business class m2 driver's manual

business class m2 driver's manual
®
BUSINESS CLASS M2
Driver’s Manual
STI-455-6
A24-01238-000
Foreword
Introduction
This manual provides information needed to operate
and understand the vehicle and its components.
More detailed information is contained in the Owner’s
Warranty Information for North America booklet, and
in the vehicle’s workshop and maintenance manuals.
Custom-built Freightliner vehicles are equipped with
various chassis and cab components. Not all of the
information contained in this manual applies to every
vehicle. For details about components in your vehicle, refer to the chassis specification pages included in all new vehicles and to the vehicle specification decal, located inside the vehicle.
For your reference, keep this manual in the vehicle
at all times.
IMPORTANT: Descriptions and specifications in
this manual were in effect at the time of printing.
Freightliner Trucks reserves the right to discontinue models and to change specifications or
design at any time without notice and without
incurring obligation. Descriptions and specifications contained in this publication provide no
warranty, expressed or implied, and are subject
to revisions and editions without notice.
Environmental Concerns and
Recommendations
Whenever you see instructions in this manual to discard materials, you should first attempt to reclaim
and recycle them. To preserve our environment, follow appropriate environmental rules and regulations
when disposing of materials.
Event Data Recorder
This vehicle is equipped with one or more devices
that record specific vehicle data. The type and
amount of data recorded varies depending on how
the vehicle is equipped (such as the brand of engine,
if an air bag is installed, or if the vehicle features a
collision avoidance system, etc.).
This vehicle is equipped with an event data recorder
(EDR). The main purpose of an EDR is to record
data in certain crash or near-crash situations, such
as air bag deployment or hitting a road obstacle, that
will assist in understanding how a vehicle’s systems
performed. The EDR is designed to record data related to vehicle dynamics and safety systems for approximately 60 seconds. This data can help provide
a better understanding of the circumstances in which
crashes and injuries occur. Data recorded includes
the following items:
• how various systems in the vehicle were oper-
ating
• engine system information
• how far (if at all) the driver was depressing the
accelerator
• if the driver was depressing the brake pedal
• how fast the vehicle was traveling
NOTE: Data is not recorded by the EDR under
normal driving conditions. Personal data such
as name, gender, age, and crash location are
not recorded. However, other parties such as
law enforcement could combine the EDR data
with the type of personally identifying data routinely acquired during a crash investigation.
To read data recorded by an EDR, special equipment
is required, and access to the vehicle or the EDR is
needed. In addition to the vehicle manufacturer, other
parties that have the special equipment, such as law
enforcement, can read the information if they have
access to the vehicle or the EDR.
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
Compliance
This vehicle must be regularly inspected and maintained as indicated in the Business Class M2 Maintenance Manual, and in the Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance chapter in this manual, in
order to continue satisfactory performance and ensure coverage of the vehicle under the manufacturer’s warranty. Many maintenance procedures ensure
that the vehicle and engine continue to comply with
applicable emissions standards. Maintenance procedures, using components engineered to comply with
greenhouse gas emissions and fuel efficiency regulations, may be performed by an authorized Daimler
Trucks North America dealer, an independent outlet,
or the vehicle owner or operator.
The vehicle owner is responsible for determining the
suitability of replacement components to maintain
STI-455-6 (11/14)
A24-01238-000
Printed in U.S.A.
Foreword
compliance with federal and local jurisdictional regulations. Components including, but not limited to,
tires, cab/sleeper side extenders, chassis fairings,
bumper, hood, vehicle speed limiters, and idle reduction timers are specifically designed and manufactured to exacting standards for regulatory fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions compliance. It
is important that these components are always replaced with components that meet or exceed the performance of the originally installed components.
hotline 1-800-333-0510, or contact Transport
Canada by mail at: Transport Canada, ASFAD,
Place de Ville Tower C, 330 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N5.
For additional road safety information, please visit
the Road Safety website at: www.tc.gc.ca/
roadsafety.
Customer Assistance Center
Having trouble finding service? Call the Customer
Assistance Center at 1-800-385-4357 or 1-800-FTLHELP. Call night or day, weekdays or weekends, for
dealer referral, vehicle information, breakdown coordination, or Fleetpack assistance. Our people are
knowledgeable, professional, and committed to following through to help you keep your truck moving.
Reporting Safety Defects
If you believe that your vehicle has a defect which
could cause a crash or could cause injury or
death, you should immediately inform the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in
addition to notifying Daimler Trucks North America
LLC.
If the NHTSA receives similar complaints, it may
open an investigation, and if it finds that a safety
defect exists in a group of vehicles, it may order a
recall and remedy campaign. However, NHTSA
cannot become involved in individual problems
between you, your dealer, or Daimler Trucks North
America LLC.
To contact NHTSA, you may call the Vehicle
Safety Hotline toll-free at 1-888-327-4236 (TTY:
1-800-424-9153); go to www.safercar.gov; or
write to: Administrator, NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey
Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590. You can also
obtain other information about motor vehicle safety
from www.safercar.gov.
Canadian customers who wish to report a safetyrelated defect to Transport Canada, Defect Investigations and Recalls, may telephone the toll-free
© 2001–2015 Daimler Trucks North America LLC. All rights reserved. Daimler Trucks North America LLC is a Daimler
company.
No part of this publication, in whole or part, may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Daimler Trucks North America LLC. For additional information, please contact Daimler Trucks North
America LLC, Service Systems and Documentation, P.O. Box 3849, Portland OR 97208–3849 U.S.A. or refer to
www.Daimler-TrucksNorthAmerica.comand www.FreightlinerTrucks.com.
Contents
Chapter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Page
Introduction, Environmental Concerns and Recommendations,
Event Data Recorder, Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Compliance,
Customer Assistance Center, Reporting Safety Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreword
Vehicle Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Vehicle Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Cab Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Heater, Ventilator and Air Conditioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Drivetrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Steering and Brake Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Cab Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
In an Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Headlight Aiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
Hybrid Electric Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
Natural Gas Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
1
Vehicle Identification
Component Information Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Component GWR Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emission Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
Vehicle Identification
Component Information Label
NOTE: Labels shown in this chapter are examples only. Actual specifications may vary from
vehicle to vehicle.
The component information label lists the vehicle
model, identification number, and major component
models. It also lists the major assemblies and installations shown on the chassis specification sheet.
One copy of the component information label is installed on the right-side dash; another copy is inside
the rear cover of the Owner’s Warranty Information
for North America booklet. An illustration of the label
is shown in Fig. 1.1.
The tire and rim portion of the FMVSS certification
label certifies suitable tire and rim combinations that
can be installed on the vehicle, for the given gross
axle weight rating. Tires and rims installed on the
vehicle at the time of manufacture may have a higher
load capacity than that certified by the tire and rim
label. If the tires and rims currently on the vehicle
have a lower load capacity than that shown on the
tire and rim label, then the tires and rims determine
the load limitations on each of the axles.
Trucks built without a cargo body that are intended
for service in the U.S. have an incomplete vehicle
certification label attached by the final-stage manufacturer. See Fig. 1.4. This label will be attached to
the incomplete vehicle document included with the
vehicle, and certifies that the vehicle conforms to all
applicable FMVSS regulations in effect on the date of
completion.
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard Labels
In Canada, tractors with fifth wheels are marked as
certified by means of a statement of compliance label
with the Canadian National Safety Mark attached to
the driver-side door frame B-pillar. See Fig. 1.5.
02/20/2012
f080176
Fig. 1.1, Component Information Label
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard Labels
NOTE: Due to the variety of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) certification requirements, not all of the labels shown will apply
to your vehicle.
Tractors with or without fifth wheels purchased in the
U.S. are marked as certified by means of an FMVSS
certification label. See Fig. 1.2. This label is attached
to the driver-side B-pillar, as shown in Fig. 1.3.
If purchased for service in Canada, trucks built without a cargo body and tractors built without a fifth
wheel are marked as certified by a "Statement of
Compliance" label, similar to Fig. 1.4. This label must
be attached by the final-stage manufacturer to certify
that the vehicle conforms to all applicable Canada
Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (CMVSS) regulations
in effect on the date of completion.
Component GWR Label
The component GWR label is located on the
passenger-side B-pillar. The label provides maximum
GWR ratings for each component.
