ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions

ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions
1040
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 54, NO. 5, MAY 2007
ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions
Stephen J. Pearton, Fellow, IEEE, David P. Norton, Matt P. Ivill, Art F. Hebard,
John M. Zavada, Weimin M. Chen, and Irina A. Buyanova
Abstract—Spin-dependent phenomena in ZnO may lead to devices with new or enhanced functionality, such as polarized solidstate light sources and sensitive biological and chemical sensors.
In this paper, we review the experimental results on transition
metal doping of ZnO and show that the material can be made
with a single phase at high levels of Co incorporation (∼15 at.%)
and exhibits the anomalous Hall effect. ZnO is expected to be one
of the most promising materials for room-temperature polarized
light emission; but to date, we have been unable to detect the
optical spin polarization in ZnO. The short spin relaxation time
observed likely results from the Rashba effect. Possible solutions
involve either cubic phase ZnO or the use of additional stressor
layers to create a larger spin splitting in order to get a polarized
light emission from these structures or to look at alternative
semiconductors and fresh device approaches.
Fig. 1. Predicted Curie temperature as a function of lattice constant for a
variety of semiconductors [after S.C.Erwin (Naval Research Laboratory)]. The
materials predicted to have high TC s have large p–d hybridization and small
spin-orbit interaction.
Index Terms—Spintronics, ZnO.
I. INTRODUCTION
T
HERE IS current interest in the development of dilute
magnetic semiconductors (DMS) exhibiting ferromagnetic behavior for spin-based light-emitting diodes, sensors,
and transistors [1]–[3]. These materials are formed through the
introduction of transition metal (TM) ions, such as Mn and Cr,
or rare earth ions into the host semiconductor. Both types of
ions have partially filled d and f shells, respectively, which
give rise to unpaired electrons. The magnetic behavior of such
materials depends upon the concentration of the TM ions in
the crystal, the carrier density, and the crystal quality. The term
DMS refers to the fact that some fractions of the atoms in
a nonmagnetic semiconductor host like ZnO are replaced by
magnetic ions. Generally, when 3d TM ions are substituted for
the cations of the host, their electronic structure is influenced
by the strong 3d orbitals of the magnetic ion and the p orbitals
of the neighboring anions. There are two interacting subsystems in DMS materials, namely the delocalized conduction
Manuscript received April 11, 2006; revised September 19, 2006. This
work was supported in part by the AFOSR grant under Grant F4962003-1-0370, by the Army Research Office under Grant DAAD19-01-1-0603, and
by the National Science Foundation (DMR 0400416, Dr. L. Hess). The review
of this paper was arranged by Editor R. Ramesh.
S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, and M. P. Ivill are with the Department of
Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611 USA (e-mail: [email protected]).
A. F. Hebard is with the Department of Physics, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
J. M. Zavada is with the Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park,
NC 27709 USA.
W. M. Chen and I. A. Buyanova are with the Department of Physics and
Measurement Technology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TED.2007.894371
band electrons and valence band holes and the random diluted
system of localized magnetic moments associated with the
magnetic atoms.
The discovery of ferromagnetic ordering in the Mn-doped
narrow bandgap semiconductors generated a tremendous attention. However, DMS materials such as GaMnAs, InMnAs,
and GaMnSb, have thus far shown a relatively low magnetic
ordering temperature (∼170 K for GaMnAs), which limits
their utility. Recently, many research groups have reported a
work directed toward achieving ferromagnetism at or above
room temperature in wide bandgap materials, such as GaMnN
and ZnMnO [4]–[70]. This property makes these materials
attractive for use as nonvolatile switching elements, where the
bit state of the device is determined through the control of
electron spin. In addition, the integration of photonic (laser
and light-emitting diodes), electronic (field-effect and bipolar
transistors), and magnetic (information storage) devices on a
single substrate, leading to a new class of electronic devices
that offer multipurpose functionality, might be possible with the
availability of the DMS materials with high Curie temperatures.
Fig. 1 shows that the wider bandgap semiconductors, which
tend to have smaller lattice constants, large p–d hybridization,
and small spin-orbit interaction, are predicted to have higher
Curie temperatures [10].
II. MECHANISMS FOR FERROMAGNETISM
Mean field theory predicts that the Curie temperature for high
carrier density DMS materials such as GaMnAs will be given
by [1]–[3], [10]
0018-9383/$25.00 © 2007 IEEE
TC = CNMn β 2 m∗ p1/3
PEARTON et al.: ZnO DOPED WITH TRANSITION METAL IONS
where NMn is the concentration of uncompensated Mn spins,
β is the coupling constant between the localized Mn spins and
the free holes (p–d coupling), m∗ is the effective mass of the
holes, and p is the free hole concentration. It is now generally
accepted that for low carrier density systems such as ZnO,
mechanisms other than the carrier-induced ferromagnetism are
more likely, such as the formation of bound magnetic polarons
in a system that also has direct antiferromagnetic coupling between closely spaced TM ions [5]. As the sample temperature is
lowered, the polarons increase in radius and eventually overlap
at the Curie temperature.
Much of the theory for ZnO DMS materials has come
from Sato and Katayama-Yoshida [5], [11], [30]–[33]. The
ferromagnetic state is predicted to stabilize for most of the
TM dopants except Mn. For ZnO, some of the theoretical
predictions suggest that only p-type (Zn, Mn)O can lead to ferromagnetism. However, most of the experimental observations
of ferromagnetism have been for insulating (Zn, Mn)O, n-type
(Zn, Mn)O, and undoped (Zn, Mn)O. Values of TC above
room temperature have been reported for Mn, Co, Sc, Ti, and
V-doped n-type ZnO powders and films deposited on variety of
substrates (usually sapphire) by a variety of methods, including
sintering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Table I shows a
compilation of recent work in this area [6]–[8].
