Faserkabel
Accessories: Vacuum Feed-Through, Fiber Optic Beam Splitter, FC Adapter
Polarization-Maintaining Singlemode Fiber Cables
PMC-...
Dependence of the Mode Field
Diameter on Wavelength and NA
PM-Fiber
Typ Panda
PM-Fibers
SM-Fiber
with end caps
reduced power
density at fiber
end-face
(factor 100)
with end caps
reduced power
density at fiber
end-face
(factor 100)
Standard
fiber
• Wavelength 360 – 1550 nm
Wavelength
NA
405 nm
0.12
• Mode field diameter 2.3 – 11 μm
488 nm
0.12 0.09
• Fiber with low attenuation for
532 nm
0.12 0.09
630 nm
0.12
wavelengths <460 nm
780 nm
0.12
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector
1064 nm
0.12 0.09
• Polarization direction is indicated
1550 nm
0.13
by connector index key
• Option: fiber connectors with end caps (see page 20)
SM-Fiber
ber
Singlemode Fiber Cables SMC-...
Standard
fiber
NEW
PM-Fiber
with
End Caps
MFD [μm]
2.6
3.2 4.2
3.4 4.6
4.1
5.0
6.9 9.2
9.3
• Wavelength 360 – 1550 nm • Mode field diameter 2.3 – 11 μm
• Fiber with low attenuation for wavelengths <460 nm
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector
• Optionally: core-centering
• Optionally: fiber connectors with end caps (see page 21)
Standard
Fiber
NEW
Fiber with
End Caps
Fibers with End Caps
Increasing the mode field at the fiber end-face by a factor of 10
and thus:
• reducing the power density by a factor of 100
• reducing the risk of fiber destruction by too high an optical power
• reducing the tweezer effect
NEW
Fiber with End Caps
Reduced power density at
fiber end-face (factor 100)
Multimode Fiber Cables MMC-...
• High OH-/ Low OH- for UV and VIS radiation or VIS and NIR
radiation, respectively
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other connector types
available on request)
• Amagnetic titanium connectors (FC-APC or FC-PC)
Multimode
Fiber
Beam profile
© NKT Photonics
Pho
P
Photonic
Crystal
F iber
Spectral range
Application of multimode fibers MMC:
generation
of flatbeam profiles
Components for Photonic Crystal Fibers PCF-...
1100
750
Optics for photonic crystal fibers:
• FC-APC, FC-PC, F-SMA, SMA-905 High Power Connector (NKT
Photonics) (0°, 5° and 8°-polish)
• Laser Beam Coupler and Fiber Collimators (also for
kineMATIX) available for all connector types (pages 9, 33, 44)
• Fiber cables sold directly by NKT Photonics
640
540
400
380
PM-Fiber
Measurement System
Fiber Optic Accessories
Vacuum
feed-throughs V-KF-...
Polarization Analyzer
Fiber optic beam
splitters
FBS-...
Laser beam coupler
60 SMS-...
polarization-maintaining
p ari
pol
arizat
zation
zat
ion-ma
maint
ma
intain
int
aining
ain
ing
g fiber
fiber optics
op
ptic
tics
s
inclined
nclined fiber
coupling
axis
Anamorphic beamshaping
aping optics
5AN...
N...
• Specific routines for
PM fiber evaluation
and alignment
U
USB
2
2.0
TILT
Fiber collimators
60FC-...
Micro focus
optic 5M-...
Series SK010PA-...
USB 2.0 Plug&Play for Wavelengths 350 – 1600nm
Polarization
Analyzer Series SK010PA-...
A
universal
and test
system
for laser
USB
Plug&Play
Plug&
g measurement
y for
for Wavelengths
Wavelengt
g hs
350 - 1600
nmbeam sources with
Adjustment of Quarterwave plates
Faraday
aday isolator
48FI-5...
FI-5...
45°
Measurement of
Polarization Extinction Ratio
Adjustment of lefthanded and righthanded circular
circular
polarization.
Connector
key
Fibercable_Title_FiberOpt.indd • Page 15
Laser
Fabry Perot
Interferometry
for Adjustment
and Alignment
Polarization
Alignment
Bad
Optical Tweezers
Flatbeam®Laser 670
A tomic
F orce
scopy
M icro-
Applications:
6 of 1000s
• Measurement of four
Stokes parameters
for display on a
Poincaré sphere or as
polarization ellipse
• Details see page 71.
Core
Good
• USB 2.0 powered
device, Plug&Play
Lasers in Space
X7
Nanotube
01-2016 E
Kieler Str. 212, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
[email protected]
•
15
www.SuKHamburg.com
Fiber cables
Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Cables PMC-…
Singlemode Fiber Cables SMC-…
Multimode Fiber Cables MMC-...
MFD [μm]
Fiber Cables: Contents
14
12
10
6.7 μm
5.5 μm
17
NA=0.09
Standard
fiber
8
6
4
NA=0.11
780 nm
NEW
2
Fibers
with
End Caps
Fundamentals: Fibers
NEW Fibers with end caps
• Mode field diameter / Numerical aperture / Cut-off wavelength
• Polarization-maintaining fibers
• Fiber attenuation and Brioullin scattering
• MFD mismatch / NA mismatch
• Fiber cables and fiber connectors
• NEW Amagnetic fiber connectors
Polarization-maintaining fiber cables PMC-...
PM-Fiber
PM-Fibers
with end caps
reduced power
density at fiber
end-face
(factor 100)
Typ Panda
Standard
fiber
20
NEW
PM-Fiber
with
End Caps
• Wavelengths 360 – 1800 nm with cut-off wavelengths from 360 to 1550 nm,
m, each
eter 2.3 – 11 μm
with an operational wavelength range of 100 - 300 nm • Mode field diameter
• Special broadband fiber RGBV with an operational wavelength range 400-680 nm
• Fiber with low attenuation (Si) for wavelengths <460 nm FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other conn. types available)
• Amagnetic titanium connectors available for FC-APC or FC-PC connectors
• Polarization direction is indicated by connector index key
Page 20
Polarization-maintaining fiber cables with end caps PMC-E-...
• Polarization-maintaining singlemode fiber cable with End Caps for reduced power density at the fiber end-face (one
or both ends)
• Wavelengths 360 – 1800 nm with cut-off wavelengths from 360 to 1550 nm, each with an operational
wavelength range of 100 - 300 nm
• Mode field diameter 2.3 – 11 μm
• Special broadband fiber RGBV with an operational wavelength range 400-680 nm
• Fiber with low attenuation (Si) for wavelengths <460 nm
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other connector types available)
• Amagnetic titanium connectors available for FC-APC or FC-PC connectors
• Polarization direction is indicated by connector index key
Singlemode fiber cables SMC-…
SM-Fiber
SM-Fiber
with end caps:
reduced power
density at fiber
end-face
(factor 100)
21
Standard
fiber
NEW
Fiber with
End Caps
• Wavelengths 360 – 1600 nm with cut-off wavelengths from 360 to 1300 nm, each with an operational wavelength
range of 100 - 500 nm (depending on cut-off wavelength)
• Mode field diameter 2.3 – 11 μm
• Special broadband fiber RGBV with an operational wavelength range 400-680 nm
• Fiber with low attenuation (Si) for wavelengths <460 nm
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other connector types available on request)
• Amagnetic titanium connectors available for FC-APC or FC-PC connectors • Optionally: Core-alignment
Page 21
Singlemode fiber cables with end caps SMC-E-…
• Singlemode fiber cable with end caps for reduced power density at the fiber end-face (one or both ends)
• Wavelengths 360 – 1300 nm with cut-off wavelengths from 360 to 1060 nm, each with an operational
wavelength range of 100 - 300 nm
• Mode field diameter 2.3 – 11 μm
• Special broadband fiber RGBV with an operational wavelength range 400-680 nm
• Fiber with low attenuation (Si) for wavelengths <460 nm
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other connector types available on request)
• Amagnetic titanium connectors available for FC-APC or FC-PC connectors
Components for Photonic Crystal fiber cables PCF-…
sold directly by
NKT Photonics
22
Photonic
Crystal
F iber
©N
NKT
K Photonics
Fiber cables sold directly by NKT Photonics
• Polarization-maintaining and singlemode fibers with relatively large mode field diameter and wide spectral range
Laser beam coupler and fiber collimators (also for KineMATIX) available:
• FC-APC, FC-PC: laser beam coupler 60SMS-... (page 9) and fiber collimators 60FC-...(page 29ff)
• For SMA-905 High Power connector (0°, 5° and 8°-polish): fiber coupler 60FC-SMA-T-...(page 46)
Multimode fiber cables MMC-…
23
Multimode
Fiber
A
Application:
Ap
Flatbeam
Fl
F
profile
pr
p
24
SM-Fiber
Fiber optic
beam splitter
•
•
•
•
•
•
High OH-/ Low OH- for UV and VIS radiation or VIS and NIR radiation, respectively
FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other connector types available on request)
Amagnetic titanium connectors available for FC-APC or FC-PC connectors
Use for vacuum feed-throughs
Black cable/black buffer available
Application: flatbeam® Laser
•
•
•
•
•
Fiber optical beam splitter FBS-...
