MOED Science Standards November 2006

MOED Science Standards November 2006
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Department of Education
CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP
BISHOP SPENCER BUILDING, 5 GLEBE ROAD, PEMBROKE HM 15, BERMUDA
MAILING ADDRESS: P. O. BOX HM 1185, HAMILTON HM EX, BERMUDA
● TEL: (441) 292-3507 ● FAX: (441) 296-5526 ● (441) 296-2843 ●
BERMUDA PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM
SCIENCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SUMMARY
MISSION STATEMENT
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System
is to be the 1st choice in education
by providing rigorous and stimulating learning experiences
in safe, responsive environments
from which our students emerge confident and prepared
to compete and contribute locally and globally.
November 2006
Quality Education for All
Science (SC)
Introduction to Science Performance Standards ........................................................................... 3
References
Physical Science (P) ..................................................................................................................... 6
P1
Matter and Material
P2
Force and Motion
P3
Energy
P4
Forces of Nature
Life Science (L) .......................................................................................................................... 12
L1 Diversity of Life
L2 Heredity
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ System
L4 Interdependence
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy
L6 Evolution of Life
Earth and Space Science (E) ....................................................................................................... 18
E1 Astronomy
E2 Geology
E3 Resources
E4 Meteorology
E5 Oceanography
Nature of Science (N) ................................................................................................................. 24
N1 Scientific Investigation
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation
N3 Designed World: Science Technology and Society
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
2
BERMUDA SCIENCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (SC)
The study of science is an intellectual and social endeavour – the application of human intelligence to figuring out how the world works.
Benchmarks for Science Literacy: Project 2061 (1993)
The Bermuda Science Performance Standards document is an amalgam of widely respected science documents that have been developed in many different countries, including the United Kingdom, United States
and Canada. As is easily recognizable in standards documents from other jurisdictions, Benchmarks for Science Literacy has been used as the basis for Bermuda Science Performance Standards. Science in the
schools provides an introduction to many different scientific disciplines from the traditional physics, chemistry and biology to geology, environmental science and meteorology. These standards are therefore wide
ranging and provide the foundation for not only scientific literacy, but also the critical knowledge and skills for those who intend to study science as a requisite for their careers.
The National Science Education Standards (NSES, National Research Council, 1995) define scientific literacy as the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes which are required for participation
in civic and cultural activities, economic productivity and personal decision making. The philosophy of The Bermuda Science Curriculum (Bermuda Ministry of Education, 1997) echoes the intent of the NSES
statement and indicates that science education should empower all students to make informed choices concerning personal, societal, environmental and technological issues, thus fostering an appreciation and a sense of
responsibility for the future.
In Bermuda, science is considered a critical component of education for all children and is therefore mandated as a core subject from preschool through to senior school. The Bermuda Science Performance Standards
are not a curriculum. They provide the framework for our year-by-year science curriculum that spans the fourteen years from preschool to senior school. They expand the “what” students should know and be able to do
to the “how” and “to what extent” students should demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills.
As stated in the National Curriculum for England, the standards must be “robust enough to define and defend the core of knowledge and cultural experience and flexible enough to give teachers scope to build their
teaching around it in ways that will enhance its delivery to pupils” (The National Curriculum for England, 2000).
The Bermuda Science Performance Standards are categorized into four (4) strands, recognizable as organizers in curriculum documents of many jurisdictions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Physical Science (P)
Life Science (L)
Earth and Space Science (E)
Nature of Science (N)
The first three strands, communicate the knowledge and concepts of science using traditional categories. The Nature of Science emphasizes the way that science and scientists work and how, together with
mathematics and technology, the world has been shaped by human endeavour.
The strands are divided into standards that spiral throughout the compulsory years of the science programme in Bermuda. When the goal is deep understanding it is essential for concepts to be revisited over time.
Standards are further broken down into indicators for assessment.
Students show conceptual understanding when they can:
•
•
use a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions, first in familiar then unfamiliar situations
represent the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts and graphs, as appropriate
Both aspects of understanding – explaining and representing – are required to meet the standard.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
3
PHYSICAL SCIENCE (P)
Physical science, which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the study of matter and materials, forces and energy. There are four (4) physical science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
P1
P2
P3
P4
Matter and Materials - their properties, components, interactions and changes
Force and Motion - the relationship between force, mass and motion of an object and the nature and interaction of waves and matter
Energy - the sources and forms of energy, including transmission and transformations and how energy helps explain the structure of matter and the universe
Forces of Nature - gravitational, electrical and magnetic forces as the fundamental forces acting in nature
LIFE SCIENCE (L)
Life Science, which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one another and their environment. There
are six (6) Life Science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
Diversity of Life - the variety of living things and the processes responsible for the maintenance of life
Heredity – biological traits and how they are passed on from generation to generation
Cells, Organs and Organ Systems – the structure, function and reproduction of cells that maintain the organization essential for life and specialized organs systems that
interact with each other to maintain internal balance
Interdependence of life – relationships amongst organisms and their dependence on their environment
Flow of Matter and Energy - the linking of organisms to one another and their physical setting by the transfer and transformation of matter and energy
Evolution of Life – the evolution of life on earth and natural selection as an explanation of biological processes
EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (E)
Earth and Space Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources, meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the earth, the universe, their components
and interactions. There are five (5) Earth and Space Science standards
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
Astronomy - the current scientific view of the nature, components, matter and energy sources of the universe
Geology - the features of the earth’s surface, how they were formed and how they are continually changing
Resources -the earth’s limited and varied materials that supply many of the resources that humans use
Meteorology - the interactions of structures of the earth’s system and the sun’s energy which cause weather and climate patterns
Oceanography -the features of oceans and the impact of these features on the global ecosystem
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
4
NATURE OF SCIENCE (N)
The Nature of Science strand consists of the understanding and application of scientific investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of the interrelationships
among science, technology, and society. There are three (3) Nature of Science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
N1
Scientific Investigation - People can often learn about things around them by just observing those things carefully, but sometimes they can learn more by doing something to
things and noting what happens. Investigations are conducted for different reasons, which include exploring new phenomena, checking on previous results and comparing different
theories. Investigations usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and making predictions.
N2
Data Representation and Interpretation - Data must be analysed in order to make sense of what has been collected. Sometimes the evidence collected might not be what you
expected or might not be sufficient to draw a conclusion. Clear and accurate communication is important in doing science and an essential part of sharing an investigation order to
inform others.
N3
Designed World: Science, Technology and Society - Over the course of the history of world exploration, humans have shaped and reshaped the world we live in by using
technology in tandem with expanding science knowledge. Science cannot answer all questions and technology cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs. Science
influences society through its knowledge and world view. Technology influences society through its products and processes. Science and technology have advanced through
contributions of many different people, in different cultures, at different times in history.
REFERENCES
It should be noted that there is a great deal of similarity amongst standards. The main sources for the Bermuda Performance Standards document contain hundreds of pages of detail that cannot be provided in the
Bermuda Science Performance Standards. If further amplification of standards is required, it would appropriate to research the sources cited in this section.
Allport Geoff et al. (1996) The New Sc1 Book – Experimental and Investigative Science, Northampton: NIAS Production Unit
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993) Bench Marks for Science Literacy: Project 2061. New York: Oxford University Press
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2001) Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington, DC: AAAS
Council for Basic Education. (1998) Standards for Excellence in Education. Washington, DC: CBE
Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. (1997) Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes Toronto, Ontario: CMEC
Department of Education and Science. (2000) National Curriculum for England: Science. London: HMSO
National Center on Education and Economy and the University of Pittsburg. (1995) New Standards Performance Standards Washington, DC and Pittsburg, PA:
Hartcourt Brace
National Research Council. (1995) National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press
Wiggins, G. McTighe J. (1998) Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
5
SCIENCE (SC) PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
for
PHYSICAL SCIENCE (P)
Physical Science (P)
Physical science, which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
•
Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts and graphs, as appropriate
•
SC.P3.P
SC.P4.P
SC.P5. P
SC.P6. P
SC.M1. P
SC.M2. P
SC.M3. P
SC.S1. P
SC.S2. P
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
1.
Matter and
Materials - their
properties,
components,
interactions and
changes
a)
Materials have
different properties
that can be
observed, described
and recorded.
Materials can be
divided into
different groups
such as metal,
wood, plastic, rock,
glass . Materials can
be used for different
purposes because of
their properties.
b) Materials can be
solid, liquid or gas.
Assessment limits:
• Including very basic
understanding of
properties
• basic under standing
of concepts of
melting/freezing and
that evaporation
results in liquid
“disappearing”
a)
Understand the
basic properties of
solid, liquid, gas.
Assessment limits:
• solid is hard/firm
• liquid flows, etc.
b) Materials can be
changed by heating
and cooling.
Heating makes
things happen faster.
These changes can
be measured.
Assessment limits:
• Including terms
freezing, melting,
evaporating
c) Materials have
different properties
that can be
observed, described
and recorded.
Assessment limits:
• group, identify, and
order objects based
on their physical
properties
)
Materials can be
compared, grouped,
ordered based on
their attributes.
Assessment limits:
• mass, volume,
temperature, length
) Matter can be mixed
and separated.
) Matter can be
composed of parts
too small to see with
the naked eye.
a)
Sometimes matter
will not change
back after it has
been changed.
b) New materials can
be made by
combining two or
more materials.
Assessment limits:
• chemical and
physical changes –
test concept but not
terms
c) Matter has
mass/weight and
volume.
Assessment limits:
• understand
properties of solids
and liquids
a)
Matter cannot be
created or destroyed,
but merely changed.
Assessment limits:
• conservation of mass
in a closed system
Physical properties of
matter can be
measured and
changed. Equal
volumes of different
substances usually
have different
weights.
Assessment limits:
• phase change
• measurement tools
rulers, graduated
cylinders, balances,
thermometers
• density – can
calculate given
formula
b) Materials can be
classified as pure
substances or
mixtures, depending
on their chemical and
physical properties.
Assessment limits:
•
e.g., pure substances
have specific
melting and boiling
points no matter
how much is present
)
Chemical changes
occur when one or
more substances
react together to
form another
substance with
different properties.
Assessment limits:
• chemical vs.
physical changes
• recognition of
occurrence of
physical or chemical
change
) Chemical reactions
can be represented
by using appropriate
symbols, formulas
and chemical
equations.
Assessment limits:
• symbols and/or
formulas for
substances such as
water, carbon
dioxide, sodium
chloride, hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen,
magnesium,
magnesium oxide,
magnesium
hydroxide (milk of
magnesia),
magnesium sulphate
(Epsom salts)
hydrochloric acid,
vinegar, baking soda
a)
Matter is made up
of atoms that are too
small to see, even
using a microscope.
Atoms of any
element are alike,
but different from
atoms of other
elements. Atoms
are composed of a
positively charged
nucleus (containing
neutrons and
protons (+ve) and
surrounded by
electrons (-ve)
Atoms may
combine to form
new molecules.
b) These particles are
in constant motion.
Increased
temperature means
greater energy of
motion.
