Cornell-NEES-Safety-Manual-Rev

Cornell-NEES-Safety-Manual-Rev
[email protected]
Site Safety Manual
Revision 2a
Revision History
Revision #
Date
Description
0
9/20/2004
1
- Add recommended sections per Risk Consultants Inc.
Evaluation
4/14/2009 - Add revision history
2
5/7/2009
- Add recommended sections per Risk Consultants Inc.
Evaluation of Revision 1 of this document
2a
5/8/2009
-
Add scaffolding and scissors lift sections
2
Management Commitment Statement
Our commitment to safety and the protection of the health of our staff and facility
users at [email protected] must be a part of every activity. Without question, it is every
employee's responsibility at all levels. We will maintain a safety and health program
conforming to the best practices of organizations of this type. To be successful, such
a program must embody the proper attitudes toward injury and illness prevention on
the part of department heads, principals, supervisors, employees and researchers. It
also requires cooperation in all safety and health matters, not only between
management and employees, but also between employees and their co-workers.
Only through such a cooperative effort can an effective safety and health program be
established and preserved.
The safety and health of every employee and facility researcher is a high priority.
Management accepts responsibility for providing a safe working environment and
employees are expected to take responsibility for performing work in accordance
with safe standards and practices. Continued safety and protection of health will only
be achieved through teamwork. Everyone must join together in promoting safety and
health and taking every reasonable measure to assure safe working conditions in the
company.
Joseph Chipalowsky
NEES Facility at Cornell Operations Manager
Prof. Harry Stewart
NEES Facility at Cornell Director
_4/13/2009________________
Date
3
Table of Contents
1. Statement of Safety Requirements....................................................................... 6
2. Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) ...................................................... 11
2.1
General Safety ........................................................................................... 11
2.2
Accident Analysis ....................................................................................... 12
2.3
Personal Protective Equipment .................................................................. 13
2.4
Emergency Plan ........................................................................................ 15
2.5
Job Hazard Analysis .................................................................................. 16
2.6
OSHA Action Plan ..................................................................................... 19
2.7
Safety Audits and Safety Committee ......................................................... 21
2.8
Blood Borne Pathogens Policy ................................................................... 22
2.9
Hazard Communication Policy .................................................................... 22
2.10 Confined Space Entry ................................................................................. 24
2.11 Contractor and Researcher Protection Policy ............................................. 27
2.12 Eye Protection Policy .................................................................................. 28
2.13 Fall Protection Policy .................................................................................. 30
2.14 Manual Lifting ........................................................................................... 333
2.15 Hearing Conservation Policy ...................................................................... 35
2.16 Lock Out/Tag Out Policy ............................................................................. 38
2.17 Power Tools – Fixed and Portable .............................................................. 40
2.18 Machine Guarding ...................................................................................... 42
2.19 Welding .................................................................................................... 433
2.20 Crane Safety Policy .................................................................................... 47
2.21 Forklift Safety Policy ................................................................................... 48
2.22 Respiratory Protection Policy...................................................................... 49
2.23 Hazardous Materials Policy ........................................................................ 50
2.24 Waste Disposal Policy ................................................................................ 51
2.25 Worker Right-To-Know Policy..................................................................... 52
4
Table of Contents (completed)
2.26 Compressed Gas Cylinder Storage and Handling Policy ............................ 53
2.27 Radiation Safety Policy ............................................................................... 57
2.28 Vehicle Use Safety Policy ........................................................................... 58
3. Disaster Preparedness ....................................................................................... 59
4. First Aid .............................................................................................................. 60
5
Cornell University - NEES Site Safety Manual
Safety Policies and Requirements
Site Management Statement of Safety Requirements:
Laboratory safety is the highest priority at Cornell. The Cornell – NEES
Large-Scale Lifelines Testing Facility ([email protected]) has a Safety Plan that covers
the operations of [email protected] Safety training is required for all employees,
students and visitors. Regular inspections of the NEES Facility and surrounding
laboratories for identification and correction of unsafe conditions are required. The
NEES Facility Safety Officer is responsible for implementing the Safety Plan and
coordinating the training of employees, students and visitors in the NEES facility.
The NEES Facility Safety Committee is in charge of development of rules and
policies or resolving safety issues in the absence of appropriate policies. The Safety
Officer, who is a member of the NEES Technical Staff, serves as the floor
supervisor. The Safety Officer is empowered to suspend the work or the visit of any
person who does not comply with the safety requirements.
All researchers and users of [email protected] must undergo safety training
prior to starting work in the laboratory. The training can start with a review of the
Cornell NEES Safety Manual. Upon arrival at [email protected], the visitor must take
the training class offered by Cornell’s Environmental Health & Safety, followed by a
walk through of the facilities with discussion of the safe use of relevant equipment.
Each person will be issued a certificate of completion of safety training allowing
access to the facility.
All researchers planning to work in the laboratory must wear personal protection
equipment (PPE), which is available in the Safety Equipment Cabinet or from NEES
@Cornell staff:
• Hardhats are mandatory for all accessing the testing floor in the laboratory.
Hardhats are not required in the classroom or office.
• Robust shoes or boots (preferably steel toed) are required in all areas of
the testing floors. No open toed shoes are permitted.
• Gloves are available and it is the responsibility of the Facility user to make
use of them when necessary.
• Eye protection is mandatory when grinding, impacting, drilling, mixing,
hammering moving or placing soil.
• Earplugs or earmuffs are required when grinding, impacting, drilling,
conveying, placing or compacting soil.
• A personal safety harness shall be used when and where required, generally
when working more than 4 feet off the floor.
The laboratory will provide hard hats, gloves, eye protection goggles, earplugs
and safety harnesses for short-term visitors. The researcher or user must provide
safety shoes.
6
Insurance and Liabilities:
Employees and students of the Cornell University who have completed safety
training are covered by the Cornell’s comprehensive liability insurance and/or the
university’s self-insurance against injuries that may result from work in
[email protected] This does not apply to NEES or non-NEES researchers from other
institutions who perform research in the NEES facility.
Visiting researchers must carry a certificate of insurance from their home
institution. Each visiting researcher shall provide prior to the work at [email protected]
a certificate of insurance before access is permitted to the facility. Such certificate
shall provide evidence that the home institution carries sufficient levels of insurance.
The insurance shall cover personal injury and injury to others for which the
researcher is responsible, and damage to property that is caused by the researcher.
The researchers must agree to hold Cornell University and the Cornell University
faculty and staff of the NEES facility at Cornell harmless for any acts, errors,
omissions, and negligence. A release form signed by either the researcher or their
HOME INSTITUTION is attached to this document. The Research Participation
Agreement (RPA) may be required between the NEES Facility and the users of the
NEES Facility. The RPA should spell out in detail Risk Hazard Mitigation.
Access Constraints and Limitations
Access for NEES and non-NEES researchers to the [email protected] Facility is
subject to the following constraints and limitations:
(a) All researchers must undergo safety training prior to starting work in the
laboratory. The training will be provided by Cornell’s Environmental Health &
Safety and will be arranged by the Safety Officer.
Upon arrival at
[email protected], the visitors must take the training class, which includes a walk
through the facilities with discussion of the safe use of pertinent equipment. After
successful completion of the “safety examination,” each person will be issued a
certificate indicating completion of the safety training allowing access to the
facility.
(b) All researchers planning to work in the laboratory must wear personal protection
equipment (PPE), which includes hard hat, robust or steel-toed shoes, gloves,
eye protection, hearing protection devices and respirators (N95 or N99 as a
minimum).
(c) All visitors must obey the safety rules. Failure to comply with and failure to obey
the directions of the NEES Technical Staff will result in denial of access to
[email protected] In the case of non-compliance, the Safety Officer will provide
one warning, which will result in ejection from the laboratory if the infraction is not
corrected.
(d) The number of visiting researchers will be determined for each research project
making use of the NEES Facility at Cornell.
(e) All researchers and visitors accessing the testing facility must be insured to cover
personal injury, medical expenses, injuries to others that they may cause and
damage to equipment that they may cause. Certificates of insurance must be
presented to the Site Operations Manager before accessing the facility. For more
details, see on the section on Insurance above.
(f) All researchers and visitors must agree to hold Cornell University and the faculty
and staff of the Cornell NEES Facility node harmless for any acts, errors,
omissions, and negligence. For more details, see the section on Liability above.
7
Specific Safety and Access Requirements
The complete safety requirements are listed in the Lab Safety Manual. The
following are excerpts from the Lab Safety Manual. The requirements listed below
are intended to provide a select but not comprehensive list of do and do nots.
(a) General Requirements
• Access in the laboratory is permitted when at least one other person is in the
laboratory and he or she has been informed of your presence and is in eye or
communication contact with you at all times.
• Know where First Aid Kit, Eye Wash Station, Fire Exits, Fire Extinguishers, and
Electrical Disconnects are located.
• Know the location of emergency phones and emergency shut off buttons for the
hydraulic system. Use them at the request of lab personnel or in their
absence using your best judgment.
• Keep walkways clear of all obstacles at all times.
• Do not block fire extinguishers or electrical panels.
• Clean up work area daily.
• If your work will generate dust, cover sensitive equipment before you start, and
clean up the dust. Dust cleaning equipment available in the laboratory.
• At the conclusion of testing, safely remove and dispose of the specimens, within
the time-frame agreed to in the WORK PLAN. The researcher remains
responsible for the removal operations until this task is complete.
(b)Testing Areas
• When the hydraulic system is active and testing operations are in progress,
unauthorized personnel must not approach within 10 feet of any hydraulic
line, actuator, or test specimen. Authorization must be obtained from the
Technical Services Manager or designated test supervisor.
• All other project work may be interrupted, at the direction of the test supervisor,
during testing.
(c) Cranes, Forklifts, Scissor lifts
• Cranes, forklifts, and scissor lifts may not be used unless the operator has been
trained and certified by the laboratory Field Safety Officer or designated staff
member.
• Operations involving heavy and/or large items requiring the use of the crane
and rigging will be performed only by trained laboratory staff members.
• When the crane is used above the hydraulic actuators, controllers, data
acquisition systems or hydraulic systems a second staff member must be
present as an observer.
• Cranes shall not be left unattended while still attached to a specimen or test
fixture.
• Scissor lifts must be operated / attended by a team of two users at a time.
(d) Laboratory Equipment
• The use of power tools is not permitted unless authorized by full time lab
personnel or completion of training provided by NEES Facility personnel.
• Do not move or modify any hydraulic actuators, accumulators, or hydraulic
lines. This is only to be done by authorized lab personnel.
8
• Use of the welder or blow torch is not allowed. These operations are only to be
performed by authorized lab personnel.
• All tools must be inspected before use and any defect reported to lab
personnel.
• Return tools to the proper location at the end of each working day and when the
job is complete.
• Ladders must be properly positioned and/or tied off.
(e) Access to Tools
• The NEES facility has tools (hand tools, power tools, air tools, and welding
tools) that will be made available to NEES and non-NEES researchers who
adhere to the requirements noted above, have paid the user fee and been
trained in the use of said equipment.
• Power tools and hand tools can be used on a daily basis. NEES researchers
will be responsible for returning all tools to the proper storage spaces in
operable condition and notifying NEES personnel of any equipment problems.
• The electric welder and/or cutting torch may be used by qualified professionals
who are hired on a subcontract basis to either fabricate or demolish test
specimens. In such cases, prior approval from the Operations Manager must
be obtained.
• The subcontractor client wishing to use this equipment will be required to verify
professional qualifications and prior experience.
• The NEES project will be responsible for replacing any lost hand tools.
• Recharge fees are required for use of non-NEES tools by research visitors in
NEES Facility. The recharge rates are listed in the Recharge (see section on
Recharge Fees below). Recharge rates are updated annually.
• Current recharge rates can be found on the [email protected] website.
(f) Access to Instrumentation
• Instrumentation purchased through NEES is available for free use to NEES
researchers. A complete list of NEES instrumentation is identified on the
[email protected] website. Additional instrumentation may be available for a
fee. All instrumentation is available to non-NEES researchers for a fee.
