Digital Literacy Master v4 122309

Digital Literacy Master v4 122309
DIGITAL LITERACY PATHWAYS IN CALIFORNIA
ICT Leadership Council Action Plan Report
December 23, 2009
PREPARED IN ACCORDANCE WITH CALIFORNIA GOVERNOR ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER’S EXECUTIVE
ORDER S-06-09 WHICH ESTABLISHED THE CALIFORNIA ICT DIGITAL LITERACY LEADERSHIP COUNCIL,
AND TASKED THE COUNCIL WITH DEVELOPING AN ICT DIGITAL LITERACY POLICY AND ACTION STEPS TO
ENSURE ALL CALIFORNIANS CAN COMPETE IN TODAY’S GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section I: Executive Summary
Page
Policy Statement
3
Defining Digital Literacy
4
Summary of Recommended Actions
4
Section II: Digital Literacy Pathways in California
California ICT Digital Literacy Policy Statement
6
The California ICT Digital Literacy Action Plan
7
Definition of the Basic Elements of Digital Literacy,
9
Continuum of Skills required for Digital Literacy and Frameworks for Assessment
& Certification
10
Implication of the Proposed Framework and Continuum for Future Policies
15
Strategies for Incorporating Digital Literacy into P-12 and Higher Education
15
P-12
15
Higher Education
19
Workforce Preparation
20
Recommended Curricula Consistent with the Assessment Frameworks
21
Summary of Recommended Actions and Timeline for Implementation
22
Identification of Metrics to Ascertain Achievement of ICT Digital Literacy
24
Conclusion
25
Section III: Appendixes
Appendix A - Executive Order S-06-09 By the Governor of the State of California
26
Appendix B – Potential Definitions of Digital Literacy
31
Appendix C – CETF Report
32
Appendix D - Characteristics of Programs of Info. Literacy that Illustrate Best
Practices
Appendix E – California Model School Library Standards
Appendix F - Teacher professional development framework to help build the
68
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109
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‘digital literacy pathway’ for California educators and students
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
On May 22, 2009, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law Executive Order S-0609, which established the California ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council (see Appendix A). Per the
Order, the Leadership Council is chaired by the Chief Information Officer and its membership includes
the Secretary of Education; the Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development; the Secretary of
Business, Transportation and Housing; and the Secretary of State and Consumer Affairs. The
Superintendent of Public Instruction has also been invited to participate.
The Leadership Council has developed a Digital Literacy Action Plan for California that reflects the
Governor’s commitment to ensuring that California residents continue to be global leaders capable of
working collaboratively with colleagues in every part of the world. The action plan is a response to this
vision and the needs of Californians to use new technologies to address perplexing challenges, build
cross-cultural understandings, and create innovative and novel ways of learning, communicating, and
working. Additionally, the plan addresses the competencies necessary to fully benefit from the highspeed telecommunication networks, satellite communication systems, and other technology resources
and tools that play a vital role in statewide, nationwide and worldwide collaborations. The plan seeks to
ensure that all Californians and individuals with whom they interact and work with in the global society
can benefit from the power and promise of new technologies available, not only in today’s digital age
but also in the future.
Throughout the report, an emphasis has been placed on digital literacy as an ongoing and developing
process, rather than a destination. Individuals must constantly evolve their knowledge, understandings
and capacities to use emerging technologies as well as older technologies that mature or are eventually
replaced. Becoming and remaining “digitally literate” in today’s age is a lifelong challenge as new
technologies emerge and evolve. Individuals must learn how to engage with and use these new
technologies as they move across levels of schooling, transition from school to work, or move from one
career to another, and as they seek to stay in communication with family, friends and associates as
members of 21st century social and professional networks. Given this dynamic and changing state-ofaffairs, the variety of technologies to be mastered and the different ways of interacting with technologies
in different contexts, individuals must, over time, acquire a range of digital literacies rather than just one
digital literacies. This plurality of digital literacies is encompassed in the more general term “digital
literacy.”
No single entity can be tasked with the sole responsibility for ensuring access to opportunities for
individuals to develop digital literacies. Leadership in providing access for all Californians to the
required learning opportunities is a shared responsibility of many state and local entities, employers,
non-profit organizations, communities and individuals. The action plan for California depends on a
broad community of stakeholders that contribute to an expanded definition of crucial digital literacy
practices, develop new programs, share new knowledge, build coherent systems of technological
support, and collaborate across arenas of expertise and work. The Action Plan seeks to support this
approach by ensuring that a cross-section of key state leaders gather on a bi-annual basis to revisit the
state’s progress in promoting digital literacies for all of its residents. The recommended ongoing checkins and updates are intended to keep the importance of this issue at the forefront of the state’s policy
agenda and to ensure continued progress over time.
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POLICY STATEMENT
The ICT Digital Leadership Council recognizes that the advancement of digital literacies in a state as
large and diverse as California requires numerous individuals in positions of authority within the State’s
distributed leadership structure to take responsibility for crafting and promoting progressive digital
literacy policies. Each entity’s associated digital literacy policy will need to reflect the unique context in
which it is being implemented. While policies will vary, it is essential that they spring from a common
conceptual framework. Similarly, multiple funding approaches for digital literacy programs and services
will need to originate within each entity having a role in advancing digital literacies.
DEFINING DIGITAL LITERACY
To ensure a common language is being utilized by all key stakeholders within the various state, local and
regional entities as well as other identified educational and community partners, the ICT Digital
Leadership Council has chosen to define digital literacy as “an ongoing process of capacity building for
using digital technology, communications tools and/or networks in creating, accessing, analyzing,
managing, integrating, evaluating and communicating information in order to function in a knowledgebased economy and society.”
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDED ACTIONS
To address the action items as outlined in Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Executive Order S-06-09,
the ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council recommends the following next steps:
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Revisit the definition of digital literacy every two years in order to reflect current perspectives on
literacies and their relationship to new and emerging technologies
Communicate revised definitions of digital literacy to stakeholders every two years and forecast
changing practices necessary for capacity building
Generate greater public awareness of the need for digital literacy and advocate for policies and
programs that support opportunities for PreK-20 learners and workers to develop digital literacy
skills
Document and share successful policies and programs that promote digital literacies
Invest additional time and resources in developing a framework for analyzing and certifying
methods of digital literacy assessment that address requirements of different schooling and
workforce contexts (work, school, home etc.)
Identify different tools and methods for assessing digital literacy proficiency within specific
contexts
Request that the Legislative Analyst report annually on the steps taken to implement the action
plan and the resources provided for such work
Bridge the digital divide by providing access, training and support in schools, colleges, libraries
and other community based and workforce settings
Invest in the strategic development of a strong IT sector that is responsive to the needs of the
community, schooling and workforce sectors
Request the 13 entities identified as being in key leadership roles to adopt ICT Digital Literacy
policies and programs that support access, training and adoption of "successful practices."
Identify opportunities for partnerships between public libraries, community technology centers,
and other community-based organizations to provide ICT literacy services to local families and
communities
Develop an online site that allows formal and informal educators to share examples of ways
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•
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•
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•
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technology can be used to enhance instruction in accordance with state and federal academic
standards while simultaneously building students’ digital literacy skills
Remove K-12 education technology programs from the fexibility provision of the state budget
(known as Tier 3) that allows education technology funding to be diverted to other school needs,
and immediately implement authorizing statues to continue the existence of the K-12 CTAP
(California Technology Assistance Project) and SETS (Statewide Education Technology
Services) programs.
Make common, centrally hosted digital literacy assessment tools and systems available to local
decision makers and families at low or no cost to support digital literacy development
Complete the development of the searchable CTE (Career Technical Education) Pathways
database so that students can identify IT college/career preparation programs in their local area
Delay suggestions related to digital literacies and recommended curricula integration strategies
across PreK-20 and workforce until
1) There is greater clarity regarding ways of developing, accessing, and assessing
knowledge, skills and practices in each level for the four layers of competencies
described herein, and
2) It is determined that digital literacy curriculum and instruction that includes the four
layers of competency development described herein exists and is widely available to
teachers and students.
Locate resources to fund the creation and/or expansion of curricula to support educators
(communities, families, schools, colleges and workforce) in
1) Assisting learners in situations where there is an immediate need to know/learn (i.e. just
in time support)
2) Developing knowledge, skills and practices that support digital literacy needed for future
work and schooling
Conduct an assessment of the state’s progress in promoting digital literacy every two years and
issue a report that describes current conditions in California.
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DIGITAL LITERACY PATHWAYS IN CALIFORNIA
On May 22, 2009, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law Executive Order S-0609, which established the California ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council (see Appendix 1). Per the
Order, the Leadership Council is chaired by the Chief Information Officer and membership includes the
Secretary of Education; the Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development; the Secretary of Business,
Transportation and Housing; and the Secretary of State and Consumer Affairs. The Superintendent of
Public Instruction has also been invited to participate.
The Leadership Council established an ICT (Information & Communications Technologies) Digital
Literacy Advisory Committee, and together the two groups have developed the enclosed ICT Digital
Literacy Policy Statement and ICT Digital Literacy Action Plan. The overall purpose of the California
ICT Digital Literacy Policy Statement and Action Plan is to ensure that learners of all ages are
successful content creators and users of technologies that foster the sharing of information, thoughts and
ideas central to active and effective participation in modern society. Implementation of the policy and
plan will also support California workforce needs that are critical to the production and delivery of
goods and services.
In crafting the ICT Policy and Action Plan, both groups drew upon the substantial amount of work
conducted by the California Emerging Technology Fund (CETF) Committee (see Appendix C). As
Sunne Wright McPeak, President and CEO of the CETF, indicates in her endorsement, “The California
Emerging Technology Fund is pleased to support the implementation of this initiative that will ensure all
Californians possess the skills needed to succeed in the 21st Century labor force.”
CALIFORNIA ICT DIGITAL LITERACY POLICY STATEMENT
The Leadership Council recognizes that responsibility for ensuring that state-funded or state-initiated
programs promote the development of digital literacies is shared among leaders across numerous
agencies, departments, commissions and levels of government (state, regional and local). Given this
reality, the adoption of a single policy would not be practical. The advancement of digital literacy in a
state as large and diverse as California requires numerous individuals in positions of authority within the
state’s distributed leadership structure to take responsibility for crafting and promoting progressive
digital literacy policies. Each entity’s associated digital literacy policy will need to reflect the unique
context in which it is being implemented. While policies will vary, it is essential that they spring from a
common conceptual framework. Similarly, multiple funding approaches for digital literacy programs and
services will need to originate within each entity having a role in advancing digital literacies.
To this end, the Leadership Council has agreed that it will continue to meet at least once every two years
to revisit the definition of digital literacy so that the overarching definition will remain current and
relevant. Any updated definition would be revised and communicated across the state agencies that play
a major role in the development of state residents’ digital literacy capabilities. Leadership Council
members will also work collaboratively to document and share information about policies and programs
that have been adopted to promote digital literacy, so that “successful practices” can be made visible to
serve as models for others.
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THE CALIFORNIA ICT DIGITAL LITERACY ACTION PLAN
The overall purpose of California ICT Digital Literacy Policy Statement and Action Plan is to ensure
that learners of all ages can be successful content creators as well as users of technologies that foster the
sharing of information, thoughts and ideas central to active and effective participation in modern society.
Implementation of the policy and plan will also support California workforce needs that are critical to
the production and delivery of goods and services.
As outlined in the ICT Digital Literacy Policy Statement, the Leadership Council recognizes that any
plan initiated will require leaders across many agencies, departments, commissions and levels of
government (state, regional and local) who oversee state-funded or state-initiated programs to share
responsibility and interest in promoting development of digital literacy through the adoption of policies
appropriate in specific contexts. The Leadership Council will serve as an advocate for action by those
leaders who are in positions that enable them to adopt policies and programs to support opportunities for
learners to develop digital literacy skills. It will also work to raise public awareness of the importance of
digital literacy, and to encourage the public at-large to take advantage of resources/programs that can
support individuals’ personal development.
The Leadership Council identified thirteen other key entities that have unique opportunities to provide
leadership in this area:
SEGMENT OF THE CALIFORNIA POPULATION
ENTITY
All residents
California State Library
All residents
Local Public Libraries via Califa and the CA
Library Association (CLA)
All residents
Community-based organizations via the CA
Community Technology Policy Group (CCTPG)
California workers
CA Workforce Investment Board
California workers
Local Workforce Investment Boards via the CA
Workforce Assoc. (CWA)
All residents able to benefit from higher education
(generally age 16+)
Board of Governors of the CA Community
Colleges
All residents able to benefit from higher education
(generally age 16+)
Governing Boards, Local Community College
Districts
Faculty and students in four year colleges and
universities
Board of Governors, California State University
System
Faculty and students in four year colleges and
universities
Board of Regents, University of California
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Faculty and students in four year colleges and
universities
Association of Independent California Colleges
and Universities (AICCU)
Adult learners, students in grades pre-K through 12,
teachers and administrators
Office of the Secretary of Education, the CA
State Board of Education, and the CA
Department of Education
Adult learners, students in grades pre-K through 12,
teachers and administrators
Local school district governing boards via the
CA School Boards Association (CSBA)
Technology leaders across the pre-K through adult
spectrum in both formal and informal education
settings
K-20 California Educational Technology
Collaborative (K-20 CETC)
The anticipated benefits to the learners served by these entities and to the state as a whole for adopting
and implementing ICT Digital Literacy policies, gleaned from the findings contained in the Governor’s
Order, are as follows:
•
Increased competitiveness in the knowledge-based economy.
•
Ability to attract capital investment that will generate higher quality jobs.
•
Ability to compete successfully in a global information and knowledge economy by helping
workers cope with changes in the nature of work, shifts in the labor demand, and changes in
required ICT skills for the jobs being generated.
•
Increased productivity, improvements to quality of life, and enhanced global competitiveness.
•
Capacity to bridge the Digital Divide, which still exists in California.
•
Ability to help individuals develop their capacity to read, write, do math, problem solve, work in
a team, think critically and use ICT for education and workforce preparation, employment
success, civic participation, health care, and access to entertainment.
•
Affording all residents the opportunity for full participation in the educational, civic, cultural,
and economic sectors of California society by providing accessibility to and appropriate skills for
fully utilizing government, education, workforce, health care, business, and other services.
The Action Plan is consistent with and builds upon the recommendations of the “California Broadband
Task Force Report -- January 2008: The State of Connectivity Building Innovation Through
Broadband.” The California ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council intends for the Action Plan to be
updated on an ongoing basis, given the rapidly changing role of technology in the 21st Century.