02/20/2012
f080177
Fig. 1.2, Vehicle Certification Label
1.1
Vehicle Identification
Emission Labels
Aftertreatment System Indicators
Label
1
Engines and vehicles manufactured after December
31, 2006 and domiciled in the U.S. or Canada are
required to meet all EPA regulations effective as of
the vehicle build date, and are equipped with an
emission aftertreatment system (ATS). Vehicles domiciled outside of the U.S. and Canada may not
have aftertreatment equipment, depending upon local
statutory emissions guidelines. See Table 1.1.
A warning label on the driver-side visor contains important warning indicators in the instrument cluster
that pertain to the ATS. See Fig. 1.7 or Fig. 1.8.
2
11/13/2001
f080117
1. Tire and Rim Information
2. FMVSS Certification Label
EPA Noise Emission Control Label
Fig. 1.3, Label Locations
02/28/2012
A vehicle noise emission control label (Fig. 1.9) is
located on the driver-side B-pillar as shown in
Fig. 1.3. It is the owner’s responsibility to maintain
the vehicle so that it conforms to EPA regulations.
f080180
Fig. 1.4, Incomplete Vehicle Certification Label
10/10/2006
It is a violation of U.S. federal law to alter exhaust
plumbing, ATS, or other components in any way that
would bring the engine/vehicle out of compliance with
certification requirements [Ref: 42 U.S.C. S7522(a)
(3)]. It is the owner’s responsibility to maintain the
vehicle so that it conforms to EPA regulations.
IMPORTANT: Certain Freightliner incomplete
vehicles may be produced with incomplete noise
control hardware and will not have a noise
emission control information label. For such vehicles, it is the final-stage manufacturer’s responsibility to complete the vehicle in conformity
to EPA regulations (40 CFR Part 205) and label
it for compliance.
f080024
Fig. 1.5, Canadian National Safety Mark
See Fig. 1.6 for a typical component GWR label.
1.2
Vehicle Identification
02/20/2012
f080178
Fig. 1.6, Component GWR Label
Applicable Emissions System Based on Build Date and EPA Regulations
Build Date
Regulation: Emissions Components
EPA07 (reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions to 1.1 g/bhp-hr, and reduce
January 1, 2007–December 31,
particulate matter emissions to 0.01 g/bhp-hr): Aftertreatment device (ATD) containing
2009
a diesel particulate filter that traps soot and ash.*
EPA10 (reduce NOx emissions to 0.2 g/bhp-hr): EPA07-type ATD, with additional
January 1, 2010–December 31,
selective catalyst reduction (SCR) technology that utilizes diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)
2012
to convert NOx to nitrogen and water vapor.
GHG14: Aerodynamic and fuel efficiency components including, but not limited to,
tires, cab/sleeper side extenders, chassis fairings, bumper, hood, vehicle speed
From March 5, 2012
limiters, and idle reduction timers specifically designed to meet regulatory fuel
efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions standards.
* Cummins, Detroit, and Mercedes-Benz ATD’s are also equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst to break down pollutants.
Table 1.1, Applicable Emissions System Based on Build Date and EPA Regulations
Vehicle Emission Control Information
Label
Model year 2013 and later vehicles meet additional
requirements as specified by federal greenhouse gas
and fuel efficiency regulations (GHG14). These vehicles are equipped with components that increase
fuel efficiency and reduce GHG emissions. Components may include, but are not limited to, low-rolling
resistance tires; aerodynamic devices such as hood,
cab side extenders, and fuel tank fairings; vehicle
speed limiters; and idle shutdown timers.
A Vehicle Emission Control Information Label is located on the driver-side door. See Fig. 1.10. It is the
owner’s responsibility to maintain the vehicle so that
it conforms to EPA and NHTSA regulations.
Certified Clean Idle Label
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) requires
model year 2008 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines to be equipped with a non-programmable engine shutdown system that automatically shuts down
1.3
the engine after five minutes of idling in order to limit
emissions of particulate matter and NOx.
Certified vehicles are equipped with a label placed
near the bottom edge of the driver-side door. See
Fig. 1.11.
Vehicle Identification
EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM INFORMATION
INDICATOR
LAMP(S)
STOP
CHECK
(Solid)
(Flashing)
Level 1
Level 2
WARNING
(Flashing)
Level 3
Level 4
Indicator Lamp
Message(s)
Filter Regeneration
Recommended.
Filter
Regeneration
Necessary
Parked Regeneration
Required − Engine
Derate
Service Regeneration Required.
Engine Derate To Idle Only.
Diesel Particulate
Filter Condition
Filter is reaching
capacity.
Filter is now
reaching maximum
capacity.
Switch.
Filter has reached
maximum capacity.
Filter has exceeded maximum
capacity.
Required Action
Bring vehicle to
highway speeds to
allow for an
Automatic
Regeneration or
perform a Parked
Regeneration.
To avoid engine
derate, bring vehicle
to highway speeds
to allow for an
Automatic
Regeneration, or
perform a Parked
Regeneration as
soon as possible.
Vehicle must be
parked, and a Parked
Regeneration must
be performed.
Engine will begin
derate.
Vehicle must be parked, and a
Service Regeneration must be
performed. Check engine
operator’s manual for details.
Engine will shut down.
HEST (High Exhaust
System Temperature)
Flashing
A regeneration is in
progress.
Solid
Exhaust components
and exhaust gas are at
high temperature. When
stationary, keep away
from people and
flammable materials or
vapors.
For a driver performed Parked Regeneration, vehicle must be equipped with a dash mounted Regeneration Switch.
02/20/2009
f080156
Fig. 1.7, ATS Indicators, EPA07
1.4
Vehicle Identification
IMPORTANT
DPF Regen Needed
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
regeneration is needed.
If flashing, regenerate as soon as
possible. Engine derate possible.
Hot exhaust can cause fire.
Hot Exhaust
Keep flammables and people away
from exhaust.
DEF Refill Needed
DEF
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) level is
low. Engine derate likely.
Refill tank with certified DEF.
See operator’s manual for complete instructions.
24−01656−000
11/30/2010
f080162
Fig. 1.8, ATS Indicators, EPA10 and Newer
VEHICLE NOISE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
DATE OF MANUFACTURE 01/96
FREIGHTLINER CORPORATION
THIS VEHICLE CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA REGULATIONS FOR NOISE EMISSION
APPLICABLE TO MEDIUM AND HEAVY TRUCKS.
THE FOLLOWING ACTS OR THE CAUSING THEREOF BY ANY PERSON ARE PROHIBITED BY
THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972:
A. THE REMOVAL OR RENDERING INOPERATIVE, OTHER THAN FOR PURPOSES OF
MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, OR REPLACEMENT, OF ANY NOISE CONTROL DEVICE OR
ELEMENT OF DESIGN (LISTED IN THE OWNER’S MANUAL) INCORPORATED INTO THIS
VEHICLE IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE NOISE CONTROL ACT.
B. THE USE THIS VEHICLE AFTER SUCH DEVICE OR ELEMENT OF DESIGN HAS
BEEN REMOVED OR RENDERED INOPERATIVE.
24−00273−020
10/06/98
CERTIFIED
CLEAN IDLE
f080026
Fig. 1.9, Vehicle Noise Emission Control Label
MANUFACTURED BY:
VIN:
VEH FAMILY CD:
GVWR−KG
GVWR−LBS
VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
DATE OF MANUFACTURE:
REGULATORY CLASS:
EMISSION CONTROL IDENTIFIERS:
THIS VEHICLE COMPLIES WITH U. S. EPA REGULATIONS FOR XXXX HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES.
SEE OWNER’S MANUAL FOR PROPER MAINTENANCE OF THIS VEHICLE.
U PART NO. 24−01177−060 REV A
02/29/2012
f080181
Fig. 1.10, Vehicle Emission Control Information Label
1.5
02/20/2012
f080179
Fig. 1.11, CARB Clean Idle Label
2
Vehicle Access
Cab Door Locks and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grab Handles and Access Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cab Entry and Exit, Vehicles With Two Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cab Entry and Exit, Vehicles With One Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back-of-Cab Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hood Opening and Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuse Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
Vehicle Access
Cab Door Locks and Handles
1
One key operates the ignition switch and all of the
door locks.
2
3
4
IMPORTANT: Each key is numbered. Record
the number so a duplicate key can be made, if
needed.
