WISE-tech

WISE-tech
System technology
Demand controlled
ventilation – WISE
www.swegon.com
WISE
Content
Room products ..............................................................................................
3
Operation ....................................................................................................................
3
Accessories .................................................................................................................
6
Sizing, example ..........................................................................................................
7
Zone products ..................................................................................................
9
Operation ....................................................................................................................
9
Accessories ..................................................................................................................
9
Sizing, example ..........................................................................................................
10
Air handling unit ............................................................................................. 14
Operation ....................................................................................................................
14
Sizing, example ...........................................................................................................
14
Location of pressure sensor ......................................................................................
15
System optimisation ....................................................................................... 16
Operation ....................................................................................................................
16
Accessories .................................................................................................................
17
Sizing, example ..........................................................................................................
17
Communication ................................................................................................ 18
Operation ....................................................................................................................
18
Network structure .....................................................................................................
19
Communication with slave units ..............................................................................
20
Quick guide, project planning....................................................................... 21
2
Selection of system ...................................................................................................
21
Airflows in room ........................................................................................................
22
Airflows in zone .........................................................................................................
23
Airflows in air handling unit .....................................................................................
24
WISE
Room products
DCV
All the air terminals included in Swegon’s WISE system
are variable-flow air diffusers. They maintain exactly the
right airflow with regard to occupancy and temperature
which ensures that you always have precisely so much
air in the room that is necessary. When the room is
unoccupied, or the demand for supply air is low, energy
is saved. Variable airflows are a necessary condition in
applications that call for the use of supply air to provide
comfort cooling.
Figure 1. ADAPT Colibri.
Room products
A more pleasing indoor climate can be obtained, especially in Northern Europe, if variable flows are used in
applications that do not have comfort cooling – an
alternative that is seldom utilized. Opportunity to reduce
the supply air flow makes it possible to utilize free cooling whenever the outdoor temperature is lower than the
room temperature. This occurs involuntarily and leads to
poor thermal comfort in the room, particularly during
autumn and spring, when supply air below room air temperature is used in combination with a CAV system.
Pressure independent
WISE is a pressure-independent system. The air terminals
adjust themselves to the correct flow independent of
available pressure in the duct upstream of the air diffuser.
This enables the WISE system to operate perfectly, even
while the building is being renovated or retrofitted, when
it is desirable to keep the existing duct system. The air
handling unit and the zones must be pressure controlled.
Sensor module
All the air terminals are equipped with an integrated
sensor module that contains sensors for the absolutely
most common control parameters.
Figure 2. The sensor module.
Among them we find the presence detector, which
minimizes the airflow and increases the dead zone for
temperature control when no occupant is in the room.
When a person enters the room, the setpoints revert to
the normal setting, and the minimum flow increases to
meet the current demand. The temperature sensor
senses the room temperature and transmits a reading that
prompts the controller to increase/decrease the airflow
as required. An in-service indicator informs the user
with a pleasing, hardly noticeable green glow that the air
terminal is operating as it should. The green LED changes
to red, if something should go wrong with the controller, pressure sensor or similar component.The in-service
indicator can also be used for informing the user that the
desired degree of comfort in the room is being maintained, with regard to temperature and air quality (if an
air quality sensor is used).
Via the sensor module you can also adjust setpoints,
change settings, and can read actual values using the
TUNE Adapt hand-held unit. The outlet for TUNE
Adapt is on the inside of the simple-to-dismantle sensor
module. See Figure 3.
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
Figure 3. To connect the hand-held unit
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WISE
Junction box
A CONNECT Adapt junction box, Figure 3, is included
with each air diffuser (master) for simple installation and
wiring. As a suggestion, the junction box is mounted on
the wall. The box contains the necessary terminals for
wiring a 24 V power supply. The air diffuser is very simple
to wire using the LINK Adapt RJ45 cable (Internet cable)
supplied. You simply “click” the cable into the air diffuser
and the junction boxes respectively, see Figure 4. Since
the air diffuser is pressure dependant and is supplied
preset from the factory with min. and max. flow settings
as well as other setpoint settings, the air diffuser is commissioned and in operation after it is installed.
The air diffuser has provision for connection to a main
control system (ModBus RTU). Then you connect a
second cable, LINK Modbus (RJ12 telephone cable)
between the air diffuser and the junction box and the
air diffuser is then ready for communication via the main
control system. The controls contractor wires the cables to
terminals in the junction box. Particulars of the necessary
addressing are available in the Project Manual supplied
for each project (supplied together with the TUNE Adapt),
but can also be downloaded from www.swegon.com.
Figure 4. CONNECT Adapt junction box, closed and open.
Besides these connection options, the product has the
following:
• Output for slave control of the extract air (RJ45 that
simplifies connection of the WISE product).
• 0-10 V DC output for slave control of the extract air
(terminal for wiring another product: 12, 13).
• 24 V AC pwm output for control of the radiators in
sequence if two-stage cooling has not been selected.
• Two-phase cooling with water in the second stage (deactivates heating in sequence).
• 24 V output for utilizing a presence detector (for e.g.
the control of light fittings).
• Input for TUNE Temp. manual setpoint selector switch
or DETECT Quality CO2sensor).
• Inlet for external presence sensor DETECT Occupancy.
4
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
D1 D0 C
A1 A2 1 3
0
24
NO
C
NC
Figure 5. ADAPT air diffusers, wiring diagram
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Larger rooms and premises
Active dampers instead of active air diffusers and registers are recommended for larger airflows. This involves
fewer moving parts and provides a more cost-effective
solution. Swegon has room dampers specially developed
for demand-controlled ventilation, with provision for
regulating down to extremely low airflows with excellent
measurement accuracy. Since the dampers are duct products, they lack a sensor module with integrated temperature sensor and presence detector.
Room damper
Swegon has two types of room damper, the ADAPT
Damper and CONTROL Damper. These dampers differ
in terms of which parameters you want to check in
the room, which airflows are required in the room and
whether you want to control the heating and/or two-step
cooling in sequence. For detailed information, we refer to
the relevant product data sheet.