To shape key strategies in formulating the initial California ICT Digital Literacy Action Plan, the
Leadership team focused on 8 areas:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Definition of the basic elements of Digital Literacy
Description and articulation of a "continuum" of skills required for Digital Literacy
Strategies and actions for incorporating Digital Literacy into workforce training statewide
Strategies and actions for incorporating Digital Literacy into P-12 and higher education
Acceptable frameworks for assessment and certification
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6. Recommended curricula consistent with the assessment frameworks
7. Summary of Recommendations and a timeline for implementation of the Action Plan
8. Identification of metrics to ascertain the achievement of ICT Digital Literacy
Additional information about each of these areas is provided in the remainder of the document.
Item 1:
Definition of the Basic Elements of Digital Literacy
The first task before the ICT Digital Leadership Council was to define what is meant by the term “digital
literacy.” A careful analysis of the Governor’s Executive Order revealed the fact that the terms
“Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Digital Literacy” and “Digital Literacy” were
used interchangeably. A review of the research literature surrounding the term “digital literacy” revealed
that “digital literacy” is used to refer to a diverse range of definitions of literate practices or “new
literacies” that involve the use of technologies in some way, shape or form.
While it would be difficult to inventory all definitions (since this is a rapidly emerging field of study),
the definitions shown in Appendix B attempt to summarize some of the different areas of emphasis that
fall underneath the broad category of “digital literacy.” These definitions were drawn from an edited
volume of work on defining digital literacy that delineates concepts, policies and practices in
international contexts. (Lankshear & Knobel, 2008)
The Leadership Council drew on its understandings from this review as it modified, slightly, the digital
literacy definition found in one of the whereas clauses in the Governor’s Executive Order. The
recommended definition is as follows, "an ongoing process of capacity building for using digital
technology, communications tools and/or networks in creating, accessing, analyzing, managing,
integrating, evaluating and communicating information in order to function in a knowledge-based
economy and society.” Additional information regarding the origins of this definition can be found in the
CETF consensus document which is included in Appendix C.
A review of the numerous articles contained within the Handbook of Research on New Literacies
(Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear & Leu, 2008) further illustrated the wide range of perspectives regarding
what constitutes a digitally literate individual and the issues associated with trying to assess digital
literacy.
One of the whereas clauses in the Executive Order noted that, “Digital Literacy is defined as using
digital technology, communications tools and/or networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create
and communicate information in order to function in a knowledge-based economy and society.” The
Leadership Council agreed with this definition. Additional information regarding the origins of this
definition can be found in the CETF (California Emerging Technology Fund consensus document, which
is included in Appendix C.
The Leadership Council also agreed with the basic elements of digital literacy identified in a consensus
document published by the CETF in November 2008. These basic elements are outlined in the following
table.
Elements
Access
BASIC ELEMENTS OF DIGITAL LITERACY
Definitions
Competencies
Knowing about and knowing how Search, find, and retrieve information in digital
to collect and/or retrieve
environments.
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information
Applying an existing
organizational or classification
scheme.
Interpreting and representing
information - summarizing,
comparing, and contrasting.
Making judgments about the
quality, relevance, usefulness, or
efficiency of information.
Manage
Integrate
Evaluate
Create
Communicate
Generating information by
adapting, applying, designing,
inventing, or authoring
information.
Communicating information
persuasively to meet needs of
various audiences through use of
an appropriate medium.
Conduct a rudimentary and preliminary
organization of accessed information for
retrieval and future application.
Interpret and represent information by using ICT
tools to synthesize, summarize, compare, and
contrast information from multiple sources.
Judge the currency, appropriateness, and
adequacy of information and information
sources for a specific purpose (including
determining authority, bias, and timelines of
materials).
Adapt, apply, design, or invent information in
ICT environments (to describe an event, express
an opinion, or support a basic argument,
viewpoint or position).
Communicate, adapt, and present information
properly in its context (audience, media) in ICT
environments and for a peer audience.
Note: Existing international and national digital literacy frameworks and assessment instruments all
share these common elements. (source CETF, 2008)
It is important to note that during this same timeframe the California State Board of Education was
considering model school library standards for students in grades K-12 (see
http://www.cde.ca.gov/nr/ne/yr09/yr09rel152.asp and Appendix E). The standards directly address two of the
four elements described above (accessing and evaluating information). The K12 library standards also
focus on students’ use of information and the integration of information literacy skills into all areas of
learning.
Item 2:
"Continuum" of Skills required for Digital Literacy and Frameworks for
Assessment and Certification
The definition and basic elements of ICT literacy described above are perceived as being broad enough
to be relevant to the wide range of contexts and environments in which they will be applied. The
identification of a “continuum” of skills and frameworks for assessing and certifying digital literacy that
could be applied in P12 schools, in higher education settings, and in settings outside traditional school
environments proved to be much more challenging.
For higher education, the CETF consensus document referenced above recommended the adoption of
the National ITC Literacy Policy Council’s 5 standards and 22 performance indicators. It also went on to
note that foundational-level skills have been identified for students entering college, and indicated that
assessment publishers like the Educational Testing Service (ETS) have developed assessments to
measure such skills (such as the California State University system’s iSkills test).
For PreK-12, the CETF document cited the National Education Technology (NET) standards and
performance indicators developed by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) and
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those recommended by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. CETF then aligned related elements of
existing assessments offered by private companies to these two sets of standards.
The ICT Literacy Advisory Committee struggled with these descriptions of standards (or continuum of
skills), performance indicators and assessments for four major reasons:
1. Existing disparities in opportunities for learning.
At present, the resources available in
libraries, schools, colleges, universities, community-based technology programs, workforce
preparation programs, and in people’s homes are known to be inadequate. Given the disparities
in opportunities for learning, both at home and in state funded programs/services, the Committee
could not recommend uniform assessments that would likely mirror the deficits created by the
lack of opportunities for learning.
2. Need to define an individual’s level of literacy or display of literate practices within the
specific context in which they are required. Given the time allowed for the development of
the plan and the resources available to complete the plan, the committee was not able to validate
the applicability and relevance of commercial assessments to the range of contexts in which they
would be applied. The committee identified “context” as a key variable in assessing digital
literacy. A student who can send text messages and navigate Facebook pages, for example, would
not be considered technologically literate in an architecture class if he/she could not use a
Computer Assisted Drafting (CAD) system. Without a more detailed analysis, the committee
would need to select a test that could be universally applied such as one that measured the
individual’s ability to simply use a computer (i.e. functional use). Since that is just a small
component of ICT literacy, the assessment would be of little value.
3. Need to control for potential bias against English language learners. Tests of individuals’
digital literacy skills could falsely identify someone as lacking in skills when, in fact, they may
simply not be able to navigate the test due to reading difficulties associated with taking the test.
Given the high proportion of California residents who are acquiring English as a second
language, additional attention must be given to this area. The committee was not able to explore
the validity, reliability and relevance of commercial assessments from this perspective given the
time allowed for the development of the plan and the resources available to complete the plan.
4. Perceived disparity between the learner outcomes reflected in the ISTE NET standards and
the Partnership for 21st Century Skills and what is measured by existing assessments. The
definition of digital literacy adopted by the Leadership Council reflects a desire for knowledge,
skills and behaviors that go beyond the technical operations of a computer or other technology
devise. It speaks to managing, integrating, evaluating, creating and communicating information
in order to function in a knowledge-based economy and society. The definition is similar to the
knowledge and skills reflected in the bottom tiers of the Competency Model for the Information
Technology Industry shown below that was published by the Information Technology
Association of American (ITAA). ITAA developed the model in conjunction with the US
Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration (US DOL/ETA).
According to Dr. Kemi Jonah (2009) of Northwestern University, the ITAA model portrays
competencies at various levels of specificity, ranging from fundamental competencies necessary to
operate effectively in life to competencies required in specific IT occupations or positions.
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Figure 1. Competency Model for the Information Technology Industry (ITAA) : source (ITAA
Headline, 2008)
As part of a separate grant funded effort, Dr. Jonah and his colleagues (2009) conducted a very
preliminary mapping of how existing assessments appear to map onto the ITAA model (see Figure 2).
This mapping effort helped to identify areas where there are assessment gaps. Dr. Jonah acknowledges
“this mapping is based on the limited amount of information available about the assessments.” He
recommended that a more thorough examination of assessments that purport to measure competencies in
the area(s) of greatest interest be conducted before moving forward to buy or build assessments.
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Figure 2. Preliminary Mapping of Assessments onto the ITAA Competency Model for the Information
Technology Industry
Dr. Jonah’s preliminary work suggests that assessments that cover the full range of meaning envisioned
by California’s definition of ICT Literacy are not yet readily available. Given the time allowed for the
development of the ICT Digital Literacy Action Plan and the limited resources available to complete the
plan, the committee was not comfortable making recommendations in support of specific assessments or
certification tools.
Ultimately, the Digital Literacy Advisory Committee recommended and the Leadership Council
affirmed the need to invest additional time and resources in the development of a framework and
methods for assessing and certifying digital literacy within and across four “layers” or different contexts
that are initially described as follows:
Layer A: ICT Digital Literacy as a Fundamental Building Block for Learning PreK-Adult
Learners
Description: At this layer, individuals would be learning the fundamentals of technologies required to
participate in hybrid or distributed learning environments, protocols for participation, and technical
basics. This includes a) developing a comfort level with technology, b) using technology to acquire
knowledge/services, c) developing his or her capacity to use technology, and d) developing an awareness
of 21st Century skills, what those skills look and sound like in practice, and ways to generate evidence
of self-attainment.
Continuum: At one end of the spectrum, individuals would be learning how to use a particular
technology tool or set of tools and discovering the potential value of the technology. At mid-range,
individuals would be fluent in their use of one or more technology tools or applications. At the far end of
the spectrum, they are using what they know about one or more technology tools and applications to
their exploration and use of numerous other tools and applications.
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Layer B: ICT Digital Literacy for Lifelong Learning In and Out of School (Generally)
Description: Use of technology skills to participate in a distributed learning environment (school, work,
home or other settings) in which 21st Century knowledge is generated and assessed.
Continuum: At one end of the spectrum, individuals have developed the capacity to use a technology
tool and/or applications to acquire knowledge and information. At mid-range, individuals are using one
or more technology tools and applications to test new ideas and theories, to convey knowledge, to
engage in two-way communications with others outside their immediate environment, and to accomplish
goals. At the far end of the spectrum, individuals are exploring and creating new knowledge that leads to
improved understanding and/or advancements in specific fields or areas of study (school or work).
Individuals would have developed proficiencies that allow them to harness the capacity of technology to
lead discussions or convey/teach information to others, including the capacity to make judgments about
how to convey information across distances and the appropriate tools to use in different contexts.
Layer C: ICT Digital Literacy for Lifelong Learning In and Out of School
(Contextual/Discipline Specific)
Description: Opportunities across time for learning about, experimenting with, and developing expertise
in the use of technologies specific to various disciplines or content areas.
Continuum: At one end of the spectrum, individuals are developing skills related to the use of
technology tools and applications that are unique to the specific workforce or academic context
(typically related to acquiring, documenting or sharing knowledge and information). At mid-range,
individuals are applying technology in sophisticated ways that allows them to contribute to the
operations of their company or business, or to build upon prior knowledge in their field or course of
study (create new findings or discoveries). At the far end of the spectrum, individuals are using
technology to explore and create new knowledge, improved understanding and/or advancements in
specific fields or areas of study (school or work). They are evolving practices and are developing new
innovations.
Layer D: ICT Digital Literacy for IT Sector College/Career Pathways
Description: Opportunities across time for developing knowledge, skills, and ways of knowing, thinking,
being and doing, as a member of the technology industry/community.
Continuum: At one end of the spectrum, individuals have a broad understanding and are proficient in the
technologies that are of priority in his/her IT area of emphasis. At mid-range, individuals possess indepth knowledge that relates to an IT area of emphasis. They are able to troubleshoot problems in
numerous situations, understands nuances of use, management and support. At the far end of the
spectrum, they are creating new technologies or applications that advance the field and contribute to the
United States’ national security and/or its economic competitiveness.
It is important to note that the four layers of digital literacy described above are non-linear (development
occurs in different layers at different times), interconnected and are not mutually exclusive. An
individual may be developing capacity at multiple layers simultaneously. When he or she moves from
one career to another, ICT literacy skills developed in one context contribute to what he or she brings to
the next situation.
The Digital Literacy Advisory Committee also recommended, and the Leadership Council affirmed, the
potential value in identifying a number of different assessment tools and methods for the various layers
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of proficiency, all of which could be archived within an e-portfolio that belongs to the learner. A pilot
program underway within the K-20 California Educational Technology Collaborative (see
http://eportfolioca.org/) will inform future exploration of the ability to export information from the eportfolio system to support the tracking of the growth of digital literacy competencies over time.
Item 3:
Implication of the Proposed Framework and Continuum for Future Policies
Both the Advisory Committee and the Leadership Council recognize that the framework for developing
the continuum and assessment/certification of digital literacy skills has significant implications for
educators and learners. That is why the Leadership Council has temporarily delayed the adoption of a
specific state sanctioned assessment and certification system. To help ensure that the new assessment
and certification system will build on and help to inform opportunities for learning (versus penalizing
students for lacking knowledge/skills that were never taught or made available to learn), it is also
recommended that the Governor and the Legislature, working in partnership with the California
Emerging Technology Fund (CETF) and others:
•
•
•
Item 4:
Acknowledge and take steps to overcome the new digital divide (practices, skills and
processes not just connectivity and computers).
Compensate for the digital divide by providing for public access to infrastructure, training
and support in schools, colleges and libraries and other community based settings, and by
continuing to pursue efforts to drive availability and affordability of technology in the home
for all areas of the state.
Invest in the strategic development of a strong IT sector and IT sectors within various
disciplines.
Strategies/Actions for Incorporating Digital Literacy into PreK-12 and Higher
Education
While the Leadership Council recognizes and respects the role and responsibilities of other agencies,
boards and commissions to determine appropriate digital literacy policies for the constituencies they
serve, the Council also seeks to ensure that California’s digital literacy efforts adequately prepare
California residents to compete in today’s global society. Thus, all entities with a leadership role in this
area are strongly encouraged to adopt policies and programs that adhere to successful practices for
supporting digital literacy development. The American Library Association’s “Characteristics of
Programs for Information Literacy That Demonstrate Best Practices (2009)” are included in Appendix D
as an example of what is meant by “successful practices.”
The Leadership Council also recognizes the severe resource constraints facing the education community.
Thus, the Council encourages the education community to look for opportunities to partner with public
libraries and community technology centers that also provide ICT literacy services to local communities.
Other suggested strategies and actions for PreK-12, higher education and workforce preparation
programs are as follows:
Strategies for Pre K-12:
While California does not have a focused PreK-12 digital literacy program per se, it is in the process of
adopting model school library standards that incorporate many of the elements of digital literacy (see
Appendix E). In addition, for more than 25 years California has recognized that access to technology in
the classroom, technical support, and professional development in the use of technology to support
Digital Literacy Pathways in California
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15
teaching and learning are a prerequisite to developing and implementing a ‘pathway to digital literacy’
as is suggested by this ICT Leadership Council Action Plan. Until recently, the state has invested in the
following programs that support digital literacy:
1. California Technology Assistance Project (CTAP): For the past 10 years, the Legislature has
authorized the California Technology Assistance Projects (CTAP) consisting of eleven regional
programs agencies that represent the counties and districts in each of eleven regions in the state. The
overall purpose of CTAP is to contribute to an increase in knowledge and use of technology to improve
teaching and learning by providing professional development to educators on a regional basis to include:
1) selecting and integrating technology into curriculum, 2) planning and using hardware and
telecommunications networks, 3) using technology to support school management and data-driven
decision-making, and 4) identifying and applying for state and Federal funding for instructional uses of
technology. CTAP assist counties and districts in their regions to provide needed services to all school
districts while addressing needs of rural and technologically underserved schools. Appendix F provides a
framework that defines a list of evaluation-based skills, knowledge, services, and information that are
the focus CTAP takes in helping to build the digital literacy pathway for education.
CTAP is consolidating many resources at the new state K-12 Educational Technology Portal, MyCTAP
(www.myctap.org). This website provides a variety of professional development opportunities for
teachers, quality instructional resources, technology planning resources for stakeholders, links to the
CTAP regional websites and the CTAP SETS (Statewide Education Technology Services) projects. As a
part of MyCTAP, the CTAP Community started as an online network for discussing and sharing
resources and ideas about effective teaching and learning with technology. One of CTAP's missions is to
provide professional development and support for using electronic resources in teaching and learning.
Through the MyCTAP website, teachers and administrators can participate in free, live online
workshops. To participate in these workshops, individuals require a high-speed Internet connection and a
computer. The workshops last two hours and are held after school hours. Many of the courses offer
certificates verifying professional development hours.
2. Statewide Education Technology Services (SETS): Four Statewide Education Technology (SETS)
projects provide information and support, most cost-effectively delivered on a statewide basis,
disseminated and used by CTAP regions to assist local districts. These four SETS projects include 1)
California Learning Resource Network (CLRN)–an online resource to locate electronic and Internetbased learning resources aligned with State Content Standards, and technology applications supporting
data-driven decision making, 2) Technical Support for Education Technology in Schools (TechSETS)–an
online resource providing training, support and information to school technology staff, 3) The
Technology Information Center for Administrative Leadership (TICAL) –an information and staff
development resource to support school administrators use of technology in support of school
management and data-driven decision making, and 4) EdTechProfile (ETP) to provide access to online
technology proficiency assessments as well as related reports of educator and student proficiency
assessment data.
Comprehensive evaluations of both CTAP and SETS have been conducted over the past three years.
3. K-12 High Speed Network: K12HSN is a state program funded by the California Department of
Education. K12HSN provides the California K-12 community including educators, students and staff
across the state with access to reliable high speed network which has the capacity to deliver high quality
online resources to support teaching and learning and promote academic achievement.
Digital Literacy Pathways in California
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In addition to the state supported programs described above, federal funding has been provided to states
for Education Technology under Title 2, part d of the No Child Left Behind Act. The EETT (Enhancing
Education Through Technology) program has provided funding administered by California Department
of Education directly to school districts for the past 8 years. Half of this funding is allocated to
competitive grants and the other half allocated as an entitlement to school districts. While this funding
will be increased federally to about $90 million for EETT under the stimulus (ARRA [American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act) legislation in 2010, the state allocated funding level for California will
most likely be reduced to about $10 million in 2011. The stated purpose of the federal program is “To
assist every student in crossing the digital divide by ensuring that every student is technologically
literate by the time the student finishes the eighth grade, regardless of the student‘s race, ethnicity,
gender, family income, geographic location, or disability.”
Among other things, EETT grant recipients were required by the California Department of Education to
“develop process and accountability measures that will be used to evaluate the extent to which activities
funded under the program effectively:
• Increase technology literacy among students.
• Enable students to use technology to meet or exceed state academic content standards.
• Increase technology literacy among teachers.
• Increase the ability of teachers to integrate technology into curriculum and instruction.
• Increase the ability of teachers to analyze and use longitudinal achievement to improve
instruction and student learning.
• Expand student and teacher access to technology.
• Enhance communication and collaboration between home, school, and community.”
The Effective EETT Competitive Projects, awarded through the state department of education, will
identify and disseminate information about the most effective and sustainable applications of technology
in California schools that have received EETT Competitive Grants over the past 5 years. An emphasis is
being placed on determining practices that can be cost-effectively replicated or adapted in other
locations. Also, lessons learned about the planning, implementation, and evaluation of technology are
being documented. The findings will be made accessible to the public-at-large via the evolving
MYCTAP state education technology portal referenced above.
Other federal education programs offer additional opportunities to advance P12 digital literacy goals.
For example, as this report was being written, several members of the Leadership Council were working
to develop the state’s application for federal grant funding known as “Race to the Top.” To achieve the
competitive preference priority points, states must have a STEM component to their plan. Whatever
California proposes for the “T” in STEM will undoubtedly serve as a key driver for accomplishing
digital literacy goals in schools across the state.
Recommendations for Pre K-12 Digital Literacy Standards
There is a need for Pre K-12 digital literacy standards and a plan for making learning opportunities
widely available. Despite these investments over time, as of the writing of this report, California has not
chosen to establish specific technology standards for students at the various grade levels. However,
potential uses of technology are integrated within the California curriculum frameworks (created based
on state academic content standards), which guide the development of textbooks. California’s approach
to allowing local school districts to determine how to support digital literacy and the No Child Left
Behind requirements can be contrasted with top down models in other states. For example:
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17
•
•
Massachusetts’ learning standards are grouped into four strands, and one of the four strands is
Technology/Engineering. The standards are developed for grade spans (PreK-2, 3-5, 6-8 and high
school). These updated standards, adopted in 2008, expanded their definition of
technology/engineering to outline specific technology skills. For example, the new definition
broadened the focus to 21st century skills and digital citizenship, ethics, society and safety.
The Texas Department of Education has identified Essential Knowledge and Skills for
Technology Education/Industrial Technology Education for middle school and high school
students.
The lack of PreK-12 state standards and guidelines for digital literacy creates major challenges to
conducting an assessment of the level of digital literacy skills and knowledge California students and
educators possess. Currently a process is being developed for the establishment of an item bank of
digital literacy survey items that can be adapted to fit the technology goals and objectives for a given
school district and/or project. However, most educators agree that statewide standards or specific
guidelines for digital literacy as they would relate to each of the California Content Standards is an
appropriate direction for the future. This would involve the convening of content and technology
experts to take each content area and then to define an addendum to the Content Standards that defines
the effective use of technology to support each standard. This would be monitored and updated each
year with a communication to school districts. Assessments would then add items related to the use of
technology to support standards at the school district level.
Additionally a comprehensive P-12 digital literacy plan or educational technology plan would include
the goals, activities, and timeframe for developing and implementing the p-12 digital literacy guidelines
as well as the services needed to support these guidelines. The plan should primarily focus on ways that
the existing education programs, policies, and initiatives can be adjusted to include the infusion of
technology to support needed data-informed program improvements. It should also define the support
needed to implement the necessary professional development, technical assistance, coordination within
and between programs, agencies, and education entities.
The Leadership Council recognizes that the authority to adopt standards for P-12 students and the
authority for making funding decisions required to implement the standards rests with the Governor, the
Legislature, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the State Board of Education and others. However,
the Leadership Council has been directed by the Governor’s Executive Order to take steps to ensure that
digital literacy needs get addressed. Therefore, as an interim measure, the Leadership Council
recommends that an online site be developed to enable formal and informal educators to share examples
of ways technology can be used to enhance teaching and learning in both school-based and non schoolbased settings in accordance with state and federal academic standards, while simultaneously building
students’ digital literacy skills.
It is also recommended that the Governor, the Legislature, the Superintendent of Public Instruction and
the State Board of Education consider implementing the recommendations of the independent evaluation
of K-12 educational technology programs that has been submitted to the state in each of the last three
years. The recommendations are part of a 70-page report that include data collection procedures,
analysis, and report of findings for each of the eleven CTAP and four SETS projects discussed above.
The full report is available at the website for California Department of Education. (The report can be
found at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/et/rs/sets.asp) The recommendations are as follows:
- Develop a statewide educational technology plan that is clearly integrated with current education
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18
priorities established by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction (SPI), State Board of Education
(SBE), the Governor, and the Legislature.
- Establish California technology standards and guidelines that define: 1) instructional use of technology
to support the California Content Standards, 2) student-digital literacy and skills, 3) teacher-digital
literacy and skills.
- Develop and validate statewide assessments that directly measure teacher- and student-digital literacy
and skills aligned to the California educational technology standards, guidelines based on
implementation of Recommendation 2, to be used as the data source for evaluating CTAP and SETS as
well as EETT Competitive Projects.
- Develop and implement a process for increasing active collaboration with CTAP, SETS, and other
state-supported educational technology programs with education programs managed by the CDE such as
Title I, Curriculum, Staff Development, Assessment, Before and After School Programs, Special
Education, and others.
- Continue to plan, fund, and implement a statewide “web-portal” (known as MyCTAP) that links to all
other state funded PreK-12 educational technology as well as regular education programs, projects, and
initiatives.
- Continue to evaluate CTAP and SETS in terms of their impact on enabling educators to develop,
implement, and assess both teacher and student–digital literacy skills and ensure that major findings are
disseminated to the legislature, the SPI, the SBE, and other educational technology stakeholders.
- Make every effort to continue and possibly increase funding for services to educators that help them to
enable students to develop 21st century digital literacy skills. The evaluation has consistently shown that
individuals who use the CTAP and SETS services have increased the infusion of technology into
teaching and learning and report a need for additional assistance.
These recommendations assume that the state would continue to support existing programs such as
CTAP, SETS, and the K-12 HSN. However, with the flexibility provision of the state budget established
in January of 2009 the temporarily suspended the authorizing legislation for these programs, many
services available for the past 10 years have diminished. Yet, digital literacy and the effective use of
technology is emerging as even more important for California. For these reasons, the Leadership
Council strongly recommends that the education technology programs affected by the flexibility
provision of the budget (known as Tier 3) be removed and that the authorizing statues for CTAP and
SETS be immediately implemented. This would require a minor budget amendment that would not
necessitate an additional cost to the state.
Strategies for Higher Education
The Leadership Council recognizes that each of the three segments of higher education have different
missions, and that strategies to incorporate digital literacy across the three institutions and in private
colleges and universities needs to reflect such differences. Community colleges, for example, prepare
students for transfer to four-year colleges and universities, address workforce needs and are available for
residents to pursue lifelong learning goals. While state policy can emphasize the importance of affording
an opportunity to individuals to enhance their skills as part of a course designed to address personal
learning goals unrelated to college or career, it is not the Leadership Council’s intent to mandate the
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19
development of such skills for all individuals.
Similarly, the Leadership Council recognizes that significant differences exist within the higher
education community regarding perspectives on the ways people learn and the ways that technology
supports/constrains learning. A paper written by Harvard Professor Chris Dede (2008) entitled
Theoretical Perspectives Influencing the Use of Information in Teaching and Learning (available at
http://edusummit.nl/furtherreading) illustrates ways that the selection or emphasis surrounding one or
more particular technologies can be perceived as advantaging professors/researchers in one research
tradition over another. These kinds of subtleties have tremendous implications for digital literacy
implementation strategies and related curriculum adoption efforts.
The Leadership Council also recognizes that efforts to embrace digital literacy are well underway within
the California State University (CSU) system. Snapshots for each of the 23 CSU campuses collected in
the Spring of 2007 are available at Campus Programs -Teaching Commons (see
http://teachingcommons.cdl.edu/ictliteracy/campus_pro/program_overviews.htm.) The CSU system has
worked with ETS to develop an assessment known as iSkills (see http://www.ets.org/skills/). iSkills is
described as a “scenario- and web-based test to assess students’ skills in information and communication
technology (ICT) literacy. It contains interactive and realistic simulations of information resources and
applications such as the Web, article databases, and spread sheeting and word processing to track and
evaluate how students actually go about solving problems with information technology. It will provide
group- and individual-level diagnostic information for the key ICT proficiencies needed for success in
higher education and beyond in the work environment. It encompasses both the technical skills and
cognitive information competence abilities needed to effectively access, evaluate and use information
from a wide range of resources.”
Given the diversity in approaches to developing digital literacy that exists across the higher education
segments, it is likely that one single assessment will not satisfy the differing needs, conditions, and
purposes of the various instructional programs. Assessments are likely to be needed across the four
layers of digital literacy and the different points along the continuum for each layer. Given the different
governance structures that exist, responsibility for selecting the assessments will need to be as
decentralized as possible. This will make it difficult to gather, aggregate and analyze data that can
inform assessments of the state’s progress in growing the digital literacy capacity of its residents over
time. This reality led the Digital Literacy Advisory Committee to recommend, and the Leadership
Committee to agree, that incentives will need to be provided that encourage local decision makers to use
common assessments preferred at the state level. Incentives could include cost subsidies for centralized
assessments, and services that provide faculty/staff with custom reports, etc. Again, if this route is
chosen, those selecting the tests will need to be sensitive to what is being measured as well as the ways
it is measured and the underlying assumptions (or research traditions) guiding the development of the
assessment.
Item 5:
Workforce Preparation
ICT literacy is critical to California’s sustainable economic future, both as a global leader in technology
and as home to more than 38 million residents and a labor force in excess of 18.3 million. Numerous
entities play important roles in educating and reeducating California’s workforce. This includes, but is
not limited to workforce investment boards, adult schools, apprenticeship programs, and the California
Community College system. California community colleges are well situated to respond effectively to
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business and industry by addressing specific workforce skills needed by employers. With a network of
110 community colleges, the infusion of new strategies and approaches into existing programs, courses
and curricula related to information and communication technology can have a statewide impact on
more than 2.9 million students and countless others.
The Leadership Council recognizes the particular value of the work being done by the California
Community Colleges’ Centers of Excellence (COE) who are conducting a comprehensive assessment of
ICT functions and activities that will attempt to measure the demand for technology and skill
competencies across industry sectors. By quantifying and comparing industry needs with current
education and workforce preparation efforts, gaps in training and curricula misalignments will surface.
This type of analysis will inform and better equip stakeholders at all levels of digital literacy education
and workforce preparation. The COE’s Phase One Overview report published in September 2009 is
available at http://www.coeccc.net. Phases two and three (a statewide employer survey) will be conducted
in partnership with the Mid-Pacific Information and Communications Technologies Center if funds can
be identified.
The joint project of the California Association of Veterans Services Agencies (CAVSA), the LINK
AMERICAS Foundation, and the Los Rios Community College District to provide California’s
returning veterans with an on-line, self-paced digital literacy training program and related services is
another example of the many ways the community colleges can support the state’s digital literacy goals.
Among other benefits, this innovative project will graduate 5,000 veterans through the Certiport Digital
Literacy boot camp.
The Leadership Council commends efforts that have led to the development of the California Pathways
website that allows residents in Northern California to see what educational pathways exist for those
seeking technology related careers (see http://www.capathways.org/). It is recommended that IT Career
Technical Education program providers across the state take steps to populate the fields in the online
searchable database so that residents across the state can access similar information that illuminates their
pathway to IT college/career programs.
The assessment of general ICT digital literacy skills across the wide variety of workforce preparation
programs is especially complex. In some instances, assessment will relate to the basic use of computers
for commonly available office applications (such as Microsoft Word). In others, the required technology
skills may be highly specific to the occupation or discipline (such as the use of MatLab in an
engineering course). Workforce preparation providers will need flexibility to mix and match assessments
from the four layers of competencies described above in order to meet their unique needs and audiences.
Item 6:
Recommended Curricula Consistent with the Assessment Frameworks
The Digital Literacy Advisory Committee recommended, and the Leadership Council affirmed, the need
to delay making recommendations related to curriculum until:
1) There is greater clarity regarding ways assessing knowledge, skills and behaviors in the four
layers of competencies described above; and
2) A gap analysis has been conducted between the existing curriculum and that needed to
adequately address the competencies needed for each of the four layers.
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21
While these areas are being clarified, the Digital Literacy Advisory Committee can work to identify
curricula as well as find resources to fund the creation of curricula that supports two conditions:
1) Conditions in which educators are working to develop knowledge, skills and behaviors
related to digital literacy just in case they are needed by the learner at some point in time; and
2) Conditions in which the educator or learner has an immediate need (i.e. just in time support).
Both conditions are certain to exist, and often-subtle nuances of the curriculum can enhance/detract from
their effectiveness under the two conditions. Each resource will need to be evaluated with mind.
Item 7:
Summary of Recommended Actions and Timeline for Implementation
The following chart summarizes the recommendations included throughout this report and provides a
timeframe for completing work associated with the recommendations.
RECOMMENDATION
Revisit the definition of digital literacy every
two years in order to reflect current perspectives
on literacies and their relationship to new and
emerging technologies.
Communicate revised definitions of digital
literacy to stakeholders every two years and
forecast changing practices necessary for
capacity building.
Generate greater public awareness of the need
for digital literacy and advocate for policies and
programs that support opportunities for Pre K –
20 learners and workers to develop digital
literacy.
Document and share successful policies and
programs that promote digital literacies.
Invest additional time and resources in
developing a framework for analyzing and
certifying methods of digital literacy assessment
that address requirements of different schooling
and workforce contexts.
Identify different tools and methods for
assessing proficiency within specific contexts.
Request that the Legislative Analyst report
annually on the steps taken to implement the
action plan and the resources provided for such
work.
Bridge the digital divide by providing access
training and support in schools, colleges,
libraries and other community-based and
workforce settings.
Digital Literacy Pathways in California
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RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Leadership Council
Leadership Council
TIMELINE
Ongoing, every
two years,
commencing in
2012
Ongoing, every
two years
commencing in
2012
Ongoing, Annual
Leadership Council
Ongoing, Annual
Leadership Council
2010-2011
Fiscal Year
Leadership Council
2010-2011
Fiscal Year
2011 & Ongoing
Leadership Council
Governor, the Legislature, the
California Emerging
Technology Fund (CETF), the
Legislative Analyst, and others
Governor, the Legislature, the
California Emerging
Technology Fund (CETF), and
others
Ongoing
22
Invest in the strategic development of a strong Governor, the Legislature, the
IT sector that is responsive to the needs of the California Emerging
community, school and workforce sectors
Technology Fund (CETF), and
others
Request that the 13 entities identified as being
Thirteen key entities that have
in key leadership roles adopt ICT Digital
unique opportunities to provide
Literacy policies and programs that support
leadership in this area.
access, training and adoption of "successful
practices."
Identify opportunities for partnerships between
Thirteen key entities that have
public libraries, community technology centers, unique opportunities to provide
and other community-based organizations to
leadership in this area.
provide ICT literacy services to local families
and communities.
Identify opportunities for partnerships between
Leadership Council
public libraries, community technology centers,
and other community-based organizations to
provide ICT digital literacy services to local
families and communities.
Develop an online site that allows formal and
Leadership Council
informal educators to share examples of ways
technology can be used to enhance instruction
in accordance with state and federal academic
standards while simultaneously building
students’ digital literacy skills.
Remove Pre K – 12 education technology
Legislature and the Governor
programs from the flexibility provision of the
state budget (known as Tier 3) that allows
education technology funding to be diverted to
other school needs and immediately implement
authorizing statutes to continue the existence of
the K12 CTAP & SETS projects.
Make common, centrally hosted digital literacy Leadership Council in
assessment tools and systems available to local
partnership with lead entities
decision makers and families at low or no cost
to support digital literacy development.
Complete the development of the searchable California Department of
CTE (Career Technical Education) Pathways Education, California
database so that students can identify IT Community College
college/career preparation programs in their Chancellor’s Office and their
local area.
partners
Delay suggestions related to digital literacies
and recommended curricula integration
strategies across P-20 and workforce until
1) There is greater clarity regarding ways
of developing, accessing, and assessing
knowledge, skills and practices in each
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Leadership Council
Ongoing
January, 2010
2010-2011
2010-2011
No later than
December 2010
2010- 2011
Legislative
Session
December, 2012
December, 2012
2010-2011
23
level for the four layers of competencies
described herein, and
2) It is determined that digital literacy
curriculum and instruction that includes
the four layers of competency
development described herein exists and
is widely available to teachers and
students.
Locate resources to fund the creation and/or
Leadership Council
expansion of curricula that can support
educators (communities, families, schools,
colleges and workforce) in:
1) Assisting learners in situations where
there is an immediate need to
know/learn (i.e. just in time support)
2) Developing knowledge, skills and
practices that support digital literacy
needed for future work and schooling
Conduct an assessment of the state’s progress in Leadership Council
promoting digital literacy every two years and
issue a report that describes current conditions
in California.
Item 8:
2010-2011
December, 2012
& every 2 years
thereafter
Identification of Metrics to Ascertain the Achievement of ICT Digital Literacy
The California ICT Digital Leadership Council acknowledges the need to measure the achievement of
the state’s ICT Digital Literacy goals on an ongoing basis in order to document progress over time.
Doing so will be challenging since the Council does not currently have any resources to support such
work. Therefore, it will need to rely on the voluntary cooperation of the various entities with leadership
roles in the attainment of the state’s ICT Digital Literacy goals.
Metrics for the assessment that will be conducted every two years should include:
• Adherence to the process of revisiting the state’s definition of ICT Digital Literacy and assessing
outcomes and revising the State Action Plan at least once every two years.
• Progress toward meeting the goals and objectives contained in the Action Plan.
• Evidence that ICT Digital Literacy is being integrated into course and curriculum assessments as
well as institutional evaluations and regional/professional accreditation initiatives.
• Evidence of the adoption and use of multiple methods and purposes for assessment/evaluation
(formative and summative, and short term and longitudinal) within the entities that have a direct
role in promoting digital literacy.
• Review of assessment/evaluation methods (at the institutional/program level and, for educational
and workforce preparation programs, ways of assessing student outcomes).
CONCLUSION
Together, the Governor’s Executive Order and the groundwork laid by the California Emerging
Technology Foundation provide an excellent foundation for California’s next steps to ensure that
learners of all ages can be successful creators and/or users of technologies and technology-enabled
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24
content that enable the sharing of information, thoughts and ideas, the production and delivery of goods
and services, and participation in modern society. The California ICT Digital Literacy Action Plan
contains essential “next steps” for connecting with the various entities that have unique opportunities to
provide leadership in this area.
Forward progress is contingent on the actions of key partners, the continued work and monitoring efforts
of the California ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council, and the ability to identify and secure
resources to support the actions called for within the plan. In many instances, efforts to promote ICT
digital literacy simply require individuals to develop ways of including this focus within activities that
are already underway. In that sense, progress can be made even in this era of limited funding. The
Council is committed to the Governor’s vision, and looks forward to demonstrating progress in the
report it will voluntarily produce in December 2012.
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APPENDIX A
EXECUTIVE ORDER S-06-09
By the Governor of the State of California
WHEREAS Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Digital Literacy is a defining
component of California's competitiveness for a knowledge-based economy and is growing in
importance to attract capital investment that will generate higher quality jobs; and
WHEREAS ICT Digital Literacy skills are vital to California's ability to compete successfully in
a global information and knowledge economy; and
WHEREAS ICT Digital Literacy is defined as using digital technology, communications tools
and/or networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create and communicate information in
order to function in a knowledge-based economy and society; and
WHEREAS there is widespread recognition documented in numerous national and international
reports by entities such as the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) that ICT Digital
Literacy is essential for increasing productivity, improving quality of life, and enhancing global
competitiveness; and
WHEREAS even though the first inaugural annual survey by the Public Policy Institute of
California in partnership with the California Emerging Technology Fund and Zero Divide (titled
Californians and Information Technology) found that nearly seven in ten Californians and strong
majorities across demographic groups believe it is very important to have Internet access, there is
a persistent Digital Divide in California as evidenced by the fact that:
•
Less than half of Latinos (48%) have home computers, compared with about 86%
for Whites, 84% for Asians, and 79% for Blacks.
•
Only 53% of Latinos have Internet access, and only 39% of Latinos have
broadband connections at home, while majorities of other racial or ethnic groups
have both Internet access and broadband connections.
•
Only 32% of Californians are very confident about using the Internet.
•
More than 56% of parents indicate that they visit their children's school websites,
but only 30% of those with household incomes under $40,000 indicate doing so,
as compared to 84% of those with incomes of $80,000 or more.
•
Those with incomes under $40,000 remain far less likely than those with incomes
over $80,000 to use the Internet (58% vs. 97%) or to have broadband at home
(40% vs. 89%).
•
There is a disparity among ethnic/racial groups, income levels, and regions when
comparing rates of computer ownership, Internet access, and broadband
connections at home.
•
A majority of residents express concern that Californians in lower-income areas
and rural areas have less access to broadband Internet technology than others.
26
•
There are indications that since 2000, computer use has grown among whites
(79% to 85%) and blacks (76% to 83%), as has Internet use (70% to 81% for
Whites, 60% to 82% for Blacks), but among Latinos, computer use has declined
(64% to 58%) and Internet use is unchanged (47% to 48%), while Asians have
seen declines in both their use of computers (91% to 81%) and the Internet (84%
to 80%). [NOTE: These numbers and percentages have been updated using
latest data from California’s Digital Divide published by Public Policy Institute of
California – report dated June 2009 available at
http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/jtf/JTF_DigitalDivideJTF.pdf.]
WHEREAS to ensure continued global competitiveness in today's knowledge-based economy, it
is increasingly important for workers to be able to cope with changes in the nature of work, shifts
in the labor demand, and changes in required ICT skills for the jobs being generated; and
WHEREAS at the individual level, the ability to read, write, do math, problem solve, work in a
team, think critically and use ICT is essential to education and workforce preparation,
employment success, civic participation, health care, and access to entertainment; and
WHEREAS the State of California supports ICT for applications in government, education,
workforce, health care, business and other areas; and
WHEREAS it is recognized that all residents must have the opportunity for full participation in
the educational, civic, cultural, and economic sectors of California society and must have
accessibility to and appropriate skills for fully utilizing government, education, workforce, health
care, business, and other services; and
WHEREAS it is an important goal to ensure that California residents are digitally literate, and
that they recognize the importance of (1) access to information and communications technologies
regardless of income, geographic location or advantage; (2) the provision of ubiquitous
broadband service in a competitive marketplace at affordable cost; (3) opportunities for residents
to acquire ICT digital literacy skills in order to benefit academically, economically and socially;
(4) the development of a California ICT Digital Literacy Policy that declares that all residents of
California should be digitally literate; and (5) a seamless continuum of digital literacy
competencies with benchmarks, metrics, assessments and certifications endorsed by the State to
identify the ICT digital literacy proficiencies of residents, students, and workers; and
WHEREAS a California ICT Digital Literacy Policy would support a framework and continuum
of digital literacy skills, benchmarking, and metrics consistent with globally accepted standards,
and would ensure accountability for assessing progress and success; and
WHEREAS an ICT Digital Literacy Policy would be consistent with the Administration's goal
to strengthen the economy, expand the skilled workforce, and increase competitiveness in
sciences, technology, engineering and math industries and careers.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, Governor of the State of
California, by virtue of the power and authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the
27
State of California, do hereby order effective immediately:
1. A California ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council (Leadership Council) is hereby
established. It shall be chaired by my Chief Information Officer. Membership on the
Leadership Council shall include the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Labor and
Workforce Development, the Secretary of Business, Transportation and Housing, and the
Secretary of State and Consumer Affairs. The Leadership Council shall invite the
Superintendent of Public Instruction to participate as a member of the Leadership
Council.
2. The Leadership Council shall establish an ICT Digital Literacy Advisory Committee
(Advisory Committee). Membership on the Advisory Committee shall include
representatives of entities with an interest in ICT Digital Literacy, such as the California
Economic Strategy Panel, California Workforce Investment Board, State Board of
Education, California Community Colleges, California State University, University of
California, public-purpose private-sector organizations such as the California Emerging
Technology Fund, California Business Roundtable, California Chamber of Commerce,
American Electronics Association, TechNet, and leaders from the private sector. The
Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate and Assembly shall be invited to each
appoint a Legislator to serve on the Advisory Committee.