Assessment limits:
• use of particle
model – states of
matter, phase
changes
• conservation in a
closed system.
a)
Matter is composed
of atoms and
molecules or ions.
b) Atoms are
composed of
electrons protons
and neutrons.
Assessment limits:
• When using the
term atomic mass,
also include mass
number (i.e., atomic
mass or mass
number).
c) Elements are placed
in the periodic table
based on the
structure of their
atoms.
Assessment limits:
• reactivity trends
across period and
down groups
• families (alkali
metals, alkaline
earth metals,
halogens, noble
gases
• coinage metals, and
transition metals.
)
Reactions of
elements depend on
the arrangement of
electrons in the
atom.
) Compounds are
formed when atoms
of elements combine
by gaining, losing
(transferring) or
sharing electrons.
Assessment limits:
• ionic vs. covalent
bonding
• ionic compounds
such as sodium
chloride, covalent
compounds such as
hydrogen, water,
methane, hydrogen
chloride
• Lewis dot structures
for electron
configuration of
same
c) The arrangement of
particles (atoms,
molecules, ions) in a
substance
determines its
structure and
properties.
Assessment limits:
• diamond, sodium
chloride, graphite,
metallic bonding
Physical Science (P)
SC.P3.P
SC.P4.P
(continued)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
1.
Matter and
Materials - their
properties,
components,
interactions and
changes
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
SC.P5. P
SC.P6. P
SC.M1. P
c)
Mixtures are made of
elements and/or
compounds and they
can be separated
using properties of
substances from
which they are made
such as density,
solubility, particle
size and boiling
point.
Assessment limits:
•
describe techniques
and filtration,
distillation,
decanting process
•
apply in new
situations
d) Pure substances can
either be elements or
compounds and
cannot be broken
down by physical
means.
Assessment limits:
•
name some common
elements and
compounds- such as
carbon, oxygen,
hydrogen, nitrogen,
sugar, common salt,
water, vinegar,
coinage metals,
carbon monoxide,
carbon dioxide,
hydrogen peroxide
and terms such as
gasoline and fuel
SC.M2. P
•
counting atoms in a
given formula
•
chemical reactions
- reactant vs.
product in a
reaction
•
some examples of
chemical reactions
– dilute acid ,
vinegar, with
calcium carbonate
forming carbon
dioxide; peroxide
and manganese
dioxide forming
oxygen
•
acids and bases,
include testing
using litmus paper,
pH strips or
solution (broad
categories only –
acid range, alkaline
range and neutral)
(c) Burning and
rusting are
examples of
oxidation – when
oxygen is
combined with
another substance.
Assessment limits:
•
burning of
magnesium,
carbon, wax,
hydrogen, fossil
fuels
•
using up oxygen as
things burn (candle
experiment
•
rusting – especially
Bermuda context –
salt air makes
things rust faster.
SC.M3. P
c)
About 100 different
elements have been
identified, out of
which everything is
made. Some groups
of elements have
similar properties.
The periodic table is
a classification
system of elements.
Assessment limits:
•
Mendeleev’s
contribution
•
broad structure –
metals/nonmetals,
groups and periods,
families alkali
metals, alkaline
earth metals,
halogens, noble
gases, coinage
metals
•
symbols for first
20 elements and
coinage metals
d) Chemical changes
occur when one or
more substances
react together to
form another
substance with
different properties.
Chemical changes
can be represented
by using appropriate
symbols, formulas
and chemical
equations.
SC.S1. P
c)
c)
About 100
different elements
have been
identified, out of
which everything
is made. Some
groups of elements
have similar
properties. Some
elements do not fit
into any categories,
such as carbon and
hydrogen, the
essential elements
of living matter.
The periodic table
is a classification
system of
elements.
Chemical changes
occur when one or
more substances
react together to
form another
substance with
different
properties.
Burning and
rusting are
examples of
oxidation, when
oxygen is
combined with
another substance.
Some factors that
influence reaction
rates include
temperature, and
particle size.
SC.S2. P
c)
Chemical formulas
and balanced
equations are used
to represent
chemical reactions.
Assessment limits:
•
types of reaction
include synthesis,
single and double
displacement,
decomposition,
oxidation;
acid/base –
neutralization
•
acids, bases and
salt formation
•
full pH scale,
write formulas and
balance simple
equations
c) Factors that affect
reaction rates
include
temperature,
concentration, and
particle size of the
reactants, catalysts.
7
Physical Science (P)
SC.P3.P
SC.P4.P
(continued)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
1.
Matter and
Materials - their
properties,
components,
interactions and
changes
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
SC.P5. P
SC.P6. P
SC.M1. P
SC.M2. P
SC.M3. P
Reaction rates can
be changed by
certain factors.
Assessment limits:
•
identify faster
reaction rate from
diagram or
description
•
suggest how a
reaction rate can be
made faster
Assessment limits:
• name simple
compounds using
standard convention
e.g. oxides,
chlorides
• identification and
counting atoms in
an unfamiliar
formula
•
word equations
only terms –
reactant and
product; reactions
include metal + acid
forming hydrogen,
metal carbonate+
acid forming carbon
dioxide; manganese
dioxide + hydrogen
peroxide forming
oxygen; acid +base
=neutralization
• chemical reactions
that occur in the
human body and
during
photosynthesis
e) Some factors that
influence reaction
rates include
temperature and
particle size.
d)
SC.S1. P
SC.S2. P
8
Physical Science (P)
SC.P3.P
SC.P4.P
SC.P5. P
SC.P6. P
SC.M1. P
SC.M2. P
SC.M3. P
SC.S1. P
SC.S2. P
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
2.
Force and Motion
- the relationship
between force,
mass and motion
of an object and
the nature and
interaction of
waves and matter
a)
b)
The way to change
how an object is
moving is to push
it or pull it (apply a
force). The heavier
the object, the
bigger the push or
pull it needs to
move it
(understand
relative positions
of objects).
Simple tools and
machines apply
pushes and pulls
(forces) to make
things move easier
(include levers,
ramps).
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
Unbalanced forces
acting on an object
will change the
speed of the object
or the direction in
which it is traveling
and sometimes its
shape. The larger
the force, the greater
the change in
motion will be.
When two
substances that are
touching move past
each other, a
frictional force is
produced.
Assessment limits:
•
canceling effect of
balanced forces;
•
gravitational force
and weight- earth,
space, moon
•
force has both
magnitude and
direction (e.g. use
of spring scale,
dropping /kicking
ball)
•
formula
speed=distance/time
(apply to problem)
a)
Work is the use of
force to move an
object.
Assessment limits:
•
work (w)= force (f)
x distance (d)
•
use of spring scale
•
energy transferred
when work is done
•
unit joule
a)
Vibrations such as
sound and
earthquakes set up
wave like
disturbances that
spread away from
the source much
like water waves.
Sound waves enter
the ear causing
hearing, just as
emission or
reflection of light
waves causes
‘seeing.’ Light
travels in a straight
line and can be
reflected, refracted
or absorbed.
Assessment limits:
•
recognize,
compare, contrast
examples
b) White light can be
split up into a
spectrum of
different colours.
The human eye
only responds to a
narrow range of
wavelengths.
There are other
types of radiation
beyond the ends of
the visible
spectrum.
Similarly, there are
sound waves that
we cannot hear –
“ultrasound.”
c) Waves move at
different speeds in
different materials.
Light can travel
through a vacuum,
but sound requires
a medium to travel.
(speed of sound).
a)
Energy can be
transmitted as
waves.
Assessment limits:
•
characteristics,
nature, interactions
of waves
•
amplitude,
wavelength,
frequency
•
various forms of
electromagnetic
waves
•
sound and light
waves
•
speed of sound,
•
visible light:
reflection,
refraction;
including angle of
incidence
•
types of
electromagnetic
radiation
•
electromagnetic
spectrum: infrared,
ultraviolet, x-rays,
microwaves, radio
waves
•
colour and
wavelength
a)
Forces have both
magnitude and
direction (vectors).
b) Forces cause
changes in motion.
The change in
motion of an object
is proportional to
the force applied
and inversely
proportional to the
mass of the object.
c) When two objects
interact, they exert
equal and opposite
forces on each
other.
Assessment limits:
•
Newton’s Laws of
Motion
d) Apply formula to a
problem.
Assessment limits:
•
words and symbols
in formulas (not
symbols by
themselves)
•
force = mass x
acceleration
•
work = force x
distance
•
power = work
done/ time taken)
9
Physical Science (P)
SC.P3.P
SC.P4.P
SC.P5. P
SC.P6. P
SC.M1. P
SC.M2. P
SC.M3. P
SC.S1. P
SC.S2. P
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
3.
Energy - the
sources and forms
of energy,
including
transmission and
transformations
and how energy
helps explain the
structure of
matter and the
universe
a)
Energy keeps
things going and
makes things
warm. (The sun is
a source of heat
and light.)
b) Sound is produced
by vibrating
objects. Sound can
move through
some things.
Assessment limits:
•
glass, water, air
c) Light from sources
passes through
some materials.
Assessment limits:
•
very simple
application
•
opaque vs.
transparent
When light cannot
pass through
materials, it leads
to the formation of
shadows. Shadows
form as a result of
light from the sun.
Assessment limits:
•
only understand
cause of shadow
•
not predicting
location and length
d) Light can be
reflected from
some surfaces.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
Heat can be
produced in many
ways.
Assessment limits:
•
rubbing – friction,
burning fuels some
machines that are
working
•
mixing some
things together
b) Some things
conduct heat and
some things do not.
Assessment limits:
•
insulators – warm
clothing like wool
and fat in animals
and things that are
not insulators
•
do not use term
“conductor”
c) Heat flows from
warmer things to
cooler things. Heat
changes some
matter.
•
taking temperature
to measure how hot
or how cold
•
adding heat to
make things
warmer, melting,
evaporating
•
making and
keeping things cold
i.e. taking away
heat
d) Things that give
off light also give
off heat.
Assessment limits:
•
For example light
bulb, sun
a)
Energy can be
stored and
transformed in
many ways.
Assessment limits:
•
electrical to heat,
light, sound and
mechanical
b) Electricity travels
through circuits to
make things work.
Electricity in
circuits can
produce heat, light,
sound and
magnetism.
a)
Energy cannot be
created or
destroyed, only
changed from one
form to another.
Transformations of
energy usually
produce heat
energy.
Assessment limits:
•
example: burning
fuel gives heat and
light
•
identifying forms of
energy heat, light,
sound, electrical
•
do not test nuclear
•
conversions
including familiar
examples such as
fuel combustion in
a car, electrical to
sound in a CD
player
•
food as source of
energy
a)
Energy cannot be
created or destroyed,
only changed from
one form to another.
Transformations of
energy usually
produce heat energy.
Energy provides the
ability to do work and
exists in many forms.
Assessment limits:
•
sound, light etc.
b) Energy can be stored
and transformed into
the energy of motion.
Assessment limits:
•
Understanding of
kinetic v. potential
energy
c) Heat is transferred by
collision of atoms,
radiation and
convection in fluids.
Heat moves at
different rates
depending on where
the objects are in
relation to each other.