The most recent model is that due to Coey et al. [4], the
so-called spin-split-orbit model. This is consistent with the observed magnetization in n-type ZnO doped with TMs. The ferromagnetic exchange is mediated by shallow donor electrons
that form the bound magnetic polarons, which in turn overlap
to create a spin-split impurity band. Magnetic ions in different
charge states couple by virtual hopping of the “extra” electron
from one ion to the other [4]. The 3d electrons in the partially
occupied 3d orbitals are allowed to hop to the 3d orbitals of
the neighboring TM, if the neighboring TM ions have parallel
magnetic moments. The ferromagnetic exchange is mediated
by charge carriers in a spin-split impurity band formed by
extended donor states. The impurity states hybridize with the
d-orbits of the TM elements. It was shown that for Sc, Ti, and
V, the spin-up states of the 3d TM element are aligned with
the impurity levels, resulting in significant alignment. Similarly,
for Fe, Co, and Ni doping, the spin-down states perform the
same function. It was suggested that Mn and Cr doping would
not lead to strong magnetization due to a small hybridization
[4], [46], [47], although other reports suggest otherwise.
To be considered a true DMS, it is necessary to show that the
carrier population is polarized. This can be done through transport measurements, especially the observation of the anomalous
Hall effect (AHE) or by observation of the polarized light
emission from a quantum well using the DMS material as a spin
injector. The latter has not yet been demonstrated for the ZnO
system. The AHE is a ferromagnetic response of charge carriers in electrically conductive ferromagnets, producing a Hall
voltage proportional to the magnetization. Its presence is generally attributed to asymmetric carrier scattering by magnetic
impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interactions [28], [65].
The AHE represents the ferromagnetic spin polarization of
the charge carriers. Thus, the observation of the AHE was
recognized as a strong evidence for the intrinsic ferromag-
1041
netism of DMS. However, the AHE can be observed for nonmagnetic material embedded with magnetic clusters when their
density is around the bulk percolation threshold [66]. The nonmagnetic material embedded with the magnetic clusters may
show an appreciable magnetoresistance in accordance with the
saturation of the magnetization, implying the spin-dependent
scattering of the charge carriers between the magnetic clusters.
Thus, even the presence of the AHE is not a complete proof for
the existence of a true DMS material [66].
Ando and coworkers [20], [27] reported the magnetooptical
effects in TM-doped ZnO thin films by a magnetic circular
dichroism (MCD). Magnetization measurements showed that
some of the films were paramagnetic, and others were ferromagnetic. The MCD clarified that ZnO:Co and ZnO:Ni were
paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors. Ferromagnetic
precipitations appear to be responsible for the observed ferromagnetic behaviors. The MCD method measures the optical
transitions allowed under various optical polarizations involving split-off bands due to the Zeeman effect, which is enhanced
by sp–d exchange interactions. ZnO films grown on latticematched ScAlMgO4 substrates exhibited an MCD structure at
the bandgap of 3.4 eV. The MCD spectra of the ZnO films
doped with Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu using a PLD were
measured. Those doped with Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu showed
clear MCD structures near 3.4 eV. The films doped with Sc,
Ti, V, and Cr did not exhibit any magnetooptical effect. The
magnetic field and temperature dependence of the MCD spectra
show that all of these latter films were paramagnetic. It is also
clear from these data that factors such as the crystalline quality
can influence the magnetic properties of the DMS materials,
and this is certainly true of ZnO [22], [67].
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR ZnO DMS
Table I shows that there is still a wide variation reported
for the magnetic properties of the TM-doped ZnO [6]–[8],
[67]. For example, a ferromagnetism with TC > 300 K was
observed in Zn1−x (Co0.5 Fe0.5 )x O thin films prepared by magnetron cosputtering and postannealed in vacuum. However,
bulk Zn1−x Cox O has been found to be antiferromagnetic in
polycrystalline powder samples prepared by both solid-state
and liquid-phase reactions. This antiferromagnetic behavior
may result from Co clusters observed in the Zn1−x Cox O powder, together with a population of interstitial Co atoms instead
of substitutionl Co [67]. Some experimental data show that homogeneous films of Zn1−x Cox O exhibit a spin-glass behavior,
whereas inhomogeneous Zn1−x Cox O films are more likely to
demonstrate room-temperature ferromagnetism [6]–[8], [67].
This is an evidence that the Co clusters might be the
source of the high TC ferromagnetism in some Zn1−x Cox O.
Norton et al. observed such an effect for ZnO films implanted
with high doses of Co ions [55]. Given that the concentrations
of TM ions needed to achieve high Curie temperatures are at
or above the solid solubility, it is clear that small variations
in the growth parameters will lead to a variety of outcomes,
ranging from uniform alloys to clustering of TM atoms to
the precipitation and formation of second phases that may
contribute to the observed magnetic properties.
1042
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 54, NO. 5, MAY 2007
TABLE I
LIST OF ZnO-BASED DMS RECENTLY REPORTED (AFTER [8] AND [9])
Fukumura and coworkers [12]–[14] first reported the
ZnMnO grown by a PLD. Up to 35%, Mn was incorporated
into the ZnO without degrading the crystallographic quality.