To unlock the driver’s door from outside the cab, insert the key in the lockset and turn it one-quarter turn
clockwise (Fig. 2.1). To remove the key, turn it counterclockwise to its original position. Pull out on the
door pull handle to open the door.
5
2
1
f720398
10/25/2001
To open the door from the inside, lift up on the door lever
(arrow).
1. Lock Button
2. Armrest/Handle
3. Door Lever
4. Window Crank
5. Inner Door Grab Handle (optional)
3
10/22/2001
f720397
1. Key
2. Lock
3. Door Pull Handle
Fig. 2.1, Exterior Door Handle
To unlock the passenger’s door from outside the cab,
insert the key in the lockset and turn it one-quarter
turn counterclockwise. Turn the key clockwise to the
original position to remove it.
NOTE: The cab door locks can be operated
when the doors are open.
To lock a door from outside the cab, do either one of
the following:
• Insert the key in the lockset and turn it in the
direction opposite to the unlocking direction
(counterclockwise for the driver’s door, clockwise for the passenger’s door). Close the door
if it is open.
• Push down the inside lock button (Fig. 2.2).
Close the door.
2.1
Fig. 2.2, Door Interior
To open the door from the inside, lift up on the door
lever. This will unlatch the door whether or not it is
locked. If it is open, close the door by pulling the
inner door grab handle.
To lock either door from inside the cab, slide the lock
button downwards (Fig. 2.3). To unlock the door
without unlatching it, push the lock button upwards. A
red dot will show below the lock button when it is
unlocked.
Grab Handles and Access
Steps
For ease of entry and exit, there are three grab
handles, one on the A-pillar, one on the inner B-pillar,
and an optional one on the inside of the door. In addition, the steering wheel may be used to provide
secure handholds. There are one or two access
steps to provide secure footholds.
Vehicle Access
Use the cab access system (grab handles, access
steps, and steering wheel) to enter or exit the cab.
Entering from the Driver’s Side
2
To enter the cab from the driver’s side, do the following steps (Fig. 2.4):
3
1
1
10/24/2001
f720401
Move the button down to lock, and up to unlock (arrows).
The door is unlocked when the red dot shows.
1. Door
2. Lock Button
3. Red Dot
5
Fig. 2.3, Door Lock Button
NOTE: The A-pillar grab handle is not installed
on the driver’s side.
4
The grab handles, access steps, and steering wheel
are all part of the cab access system. Use these
"helping hands" when getting into, or out of, the cab.
They will increase your security and comfort.
Cab Entry and Exit, Vehicles
With Two Steps
WARNING
Wet or dirty shoe soles greatly increase the
chance of slipping or falling. If your soles are wet
or dirty, be especially careful when climbing
onto, or down from, the back-of-cab area.
2
3
11/02/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
f720399
Steering Wheel
B-Pillar Grab Handle
Bottom Step
Top Step
Inner Door Grab Handle (optional)
Fig. 2.4, Cab Access System, Driver’s Side
1.
Use the door pull handle to open the driver’s
door, and place anything that you are carrying in
the cab.
Always maintain three-point contact with the
back-of-cab access supports while entering and
exiting the back-of-cab area. Three-point contact
means both feet and one hand, or both hands
and one foot, on the grab handles, steps, and
deck plates. Other areas are not meant to support back-of-cab access, and grabbing or stepping in the wrong place could lead to a fall, and
personal injury.
2.
Grasp the B-pillar grab handle with both hands.
Reach up as far as is comfortable.
3.
Place your right foot on the bottom step, and pull
yourself up.
4.
Place your left foot on the top step.
5.
Grasp the steering wheel with your left hand, and
step up.
Be careful not to get hands or feet tangled in
hoses or other back-of-cab equipment. Carelessness could cause a person to trip and fall, with
possible injury.
6.
Step into the cab with your right foot first, and
grasp the steering wheel with your right hand.
2.2
Vehicle Access
NOTE: You can also use the inner door grab
handle, if available, as a support when getting
up or down from the bottom step.
5
4
Exiting from the Driver’s Side
To exit the cab from the driver’s side, do the following steps (Fig. 2.4):
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab
while carrying any items in your hands.
1.
If you wish to take any items with you, after you
exit the cab, place them in an accessible location
on the seat or cab floor. Make sure they will not
get in your way as you exit.
3
WARNING
Always face in when exiting the cab. Do not attempt to exit with your back to the cab, as you
would going down a flight of stairs. It is easier to
slip or lose your balance. If you slip when exiting
in this way, there is a greater likelihood of personal injury.
2.
Grasp the steering wheel with both hands. Place
your left foot on the top step, and stand on the
threshold, facing into the cab.
2
1
10/23/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
f720400
Bottom Step
Top Step
B-Pillar Grab Handle
Sidewall Grab Handle (optional)
A-Pillar Cover Grab Handle
Fig. 2.5, Cab Access System, Passenger’s Side and
Back of Cab
3.
Place your left foot on the bottom step and step
up to the upper step with your right foot.
4.
Move your right hand to the A-pillar cover grab
handle.
Step to the ground with your left foot first.
5.
Place your left foot on the top step and step up.
Retrieve from the cab any items that you wish to
take with you.
6.
Move your left hand to the A-pillar cover grab
handle.
7.
Step into the cab with your left foot first.
3.
Move your right hand to the B-pillar grab handle.
4.
Move your right foot to the bottom step.
5.
Move your left hand to the B-pillar grab handle.
6.
7.
NOTE: You can also use the inner door grab
handle, if available, as a support when getting
up or down from the bottom step.
Entering from the Passenger’s Side
NOTE: You can also use the inner door grab
handle, if available, as a support when getting
up or down from the bottom step.
To enter the cab from the passenger’s side, do the
following steps (Fig. 2.5):
Exiting from the Passenger’s Side
1.
Open the passenger’s door, and place anything
that you are carrying in the cab.
To exit the cab from the passenger’s side, do the following steps (Fig. 2.5):
2.
Grasp the B-pillar grab handle on the door with
both hands.
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab
while carrying any items in your hands.
1.
2.3
If you wish to take any items with you, after you
exit the cab, place them in an accessible location
Vehicle Access
on the seat or cab floor. Make sure they will not
get in your way as you exit.
WARNING
Always face in when exiting the cab. Do not attempt to exit with your back to the cab, as you
would going down a flight of stairs. It is easier to
slip or lose your balance. If you slip when exiting
in this way, there is a greater likelihood of personal injury.
ness could cause a person to trip and fall, with
possible injury.
Use the cab access system (grab handles, access
steps, and steering wheel) to enter or exit the cab.
Entering from the Driver’s Side
To enter the cab from the driver’s side, do the following steps (Fig. 2.4):
1.
Use the door pull handle to open the driver’s
door, and place anything that you are carrying in
the cab. Use the door armrest/handle and, if
available, the inner door grab handle, as a support if needed.
2.
Grasp the B-pillar grab handle with both hands.
Reach up as far as is comfortable.
3.
Place your right foot on the step, and pull yourself up.
2.
Grasp the A-pillar cover grab handle with both
hands, then place your right foot on the top step
while standing up from the seat facing inward.
3.
Place your left foot on the top step.
4.
Move your left hand to the B-pillar grab handle.
5.
Move your left foot to the bottom step.
6.
Move your right hand to the B-pillar grab handle.
4.
Step into the cab with your left foot.
7.
Step to the ground with your right foot first.
5.
Grasp the steering wheel with your left hand.
8.
Retrieve from the cab any items that you wish to
take with you.
6.
Step into the cab with your right foot, and grasp
the steering wheel with your right hand.
NOTE: You can also use the inner door grab
handle, if available, as a support when getting
up or down from the bottom step.
NOTE: You can also use the inner door grab
handle, if available, as a support when getting
up or down from the bottom step.
Cab Entry and Exit, Vehicles
With One Step
Exiting from the Driver’s Side
WARNING
Wet or dirty shoe soles greatly increase the
chance of slipping or falling. If your soles are wet
or dirty, be especially careful when climbing
onto, or down from, the back-of-cab area.
Always maintain three-point contact with the
back-of-cab access supports while entering and
exiting the back-of-cab area. Three-point contact
means both feet and one hand, or both hands
and one foot, on the grab handles, steps, and
deck plates. Other areas are not meant to support back-of-cab access, and grabbing or stepping in the wrong place could lead to a fall, and
personal injury.