When different parts
of a substance are at
different
temperatures, energy
is transferred from
places where the
temperature is higher
to places where the
temperature is lower.
Assessment limits:
• Conductors and poor
conductors (insulators)
•
expansion and
contraction
•
impact of heat on
environment, warming
atmosphere, oceans
• reducing heat loss
from homes
a)
Energy is
transferred from
batteries to other
components in
electrical circuits.
Electrical energy
in circuits can
produce heat, light
sound and
chemical changes.
Components in a
circuit resist a
current flowing
through them.
Assessment limits:
•
Interpretation of
circuit diagrams
•
complete circuit
•
understand
parallel and series
circuits
a)
Energy cannot be
created or
destroyed only
transformed.
During many
processes, energy
is transferred to the
environment in the
form of heat.
Assessment limits:
•
Conduction,
convection,
radiation
•
Understand of
specific heat solve problem if
given formula
b) Heat energy in a
material consists of
disordered motions
of its atoms or
molecules.
Assessment limits:
•
change of phase
•
Kinetic theory movement of
particles
)
Energy is
transferred from
batteries to other
components in
electrical circuits.
Electrical energy in
circuits can
produce heat, light
sound and
chemical changes.
Components in a
circuit resist a
current flowing
through them.
Assessment limits:
•
Understanding and
application of
circuits
•
direct/alternating
current
•
more complicated
circuits at this level
•
understand
resistors
•
household circuits,
wiring plugs and
safety features fuses, circuit
breakers
•
calculation of
power (current x
voltage)
•
simple calculations
related to
household electric
use)
10
Physical Science (P)
SC.P3.P
SC.P4.P
SC.P5. P
SC.P6. P
SC.M1. P
SC.M2. P
SC.M3. P
SC.S1. P
SC.S2. P
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
4.
Forces of Nature gravitational,
electrical and
magnetic forces as
the fundamental
forces acting in
nature
a)
Things (near the
earth) fall to the
ground, unless
something holds
them up.
b) Magnets can make
some things move
without being
touched.
Assessment limits:
•
terms – attract and
repel
•
north and south
poles
•
metals that
magnets attract e.g.
iron
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
The earth’s gravity
pulls any object
towards it. Gravity
is the force, which
pulls objects
towards the earth,
and this force
(weight) differs in
places where
gravity is different.
a)
A magnet pulls on
things made of iron
and pushes or pulls
other magnets.
Assessment limits:
•
like poles, unlike
poles
•
north and south
poles a
•
Attract, repel
b) Materials that have
been electrically
charged pull on
uncharged
materials and may
push or pull other
charged materials.
a)
b)
Objects exert
gravitational forces
on every other
object.
The sun’s
gravitational pull
holds the earth and
other planets in orbit
and holds moons in
orbit around their
planets.
N/A
a)
Electric currents
and magnets can
exert a force on
each other, that is,
electric currents
can produce
magnetic forces
and magnets can
cause electric
currents.
Assessment limits:
•
static electricity –
caused by friction;
•
current electricity;
•
magnets;
•
electromagnets
example how to
increase strength
•
magnetic fields illustrations
N/A
a)
Gravitational force
is an attraction
between masses.
b) Electric forces
between electrons,
protons hold atoms
and molecules
together and are
involved in all
chemical reactions.
Materials are
electrically neutral.
c) Different kinds of
materials respond
differently to
electric forces.
d) Moving electric
changes produce
magnetic forces
and moving
magnets produce
electric forces.
Assessment limits:
•
explanation
magnetic effect of
an electric current
•
application of
principles of
electricity and
magnetism to a
simple electric
motor
e) Large amounts of
energy are released
from nuclear
reactions in the sun
and other stars
because of the
strength of forces
that hold the
nucleus of the atom
together.
11
SCIENCE (SC) PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
for
LIFE SCIENCE (L)
Life Science (L) consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by:
•
Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
•
Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts and graphs, as appropriate
SC.P3.L
SC.P4.L
SC.P5.L
SC.P6.L
SC.M1.L
SC.M2.L
SC.M3.L
Organisms can be
grouped into
plants, which use
sunlight to make
their own food
and animals,
which consume
energy-rich foods.
b) Similarities
among organisms
are used to infer
how closely
related the
organisms are
used. Details of
internal and
external structures
are best used to
classify
organisms.
Assessment limits:
•
simple
classification keys
•
animal and plant
kingdom
•
vertebrates and
invertebrates
•
microscopic
living things
N/A
N/A
SC.S1.L
SC.S2.L
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
1.
Diversity of Life
- the variety of
living things
and the
processes
responsible for
the maintenance
of life
a)
Most living things need
water food and air.
Some things are alive
(or living) and become
non-living when they
die. Other things have
never been alive.
b) Plants and animals have
features that help them
live in different places.
Assessment limits:
•
habitat - includes
hibiscus, skink, cahow,
polar bear, cactus,
penguin, etc.
Plants and animals have
structures that perform
specific functions.
Assessment limits:
•
plants e.g. leaf, stem,
root, flower, seed, fruit
•
animals e.g. webbed feet
for swimming, etc
c) There are different kinds
of plants and animals in
different places. They
have senses to help them
to exist in their
environment.
d) Living things can be
sorted into groups using
various features. The
features used for
grouping depend on the
purpose of grouping.
Assessment limits:
•
•
a)
b)
c)
d)
Life processes
common to
animals include
nutrition,
movement,
growth and
reproduction.
Organisms need
certain
conditions to
remain healthy.
Plants and
animals have
features that
help them live
in different
places and have
structures that
perform
specific
functions.
Understand the
difference
between living
and nonliving.
a)
Living things can be
sorted into groups using
various features. The
features used for
grouping depend on the
purpose of grouping.
Assessment limits:
•
for example physical
characteristics
•
understanding of sorting
into smaller and smaller
groups (kingdom to
species)
•
do not test terms such as
phylum etc but can use
a full pictorial
classification chart as
stimulus for questions
about each group with
details of a animal and
plant kingdom
•
animal kingdom;
characteristics of
animals
•
symmetry vs. no
symmetry
•
vertebrates including
mammals, birds, ,fish,
amphibians, reptiles
•
invertebrates can use
chart for distinguishing
characteristics; general
examples such as squid,
snails, spiders, insects,
sea anemones, jellyfish
a)
Plants and
animals have
certain
characteristics
that help them
live/survive in
different places.
Assessment limits:
•
habitat - identify
characteristics of
plants and
animals and relate
to the organism’s
habitat
•
land habitats rocky coast,
beach dune,
coastal upland,
upland forest,
saltwater marsh,
and fresh water
marsh
a)
a)
Biological
diversity is the
variety of living
things. Scientists
classify organisms
and give each one
universally
accepted scientific
name.
Assessment limits:
•
binomial
nomenclature;
•
Linnaeus’system of
classification,
•
taxonomic
categories
•
Dichotomous keys
a)
b)
The great diversity
of species
increases the
chance that at least
some living things
will survive after
significant changes
to the environment.
Kinship can be
estimated from
similarities of
DNA sequences.
Plants and animals
include birds, fish, and
mammals
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
12
Life Science (L)
SC.P3.L
SC.P4.L
SC.P5.L
SC.P6.L
SC.M1.L
SC.M2.L
SC.M3.L
SC.S1.L
In some organisms
all genes come from
a single parent and in
others half come
from each parent.
Assessment limits:
•
DNA contains
information
necessary to make an
organism
b) In sexual
reproduction a single
specialized cell from
a female merges with
a specialized cell
from a male. As the
fertilized egg
multiplies, the same
genetic information
is copied in each cell.
This cell division
produces a small
cluster of cells that
then differentiate by
appearance and
function to form the
basic tissues of an
embryo. Patterns of
human development
are similar to those of
other vertebrates.
c) Selective breeding
involves breeding
individuals with
particular inherited
characteristics.
Assessment limits:
•
Interpretation of
completed Punnett
square
N/A
SC.S2.L
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
2.
Heredity –
biological traits
and how they are
passed on from
generation to
generation
N/A
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
Organisms grow
from egg to adult.
Assessment limits:
•
butterfly – Monarch
•
toad- same as frog
•
human, or other
mammal
•
flowering plant
•
life cycles – order,
and identify missing
stage
b) Some likenesses
between offspring
and parents are
inherited.
Characteristics are
transferred from one
generation to
another.
Assessment limits:
•
identify parent and
offspring
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
a)
a)
Sorting and
recombination
gives a variety of
possible
combinations.
Assessment limits:
•
Complete and
interpret Punnett
square monohybrid cross
only
•
understanding of
homozygous,
heterozygous,
complete
dominance, genes,
alleles
b) Asexual
reproduction
produces offspring
that are identical to
the parent (clones).
Sexual
reproduction is a
source of genetic
variation.
Assessment limits:
•
Information passed
from parent to
offspring is coded
in DNA molecules
•
Comparison of
mitosis and
meiosis
•
ordering the
phases of meiosis pictures
•
Understanding of
the role of meiosis
13
Life Science (L)
SC.P3.L
SC.P4.L
SC.P5.L
SC.P6.L
SC.M1.L
SC.M2.L
SC.M3.L
SC.S1.L
SC.S2.L
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
3.
Cells, Organs and
Organ Systems –
the structure,
function and
reproduction of
cells that
maintain the
organization
essential for life
and specialized
organs systems
that interact with
each other to
maintain internal
balance
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
The body is a
system in which
parts do things
for other parts
and for the
organism as a
whole.
Assessment limits:
•
People obtain
energy from food
and materials for
body repair and
growth.
•
The indigestible
parts of food are
eliminated mouth, stomach,
large intestine,
small intestine.
•
By breathing,
people take in
oxygen they need
to live.
•
The skeletal and
muscular systems
help us to move
(skull, ribs,
backbone,
muscles, joints).
•
The skin protects
the body from
harmful
substances and
other organisms.
•
The brain enables
human beings to
think and sends
messages to other
body parts to help
them work
properly.
•
Some other
animals have
body systems
with the same
functions.
a)
Some living
things have a
single cell, but
still need water,
air, food, a
method of getting
rid of waste and
an environment
in which to live.
Living things are
made mostly of
cells.
b) Microorganisms
are too small to
be seen with
unaided eye.
They can be
harmful but most
are beneficial.
c) Recognize plant
cells and animal
cells including
the basic cell
parts and
functions.
Assessment limits:
•
cell membrane –
boundary
•
cell wall –
support
•
nucleus –
“control centre/
brain” of the cell
•
can use more
fully labeled
diagrams to
respond to
questions on
distinguishing
characteristics.
a)
Cells are building
blocks of all living
organisms.
a)
Cells are building blocks of
all living organisms. In any
given organism there may be
many millions of cells that
repeatedly divide to make
more cells for growth and
repair.