• For safety reasons, only [email protected] staff are allowed to operate much of
the NEES Laboratory instruments and equipment. Examples include:
hydraulic equipment (e.g., pump, manifolds, controllers, actuators and
hoses), forklift, scissors lift, electric arc welder, oxygen-acetylene cutting
torch, and all computing equipment (except as outlined in the Access to IT
Section), cameras (except as outlined below), and associated cabling (except
as outlined below). This policy will be enforced strictly.
• NEES and Non-NEES data sensors (e.g., linear variable differential
transformers, string pots, Temposonics devices and other reusable sensors
not purchased with project funds), lighting equipment and associated cabling
may used for the period of time identified in the work plan schedule.
• Calibration of this equipment is performed and maintained by the NEES Site
staff or NEES Site contracted personnel.
• Video and still image cameras and associated equipment are to be installed
under the supervision of NEES laboratory personnel. NEES staff will also
remove and return all cameras and associated equipment. However, video or
9
still image cameras can be used on a daily basis during operating hours for
short-term use.
(g) Access to the NEES Controllers
• For safety reasons, only NEES staff will be allowed to operate the Servohydraulic controllers.
• NEES researchers may have access to the other NEES controllers for various
actuators after proper training by lab personnel and with their daily approval.
Site Personnel:
Site Director
Prof. Harry Stewart
[email protected]
607-255-4734
Site Operations Manager
Joseph Chipalowsky
[email protected]
607-255-4078
Site Safety Officer
Timothy Bond
[email protected]
607-255-4078
10
2. Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP)
Cornell and the [email protected] facility hold as a highest priority our interest in
protecting the health and safety of workers and facility researchers. Accordingly,
rules, rights and responsibilities presented in this handbook are based on OSHA
standards, other federal, state and local regulations, and sound safety practices.
Additional information can be found on the Cornell Environmental Health and Safety
website at www.ehs.cornell.edu.
2.1
General Safety Policies
All persons in the high bay must wear a hard hat.
All researchers planning to work in the laboratory must wear personal protection
equipment (PPE), which is available in the Safety Equipment Cabinet or from NEES
@Cornell staff:
• Hardhats are mandatory for all accessing the testing floor in the laboratory.
Hardhats are not required in the classroom or office.
• Robust shoes or boots (preferably steel toed) are required in all areas of
the testing floors. No open toed shoes are permitted.
• Gloves are required whenever assembling or disassembling test specimens
or test fixtures.
• Eye protection is mandatory when grinding, impacting, drilling, mixing,
hammering moving or placing soil.
• Earplugs or earmuffs are required when grinding, impacting, drilling,
conveying, placing or compacting soil.
• A personal safety harness shall be used when and where required, generally
when working more than 4 feet off the floor.
The laboratory will provide hard hats, gloves, eye protection goggles, earplugs
and safety harnesses for short-term visitors. The researcher or user must provide
safety shoes.
11
2.2
Accident Reporting and Analysis
Despite our best efforts at [email protected], employee accidents and other lossproducing incidents (and, equally important, near-misses) sometimes occur. When
an accident occurs, an employee is injured, equipment is damaged, facility
effectiveness is affected, and both direct and indirect costs are incurred. A nearmiss means simply that we were lucky. The same set of circumstances could just as
easily have resulted in injury and/or damage.
All accidents, including near misses, must be reported to the Site Safety Officer, who
is responsible for performing an investigation and analysis of the accident. The
investigation and analysis are intended to determine:
a)
what unsafe conditions contributed to the accident
b)
what unsafe actions contributed to the accident
c)
what management or program failures caused or contributed to the
accident
d)
what corrective actions should be taken to avoid a recurrence
e)
what has been done to carry out this corrective action.
Formal reports for accidents involving personal injury will be generated with and
handled through the Cornell University Accident reporting system. A copy of the
report will be recorded, stored and analyzed to determine the cause of the accident
and any safety procedural changes to suggest to all site users and add to the safety
training and oversight programs to prevent future comparable accidents.
Reports for accidents other than those involving personal injury will be reported to
the Site Safety Officer and analyzed to determine the cause of the accident and any
changes necessary to site operations to prevent future comparable accidents.
The accident report, investigation and analysis will be presented at a regular Safety
Committee meeting. Copies of all accident reports, documentation of accident
investigation and analysis will be maintained by the Site Safety Officer.
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2.3
Personal Protective Equipment Policy
Purpose:
The purpose of this policy is to protect researchers and employees from the hazards
of processes or environment, radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants by
providing personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities and to
ensure protective clothing, respiratory devices, and protective shields, and barriers
are used and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition.
Responsibility:
The NEES Facility at Cornell will provide an adequate supply of personal protective
equipment for the workers and researchers performing research in the facility.
All potential lab personnel and researchers should read and sign the following
training page concerning personal protective equipment from ToolBoxTopics, Inc.
Please return the signed page to the NEES Facility Safety Officer.
13
PPE
PPE stands for personal protective equipment which we use in our daily work
activities. OSHA gives employers responsibility for ensuring that employees wear
appropriate PPE to reduce exposure to hazardous conditions such as falling objects,
noise exposure, toxic atmospheres, etc. Personal protection is the main objective
and each of us must follow our employer's safety requirements.
The first form of PPE is a hard hat. This safety device provides us with an impact
resistant covering that protects the head. We know that all of our body functions are
controlled by 'that gray matter' inside our head, so don't take chances -- protect your
brain -- wear your hard hat at all times!
Many other forms of PPE are available to you. Hearing protection in the form of ear
plugs or muffs reduces the amount of noise reaching your ear drums, thereby
preserving your hearing. Respirators provide protection against toxic substances that
might enter our bodies through our respiratory systems. Safety belts with lanyards
and full body harnesses are types of personal fall protection, but they are effective
only if we use them.
The eyes and face are another area that needs to be protected. There are many
types and sizes of spectacles and goggles to protect the eyes and each has a
special application. Be sure you read the manufacturer's instructions before wearing
them and choose the right type. Face shields should be worn if potential danger
exists from physical, chemical or radiation agents.
Personal Protective Equipment can be cumbersome, uncomfortable, hot, etc. and
employees occasionally don’t wear it even though they know they may be risking
injury. Any worker who fails to wear required PPE should be disciplined.
Evaluate your work operations and define the hazards. Check with your supervisor
for necessary PPE requirements and resolve to wear them. An ounce of protection is
worth a pound or cure.
KEEP YOUR PPE CLEAN AND IN GOOD WORKING ORDER. REPLACE ANY
DEFECTIVE GEAR IMMEDIATELY.
Name ____________________________________ Date________
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2.4
Emergency Plan
The NEES Facility at Cornell is an integral part of the Civil and Environmental School
in the College of Engineering at Cornell University. As such it is a full partner in all
the safety and emergency planning at the University. A complete documentation of
the
University
wide
Emergency
Plan
is
at
the
following
link:
http://www.epr.cornell.edu/docs/Cornell_Emergency_Plan_-_public_site_3.2009(1).pdf
Specific potential hazards that could affect the NEES facility include: fire or smoke,
flooding from broken pipes in the structure, weather emergencies, power failure,
hazardous material spill and civil disturbance. The first priority in all emergencies is
the protection of life and limb for all people in the facility. Multiple exit routes must
be maintained clear of obstruction from all spaces in the facility. Safety training
includes a complete coverage of emergency exit routes and procedures.
All employees of the NEES Facility will be trained in the appropriate response to
emergencies. All Lab users are required to take a safety course before commencing
use of and work in the facility. This course is provided by Cornell Environmental
Health and Safety and covers normal lab safety and emergency response safety
issues and is specific to the NEES Facility.
Safety plans and safe operations within the NEES Facility at Cornell are discussed
by all staff, employees and lab users regularly. The intent is to provide an active and
continuing discussion of safe operations within the facility. Facility staff, employees
and users help to develop, operate and update procedures and plans. Employees
help with inspections, investigations, hazard analysis, and safety committees and
are important members in the development and implementation of the plans.
Fire. As a general rule, [email protected] does not expect its employees to fight fires.
Just sound the alarm – pull the fire alarm or call 911 – and get out of the building as
quickly as possible and report to your group’s emergency assembly area. The
assembly area for the [email protected] facility is in the island in the parking lot on the
south side of the facility. Do not re-enter the building until you have been notified by
the authorities to do so.
However, fire extinguishers are available at every door entrance to the facility. All
fire extinguishers are inspected annually. All facility users will be trained on proper
use of fire extinguishers as part of general safety training.
Accidents. All accidents and near miss incidents must be reported immediately to
the Facility Manager.
Electric shock. Do not touch persons rendered unconscious by electric shock
unless you are sure that they are no longer in contact with the source of the
electricity or that the power has been turned off.
15
2.5
JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS systematically reviews the steps involved in
completing a particular job, identifies the hazards that the worker faces at each step,
and establishes a work plan which includes appropriate safeguards for each hazard
identified. Hazards should be controlled by (in this order):
1. Institute engineering controls to eliminate the hazard
2. If engineering controls cannot be used, specific (written) Work Procedures or
Practices to minimize the risk of injury.
3. If neither engineering controls nor safe work practices can be used, as a final,
last resort, use Personal Protective Equipment to protect the worker from the
hazard.
Every large research project that makes use of the NEES Facility at Cornell
necessarily involves the use of potentially dangerous equipment and processes.
Each major task involved in implementing a new project must have a procedure for
safe and effective implementation before the project or the specific procedure in
question may begin. The safety procedure will be developed by members of the
team of users who will implement the project, experienced facility users (who may be
employees of the facility or other researchers in the facility) and the Site Safety
Officer. An example of a safety procedure is attached here:
Safety Procedure for Using the Soil Storage and Moving Equipment
Equipment:
Soil storage bins – 3 large (22 cubic yards each)
Soil storage bins – 11 small (1 cubic yard each)
Soil conveyors – 2 each 15 foot lift and one 25 foot lift
Concrete bucket
Overhead Crane
Forklift
Soil compactor
Nuclear density gage
Clamshell bucket
Procedures:
A. Moving soil from the large bins to a test enclosure with the conveyors.
1) Conveyors:
a) Make sure that all moving parts are clean, greased and in good order.
b) Check the conveyors for proper operation.
c) Make sure that conveyor stands are set at proper angle for the
ensuing task
d) Position the conveyor(s) for the task
i)
Unplug the conveyor(s)
ii)
Coil and safely store the power and control cords
iii)
Remove any temporary scoop extensions
iv)
Attach the crane to pick the conveyor(s) (and frame(s)) safely
v)
Pick, move and place the conveyor(s) with the crane
16
vi)
vii)
viii)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
The long conveyor will be supported on the low wall and by the
crane during operation
Attach any temporary scoop extensions
Plug the conveyors in and arrange the control cables for safe
use
Perform a trial run without soil
Attach and adjust the distribution chute on the final conveyor
ix)
x)
Soil bins
a) Make sure the gears on the doors are clean and free to move
b) Clear the space below the bins
c) Add temporary extensions
d) Keep a pry-bar handy to loosen the soil to door connection
Move the soil
a) There must be enough people to perform all the tasks safely
b) Turn the conveyors on.
c) The brown conveyor is the slowest
d) Slowly open the bin door and begin moving soil
e) Make sure there are enough people to handle all the tasks safely this
task requires one person at the hydraulic controls, one person
operating the crane and one person operating the conveyors
Conveyors will have to be moved several times when filling large test
enclosures
Level the soil
Compact the soil
Take density and moisture content measurements (radiation safety
training and appropriate badging and care must be taken when using the
Troxler 3440 nuclear densitometer
If live loading data is desired during the soil placement, make sure the
data acquisition equipment is present, connected and operating
B. Moving soil from the test basins to the large bins with the conveyors and the
clamshell bucket.
