
in the operating system error log. Diagnostic Error Log Analysis (diagela) routines analyze
the error log entries and invoke a suitable action such as issuing a warning message. If the
error can be recovered, or after suitable maintenance, the service processor resets the FIRs
so that they can record any future errors accurately.
The ability to correctly diagnose any pending or firm errors is a key requirement before any
dynamic or persistent component deallocation or any other reconfiguration can take place.
For further details, see 3.1.7, “Resource deallocation” on page 69.
3.1.3 Permanent monitoring
The service processor (SP) included in the p5-505 or p5-505Q provides a way to monitor the
system even when the main processor is inoperable.
Mutual surveillance
The SP can monitor the operation of the firmware during the boot process, and it can monitor
the operating system for loss of control. This allows the service processor to take appropriate
action, including calling for service, when it detects that the firmware or the operating system
has lost control. Mutual surveillance also allows the operating system to monitor for service
processor activity and can request a service processor repair action if necessary.
Environmental monitoring
Environmental monitoring related to power, fans, and temperature is done by the System
Power Control Network (SPCN). Environmental critical and non-critical conditions generate
Early Power-Off Warning (EPOW) events. Critical events (for example, Class 5 ac power
loss) trigger appropriate signals from hardware to impacted components in order to prevent
any data loss without operating system or firmware involvement. Non-critical environmental
events are logged and reported using Event Scan.
Chapter 3. Reliability, availability, and serviceability
67
The operating system cannot program or access the temperature threshold using the SP.
EPOW events can, for example, trigger the following actions:
򐂰 Temperature monitoring, which increases the fan’s speed rotation when ambient
temperature is above a preset operating range.
򐂰 Temperature monitoring warns the system administrator of potential
environmental-related problems. It also performs an orderly system shutdown when the
operating temperature exceeds a critical level.
򐂰 Voltage monitoring provides warning and an orderly system shutdown when the voltage is
out of the operational specification.
3.1.4 Self-healing
For a system to be self-healing, it must be able to recover from a failing component by first
detecting and isolating the failed component, taking it offline, fixing or isolating it, and
reintroducing the fixed or replacement component into service without any application
disruption. Examples include:
򐂰 Bit steering to redundant memory in the event of a failed memory chip to keep the server
operational
򐂰 Bit-scattering, thus allowing for error correction and continued operation in the presence
of a complete chip failure (Chipkill™ recovery)
򐂰 Single bit error correction using Error Checking and Correcting (ECC) without reaching
error thresholds for main, L2, and L3 cache memory
򐂰 L3 cache line deletes extended from 2 to 10 for additional self-healing
򐂰 ECC extended to inter-chip connections on fabric and processor bus
򐂰 Memory scrubbing to help prevent soft-error memory faults
Memory reliability, fault tolerance, and integrity
The p5-505 and p5-505Q use Error Checking and Correcting (ECC) circuitry for system
memory to correct single-bit and to detect double-bit memory failures. Detection of double-bit
memory failures helps maintain data integrity. Furthermore, the memory chips are organized
such that the failure of any specific memory chip only affects a single bit within a four-bit ECC
word (bit-scattering), thus allowing for error correction and continued operation in the
presence of a complete chip failure (Chipkill recovery). The memory DIMMs also use
memory scrubbing and thresholding to determine when spare memory chips within each bank
of memory should be used to replace ones that have exceeded their threshold of error count
(dynamic bit-steering). Memory scrubbing is the process of reading the contents of the
memory during idle time and checking and correcting any single-bit errors that have
accumulated by passing the data through the ECC logic. This function is a hardware function
on the memory controller and does not influence normal system memory performance.
3.1.5 N+1 redundancy
The use of redundant parts allows the p5-505 and p5-505Q to remain operational with full
resources:
򐂰 Redundant spare memory bits in L1, L2, L3, and main memory
򐂰 Redundant fans
򐂰 Redundant power supplies (optional)
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Important: With this optional feature, every rack-mount p5-505 or p5-505Q requires two
power cords, which are not included in the base order. For maximum availability, we highly
recommend that you connect power cords from the same p5-505 or p5-505Q to two separate PDUs in the rack. These PDUs should be connected to two independent client power
sources.