Be careful not to get hands or feet tangled in
hoses or other back-of-cab equipment. Careless-
To exit the cab from the driver’s side, do the following steps (Fig. 2.4):
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab
while carrying any items in your hands.
1.
If you wish to take any items with you, after you
exit the cab, place them in an accessible location
on the seat or cab floor. Make sure they will not
get in your way as you exit.
WARNING
Always face in when exiting the cab. Do not attempt to exit with your back to the cab, as you
would going down a flight of stairs. It is easier to
slip or lose your balance. If you slip when exiting
in this way, there is a greater likelihood of personal injury.
2.4
Vehicle Access
2.
Grasp the steering wheel with both hands. Place
your left foot on the step, and stand on the
threshold, facing into the cab.
3.
Move your right hand to the B-pillar grab handle.
4.
Move your left hand to the B-pillar grab handle.
5.
Move your right foot onto the step.
6.
Step to the ground with your left foot first.
7.
Retrieve from the cab any items that you wish to
take with you.
NOTE: You can also use the inner door grab
handle, if available, as a support when getting
up or down from the bottom step.
Entering from the Passenger’s Side
To enter the cab from the passenger’s side, do the
following steps (Fig. 2.5):
WARNING
Always face in when exiting the cab. Do not attempt to exit with your back to the cab, as you
would going down a flight of stairs. It is easier to
slip or lose your balance. If you slip when exiting
in this way, there is a greater likelihood of personal injury.
2.
Grasp the A-pillar cover grab handle with both
hands, then place your right foot on the step
while standing up from the seat facing inward.
3.
Place your left foot on the step.
4.
Move your left hand to the B-pillar grab handle.
5.
Move your right hand to the B-pillar grab handle.
6.
Step to the ground with your right foot first.
7.
Retrieve from the cab any items that you wish to
take with you.
1.
Open the passenger’s door, and place anything
that you are carrying in the cab.
2.
Grasp the B-pillar grab handle with both hands.
NOTE: You can also use the inner door grab
handle, if available, as a support when getting
up or down from the bottom step.
3.
Place your left foot on the step and step up to
the cab with your right foot.
Back-of-Cab Access
4.
Move your right hand to the A-pillar cover grab
handle.
5.
Move your left hand to the A-pillar cover grab
handle.
6.
Step into the cab with your left foot.
NOTE: You can also use the inner door grab
handle, if available, as a support when getting
up or down from the bottom step.
Exiting from the Passenger’s Side
To exit the cab from the passenger’s side, do the following steps (Fig. 2.5):
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab
while carrying any items in your hands.
1.
If you wish to take any items with you, after you
exit the cab, place them in an accessible location
on the seat or cab floor. Make sure they will not
get in your way as you exit.
When trailer air and electrical connections cannot be
reached conveniently from the ground, Federal Motor
Carrier Safety Regulations require commercial carriers to provide back-of-cab access.
Optional grab handles are mounted on each cab
sidewall, or on the left sidewall only. See Fig. 2.6.
Steps are mounted either on the fuel tank(s) or on
metal brackets. When a deck plate is necessary, it is
mounted across the top of the frame rails.
IMPORTANT: Climb onto, and down from, backof-cab access facing in toward the vehicle, as
you would on a ladder. Do not climb up or down
facing out away from the vehicle.
WARNING
Wet or dirty shoe soles greatly increase the
chance of slipping or falling. If your soles are wet
or dirty, be especially careful when climbing
onto, or leaving, the back-of-cab area.
Always maintain three-point contact with the
back-of-cab access supports while entering and
2.5
Vehicle Access
2.
Place one foot on the bottom step and pull yourself up.
3.
Place your other foot on the top step.
4.
Move your lower hand to a higher position on the
grab handle.
5.
Step onto the deck plate.
Climbing Down from Back-of-Cab
To climb down from the back-of-cab area:
2
3
1
1.
Grasp the sidewall grab handle with both hands.
2.
Step one foot at a time onto the top step.
3.
Move your upper hand to a lower position on the
grab handle.
4.
Move one foot to the bottom step.
5.
Move your upper hand to a lower position on the
grab handle.
6.
Step to the ground with your upper foot first.
Battery Access
Battery Compartment
09/28/2007
1
1. Steps
2. Grab Handle
f602336
3. Deck Plate
Fig. 2.6, Back-of-Cab Access Supports (typical)
The battery compartment is located in the lower part
of the cab beneath and to the rear of the driver’s
door. It is fastened by a quarter-turn fastener. To
open the battery access door, turn the quarter-turn
fastener with a small screwdriver. See Fig. 2.7.
exiting the back-of-cab area. Three-point contact
means both feet and one hand, or both hands
and one foot, on the grab handles, steps, and
deck plates. Other areas are not meant to support back-of-cab access, and grabbing or stepping in the wrong place could lead to a fall, and
personal injury.
Be careful not to get hands or feet tangled in
hoses or other back-of-cab equipment. Carelessness could cause a person to trip and fall, with
possible injury.
Entering Back-of-Cab
When climbing onto the deck plate, do the following:
1.
Grasp the sidewall grab handle with both hands.
Reach up as far as is comfortable.
10/25/2001
f543934
Open the battery access door by turning the quarter-turn
fastener (arrow) with a small screwdriver.
Fig. 2.7, Battery Compartment, Closed
2.6
Vehicle Access
With the battery access door open (Fig. 2.8), it is
easy to get access to the battery terminals for cleaning, charging, or emergency jump starting.
NOTE: Whenever battery power is disconnected, clocks and electronically tuned radios
must be reset.
3
2
4
1
01/18/95
1.
2.
3.
4.
Top Step
Battery
Cab
Battery Access Door
Fig. 2.8, Battery Compartment, Open
To close the battery access door, do the following
steps:
1.
Swing the battery access door to line up the
quarter-turn fastener with the hole in the cab
door frame.
2.
Close the battery access door and check to be
sure the quarter-turn fastener is engaged with
the hole.
3.
Fig. 2.9, Cab (Battery) Isolation Switch
Hood Opening and Closing
The hood can be raised to a full-open position. A torsion bar helps you to raise the hood, and to lower it
to the operating position. Hood restraint cables prevent the hood from overtravel. A hood damper limits
the closing speed. In the operating position, the hood
is secured to the cab-mounted half-fenders by a
hold-down latch on each side of the hood.
To Open the Hood
1.
Apply the parking brakes.
2.
Release both hood hold-down latches by pulling
the ends outward. See Fig. 2.10.
Turn the fastener one-quarter turn.
Cab (Battery) Isolation Switch
The cab isolation switch (see Fig. 2.9) is located on
the cab floor at the left of the driver’s seat, or inside
the battery box. The battery isolation switch reduces
the power to the cab and engine power wiring. Use it
whenever the vehicle is to be put out of service for
extended periods.
IMPORTANT: The battery disconnect switch
does not completely isolate the batteries from
the electrical system. For service operations that
require that the batteries be disconnected, always shut down the engine and remove the
negative battery cables.
2.7
f600150a
f543933
10/24/2001
CAUTION
Do not let the hood free-fall to the full-open position. To do so could cause damage to the hood
or hood straps.
3.
Standing in front of the hood, raise the rear of
the hood upward until it reaches the over-center
position (45 degrees from vertical). Then slowly
bring it to a stop.
To Close the Hood
1.
Push the hood over center.
Vehicle Access
3
2
4
1
10/24/2001
f880555
1. Fender
2. Latch Hook
3. Latch Handle
4. Half-Fender
Fig. 2.10, Hood Hold-Down Latch
2.
As the hood goes over center, the damper automatically slows its rate of descent. If needed, you
can also slow its rate of descent with your hand.
3.
Make sure the hood is flush with the cowl, then
secure the hood by engaging both hood holddown latches.
IMPORTANT: Make sure that both hold-down
latches are fully engaged before operating the
vehicle.
Fuse Identification
Main Fuse Box/PDM
The main fuse box, also known as the power distribution module, or PDM, is located under the hood on
the left front fender just forward of the bulkhead module. See Fig. 2.11. To open the fuse box, pull down
on the wire clips holding the lid on the fuse box.