Assessment limits:
•
specialized cells: animal sperm cells, nerve cells,
blood cells, egg cells or ova;
plant: root hair etc
•
Cell functions are similar in
organisms
•
animal cell and plant cell
•
structure and function of
organelles including common
ones: nucleus, cytoplasm, cell
membrane, mitochondria
ones
•
plant cell – cell wall, vacuole,
chloroplast
•
basic movement of molecules
in and out of the cell diffusion, osmosis
b) Humans and other animals
have body systems for
obtaining and providing
energy, defense, reproduction
and the coordination of body
functions. Different body
tissues and organs are made
up of different kinds of cells.
Assessment limits:
•
organization of cells to
tissues to organs to organ
systems
•
tissue - group of cells with
similar structure
•
organs made out of tissues
•
different organs form organ
systems
•
functions of different systems
and their coordination with
each other (digestive,
respiratory, circulatory,
urinary)
a)
Cells are building
blocks of all
living organisms.
In any given
organism there
may be many
millions of cells
that repeatedly
divide to make
more cells for
growth and
repair.
Assessment limits:
•
comparison of
fertilization of
human and
flowering plants
•
cells sperm and
ova
•
parts of flower
including stigma,
style, ovary,
stamen, anther,
filament
b) Humans and
other animals
have body
systems for
obtaining and
providing energy,
defense,
reproduction and
the coordination
of body
functions.
Assessment limits:
•
reproductive
system;
•
protection and
support of fetus,
including risk of
harmful
substances
including drugs,
viruses
a)
A cell is a wellspecialized and
complex system.
b) Cells function
best under
particular
conditions of
water and
temperature. The
maintenance of
these conditions is
called
homeostasis.
Basic
understanding of
an organism’s
response to
changes in the
environment.
Assessment limits:
•
regulation of body
temperature and
water balance
c) Organelles in the
cells use chemical
reactions to carry
out life processes.
Assessment limits:
•
cell theory
•
prokaryotes and
eukaryotes
•
eukaryotic cell
structure
•
structure and
function of
organelles in plant
and animal cells
extended to
nucleolus,
endoplasmic
reticulum, Golgi
apparatus,
centrioles,
ribosome
•
transport across
cell boundaries –
functions of cell
membrane and
cell wall
a)
Humans and other
animals have
body systems for
obtaining and
providing energy,
defense,
reproduction and
the coordination
of body functions.
Assessment limits:
•
Human male and
female
reproductive
systems anatomy
•
role of hormones
•
factors that affect
fetal
development;
•
flowering plants,
flowers as
reproductive
organs structure
and function sepals and petal
and stamens and
carpels
•
wind and insect
pollination e.g.
dandelion and
hibiscus
respectively
14
Life Science (L)
SC.P3.L
SC.P4.L
SC.P5.L
SC.P6.L
SC.M1.L
SC.M2.L
SC.M3.L
SC.S1.L
In all environments – fresh
water, marine, forest etc. organisms with similar needs
may compete with each other
for resources (food, space,
water, air, shelter). The
growth and survival of
organisms depend on the
physical conditions. In
Bermuda many of the species
are at the extreme limits of
their geographical
distribution. As a small
oceanic island, the land and
water ecosystems are
especially at risk due to the
pressure of development.
b) Coral reefs are physical
structures produced by
organisms. Corals need light
and warm temperatures, thus
grow in shallow, clear, warm
waters. Vast numbers of
species live on coral reefs and
have evolved special
symbiotic relationships.
Assessment limits:
• marine habitats – coral reefs,
sea grass and mangrove
forests
•
function of reef systems and
risk to reef systems locally
and globally
• over fishing, fish pot ban,
interpreting data of fish catch,
invasive species e.g. lion fish
•
rocky coast as a habitat –
structure and organisms that
live there
c) Ocean food chains are
threatened by over fishing by
people. As the large
predatory fish stocks such as
tuna, shark and swordfish
decline, smaller fish near the
base of the ocean food web
are taken. This is a serious
international problem that
threatens the health of the
oceans.
N/A
SC.S2.L
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
Interdependence of life
– relationships
amongst organisms
and their dependence
on their environment
a)
Animals eat
plants or other
animals for food.
Assessment limits:
•
predator, prey
b) Animals use
plants for shelter
and nesting.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
Living organisms
modify their
environment to
meet their needs.
Assessment limits:
•
use examples of
commonly
known
Bermudian
organisms
N/A
a)
Animals and
plants depend on
each other in
many ways.
Assessment limits:
•
Interpret food
chains and simple
food webs
•
basic roles –
producers,
consumers, and
decomposers
Some insects and
various other
organisms
depend on dead
plants for food.
Organisms
interact with one
another in
various ways.
Assessment limits:
•
carrying of pollen
•
dispersal of seed
b) Changes in an
organism’s
habitat have
varying impacts.
These impacts
can be positive or
negative.
a)
In all environments – fresh
water, marine, forest etcorganisms with similar needs
may compete with each other
for resources (food, space,
water, air, shelter). The
growth and survival of
organisms depend on the
physical conditions. In
Bermuda many of the species
are at the extreme limits of
their geographical
distribution.
Assessment limits:
•
endemic and naturalized
plants and animals
•
introduced and invasive
species in Bermuda
b) Some organisms are better
suited to survive in certain
environments due to their
characteristics.
Assessment limits:
•
do not test the term
adaptation at this level
c) A species is at risk when there
is a mismatch of adaptation
and the environment.
Assessment limits:
• Bermuda – how did
organisms get here and
survive – flotsam, jetsam,
flying, swimming, storm,
ships etc.
• risk of invasive species in
Bermuda
• species at risk - the cahow,
tree frog, green turtle, cane
toad and skink
•
food chains and food webs
including local examples
d) Bermuda, as a small oceanic
island, the land and water
ecosystems are especially at
risk due to the pressure of
development.
e) Organisms can be categorized
as producers, consumers and
decomposers of organic
matter.
a)
In all environments
– fresh water,
marine, forest etcorganisms with
similar needs may
compete with each
other for resources
(food, space, water,
air, shelter). The
growth and survival
of organisms depend
on the physical
conditions.
Assessment limits:
•
Bermuda’s 6 land
habitats – listed in
curriculum
document
•
main species in
each habitat
•
physical isolation
and impact on
species in habitats
b) As a small oceanic
island, the land and
water ecosystems
are especially at risk
due to the pressure
of development.
c) Organisms can be
categorized as
producers,
consumers and
decomposers of
organic matter.
a)
a)
Ecosystems
can be
reasonably
stable, but can
change.
Assessment limits:
• levels of
organization –
species,
populations,
communities,
ecosystems,
biomes
• change due to
climate or
appearance of
new species
• basic concept
of succession
b) Humans alter
equilibrium in
an ecosystem.
15
SC.P3.L
Life Science (L)
SC.P4.L
SC.P5.L
SC.P6.L
SC.M1.L
SC.M2.L
SC.M3.L
SC.S1.L
SC.S2.L
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
4.
Flow of Matter
and Energy - the
linking of
organisms to one
another and their
physical setting
by the transfer
and
transformation of
matter and
energy
a)
Plants and
animals need
water. Animals
need food and
plants need light.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
b)
Food can be
traced back to
plants. Plants
get their food
from the sun.
Organisms grow,
die and decay.
a)
Food provides fuel
and building material
for all organisms.
Plants make their own
food by using energy
directly from sunlight.
Animals eat other
organisms to obtain
energy.
b) All organisms depend
on two main
interconnected food
webs, one in the
ocean, the other on
land. This becomes
an indefinite cycle as
organisms decompose
after death returning
material to the
environment.
Assessment limits:
•
Interpret food chains
and simple food webs
e.g. algae, tadpole,
duck/crane
c) Matter is transferred
from one organism to
another organism
repeatedly. The
amount of matter
remains the same,
although it might
change in form and
location.
d) Energy can change
from one form to
another in living
things. Animals
oxidize their food and
get energy, releasing
some of it as heat.
Almost all food
energy comes from
sunlight originally.
a)
Food provides fuel
and building material
for all organisms.
Plants make their own
food by using energy
directly from sunlight.
Animals eat other
organisms to obtain
energy. All organisms
depend on two main
interconnected food
webs one in the ocean,
the other on land.
This becomes an
indefinite cycle as
organisms decompose
after death returning
material to the
environment.
Assessment limits:
• Interpret food chains
and simple food webs
• focus on land food
webs
• e.g .ant, lizard,
kiskadee
•
decomposing matter,
cockroach, toad
g) Matter is transferred
from one organism to
another organism
repeatedly. The
amount of matter
remains the same,
although it might
change in form and
location.
Assessment limits:
•
closed system
Energy can change
from one form to
another in living
things. Animals
oxidize their food and
get energy, releasing
some of it as heat.
Almost all food
energy comes from
sunlight originally.
a)
Food provides fuel
and building material
for all organisms.
Plants make their
own food by using
energy directly from
sunlight. Animals
eat other organisms
to obtain energy.
b) All organisms
depend on two main
interconnected food
webs in the ocean,
the other on land.
This becomes an
indefinite cycle as
organisms
decompose after
death returning
material to the
environment.
Assessment limits:
•
Interpret food chains
and simple food
webs
•
focus on marine food
webs
c) Matter is transferred
from one organism to
another organism
repeatedly. The
amount of matter
remains the same,
although it might
change in form and
location.
N/A
a)
Limiting factors such as
water, energy, oxygen and
minerals, determine the
amount of life that an
ecosystem can support.
Assessment limits:
• energy flow – producers,
consumers
• feeding relationships –
food chains, food webs,
• trophic levels
• ecological pyramids –
energy pyramid, biomass
pyramid, pyramid of
numbers
b) The sun is the source of
most of the energy
resources on earth. These
resources are being burned
by people and this stored
energy is being transferred
back into the environment
as heat and carbon dioxide.
Assessment limits:
•
fossil fuels – oil, gas, coal
•
cycles of matter – water
cycle , nutrient cycles
including nitrogen cycle,
carbon cycle
c) The impact of humans on
ecosystems depends on
factors such as population
size, levels of consumption
and waste, technological
and industrial processes
(social and economic
factors). The principle of
sustainable development is
critical to survival.
d) The transfer of chemical
elements through food
webs - the continual
impact of energy from sun
light to maintain the
process.
Assessment limits:
• photosynthesis, respiration
16
SC.P3.L
Life Science (L)
SC.P4.L
SC.P5.L
SC.P6.L
SC.M1.L
SC.M2.L
SC.M3.L
SC.S1.L
SC.S2.L
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
6.
Evolution of Life
– the evolution of
life on earth,
natural selection
as an explanation
of biological
processes
a)
Different plants
and animals have
different external
features. These
features help them
to live in different
places.
b) Some kinds of
organisms that
once lived on earth
have completely
disappeared.
Assessment limits:
•
skeleton, fossils,.
dinosaur
a)
b)
Individuals of the
same kind differ in
their
characteristics.
This can help them
to continue to
survive and
reproduce.
Fossils can be
compared to one
another and to
organisms that are
alive today.
N/A
a)
b)
The way in which
cells function is
similar in all living
organisms.
Thousands of
layers of
sedimentary rock
provide evidence
for the long history
of earth and its life
forms. Fossils of
more recently
formed rock layers
are more likely to
contain fossils
resembling existing
species.
a)
b)
c)
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
Some individuals
with certain traits
are more likely to
survive and
reproduce than
others. Changes in
the environment
can affect survival.