1) Soil bins
a) Make sure the doors are closed
b) Clear the space below the bins
c) Clear the platform at the top of the bin to be filled
d) Remove the sheet metal cover and the steel grating
e) Remove the appropriate segment of railing
2) Conveyors:
a) Make sure that all of the moving parts are clean, greased and in good
order.
b) Check the conveyors for proper operation.
c) Make sure that conveyor stands are set at proper angle for the
ensuing task
d) Position the conveyor(s) for the task
i)
Unplug the conveyor(s)
ii)
Coil and safely store the power and control cords
iii)
Remove any temporary scoop extensions
iv)
Attach the crane to pick the conveyor(s) (and frame(s)) safely
17
v)
vi)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Pick, move and place the conveyor(s) with the crane
Lift the long conveyor into place with base support on the low
wall and top clip in the restrained position at the 17’ truss
vii)
The short conveyors will be placed according to need – for
emptying the south test box, the short blue conveyor will rest
on the test box and the heavy angle frame bolted to the low
wall platform brackets – for emptying the north test box, the
short blue conveyor will rest on the test box and the heavy
angle frame bolted to the low wall platform brackets – the
brown conveyor may be necessary in addition to the two blue
conveyors
viii)
Perform a trial run without soil
Get the clamshell bucket ready
a) Attach the clamshell bucket to the crane with two chains
b) Make sure the hydraulic system is connected
c) Place the hydraulic controls on a safe platform
d) Assemble railings and safety equipment for safe use of the control
system
e) Make sure that the hydraulic hoses are properly connected to the
pipeline and that the valves are open
f) Turn on the hydraulic system – this may be the NEES 60gpm pump or
the Bovay Lab 40gpm pump – the different systems require different
operational procedures
g) This task requires one person at the hydraulic controls, one person
operating the crane and one person operating the conveyors
Move the soil
a) Turn the conveyors on.
b) The brown conveyor is the slowest
c) Slowly open the bin door and begin moving soil
d) Make sure there are enough people to handle all the tasks safely - this
task requires one person at the hydraulic controls, one person
operating the crane and one person operating the conveyors
Conveyors will have to be moved several times when emptying large test
enclosures
The soil may need to be manually rearranged to fully fill the bins
When a bin is full, move the long conveyor, replace the railing segment,
replace the grates and covers.
18
2.6
OSHA Action Plan – What to do during an OSHA inspection
OSHA's Inspection priorities from highest to lowest are:
1. Imminent Danger- Reasonable certainty that a danger exists that is expected
to cause death or serious physical harm.
2. Catastrophes & Fatal Accidents- death or hospitalization of 3 or more
employees. (Must be reported to OSHA within 8 hours)
3. Employee Complaints- When the employee feels they are in imminent danger
or threatened with physical harm.
4. Programmed High-Hazard- Those establishment with lost workday rates at or
above the most recently published Bureau of Labor Statistics national rate.
5. Follow-Up Inspections- To ensure cited items have been abated.
An OSHA inspection begins when the compliance officer arrives at the facility. If an
OSHA inspector arrives unexpectedly at the [email protected] facility you should
immediately inform the Site Safety Officer who will in turn contact Environmental
Health and Safety. You should insist upon seeing the officers U.S. Department of
Labor credentials that will have a photograph and serial number that can be verified
by calling the Syracuse OSHA office. Anyone that attempts to collect a penalty or
promote the sale of an item or service is not an OSHA compliance officer. Do not
begin the inspection until EH&S has arrived. **Cornell has the right to require OSHA
to obtain a warrant before permitting entry.
The compliance officer will explain why the job, site, or organization was selected for
inspection. The officer will further explain the scope of the inspection, the purpose
and standards, and if applicable provide a copy of the employee complaint (minus
their name). The [email protected] facility will be asked to select a representative to
accompany the compliance officer during the inspection. An authorized
representative of the employees, if any, also has the right to go along. The
compliance officer will consult with a reasonable number of employees, privately if
desired. The Act prohibits discrimination in any form by employers against workers
because of anything they say or show the compliance officer during the inspection.
The destination and duration of the inspection are determined by the compliance
officer. The [email protected] representative will be brief and to the point with his/her
answers, offering no additional information, and take the inspector to his destination
along the most direct route (avoiding detours that might expand the inspection). The
inspector may point out unsafe or unhealthy work conditions during the walk through
and may offer technical advice on how to eliminate hazards. This is not the time to
argue! Discrepancies that are corrected on the spot will be recorded to be used in
"good faith" determinations when assessing penalties.
During the closing conference, the inspector will discuss all unsafe or unhealthy
conditions involved and violations which may be cited. We will have the opportunity
to produce all records that show compliance efforts or that will assist OSHA in
19
determining the time needed for abatement of the hazards. We have the right to
appeal OSHA citations. The inspector will not indicate any proposed penalties as
they are determined by the Area Director. The [email protected] representative must
then post a copy of each citation at or near the place a violation occurred. It should
remain there for three days or until the violation is abated, whichever is longer.
Citations: In most cases the citations are prepared at the OSHA Area Office and are
mailed to the employer. Citations will include: 1) a description of the violation; 2) the
proposed penalty, if any; and 3) the date by which the hazard must be corrected.
[email protected] has 15 working days after receipt to file an intention to contest
OSHA citations before the independent Occupational Safety and Health Review
Commission.
Settlement Agreements: If [email protected] believes OSHA's citations are
unreasonable, or wishes for any reason to discuss the OSHA enforcement action,
the representative may request an informal conference with the Area Director to
discuss any citations issued. The agency and the employer may work out a
settlement agreement to resolve the dispute and to eliminate the hazard.
[email protected] Personnel to Contact:
Joe Chipalowsky
255-4078
[email protected]
Operations Manager
Timothy Bond
255-4078
[email protected]
Safety Officer
EH & S Personnel to Contact:
Nathan Hunter
255-2113
[email protected]
20
2.7
Safety Audits and Safety Committee
The NEES Facility at Cornell Safety Officer and additional staff, as necessary, are
responsible for regularly performing safety audits. These audits will be performed
with the aid of Cornell University’s Office of Environmental Health and Safety.
Reports will be maintained, presented and discussed at Safety Committee meetings
and presented and discussed with the staff and users of the NEES Facility.
The Safety Committee is the mainstay of health and safety within the NEES Facility
at Cornell. The fundamental charge of a Safety Committee is to develop and monitor
the implementation of a written health and safety policy. The Safety Committee
includes the NEES at Cornell Facility Director, the NEES Facility Operations
Manager, The Safety Officer and at least one representative of each active research
project working in the facility.
Present members of the committee are:
Prof. Harry Stewart
Joseph Chipalowsky
Timothy Bond
21
2.8
Blood Borne Pathogens Policy
Purpose:
The purpose of this procedure is to protect NEES facility, NEESR research project
and general lab employees from exposure to bloodborne biohazardous agents and
to ensure that all occupational and research activities are conducted in a manner
consistent with Cornell University's Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Program and 29
CFR 1910.1030.
SCOPE:
The OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard applies to all occupational exposures
that may result in contact with blood or other infectious materials including:
Plasma, Sera, Semen, Vaginal secretions, Cerebrospinal fluid, Synovial fluid,
Pericardial fluid, Pleural fluid, Peritoneal fluid, Amniotic fluid, Saliva (in dental
procedures) and any other body fluids visibly contaminated with blood, and all body
fluids in situations where it is difficult to differentiate between body fluids. Also
human cell cultures and any unfixed tissue or organ, other than intact skin, of a living
or dead human is included.
The goal of the plan is the elimination of the health risk of workplace exposure to the
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and other bloodborne
pathogens. This will be accomplished through raising awareness of the issue and
provision and use of personal protective equipment and prudent procedures during
incidents which might lead to exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
Exposure to bloodborne pathogens should only be an issue in the NEES facility as a
result of injury of a worker. No research work is presently being performed on
human biological materials. It is the responsibility of each worker or researcher to be
aware of the potential for exposure to various bloodborne pathogens. Appropriate
personal protective equipment is available in the NEES Facility’s and Bovay
Laboratory’s Safety Equipment locker.
All potential lab personnel and researchers should read and sign the following
training page concerning bloodborne pathogens from ToolBoxTopics, Inc. Please
return the signed page to the NEES Facility Safety Officer.
22
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS (BBP)
Individuals who are infected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) or Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) may not show symptoms and may not know they are
infectious. For this reason, all human blood and body fluids should be considered as
if infectious, and all precautions should be taken to avoid contact. This simple rule is
known as "universal precautions."
In the workplace, bloodborne pathogens (BBP) may be transmitted when blood or
other infectious body fluids come in contact with mucous membranes (your eyes,
nose, mouth); non-intact skin (due to cuts, abrasions, burns, rashes, paper cuts); or
by handling or touching contaminated materials or surfaces. Bloodborne pathogens
are also transmitted by "injection" under the skin via a contaminated sharp object
puncturing or cutting the skin causing a wound.
Hepatitis B Virus versus Human Immunodeficiency Virus:
* Hepatitis B Virus is more persistent than HIV and is able to survive for at least
one week in dried blood on environmental surfaces. However, HIV will not survive for
more than a few minutes when exposed to room temperature air, and will usually die
within seconds.
* A teaspoon of infected blood may contain over one billion HBV particles, while a
teaspoon of infected HIV blood contains about 15 HIV particles.
* Hepatitis B Virus usually has mild symptoms which makes diagnosis difficult.
HIV infections usually are not diagnosed for years and symptoms may not appear for
many months or years.
* Hepatitis B can be prevented with a vaccine. At the present time there is no
preventive vaccine for HIV.
* No cure is presently available for HBV or HIV.
If you administer first aid to an injured person in the workplace and there is a
potential for contacting any body fluids, you should adhere to the following "universal
precaution" guidelines:
* Wear impervious gloves when there is a chance of exposure to blood or body
fluids.
* Wear a face shield to protect your entire face, and safety goggles to provide the
most
complete eye protection.
* Use resuscitation devices when performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR).
* Report all BBP exposures, or potential exposures to your supervisor
immediately.
* Immediately wash your hands and affected areas with soap and warm water.
* Flush your eyes, nose or other mucous membrane areas with water, if exposed.
* Wash down areas which body fluids may have been contacted with the use of a
mild solution of household water and bleach (10:1).
Name __________________ Date________
23
2.9
Hazard Communication Policy
Purpose:
All workers or facility users of the NEES Facility at Cornell have a right to know of
any hazards they may encounter in using materials in the NEES Facility. The
Hazard Communication standard involves anyone who may come into contact
with hazardous chemicals. It is important that all facility users are familiar with the
standard, aware of their rights, and understand how it protects them.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are informative documents intended to
describe the various hazards of a chemical and to present proper handling
information. A binder of MSDS material for each compound, chemical and material in
use in the NEES Facility is readily available to all NEES Facility users outside the
White Instructional Facility (this is an open, unlocked, always accessible space in the
NEES Facility). The Material Safety Data Sheets are stored in alphabetical order by
product name or generic compound name in several three ring binders.
General safety training information in the form of printed OSHA documents covering
the use of pertinent equipment and materials, storage of and handling of various
materials used in the facility, Chemical Hygiene Plan, Safety Training Documents
and Safety Inspection Records available to all NEES Facility users outside the White
Instructional Facility.
All chemical containers must be labeled as to their contents and stored in
appropriate places. There are three cabinets for flammable materials in different
parts of the facility. These are intended for storing different types of materials. Use
of these cabinets is covered during the required Safety Training. Chemicals used in
conjunction with any research project must be stored appropriately
All new NEES Facility users and employees must receive training in the basic
requirements of the hazard communication standard. Instruction includes reading
and comprehending an MSDS, proper labeling, safe handling and the use of
personal protective equipment, and the proper storage of chemicals.
The Site Safety Officer is ultimately responsible for implementation of the Hazard
Communication Plan. All NEES Facility users have a responsibility to help comply
with the Hazard Communication Plan and to report any failures to the Site Safety
Officer either verbally, through written communication, during the regular safety
discussions involved in implementing the research projects in the facility or at Safety
Committee Meetings.