3.1.6 Fault masking
If corrections and retries succeed and do not exceed threshold limits, the system remains
operational with full resources, and no intervention is required:
򐂰 CEC bus retry and recovery
򐂰 PCI-X bus recovery
򐂰 ECC Chipkill soft error
3.1.7 Resource deallocation
If recoverable errors exceed threshold limits, resources can be deallocated with the system
remaining operational, allowing deferred maintenance at a convenient time.
Dynamic or persistent deallocation
Dynamic deallocation of potentially failing components is nondisruptive, allowing the system
to continue to run. Persistent deallocation occurs when a failed component is detected, which
is then deactivated at a subsequent reboot.
Dynamic deallocation functions include:
򐂰 Processor
򐂰 L3 cache line delete
򐂰 Partial L2 cache deallocation
򐂰 PCI-X bus and slots
For dynamic processor deallocation, the service processor performs a predictive failure
analysis based on any recoverable processor errors that have been recorded. If these
transient errors exceed a defined threshold, the event is logged and the processor is
deallocated from the system while the operating system continues to run. This feature
(named CPU Guard) enables maintenance to be deferred until a suitable time. Processor
deallocation can only occur if there are sufficient functional processors (at least two).
To verify whether CPU Guard has been enabled, run the following command:
lsattr -El sys0 | grep cpuguard
If enabled, the output will be similar to the following:
cpuguard
enable
CPU Guard
True
If the output shows CPU Guard as disabled, enter the following command to enable it:
chdev -l sys0 -a cpuguard='enable'
Cache or cache-line deallocation is aimed at performing dynamic reconfiguration to bypass
potentially failing components. This capability is provided for both L2 and L3 caches. Dynamic
run-time deconfiguration is provided if a threshold of L1 or L2 recovered errors is exceeded.
Chapter 3. Reliability, availability, and serviceability
69
In the case of an L3 cache run-time array single-bit solid error, the spare resources are used
to perform a line delete on the failing line.
PCI hot-plug slot fault tracking helps prevent slot errors from causing a system machine
check interrupt and subsequent reboot. This provides superior fault isolation, and the error
affects only the single adapter. Run-time errors on the PCI bus caused by failing adapters
result in recovery action. If this is unsuccessful, the PCI device is shut down gracefully. Parity
errors on the PCI bus itself result in bus retry, and if uncorrected, the bus and any I/O
adapters or devices on that bus are deconfigured.
The p5-505 or p5-505Q supports PCI Extended Error Handling (EEH) if it is supported by the
PCI-X adapter. In the past, PCI bus parity errors caused a global machine check interrupt,
which eventually required a system reboot in order to continue. In the p5-505 or p5-505Q
system, hardware, system firmware, and AIX 5L interaction have been designed to allow
transparent recovery of intermittent PCI bus parity errors and graceful transition to the I/O
device available state in the case of a permanent parity error in the PCI bus.
EEH-enabled adapters respond to a special data packet generated from the affected PCI slot
hardware by calling system firmware, which examines the affected bus, allows the device
driver to reset it, and continues without a system reboot.
Persistent deallocation functions include:
򐂰 Processor
򐂰 Memory
򐂰 Deconfigure or bypass failing I/O adapters
򐂰 L3 cache
Following a hardware error that has been flagged by the service processor, the subsequent
reboot of the system invokes extended diagnostics. If a processor or L3 cache is marked for
deconfiguration by persistent processor deallocation, the boot process attempts to proceed to
completion with the faulty device deconfigured automatically. Failing I/O adapters are
deconfigured or bypassed during the boot process.
Note: The auto-restart (reboot) option, when enabled, can reboot the system automatically
following an unrecoverable software error, software hang, hardware failure, or
environmentally induced failure (such as loss of power supply).
3.1.8 Serviceability
Increasing service productivity means the system is up and running for a longer time. The
p5-505 and p5-505Q improve service productivity by providing the functions described in the
following sections.
Error indication and LED indicators
Thep5-505 and p5-505Q are designed for client setup of the machine and for the subsequent
addition of most hardware features. The p5-505 and p5-505Q also allow clients to replace
service parts (Client Replaceable Unit). To accomplish this, the p5-505 and p5-505Q provide
internal LED diagnostics that identify parts that require service. Attenuation of the error is
provided through a series of light attention signals, starting on the exterior of the system
(System attention LED) located on the front of the system, and ending with an LED near the
failing Field Replaceable Unit.