This is in sharp contrast to III-V DMS, where about 5%–9%
is tolerable before the crystallinity breaks down [67] and the
precipitation is detectable by X-ray diffraction, transmission
electron microscopy, and chemical profiling techniques. The
high solubility of Mn in ZnO is due to the exactly half-filled
PEARTON et al.: ZnO DOPED WITH TRANSITION METAL IONS
3d orbitals of Mn2+ . It costs a considerable amount of energy
to add an electron with an opposite spin to the 3d5 orbital, so
that the Mn behaves similarly to Zn [67]. The reports of high
solubility of Mn in ZnO led to many efforts on synthesis of the
TM-doped ZnO. The growth of these ferromagnetic materials
by thin film techniques provides an excellent control of the
TM dopant concentration and the ability to grow single-phase
layers under optimized conditions, as measured by conventional
X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements. However, in some cases, the results concerning
the existence of ferromagnetism have been somewhat controversial, partially because of the sensitivity of the resulting
magnetic properties to the exact growth conditions and also to
incomplete characterization of the magnetic properties. While
some groups have reported ferromagnetism in (Zn, TM)O
systems, others report the observations of antiferromagnetic or
spin-glass behavior. Important contributions in this regard have
come from Kundaliya et al. [36] whose data strongly suggested
that the observed ferromagnetism in the low-temperatureprocessed Mn-Zn-O system was due to a metastable phase
(oxygen- vacancy-stabilized Mn2−x Znx O3−δ ) rather than by
carrier-induced interactions between separated Mn atoms in
ZnO, and also by García et al. [37] who reported that MnO2 −
ZnO pellets exhibited a ferromagnetism due to the interface
formed at the ZnO diffusion front into the Mn oxide. The
reported values of TC scatter from 25 to > 550 K. Similarly,
conflicting results also exist concerning the distribution of TM
ions such as Mn [28]. In RF magnetron sputter-deposited (Zn,
Mn)O, Cheng and Chien [18] found Mn to be distributed homogeneously, while by contrast, Jin et al. [19] reported the clustering of Mn atoms. Once again, the exact growth conditions are
crucial in determining the magnetic properties of the material
at these high impurity concentrations [6]–[8], [66], [67]. A key
issue in many of the published reports is whether the resulting
material is indeed an alloy of TM elements with the host material or whether it remains as the host material with clusters, precipitates, or second phases that are responsible for the observed
magnetic properties. A relatively complete characterization of
the DMS would involve magnetic hysteresis measurements
as well as fiel d-cooled and zero fiel d-cooled magnetization, magnetotransport, high-resolution transmission electron
microscopy, chemical bonding information obtained from Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and lattice location measurements by ion channeling or extended X-ray absorption fine
structure (EXAFS). In most cases, such a detailed characterization is not carried out. The ZnO system provides an excellent
platform for studying such effects, since most of the secondary
phases that could form cannot explain the observed magnetism.
IV. AHE IN COBALT-DOPED ZnO FILMS
A key issue to understanding and exploiting the ferromagnetism in TM-doped semiconductors materials is to elucidate
the degree to which magnetic ordering couples to the carriers.
One measurement that probes the carriers and magnetism is
the AHE [71], [72]. Critical information about the physical
mechanism responsible for ferromagnetism can be obtained
by a measurement of AHE. The Hall resistivity of magnetic
1043
materials can be expressed as a sum of two terms, the ordinary
part and anomalous one
ρxy = R0 · B + Rs · µ0 · M
(1)
where R0 and Rs are the ordinary and anomalous Hall coefficients, respectively, B is the magnetic field, µ0 is the magnetic
permeability, and M is the magnetization. While the ordinary
Hall effect results from the Lorenz force, the AHE is related to
the asymmetric scattering of the charge carriers where the spinorbit interaction plays the important role [73]. It is known that
two mechanisms of scattering are responsible for the AHE: the
skew scattering (anisotropic amplitude of scattered wave packet
in the presence of spin-orbit coupling) and the side jump (the
changes in paths of charge carrier due to a lateral displacement)
[74]. Recently, Jungwirth et al. [73] proposed a competing
mechanism for the AHE in semimagnetic semiconductors. This
theory relates the AHE to a Berry phase acquired by a quasiparticle wave function upon traversing closed paths on the spinsplit Fermi surface. For TM-doped oxides, previous results have
shown an AHE in cobalt-doped TiO2 films with anatase crystals
[74]–[76]. Rutile TiO2 has been also been reported [77], [78].
Similar results have not been reported for ZnO. In this paper, the
Hall effect and magnetoresistance measurement for the cobaltdoped ZnO films have been performed.
V. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
Epitaxial Co-doped ZnO films were grown by a conventional
PLD. Laser ablation targets were prepared from high purity
powders of ZnO (99.999%), with Co3 O4 (99.99%) serving as
the doping agent. The pressed targets were sintered in air. The
targets were fabricated with a nominal composition ranging
from 2.0 to 30 at.% Co. A Lambda Physik KrF excimer laser
was used as the ablation source. The laser energy density was
1–3 J/cm2 with a laser repetition rate of 1 Hz and target-tosubstrate distance of 6 cm. The growth chamber exhibits a base
pressure of 10−5 torr. Films were deposited onto single crystal
c-plane oriented sapphire substrates. Film growth experiments
were conducted over a temperature range of 400 ◦ C–600 ◦ C. An
oxygen pressure ranging from 10−5 –10−2 torr was used for all
film growth experiments. Film thicknesses were approximately
300–400 nm. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the
crystallinity and secondary phase formation. Superconducting
Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry was
used to characterize the ferromagnetic behavior of the doped
films. Detailed microstructure characterization was performed
using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray
diffraction, and EXAFS. All of these techniques showed the
material to be a single crystal with an absence of detectable
second phases and the Co soluble on substitutional sites. Roomtemperature magnetization was measured by a quantum design
SQUID.
The Hall measurements were taken in a Physical Property
Measurement System manufactured by Quantum Design Inc.
The sample pucks were loaded into a 1-in diameter cylinder
kept at 7.6-torr pressure of helium exchange gas. This cylinder
is enclosed by a liquid helium Dewar which itself is enclosed
1044
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 54, NO. 5, MAY 2007
Fig. 2. SQUID magnetization data for Co-doped ZnO film. Total cobalt
doping is 15 at.%. The saturation magnetization corresponds to 0.35 µB /Co.
by another Dewar filled with liquid nitrogen. The sample can
be cooled down to 1.9 K. The measurements were performed
automatically by computer control.
VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Co-doped epitaxial ZnO films realized for a growth temperature of 400 ◦ C–600 ◦ C and oxygen pressure of 10−5 torr
exhibited a crystalline quality similar to that seen in a previous
work on undoped films. The films are near single phase and
epitaxial with a small amount of secondary phase seen in some
of the XRD data. For cobalt doping 2 at.% and greater, hysteretic loops are observed in the magnetization measurements
at room temperature. Magnetization data for a ZnO film doped
with 15 at.% are shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the magnetic
field dependence of the Hall voltage at 10 K for Co-doped ZnO
thin films. The negative linear slope indicates n-type majority
carriers in the ZnO matrix.
There is some nonlinearity in the Hall data. This is due
to an interference from the magnetoresistance curvature. The
curvature is more pronounced when the high-field hall slopes
are subtracted from the entire Hall curve. Contributions to the
Hall resistivity due to the AHE are difficult to distinguish from
the ordinary part. However, the contribution of the anomalous
Hall can be seen by subtracting the ordinary Hall voltage
contribution. It is expected that the anomalous part of the Hall
voltage, which is proportional to magnetization, is dominant
for lower magnetic field, whereas the ordinary part, which is
proportional to the inverse of n, dominates the measurements
at higher magnetic field [73], [76]. In order to investigate the
magnetic field dependence of the Hall voltage, the Hall effect
measurement was performed over a wide range of magnetic
fields. From (1), the first term denotes ordinary Hall effect
and the second term denotes the AHE, where the latter term
dominates over the former term in typical ferromagnetic materials. If the charge carrier is spin polarized, the Hall voltage
versus B (B ∼ µ0 H) curve should behave like a magnetization
hysteresis curve. Fig. 3 shows the Hall voltage for a ZnO
Fig. 3. Hall voltage for a ZnO film doped with 15% cobalt. Nonlinear AHE
terms can be extracted by subtracting the ordinary Hall voltage derived from
the high-field behavior. The inflection in the curve at low fields indicates a
nonzero value for Rs in (1). Extracting the odd and even field components
from the raw data produces two new graphs: The even terms have the shape of
the magnetoresistance component and the odd terms give the Hall component.
The unit of Hall voltage is volts.
PEARTON et al.: ZnO DOPED WITH TRANSITION METAL IONS
1045
Fig. 4. Extracted anomalous Hall voltage for ZnO film doped with 15 at.%
cobalt.
film doped with 15% cobalt. With the ordinary Hall effect
dominant, nonlinear AHE terms can be extracted by subtracting
the ordinary Hall voltage, derived from the high-field behavior.
The inflection in the curve at low fields indicates a nonzero
value for Rs in (1).
Extracting the odd and even field components from the raw
data produces two new graphs: The even terms have the shape
of the magnetoresistance component, and the odd terms give the
Hall component. Note that the even terms are of similar shape as
seen for the raw resistivity data. Subtracting the high-field slope
from the entire odd field component graph produces a better
representation of the AHE as compared to using the raw data.
This is shown in Fig. 4. The overall shape of the anomalous
Hall voltage is similar to a magnetization curve as expected.
It has been suggested that the appearance of an AHE could be
attributed to the spin scattering due to ferromagnetic nanoparticles distributed in a nonmagnetic semiconducting matrix [76].
Selected area electron diffraction only shows peaks associated
with ZnO. Fig. 5 shows a high-resolution TEM image and
selected area diffraction pattern for a Co-doped ZnO film.
No evidence is seen for cobalt metal precipitates, or other
secondary phases are seen in the selected area diffraction.
VII. SPIN RELAXATION
Detailed time-resolved magneto-PL results from undoped
and Mn-doped ZnO structures have recently been performed
in an effort to detect the polarized light emission [79]. The
preliminary conclusions can be summarized as follows.
1) In an applied magnetic field, the ZnO PL becomes polarized to about 10% at 6T. The polarization degree
decreases with increasing emission energy. The behavior
is similar for both undoped and doped ZnO. Data for
Zn(Mn,Mg)O/ZnO/AlGaN spin LEDs grown on sapphire
are shown in Fig. 6.
2) No transient PL polarization is noticeable by monitoring
the high-energy side of the PL emission, as shown in
Fig. 5. High-resolution TEM image and selected area electron diffraction
pattern for a ZnO film doped with 15 at.% cobalt. The electron diffraction
pattern corresponds to the wurtzite structure. The scale marker is 5 nm.
Fig. 7. This can be attributed to very fast spin relaxation
between the Zeeman split spin levels, faster than the
experimental resolution about 20 ps, even near k = 0.
By monitoring the low-energy side of the PL band, on
the other hand, a polarization rising (although weak) with
time seems to occur indicating a slower spin relaxation
process associated with the monitored emission. This
energy dependence is opposite to what we observed in
the InGaN QW [68]–[70].
3) No information on spin relaxation accompanying the
energy relaxation of hot carriers, which is relevant to
spin injection from barrier materials, could be obtained
from the present results. For that optical orientation
experiments have to be performed; although given that
the valence band structure of ZnO is rather similar to
that of GaN, the outlook is not hopeful [68]–[70]. It
appears that the spin relaxation occurs mostly during the
energy relaxation processes at a high momentum that is
1046
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 54, NO. 5, MAY 2007
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank G. Thaler and Y. D. Park for
their valuable collaborations on these projects.
R EFERENCES
Fig. 6. PL spectra at 2K from Zn(Mn,Mg)O/ZnO/AlGaN spin LEDs grown
on sapphire, as well as their polarization properties at.
Fig. 7. Time-resolved PL intensity measured from ZnO (detected within the
spectral range of 365–432 nm) from Zn(Mn,Mg)O/ZnO/AlGaN spin LED,
as well as the polarization properties at a field of 6T(bottom).
beyond the reach of commonly available experimental
techniques, as is true for the previously reported InGaN
quantum wells [66]–[68].