Figure 6. ADAPT Damper
Room products
Clean Air Control
The Clean Air Control function is used for regulating the
airflow to maintain the air quality based on the content
of VOC (volatile organic compounds) and other gases that
are emitted in the room from furniture, people, etc. The
CAC sensor does not measure CO2, however it is configured in order to also correlate with CO2. This means that
it reacts in the same way as a conventional CO2 sensor
with regard to the presence of occupants in a room, but
beyond that it also reacts to substances, to which a CO2
sensor does not react.
Figure 7. CONTROL Damper.
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Accessories – ADAPT room products
DETECT Quality
Carbon dioxide sensor for wall mounting which should
be wired to the junction box if the airflow in the room is
also to be controlled on the basis of air quality. The sensor
is preset and calibrated from the factory. The preset limit
value is 1000 ppm.
DETECT Occupancy
DETECT Occupancy is an IR type presence detector for
use in combination with ADAPT Damper for readjusting
between presence and absence of occupants. Adjustable on/off switching delay. Available for wall or ceiling
mounting. A mounting bracket that enables angular adjustment of the sensor for optimal coverage of the room
is included for the wall-mounted variant.
TUNE Temp
Setpoint selector switch that enables the occupant to
increase/decrease the room temperature on an individual
basis. TUNE Temp is usually mounted on an inner wall to
the side of the door and should also be wired to the junction box.
Figure 8. DETECT Quality.
Figure 9. DETECT Occupancy, wall- resp. ceiling mounted.
DETECT Temp
External temperature sensor for use when the ADAPT
Damper is used in combination with transfer air and
central extract air. The master damper is then located in
the supply air duct and requires an external temperature
reference.
TUNE Adapt
Hand-held micro terminal for the control of actual values
and the setting of setpoints (all the air diffusers are preadjusted from the factory). A hand-held micro terminal
is needed for reading the actual values and/or possibly
changing the setpoints. Swegon recommends that each
ventilation system include at least one hand-held micro
terminal.
LINK Modbus
LINK Modbus is required in applications in which it is
desirable to communicate down to room level from a
main control system. LINK Modbus is a quick cable for
simple installation. Swegon’s FIX Link cable kit is recommended for simple fastening of the cabling. LINK Modbus
is used for communicating with the master air diffuser.
If it is also desirable to communicate with the slave air
diffusers, they must also be connected up to the Modbus
loop. This is done by supplementing the slave air diffuser
with a CONNECT Adapt and a LINK Modbus or with SPLIT
Link between the slaves.
Figure 10. TUNE Adapt
Figure 11. TUNE Temp, DETECT Temp.
Figure 12. LINK Adapt.
LINK Tuneadapt
The RJ12 modular cable for extending the outlet for TUNE
Adapt, permits contact from room level with the ADAPT
Damper installed high above the false ceiling.
LINK Adapt
RJ45 modular cable for wiring between master diffuser/
damper and CONNECT Adapt if lengths other than those
which included in the supply are needed.
Figure 13. LINK Modbus, LINK Tuneadapt.
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SPLIT Link
A branch connector for the connection of slaves is available for both LINK Adapt (RJ45) and LINK Modbus (RJ12).
FIX Link
FIX Link for securing cables to ducts, for example. The
holder is fastened to the duct by means of self-tapping
screws/pop rivets; the bundling band is inserted through
and locks the cables in place. Self-tapping screws or pop
rivets are not included in the supply.
POWER Adapt
Single phase protective transformer for main plug connection, unearthed or earthed. The transformer is made of
impact-resistant, light grey, self-extinguishing thermoplastic. POWER Adapt manages to operate a normal office
room with 2 pc ADAPT dampers and up to three radiator
valves. Meets applicable requirements for electrical safety/
emissions and immunity.
Figure 14. SPLIT Link. FIX Link.
Figure 15. POWER Adapt 20 VA and 60/150 VA.
VALVE
Radiator valve of angled or straight design. Dull nickelplated bronze.
Room products
ACTUATOR
All the WISE air diffusers can control up to three radiator
actuators in sequence in order to prevent the radiators
from heating while air is used to cool down the room.
Swegon can also supply the actuator complete with valve
and suitable adapter.
Figure 16. ACTUATOR, damper blade position indicator.
ADAPT Relay
Relay for on/off control of the lighting, designed for
installation in a wall terminal box or the like. As an alternative, the relay can be supplied with a type CONNECT
Adapt round enclosure conforming to degree of protection IP30.
FSRb
Clamp made of galvanised sheet steel, used for facilitating
installation and removal of damper units. The clamp has
adjustable eccentric locking devices for simple and quick
locking/opening. The rubber gasket allows sealing directly
against duct nipple. Always fit the clamp on the “room
side” of the damper.
Figure 17. Valve VALVE-S (straight) and VALVE-A (angled) with ACTUATOR valve actuator mounted.
Figure 18. ADAPT Relay in non-enclosed version (N) and enclosed
(C).
Figure 19. FSR, clamp.
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
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Sizing
Example 1
Selection of flow:
10 m2 individual-room office, climatic requirement:
23 °C, supply air temperature: 15 °C
When selecting air diffusers or dampers always base your
selection on the design airflow. The selection is determined either by the number of persons who will occupy
the room or the heating loads that must be dealt with.
The flow requirements that apply vary from country to
country, however we can generally say that one ought to
size the airflow on the basis of 10 l/s and person.
Heating loads:
The heating loads that must be dealt with are the following:
Approx. 100 W/person, lighting approx. 10 W/m2, possible computer (150 W/computer) and heat generated by
other electronic equipment.
These values differ very little from case to case, however
another important heat source to keep in mind is solar
radiation. Depending on the size of the window pane,
window quality, point of the compass and whether the
building has sun shield, the result can vary drastically.
Therefore a climate calculation for a number of representative rooms is recommended.
Sound/throw:
Select air diffusers or dampers that can manage the
maximum airflow. Check possible demands on low noise
level, maximum permissible pressure drop across the air
diffuser and the throw. Consideration must be given to
the addition of sound sources if both supply air diffusers
and extract air registers are to be installed in the room
(balance). Use the quick-selection tables on the first page
of the product data sheet, or the sizing diagrams.