For more information about Client Replaceable Units, including videos, see:
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp
System attention LED
The attention indicator is represented externally by an amber LED on the operator panel and
the back of the system unit. It is used to indicate that the system is in one of the following
states:
򐂰 Normal state, LED is off.
򐂰 Fault state, LED is on solid.
򐂰 Identify state, LED is blinking.
Additional LEDs on I/O components such as PCI-X slots and disk drives provide status
information such as power, hot-swap, and the need for service.
Concurrent maintenance
Concurrent maintenance provides replacement of the following parts while the system
remains running:
򐂰 Disk drives
򐂰 Cooling fans
򐂰 Power subsystems
򐂰 PCI-X adapter cards
3.2 Manageability
The functions and tools provided for IBM System p5 servers to ease management are
described in the next sections.
3.2.1 Service processor
The service processor (SP) is always working. The CEC can be in the following states:
򐂰 Power standby mode (power off)
򐂰 Operating, ready to start partitions
򐂰 Operating with some partitions running and an AIX 5L or Linux system in control of the
machine
The SP is still working and checking the system for errors, ensuring the connection to the
HMC (if present) for manageability purposes and accepting Advanced System Management
Interface (ASMI) SSL network connections. The SP provides the possibility to view and
manage the machine-wide settings using the ASMI and allows complete system and partition
management from the HMC. Also, the surveillance function of the SP is monitoring the
operating system to check that it is still running and has not stalled.
Note: The IBM System p5 service processor enables the analysis of a system that does
not boot. It can be performed either from the ASMI, the HMC, or the ASCI console
(depending on the presence of the HMC). ASMI is provided in any case.
Figure 3-2 on page 72 shows an example of the ASMI accessed from a Web browser.
Chapter 3. Reliability, availability, and serviceability
71
Figure 3-2 Advanced System Management main menu
3.2.2 Partition diagnostics
The diagnostics consist of stand-alone diagnostics, which are loaded from the DVD-ROM
drive, and online diagnostics (available in AIX 5L):
򐂰 Online diagnostics, when installed, are resident with AIX 5L on the disk or server. They
can be booted in single-user mode (service mode), run in maintenance mode, or run
concurrently (concurrent mode) with other applications. They have access to the AIX 5L
error log and the AIX 5L configuration data:
– Service mode (requires service mode boot) enables the checking of system devices
and features. Service mode provides the most complete checkout of the system
resources. All system resources, except the SCSI adapter and the disk drives used for
paging, can be tested.
– Concurrent mode enables the normal system functions to continue while selected
resources are being checked. Because the system is running in normal operation,
some devices might require additional actions by the user or diagnostic application
before testing can be done.
– Maintenance mode enables the checking of most system resources. Maintenance
mode provides the exact same test coverage as Service Mode. The difference
between the two modes is the way they are invoked. Maintenance mode requires that
all activity on the operating system is stopped. The shutdown -m command is used to
stop all activity on the operating system and put the operating system into maintenance
mode.
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
򐂰 The System Management Services (SMS) error log is accessible from the SMS menu for
tests performed through SMS programs. For results of service processor tests, access the
error log from the service processor menu.
Note: Because the p5-505 and p5-505Q have an optional DVD-ROM (FC 1903) and
DVD-RAM (FC 1900), alternate methods for maintaining and servicing the system need to
be available if the DVD-ROM or DVD-RAM is not ordered. It is possible to use Network
Install Manager (NIM) server for this purpose.
3.2.3 Service Agent
Service Agent is an application program that operates on an IBM System p computer and
monitors the computer for hardware errors. It reports detected errors, assuming they meet
certain criteria for severity, to IBM for service with no intervention. It is an enhanced version of
Service Director™ with a graphical user interface.
Key things you can accomplish using Service Agent for the IBM System p5, pSeries, and
RS/6000 include:
򐂰 Automatic VPD collection
򐂰 Automatic problem analysis
򐂰 Problem-definable threshold levels for error reporting
򐂰 Automatic problem reporting where service calls are placed to IBM without intervention
򐂰 Automatic client notification
In addition, there are:
򐂰 Commonly viewed hardware errors. You can view hardware event logs for any monitored
machine in the network from any Service Agent host user interface.
򐂰 High-availability cluster multiprocessing (HACMP) support for full fallback.
򐂰 Network environment support with minimum telephone lines for modems.