VIII. FUTURE WORK
More detailed studies of the carrier type and concentration
dependence of magnetization are needed in ZnO. In particular,
methods such as EXAFS or XPS that establish lattice location
or chemical state should be applied in order to give more insight
into possible mechanisms for the observed ferromagnetism.
Spin polarized injection, transport and detection experiments
in ZnO or ZnCdO/ZnMgO heterostructures are lacking at
present as they are clear demonstrations of carrier- or lightinduced ferromagnetism. Device demonstrations of the exploitation of spin effects in oxides are the key to advancing both
the science and technology of these materials for spintronic
applications.
[1] P. Kacman, “Spin interactions in DMS and magnetic semiconductor structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. R25–R39, Apr. 2001.
[2] S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton,
S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger,
“Spintronics: A spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science,
vol. 294, no. 5546, pp. 1488–1495, Nov. 2001.
[3] S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, M. E. Overberg, G. T. Thaler, D. P.
Norton, N. Theodoropoulou, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, F. Ren, J. Kim, and
L. A. Boatner, “Wide bandgap ferromagnetic semiconductors and oxides,”
J. Appl. Phys., vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 1–21, Jan. 2003.
[4] J. M. D. Coey, M. Venkatesan, and C. B. Fitzgerald, “Donor impurity
band exchange in dilute ferromagnetic oxides,” Nat. Mater., vol. 4, no. 4,
pp. 173–176, Apr. 2005.
[5] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, “First principles design for semiconductor spintronics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 367–376,
Apr. 2002.
[6] W. Prellier, A. Fouchet, and B. Mercey, “Oxide-diluted magnetic semiconductors: A review of the experimental status,” J. Phys., Condens. Matter,
vol. 15, no. 37, pp. R1583–R1601, Sep. 2003.
[7] T. Fukumura, Y. Yamada, H. Toyosaki, T. Hasegawa, H. Koinuma, and
M. Kawasaki, “Exploration of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductors toward transparent spintronics,” Appl. Surface. Sci., vol. 223, no. 1–3,
pp. 62–67, Feb. 2004.
[8] S. J. Pearton, W. H. Heo, M. Ivill, D. P. Norton, and T. Steiner, “Dilute magnetic semiconducting oxides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 19,
no. 10, pp. R59–R76, Oct. 2004.
[9] I. Zutic, J. Fabian, and S. D. Sarma, “Spintronics: Fundamentals and
applications,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 323–410, Apr. 2004.
[10] T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model
description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,”
Science, vol. 287, no. 5455, pp. 1019–1022, Feb. 2000.
[11] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, “Stabilization of ferromagnetic states
by electron doping in Fe-,Co-, or Ni-doped ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,
vol. 40, no. 4, pp. L334–L336, Apr. 2001.
[12] T. Fukumura, Z. Jin, M. Kawasaki, T. Shono, T. Hasegawa, S. Koshihara,
and H. Koinuma, “Magnetic properties of Mn-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys.
Lett., vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 958–960, Feb. 2001.
[13] T. Fukumura, Z. Jin, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “An
oxide-diluted magnetic semiconductor: Mn-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys.
Lett., vol. 75, no. 21, pp. 3366–3368, Nov. 1999.
[14] Z. Jin, T. Fukumura, M. Kawasaki, K. Ando, H. Saito, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Z.
Yoo, M. Murakami, Y. Matsumoto, T. Hasegawa, and H. Koinuma, “High
throughput fabrication of transition-metal-doped epitaxial ZnO thin films:
A series of oxide-diluted magnetic semiconductors and their properties,”
Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 24, pp. 3824–3826, Jun. 2001.
[15] J.-H. Kim, H. Kim, D. Kim, Y.-E. Ihm, and W.-K. Choo, “Magnetic
properties of epitaxially grown semiconducting Zn1−x Cox O thin films
by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 6066–6071,
Nov. 2002.
[16] A. Tiwari, C. Jin, A. Kvit, D. Kumar, J. F. Muth, and J. Narayan, “Structural, optical and magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconducting
Zn1−x Mnx O films,” Solid State Commun., vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 371–373,
Feb. 2002.
[17] S. J. Han, T. H. Jang, Y. B. Kim, B. G. Park, J. H. Park, and Y. H. Jeong,
“Magnetism in Mn-doped ZnO bulk samples prepared by solid state
reaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 920–922, Aug. 2003.
[18] X. M. Cheng and C. L. Chien, “Magnetic properties of epitaxial Mndoped ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 7876–7879,
May 2003.
[19] Z. Jin, Y.-Z. Yoo, T. Sekiguchi, T. Chikyow, H. Ofuchi, H. Fujioka,
M. Oshima, and H. Koinuma, “Blue and ultraviolet cathodoluminescence
from Mn-doped epitaxial ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 1,
pp. 39–41, Jul. 2003.
[20] K. Ando, H. Saito, V. Zayets, and M. C. Debnath, “Optical properties and
functions of dilute magnetic semiconductors,” J. Phys., Condens. Matter,
vol. 16, no. 48, pp. S5541–S5548, Dec. 2004.
[21] S. W. Jung, S.-J. An, G.-C. Yi, C. U. Jung, S.-I. Lee, and S. Cho,
“Ferromagnetic properties of Zn1−x Mnx O epitaxial thin films,” Appl.
Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 24, pp. 4561–4563, Jun. 2002.
PEARTON et al.: ZnO DOPED WITH TRANSITION METAL IONS
[22] Y. W. Heo, M. P. Ivill, K. Ip, D. P. Norton, and S. J. Pearton, “Effects
of high-dose Mn implantation into ZnO grown on sapphire,” Appl. Phys.