24
2.10
Confined Space Entry Policy
Purpose:
Provide procedures for safe access of confined spaces in the NEES Facility at
Cornell. Employees who enter confined spaces while working place themselves in
significant danger if left unaware of the hazards they may encounter. Confined
spaces may include manholes, silos, storage tanks, pipelines, vaults, and duct work.
Scope:
The Confined Space Entry Program applies to all faculty, students and staff working
in the NEES Facility and Bovay Laboratory at Cornell. Workers may be asked to
perform work in confined spaces.
Definition:
Any enclosed space which is large enough and so configured that an employee can
bodily enter and perform work, has limited or restricted means for entry and exit, is
not designed for continuous employee occupancy, and has one or more of the
following characteristics:
1) contains or has a known potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere,
2) has unfavorable natural ventilation,
3) contains a material with the potential for engulfment of an entrant,
4) has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or
asphyxiated by an inwardly converging wall or a floor which slopes downward
and tapers to a smaller cross-section or,
5) contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
Responsibilities:
Several operations in the NEES Facility involve possible confined space entry:
working inside the soil storage bins, placing and excavating soil in large test boxes,
for instance. It is the responsibility of the NEES Facility to assure that the air
handling systems that provide adequate ventilation to the soil storage bins and the
general facility are well maintained and operational. It is the responsibility of all
facility users to make sure that the air handling systems are on and functioning
properly before entering enclosed spaces. All persons entering or working in an
enclosed space are required to work with a buddy who is not in the enclosed space.
All potential lab personnel and researchers should read and sign the following
training page concerning working in confined spaces from ToolBoxTopics, Inc.
Please return the signed page to the NEES Facility Safety Officer.
25
CONFINED SPACES
A 'confined or enclosed space' means any space having a limited means of access
and egress, which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants,
has an oxygen deficient atmosphere, or could possibly cause suffocation due to
entry of liquids, granular materials.
Confined or enclosed spaces include but are not limited to storage tanks, process
vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility
vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as
pits, tubs, vaults and vessels. The NEES Facility at Cornell includes several soil
storage bins and large test enclosures, which will be filled and emptied of soil.
Caution is a must! Only fools will rush in and this means rescuers as well. If in
doubt, check with your supervisor or the Safety Officer.
Before entering a confined space, determine whether ventilation or atmospheric
conditions within the space are hazardous, and whether any special safety
equipment is required such as protective clothing, respiratory equipment, etc. Make
sure that everyone going into the confined space is familiar with exactly what work is
to be done. Make sure that someone is present outside the confined space to
monitor the work situation. No one should work alone in dangerous circumstances.
Everyone involved must know what to do should an emergency take place. Be
prepared for the unexpected! A competent attendant; trained in rescue procedures,
C.P.R. and first aid must remain outside and stay in constant contact with those
inside.
Construction of temporary shoring is required when excavating a section or small
area of soil from a test enclosure.
ALWAYS CHECK THE AIR INSIDE A VESSEL BEFORE YOU ENTER ONCE
YOU'RE INSIDE IT'S TOO LATE! CHECK FOR OXYGEN CONTENT,
FLAMMABILITY OR AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE.
Name __________________________ Date________
26
2.11 Contractor and Researcher Protection Policy
Purpose:
To provide University personnel and contractors with a clear and concise
understanding of the safety requirements and responsibilities needed while working
on Cornell University property.
Scope:
The Protection Policy is intended for all personnel involved in performing research in
the NEES Facility at Cornell.
Responsibility:
Prior to starting a project, researchers are required to review the project and identify
hazards that may occur while performing the research. Each project should develop
a safety plan covering specific tasks involved in performing the research. The Safety
Plan should be submitted to and approved by the NEES Facility Safety Officer
before research activities begin and be monitored on a regular basis by the
researchers and the Safety Officer.
27
2.12 Eye Protection Policy
Purpose:
Provide effective protection for eyesight of all workers and researchers in the NEES
Facility at Cornell.
Scope:
All workers will be required to wear eye protection when working in the NEES facility.
Responsibilities:
The NEES facility provides safety glasses, goggles and face shields as needed. All
personnel working in the fabrication and testing laboratories are responsible for
wearing eye protection appropriate to the tasks being performed. Safety glasses,
goggles or face shields are required when working with machines or performing
operations that present the hazard of flying objects, glare, liquids, injurious radiation,
or a combination of these hazards.
Persons wearing standard eyewear or contact lenses shall cover that eyewear with
chemical goggles, impact goggles, or face shields depending on the activity and
hazard involved.
The use of contact lenses in eye protection areas is discouraged.
All potential lab personnel and researchers should read and sign the following
training page concerning eye protection from ToolBoxTopics, Inc. Please return the
signed page to the NEES Facility Safety Officer.
28
EYE PROTECTION
A carpenter asked his insurance company to pay for damage to his glass eye. It had
been broken when a nail he was driving flew up and struck it. When asked how he
had lost his own eye in the first place, he replied: "The same way, a nail hit it."
A world of darkness awaits this man if a nail strikes his remaining good eye. He has
yet to appreciate the need for eye protection. You, yourself, may find it difficult to get
accustomed to wearing eye protection, but would getting accustomed to wearing a
glass eye be any easier?
A SIGHT SAVER FOR YEARS
Eye protection has been used in the construction industry since 1910 and,
undoubtedly, many workers have escaped serious eye injury because of it. You may
personally know some fortunate individuals who saved their sight this way.
TAKE TIME TO SELECT THE RIGHT KIND
Depending on your job, you may need goggles, an eye shield, a face mask or safety
glasses. All it takes on your part is a little effort to select the appropriate type and to
wear it.
FOUR BASIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
Basically, there are four types of particles that cause eye injuries on the job:
1. Unidentified Flying Objects: These microscopic objects consist of dust and
particles floating around in the air, generated by wind, equipment, or cleaning
operations. When working in dusty conditions, wear eye protection. Even a small
speck in the eye can lead to trouble.
2. Particles Resulting From Chipping, Grinding, Sawing, Brushing, Hammering or
Using Power Tools: These particles move at an amazing speed and strike with the
force of a bullet. Wear eye protection any time over-head operations are performed.
It may be advisable on some jobs to wear safety goggles under a full face shield.
3. Invisible Hazards: You can't see the injurious light rays generated by welding
operations or laser beams. And their effects often are not felt until hours later. Wear
the eye protection required when using such equipment. And if you happen to be
working nearby, don't look in the direction of welding arcs or where a laser beam is
being used.
4. Liquids: Hot liquids, such as tar or asphalt, solvents, paint, and solutions for
cleaning masonry or metal, can cause serious eye injury if splashed in your face.
The use of proper eye protection, possibly a full face shield, is essential when
transferring liquids between containers and when using caustic or acid cleaners.
Name __________________________ Date________
29
2.13 Fall Protection Policy
Purpose:
Provide effective protection from injury from falls for all workers and researchers in
the NEES Facility at Cornell.
Scope:
All researchers and workers using the NEES Facility at Cornell will be trained in
appropriate procedures for preventing falls when working in the NEES facility.
Responsibilities:
NEES Facility employees and researchers who work on elevated surfaces (anything
higher than 4 feet above the laboratory floor) or scaffolding are required by law to
utilize a method of fall protection. Fall protection may include railings, barrier
markings, or personal fall arrest systems. Employees who use personal fall arrest
systems such as body harnesses, lanyards, and hoists should be trained in the
proper usage of this equipment. Fall protection training is an integral part of the
safety course required before work in the NEES Facility may begin.
The NEES Facility and Bovay Laboratory include railings and restraint systems in all
workspaces more than 4 feet above the main high bay floor. Test enclosures and
other temporary work areas must be designed and built with appropriate fall
protection or prevention mechanisms. Work and research spaces shall be equipped
with complete walking/working surfaces free of floor openings, standard guard rails,
and a safe means of access.
A Class III body harness will be required when worked at elevated height. The
lanyard anchorage point must be such that the maximum fall distance is four feet if
the lanyard is used in conjunction with an ANSI approved shock absorber. Shockabsorbing lanyards together with a Class III body harness shall meet a force limit of
1800 pounds.
Body belts are not to be considered a means of fall protection and are prohibited for
use at Cornell University.
When employees are working off portable ladders and the work requires them to be
outside the "confines of the ladder", a fall restraint system must be used.
Inspection
Fall restraint devices shall be visually inspected for defects prior to use.
Fall restraint devices shall be inspected when new and every six months thereafter.
Inspect for cuts, burns, excessive wear, loose splices, defective hardware, and
distorted thimbles. The date of each inspection shall be recorded on an inspection
tag and permanently attached to the fall restraint device.
Definitions:
CLASS III BODY HARNESS: A harness system designed to spread shock load over
the shoulders, thighs and seat area.
LANYARD: Flexible line that secures the wearer of a harness to a vertical or
horizontal lifeline of a fixed anchorage.
FIXED ANCHORAGE: Secured point of attachment and not part of the work surface.
30
A MOTION-STOPPING-SAFETY (MSS) SYSTEM: System providing fall protection
by using the following equipment singly or in combination: guardrail; scaffolds, or
platforms with guardrail; safety nets; and body belt/harness systems.
AN ANCHORAGE POINT: Must be capable of resisting twice the force created by
the fall of a 250 lb. person a distance of six feet and stopped by a lanyard with a
built-in shock absorbing device.
A LIFELINE: A component consisting of a flexible line for connection to anchorages
either vertically (vertical lifeline) or horizontally (horizontal lifeline).
All potential lab personnel and researchers should read and sign the following
training page concerning fall protection from ToolBoxTopics, Inc. Please return the
signed page to the NEES Facility Safety Officer.
Scaffolding may only be assembled and used by [email protected] staff when
engaged in work that cannot be done safely from the ground or other solid
construction. Several sections of scaffolding are available. It is the responsibility of
the Site Safety Officer to perform and/or arrange training on the safe assembly and
use of scaffolding. These must be installed by trained staff according to a specific
plan or design submitted to and approved by the Site Safety Officer for the particular
task at hand. The scaffolding should be assembled so that it is sound, rigid, and
capable of carrying the maximum load intended. Bricks, concrete blocks or other
materials may not be used to support scaffolding. Scaffolds and all of the
components shall be capable of supporting at least four times the maximum load
without failure. All general fall protection considerations must be included in
operations when scaffolding is in use. Scaffolding should be inspected before use.
The [email protected] facility has a scissors lift for elevated work. The lift is electric
powered and self propelled. It includes a battery drive system and a recharging
system. It is the responsibility of the Site Safety Officer to assure proper training of
any user of the scissors lift.
Only authorized, properly trained employees of the NEES Facility shall be permitted
to operate the facility’s forklift. The Facility maintains a list of personnel authorized to
operate the forklift. A visual inspection shall be made by the forklift operator prior to
operating the forklift. A "Visual Inspection Checklist" shall be completed at the time of
inspection. At least annually, the forklift shall be inspected by the manufacturer or by
a competent, outside contractor. As per OSHA regulations, [email protected] shall
establish a preventative maintenance program based on the crane manufacturer's
recommendations. The lift is only to be used as a work platform, not as a lifting
device. A safety harness is required, with appropriate tie off to the lift, when using
the scissors lift. A hard hat is required when working in the high bay.
31
Fall Protection
Has this thought ever crossed your mind? The only way to be safe from fails is to
avoid them! Avoidance is the key word. Let's explore just a few of the factors
contributing to falls and their serious results. Here are some to think about.
Scaffolds - Never erect a temporary scaffold. Even if the job will only last a very short
time, the scaffold should be erected as if you were going to use it indefinitely. Make
sure you install all the cross braces both vertically and horizontally, be sure the
scaffold is built on a level surface and fully decked, and don't forget to provide proper
access. Never use temporary supports, such as bricks or blocks, below scaffolding
legs.
Ladders - Select the right ladder for the job. Is it the right size, did you tie it off, did
you inspect it prior to use? Always face the ladder when you climb and avoid
carrying tools in your hands when climbing -- one slip could send you down -- use a
hand line or pouch for the tools. Never stand on the top two steps.