Patterns in human
development are
similar to that of
other vertebrates.
Similarities among
organisms are
found in internal
features as well.
This infers a
degree of
relatedness.
People can control
some
characteristics of
plants and animals
by selective
breeding. This
means that the
descendants are
different from their
ancestors.
a)
b)
c)
Biological
classifications are
based on how
organisms are
related.
Living things
evolve over time.
Natural selection
and its
evolutionary
consequences
provide a scientific
explanation for the
fossil record of
ancient life forms
and striking
molecular
similarities
observed among
the diverse species
of living
organisms.
The millions of
different species of
plants, animals and
microorganisms
that live on earth
today are related
by descent from
common ancestors.
N/A
17
SCIENCE (SC) PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
for
EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (E)
Earth and Space (E) science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources, meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by:
•
Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
•
Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts and graphs, as appropriate
SC.P3.E
SC.P4.E
SC.P5.E
SC.P6.E
SC.M1.E
SC.M2.E
SC.M3.E
SC.S1.E
SC.S2.E
The universe has evolved over billions of
years and will continue to evolve.
b) Stars were condensed by gravity out of
clouds of molecules of the lightest
elements until nuclear fusion of light
elements into heavier ones began to occur.
Assessment limits:
•
Fusion released great amounts of energy
over millions of years.
•
Eventually some stars exploded producing
clouds of heavy elements from which
other stars and planets could later
condense.
•
This process of star formation and
destruction continues
c) The stars differ from one another in size,
temperature and age, but appear to be made
up of the same elements that are found on
earth.
Assessment limits:
•
Hertzsprung – Russell diagram as
stimulus for questions
•
making comparisons and interpreting
diagrams
d) The bodies of the solar system are bound
together by gravitational force. This force
of attraction is exerted by every object on
every other object.
Assessment limits:
•
organization of solar system
•
characteristics of planets
•
sun as star, moon, tides, eclipses
d) Increasingly sophisticated technologies and
subsequent analysis by mathematical
modeling are being used to explore our
universe and beyond. This includes the
search for evidence of life elsewhere from
earth.
Assessment limits:
N/A
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
1.
Astronomy - the
current scientific
view of the
nature,
components,
matter and
energy sources of
the universe
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
Our sun is one of many
stars. There are stars
smaller and larger than
the sun.
b) The sun is a source of
light and casts shadows
on objects on earth.
Assessment limits:
•
basic understanding of
sun and shadows
•
shadows cast at noon
vs. early morning or
evening
•
appropriate shape of
shadows
c) The Earth is one of the
planets that orbit the sun.
The Earth is the third
planet from the sun.
d) The earth orbits around
the sun and the moon
orbits around the Earth.
e) Days, months and years
are related to the
movement of the Earth
and the moon. The
rotation of the Earth
every 24 hours produces
a day and night cycle.
The moon orbits the
Earth. The shape of the
moon looks different
every day, but looks the
same in about 28 days.
f) A telescope can help
people see distant
objects better that they
can with unaided eyes.
Some stars and planets
can only be seen with
telescopes.
N/A
N/A
a)
The sun is a medium sized star located
near the edge of a disc shaped galaxy
called the Milky Way. The sun is the
closest star to earth.
b) The universe contains billions of
galaxies and each galaxy contains
billions of stars.
c) Telescopes show the characteristics of
objects close to earth such as the moon
and they are part of important
technologies that can show that there
are many more stars in the sky than one
can see with the unaided eye. Satellites
are an important kind of technology that
have been put into orbit around the
earth to send information from place to
place, monitor earth’s weather and other
conditions, observe the universe.
d) The sun and the stars are light sources.
Planets are seen by reflected light.
Light from the sun takes a few minutes
to reach the earth. Light from the next
star takes a few years to reach the earth.
e) Nine planets of different size,
composition and physical features rotate
the sun in nearly circular orbits.
Assessment limits:
• gravitational pull of the sun,
• tides and gravity pull of moon and sun
f) Earth is orbited by one moon, artificial
satellites and debris. Earth’s moon
orbits around the earth in a 28 day
cycle. Moon phases describe what part
of the moon is lighted by the sun and
how much of that is seen from earth.
Other planets have more than one moon
and other kinds of objects, including ice
particles, orbiting them.
N/A
a)
The sun and
the stars are
light
sources.
Planets are
seen by
reflected
light.
a)
•
cameras, binoculars, telescopes, satellites,
space probes
18
SC.P3.E
Earth and Space (E)
SC.P4.E
SC.P5.E
SC.P6.E
SC.M1.E
SC.M2.E
SC.M3.E
SC.S1.E
The earth is mostly
rock. Three
quarters of the
earth’s surface is
covered by a layer
of water, some of
which is frozen.
Earth is surrounded
by a blanket of air.
The interior of the
earth is hot. Heat
flow and the
movement of
material within the
earth cause
earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions
and create
mountains and
ocean basins.
Oceanic islands,
such as Bermuda,
are formed by
volcanic activity
along ocean floor.
Assessment limits:
• Earth layers - crust,
mantle, inner core,
outer core
• identification of
layers and recognize
basic characteristics
• formation of
Bermuda using
ridge and adapted
hot spot theories
•
limestone caps and
reefs
• conditions for coral
growth;
• function of reef
system barrier/protection
from storm surge,
tsunami;, food
source , beauty
N/A
SC.S2.E
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
2.
Geology - the
features of the
earth’s surface,
how they were
formed and how
they are
continually
changing
a)
Landforms are
features of a
country. Bermuda
landforms include
caves, hills, cliffs,
wetlands
(including
marshes), islands.
Landforms in other
countries – deserts,
valleys, rivers, lake
and mountains.
Landforms are
changed by wind
and water.
b) Earth’s materials
include solid rocks
that come in many
shapes and sizes
from large
boulders to pebbles
and grains of sand.
c) Animals and plants
can change the
earth.
Assessment limits:
• environment and
surroundings
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
The earth has
changed over time.
Waves, wind,
water and ice are
always acting on
the earth. They
erode rocks and
soil. This can
happen in seasonal
patterns.
Assessment limits:
•
e.g., the loss of
beach sand during
storms
a)
b)
c)
Rocks consist of
different
combinations of
materials.
When rocks break
and are weathered
smaller rocks are
formed.
Soil consists of
rocks and remains
of plants and can
contain living
organisms or their
remains.
a)
Oceanic islands
such as Bermuda
are formed by
volcanic activity
along ocean
floor.
a)
The earth is mostly
rock.
Assessment limits:
•
rock vs. mineral
•
weathering of rocks chemical/physical
weathering
•
explanation of the
impact of weathering
and erosion on rocks
•
cave formation,
disintegration of cliff
faces and walls,
degradation of
building materials
•
the rock cycle - rock
forming processes
•
Types of rock
sedimentary –
particularly
limestone,
metamorphic,
igneous
b) The rock cycle
includes the
formation,
weathering,
sedimentation and
reformation of rock.
The forms of
material change, but
the total amount
stays the same.
Rocks are usually
found in layers with
the oldest at the
bottom. Thousands
of layers of
sedimentary rock
can give evidence to
the long history of
the changing surface
of the earth and its
life forms.
a)
a)
Water is stored and
moves in pervious
sediments and
rocks called
aquifers (water
bearers).
Assessment limits:
•
In Bermuda there
are different rock
formations which
have different
hydrologic
characteristic.
These rocks are the
container for the
groundwater
•
Fresh groundwater
is found in five
separate areas in
Bermuda (in
approximately 20%
of the island).
•
Fresh ground water
occurs in lensshaped bodies
(Gyhen-Herzberg
lens) that are
laterally
surrounded and
underlain by a zone
of brackish ground
water which is a
mixture of fresh
groundwater and
seawater
19
Earth and Space (E)
SC.P3.E
SC.P4.E
(continued)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
2.
Geology - the
features of the
earth’s surface,
how they were
formed and how
they are
continually
changing
SC.P5.E
SC.P6.E
SC.M1.E
SC.M2.E
SC.M3.E
b)
c)
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
Waves, wind, water
and ice reshape the
earth’s surface,
such as removing
evidence of the
volcanic seamount
that formed
Bermuda. Bermuda
is capped by sandy
limestone rocks
that are
sedimentary
deposits. Sandy
beaches preceded
beach dune
formation in
Bermuda. Beach
sand is Bermuda
can be pink due to
the remains of an
animal that has
coloured its
calcium carbonate
skeleton red. Some
changes in the
earth’s surface are
caused by sudden
events such as
earthquakes,
volcanoes and in
Bermuda,
hurricanes.
However, other
changes happen
over long periods
of time.
Matching
coastlines and
similarities in rock
types and life
forms suggest that
today’s continents
are separated parts
of what was long
ago a single
continent.
SC.S1.E
SC.S2.E
b)
The Bermudian
hydrologic cycle
shows the paths
and processes
involved in the
passage of water
from the
atmosphere to the
ocean. Recharge of
the lens is basically
from rainwater.
Assessment limits:
•
Rainfall percolates
through the soil
and limestones to
the water table.
•
Rainfall lands on
marshes which are
outcroppings of the
groundwater
reservoir.
•
Rainfall lands on
the roofs and is
passed into storage
tanks.
•
Some roads have
drainage wells for
excess rainwater.
This water reaches
the water table.
•
Rainwater from
other roads
evaporates or runs
off into land area
•
Discharge is loss
due to pumping,
plant usage, tidal
action seepage into
the marshes etc.
•
Waste disposal is
from individual
household cesspits.
20
SC.P3.E
Earth and Space (E)
SC.P4.E
SC.P5.E
SC.P6.E
SC.M1.E
SC.M2.E
SC.M3.E
SC.S1.E
Human decisions
have changed the
earth’s land,
oceans and
atmosphere.
Bermuda as an
oceanic island is
especially unique
and vulnerable.
Assessment limits:
•
focus on marine
•
threats to health of
reefs, seagrass beds
and mangrove
forests
b) The sun is the
ultimate source of
most of the earth’s
energy resources
and these resources
are not renewable.
N/A
SC.S2.E
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
3.
Resources -the
earth’s limited
and varied
materials that
supply many of
the resources that
humans use
a)
The earth provides
water, plants for
animals to eat,
resources to build
with and habitats.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
b)
Earth’s resources
include air, water,
soil, minerals and
fuels.
Living things need
a clean
environment to
survive including
clean air and water
etc.
a)
b)
Human decisions
have changed the
earth’s land,
oceans and
atmosphere.
Bermuda as an
oceanic island is
especially unique
and vulnerable.
The sun is the
ultimate source of
most of the earth’s
energy resources
and these resources
are not renewable.
a)
Humans benefit
from the earth’s
resources such as
water, air, soil and
trees.
b) Human decisions
have changed the
earth’s land,
oceans, and
atmosphere.
Bermuda as an
oceanic island is
especially unique
and vulnerable.