Lett., vol. 84, no. 13, pp. 2292–2294, Mar. 2004.
[23] S. W. Lim, M. C. Jeong, M. H. Ham, and J. M. Hyoung, “Hole-mediated
ferromagnetic properties in ZnMnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 2,
pp. L280–L283, Feb. 2004.
[24] D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. F. Hebard, N. Theodoropoulou, L. A.
Boatner, and R. G. Wilson, “Ferromagnetism in Mn-implanted ZnO:Sn
single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 239–241, Jan. 2003.
[25] K. Ando, H. Saito, Z. Jin, T. Fukumura, M. Kawasaki, Y. Matsumoto,
and H. Koinuma, “Magneto-optical properties of ZnO-based diluted magnetic semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 7284–7286,
Jun. 2001.
[26] K. Ueda, H. Tabata, and T. Kawai, “Magnetic and electric properties
of transition-metal-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 7,
pp. 988–990, Aug. 2001.
[27] K. Ando, H. Saito, Z. Jin, T. Fukumura, M. Kawasaki, Y. Matsumoto, and
H. Koinuma, “Large magneto-optical effect in an oxide diluted magnetic
semiconductor Zn1−x Cox O,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 18, pp. 2700–
2702, Apr. 2001.
[28] Y. M. Cho, W. K. Choo, H. Kim, D. Kim, and Y. E. Ihm, “Effects
of rapid thermal annealing on the ferromagnetic properties of sputtered
Zn1−x (Co0.5 Fe0.5 )x O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 18,
pp. 3358–3360, May 2002.
[29] S. W. Yoon, S.-B. Cho, S. C. We, S. Yoon, B. J. Suh, H. K. Song, and
Y. J. Shin, “Magnetic properties of ZnO-based diluted magnetic semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 7879–7882, May 2003.
[30] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, “Materials design of transparent and
half-metallic ferromagnets in V or Cr-doped ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe,”
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. L651–L653, Jul. 2001.
[31] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, “Ferromagnetism in a transition metal
atom doped ZnO,” Physica E, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 251–255, May 2001.
[32] H. Katayama-Yoshida and K. Sato, “Materials design for semiconductor spintronics by ab initio electronic-structure calculation,” Physica B,
vol. 327, no. 2, pp. 337–343, Apr. 2003.
[33] K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, “Electronic structure and ferromagnetism of transition-metal-impurity-doped zinc oxide,” Physica B,
vol. 308–310, no. 1, pp. 904–907, Dec. 2001.
[34] P. Sharma, A. Gupta, K. V. Rao, F. J. Owens, R. Sharma, R. Ahuja, J. M.
Osorio Guillen, B. Johansson, and G. A. Gehring, “Ferromagnetism above
room temperature in bulk and transparent thin films of Mn-doped ZnO,”
Nat. Mater., vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 673–677, Oct. 2003.
[35] P. Sharma, A. Gupta, F. J. Owens, A. Inoue, and K. V. Rao, “Room temperature spintronic material—Mn-doped ZnO revisited,” J. Magn. Magn.
Mater., vol. 282, no. 11, pp. 115–121, Nov. 2004.
[36] D. C. Kundaliya, S. B. Ogale, S. E. Lofland, S. Dhar, C. J. Metting, S. R.
Shinde, Z. Ma, B. Varughese, K. V. Ramanujachary, L. Salamanca-Riba,
and T. Venkatesan, “On the origin of high-temperature ferromagnetism
in the low-temperature-processed Mn–Zn–O system,” Nat. Mater., vol. 3,
no. 10, pp. 709–714, Oct. 2004.
[37] M. A. García, M. L. Ruiz-González, A. Quesada, J. L. Costa-Krämer,
J. F. Fernández, S. J. Khatib, A. Wennberg, A. C. Caballero,
M. S. Martín-González, M. Villegas, F. Briones, J. M. González-Calbet,
and A. Hernando, “Interface double-exchange ferromagnetism in the
Mn-Zn-O system: New class of biphase magnetism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,
vol. 94, no. 21, p. 217 206, Jun. 2005.
[38] I. Satoh and T. Kobayashi, “Magnetic and optical properties of novel
magnetic semiconductor Cr-doped ZnO and its application to all oxide
p–i–n diode,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 603–608, Jun. 2003.
[39] N. H. Hong, V. Brize, and J. Sakai, “Mn-doped ZnO and (Mn, Cu)doped ZnO thin films: Does the Cu doping indeed play a key role in
tuning the ferromagnetism?” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 8, p. 082 505,
Feb. 2005.
[40] N. H. Hong, J. Sakai, and A. Hassini, “Magnetism in V-doped ZnO thin
films,” J. Phys., Condens. Matter., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 199–204, Jan. 2005.
[41] Y. H. Jeong, S. J. Han, J. H. Park, and Y. H. Lee, “A critical examination of
room temperature ferromagnetism in transition metal-doped oxide semiconductors,” J. Magn. Mag. Mater., vol. 272–276, no. 3, pp. 1976–1980,
May 2004.
[42] D. A. Schwartz, K. R. Kittilstved, and D. R. Gamelin, “Above-roomtemperature ferromagnetic Ni2+ -doped ZnO thin films prepared from
colloidal diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys.
Lett., vol. 85, no. 8, pp. 1395–1397, Aug. 2004.
[43] P. V. Radovanovic and D. R. Gamelin, “High-temperature ferromagnetism
in Ni2+ -doped ZnO aggregates prepared from colloidal diluted magnetic
semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 91, no. 15, p. 157 202,
Oct. 2003.
1047
[44] T. Mizokawa, T. Nambu, A. Fujimori, T. Fukumura, and M. Kawasaki,
“Electronic structure of the oxide-diluted magnetic semiconductor
Zn1−x Mnx O,” Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 65, no. 8, p. 085 209,
Feb. 2002.