Wavelength 460 – 1550 nm, splitting ratio defined for one wavelength
Standard splitting ratio 50:50
FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connectors (ST, DIN AVIO and F-SMA type connectors available on request)
Core alignment
Connecting cable: Ø 3 mm cable with Kevlar strain-relief
Vacuum feed-throughs V-... and V-E-...
Vac
25
Standard
fiber
NEW
•
•
•
•
•
Fiber
with
End Ca
Caps
ps
Suitable for vacuum down to 10-7 mbar • Wavelength 360 – 1800 nm
Polarization-maintaining, singlemode or multimode fiber cables
Two different flange types: small flange KF16 and screw-type flange M12 x 1 mm
FC-APC and FC-PC connectors (ST, DIN AVIO, E2000 and F-SMA type connectors available on request)
NEW V-E-...: Vacuum feed-through with connectors with end caps with singlemode and PM-fibers for a
reduced power density at the fiber end face (one or both ends)
Casing feed-throughs CFT-... and CFT-E-...
26
• NEW CFT-E-...: Casing feed-through with connectors plus end caps with singlemode
and PM-fibers for a reduced power density at the fiber end-face (one or both ends)
27
•
•
•
•
PM-Fiber
-Fiber
Typ Panda
PMC or SMC fibers • customizable delay time • Compact design
FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connectors (ST, DIN AVIO, E2000 and F-SMA type connectors available on request)
Connecting cable Ø 3 mm strain-relief cable
NEW CAS-E-...: Fiber Delay Lines with connectors plus end caps with singlemode and PM-fibers for a
reduced power density at the fiber end-face (one or both ends)
FC adapters without optics and FC mating sleeves (nickel silver or titanium)
• FC fiber adapters are used for connecting fibers but have no integrated optics and can be used for telescopes
or fiber-coupled spectrometers, according to requirements and customer preferences. Limit stop of fiber
ferrule for a reproducible focussing position
• Grub screw for additional locking of the fiber ferrule
• Inclined or coaxial coupling axis for fiber connectors of the FC-APC or FC-PC type, respectively (ST, DIN
AVIO, E2000 and F-SMA type connectors available on request)
• Optional tilt adjustment for alignment of the coupling axis
• Various designs
28
16 01-2016 E
Kieler Str. 212, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
[email protected]
•
www.SuKHamburg.com
FiberCable_Teil1_FiberOpt_16-19.indd • Page 16
Fiber delay lines CAS-... and CAS-E-...
Mode Field Diameter
SM-Fiber
Multimode
Fiber
Spectral range
Typ Panda
Standard
fiber
NEW
E
EW
The mode field diameter MFD is the diameter of the beam profile on
exiting the singlemode fiber. MFD dependends on the wavelength
and the NA of the fiber accordingly:
1100
MFD =
750
640
540
400
380
PM-Fiber
Fibers
with
End Caps
s
Figure 1: Singlemode
lemode fiber
f
cable with different
ff
types off polarization-maintaining
polariza
singlemode fibers A1 - A3 , a standard single mode fiber A4 . Most fiber cables
from Schäfter+Kirchhoff are of type PANDA.
NEW
Fiber Connectors with End Caps
The maximum optical power that can be transmitted by a singlemode
fiber is constrained by a number of limiting effects, including Brillouin
scattering and the tweezer effect.
A limiting feature of the fiber cable is the fiber end-face, which can
be destroyed if the optical power is too high. The maximum power
rating depends not only on the cleanliness of the fiber end-face A
but also on the power density at the fiber end-face.
Schäfter+Kirchhoff
End-face without End cap
now offers fiber cables
with end caps, where
the fiber is terminated
by a coreless fiber
A
approx. 250 μm long
B . Within this section,
the radiation is not
with End cap
End-face
guided and it diverges
to about 10 times the
fiber
mode
field
B
diameter. The power
p
a
dc
density at the fiber endEn
face is diminished by a
factor of 100. The
Figure 2: Fibers with end caps
numerical aperture of a
fiber is not affected by an end cap. The fibers with end caps are
assembled identically to the standard fiber connectors of type FCAPC, enabling their use with all 60SMS-1-4-... laser beam couplers
and 60FC-x-4-... fiber collimators from Schäfter+Kirchhoff.
Working with End Cap fibers
When exchanging a fiber without an end cap for a fiber cable with an end
cap, the focus position of the laser beam coupler and collimator have to
be adjusted, because of the different positions in which the beam starts
to diverge. Compared with the focus alignment for a collimated beam for
a fiber without an end cap (Fig. 3 A ), a fiber cable with an end cap
produces a convergent beam at the same distance (Fig. 3 B ). The focus
position of the coupler or collimator has to be shifted |180 μm (assuming
an end cap of |250μm) towards the fiber in order to obtain the collimated
beam for a fiber with an end cap (Fig. 3 C ).
A
collimated beam
Fiber without
endcap: collimated
beam
f
FiberCable_Teil1_FiberOpt_16-19.indd • Page 17
B Replaced by an end
cap fiber without
changing the
coupler alignment:
the beam converges
f
convergent beam
C
Refocussing leads
to a collimated
beam
collimated beam
|180 μm
f-180μm
Figure 3
Refocussing when exchanging standard fiber cables for end cap fiber cables
˜
˜˜
2 O
0.82 S NA
On calculating the MFD, note that the NA is typically given at the 5%
level of the Gaussian profile but the MFD at its 13.5% level. The
conversion factor is 0.82. For both singlemode and polarizationmaintaining fibers, the MFD approximately equals the core diameter
but is also a function of the wavelength O used (Fig. 4).
Depending on the application or specifications, fibers with a larger
MFD might be preferred.
14
For fibers with a large
Figure 4: Mode Field Diameter
MFD (small NA), the po12
wer density at the fiber
NA = 0.09
end-face and within the
10
fiber is reduced, causing
smaller losses from
8
6.7 μm
Brioullin scattering.
NA = 0.11
6
5.5 μm
When coupling high
laser powers, end caps
4
may be needed but, in
780 nm
comparison with fibers
2
with a smaller MFD, the
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Wavelength [nm]
size of a potential focus
spot is increased. For
small focus spots, fibers with a smaller MFD might be more suitable.
MFD [Pm]
PM-Fiber
Photonic
Crystal
F iber
Numerical Aperture
The numerical aperture NA of a singlemode fiber describes the angle
of beam divergence (5% level) of the Gaussian-shaped radiation that
is emitted by the fiber and is defined as the sine of half the angle of
beam divergence:
NA = sin D/2
The total angle of beam divergence D in degrees is calculated from
NA using the equation:
D = 2 ˜NA ˜180°/ S| 114.6° ˜NA
Example: numerical aperture, NA = 0.11
angle of beam divergence, D | 12.6°.
For singlemode fibers and for polarization-maintaining fibers, NA is
normally independent of the used wavelength O.
Ø13.5%
Ø50%
SF
3
SF
1
2
5
6
3
4
4
Ø 5%
2
5
1
6
Singlemode fiber
Core diameter
MFD = mode field Ø
Intensity level 13.5%
Intensity level 5 %
2 ˜NA (5 %)
2 ˜NA (13.5 %)
Figure 5: Beam profile of a singlemode fiber: definition of numerical aperture
NA, angle of beam divergence D and mode field diameter MFD
Cut-Off Wavelength
The cut-off wavelength Oco is defined as the shortest wavelength for
which a guided wave is singlemode. The beam profile can only have
a Gaussian intensity distribution and rotational symmetry above Oco.
If the wavelength of the guided radiation is shorter than the cut-off
wavelength, two or more modes are guided as wavelength decreases. The beam and intensity profile differ significantly from a
Gaussian distribution. Asymmetry changes caused by bending of
the fiber or temperature variations (the butterfly effect) are worse.
If the operation wavelength is longer than the cut-off wavelength,
the guidance of the radiation becomes increasingly weaker. Even a
slight movement or bending of the fiber (even micro-bends) can
result in attenuation of the guided radiation.
The wavelength range in which the fiber is singlemode depends on
the fiber parameter and can reach 1.3 times Oco (Fig 6 A ). The usable
wavelength range of fibers with a pure silica core is even smaller.
When more than one fiber from tables 1 and 2 (pages 20ff) can be
used for a particular wavelength then the fiber with a larger cut-off
wavelength should be chosen.
The measured cut-off wavelenth Oco of a fiber may be 10% less than
the nominal value because of manufacturing tolerances. Carefully
selected fibers with characterized values are available on request.