򐂰 Communication base provided for performance data collection and reporting tool
Performance Management (PM/AIX). For more information about PM/AIX, see:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/pmaix.html
You define machines by using the Service Agent user interface. After you define the
machines, they are registered with the IBM Service Agent Server (SAS). During the
registration process, the registration process creates an electronic key that becomes part of
your resident Service Agent program. You use this key each time the Service Agent places a
call for service. The IBM Service Agent Server checks the current client service status from
the IBM entitlement database. If this reveals that you are not on Warranty or MA, the IBM
Service Agent Server refuses the service call and posts your call or a reply back using an
e-mail notification.
You can configure Service Agent to connect to IBM either using a modem or a network
connection. In any case, the communication is encrypted and strong authentication is used.
Service Agent sends outbound transmissions only and does not allow any inbound
connection attempts. Only hardware machine configuration, machine status, or error
information is transmitted. Service Agent does not access or transmit any other data on the
monitored systems.
Thee principal ways of communication are possible:
Chapter 3. Reliability, availability, and serviceability
73
򐂰 Dial-up using attached modem device (uses the AT&T Global Network dialer for modem
access, and it does not accept incoming calls to modem)
򐂰 VPN (IPsec is used in this case)
򐂰 HTTPS (can be configured to work with firewalls and authenticating proxies)
Figure 3-3 shows possible communication paths for an IBM System p5 system that is
configured to use all the features of Service Agent. In this figure, communication to IBM
support can be through either a modem or the network. If an HMC is present, Service Agent
is an integral part of the HMC and, if activated, collects hardware-related information and
error messages about the entire system and partitions. If software level information (such as
performance data) is also required, Service Agent can also be installed on any of the
partitions and can be configured to act as either a gateway and a connection manager or as a
client. When Service Agent is configured as a gateway and a connection manager, it gathers
data from clients and communicates to IBM on behalf of them.
Figure 3-3 Service agent and possible connections to IBM
Additional services provided by Service Agent are:
򐂰 My Systems: The client and IBM employees authorized by the client can view hardware
and software information and error messages that are gathered by Service Agent on
Electronic Services WWW pages at:
http://www.ibm.com/support/electronic
򐂰 Premium Search: Search service using information gathered by Service Agents (paid
service that requires special contract).
򐂰 Performance Management: Service Agent provides a means for collecting long term
performance data. The data is collected in reports accessed by the client on WWW pages
of Electronic Services (paid service that requires special contract).
You can download the latest version of Service Agent at:
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/service_agent_code
Service Focal Point
Traditional service strategies become more complicated in a partitioned environment. Each
logical partition reports errors it detects, without determining if other logical partitions also
detect and report the errors. For example, if one logical partition reports an error for a shared
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
resource, such as a managed system power supply, other active logical partitions might
report the same error. The Service Focal Point application helps you to avoid long lists of
repetitive call-home information by recognizing that these are repeated errors and correlating
them into one error.
Service Focal Point is an application on the HMC that enables you to diagnose and repair
problems on the system. In addition, you can use Service Focal Point to initiate service
functions on systems and logical partitions that are not associated with a particular problem.
You can configure the HMC to use the Service Agent call-home feature to send IBM event
information. Service Focal Point is available also in Integrated Virtualization Manager. It
allows you to manage serviceable events, create serviceable events, manage dumps, and
collect vital product data (VPD) when no reporting via Service Agent is possible.
3.2.4 IBM System p5 firmware maintenance
The IBM System p5, pSeries, and RS/6000 Client-Managed Microcode is a methodology that
enables you to manage and install microcode updates on IBM System p5, pSeries, RS/6000
systems, and associated I/O adapters. You can install the IBM System p5 microcode either
from an HMC or from a running partition. For update details, see 2.14.6, “System firmware”
on page 59.
If you use an HMC to manage your server, you can use the HMC interface to view the levels
of server firmware and power subsystem firmware that are installed on your server and are
available to download and install.
Each IBM System p5 server has the following levels of server firmware and power subsystem
firmware:
򐂰 Installed level – This is the level of server firmware or power subsystem firmware that has
been installed and will be installed into memory after the managed system is powered off
and powered on. It is installed on the “t” side of system firmware. For an additional
discussion about firmware sides, see 2.14.7, “Service processor” on page 61.