[45] C.-H. Chien, S. H. Chiou, G. Y. Guo, and Y.-D. Yao, “Electronic structure
and magnetic moments of 3d transition metal-doped ZnO,” J. Magn.
Magn. Mater., vol. 282, no. 11, pp. 275–278, Nov. 2004.
[46] X. Feng, “Electronic structures and ferromagnetism of Cu- and Mndoped ZnO,” J. Phys., Condens. Matter., vol. 16, no. 24, pp. 4251–4260,
Jun. 2004.
[47] S. Y. Yun, G.-B. Cha, Y. Kwon, S. Cho, S. C. Soon, and C. Hong,
“First-principles calculations on magnetism of transition metal doped zinc
oxide,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 272–276, no. 5, pp. E1563–E1564,
May 2004.
[48] M. Venkatesan, C. B. Fitzgerald, J. G. Lunney, and J. M. D. Coey,
“Anisotropic ferromagnetism in substituted zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,
vol. 93, no. 17, p. 177 206, Oct. 2004.
[49] K. W. Nielsen, J. B. Phillip, M. Opel, A. Erb, J. Simon, L. Alff, and
R. Gross, “Ferromagnetism in Mn-doped ZnO due to impurity bands,”
Superlatt. Microstruct., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 327–332, May 2005.
[50] M. Kunisu, F. Oba, H. Ikeno, I. Tananka, and T. Yamamoto, “Local environment of Mn dopant in ZnO by near-edge x-ray absorption
fine structure analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 12, p. 121 902,
Mar. 2005.
[51] E. Rita, U. Wahl, J. G. Correia, E. Alves, and J. C. Soares, “Lattice
location and thermal stability of implanted Fe in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,
vol. 85, no. 21, pp. 4899–4901, Nov. 2004.
[52] R. K. Zheng, H. Liu, X. X Zhang, V. A. L. Roy, and A. B. Djurisic,
“Exchange bias and the origin of magnetism in Mn-doped ZnO tetrapods,”
Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 16, pp. 2589–2591, Sep. 2004.
[53] T. Wakano, N. Fujimura, Y. Morinaga, N. Abe, A. Ashida, and
T. Ito, “Magnetic and magneto-transport properties of ZnO:Ni films,”
Physica E, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 260–264, May 2001.
[54] H. Saeki, H. Tabata, and T. Kawai, “Magnetic and electric properties
of vanadium doped ZnO films,” Solid State Commun., vol. 120, no. 11,
pp. 439–441, Nov. 2001.
[55] D. P. Norton, M. E. Overberg, S. J. Pearton, K. Pruessner, J. D. Budai,
L. A. Boatner, M. F. Chisholm, J. S. Lee, Z. G. Khim, Y. D. Park, and
R. G. Wilson, “Ferromagnetism in cobalt-implanted ZnO,” Appl. Phys.
Lett., vol. 83, no. 26, pp. 5488–5490, Dec. 2003.
[56] H. J. Lee, S. Y. Jeong, C. R. Cho, and C. H. Park, “Study of diluted magnetic semiconductor: Co-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, no. 21,
pp. 4020–4022, Nov. 2002.
[57] S. J. Hahn, J. W. Song, C. H. Yang, S. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y. H.
Jeong, and K. W. Rhie, “A key to room-temperature ferromagnetism in
Fe-doped ZnO: Cu,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, no. 22, pp. 4212–4214,
Nov. 2002.
[58] K. Rode, A. Anane, R. Mattana, J.-P. Contour, O. Durand, and
R. LeBourgeois, “Magnetic semiconductors based on cobalt substituted
ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 7676–7679, May 2003.
[59] S. G. Yang, A. B. Pakhomov, S. T. Hung, and C. Y. Wong, “Room
temperature magnetism in sputtered (Zn,Co)O films,” IEEE Trans. Magn.,
vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 2877–2879, Sep. 2002.
[60] N. Theodoropoulou, G. P. Berera, V. Misra, P. LeCalir, J. Philip,
J. S. Moodera, B. Satapi, and T. Som, Evidence for High Temperature
Ferromagnetism in Zn1−x Mnx O thin films. to be published.
[61] M. Ivill, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, J. Kelly, and A. F. Hebard, “Magnetization dependence on electron density in epitaxial ZnO thin films codoped
with Mn and Sn,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97, no. 5, p. 053 904, Mar. 2005.
[62] G. Lawes, A. S. Risbud, A. P. Ramirez, and R. Seshadri, “Absence
of ferromagnetism in Co and Mn substituted polycrystalline ZnO,”
Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 045 201, Jan. 2005.
[63] M. H. Kane, K. Shalini, C. J. Summers, R. Varatharajan, J. Nause,
C. R. Vestal, Z. J. Zhang, and I. T. Ferguson, “Magnetic properties of bulk
Zn1−x Mnx O and Zn1−x Cox O single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97,
no. 2, p. 023 906, Jan. 2005.
[64] N. Jedrecy, H. J. von Bardeleben, Y. Zheng, and J.-L. Cantin, “Electron paramagnetic resonance study of Zn1−x Cox O: A predicted hightemperature ferromagnetic semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B, Condens.
Matter, vol. 69, no. 4, p. 041 308, Jan. 2004.
[65] A. C. Tuan, J. D. Bryan, A. B. Pakhomov, V. Shutthanandan,
S. Thevuthasan, D. E. McCready, D. Gaspar, M. H. Engelhard, J. W.
Rogers, Jr., K. Krishnan, D. R. Gamelin, and S. A. Chambers, “Epitaxial
growth and properties of Co-doped ZnO on sapphire substrates,” Phys.
Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 70, no. 6, p. 054 424, Aug. 2004.
[66] T. Fukumura, H. Toyosaki, and Y. Yamada, “Magnetic oxide semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. S103–S111, Apr. 2005.