Assessment limits:
•
focus on land
a)
a)
The earth has limited
resources some of which
are non renewable.
b) The local and global
environment is affected
by national policies and
practices relating to
energy use, waste
disposal, ecological
management,
manufacturing and
population.
c) In Bermuda sustainable
development is of critical
importance since there is
a limited land mass.
Assessment limits:
•
management of lands
•
reclaiming of land
•
groundwater
•
waste management
techniques etc.
d) Fresh (drinking) water is
a limited resource in
Bermuda.
Assessment limits:
The sources are:•
Term potable (drinkable)
water
•
rainwater collected in
household and other
tanks
•
treated well water from
government-licensed
wells
•
reverse osmosis plants –
use of brackish water
•
water pollution
•
water treatment
methods- filtering,
screening, disinfecting
(boiling, chemical
treatment including
chlorination)
21
SC.P3.E
Earth and Space (E)
SC.P4.E
SC.P5.E
SC.P6.E
SC.M1.E
SC.M2.E
When liquid water
disappears, it turns
into a gas and can
form again as a
liquid when
cooled. If the
temperature is
below freezing a
solid (ice) will
form.
Assessment limits:
•
Understanding of
terms and
processes of the
water cycle
b) The earth is
surrounded by a
layer of air and
water vapour
which under
various conditions
produces different
kinds of weather.
Clouds and fog
consist of tiny
droplets of water.
When air moves
we feel it as wind.
c) Weather and
seasons result from
interactions of
sunlight and
earth’s land, water
and air masses.
Assessment limits:
•
includes weather
conditions, such as
temperature,
rainfall, etc.
N/A
N/A
SC.M3.E
SC.S1.E
Solar energy
causes ocean and
air currents. These
currents impact
upon weather
patterns and
climate.
b) Water cycles
throughout the
earth system. It
evaporates from
the surface of the
earth, rises, cools,
condenses into rain
or snow and falls
again to the surface
of the earth,
collecting in rivers,
lakes, soil and
rock. Much of it
flows back to the
ocean.
c) Weather can be
described and
studied in terms of
properties of the
atmosphere.
Assessment limits:
•
factors that cause
weather
•
reading simple
weather maps
•
air masses, high
and low pressure,
fronts
•
severe weather
conditions such as
hurricanes
N/A
SC.S2.E
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
4.
Meteorology - the
interactions of
structures of the
earth’s system
and the sun’s
energy which
cause weather
and climate
patterns
a)
The sun heats
water, earth and air
and water can be
liquid or solid and
can change back
and forth powered
by the sun.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
N/A
N/A
a)
a)
a)
b)
The transfer of
energy in and out
of the atmosphere
(such as in the
water cycle) affects
weather and
climate. Living
things are adapted
to their
surroundings,
including the
contents of the
atmosphere
retained by the
planets gravity and
the water cycle
which is influenced
by the intensity of
the sun’s radiation.
Water dissolves
minerals and gases
and carries them to
the oceans via the
water cycle.
22
SC.P3.E
Earth and Space (E)
SC.P4.E
SC.P5.E
SC.P6.E
SC.M1.E
SC.M2.E
SC.M3.E
SC.S1.E
SC.S2.E
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
5.
Oceanography the features of
oceans and the
impact of these
features on the
global ecosystem
a)
Oceans are large
bodies of salt water
that cover most of
the earth’s surface.
and support many
forms of life.
Assessment limits:
•
e.g., fish, whales,
coral reefs, crabs,
b) Many basic
characteristics of
the ocean can be
observed.
Assessment limits:
•
waves
•
high and low tides
•
saltiness
•
living things in
ocean, etc.
c) Bodies of Earth’s
waters include
ocean (sea), bay or
cove, harbour,
pond, river.
Assessment limits:
•
Also understanding
of related terms
such as seashore,
beach
a)
Oceans provide
evidence of earth’s
change over time.
Assessment limits:
•
e.g., presence of
fossils
a)
Physical properties
of the ocean can be
measured and
affect the global
ecosystem. The
ocean is a large
body of water that
influences weather.
a)
b)
Most of the
earth’s surface is
covered by water.
Earth is the only
planet that has
liquid water on its
surface.
People have a
significant impact
on the ocean
environment and
ocean life.
N/A
a)
b)
c)
d)
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
Most of the earth’s
surface is covered
by water. Earth is
the only planet that
has liquid water on
its surface.
The open ocean
regulates earth’s
climate, conditions
of the atmosphere
and provides food
and many other
resources.
Coastal peoples of
every culture
developed a large
amount of practical
knowledge about
the ocean and its
organisms. As
people gained
skills in
seamanship and
navigation, this
knowledge
increased.
Increasingly
sophisticated
technologies are
being used to
explore the oceans.
People have a
significant impact
on the ocean
environment and
ocean life.
N/A
a)
Oceans currents
affect climate and
therefore life on
earth.
b) Earth’s oceans are
ever changing
bodies of water.
Assessment limits:
•
impact of global
warming
•
melting of icecaps
and sea level rise
•
impact on
Bermuda’s waterfront properties
c) People have a
significant impact
on the health of the
oceans.
Assessment limits:
Bermuda issues include
•
preservation of the
coral reef,
•
over-fishing,
•
pollution of the
inshore waters,
•
cruise ship
capacity,
•
sewage outfalls
from large
businesses and
hotels
•
increased use of
leisure craft
23
SCIENCE (SC) PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
for
NATURE OF SCIENCE (N)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
SC.P3.N
SC.P4.N
SC.P5.N
SC.P6.N
Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
• Suggest some ways
of finding things out
through scientific
investigation
• Order steps in a plan
for an investigation
/match set-up to
experiment.
• Make simple
prediction where
outcome might be
obvious
• Recognize/describe
simple cause and
effect relationship
(more complex
relationships)
• Recognize when
comparisons might
not be fair because
some conditions are
not kept the same
• Understand that
results of
investigations are
seldom exactly the
same, but if
differences are
large, the
observations should
be made again
• Determine whether
it was a fair or
unfair test
d) Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
•
Plan an
investigation and
understand the
need for the test to
be fair. Identify
factors that make a
test fair
•
Make appropriate
predictions which
are reasonable but
outcome is not
known
•
Recognize when
comparisons might
not be fair because
some conditions
are not kept the
same
•
Understand that
results of
investigations are
seldom exactly the
same, but if
differences are
large, the
observations
should be made
again / evaluate
similar
experiments and
predict different
results based on
procedures
SC.M1.N
SC.M2.N
SC.M3.N
SC.S1.N
SC.S2.N
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
3.
Scientific
Investigation People can often
learn about things
around them by
just observing
those things
carefully, but
sometimes they
can learn more by
doing something
to things and
noting what
happens.
Investigations are
conducted for
different reasons,
which include
exploring new
phenomena,
checking on
previous results
and comparing
different theories.
Investigations
usually involve
collecting
evidence,
reasoning,
devising
hypotheses, and
making
predictions.
a)
Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
•
Generate an idea
from question or
from observation.
/Identify testable
question (I think
worms live best in
dark, damp soil).
•
Order steps in a
plan for an
investigation/
match set-up to
experiment.
•
Draw or identify
what might happen
in an investigation
•
Understand that if
conditions are the
same, results are
usually very
similar.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
•
recognise some
ways of finding
things out from a
scientifically
testable question
•
Order steps in a
plan for an
investigation/
match set-up to
experiment.
•
“guess” /predict
what might happen
in a simple
investigation
•
decide when fresh
observations
should be made (if
descriptions and
findings are
different)
•
Understand that if
conditions are the
same, results are
usually very
similar.
e)
a)
Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
• Select a question
that can be
answered by an
investigation
involving one factor
• Make a prediction
about the outcome
using scientific
knowledge
• Choose appropriate
equipment
• Write a method for
the investigation
a)
Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
•
Select a question
that can be
answered by an
investigation
involving one or
two factors
•
Use science
knowledge to
predict effect of
variable (term
variable not
testable)
•
Choose equipment
capable of
measuring to
1/10ths as
appropriate
•
Write/evaluate
clear step by step
procedure for
investigation
a)
Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
•
Identify
appropriate
question being
tested
•
Make a prediction
about the outcome
supported by data,
science knowledge,
or research
•
Choose equipment
as in level M2
(capable of
measuring to
1/10ths as
appropriate)
•
Write/evaluate
clear step by step
procedure for
investigation
a)
Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
•
Use scientific
knowledge and
understanding to
convert ideas into
a form that can be
investigated
•
Support
predictions with
scientific reasons
(from books,
Internet or other
sources)
•
Understand
concept of bias
•
Write/evaluate
clear step by step
procedure for
investigation
a)
Planning an
investigation
Assessment limits:
•
Use scientific
knowledge and
understanding to
convert ideas into a
form that can be
investigated
•
Support predictions
with scientific
reasons (from
books, Internet or
other sources)
•
Understand concept
of bias
•
write/evaluate clear
step by step
procedure for
investigation
24
Nature of Science (N)
SC.P3.N
SC.P4.N
SC.P5.N
SC.P6.N
SC.M1.N
SC.M2.N
SC.M3.N
SC.S1.N
SC.S2.N
b) Obtaining evidence
for investigation
Assessment limits:
• Select what to
measure
• Make series of
observations and
measurements/
record clearly and
accurately on charts
• Use a range of
apparatus with
increasing precision
(nearest 1/10th)
• Read analog and
digital meters on
instruments used to
make direct
measurements of
length, volume,
weight, elapsed
time, rates and
temperature (refer
to curriculum
Science Toolbox)
• Know when to
repeat
measurements
(when they are too
different/ until they
are considered
correct (consistent)
• Calculate and record
averages as
required.
• Make further
predictions based on
patterns in results
b) Obtaining evidence for
investigation
Assessment limits:
• Identify variables in
an experiment and
indicate which
variables should be
controlled
• Measure appropriate
quantities / determine
the number of
measurements, record
and average as
required /record
clearly and accurately
on charts
• Use a range of
apparatus with
increasing precision
(nearest 1/10th)
• Read analog and
digital meters on
instruments used to
make direct
measurements of
length, volume,
weight, elapsed time,
rates and temperature
refer to curriculum
Science Toolbox)
• Know when to repeat
measurements (when
they are too different
for example).
Calculate and record
averages as required.
• Make further
predictions based on
patterns in results
b) Obtaining evidence
for investigation
Assessment limits:
• Vary key variables
• Determine number
of observations or
measurements to
be made
• Select and
manipulate a
range of apparatus
to help to obtain
precise evidence
• Read analog and
digital meters on
instruments used
to make direct
measurements of
length, volume,
weight, elapsed
time, rates and
temperature
• Repeat results to
obtain average
readings
b) Obtaining evidence
for investigation
Assessment limits:
• vary key variables
• determine number
of observations or
measurements to be
made
• Select and
manipulate a range
of apparatus to help
to obtain precise
evidence
• Read analog and
digital meters on
instruments used to
make direct
measurements of
length, volume,
weight, elapsed
time, rates and
temperature
• Repeat results to
obtain average
readings
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
1.
Scientific
Investigation
People can often
learn about things
around them by
just observing
those things
carefully, but
sometimes they
can learn more by
doing something
to things and
noting what
happens.