A sticker inside the lid of the fuse box shows the locations of the fuses and describes the circuit(s) that
each fuse protects (see Fig. 2.12). See Table 2.1 for
descriptions of a typical set of fuses. The fuses in the
main fuse box are mini blade-type fuses. Battery
power fuses, located near the batteries, are bolt-in
megafuses.
Because the electrical system is multiplexed, no relays are needed. The multiplexing module performs
the functions normally provided by relays.
Fuse Identification, Main Fuse Box
Pos.
Description
Fuse Color
Rating
No.
F1 VCU (MBE900 only)
Red
10 Amp
F2 Blower Motor
Green
30 Amp
F3 Engine ECU
Yellow
20 Amp
Transmission Control
Green
30 Amp
F4
Unit
F5 Ignition Switch
Tan
5 Amp
F6 Spare
—
—
F7 Bulkhead Module
Green
30 Amp
F8 ICU
Red
10 Amp
Transmission Control
Yellow
20 Amp
F9
Unit
F10 Door Locks (optional)
Red
10 Amp
F11 Mirrors (optional)
Blue
15 Amp
F12 Radio/Diagnostics
Yellow
20 Amp
F13 Chassis Module
Green
30 Amp
L/H Power Windows
Blue
15 Amp
F14
(optional)
F15 Bulkhead Module
Green
30 Amp
F16 ABS ECU
Blue
15 Amp
F17 Chassis Module
Green
30 Amp
F18 Bulkhead Module
Green
30 Amp
F19 Chassis Module
Green
30 Amp
F20 Bulkhead Module
Green
30 Amp
R/H Power Windows
Blue
15 Amp
F21
(optional)
F22 Bulkhead Module
Green
30 Amp
F23 Spare
—
—
F24 Spare
—
—
F25 Spare
—
—
F26 Spare
—
—
M1 Battery Power
—
125 Amp
M2 Battery Power
—
125 Amp
M3 Battery Power
—
150 Amp
Table 2.1, Fuse Identification, Main Fuse Box
Trailer and Taillight Fuse Boxes
The trailer fuse box and the taillight fuse box, on vehicles so equipped, are mounted on a bracket with
the chassis module on the left-hand frame rail aft of
the cab, or on a crossmember at the end of the
frame rail. These may be referred to as the chassis
fuse box or chassis PDM. See Fig. 2.13 for trailer
fuse and relay information, and Fig. 2.14 for taillight
fuse and relay information.
2.8
Vehicle Access
These fuse boxes contain mini blade-type fuses, 12volt mini relays, and 12-volt micro relays.
1
2
09/28/2004
09/25/2001
f544528
f543935
1. Bulkhead Module
Fig. 2.13, Trailer Fuse Box Diagram
2. Main Fuse Box
Fig. 2.11, Location of the Main Fuse Box
10/25/2001
f543936
Fig. 2.12, Main Fuse Box Diagram
10/07/2004
f544541
Fig. 2.14, Taillight Fuse Box Diagram
2.9
3
Instruments
Instrumentation Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Warning and Indicator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
Driver Message Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8
Overhead Instrument Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13
Instruments
• "Driver Message Center"
Instrumentation Control Unit
Figure 3.1 shows a typical ICU3 instrument cluster.
The instrumentation control unit (ICU) provides the
driver with engine and vehicle information. It is comprised of standard and optional gauges, an audible
warning, a driver message center, and a lightbar containing warning and indicator lamps (also known as
telltales). Warning and indicator lamps illuminate in
red (danger), amber (caution), green (status advisory), or blue (high-beam headlights active).
Ignition Sequence
When the ignition is turned on, the ICU runs a selfcheck. See Fig. 3.2. Observing the ignition sequence
is a good way to ensure the ICU is functioning
properly.
IMPORTANT: Do not crank the engine until the
ICU self-check is complete.
The following headings in this chapter provide additional information and operating instructions for ICU
components:
When the ignition is turned on, the following actions
should occur:
• "Warning and Indicator Lights"
• "Instruments"
2
3
4
5
1
6
12
7
8
09/10/2009
11
10
9
f610525a
NOTE: This instrument cluster is shown with the U.S. speedometer, which shows miles per hour (mph) more prominently
than kilometers per hour (km/h).
1.
2.
3.
4.
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
Lightbar
Driver Message Center
Headlight High-Beam Indicator
5.
6.
7.
8.
Fuel/DEF Level Gauge
Primary Air Pressure Gauge
Mode/Reset Button
Secondary Air Pressure Gauge
9.
10.
11.
12.
Speedometer (U.S. version)
Tachometer
Transmission Temperature Gauge
Coolant Temperature Gauge
Fig. 3.1, Typical Gauge Layout, U.S. (EPA10 and newer shown)
3.1
Instruments
If the ICU receives active fault codes, it displays
them one after the other until the parking brake is
released or the ignition is turned off. Once the parking brake is completely released, the ICU displays
the odometer. If there are no active faults, the ICU
displays the odometer after the self-check completes.
IGNITION SWITCH
TURNED TO ON
ICU PERFORMS
SELF−TEST
IF NO FAULTS
WERE DETECTED
123456.7
IF FAULT DETECTED
NOTE: If active faults are present, take the vehicle to an authorized Freightliner service facility
as soon as possible.
Audible Alerts
APU 190
An audible alert sounds during the ignition sequence
and whenever one of the following conditions exists:
MI
12.3 VOLTS
• Engine oil pressure falls below the minimum
PARKING BRAKE
RELEASED
PARKING BRAKE
RELEASED
preset value.
• Coolant temperature rises above the maximum
123456.7
MI
12.3 VOLTS
01/18/2012
preset value.
f040420c
Fig. 3.2, Ignition Sequence
• electronic gauges complete a full sweep of
their dials
• some warning and indicator lamps illuminate,
then are extinguished
• audible alert sounds until sufficient air pressure
builds up in the primary and secondary air systems
• DEF level indicator illuminates all segments
green, then turns them off one at a time before
turning the leftmost segment amber, then red
• software revision level of the ICU is displayed
on the driver message center, followed by active faults
NOTE: Air gauges do not complete a sweep of
their dials during the ignition sequence.
IMPORTANT: If any red or amber warning and
indicator lamps, or telltales, do not illuminate
during the ICU self-check, take the vehicle to an
authorized Freightliner service facility as soon
as possible. If any of the red or amber telltales
or do not go out after the self-check completes,
use Table 3.1 to determine if the lamp illuminated indicates a problem requiring service.
• Air pressure falls below about 70 psi (483
kPa).
• Parking brake is set with the vehicle moving
faster than two miles per hour.
• System voltage falls below 12 volts.
• Door is open with the headlights on and the
parking brake off.
• Driver seat belt is not fastened with the parking
brake off (optional).
• Outside temperature falls below 35°F (1.7°C)
(optional).
Warning and Indicator Lights
There can be up to 28 telltales installed in the ICU. If
an optional lamp is not requested, the position is
blank.
See Table 3.1 for a list of standard and commonly
used warning and indicator lamps.
Warning and indicator lamps illuminate in red (danger), amber (caution), green (status advisory), or
blue (high-beam headlights active).
IMPORTANT: Depending upon local jurisdictional emissions guidelines, vehicles and/or engines that are domiciled outside of the U.S. and
Canada may not be compliant with EPA07,
EPA10, or GHG14 regulations. Noncompliant
3.2
Instruments
vehicles may not be equipped with all of the
lamps shown in Table 3.1.
Common Warning and Indicator Lamps
Lamp Description
Indicates a serious fault that requires engine shutdown
immediately. The engine protection system will reduce the
maximum engine torque and speed, and, if the condition
does not improve, will shut down the engine within 30 to 60
seconds.
STOP
BRAKE
STOP Engine *
CHECK
3.3
Safely bring the vehicle to a stop on the side of the road
and shut down the engine as soon as the red light is seen.
If the engine shuts down while the vehicle is in a
hazardous location, turn the key to the OFF position for
a few seconds, then restart the engine and move the
vehicle to a safer location.
High Coolant Temperature
Indicates the coolant temperature is above the maximum
allowable temperature.
Low Air Pressure (EPA07)
Indicates air pressure in the primary or secondary reservoir
has dropped below approximately 70 psi (483 kPa).
Low Air Pressure (EPA10
and Newer)
Indicates air pressure in the primary or secondary reservoir
has dropped below approximately 70 psi (483 kPa).