Central extract air or balance in the room?
An installation with only one or more supply air diffusers
and a door or wall grille for the transfer of air out to the
corridor is the most economical solution and is recommendable in most cases. If the rooms are larger and the
airflows increase, or if there are demands on minimum
acoustic disturbance, (for example in conference rooms),
take steps to achieve correct airflow balance. In the following, a few different room solutions with the products
involved are presented.
8
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
Number of persons
1
Lighting
Computer
Sunshine
100 W
100 W
1
150 W
100 W
450 W
DT = 8 K provides 450 / (1.2 x 8) ≈ 45 l/s
Size the system for a max. permissible airflow of 45 l/s.
As a suggestion, set the minimum airflow for occupancy
to 12 l/s and the vacancy airflow to 5 l/s.
Functionality in the standard version
Swegon’s ADAPT air terminal series ventilates and cools
air on the basis of temperature and occupancy. The temperature requirement for occupancy is
22 °C ±1°. When there are no occupants in the room it
is possible to accept greater deviations from the 22 °C
+3, -2° climate required. 20 °C is then acceptable in the
winter and 25 °C in the summer. In this way we can save
energy. Additional energy can be saved if we arrange for
the presence detector signal to also control the lighting
in the room.
This functionality is in many cases sufficient; however it is
also possible to obtain these functions with accessories:
• To make the air diffusers ready for Modbus communication with a main control system
• To control the room on the basis of its CO2reading
• Two-stage cooling (de-activates heating in sequence)
• To control the radiator valves in sequence
• To slave control other supply air diffusers and extract
air registers
• To enable the user to vary the temperature in the room
(setpoint selector switch)
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Example 2
Open-plan office
Open-plan office today, individual-room office tomorrow. Flexibility, to be able to offer changes based on the
requests of the client without the costs soaring, is important for the owner of the building. It is therefore advisable
to design ”imaginary” walls already from the start and
select a supply air diffuser per window module.
One alternative is to let one air diffuser be a master for
a number of slave air diffusers. The Swegon recommendation is that you already from the start install every air
diffuser as a master air diffuser. This way the air diffusers
operate completely individually and possible accessories
such as Modbus communication and radiator control will
be connected to the correct air diffuser.
Room products
Example 3
25 m2conference room, climatic requirement 23 °C,
supply air temperature 15 °C
Number of persons
15
1500 W
Lighting
200 W
Presentation equipment
300 W
Solar radiation
300 W
2300 W
Dt = 8 K provides 2300 / (1.2 x 8) ≈ 230 l/s
Size the room based on a max. permissible airflow of 250
l/s.
As a suggestion, set the minimum airflow for occupancy
to 50 l/s and the vacancy airflow to 25 l/s. Supply air and
extract air in balance is recommended in this case, to be
sure to prevent acoustic disturbance problems.
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
Functionality in the standard version
Swegon’s ADAPT Damper with CAC functionality ventilates and cools in response to the existing room temperature and air quality. The damper contains an integrated
temperature sensor and an integrated air quality sensor.
The master damper should be fitted on the extract air side
and slave control the supply airflow.
In order to be able to make use of the airflow in an
unoccupied room, this solution is supplemented with an
externally mounted presence detector, which also provides opportunity for other room set points while the room
is unoccupied. This offers the building owner even greater
energy savings.
It is also possible to do the following:
• To get the air diffusers ready for Modbus communication with a main control system
• To control the radiator valves in sequence
• Two-phase cooling (de-activates heating in sequence)
• To enable the user to vary the temperature in the room
(setpoint selector switch)
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Zone products
Why zone dampers?
In a demand-controlled ventilation system, the flow is
controlled, based on the needs of the room. The other
parts of the system are pressure controlled. When the airflow in a room changes, the fan must compensate for this
change. In a larger system, the air handling unit does not
sense such a small change. The result is that the air diffusers in the adjacent rooms begin to adapt, in order to keep
their flows, which in turn leads to too many unnecessary
motor movements. In order to prevent this, the system is
split up into smaller sections, zones, which control to their
respective reference pressures. This enables quicker reaction to pressure changes and by that means a more stable
system with an optimised number of motor movements.
Figure 20. DETECT Pressure.
What is a zone?
A typical example of a zone is a storey or a section of a
storey. In the same way as the air handling unit controls the
pressure and flow balance for the whole system, the zone
dampers control the pressure and flow balance within a
section of the system, a zone.
How does the zone damper work?
The CONTROL Damper is utilised as a zone damper
(which can also be used as a room damper). The main
function of the zone damper is to maintain constant pressure in each branch duct. At the same time, the damper
measures the flow and can therefore also slave control
other dampers. The zone damper can in certain cases also
be used as a constant flow damper. Communication between dampers and the main control system takes place
via Modbus RTU. In order to add and subtract several
flows within a zone, the system is supplemented with the
CONTROL Optimize system optimizer. Some examples of
commonly occurring zone solutions will follow over the
next few pages.
Figure 21. SLAVE Control.
CONTROL Damper functions:
•
•
•
•
•
Maintaining constant pressure in the zone
Flow measurement
Slave control of the extract air flow
Modbus communication
Adding and subtracting of airflows (in combination
with CONTROL Optimize)
Figure 22. CONTROL Optimize.
CONTROL Damper accessories
DETECT Pressure
Measurement of static pressure
SLAVE Control
Slave control of extract airflow with provision for offset
value.
CONTROL Optimise
Summation of airflows from several zone dampers (CONTROL Damper)
Figure 23. TUNE Control.
TUNE Control
Hand-held micro terminal for the setting of setpoints and
for reading actual values.
10
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Sizing
New construction
Sizing aid
Sizing of the duct system
We recommend for new construction projects that you
do the sizing according to max. pressure drop 1 Pa/metre
for the branch duct (zone) and main duct (shaft). The
sizing of room products is done exactly as it is for conventional air diffusers; using the relevant quick selection table
or sizing diagram (a rule of thumb is that the air velocity
upstream of the air diffuser should never exceed 3 m/s).