01-2016 E
Kieler Str. 212, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
[email protected]
•
17
www.SuKHamburg.com
Fiber cables
Fundamentals: Fibers
Fiber Attenuation
NEW
E
EW
1100
750
640
540
400
PM-Fiber
Fibers
with
End Caps
s
A
singlemode
multimode
operation range
O co
losses due to
bending
(schematic)
typ. 1.3 O co
B C
Laser Beam Analysis:
Ref.: SK970703
Schäfter + Kirchhoff
Intensity Profile
Hamburg
Intensities
100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
Gaussian
Fit
Object:
Fiber Collimator
Collimating Lens
Beam Diameter (1/e 2 )
D
M12
2.18 mm
E
Figure 6:
Operating wavelength
range of a singlemode
fiber A
Gaussian mode profile
of a singlemode fiber B
and C
By using a fiber with a
wavelength just below
the cut-off wavelength,
the multiple modes of
the butterfly effect D
and E become evident.
In this example:
Oco = 780 nm
O = 633 nm
Polarization-Maintaining Fibers
Polarization-maintaining singlemode fibers guide coupled radiation in
two perpendicular principle states with different speeds of propagation,
denoted the fast and slow fiber axes.
Linearly polarized radiation not coupled exactly into one of these axes
is transformed into an elliptical state of polarization because of these
different speeds of propagation.
Polarization-maintaining fibers are either step-index fibers or photonic
crystal fibers and the two unequal axes are caused by birefringence from
stress-induction components in the fiber cladding, as in “PANDA“ fibers,
“Bow-Tie“ fibers or “Oval-Inner Clad“ fibers. The slow axis is orientated
in parallel with the stress-inducing elements (“PANDA“ and “Bow-Tie“
fiber) or in parallel with the larger diameter of the inner cladding (“OvalInner Clad“ fiber).
The linearly polarized laser radiation is conventionally coupled into the
slow axis, because of its lower sensitivity to fiber bending.
The polarization-maintaining fiber cables made by Schäfter+Kirchhoff
are typically of type PANDA and have the fiber axes aligned with the
index key of the FC type fiber connector with extremely high precision
(<1°), see Fig. 7 A .
The fiber cables made by Schäfter+Kirchhoff typically have a polarization
extinction >200:1 (23 dB) or >400:1 (26 dB) for O >780 nm.
Alignment
A Good Alignment:
Connector key axis = slow axis
= laser polarization axis
Output beam
linearly
polarized
B
Bad Alignment:
Core
Output beam
linearly +
circularly
polarized
99.8
99.6
99.4
99.2
99.0
98.8
98.6
350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050
Wavelength [nm]
Angular
offset
80
60
40
20
0
0
Figure 8: Attenuation of singlemode and polarization-maintaining
fibers (left) and for different fibers according to fiber length (right)
Pure Silica Core Fibers (Si)
Singlemode and polarization-maintaining singlemode fibers have a core
doped with germanium as standard. Short-wavelength radiation interacts
with the germanium to produce color centers that cause an increasing
non-reversible attenuation of the fiber (solarization effect). For
wavelengths <460 nm, Schäfter+Kirchhoff provides singlemode fibers
and polarization-maintaining fiber cables with a pure silica core. These
fibers do not demonstrate radiation-induced attenuation and so have a
low attenuation that is stable over time.
Pure silica core fibers are more resistant to gamma radiation than Gedoped fibers.
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering is an intense beam effect that limits the
maximum power that can be transmitted by the fiber. Unlike photocontamination and direct scorching of the fiber end-face, which limit the
power that can be transmitted at the fiber end-face, the Brillouin effect
is a bulk medium effect.
The electromagnetic wave propagating within the optical fiber is
scattered by acoustical phonons that are caused by electrostriction. The
acoustical phonons induce periodic changes in refractive index (elastooptical effect) that serve as a Bragg grating, reflecting the incoming
radiation. The wavelength of the reflected radiation (Stokes photon) is
shifted towards higher wavelengths.
If the input power exceeds the Brillouin threshhold Pcr , almost the entire
radiation is reflected. The threshhold is defined as:
PCr
21˜ Aeff
g B ˜ Leff
Aeff a(MFD)2 = effective core diameter
Leff =effective cable length, dependent on fiber losses
gB = gain coefficient of the Brillouin spectrum
The critical power is wavelength-dependent and influenced by other fiber
features. The amount of power that can be transmitted by a particular
fiber needs to be determined for each fiber individually.
MFD Mismatch / NA Mismatch
For both singlemode and polarization-maintaining fibers, the numerical
aperture NA and mode field diameter MFD may vary by up to 10% from
the specified values, simply arising from manufacturing tolerances.
Selected fibers with characterized values are available on request.
The theoretical coupling efficiency (overlap integral) K between two
intensity Gaussian distributions is still close to K = 1 even when the mode
field diameter of an actual fiber differs from the theoretical value.
The linear relationship between mode field diameter MFD and numerical
apterture NA means this is valid also for a mismatch in the values for NA.
Example: NA1 = 0.11
NA2 = 0.12
Overlap: K = 0.992
Connector key axis and slow axis
z laser polarization axis
Connector
index key
100
100
380
1
When coupling two fiber
cables with
NA1/NA2 = MFD1/MFD2 < 0.6
then the Schäfter+Kirchhoff
60FF Fiber-Fiber coupler is
recommended.
Figure 7: Axis orientation of a polarization-maintaining fiber with the
connector index key
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
a = MFD1/MFD2 = NA1/NA2
Figure 9: MFD Mismatch
18 01-2016 E
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•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
[email protected]
•
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FiberCable_Teil1_FiberOpt_16-19.indd • Page 18
Standard
fiber
The attenuation in fibers used for wavelengths below 1550 nm is
dominated by Rayleigh scattering and, additionally for wavelengths
below 600 nm, by UV absorption. The attenuation is approximately 1 dB/
km for O = 1000 nm. With decreasing wavelength, the attenuation
increases to approximately 20 dB/km for O = 460 nm and to approximately
40 dB/km for O = 400 nm.
When using standard fibers at wavelengths below 460 nm, additional
solarization effects worsen the attenuation further.
Schäfter+Kirchhoff recommend the use of pure silica core fibers in order
to alleviate the problems arising at these lower wavelengths.
Transmission [%]
Multimode
Fiber
SM-Fiber
Coupling efficiency η
Typ Panda
Transmission @ 1m [%]
PM-Fiber
Photonic
Crystal
F iber
Spectral range
Fiber cables
Fundamentals: Fibers
Singlemode Fiber Cables PMC-.../SMC-...
Standard
fiber
NEW
E
EW
Ø 0.9
Ø1
0.3
Ø3
Ø3
Ø 0.9
L1
1100
L2
10
.3
750
for SMC-... fiber
cables only, L1 = 45 mm L4
fiber cable Ø 3 mm,
with Kevlar strain-relief
540
L3
Ø1
0.3
640
Ø
L1 FC connector
10
.3
Multimode
Fiber
SM-Fiber
Spectral range
Typ Panda
Ø
PM-Fiber
Photonic
Crystal
F iber
L2 FC connector for PMC-... fiber cables,
400
(polarization-maintaining) L2 = 58 mm
380
L3 FC connector (Short) for SMC-... fiber cables, L3 = 25 mm
PM-Fiber
fiber cable Ø 0.9mm (nylon buffer)
Fibers
with
End Caps
s
L4 FC connector (Short) for PMC-... fiber cables, (polarization-maintaining)
L4 = 39 mm, fiber cable Ø 0.9mm (nylon buffer)
Figure 12: The different fiber cables with their different types of fiber
connectors of type FC.
Types of Fiber Cables
Fiber Cable with Connectors of Type FC-APC
Singlemode fiber cables made by Schäfter+Kirchhoff are either
supplied with a Ø 0.9 mm buffered, Ø 3 mm cable with Kevlar strainrelief (Fig. 10 B ) or with only the Ø 0.9 mm buffered component
(Fig. 10 A ). Both the cable and the buffering are black.
Fibers without buffering (with only a Ø 250 μm coating) can be
supplied.
In order to avoid back-reflection directly into the laser source, the
fiber in the ferrule of the type FC-APC connector has an 8°-polished
face. For fiber cables with this type of connector, Schäfter+Kirchhoff
provides fiber collimators (Fig. 13 B ) and laser beam couplers (Fig.
13 D ) with the appropriate inclined coupling axis.
If a fiber collimator with coaxial coupling axis is used with FC-APC
type connectors then the beam is obstructed and its profile is
distorted, Fig. 13 C .
Equally, if a laser beam coupler with coaxial coupling axis is used
with FC-APC connectors then the coupling is reduced by about
50%, Fig. 13 D .