Low Engine Oil Pressure
Indicates the engine oil pressure is below the minimum
allowable pressure.
Parking Brake (EPA07)
Indicates the parking brake is engaged, or hydraulic brake
fluid level is low. An audible alert activates when the vehicle
is moving over 2 mph (3 km/h) with the parking brake set.
Parking Brake (EPA10
and Newer)
Indicates the parking brake is engaged.
Low Battery Voltage
Indicates that battery voltage is 11.9 volts or less.
Unfastened Seat Belt
CHECK Engine*
Color
Activates with an audible alert when the system detects that
the parking brake is off and the driver seat belt is not
fastened on some vehicles. On other vehicles, this lamp
illuminates for 15 seconds when the ignition is first turned
on.
Indicates an engine condition (low oil pressure, low coolant
level, high coolant temperature, high DPF soot level, or
uncontrolled DPF regeneration) that requires correction.
Correct the condition as soon as possible. If the condition
worsens, the STOP engine lamp will illuminate.
Red
Amber
Instruments
Common Warning and Indicator Lamps
Lamp Description
Slow (10-second) flashing indicates a regeneration (regen)
is in progress.
High Exhaust System
Temperature (HEST)8*
IMPORTANT: When the HEST lamp is illuminated, do
not park the vehicle near flammable material.
Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF) Status
Solid illumination indicates high exhaust temperatures at the
outlet of the tail pipe when speed is below 5 mph (8 km/h).
Solid illumination indicates a regen is required. Change to a
more challenging duty cycle (such as highway driving ) to
raise exhaust temperatures for at least twenty minutes, or
perform a parked regen.
Color
Blinking indicates that a parked regen is required
immediately. An engine derate and shutdown will occur.
Malfunction Indicator
Lamp (MIL)
Indicates an emissions-related fault. See the engine
operation manual for details.
Momentary illumination indicates the vehicle ABS is
engaged.
NO
CHARGE
IDLE
MGMT
Vehicle ABS
Solid illumination indicates a problem with the vehicle ABS.
Repair the ABS immediately to ensure full braking
capability.
Momentary illumination indicates the trailer ABS is engaged.
Trailer ABS
Solid illumination indicates a problem with the trailer ABS.
Repair the ABS immediately to ensure full braking
capability.
No Charge
Indicates the alternator is not properly powering the
electrical system.
Water in Fuel
Indicates the fuel may contain water. Drain any water
collected in the fuel/water separators.
Fuel Filter Restriction
Indicates the fuel filter is clogged and requires service.
Optimized Idle
Indicates optimized idle is enabled.
Check Transmission
Indicates an undesirable transmission condition.
Transmission Overheat
Indicates high transmission temperature.
Amber
3.4
Instruments
WAIT
TO START
START
BLOCKED
Common Warning and Indicator Lamps
Lamp Description
EPA10 Detroit engines: Indicates that the system is
preventing the starter from cranking. This can occur when
the ignition switch is turned to START before the gauge
sweep has completed, or if the starter has overheated.
Wait To Start (EPA07/
EPA10)
Cummins/Mercedes-Benz engines: Indicates that the intake
warmer is active.
Start Blocked (GHG14
Detroit engines)
Turn the ignition switch back to ON, wait for the lamp to go
out, then turn the ignition switch to START again.
Indicates that the system is preventing the starter from
cranking. This can occur when the ignition switch is turned
to START before the gauge sweep has completed, or if the
starter has overheated.
NOTE: Illumination of the Start Blocked lamp does not
indicate a problem with the starter.
Turn the ignition switch back to ON, wait for the lamp to go
out, then turn the ignition switch to START again.
Flashing indicates the ATC system is active, or the ATC
button has been pressed to allow wheel slip.
WHEEL
SPIN
Color
Wheel Spin
Solid illumination indicates a problem with the ATC system.
Repair the ATC system immediately to ensure full braking
capability.
Momentary illumination indicates that a stability event has
occurred.
Roll Stability
On vehicles that are also equipped with ATC, flashing
indicates the ATC button has been pressed to allow wheel
slip.
Hill Start Aid (HSA)
Override
Indicates the HSA switch has been pressed to override the
hill start assist feature.
Engine Brake
Indicates the engine brake is enabled.
Left-Turn Signal
Flashing indicates the outside left-turn signal lights are
activated.
Right-Turn Signal
Flashing indicates the outside right-turn signal lights are
activated.
Amber
Green
Indicates the cruise control is enabled.
Cruise Control
3.5
NOTE: The ICU4Me does not have a green cruise control
telltale.
Instruments
Common Warning and Indicator Lamps
Lamp Description
High-Beam Headlights
Color
Indicates the high-beam headlights are on.
Blue
* See Fig. 3.3 for an explanation of the aftertreatment system (ATS) warning indicators, and actions required to avoid further engine protection steps.
Table 3.1, Common Warning and Indicator Lamps
Engine Protection System
WARNING
When the red STOP engine lamp illuminates,
most engines are programmed to shut down automatically within 30 seconds. The driver must
immediately move the vehicle to a safe location
at the side of the road to prevent causing a hazardous situation that could cause bodily injury,
property damage, or severe damage to the engine.
See Fig. 3.3 for an explanation of the aftertreatment
system (ATS) warning indicators, and actions required to avoid further engine protection steps.
The STOP engine lamp illuminates when the engine
protection system is activated in one of two ways. On
some engines, the engine protection system will derate the engine, allowing it to run at lower rpm and
slower vehicle speed. Drive the vehicle to a safe location or to a service facility.
IMPORTANT: Safely bring the vehicle to a stop
on the side of the road and shut down the engine as soon as the red light is seen. If the engine shuts down while the vehicle is in a hazardous location, turn the key to the OFF position
for a few seconds, then restart the engine and
move the vehicle to a safer location.
EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM INFORMATION
INDICATOR
LAMP(S)
STOP
CHECK
(Solid)
Level 1
(Flashing)
Level 2
WARNING
(Flashing)
Level 3
Level 4
Indicator Lamp
Message(s)
Filter Regeneration
Recommended.
Filter
Regeneration
Necessary
Parked Regeneration
Required − Engine
Derate
Service Regeneration Required.
Engine Derate To Idle Only.
Diesel Particulate
Filter Condition
Filter is reaching
capacity.
Filter is now
reaching maximum
capacity.
Switch.
Filter has reached
maximum capacity.
Filter has exceeded maximum
capacity.
Required Action
Bring vehicle to
highway speeds to
allow for an
Automatic
Regeneration or
perform a Parked
Regeneration.
To avoid engine
derate, bring vehicle
to highway speeds
to allow for an
Automatic
Regeneration, or
perform a Parked
Regeneration as
soon as possible.
Vehicle must be
parked, and a Parked
Regeneration must
be performed.
Engine will begin
derate.
Vehicle must be parked, and a
Service Regeneration must be
performed. Check engine
operator’s manual for details.
Engine will shut down.
HEST (High Exhaust
System Temperature)
Flashing
A regeneration is in
progress.
Solid
Exhaust components
and exhaust gas are at
high temperature. When
stationary, keep away
from people and
flammable materials or
vapors.
For a driver performed Parked Regeneration, vehicle must be equipped with a dash mounted Regeneration Switch.
02/20/2009
f080156
Fig. 3.3, ATS Warning Lamps
3.6
Instruments
On other engines, the engine protection system will
shut down the engine. It will first derate the engine,
then shut it down completely 30 to 60 seconds after
the indicator illuminates (depending on the critical
fault type) if the condition does not improve. Bring
the vehicle to a stop on the side of the road before
the engine shuts down.
i.
Odometer
ii.
Trip distance
Some vehicles may have a shutdown-override
switch, which may be used to momentarily override
the shutdown sequence. See Chapter 7 for detailed
information regarding the shutdown process.
vi. Temperature alert
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to restart the engine while the vehicle is moving. Bring the vehicle to a safe stop, then restart the engine.
ix. Engine hours
To restart the engine, turn the ignition to OFF, leave
it there a few seconds, then turn the ignition to
START. The engine will run for a short period and
shut down again if the condition does not improve.