1 Pa/m
Size the duct system based on 1 Pa/m pressure
drop. It is never wrong to size using a lower
pressure drop/metre of ducting. You can also
employ ducting having a constant duct diameter.
The result will be a well-performing ventilation system
without risk of either high pressures or sound levels.
Location of the pressure sensor
The pressure sensor should always be positioned 2/3 of
the distance out in the branch duct. This pertains to both
supply air and extract air ducts. In order to have authority
in the system, the recommended setpoint for the pressure sensor is at least 40 Pa for supply air, and 50 Pa for
extract air.
2/3
Position the pressure sensor 2/3 of the distance
out in the duct.
40 Pa
Reference pressure, approx. Ps =40 Pa. This may
require adjusting, but should be correct if you
follow the above items.
Zone products
This applies to branch ducts that are max. 40 metres long.
If the branch ducts are longer, you can advantageously
divide 40 by the relevant duct length, in order to have
maximally sized pressure drops/m for that zone. However,
Swegon always recommends that you carry out a pressure
drop calculation.
40 m
The max. permissible duct length (zone) is 40
metres. If the zone is longer, you should size
the duct system accordingly.
6-7 m/s
Zone damper approx. 7 m/s (max flow). This
is in order to achieve adequate measurement
inaccuracy under min. flow conditions.
Selection of damper size
Sometimes the flow range of a damper of specific size is
not in agreement with the size of the branch duct, when
it comes to the total min. flow for all the rooms in the
zone. This should always be checked. In cases when the
min. flow for a specific damper size is higher than the
total min. flow for all the rooms in the zone, we recommend selecting a damper in a smaller size and downsizing or up sizing again other components upstream and
downstream of the damper.
Renovation, rebuilding, extension
The existing duct system should be utilized to the greatest possible extent in renovation, rebuilding and extension
projects, as a means of limiting the costs. If the system
follows the criteria that apply to new construction, then
these of course apply to sizing. The alternative is higher
velocities in the branch duct, which causes higher dynamic
pressure and probably higher total pressure across the air
diffusers. One positive consequence is that the one-time
resistance near the branch tube increases if the velocity is
higher in the branch duct and in such a way “eats” up a
portion of the pressure that the air diffuser should take.
Since there is no existing standard that defines how a
renovation, rebuilding and extension ventilation system
should look, it is difficult to provide any limit values. Nevertheless, Swegon has prepared a quick selection guide for
air diffusers that applies to an 80 Pa pressure drop across
the air diffusers (Ps 60 – 80 Pa in a branch duct). If 35 dB
(A) is acceptable in the room, this will work excellently. A
pressure drop calculation is of course also recommended
here. If you are uncertain, send a pressure drop calculation
for the zone in or item in question to the nearest Swegon
office and we will help you.
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
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Example 1
Balance at room level
All the rooms in the zone are in balance, both of the zone
dampers (1 & 5) operate completely individually to achieve
their respective pressure setpoints (2 & 6). In this example, CONTROL Dampers are used for both the supply air
and extract air flows. Possible constant airflows, in toilet
groups and other spaces, are let out into the extract air
duct where the pressure is constant.
L ≤ 40 m
1
2 -10
v = 6-7 m/s
V
2/3 L
2
Pt ≈ 45 Pa
Supply air system
1 Pa/m (maximum airflow)
Ps = 40 Pa
Pt ≈ 35 Pa
L ≤ 40 m
2 -10
55
V
2/3 L
v = 6-7 m/s
64
Pt ≈ 50 Pa
Ps = 40 Pa
Extract air systems
0.5 Pa/m (maximum airflow)
Pt ≈ 25 Pa
12
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Example 2
Balance at zone level
CONTROL Damper (1) maintains constant pressure in the
supply air duct; at the same time the total supply airflow
of the zone is measured. CONTROL Damper also controls
the flow through the extract air duct by means of the
SLAVE Control slave damper (3). The SLAVE Control has
no controller of its own; it is completely dependent on
CONTROL Damper. For possible toilet groups, CONTROL
Damper (4) is used as a constant flow damper. In order to
compensate for the flow required by the toilet groups, an
offset value is entered into the supply air damper, which
is subtracted from the slave controlled flow of SLAVE
Control.
33
v = 6-7 m/s
4
Four-core cable
Fyrledarkabel
Toilet group
Constant extract air
L ≤ 40 m
1
2 -10
v = 6-7 m/s
V
Pt ≈ 45 Pa
2/3 L
2
Supply air system
1 Pa/m (maximal airflow)
Ps = 40 Pa
Pt ≈ 35 Pa
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Zone products
Extract air systems
Centralised extract air
WISE
Example 3
More than one zone damper for supply air
and extract air respectively in the same
zone
Proposed breakdown of the zones in accordance with the
preceding two examples provide a simple and clear zone
breakdown, which however is not always possible. Due to
e.g. the layout of the storeys or the location of the shaft,
sometimes there is a need for combining two or several
supply air or extract air dampers with one another. This
may make the addition and subtraction of flows a bit
more extensive. In these cases, CONTROL Damper is used
for all dampers within the zone. The system is also supplemented with a CONTROL Optimize system optimizer
which manages all summation of the airflows.
In this case, two branch ducts are combined for the supply
air (1 and 2), one toilet group (3) and central extract air (4).
All the dampers are connected via Modbus RTU together
with CONTROL Optimize, which can handle up to 10 different zones. The sum of the central extract air (4) will in this
case be the flow from dampers 1 + 2 – 3 = 4.
1
2
4
3
14
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Air handling unit
Operation
When you select a GOLD air handling unit, among others,
the following useful functions are included as standard:
If the ventilation is decentralised, the air handling unit
should however be sized according to maximum airflow.
The cooling unit must be able to manage variable airflows
and stepless cooling is recommended. It is beneficial
to utilise control functions such as constant supply air
temperature with outdoor temperature compensation and
summer night cooling if WISE is combined with a GOLD
unit.