Floor Openings - Any floor opening measuring 12 inches across or larger must be
covered or protection provided by a standard guard rail with toe board. A cover must
be large enough and strong enough to prevent failure and be marked so that
everyone on the job will be aware of its purpose. Guard rails must meet minimum
strength requirements (See OSHA Standard 1926.500). Toe boards will prevent
tools or materials from falling through the opening and injuring workers below.
Stairways - Slow down -- don't run up or down. Avoid carrying objects that block your
view of the steps. To help eliminate falls on stairways take your time, look where you
step, and use the handrail. Keep stairways free of clutter to prevent tripping.
Housekeeping - A secure footing is a positive step in avoiding falls and good
housekeeping is essential to secure footing. Debris, trash, oil and water left to
accumulate on stairs, walkway etc. will lead to certain falls. A clean worksite is a
safer worksite.
Watch your step! Stay alert! Avoidance and prevention is your first line of defense.
Name: _______________________________Date: ___________________
32
2.14
Manual Lifting
Manual material handling involves lifting, lowering, and carrying objects. If
ergonomics principles are ignored, stresses on the muscles, joints, and disks in the
back can eventually lead to or aggravate a work related musculoskeletal disorder
(WRMSD). For objects that are too heavy or bulky for safe manual handling by
employees, mechanical lifting devices must be used for lifting and moving.
Best Practices for Lifting
1. Assess the situation.




How far will you have to carry the load? Is the path clear?
Once the load is lifted, will it block your view?
Can the load be broken down into smaller parts?
Should you wear gloves to get a better grip?
2. Size up the load.
 Test the weight by lifting or sliding one corner. If it is too heavy or
awkward, STOP!
 Can you use a mechanical lift or hand truck?
 Can you lift the load safely, or is it a two- or more person lift? If you
doubt you can lift the load safely, ask for help.
3. Use good lifting techniques.
 Get close to the load with your feet shoulder-width apart.
 Get a good handhold, and pull the load close to you
 Bend at your knees and hips, keep the inward curve in your back, and
lift with your legs.
 If you need to lean forward, support your upper body weight with one
hand.
Shown in Figures 3.12a,b: Improved work practices and work layouts that can help
reduce risk for work related injuries.
33
Fig. 3.12a Bend the knees and hips instead of the low back.
Fig. 3.12b Store heavier loads between knee and
shoulder height. Very heavy loads (50 lbs. or more)
should be stored where they won't have to be
manually lifted. Lighter and less frequently moved
items should be placed on higher shelves.
34
2.15 Hearing Conservation Policy
Purpose:
Insure that the hearing of all personnel using the NEES Facility at Cornell be
protected.
Scope:
All personnel using the NEES Facility at Cornell will be required to use hearing
protection equipment when the noise level in the facility is over 90 dBA.
The Hearing Conservation Program at the NEES Facility at Cornell has been
established to meet the requirements of The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) General Industry Standard "Occupational Exposure to Noise"
Part 1910.95 and The Hearing Conservation Amendment as published in the
Federal Register on March 8, 1983. The criteria are designed for those personnel
who, during their normal duties, experience an Occupational Noise Exposure as
follows:
A. The highest average sound level a worker can be exposed to is 90 decibels (dBA)
averaged over an 8 hour work day. When this is identified, employee exposure will
be reduced through the use of:
Administrative controls: (i.e. rotating workers duties to decrease exposure time,
posting signs in high noise areas and requiring the use of hearing protectors).
Engineering controls: (i.e. install noise mufflers, increase maintenance and repair,
use of quieter machines, enclose noisy areas, change the equipment or process).
Personal protective equipment (PPE) (ear muffs and plugs). PPE will be used only
when administrative or engineering controls fail to effectively reduce noise
exposures, during implementation of engineering controls, or when engineering
controls are not feasible.
B. If a worker is exposed to an average sound level of 85 dBA over an 8 hour day,
then a Hearing Conservation Program will be implemented. Under the Hearing
Conservation Program, the employer must:
• Develop and implement a noise exposure monitoring program.
• Notify employees of any noise exposure above an 8-hour time-weighted average
of 85 decibels.
• Provide employees with the opportunity to observe noise measurements.
• Establish an audiometric testing program.
• Provide employees with appropriate hearing protection.
• Institute an annual noise training program that discusses:
• The effects of noise on hearing.
• The purpose of hearing protectors.
• The purpose of audiometric testing.
Provide access to noise information and training materials.
Maintain records of employee exposure measurements.
Definitions:
Action Level- An 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels measured on the Ascale, slow response, or equivalently, a dose of fifty percent.
Audiogram - A chart, table, or graph showing hearing threshold level as a function of
frequency.
35
Audiologist - A professional, specializing in the study of hearing, who is certified by
the American Speech, Hearing, and Language Association of licensed by a state
board of examiners.
Audiometer - An instrument for measuring the threshold or sensitivity of hearing.
Audiometry - The measurement of hearing.
Background Noise - The total of all noise in a system of situation, independent of the
presence of the desired signal.
Baseline Audiogram - An audiogram obtained on testing after a prescribed period of
quiet (at least 14 hours). The audiogram against which future audiograms are
compared.
Bone Conduction (BC) - The process by which sound is transmitted to the inner ear
through the bones of the skull.
Cochlea - A spirally wound tube, resembling a snail shell, which forms part of the
inner ear and contains the end organ of hearing.
Criterion Sound Level - A sound level of 90 decibels.
Decibel - A unit for measuring the loudness of sound. One-tenth of a bel.
Dosimeter (Noise Dosimeter) - An instrument which registers the occurrence and
cumulative duration of noise exceeding a predetermined level at a chosen point in
the environment or on a person.
Ear Protection - A device inserted into or placed over the ear in order to weaken airconducted sounds.
Earmuff - A type of ear protector that encloses the entire outer ear.
Earplug - A type of ear protector that is inserted into the ear.
Frequency- The number of times per second that a sine-wave repeats itself. It is
expressed in Hertz (Hz).
Hair Cell - Sensory cells in the cochlea which transform the sound wave into a nerve
impulse.
Hearing Conservation - Those measures which are taken to reduce the risk of noiseinduced hearing loss.
Hearing Loss -Impairment of auditory sensitivity.
Hearing Threshold Level- The amount by which the threshold of hearing for an ear
exceeds a standard audiometric reference zero.
Hertz- Unit of measurement of frequency.
Middle Ear - A small cavity next to the ear drum.
Noise - Disturbing, harmful, or unwanted sound.
Occupational Hearing Loss - A permanent hearing loss sustained in the course of
following an occupation or employment.
Organ of Corti - The end organ of hearing.
Otolaryngologist - A physician specializing in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of
the ear, nose and throat.
Permanent Hearing Loss- Hearing loss deemed to be irrecoverable.
Permanent Threshold Shift- That component of threshold shift which shows no
progressive reduction with the passage of time when the supposed cause has been
removed.
Permissible Exposure Level (PEL)- A noise exposure equivalent to an 8-hour time
weighted average of 90 dBA; this represents a dose of 100 percent.
Representative Exposure- Measurements of an employee's noise dose or 8-hour
time-weighted average sound level that the employer deems to be representative of
the exposures of other employees in that workplace.
36
Temporary Threshold Shift- That component of threshold shift which shows a
progressive reduction with the passage of time after the apparent cause has been
removed.
Threshold Shift- An elevation of the threshold of hearing of an ear.
Time-Weighted Average Sound Level- That sound level, which if constant over an 8hour exposure, would result in the same noise dose as is measured.
Tinnitus- Ringing in the ear or noise sensed in the head.
HEARING CONSERVATION PROGRAM
The Hearing Conservation Program for the NEES Facility at Cornell is administered
by the Cornell University Department of Environmental Health & Safety (EH&S) with
audiometric and recordkeeping support from the Department of Health Services at
the Gannett Health Center. An Industrial Hygienist and an Environmental Safety
Technician provide all support services, noise exposure monitoring, evaluation,
training and recordkeeping for the Hearing Conservation Program. EH&S provides a
centralized facility for purchasing, fitting, and evaluating all on-site hearing protection
devices.
Hearing protection devices are available for all personnel using the NEES Facility at
Cornell. The ear plugs and ear muffs are stored in the Safety Equipment cabinet in
the NEES Facility. It is the responsibility of the NEES Facility Safety Officer to
assure the availability of adequate ear protection equipment in the facility. It is the
responsibility of each person working in the Facility to use the issued protective
devices in accordance with instruction and training provided by Cornell’s EH&S
personnel or the Safety Officer. This includes maintaining the hearing protection in a
clean condition and ready to use at all times. Each person should inform his/her
supervisor of any personal health problems that could be aggravated by the use of
hearing protective devices. Each person should use only those brands and types of
hearing protection for which they have been trained and fitted.
Maintenance and care of their hearing protective devices.
Attending annual hearing conservation training program.
Participation in audiometric testing program.
Maintenance and care of hearing protective devices shall include the following:
a) Inspection for defects. Discard and replace defective protective devices.
b) Cleaning and disinfecting for non-disposable protective devices.
c) Proper storage.
37
2.16
Lockout Tagout Policy
Purpose:
OSHA estimates that nearly 40 million maintenance workers could be exposed to
unexpected machine start-ups or releases of stored energy while performing service
work on equipment. Developing and implementing a comprehensive lockout/tagout
program has proven to be a safe and effective way for reducing these types of
incidents.
Scope:
Lockout/Tagout refers to the complete isolation of equipment during maintenance or
service work. OSHA regulations 29 CFR 1910.147 and 1926.416 require the use of
locks or tags as warning devices to ensure employees are not injured from
accidental machine start-ups.
Responsibilites:
Service and maintenance employees (Facility employees) are trained in the
recognition and use of locks and tags, their applications, and personnel
requirements. All other employees are trained during the required general safety
and lab use training not to attempt to use equipment that has been locked out for
maintenance operations. This facility does not use a tag out system other than
tagging to label the specific reason for locking out a system or piece of equipment
during service operations. Examples of systems that may be tagged out during
servicing are: the main hydraulic system, crane and fixed power tools. None of
these systems are to be used without thorough safety training at this facility, during
which the appropriate procedure for checking each system and maintaining each
system is discussed. It is the responsibility of each NEES Facility user to implement
the Lockout program in use in the facility.
All Facility personnel and researchers should read and sign the following training
page concerning lock out/tag out practices from ToolBoxTopics, Inc. Please return
the signed page to the NEES Facility Safety Officer.
38
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
Before any maintenance, construction, demolition, tie-in, inspection or servicing of
equipment (electrical, mechanical, steam or other) that requires entrance into or
close contact with machinery, equipment, power sources or line breaking, the power
shall be disconnected and locked out.
Electrical
Electrical sources will have the main power switch locked out, and if possible, the
fuses removed. Locks with dissimilar keys will be provided to each person working
on the affected job. Only the person attaching the lock shall remove it. Multiple
locking devices shall be provided. Tags will be attached to each lock indicating the
name of the person attaching the lock, the location where he/she is working and the
person's foreman or supervisor. Hot work will be avoided, if possible.
Moving Equipment
The main power source, or sources, shall be locked out and appropriate tags
applied.
Piping and hosing
Piping and hosing shall be blanked or valves shall be closed, chained and locked.
Where possible, at least two valves before and after the affected section should be
chained, locked and tagged. Piping shall be de-pressurized, drained and purged, if
necessary.
Other Energy Sources
Other power sources shall be rendered inoperative as directed by a qualified
supervisor or manager
Locks And Tags
Locks and tags will be attached and removed only by the employee directly involved
in the operation. The last person removing his/her lock shall ensure that there are no
persons exposed should the power be turned on.
Name __________________________________ Date________
39
2.17
Power Tools- Fixed and Portable
Inspection and Maintenance. Machine tools, machine equipment, and power tools
should be routinely inspected to verify that they are not damaged, that the controls
function as designed, and that all guarding and shields are securely installed and
adjustable. Servicing, including cleaning, lubrication, preventive maintenance, and
adjustment of machine equipment and machine tools can help prevent performance
and safety problems. Only qualified technicians or qualified vendors are permitted to
service equipment.