Temperature Alert
Driver Message Center
The driver message center is controlled using the
mode/reset switch, located on the right side of the
ICU. See Fig. 3.1. Tap the mode/reset switch to advance one screen; press and hold the switch to select a menu choice or reset the display. When the
display resets, an audible chirp sounds.
Driving Screens
The following screens are available when the parking
brake is off (when the vehicle is mobile) and no active fault codes are found. Use the mode/reset switch
to scroll through the screens. To reset any values,
press and hold the mode/reset switch. The driving
screens appear in the following order:
i.
Odometer
ii.
Trip distance
iii. Trip hours
iv. Outside temperature
Parked Screens/Menus
The parked screens and menus are available when
the parking brake is on and no active fault codes are
found. See Fig. 3.4. Use the mode/reset switch to
scroll through the parked screens. To reset any values, press and hold the mode/reset switch. The
parked screens appear in the following order:
3.7
iii. Trip hours
iv. Outside temperature
v.
Select units
vii. Diagnostics
viii. Engine miles
x.
Setup
When the outside temperature drops to 34°F (1.7°C)
or less, the ICU displays a caution text at onesecond intervals for five seconds, and an audible
alert sounds. Tap the mode/reset switch to acknowledge the message. The audible alert will not sound
again unless the temperature cycles above 37°F
(4°C) and back to 34°F (1.7°C) or less. This warning
only occurs while the ignition is on and the parking
brake is released.
The temperature alert message allows the driver to
enable or disable the ambient temperature warning.
Press and hold the mode/reset switch to toggle between on and off. Release the mode/reset switch,
then tap it to select the displayed choice.
Diagnostics
When the DIAG screen is displayed, press and hold
the mode/reset switch to access the various diagnostic screens.
The diagnostic screens are used by trained technicians to retrieve fault codes and other diagnostic information pertaining to the vehicle. If active fault
codes display during start-up or at any other time,
make a note of the fault code and take the vehicle to
an authorized Freightliner service facility
If fault codes are displayed, press and hold the
mode/reset switch to view the next fault code until
reaching the DIAG screen.
Instruments
123456.7
CLEAr
Default Odometer
Dispay Screen
MI
12.3 VOLTS
Push
Hold
Clear Defaults
Push
123456.7
TRIP
MI
12.3 VOLTS
Hold
123456.7
MI
To Reset Trip Miles
To Dispay Total Engine Miles
ENGINE
Push
Push
123456.7
HOURS
TRIP
Hold
123456.7
HOURS
To Reset Trip Hours
12.3 VOLTS
To Dispay Total Engine Hours
ENGINE
Push
Push
SELECt
MI
Hold
To Toggle between Units
MI<−−−−>KM
EnG oIL
Hold
*Lo
Push
*Lo = Oil Level Low
HI = Oil Level High
Blank = Oil Level OK
− − = No Message
Push
dIAG
MI
SEtUP
HOURS
Hold
**MI
Dispay Diagnostics
n
**HOURS
Hold
**no
n = Number of Active Fault Codes
Push
MI = CYCLE Miles Enabled
HOURS = Cycle Hours Enabled
Dispay Oil Level
Dispay Service Interval
Cycle Screens
**MI = CYCLE Miles Active Mode
**HOURS = CYCLE Hours Active Mode
Push
**no = Service CYCLE Inactive
08/29/2012
f040636b
NOTE: The engine oil level screen displays for Mercedes-Benz engines only (if equipped and enabled).
Fig. 3.4, ICU3 Stationary Screens
Engine Miles/Hours
When the engine miles/hours screen is displayed,
press and hold the mode/reset switch to access the
engines screen submenu.
Setup
The setup menu allows the driver to manage ICU
parameters. The setup screen submenu allows the
driver to enable and change service intervals.
If service intervals are enabled and service distance
or time has been exceeded, the text SERVICE
HOUR/MI (KM) will display at start-up to indicate vehicle service is required.
For each parameter, press and hold the mode/reset
switch to navigate to the parameter change screen.
In each change screen, tap the mode/reset switch to
toggle between options.
The last screen in the setup menu, RESET EE, is for
resetting certain parameters to the original settings.
Press and hold the mode/reset switch to reset the
antilock braking system (ABS), SAMs roll call, automated transmission display, transmission heartbeat,
sensor fault codes, seat belt switch learning, and engine oil level.
Instruments
Standard instruments are present on every vehicle.
They are listed here in alphabetical order to make
the information easier to find.
Optional instruments, typically located on the auxiliary dash panel or right-hand control panel, are not
found on every vehicle. They are listed here in alphabetical order, to make the information easier to find.
3.8
Instruments
Air Intake Restriction Gauge
The air intake restriction gauge indicates the vacuum
on the engine side of the air cleaner. On standard
installations, it is mounted on the air intake duct in
the engine compartment. As an option for easier
viewing, the air intake restriction indicator (see
Fig. 3.5) can be mounted on the dash, usually on the
right-hand control panel.
Air Intake Maximum Restriction Values (inH2O)
Pre-EPA07
EPA07 and
Engine
Engines
Newer Engines
20
22
Detroit™
Mercedes-Benz
22
22
Table 3.2, Air Cleaner Element Maximum Restriction
04/08/2005
f090431
Fig. 3.6, Manual-Reset Air Restriction Indicator, Go/
No-Go
Ambient Temperature Gauge
10/10/2001
f610568
The ambient temperature gauge, shown in Fig. 3.7,
displays the in-cab or outside temperature, depending on the settings selected.
Fig. 3.5, Air Intake Restriction Indicator
NOTE: Rain or snow can wet the filter and
cause a temporary high reading.
Air intake restriction vacuum is measured in inches
of water (inH2O). For vehicles equipped with a
graduated indicator or a restriction gauge on the
dash, check the gauge with the engine off. If the yellow signal stays locked in the red zone once the engine is shut down, or is at or above the values
shown in Table 3.2, the air cleaner element needs to
be replaced.
SET
Vehicles may be equipped with a go/no-go restriction
indicator without graduations (see Fig. 3.6) instead of
a graduated indicator.
ADJ
IN
ALARM
OUT
12/14/2011
Air Intake Maximum Restriction Values (inH2O)
Pre-EPA07
EPA07 and
Engine
Engines
Newer Engines
Caterpillar
25
—
Cummins
25
25
3.9
f611153
Fig. 3.7, Ambient Temperature Gauge
When the alarm is enabled, the ambient temperature
gauge will sound an audible alert and the amber
Instruments
lamp will illuminate when the outside or inside temperature (depending on the setting selected) reaches
the set temperature. Turn the alarm on and off using
the steps below.
1.
Press the IN button for in-cab temperature, or
the OUT button for outside temperature.
2.
Press the SET button.
3.
Press the ADJ button until the desired temperature is displayed.
4.
Press the ALARM button and "AL" will appear on
the display.
5.
Press the SET button to return to the current
temperature display.
NOTE: To turn the alarm off, press the ALARM
button again and "AL" will disappear from the
display.
NOTICE
A sudden increase in coolant temperature may
indicate engine or cooling system failure. Bring
the vehicle to a safe stop and investigate the
cause to prevent further damage. Do not operate
the engine until the cause has been determined
and corrected.
During normal engine operation, the coolant temperature gauge, as shown in Fig. 3.8, should read
175 to 195°F (79 to 91°C). If the temperature remains below 160°F (71°C), inspect the cooling system to determine the cause.
200
250
WATER
10/09/2001
Table 3.3, Maximum Coolant Temperature
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
A sudden decrease or absence of oil pressure
may indicate mechanical failure. Bring the vehicle
to a safe stop and investigate the cause to prevent further damage. Do not operate the engine
until the cause has been determined and corrected.
The engine oil pressure gauge, as shown in Fig. 3.9,
displays the current engine oil pressure. If engine oil
pressure falls below the minimum levels shown in
Table 3.4, the CHECK engine lamp will illuminate. If
the condition does not improve, the STOP engine
lamp will also illuminate and an audible warning will
sound. The engine will then derate or shut down, depending on the type of engine protection system
installed.