1048
[67] C. Liu, F. Yun, and H. Morkoç, “Ferromagnetism of ZnO and GaN: A
review,” J. Mater. Sci., Mater. Electron., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 555–597,
Sep 2005.
[68] I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim,
F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen,
J.-I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization
of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN MOW LEDs,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 33, no. 5,
pp. 467–472, May 2004.
[69] I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler,
C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. Pan, G. Chen, J. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada,
“On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl.
Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 14, pp. 2599–2601, Apr. 2004.
[70] I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R.
Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton,
C.-C. Pan, G.-T. Chen, J.-I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin
injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection
layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Processs. Phenom., vol. 22,
no. 6, pp. 2668–2673, Nov. 2004.
[71] H. Ohno, “Making nonmagnetic semiconductors ferromagnetic,” Science,
vol. 281, no. 5379, pp. 951–956, Aug. 1998.
[72] L. Berger and G. Bergmann, The Hall Effect and Its Applications,
C. L. Chien and C. R. Westgate, Eds. New York: Plenum, 1979, p. 55.
[73] T. Jungwirth, Q. Niu, and A. H. MacDonald, “Anomalous hall effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 88, no. 22, p. 207 208,
May 2002.
[74] Y. Matsumoto, M. Murakami, T. Shono, T. Hasegawa, T. Fukumura,
M. Kawasaki, P. Ahmet, T. Chikyow, S.-Y. Koshihara, and H. Koinuma,
“Room-temperature ferromagnetism in transparent transition metal-doped
titanium dioxide,” Science, vol. 291, no. 5505, pp. 854–856, Feb. 2001.
[75] Y. Yamada, H. Toyosaki, A. Tsukazaki, T. Fukumura, K. Tamura,
Y. Segawa, K. Nakajima, T. Aoyama, T. Chikyow, T. Hasegawa,
H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Epitaxial growth and physical properties of a room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor: Anatase phase
Ti1−x Cox O2+ ,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, no. 9, p. 5097, Nov. 2004.
[76] S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, J. S. Higgins, H. Zheng, A. J. Millis,
V. N. Kulkarni, R. Ramesh, R. L. Greene, and T. Venkatesan, “Cooccurrence of superparamagnetism and anomalous hall effect in highly
reduced cobalt-doped rutile TiO2−δ films,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 92,
no. 16, p. 166 601, Apr. 2004.
[77] H. Toyosaki, T. Fukumura, Y. Yamada, K. Nakajima, T. Chikyow,
T. Hasegawa, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Anomalous hall effect governed by electron doping in a room-temperature transparent ferromagnetic
semiconductor,” Nat. Mater., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 221–224, Apr. 2004.
[78] Y. Matsumoto, R. Takahashi, M. Murakami, T. Koida, X.-J. Fan,
T. Hasegawa, T. Fukumura, M. Kawasaki, S.-Y. Koshihara, and
H. Koinuma, “Ferromagnetism in co-doped TiO2 rutile thin films grown
by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 11B,
pp. L1204–L1206, Nov. 2001.
[79] I. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Ivill, R. Pate, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton,
J. Dong, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, and P. P. Chow, “Optical characterization of ZnMnO-based dilute magnetic semiconductor structures,”
J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 259–264, Jan. 2006.
Stephen J. Pearton (F’01) received the Ph.D. degree
in physics from the University of Tasmania, Hobart,
Australia, in 1983.
He is currently a Distinguished Professor in
Materials Science and Engineering at the University
of Florida (UF), Gainesville. Prior to joining UF
in 1994, he was a Member of Technical Staff at
the AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ. He
has published more than 1200 journal papers and
given more than 250 invited talks in international
conferences.
Prof. Pearton is a Fellow of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society,
American Vacuum Society, American Physical Society, and Electrochemical
Society.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 54, NO. 5, MAY 2007
David P. Norton received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, in 1989.
He is currently a Professor of Materials Science
and Engineering at the University of Florida (UF),
Gainesville. Prior to joining UF in 2000, he spent
11 years at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He
has published more than 200 journal publications
and organized many conferences for professional
societies.
Prof. Norton is a Fellow of the American Vacuum
Society.
Matt P. Ivill is a graduate student with the Department of Materials Science and
Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville. His dissertation work involves
investigation of ferromagnetism in ZnO and related alloys.
Art F. Hebard received the Ph.D. degree in physics
from Stanford University, Stanford, CA, in 1972.
He is currently a Professor in the Department of
Physics, University of Florida (UF), Gainesville.
Prior to joining UF in 1996, he spent 23 years
at the AT&T Bell Laboratories as a Member of
Technical Staff. In 1991, his paper in Nature on
superconductivity in potassium-doped C60 was the
most frequently cited paper of the year.
Prof. Hebard is a Fellow of the American Physical
Society and American Association for the Advancement of Science. He serves on the editorial board of several journals and is an
Associate Editor of reviews of modern physics.
John M. Zavada received the Ph.D. degree in physics from Duke University,
Durham, NC, in 1971.
He is currently a Contract Monitor in the Electronics Division, U.S. Army
Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC. He manages a large number
of projects on optics, photonics, and spintronics, and has organized many
conferences for professional societies.
Weimin M. Chen received the Ph.D. degree in physics from the University of
California, Los Angeles, in 1988.
He is currently a Professor of Physics at Linköping University, Linköping,
Sweden, and the Director of the Swedish Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance
Center, Linköping University. His research interests include impurities and
defects, semiconductor physics, spintronics, dilute nitrides, and SiC.
Irina A. Buyanova received the Ph.D. degree in physics from Moscow State
University, Russia, in 1990.
He is currently an Associate Professor of Physics at Linköping University,
Linköping, Sweden. Her research interests include impurities and defects,
semiconductor physics, spintronics, and dilute nitrides.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement