Wood Modern Finisher *

Wood Modern Finisher *
*
t5he
Modern
^
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Br
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Formerly
Editor of
Painting and Decorating
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Catalogue.
The Modern
Wood
Finisher
A PRACTICAL TREATISE
Wood
Finishing in
ON
all its
Branches
INCLUDING
TOOLS AND MATERIALS EMPLOYED, PREPARATION OF SURFACES, STAINS
AND STAINING, FILLERS AND
FILLING,
SHELLACKING, VARNISHES AND VARNISHING,
RUBBING, POLISHING, FRENCH POL-
WAX POLISHING, OIL
POLISHING, ETC., ETC.
ISHING,
Also a
Full
the
Description of
Wood
Finishing, their
Woods Employed
Treatment, and
the Finishing of Floors.
By
F.
MAIRE,
Formerly Editor of "PAINTING
Chicago,
AND DECORATING.
U. S. A.
Press of The Western Painter,
1901.
!H
in
\(\^'
>
THE LIBRARY OF
CONGRESS,
Two Copies
MAY. 27
Received
1901
Copyright ektkv
CLASS CVxXc.
COPY
N«.
3.
COPYRIGHT, 1901,
BY
CHARLES
/Z<
H.
WEBB.
PREFACE.
The
subscriber wrote a series of articles on
finishing in all
its
branches, which embodied his obser-
vations of the practice of the
These
same
in all the leading fur-
and large paint shops
niture factories
articles
wood
in the country.
appeared in The Western Painter in
1898 and the early part of 1899, and were well received
by the
However, as from
trade.
by
necessity, caused
want of time, they were hurriedly written and some parts
not having received as
was decided
much
attention as they should,
it
to rewrite these entirely, adding consider-
ably to the text and illustrating the same wherever possible to
do so
to
make
it
plainer
and
better understood as,
used in wood finishing.
for instance, in the appliances
While nearly every branch of "Painting" and "Paper
Hanging" has been written upon and have had
ens of treatises published in handy book form,
wood
dozfin-
ishing has had but few exponents of the art in that form,
therefore the conclusion
handy volume
While
wood
of
come
to to
publish this in a
for ready reference or consultation.
it is
not claimed that the practical,
finisher will receive very
much
addition to his store
knowledge by the perusal of the contents of
6
first-class
this vol-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
ume, yet the great majority of painters and contractors,
who have
will
not
welcome
fitted
made
it,
by adding
will
it
From many
it is
ance
that branch of the trade a specialty,
be interested, and,
to their
shop
letters received
it is
hoped, bene-
library.
from practical painters,
very evident that there exists a great deal of ignor-
among
the craft of the simplest principles of
finishing, or else
made. To
forget
all
many
wood
queries would not have been
such, and also for those
and need a work of
this
who know but who
kind as a manual of
ence to brighten up the memory, this
little
refer-
volume
dedicated.
F.
Hamilton,
III.,
Christmas, ipoo.
MAIRE-
is
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION.
The employment
struction of
of hardwoods in the interior con-
modern dwellings has become so common
of
late years, especially since the best quality of white pine
has become both very scarce and dear and costs very nearly
as
much
for finishing as
many kinds
only item of saving by using
working by the
it
hardwood
of
being
its
joiner, so that there are
do, the
greater ease of
few houses being
constructed now, wherein hardwoods are not used at least
for the so-called best
lors, library, sitting
rooms such as front and back par-
rooms, dining rooms, halls vestibules
and stairways. In the better
class of structures the
house, including bed rooms,
is
now
woods, cheaper varieties being used
whole
finished in hardin the less preten-
tious parts.
This condition
is
one that has been created not only
by Dame Fashion, but stern necessity has had and
have as much to do in keeping
thing
more
and such use
else,
universal.
ture of the
man
dict
to
is
it
up
bound
will
in the future as anyto
become more and
Those who are well posted upon the
lumber markets say that
it
fu-
does not require a
be a prophet nor even the son of a prophet to pre-
what
will
be the outcome of the present extensive
use of white pine in the near future.
nearly gone and very
little
Our
reserves are
good old-fashioned No.
5
1 fin-
THE MOBEBN WOOD FINISHER.
ishing lumber
will
is to
be found in our markets today.
What
be in twenty-five years?
it
It is
therefore forced
upon the house painters or
house contractors that they should have a good, or at
least a fair,
knowledge of how hardwoods should be
fin-
ished or else they must find themselves at a great disad-
vantage in the carrying on of their business.
Our
have a separate
large city paint shops usually
department for this class of work; also a separate foreman
in
charge of
it
with frequently a separate
set of
workmen,
who do nothing else but wood finishing. It is not, therefore, so much for their benefit that this treatise is written,
but for the use of that vast multitude who cannot make a
separate department of their wood finishing business and
of that
towns
least,
still
larger class of painters residing in the smaller
who usually
must be
are their
their
own foremen and
own workmen, and
at times, at
at all
times or
places must be at least able to direct them.
All these must possess a personal knowledge of
details pertaining to
to
know how
wood
to contract
finishing to enable
for this class of
nerative prices as well as to enable
in a
manner
that will be a credit to
them
them
work
to
all
the
them
to
at
remu-
do the work
as well as pleas-
ing and acceptable to their customers or a supervising architect.
Hardwood
may be termed a new thing. At
now performed it is rather of com-
finishing
least, in so far as it is
paratively recent introduction. There
is little
or nothing,
—
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHES.
therefore, to find relative to
little
there
is
of
it
worthless, unless
it
it
in ancient literature.
The
so misleading as to be absolutely-
is
be to trace the progress made of
late
years by this beautiful art (?)— pseudo art at least.
Why not an
by
skill
render
other lines,
art? If to take a
beautiful to look
it
why
commonplace thing and
A
not in this?
upon
the highest degree of polish attainable
fully as
art
much
is
constitutes art in
wood
piece of
finished in
a thing of beauty,
so as a great deal of the stuff that goes as
under the high-sounding name of water or
etchings, pastel work, etc., and
is
under that name by a long-suffering public.
and
in
and as dexterous handling
most cases as much
Certainly
hardwood has required as
the highly finished piece of
neat, as careful,
oil colors,
received and accepted
to
produce
intelligence, technical
it,
knowl-
edge and love of the beautiful on the part of the producer
as the average production of the so-called artist has.
But be that as
an
artist
it
may,
let
rather of recent origin.
twenty-five years
wood
its
article
is
finishing has
modern development. Previous
to
was simply varnished with a
and turned out in a
still
The medium grades were wax
cheaper lookpolished
the high priced were finished by the methods
known
finishing
Only a quarter of a century
that date ordinary furniture
cheap-made
finisher be called
wood
—have elapsed since wood
commenced to take
ing way.
the
or an artisan, as said before
While
as French polishing.
process a very fine polish or finish
7
is
it is
and
now usually
true that
by that
possible, nevertheless
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
the process
is
so tedious and expensive as to
make
only
it
within the reach of the rich, and the highly polished sur-
now
faces
better
known
as a piano finish,
which has sup-
planted the French polish almost universally, has
it
possible for even the very poor to
finely-finished
have
hardwood specimens about
and the great medium
class of
their
who
people,
made
at least a
few
homes,
are neither
rich nor poor, can indulge their love of the beautiful to
their
hearts' content
in a
manner which even the
would have thought extravagant
in
bygone days
rich
— not
only indulging this love for the beauties of nature as de-
veloped in the endless variations of the different grains of
the
wood
as enriched
and brought out by the
finisher in a
few specimen articles of furniture, but in the whole wood-
work
of their dwellings, including wainscot, dadoes, ceil-
ings, doors
and casings, baseboards
—
all
the
woodwork
in
short.
This immense extension and addition made of the
use of hardwoods has been
made
possible
by the
simplifi-
cation of the processes used in bringing about the highly
finished surfaces of the present at a comparatively
low
cost of production.
While
it is
true that fine furniture received as fine a
polish as any that
even
is
produced today by French polishing,
this is of rather recent origin.
one hundred and ten or
memory
of
many
of
Certainly not over
fifteen years ago.
within the
men yet living when
known to more than a very
the older
French polishing began to be
It is
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER.
England and
few. In
lish descent this finish
was known and occasionally
name
heard of under the
translated
America among artisans of Eng-
in
would simply mean that
may
Martin's varnish, which
rect
— in
and
fact was,
ceased to exist for
is still
of "Vernis Martin" finish which
is
or
it
may
was
finished with
not have been cor-
now, incorrect as that firm has
many many
years and varnished sur-
were never designated as "Vernis Martin finished"
faces
but only such as came under the designation of French
and could
polished, so that the terms are interchangeable
be and are used to designate the same kind of
Wood
new
era,
finishing
when
may
a finish
be said to have commenced a
was devised that
about equal to French polish
as good,
— in
in
looks was
durability very nearly
and that could be finished in one-tenth part of the
Nevertheless as there are to be found today a very
time.
few
finish.
men who
are willing to pay for and
still
demand
this
old-fashioned kind of a finish a special chapter has been
added to describe the methods to produce French
It
must be understood that
in former times
polish.
each individ-
ual considered himself sole keeper of every process used
in
wood
them
finishing
and kept his method
secret,
as closely as possible in order to keep
coming public property. Each step was a
guarding
them from
secret
be-
and not a
few made good money by going around among the shops
selling
some of their
secret recipes, usually
ous oath of secrecy and for shop use only.
much
as $50 for such recipes and as
9
it
under a rigor-
Many
got as
covered only apart
THE MODE EN WOOD FINISHER.
of the knowledge necessary, unless the rest
mastered,
it
was already
happened that several such outlays were nec-
wood finbring the wood to a
essary to equip one for the business. So that a
who was
isher
equipped to
fully
had quite a
perfect finish
little
capital invested in his
knowledge, either as paid out in hard cash
some
or in
five to
for his recipes
seven years of a rigorous apprentice-
ship served without pay or received as a legacy
father or relatives to
whom
irom
he succeed in the business as
heir.
The
slowness and uncertainties of the old processes
have about relegated them
wood
finisher,
who has
to oblivion
and the younger
learned the trade within the last
two decades, can hardly
realize that his
so recent a date, and
when he hears
over the past most of
it
knowledge
his elders
is
of
talking
sounds like Chinese to him and
he only has looks of pity or commisseration to give
them.
The above remarks giving a very brief review of the
wood finishing conclude all that will be said
short past of
regarding the history of the trade.
space too valuable to devote
it
Life
is
too short and
to a retrospect that
would
not be of any use to the inquirer after practical knowledge.
As most
ble with
processes in
hardwood
some few modifications
finishing are applica-
to all
kinds of wood,
has been thought best to consider them under a
heading regardless
of
it
specific
any particular kind of wood, so
10
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
that they will be brought
up under the following general
headings.
Sandpapering.
Staining and stains.
Filling and
fillers.
Shellacking.
Varnishing.
Rubbing.
Polishing.
French Polishing.
First of all the various brushes, tools
and appliances
used in wood finishing will be treated of and illustrations
numbered
consecutively
to obviate
will be
such tools or appliances.
sary to
given so that
it
may
help
any misunderstanding of the descriptive text
make
chapters, the
When
it
may become
of
neces-
reference to any such tools in subsequent
number
of the cut only need be given. This
will prevent the reader
from becoming mixed up.
After the general description of processes, a short
description of the leading
ing will be given.
It
hardwoods used
in
wood
will consist of a short
cluding the best methods to treat them, but
sketch in-
how
ceed to execute them will be found only in the
cription given
will
do well
under the special headings.
to read
and reread
these, as
it
finish-
to pro-
full des-
The
reader
will save
him
many a misunderstanding afterward.
The line of demarkation between hardwoods and soft
woods is an imaginary one, and of necessity it is made an
11
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
arbitrary one. It has
to place all
wood
woods that are not white pine
the hard-
in
category, leaving only that under the appellation of
One may say
wood.
soft
become an almost universal custom
that there
is
inconsistency in
placing cottonwood, for instance, or bass in the hardwood
but for a general treatment
line,
peculiarities different
little
all
these have certain
from white pine, and as they are so
used in either furniture making or the construction
of a house, this incongruous
grouping
may
well be ac-
cepted without hurt therefrom.
The same may also be said of open-grained and closeSome woods are neither one nor the other,
grained woods.
and
it
would be very
classes of treatment
rections
difficult to class
were considered.
them,
if
only two
With general
di-
and the directions given under each wood
to
which, of course, the reader must add a good dose of
common
sense, there
is
no reason
why
even a novice
not be able to do a passable piece of work.
stance the
word passable
is
used purposely, as
may
In this
it is
in-
not to
be supposed for a minute but that the novice will improve
with his word as long probably as he lives
— even
should
he practice daily to a good old age.
Many
operations that are simple enough to either
look at or understand the description
varnish, for instance, are a good deal
than done.
Practice will
make
a
man
of,
such as flowing
easier understood
perfect,
and noth-
ing else will.
White pine
receives attention under a special head12
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHEB.
ing, as
it is
frequently finished in
and on account of
stained,
and of
its
is still
extensively
until its
its
its
natural color or
easy working properties
cheapness in certain sections of the country,
used, and while
complete extinction.
13
it
lasts will
it
be used
CHAPTER
II.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
There are a few general principles which govern the
finishing of all
hardwoods that should be well understood
'
before proceeding to the
'
modus operandi.
down
ciples are briefly laid
All kinds of woods are
made up
of fine thread-like
When
these ligaments
are bundled together they form the trunk
and limbs of
These thread-like ligaments are very
woods while
in others they are
very coarse.
former condition prevails the wood
grained-" when, on the contrary,
the case,
amount
'
in the following paragraphs.
filaments, or rather ligaments.
trees.
These prin-
'
it
known
is
is
it is
fine in
the
said to be "close
the latter that
as "coarse grained-" with
between the extremes of each
of variations
some
When
is
any
class
or between the very coarsest and the very finest grained
ones.
Again
in
straight, close
some woods the ligaments lay together
manner
as
in a
would so many broomsticks
bundled up; others are twisted in and out, seemingly
crossing each other at
all
sorts of angles or
running along
in wave-like motions.
If in the former case the
the usual fashion,
ers of ligaments
it
will be
wood
is
sawn lengthwise
in
found that the alternate lay-
and pores have a certain look of uniform
14
-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
ity
and the wood
grained.
If
sawn
known
technically
is
"straight
as
'
the tangled or wavy-motioned grained
in the
same manner, the saw
wood
is
have cut across
will
both filaments and pores and the boards will present a
beautifully
and
wood
its
own, which
it is
finishing to develop, enrich
to bring to
variations
that distinguishes the various
and each has some of
poses of
These
appearance.
variegated
make the beauty
view the most
hardwoods
one of the pur-
and emphasize
beautiful traits
and charac-
teristics.
The woods which
made up of a regular successomewhat monotonous appear-
are
sion of filaments have a
ance, such as ash, chestnut, cypress, etc., excepting al-
ways, of course, where some obstacle has prevented the
regular growth, as where
has been hindered by either
it
where some other
knots, curves or natural bendings as
in the forest, or
where
tree has fallen across
it
done
the case where timber
If,
artificially as is
forinstance,the body has been cut
ligaments grow over the wounds and
ered by the saw the
wood
will
show up
is
has been
cultivated.
new
into,
when
it
layers of
these are sev-
a variegated or mot-
tled surface entirely foreign to its ordinary appearance.
very noticeable instance of this
Oak' but we see very
'
little
tice of Pollardizing trees
is
The
A
be found in "Pollard
of this in America, as the prac-
almost
only in imported veneers that
fibres or
is to
unknown
we ever
here and
get to see
it
it is
here.
ligaments that have not been severed
15
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
are hard, (varying with
the different woods) form the
light part of the woods,
and are known technically as
"lights."
Even
the same woods the appearance of
in
these lights varies very
have been sawn
much
have been "quarter sawn" as
The spaces between
It is
according to whether they
way
in the usual
or whether
the
same
termed.
it is
knownas^r^.
the filaments are
through these that the sap flows, so that really pores
are hollow conduits, which,
when
throughly dried and freed from
the
its
wood has become
liquid sap, will absorb
liquids.
must be apparent, then,
It
must be
entirely free from sap or
oughly dried
if
a durable finish
how
has not, no matter
to
everyone that wood
must have become thor-
is
to
be expected, for
careful one
if it
may have been
throughout the whole process of finishing, trouble will
surely
come and that before very long.
These pores, as one can readily
see,
vary very
much
in size according to the thickness of the fibres of the va-
Now,
rious woods.
matter
how
if
carefully
pered or rubbed,
wood through
it
varnish be applied to the wood, no
it
will
may have been
laid on, sandpa-
be found to have sunk into the
the hollow conduits or pores.
portion of the varnish
While a
has disappeared through these,
there will be a fair portion of
it
that will
adhere to the
top as well as the sides of the fibres, presenting to the
eye
when
dry, anything but a perfect level, but rather a
succession of hills and valleys.
16
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Subsequent coats of varnish applied over
rubbed will hardly improve
level
It is, of course,
it.
its
and
it
appearance and will not
within the possibilities by giv-
ing a sufficient number of coats of varnish and of rubbing
to finally bring the surface
them down between each coat
but such a
to a level,
way
of obtaining
it
would be both
slow and expensive.
a fact well worth remembering, and one of the
It is
fundamental
first
principles of
wood
less varnish applied to
is
used,
i.e.,
to give
wood
the
which
for the purpose for
a lustre, the
it
finishing, that
it
more transparent and
Numerous
coats of the most limpid varnish greatly affect, mar and
detract from the clearness which the same wood would
wood
beautiful will the grain of the
present had
appear.
been finished with only one or two coats
it
instead— put on according to right methods over a proper
preparation for
It will
for
it.
bear repeating even to a tedious degree that
good finishing only a minimum amount
of
varnish
should be used; that the clearness and bright appearance
of every detail of the
amount
of varnish; that
to apply
two to undo
do nor be
who
wood
sufficient
it
if
is
the brighter for a
one coat will do
While one coat
will not
to rub and polish, two
lesser
this, it is folly
will,
always
and those
apply three and four to get a good polish have not
attended to the perfect preparation of the
wood
to receive
the varnish.
One may
well and readily conjecture from the read17
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
there should be a perfectly level or filled-up surface
ing of the above that
it is
ing up of the pores) so that
it
will flow
upon
must be not only
face
when
the varnish
perfectly level but in
if
one of
its
objects,
varnish into the
It
ation
i.
e.,
applied
The
sur-
addition per-
not the object for which
it is
the filling has been done has failed of
of
is
a perfect, glass-like surface.
fectly non-absorbent, for
(fill-
of the utmost importance that
its
object or rather
to prevent the absorption of the
wood and
to
make
bear up instead.
it
goes without the saying that this important oper-
is
known under
the
name
of " Filling."
treated at length under that heading, for
be
It will
it is
absolutely
indispensable that this operation be well understood and
well performed to
It
make
finishing.
was seen that the wood should be well
leveled before varnish is applied to
to reason that
to
wood
a success of
any change
it,
in the color of the
and
filled
therefore
it
wood
stands
that
be finished must necessarily take place before the
ing
is
performed.
As water
stains are usually used in coloring woods,
and as these open up the pores of the wood
that
it
requires sandpapering to level
solutely necessary that
ing.
is
fill-
The
in either
it
it
in
such a
up again,
should take place before the
relative merits of various
water, spirits or
oil
is
it is
abfill-
methods of staining
not a question for us to
consider now as this will receive attention under
heading;
way
it is
its
proper
simply noted here that such an operation
must take place previousto filling if done with water stains.
18
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
These few general principles constitute the ground
work upon which wood
finishing
understands the nature of wood
is
— of
built up.
its
When
component
one
parts,
he must see that the pores must be closed before any per-
manent polishing materials can be
now understand
will
become
that no varnish
viscid
if
many
applied.
is
He must
so limpid but that
coats are applied and
beautiful finish instead of helping
it
also
it
mar the
out.
Bearing these points in mind will enable one to com-
prehend nearly
all
other operations or processes that will
be hereafter described.
the
why and
It will
enable one to at least see
wherefore of most of them.
19
CHAPTER
III.
TOOLS AND APPLIANCES USED IN WOOD FINISHING.
To do good work one must have suitable tools
There
with.
what are the
best tools to use, and the
concerning the brushes employed
well as in every
and
it is
to
do
seems to be a diversity of opinion as
in
same may be
wood
it
to
said
finishing, as
method of doing a given piece of work;
probable that no two manufacturers of furniture
nor any two head finishers have exactly the same methods for doing a similar kind of finishing nor do they use
the
is
same
tools.
If this disagreement proves
the fact that there
is
in the tools themselves,
an expert
at
in
him that he
is
it
anything
it
good workmanship than
and that a man who has become
handling a certain kind of
be in a hurry to give
tells
more
tool,
up, simply because Mr.
need not
So and So
behind the times in using what he
says he would not have in his shop under any consideration.
It
may
be noticed daily in the furniture manufactur-
ing sections, that there are
ing with tools that are
so that the great
man
amount
for a certain tool
men who do
the best of finish-
condemned by others
may
of
praise that
is
be, after all, that
fancied superiority over another.
20
as worthless,
given by one
it
only has a
TEE MODEBN WOOD FIN1SHEB.
Yet there are some
for
than others
tools that are better
doing certain kinds of work, and to give the reader a
good idea
of
what he wants or needs
ishing business
The
used
tools
to
have
for the fin-
the purpose of this chapter.
is
in
wood
mainly
are
finishing
"brushes" yet there a few articles and appliances that are
indispensable to the finisher, and every shop should have
a supply large or small according to the
amount of work
done, of the following, to wit:
Pulverized Pumice Stone
this, as
the
home
scratches and
is
article,
not
fit
— (Italian.) — Make
for
good
finishing.
It
different degrees of fineness, the sizes mostly
ishing being
FF, F,
Sandpaper
—
0,
sure of
which comes mainly from Utah,
and 0}4,
FF
comes
used in
being the
Use the best only. Some
in
fin-
finest.
of the cheaper
kinds have only one ply paper for a backing.
As sandpa-
per has to be split occasionally this would be impossible
with the cheap grades. Beside
elasticity.
1)4
it
cracks badly and has no
Sandpaper numbers most used are
0, j4, 1,
and
being the finest named.
,
Rotten Stone
—English— Pulverized
and
in
brick
form.
Tripoli and Polishing Powders.
Silex
— finely pulverized — Light-colored
a transparent
filling
filler;
dark-colored where
it is
dark-colored or stained woods.
Curled Moss.
Horse Hair (curled) and Hair Cloth.
21
for
to
making
be used in
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Excelsior shavings, and soft
ing off
wood sawdust
for clean-
fillers.
Cotton waste for same purpose.
Hemp
or flax tow, also for cleaning off
Chamois
Old
fillers.
skins.
soft silk, cloth or handkerchiefs.
While
it
would seem that some of the above should
have come
in
under the heading of "material" and would
have been more appropriately mentioned and described
there, yet in a
way
they partake of the nature of appli-
ances used in preparing the
rial that
As
wood
for the finishing
remains and becomes a part of the
it
mate-
finish.
has been stated before, there are as
many
dif-
ferent views as to tools as there are finishers to express
them.
To
note and describe each and every one would
swell this chapter far
beyond the
limits intended for
it,
so
only the most worthy of mention are noticed.
Among
the appliances
which are used
or the handling of water stains
As the
contain them.
usually
made
is
in the
the* Vessel"
making
which
is to
materials from which stains are
are either corrosive, acid or alkaline and
seldom neutral, vessels made of iron and unprotected are
forbidden for the purpose.
for
Nothing
They can be
readily cleaned, for their surfaces
smooth as polished plate glass and a
will be saved in
is
better will be found
such a use than "porcelain lined" kettles or tanks.
lot
are as
of valuable time
keeping them clean. Where the staining
done by dipping, porcelain lined tanks
22
will
also
be
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
found the most effective for the same reasons as are stated
above.
The next
best vessels
made
are
that have been smoothly finished inside.
"wooden" ones,
The one great-
with wooden vessels, however,
est trouble
is
that they
when not constantly used, the consequence being
is more or less trouble caused by leakage.
Even when well made, if one will take into consideration
shrink
that there
them and
the extra time needed in cleaning
them
in
fully as
good condition
in
keeping
for future use, they will
be found
expensive as the porcelain-lined metal tanks.
the proper form
to give
these
As
a matter of fancy and
is
convenience and as each one must
settle for
himself ac-
cording to the size of the pieces he wishes to dip as to
what
is
best for his use, no directions need be given fur-
ther than
what has already been
said.
who make
concerns in the market
There are many
a good variety of small
and large porcelain-lined tanks and who make any specially
designed ones to order.
Rubbing
Felt
is
another indispensable article
used by the wood finisher.
it
There are many
much
qualities of
made, some with a hard texture, others with a
with
many
variations between these extremes.
dium hard
is
what
mostly used.
is
%
vary in thickness from
mostly preferred by
The
sheets of
inch to 2 inches.
rubbers are one inch
soft,
The mefelt
The kinds
thick and
upward, some using the two inch thickness exclusively.
The
felt is
usually cut up into pieces 3x5 inches in width
and length.
There
is
a considerable difference in the
23
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER.
prices asked for
wood
felt.
There
is
probably no
article
used in
finishing that possesses greater adaptabilities for
with
adulteration
Jt\
as
chance
little
detection
"the
by
feel
oi
either
orthe
looks."
It
ways
order to
in
is al-
feel suspicious, if
is
it
offered at a price
below what is asked
for
Fig.
It is all
1— Rubbing
important that
throughout.
will surely
of
it.
If
Felt.
it
1 is
qualities in
market.
should be uniform in texture
be mixed with a cheaper material,
it
wear unevenly and trouble
In Fig.
good
the open
is
sure to
it
come
given an
illustration of sheets of felt
running from thick
Scrapers
to thin.
— Wide
steel
scrapers will be occasionally
required to remove finished
parts that for
some reason
or other have become blem-
ished or any finish which
for
any reason has
moved.
Old
steel blades
wooden handles
Fi £-
to be re-
2— Varnish
Pot.
from planes, socketed into
are frequently used for the purpose,
24
and
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
are
home-made
be bought.
but are as good as any that could
affairs,
The shape
the taste and
makes them
better
Tin
knows much
himself, he
tell
pails, for
fillers to
3— Strainer.
vary to suit
and as he usually
how he wants them
could possibly
Fig.
may
of the handles
fancy of the operator,
than anyone
him.
holding
oil stains
and
brush from are very convenient.
One of about one-half a gallon capacity
is
the best size to use.
the side to hold
handle soldered on
it
It
by.
should have a
A
wire also
should be soldered across the top to wipe the brush upon
It will
be found
much more
convenient than the sides of
the pail, and will save these from becoming smeared
up
both inside and outside.
Varnish
pail or pot.
For holding varnish
from which to work.
The above
will
pail
described tin
answer
well, but the
one
fairly
illus-
trated in Fig. 2 will be
much
and
The cup
better.
holds about
one
pint,
sets in the pot.
lip is
made on which
A
to
Fig.
4— Varnish Brush
Keeper.
wipe the brush and the surplus
varnish goes into the pot, thus allowing the brush to
ways be dipped
into clean varnish.
25
It
is
al-
patented and
TEE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
for
sale
by
the first-class painters' supply
all
stores.
and shapes, made
Strainers, of various sizes
from heavy
with copper wire bottoms, are
tin
necessary to insure uniformity and freedom from
specks in water or
is
required.
Consult your
particular needs.
No particular
oil stains.
Many
own convenience and
shops have
tin
ready made in the shape shown in Fig.
Brush keepers are also
brushes in good shape
them
are, or
may
be,
shape
them
3.
necessary to keep
when not in use. Most of
home-made affairs. Take a
keg or tub, lay wires across the
burn holes
top;
in the brush handles so the wires will go through
them and hang them over the tub so that the
bristles will dip in the liquid
up
to
where the
binding on the brush commences but on no ac-
count
let
the bristles of the brush rest upon the
bottom of the holder, as
which may be
One
is to
it
is
sure to twirl and
There are many other systems
ruin a brush.
just as
good as the one described.
put pegs into the sides of the holder,
boring a corresponding hole into the brush han-
hang
upon
Use
the same care to insure the clearance of the
bot-
tom
Fig.
you
said pegs.
dle to enable
to
it
of the holder as above indicated, and such a
5— brush keeper
will
right.
For
varnish
a keeper as is
shown
in Fig. 4
be
all
Picking
Stick,
brushes, some such
20
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
will be
much
better,
as
absolutely necessary that
is
it
varnish brushes should be kept free from dust.
brush keeper illustrated here
is
called the
fine varnish
varnish
ple,
is
The
"Paragon." It
an ingenious device for keeping
is
brushes suspended in
when not
in use. It
is
sim-
compact, and easy to clean.
made
various
in
sizes,
It
holding
from four to eight brushes.
The
many
other
supply stores handle
kinds, which probably are also very
good, but this will suffice to
what
trate
is
illus-
needed in a varnish
brush keeper.
Picking
sticks
—A
few pickers
made from second-growth hickory
wood are also needed. Old buggy
spokes will answer nicely to
them from.
inches
eight
make
They should be about
long
with
various
curves so as to be able to reach into
moldings when cleaning up, or to
remove surplus
Any one
Fig.
6-Coach Duster, own
can
filler
make them
"particular needs.
be kept sharp as the keenness of the edge
out quickly, but this
may
is
be readily mended
sharp penknife. Fig. 5 shows
how picking
27
from them.
to suit his
They must
apt to wear
if
one has a
sticks are
made.
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Brushes
—As brushes are used ex-
tensively in nearly
nected with
wood
operations con-
all
finishing,
it
is
very
proper that considerable space be given
to their consideration. It is needless to
repeat that no unanimous conclusion
has been arrived at as yet as to what
style of
brush is best
for
any one process
wherein they are employed, and each
isher can talk
fin-
by the
hour in praise of a
brush for which his
neighbor will exhaust
every harsh word in
his vocabulary in conFig.
7-
demnation thereof.
Ex. Ex. Stucco
Wall Brush.
brush that
duster,
it is
Dusters
—The
needed in finishing
is
and a most important
tool
first
is
it is,
a
for
indispensable to the finisher for the
purpose of removing dust and
either the
dirt
from
raw wood or that may have
ac-
cumulated upon that which has been
partly finished.
coach duster
is
The
the
finest
give perfect satisfaction. It
.
in
white bristle
only one that will
is
illustrated
«.,>,....,
.big.
and while thev cost about dou.
b,
28
.,
Fig.
8— Metal-
Bound Ova] Var
nish Brush.
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHEB.
what the ordinary house
ble
wear so much
so
and do the work intended
better,
much more
do, they
painters' dusters
satisfactorily that they will
for
them
be found the
cheapest in the end. They run in sizes from No. 8 to No.
12.
The size mostly used and most convenient is No. 10.
Water stain brush It stands to reason that a brush
—
intended to be used for this purpose must be able to
stand a water bath without going to pieces.
son, as a matter ot course,
Fig.
ible
9— Picking
or
this rea-
Rubbing Brushes.
As one has
and barred out.
For
glue set brushes are inelig-
all
to
go over large sur-
faces quickly, so as to prevent laps from showing, a large
brush
is
necessary.
Some
use a three and a half inch,
while others must have a four-inch
purpose.
When
a flat
brush
is
used
set in
cement, with a fairly heavy
much
so.
especially
stucco
flat
flat
let it
purpose,
this
but not too
a water-stain brush
but any good extra-extra
wall brush will answer very well
29
for
be a good one,
filling,
Some manufacturers make
for the
brush
when
the
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
The stucco
specially -made ones are not readily obtainable.
brush
is
The
illustrated in Fig. 7.
pose to the notion of
many
best brush for the pur-
finishers is a
metal-bound chis-
eled varnish
brush of good
workmanship.
for
it,
oval form
is
claimed
It is
and justly
so, that the
better for the pur-
pose of rubbing out color than
that of
is
as
its flat rival,
more spring
it
possessed
by the
has
than
in the center
other,
which enables the workman
to spread
his color or
more evenly or
oval varnish
stains
This
easily.
brush will
found useful for
many
be
other
purposes besides that of water
staining; but of this
more
be said further on.
They run
in size
from 1-0
to 8-0.
will
(See
Fig. 8.)
Filler brushes
brushes are usually
Fig.
10— Bear Hair Fitch
Flowing Brush.
of
medium
so than
is
short
used
grade intended for the house painters' use.
— These
flat
ones,
stock— more
for as
good a
They should
be very full-stocked, more so than for that used in house
painting.
Nearly
all
brush manufacturers
30
now make
a
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
special line of flat brushes intended expressly for filling.
In this as well as in every other line of brushes, one is
frequently tempted by
the low
made
prices
brushes. It
for
ture here on false
best are,
to be
by
inferior-stocked
not the place to ven-
is
and
will
economy,
as the
always be found
far the cheapest, irrespect-
ive of the first cost per dozen.
Picking or rubbing brushes—
These are used exclusively for re-
moving
from carved surfaces
filler
and moldings.
rieties
There are many va-
and forms of these upon the
market, but the
one that has a
curved handle detachable from the
brush head, which is reversible, has
justly
ite.
become the universal
When
the bristles
on the front
is
favor-
become worn
(as they will) a screw
loosened in the head and
it
is
turned end for end, and what used
to
be the end
head,
now becomes
practically
making
a
the
new
brush of an old one, giving double
Fig. 11— Ox Hair
Fitch Mowing Brush. the wear> and thus effecting quite
a
saving over those that are not reversible. Picking brushes
are illustrated in Fig. 9.
31
THE MODERN WOOD FWISHEB.
Shellacking brushes— The brush that goes into shelac
must needs be a very well made
one, or
it
will
prove
be short-lived
to
enough
Each
indeed.
finisher, of
has
course,
his
own favorite and
many kinds are
used for the purpose.
is
That which
mostly used
is
a good, fine bristle
chiseled, met-
al-bo un d oval
varnish
already
mentioned under
heading
the
of
water-stain
Such
brushes.
brush
shown
is
This
in Fig. 8.
answers
brush
well
all
for
nearly
kinds of shel-
lacking.
Fig.
which
12— Bristle Fitch Flowing Brushes,
is
extensively used
is
a
An-
other brush
a bristle fitch
flowing var-
nish brush, of which more will be said later. Shellacking
32
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
is
very hard on brushes and the best are none too good.
With proper
wood
care in cleaning
and washing them
alcohol immediately after
keeping them closed from the
when
in
off
having used them and
in
good brush keeper
air in a
two varieties men-
not in use, the
tioned in this paragraph will give good
satisfaction
and wear reasonably
well.
varnish brushes come in sizes
The oval
from 1-0 to 8-0, but those mostly used
The
are 4-0, 5 0, and 6-0.
ing brushes run from
to
fitch flow-
inch in width
There
inches.
2>y2
1
are
several
brushes called fitch-flowing beside the
bristle
one mentioned. They are made
from either bear hair, ox hair or badger hair, and
are,
all
of these
may
and
be,
used for shellacking on very fine
friends,
having scores
kind
work, each
who would
their favorites.
almost fight
of
for
Fig. 10 illustrates the
bear hair fitch. Fig. 11 illustrates the
Fig.
13—
Badger-Hair
Fitch
Flowing Brush.
ox hair
faces
of finish
is
brush (Fig.
fitch.
Varnish
and
brushes
— For
for surfaces
large sur-
where the
finest
not required, the oval metal-bound varnish
8.) is a
very good
tool,
and
hands of an expert varnisher, he will
finish almost as
good as
if it
if
make
put into the
it
show up
had been put on with a
33
a
bris-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
tie fitch
flowing varnish brush.
of these.
They run
Fig. 12
from
in sizes
1
shows two
inch to
3^
styles
inches in
width, some of them being graded to onefourth of an inch in width between sizes, oth-
They
ers again only to one-half inch.
known
are
as single, double or triple thick. Both
these styles of brushes are excellent, and, in
the hands of the right man, produce the best
ot
work.
The
novice,
and
many who
for that matter
are not novices, will fare better with these
than with the oval varnish, as they are very
apt to skin their
too thin,
work with
making
it
it, i.
e.,
For
look skinny.
better class of work,
it
is
rub
it
out
all
the
better to use the
bear hair flowing fitch varnish brush (Fig. 10).
There
It is the brush.
unless
it
is
nothing like
it,
be a good camel hair, but as they
have no lasting qualities their use has become
nearly obsolete
The bear
among
finishers.
hair fitches run in sizes from
inch to 3^2 inches in width, and are
made
1
in
single thick square, single thick chiseled, douFig".
14
Camel Hair ble thick square, and double thick chiseled.
a
nff
Bmsh.
The ox
sidered
flo wing fitch,
hair
by some
as the equal of the bear hair brush, is put
size
which
is
con-
for certain purposes, at least,
and shape as the other.
34
up
in the
same
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
The badger
hair flowing fitch
is
occasionally used
with good success by some finishers. In form of style and
in
width
it
runs the same as the bear and ox hair
never comes square, but
only that
it
pointed.
In working qualities
other two.
Fig.
it
is
is
fitches,
always, chiseled
very similar to the
It is illustrated in Fig. 13.
15— Weighted Wax Floor Polishing Brush.
All the above will do good work in the hands of a
skillful
workman, but
it is
safe to say that
80 per cent, of
the finishing done in the United States at least had
varnish coats laid on with a bear hair flowing
There
is
no
tool
its
fitch.
used in finishing whereupon there
is
such unanimity of opinion and that receives such a univer35
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER
sal
homage
at
the hands of finishers as this queen of
brushes for fine finishing.
A
few assorted sizes of camel hair
flat
lacquering brushes running in size from
single square
%
inch to an
inch in width as illustrated in Fig. 14, also a few assorted
camel hair lettering brushes will come handy in applying
stains
to unsightly
otherwise mottling
As
sappy parts or to touch up certain
thus producing shadows in
parts of the wood,
it
up
to
improve
its
it
and
looks.
wax floor polishing is done in many
weighted wax polishing floor brush should be
considerable
houses a
kept for the purpose* This brush
36
is illustrated
in Fig. 15.
CHAPTER
IV.
MATERIAL USED IN WOOD FINISHING.
It
was thought best
material as
it
may occur
to divide the consideration of
in the various operations of
finishing rather than arrange the
all
list
wood
alphabetically, so
substances used have been grouped according to their
usefulness for either Filling, Staining, Rubbing, Varnish-
ing or Polishing.
It is
not intended to discuss the relative value of any
of these here.
This
will be
material has been
named
used for making a
filler,
ment of
it
for
done under the proper head-
So that the mere
ing and place.
is
such and such
in this chapter as suitable
for illustration, is
such a purpose.
can be used and
fact that
It
and
no endorse-
means simply
being used for such a purpose.
that
it
When-
ever possible to do so the best qualities of the material
under consideration are named and a reason given
is
why
it
best to use.
MATERIAL USED IN MAKING FILLERS.
Silex— Silex is a rock composed, as its name indiThere are many varieties to be
cates, mainly of silica.
found which have the same general chemical composition,
but whose atomical formation
made
is different.
Some
are
up of atoms with a spherical shape, others again
with sharp prisms, needle-pointed
37
like.
It
need hardly
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHES.
be said that the varieties of
it
with rounded atoms must be
atomed ones, as the
very inferior to the gritty
latter
when
once forced into the pores cannot be easily forced out of
them again.
Silver
—
White— White Silicate Earths These submuch alike that they may well be bracketed
stances are so
In this as with Silex, there
together.
be purchased
it is
a good plan to put a
piece of glass, add a
ette knife
also felt
and
to
little oil
it,
When
parency, clearness and
about to
little of it
triturate
listen for the grit, for it
under the knife.
a great variety
is
in the atomical or molecular formation.
it
upon a
with a pal-
can be heard and
Fineness of grinding, trans-
freedom
from
coloring matter
This
should next receive attention to determine quality.
can be done at the same time that the examination for
grit takes place
for the
and the piece
of glass serves admirably
purpose of determining transparency,
Corn Starch
—There
is little if
etc.
any choice
in qualities
in this article.
Whiting
— (Carbonate of lime) —
Plaster of Paris
—
The above compose
making
fillers
the wood.
trast
—light
Where
for this
it
ground.
the substances mostly used in
colored ones that add no color to
is
desired to have a stronger con-
between the pores and the
has been stained,
and
it
finely
(Sulphate of lime) finely ground.
lights, or
where the wood
becomes necessary to color the
purpose pigments are added to
it.
filler
Trans-
parent and semi-transparent pigments only should be used
38
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER.
for this
purpose as otherwise opaque ones would hide
the fine details,
wood, and which
which make the beauty of a piece
it is
all
of
the main object of the finisher to
preserve and enhance.
Raw
and Burnt
parent color.
upon a
Italian Sienna
To determine
is
a very trans-
piece of white porcelain or chinaware,
not a slab or palette-board of the
stir
—This
quality, place a little of
with a palette knife.
If
it
same add a
if
it
you have
little oil
and
has good depth of tone,
is
and when spread
clear-looking and free from muddiness
out thin over the white surface of the palette, shows up a
subdued red brown
rich
Notice also
its
transparency after
it is
then
good.
it is
spread out, as this
The above applies to the burnt.
Raw and Burnt Umber (Turkey) Although known
Turkish Umber, there are many fine qualities of um-
most
is
(in the burnt)
essential.
—
as
bers imported that do not
come from
is
only a semi-transparent color.
it
as have been indicated for
that instead of a red
brown in the burnt and
Vandyke Brown
some
parts, is a
It
It is
Raw and
it
a greenish yellow
brown
—Or Cassel earth, as
It
there are mines of
transparent and
is
tests for
Burnt Sienna, only
should have a
bitumous earth.
Germany although
Holland.
tone,
This
that country.
Use the same
it is
rich,
deep
in the raw.
known
in
comes mainly from
it
in
Belgium and
sometimes very
dirty.
should be well levigated or washed free of foreign mat-
ter, finely
ground and
when mixed with
free
from specks under the knife
oil,
39
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Drop or Ivory Black— This black
ent color; the words
Drop or Ivory are interchangeable,
and the only difference between the two
the cans.
It is
a semi-transpar-
is
is in
the label on
an animal black, the better qualities being
made from the hardest
Give
bones, such as teeth, etc.
it
a test for purity of tone, transparency and fine grinding
with the palette knife over a white palette board or
dish.
Rose Pink
The
base.
—
Is
a factory-made color on a whiting
quality consists in the richness of
the permanency of the same,
of grinding.
its color,
transparency and fineness
tests for
it
as for the other col-
It is difficult to test this color for durability.
ors.
are
Apply same
its
made from
rose aniline or
some other
Buy
and these are very short-lived.
made a
As
of
Many
aniline product,
some one having
reputation on the good quality of this color.
all
stains, it
the above colors are used in the
would be a mere
It is
all
that will be done here-
be merely to name them over,
reader to the above
when
occasion requires
frequently seen that
fancifully without
of oil
repetition to state over again
what has been said of each, and
after will
making
any regard
now
that
referring the
it.
woods are colored
of following or
improving
nature, and while the fashion lasts to have a table finished
in vermilion, scarlet, Prussian blue, all kinds of shades
of greens, yellows
—in
fact the
the spectrum, the finisher
mand
is to
at libitum.
40
whole range of colors
in
be able to supply the de-
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
tertiary are used, to save
out of this chapter,
making
a catalogue of pigments
was thought best
it
few
to give a
di-
rections instead that will enable the finisher to select the
proper pigments to color his
what pigments
choice between
Where
fillers.
there
is
a
to use for the purpose, al-
ways pick upon that one having the most transparency,
and richness.
clearness of tone
Raw and
Boiled L,inseed Oil
known
to require a description.
of this
work
to give
pigments,
full
oils,
As
it
more than the very
of any of the materials used in
many
isreferred to the
—These
wood
is
are
well
too
not the object
slightest sketch
finishing, the reader
excellent treatises published where
japans, varnishes, etc., are treated to the
extent.
Turpentine
tillation of
common
—
Is a volatile oil obtained
from the
dis-
the crude turpentine of the yellow pine, with
rosin as a residue.
It is
with deodorized benzine.
frequently adulterated
Turpentine
is
known
also as
Spirits of Turpentine.
Japan
— Both turpentine and benzine made.
Naptha or Benzine
tine in thinning
Rubbing
—Used as a substitute
for turpen-
fillers.
Oil
— For rubbing with pumice stone.
This comprises about
all
material used in
fillers
or
-filling.
MATERIAL USED IN MAKING STAINS
For convenience the same division of
As
stains
into
the whole range of colors, primary, secondary and
41
THE MODEBN WOOD FIKISHEB.
groups has been followed here as in the chapter devoted
to their consideration to-wit:
Oil
Stains.
Water Stains— Made from coloring matter
or dyes
other than anilines.
— Made from anilines.
Spirit Stains — Made from anilines mainly.
Oil Stains — Raw and Burnt Sienna, Raw and
Water Stains
Burnt
Umber, Drop or Ivory Black, Vandyke Brown, Rose
Pink, Dutch Pink, Prussian Blue, and the whole range
of transparent colors in
oil.
It is better to
buy the
colors
already ground.
Water Stains
— Made
other than anilines.
from coloring matter or dyes
A partial list
of the materials that
are used occasionally in the manufacture of stains
given;
also
some
of the chemicals required
is
here
to develop
them or mordant them.
Catechu,
Brazilwood,
Epsom
Orchil,
Salt, Anatto, Quercitron,
Madder,
Turmeric,
Dragon's Blood, Alkanet
Red Sanders, Fustic, Camwood, Permanganate of
Potash, Verdigris, Gamboge, Nutgalls, Logwood, Steel
Root,
filings,
Bichromate of Potash, Copperas, Vinegar, Aqua
Ammonia, Tin, Muriate of Tin, Sulphuric Acid,
Nitric
Acid, Acetate of Copperas, Chloride of Tin, Tinct. of Mur-
Ammoniac and many other
name over.
named above are likely to be made use of as
iate of Iron, Muriatic Acid, Sal
substances which would only bewilder one to
Few
will
of these
be explained in the chapter treating on
42
stains.
CHAPTER
V.
SANDPAPERING AND PREPARING FOR THE FILLING.
Properly speaking, this operation belongs to the carpenters,
if
the
work
to be finished is the interior finish of
a house, or to the cabinet makers
All
manufactory.
woodwork
is
be in a furniture
it
if
supposed
to
come sand-
papered and ready for finishing out of their hands and it
may seem out of place that the operation should receive
any extended notice
This
is
in a
work on wood
to all sorts of ingenious
ways
stead of earning their bread
to save time
machine
at
labor.
In-
their brows,
they have invented a
it,
They put
do the work for them.
in the
and
by the sweat of
as the Scriptural injunction has
wood
the
how?
Carpenters and cabinet makers are up
There's the rub.
to
true, but
is
it
way
In a
however.
only partly true,
woodwork has been sandpapered
machine
finishing.
one end and
it
a piece of
comes out sand-
papered at the other— a penny-in-the-slot machine sort of
way. It is not quite so bad as that some of the machines
are surface-working ones, but their
work
is
no
better.
These machines do the work from a cylinder, cov-
upon which
ered with hard
felt
attached.
made
It is
roll
working upon and the sandpaper
While
it
does
its
sandpaper has been
to bear hard against the
work
roll
grinds
wood
it
fairly well for all the closer
43
it
is
smooth.
grained
THE MOBEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
woods
it
will
be found that in the more open-grained or
coarser-grained ones the fibres have been loosened at one
end and pressed into the pores
it
is still fast to the
Wood
receive the
filled
in
wood
at its other side
such a condition
is
not in a
the filling would give
condition to
fit
and the chances are that
filler
and that
at that end.
if it
way and work
were then
out, with the
consequence that the work would be marred and ruined
by the appearance of a
ways or with the
running length-
fine lines
lot of
This cracking
grain.
entirely differ-
is
ent from that caused by the misapplication of varnish, as
these always appear crossways of the work, thus being
easily distinguishable
It
is
from the other.
therefore necessary for the finisher
over this machine sanding with No.
sandpaper the wood crossways.
fibres
and they
will
then
1
run
all
sandpaper and to
This will
fall off
to
loosen the
or can be readily dusted
off.
The
operation of sandpapering
universally understood that
intelligence of
it
so simple and so
is
would be questioning the
the readers of this manual
to
waste any
time in explaining the modus opera?idi and with a word of
caution the subject will be dropped.
printed in italics as
guilty
it
embodies a
fault
This caution
that
many
is
are
of.
Never bear
grounded
so
hard upon
the edges that these will be
off.
After this re-sandpapering
44
(if it
may
be so called)
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHES.
has been properly performed, the next operation will be
to
"dust off" the wood.
For
this
purpose nothing better
can be found than a No. 10 duster (Fig. 6) and going
over the job carefully.
To make doubly
again and again, and do not give
swear that there
is
it
sure,
up
until
not another particle of dirt
45
go over
it
you can
left
on
it.
CHAPTER
VI.
STAINING AND STAINS.
In the preceeding chapter
tion of sandpapering
and so
filler
the
it
was
wood was
said that the operato prepare
for the
it
to be finished in its natural state,
it is, if it is
and that operation can take place immediately,
wood
is to
ral state
so remain; but
and
phasizing
its
own
color or giving
some other wood or
of
no
then
it is
not to remain in
has been decided to color
it
of
sort of
if it is
to give
wood growing
it
it
it
either
the
if
its
natu-
by em-
another in imitation
a fancy color in imitation
either on earth or out of
it,
time to stop a minute for reflection.
Staining can be divided into two sections, which are
very different one from the other.
tions has
minor subdivisions but
Each one
of these sec-
for a consideration
of
the general principles that govern stains the division of
stains into those
is
known
as Oil stains,
mainly pigments reduced
application with linseed oil
Water
into
stains,
to the
proper consistency for
and turpentine or naptha, and
which may be composed
whose composition
Oil stains
oil
would certainly be the
The one
them.
is
of anything, but
entereth not.
even with their drawbacks they have
ively
whose composition
ideal stains,
much
feature which belongs to
to
them
exclus-
that they do not raise the grain of the wood.
46
and
recommend
But
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
their faults are such that even so great a desideratum as that
mentioned above
that have
is
more than counterbalanced by
practically
made
oil
defects
staining a thing of the past
in nearly all the largest furniture factories in the country,
although
it
exceptions.
the reader
to
make
admitted that there
is
It will
may
be a few notable
be well to notice these defects so that
may form an
intelligent opinion
a selection understanding
why he
Oil stains do not penetrate very
and be ready
does
it.
deeply
into the
wood, consequently those portions of woodwork which
are exposed to abrasion or
wear or
show theuncolored wood, the
stain
scratches, will soon
having been removed,
and such spots serve as a constant reminder that the
whole
is
affair is a
a fact that
sham.
It
must be borne
in
refinishing, short of completely taking off
mend it. Even the complete
make it much better, unless it be
will ever
hardly
the filling and staining, as
it
oil stain
there would be
again after the
little
is
first
gained by having
Another grave objection
brown, which
that
— that
and refinishing
redressed below
if it is to
be
to use
refin-
experience with
it
it
of
refinishing will
would not be possible
water stains over the oiled work, and
ished in
mind
no touching or an^ subsequent amount
refinished at
aside from
it
all.
Vandyke
a bituminous earth and for that reason
very transparent, the rest of the pigments used in the
make-up
of stains are at best but semi-transparent
and
even these semi-transparent pigments will become more
and more opaque with time, thus hiding even from the
47
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
beginning or at least marring that delicacy of fine
lines,
pores and bold lights and shadows which appear so pretty
and make up the charms of nearly
all
woods, but make
up the characteristics of quarter-sawed woods.
The only place where oil stains can be of any value
is
upon white pine or similar textured woods.
known
that
it is
very
difficult to stain
It is well
pine in water colors
Unless the operator can take the
and do a good job.
down at one draw of the brush the
water stain will not show up even. The least pressure of
the brush on one part more than another will make a spot
If one cannot take a whole plank or panel down
there.
whole panel or
at
strip
one sweep and has
brush,
to
give
it
another sweep of the
can well be imagined what
it
where the jointure of the two
lines
will
it
come
being no such dangers with Oil stains, as
brush them out evenly and without too
absolutely no fears of
having a
fair
look like
together.
it is
There
possible to
much hurry with
showing laps and an assurance of
uniformity of looks on the job, seem to in-
dicate their use for pine staining at least.
made from pigments that have
but may also be made from any of the
Oil stains are usually
been named over,
anilines soluble in oil.
that the
name
but the volatile
benzine
in
or
It
may
oils
naptha.
as
well,
There
using them, for anilines
should
only
be well to explain here
Oil does not necessarily indicate linseed
is
no
object,
are fleeting
however,
enough
be used in water colors as they
48
oil
such as turpentine and
and
pene-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
much
trate
deeper, and having been properly
and mordanted
will last a great deal
Another drawback
in oil.
is
that
treated
longer than they do
if
the stain
is
applied
more open-grained or very porous woods before the
to the
filling is
done the
oil stain
has partly closed them and the
filler
cannot enter and form a good clinch that would pre-
vent
it
from becoming loose.
filling is
done
with the
oil
first
stain, there is
stain as there is
does
it
is
If,
on the other hand, the
and the staining be done on top of
only a very slight veneer of
no penetration and
for all
fact
it is
it
not so good.
Oil stains are readily and very easily
recommend them
have
the good
no better than a coat of colored varnish would
have been; in
will
it
little
to
many. For very
made and
this
woods
that
soft
or no character of their own to lose and every-
thing to gain by masquerading under false colors, and
where such woods cannot be dipped into a bath of water
As
stains the oil stains are the best to use.
said before, they will
evenly than
it
go on over such
would be possible
soft
it
has been
woods more
apply water stains
to
with a brush.
Water
made
fully
stains
stains are very penetrating
will bring out the grain of the
and
clearly instead of dulling
made from pigments
On account
it
and when properly
wood most
or clouding
beautiit
as oil
will surely do.
of their deep penetration
an abrasion that
would show the bare wood upon a piece of furniture or
woodwork which had been previously stained with oil
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER
stains,
would not show
at
all
had the
stain used been
water stain.
The one
sessed
great fault in the eyes of
by water
stains
some people,
pos-
that they raise the grain in the
is
wood. Yet, this fault readily becomes a virtue in that this
very same grain raising greatly helps in bringing out
fully
many
hances
its
little details in
beauty
after
the
wood
so stained that en-
having been properly finished.
This grain raising involves additional work,
true, for
it
is
necessary to sandpaper
down
grain to obtain a perfect level. This additional
sists
it is
very
this raised
work con-
mainly in rubbing, but this expense of elbow grease
will be
more than amply repaid when
after the last coat
of varnish has been rubbed and polished the
work done
on the wood stands out clear and bright as a jewel
—
thing of beauty and joy to the heart of the enamored-ofhis-art-finisher.
Water
stains
may
be
made
of
any coloring matter or
coloring substances that are soluble in water.
Of course
many need
a mordant to fix them. Various formulas will
be given of
how to make them. They can be bought
many of them will hardly pay to make in a
ready made;
limited way, but as
exactly what
how
is
it is
sometimes very hard to procure
wanted ready made,
to prepare them.
it
is
well to
know
The proper mordants will be given
may be used in connection,
beside the general ones that
or rather applied over, the majority of the water stain
formulas given.
50
THE MODEIIN WOOD FINISHER.
In the by-gone days of the not so very long ago, the
secrets of
making these
stains were very carefully
guarded
and kept as heirlooms, descending from father to son, or
were bought outright and considered as capital in the
While a few were good and even today de-
business.
serve a place at least in the
memory
of the finisher, the
great majority of these recipes for stains were very cum-
down with unnecessary ingreto make and some of them
bersome, uselessly loaded
dients,
and very inconvenient
nearly
Most
impracticable.
of
them
have
disap-
peared and become obsolete since the advent of aniline
colors.
Great
and improvements
discoveries
ufacture of aniline colors have been
few years and are being made even
ists
in search
of something
of coal
tar.
stuff
These
Purpurine and
arin,
hued
anilines,
placing
all
which
the
now by chem-
have given us Aliz-
other colors
and these products are
others in the
man-
new in the nasty looking
is known under the name
late discoveries
many
the
made within
last
and vile-smelling
in
making
among the manynow almost dis-
of water or oil and spirit
stains.
The wood
ery and
is
finisher
has been relieved of a
lot of
drudg-
not kept on the anxious seat dreading the op-
erations necessary in olden times to prepare the stains re-
quired in his business, nor does he have to burn midnight
oil in
watching a slow
fire
boiling a 30-hour concoction,
and he may well be thankful that he has been relieved
51
of
THE MODEBX WOOD
many
of the labors
FIXlSHEIt.
and anxieties which were formerly
necessary to produce stains.
Formulas
of all
making water
for
stains will be given first
— a few of the old stand-bys and those more modern
ones that are used with good success.
As Water Stains made from
are very readily
and
alike, all that will
rections
how
easily
anilines or alizarine, etc.,
made, and are about
made
be necessary will be to give general
to proceed
and these will be applicable
In giving a formula for staining
color,
all
say mohogany, for example,
borne in mind that some woods being
ent than others they will, of course,
wood
it
di-
to all.
of a certain
must always be
much more
absorb-
show a much deeper
tone of color than those woods that are of a close-grained,
non- absorbent, water-repellent nature, and the stain
may
color one kind of wood a very dark mahogany but would
hardly color another of the latter class to a light cherry
When
tone.
trouble about
this is well understood there
it.
Some woods
require
need be no
two and even three
applications of the stain to obtain the effect wanted.
It will
things go
to be
not pay to become discouraged
wrong
mixed up
if
at the start
Experience
is
bought only by perseverance in this as well as
in
or get
a
little.
every other process of wood finishing, or for that matter
any other business or enterprise.
Where
the stain con-
tains a large portion of alkaline matter, brushes will be
quickly destroyed by the corrosive action of the lye upon
the bristles.
It is therefore better to
52
make
a dauber of
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER
cloth which
is
by another when eaten up,
easily replaced
and apply the stains with
this instead of a brush.
It
seems superfluous to warn persons to be careful of their
clothing and hands or any part of their anatomy.
A hint
to the wise is sufficient.
Besides the liquid stains there are mechanical meth-
ods of darkening or coloring some woods which
much
recommend them.
to
plicable to furniture,
them
in
and
house finishing.
instance, can readily
However, they are only
The
and more
All are aware that most
antique finish of oak, for
closely be imitated
stains.
is
still
In
least.
caused by the action of ammonia
present in the air in very minute quantities,
but
would be
it
very hard to recognize them by the colors, at
the main this change
by the
woods darken and change
So much so that
by age.
ap-
would be impossible to use
it
method described below than by colored
their colors simply
have
it is
present and slowly accomplishing its
combining with the tannic acid contained
true,
work
of
most woods
in
and darkening them.
It stands to
reason that
an
if
article of
placed where ammonical fumes can reach
nation of
ammonia and tannin
shorter space of time than
ary conditions.
it
wood can be
it,
this combi-
will take place in a
much
would or could under ordin-
So the process
is
simply an acceleration
of a natural one.
To
keep
it
concentrate the action of the ammonia, and to
from being wasted, as nearly an air-tight room
53
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHES.
should be had as
it is
ning oven would
possible to secure
— a bicycle japanThe
be just the thing.
articles to be
darkened could be put inside and subjected to the fumes
of strong
ammonia
for eight or ten hours.
If the articles are small a large
used
— the
being placed in
articles
dry goods box can be
and the ammonia
it,
placed in a dish, after which the cover can be securely
nailed.
It
may
not be absolutely, air-tight, but will be
sufficiently so for this purpose.
While antique oak has been mentioned,
is
applicable to all
woods such
as
this process
mahogany, or any
by ageing.
other which develope a rich shade of color
The
process simply hurries
It
might as well be said here that by the coloring of
fillers really
a partial
the natural color of the
mind
up nature.
in
staining or change
wood and
it is
is effected
in
well to bear this in
judging as to the amount and depth of stain that
should go on.
While in giving formulas the name
nearly of the color of the stain
that, for instance,
a cherry stain
make
a
if
given
is
of the
it
is
wood most
arbitrary in
any of the mahogany stains will make
applied thinner and a cherry siain would
mahogany
stain if applied repeatedly.
when they have the
same general composition, and many variations can be
made in the tone of the tints. As the fancy colored stains
are so much easier made from the aniline dyes than from
Stains can also be combined
other coloring material, only a few formulas are given of
54
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Formulas given under the head-
the old fashioned dyes.
ing of
"Oak"
are mainly intended for very light
or pine to imitate the color of oak.
wood has
so
many
other, there is
stained, unless
to brighten
It will
it
for
woods
particular
much
fancy.
Oak
itself is
seldom
be to imitate age as in the "antique" or
as in
"Golden Oak."
be well to have a few planed boards about for
the purpose of testing
they can be reduced.
all
the stains made.
If too
strong
Repeating the application will us-
ually give the deeper tones and with
it is
that
shades and tones varying from each
room
it
As
some of the formulas
impossible to avoid giving several applications to ob-
tain the tone as
dark as required.
55
CHAPTER
VII.
A COLLECTION OF FORMULAS FOR MAKING STAINS.
WATER
No.
1
STAINS.
— Mahogany.
Fustic chips
8 ounces
Madder
Water
2 gallons
Boil for
root
1
two or three hours,
strain
pound
and apply boiling
hot.
No. 2 — Mahogany.
Dissolve orchil in water and
strength as will suit your needs;
Apply
make
add a
it
trifle
of
such a
of eosine.
cold.
No.
Make
3 — Mahogany.
a decoction of
logwood chips by boiling them
in a closely-covered vessel in twice their
two hours;
strain;
This will give
it
Apply two
stop.
bulk of water,
add a small quantity of chloride of
redness.
for
tin.
Be your own judge when
to
coats.
No.
4— Walnut.
Dissolve catechu, broken up in small pieces in about
twice
its
darken
bulk of water.
Add bichromate
of potash to
it.
For some shades of walnut add a
the above.
56
trifle
of eosine to
THE MODERN WOOD
No.
FIXISIIEE.
5— "Walnut.
Permanganate of potash
1
Epsom
1
ounce
ounce
1
quart
salt
Water
Dissolve, strain, and apply, repeating
till
darkened
to suit.
6— Walnut.
No.
Nutgalls (crushed)
3 ounces
Concentrated lye
4 ounces
Vandyke brown
Boil, strain
No.
8 ounces
(dry)
and apply
hot.
7— Walnut.
Vandyke brown
pounds
pound
12 pounds
2
Potash or lye
1
Water
Boil
till
the bulk
cold apply to the
is
reduced to
wood with
No.
less
than half.
When
a cloth or pad.
8— Walnut.
Mordant the surface with a solution of bichromate of
potash, then apply an infusion of logwood or fustic.
No.
9— Walnut.
Vandyke brown
1
pound
2 ounces
Concentrated lye
Water
1
Boil until reduced one- half.
57
gallon
Apply warm.
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
No. lO-Walnvit.
Vandye brown
Burnt Turkey umber
Aqua ammonia
Mix and apply
No.
Any
of
the
kill
11
may
be
left to
stains will
is
make
a rosewood
with these to a dark
gone over lightly with an
Load a camel hair pencil with ebony
and run over the surface
way
It
pound
— Rose-wood.
mahogany
mahogany tone the work
stain.
1
the pungent smell.
stain if repeatedly applied. If stained
ebony
3 ounces
straining.
after
stand for a few days to
4 ounces
in that
stain
hap-hazard, straggling
peculiar to the grain of rosewood.
No. 12— Cherry.
Spanish Annotto
Concentrated lye
Boil for half an
boil
more
darken
1
1
If not deep
hour.
to concentrate
pound
ounce
enough
Gamboge added
it.
to suit,
to
it
will
it.
Any
of the
No. 13-Cherry.
mahogany stains reduced
will
cherry stains.
No.
Asphaltum
14-OaK.
gum
%
Turpentine
Dissolve, strain
pound
1
and brush over.
58
pint
make
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHES.
No. 15— OaK, DarK.
Burnt Turkey umber,
ficient to
is
mix
pound, aqua ammonia suf-
l
/>
Thin with water
into a stiff paste.
it
Strain and apply.
of the shade wanted.
No.
16— Eb»ny.
Extract of logwood
Concentrated
until
3
lye.......
1
Water
7
pounds
pound
pounds
Dissolve by boiling, strain and apply either hot or
cold.
When
dry go over the work with a strong solution
of vinegar and iron.
No. 17— Ebony.
Sulphate of iron
1
pound
Water
1
gallon
Dissolve and
wash over
the
wood
repeatedly;
when
dry apply a strong decoction of logwood.
No. 18— Ebony.
pound
%
Sulphate of iron
Chinese blue
2 ounces
Nutgalls
3 ounces
Extract of logwood
Vinegar
2
Carbonate of iron
% pound
Boil over a slow fire for
and apply either hot or
cold.
59
pounds
1
gallon
two or three hours;
strain
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
FANCY COLORED WATER
STAINS.
No. 19 — Crimson.
pound
pounds
^ ounce
Brazilwood pulverized
1
Water
3
Cochineal
Boil the Brazilwood with the water for half an hour.
Stain and add the cochineal. Boil gently for another half
hour, let
it
cool
and
it is fit
No.
Make
for use.
20— Violet.
a solution of orchil and
soluble indigo blue of
Strain and apply cold.
such strength as required.
No. 21— Blue.
3 ounces
Indigo blue
Sulphuric acid
Put the two
1
pound
together in a porcelain dish
and
let
the
indigo dissolve, which will take some twenty-four hours
or more.
Add
Shake
it
up occasionally
to hasten the process.
a pint of boiling water and strain, applying to the
wood while
dried,
hot.
Before the indigo stain has completely
wash over the surface with
a solution
made
of 3
ounces of cream of tartar in one quart of w ater.
T
The above cover
rial
the field of stains
other than anilines.
It
made from mate-
would be very easy
to
pre-
pare page after page of formulas but the above covers
that
is
essential
or worth
having, at least
60
among
all
those
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
that
it is
possible to
make without more
trouble than they
are worth.
On
account of the great cost of alcohol very few
made from
known now.
stains are
it
and
spirit stains are
However, a few are here given
shades can be
almost un-
— by mixing,
various
made from them.
SPIRIT STAINS.
No.
22— Yellow.
Turmeric powder
ounce
1
Alcohol
1
pint
Digest four days, shaking the mixture occasionally,
and strain
Brush over the wood two or more
for use.
times until the depth of coloring wanted
No.
By adding an
23— Yellow
is
obtained.
Red.
alcoholic solution to the above (No. 22)
of dragon's blood any degree of redness can be obtained
up
to
an orange.
No. 24-Mahog'any.
1*4 ounces
Dragon's blood
Carbonate of soda
Alcohol
Digest a few days to
*4
ounce
1
make
it
pint
dissolve, filter
and
Take
after
applying the following wash, brush
it
over.
and wash the wood with
it
before applying the
nitric acid
stain.
61
dilute
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHEB.
No.
25— Ebony.
Dissolve extract of logwood in
No.
The
alcohol to the
Develop the color by
strength desired, strain and apply.
going over the work
wood
with tincture of muriate of iron.
25—To
Brig'Hten Stains.
following recipe will not give color to the wood,
but will brighten up water stains:
Nitric acid
1
ounce
% ounce
% ounce
Muriatic acid
Grain tin
Rain water
2 ounces
Mix in a bottle a few days before using and wash
over the stains for the purpose indicated.
ANILINE STAINS.
These are so
and
free of
supplanted
easily
made, are usually so very clear
any cloudiness that they may be said to have
all others.
Anilines (and under that
name
is
included
all
the
made
coal tar products such as alizarine, eosine, etc.) are
soluble in either water, oil or alcohol.
They
will dissolve,
any of them, much better
than in cold liquid and about
give
if it
be soluble in
in that.
for the
A
in
warm
the direction that there
have your water hot or your turpentine hot
is to
is to
all
oil,
or your alcohol hot
if it
single recipe will suffice for the
be soluble
whole
list
purpose of illustration the following which
much used
in
mahogany
imitation
62
is
given.
and
is
so
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
No. 27 — Mahogany
Bismark brown
Water
L,et
and
it
the water be boiling hot and dissolve. I,et
will be
fit
it
cool
for use.
For the other
stitute
ounce
1
3 quarts
stains instead of
Bismark brown sub-
any of the others and you have
it.
In making stains from anilines that are soluble in
oil,
turpentine,
is
of course,
and vehicle than linseed
ol the
wood where
oil
more
desirable as a solvent
as that remains in the pores
not wanted and linseed
it is
are not as penetrating as turpentine
made
pentine dissolves the dyes slower than linseed
a mixture of the two
better as a solvent.
is
oil stains
But
ones.
oil,
The
tur-
so that
liquids
must be kept warm and frequently shaken or the process
of
dissolution will be very slow and at the best several
days
will pass
While
it
by before
may be
it
is
complete.
objected that aniline stains are not
very stable, yet by careful usage they are fairly
so.
Some
have the coloring matter much more stable than others
and they are being improved constantly in that respect.
Those derived from
rin, it is
well
madder
root.
known,
it
is
permanent.
it
Aliza-
the coloring principle contained in
That now produced from coal
lutely the same, as
so far as
alizarin are fairly
is
tar is abso-
chemically, atomically and in
has been noticed, in
its ability
to withstand ex-
posure to the sun's rays.
Many
of the anilines proper are helped very
63
much by
THE 3I0DEBX WOOD FINISHER.
the addition of vinegar, which prevents
them from
this
fading tendency.
The common names
ors are
for the
rather
same
is
of most aniline and alizarin col-
mixed np and
a correct nomenclature
one of the good things
Each manufacturer has fancy names
to
come
as yet.
for certain colors
or mixtures that puzzle and cause one frequently to pur-
chase an article that
It is better to
is
not wanted.
buy by naming the
color
wanted
as,
aniline blue, aniline black, yellow, green, violet or what-
ever
it
may
be, substituting alizarin in place of aniline
when purchasing
the latter quality.
Bismark brown forms an exception, as
under that name in
all
it is
English speaking countries.
64
known
CHAPTER
VIII.
FILLING AND FILLERS.
Filling
isher,
is
the all-important operation to the wood fin-
which cannot be
imperfectly done,
is
slighted,
and which,
if it
has been
sure to cause confusion at some later
period.
If
one takes into consideration the
fact that
good
fill-
ing means the perfect leveling up of the surface of the
wood upon which
is
to be
formity of finish which
easily conceivable that
that the foundation for
it
it
produced that mirror-like uniso beautiful to look upon,
is
is
only with the greatest care
can be properly
The woodwork having been
and dusted, as related
to be
wood
There
filled.
laid.
properly sandpapered
in a former chapter,
is
it
is
now ready
no operation in connection with
finishing that has undergone so complete a
within the last quarter of a century as that has.
eling
it is
change
The
lev-
up of the wood surface by the ancient process
shellac varnish
and
oil
of
with an unlimited use of elbow-
grease and patience, which so justly struck terror to the
hearts of the operators, has been
relegated
among
the
things that "have been."
The next
progressive step was the mixing
up
of corn
starch and othei similarly transparent substances with
turpentine and japan and of using these for a
was
a great step forward,
filler.
oil,
It
and the system has now many
65
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
advocates who do very good finishing upon this
but
filling;
corn starch or any other substance of a vegetable nature
used for the purpose of
has many drawbacks, one of
filling
the greatest being that they undergo chemical changes and
decay and these changes are detrimental to the durability
of the finish that is
it
possesses, in
placed upon them. Another fault that
common with
all
substances used in
ing, mineral as well as vegetable,
is
that being
do not adhere very firmly
of spherical atoms, they
fill-
composed
to the
pores and are easily dislodged; nor do they penetrate as
which have a wedge
well as those substances
like or nee-
dle-like prismatic formation of atoms.
With the great impetus given to wood finishing some
3^ears ago, when hardwoods began to be employed
more largely in the finishing of interior woodwork for
twenty
dwellings, stores
woods and
search
paint,
was made
and other structures instead of the
experimenting began to take place and
for
some
inert mineral substance of per-
transparency that would prove superior to
fect
starch, whiting, etc.
there
The
was another great
filling
soft
corn
searchers were successful, and
step then
made
(in
that
it
made
which had been an ornamental but risky operation)
as safe as could be desired.
There
is
now no
question as to what
used in the making of
form of
ground
it
fillers.
is
best
It is silex, or rather that
whose atomical formation permits
into the finest kind of needle-shaped
All kinds of silex stones are not
66
to be
it
to
be
fragments.
fitted alike for the
pur-
THE MOVE EN WOOD FINISHER.
pose of
filling.
Those forms of
spherical fragments are no better
much
fectly transparent
silex
for
some
is
for filling
up
into
than that
There are other miner-
whiting, although harder.
whose atomical formation
als
that grind
it
prismatic and
when
per-
they are as good or better even, than
certain kinds of work,
lighter specific weight, as
it
if
they are of a
will be noted further on.
for
As formulas will be given at the end of this chapter
making fillers, and as the manufacturers of that arti-
cle
have cut the prices so low that
to
make
the
for himself, it will
it
filler is
will
be taken
hardly pay one
for
granted that
ready at hand, prepared to be applied.
should dry, or rather set in a reasonably short
Fillers
time,
it
between
fifteen
and
thirty minutes,
son should not contain any more linseed
lutely necessary for a binder.
The
and
oil
for that rea-
than
is
grinding of the paste should be refined raw linseed
good
and where
quality,
of the paste
it
is
make no
or stained,
woods by
at all
oil of
in the thinning
should also be of the same character. This
for the reason that linseed oil
this will
used
abso-
linseed oil used in the
it
its
is
darkens with age, and while
difference in
woods that are darkened
would have a tendency to mar the very light
very slight opaqueness.
be some very
There must needs
light-colored japan to dry the linseed oil
and also as an additional binder.
Turpentine or naphtha
should be the principal liquid used in thinning the paste.
Where
is
there
is
no hurry, and where the odor of naphtha
objectionable, of course turpentine should be employed.
67
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
however, cost of material and time
If,
in
is
an object as
it is
nine cases out of ten, in furniture factories, at least,
then naphtha will be used in place of the turpentine.
There
one
no difference whatever
in the results
whether
employed or the other. The only difference between
is
them
is
is
that
turpentine does not evaporate as rapidly as
naphtha, and consequently the rubbing-off cannot com-
mence so soon.
flat
The
filler
can be applied with any good
brush, but such a tool as has been described under
the heading of "Brushes"
The
best for the purpose.
is
operation of applying the
one, and as the saying
is
filler is
"any one can do
one thing required being that there be
slighted, or in painters'
idays."
to
As
off."
It is
look to
flat
it,
but for
first-class
dryish
ready
for the
filler
it is
work, flax or
filler
man
hemp tow
or boy
will
might
out with the excelsior and this
it
would have
The danger of rubbing
fully done.
begins
filler
purpose and that material answers
next to impossible with the tow;
comes from the
work
dull, whitish,
then
be found the best, as a very careless
rub some of the
of the
the almost universal habit to use excel-
sior or shavings for that
fairly well;
no part
The only
parlance— that there be no "hol-
change from a wet looking to a
"Rub
it."
soon as the color of the applied
appearance with a
a very easy
fact that operators
filler
to
is
be wil-
out of the pores
seldom wait until the
has properly set before commencing their work, be-
ing afraid
it
will set
through with their
too hard for
job, so
them before they get
they commence the work when
08
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
the
only partially set and at that stage
filler is
ble to rub
it
out with excelsior.
remarked, one will only wait a
setting, there
it is
as has already been
If,
sufficient
need be no fears of the
time for a proper
results.
A
person
should easily be able to judge of the amount of
that should be
it
is
so
it
impossible to clean out
all
the
ings, carvings, etc., the carved
sets too hard.
it
filler
As
it
from the mould-
wool pickers can be here
The
used in connection with soft rags.
is
filling
gone over ahead of the rubbing and guage
can be accomplished before
(Fig. 9)
possi-
picking brush
very useful here and will do the work quickly,
except in corners where the picking sticks should be used.
In some of the furniture manufactories
tice
to
fill
some
whole of certain
ping."
There
parts, at
a tank into which the
is
is
and
As
some
filler,
the prac-
cases
the
as "dip-
thinned to
poured, and the articles to be
are dipped into this.
tables, chairs, etc.,
house finishing.
in
by the process known
articles,
the proper consistency
filled
and
least,
it is
This
is
only practicable with
of course is out of the question in
it is
probable that persons interested
making may read these pages, it was thought
mention this method. High grade furniture is
in furniture
proper to
never dipped, and
be so treated.
our present days,
be saved on an
may
many
As
articles of
cheap furniture cannot
in the struggle
it is
article,
well to
for
cheap products of
know how even
a cent can
and unfortunately many a
think that the saving of cash
dipping tank but follows him
69
is
all
finisher
not restricted to the
the
way through
his
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
work
ground
a very finely
wise
For
to the polishing off.
it
silex
is
this
dipping tank business
absolutely necessary, other-
would precipitate too readily and would not stay
Other forms of
used here
to a
tank after having been thinned.
the
in suspension in
a lighter specific gravity can be
silica of
good advantage, and a good "silver white"
being lighter than silex, will answer well for
it.
making
All material that could possibly be used in
fillers will precipitate.
them.
It is
only a question of time with
There are tanks made now with agitators that are
These agitators occupy a small space
run by power.
them
the bottom of the tank and over
vents the furniture from coming in contact with
Where such
are in use
does not matter so
it
the specific gravity of a
filler,
Where
is
used.
filler is
the tank
the best, as
ten to stir
up
it
other words,
Here
it
pay one
to
mass with a paddle.
be repeated
fillers
make them
down
so low that
for himself.
While
to
among
manufacturers, find
it
manufacture their own
buy them already prepared.
quantities
it
In
Some
and buy them by the car load.
70
not very
facilities
the largest
sufficiently ad-
fillers,
of
has
will hard-
it is
them, few have the proper
to prepare
manipulation. Very few, even
of the furniture
competition
that
for their
to
can be
will not be necessary to stop so of-
difficult
vantageous
filler
saves time.
brought the prices of
ly
and a heavy
them.
much about
a plain one the light weight
into a uniform
may
it
it
at
a grate that pre-
is
but prefer
these use large
They
prefer to
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER.
buy them ready made
ones.
The
for
two reasons, and both are good
that they cannot
first is
any cheaper; the second
is
make them themselves
that they can rest assured of a
uniformly made article that will always work in the same
way, and besides the saving of the machinery necessary
to
make
it
and
of skilled
mechanics to run
they would not have employment
All manufacturers of fillers
lers, as
it
for
whom
the time.
all
make
a line of colored
fil-
well as the light ones, to suit the various kinds of
As it is very
many furniture factories or for wood finkeep so many shades of ready made filler on
stains that are used in coloring light woods.
inconvenient for
ishers to
hand
to suit their
and color
work, most of them buy the light
filler
themselves by the addition of dry
this to suit
colors, or better, finely
ground colors
in oil.
Those mostly
used are Vandyke brown, burnt and raw sienna, burnt
and raw umber, rose pink, drop black, rose lake,
etc., all
of which have been reviewed in a previous chapter.
FORMULAS FOR MAKING
No.
29 -Light
No. 1 Silex
Bleached linseed
Filler.
any quantity
oil
(raw)
one-third
Light japan
Turpentine
Mix
FILLERS.
one-third
one- third
the liquids together and add sufficient quantity
to the silex to
make
a mill and grind
it
a
stiff
paste of
it;
or at least treat
proper trituration.
71
it
then put
it
through
under a chaser
for
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
No.
30- All Other Fillers.
For silex substitute any other substance that you
wish, and proceed to
make
same process as indicated
a colored
only
if
filler,
a paste of
in formula
it
No.
employing the
29. If
you want
add any of the colors mentioned above;
they have already been finely ground in
can be added to the light
filler
72
oil
without regrinding.
they
CHAPTER
.
IX.
SHELLACKING.
With hardwoods
comes
this
shellacking
after filling the
work
is
is
the next process that
The main
wood.
object of doing
them
to close the pores thoroughly, sealing
up hermetically as
it
were and to prevent the sinking
in
of the coats of varnish used in finishing.
The
first
whether the
feel certain
rubbed
thing in order will be to ascertain as to
filler is
thoroughly dry.
It is impossible to
of this by the touch since after
off there is
to the touch
it is
it
has been
none remaining upon the surface and
The filler, however, has
apparently dry.
penetrated and has been rubbed in deeply at least in
some
of the pores, and being there excluded from the immedi-
oxygen
ate action of the
dening of the
sarily very
free access to
will
oil
much
it.
(which
in the air the process of the haris
due
slower than
As long
as oil
never do to shellac over
It
must be borne
plete sealing
up
in
to its oxidation) is neces-
it
would be
is
if
had
the air
not thoroughly dry
it
it.
mind
that unless there be a
com-
of the surface to the subsequent penetra-
tion of the finishing coat or coats of varnish,
impossible to obtain a good finish.
The
it
will
be
finishing coats of
varnish are mentioned here, but the shellacking or seal-
ing-up coats should also be unable to penetrate the
It
filling.
can easily be perceived what mischief this penetration
73
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
would cause.
there
Wherever the
shellac coat
would sink
in
would be a hole and the mirror-like surface would
be broken up and the finishing would remain
full
of blem-
ishes to the end.
Shellac dries very quickly, and
that
makes
pores.
it
It sets
the
is
oil in
what prevents
the
obvious that
filler
it
This very rapidity of
from soaking in and softening
over which
it is
applied. It
ing ever drying hard
is
filler
therefore
beneath this impervious coat-
Now,
very small indeed.
is
is
has dried hard, the
after this coat of shellac
chance of a partly-dry
partly-dry filling
up
few minutes and dries so as to be
in a
sandpapered in six to eight hours.
drying
one quality
this
it is
so serviceable for the purpose of sealing
this
if
covered with a bone-hard coating as
that of the shellacking will be in twenty-four hours, there
is
bound
more
to
happen
elastic (on
this
— that
account of
ened shellac coat,
it
will
its
the
filler
coat being
much
non-drying) than the hard-
expand more than
that will, with
the consequence that there will be a parting of the shel-
lacking in order to follow the expansion of the
filler
with
the result of fine longitudinal lines, and as these do not
show up immediately and
the finishing coats of varnish
have been applied and the job completely finished, this
longitudinal cracking does not
make
its
appearance until
too late to be remedied and the chances are that the var-
nish manufacturer will
come
in for a
cration for furnishing poor material
"the
filter
was not dry."
good share of exe-
and
all
It is therefore
74
this because
very important
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
that a perfect assurance be
had that the
fore proceeding with the shellacking,
sure of this drying
make double
over, to
tle
to give
is
coating, or sealing
up
it
be dry be-
filler
and the way
to be
plenty of time, aud a
lit-
This impervious
sure of this.
can be produced with
of the pores,
other material than shellac, but the process itself has
come
to
known
be called and
as such, irrespective of
any
other material being used for that purpose.
Varnish will accomplish the same
of the liquid
ly as
fillers
results,
would, but none will do
an alcoholic solution of shellac does
probably
why
cheap work
and
well, (for a while).
The water-repellant
it
in its
if
it
marks of
over
it
this
company and
dry upon the surface. As
ent,
rejects
it is
will
thing there
own upon
show up
is in
the
fine,
and
in
name
of
it
filler
will not al-
altogether, leaving
perfectly clear
it
and transparit
leaves no
the work, and varnish brushed
bringing out to perfection every-
wood beneath.
where alcohol enters largely
size is
this is
serves the purpose very
has been made from good glue,
its
and
even accomplished by
it is
the use of glue size,
low
as effective-
it,
the operation has retained the
On
shellacking.
it
and some
Over certain
stains,
in their composition, theglne
sometimes used to better advantage than
shellac,
water stains, where lye and potash are not used,
glue size serves as a developer and, in a sense, glue size
is
necessary to bring out the best coloring in the woods.
At one time many persons used
the
wrong impression
that the
75
oil
"oil shellac" under
in its composition
made
THE MODEBN WOOD F1NISREB.
it
more
and consequently more serviceable than
elastic
was a mistaken no-
the spirit shellac varnishes, but that
tion
and plainly a case of misplaced confidence in a name
and
it
is
not the only case by long odds of misapplied
"English" in the wrong naming of material.
little
or no oil used in the
shellac,"
and
for that
make-up
matter very
There
is
of the so-called "oil
little
or
no
shellac,
the composition of most of these being mainly rosin and
naphtha or turpentine. The manufacturers probably ease
by putting
their consciences
shellac to
five grains ot
in
the gallon and they might then be on a par with
the
manufacturer of some grades .of "white lead" which bears
upon
its
label a guarantee of forfeiture of
white lead in the package that
lead on analysis being
one percent of
its
shown
a slow drier
and thus defeat
If oil
eration called shellacking since
would soften the
certainly not so
filler
in-
for the op-
would sink into the
it
and permit
good as a coat
than
would make
employment
pores of the wood. In other words,
less
was a leading
oil shellac, it
its
any
for
Said white
to contain 0.50 or
composition.
gredient in the composition of
it
$100
not pure.
is
its
it
slowness of drying
to sink into
it.
It is
of good, quick-drying var-
nish would be for such work.
Pure grain alcohol shellac, either the orange or the
white, according to whether the
wood
dark stained one, or a light-colored one,
cle that
ought
to be
used on
is
a dark one, a
is
the only arti
first-class work, and the only
one that can be conscientiously recommended for the pur-
76
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
The orange shellac is stronger than the white, and
should be used when possible, for the reason that one
pose.
good coat
of
it is
usually sufficient to
filler,
two coats
white to
plished the
it may be necessary to give
make sure of having accom-
while
coating over the
of the
same purpose.
However, the white
As
easier to apply than the orange.
it
make an impervious
shellac is
sets less rapidly,
it
does not show laps as readily as the orange. Wherever
the latter
to
it
used, one should be very careful in applying
is
make
all
joinings only upon wet edges so as to pre-
vent laps and doubling up.
brush
it
roughen.
Nor should one attempt
to
when partially set as it is sure to double up and
Where white shellac is used, one is always sure
of doing
good work,
for
it is
so transparent that even
doubling up hardly ever shows through, and two coats
will
always be
Upon
all
sufficient to stop suction.
close-grained woods, where "filling"
is
not
resorted to previous to shellacking, especially pine, etc.,
the white shellac
is
about the only one that can be used
successfully, except, of course,
putting of
it
where an expert has the
on, he can use the orange for the double pur-
pose of coloring the pine at the same operation; but of this
more
will be said
under the heading of "soft woods."
Shellac which has been dissolved in
being largely used because of
the
smell— whew! Well, as
wood
in
to
its
wood
alcohol
is
greater cheapness, but
that, if
alcohol shellac does fairly well.
one can stand
It is a trifle
it,
longer
drying than grain alcohol shellac, and for this reason
77
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER.
a
little
longer time should elapse between coats.
that the evaporation
less of the fact
other,
wood
alcohol shellac
will
is
Regard-
slower than the
not bear working or
brushing to the same extent that grain alcohol does, and
for that reason
For the
has to be applied quicker.
styles
and kinds of brushes best suited
for
shellacking the reader is referred to Chapter III.
FORMULAS FOR SHELLAC VARNISH.
No. 31 — Orange SKellac.
4^
Orange shellac
Grain or wood alcohol
Digest
and
occasionally
cold weather place in a
all times of year
warm
pounds
1
gallon
shake the mixture.
In
place until dissolved.
At
warming the solvent
will hasten the pro-
cess of solution.
No.
32— White SKellac.
White shellac
5% pounds
1 gallon
Grain or wood alcohol
Use same directions for dissolving as are given
in
recipe No. 31.
The above
recipes are given not so
much
as a law
concerning the amount in weight of shellac to be used,
but as a guide, some using more and some using less than
the
amount herein given.
for less
to
make
It
may
be bought ready
money than most people could buy
it
with.
to explain aside
This
is
made
the material
somewhat mysterious and hard
from the fact that varnish makers buy in
very large quantities and can get the raw material cheap78
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER
When
er.
shellac is offered at less than the wholesale
market price of raw material, look out
salesman
may
upon a stack of
be willing to swear to
bibles,
Manufacturers
wood
look out for
make many
for
its
Although a
it.
absolute purity
it.
grades of pure grain or
alcohol shellac, and while there
is
room
tion of prices in a grade containing a lesser
pounds of shellac
to the gallon
for varia-
number
of
than another containing
|
more, the difference in prices will not always be accounted
for
by such a difference of weight alone. Highly flavored
names, such as cologne
their proper place,
varnish.
A
spirits, are certainly
which
very fine in
should be outside
of
shellac
furniture manufacturer once remarked to the
writer that he preferred to
make
his
own
shellac as then
he was sure of having what he wanted, although
him more money than he could buy
The above was not
it
it
cost
for.
written with any intention of cast-
ing any reflection upon the honesty of manufacturers of
shellac varnishes.
an article as
for the
it is
Most
of
them make
possible for one to
as
make
good and pure
for himself,
but
purpose of putting finishers on their guard, so
when the baited hook of an unreasonably low price
made for a so called pure article they may not bite and
that
is
swallow
it.
Before turning the job into the hands of thevarnisher
I
t
it
should be carefully sandpapered with No.
Shellacking sandpapers as fine as
silk.
sandpaper.
The only
caution
to give in respect to this operation is to be careful of the
79
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
edges of the work and do not bear
cut through the shellacking.
down
so hard that
you
Should the sandpaper be
new, rubbing two pieces together for a few moments will
make
it
stiff to
work
better without
danger of scratching.
bend readily into moulding,
etc.,
two layers of the paper from the back.
80
If too
remove one or
CHAPTER
X.
VARNISHING AND VARNISHES.
This operation
wood
the
to its
is
one which brings out the beauty of
highest degree and which will bring
either credit or disgrace to the finisher, according
whether the perfect levelling of the
as to
and of the shel-
filling
lacking processes have been well or badly performed.
As
it
has been said and explained in the former chap-
must have been thoroughly stopped by
ter the suction
those two previous operations so as to stop the penetra-
drying one will
tion of the varnish, so then even a slow
effectually be prevented
from entering or sinking into the
pores.
work
If the
work
to
it
is
being done upon the interior wood-
of a house, before
that
it
commencing the varnishing,
be thoroughly cleaned and dusted
with a dusting brush, which after
to settle elsewhere, perhaps
face, in
and
rise
an adjoining room and make
again
when
the floor
take a
it
carefully
damp
upon
it,
then
it
to take
for the
sur-
back into the room to
true way,
and allowed the dust
cloth (not a
the floor with
it
that look specky,
walked upon and
The only
the fresh varnish.
dusted
is
fall
see
only
only scatter
upon a freshly varnished
the doors are closed, to
if
all will
— not
settle
after
upon
having
to settle, is to
wet one) then carefully go over
up
all
the dust that has settled
woodwork run over
81
it
with a damp-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
ened chamois skin, being careful to carefully go over
mouldings, carvings and corners.
the chamois skin, rinse
till
the whole
and proceed
over.
to note that while the floor of
must be moist,
this
as dry as possible
woodwork has been gone
It is well
as
it
all
Occasionally wash out
the
room
should never be so moist as to be wet,
it
might cause considerable trouble and mischief.
The room
to
be varnished should be kept at about 70°
Fahr., as one cannot obtain the best of results
temperature runs
much lower
must be resorted
the finishing
is
to to
than that.
when the
Artificial
heat
obtain the proper temperature,
being done in cold weather.
if
The room
having been cleaned and the proper conditions of temperature having been obtained the varnishing
is
ready to be
commenced.
The
observer
may
nisher at work, that
of operations
think,
it is
when he
and that any one can do
simplicity are only in the looks.
few
first-class
is
watching a var-
one of the simplest and easiest
it,
but the ease and
In reality there are but
Men are frequently able to
much more difficult work than varbut they make a total failure of this
varnishers.
achieve success with a
nishing looks to be,
when they undertake
it.
While the operation looks
as simple
proverbial "falling off of a log"
it is
and easy
as the
easy only to the one
who "knows how."
There can be no
rules given nor laid
down, from the
mere reading of which one can ever make a good var
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHEB.
Practice and experience will
nisher.
good varnisher of a man,
that
a
if
he has
it
in
him.
good varnishers are born, not made.
little
too far, for
quire the art,
side the
it is
he
if
first-class
a dull
man
will only try
make a
Some say
time
in
indeed
That
who
is
cannot ac-
hard enough. But along-
varnishers there
is
a large class that
can be numbered with the good varnishers, and as
not turn out to be the former, they can
numbered among
Any good
be able to do a
if
all
all
who
has varnished painted work
sag and run away from him ought to
it
fair
job of varnishing over wood finishing,
he will follow carefully the rules given further on. The
finishing
may be done
with a single coat of varnish con-
sisting of flowing finishing varnish, or with
coats of the
sist of
same
left
on with a
two or more
full luster or it
several coats of rubbing varnish (the
rubbing varnish
is
may
con-
method of
explained in Chapter XI.) and a
fin-
ishing coat of flowing finishing varnish flowed on and
as
do
certainly be
the latter.
painter
and has not had
going
it is
or the
finish, a
same rubbed and polished
to either a
left
dead
semi or egg-shell gloss or to a high lustre, ac-
cording to the wish of the finisher.
As
all
these operations do not properly belong to the
subject of varnishing the reader
sequent chapters where
all
is
again referred to sub-
these processes are explained
under their proper headings.
As
it
was
stated
before, the
finishing can
with one coat of varnish over the shellacking
83
if
be done
the
work
THE MODEBN WOOD FIMSHEB.
only calls for that or
it
will look very well, indeed, if a
used,
and
it
good flowing varnish
is
consists of cheap furniture,
being taken for granted always that the
it
filling
and shellacking have been properly done. Unlike painted
work, varnish can be applied to natural wood, and
quires a
much
allow
to flow level.
it
heavier coat ot
it
to cover
it
re-
it
and
perfectly
matter of convenience as to what tools should
It is a
be used in putting on flowing varnish, and that which a
man has been accustomed
to is
to use but as this advice is
no doubt the best
men who probably have formed no
the art to
for
him
written professedly to teach
particular
attachment nor become habituated or wedded to any particular style of brush, the bear hair fitch
is
nowing(Fig. 10)
strongly recommended, although Fig. 11, Fig. 12 and
Fig. 13 represent very good finishing brushes.
For ordinary surfaces that are not much cut up by
mouldings or carved work, and which consist mainly
wide panels and
stiles,
a three-inch bear fitch
size to use; for smaller surfaces, smaller
essary.
As
dation of
y
2
is
ol
the best
brushes are nec-
they run in width from one inch up, with gra-
an inch between
procure the right size
wanted
sizes, it will
for
be very easy to
any particular work.
In applying varnish always commence at the panels,
being careful not to touch the stiling or mouldings next
to
them any more than
set, if
it
is
absolutely necessary, as
it
will
be a quick varnish, before the panels can be
properly laid
off.
84
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
rubbing it out
Put the varnish on with a full brush,
and down with the
crossways. Finish by laying it off up
grain. If the varnish
has been flowed on, as
it
should be
will surely sag
be finished or laid off crosswise, it
laid off with the
been
has
along the brush marks; but if it
do so and a greater
will not be nearly as apt to
and
it
grain
it
which will give the job
quantity of varnish can be put on,
flowing is what usually puza much better finish. This
for he is almost sure to"skin"
zles the house paintermost,
finisher terms the scanty aphis varnish as a hardwood
The house painter being used to
plication of varnish.
or grained work does
skinning his varnish over painted
handling of the flowing coat
not readily fall into the right
While speaking
varnish.
from fears of using two much
scanty a use
is to guard against too
to painters the advice
a "too
against
well to advise
of varnish, yet it will be
as that is to be avoided as
plentiful" use of that article,
Practice alone can give one
well as the former practice.
what amount is theright one
the habit of judging exactly
crack.
varnish will make the finish
to put on. Too much
will comconceivable that such a coating
It
is
readily
mence
to dry
upon
its
exterior
first,
as that first
comes in-
having become dry effectucontact
portion underneath from
ally seals the undried
the oil cannot oxidize and
with the atmosphere so that
linseed oil in the varnish, it
harden or it there be little
and hardening of the
prevents the further evaporation
be
composition whatever it may
air; that
to contact with the
varnish
gum.
Be the
85
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
the results are the same and that
As
nish coat."
form
itself to
this too
much
is
"cracking of the var-
the dry portion of the coat cannot con-
the elasticity of the interior
heavy application of varnish
is
it
cracks and
responsible for
of the cracking of that article.
Always bear
mind
in
varnish
that every coat of
should be thoroughly dried and hardened before another
is
applied on top of
it,
as this is also another cause of var-
nish cracking upon the same principle as has been ex-
plained in the paragraph above.
Quick-drying varnishes, when properly made, are
very desirable, but should be
having
sufficient
made from good hard gums,
hardness to rub well without crumbling
to pieces, as varnishes will that are
made where
the pro-
duct of our Southern yellow pine forest predominates as
make
the principal ingredient in their
If a
ish the
man
will
hardwood work
of a
to fin-
house or apiece of furniture,
his wishes must, of course, be
fiddlers,
up.
and must have a cheap varnish
gratified, as
he pays the
but such an economy comes very "high priced"
The cost
mains with him the
in the end.
Many
finishers
of taking
it
rest of his
knowing
off
and of refinishing
days as an object lesson.
that quick-drying varnishes
are unfit to use for certain exposures, at least, will
them simply because they are advantageous
time-saving.
there
is
When
no necessity
specified, there is
to
doing
so, as
when they
no excuse whatever
86
for
it.
use
them
these cheap varnishes are used
for
re-
in
when
are not
This greed
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
for
saving a few cents has caused architects to take the
own hands and
matter into their
to specify the kinds of
varnishes which in their practice and experience they
have found worthy and
reliable.
Dishonest finishers are partially the cause of
but
this,
honest ones (and they are by far in the majority) have
much
ity
from
to gain
and the same
Dishonest
it,
is
in that
relieves their responsibil-
it
saddled onto the architect.
men
always bear watching, and as
will
honest ones can lose nothing by
it,
they should encourage
the practice rather than discountenance
everything
gain in having a dishonest contractor de-
to
tected in the
They have
it.
"crime" (for
it is
nothing
less) of substitut-
ing a poor grade of varnish for one that has been speci-
This practice
fied.
stopped. It
it
is
too frequent and
Even high-toned supply
afraid to say
varnish
and have
their labeled
up with the cheap
customers make no bones of
usually
work
it
and
If
buy some
Sometimes these
tell
what has been
them
right out,
bound
to
must come out
said in this instance
the nefarous practice.
true, it is in order to stop
are
to
cans of high grade
stuff.
too cheap and of course that they
not just to the honest bidder
who
it,
laying the blame upon having had to take the
ahead somehow.
is
at
anything when some of these wormy custo-
oil
filled
wink
stores
mers of theirs openly come to their places
cheap hard
be
not receiving the scorn and abhorence that
is
should.
should
it
who has
come out "ahead" nor
87
It
to bid against
is it
just
is
men
to the
THE MODEBN WOOD FIMSHEB.
varnish manufacturer whose reputation
is
made
to suffer
unjustly by this "substitution racket."
VARNISHES.
It is
not intended here to give the reader instructions
the manufacture of varnishes, for to do so requires
for
appliances far beyond the reach and possibilities of the
average wood finisher or manufacturer of furniture, for
The
that matter.
processes are very intricate and would
But while there
be out of place in a work of this kind.
no
make
necessity to-day, for the finisher to
nishes
it is
his
own
is
var-
know a little something
can ever know too much
workman
no
well that he should
about varnishes, as
about the material he continually uses.
knowledge
will enable
him
to
make
This elementary
the right choice of a
varnish for the right place.
Varnishes are made from resinous and gum-resinous
Some
substances.
are soluble in alcohol,
tine or other vegetable
oils
such as linseed
oil
oils
some
in turpen-
and some again in the fixed
and poppy seed
liquids are called the vehicle
oil, etc.
These
and according as they enter
make these quick-drying by their quickly
evaporating away as when composed of alcohol or the
into a varnish
volatile
oils,
solvent.
A
or
slow-drying
mixture
of
linseed oil
if
these
vehicles
will
is
the
conse-
quently be quick or slow in the proportion that either
the volatile
is
oils
or the linseed
another reason
for
a
oil
predominates.
There
varnish being slow or quick
besides that of the composition of
88
its
solvents or vehicle,
THE MODERN WOOD FINIShER.
and
nish
that of the resins and
is
it
gum
resins that the var-
be made of. Some of these, as will be seen, bemuch quicker in becoming hard than others.
Of the gums that are soluble in alcohol, shellac is the
may
ing very
only one that will be considered, for
that
worth the while, mastic,
is
gum
the only one
is
it
benzoin
etc.,
which
were formerly used as additions in connection with Lac
in
making
spirit varnishes,
having been
totally discarded
to-day as adding nothing whatever to the value of the
varnish and frequently of reducing
Gum
Polishing.
able
if
is
such as polishing
mostly empirical and
by any of
even
very question-
it is
of shellac spirit varnish alone
which are soluble
which stands
used in varnish making, and
resins
in oil
at
or turpentine, the
the head of the
ability or brilliancy, is the resin
of
some of
gum
it
unencumbered
these.
Of the other
name
violins, but
the same results could and would not be obtained
by the use
that
value for French
mastic and sandarac are sometimes used
for special purposes,
there their use
its
copal.
This
article
being very clear and
mens ranging from
list
known
comes
main one and
for either dur-
falsely
in
under the
many
qualities
transparent, other speci-
light to very dark. All these are val-
uable for some kind of varnish making, the lighter being
and
selected for fine clear, transparent, light varnishes
inthe rest according to their coloring for secondary and
This resin-gum is head and shoulders
grades.
ferior
above
all
others on the
list
for
manufacturing a lasting
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
varnish and such grades of varnish as wearing body are
made from
it
in the main.
It solidifies
very slowly after
having been once liquefied and made into a varnish, and
that
to
is its
worst
be had
in
fault.
It
seems that there
nature without
a
no perfection
is
corresponding
draw-
back.
To
correct this slowness of drying is one of the chief
aims of the varnish makers, and their best
efforts are di-
rected to that end.
But few varnishes are being made where copal
gum
Additions are made of other
sole constituent.
is
the
resins
which serve both as a cheapener and as a corrective
make
Of course
wear or
is
more speedily than
the varnish dry
wise.
this
to the action of the elements,
it
nishes used by the
during
wood
finishers
to the
purposes
For interior work, which
is
certainly
gum
are
is.
The
var-
animi (so
by the number of insects that get caught into
its
more used than
The
gum
any other gum
excudation),
latter, of
kauri, which
unless
it
be
gum
course, should never be
varnish making, and probably would not
only willing to pay a
fair price
for
an
is
if
it
not ex-
making the
other gum-resin substances employed in
called
would other-
compounding adds nothing
lustre of the varnish, but for certain
an improvement.
posed
it
to
it
probably
Rosin.
employed
in
people were
article
properly
made. But as long as people want to buy gold dollars for
ninety cents, a $20 suit of clothes for $14 99, a $3.50 varnish for $1.98 and everything else in the
90
same way, they
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
must expect something
besides hard
else
gums
in
their
varnish.
Nearly
all
varnish manufacturers try to
make
at
one good varnish which they recommend as an outside varnish under various names.
These are usually
least
slow dryers and will not bear rubbing for eight or ten
days and sometimes even
for
two weeks, according
to the
barometrical conditions of the atmosphere and the height
of the Fahrenheit.
for inside
They
finishing,
also
make one which
and which
will
Many
days according to weather.
nishes are very good, rubbing
is
intended
rub in three
to six
of these quicker var-
down
well and are
fairly
durable as well as lustrous.
For
work
interior
it is
not necessary that a varnish
should be composed of as hard and slow gum-resins as
outside use, but even for this purpose
gum
for
rosin should
be excused.
For very cheap finishes over pine and where the use
of
high grade interior rubbing and flowing varnishes
would be considered as too expensive, the
so-called
or-
dinary "hard oil" finishes can be used with fairly good
results,
named
although there are cheap varnishes that could be
that give equally good results and
For pine finishes No.
varnishes
also
give
1
that cost
coach and Extra No.
fairly
good
results,
1
when
less.
coach
well
made.
The so-called
an atom of
gum
copal furniture varnishes do not contain
copal,
and are so cheap that one may
91
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
well doubt
if
anything else but rosin was used in their
manufacture.
As
a description of the various gums, with their full
history, can be obtained
and a rehearsal
of
it
by consulting any encyclopedia
would swell
the limits intended for
it,
this
the reader
manual
is
for fuller information concerning them.
92
far
beyond
referred to
these
CHAPTER XL
RUBBING.
may
This operation follows varnishing and
after
the
coat of varnish
first
depressions
dom
become thoroughly
has
dried and has been put on heavy
enough
etc., to a perfect level.
up
fill
This, however
been taken in the preceding operations of
the
all
is sel-
may have
and
filling
shel-
only possible upon very close grained
It is
woods, such as birch, sycamore, maple
it is
to
possible, notwithstanding all the care that
lacking.
be done
better not to depend
too
etc.
much upon
Even
in these
a single coat of
varnish, as a very small speck will cause an elevation
that cuts through in the rubbing and the appearance will
As
be spoiled.
to the coarse grained
ly impossible to
through
it is
absolute-
rub on one coat of varnish and two or
more are necessary
will safely
woods
to give the
wood such
a surface as
rub to a perfect level without risking to cut
to
the bare
wood during
the rubbing pro-
cess.
Seemingly rubbing
tain
way
it is,
is
a very easy affair, and in a cer-
yet in this as in varnishing there
the' 'art" than appears in the looks, a
his
work much
is
more
in
good rubber doing
quicker and better than one
who has
not
acquired the knack.
Below are given a few
perienced person to do a
rules that will enable an inex-
fair
job of rubbing:
93
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Avoid rubbing crosswise
1.
gives the
work a scratchy appearance.
Do
2.
grain as this
the
of
not
your strokes bear heavily
let
ginnings nor ends;
if
you do you
will rub the
the be-
at
wood
to
an
unsightly bare spot on the edges.
Always rub with the grain of the wood, up and
3.
at either end.
down, lightening the stroke
Never attempt
4.
oughly dry,
for
to
rub until the varnish be thor-
such a course has been pursued,
if
be sure to sweat through and
over again
when
dry. Bear in
gained by hurrying but
friend
would say
5.
ger nail
If the
it is
it
have
will
it
will
to be rubbed
mind that there
is
nothing
a "loss of time" as our Irish
it.
varnish resists the impression of your
rub but not before
safe to
it
fin-
has attained that
degree of dryness.
If the
fears of
above few rules are followed, there need be no
making a
rubbing down a well var-
failure of
nished surface to a level.
Rubbing
is
most usually done with ground pumice
stone of which there are several degrees of fineness: FF,
0^,00 being
F, 0,
the
finest,
the sizes mostly used. FF, and F, are
00 being the coarsest.
pumice do not cut as
to use in the
too, as
there
fast as the coarser
hands of beginners or
is less
The
risk of
finer grades of
but they are safer
for careless old
hands
scratching incurred than in
using the coarser grades.
Rubbing requires
a great
94
deal of elbow grease for
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
some kinds
of wood.
For instance such woods as cypress.
wood
Before rubbing be attempted over that
and
in
some
cases as
many
be applied and even then sometimes
This
is
it
due to the composition of the
will be insufficient.
fibres of that
These are so tenacious of the circular form
up
that
of their
wood.
make-
can never be planed so perfectly level but that
it
manage
they
three or four
as five coats of varnish should
come up some way
to
or other.
This
is
the
only one exception, however, and most other woods will
only need the application of two, and at most three coats
rubbing varnish before the operation of rubbing can
of
commence
The
safely.
other one thing necessary for rubbing, besides
powdered pumices
pad with which to rub it over
tone, is a
the wood.
This pad
bing
felt."
from any
simply a chunk cut out of a sheet
is
Usually
it is
of 'rub-
3x5 inches and may be cut out
size of thickness of the felt as will best suit the
fancy of the rubber. This or even 4x5 inches are the proper sizes for rubbing
For mouldings
to
conform
flat
to the curve of the
some of the pieces of felt
to glue these pieces of
wood.
flat
surfaces such as panels or stiles.
better to prepare
it is
The curves
if
some
pieces of
mouldings, and to
thin felting
is
wood
split
not at hand and
felting to the pieces of prepared
will then
be as easily rubbed as the
surfaces.
Rubbing can
bing
oil.
This
either
is
be done with water or with rub-
a petroleum product
95
resembling and
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
smelling like machine
linseed
oil,
which can
oil
and which
also
is
much cheaper than
be used, but as
is
it
more ex-
pensive and no better and on account of being more gum-
my
it is
even
less desirable
The most common
into
the rubbing
than the "rubbing oil."
practice
is to
dip the piece of
and then into the ground pumice
oil
stone, lifting a sufficient quantity of
surface about to be rubbed.
that article to the
Some again apply
to the surface, sprinkle the pumice stone
ceed to rub with the
felt
felt.
This
is all
oil directly
upon
right
it
when
and prothe sur-
face to be rubbed can be placed in a horizontal position,
but on perpendicular work such as upon
woodwork
and the
first
the interior
method becomes impossible
of a building, this
described process
is
the best and really the
only possible one.
One should never delay
the cleaning off of the
oil
and pumice as soon as possible after doing the rubbing,
so as to prevent the rubbing oil from soaking into the var-
nish and softening
One can
ciently
it.
readily tell whether a surface has been suffi-
rubbed, by wiping
the hand.
off
a stroke with
the palm of
The pitted appearance should have disappeared
and a perfectly level surface should show up.
Cleaning up
requires care
is
a very particular piece of
and attention more than
tiousness in doing the
work
is
skill.
work and
Conscien-
the one quality which
most desirable in the operator, as
it is
is
very easy to slight
the cleaning in some of the mouldings, corners or quids
THE MODEBJSr WOOD F1NISHEB.
of the carvings, in "out ot sight" places.
be polished after the rubbing as
is
Should the job
most usually the
case,
been cleaned
the particles of pumice stone that have not
surface to
the
are pretty sure to find their way to
off
scratch
and mar the
It is
off with.
job.
usual to take
damp soft wood saw
This dampening
The mouldings should be
pickers,
same
is
to
keep
carefully
it
dust to clean
from scratching.
gone over with the
as described under the heading
of 'fillers.''
sprinkled over
After the woodwork has been carefully
waste, or betwith the sawdust, clean off with soft cotton
wadding in
the
Split
still with soft cotton wadding.
ter
two and use the
soft side to
wipe with.
It is particularly
with a pointed
well adapted to getting into the mouldings
stick.
will
Its soft inside surface after splitting
remaining
oil
absorb
all
and specks of pumice and leave the wood
or a polish finish.
in condition for either a dead finish
97
CHAPTER
XII.
POLISHING.
In the previous operation of rubbing the work of
wood
finishing has practically been brought to a close in
so far as the system of finishing
woods
in varnish is con-
cerned as practiced in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred
as against the finish called
French polish which
will be
reviewed later on. This really ends the method of finishing after rubbing.
but
it is
It is true it
can be further developed,
practically complete in that, let
no remedy can be now applied,
or bad,
it
for
be either good
if
bad
it is
too
late.
The wood can be left to a dead polish and for the inwood work this is as far as it is necessary
terior finish of
to go.
is
This dead
much
level, mirror- like finish is
very fine and
preferable for most purposes than the
face polished, but as a polished
by many persons, and
surface
same
is insisted
dead leveled varnished surface has
ished" to bring
it
upon
and
architects specify accordingly,
for furniture articles it is indispensable as well
able, this
sur-
to
as desir-
be
'
'pol-
to a lustrous condition.
There are two processes of bringing
this
about
— the
quick and the slow.
The quick
is
as follows:
Take
a handful of
raw
cot-
ton that has been dipped in a mixture of half sweet
oil
and half alcohol— well refined cotton seed or peanut
oil
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
will
do
if
sweet
oil (the
genuine)
is
not readily procurable,
and rub the job with a rotary motion.
In a short time the lustre will appear and one that
skilled in
better
can produce very
it
is
fine results; yet there is a
way though more lengthy and
that is called
the
slow process.
This is the method: After the work has been brought
to a
dead level by rubbing put on an extra coat of flow-
ing finishing varnish; rub
pumice stone, clean up
this
carefully;
down again with FF.
then take a lump of
pumice stone and rub thoroughly, or with a chamois skin
rub ground rotten stone over the work with a circular
The
motion.
When
rotten stone should dry on
dry, with the
the surface.
palm of the hand wipe
off the
it
The
work, keeping the hand going in a rotary motion.
hand must be wiped every time
work and
for the
it
has passed over the
purpose one should have a piece of cloth
in the other hand.
An
old piece of silk cloth or handker-
chief answers very well for the purpose of rubbing the rotten stone, should
it
be handier than the chamois skin.
This completes
there
is
while in one sense this finish
is
as
all
French polishing,
very
difficult to
it is
ior
claim
It
is
finishing" and
what
is
known
so in so small a degree that
made
for
it is
it.
French polishing that
on account of wearing
tained.
wood
distinguish one from the other and even
experts can be deceived in
The
"in
inferior to
it is
super-
qualities, etc., is not well sus-
only under certain conditions that
L.ofC.
99
it is
the
THE MODERN WOOD FIXISHER.
case, but
under others the rubbed polished varnished sur-
face will
outwear the French polish so that
as
it
is
long.
When
it
is
ployed in varnish rubbed polishing
easy to see
latter.
it
why
as broad
taken into consideration that
the cost of finishing even in the costliest
than half what
it is
is
manner em-
considerably less
would be in French polishing,
it is
very
the former has practically displaced the
That the people
at large are satisfied with
the best answer to give to those
latter.
100
who
still
it
is
advocate the
CHAPTER
XIII.
FRENCH POLISHING.
This
First
finish
can be put on in two different ways.
by taking the wood from the cabinet makers
may be
in its
so termed and the operation
raw condition,
if
commenced
once or the operation can be delayed and
at
commenced only
cleaned
To
it
after the surface
has been
filled
and
off.
cut a long rigmarole short, the process of French
polishing can be stated in a few words to consist of: The
gradualfilling up of the surface of a piece ofiuood by an alcoholic solution of shellac until the same is brought to a high
polish by rubbing.
While the statement of what the process really
cupies but a
would seem
space to
little
to be
much
tell it
and
at a
first
all
oc-
glance
it
easier than the processes which
have been described in preceeding chapters,
when
is,
in
reality
combined are but "child's" play along side of
this simple looking affair.
As some
filled
finishers
do not believe
in the
wood being
previous to applying the French polish, and think
that the whole process should consist of the
stance as the finish
it
same sub-
will be well to notice the operation
from the raw wood.
Of course the same conditions exist here as have been
stated at length elsewhere. That is, the pores of the wood
101
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEB.
are just as open and have to be closed.
in color
If the
way
has to be stained in the same
it
wood
is off
as has been
recounted in the chapter on staining and stain, and that
previous to commencing the French polishing.
To commence
what appliances
with, let us consider
are necessary for the purpose of
its
application, as brushes
are perfectly useless for the purpose.
It
has been said that
was the
filling
liant polish
name
there
and bringing up
was
is
French polishing
in
of the surface to a bril-
by the application of
(Under
shellac.
the alcoholic solution of shellac
varnish
when
all
known
this
as shellac
understood, and that article will be understood
the word shellac
is
used in this chapter).
Shellac applied to unfilled
pores and disappear, and
if
wood
will
sink into the
applied with a brush will re-
main upon the surface of the
fibres as well as sink in the
pores so that a succession of ridges would be the result.
As
would mean the death of the
this
and the utter
finish
impossibility of a perfectly level surface other methods
must be resorted
to to obtain this result.
Before explaining the mechanical processes of
the
work
is
ciples that
in
done"
when
it
"how
will be well to consider a few prin-
well understood will greatly aid a novice
comprehending the "why and wherefore' of the opera'
tions described.
It
must be understood
that spirit varnishes
become
milky and opaque in damp atmospheres and in cold ones
also, so
it
will
be necessary to
102
artificially raise it
if
it
THE MODJEBN WOOD FINISHED.
should happen to be that the thermometer should registhan 65° to 70°. The latter is about the minimum
ter less
which
at
it
is
safe to
proceed.
As
the thinner the film
of varnish used the better are the results, it is
necessary
to apply
the
shellac in
very limited
quantities,
and the same
can only be done by rubbing
it
on and
in.
For this purpose
Fig. 16.
That there are
made
is
make a pad.
how these should be
not make so much dif-
different ideas as to
to be expected
ference in the end
if
and
To make
up
to
it
down
best suit
hand and
are well understood.
a rubbing pad suitable for
woolen cloth from
such a
will
the general principles of French
polishing that will be laid
strips of
it is
,
necessary to
1%
flat
surfaces tear
to 2 inches wide, roll
it
size as will
the
tie
work on
it
in the
center in the shape repre-
sented by Fig. 16 which
represents
the
bottom
Fig.
view of the pad, and by Fig.
view of
it.
A
17.
17, which represents a side
single thickness of soft linen or cotton cloth
103
THE MODERN WOOD FIXISHER.
from which the sizing has been washed
off or
been in use and washed several times until
should be put upon the face
which has
is soft,
it
of the rubber and the edges
simply drawn over the top and used as a handle when
grasped by the hand.
This form of pad as has been previously stated
useful for
flat
surfaces, but for
ble to reach into the curves of
them
only, as
Another form of pad which adapts
that are curved but
faces, is
which
it
it.
shapes
itself to
also largely used
very
on
flat
sur-
very easily and simply made by taking the very
finest of cotton batting,
ering
is
it is
mouldings with
is
impossi-
making
it
up
into a ball
and cov-
over with one thickness of either soft linen or soft
cotton rags, as will be noted further on. Grasp the cover-
ing in the hand and
it
will serve as a
pad ovei the w ork, but do not
T
Be careful
of
to
handle to propel the
tie it.
avoid the creasing of the rag covering
your pads, as this will greatly hurt their efficiency and
the freedom of their working, besides giving the coating
of shellac a
to take
Some workmen
smeary appearance.
wadding and with
a sharp knife carefully
the glazed sizing on each side of
soft interior for
making
it;
their pads.
prefer
remove
they then take the
The main
object
is to
get a perfectly soft cotton, and the highest grade of cotton batting
is
good enough
for
most purposes.
Small pad rubbers are usually held by the thumb and
the tips of the fingers but the larger ones require the palm
of the
hand
to be
used in propelling them over the work.
104
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
The
now
requisite
For doing
this
to charge
is
the pad with shellac.
open up the covering of the pad and drop
the shellac on the
wadding from a
bottle
through the cork
covering of which a goose quill has been placed.
will enable the operator to
have
full control of
which he applies upon the wad, which,
the
This
amount
here be well
let it
understood, should never be large. Only enough to dampen
the
wadding should be applied and
should never appear
it
through the rag covering except when
is
very essential as will appear
first
later
work
and
much
err in that they try to apply too
pressed. This
it is
all
novices at
shellac to their
at once.
If
it
be dark colored wood that
orange shellac
woods
good enough to
is
as holly or
is
use, but
maple or other very
ing treated, only the white shellac
being polished the
is
light
when such
wood
are be-
admissible, as other-
wise these light woods would be discolored and rendered
yellowish toned.
As the covering of a surface that has not been filled
now under consideration it will first be gone over with
slightly
dampened chamois skin
may have
upon
settled
it,
a
remove any dust that
to
and
is
after a
short time has
elapsed to allow any dampness present to evaporate, take
the pad filled with shellac in the
scribed previously
As
the
first
and proceed
operation necessary
way and manner
to apply
is to
it
to the
de-
wood.
spread the shellac
about equally over the surface, rub the pad back and forth
over
it
in
such
a
way
that each
105
subsequent stroke will
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHES.
some such way
partly cover the surface just gone over in
as
shown
rubbing across the grain. After hav-
in Fig. 18
ing gone over the surface, immediately proceed to rub
by a
it
motions over and over again until
series of circular
the shellac has evaporated and been entirely squeezed out
Occasionally apply a few drops of raw
of the pad.
seed
oil to
the face of the pad so that the rubbing can pro-
ceed without sticking.
The
linseed oil acts as a lubricant
only and but for this purpose would be uncalled
the
little
that
is
the polish will appear, so
seen
easily
____Z^>
tended must
___^^
C
Fig. 18.
as
w jn
to
remove
k e seen
"spiriting off," in
tion just described
which
is
rest
From
even
for a
the time
ly in motion.
pad be
is
called
placed upon
When
will
least
of
additional
from the job, as
during the process
the opera-
"bodying in."
against ever letting his
it
it,
let it
be kept constant-
becomes necessary to stop
way upward
off the
let
the
work.
If
allowed to rest for the least bit of time
and that
will be
second upon the surface being rubbed.
lifted in a sliding
the pad
stick
it is
it
contrast to
The novice must be guarded
pad
it
the
be used as this will
cause a great deal
work
known
only
that
quantity possible for the purpose in-
-^>
^
Even
for.
used must be entirely gotten rid of before
—
^
lin-
make
a break
should have a perfect level.
it
will
upon the surface which
It will
require probably
hours of hard work to remedy the neglect of a moment.
106
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
As
the rubbing pad dries up from having become ex-
hausted of the shellac
plied to
it
in the
it
contained,
way and manner
being very cautious to use
it
A partial polish or gloss
being applied and
lac is
more should be ap-
described previously,
sparingly.
show up while the
will
shel-
wet, but this soon dis-
it is still
appears in the drying as this substance sinks into the
pores.
After the piece of
work has been gone over and
rubbed with the circular motion
laid aside to
make
sufficiently
should be
it
thoroughly dry which will take a day
a surety certain.
to,
These applications of shellac and
rubbings must be continued as long as the job continues
to absorb material.
It is
impossible to
tell
number
the
of
applications necessary to bring the operation to a finish,
as this depends
on both the wood and the operator.
the center of a panel
is
likely to receive
more
As
attention
than the edges are, one should be cautioned not to overlook these and never to slight them, as
tract
Towards the
latter
polishing, the use of too
bound
to de-
end of the operation of French
much
bings can readily be seen and
as the shellac softens
oil
felt
during the former rub-
under the rubbing pad,
and does not take hold properly and
the surface will feel pitchy.
To make
a long story short,
keep applying and rubbing the shellac
it
it is
from the appearance of the job.
remains upon the surface of the
ther sinking in or disappearing.
107
till
a thin film of
wood without any
fur-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
The same
have been
mences.
able,
must be used
for surfaces that
before the application of the shellac com-
filled
It
and
process
shortens the duration of the process consider-
is
the rational
manner of executing
it
for peo-
ple as
busy and go-ahead as the denizens of the
World
are,
pay
for
to
but
it,
if,
as
was said
before, a person
he should have
the other
it
New
willing
is
way by
all
means.
After the thin film of shellac has appeared
upon the surface
of the job
process which
called
is
to stay
ready for the finishing
it is
SPIRITING OFF.
The
operation called spiriting off
that of bodying in as the
bing
is
method
of
is
very similar to
application and rub-
the same in the one as in the other with this dif-
ference that instead of shellac being used, alcohol
to the shellac at first in a limited
way and
quantity each time until the final rubbing
ly
is
added
increasing the
is
done
entire-
with alcohol.
Spiriting off
is
resorted to to
remove
all oil that
may
be present upon the job, as no polish can take place as
long as a vestige of
it
remains.
Rubber marks and other
smears are also reduced to a perfect level by this operation.
At
first
the proportion of alcohol added to the shellac
used in rubbing should not exceed one-fourth of the bulk
of the latter. In the
next
it
may
108
be one-half
—in the next
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
three-fourths,
and so
on, reducing the quantity of shellac
used gradually until pure alcohol
When
the stage of the
is
used.
work has been brought
to
where pure alcohol rubbings are applied a clean rubber
One should be very
only should be used.
much
careful, as too
wetting of the surface with alcohol would so rten
wash the body put there by
the shellac and
process of bodying in, and
workman must
the
former
through the operation the
all
exercise great care not to let his rubber
remain upon any portion of the work.
While bodying
the
in
covering of the pad should
consist of but one thickness of the linen or cotton rag used
for that purpose; in spiriting off
,
three or four thicknesses
should be used, and the same care must be taken to re-
move
all
creases and folds as in the former.
As
fast as
the outer covering of the pad becomes dry, that
When
should be removed.
that also until
move
it,
the
last,
charge the
The motion
the next one dries, remove
and when
this
one has dried
wad over and commence
pad
of the
one
is
re-
again.
similar in spiriting off to
that in bodying, except that at the latter end of the pro-
be done with the grain of the
cess the rubbing should
wood, and the
While
it
last
one must be so done.
may seem
easy enough to do spiriting
from reading of the process, there
is
no operation
off,
in
French polishing that requires so much careful attention
and experience as
in
this does,
making a success of
it
and novices seldom succeed
at the first attempt; neither
109
do
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Time and
they at the second.
man
practice alone will enable a
to thoroughly understand
properly, and while
at first
is
not the purpose of this writing
with small articles of
experience has been gained
all,
it is
should be
it, it
little
or no value for
Until
be ruined.
practice, as articles of value are sure to
large surfaces at
apply and rub
to
anyone from undertaking
to discourage
done
it
how
better not
undertake
to
as only those of long experience can
ever treat them successfully.
As
it
has been said
French polishing
is
beginning of this chapter,
too slow for Americans, and as fine or
nearly as fine a polish
faster
at the
is
produced by the much safer and
may
be said to have nearly disappeared
though, in some parts of the country
but in a very limited way.
ferred
to
it is still
varnish-rubbed polish work, and
used
fre-
feel
very
he has been discouraged by reading the warnings
given immediately above.
polishers,
and
ishers
and do
never
know
A
is
trans-
to denote the
So no person need
latter process of finishing.
if
men
al-
adhered to
The name even is being
quently by architects and well-posted
sorry
French
methods of varnish rubbed and polished.
polishing
still
all
Some may not become French
become very good varnish-rubbed
the
work
that will present itself and
a thing about the so-called
volume
of details
fin-
might be added
French polish.
to the above,
but
such minutiaof details would only confuse one more than
they would serve to enlighten him.
all
The above
contains
the essentials necessary for French polishing and will
110
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
suffice to
enable one to "try it"
if
Even as
so inclined.
short as are the details given, the space occupied by
Fig.
is
19—The Motions
greater than should
sidered
how
little
in
French Polishing.
have been given, when
of the
work
Ill
is
them
it
likelv to be done.
is
con-
CHAPTER
WAX
XIV.
POLISHING.
In the introductory chapter
to the introduction of
it
was seen that previous
"French polishing," and
"varnish-rubbed polishing,"
to for finishing furniture
wax
polishing
time of usefulness for such purposes
but for
wax
all
that
it
has a place to
polish has outlived
is still
first
fill
is
is
a certainty,
even to-day, and this
the other systems in use for
all
has
much
when through some cause
to
recommend
it
or other
costs very
little.
too easily marred
by
friction or
On
It
is
it
in
it
becomes
hand
the other
it
has been
For furniture
knocks and
so brilliant as the former, nor has
feel
it.
finish
its
unsuited for the purposes for which
placed by a varnished-rubbed polish.
dry
over
its
place easy to apply and to keep in good condition
marred. Secondly,
it is
That
practiced extensively.
Wax polishing
the
resorted
and the ancient oak woodwork
wherever such was used, in dwellings.
finish
later of
was
is
disit
is
not nearly
that hardness and
and freedom from stickiness; neither
will surfaces
wax-polished stand any dampness or wetting, as this
is
sure to destroy the polish.
Oak seems to be
when wax-polished.
seems
to
the kind of
wood
that
shows up
best
The subdued polish it produces
it. Where a semi-gloss fin-
be just the thing for
ish is wanted,
it
would seem
to be the "polish" indicated
112
THE MODEBX WOOD
and
for that purpose;
Any
cated.
mishaps
FINISIIEB.
it is,
but for the drawbacks indi-
are,
however, so easily remedied
and repaired that one may often wonder why there
more of
is
being done than there
it
In rooms where there
is.
constant knocking about of the woodwork, or where a
high polish
wanted,
is
not used, but in
it
is
may be used
For
to
floors
free
wax
necessarily
wear
trance of a
polishing
it is
finish is wanted,
used more extensively
when
no matter how good it may
room or
off
unevenly upon a
made
only makes
a question of time as to
Every
so,
The
in time.
finisher
it is
the en-
and between them
quality of the varnish
how
knows what
soon this will
means
it
over such worn out places for either touching so
a coat
room or
for
that will not permit the
through
it.
It
best.
rest of the
readily,
It is here,
mars
easily,
it is
wax
tell
go
will
it
parts to
polishing
admitted, but
and no one can ever
to
giving the whole room
worn out
then that
con-
must
be,
floor, as at
exit near doors
its
a path will be
match the
is
good advantage.
sidered that varnish,
it
it
from dampness and
than for any other purpose, and justly
take place.
why
easily understood
situations
all
knocking about where an egg-shell gloss
it
no
is
it
show
is at
its
repairs just as
where the repairing has
been done.
The most
is
that
So
A
it
it
serious objection to the use of
requires constant care to keep
it
in
does; but the time required to repolish
wax
polish
good
order.
it is
so
little!
person with a weighted brush can go over an ordinary
113
THE MODERN WOOD FIKISHEB.
room, especially
in a few minutes
sweep
has been waxed several times before,
if it
— very
little
longer than
it
would take
to
it.
The
wax
process of
beeswax, cut
it
up
make
pentine to
polishing
in bits
Take
very simple.
is
and digest
it
tur-
in sufficient
either a thick or thin paste of
best suit the ideas of the operator. It will
it,
as will
make no
differ-
disappearing entirely
ence in the end, the vehicle
by
evaporation, and being only used to enable one to spread
it
more evenly.
some
It takes
tine to dissolve the
time for the turpen-
little
beeswax, but the process of solution
One should be
can be hastened by the aid of heat.
ful
get
care-
not to subject the turpentine to open flames, nor to
it
so hot that
it
nor to heat
will boil over,
in a close
it
room where the inflammable fumes might catch
fire,
nor to
cover the vessel so closely that the vapors cannot escape.
Ordinary caution must be used to guard against an
acci-
dent, and these warnings need hardly have been given
here, as probably ninety
will read these lines
persons out of a hundred
know how
handle that
to
This can be applied any way so
This
is
the one thing that
true that
it
will
floor.
is
same as varnish,
require so
work
as this will leave
that has never been
filler in
polish will appear
it
after
114
it
it
article.
gotten upon
the
with a brush the
even and
it
level.
polished
leveling up,
upon
it
to polish
wax
is
absolutely essential. It
be better to apply
much brushing
coat acts as a
is
it
who
it
If
will
not
be
new
it
before, the
first
and only a very slight
is
brushed to a polish,
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER.
so
better to
it is
go over the surface again with another
coat before there
is
any attempt made
Before the second coat
is
applied the
at the polishing.
first
should be dry.
This will take place very rapidly as the vehicle
volatile
and
be open,
fumes
if
work
the
to escape
and
In the winter this
little
is
is
done in the summer,
assist in
frequently impossible, and
it
takes a
After the evaporation has been completed the
brushing can commence.
do,
if
Any
made up somewhat
A
stockier.
floors.
brush
short-bristle, stiff
horse brush
like a
good horse brush answers
small work, of course, and
than
to allow the
quickening the evaporation.
longer waiting for the complete evaporation to take
place.
will
very
is
The windows should
will speedily evaporate.
but
fairly well
for
for polishing surfaces others
For these a weighted brush
is
made which
greatly accelerates the process, besides relieving the musFig. 15
cles of the operator.
brush.
It
illustrates
the
back and forth until the surface
is sufficiently
which
Where
will
be in a few minutes.
become worn or marred from any cause,
remedy
it
weighted
has along handle, and the operator pushes
and no one
it
will not
show any patching, which
to a polish
with any other
it is
very easy to
of
wax and
the wiser for
is
is
it
as
it
next to impossible
finish.
Subsequent rubbings have
floors in order,
polished,
the surface has
by the application of another coat
rubbing
it
and
in
to be
given to keep waxed
Europe many of the waxed
floors
are taken care of by contract for a stated sum, which in115
THE 310DEBX WOOD FINISHEB.
eludes a rubbing each
week
or every two to four
weeks
f
according to whether the rooms are used frequently or
tle.
Some shops
but care for waxed
there have
men who do
nected with any shop, but
kind
of the servants will
as
requires
it
who make
work. Again, in some houses,
some
possessed by
nothing else
and again some go about secur-
floors,
ing the contracts to take care of floors
of
lit-
do
this,
who
are not con-
a specialty of this
it is
but this
is
expected that
very seldom,
more muscle and strength than
women, and where
is
usually
a few possess the strength
they lack the willingness, so that the discouragement
from waxing
floors,
on account of
of the hands of the painters,
is
116
its
throwing work out
not a good reason to give.
CHAPTER
XV.
OIL POLISHING.
Linseed
oil
polish
any of which there
simplest,
and
to
any knowledge.
same time one
at the
Any one
produce.
is
probably the most ancient of
is
can produce
undertake a second job of
certain situations
it is
it,
it,
if
of the
is
one of the
most
difficult to
It
but few will ever care
they can avoid
it.
For
the only finish having a polish that
can be relied on. For instance for table tops and bar coun-
The
ter tops.
great difficulty, or rather the impossibility,
of producing a finish
by either varnish-rubbed polish or
French polish that can be depended upon
dishes and hot liquids
makes
oil
to stand
hot
polishing a necessity.
Neither varnish-polished nor French polished finishes can
stand very
will
much
liquids are cold.
in
of
it,
and continual wetting and slops
time ruin any of those finishes, even
in
Oil polish will stand all this
when
the
and remain
good condition.
The
Apply
too
process of
either
much
oil
is
a very simple one.
linseed oil
upon the wood, not
polishing
raw or boiled
but about what the wood can absorb and be
by the rubber without leaving any surplus on
with a
it, and then rub— rub— rub, (it takes no end to it)
rubber made of a heavy block to which has been nailed
worked
in
a piece of
Stone,
felt,
or a piece of
Anything,
felt
in short,
117
wrapped around a square
that
has weight,
for the
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
weight relieves the operator's muscle from the too-fatiguing exertions that would otherwise be necessary
pel the rubber with sufficient force.
work alone
piece of
then take
cribed
which
ing
so
is
till
few days
after the first rubbing,
a sufficient and satisfactory gloss
two or three months.
never ended
— in so far that
it
is
obtained,
In fact the finish-
can never be rubbed
make it look
much of it. The
but that another rubbing will not
and
process
for a
the
up again and continue the operation des-
will be in
much
better
it
to pro-
It is well to let
is
it
can never be hurt by too
too slow and expensive for America
and
will
never become popular, although for the purposes indicated
it
should be used more than
it
is
and where people
are willing to pay for the best, they should have
118
it.
CHAPTER
XVI.
SOFTWOOD FINISHING — WHITE
wood
Soft
PINK.
finishing does not differ very materially
from hardwood finishing and the same general principles
which apply
to this
govern that
others, as
for these as
no penetration must take
must be taken
Stopping the suc-
also.
tion of the pores is as essential
place.
it is
for the
The same
care
and preventing the flying
in cleaning
about of dust and the same sort of treatment given as
any kind
wood be
still
that a cheaper finish
White pine
is
is
is
mainly in the
is
fact
about the only wood that comes in un-
w oods.
This
is
rather arbi-
has been seen, but the custom holds
among lum-
bermen and dealers and
iarities that
it
for
hard-
usually employed over pine.
der the designation of soft
yet
If the
a close-grained one the similarity of treatment
greater; so that the difference
trary, as
woods.
of finish that is applied to
belong to
is soft
r
in a certain sense pine
it
It is a close-grained
alone.
and absorbing.
has pecul-
It
wood,
can be colored to repre-
sent any of the higher priced hardwoods, but on account
of
its
lack of boldness of grain,
its
appearance when so
treated proclaims an imitation on the face of
ever, as this
it
in
wood has
little
any of the pleasing
at the imitation of
grain to
colors,
show the
119
How-
which make no attempt
any particular wood, are
very useful and beneficial.
it.
staining of
in order
and
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHES.
Either water stains or
stains,
oil stains
however, will be more
they seem to sink away out of sight as
if
one has the mishap
to
Water
can be used.
difficult of application, for
fast as
put on, and
touch over any part of the wood
that was already touched by the previous brushful
show
surely
it
a lap.
on heavier
in
Besides,
one part than another
brushed out, as that will make
stains made of
it
one should happen
if
it
cannot be
it
worse than before.
any transparent colors
will
to lay
in oil, finely
Oil
ground,
and thinned with turpentine, can be brushed out the same
as paint
and a much more uniform surface can be obtained
their use. Besides they are so
from
If the staining
be done before the
be very careful to rub
of
it
should be gone
woolen
stains
it
cloth.
easier to apply.
to
make
Oil stains
it
make
a film
sure of this the
over after the staining
be removed from
one should
filling,
out so thin as not to
upon the wood, and
stain should
much
and
all
by wiping
it
wood
surplus
with a
do not dry as rapidly as water
and usually require twenty-four hours of drying be-
fore the filling is applied over
it.
The filling is usually done with a liquid filler. There
are many of these manufactured ready-made, for which
much is claimed. The most usual is that it is as good as
shellac varnish and of course that it costs much less.
Some of these do stop the suction very effectually, but
others again not so well.
Not
that
the suction
is
not
stopped by any of them so that one coat of varnish will
bear out upon
it,
but that in time the decay of the glue or
120
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
the chipping of the rosin in their composition affects the
The above
coats of varnish disastrously.
not written to
is
discourage anyone from using a good liquid
they
know
people in
is all
whom
right by their
own
which
filler
experience or that of
they can place confidence, but for the
purpose of putting them on their guard in the buying of
liquid fillers.
For
over pine there
filling
ishers but that shellac varnish
The
can be used.
exclusive use of
it.
is
is
no question among
as
fin-
good as anything that
cost is the only item that prevents the
The
grain alcohol shellac, being very
high and the wood alcohol shellac
the ready prepared liquid
fillers,
higher than
itself also
besides being very dis-
disagreeable to some people on account of
its
pungent
smell.
The orange
shellac stains pine to a beautiful tone of
yellow, and frequently inside blinds
in that finish.
ever, to
make
a
made
somewhat of an
expert,
good job of
this so as not to
show
doubling over. The proper way to do this
shellac rather thinner than
ary shellacking over a
flat
Having
he
it
in
it is
surface.
work
free.
and
it
left
how-
laps or
thin your
for ordin-
Mr. R. A. A. Bahre
As
Decorating.
it
is
a
reproduced here:
view the
will dilute his lac
tle
is to
you would want
gives his method in Painting
very good one
of pine are
It requires
fact that the
wood
somewhat with the
Then with
is
very
spirits, to
soft,
make
a double-thick flat-chiseled bris-
brush about two inches wide he will apply a very free
121
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
coat
the closed slats on
to
bar side, including the
the
small ogee edge of the frame, taking care to daub none
on the
side
flat
Then quickly turning
surface.
and opening the
slats
he
and again closing the
sides,
upon the plain (non-bar)
of the frame.
He
will finish
slats,
proceed to coat them
will then return to the bar side, open,
up and down
the bar complete that portion of the work.
down
off the
including the other edge
side,
lay off and finish; then running the brush
laid
the other
to
and lay
It
may
be
as a rule that one section should be completed
before another
is started.
When one
portion
is
coated pro-
ceed with the frame by coating the outside edges and then
the center
rail,
one end of the
point
is
Then begin
cutting the joint clean.
stile
and follow around
at
until the starting
reached being careful to always complete as you
go on.
"It
is
sometimes required
to
finish shutters in a
hanging condition, but on account of the speed required
in
applying the shellac, there
ing the walls or windows.
with loose joint butts,
move them and
We
it
to finish
have thus
is
If,
will
in a separate
far referred to the
ciency at this point,
all
of spatter-
hung
be found economical to
them
shutters with orange shellac.
to
much danger
therefore, they are
If
re-
room."
shellacking of pine
one has acquired
the remainder will
profi-
come very easy
him, especially when using white (transparent) shellac,
which does not show the laps
after varnishing.
whole secret of shellacking may be condensed
122
in
The
adher-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
ence to the following simple rules:
edge to work
First
—keep
wet
a
second— always work to a joint before
stopping; and third— never repeat with the brush after
becoming partly set, thereby causing it to "double up."
A
to;
common way
very
desired to leave
coat of liquid
ish.
It is
many
it
is
filler
state, is
where
to give
and one coat of varnish or hard
the cheapest
way
to finish, yet to
about as good a way as any and
very pretty, with
the
it
it
it is
one
oil fin-
mind
is
of
really
modest, non- assuming tone of satin-
its
wood, and certainly
surface
to finish white pine
in its natural
it
it is
much more
would be when made
to
tasty
than the same
masquerade as black wal-
nut or mahogany.
Two
coats of varnish are sometimes used, but
unnecessary,
if
stopped by the
it
is
the suction of the pores has been properly
In the cheapest kind of work the
filler.
suction can be readily stopped by the application of a glue
size
chip
and a coat of No.
off,
work.
and surely
As
this
1
varnish. It will in time probably
will, if
moisture has access to the
wood has no prominent grain
that a high
finish could possibly bring out, the high grade finishes
are not really necessary, and the cheaper grades are more
in
keeping with
its
character.
123
CHAPTER
XVII.
THE VARIOUS WOODS USED IN WOOD FINISHING AND
THEIR TREATMENT.
Ash.— White, blue and black are all natives here and
are also common to Europe.
This wood is also to be
found in many other parts of the world. All varieties of
it
are useful to the arts and manufacturers.
sively used
in the
interior finishing.
of a paste filler
any of the
form, but
ing by
exten-
It is
manufacture of furniture and also in
It is
very porous and requires the use
and shellacking over that to prepare
finishes.
Its grain is straight
and rather uni-
handsome and elegant and well worth develop-
the finest of polishing.
cates its use
panels, as
it
where rare and
Its
serves the purpose of
very plainness indi-
woods are used
for
making a frame
for
costly
those and does not detract from their appearance by
ing a parade of
its
Ash
own.
mixing with oak, which
plain sawed oak.
tell
for
it
When
is
frequently used
mak-
now
in
it
closely resembles, especially
so
mixed
it
is
one from the other, and even those
experts are tooled sometimes, especially
often difficult to
who ought
when
to be
filled
and
colored to represent "old oak."
Birch.
ful
woods
— Black birch
in the
whole
is
list
certainly one of the
facturer or the house constructor.
to its
most use-
to either the furniture
It
has almost jumped
high recognition as an ornamental wood
124
manu-
in less
than
THE MODE EN WOOD FINISHES.
two decades, as men old enough
years back
very fine polish, as
pearance of
its
it
is
fine-
remember twenty
to
Black birch takes on a
will well recollect.
grained.
own, and takes
has a fine ap-
It
kinds of stains well.
all
Its natural color is
nearly that of wild cherry,
rather light, so
usually stained.
it is
makes
It
being
a pretty
mahogany. By manmahogany can be very
imitation of either black walnut or
ipulation of the stains, feathered
closely imitated with
it,
and manufacturers of furniture
prize it highly for that purpose. It enters largely in house
more commonly used
construction also and would be
still
but for the fact that
has jumped so very high
that
it
its
cost
much
cannot be employed as
as
it
deserves to be.
All sorts of fine finishes are applicable to this wood.
ing with a paste
to shellacking,
filler is
Fill-
not absolutely necessary previous
and two coats of
shellac, sandpapered, will
usually bring the surface in the right shape for polishing
processes of any kind. Yet while paste
solute necessity,
ially if
filler
the
it
is
filler is
thought by many
wood has been
not an ab-
finishers, espec-
stained, that a properly colored
helps to bring out details that are desirable for some
kinds of work.
The above can be said of most
all
the close-
grained hardwoods and need not be repeated hereafter.
Basswood or Linden.
any that grows
employed
all
in
in
— This wood
American
forests,
house construction, and
in furniture making, unless
backings,
etc.,
it
it is
may
requiring no finishing.
125
about as poor as
is
and
is
very seldom
believed, not at
be for inferior
It is
very porous
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
and absorbing and would be a
and the same caution
pine,
of water stains with
quires a paste
It
filler.
is
has
as
required concerning the use
It finishes
it.
same
stain absorber the
only fairly well.
It re-
or no characteristics
little
worth noticing.
Beech.
—This wood
much more than
used
is
coming forward and
formerly.
Why it should
being
is
have been
neglected has always been a mystery to the writer, for
it
has a beautiful appearance when "quarter sawed" that
belongs to
it
ative
work
work
finish.
alone,
and therefore
in both furniture
Red beech
itation of cherry
is
Beech
quires the
pare
it
is
has a place for decor-
especially fine,
can be made out of
imitations of walnut or
fair
stained.
it
making and
wood-
interior
and a good im-
All varieties make
it.
mahogany when properly
one of the close-grained woods and
same treatment as noted under "Birch"
for polishing operations.
It
re-
to pre-
takes on a good polish,
but not so fine as birch.
Butternut
is
—or white walnut, as
very inferior to
much even
This
ful
is
and
that are
to
imitations of
its
probably due to the fact that
not so easily
more
not used very
it is
not very plenti-
worked up as other kinds
plentiful
and
less refractory to
filler
the
a
finishing,
good
work.
it
which may be of any kind, as
polish.
126
of
and
and better two, coats of shellac on top of
one,
for
is
"colored" relative.
very coarse-grained and requires lots of
on
frequently called,
black brother, and
its
make
it is
wood
It is
at least
to
it
fit it
takes
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Cherry.
wood, as
it
— Our wild cherry
grows nowhere
one of our best woods
many
for
high polish, being very
of a very
state.
purposes, in
mahogany.
color or stained to resemble
A
eminently an American
is
else in a natural
its
It is
natural
It is susceptible
and close-grained.
fine
very fine polish will appear upon the bare wood by ap-
plying friction alone.
It
ing,
having as
rectitude as
tendency to deviate from the path of
little
From
carve.
among
in esteem
likelihood of warp-
its little
As one expresses
any of our woods.
like cherry because it stays
work and
much
very
is
cabinet makers on account of
sary and shellacking
it
its
where
put."
it is
It is
it,
"I
easy to
close grain filling is not neces-
will prepare
it
for
any of the
finest
polishes.
Chestnut.
easy to split
that
it is
sons
it
—This
very
is
difficult to
it is
characteristics all
so very spongy, so very
fill
properly, and lor these rea-
sometimes used in house finishing.
the
run somewhat
more rambling
of the latter
itself.
is
seldom employed in furniture making, but in
some sections
fibres
wood
and withal so very very open-grained
off,
ishing as
it is
Cypress.
wood which
way without
the strict regularity
on
it
were half ashamed of
filler
well rubbed in, with
though
as
dose of paste
of shellac
Its
an exaggerated and
wood and
two coats
are coarseness.
like ash, only in
sort of
A good
way through
Its
top of that, will
fit it
for
such pol-
capable of taking.
—There are
are
known
two or three
varieties of this
as light, dark and
127
bald,
which
THE MODERN WOOD FIXISHER.
As
are all useful in house construction for interior finish.
white pine
is
year, cypress
In
many
disappearing and becoming scarcer each
made
is
far as possible.
to take its place as
sections of country
it is
now being
used almost
woodwork but
for
weather-boarding and cornice work finishing lumber.
It
exclusively
is
not only
for
interior
not affected injuriously by moisture, like
woods, and
tle pitch.
is
It
almost indestructible.
denciesand when
smooth
it is
medium
has a
it is
other
contains very
lit-
grain with rather convex ten-
supposed
apt to quirl
It
many
to
have been sandpapered
up again and
again, so that
not one of the ideal woods to finish by long odds.
is
— Not in
and growth are
Its grain
the estimation of the finisher.
it
usually very straight in the trunk of the tree and they
have
little
diversity, but while plain
where the finishing
pleasing,
and
is
simple with no attempt at a high
varnish-rubbed to a dead
where
where the
last or a semi-gloss is
ish, it is all right
is
is
polish, or
it
it
produced by a
finish, or
wax
pol-
and quickly done, especially with the
latter.
But while the trunk
is
plain in
growth the butt cut
and the knees furnish a "variegated" grained cypress
that has
enough
diversity to suit the
writer remembers well
least all the doors)
house.
The
was
entirely
finished (at
with cypress that had been selected
for years at
He had
fastidious.
the interior of a fine mansion in
the city of Norfolk, Va., which
and saved
most
the saw mill of the owner of the
selected all the finest specimens only,
128
and
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHES.
the panels were equal to burl walnut for unlooked-for variation of the grain, only that
of the fibres with
The
form.
little
finishers
there
more straightness
is
disposition to take to the rounded
who had
the job in charge were in
despair at the fractiousness of the grain to appear after
repeated varnishings and desperate rubbings, but gener-
managed
ally
to bring the doors to a mirror polish after
about two days of hard work having been spent upon
So much
each.
for this useful
wood. Do not try too much
nor expect a high polish without having to work
Be content with a
dull finish,
for
it.
ideal
wood
furniture
mak-
and you have an
in cypress.
Hemlock
— Is seldom used
in either
When
ing or by house constructors.
it is, it is
panel work in connection with pine, as
brittle for
and
pine,
any other purpose.
to all intents
require about
will
the
It is
is
usually for
entirely
too
very similar to white
and purposes
wood-finishing
of
same treatment
as has been ex-
XVI. where
plained at length in Chapter
specially treated of
it
soft
woods are
and the best methods of finishing
de-
scribed.
Elm.
—There was a time that seems very short to-day
when elm had
mills,
little
or no recognized value at the saw-
but that time has passed
now and
the furniture
manufacturers at least use large quantities of
make-up of cheap
even
elm
much sought
ot
furniture.
Some
afterand are high priced.
Northern Michigan,
of
varieties
in the
elm are
The "rock"
for instance, brings
12!)
it
very good
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
money
to
enough
ing some one to cut them
honey and setting
It is
who have had
the timber owners
down
them
fire to
forethought
now, instead of thank-
to preserve the trees until
pounds of wild
for a few
to get
them out of the way.
very coarse-grained and requires attentive
leveling
up with two coats
of shellac
filling
on top of
and
that.
It
a fair polish. It is frequently finished in its natural color,
takes and the
same colorings
that are used
upon oak
See directions given
applicable to this also.
for
ar<
oak be
low.
Gum.
The
— Sweet
gum,
as
known
is
it
and the white have
blue, the black
the stock of woods used in both furniture
terior
woodwork.
They have
purpose.
them are
All of
fine or
a
and
takes a fine polish
many
parts.
been added
making and
to
in-
desirable for either
medium
their grain
in
all
is
fine grain
that
pleasing by their
succession of waves like of lights and shadows, more than
by an assertive prominence, as
ble
and consequently quiet
well the place
it
finishing, library
it
will not
and
filler is
hurt
oak or ash.
in its
effects,
all
it.
but looks best as
situations
On
Oak.
— This
hum-
and deserves
where no flourishes
account of
is
its
closeness of
not an absolute necessity, although
It is suited to
itself
many kinds
of stains
with a slight stain to accentuate
the "lights" and develop the "darks" in
for
It is
has taken for best bedroom woodwork
are likely to be wanted.
grain a paste
in
it.
our most useful wood, and
it is
useful
more purposes than any other without any exceptions
130
THE MODERN WOOD
whatever.
magic
it
It
FIX1S1TER.
would be a sorry day
for all of us if
should at the bidding of some genii
disappear as Alladin's great palace did, or
done. Little can be said about
its
at
all
by
once
said to have
is
use in furniture manu-
facturing or in house construction that will carry any in-
formation concerning the use of this wood in either case
as
everybody
indeed,
seem
aware of
its
extensive employment. This,
to possess as a peculiarity,
bination of
family, of
them
all,
at least in
which we are said
varieties in
istics
is
justly so, for whatever of good
is
to
oak seems
which belong
have over
and
to
all,
all
with
many
have some use
white, red and black oak are the best
forty different
variations
moderately
what might be termed
The
known sorts and are
For
coarse, yet all
high polish and look well in
it.
There
it; it
looks at least
servility
a virile-looking wood.
When
is
"King"
changed— in
— and beautiful specimens are developed
oak or ash
It
is
completely
method of sawing, and when used
manner.
diver-
no
character
its
enough
is
about
is essentially
that most
oaks take a very
even plain oak to suggest that there
quarter-sawed,
all
and some even
fine grained
sity in
plain
more or
which they are
for
purposes indicated above.
varieties are only
that
have a com-
than any other member of the family.
better fitted
all
to
some member of the oak
North America. There are general character-
less accentuated
used for
other woods
stiles it
is
well deserves the
of woods.
Page
brought out
name
after
131
for
it
by
panels with
in a
beautiful
bears of being the
page of eulogy might be
THE MODERN WOOD
FIXISITEB.
written in paying His Royal Highness deserved homage,
but space forbids.
Oak, from
its
medium
must always be treated
must be given
it
condition of openness of grain,
to a coat of paste
before shellacking.
capable of being finished in
it is
frequently finished in
It is
its
ceptible of being stained in a
all
manners of polishing.
natural color, but
number
of ways.
most beautiful ways of finishing oak
and as that
a chance,
it is,
method
of ageing
VI.,
known
as the
tiquarian
lars
Time
it
oak had he been given
to
nat-
process,
and need not be
should be used. Stains can also
it
to obtain
an imitation of
stains in
it,
but the lights
anything but a timid, an-
way and do not age worth a cent by
will show as bright as newly-coined
that
They
every time.
A
to antiquate oak.
Wherever the process can be
its details.
come through the
cess.
of the
the " antique,"
oak has been described in Chapter
ammonia
conveniently employed
will
One
sus-
one of the sensible uses
when used
ural
be applied to
for the
for that reason,
stains are put
given again in
is
it is
but an imitation of what Father
is
would naturally have done
which
which
filler,
As may be surmised,
If the object is to
pro-
silver dol-
enhance and bring
out a greater contrast between lights and shadows, the
wood should be
stained
by
all
means, and that seems
be the desiratum looked for by forty-nine out of
ishers.
Such glaring
finishing, however,
vulgar in the mind of aesthetic people of
too assertive,
it
brings out the
132
"me
is
more or
taste.
to
fifty fin-
It
less
seems
too" of this beautiful
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
wood
full
much.
too
This wood, as has been said before,
of vigorous virility in
made
to be
to
parade with a "chip on
" bully," which
It
is
foreign to
shoulders" as a
its
nature.
its
preferable to stain oak
is
in
any
mahogany or walnut.
prostituted when it is made
A
imitate
differs
from as
atomy of
its
far as the
Bast
structure.
to parade as
absurd
Some
woods be used with
let
it
will say that
of them.
Oak"
tween
black
this
— in
to
of
make
at least partially
they are obliged to do so
judgment, because
Dame
Fashion
Finishers should argue with archi-
after all efforts to
Mahogany.
little
own, whereby the proper use
and only lend their help
tects
it
as, lor instance,
darken certain portions of their surfaces
in spite of their better
demands
something
birds-eye maple.
them resemble the wood imitated can be
reproduced.
wood
from the West in the an-
It is as
made,
If imitations are to be
characteristics of their
is
naturally pretty
mahogany with
trying to imitate plain
stains to
further by
look pretty without any pretense of trying to
that will
is
still
them and thus have something
of
off
the colors of
of
the rainbow and then bring the lights out
wiping the stain
is
natural state and ought not
its
—There
to the
prevent
is
wood and oak
looks, structure
it
debasement of "King
have
probably as
as there
is
failed.
much
contrast be-
between white and
and general
characteristics.
They have nothing in common, except one thing, and
that
is
what
it
that neither
naturally
is.
is
capable of passing for anything but
Mahogany
133
is
rather a feminine look-
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHEH.
ing wood, or rather
qualities
its
rather pertain to that gender.
— some of them at least
ing and does not seem to be ashamed of
seem
coolly and does not
it
that
it
knows
it,
and
in
is
it
either;
to be conscious of
this
takes
it
it
for all
somewhat from
differs
it
some members of the feminine
and smooth,
and good look-
It is tasty
sisterhood. It
looks cosy
improved by color and by age (another
point of difference from those ot the feminine persuasion)
and
it
can't talk back. It
coarse-grained, not regularly
is
nor too coarse, however, and requires
and bring out
it
its
filling to
The
fullness of detail.
accentuate
should
filling
be colored with Italian burnt sienna, and after the
filling
should receive two coats of shellac.
it
There isconsiderable difference in the several
of
mahogany. Some
of
it is
varieties
naturally of a beautiful cherry
red tone and others again are nearly white and rather insipid if not artificially colored.
Some
texture and again some has very
wood shows
short this
of
little
it is
develop
its
beauty.
the form of this
when
show
a great deal of variation and
— in
it
is
it
as
Of course feathered mahogany
is
the prerogative of the finisher to so stain
to
rather soft in
grain to
wood which
possible this feathering
is
it
and color
the most esteemed, and
must be
imitated. This can
only be done by the application of the stains with a camel's
a
hair brush and going over the
manner
ing" on the natural wood.
feathered
work with
as to imitate the feather. It
mahogany
are
Some
made
134
is
it
in
such
in reality "grain-
beautiful imitations of
thus.
The
art is not
very
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
a person needs to
difficult to acquire, all
mate knowledge
and suitable
cle,
of
have
an
inti-
the habits of growth of the real
arti-
tools
and materials.
is
Staining to imitate
nature should be the purpose in view always.
feathered
mahogany
never be used for
for the
very fine for panels,
is
A plain
stiles.
same reason given before
mahogany
— that
While
should
it
preferable
is
their very plain-
ness serves to enhance the delicate tracings upon the panels
it
and serves as a picture frame does
and
to
show
it
All kinds of
up.
tible of a fine polish
to a picture, to hold
mahogany
are suscep-
and are so elegant, so beautiful and
gentlemanly-like, that one feels somewhat elevated after
gazing at
it;
especially
article of furniture
if
the
it
made out
be a receipted
bill
for
an
Mahog-
of the solid wood.
any grows to a richer tone by age and the process of na-
ammonia
ture can be hastened by the
It is in fact applicable to all
for oak.
are beautified
process described
kinds of woods that
by age.
—
We have many varieties of maple differing
much from each other. Soft maple, for instance, is
much different from birds'eye that one would not recMaple.
very
so
ognize
it
as belonging to the
little to call
one's attention to
does not show up
much
either furniture or
some day
it is
same
for a
family. Soft
house finishing.
cheap
finish,
but
made
up,
seldom used
foi
It is coarsely
it.
of a grain and
it
is
maple has
Its time
may come
way off,
will be a long
hoped, as only a scarcity of the finer woods can ever
bring
it
into favor for such a purpose.
135
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER
Hard
known as
maple, and the specimen
bird's-eye maple,
wood
"prettiest"
that
grows
not be gainsaid. If oak
woods.
and
Its soft
and while
in
from
North America.
king, maple
is
While the
—
veining. It
is
all
it is, it is
birds' -eye is the
far richer
than
of
is
good form and
chaste and modest in the extreme and built
violet order; sweet-scented but
hidden
glories.
There
and content produced by looking
bird's-eye maple that eminently
is
at a
fits it
It is
it
unob-
to
dis-
repose
a feeling of
good specimen of
for
bedroom
and manufacturers have not been slow
the purpose.
in its
it
most beautiful form of
hard maple lumber
somewhat upon the
ture,
It can-
the queen of our
strusive to view, one having to look closely at
all its
is
the
call
does not possess the richness of color that
it
hard maple
cover
which
it
what we may
delicate tracings are elegance itself
makes mahogany what
grain.
is
is
to use
emblematic of innocence and
furniit
is
for
emi-
nently fitted for the furnishings of a sweet darling daughter.
Hard maples
filling,
as
it
are close grained
and that not darkened but kept as
use of white shellac for
nish to be found. Most
filling
all
its
article
for
such a use.
It
own
light as possible
color,
by the
and the whitest ivory var-
manufacturers of varnish make
from carefully selected gums that
an
ter ot
woods and need no
should always be finished in
goes without the saying as
is
intended
it is
a mat-
course that hard maple takes on the finest polish of
any kind of the woods.
136
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Poplar
works
used for
has
—
easily
little
rowed
to
wood
a very useful
is
many
finish.
It
it.
own, and consequently can be
its
be
It
bor-
parade under some other name and as a substi-
tate others with.
Its
marking
and not offensive
be said
cheap
purposes of finishing in the place of
beauty of
tute for a higher-priced wood.
sive
for a
— nearly as easily as white pine — and can
for
pine which
Treat
it.
very
it
to imi-
unobstru-
to
good
it
the same as indicated for white
much
taste.
This
is all
that can
resembles, except that being a
hardwood, stains take better upon
Pine. (Yellow)
good wood
It is a
are but few and
— This
it
than upon pine.
a very resinous
is
wood
that
has characteristic markings that are prominent and loud.
It
partakes somewhat of the
venus" of Wall
big checked pants, and
body's corns
It
if
makeup
who
don't
mind stepping on some-
somebody does not get out
has a self-important
air,
acquired by a
income, and "bon garcon" as
gaudy
one of the "par-
of
parading the street with a pair of
street
it
appears
is
of
their way.
2%
per month
nevertheless a
It is useful nevertheless for a
affair.
purposes, but
among
multitude of
the most prominent of which
is
that
of ceilings, partition walls and floors and an occasional
wainscot, chiefly because
many
the
people
who want
wood they buy.
cheap and suits the taste of
it is
their
money's worth
Being so resinous
one coat of orange shellac for a
more coats
filler
of varnish on top of that.
ish.
137
it
of veining in
should receive
and then one or
It
takes a fair pol-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Rosewood
— Is
an almost obsolete wood
ninety-nine out of every hundred articles
sold under
is
the
name
more care
ment
ant,
is
in filling
required for
it
that are
The genuine wood
mahogany and consequently
are imitations.
a bit coarser grained than
requires
now and
made
otherwise the same treat-
it,
mahogany.
as for
has a pleas-
It
dark color with rather independent, abruptly- termin-
ating veimngs that start in
some
direction with
intention of getting there, but invariably get lost
they get there.
good
a
before
imitated upon the cheaper
It is closely
woods the veinings being over-grained upon the stain as
indicated for
mahogany. All imitations should be highly
finished to resemble the
"genuine" which
is
capable of
— This wood
is
advancing
the highest finish.
Sycamore or Buttonwood.
in favor
The time when it
and many are rack-
more and more day by day.
was only
fit
for tobacco
boxes
ing their brains to find out
is
past
why
been so long finding out that
it
it
was that they have
was
tle self; for it
sufficiently
saucy as to pass
It
makes
lesser important
ing for
many
its
belongs to the mignonne order.
for a soubrette,
as to pass for the governess.
these too.
wood not
own dear lit-
a pretty
only in borrowed feathers (stains) but in
is
hardly
nor so sober
somewhere between
It is
nice panels for
rooms and
articles.
It is
bedrooms and the
also used in furniture
When
it
is
'
'quarter
sawed
makit
is
very prettily veined and through chemical changes devel-
ops a beautiful pinkish tone
when covered over with
138
or-
THE MODEBN WOOD
FIXLSlIEIi.
ange shellac and varnished over with a light varnish and
polished, as
filling is
rather a close-grained wood.
it is
Paste
not absolutely required but will not hurt
properly done.
filler
it
if
susceptible of the highest polish and
It is
by any process.
Walnut. — Our
disappearing.
stately
This
is
American black walnut
sad, but
it
is fast
As long
is true.
as
fashion has decreed that light furniture and light finishes
hardwood rooms
for
is in
very inconsolable, as for
sombre-looking to suit
order a person will hardly be so
all
many
its
beauty walnut
people
who
is
rather
are already too
much hippoed and given to look on the dark side of
things, and who need to be bolstered up with something
bright and enlivening to the feelings.
Many people cannot help but feel lugubrious when in the presence of
black walnut, as they associate the smell and looks with
which permeates the undertaker's parlors across the
that
way.
The Burl walnut
is
a chap entirely different from the
plain article above described, and in
It is
its
way
is
a beauty.
usually sawed from the roots or the crotch walnut.
It is also
sawed from the forks of two large limbs. These
two are the "Jim dandies" of the family, and they revel
in luxury of form and color in all sorts of unexpected
ways— in
of form.
(all
in
all sorts
Some
of divagations and in nearly every sort
specimens are unique, and
jokes aside) that they
go— no, silver
now
it is
no wonder
bring almost their weight
before their owners will part with them.
139
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHEB.
The owner
of a lot of timber land not far
walnut stumps on his land (the timber
cut off long before) for twice the
worth. Europe
is
bowing
away
itself
money
sold the
having been
that the land
at the shrine of
was
American black
walnut just now, and with what our own home demand
have made
for it is beside,
wood
for
burl and crotch walnut
that shape a
and serves
to cut
little
is
made
of an aristocratic
The
to
but
rails,
much
with a paste
also receive
suffice for
we
is
into veneers
and
T
and posts because they
didn't
split so
of timber to get 50 cents
know
w as loaded"
"it
then.
7
rather an open-grained wood, vary-
and needs
colored to match the wood.
one good coat of orange
shellac,
It
filling
should
which
will
a leveling previous to polishing, of which
produce the
in
go around a long ways
in different specimens,
filler
fancy
reminder of old times w hen we used
for fence rails
Black walnut
ing very
much
sawed
largely
it is
We then cut $100 worth
worth of
will
of
to give us a
them
easily.
this too
people of small and limited means.
it
finest.
Black walnut being a dark-colored wood, needs no
artificial
better;
addition in the shape of stains to
nor could any addition give
than that which
it
is
fast
it
to suit our wants.
its
Like
it
look
a better appearance
It is a pity that
naturally possesses.
going away and does not see
enough
it
make
way
all
clear
to
grow
good things, we
seldom appreciate them while we have them with us in
plenty.
Redwood.
— This
Pacific slope product of
140
our forest
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
coming rapidly forward for various purposes both in
It is of
furniture manufacturing and house construction.
is
a rather soft texture and
growth, and needs
polish
upon
apply, rub
this
is
A
filling.
wood
add burnt
is to
it off in fifteen
been put on and
apply two
let it
medium
good way
minutes
close-grained in
to
produce a
sienna to the
after the
filling
stand forty-eight hours.
fine
filler,
has
After,
rubbing each coat with fine
two to four coats of good var-
coats of shellac,
sandpaper, then giving
it
with pumice and
nish, let it dry thoroughly and rub
water and rotten
water and let stand a day; then rub with
dry,
wash and clean off again, giving it a day to
stone,
until dry, and a
and rub with rotten stone and olive oil
very prominent veining in
fine polish results. There is no
from being stained
redwood, and its dark color prevents it
unless it be for ebonising, for
in imitation of any other,
which
it
is fairly
well adapted.
It is plentiful,
but the
miles of railway makes it
long haul over thousands of
as compared with
come comparitiveiy expensive to use
many
other woods.
Of course our Western
this
far the greatest users of
wood.
141
States are by
CHAPTER
XVIII.
FINISHING FLOORS.
the
Iii
main the
principles laid
down
for
wood
finish-
ing in general apply with equal force to finishing floors.
Only very hard woods can be advantageously used
ing floors, and only such are ever finished.
in lay-
It is true that
pine floors predominate, but these are usually covered
with carpets and are never finished
off.
White pine
soft in texture for floors that are laid to
where that wood
than
left in its
walk upon, and
Yellow pine
finish.
is
extensively
used in some parts and hard maple or white oak in
All the above-named
others.
walk upon, that
but will also
woods make good
many
floors to
Yellow pine should be
will stand.
make
too
used, the floors are better painted
is
own
is
oiled,
by being coated with
a good finish
a
coat of shellac varnish and two coats of a good, substantial
floor varnish.
Some
firms
make
which they recommed very highly
Shellac
is
very touchy about
a special varnish
for this purpose.
damp and
should be careful to have the varnish that
it
cover
A well
it
well, to prevent the filtering of
laid floor should not
are not well laid,
cases,
to a
by
level.
all
wet, so one
applied over
water upon
have any cracks, but
and some do have cracks.
means
Make
is
a
fill
up any
filling
tion:
142
it.
all floors
In such
openings in the
floor
of the following composi-
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Well soaked unsized paper
1
part
Silver white
1
part
Strong glue
1
part
Dissolve the glue in sufficient water to
make
a paste
of the whole, and apply with a wide putty knife.
tute
wood pulp
After
filling
for the paper,
up cracks with
if it
Substi-
can be easily procured.
this composition,
proceed to
the finishing. It will not discolor the wood.
Oak and maple can be simply oiled and
condition. The operation is simple and easy.
raw or boiled
oil
and naptha say from one-third
floor.
all
two
that
in
To
either
linseed oil add equal quantities of kerosene
quantity of linseed
requires
left
oil
to one-half
the
of
used, and brush over the floor.
coats, at least,
and three are better
It
to oil a
These should not be applied over each other
until
the greasiness of the previous one has disappeared.
All kinds of wood (except white pine) used in floor-
making can be advantageously
treated to a
as described in a previous chapter.
coats of varnish
is to
be the finishing,
are using a good grade of varnish
something about
If
make
— one
—and there need be no
THE END.
143
"wax
finish"
shellac with
tv\
o
sure that you
that
you know
trouble.
SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.
Preface
3
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION.
The Increasing Use
of
Hardwoods
in Interior Construc-
—
tion—Reasons for Same Painters Ought to be Finishers—Wood Finishing as a Pseudo Art— Modern
vs. Ancient Methods— Slowness and Uncertainty of
the Old Processes.— The Subject Matter Divided up
Under Various Sections— A Review of the Plan
Adopted
CHAPTER
5
II.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
The Composition
of
Woods— Ligaments— Quarter Sawing
Lights and Pores
ing— Staining,
Reasons for Filling— Varnish14
etc.
CHAPTER
III.
TOOLS AND APPLIANCES USED IN AVOOD FINISHING.
Diversity of
Opinion Concerning the
Above— Pulver-
Pumice Stone— Sandpaper— Rotten Stone— Tripoli and Polishing Powders — Silex- Curled Moss—
Horse-hair and Haircloth— Excelsior— Cotton Waste
—Hemp and Flax Tow— Chamois Skins— SilkCloth—
Vessels for Stains— Rubbing Felt— Varnish Pots
Scrapers — Strainers — Tin Pails — Brush KeepersPicking Sticks— Dusters— The Various Brushes
ized
CHAPTER
20
IV.
MATERIAL USED IN WOOD FINISHING.
Material Used in Making Fillers— Colors Used in Making
Fillers— Fixed Oils Volatile Oils— Japans— Rubbing
Oil— Material Used in Making Stains
—
144
37
THE MOBEBN WOOD FINISHES.
CHAPTER
V.
SANDPAPERING AND PREPARING FOR THE FILLING.
Poor Condition of Machine Sandpapering— Its Unfitness
for Filling— The Main Cause of Varnish Cracking
Proper Way to Sandpaper— Dusting.
CHAPTER
4:}
VI.
STAINING AND STAINS.
Various Kindsof Stains— Oil Stains— Good and Bad Points
of Oil Stains Water Stains- Good and Bad Points
of Water Stains— Reasons Why Water Stains are
more Useful than Oil Stains— Testing Board for
—
46
Stains
CHAPTER
VII.
A COLLECTION OF FORNULAS FOR MAKING STAINS.
Water Stains, No. 1 to 3— Mahogany, No. 4 to 10— Walnut.
No. 11— Rosewood, No. 12 to 13— Cherry, No. 14 to 15
Oak, No. 16 to 18— Ebony, No. 19— Crimson, No. 20—
Violet, No. 21— Blue Stain— Spirit Stains, YellowYellow Reel — Mahogany — Ebony — To Brighten
Stains— Aniline Stains— Mahogany— The last a Sample Formula, Suitable for all Aniline Water StainsOil Aniline Stains— Uncertainty of Nomenclature to
r
>6
Designate Aniline Goods
-
CHAPTER VIII.
FILLING AND FILLERS.
Reasons for Filling— Reviewing Old Methods and Progress
Made in Fillers and Filling— Silex— Thinning Fillers
—Their Application— Rubbing Off Fillers-Filling
by Dipping-^Ready-macle vs. Home-made Fillers
Formula No. 29, for Making Light Fillers— No. 30,
for
Making
all
CHAPTER
Why
65
other Fillers
IX.
SHELLACKING.
Shellac Should Be Used Over Hardwood Fillers Modus Operandi— Sandpapering Same— Substitutes for
145
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Shellac— Oil Shellac— Grain Alcohol Shellac— Wood
Alcohol Shellac— Formulas for Making Shellac Varnish—No 31, Orange Shellac— No. 32, White Shel73
lac
CHAPTER
X.
VARNISHING AND VARNISHES.
Making Ready for Same— Dusting— Rules for Putting on
Varnish— Best Brushes to Use— How to Lay on Varnish-Quick-Drying Varnishes—Cheap VarnishesArchitects Specify Brands of Varnish— Various
Grades of Varnish— Material Used in the Makeup
of Varnishes Reviewed— So-called Hard Oil and Copal Furniture Varnishes
81
CHAPTER XL
RUBBING.
Varnish Needed Before RubbingFive Rules Given for Good Rubbing— Material Used
in Rubbing— Some Woods Rub Easier than OthersFelt Pads— Water and Oil Rubbing— How to RubCleaning Up
Number
of Coats of
CHAPTER
93
Xll.
POLISHING.
Dead Polish— Lustre Polish— Two Processes for Same—
The Quick Process Described The Slow Process and
Manner of Doing It— Cleaning Up
CHAPTER
98
XIII.
FRENCH POLISHING.
What
is
Meant by "French Polishing?"—Two Ways— Des-
cription of the Better of the
Two— Preparing for
the
Operation— Making the Rubbers— Shellac and OilHow to Put on the French Polish— Spiriting Off—
The Linseed Oil Must Be Gotten Rid Of— How It is
done
101
146
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER.
CHAPTER
WAX
XIV.
POLISH.
Good and Bad Points— Where it Should Be Used— Some
Woods Look Best Under It— Floors Should Be Finished
With It— Processes
plained—Brushes Used
for
of
Wax
Polishing Ex-
Same
112
CHAPTER XV.
OIL POLISHING.
The Oldest
Polish
Oil Polish
Known— Good
and Bad Points— How to
11"
CHAPTER
SOFT
WOOD
XVI.
FINISHING. —WHITE PINE.
Stopping Up the pores— Peculiarities of White Pine Considered—Stains for Same— Best Under Colored Stains,
Making no Pretense to Wood Imitation— Filling
Liquid Fillers— Shellac Varnish— How to Orange
Shellac Inside Blinds-Rules for Using Orange Shel119
lac on White Pine— Varnishing
CHAPTER
XVII.
FINISHING AND THEIR
WOOD
IN
USED
THE VARIOUS WOODS
TREATMENT.
Ash— Birch—Basswood or Linden— Beach— ButternutCherry—Chestnut— Cypress— Hemlock— Elm— Gum
—Oak— Mahogany— Hard Maple— Yellow PineRosewood— Sycamore, or Button wood — Walnut124
Redwood
CHAPTER
XVIII.
FINISHING FLOORS.
to Use for Floors— Oiling Floors— Varnish142
Filling Cracks— Wax Polishing
Floors—
ing
What Woods
147
INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.
Fig. 1, Rubbing Felt
Fig. 2, Varnish Pot
Fig. 3, Strainer
Fig. 4, Varnish Brush Keeper
Fig. 5, Picking Stick
Fig. 6, Coach Duster
Fig. 7, Ex. Ex. Stucco Wall Brush
Fig. 8, Metal Bound Oval Varnish Brush
Fig. 9, Picking or Rubbing Brushes
Fig. 10, Bear-Hair Fitch Flowing Brush
Fig. 11, Ox-Hair Fitch Flowing Brush
Fig. 12, Bristle Fitch Flowing Brushes
Fig. 13, Badger-Hair Fitch Flowing Brush
Fig. 14, Camel-Hair Lacquering Brush
Fig. 15, Weighted Wax Floor Polishing Brush
Fig. 16, Rubbing Pad view of bottom)
Fig. 17, Rubbing Pad (view of side)
Fig. 18, Spreading Shellac in French Polishing
Fig. 19, The Motions in French Polishing
(
;f)
l
4»
c't'a
4»
rid rJN tj%
4»
+
+
4»
r
c
24
24
25
25
20
27
28
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
103
103
106
Ill
f
4»
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS.
Woodhouse, Sam'l
Bridgeport
Whiting
&
Wood
Son
F
Finishing Co
Co.,
John L
Cleveland Varnish Co.,
Nice,
Eugene
Rinald Brothers
Crockett Co., David
Lucas & Co., John
Moller & Schumann
King
Billings,
The
E
&
B
Co
Atlantic Drier & Varnish Co
Chicago Wood Finishing Co
United States Varnish Co., The
Martin
&
Co.,
L
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
168
Woodhouse Excelsior Manufacturing Co
Watson Co., Geo. E
Inside Front Cover
Adams & El ting Co
Inside Back Cover
Wadsworth-Howland Co
Outside Back Cover
Chicago Varnish Co
148
THE MODEJIX WOOD FINISHEB.
Saves
R^\abbirvg
Dull-Eine
Is
a
VARJVISH
A PERFECT FINISHING COAT FOR ALL
WORR WHERE A DULL FINISH IS WANTED
pVj
|_p|*-|/^
UUlI-CinC
-
|
Is not a thin coating to
nishj but a
Varnish
put over
a var-
in itself, full body,
works free, dries hard, flows even: in fact is a perfect Varnish
with a dull gloss, saving- all the expense of rubbing, and
gives a far superior effect, as the work is even all over, which
rubbed work does not give.
.
Fill
.
HOW
TO USE DULL-EINE
.
.
hard wood with Woodhouse's Paste Filler, one coat Woodhouse's
Liquid Filler, one coat Dull-Eine. If a superior finish is required,
give two coats of DULL=EINE, or one coat of DullEine and one coat of Varnish.
DulUEine can be used over a Varnished Surface.
S. F.
Woodhouse,
FILLER
and
COLOR WORKS
Frankford,
14'.)
Philadelphia, Pa.
THE MODE Iiy WOOD F I XI SHE R.
Wheeler's V
Patent Wood
Filler. . .
The Standard
of Excellence,
Unsurpassed and Unequaled,
it embodies in it advanced ideas
as to what a Wood Filler should be, and must
necessarily be.
There is no other Wood Filler like it, for the reason
that all the products that enter into it, are
peculiar to us, and specially made and prepared
by processes exclusively peculiar to ourselves.
The results obtained with it, and economies, are such
that in an unbiased comparison against everything else of its kind, it is cheaper than any
For the reason that
other wood
on the market.
it is used is particularly
noticeable by reason of its bringing out its full
life and making a permanent base for the vartiller
The wood work on which
nish to rest on.
WHEELER'S PATENT LIQUID WOOD FILLER
For
and non-porous wood like pine, whitewood,
what the Wheeler Paste Filler is for
opened grained woods.
APPLIED LIKE SHELLAC. NO WIPING OFF.
soft
etc., is
Sole Manufacturers
THE BRIDGEPORT WOOD FINISHING
NEW MILFORD, CONNECTICUT.
NEW
YORK,
55 Fulton Street
.
.
.
150
CHICAGO, 70 W. Lake
CO.
Street.
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
A SKATING PARTY
Elf, spreading varnish with a Whiting's King Chiselled
Varnish Brush— " Girls, it's very sleek; look out
The
you don't fall!"
The Whiting Brushes
If brushes offered and claimed to be -'As good as Whiting's" were as good as Whiting's, they would be offered on
own merits.
As The Whiting Brushes
their
are the standard of merit,
why
buy others? You can get the genuine at lower prices than
others, and be sure of having the best. If you are not using
The Whiting Brushes, give them a trial, and you will be convinced of their superb points of excellence.
The best wav to tell that you are getting The Whiting
Brushes is to see^if they are stamped with the manufacturers
name; you are sure of getting the genuine only when so stamped
QUALITY BEST... PRICES LOWEST
Manufactured only by
JOHN
L.
WHITING & SON
151
CO.,
BOSTON
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHES.
WHY USE
PERMANEUE
FLOOR. FINISH
Perfectly
*
Made
Easily Applied
Readily Hardens
Magnificent Finish
Always Clean
Never Disappoints
*
tf?i))}
^S^P
Everywhere Sold
Relieves Housekeeper
Economical
ffffl))
^3P
Ask Your Dealer
for our Booklet,
"THE MODERN HOME."
The
Cleveland Varnish Co.
CLEVELAND
.
.
.
.
152
.
;
.
THE MODERN WOOD EIXlSHEU.
EUGENE
E.
NICE
Manufacturer of
Superior Interior
and Exterior Wood
Finishes=
f
V
^ 9
Our Wood
Fillers, Inside
side Varnishes,
/
Hard
"and Out-
Oil Finish,
and "Agate Floor Finish"
.
.
Are^the
.
StaLnda^rds for Qviedity
Every one of them
i
9
t ?
272=274 South Second Street,
PHILADELPHIA,
153
U. S. A.
THE MODEBN WOOD FIN1SHEB.
Enamel Paint
Porcelain
(REGISTERED TRADE MARK)
A
three-coat porcelain preparation, as durable as
on walls and ceilings. Does not turn yellow
with age, and is not affected by soap or chemicals.
Will not scale, peel or blister. White and Shades.
tiling
(REGISTERED TRADE MARK>
Porceline
Highest grade varnish enamel for rubbing. The
is made from selected hard gum of best
quality and the best French Zinc
varnish
Majolica Enamel
Made from
line,
the same high-priced goods as Porce=
but second grade in so far as the pieces of
gum thrown
used
hard,
vUr
i^\-,,~
(REGISTERED TRADE MARK)
to
make
out in selecting for Porceline were
the Majolica.
Works
easily, dries
rubs to any finish
C\ff
OCJX V^Iier
Rs-vi/-
*->*<•
A
ten gallon assortment will interest you
Write
for
it
to
Manufactured Exclusively by
RINALD BROS.,
1142=1146 North
Hancock
St.,
154
PHILADELPHIA, PA.
THE MODEBN WOOD FINISHER
.
.
.
.THE^^^^>
DAVID
CROCKETT
B.
CO.
MAKERS OF
FINE VARNISH SPECIALTIES
LEADERS
OUR LINE DURING THIRTY YEARS PAST
IN
The
best interior varnish for its purposes and price thai
brains and experience can produce. Less liable to scratch
than any finish known. Is not affected by contact with
chemical gases, steam or washing with hot or cold water and soap. For
Finishing Hospitals. Dwellings. School Houses. Floors, Piazza Ceilings,
Stables, Pantries. Laboratories, etc.. interior work on Steamships. Yachts
and Vessels of all kinds.
No. i.
Preservative,
((imposed of the best materials purchasable, is the mosl
durable, the best known and has the largest sale of any
Marine Varnish manufactured. Positively salt and fresh
water proof, is invaluable for Exterior Marine Work of any kind, and as
its name indicates particularly adapted for Spars of Steamships. Yachts
and Canoes. Also a finish for Decks. Outside Doors, Piazza Floors. Store
Fronts, etc It will not crack, turn white or blister.
5 par
Composition
^ or Interior Floors. Laundries. Wash Rooms, Oil Cloths, Linoleums, or where a varnish is required that can be frequently
washed with hot or cold water and soap without injury, and
Finish.
will resist the action of steam and ammoniac gases. One coat
applied to a new oil cloth or linoleum will double its durability. Can be
rubbed and left with an egg shell gloss, which is superior to wax finishing
Waterproof
Floor
and costs
pa
Hard
s;it
|
less.
Oil Finish
Lsfaction
when a cheap easy flowing varnish
For
lnsi de or Outside
is
required.
Wood Work.
Superior to Shellac
for undercoatings. Permanency far greater. Cost about
one-fourth. All our goods can be rubbed and polished
Liquid
Pigment
its introduction the commendation and sale of this
article has proved it to be superior to any in the market
for all interior work. Can be relied upon to give full
Since
e
Filler
or left with an egg shell gloss.
If
local dealers
cannot supply you, send direct to
THE DAVID
B. CROCKETT CO.,
BRIDGEPORT, CONN.
SAMUEL SWAN,
President.
CHAS.
F.
TOWNER, Secy and
Our "Architectural Hand Book" giving prices and
sent Free on application
Treas'r.
full particulars
AQUILA RICH PAINT AND COLOR
CO.,
=
CHICAGO, ILL.
257 Dearborn Street,
SOLE WESTERN AGENTS.
155
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
LUCAS RELIABLE HELPS
Lucas C.
P.
Umbers and Siennas.
Unequaied for intensity of
color, fineness of grinding,
•and therefore of special practical value for staining wood work.
Fillers. Do not dry out white; neither do they
Lucas Paste
pull out when rubbing oft; they are
translucent and do not obscure the growth or grain of the wood.
They yield a smooth, hard surface that hold out the varnish and
We especially recommend our Rich and Pale Gold
prevent valleys.
Oak and Oriental Green Paste Fillers.
A beautiful, clear, transparent liquid for
I
nrn« finlrl
Stflin
uaK stain.
uoia CiaU
Lucas
staining oa k and other h .[ rd woods | before
or after tilling. Imparts a brilliant natural gold color to high lights
of all hard woods.
Fillers. Are unequalled for priming or first
Lucas Liquid
M
coating soft or close grain woods.
They enhance the high lights, develop the growth of the wood, and
hold out the varnish.
genuine high-grade wax polish.
Floor Polish. A
Lucas Hygeia
J =>
translucent, and does not obsecure
the growth or grain of the wood. Dries hard and elastic. It is altogether the ideal polish for hard wood floors, parquetry, etc.
An excellent anti-dust and disinfectant.
M.-qc nygeia
I
Hvo-fMsi riOOr
Flnnr Ull.
Oil
LUCaS
Especlally recommended for floors and
wood work of stores, hotels, hospitals and public places. Prevents
the circulation of dust, microbes, and vermin. It is odorless; does
not stick.
Stains. These stains contam no water and
Lucas Perfect
therefore will not raise the grain of
the wood. They contain no fugitive dyes and are therefore permanent.
They produce the most perfect imitations of high-grade hard woods.
I
nr«c Hard
iriiusu. Unexcelled for general interior wood
naru Oil IFini«;h
Lucas
wQrk I)ries with a brima iit gloss, will
rub down with oil and punice. or water and pumice, and takes
a high polish.
tip top, reliable article foi^new
Lucas Durable Floor Finish. A
wood floors and unequalled as a re=
Wood
Wood
Wood
wu
newer or restorer of old wood floors. Works as free as raw oil. Sels
up quick and dries with a naturai oil finish, the most elegant for
hard wood floors.
A superior high-grade floor finish
Elastic
c*^.. <~ Floor Finish.
Lucas
^,mwpj m-*
Good body. Free working qualities
Will
easily
mar or scratch. Especially recom
not
Dries very hard.
mended
for high-grade work.
ates rubbing
ing
Wax
and outside use. Dries
Finish For inside
with a wax-like finish that obvi=
down. _Highly„recommended for all wood work, except-
Lucas Standard
floors.
Lucas Inside
Wood
Preservative.
S^g"&BfiS&
w
not spot. Can be recommended for finishing the wood work of bath
rooms, lavatories, coach houses, stables.etc.
Lucas Shellac Varnishes. Unsurpassed for general excellence
Correspondence invited.
Ifi II II
I
1
10
10
Ofl
and thorough reliability.
for Sample Cards and Prices.
Write
Practical Manufacturers.
Preservative
and Decorative Haterials for
UHN LUUnU
JUAO SM
&j UUij
UU
Practical Finishers.
NEW YORK. ..PHILADELPHIA. ..CHICAGO.
JU
II II
156
THE
WOOD
MODEIt.X
EUREKA SPAR
EIXI.sllEH.
FINISH
For Exterior Use
ELASTIC SPAR FINISH
For Interior Use
EUREKA ELASTIC FLOOR FINISH
PASTE & LIQUID WOOD FILLERS
MBr mi"
_
.
>Siliiiiii
ESTABLISHED
1863.
MANUFACTURERS Of
K
Margy
s
Cubing
E3
,Aves.A
Oersy aWallabout ^ts
R O O K LYN NY. U.S.A.
,
L51
THE MODEMS WOOD FINISHES.
YOU WILL NOT READ
Urvless Interested
IF INTERESTED, YOU WILL READ
EVERYTHING NECESSARY TO POST YOU
is not adequate for us here, but if you
will write, we will be most happy to mail
you particulars on the following
Space
U. S. N. HARINE VARNISH— For varnishing wood work in
kitchens, bathrooms, hospitals and all places subject to
constant washing
-
N. S. N. CABINET
interior work.
;
it will
be found very durable.
FINISH— Regular and Extra
Pale, for tine
HOTEL FLOOR FINISH— In
addition to floor work, it is the
varnish for wainscoting, and all interior work where a
high-class finish
is
required.
DIAHOND FLOOR FINISH— For Floors.
ALL=AROUND INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH— For
good con-
tract work.
WOOD
FILLER, Light and Dark— For finishing all
kinds of wood where a natural finish is desired, or for sizing walls before painting. Because of its high quality it
will stand reduction with turpentine, and as a first coating is equal to a coat of varnish.
LIQUID
Every time you see the names.
The BILLINGS=CHAPIN
BILLINGS, KINO
&
CO.,
CO., Cleveland, 0.,
New York and
Boston
We
respectfully ask you to associate them with High Quality
(necessarily high figures, but True Economy, and disassociate il with Trash (usually low figures), but Certain Loss.
We can
be addressed at 438 Pearl St., New York; 153 Con
gress St., Boston; and Cleveland, Ohio.
L58
g
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER
^MM..M..M.....H.......M....nM 1 <H.H..n.M „„„„„„„„„,„„„„„£
t
t
Atlaurvtic Drier
Co
andVacrrvisK
Manufacturers of
VAR.NISHES
WOOD
3 5
JAPANS
FILLERS
9 3
Of Finest Quality
at
Lowest Prices
for
— —
BUILDERS ^ FURNITURE: MANUFACTURERS ^ AND *» ALL ^ CONSUMERS
AND ^ DEALERS ^ ^ *' ^ ^
Factory and Main Offices
PHILADELPHIA
Offices
and Storage Warehouses
339 North Clark Street,
204 East 74th Street,
159
CHICAGO
NEW YORK
THE MODERN WOOD FIMslIEH.
We
manufacture a
complete line
WOOD
Haterials for
of
FINISHING
THIS
Paste
line includes
ored and shaded,
Wood
for all
style of Finish: Liquid
Fillers, uncol-
woods and every
Wood
Fillers:
"Twen-
tieth Century'' Oil Stains (the only line of per-
and
fectly transparent Oil Stains made); Spirit
Water
Stains:
Varnish Stains; Dry (powder) Stains:
Primers and First Coaters: Second Coaters:
all
grades of Varnish, including everything from the
ordinary qualities to the best Rubbing and Polishing: Shellac Varnishes; a special line of Paste
Wood
Fillers,
Oil Stains
and
Varnishes
for
Polish
for
Varnishes:
finishing
Birch: Shellac
polishing
Varnish; the largest line of Brushes,
by
far,
carried by any house in America: Pumice-
Stone: Rotten-Stone;
Rubbing
Oil:
Rubbing
Felt;
Garnet and Flint Papers in great variety: Chamois Skins:
Chicago
Sponges,
Wood
etc., etc.
Finishing Co.,
259 to 263 Elston Avenue
and 12 to 18 Sloan Street
.
.
CHICAGO
.
.
Established in 1879.
160
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
|
United States
$
Company
$
*fe
%
*
*
\*/
\kd
Our unrivaled specialties
for House Painters and Decorators
f#\
'I'
.7.
\i/
(t\
/l\
WHITE AND GOLD, FOR WHITE WORK
FLOOR VARNISH, FOR FLOORS AND LINOLEUM
U. S. EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR FINISHES
C. C. DAMAR AND JAPANS
U. S.
U. S.
(*\
jL
•li
^|y
jjj
J?
\{/
w
OS
(i\
(t\
v**
I
2616 and 2618 Colerain Avenue,
CINCINNATI,
161
O.
J*
S
^
Of
THE MOBEEN
]\'(H)1)
FIXlSHElt
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
WOODHOUSE'S
PREPARED^-*
LINSEED OIL
For
kinds of Paint where boiled or raw
Linseed Oil is used
all
.
This
.
.
.
.
.
not a substitute for Linseed Oil, but is a PURE
Linseed Oil, practically and chemically treated,
oil is
making
it
superior to either raw or boiled
for the following- reasons:
oil,
WEARS LONGER,
SPREADS OVER MORE SURFACE,
RETAINS ITS GLOSS LONGER,
WILL NOT CHALK OR CRACtt,
DRIES PERFECTLY HARD,
WORKS FREE UNDER THE BRUSH.
.
.
.
SEND FOR BOOKLET ON
THE LIFE OF THE
.
.
.
PAINT.''
W00DH0USE EXCELSIOR MFG. COMPANY,
703 Real Estate Trust Building,
PHILADELPHIA, PA.
in;;
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
Finisher
15he
\I 7HO
"
isfied
wants
keep up-to date, and who
to
wishes to have
*
a large following of sat-
customers, should not lose sight of the
fact that
No man
he must keep posted.
can
keep pace with the car of progress or be
abreast of the times unless he keeps in tench
The
with the world's advancement.
most convenient way
literature of the da3
T
.
to
do this
There
is
and
best
to read the
no publication
is
Wood
The Western
run in the interest of the Painter or
Finisher that can compare with
Painter.
sive.
It
month,
is
premium
and progres-
It is practical, reliable
published on
is
15th of each
the
furnished at $1.00 per year, and
list is
generous ever offered
to painters.
Each num-
ber contains 80 to 100 pages, including
many
illustrations.
Sample copies
The
The Western Painter
editor of
practical painter
experience
its
the largest as well as the most
free
on request.
is
a
and finisher of many years'
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ & ^ ^
The Western
Journal Building,
=
164
Painter,
=
CHICAGO
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
VaLluocble
Books
Practical Carriage
for
Pointers
and 'Wagon
Painting'.
Price $1.00.
A
very complete work, the latest out on the subject of carriage arid wagon painting. It covers all topics pertaining to
this branch of the trade, including every feature of the work
from priming to finish, with a discussion of tools, materials,
and paint shop appliances, giving many practical methods and
formulas, and devoting one chapter to the painting of cutters
and sleighs. The name of the author, Mr. M. C. Hillick, is sufficient guarantee of the high standard of the work.
He has
succeeded in making it plain and practical enough for all.
Bound in cloth, well illustrated, and contains upwards of 100
pages. Bound in silk cloth. This book and TriE Western
Painter one year for $1.50.
The Modern "Wood
FinisHer.
Price
50
Cents.
a practical treatise on Wood Finishing in all its
branches, including tools and materials employed, preparation
of surfaces, stains and staining, fillers and filling, shellacking
varnishes and varnishing, rubbing, polishing, French polishing, wax polishing, oil polishing, etc. Alsoafull description of
the woods employed in wood finishing, their treatment, and
the finishing of floors. Written by Mr. F. Maire, formerly
editor of Painting and Decorating. Extra strong paper covers.
About 100 pages. This book and The Western Painter
a year for $1.00.
This
is
Painter's
Manual.
Price
50
Cents.
A
practical guide to house and sign painting, varnishing,
polishing, calcimining, papering, lettering, staining, silvering,
gilding, glazing, etc., including a treatise on how to Mix Paint.
To the learner this book is indispensable. This book and The
Western Painter a year for $1.00.
The Standard
Scroll Booh.
A
collection of about 200 designs.
Western Painter a year for $1.50.
Any
of the
Price $1.00.
This book and
above sent prepaid on receipt of
The Western
Journal Building,
=
105
The
price.
Painter,
=
CHICAGO
THE M0BEB1S WOOD FINISHES.
VeJvieLble
The Modern
Books
Sig'n "Writer
menter.
for
Pointers
and Up-to-Date Orna-
Price $1.50.
A strictly
up-to-date publication of great value to letterers
It contains modern and legitimate alphabets and designs for signs, flat and relief scrolls, ornaments,
etc. Printed in colors, on heavy enameled paper with leatherette covers. The tendency all along the line is to demand
more artistic sign work. To meet this demand this work has
been prepared, and it is the only publication which attempts
to do it. It is the progressive painter's only guide to lettering
of modern design, and is full of new ideas and "up-to-date"
It embraces all the modern alphabets, upper
suggestions.
and lower case, and numbers. Also artistic and beautiful sign
layouts, with rococo panels and tasteful designs, all of which
were originated and designed for this work also all the standard styles. Here also will be found a beautiful collection of
scroll work and flat ornaments, suitable for fresco painters and
This
all others who are interested in ornamental painting.
book will be valuable to draftsmen, designers, architects,
engravers, etc. If you want to do modern work you cannot
afford to be without this book. This book was intended to be
sold at $2.50, but we have secured a lot at a favorable price
and are able to sell them at $1.50 each. This book and The
Western Painter a year for $2.00.
and
scroll painters.
—
Scene Painting and
Painting' in Distemper.
Price $1.00.
Gives full instructions in the preparations of colors, drawing for scene painters, stage settings and useful information
regarding stage appliances and effects. Numerous illustra
tions and diagrams. This book and The Western Painter
a year for $1.50.
Landa's Fancy A.lpHabets.
Price $1.00.
These alphabets are the production of a French
This book and The
have long been favorites.
Painter
Any
artist,
and
Western
a year for $1.50.
of the
above sent prepaid on receipt of
The Western
Journal Building,
=
Kill
price.
Painter,
=
CHICAGO
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHED.
VeLlviacble
Grinnell's
Books
Hand-Booh on
for
Pointers
Painting. Price
50 Cents.
Not a catch-penny
publication, but a practical work of some
200 pages, each one rilled with tested receipts and helpful instructions, given in plain language by a man who has spent
his whole life at the trade. The information contained in this
book would be cheap at $5.00, but the author, who would
rather help his brother painter than make money, insists
upon the work being sold at 50 cents.
This book and The
Western Painter a year for $1.00.
The
Painters' Encyclopaedia.
Price $1.50.
Contains definitions of all important words in the art of plain
and artistic painting, with details of practice in coach, carriage, railway car, house, sign and ornamental painting, including graining, marbling, staining, varnishing, polishing,
lettering, stenciling, gilding etc.
Elaborately illustrated.
Price $1.50. This book and The Western Painter a year
for $2.00.
How
to
Draw and
Paint.
Price
50
Cents.
The whole
art of drawing and painting, with instructions
in outline, light and shade, perspective, sketching from nature, etc.; 100 illustrations. This book and The Western
Painter a year $1.00
Gilder's Manual.
A guide to gilding in all
its
Price
50
Cents.
branches as used in the several
trades, such as interior decoration, picture and looking-glass
frames, oil and water gilding, regilding, gilding china, glass,
pottery, etc. This book and The Western Painter a year
for $1.00.
Sig'n
Writing'
and Glass Embossing.
Price 75 Cents.
A standard work, well and favorably known; illustrated.
This book and The Western Painter one year for $1.25.
Any
of the
above sent prepaid on receipt of
The Western
Journal Building,
=
167
price.
Painter,
=
CHICAGO
27
1901
THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER.
WOOD
FINISHING MATERIALS
..OF
ALL
ftlNDS
OUR SPECIALTY
"MONOGRAM"
Pale Oil Finish For
made from the best
absolutely free from
rosin: contains a large percentage of
aged Calcutta linseed oil finely filtered
and aged one year before being ca nned
pale in color, as its name signifies:
works easily under the brush; and is
very durable. It dries in twelve to fifteen hours and can be rubbed in
twenty-four hours. It is susceptible of
a very high polish by rubbing with
rotten stone and oil within fifty-four
to sixty hours. A gallon should cover
about -450 square feet over properly
Write for price
filled wood.
interior work.
Is
gums obtainable
;
:
;
.
FILLERS—
Liquid and
STAINS—
Oil,
I'ALE OIL
.
.
Paste.
"VarnisH and Water
SHELLACS—
Of All Grades
VARNISH
VARNISH REMOVER—
not injure the most delicate woods
SAND PAPER— All Numbers
STEEL WOOL— substitute for
Sand Paper and Pumice for Pvubbing Purposes
RUBBING STONE— ah mnds
PUMICE Powdered and Lump
BRUSHES OF Every Description
"Will
£
Send
for
Complete Catalogue
S-
Painters' Supplies
and Wood Finishers'
GEO.
WAT50N
E.
..CHICAGO. ILL..
168
flaterials
CO.,
Wadsworth *A *A
Howland Co
PAINT.
and
COLOR- GRINDER.
Manufacturer of
OIL
AND
?
}
VAR.NISH
...STAINS...
WOOD
FILLERS, ETC.
TEREBINE SHELLAC
Fills all the requirements of AlcoHol SHellac
•witK tHe following named important advantages:
Costs less and -will cover a greater
Does not raise tHe grain of wood,
consequently does not require sanding, and
Anybody can apply
is equally durable.
surface.
-witKout fear of laps or streaKs
.
.
.
J&
NEW LOCATION
Indiana Ave. and 13tH Street,
ft
.
J&
.
J&
J&
.
CHICAGO.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
014 050 465 8
Supremis Floor Finish
Gives a handsome and extremely durable
finish.
It
requires
little
and does not have the dangerous slipperiness o! a wax
finish. Send for our free booklet, " The Treatment
care,
" You will find
of Floors.
it
of service.
Shipoleum
Is
unequaled for the
finest Interior Finish.
and
It is
remarkably durable,
polishes beautifully.
White Enamelite
An
enamel paint
for Colonial Interior Finish.
finish,
and
is
made
It
gives
a
beautiful
of the finest materials.
SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE PRICE LISTS
Company
Chicago Varnish
ESTABLISHED
Dearborn Ave. and Kuuie
J
865
Pearl and
St.
High
Streets
BOSTON
CHICAGO
No. 22 Vesey
Street
NEW YORK
•
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