Investigations are
conducted for
different reasons,
which include
exploring new
phenomena,
checking on
previous results
and comparing
different theories.
Investigations
usually involve
collecting
evidence,
reasoning,
devising
hypotheses, and
making
predictions.
b) Obtaining evidence for
b) Obtaining evidence
investigation
for investigation
Assessment limits:
Assessment limits:
• Identify simple tools • Identify appropriate
for measurement
tools for task
including ruler,
including magnifier,
graduated
spring scale,
beaker/measuring
balance,
cup/thermometer/ba
thermometer/ match
lance; Match tool to
tool to the property
the property it can
it can measure.
measure; read
• Choose the most
scales/dials on
accurate or precise
simple tool to
measuring
determine
procedure (measure
magnitude of
length to the nearest
property being
cm; mass to the
measured (e.g.,
nearest gram,
which object weighs
volume to the
the most).
nearest ml or litre,
• Observe things
temperature to the
(make/compare
nearest degree
observations)
Celsius, time to the
nearest minute)
• Understand that
observing and
• Support findings
reporting is different
with data found in
from personal
investigation,
opinion. In doing
books, articles and
science it is
databases
important to reach
• Identify best/most
your own
reliable sources to
conclusions from
be used and expect
your findings.
others to do the
same
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
b) Obtaining evidence
for investigation
Assessment limits:
• Select instruments
to measure distance,
volume, mass and
temperature
(measure to
accuracy in P4)
• Choose the most
accurate or precise
measuring
procedure.
• Locate scientific
information from
sources including
books, databases,
CD -ROMS, articles
in magazines
• Understand fact v.
opinion -distinguish
factual/
scientifically
accurate v. fictional
resources
b) Obtaining evidence for b) Obtaining evidence for
investigation
investigation
Assessment limits:
Assessment limits:
• Choose appropriate
• Recognize the need
scales/instruments
to make additional
to measure
observations and
(including g vs kg;
measurements when
cm vs metres/km)
they are too
different
• Distinguish between
• Use a range of
actual observations
and speculation –
apparatus with
increasing precision
• Locate scientific
• (refer to curriculum
information from
Science Toolbox)
sources including
books, databases,
• Read analog and
CD-ROMS, articles
digital meters on
in magazines
instruments used to
make direct
measurements of
length, volume,
weight, elapsed
time, rates and
temperature
• Record
measurements and
observations on
charts
25
Nature of Science (N)
SC.P3.N
SC.P4.N
SC.P5.N
SC.P6.N
SC.M1.N
SC.M2.N
SC.M3.N
SC.S1.N
SC.S2.N
Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Organize and
display data in a
variety of forms
(tables, bar graphs,
line graphs)
•
Present
observations
clearly and use
tables and bar
charts and line
graphs
a) Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Represent data and
results in multiple
ways such as
numbers, tables,
graphs; diagrams
•
Make double bar
charts and pie
charts
•
Read bar graphs,
line graphs and pie
charts
a) Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Summarise and
organize data in
tables and line and
bar graphs;
represent data and
results in multiple
ways such as
numbers, tables,
graphs, diagrams.
•
Read bar graphs,
pie charts and line
graphs
a) Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Summarise and
organize data in
tables and line and
bar graphs;
represent data and
results in multiple
ways such as
numbers, tables,
graphs, diagrams.
•
Read bar graphs,
pie charts and line
graphs
•
Choose appropriate
scales for charts
and line graphs
a) Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Represent data and
results in multiple
ways such as
numbers, tables,
graphs, diagrams.
•
Select the best way
of displaying your
evidence; represent
data with pie
charts, graphs,
tables, histograms
etc.
•
Create table of
results with clear
headings and
correct units)
a) Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Represent data and
results in multiple
ways such as
numbers, tables,
graphs, diagrams.
•
Select the best way
of displaying your
evidence; represent
data with pie
charts, graphs,
tables, histograms
etc.
•
Create table of
results with clear
headings and
correct units)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
3.
Data
Representation
and
Interpretation Data must be
analysed in order
to make sense of
what has been
collected.
Sometimes the
evidence collected
might not be what
you expected or
might not be
sufficient to draw
a conclusion.
Clear and
accurate
communication is
important in
doing science and
an essential part
of sharing an
investigation
order to inform
others.
b) Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Observe and
describe things
using sight and
other senses
•
Draw pictures to
portray features of
things being
described
•
Describe and
compare things in
terms of number
(counting whole
numbers) colour,
size (comparative
big –small), motion
•
Organize data
using pictures,
tallies and simple
tables/ choose table
design/ identify
row/column
headings and title
for table.
•
Create pictographs
and bar graphs
from data collected
•
Interpret/describe
pictures of things,
situations, events
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Make observations
and describe and
compare things in
terms of number,
colour, size,
texture, motion,
weight etc.
•
Create tally charts,
pictographs and
bar graphs (choose
table
design/identify
row/column
headings and title
for table)
•
Make comparisons
between objects
and events
•
Identify patterns/
trends in data
•
Compare things
and describe
observations
clearly and use a
simple table
•
Draw/describe
pictures to portray
features of things
being described
a)
Summarising and
organising data
Assessment limits:
•
Record
observations (with
more detail and in
other ways than
P3/P4)
•
Organize and
display data in a
variety of forms
(tables, bar graphs,
pictographs)
•
Describe simple
patterns/
extrapolate based
on simple trends in
data.
a)
26
Nature of Science (N)
SC.P3.N
SC.P4.N
SC.P5.N
SC.P6.N
SC.M1.N
SC.M2.N
SC.M3.N
SC.S1.N
SC.S2.N
b) Analyzing evidence
and making
conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Compare related
data sets
• Interpret bar graphs,
pie charts and line
graphs
• Identify and explain
a pattern
• Draw a conclusion
related to the
question being
investigated
• Relate conclusion to
science knowledge
• Support conclusions
with evidence from
experiments or
research
• Evaluate
investigation
(describe and
explain errors and
improvement;
suggest further
investigations)
b) Analyzing evidence
and making
conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Compare related
data sets
• Interpret pie charts
and line graphs
• Identify
measurements and
observations that do
not seem to fit the
pattern
• Draw appropriate
conclusions that fit
the evidence
• Recognise whether
the data collected is
sufficient for
conclusions drawn
• Support conclusions
with evidence from
experiments or
research
• Use scientific
knowledge to
explain evidence
• Evaluate
investigation
• (describe and
explain errors and
improvement;
suggest further
investigations)
b) Analyzing evidence
and making
conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Identify trends or
patterns in results
(best fit graphs,
multi-line graphs,
multiple data sets).
• Use graphs to
determine
relationships
between variables
• Explain whether
you have enough
evidence to draw a
conclusion
• Explain whether
results are
consistent with
original prediction
• Draw a meaningful
conclusion based on
evidence in
outcome
• Support conclusions
with evidence from
experiments or
research
• Evaluate
investigation
(redesign
investigation if
necessary – how
might the method be
improved to obtain
more evidence to
support the
conclusion)
b) Analyzing evidence
and making
conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Identify trends or
patterns in results
(best fit graphs,
multi-line graphs,
multiple data sets.
• Use graphs to
determine
relationships
between variables
• Explain whether
you have enough
evidence to draw a
conclusion
• Explain whether
results are
consistent with
original prediction
• Draw a meaningful
conclusion based on
evidence in
outcome
• Support conclusions
with evidence from
experiments or
research
• Evaluate
investigation
(redesign
investigation if
necessary – how
might the method be
improved to obtain
more evidence to
support the
conclusion)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
Data Representation
and Interpretation
(continued)
2. Data must be
analysed in order
to make sense of
what has been
collected.
Sometimes the
evidence collected
might not be what
you expected or
might not be
sufficient to draw a
conclusion. Clear
and accurate
communication is
important in doing
science and an
essential part of
sharing an
investigation order
to inform others.
b) Analyzing evidence
and making
conclusions
Assessment limits:
• interpret pictorial
results including
pictographs and bar
graphs
• Identify most
accurate information
from reading,
pictures and careful
• Match conclusion to
procedure and
results.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
b) Analyzing evidence
and making
conclusions
Assessment limits:
• interpret tally charts,
pictographs and bar
graphs. Say
whether findings are
what is
expected/draw
simple conclusions
from data presented
• Interpret/explain
pictures of things,
situations, events
b) Analyzing evidence
and making
conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Interpret, describe,
and explain what
has been found out
from data presented
in graphs (tables,
bar graphs and
pictographs)
Interpret different
graphical
representations for
sets of data
• Use diagrams to
help explain things.
Make comparisons
using diagrams
• Use numerical data
to describe and
explain things,
events
• Use facts to support
conclusions.
Understand
observations are
needed to develop
explanations.
• Develop follow-up
questions for
investigation
(results of
experiment generate
new questions for
further study)
• Use simple models
to predict changes in
real systems.
Understand
importance of scale
in models. Compare
parts of model with
real system.
b) Analyzing evidence b) Analyzing evidence
and making
and making
conclusions
conclusions
Assessment limits:
Assessment limits:
• Analyse data
• analysing evidence
represented in a
and making conclusi
graph (double bar
• Identify and explain
graphs, simple pie
a pattern
charts
• Interpret bar graphs,
• Make predictions
line graphs and pie
based on data/Use
charts
data patterns to
• Draw conclusion
draw conclusions
based on gathered
• Use diagrams to
data
help explain things.
• Support conclusions
Make comparisons
with evidence from
using diagrams
experiments or
• Use science
research
knowledge/data to
• Evaluate
support conclusions
investigation
• Evaluate or identify
(suggest what might
strengths and
have caused errors
weaknesses of
and identify ways to
claims or
improve
conclusions based
investigation)
on data/results
• Develop follow-up
questions for
investigation
(results of
experiment generate
new questions for
further study)
• Use simple models
to predict changes in
real systems/
understand
importance of scale
in models/ compare
parts of model with
real system
27
Nature of Science (N)
SC.P3.N
SC.P4.N
SC.P5.N
SC.P6.N
SC.M1.N
SC.M2.N
SC.M3.N
SC.S1.N
SC.S2.N
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
3.
The Designed
World -Over the
course of the
history of world
exploration,
humans have
shaped and
reshaped the
world we live in
by using
technology in
tandem with
expanding
science
knowledge.
Science cannot
answer all
questions and
technology
cannot solve all
human problems
or meet all
human needs.
Science influences
society through
its knowledge and
world view.
Technology
influences society
through its
products and
processes. Science
and technology
have advanced
through
contributions of
many different
people, in
different cultures,
at different times
in history.
a) Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable
consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Objects are made of
particular materials
(for example wood,
metal, paper, stone,
plastic, glass)
• Certain designs are
better than others for a
particular purpose/.
People all throughout
history invented tools.
Tools of today are
different from those of
the past. Tools are
used to do things
better or more easily
including hammers,
screwdrivers, pens,
pencils magnifiers,
containers
• To make something
work it is good to
follow directions
(Select order for a
simple process)
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
a)
Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable
consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Some kinds of
materials are natural
and some are manmade/Some materials
can be used again and
some cannot
• People all throughout
history invented tools.