A Buffer Ø 900 μm
B
Coating
Ø 250 μm
Cladding
Fiber
Fiber core
}
Cable Ø 3mm
Kevlar strain-relief
Buffer
B
Ø 900 μm
Figure 10: Typical Singlemode fiber cables.
Table 1
Different Connector Types offered by Schäfter+Kirchhoff
Type
Singlemode
fiber
PMfiber
light,
Multidustmode
PC /APC
cap
fiber
Coupling
type
amagnetic
(titanium)
FC
x
DIN-AVIO
F-SMA
E2000
FiberCable_Teil1_FiberOpt_16-19.indd • Page 19
x
x
x
x
x
Figure 11:
Orientation of the 8°polish and index key for
fiber connectors of type
FC-APC: A standard,
B optional customized
orientation.
x
B
5B
D
C
5C
E
(8°-polish of the fiber ferrule)
(0°-polish of the fiber ferrule)
Singlemode fiber cables made by Schäfter+Kirchhoff are equipped
with fiber connectors of type FC-APC or FC-PC. Optionally, they
can be provided with fiber connectors of type ST, DIN AVIO, F-SMA,
E2000 or with different types of fiber connector at either end. An
overview is provided in table 1.
All of the fiber connectors of type FC assembled by Schäfter+Kirchhoff
have an alignment index (key) of 2.14 mm standard width (or
optionally of 2 mm, type “R“).
For fiber connectors of type FC-APC, the connector index key is
orientated with the 8°-angled polish as shown in Fig. 11 A . (Other
orientations can be specified, such as that shown in Fig. 11 B ).
The dimensions of the different connectors are shown in Fig. 12.
ST
FC-APC connector
FC-PC connector
Fiber Connectors
x
A
x
x/x
x
Screw
x
x/-
Bayonet
x
x/x
Screw
x
x/x
Screw
x
x/x
x
A
Remarks
best suited
for most
applications
e.g. SMA-905
High Power
connector
Figure 13:
Matched coupling of laser radiation into a singlemode fiber cable and
coupling of fiber-guided laser radiation into a collimated beam using fiber
connectors of the FC-APC type.
Optimal coupling efficiencies are achieved when both the laser beam
coupler and the fiber collimator have an inclined coupling axis.
Amagnetic fiber connectors
Schäfter+Kirchhoff also offers amagnetic FC-APC and FC-PC fiber
connectors with titanium connector mechanics and a ceramic ferrule.
This ensures that the relative permeability μr of the connector is near
1 (F=5·10-5, μr=1.00005), making it transparent to magnetic fields.
The homogeneity of a magnetic field or the flux lines and absolute
value of the defined magnetic field, used in the experiment or
application, are not perturbed by the fiber connector.
Such highly defined magnetic fields are used for example in Electron
Spin Resonance (ESR) or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
experiments.
Another application of amagnetic fiber connectors is the highly
precise measurement of a magnetic field (magnetometer). Here, any
perturbation of the magnetic field from magnetic materials close to
the setup should be avoided, since they cause disturbances in the
magnitude of the determined magnetic field.
Core Alignment
Because of manufacturing tolerances, fiber connectors may have a
misalignment of optical and mechanical axes. Schäfter+Kirchhoff
singlemode fiber cables SMC-... (non-polarization-maintaining) can
be provided with core alignment (offset d0.5 μm).
The connector 60C-FC/FC ensures the direct connection of two fiber
connectors with core alignment and a low coupling loss (see page
28). Core alignment is not possible with polarization-maintaining fiber
cables.
When coupling two polarization-maintaining fiber cables then the
Schäfter+Kirchhoff 60FF-... Fiber-Fiber coupler is recommended.
Snap
B
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19
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Fiber cables
Fundamentals: Fiber Connectors
Polarization Maintaining
Singlemode Fiber Cables
with End Caps PMC-E-...
Polarization-maintaining
single-mode fiber cable
PM-Fiber
Polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber cable with end
caps for reduced power density
at the fiber end-face (one or both
ends), for details see p. 17.
Typ Panda
PM-Fibers
with end caps
reduced power
density at fiber
end-face
(factor 100)
• Polarization-maintaining singlemode
• Wavelengths 360 – 1800 nm (Cut-off wavelengths from 360 to
1550 nm), each with an operational wavelength range of 100 - 300 nm
(depending on cut-off wavelength)
• Mode field diameter 2.3 – 11 μm
• Special broadband fiber RGBV with an operational wavelength
h
range 400-680 nm
• Fiber with low attenuation (Si) for wavelengths <460 nm
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other connector types available)
e
e)
• Amagnetic titanium connectors available for FC-APC or FC-PC
C
connectors (p.19)
• Polarization direction is indicated by connector index key
The three defining parameters of a polarization-maintaining singlemode fiber are numerical aperture NA, mode field diameter MFD and
cut-off wavelength Oco. Because of manufacturing tolerances, the mean
specified values for NA and MFD may differ by up to 10%. Carefully
Table 2
Standard
fiber
NEW
PM-Fiber
with
End Caps
selected fibers with documented values are available on request (see
Order Options). Using fibers with end caps reduces the risk of damaging
the fiber end face, by reducing the power density but without changing
the numerical aperture NA of the fiber.
PM Singlemode Fiber Cable PMC-... (representative selection)
1800
1700
11.6
1600
11.3
10.1
10.0
1500
1400
1300
9.2
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
wavelength [nm]
400
300
row
1 Fiber Type PMC-...
10.7
PM-Fiber
6.0
6.4
9.5
5.5
4.8
5.1
4.1
4.1
4.4
4.4
NA 0.12
NA 0.11
NA 0.11
NA 0.13
NA 0.12
NA 0.08
NA 0.11
NA 0.12
460
630
630
780
980
980
1300
1550
8
460
9
630 Si
10
630
11
780
12
980
13
980
14
1300
1550
3.6
4.7
3.0
4.0
3.0
NA 0.13
NA 0.12
NA 0.09
400Si
460
460
RGBV
RGBV
400 Si
400 Si
6
460 Si
7
460 Si
3.5*
4.8
2.8
3.4
2.8
2.4
NA 0.12
NA 0.11
NA 0.09
NA 0.11
360Si
400Si
400Si
400Si
1
360 Si
2
400 Si
3
400 Si
3.0*
2.3
Fiber NA
Fiber Type
7.1
RGBV
15
2
Nom. wavelength Onom
360
400
400
400
400
460
460
460
630
630
780
980
980
1300
1550
3
Cut-off wavelength Oco
< 360
< 400
< 400
< 400
< 400
< 460
< 460
< 460
< 630
< 630
< 780
< 980
< 980
< 1300
< 1550
4
Op. wavelength range
360 - 460 400 - 500 400 - 500 400 - 680 400 - 680 460 - 550 460 - 550 460 - 630 630 - 780 630 - 850 780 - 1100 980 - 1550 980 - 1100 1300 - 1600 1550 - 1800
5
Mode field diameter
MFD [μm]**
2.3 - 3.0 2.8 - 3.5 3.4 - 4.3 2.8 - 4.8 2.4 - 4.1 3.0 - 3.6 4.0 - 4.7 3.0 - 4.1 4.4 - 5.5 4.5 - 6.0
6
Num. Aperture NA* [μm]
7
Large MFD
8
Pure Silica core
X
X
X
X
X
9
Endcaps
X
X
X
X
X
0.12
0.11
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.12
0.09
X
0.12
0.11
0.11
5.1 - 7.1
6.4 - 10.1
9.5 - 10.7
9.2 - 11.3
10 - 11.6
0.12
0.12
0.08
0.11
0.12
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Order Options for PM singlemode fiber cables
The PM fibers listed in Table 2 are a small
selection of available fibers. Contact
Schäfter+Kirchhoff if the required specifications are not listed.
All PM-fiber cables PMC-... can be equipped
with an end cap. The mode field is expanded
at the fiber end-face by a factor of 10. The
risk of damaging the fiber end-face because
of high optical power is reduced, see p. 17.
The NA of the fiber remains the same.
PMC - E - 780 - 4.7 - NA013 - 3 - APC.EC/0PC - 150 - P
APC.EC / 0PC.
Order Code
Connector Type:
Cable type:
3 = Ø 3 mm cable with Kevlar strain-relief
(standard)
1 = fiber cable with Ø 0.9 mm buffer
(with FC connector short design)
Numerical aperture NA
Mode field diameter MFD at nominal
wavelength
Nominal wavelength (+Si when stated)
Example: The Connector Type APC.EC/0PC
orders a fiber cable with a FC-APC connector with an end cap at one end and a FC-PC
connector at the other.