Sizing of air handling units
Since all flow control takes place out in the system, the
unit should be set for constant pressure control. A system
with a central air handling unit should be pressure controlled both on the supply air and the extract air sides. If
decentralised ventilation is used, the supply air system is
instead usually maintained at constant pressure while the
extract air fan is slave controlled on the basis of the supply
airflow. The supply air temperature should be constant
with opportunity for compensation depending on outdoor temperature.
Figure 17. GOLD.
Recommended control functions
• Fan regulation, constant pressure.
• Constant supply air temperature (15 °C) can be supplemented with compensation for outdoor temperature, if
needed.
• Summer night cooling, requires Modbus RTU-communication down to room level.
• Slave controlled extract airflow, for decentralised ventilation and central extract air only.
To consider
The question of whether an air heater is required or not
depends on conditions in the building, selection of heat
exchanger and the building’s geographical location, and
must be decided from one case to another.
Further information about interfaces, protocols and configuration is available at www.swegon.com.
Air flows
If the air handling unit is located centrally in the building,
it is possible to utilize a diversity factor, provided that the
design flow never will occur in all parts of the building at
the same time. Based on these prerequisites, it is possible
to select a smaller air handling unit. If the ventilation is
decentralised, the unit should be sized for design airflow.
It is important that the total min. flows of the system are
not below the recommended min. permissible flows of
the air handling unit.
• Decentralised air handling units: 100% of maximum
flow.
• Central air handling unit: 70-90% of maximum flow.
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Air handling unit
• Filter monitoring (adapted to the flow, perfect for variable airflows).
• Zero point calibration (is performed if the fans stop for
more than three minutes).
• Carry over Control (guaranteed purging of heat
exchanger rotor regardless of the airflow).
• Built-in web server (dynamic flow image).
• Communication with main control system.
• Logging function, reading SFP, flow, temperature and
more.
• Well developed alarm management.
The advantage with a demand controlled ventilation
system is that there seldom or never is any maximum flow
demand in the whole system at the same time. Therefore
in larger systems you can calculate with a diversity factor
(70-90%), when sizing the air handling unit and main
ducts.
WISE
Location of the air handling unit pressure sensor
One important factor for a quiet and energy efficient
demand-controlled ventilation system is sensor location.
The supply air and extract air pressure sensors respectively
must be correctly placed. The pressure sensors should be
placed out in the system close to the zone located at the
worst spot in the system (for design flow). With this location, the flow variations can be found earlier and the air
handling unit can correct the pressure instead of letting
the room and zone products do the compensating. This
decreases the noise levels out in the system, at the same
time as it decreases the number of motor movements,
which in turn increases the useful life of the equipment.
The image below illustrates the difference between locating the pressure sensors close to the air handling unit and
locating them by the design zone.
If CONTROL Optimize is used in combination with the
CONTROL Damper zone damper, there is no need for
moving out the pressure sensors. CONTROL Optimize
senses all blade positions of the zone dampers and therefore always has a reference point out into the system,
which provides information as to whether the pressure of
the air handling unit should be increased or decreased.
This also reduces the installation costs because the pressure sensors do not have to be fitted out in the system.
With the pressure sensors located out in the system, the
total pressure increase of the air handling unit for all the
airflows decreases, except when the air handling unit is
operating to generate the design max. flow, which almost
never occurs. This means that the air handling unit operates during the rest of the time to achieve an unnecessarily
high reference pressure, regardless of whether this is about
decentralised ventilation or a centrally located air handling
unit.
PS = 40 Pa
PS = 40 Pa
PS = 150 Pa max. airflow
PS = 150 Pa max. airflow
PS = 150 Pa min. airflow
Designing zon
Designing zone
PS = 150 Pa min. airflow
PS = 90 Pa max. airflow
PS = 90 Pa max. airflow
PS = 90 Pa min. airflow
16
PS = 90 Pa min. airflow
Designing zone
Designing zone
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
20091130
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WISE
System optimisation
The CONTROL Optimize system optimizer communicates
with the air handling unit and all the zone dampers
(CONTROL Damper) via Modbus RTU protocol. A damper
blade angle reading (0 – 100%) is transmitted from the
zone dampers to the system optimizer which chooses the
damper that is most open. If this damper is completely
open, the system optimizer transmits a new pressure
setpoint that is higher than the current actual value to the
fan. The fan now accelerates up to the new setpoint and
the most open damper closes slightly to ensure the pressure in this branch.
Figure 18. CONTROL Optimize.
If the flow decreases in the system, for example at lunch
time, the most open damper will be less open than it was
in the previous case. The system optimizer does now the
opposite of what it did in the previous case and transmits
a lower pressure setpoint to the fan until the most open
damper is almost completely open (85%). 60 dampers
can be connected to CONTROL Optimize, 30 supply air
and 30 extract air dampers respectively. The advantages
of a system optimizer are that you reduce the noise
generated by both the fans and the ducting in the ventilation system and also reduce the consumption of power
at airflows lower than the maximum flow. The system
optimizer also facilitates adjustments and commissioning
because the pressure setpoints for the fans do not need
to be “sought after”.
Control of static pressure in branch duct
Active air diffusers assume that you have control over the
static pressures in the branch duct upstream of the air
diffuser. In order to comply with this condition a pressure
sensor is installed (DETECT Pressure) 2/3 out in the branch
duct. This pressure sensor is connected to a zone damper
(CONTROL Damper). Depending on whether the diffusers
in the zone increase or decrease in flow, the zone damper
sets itself to always maintain the required pressure. A
system can consist of many zones, which work completely
independent of one another.
The function of the zone damper is important, it breaks
down the system into smaller sections and takes care of
the excess pressure that all zones except the design zone
receive. The noise generated by the damper is reduced by
a sound attenuator. The zones also react much quicker
to flow changes than they would if the air handling unit
located centrally and in this way enables much fewer
motor movements out in the ventilation system.
If the system is not broken down into zones, all the air diffusers in the ventilation system, except one (the temporary
design damper), will need to throttle away the excess pressure of the air handling unit. This involves risk for acoustic
problems at room level. If supply air diffusers with active
slot are used, the throws will be very long. Decentralised
ventilation (the system is broken down into smaller sections
by using smaller air handling units) can be compared with
the zone damper’s operation which then can be deselected.