Service equipment only when all electrical, hydraulic,
compressed air, and stored energy sources are secured in accordance with the
requirements of Section 2.16 (Lockout/Tagout).
General Safety Rules for Use/Maintenance of Power Tools, Machine Tools and
Machine Equipment. The following general rules apply to the use and/or
maintenance of machine tools and machine equipment, regardless of their location.
a. Permit only qualified personnel who have necessary skills, through
experience and/or training, to operate or maintain machine tools or machine
equipment.
b. Equip all machine tools, power tools, and machine equipment with all
required guarding, and prohibit (lock and tag) their operation unless such
guarding is in place and fully functional.
c. Operate/maintain machine tools, and machine equipment in accordance with
the manufacturer’s requirements, and the requirements of this section.
d. Anchor and electrically wire all machinery and machine equipment designed
by the manufacturer to be stationary. Only qualified electricians are permitted
to install and remove wiring for hardwired shop machinery and machine
equipment. Machine tools and machine equipment designed to be electrically
connected by cord and plug are not subject to this requirement.
e. Permit only qualified personnel or vendors to repair or otherwise service
machine tools or equipment.
f. Only operate machine tools when a second person is within sight or earshot
of the tool user. This is an essential requirement in the case of personnel
who get caught in machinery or suffer traumatic injuries. The second person
need not be qualified to operate the equipment but does need to know how to
turn off the equipment and how to call for emergency assistance. This
second person must also agree ahead of time to perform such duties should
the need arise. Establish a check-in and check-out protocol.
g. Ensure that all machine and tool guards are installed in place, in good
working order, properly adjusted, and most importantly, used for their
intended purpose. This includes the use of chip shields for any drilling or
cutting operations.
h. Wear (at a minimum) safety glasses with side shields while in the vicinity of
operating machine tools. This applies both to workers and to visitors. Wear
40
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
face shields or goggles as required by work authorization for specific
operations.
Wear substantial closed-toe footwear of sturdy construction, made of leather
or other heavy, solvent-resistant material. Wear approved safety shoes when
there is a risk of crushing or piercing. Prohibit personnel, including visitors,
from entering the work area with sandals or open-toed shoes.
Wear appropriate clothing.
Wear hearing protection and/or respiratory protection as required by work
authorization for operations that generate harmful noise, or airborne
emissions.
Contact the Industrial Hygiene Group for assistance in
determining which operations require such protection.
Do not use audio equipment that obstructs the ear canal (e.g., iPods) or cell
phone Bluetooth headsets while operating machine or power tools. Such
devices distract the operator and can prevent him or her from hearing sounds
that could provide warning of an unusual operating condition or someone
calling out for assistance.
Prohibit personnel under the age of 18 from operating any machine or power
tools.
Tie back or otherwise secure long hair; cuff or roll up long sleeves, and
remove or tape down loose jewelry when working with rotating machinery.
Do not prepare or consume food or beverages in areas where hazardous
materials (including oils, solvents, chemicals, cuttings, filings, and sawdust)
are handled or generated.
Designate a food and drink
preparation/consumption area, if necessary, in an area that is kept free of
hazardous materials at all times.
Where applicable, secure and clamp down work pieces in work-holding
devices and machines, preventing the work from being lifted or dislodged.
Use appropriate push sticks or other approved methods as indicated in the
work authorization to keep hands and fingers well away from moving or
rotating cutters, blades, and other points of operation.
Turn off the machine before using a brush or wooden dowel (not hands!) to
remove chips from the machining area. Chips are not only very sharp but can
be hot and can snag.
Maintain good housekeeping. Work is not complete until cleanup is done.
Debris, coolants, and lubricants put workers at risk of cuts or slipping, and
can be a skin irritant. Clean up the work area with a broom, brush, and
dustpan, and clean up all spills with absorbents and/or degreasers. Avoid
using compressed air to blow chips off machinery. Not only is this a hazard
to the eyes, it forces material into the precision inner workings of the machine
and often distributes coolant, oil, and chips over a larger area. Clean up the
machine and sweep the floor area of any remaining chips.
41
2.18
Machine Guarding
Purpose:
It is the Safety Officers responsibility to ensure that machine tool and machine
equipment guarding is adequate. Never remove factory-installed guards unless they
are designed to be removed for a particular operation, and equivalent means of
protection are used (e.g., table saw guards are removed for fence cuts; when
appropriate, push sticks are used).
Responsibility:
It is the responsibility of the NEES Facility to provide guards for all reasonably
accessible points of operation, pinch and nip points, rotating parts, and flying chip or
spark hazards that may expose an employee to injury. In general, guarding prevents
inadvertent contact with these hazards. Guarding may be achieved by one or more
methods, such as isolation, barriers, shields, devices, or distance.
[email protected] follows federal OSHA standards for machine guarding, which address
specific requirements for many types of machine tools, machine equipment, and
power tools.
Follow specific regulations when machine tools or equipment fall under 1910.213–
219. Use an appropriate alternate standard (e.g., ANSI) when a specific OSHA
regulation does not exist.
42
2.19 Welding, Cutting, and Brazing Policy
Purpose:
The purpose of the Welding, cutting and brazing procedure is to protect NEES
Facility faculty, staff and workers and all visiting researchers from the hazards
associated with these practices.
Responsibility:
No person shall perform welding, cutting and brazing operations unless fully trained
and qualified. The NEES Site Safety Officer is responsible for overseeing welding,
cutting and brazing operations and procedures associated with them. Outside
contractors performing work NEES facility property are required to follow the
requirements of OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.251 and this policy.
Hazards:
There are several hazards to consider when performing welding, brazing, or cutting
operations. These hazards include fires, explosions, electrocution, burns, welder's
flash, oxygen depletion, toxic fumes and damage to unprotected or insufficiently
protected eyes. The Safety Officer is responsible to ensure their personnel are
aware of these hazards and have taken adequate steps to prevent such an
occurrence.
Personal Protective Equipment:
Wearing of contact lenses is NOT allowed in areas where welding is being
performed. It is the responsibility of the Safety Officer to ensure each employee
uses the appropriate equipment required to safely perform welding, cutting, or
brazing operations.
This includes personal protective equipment listed below:
1. Respirators should be used when ventilation is less than adequate.
2. Flame retardant clothing should be worn to prevent clothing from catching on
fire.
3. High top boots should be worn to prevent burns to the legs and feet.
4. Gloves are recommended to prevent hand burns.
5. All personnel are required to use an approved welder's shield or goggles. All
shields must be ANSI (American National Standard Institute) approved and the
proper shade for the type of operation being performed.
Training:
The Safety Officer is required to ensure personnel who weld, cut, or braze have
received proper training. He is responsible to ensure personnel are trained in the
following areas:
• Fire extinguisher use.
• Respirator training, if they are required to use a respirator.
• How to respond to an emergency (emergency numbers and alarm locations).
• Confined space training, which includes all requirements of the Confined Space
Policy, if personnel are required to work in confined spaces.
• Personal protective equipment and the type of shield required for their specific
operation.
Permits
43
A welding permit is required for each welding project and should be renewed each
day. Copies of permits shall be obtained and filed by the Safety Officer. Outside
contractors are required to obtain hot work permits from Cornell Facilities Services
and/or the City of Ithaca before the beginning of each project. The contractor is
required to complete each permit and fulfill each requirement before work begins.
All potential lab personnel and researchers should read and sign the following
training page concerning welding, cutting and brazing from ToolBoxTopics, Inc.
Please return the signed page to the NEES Facility Safety Officer.
44
WELDING AND CUTTING SAFETY TIPS
Fuel gasses may be toxic. Check a copy of the manufacturer's MSDS.
Never allow oxygen to contact oil, grease or other flammable substances.,
Oil and/or grease in the presence of oxygen becomes highly flammable or explosive.
Never use oxygen as a substitute for compressed air. Never use oxygen to dust off
clothing or work areas. Never use oxygen in pneumatic tools. Never use oxygen for
ventilation.
Oxygen and fuel gas hoses are not interchangeable. They must be easily
distinguishable by either color or surface characteristics sensitive to touch. Keep
welding hoses clear of any failing metal, slag or sparks. Only qualified technicians
should clean or repair a regulator.
Do not tamper with the relief valve or remove it from a regulator.
Examine hoses before attaching to welding torch handles or regulators. Never use a
defective hose or a hose in doubtful condition.
Never perform any welding or cutting operation without proper eye protection.
Always keep gas cylinders secured properly and in a vertical position. Keep valve
protection caps in place whenever cylinders a e not in use. Close valves completely
on empty cylinders.
Always open cylinder valves slowly and carefully.
When a cylinder wrench is needed on the valve, keep the wrench close at hand so
the valve can turned off quickly if necessary.
Place gauges if they become damaged and keep dust covers in place. Perform
welding in a well-ventilated area.
Today's construction workers in welding and cutting must not only protect
themselves from injury but also must assume responsibility for their helpers, coworkers in other trades and, in some instances, the sidewalk superintendent.
Accident records indicate that other people near arc welding operations are injured
more often than the person doing the welding.
There is also a constant chance of fire. In addition to causing serious injuries, fires
from welding and cutting cost hundreds of thousands, sometimes millions of dollars
annually.
Accident records show that certain conditions and/or actions cause most cutting and
welding accidents. Precautions that will prevent many types of accidents include:
1. Before starting to weld in a confined space, be sure you have the proper permit,
your supervisor's permission, and that there is proper ventilation.
45
2. Keep a correct type fire extinguisher handy and within reach at all times.
3. Inspect all work areas and place required shields or blankets before welding or
cutting. See that there are no explosives, dangerous gasses, or flammable materials
nearby.
4. Be sure all floor gratings are covered, with no cracks, through which sparks can
drop to levels below.
5. Don't allow co-workers to stand too near the work or stare at the art.
6. Your helper must be as well equipped as you are, and must be wearing the proper
type of eye protection.
7. Always inspect cutting and welding equipment before starting work.
8. Keep oil and grease away from oxygen valves.
9. Oxygen and acetylene cylinders should be tied off at all times.
10. When welding and cutting there may be times that you need a fire watch
assigned to your work. Check with your supervisor.
Name ___________________________ Date________
46
2.20 Crane Safety Policy
Only authorized, properly trained employees of the NEES Facility shall be permitted
to operate overhead traveling cranes. The Facility maintains a list of personnel
authorized to operate the crane(s) under their control. A visual inspection shall be
made by the crane operator prior to operating the crane. A "Visual Inspection
Checklist" shall be completed at the time of inspection. At least annually, each crane
shall be inspected by the manufacturer or by a competent, outside contractor. The
inspection shall include the OSHA requirements found in 29 CFR 1910.179 (j) (2)
and (3). As per OSHA regulations, each department shall establish a preventative
maintenance program based on the crane manufacturer's recommendations.
Daily Inspection. Each crane or hoist must be inspected before use, during any
given work shift.
Personal Protective Equipment. All personnel participating in lifts involving cranes
or hoists must wear ANSI-approved safety shoes.
All personnel working in the high bay must wear a hard hat.
Sturdy work gloves must be worn when handling wire rope or loads with rough or
sharp edges or splinters.
Suspended Loads. Follow these rules for suspended loads:




Do not allow loads moved with any material-handling equipment to pass over
any personnel.
Select the load path to eliminate the possibility of injury to employees should
the material-handling equipment fail.
Do not work on suspended loads. Rest the load on adequate cribbing if it
needs to be worked on.
Never leave a suspended load unattended. Lower it to the floor or the working
surface, or onto cribbing, and secure the material-handling equipment before
leaving the load unattended.
47
2.21 Forklift Safety Policy
Only authorized, properly trained employees of the NEES Facility shall be permitted
to operate the facility’s forklift. The Facility maintains a list of personnel authorized to
operate the forklift. A visual inspection shall be made by the forklift operator prior to
operating the forklift. A "Visual Inspection Checklist" shall be completed at the time of
inspection. At least annually, the forklift shall be inspected by the manufacturer or by
a competent, outside contractor. As per OSHA regulations, [email protected] shall
establish a preventative maintenance program based on the crane manufacturer's
recommendations.