Following connector types are available:
AVIO-APC = DIN-AVIO (8°-angled polish)
AVIO = DIN-AVIO (0°-polish)
E2000-APC = E2000 (8°-angled polish)
E2000 = E2000 (0°-polish)
E = Cable with end cap fiber connectors
Connectors of type FC only
- = Standard fiber connectors
PMC = polarization-maintaining
singlemode fiber cable
PM fiber type: P = Panda (standard)
Length in cm (standard = 150)
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish),
both ends
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish), both ends
XPC = one end FC-APC, other FC-PC
End cap for 2nd fiber end:
EC = End cap on this end
= no End cap on this end
Connector type 2nd fiber end:
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
End cap for 1st fiber end:
EC = End cap on this end
= no End cap on this end
Connector type for 1st fiber end:
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
For a connector made of Titanium add .Ti
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•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
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•
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•
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FiberCable_PM-Fibers-etc_S20-23.indd • Page 20
Fiber cables
Polarization Maintaining
Singlemode
Fiber Cables PMC-...
Singlemode
Fiber Cables
SMC-...
Singlemode
Fiber Cables with
End Caps SMC-E...
Singlemode
fiber cable
S
Singlemode fiber cable with
end caps for lower power
density at the fiber end face
(one or both ends), for details
see page 17.
• Wavelengths 360 – 1300 nm with cut-off wavelengths from 360 to
1060 nm, each with an operational wavelength range of 100 300 nm (depending on cut-off wavelength)
• Mode field diameter 2.3 – 11 μm
• Special broadband fiber RGBV with an operational wavelength
range 400-680 nm
• Fiber with low attenuation (Si) for wavelengths <460 nm
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other connector types
available on request)
• Amagnetic titanium connectors available for FC-APC or FC-PC
connectors (page 19)
• Option: core-alignment
SM-Fiber
An ideal standard singlemode fiber w
would be supposed to be rotationally symmetric and without influence on polarization. But any rotational asymmetry, produced during the manufacturing process, as
well as fiber bending or temperature variations cause birefringence.
Table 3
SM-Fiber
with end caps:
reduced power
density at fiber
end-face
(factor 100)
Standard
fiber
NEW
Fiber with
End Caps
Linearly polarized radiation coupled
d into the fiber is then transformed
into instable elliptically polarized radiation, varying with temperature
and fiber position. End caps reduce the risk of damaging the fiber
end face, as the power density is also reduced.
Singlemode Fiber Cable SMC-...(representative selection)
11.0
1600
1500
1400
7.8
1300
9.2
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
wavelength (nm)
1200
400
300
PM-Fiber
4.4
4.1
4.7
4.2
3.6
4.1
3.0
3.3
NA 0.12
NA 0.12
NA 0.11
NA 0.11
NA 0.12
NA 0.12
NA 0.13
NA 0.13
NA 0.11
400Si
460
460Si
530
630
630Si
780
980
1300
RGBV
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
460
460 Si
530
630
630 Si
780
980
1300
2.6
2.6
2.6
NA 0.12
NA 0.12
NA 0.12
360Si
400Si
400Si
1
2
360 Si
400 Si
Fiber Type SMC-...
2
Nominal wave-length Onom
3
6
Cut-off wavelength Oco
< 360
Operation. wavelength range 360 - 470
Mode field diameter
2.3 - 3.1
MFD [μm]**
Numerical aperture NA [μm]*
0.12
7
Pure Silica Core
x
8
Endcaps
x
360
* Typical value, determined at the 5% level
** Calculated from the NA and the wavelength O
Si For wavelengths <460 nm,
4.1
3.7
1
5
4.9
4.4
3.1*
row
4
5.9
5.6
5.0
2.3
Fiber NA
Fiber Type
6.0
RGBV
RGBV
400 Si
400
400
460
460
530
630
630
780
980
1300
< 400
< 400
< 460
< 460
< 530
< 630
< 630
< 780
< 980
< 1300
400 - 550
400 - 680
460 - 630
460 - 600
530 - 700
630 - 770
630 - 860 780 - 1000 980 - 1300 1300 - 1600
2.6 - 3.6
2.6 - 4.4
3.0 - 4.1
3.3 - 4.2
3.7 - 4.9
4.1 - 5.0
4.1 - 5.6
4.7 - 6.0
5.9 - 7.8
9.2 - 11
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.13
0.11
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Schäfter+ Kirchhoff provides singlemode fiber cables with
extra low attenuation that have a pure silica core and are
devoid of solarization effects, see page 18.
x
x
x
x
RGBV is a singlemode fiber suitable for the
entire visible wavelength range of 400 680 nm. It is used mainly in combination
with the apochromatically corrected
laser beam coupler from
Schäfter+Kirchhoff, see p. 10 + 43.
FiberCable_PM-Fibers-etc_S20-23.indd • Page 21
Order Options for singlemode fiber cables
The singlemode fibers listed in Table 3 are a
small selection of available fibers. Please contact
Schäfter+Kirchhoff if the required specifications
are not listed. By careful selection, it is possible
for Schäfter+Kirchhoff to offer fibers with properties different from those specified by the manufacturer, with a documented MFD and NA as well
as particular cut-off and operation wavelengths.
All singlemode fiber cables SMC-... can be
equipped with an end cap. The mode field is
expanded at the fiber end-face by a factor of 10.
The risk of damaging the fiber end-face because
of high optical power is reduced, see page 17.
The NA of the fiber remains the same.
Following connector types are available:
AVIO-APC = DIN-AVIO (8°-angled polish)
AVIO = DIN-AVIO (0°-polish)
E2000-APC = E2000 (8°-angled polish)
E2000 = E2000 (0°-polish)
ST = ST (0°-polish)
SMA = F-SMA (0°-polish)
Order Code
SMC - E - 780 - 4.7 - NA011 - 3 - APC.EC/0PC - 0 - 150
APC.EC / 0PC.
Connector Type:
Cable type:
3 = Ø 3 mm cable with Kevlar strain-relief
(standard)
1 = fiber cable with Ø 0.9 mm buffer
(with FC connector short design)
Numerical aperture NA
Mode field diameter MFD at nominal
wavelength
Nominal wavelength (+Si when stated)
Optional End Cap
SMC = singlemode fiber cable
Length in cm (standard = 150)
Core Alignment 0 = standard
C = core alignment
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish),
both ends
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish), both ends
XPC = one end FC-APC, other FC-PC
End cap for 2nd fiber end:
EC = End cap on this end
= no End cap on this end
Connector type 2nd fiber end:
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
End cap for 1st fiber end:
EC = End cap on this end
= no End cap on this end
Connector type for 1st fiber end:
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
For a connector made of Titanium add .Ti
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•
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•
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•
21
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• Polarization-maintaining and singlemode fibers
• Relatively large mode field diameter and wide spectral range
• FC-APC, FC-PC, SMA-905 High Power Connector (NKT Photonics) (0°, 5° and 8°-polish)
• Laser beam coupler and fiber collimators (also for kineMATIX) available for all connector
types
• Fibers sold directly by NKT Photonics
Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCF) cover a range of fiber types and include hollow core fibers,
polarization-maintaining Large Mode Area fibers (LMA-PM), singlemode Large Mode Area fibers
(LMA) and highly nonlinear or highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers. They differ in fiber
specifications and are suitable for a wide range of applications.
Those photonic crystal fibers optimized for singlemode operation have a wide spectral range
combined with a relatively large mode field diameter, enabling them to transmit high optical
powers. Being made from fused silica, they are resistant to solarization effects. The mode field
diameter for LMA-fibers is almost wavelength-independent, whereas the numerical aperture NA
depends on the wavelength (Fig. 2). The specific arrangement of vacuities in the photonic crystal
cladding (Fig. 1) results in a beam profile with a hexagonal shape that only approximates a
Gaussian.
A selection of different types of photonic crystal fibers is available, all manufactured and sold
directly by NKT Photonics: http://www.nktphotonics.com.
Beam profile
© NKT Photonics
1100
750
640
540
400
380
PM-Fiber
MFD [μm]
The photonic crystal fiber micro
structure of a singlemode polarizationmaintaining Large Mode Area fiber
exhibits a hexagonal pattern with
stress rods inducing birefringence. The
major benefits include a larger mode
field diameter and a wider spectral
range for singlemode operation.
5.5
0.16
5
0.14
4.5
0.12
4
0.1
3.5
0.08
3
0.06
350
450
550
650
750
850
wavelength [nm]
Figure 1.
Structure of a polarization-maintaining Large Mode Area fiber.
NA
Photonic
Crystal
F iber
Spectral range
The mode field diameter for
LMA-fibers is almost wavelength-independent, whereas
the numerical aperture NA is
wavelength-dependent.
This must be considered
when choosing the most
appropriate
laser
beam
coupler or fiber collimator.
Figure 2. Wavelength-dependence of mode field diameter and
numerical aperture for a LMA-PM-fiber.
Components using Photonic Crystal Fibers
... with FC-APC or FC-PC connector
... with SMA-905 High Power Connector
ine rce
ltil ou
Mu er S
s
La
Laser beam coupler
60SMS-..., see p. 9
Fiber Collimator 60FC-K-...
compatible with KineMATIX
opto-mechanics
inclined fiber
coupling
axis
• Flexible interchange of
fiber cables
• Focussing of the optics
• Large variety of optics,
partly achromatic or
apochromatic ( RGBV )
• Use of fibers
with end caps
P hotonic
C rystal
F iber
Fiber collimator
60FC-T-...
(p. 36)
Fiber collimator
60FC-... (p.33)
Fiber collimator
60FC-K-...,
see page 44
Polarization Analyzer
series SK010PA-...
Adjustable Quarter-wave plate
Adjustment of left45° handed and right-
handed circular
polarization.
• USB 2.0 interface
• Multiple wavelength
ranges 350 – 1600nm
Fiber collimator 60FC-Q-... / 60FC-E-... (p. 42f)
Generation of circulary
polarized laser radiation
with integrated
quarter-wave plate
Beam Profile
Beam
profile: circular
• Designed for SMA-905 High
Power Connectors with 0°, 5°
and 8°-polish
• Suitable for High Power
applications
• Large variety of optics
P hotonic
C rystal
F iber
Beam
profile: elliptical
Tilt adjustment
Fiber collimator 60FC-SMA-...
with integrated tilt
adjustment (page 46)
22 01-2016 E
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•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
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•
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•
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FiberCable_PM-Fibers-etc_S20-23.indd • Page 22
For further information,
see page 71
©NKT Photonics
Fiber cables
Polarization Maintaining Singlemode Photonic Crystal Fibers
PCF-... (Fiber cables sold directly by NKT Photonics)
Fiber cables
Multimode fiber cables MMC-...
• Multimode
• High OH- for UV and VIS transmission and Low OH- for VIS and NIR radiation
• FC-APC or FC-PC fiber connector (other connector types available on request)
• Amagnetic titanium connectors available for FC-APC or FC-PC connectors
(for details see page 19)
• Use for vacuum feed-throughs
• Black cable/black buffer available
Multimode
Fiber
Gradient index vs. step index in Multimode Fibers
n2
While common singlemode fibers have a step-index profile for the refractive
index, there are two types of multimode fibers: step-index and gradientindex.
Step-index fibers have a step profile with one refractive index n2 for the
core and one for cladding (refractive index n1) throughout the fiber. The core
diameter of a multimode fiber is rather large (>50 μm), allowing multiple
modes of light guidance.
A gradient-index fiber exhibits a gradual profile (almost parabolical in
shape) for the refractive index, which results in a smaller modal dispersion
because of the approximately sinusodial beam propagation along the fiber.
Step
Index
n1
n2
ng
Gradient
Index
n1
Table 4
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
curr. no
Lens type
Focal length f'
Numerical aperture NA
Clear apert. max. [mm]
Correction - achrom.
Spectral range
350 - 460 nm
52
400 - 600 nm
01
600 - 1050 nm
02
1050 - 1550 nm
03
1300 - 1750 nm
45
1750 - 2150 nm
09
390 - 670 nm
33
630 - 980 nm
10
980 - 1550 nm
08
420 - 700 nm
26
750 - 1550 nm
37
400 - 670 nm
51
520 - 830 nm
650 - 1150 nm
07
1750 - 3000 nm
64
450 - 700 nm
04
Table 5
9
A8
8
0.3
4.9
10
A11
11
0.25
5.5
52
01
02
03
11
M11
11
0.23
5.5
x
12
M12
12
0.23
7.5
01
02
03
45
09
Fiber Collimators 60FC-T/ 60FC-L
13
14
15
16
17
M20 L
M25
M30
M40 L
M100
20
25
30
40.0
100
0.17
0.28
0.22
0.30
0.24
11
13
13
24
48
x
x
x
x
x
01
02
03
01
02
03
01
02
01
02
03
01
02
33
10
08
26
37
26
37
37
04
04
51
18
07
64*
04
Multimode Fiber Cable MMC-...
row
8
A7.5
7.5
0.3
4.5
2
3
4
5
6
7
G
S
S
S
S
S
S
1
Fiber Type
2
Core diameter [μm]
62.5
50
50
105
105
300
300
3
Numerical aperture NA [μm]
0.27
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22
4
UV/VIS (High OH-)
x
5
VIS/NIR (Low OH-)
x
6
Suitable for vacuum
feed- throughs V-...
x
x
x
x
x
UV/VIS: High OH3
10
x
x
x
04
Typical Spectra for UV/Vis or Vis/NIR Multimode fiber cables
1
attenuation [dB/km]
row
1
2
3
4
5
Fiber Collimators for Multimode fibers MMC-... (Selection from tables 1–6 on pages 33–36)
Fiber Collimators 60 FC-...
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A2.7
A3.1
M3.1
A4
A4.5S
M5
A6.2S
2.75
3.1
3.1
4
4.5
5.1
6.16
0.55
0.68
0.25
0.56
0.42
0.25
0.24
3.6
5
1.7
5
3.7
2.5
3.7
x
x
Code no. of AR coating *IR chalcogenide lens
52
52
52
52
01
01
01
01
01
02
02
02
02
02
03
03
03
03
03
45
45
45
45
09
09
09
33
10
08
x
2
10
10
VIS/NIR: Low OH-
x
200
600
1000
1400
1800
2200
wavelength [nm]
G = Gradient-index fiber
S = Step-index fiber
Please note that the beam profile emitted by a multimode fiber is not Gaussian.
Fiber-fiber coupling from a multimode to a singlemode fiber is non-functioning.
Order options for multimode fiber cables MMC-...
Collimating the beam
f’
Øbeam
The beam diameter ØBeam is given by the focal length
of the collimating lens f‘ and by the numerical aperture NA of the multimode fiber.
‡ Beam
The MM fibers listed in Table 6 are a small selection of available fibers. Please
contact Schäfter+Kirchhoff if the required specifications are not listed. By careful
selection, it is possible for Schäfter+Kirchhoff to offer fibers with defined properties
that can differ from those specified by the manufacturer.
MMC- S-VIS/NIR-50-NA022- 3 -APC -150
2 f '˜ NA
The beam always shows divergence due to the finite core diameter d. The divergence
angle - is defined as: -|d/2f
FiberCable_PM-Fibers-etc_S20-23.indd • Page 23
It is important that the numerical aperture of the chosen lens is higher than the numerical
aperture of the multimode fiber. Table 4 shows some appropriate collimating lenses.
Focussed laser beam
Ø spot
Ø beam
A
Ø spot
A
f’
The collimating lens can be adjusted to generate a
focussed beam. At distance A, relative to the fiber
collimator, a beam waist with diameter Øspot is formed.
‡ Spot
: Beam diameter in focus
: Working distance
: Focal length of collimating lens
§ A
·
‡ ¨ 1¸
© f' ¹
Special connectors e.g. FC-APC connectors with 12°-polish for an improved suppression
of back-reflection with multimode fibers are available upon request, please contact us directly.
Order Code
Length in cm (standard = 150)
Connector Type:
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish), both ends
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish), both ends
XPC = one end FC-APC, other FC-PC
For a connector made of Titanium (Only for fibers
No. 1–5, amagnetic, page 19) add .Ti
cable type:
3 = Ø 3 mm cable with Kevlar strain-relief (standard)
1 = fiber cable with Ø 0.9 mm buffer
(with FC connector short design)
Numerical aperture NA
Core Diameter
Wavelength range
UV/VIS = High OH-, for UV or VIS radiation
VIS/NIR = Low OH-, for VIS or NIR radiation
MMC fiber type:
S = Step index
G = Gradient index
MMC = Multimode fiber cable
Following connector types are also available:
• AVIO-APC =DIN-AVIO (8°-angled polish)
• AVIO = DIN-AVIO (0°-polish)
• E2000-APC = E2000 (8°-angled polish)
• E2000 = E2000 (0°-polish)
• ST= ST (0°-polish)
• SMA = F-SMA (0°-polish)
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•
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•
23
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Fiber-optic beam splitters A split the radiation
guided in a singlemode fiber into two
singlemode fibers. Fiber-optic beam splitters
from Schäfter+Kirchhoff have a splitting ratio
up to 1:99 and are provided for wavelengths
between 460 and 1500 nm. The bandwidth is
within ±1% of the designed wavelength and
insertion loss is approximately 1 dB at
460 – 700 nm and 0.5 dB at 700 – 1550 nm.
SM-Fiber
Fused biconical taper
The fiber-optic beam splitters have 3 or 4 ports
and are ideal for use in interferometric or other
setups. The Ø 3 mm cables have Kevlar strainrelief and the connectors may be of type FCPC, FC-APC (or ST, SMA, E2000 or DIN-AVIO)
or core-aligned (<0.5 μm).
Customized products, such as with a different
number of output ports, are available on
request.