How does the air handling unit manage this?
Since every zone is pressure controlled, the air handling
unit must also be pressure controlled however at system
level, i.e. in the main duct/ducts (shafts). In order to obtain
good balance in the system, the pressure sensors for the
air handling unit must be located at the zone that requires
the highest pressure (the design zone). This zone is usually
the one that is farthest away from the air handling unit.
What happens at min. flow?
The static pressure that the air handling unit should maintain must be based on design pressure, even if the flow is
much lower during the greater part of the year. Whenever
the design flow is not used, one or two zone dampers will
be more or less closed. At night, when the flow is very
likely decrease to the hygienic flow in the greater part
of the building, all the zone dampers will be closed to a
great degree.
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
Figure 19. Pressure control with the CONTROL Optimize
1. CONTROL Optimize
2. Modbus RTU communication
3. CONTROL Damper
4. 2-10 V
20091130
www.swegon.com
17
System optimisation
System optimisation
WISE
System optimising with the GOLD
If Swegon’s unit the GOLD is used in combination with
CONTROL Optimize, no main control and monitoring
system in forwarding the pressure setpoint to the air handling unit is needed.
The GOLD unit has a built-in control function, where you
can read that the CONTROL Optimize has been switched
in. Then the air handling unit senses that it is the system
optimizer that sets the pressure setpoint. Moreover, a
new tab specifying all zone dampers connected under the
system optimizer with specified damper positions is created on the web page of the GOLD unit. This provides a
quick overview of the system and commissioning.
Sizing
• It is very important that the various zones of the duct
system are uniformly sized (the same pressure drop). If
one zone requires higher pressure, it will become dominant over the air handling unit pressure.
• The above must be considered especially carefully if
central extract air at zone level or toilet groups with
separate zone dampers are used, since the extract air
devices (ordinarily control valves) are adjusted with relatively high pressure drops across them. This zone then
has a tendency to become the dominating zone.
• CONTROL Optimize communicates via the Modbus RTU
with all zone dampers (CONTROL Damper).
Figure 20. TUNE Control.
Accessory, CONTROL Optimize
TUNE Control is a hand-held micro terminal for entering settings in the system optimizer, the grouping of zone
dampers and setting the air handling unit, see the preceding spread.
18
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
20091130
www.swegon.com
WISE
Communication
Main control functions
A system that is able to communicate via Modbus on various levels is required in order to be able to use the main
control functions.
Modbus RTU
All the products in the WISE system are capable of intercommunication via the open Modbus RTU protocol. The
Modbus variables for all the products can be downloaded
from www.swegon.com.
The system works excellently in the “Stand-alone" version, which means that air diffusers and dampers do not
need to be connected up to a main control system in
order to obtain full functionality.
To optimize the pressure in the fans.
Communication
The task of optimising the pressure in the fans requires
that the system contains a CONTROL Optimize system
optimizer. The system optimizer communicates with all
the subordinate CONTROL Damper zone dampers via
Modbus. This function requires Modbus communication
at zone level.
Emergency function
All the WISE products can be completely open or completely closed in the event of an emergency situation. The
GOLD air handling unit has an internal fire function that
can activate the emergency function of the air diffusers
and dampers respectively. Signals can also be transmitted from an external system via the GOLD to all the air
diffusers and air registers. This function requires Modbus
communication at zone level.
Summer night cooling
Summer night cooling is a function that enables you to
utilize lower outdoor temperatures at night for cooling
the building structure while there are no occupants in the
rooms. The cooling power is accumulated in the building
structure and in this way helps to maintain the right temperature. This function requires Modbus communication
at zone level.
WISE in combination with a main control
system
Today’s CONTROL Optimize communicates via Modbus
RTU only. The above function can also be controlled by
an external BMS. During 2009 SWEGON will supplement WISE with additional functionality for external main
control systems, and additional communication protocol
options as well.
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
20091130
www.swegon.com
19
WISE
The Modbus structure with WISE
Preconfigured from the factory
Swegon’s CONTROL Damper zone damper acts as a
router and divides the network into smaller parts. All
the air diffusers and room dampers in one zone should
be wired to the same loop, a so-called zone loop. A
zone usually consists of two or more zone dampers. We
suggest that you choose a supply air damper as a router
with all the room products subordinate to it. The room
products are Modbus slaves and the zone damper is the
Modbus master.
All the Swegon products can be supplied preconfigured
from the factory, with the design flows, temperature
requirements, control functions, marking, Modbus speed
and Modbus address.
All the zone dampers in the ventilation system are wired
together on the same loop, a so-called system loop,
under the CONTROL Optimize system optimizer. In this
loop, CONTROL Optimize is the Modbus master and all
the dampers should be wired as Modbus slaves. Note that
also the zone dampers that do not have a subordinate
zone loop wired to them must be wired to CONTROL
Optimize.
The room products have such a so-called commissioning
setting that enables them to operate to achieve maximum
airflow, until they are switched out of the commissioning
setting. All this put together offers enormous advantages
when it comes to installation, adjustment and commissioning.
In that all the products within the same loop have unique
Modbus addresses, CONTROL Optimize automatically
finds all the zone dampers, and therefore can also further
transmit information to room products that are subordinate to the zone damper.
Mb1
Mb2
System loop:
Max. 800 metre/loop
Max. 60 units/loop
4
CONTROL Optimize
Mb2
1
2
3
2
2
Zone loops:
Max. längth 800 metre/loop
Max. 60 units/loop.
T
T
Zone 1
3
Mb1
Zone 2
T
Zone 3
Figure 21. Schematic image of a Modbus network, where WISE
is used in combination with a GOLD air handling unit.