򐂰 Activated level – This is the level of server firmware or power subsystem firmware that is
active and running in memory.
򐂰 Accepted level – This is the backup level of server or power subsystem firmware. You can
return to this level of server or power subsystem firmware if you decide to remove the
installed level. It is installed on the “p” side of system firmware. For an additional
discussion about firmware sides, see 2.14.7, “Service processor” on page 61.
IBM introduced the Concurrent Firmware Maintenance (CFM) function on System p5 systems
in system firmware level 01SF230_126_120, which was released on 16 June 2005. This
function supports nondisruptive system firmware service packs to be applied to the system
concurrently (without requiring a reboot to activate changes). For systems that are not
managed by an HMC, the installation of system firmware is always disruptive.
The concurrent levels of system firmware can, on occasion, contain fixes that are known as
deferred. These deferred fixes, which can be installed concurrently, are not activated until the
next IPL. For deferred fixes within a service pack, only the fixes in the service pack, which
cannot be concurrently activated, are deferred. Figure 3-4 on page 76 shows the system
firmware file naming convention.
Chapter 3. Reliability, availability, and serviceability
75
Firmware Release
level
Last disruptive Firmware
Service Pack level
01SFXXX_YYY_ZZZ
Firmware Service
Pack level
Figure 3-4 System firmware file naming convention
An installation is disruptive if:
򐂰 The release levels (XXX) of currently installed and new firmware are different.
򐂰 The service pack level (YYY) and the last disruptive service pack level (ZZZ) are equal in
the new firmware.
Otherwise, an installation is concurrent if:
򐂰 The service pack level (YYY) of the new firmware is higher than the service pack level
currently installed on the system and the above conditions for disruptive installation are
not met.
3.3 Cluster solution
Today's IT infrastructure requires that servers meet increasing demands, while offering the
flexibility and manageability to rapidly develop and deploy new services. IBM clustering
hardware and software provide the building blocks, with availability, scalability, security, and
single-point-of-management control, to satisfy these needs. The advantages of clusters are:
򐂰 Large-capacity data and transaction volumes, including support of mixed workloads
򐂰 Scale-up (add processors) or scale-out (add servers) without down time
򐂰 Single point-of-control for distributed and clustered server management
򐂰 Simplified use of IT resources
򐂰 Designed for 24x7 access to data applications
򐂰 Business continuity in the event of a disaster
The POWER processor-based AIX 5L and Linux cluster targets scientific and technical
computing, large-scale databases, and workload consolidation. IBM Cluster Systems
Management software (CSM) is designed to provide a robust, powerful, and centralized way
to manage a large number of POWER5 processor-based servers, all from one single
point-of-control. Cluster Systems Management can help lower the overall cost of IT
ownership by helping to simplify the tasks of installing, operating, and maintaining clusters of
servers. Cluster Systems Management can provide one consistent interface for managing
both AIX 5L and Linux nodes (physical systems or logical partitions), with capabilities for
remote parallel network install, remote hardware control, and distributed command execution.
Cluster Systems Management for AIX 5L and Linux on POWER processor-based servers is
supported on the p5-505 and p5-505Q. For hardware control, an HMC is required. One HMC
can also control several IBM System p5 servers that are part of the cluster. If a server that is
configured in partition mode (with physical or virtual resources) is part of the cluster, all
partitions must be part of the cluster.
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Monitoring is much easier to use, and the system administrator can monitor all of the network
interfaces, not just the switch and administrative interfaces. The management server pushes
information out to the nodes, which releases the management server from having to trust the
node. In addition, the nodes do not have to be network-connected to each other. This means
that giving root access on one node does not mean giving root access on all nodes. The base
security setup is all done automatically at install time.
For information regarding the IBM Cluster Systems Management for AIX 5L, HMC control,
cluster building block servers, and cluster software available, visit the following links:
򐂰 Cluster 1600
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/clusters/hardware/1600.html
򐂰 Cluster 1350™
http://www.ibm.com/systems/clusters/hardware/1350.html
The CSM ships with AIX 5L itself (a 60-day Try and Buy license is shipped with AIX). The
CSM client side is installed automatically and is ready when you install AIX 5L. So, each
system or logical partition is cluster-ready.