X
Y
FBS - 630 - X – 50/50 – APC/APC - 0 – 100/100
Please contact Schäfter+Kirchhoff for other
fiber-optic beam splitter requirements.
Order Code
Cable length in cm (in/ out)
Core Alignment
0 = standard
c = Core Alignment (SMC only)
Fiber connection (in/ out):
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
OPC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
For a connector made of Titanium
(amagnetic, page 19) add .Ti
Following connector types are also available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Splitting ratio
Number ports:
X = 4-Port
Y = 3-Port
Nominal wavelength
FSB = fiber optic beam splitter
AVIO-APC =DIN-AVIO (8°-angled polish)
AVIO = DIN-AVIO (0°-polish)
E2000-APC = E2000 (8°-angled polish)
E2000 = E2000 (0°-polish)
ST= ST (0°-polish)
ST= ST (0°-polish)
SMA = F-SMA (0°-polish)
Special Configurations of Fiber-Optic Beam Splitters FBS-...
Fiber-optic beam splitter FBS-... with vacuum feed-through V-...
Schäfter+Kirchhoff also offer fiber-optic beam
splitters in direct combination with vacuum
feed-throughs B (for more details see page
27), that can be attached to any port, as
required. The feed-throughs are suitable for
vacuums down to 10-7 mbar and are supplied
with either a small flange KF16 (DIN 28403)
(option: KF40/KF50) or a screw-type flange
B
(M12 x 1 mm). The connectors may be of type
FC-PC, FC-APC (or ST, SMA, E2000 or DINAVIO), although not all of these connectors are
suitable for a vacuum.
Please contact Schäfter+Kirchhoff for more
information.
Fiber optic beam splitter FBS-... with casing feed-through CFT-...
Fiber-optic beam splitters can also be equipped
directly with casing feed-throughs at any port
C (for more details see page 26).
Inside the casing, the fiber cables are 900 μm
buffered and, outside the casing, the cable is
3mm in diameter and has Kevlar strain-relief.
C
The connectors can be of type FC-PC, FC-APC
(or ST, SMA, E2000 or DIN-AVIO).
Please contact Schäfter+Kirchhoff for more
information.
24 01-2016 E
Kieler Str. 212, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
[email protected]
•
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FiberCable_Vacuum-etc_S24-28.indd • Page 24
Fiber cables
Fiber-Optic Beam Splitters FBS-...
Vacuum
Feed-Throughs
V-...
Vac
Vacuum
Feed-Throughs with
End Caps V-E-...
Vac
The fiber cables with vacuum feed-through made by Schäfter+ Kirchhoff
are equipped with single-mode fibers, polarization-maintaining
singlemode or multi-mode fibers for wavelengths from 360 to 1800 nm
(in case of singlemode: cut off wavelengths 360 nm - 1550 nm with a
bandwidth up to 300 nm)
For the available fiber and connector types, see Tables 1, 2 and 3.
The feed-throughs are suitable for vacuums down to 10-7 mbar and are
supplied with either a small flange KF16 (DIN 28403, stainless steel) D
or a screw-type flange (M12 x 1 mm, nickle silver) E .
Also available are multiple fiber cable feed-throughs with flange type
KF40 or KF50. Arbitrary fiber cable types can be combined in one flange.
On the vacuum side, the fiber cables have a Ø 900 μm buffer made of
Hytrel. Outside the vacuum, there is a Ø 3 mm cable with Kevlar strainrelief at the fiber connector and at the flange.
For vacuum feed-throughs with single-mode fibers, the connector away
from the vacuum can be core-aligned as an option (<0.5 μm).
Singlemode and polarization maintaining fiber cables can be equipped
with end caps on one or both ends in order to reduce the power density at the fiber end-face (see V-E-..., right hand side).
PM-Fiber
SM-Fiber
Dimensions
PM-Fiber
SM-Fiber
Standard
fiber
NEW
Fiber with
End Caps
Vacuum feed-throughs
order options
Small flange KF16 (DIN 28403)
V-SF - PMC - 850 - 5.5 - NA012 – APC/0PC – 0 -30/120 – P
D
FC connector
Order Code
PM only:
fiber type
(see fiber Table 1 )
Cable length in cm
( in = vacuum side / out )*
Vacuum
Core Alignment
0 = standard (singlemode only)
FC connector
APC
/ 0PC
Fiber connection ( in / out )*/**:
Connector type outside vac.:
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
Screw-type flange (M12 x 1 mm)
Fiber connectors with end caps:
APC.EC = End cap on FC-APC
0PC.EC = End cap on FC-PC
Connector type inside vac.:
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
E
Vacuum
FC connector
Fiber connectors with end caps:
APC.EC = End cap on FC-APC
0PC.EC = End cap on FC-PC
For a connector made of Titanium
(amagnetic, page 19) add .Ti
Numerical aperture NA
Singlemode/PM: Mode field diameter MFD
Multimode:
Core diameter
FC connector
NEW
Multiple Cable Feed-Throughs
Singlemode/PM: Nominal cut off wavelength
Multimode:
Wavelength range UV/VIS or
VIS/NIR
Fiber type: SMC = singlemode fiber cable
PMC = polarization-maintaining fiber cable
MMC = multimode fiber cable
Flange type KF40
available with 2, 3, or 4 fiber cables of arbitrary type
FC connector
Vacuum
FC connector
Flange type: V-KF16 = Vacuum feed-through with small flange KF16
(optional: KF40, KF50)
V-E-KF16 = As above but fiber cable with end caps
V-SF
= Vacuum feed-through with
screw flange M12x1mm
V-E-SF
= As above but fiber cable with end caps
FiberCable_Vacuum-etc_S24-28.indd • Page 25
* One value = same connector type on both ends
For fiber specifications please see fiber tables 1, 2, pages 20-23.
Flange type KF50
available with 2, 3, or 4
fiber cables of arbitrary type
FC connector
** Following connector types are also available:
Vacuum
In (vacuum-side):
Out (non-vacuum side):
• AVIO-APC =DIN-AVIO (8°-angled
polish)
• AVIO = DIN-AVIO (0°-polish)
• ST= ST (0°-polish)
• SMA = F-SMA (0°-polish)
• AVIO-APC =DIN-AVIO (8°-angled
polish)
• AVIO = DIN-AVIO (0°-polish)
• E2000-APC = E2000 (8°-angled
polish)
• E2000 = E2000 (0°-polish)
• ST= ST (0°-polish)
FC connector
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Kieler Str. 212, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
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•
25
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Casing
Feed-Throughs
CFT-...
PM-Fiber
SM-Fiber
Casing
Feed-Throughs with
End Caps CFT-E-...
The fiber cables with casing feed-through made by Schäfter+ Kirchhoff
are equipped with single-mode fibers, polarization-maintaining
singlemode or multi-mode fibers for wavelengths from 360 to 1800 nm
(in case of singlemode: cut off wavelengths 360 nm - 1550 nm with a
bandwidth up to 300 nm)
For the available fiber and connector types, see Tables 1, 2 and 3.
Inside the casing, the fiber cables have a Ø 900 μm buffer made of Hytrel.
Outside the casing, there is a Ø 3 mm cable with Kevlar strain-relief at
the fiber connector and at the flange.
PM-Fiber
SM-Fiber
Standard
fiber
The cable feed-through CFT-... is installed by threading the outside part
of the cable through an aperture from the inside of the casing.
NEW
For casing feed-throughs with singlemode fibers, the outside connector
can be core-aligned (<0.5 μm) as an option.
Singlemode and polarization maintaining fiber cables can be equipped
with end caps on one or both ends in order to reduce the power density
at the fiber end-face (see CFT-E-..., right hand side).
Application
Fiber
with
End Caps
Application
Vacuum feed-throughs
order options
CFT - PMC - 850 - 5.5 - NA012 – APC/0PC – 0 -30/120 – P
Order Code
PM only:
fiber type
(see fiber Table 1 )
Cable length in cm
( in = vacuum side / out )*
Dimensions
inside the casing
Core Alignment
0 = standard (singlemode only)
outside the casing
APC
/ 0PC
Fiber connection ( in / out )*/**:
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
Fiber connectors with end caps:
APC.EC = End cap on FC-APC
0PC.EC = End cap on FC-PC
FC connector
FC connector
For a connector made of Titanium
(amagnetic, page 19) add .Ti
Numerical aperture NA
Singlemode/PM: Nominal cut off wavelength
Multimode:
Wavelength range UV/VIS or
VIS/NIR
Fiber Type: SMC = singlemode fiber cable
PMC = polarization-maintaining fiber cable
MMC = multimode fiber cable
** Following connector types are also available:
• AVIO-APC =DIN AVIO
• E2000 = E2000 (0°-polish)
(8°-angled polish)
• ST= ST (0°-polish)
• AVIO = DIN AVIO (0°-polish)
• SMA = F-SMA (0°-polish)
• E2000-APC = E2000
(8°-angled polish)
Flange type: CFT =
Casing feed-through
CFT-E = As above but fiber cable with end caps
* One value = same connector type on both ends
For fiber specifications please see fiber tables 1, 2, pages 20-23.
26 01-2016 E
Kieler Str. 212, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
[email protected]
•
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FiberCable_Vacuum-etc_S24-28.indd • Page 26
Singlemode/PM: Mode field diameter MFD
Multimode:
Core diameter
Fiber Delay Lines
CAS-...
Fiber Delay Lines
with
End Caps CAS-E...
PM-Fiber
M-Fiber
PM-Fiber
Standard
fiber
NEW
Fiber
with
End Caps
Wg(O) =
l˜ng(O)
c
where
dneff (O)
dO
ng(O) = neff (O) - O˜
for the effective refractive index neff (O).
As a good approximation, the effective refractive index of the
singlemode fiber neff (O) is practically the same as that of the core
material, ncore (O). The group delay for this approximation is shown in
for a fiber with NA0.11 for O 400–1000nm F .
Schäfter+Kirchhoff offers singlemode fibers and polarizationmaintaining fibers with lengths >20m, also spooled in compact
cassettes. The two fiber ends are provided pigtailed with Ø3mm
cabling, with strain-relief and fiber connectors.
Group delay τg [ns/m]
5.1
Fiber cables can be used as optical delay lines. The group delay
Wg (O) of a singlemode fiber is given by:
5.05
5.0
4.95
4.9
4.85
400
600
800
1000
Wavelength λ [nm]
Singlemode and PM-fiber cables for Fiber Delay Lines can be equipped with an end cap on one or both ends. The mode field is expanded
at the fiber end-face by a factor up to 10. The risk of damaging the fiber
end-face because of high optical power is reduced, see page 17. The
NA of the fiber remains the same.
Dimensions
Delay line with end caps: order options
CAS - PMC-780-5.1-NA013-APC.EC/0PC-0-10000-150/150-P Order Code
42TE/ 213.2
168
PM only: fiber type
(see fiber Table 1)
Pigtail length in cm
( in / out )*
2.5
* only one value = the
same at both ends
Fiber lengths in cm
Core Alignment
0 = standard
Fiber connection ( in / out )*/**:
APC.EC / 0PC.
APC = FC-APC (8°-angled polish)
0PC = FC-PC (0°-polish)
Fiber connectors with end caps:
APC.EC = End cap on FC-APC
0PC.EC = End cap on FC-PC
For a connector made of Titanium
(amagnetic, page 19) add .Ti
Numerical aperture
Mode field diameter MFD
Nominal wavelength
Fiber type:
PMC = polarization-maintaining fiber cable
SMC = singlemode fiber cable
CAS = Fiber Delay Line
CAS - E = Fiber Delay Line with end cap connectors
3HE/ 128.4
FiberCable_Vacuum-etc_S24-28.indd • Page 27
208.6
**The following connector types are also available:
• AVIO-APC =DIN-AVIO (8°-angled polish)
• AVIO = DIN-AVIO (0°-polish)
• E2000-APC = E2000 (8°-angled polish)
• E2000 = E2000 (0°-polish)
• ST= ST (0°-polish)
• SMA = F-SMA (0°-polish)
For fiber specifications please see fiber tables 1 and 2, pages 20–23.
01-2016 E
Kieler Str. 212, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
[email protected]
•
27
www.SuKHamburg.com
Mating sleeves provide an uninterrupted physical contact between two
singlemode fiber cables SMC-... with core-centering.
Two connectors of type FC-PC (0°-polish) or of type FC-APC (8°-polish)
can be connected.
Mating sleeves for two FC connectors
Order Code 60C-FC/FC
(panel mount G , wide key ):
G
Order Code 60C-FC/FC
H
Order Code 60C-FC/E2000
5.95 4.9
6.5
22
13
18
9,5
15
Ø2,2
Ø9
15
Hybrid adapter for joining connector type E-2000 to
Order Code 60C-FC/E2000
connector type FC (panel mount H ):
28.45
Fiber-fiber couplers 60FF-... see page 63
FC Fiber Adapters without Optics
FC fiber adapters are used either for beam outputs, where no collimation
or focussing of the beam is necessary, or for beam coupling to fiber
connectors but without integrated optics, such as when microscope
optics are used.
Schäfter+Kirchhoff FC fiber adaptors have a fiber connection with an
inclined coupling axis for use with fiber connectors of the FC-APC type
or a fiber connection with coaxial coupling axis for use with fiber
connectors of the FC-PC type, both wide-key (optionally: ST, DIN AVIO,
or F-SMA).
FC-APC adapter
Other performance features include:
• Axial stop of the fiber ferrule for a constant focus position, especially
for fiber adapters with an inclined coupling axis
• Grub screw for an additional locking of the fiber ferrule
• Integrated tilt adjustment for alignment of the coupling axis
• FC fiber adapter with tilt adjustment and integrated quarter-wave
plate for generating circularly polarized radiation.
Application: magneto-optical traps
(see www.sukhamburg.com/pdf/art_mot_e.pdf)
FC-APC adapter
Order Code
12AF-4-FC
Ø9
FC-APC adapter
Order Code
Order Code
25AF-4-FC
FC-PC adapter
25AM-4-FC
FC-PC adapter
Order Code
FC-PC adapter
Order Code
Order Code
12AF-0-FC
25AF-0-FC
25AM-0-FC
12AF-... compact design with Ø12 mm
diameter. Interior varnished in matt black.
25AF-... FC adapter with Ø25 mm fit for
microbench system e.g. for collimators with
long focal length.
25AM-... FC adapter with Ø25 mm fit for microbench system with integrated tilt adjustment for
aligning the axis of the emitted radiation.
Ø16 10AF-X-FC + PP1020
3
FC-APC adapter
Order Code
Ø20
19.5AC-4-FC
FC-PC adapter
Order Code
Application:
Chromatically
10AF-4-FC+PP1020 corrected microscope lenses
FC-APC adapter
FC-APC
adapter
with beaULQJÀDQJH
Order Code
FC-PC adapter
Order Code
19.5AC-0-FC
19.5AC-... FC adapter with tilt adjustment for
aligning the axis of the emitted radiation. With
standard adapter flange Ø19.5 mm.
10AF-0-FC+PP1020
4x M2
10AF-... FC adapter as OEM version with bearing flange.
Application: Simultaneous fiber coupling of different laser sources by use of chromatically
corrected lenses in fluorescence microscopy.
FC Fiber Adapters without Optics made of Titanium
FC-APC adapter
Ø16 10AF-X-FC + PP1020
3
FC-APC adapter
Order Code
Order Code
12AF-4-FC-Ti
FC-APC adapter
Order Code
10AF-4-FC+PP1020-Ti
Ø20
19.5AC-4-FC-Ti
FC-PC adapter
FC-PC adapter
Order Code
FC-PC adapter
Order Code
12AF-0-FC-Ti
12AF-...-Ti compact design with
Ø12 mm diameter. Interior
varnished in matt black.
Fiber adapters made of titanium possess special features. Titanium has
a low thermal expansion, has a high resistance to environmental effects
and is suited for use in a vacuum. The amagnetic properties allow its
use in environments with highly defined magnetic fields. The relative
permeability near 1 ensure that adapters made from titanium are almost
transparent for the magnetic field.
Order Code
19.5AC-0-FC-Ti
19.5AC-...-Ti FC adapter with tilt
adjustment for aligning the axis of the
emitted radiation. With standard adapter
flange Ø19.5 mm.
10AF-0-FC+PP1020-Ti
4x M2
10AF-...-Ti FC adapter as OEM version with bearing flange.
Application: Simultaneous fiber coupling of different laser
sources by use of chromatically corrected lenses in
fluorescence microscopy.
Accessory: Fiber Connector Cleaning Tool FCCT01
The Fiber Connector Cleaning tool FCCT01 from Schäfter+ Kirchhoff is
a cloth cleaning tool (more than 500 cleanings per unit) specially
designed for cleaning fiber connectors of type FC-PC and FC-APC. It
is highly effective at removing contaminants from the fiber end-face,
restoring the optical performance.
Order Code FCCT01
28 01-2016 E
Kieler Str. 212, 22525 Hamburg, Germany
•
Tel: +49 40 85 39 97-0
•
Fax: +49 40 85 39 97-79
•
[email protected]
•
www.SuKHamburg.com
FiberCable_Vacuum-etc_S24-28.indd • Page 28
FC fiber adapters are used either for beam outputs, where no collimation
or focussing of the beam is necessary, or for beam coupling to fiber
connectors but without integrated optics, such as when microscope
optics are used. The general performance features are described above.
Ø9
Fiber cables
FC Mating Sleeves
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