Daily Inspection. The forklift must be inspected before use, during any given work
shift.
Personal Protective Equipment. All personnel participating in lifts involving forklifts
must wear ANSI-approved safety shoes.
All personnel working in the high bay must wear a hard hat.
Sturdy work gloves must be worn when handling wire rope or loads with rough or
sharp edges or splinters.
Suspended Loads. Follow these rules for suspended loads:




Do not allow loads moved with any material-handling equipment to pass over
any personnel.
Select the load path to eliminate the possibility of injury to employees should
the material-handling equipment fail.
Do not work on suspended loads. Rest the load on adequate cribbing if it
needs to be worked on.
Never leave a suspended load unattended. Lower it to the floor or the working
surface, or onto cribbing, and secure the material-handling equipment before
leaving the load unattended.
Training and licensing.
Cornell University’s office of Environmental Health &
Safety provides training on the safe use of forklifts. All authorized users of the forklift
in the [email protected] facility must pass the EH&S training and be licensed by
Cornell before they may operate the forklift.
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2.22
Respiratory Protection Policy
Purpose:
To establish provide procedures and minimum requirements to protect the
respiratory capacity or function of all researchers and workers.
Scope and Application:
The primary method to prevent diseases caused by breathing air contaminated with
harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays or vapors is to prevent
atmospheric contamination. This shall be accomplished as far as feasible by
accepted engineering control measures (for example, assuring that adequate dust
collection is performed in and around soil handling and storage equipment when
moving and placing soil). When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or
while they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be used.
Responsibilities:
1. N95 and N99 masks will be provided by the NEES Facility when use of such
equipment is necessary.
2. Research projects shall bear the cost of respiratory protective equipment, the cost
of miscellaneous supplies and expenses, and the cost of medical evaluations
required by the Respiratory Protection Program.
3. Respirators, requiring a face to respirator seal, shall not be worn when conditions
prevent a good face seal. Such conditions are a growth of beard, side burns, a
skull cap that projects under the face piece, or temple piece of glasses.
Departments should make a reasonable effort to find alternative work for employees
who may be religiously discriminated against by the facial hair policy.
49
2.23
Hazardous Material Policy
Purpose:
To ensure the shipment of all hazardous materials is conducted in compliance with
the Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations governing the classification,
marking, description, labeling, and packaging of hazardous materials in commerce.
Policy:
1. No person shall ship a hazardous material except in accordance with established
OSHA hazardous material shipping procedures.
2. No person shall certify a hazardous material package for shipment unless they are
trained according to DOT regulation 49 CFR 172, Subpart H.
3. Hazardous materials cannot be shipped unless properly labeled, marked, and
classified according to DOT regulations.
All new materials brought into the Facility as part of a research project must include
an MSDS. A complete set of MSDS materials is available at all times in the Facility.
Flammable Materials Storage:
Few flammable materials are used in the [email protected] facility. Some cutting
fluids, paints and fuels are used when necessary. There are three flammable
materials storage cabinets in the facility, one for each type of flammable material.
Cutting fluids are to be stored in the flammables storage cabinet in the welding and
fabrication area of the facility. Fuels are to be stored in appropriate containers in the
flammables cabinet in the high bay of the facility. Paints and associated materials
are to be stored in the flammables cabinet in the storage area of the facility.
50
2.24
Waste Disposal Policy
Purpose:
To ensure the disposal of all hazardous, radioactive, infectious, pathological, and
any other regulated waste or material is conducted in compliance with the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and all state and local regulations
governing the disposal of waste materials.
Policy:
1.
No person shall dispose of any hazardous waste, radioactive waste,
infectious/medical waste, or any other regulated waste or material except in
accordance with established University waste disposal procedures.
2.
Hazardous materials and hazardous wastes shall be properly identified and
labeled according to University procedures. Departments shall be responsible
for the identification of unknown waste.
3.
Departments shall purchase and use hazardous materials in quantities that
minimize waste generation but are consistent with operational needs.
4.
Environmental Health and Safety will coordinate the disposal of hazardous,
radioactive, infectious, and pathological waste.
5.
Environmental Health and Safety shall maintain all manifests and
documentation
required by Federal and State regulations. Departments
shall forward required
documentation to Environmental Health and Safety.
6.
In general, departments will not be billed for hazardous waste disposal.
However,
departments may be billed for the disposal of unknowns and other
unusual waste
(i.e, PCBs, dioxins, explosives, etc.).
7.
All departments, institutes and centers shall ensure that Cornell University's
Waste Disposal Procedures are posted in every laboratory, shop and/or work
areas where hazardous, radioactive, and infectious waste is likely to be
generated.
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2.25
Worker Right-To-Know Policy
Purpose:
The Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR
1910.1200 requires employers to provide information regarding hazardous
chemicals to employees who may be exposed to such chemicals in the workplace.
Policy:
This policy and its accompanying procedures establish mechanisms to assure
compliance with this regulation within the NEES Facility at Cornell.
Responsibility:
It is the responsibility of the NEES Site Safety Officer to implement an appropriate
Worker Right-To-Know Policy. The Safety Officer cooperates with Cornell’s Office of
Environmental Health & Safety to implement and audit this program.
Hazardous Chemicals:
A hazardous chemical shall mean any element, chemical compound, or mixture of
elements and/or compounds which is a physical hazard as defined by OSHA
Standard in 29 CFR Section 1910.1200(c) or a hazardous substance as defined by
the OSHA Standard in 29 CFR Section 1910.1200(d)(3).
Personnel Coverage
This policy applies to all personnel who may be exposed to hazardous chemicals in
the course of employment, education, or research in the NEES Site at Cornell
through any route of bodily entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or absorption,
etc.) and includes potential (e.g., accidental or possible) exposure under normal
operating conditions or foreseeable emergencies. Personnel are not included unless
their job performance routinely involves potential exposure to hazardous chemicals.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) are documents containing chemical hazard
and safe handling information prepared in accordance with requirements of the
OSHA Standard for such document.
The NEES Facility will maintain a catalog of MSDS sheets for all chemicals and
materials in use at the NEES Site. Copies of MSDSs for each chemical will be
available for review by employees or their designated representatives and students.
Labels:
Existing labels on containers of hazardous chemicals shall not be defaced. When a
hazardous chemical is transferred from the manufacturer's labeled container, the
chemical users shall ensure that the new container is labeled using the Hazardous
Materials Identification System (HMIS) labeling system.
Training:
A training program specific to the NEES Facility at Cornell, which covers the
Workers Right-To-Know policy must be attended by all personnel before
commencing work at the facility.
Appropriate personal protective equipment will be available in the NEES Site.
52
2.26 Compressed Gas Cylinder Storage and Handling Policy
Purpose:
Compressed gas cylinders are used in the NEES facility during some welding
operations, when maintaining the hydraulic system and when using the forklift. All
these operations may be performed only by properly trained professional staff of the
facility. Many compressed gas cylinders are stored at extremely high pressures (up
to 2,500 pounds per square inch gauge or PSIG). A sudden release of these gases
can cause a cylinder to become a missile-like projectile. Cylinders have been known
to penetrate concrete-block walls. If handled properly compressed gas cylinders are
safe. If handled improperly, the same cylinders can present a severe hazard to you
and the surrounding area.
Types of Hazards:

Physical Damage: Cylinders are very hazardous when exposed to damage
from falling over, tipping, heat, electric circuits, motion, vibration, or anything
that can cause a weakness or crack in the cylinder wall or shell. Such
damage can cause the cylinder to rupture and explode sending sharp metal
pieces, like shrapnel, blasting through the area.

Tipping and Falling: The most common hazard associated with cylinders
occurs when cylinders tip or fall over. Since cylinders are heavy and awkward
to handle, they require special care and equipment in handling and securing
so they do not fall or tip over and cause injury.

Valve Leakage: Cylinder valves can leak, causing their contents to
discharge. To minimize hazards from leaks, use proper ventilation and
storage.
Responsibilities:
Users of Compressed Gas Cylinders must read, understand, and follow the
markings on the cylinder, the label(s) on the cylinder, and the material safety data
sheets (MSDS). Appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn.
Environmental Health and Safety is responsible for providing guidance and
information on compressed gas cylinder use, transportation and storage.
Vendors must deliver properly labeled compressed gas cylinders with safety caps in
place.
Procedures:
Labeling: Compressed gas cylinders shall be legibly marked for the purpose of
identifying the gas content with either the chemical or the trade name of the gas.
Such marking shall be by means of stenciling, stamping, or labeling, and shall not be
53
readily removable. Whenever practical, the marking shall be located on the shoulder
of the cylinder (OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.253 (b) (1) (ii).
1. A durable label should be provided that cannot be removed from the
compressed gas cylinder.
2. Compressed gas cylinders that do not clearly identify its contents by name
should not be accepted for use.
3. Color-coding is not a reliable means of identification; cylinder colors vary from
supplier to supplier, and labels on caps have no value because many caps
are interchangeable.
4. Tags should be attached to the gas cylinders on which the names of the
users and dates of use can be entered.
5. If the labeling on the gas cylinder becomes unclear or defaced so that the
contents cannot be identified, the cylinder should be marked “contents
unknown” and the manufacturer must be contacted regarding appropriate
procedures for removal.
Handling Cylinders:
Serious accidents may result from the misuse, abuse, or mishandling of compressed
gas cylinders. Workers assigned to the handling of cylinders under pressure should
be properly trained. Handle cylinders of compressed gases as high-energy sources
and therefore as potential explosives. Observance of the following rules will help
control hazards in the handling of compressed gas cylinders:
1. Accept only cylinders approved for use in interstate commerce for
transportation of compressed gases
2. Always wear proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
3. Cylinders must always be transported on wheeled cylinder carts with retaining
straps or chains.
4. Cylinders should be secured in a boot or by a chain to a fixed support to
prevent them from being dropped or from falling over.
5. Do not remove or change numbers or marks stamped on cylinders.
6. Cylinders should not be banged, dropped or permitted to strike each other or
against other hard surfaces.
7. Never use compressed gas to dust off clothing. This could cause injury to the
eyes or body and create a fire hazard. Clothing can become saturated and
burst into flames if touched by an ignition source such as a spark or cigarette.
8. Do not use the valve cover to lift cylinders; they could be damaged and
become unattached causing the cylinder to drop on a hard surface possibly
resulting in an explosion.
54
Storage:
1.
Liquefied flammable gas cylinders should be stored in an upright position,
or such that the pressure relief valve is allowed to remain in the gas
phase. Cylinders loaded with liquefied gas are not completely filled; a
small vapor space is left to allow for expansion if the cylinder is heated.
Tanks for the forklift must be stored in the tank storage room in Bard Hall.
2.
Oxygen cylinders should be kept at a minimum of 25 feet away from fuelgas cylinders, such as acetylene and combustible materials, or separated
by a non-combustible barrier (such as a wall) at least 5 feet high with a
fire-resistance rating of at least one-half hour. Welding gas cylinders,
oxygen and acetylene, must be stored separately in the proper spaces
provided in the welding area of the NEES Facility with their caps in place.
Cylinders must be stored upright and secured with a chain to the
stationary building or cylinder cart to prevent cylinders from tipping or
falling.
3.
Store cylinders in a dry, well-ventilated area away from flames, sparks, or
any source of heat or ignition.
4.
Mark the cylinder storage areas with proper precautionary signs, such as
“Storage of flammable, oxidizer, or toxic materials.”
5.
Place cylinders in a location where they will not be subject to mechanical
or physical damage, heat, or electrical circuits to prevent possible
explosion or fire.
6.
Segregate empty cylinders from full cylinders.
7.
Caps used for valve protection should be kept on the cylinders at all
times, except when the cylinder is actually being used or charged.
Cylinder valves should remain closed.
8.
Never plug, remove, or tamper with any pressure relief device. Under
normal conditions, these containers will periodically vent the product.