The CSM V1.5 on AIX 5L and Linux introduces an optional IBM CSM High Availability
Management Server feature, which is designed to allow automated failover of the CSM
management server to a backup management server. In addition, sample scripts for setting
up Network Time Protocol (NTP), and network tuning (AIX 5L only) configurations, and the
capability to copy files across nodes or node groups in the cluster can improve cluster ease of
use and site customization.
Chapter 3. Reliability, availability, and serviceability
77
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
A
Appendix A.
Servicing an IBM System p5
system
POWER5 processor-based servers can be designated as one of the following types:
򐂰 Client setup (CSU) with client-installable features (CIF) and client-replaceable units (CRU)
The p5-505 is considered CSU.
򐂰 Authorized service representative set up, upgraded, and maintained
A number of Web-based resources are available to assist clients and service providers in
planning, installing, and maintaining servers.
Note: This applies to IBM System p5 and IBM eServer p5 in general.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2006. All rights reserved.
79
Resource Link
Resource Link™ is a customized, Web-based solution, providing access to information for
planning, installing, and maintaining IBM servers and associated software. It includes similar
information about other selected IBM servers. Access to the site is by an IBM registration ID
and password that are available free of charge. Resource Link pages can vary by user
authorization level and are continually updated; therefore, the details that you see when
accessing Resource Link might not exactly match what we mention here.
Resource Link contains links to:
򐂰 Education
򐂰 Planning
򐂰 Forums
򐂰 Fixes
Resource Link is available at:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/resourcelink
IBM Systems Hardware Information Center
The IBM Systems Hardware Information Center is a source for both hardware and software
technical information for systems. It has information to help perform a variety of tasks,
including:
򐂰 Preparing a site to accommodate the hardware for IBM systems.
򐂰 Installing the server, console, features and options, and other hardware.
򐂰 Installing and using a Hardware Management Console.
򐂰 Partitioning the server and installing the operating systems.
򐂰 Enabling and managing Capacity on Demand.
򐂰 Troubleshooting problems and servicing the server. Included here are component removal
and replacement procedures and the Start of Call procedure.
Physical components of a system are generally considered either a client-replaceable unit
(CRU) or a field-replaceable unit (FRU). CRUs are further categorized as either Tier 1
CRUs or Tier 2 CRUs with the following definitions:
– Tier 1 CRU: Very easy to replace
– Tier 2 CRU: More complicated to replace
– FRU: Replaced by the service provider
Removal and replacement procedures can be documented in the Information Center
accompanied by graphics, such as Figure A-1 on page 81 and video clips.
Alternatively, they can take the form of guided procedures using the HMC, for example, by
selecting Service Applications → Service Focal Point → Exchange Parts.
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Figure A-1 Removing a disk drive
Note: Part classification, contractual agreements, and implementation in specific
geographies all affect how CRUs and FRUs are determined.
The IBM Systems Hardware Information Center is available:
򐂰 On the Internet
http://www.ibm.com/servers/library/infocenter
򐂰 On the HMC
Click Information Center and Setup Wizard → Launch the Information Center.
򐂰 On CD-ROM:
– Shipped with the hardware (English SK3T-8159)
– Also available for you to order from IBM Publications Center
Appendix A. Servicing an IBM System p5 system
81
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IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed
discussion of the topics covered in this Redpaper.
IBM Redbooks
For information about ordering these publications, see “How to get IBM Redbooks” on
page 85. Note that some of the documents referenced here may be available in softcopy only.
򐂰 Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p5, SG24-7940
򐂰 Partitioning Implementations for IBM Eserver p5 Servers, SG24-7039
򐂰 Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM Eserver p5 Servers: Architecture and
Performance Considerations, SG24-5768
򐂰 IBM Eserver pSeries Sizing and Capacity Planning: A Practical Guide, SG24-7071
򐂰 IBM Eserver p5 590 and 595 System Handbook, SG24-9119
򐂰 LPAR Simplification Tools Handbook, SG24-7231
򐂰 Virtual I/O Server Integrated Virtualization Manager, REDP-4061
򐂰 IBM Eserver p5 590 and 595 Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-4024
򐂰 IBM Eserver p5 510 Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-4001
򐂰 IBM Eserver p5 520 Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-9111
򐂰 IBM Eserver p5 550 Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-9113
򐂰 IBM Eserver p5 570 Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-9117
򐂰 IBM System p5 510 and 510Q Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-4136
򐂰 IBM System p5 520 and 520Q Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-4137
򐂰 IBM System p5 550 and 550Q Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-4138
򐂰 IBM System p5 560Q Technical Overview and Introduction, REDP-4139
򐂰 Virtual I/O Server Integrated Virtualization Manager, REDP-4061
򐂰 Hardware Management Console (HMC) Case Configuration Study for LPAR
Management, REDP-3999
Other publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 7014 Series Model T00 and T42 Rack Installation and Service Guide, SA38-0577,
contains information regarding the 7014 Model T00 and T42 Rack, in which this server
can be installed.
򐂰 7316-TF3 17-Inch Flat Panel Rack-Mounted Monitor and Keyboard Installation and
Maintenance Guide, SA38-0643, contains information regarding the 7316-TF3 Flat Panel
Display, which can be installed in your rack to manage your system units.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2006. All rights reserved.
83
򐂰 IBM eServer Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations
Guide, SA38-0590, provides information to operators and system administrators about
how to use an IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries (HMC) to manage a
system. It also discusses the issues associated with logical partitioning planning and
implementation.
򐂰 Planning for Partitioned-System Operations, SA38-0626, provides information to
planners, system administrators, and operators about how to plan for installing and using
a partitioned server. It also discusses issues associated with the planning and
implementation of partitioning.
򐂰 RS/6000 and eServer pSeries Diagnostics Information for Multiple Bus Systems,
SA38-0509, contains diagnostic information, service request numbers (SRNs), and failing
function codes (FFCs).
򐂰 System p5, eServer p5 Customer service support and troubleshooting, SA38-0538,
contains information regarding slot restrictions for adapters that can be used in this
system.
򐂰 System Unit Safety Information, SA23-2652, contains translations of safety information
used throughout the system documentation.
Online resources
These Web sites and URLs are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 AIX 5L operating system maintenance packages downloads
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/support/unixservers/aixfixes.html
򐂰 IBM Systems Hardware Information Center documentation
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp
򐂰 IBM Systems Information Centers
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/eserver/
򐂰 IBM microcode downloads
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/firmware/gjsn
򐂰 Support for IBM System p servers
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/support/unixservers/index.html
򐂰 Technical help database for AIX 5L
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/srchBroker/views/srchBroker.jsp?rs=111
򐂰 IBMlink
http://www.ibmlink.ibm.com
򐂰 Linux on System p
http://www.ibm.com/systems/p/linux/
򐂰 Microcode Discovery Service
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/mds/fetch?page=mds.html
84
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
How to get IBM Redbooks
You can search for, view, or download Redbooks, Redpapers, Hints and Tips, draft
publications and Additional materials, as well as order hardcopy Redbooks or CD-ROMs, at
this Web site:
ibm.com/redbooks
Help from IBM
IBM Support and downloads
ibm.com/support
IBM Global Services
ibm.com/services
Related publications
85
86
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q Technical Overview and Introduction
Back cover
®
IBM System p5 505 and 505Q
Technical Overview and Introduction
Redpaper
High-performance
server in a dense, 1U
package is ideal for
data centers with
limited resources
New option for
support
Micro-Partitioning
technology without an
HMC to help lower
TCA and TCO
The raw computing
power for
high-performance
engineering and
scientific workloads
This IBM Redpaper is a comprehensive guide covering the IBM
System p5 505 server supporting the IBM AIX 5L and Linux
operating systems. We introduce major hardware offerings and
discuss their prominent functions.
INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL
SUPPORT
ORGANIZATION
Professionals wanting to acquire a better understanding of IBM
System p5 products should consider reading this document. The
intended audience includes:
򐂰 Clients
򐂰 Marketing representatives
򐂰 Technical support professionals
򐂰 IBM Business Partners
򐂰 Independent software vendors
This document expands the current set of IBM System p5
documentation by providing a desktop reference that offers a
detailed technical description of the p5-505.
This publication does not replace the latest IBM System p5
marketing materials, tools, or product documentation. It is
intended as an additional source of information that, together
with existing sources, can be used to enhance your knowledge of
IBM server solutions.
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
IBM Redbooks are developed
by the IBM International
Technical Support
Organization. Experts from
IBM, Customers and Partners
from around the world create
timely technical information
based on realistic scenarios.
Specific recommendations
are provided to help you
implement IT solutions more
effectively in your
environment.
For more information:
ibm.com/redbooks
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