3. The Leadership Council, in consultation with the Advisory Committee, shall develop an
ICT Digital Literacy Policy, to ensure that California residents are digitally literate.
4. The Leadership Council, in consultation with the Advisory Committee, shall also develop
a California Action Plan for ICT Digital Literacy (Action Plan). The Action Plan shall
include:
a) Definition of the basic elements of Digital Literacy
b) Description and articulation of a "continuum" of skills required for Digital
Literacy
c) Strategies and actions for incorporating Digital Literacy into workforce training
statewide.
d) Strategies and actions for incorporating Digital Literacy into K-12 and higher
education.
e) Acceptable frameworks for assessment and certification
f) Recommended curricula consistent with the assessment frameworks
g) A timeline for implementation of the Action Plan
h) Identification of metrics to ascertain the achievement of ICT Digital Literacy
5. The Action Plan shall be consistent with the recommendations of the California
Broadband Task Force Report - January 2008: The State of Connectivity Building
Innovation Through Broadband.
6. The California Workforce Investment Board (WIB) shall develop a technology literacy
component for its five-year Strategic State Plan to:
a) Raise the level of Digital Literacy in California by supporting technology training
and integrating Digital Literacy skills into workforce development activities
28
b) Expand Career Technical Education (CTE) opportunities and Digital Literacy
programs in community colleges
c) Build consensus at the State and local community levels by identifying Digital
Literacy ecosystems to drive models of excellence, benchmarking, and reliable
metrics for measuring success
d) Provide workforce examples of skills training and job-placement communityvalue projects for e-government, e-health or other conveniences
e) Engage the ICT industry and entertainment mega-industry along with large
employers to promote applications
f) Highlight collaborative models in underserved communities and culturally diverse
populations
g) Build and resource a strong coalition empowered to achieve near-term action and
results-oriented outcomes
h) Reward success to reinforce best practices, individual champions, economic
results, and public awareness and support
7. These activities are to be accomplished through realignment of existing personnel and
resources without additional state funding. However, the Leadership Council is
authorized to identify and deploy non-state resources that can work in collaboration with
State agencies to help build a public-private sector alliance for the purpose of assisting in
implementation of the goals of this Executive Order.
8. The Leadership Council shall submit the Action Plan to me by December 31, 2009 or
sooner.
9. The Leadership Council shall comply with applicable open-meeting laws.
I FURTHER REQUEST that the Legislature and Superintendent of Public Instruction consider
adopting similar goals, and that they join the Leadership Council in issuing a "Call to Action" to
schools, higher education institutions, employers, workforce training agencies, local
governments, community organizations, and civic leaders to advance California as a global
leader in ICT Digital Literacy by:
1. Incorporating ICT Digital Literacy into workforce training programs and curricula.
2. Supporting and promoting ICT Digital Literacy by encouraging all public agencies to
optimize e-government and the availability of public services online.
3. Requiring employers and employer organizations to identify requisite ICT Digital
Literacy skills for 21st century jobs and to articulate appropriate training and assessment
standards to local, regional and state agencies responsible for workforce training.
4. Encouraging public and private sectors to join forces and form public-private
partnerships to promote ICT Digital Literacy.
I FURTHER DIRECT that as soon as hereafter possible, this Order be filed in the Office of the
Secretary of State and that widespread publicity and notice be given to this Order.
29
IN WITNESS WHEREOF I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Great Seal of the State
of California to be affixed this 22nd day of May 2009.
APPENDIX B
30
Potential Definitions of Digital Literacy (or Literacies) - (Lankshear and Knobel, 2008)
Information literacy – Encompasses aspects of the evaluation of information, and an
appreciation of the nature of information resources (Bawden 21*).
Skills - Recognizing a need for information, identifying what information is needed, finding the
information, evaluating the information, organizing the information, using the information. OR
connecting with information (orientation, exploring, focusing, locating), interacting with
information (thinking critically, evaluating), and making use of information (transforming,
communicating, applying) (Bawden 21-22).
Computer literacy – Discreet skill set (Martin 157).
ICT literacy – Using digital technology, communications tools, and/or networks to access,
manage, integrate, evaluate and create information in order to function in a knowledge society.
Continuum, changes over time (not mastery of static or technical skills) (Soby 130).
Skills - Assess, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create (Soby 131).
Digital competencies – Use tools interactively, interact in heterogeneous groups, act
autonomously. Mere knowledge and skills are not sufficient in themselves. Strategies, attitudes
and procedures are also required (Soby 133).
E-literacy – Combines the traditional skills of computer literacy, aspects of information literacy
(the ability to find, organize and make use of digital information) with issues of interpretation,
knowledge construction and expression (Bawden 25).
Network literacy - Focuses on effective use of Internet and other networked resources (Bawden
24).
Multimedia literacy – Ability to match the medium we use to the kind of information we are
presenting and the audiences we are presenting it to (Soby 139*).
Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (Ed.). (2008). Digital literacies: concepts, policies and
practices. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
31
APPENDIX C
CETF Report
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37
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41
42
43
44
45
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48
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APPENDIX D
Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices
http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/characteristics.cfm
Category 1: Mission
A mission statement for an information literacy program:
•
Includes a definition of information literacy;
•
Is consistent with the “Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher
Education” [http://www.ala.org/acrl/ilcomstan.html];
•
corresponds with the mission statements of the institution;
•
Corresponds with the format of related institutional documents;
•
Clearly reflects the contributions of and expected benefits to all
institutional constituencies;
•
Appears in appropriate institutional documents;
•
Assumes the availability of and participation in relevant lifelong learning options for all
—faculty, staff, and administration; and
•
Is reviewed periodically and, if necessary, revised.
Category 2: Goals and Objectives
Goals and objectives for an information literacy program:
•
Are consistent with the mission, goals, and objectives of programs, departments, and the
institution;
•
Establish measurable outcomes for evaluation for the program;
•
Reflect sound pedagogical practice;
•
Accommodate input from various constituencies;
•
Articulate the integration of information literacy across the curriculum;
•
Accommodate student growth in skills and understanding throughout the college years;
•
Apply to all learners, regardless of delivery system or location;
•
Reflect the desired outcomes of preparing students for their academic pursuits and for
effective lifelong learning; and are evaluated and reviewed periodically.
Category 3: Planning
Planning for an information literacy program:
•
Articulates its mission, goals, objectives, and pedagogical foundation;
•
Anticipates and addresses current and future opportunities and challenges;
•
Is tied to library and institutional information technology planning and budgeting cycles;
67
•
Incorporates findings from environmental scans;
•
Accommodates program, department, and institutional levels;
•
Involves students, faculty, librarians, administrators, and other constituencies as
appropriate to the institution;
•
Establishes formal and informal mechanisms for communication and ongoing dialogue
across the academic community;
•
Establishes the means for implementation and adaptation;
•
Addresses, with clear priorities, human, technological and financial resources, current
and projected, including administrative and institutional support;
•
Includes mechanisms for articulation with the curriculum;
•
Includes a program for professional, faculty, and staff development; and
•
Establishes a process for assessment at the outset, including periodic review of the plan to
ensure flexibility.
Category 4: Administrative and Institutional Support
Administration within an institution:
•
Identifies or assigns information literacy leadership and responsibilities;
•
Plants information literacy in the institution’s mission, strategic plan, policies, and
procedures;
•
Provides funding to establish and ensure ongoing support for
o Formal and informal teaching facilities and resources
o Appropriate staffing levels
o Professional development opportunities for librarians, faculty, staff, and
administrators; and
•
Recognizes and encourages collaboration among disciplinary faculty, librarians,
and other program staff and among institutional units;
•
Communicates support for the program;
•
Rewards achievement and participation in the information literacy program within the
institution’s system.
Category 5: Articulation with the Curriculum
Articulation with the curriculum for an information literacy program:
•
Is formalized and widely disseminated;
•
Emphasizes student-centered learning;
•
Uses local governance structures to ensure institution-wide integration into academic or
vocational programs;
•
Identifies the scope (i.e., depth and complexity) of competencies to be acquired on a
disciplinary level as well as at the course level;
68
•
Sequences and integrates competencies throughout a student’s academic career,
progressing in sophistication; and
•
Specifies programs and courses charged with implementation.
Category 6: Collaboration
Collaboration among disciplinary faculty, librarians, and other program staff in an information
literacy program:
•
Centers around enhanced student learning and the development of lifelong learning skills;
•
Engenders communication within the academic community to garner support for the
program;
•
Results in a fusion of information literacy concepts and disciplinary content;
•
Identifies opportunities for achieving information literacy outcomes through course
content and other learning experiences; and
•
Takes place at the planning stages, delivery, assessment of student learning, and
evaluation and refinement of the program.
Category 7: Pedagogy
Pedagogy for an information literacy program:
•
Supports diverse approaches to teaching;
•
Incorporates appropriate information technology and other media resources;
•
Includes active and collaborative activities;
•
Encompasses critical thinking and reflection;
•
Responds to multiple learning styles;
•
Supports student-centered learning;
•
Builds on students’ existing knowledge; and
•
Links information literacy to ongoing coursework and real-life experiences appropriate to
program and course level.
Category 8: Staffing
Staff for an information literacy program:
•
Include librarians, disciplinary faculty, administrators, program coordinators, graphic
designers, teaching/learning specialists, and others as needed;
•
Serve as role models, exemplifying and advocating information literacy and lifelong
learning;
•
Are adequate in number and skills to support the program’s mission;
•
Develop experience in instruction/teaching and assessment of student learning;
•
Develop experience in curriculum development and expertise to develop, coordinate,
implement, maintain, and evaluate information literacy programs;
69
•
Employ a collaborative approach to working with others;
•
Receive and actively engage in systematic and continual professional development and
training;
•
Receive regular evaluations about the quality of their contribution to the program.
Category 9: Outreach
Outreach activities for an information literacy program:
•
Communicate a clear message defining and describing the program and its value to
targeted audiences;
•
Provide targeted marketing and publicity to stakeholders, support groups and media
channels;
•
Target a wide variety of groups;
•
Use a variety of outreach channels and media, both formal and informal;
•
Include participation in campus professional development training by offering or cosponsoring workshops and programs that relate to information literacy for faculty and
staff;
•
Advance information literacy by sharing information, methods and plans with peers from
other institutions; and
•
Are the responsibility of all members of the institution, not simply the librarians.
Category 10: Assessment/Evaluation
Assessment/evaluation of information literacy includes program performance and student
outcomes and:
For program evaluation:
•
Establishes the process of ongoing planning/improvement of the program;
•
Measures directly progress toward meeting the goals and objectives of the program;
•
Integrates with course and curriculum assessment as well as institutional evaluations and
regional/professional accreditation initiatives; and
•
Assumes multiple methods and purposes for assessment/evaluation
o Formative and summative
o Short term and longitudinal;
For student outcomes:
•
Acknowledges differences in learning and teaching styles by using a variety of
appropriate outcome measures, such as portfolio assessment, oral defense, quizzes,
essays, direct observation, anecdotal, peer and self review, and experience;
•
Focuses on student performance, knowledge acquisition, and attitude appraisal;
•
Assesses both process and product;
•
Includes student, peer, and self-evaluation;
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For all:
•
Includes periodic review of assessment/evaluation methods.
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APPENDIX E
California Model School Library Standards
More than 60 research studies throughout the nation, from Alaska to North Carolina to California
have shown that students in schools with good school libraries learn more, get better grades, and
score higher on standardized tests than their peers in schools without libraries.
Douglas Achterman’s 2008 doctoral dissertation on student achievement in California titled,
Haves, halves and have-nots: School libraries and student achievement,1 found that the greater
the number of library services offered, the higher students’ scores tended to be. “On the U.S.
History test, the library program is a better predictor of scores than both school variables and
community variables, including parent education, poverty, ethnicity, and percentage of English
language learners.”2
In their joint doctoral dissertation, Using Large-Scale Assessments to Evaluate the Effectiveness
of School Library Programs in California, Stacy Sinclair-Tarr and William Tarr found
statistically significant positive relationships between the presence of a school library and student
achievement on both the English-language arts and mathematics California Standards Tests at the
elementary and middle school levels. 3
The California Education Code (EC) reinforces the essential role of school libraries by requiring
school districts to provide school library services for their students and teachers and by requiring
the State Board of Education to adopt standards, rules and regulations for school libraries. The
relevant EC sections are:
Section 18100. The governing board of each school district shall provide school library
services for the pupils and teachers of the district by establishing and maintaining school
libraries or by contractual arrangements with another public agency.
Section 18101. The State Board of Education shall adopt standards, rules and regulations
for school library services.
School libraries have evolved from having a focus on print materials to providing a rich selection
of resources, both print and digital; from students learning how to search a card catalog to
learning strategies for searching a variety of digital resources and using Internet Web browsers;
from basic literacy to information literacy (the ability to access, evaluate and use information
effectively). However, the skills learned from print transcend their use in books alone. “Students
who understand systems of text organization are better equipped to use the Internet as it is today.
Achterman, D. (2008). Haves, halves and have-nots: School libraries and student achievement. Doctoral
dissertation. University of North Texas, Denton.
2
Martineau, Pamela. “Out of circulation: School librarians are in short supply,” California Schools
Magazine, Fall 2009, p. 24-33, 50.
3
Sinclair-Tarr, Stacy and William Tarr, Jr. “Using Large-Scale Assessments to Evaluate the Effectiveness
of School Library Programs in California,” Phi Delta Kappan, May 2007, pp. 710-711.
1
72
Most notably, they expect worthy resources to have order. This may drive them to probe complex
web sites, which, for all their bells and whistles, are fundamentally arranged like reference
books, with A-Z lists and topical divisions.”4
These standards include:
• Model School Library Standards for Students that delineate what students should
know and be able to do at each grade level or grade span, and;
• Model School Library Program Standards that describe the staffing, collections and
resources, including technology, expected in an effective school library that will
enable students to achieve the School Library Standards for Students.
The California Model School Library Standards serve as model standards providing guidance to
school districts as they strive to improve their school library programs to positively affect student
achievement.
Preston, Nancy R. “A is for Einstein: The Alphabet Versus the Internet,” Phi Delta Kappan, September
2009, p. 80.
4
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Model School Library Standards for Students
The California Model School Library Standards for Students incorporates information literacy, the ability
to utilize or search print, media, and digital technology to access, evaluate and use information, to enable
students to function in a knowledge-based economy and society. The standards describe what students
should know and be able to do at each grade level, kindergarten through grade six, or grade span, grades
seven and eight and grades nine through twelve, as a result of having an effective school library program
at their schools.
The standards are developed from four overarching concepts and listed at each grade level and grade
span. Each student is expected to successfully achieve these standards by the end of each grade level or
grade span. In addition, students are expected to have mastered the standards for previous grades and
continue to use the skills and knowledge as they advance in school. The classroom teacher and teacher
librarian should assess students to determine if they have the prerequisite knowledge, skills and
understandings, and whether there is a need to review or reteach standards from earlier grades.
Organization of the Standards:
1. Students Access Information
Students access information by applying their knowledge of the organization of libraries, print
materials, digital media, and other sources.
1.1 Recognize the need for information
1.2 Formulate appropriate questions
1.3 Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies.
1.4 Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner
2. Students Evaluate Information
Students evaluate and analyze information to determine appropriateness in addressing the scope
of inquiry.
2.1 Determine relevance of information
2.2 Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of
resources
2.3 Consider the need for additional information
3. Students Use Information
Students organize, synthesize, create and communicate information.
3.1 Demonstrate the ethical, legal, and safe use of information in print, media,
and digital resources
3.2 Draw conclusions and make informed decisions
3.3 Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a
question, solve a problem, or enrich understanding
4. Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
Students independently pursue information to become life-long learners.
4.1 Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning
4.2 Seek and share information
4.3 Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information
74
Kindergarten
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.1
Recognize the need for information:
a. Understand the concept that printed and digital materials provide information by
identifying meaning from simple symbols and pictures.
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Ask and answer questions about essential elements of a text. ELA 5
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies:
a. Locate the school library.
b. Identify two sources of information that may provide an answer to an identified
question with guidance.
c. Distinguish fact from fiction (e.g., “Does this happen in real life?”).
d. Identify who to ask for help in the school library.
e. Describe the general organization of the library.
f. Identify types of everyday print and digital materials such as story books, poems,
newspapers, periodicals, signs, and labels.
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
a. Know how, and be able to, check out resources from the school library responsibly.
STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Connect the information and events in text to life experiences. ELA
2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of
resources:
a. Identify basic facts and ideas in what was read, heard, or voiced.
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Use pictures and context to make predictions about story content. ELA
STANDARD 3
ELA refers to student standards from the English-Language Arts Content Standards for California Public
Schools that transfer easily into the school library standards for students.
5
75
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.1
Demonstrate smart ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Understand the need to adhere to privacy and safety guidelines.
b. Understand the need to ask a trusted adult permission when asked to provide personal
information in person, on a form or online.
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
a. Retell central ideas of simple expository or narrative passages.
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Participate in completion of a graphic organizer with multi-faceted aspects of a topic.
STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning:
a. Identify a personal interest and possible information resources to learn more about it.
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Share information and ideas, speaking audibly in complete, coherent sentences. ELA
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Listen and respond to stories based on well-known characters, themes, plots and
settings. ELA
76
Grade One
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.1
Recognize the need for information:
a. Understand that printed and digital materials provide information by identifying
meaning from more complex symbols and pictures.
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Respond to who, what, when, where, and how questions. ELA
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies:
a. Understand how to check out and care for a variety of library resources both print and
digital.
b. Alphabetize to the first letter to locate books in the library.
c. Identify basic digital devices and parts of a computer (e.g., DVD player, remote
control, digital camera, monitor, power button, keyboard, mouse).
d. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book, in print and digital
formats, and compare and contrast the differences.
e. Identify the services and resources of the public library.
f. Demonstrate correct procedures to turn computer on and off, and open and close
applications.
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
a. Use pictures and context to make predictions.
b. Identify the need to request assistance from a trusted adult if the information source
makes the student uncomfortable.
c. Identify characteristics of fiction and nonfiction.
STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Relate prior knowledge to textual information. ELA
2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of resources:
a. Aware of the role of media to inform and entertain.
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Ask questions for clarification and understanding. ELA
77
STANDARD 3
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.1
Demonstrate ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Describe the roles of authors and illustrators and their contribution to print and digital
materials.
b. Understand that the Internet is a way a computer is connected to the rest of the world.
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
a. Use context to resolve ambiguities about word and sentence meaning. ELA
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Retell stories using basic story grammar and relating the sequence of story events by
answering who, what, when, where, why, and how questions. ELA
STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning:
a. Read a good representation of grade-level-appropriate text making progress toward
the goal of reading 500,000 words annually by grade four (e.g., classic and
contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
b. Read poems, rhymes, songs and stories. ELA
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Share information orally and creatively with peers and other audiences.
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Recite poems, rhymes, songs and stories. ELA
78
Grade Two
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.2
Recognize the need for information:
a. Identify a simple problem or question that needs information.
b. Organize prior knowledge of a subject, problem, or question (e.g., create a chart).
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Develop questions that define the scope of investigation and connect them to the
topic.
b. Understand the concept of keywords.
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies:
a. Identify two sources of information that may provide an answer to the question(s).
b. Independently check out and care for a variety of library resources including
technology devices.
c. Identify who to ask for help when online at the school library or in the classroom.
d. Locate age-appropriate fiction and non-fiction materials in the school library in print
and online.
e. Alphabetize to the second letter to locate information.
f. Identify types of everyday print and digital materials using academic vocabulary.
g. Identify the parts of a book (print and digital): table of contents, glossary, index, and
dedication.
h. Perform simple keyword search of a topic using an approved search engine or
database.
i. Use computer software graphic elements and navigational tools (e.g., buttons, icons,
fields).
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
a. Identify trusted places in the community where students can seek information (e.g.,
home, school, museums, governmental agencies, public libraries).
b. Identify trusted and knowledgeable people to ask for assistance with an information
search (e.g., teacher, teacher librarian, family).
c. Connect prior knowledge to the information and events in text and digital formats.
d. Identify and describe elements of fiction (e.g., character, plot, setting, point of view).
e. Use at least one fact and/or photograph found in a current and credible source to
communicate understanding.
f. Identify when it is necessary to ask an appropriate adult for assistance in seeking out
information in both digital and print environments.
g. Identify main ideas of a text in preparation for note taking.
h. Identify nonfiction text structures in print and digital formats (e.g., main idea and
supporting details, cause and effect, compare and contrast, sequencing).
79
STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Draw meaning from illustrations, photographs, diagrams, charts, graphs, maps, and
captions.
b. Review facts and details to clarify and organize ideas for note taking.
2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of
resources:
a. Identify the purpose of an advertisement including Internet pop-ups.
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Recognize the need for additional information to answer questions posed by others.
STANDARD 3
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.1
Demonstrate ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Demonstrate proper procedures and good citizenship in the library and online.
b. Recognize that the author and illustrator both have ownership of their own creation.
c. Demonstrate basic knowledge of the school’s acceptable use policy (AUP).
d. Understand that the Internet contains accurate and inaccurate information.
e. Understand that just as there are strangers face-to-face, there are also strangers on the
Internet.
f. Adhere to privacy (nondisclosure of personal or family information) and safety
guidelines (laws and policies) when using the Internet at school or home.
g. Demonstrate the ability to discern the difference between information and
advertisements.
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
a. Present information drawn from two sources.
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Present information to convey the main idea and supporting details about a topic.
b. Record and present information with pictures, bar graphs, numbers, or written
statements.
c. Communicate with other students to explore options to a problem or an ending to a
story.
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STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning:
a. Read a good representation of grade-level-appropriate text making progress toward
the goal of reading 500,000 words annually by grade four (e.g., classic and
contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
b. Select and use resources in a variety of formats to support personal interests,
recreational goals, and pursuits.
c. Understand how media affects the telling of a story (e.g., illustrations, photographs,
music, video).
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Share the source from which information was obtained.
b. Creatively inform others when new information about an area of interest is learned.
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Portray information visually to convey the main idea and supporting details about a
topic.
b. Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different
cultures. ELA
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Grade Three
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.1
Recognize the need for information:
a. Connect and relate prior experiences, insights, and ideas to those of a speaker. ELA
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Identify a problem that needs information by asking how, what, where, when, or why
questions.
b. Identify keywords within questions.
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies:
a. Differentiate between primary and secondary sources.
b. Understand the general purpose of the library catalog.
c. Understand that nonfiction print and nonprint materials in a library are arranged by
subject (e.g., Dewey Decimal System).
d. Understand the information provided on spine labels, including call numbers.
e. Understand different systems of alphabetizing (e.g., letter-by-letter, word-by-word).
f. Independently browse the library to locate materials.
g. Use academic language to identify types of media and digital delivery devices.
h. Use guidewords to locate information in a reference book.
i. Perform a complex keyword search of a topic using an approved search engine or
database.
j. Understand the organization of general reference resources in print and/or digital
formats including dictionary, thesaurus, atlas, almanac, and encyclopedia.
k. Use specialized content-area print and digital resources to locate information.
l. Use print and/or digital indexes to locate articles within an encyclopedia.
m. Locate and know general content of the biography section in the library.
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
a. Demonstrate a basic understanding of intellectual property rights, the difference
between sharing and ownership.
b. Demonstrate respectful and responsible behavior in the library.
c. Use a dictionary to learn the meaning and other features of unknown words.
d. Locate information in text by using the organizational parts of a book (e.g., title, table
of contents, chapter headings, glossary, author notes, dedication, indexes).
e. Apply techniques for organizing notes in a logical order (e.g., outlining, webbing,
thinking maps, other graphic organizers).
STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
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The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Select information appropriate to the problem or question at hand.
b. Determine if the information answers a simple question.
c. State the purpose in reading (i.e., tell what information is sought). ELA
2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of
resources:
a. Distinguish between the speaker's opinions and verifiable facts.
b. Identify copyright and publication dates in print resources.
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Recall major points in the text and make and modify predictions about forthcoming
information. ELA
STANDARD 3
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.1
Demonstrate ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Define cyber bullying and its effects.
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
a. Demonstrate comprehension by identifying answers in text. ELA
b. Compare ideas and points of view expressed in broadcast and print media. ELA
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Organize information chronologically, sequentially, or by topic.
b. Locate facts and details to support a topic sentence and paragraph.
STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning:
a. Read a good representation of grade-level-appropriate text making progress toward
the goal of reading 500,000 words annually by grade four (e.g., classic and
contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
b. Distinguish common forms of literature (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction).
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests.
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b. Select appropriate information technology tools and resources to interact with others.
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Plan and present dramatic interpretations of experiences, stories, poems or plays with
clear diction, pitch, tempo, and tone. ELA
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Grade Four
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.2
Recognize the need for information:
a. Identify a more complex problem or question that needs information.
b. Recognize and use appropriate pre-search strategies (e.g., recall of prior knowledge).
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings. ELA
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources with multiple search strategies:
a. Use standard reference tools online and in print, including dictionary, atlas, thesaurus,
encyclopedia, and almanac.
b. Perform basic search of the automated library catalog by title, author, and subject.
c. Understand the basic organization of the library classification system (e.g., 10 major
Dewey Decimal System classifications).
d. Understand the organization of newspapers and periodicals, both in print and online,
and how to use them.
e. Define online terms (e.g., home page, Web site, responsibility statement, search
engine, uniform resource locator [URL]).
f. Define URL Internet extensions (e.g., .com, .org, .edu, .gov, .us, .net).
g. Use electronic menus and icons (e.g., search, content, help screen, index, key words)
to locate information.
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
a. Extract information from illustrations, photographs, charts, graphs, maps, and tables
in print, nonprint, and digital formats.
b. Extract appropriate and significant information from the text, including problems and
solutions.
STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information
and ideas.
2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of resources:
a. Explain how sources possess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and
accuracy.
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b. Distinguish between fact and opinion in expository text.
c. Summarize information that contains the main ideas of the reading selection and the
most significant details.
d. Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or
articles.
e. Recognize the role of media to persuade, interpret events and transmit culture.
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Verify accuracy of prior knowledge.
STANDARD 3
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.2
Demonstrate ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Identify author, title, copyright date, and publisher.
b. Use approved or personal passwords appropriately.
c. Understand the environment of Internet anonymity and that not everyone on the
Internet is truthful and reliable.
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
a. Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas
presented in the text itself, including illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important
words, and foreshadowing clues. ELA
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Write information reports or presentations: (a) frame a central question about an issue
or situation; (b) include facts and details for focus; and (c) draw from more than one
source of information. ELA
b. Understand and use a variety of organizational structures as appropriate to convey
information (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect, similarity and difference,
posing and answering a question).
c. Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view for a report or
presentation based upon purpose, audience, length, and format requirements.
d. Create simple documents by using electronic media and employing organization
features (e.g., passwords, entry and pull-down menus, word searches, the thesaurus,
spell checks).
STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest and life-long learning:
a. Read a good representation of grade-level-appropriate text making progress toward
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the goal of reading 500,000 words annually (e.g., classic and contemporary literature,
magazines, newspapers, online information).
b. Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes (e.g., full
comprehension, location of information, personal enjoyment). ELA
c. Understand and describe the purpose of age-appropriate book awards (e.g., Caldecott,
Newbery, California Young Reader).
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Evaluate information of a personal interest for accuracy, credibility, and relevance.
b. Communicate with others outside your school environment through the use of
technology to share information (e.g., video conference, blog, wiki, chat, discussion
board).
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Deliver oral summaries that contain the main ideas and the most significant details of
articles and books.
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Grade Five
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.1
Recognize the need for information:
a. Identify the topic of a research investigation.
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Formulate and refine questions that cover the necessary scope and direction of the
investigation.
b. Use keyword and phrase notes to create an outline.
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies:
a. Use a thesaurus to identify word choices and meanings to facilitate research.
b. Interpret information from the automated library catalog.
c. Use call numbers, spine labels, and the library classification system to locate
information in the library.
d. Understand how text features make information accessible and usable.
e. Identify a variety of online information sources.
f. Use appropriate reference materials, both print and online, to obtain needed
information.
g. Use strategies for locating information sources (e.g., indexes, using organizational
features of electronic text, keywords, SEE and SEE ALSO cross references).
h. Use library catalog to locate biographies available in the library.
i. Create and use complex keyword searches to find specific information online.
j. Ask questions that seek information not already located.
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
a. Compare and contrast information obtained from subscription databases and from
open-ended search engines on the Internet.
b. Use scanning and skimming skills to locate relevant information.
c. Locate relevant information by using specialized features of printed text (e.g.,
citations, end notes, preface, appendix, bibliographic references).
STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Assess how new information confirms and/or changes the original thoughts (e.g.,
what I know, what I want to know, and what I learned [KWL] chart).
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2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of resources:
a. Describe how media resources serve as sources for information, entertainment,
persuasion, interpretation of events, and transmission of culture.
b. Identify and assess evidence that supports the main ideas and concepts presented in
texts.
c. Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations from text, and support them with
evidence and prior knowledge.
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Evaluate information located to determine if more information is needed and, if so,
identify additional resources to search.
b. Ask questions that seek information not already discussed. ELA
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STANDARD 3
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.1
Demonstrate ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Record bibliographic information in an acceptable format.
b. Demonstrate an understanding of and show respect for personal intellectual property.
c. Demonstrate legal and ethical behavior in information use.
d. Evaluate Internet resources for accuracy, credibility, and relevance.
e. Use basic safety procedures when e-mailing, texting, chatting, etc.
f. Recognize suspicious online offers and invitations (e.g., spam, phishing, polls,
competitions).
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
a. Write research reports about important ideas, issues, or events by using the following
guidelines: (a) frame questions that direct the investigation; (b) establish a controlling
idea or topic; and (c) develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and
explanations.
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Use a thesaurus to edit and revise manuscripts to improve the meaning and focus of
writing.
STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning:
a. Read a good representation of grade-level-appropriate text making progress toward
the goal of reading one million words annually by grade eight (e.g., classic and
contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
b. Understand that genre is a term that describes similar literary works (e.g., drama,
fable, fairy tale, fantasy, folklore, essay, speeches).
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Demonstrates maturity in consideration of others, both in person and during
communications and interactions using technology.
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Distinguish facts, supported inferences, and opinions in text. ELA
b. Interpret how theatre and storytelling forms from various cultures reflect beliefs and
traditions. VPA 6
VPA refers to student standards from the Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California
Public Schools that transfer easily into the school library standards for students.
6
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Grade Six
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.1
Recognize the need for information:
a. Recognize that accurate and comprehensive information is the basis for informed
decision-making.
b. Determine and use appropriate presearch strategies (e.g., brainstorming, recall of
prior knowledge).
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Formulate relevant questions with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered.
b. Demonstrate ability to create effective keyword searching in print and online by
identifying appropriate keywords.
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies:
a. Identify and locate multiple sources of information related to research topics and
questions (e.g., books, reference materials, online sources, periodicals).
b. Perform basic search of automated library catalog to locate resources for a particular
purpose.
c. Use the automated library catalog to locate resources in other libraries and use
interlibrary loan, if available.
d. Identify the structural features of popular media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, online
information) and use the features to obtain information.
e. Use the World Wide Web including search engines and browsers to locate
information.
f. Demonstrate proper and responsible use of technology and other library materials.
g. Demonstrate use of outside sources for information gathering (e.g., Web sites of
public libraries and colleges, online databases).
h. Compare and contrast the benefits and potential of using open source media,
subscription databases, print media, and visual media as useful to answer a research
question.
i. Demonstrate knowledge of current applications available online (e.g., photo
organizer, presentation generator, document creator, video conferencing).
j. Recognize that specialized encyclopedias differ in arrangement, emphasis, and
indexing.
k. Use Boolean search techniques and other limiters or expanders to locate appropriate
resources.
l. Identify the authority of an author or sponsoring organization in print and online
materials.
m. Identify information that supports the question but may not directly answer it.
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
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a.
b.
c.
d.
Understand and practice the basics of safe use of the Internet.
Accurately record citation information for each type of resource used.
Use several facts from visual or audio media to support a hypothesis.
Restate facts and details taken from an information source (print, nonprint, or digital)
and organize those ideas for note taking using techniques such as outlining, webbing,
flowcharting, etc.
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STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Analyze information from illustrations, photographs, charts, graphs, maps, tables, and
captions.
b. Analyze evidence to support research question.
c. Identify instances and types of unsupported statements in resources used (e.g.,
inference, fallacious reasoning, persuasion, inaccuracies, and propaganda).
2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of resources:
a. Identify how visual language creates an impression for the viewer (e.g., angle,
lighting, special effects, camera movement).
b. Recognize importance of publication date as an indicator of information currency.
c. Identify persuasive and propaganda techniques used in television and identify false
and misleading information. ELA
d. Explain the authority, timeliness and/or accuracy of specific information resources.
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Evaluate information located to determine if it is sufficient to answer the question.
STANDARD 3
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.1
Demonstrate ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Practice safe handling of personal information online.
b. Recognize academic uses of social networking sites and understand how to use them
safely and ethically.
c. Articulate and follow the rules for online use at school.
d. Identify programs that can damage a computer (e.g., viruses, worms, trojans,
spyware).
e. Practice ethical behavior in online interactions.
f. Identify what can constitute an “uncomfortable” interaction online and how to
effectively handle it.
g. Identify urban legends and hoaxes spread through e-mail and the Internet.
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
a. Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the evidence for an author’s
conclusions. ELA
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Choose an appropriate format to produce, communicate, and present information
93
(e.g., written report, multimedia presentation, graphic presentation, posters, graphs).
STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning:
a. Read a good representation of grade-level-appropriate text making progress toward
the goal of reading one million words annually by grade eight (e.g., classic and
contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
b. Participate in activities that reflect interests, talents, or desires.
c. Critique own work and that of others in a respectful and cooperative way.
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Respect others’ right to freedom of speech.
b. Pursue information related to personal well-being (e.g., career interests, community
involvement, health matters, recreation).
c. Collaborate in person and through technology to identify problems and seek their
solutions.
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Demonstrate a variety of methods to engage the audience when presenting
information (e.g., voice modulation, gestures, questions).
b. Appreciate a range of creative forms of expression (e.g., poetry, drama, film,
literature, visual arts).
94
Grades Seven and Eight
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.1
Recognize the need for information:
a. Recognize the need for information in preparing research reports and persuasive
compositions, and in delivering informative presentations.
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Define a thesis statement.
b. Establish a hypothesis and/or a position statement.
c. Identify topics; ask and evaluate research questions for relevancy.
d. Create a plan of action for research including identifying key questions, definition of
topic, keywords, and list of possible resources.
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies:
a. Conduct multiple-step information searches using various search strategies to locate
digital information that supports research and writing tasks.
b. Identify scholarly, accurate, and current sources of information in a variety of
formats.
c. Prioritize sources of information for efficient and effective use.
d. Develop and use successful research strategies to locate information sources
including primary and secondary sources.
e. Understand and demonstrate appropriate use of “tags” for online resources.
f. Use automated library catalog to locate a variety of reference and other library
resources that support a research question.
g. Use bibliographies and digital resources to access information beyond the school
library collection.
h. Demonstrate knowledge of the types of resources needed to best answer the question.
i. Identify the authority of URL Internet extensions and their potential for bias (e.g.,
.com, .org, .edu, .gov, .us, .net).
j. Use a variety of encyclopedias and other reference resources to gather information.
k. Use indexes online and in print.
l. Use print and/or digital indexes or the search engines of subscription periodical
databases to locate information in periodicals and save to a file.
m. Use bibliographies to identify and locate resources beyond basic reference tools.
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
a. Recognize that inappropriate and illegal use of information has consequences.
b. Demonstrate effective use of digital sources (e.g., navigating within the source,
searching one source for a specific topic before searching in multiple sources and for
multiple topics).
c. Explain what the Internet is, how it was created and how it works.
95
d. Identify cues in visual media to assist in understanding meaning.
e. Discuss with others the plot, setting, genre, and characters found in books recently
read.
f. Create presentations that demonstrate proper citation and attribution of written, audio
and visual resources used.
g. Use a dictionary to learn the history of common words.
h. Demonstrate effective note taking including citation references, quotes, and major
points.
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STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Assess the author’s evidence to support claims and assertions, noting instances of bias
and stereotyping in a variety of visual and audio materials.
b. Evaluate sources for fact, opinion, propaganda, currency, and relevance.
2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of resources:
a. Evaluate credibility, comprehensiveness and usefulness of print, nonprint, and digital
information sources.
b. Analyze differences among various categories of informational materials (e.g.,
textbooks, newspapers, magazines, atlases, online resources) in terms of their
structure and purpose.
c. Evaluate the authority of authors, Web site hosts, and/or sponsoring organizations of
Web sites and print material.
d. Use more than one resource when needed to verify and determine accuracy.
e. Assess currency and timeliness as a part of Web site and other media evaluation.
f. Identify and assess evidence that supports ideas and concepts presented in audio and
visual media.
g. Evaluate information from visual media as a primary source.
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Revise, add, or delete questions as information need changes.
STANDARD 3
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.1
Demonstrate ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Articulate understanding of “fair use” and other legal rulings in regard to copyright.
b. Participate in online classroom and/or library discussion groups.
c. Participate ethically and safely in online activities.
d. Give credit to authors when appropriate in written and oral presentations, including
music and visual content.
e. Give credit in an acceptable format for quoted and paraphrased information.
f. Understand and communicate the ethical use of intellectual property.
g. Recognize that inappropriate and illegal use of information has consequences.
h. Understand ethical issues in audio and visual media relating to ownership of content.
i. Explain ethical and legal issues relating to use of printed, visual, audio, and online
materials (e.g., file sharing).
j. Understand how to secure wireless devices.
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
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a. Evaluate evidence to support a proposition or proposal.
b. Present a report visually, orally, or in writing that conveys a clear point of view with
evidence supporting that perspective.
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Create documents by using word processing skills and publishing programs.
b. Develop simple databases and spreadsheets to manage information and prepare
reports.
c. Use a variety of media to impart information, share opinions, and/or persuade an
audience (e.g., audio, video, written).
d. Create presentations using presentation software or multimedia online applications.
STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning:
a. Read a good representation of grade-level-appropriate text making progress toward
the goal of reading one million words annually by grade eight (e.g., classic and
contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
b. Choose reading from a variety of genres (e.g., drama, fable, fairy tale, fantasy,
folklore, essay, speeches).
c. Assess the process and the product created as an audio, visual or written piece of
work.
d. Assess personal growth through reflection and review of samples of previous work
(e.g., portfolio).
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Present information collaboratively through written, audio or visual formats.
b. Explain how social networks operate and identify issues related to participation.
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Compare and contrast how literature, theatre, and visual arts from different cultures or
time periods convey the same or similar content or plot.
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Grades Nine through Twelve
STANDARD 1
Students Access Information
The student will:
1.1
Recognize the need for information:
a. Identify topics; broaden or narrow topic and develop ideas to direct the focus of an
inquiry, investigation, or research.
1.2
Formulate appropriate questions:
a. Generate research questions based on interests, observations, information, stories, and
issues or on an assigned topic.
b. Present a clear thesis statement.
c. Finalize research question by conducting preliminary research.
1.3
Identify and locate a variety of resources using multiple search strategies:
a. Use a variety of specialized search engines and databases to locate relevant
information.
b. Search for information on Web sites using “tags” and hierarchical directories.
c. Use the hierarchy of an URL to navigate a site.
d. Search for information using advanced search skills (e.g., Boolean operators,
truncation, adjacency, proximity, wild cards).
e. Search for information using controlled vocabulary (subject headings).
f. Understand the differences between search engines, Web crawlers, metasearch
engines and hierarchical directories.
g. Identify and locate relevant sources of information that provide a broad view of
information related to research topics and questions.
h. Differentiate between scholarly and popular publications in print or digital format.
i. Create and save searches and bibliographies within library catalogs and databases.
j. Identify the structural features of informational text and use the features to locate
information (e.g., expository text, public documents, journal articles).
k. Select and use appropriate tools and technology to locate resources.
l. Identify, compare and contrast the bibliographic information provided in a printed or
digital book or a Web site.
m. Demonstrate knowledge of basic and advanced online search applications.
n. Use a variety of print, media and online resources to locate information including
encyclopedias and other reference materials.
o. Demonstrate a variety of research methods used in different disciplines.
p. Use digital databases or print indexes to locate magazine or newspaper articles on a
topic and save them to a file.
q. Identify and locate sources (print and electronic) that provide an overview of
information related to the research topic.
1.4
Retrieve information in a timely and safe manner:
99
a. Demonstrate proper procedures and good citizenship online.
b. Understand how to access and retrieve resources from local, regional, state, and
national libraries through interlibrary loan and other means.
c. Use pre-search strategies to identify what should be read in depth (e.g., scan titles,
headings, captions).
d. Analyze structure and format of informational text that make information accessible
and usable (e.g., format, graphics, sequence, diagrams, illustrations, charts, maps).
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STANDARD 2
Students Evaluate Information
The student will:
2.1
Determine relevance of information:
a. Evaluate online search results, demonstrating an understanding of how search engines
determine rank or relevancy.
b. Analyze important ideas and supporting evidence in an information source, using
logic and informed judgment to accept or reject information.
c. Interpret meaning from charts, maps, graphs, tables, and pictures.
2.2
Assess comprehensiveness, currency, credibility, authority, and accuracy of resources:
a. Verify the authenticity of primary and secondary source information found online.
b. Identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
c. Analyze media for purpose, message, accuracy, bias, and intended audience.
d. Prepare a bibliography of reference materials using a variety of consumer, workplace,
and public documents.
e. Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal
scripting, annotated bibliographies). ELA
2.3
Consider the need for additional information:
a. Determine and use strategies for revising, improving, and updating knowledge of a
subject.
b. Review work through self-reflection, peer review, and teacher feedback to determine
if the information is sufficient.
STANDARD 3
Students Use Information
The student will:
3.1
Demonstrate ethical, legal, and safe use of information:
a. Demonstrate respect for copyright restrictions, fair use, and public performance rights
when downloading or duplicating media.
b. Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, footnotes, references, and
bibliographies by adhering to an acceptable format.
c. Define and defend the need for intellectual freedom.
d. Demonstrate responsible use of information by respecting intellectual property rights
of others.
e. Recognize and protect the private information of oneself and others.
f. Describe safe, online shopping practices.
g. Understand the implications of criminal activities such as generating viruses, hacking,
identity theft, etc.
h. Use materials, equipment, and facilities responsibly and independently.
i. Describe the privileges and responsibilities outlined in the district’s Internet
Acceptable Use Policy for their school.
101
j. Practice strategies to protect digital devices (e.g., antivirus software, secure
connections, encryption, operating system updates).
3.2
Draw conclusions and make informed decisions:
a. Analyze information from multiple sources and identify complexities, discrepancies,
and different perspectives found between sources.
b. Synthesize the content from several sources (or works by a single author) dealing
with a single issue; paraphrase the ideas and connect them to other sources and
related topics to demonstrate comprehensive knowledge.
3.3
Use information and technology collaboratively and creatively to answer a question,
solve a problem, or enrich understanding:
a. Explain how meaning is conveyed in image and sound and recognize that many
media messages are constructed to gain profit and/or influence viewers.
b. Analyze design elements of various kinds of media productions and identify media
messages that have embedded points of view.
c. Identify capabilities and limitations of tools for organizing and using information.
d. Produce media efficiently and appropriately to communicate a message to an
audience.
e. Design experiments, surveys, and interviews, individually or in a group, as needed to
investigate research questions.
f. Analyze and interpret results of experiments, surveys, and interviews, using
quantitative and qualitative methods.
g. Draw clear and appropriate conclusions supported by evidence and examples.
h. Use common organizational patterns such as logic, analogy, compare and contrast,
problem and solution, cause and effect to inform or persuade.
i. Use props, visual aids, graphs, and electronic media to enhance the appeal and
accuracy of presentations.
j. Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on
relevant perspectives.
k. Construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from
multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written
presentations.
STANDARD 4
Students Integrate Information Literacy Skills into All Areas of Learning
The student will:
4.1
Read widely for information, personal interest, and life-long learning:
a. By grade twelve, read two million words annually independently, including a wide
variety of classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, and online
information.
b. Demonstrate competence and self-motivation in reading, listening, and viewing.
c. Monitor own information-seeking progress for effectiveness, and adapt as necessary.
d. Develop strategies to focus on personal learning.
102
e. Evaluate how effectively own ideas are expressed.
f. Demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning.
g. Select information on a topic of interest.
4.2
Seek and share information:
a. Locate information independently to satisfy curiosity.
b. Contribute actively to the learning community and participate in groups to pursue and
generate information.
c. Demonstrate and advocate for legal and ethical behavior among peers, family
members, and their community when using information resources and technology.
d. Use technology to communicate and share information with others with the same
interests.
4.3
Appreciate and respond to creative expressions of information:
a. Read and listen to a range of literary and other creative forms of expression (e.g.,
poetry, drama, film, literature, visual arts).
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Model School Library Program Standards
The Model School Library Program Standards represent a base level of staffing, collections,
services and resources, including technology, expected in an effective school library to enable all
students to achieve California’s Model School Library Standards for Students.
The standards are rigorous standards for California’s school libraries and are based on what
exists, using national and state data, and research studies on the effectiveness of school libraries,
including the following:
•
The top quartile of respondents to the American Association of School Librarians 2008
study, School Libraries Count! A National Survey of School Library Media Programs.
•
The average resources and services of the respondents to the School Library Journal
2009 national survey of school libraries.
•
The average resources and services of libraries in the California Department of Education
2007-08 School Library Survey that matched the baseline set of respondents from the
national studies listed above.
•
Douglas Achterman’s 2008 doctoral dissertation, Haves, halves and have-nots: School
libraries and student achievement7 which found that library staffing and services are
significantly related to students’ test scores: the greater the number of library services
offered, the higher students’ scores tended to be.
The specific studies and research reports that were used in the development of these standards
are listed as references at the end of this section.
These Model School Library Program Standards are meant to be models for school districts
throughout the state to guide in planning and implementing effective school library programs.
Achterman, D. (2008). Haves, halves and have-nots: School libraries and student achievement. Doctoral
dissertation. University of North Texas, Denton.
7
104
Model School Library Program Standards
The following Model School Library Program Standards outline what is expected in an
effective school library to enable all students to achieve California’s Model School
Library Standards for Students.
Standard
Notes
STAFFING
Credentialed teacher librarian: 1 full time per
785 students
A California teacher librarian has both a
classroom teaching credential and a teacher
librarian credential. The ratio of teacher
librarian to students is based on the average
staffing ratio of all other states.
Classified paraprofessional assistant in the
school library: 34 hours per week
The 34 hours per week are in addition to those
provided by the credentialed teacher librarian.
Classified position titles are determined at the
district level (e.g., library technician, library
assistant, library aide).
ACCESS
Library open for students: 40 hours or more
per week
Integrated library management system
including online public access capabilities
Automated catalog and circulation system
available online
Library Web page/portal
Internet access for students in the library
Flexible scheduling: 38 hours per week
Student and class visits are scheduled at varying
times according to need
Computers in the school library: 33
networked computers
Facilities have enough space to accommodate
one class plus additional individuals and the
library collection
105
TEACHER LIBRARIAN RESPONSIBILITIES
Scheduled collaborative planning and
teaching with at least one grade level or
department or 20 % or more of individual
teachers
The teacher librarian collaborates with
classroom teachers to create and teach lessons
using the resources of the library.
Delivery of instruction: 20 or more hours per
week
Library management: 5 hours per week
Reading guidance
Current set of policies and procedures, and a
yearly library plan that includes assessment
of the program
RESOURCES
Online subscription databases: at least 2
One video/image database (e.g. California
Streaming), and at least one periodicals
aggregator, i.e., a periodicals index with fulltext articles
Print magazines in addition to those available
electronically:
• 25 at elementary
• 20 at middle school
• 15 at high school
At least 2/3 of the collection is less than 15
years old
Books per student: 28
The total book and periodical collection
increases from elementary to middle and high
school, while the ratio of books per student
decreases. Book and periodical collections
increase with enrollment.
Collection development. Yearly add a
number of books per student to the
collection:
• 1 at elementary
• 1 at middle school
• .5 at high school
106
References
1. Achterman, D. (2008). Haves, halves and have-nots: School libraries and student achievement. Doctoral
dissertation. University of North Texas, Denton.
2. American Association of School Librarians. (2008). School libraries count! The second national survey of
school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.
3. California Department of Education Online School Library Survey. (2008). Sacramento: California
Department of Education.
4. Everhart, N. “Job Outlook: A State-by-State Guide. Filling the Void.” School Library Journal, June 1, 2002.
5. Farmer, L. (2003). Student success and library media programs. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.
6. Lance, K. (2007). Powerful Libraries Make Powerful Learners: The Illinois Study. Canton, IL: Illinois School
Library Media Association.
7. Library Research Service (www.lrs.org). Synthesis of research, particularly of Lance and Associates studies.
8. School libraries count! (2008) New York: Scholastic.
9. Shontz, M., & Farmer, L. (2009). “School Library Journal’s spending survey.” School Library Journal
(April), 38-44.
10. Sinclair, S. & Tarr, W., Jr. (2005) Using large-scale assessments to evaluate the effectiveness of school library
programs in California. (Published dissertation).
11. Small, R., et al. (2008). New York State's school libraries and library media specialists: An impact study.
Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.
107
APPENDIX F
Teacher professional development framework to help build the ‘digital
literacy pathway’ for California educators and students
Digital Literacy Framework: A ‘framework’ to help build the “digital literacy pathway” by guiding the planning,
implementation, and evaluation of professional development and support services provided by the eleven
California Technology Assistance Projects (CTAP). This Framework is based on continuously updated guidelines
for the services provided by the eleven Statewide CTAP Regions over the past 6 years. Data to inform updates is
based on responses by educators across the state regarding their specific needs related to assistance in the
planning and integration of technology into teaching and learning as part of the statewide and local evaluations of
CTAP services provided to educators. The Framework was reviewed and updated with input from k-12 teachers
and administrators in June 2009.
The Framework is organized according to four Program Areas supporting the “digital literacy pathway” for
educators and students with statements relating to what an educator might be able to do as a result of using
professional development services and information resources. It also provides the basis for surveys used at the
regional and local level to prioritize need for local planning and evaluation as 1=low, 2=moderate, and 3=high.
Program Area 1. Professional development supporting technology in curriculum and
instruction
Regional technology assistance should increase the extent to which are educators able to . . .
1
Priority
2 3
1
Priority
2 3
a. Integrate electronic learning applications into adopted curriculum & instruction to include
but not be limited to: web-based instructional resources, digital textbooks and related
supplements, Internet supported research tools and information sources.
b. Assisting educators on how to incorporate new and emerging “digital literacy standards”
into instructional practice at all grade levels (pre-school through grade 12)
c. Acquire specific technology-use skills related to current digital Literacy knowledge and
skills
d. Develop instructional strategies (units or lessons) that apply and utilize current state-ofthe-art technology tools and delivery methods
e. Coach and mentor colleagues on technology integration as a professional development
strategy
f. Identify and select online courses to support K-12 curriculum and instruction
g. Develop and deliver instructional lessons and units online
h. Access and utilize the California Learning Resource Network (CLRN) to identify and
select electronic learning resources (ELRs), Web Information Links (WILs), and “digital
textbooks”, aligned to CA Content Standards
i.
Utilize the statewide education technology website (known as MyCTAP) as ‘one-stop’
access to Regional CTAP and SETS services as well as other information and update relating
to technology to support teaching and learning
j.
Access and participate in professional development events co-sponsored or enabled by
CTAP with professional associations such as Computer Using Educators (CUE), International
Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), Consortium on School Networking (COSN), and
programs such as RSDSS, and BTSA.
k. Integrate technology into Program Improvement and technologically under served
schools.
l. Make effective educational use of personal networking applications
m. Understand and implement cyber-safety and copyright policies
Program Area 2. Professional development supporting hardware and network
implementation
Regional technology assistance should increase the extent to which are educators able to . . .
108
Program Area 2. Professional development supporting hardware and network
implementation
a. Develop and submit district technology plans that meet the EETT and E-rate network
infrastructure and hardware requirements
b. Be informed about new and emerging technologies
c. Plan, implement, and sustain hardware and network infrastructure
Priority
d. Utilize TechSETS and other resources such as CETPA, CoSN, to assist in infrastructure
design, implementation, and sustainability
e. Access and utilize the K-12 High Speed Network
Program Area 3. Professional development supporting technology to manage student
information
Priority
1
2
3
Regional technology assistance should increase the extent to which are educators able to . . .
a. Select technology applications to manage and analyze student information
b. Use technology to access student information and assessment data
c. Use student assessment data to inform instructional strategies
d. Use Ed Tech Profile to assist staff determine professional development needs
e. Utilize the Technology Information Center for Administrative Leadership (TICAL) and the
Electronic Learning Assessment Resource (ELAR) component of CLRN as an information
resource for administrative technology applications
f. Utilize additional resources such as TICAL, ACSA, CoSN, and other resources for using
technology to support data-driven-decision-making
g. Identify resources and support for documenting implementation, evaluating impact, and
identifying effective practices of EETT Competitive Grants and other education programs and
projects.
Program Area 4. Funding and coordination with other federal, state, and local programs.
1
Priority
2 3
Regional technology assistance should increase the extent to which are educators able to . . .
a. Prepare and submit EETT-Competitive grants that meet the current State and Federal
requirements
b. Apply for E-Rate discounts or California Teleconnect funding (CTF)
c. Learn about, and apply for new state, federal, and other educational technology grants.
d. Use electronic learning resources to support other educational programs (i.e. Program
Improvement, Title I, Before and After School Programs, Sp. Ed. Etc.)
e. Become aware of and use the instructional technology resources as well as information
that can accessed through the Internet from school, community, and state libraries.
f. Collaborate with and use instructionally relevant resources (accessible through the use of
technology) of institutions of higher education to support and expand learning opportunities of
p-12 students.
g. Expand the awareness, use, and impact of CTAP resources through partnerships with
other programs and initiatives such as BTSA, Title I, RSDSS, AB 430, and other resources as
appropriate to the goals of CTAP.
For additional information regarding specific evaluation instruments and procedures relate to this framework,
contact John Cradler: [email protected]
109
REFERENCES IN THE REPORT
Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C., & Leu, D. J. (2008). Handbook of Research on New Literacies.
New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dede, C. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives Influencing the Use of Information Technology in Teaching
and Learning. In J. Voogt, & G. Knezek, International Handbook of Information Technology in
Primary and Secondary Education (pp. 43-62). Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
EdTech Profile Evaluation Report. (2005 - 2006). Retrieved from California Department of Education:
http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/et/rs/sets.asp
ITAA Headline. (2008, September 30). Retrieved December 23, 2009, from ITAA Policy Issues:
http://www.itaa.org/policy/sourcing/headline.cfm?ID=2922
Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2008). Digital Literacies: Cencepts, Policies and Practices. New York:
Peter Lang Publishing Inc.
(January 2008). The State of Connectivity Building Innovation Through Broadband. California
Broadband Task Force Report.
110
ACKNOWLEGEMENTS
In crafting the ICT Policy and Action Plan, the writers of this report drew upon the substantial amount of
work conducted by the California Emerging Technology Fund (CETF) Committee (see Appendix C).
Contributions to the background literature review on digital literacies and to an analysis of the standards
for digital literacy across groups (national, state and international standards for digital literacy, as well as
those from business and industry) was made by a Study Group on Digital Literacies from the Center for
Literacy & Inquiry in Networking Communities which is part of the University of California, Santa
Barbara. Members of the group contributing to the contrastive analysis and to the literature review
include, Azure Stewart (MA, Instructional Development and doctoral student), Christopher Bolaza (BA
Law & Society and MA student) and Judith Green (Professor & Co-Director, LINC).
Other contributors included:
Doug Cremer, Executive Director, California Virtual Campus
Stephanie Couch, Director, CENIC and K20 CA Educational Technology Collaborative
Lisa Buschman, Program Director, K20 CA Educational Technology Collaborative
Rowland Baker, Director, Brokers of Expertise and K12 High Speed Network
Terri Takai, State Chief Information Offcer
Joe Camicia, Deputy Director, State Chief Information Offcer
Bill Maille, Director of Communications, State Chief Information Offcer
Anne McKinney, Deputy Secretary, Offce of the Secretary of Education
Tori Hurtado, Federal Policy Director, Offce of the Secretary of Education
Stacey Aldrich, California State Librarian
Barbara O’Connor, Professor, California State University, Sacramento & Brd, CETF
Agustin Urgiles, Director of Education, CA Emerging Technology Fund (CETF)
Brenda Kempster, President, Kempster Group and Consultant, CETF
Wendy Lazurus, Founder and Co-President, The Children’s Partnership
Dan Throgmorton,Associate Vice Chancellor, Los Rios CCD
Mike Lawrence, Executive Director, Computer Using Educators(CUE)
John Cradler, President, Educational Support Solutions
Jackie Siminitus, VP-Communications and web 2.0 Project Manager, CA School Library Association
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