Tools of today are
different from those of
the past
for example
- stone hammers bound
with leather straps
and steel hammers;
- development of tools
including telescopes
for seeing things far
away
- rocketry for
exploration of outer
space
- X-ray to see bones
- Stethoscopes
• Technology has made
it possible to repair
and sometimes replace
body parts.
• Identify the most
appropriate design for
a particular purpose/
Improve
solution/design to
solve a problem.
a)
Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable.
Assessment limits:
• Developments in
science and
technology can result
in things used in our
everyday lives (e.g.,
microscopes,
binoculars for
observing things too
small to see)
• Science knowledge
changes as new
discoveries are made
(interpret or analyze
timelines of scientific
events).
• When people want to
develop or expand
things , they should
figure out ahead of
time how it might
affect other people
and other living things
(e.g., more electricity
used, fossil fuels, air
pollution near
electrical companies;
some energy sources
cost less than others
and some cause more
pollution than others)
a)
Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable
consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Some kinds of
materials (natural and
man made) can be
changed to make them
more useful
• for example
• wood, clay, animal
skin, wool, cotton,
metal, glass
• Some resources are
nearly unlimited while
others are very limited
in supply. Some can
be renewed within a
short timeframe while
others would require
hundreds/thousands of
years.
for example
- Understand
importance of
conservation
• Safety and impact on
the environment must
be considered when
using/designing new
technologies
b) Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable
consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Plants growth require
sunshine, air, water –
things made by
humans require an
idea, resources and a
design.
• Satellites as
communication –
when unusable,
resulting in “space
junk”; pesticides for
plant growth can harm
environment).
a)
Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable
consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Engines can decrease
travel time, increase
productivity, lessen
need for manual
labour
• More and better
vehicles– problem of
disposal of them in
Bermuda, increased
fuel consumption
damaging to fragile
ecosystem, increased
air pollution)
a)
Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable
consequences.
Assessment limits:
• tape recorders and
digital TV’s and play
stations are
applications of sound
and light technology
• Selective breeding and
long distance food
transportation increase
productivity, but
affect risks and costs
for producing food
• increased water traffic
including ferries,
personal water craft,
jet skis - damage to
the marine ecosystem
– sea grass beds, reefs,
fuel exhaust pollution)
a)
Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable
consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Applications of
technology –
communications,
transportation,
manufacturing and
construction
• formation of plastics,
new fuels, synthetic
fibres,
pharmaceuticals,
• Science and
mathematics attend to
result in advances in
technology (e.g.,
binary system to
digital machines such
as laptop computers,
digital cameras,
compact disc players)
• Increased use of
energy in more
industrialized
countries leads to
rapid depletion of
Earth’s energy
resources and
heightened
environmental risks
from fossil and
nuclear fuels.
a)
Things found in
nature are different
from those that are
made by humans.
New products and
systems can be
developed to help
solve problems, but
there could be
desirable or
undesirable
consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Applications of
technology –
communications,
transportation,
manufacturing and
construction
• formation of plastics,
new fuels, synthetic
fibres,
pharmaceuticals,
• Science and
mathematics attend to
result in advances in
technology (e.g.,
binary system to
digital machines such
as laptop computers,
digital cameras,
compact disc players)
• Waste management
includes
considerations of
quantity, safety,
degradability and cost.
Waste disposal
problems are political,
economic as well as
technical
• different ways of
obtaining,
transforming and
distributing energy
have different
environmental
consequences
28
Nature of Science (N)
SC.P3.N
SC.P4.N
SC.P5.N
SC.P6.N
SC.M1.N
SC.M2.N
SC.M3.N
SC.S1.N
SC.S2.N
• Decisions to develop
and use technologies
often put
environmental and
economic concerns in
direct competition (for
example, preservation
of open space and
wetlands vs. housing
and improvement of
roads)
• Increased use of
energy in more
industrialized
countries leads to
rapid depletion of
Earth’s energy
resources and
heightened
environmental risks
from fossil and nuclear
fuels.
• Decisions to develop
and use technologies
often put
environmental and
economic concerns in
direct competition (for
example, preservation
of open space and
wetlands vs. housing
and improvement of
roads)
b) Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
• Science disciplines
differ from one
another in what is
studied, techniques
used and outcomes
sought, but they are
all part of the same
scientific enterprise.
c)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
The Designed World
(continued)
3. Over the course of
the history of
world exploration,
humans have
shaped and
reshaped the world
we live in by using
technology in
tandem with
expanding science
knowledge. Science
cannot answer all
questions and
technology cannot
solve all human
problems or meet
all human needs.
Science influences
society through its
knowledge and
world view.
Technology
influences society
through its
products and
processes. Science
and technology
have advanced
through
contributions of
many different
people, in different
cultures, at
different times in
history.
• People burn fuels or
use electricity to cook
their food and warm
their houses. People
can save money by
turning off machines,
appliances or lights
when they are not
using them
• Many materials can
be recycled or used
again, sometimes in
different forms
• When people want to
build something new
they should figure out
ahead of time how it
might affect other
people and the
environment. (cars
and pollution, more
waste and problem of
disposal, re-using or
recycling)
• People try to conserve
energy in order to
slow down depletion
of resources and/or to
save money.
• Identify repeated
elements in sequences
in designs, structures,
sounds, and events;
identify symmetry in a
design/structure;
identify possible
solution and analyze
the effectiveness of
solution.
• Technology has
given some people
better transportation,
communications,
nutrition, health care,
entertainment.
Technologies often
have drawbacks as
well as benefits
(pesticides can affect
other living things
inadvertently)
• Identify repeated
elements in
sequences in designs,
structures, sounds,
and events; identify
symmetry in a
design/structure;
identify possible
solution and analyze
the effectiveness of
solution.
b) Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
• Identify science
careers that involve
science (doctor,
veterinarian,
astronaut, etc.).
b) Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
• Identify science
careers that involve
science (doctor,
veterinarian, nurse,
etc.).
b) Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
• Identify science
careers that involve
science (doctor,
veterinarian, nurse,
etc.).
b) Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
• Identify science
careers that involve
science (doctor,
veterinarian, nurse,
etc.).
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
b) Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
• Scientists differ in
what phenomena
they study and how
they go about their
work. (astronomer,
biologist, conservationist – deals with
at risk organisms
and habitats etc.)
b) Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
•
Scientists differ in
what phenomena
they study and how
they go about their
work. (e.g.,
geologist studying
rocks and minerals;
specialist doctors
treating patients)
b) Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
• Scientists differ in
what phenomena
they study and how
they go about their
work.
(meteorologist,
oceanographer, and
other careers
associated with
science such as
electrician)
Important
contributions to the
advancement of
science,
mathematics and
technology have
been made by
different kinds of
people in different
cultures in different
times.
Assessment limits:
• Science disciplines
differ from one
another in what is
studied, techniques
used and outcomes
sought, but they are
all part of the same
scientific enterprise.
29
Nature of Science (N)
SC.P3.N
SC.P4.N
SC.P5.N
SC.P6.N
SC.M1.N
SC.M2.N
SC.M3.N
SC.S1.N
SC.S2.N
Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances
influence the
physical health of
individuals.
Science has
contributed to
health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• as M2 – include
movement across
the placenta, risks to
unborn child,
technologies that
help sight and
hearing; medical
technologies such as
ultrasound, radiation
techniques for
cancer patients.
(physics,
chemistry, biology,
ecology;
environmental
science,
meteorology and
related careers;
what kinds of
processes are
studied in the
discipline by the
scientists – other
careers – forensic
scientist, medical
laboratory
technician)
c) Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances influence
the physical health
of individuals.
Science has
contributed to health
and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• (pertaining to S1
concepts)
(physics,
chemistry, biology,
ecology;
environmental
science,
meteorology and
related careers;
what kinds of
processes are
studied in the
discipline by the
scientists – other
careers – forensic
scientist, medical
laboratory
technician)
c) Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances
influence the
physical health of
individuals.
Science has
contributed to
health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• waste management,
water purification
and potable water
from seawater or
brackish. water)
• knowledge of
genetics is opening
new fields of health
care (geneticists).
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of
The Designed World
(continued)
3.
Over the course of
the history of
world
exploration,
humans have
shaped and
reshaped the
world we live in
by using
technology in
tandem with
expanding science
knowledge.
Science cannot
answer all
questions and
technology cannot
solve all human
problems or meet
all human needs.
Science influences
society through its
knowledge and
world view.
Technology
influences society
through its
products and
processes. Science
and technology
have advanced
through
contributions of
many different
people, in
different cultures,
at different times
in history.
c)
Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances
influence the
physical health of
individuals.
Science has
contributed to
health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• When you are
healthy (exercise,
get rest and eat
well) you have the
energy to do
things.(Recognise
general food
groups)
• Some diseases are
caused by germs
and some are not/
Washing one’s
hands with soap and
water reduces the
number of germs
that can be passed
onto other people.
• Some things in the
environment make
people sick.
• Vaccinations protect
people from certain
diseases and
medicines help
people who are sick
to recover.
Bermuda Ministry of Education & Development
SC Standards for All Levels
November 2006
c)
Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances influence
the physical health
of individuals.
Science has
contributed to health
and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• Humans must eat
certain kinds of food
to grow and develop
healthy bodies.
• Some diseases are
caused by germs
and some are not/
Washing one’s
hands with soap and
water reduces the
number of germs
that can be passed
onto other people.
• Some poisons in the
environment make
people sick.
• Vaccinations protect
people from certain
diseases and
medicines help
people who are sick
to recover.
c)
Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances influence
the physical health
of individuals.
Science has
contributed to health
and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• Humans must eat
certain kinds of food
to grow and develop
healthy bodies.
• Some diseases are
caused by germs
and some are not.
Washing one’s
hands with soap and
water reduces the
number of germs
that can be passed
onto other people.
• Some things in the
environment make
people sick.
Tobacco, alcohol
and other drugs can
harm human beings
and other living
things.
• Vaccinations protect
people from certain
diseases and
medicines help
people who are sick
to recover.
c)
Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances influence
the physical health
of individuals.
Science has
contributed to health
and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• Humans must eat
certain kinds of food
to grow and develop
healthy bodies.
• Some diseases are
caused by germs
and some are not.
Washing one’s
hands with soap and
water reduces the
number of germs
that can be passed
onto other people.
• Some things in the
environment make
people sick.
Tobacco, alcohol
and other drugs can
harm human beings
and other living
things.
• Vaccinations protect
people from certain
diseases and
medicines help
people who are sick
to recover.
c)
Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances influence
the physical health
of individuals.
Science has
contributed to health
and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• Micro-organisms,
viruses, bacteria,
safe handling of
food and water.
c)
Diet, exercise,
disease and toxic
substances influence
the physical health
of individuals.
Science has
contributed to health
and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• importance of good
dietary habits,
vitamins and
minerals; disease,
medicines and
vaccinations;
transplants and
replacement of body
parts; blood
transfusions;
harmful substances
in the environment –
soil, air and water;
avoidance of toxic
substances.
c)
30
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