20
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
20091130
www.swegon.com
WISE
Communication with slave units
In the WISE system, as a rule only the master air diffuser is
connected up to the main control system (the RJ12 cable
is connected between the air diffuser and the CONNECT
Adapt junction box). Note that all the slave air diffusers
are controlled in analogue mode via a 2 – 8 V signal. If
you also want to communicate with and check the slave
air diffusers, these must also be connected up to the main
control system. This is most easily done by supplementing
the slave air diffusers with a LINK Modbus (RJ12 cable)
and a CONNECT Adapt, figure 29. Keep in mind that LINK
Adapt (the RJ12 cable) from the slave air diffuser must
be run to the junction box of the master air diffuser. As
an alternative, the modbus cable can be connected from
slave to slave via a SPLIT Link-12, figure 30.
N.B.! The total length of a Modbus cable must be a maximum of 10 metres.
3
3
2
2
Figure 29. Alternative Modbus connection of slaves with CONNECT Adapt.
1 Modbus RTU
2 LINK Modbus RJ12 cable
3 LINK Adapt RJ45 Internet cable 24AWG
5
Further advantages can be achieved by combining the
WISE system with a GOLD air handling unit. Particulars
on how to connect a CONTROL Optimize are specified
either in the hand-held micro terminal of the air handling
unit or on the web page dealing with the GOLD. After
connection has been completed, the air handling unit
will “know” that the system optimizer determines the
pressure setpoint. All that is required is Modbus communication between CONTROL Optimize and the GOLD air
handling unit. A new tab on the GOLD air handling unit
web page is now shown and presents all the subordinate
zone dampers and specifies their respective damper blade
positions.
5
1
5
6
2
6
2
4
6
Communication
WISE in combination with the GOLD
1
2
6
3
20
Master
1
2
3 4
21
Slave
5
6
7
22
Slave
8
23
Modbus
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Figure 30. Connection with LINK Modbus
1 The air terminal contact in the master air terminal
2 The air terminal contact in the slave air terminal
3 The interconnection card in CONNECT Adapt
4 LINK Adapt, RJ45 Internet cable 24AWG
5 SPLIT La 12 branch contact RJ12
6 LINK Modbus RJ12 cable.
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
20091130
www.swegon.com
21
WISE
Project planning – Choice of system
Choice of
System
Pressure optimisation is
obtainable with GOLD and
CONTROL Optimize, however
this...
Central
air handling unit
... presupposes Modbus
communication between
CONTROL Optimize and
damper
Zone division
Max. 10 zones/
air handling unit
Demand-controlled
ventilation
with WISE
Decentralised
air handling units
15
15
No pressure optimisation is required for
decentralised air handling units.
10
If emergency operation or
summer night cooling is
desired, Modbus communication to every room product is
required.
50 - 60
ADAPT/zones
50 - 60 ADAPT/
air handling units
19
19
Larger flows
Smaller flows
Class rooms,
conference rooms,
larger rooms
Offices,
smaller rooms
8
Recommended
9
ADAPT air terminal
transfer air
central extract air
9
8
Alternative
Recommended
Room damper
for supply air and
extract air
ADAPT air terminal
for supply air and
extract air
Room damper
transfer air
central extract air
15
22
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
20091130
Alternative,
requires external
temperature sensor
= page reference
www.swegon.com
WISE
Project planning – Air terminals
Rooms
In demand-controlled ventilation, the air is utilised for ventilating as well as for air conditioning. It is therefore important
to be able to use air below room temperature. When air
below room temperature is discharged into the room, it must
be possible to reduce the airflow when the heating load
drops, otherwise the room will become uncomfortably cool.
Here are suggestions as to how products for two different
types of room can be sized. You can slso find these examples below the sizing example for room products.
Office, 10 m²
DT = 8K)
Basic ventilation
1 person
Hygiene
Climate
–
4 l/s
–
100 W
7 l/s
–
DT = 8K
1 computer
150 W
–
15 l/s
Lighting
100 W
–
10 l/s
Solar radiation
100 W
–
10 l/s*
Vacancy
4 l/s
Occupancy, min.
11 l/s
Occupancy, max.
Conference room, 25 m²
Airflow needs
45 l/s
In this case we suggest active supply air diffusers, transfer
air and a centrally located extract air register.
Temperature
Integrated into the air terminal
Occupancy
Integrated into the air terminal
Supplementary accessories and operation:
Radiator valve actuator
Control of radiators in sequence
Setpoint selector switch
Room temperature setpoint
displacement
Basic ventilation
Hygiene
Climate
–
9 l/s
–
15 persons
1500 W
105 l/s
–
Computers and
projectors
300 W
–
30 l/s
Lighting
200 W
–
20 l/s
Solar radiation
300 W
–
30 l/s*
Vacancy
9 l/s
Occupancy, min.
105 l/s
Occupancy, max.
230 l/s
*Vary depending on windows, solar protection, point on the compass, etc.
*Vary depending on windows, solar protection, point on the compass, etc.
Recommended room control:
Heating
load
Correct balance is recommended in rooms, such as conference rooms, in which it is important to prevent acoustic
disturbance. We suggest using active room dampers for
supply air and extract air in combination with “ordinary”
air terminals. Air diffusers equipped with air discharge
discs are preferable because they manage air below room
temperature and variable flows extremely well.
Recommended room control:
Temperature
Integrated into the damper
Air quality
Integrated into the damper
(Clean Air Control)
Occupancy
External sensor
Supplementary accessories and operation:
Radiator valve actuator
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
20091130
Control of radiators in sequence
www.swegon.com
23
Project Planning Guide
Airflow needs
Heating
load
WISE
Project planning – Air flows
Zone
Zone dampers serve an important function by maintaining a
constant pressure in the zone. In this way supervision of the
static pressure for the system is divided up into smaller parts,
which gives rise to quicker reaction to changes in pressure,
fewer motor movements and longer useful product life.
L ≤ 40 m
1
The pressure rise in the zone duct should be sufficiently
high to enable achieving design airflow in all the air diffusers. Further pressure rise from the air handling unit is
managed by the zone damper.
2 -10
v = 6-7 m/s
V
2/3 L
2
Pt ≈ 45 Pa
Ps = 40 Pa
The zone damper should be sized based on an air velocity of 6 – 7 m/s at the design max. flow. To obtain food
measurement accuracy under minimum flow conditions,
the min. flow of all the rooms must be summed up and
checked in relation to the flow limits of the zone damper.