9.
Cylinders should not be exposed to an open flame or to any temperature
above 125 degrees Fahrenheit.
10.
Cylinders should not be exposed to continuous dampness, stored near
salt or other corrosive chemicals or fumes. Corrosion may damage
cylinders and cause their valve protection caps to stick.
11.
When empty cylinders are to be returned to the vendor, mark them
“Empty” or “MT.”
Transporting:
1. Cylinders transported by wheeled truck must be fastened securely in an
upright position so that they will not fall or strike each other (see figure 2.1 for
an example).
55
2. Cylinders should not be transported without safety caps. A cylinder’s cap
should be screwed all the way down on the cylinder’s neck ring and should fit
securely. Do not lift cylinders by the cap. The cap is for valve protection only.
3. Cylinders should not be transported with the regulator attached to the
cylinder.
4. Always use a cylinder cart to move compressed gas cylinders. Refrain from
sliding, dragging, or rolling cylinders on their edge
5. Only one cylinder should be handled (moved) at a time
6. If the cylinder is to be shipped by an interstate carrier, it must have a D.O.T.
label
The [email protected] Facility uses Oxygen, Acetylene, Argon/CO2, Propane and
Nitrogen in compressed tank form. The Oxygen and Acetylene tanks should be
stored in the marked tank storage areas in the welding area of the facility. The
Argon/CO2 tank should be stored with the MIG welding unit. The Propane tank
should be stored on the forklift or in the Bard Hall tank storage facility. The Nitrogen
tank should be stored in the Bard Hall tank storage facility. In all cases the
regulators should be removed and the tank caps securely placed before storage. All
empty tanks are to be stored in the Hollister Hall empty tank storage room.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Avoid Skin Contact. When handling
gases that are harmful to the skin, protective gloves and/or aprons must be worn to
prevent skin absorption. Choose clothing made of materials that resist penetration or
damage by the compressed gas. Refer the compressed gas cylinder’s MSDS for
recommendations pertaining to PPE. If the information is not provided on the MSDS,
contact the supplier for specific information. Protect Your Eyes and Face. Workers
should wear safety goggles/glasses when handling and using compressed gases. In
some cases, a face shield should be worn.
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2.27
Radiation Safety Policy
Purpose:
The NEES Site Facility at Cornell makes use of/ provides access to a Troxler
Nuclear Densitometer. This tool uses two radioactive sources.
Scope:
Use of the tool is limited only to those who have completed Cornell
University’s Radiation Safety Course which is provided by the Radiation Safety
group of Cornell’s Environmental Health and Safety Organization. The course will
be made available to users who may need to use this tool by coordination between
the Site Safety Officer and the Radiation Safety Group. Only those who have
passed the training course and received an appropriate radiation badge may use the
Troxler.
The Troxler is stored in a multiply locked cabinet away from most traffic. Radiation
hazard signs will be displayed in areas around which the Troxler will be used and no
untrained users will be allowed near the work area. Though the Troxler-generated
radiation affects an area of less than five feet from the sources, the restricted work
area will always be set as much larger.
No other radiation emitting devices may be brought into the laboratory or made use
of in the laboratory without thorough consultation with Cornell’s Radiation Safety
Group and must be coordinated with the Site Safety Officer.
57
2.28
Vehicle Use Safety Policy
The [email protected] facility does not own or maintain any vehicle. Cornell University
and the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering have vehicles that may be
available to [email protected] staff. Use of these vehicles must comply with the
Cornell
University
Use
of
Cornell
Vehicle
Policy
3.4
(http://www.policy.cornell.edu/CM_Images%5CUploads%5CPOL%5Cvol3_4.html?C
FID=6073010&CFTOKEN=95803738). The policy requires the university or school
to assure that the vehicle is appropriately and adequately maintained and insured
and to track vehicle use. Drivers must have a valid driver’s license.
It is the responsibility of the NEES Site Safety Officer to assure that facility staff
required to use a personal vehicle for work purposes are properly licensed and that
the vehicle being used is properly inspected and insured. It is the responsibility of
the Primary Investigator of any research project using the facility to assure that
project staff required to use a vehicle for work purposes are properly licensed and
that the vehicle being used is properly inspected and insured.
It is the responsibility of the driver to follow the laws and rules for the operation and
use of motor vehicles of the state of New York, the City of Ithaca and Cornell
University. Tickets for moving violations and parking violations are the responsibility
of the individual driver.
58
3. Disaster Preparedness
Planning ahead for disasters is critical for being able to recover safely and quickly.
Understand and know the location and proper use of fire extinguishers, fire alarms,
emergency exits, telephones, eyewash fountains and safety showers. It is the
responsibility of the Site Operations Manager to provide for periodic training of staff
members and periodic practice and drills.
Personnel should be prepared to respond safely to the following:
•
Fire or evacuation alarm;
•
Accidental spills or release of radioactive, chemical or other toxic materials;
•
Injury of a co-worker;
•
Earthquake; and
•
Other natural or man-made disaster.
Fire. As a general rule, Cornell does not expect its employees to fight fires. Just
sound the alarm – pull the fire alarm or call 911 – and get out of the building as
quickly as possible and report to your group’s emergency assembly area. Do not reenter the building until you have been notified by the authorities to do so.
Accidents. All accidents and near miss incidents must be reported immediately to
the Facility Manager.
Electric shock. Do not touch persons rendered unconscious by electric shock
unless you are sure that they are no longer in contact with the source of the
electricity or that the power has been turned off.
Earthquake. During any earthquake, you should take cover immediately. After the
quake, assess the situation and follow instructions given by the Facility Manager or
other supervisor. If the earthquake is severe, you will be asked to evacuate the
building. Wait for instructions before re-entering the building or before leaving the
area.
59
4. First Aid
This section will familiarize you with guidelines for treatment of minor injuries and for
the application of first-aid for more serious injuries in the period of time before
professional medical staff are able to treat the injured person
4.1
Wounds
A wound is caused when a tissue in our body is torn or
cut. Types of wounds:
•
Incised wounds caused by sharp instruments. These wounds bleed
extensively.
•
Contused wounds caused by crushing. These wounds look bruised.
•
Lacerated wounds caused by rough surfaces. These wounds
bleed less. Wounds pose two dangers, namely bleeding and infection.
4.1.1 Treating bleeding
a. Press the sides of the wound together.
b. Raise the injured part of the body above the heart (only if fracture is not
suspected).
c. With your palm, gently press a pad bigger than wound until bleeding reduces.
d. If bleeding continues, add new pads without removing original pad.
e. Bandage firmly but not too tightly.
4.1.2 Avoiding infection
4.2 The first aid provider must wash own hands thoroughly with soap and water.
4.3 External wounds should be cleaned thoroughly with potable water and should
be dried with sterile gauze.
4.4 Wound should be covered with sterile or dry sterile gauze and bandaged once
bleeding is controlled
4.5 Cotton should not be allowed to be in direct contact with wound.
4.6 Antiseptic cream applied to a wound should not be mixed with water.
4.1.3 Blood Borne Pathogens
In the event human body fluids require clean up due to an injury, only trained
personnel are allowed to clean up spills with approved clean up kits. If no trained
60
personnel are present, secure the area and notify the University EH&S department
for instructions.
You are responsible for keeping your immediate work area clean and sanitary. If you
become aware of needs beyond general housekeeping, report your concern to your
supervisor.
All equipment and working surfaces must be cleaned and decontaminated using
sanitizing cleanser after contact with blood or OPIM.
If you get blood or other potentially infectious materials in your eyes, nose, mouth, or
on broken skin:
•
Immediately flood the exposed area with water and clean any wound with
soap and water or a skin disinfectant if available.
•
Report this immediately to your employer.
•
Seek immediate medical attention at the Cornell University Gannett Clinic.
4.2
Burns and Scalds
Burns are caused when skin comes in contact with dry heat like fire/flames, hot
metal, live wires, etc. Scalds are caused by moist heat like boiling water, steam, oil,
tar, etc.
The degree of a burn is indicated by the degree of damage to the tissues. Degrees
of burning are:
•
First degree: the skin appears reddened.
•
Second degree: Blisters are seen on the skin.
•
Third degree: There is destruction of deeper tissues with scarring.
Dangers from burns include:
•
Excessive loss of body fluids.
•
Severe pain.
•
Infection in affected area.
•
After healing, they could leave scars and restrict movements.
4.2.1 Treating extensive burns
a. Try to keep the patient calm.
b. Do not remove adhering particles of charred skin.
c. Cover the burnt area with a clean dressing and bandage.
d. If hands are burnt, they should be placed above the level of victim’s heart.
e. If feet or legs are burnt, they should be elevated.
61
f.
If face is burnt, sit up the patient and observe for breathing difficulty. Maintain
an open airway if respiratory problems develop.
g. Do not open the blisters on victim’s skin.
h. Try and remove all rings, bangles, belt and boots from the victim’s body
immediately as it may be difficult later if the limbs begin to swell.
i. If medical help can not reach the victim within an hour of the burn, and if the
victim is conscious and not vomiting, try to feed a weak solution of salt, soda
and water (approximately one teaspoon of salt and half teaspoon of baking
soda per quart of water).
4.2.2Treating minor burns
j.
Clean the affected area gently with water.
k. Immerse the burnt area in cold water.
l.
Never apply cotton wool directly over burnt area.
m. No greasy substance should be used over the affected area.
4.3
Fractures
Fracture is defined as complete or partial breakage of a bone. Types of fractures
include:
a. simple – broken ends of the bone do not cut open the skin
b. compound – broken end of the bone may be in contact with open air.
c. Complicated – an internal organ is broken in addition to the fracture bone.
Signs of fracture include:
a. Severe pain at and/or around place of fracture.
b. Swelling and tenderness over the area with partial discoloration.
c. Inability to perform normal movements of the affected part.
d. Deformity of the limb. The limb may also appear shorter.
e. Crackling sound or unnatural movements.
4.3.1
Treatment for fractures
a. Fractures generally occur with other injuries like wounds. Symptoms like
heavy bleeding must receive priority for first-aid over a fracture.
b. Patient should be handled gently avoiding all unnecessary movements.
c. If broken ends of the bones are seen above the skin, the wound should
neither be washed nor treated with antiseptics.
d. The fractured area should not be handled unnecessarily.
e. No attempt should be made to reduce the fracture or to bring the bones to
62
normal position.
f. The fracture area and joints on both sides of fracture should be immobilized
by using bandages. It is essential that rescuer be familiar with the use of
bandages.
4.4
Electrical injuries
When a body part comes in contact with a live electric wire or cable carrying a live
current, the person receives an electric shock. The electric shock could be produced
only when the electric current passes through human body, which is in contact with
the earth. It passes more readily if the contacting body part is wet or moist. In wet
conditions, even lower voltages could be dangerous.
Depending on the voltage and duration of contact, one or all of the following may
occur.
a. fatal stoppage of heart
b. sudden stoppage of breathing due to paralyses of breathing muscles
c. superficial or deep burns
4.4.1 Treating victims of electric shock
a. The source of current should be switched off if the victim is in contact with the
current. This must be done with rescuer standing on a dry piece of wooden
board.
b. Never use a knife or scissor to cut the current carrying wire.
c. If the current is of very high voltage, arching may occur. The victim should be
dragged using non-conductive material like a wooden stick, plank or dry nylon
rope.
d. If the victim is not breathing properly, artificial respiration should be given.
e. If required, treat for burns.
f.
4.5
The victim should be transferred to a hospital as soon as possible. Even for
mild electrical injuries, consultation with a doctor is desirable as some effects
of electric shock materialize hours/days after the incident.
Contents of First-Aid Kit
The following basic items should be present in the first-aid box at all times.
•
Latex gloves.
•
Sterile dressing to stop bleeding.
•
Cleansing agent/antibiotic towelettes to disinfect.
•
Antibiotic ointment to prevent infection.
•
Burn ointment to minimize risk of infection.
•
Adhesive bandages in a variety of sizes.
63
•
Eye wash solution.
•
Thermometer
64
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