If required, the min. flows will have to be increased
slightly in order to be within the limits of the damper.
Pt ≈ 35 Pa
This applies also to the duty range of the air handling unit
(see Sizing, air handling units).
An example is given below as to how a zone might look:
Type rooms
Quantity
m²
Min. (l/s)
Max. (l/s)
Min. zone (l/s)
Max. zone (l/s)
Offices
16
12
4
45
64
720
Conference
2
25
9
230
18
460
Coffee
break room
1
40
14
240
14
200
Other areas
1
318
120
500
120
500
600
0.36 l/s m² 3.20
126
1920
In this example, the total min. flow is
below the recommended airflow for the
zone damper. The same zone with corrected airflows is shown below.
Recommended airflows
qmin (1 m/s)
qmax (7 m/s)
Ø 250
49
344
Ø 315
78
546
Ø 400
126
880
Ø 500
196
1374
600 x 400
240
1680
700 x 400
280
1960
800 x 400
320
2240
1000 x 400
400
2800
Proposal with increasing min. flows
Type rooms
Office
Quantity
m²
Min. (l/s)
Max. (l/s)
Min. zone (l/s)
Max. zone (l/s)
16
12
5
45
80
720
Conference
2
25
15
230
30
460
Coffee
break room
1
40
25
240
25
200
Other areas
1
318
150
500
150
500
600
0.48 l/s m² 3.20
285
1920
Very small changes must be made and the greater portion
of the flow that is added should be distributed to open
areas to avoid chilling individual rooms.
24
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
20091130
www.swegon.com
WISE
Project Planning – Airflows
8 example zones are used for sizing air handling units, two
zones per storey in a 4 storey building.
Air handling unit
Type rooms
Max. and min. airflow for the building
Calculate the max. and min. airflows for the project this
example is based on the four type rooms that were previously used for sizing the zone dampers.
When sizing an air handling unit for demand-controlled
ventilation, it is not possible to size on the basis of the
demands on SFP placed on CAV ventilation systems. It is
important not to oversize the air handling unit so that its air
heater will be able to manage the min. flows in the system.
Max.
l/s*m²
128
12
0.4
3.8
0.65
5.76
Conference
16
25
0.6
9.2
0.24
3.68
Coffee
break room
8
40
0.6
6.0
0.20
1.60
Other areas
8
318
0.5
1.6
1.20
3.99
2.28
15.35
3.20
4,000 m²
Quantity
Airflow
GOLD RX
Min.
Max.
2
2.28
12.28
1.14
6.14
80%
m³/s per GOLD
Swegon recommends the GOLD air handling unit since they
have a larger working range than the majority of the air
handling units with plenum fans available on the market.
Length
Width
Height
Weight
Duct
connection
mm
mm
mm
kg
mm
Airflow, m³/s
Min.
Max.
04
1500
820
1020
260
Ø 315
0.08
0.42
0.45
05
1500
820
1020
260
Ø 315
0.08
0.42
0.62
08
1600
990
1185
315
Ø 400
0.10
0.72
0.90
14
2080
1295
1495
640
1000x400
0.20
1.10
1.10
20
2080
1295
1495
640
1000x400
0.20
1.50
1.80
25
2220
1595
1795
840
1200x500
0.30
2.20
2.20
30
2220
1595
1795
840
1200x500
0.30
2.50
3.00
35
2300
1885
2085
1100
1400x600
0.60
3.10
3.10
40
2300
1885
2085
1100
1400x600
0.60
3.40
4.10
50
2670
2318
2376
1690
1600x800
0.80
4.60
4.60
60
2670
2318
2376
1690
1600x800
0.80
5.00
6.00
70
3070
2637
2752
2379
1800x1000
1.00
6.30
6.30
80
3070
2637
2752
2379
1800x1000
1.00
7.00
8.20
GOLD RX, rotary heat exchanger, size 70
Available total pressure rise, Pa
Airflow, m3/h
This provides lower pressure losses, lower SFP and thus
lower operating costs than without pressure optimisation.
2
L w,tot
1
80dB
85
90
2
1
The diagram curves indicate the principle, and the benefit,
of using CONTROL Optimize.
L w,tot
Without CONTROL Optimize
With CONTROL Optimize
Swegon reserves the right to alter specifications.
250 Pa
80dB
85
90
Airflow, m3/s
20091130
www.swegon.com
25
Project Planning Guide
GOLD
RX
It is possible to size for low SFP values, but then you
must take into account that the min. flow will be higher.
Depending on operating times for the various operating
conditions, the use of energy as a whole may be higher
for a larger air handling unit with a low SFP owing to the
long operating periods with higher min. flow than what a
smaller air handling unit uses.
m²/s
m²/s
Office
Atemp
If the total min. flow of the system drops lower than recommended min. flow for the selected air handling unit,
the min. flows of the system must be increased and, as a
suggestion, must percentage-wise be distributed evenly
throughout the ventilation system.
If the duct system is correctly sized and we have equipped
the air handling unit with pressure optimisation (CONTROL Opimize), the pressure rise will drop in step with the
airflow and thus follow the operating line of the fan.
Min.
l/s*m²
Diversity
factor
Even if you strive to obtain as low flows as possible with
demand-controlled ventilation, it is important to ventilate
the building. We therefore recommend that the airflow is
not lower than 0.35 l/s m².
Pressure optimisation
To the right, we have specified the working range for the
example above.
m²
0.48
Moreover you can take a diversity factor into consideration for
the max. airflow of the air handling unit, in this example 80%.
Post air treatment
The air handling unit in the building can of course be
supplemented with post air treatment for heating and
cooling respectively in order to guarantee correct supply
air temperature. As an extra heating source, an electric
as well as a water coil-type air heater can be selected.
Depending on which type of post heating you choose,
the supply air temperature may periodically fluctuate to a
certain degree in consequence of the control function of
the electric air heater. Over a longer time, five minutes,
the temperature will be relatively constant.
Quantity
EN-WISE Technical Section, 2009-11-30
Complete documentation is available at
www.swegon.com
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