Minimum Oil Pressure*
At Idle Speed:
At Rated RPM:
Engine Model
psi (kPa)
psi (kPa)
Caterpillar
10–20 (69–138) 30–45 (207–310)
Cummins
15 (103)
35 (241)
Detroit
14 (97)
55 (350)
Mercedes-Benz
7 (50)
36 (250)
F°
100
Maximum Coolant Temperature
Engine Make
Temperature: °F (°C)
Caterpillar
230 (110)
Cummins
225 (107)
Detroit
215 (101)
Mercedes-Benz
222 (105)
NOTICE
Coolant Temperature Gauge
150
If coolant temperature rises above the maximum
temperature listed in Table 3.3, the CHECK engine
lamp will illuminate. If the condition does not improve, the STOP engine lamp will also illuminate and
an audible warning will sound. The engine will then
derate or shut down, depending on the type of engine protection system installed.
f610565
* Oil pressures are given with the engine at operating temperature. With
the engine cold, oil pressure may be higher. Individual engines may vary
from the listed pressures; observe and record pressures when the engine
is new to create a guide for checking engine condition.
Table 3.4, Minimum Oil Pressure
Fig. 3.8, Coolant Temperature Gauge
3.10
Instruments
50
PSI
0
100
OIL
10/09/2001
f610528
Fig. 3.9, Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
Engine Oil Temperature Gauge
10/10/2001
f610569
Fig. 3.10, Engine Oil Temperature Gauge
NOTICE
A sudden increase in oil temperature that is not
caused by a load increase may indicate mechanical failure. Bring the vehicle to a safe stop and
investigate the cause to prevent further damage.
Do not operate the engine until the cause has
been determined and corrected.
During normal operation, the optional engine oil temperature gauge (Fig. 3.10) should read in the following temperature ranges:
• 160 to 195°F (71 to 91°C) for Caterpillar en-
gines
• 200 to 260°F (93 to 126°C) for Detroit and
Cummins engines
• 177 to 203°F (81 to 95°C) for Mercedes-Benz
engines
Under heavy loads, such as when climbing steep
grades, temperatures that exceed the normal oil temperature range for a short period are not unusual. If
the temperature returns to normal when the load decreases, there is no problem.
Fuel Gauge, Pre-EPA10
The fuel gauge indicates the level of fuel in the fuel
tank(s). A single fuel gauge is standard. If equipped
with an optional second fuel tank, each fuel tank
level is indicated on a separate gauge. See
Fig. 3.11.
3.11
1/2
E
F
FUEL
10/09/2001
f610566
Fig. 3.11, Fuel Level Gauge, Pre-EPA10
Fuel/Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Gauge, EPA10 and Newer
For engines that are EPA10-compliant or newer, the
fuel and DEF levels are measured in a dual purpose
fuel/DEF level gauge. See Fig. 3.12.
The diesel fuel level is indicated at the top of the
gauge, with a low-fuel warning lamp that illuminates
when the diesel fuel level registers 1/8th of capacity.
The DEF level is indicated in the lightbar on the
lower portion of the gauge. There is a low DEF level
warning lamp that illuminates amber when the DEF
level reaches 10% of capacity. See Chapter 7 for
details of the DEF gauge functions.
Instruments
1
1/2
ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY
E
4
F
DEF
E
05/14/2001
F
3
08/21/2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
f610556
Fig. 3.13, Air Pressure Gauge (reservoir A shown)
2
f611045
Diesel Fuel Level Indicator
DEF Level Indicator
Low DEF Warning Lamp (amber below 10% DEF)
Low Fuel Warning Lamp (amber at 1/8 tank of fuel)
Fig. 3.12, Fuel/DEF Gauge, EPA10
Primary and Secondary Air Pressure
Gauges
WARNING
If air pressure falls below minimum pressure, the
braking ability of the vehicle will be limited. Slow
the vehicle down and bring it to a gradual stop.
Do not attempt to move the vehicle until air pressure has risen above the minimum level. Moving
a vehicle without adequate braking power could
cause an accident resulting in property damage,
personal injury, or death.
Air pressure gauges, as shown in Fig. 3.13, register
the pressure in the primary and secondary air systems. The gauges are labeled for the A or B reservoir. Normal pressure with the engine running is 100
to 120 psi (689 to 827 kPa) in both systems.
A low-air-pressure warning light and audible alert,
connected to both the primary and secondary systems, activate when air pressure in either system
drops below approximately 70 psi (483 kPa).
When the engine is started, the warning light and
audible warning remain on until air pressure in both
systems exceeds minimum pressure.
Speedometer
Three speedometer options are available. The U.S.
version of the speedometer registers speed in both
miles per hour (mph) and kilometers per hour (km/h),
with mph in larger numbers. The metric version of
the speedometer face reverses this arrangement,
with km/h in larger numbers. The metric-only version
shows km/h exclusively.
Tachometer
The tachometer indicates engine speed in revolutions
per minute (rpm) and serves as a guide for shifting
the transmission and keeping the engine in the appropriate rpm range. For low idle and rated rpm, see
the engine identification plate.
Transmission Fluid Temperature
Gauge
The transmission fluid temperature gauge, shown in
Fig. 3.14, measures the transmission lubricant operating temperature. Temperatures vary by application,
but the transmission fluid temperature gauge reading
should not exceed 250°F (121°C).
NOTICE
A sudden increase in transmission fluid temperature that is not caused by a load increase may
indicate mechanical failure. Bring the vehicle to a
safe stop and investigate the cause to prevent
further damage. Do not operate the vehicle until
the cause has been determined and corrected.
3.12
Instruments
gine is off, the voltmeter shows only the isolated battery voltage and does not indicate the voltage of the
engine-starting batteries.
200
275
Overhead Instrument Panel
350
The optional overhead instrument panel, shown in
Fig. 3.15, may hold a citizen’s band (C/B) radio, a
microphone clip, and any switches that can not be
accommodated on the driver’s or auxiliary dash
panels.
F
125
TRANS
10/30/2001
f610600
Fig. 3.14, Transmission Fluid Temperature Gauge
Under heavy loads, such as when climbing steep
grades, temperatures that exceed the normal oil temperature range for a short period are not unusual. If
the temperature returns to normal when the load decreases, there is no problem.
Turbocharger Boost Pressure Gauge
A turbocharger boost pressure gauge indicates the
pressure in the intake manifold, in excess of atmospheric pressure, being created by the turbocharger.
Voltmeter
The voltmeter indicates the vehicle charging system
voltage when the engine is running and the battery
voltage when the engine is off. By monitoring the
voltmeter, the driver can stay aware of potential battery charging problems and have them fixed before
the batteries discharge enough to create starting difficulties. Cascadia vehicles are equipped with either a
voltmeter gauge, or a digital voltmeter readout located on the bottom line of the dash message center.
The voltmeter will normally show approximately 13.7
to 14.1 volts when the engine is running. The voltage
of a fully charged battery is 12.7 to 12.8 volts when
the engine is off. Battery voltage under 12.0 volts is
considered a low battery, and a completely discharged battery will produce only about 11.0 volts.
If the voltmeter shows an undercharged or overcharged condition for an extended period, have the
charging system and batteries checked at an authorized Freightliner service facility.
On a vehicle equipped with a battery isolator system,
the voltmeter measures the average voltage of all the
batteries when the engine is running. When the en-
3.13
The underside of the overhead console also holds
the sun visors and the optional dome/reading light
assembly. For more information on the dome/reading
light assembly, see Chapter 4.
Instruments
1
2
3
4
1
f680028
04/19/2002
1. Storage Area with Netting
2. C/B Radio
3. Microphone Clip
4. Dome/Reading Light Assembly
Fig. 3.15, Overhead Instrument Panel
3.14
4
Controls
Ignition Switch and Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Lighting Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Multifunction Turn Signal Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Horn Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Powertrain Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
All-Wheel-Drive Controls, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Adjustable Steering Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Other Dash-Mounted Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14
Heater/Air Conditioner Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
Seat Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
Controls
Ignition Switch and Key
WARNING
The ignition switch (Fig. 4.1) has four positions: ACCESSORY, OFF, ON, and START. In addition, the
same key locks and unlocks the cab doors.
Do not attempt to modify, add, splice, or remove
electrical wiring on this vehicle without authorization from Freightliner Engineering. Doing so
could damage the electrical system and result in
a fire that could cause serious personal injury or
property damage.
There are two new electrical modules, a master module located near the frontwall (bulkhead module) and
a slave module located between the frame rails
(chassis module).
This new wiring system features intelligent controls
that blink to show switch activity and error conditions.
These controls cannot be distinguished by their appearance, only by their function.
09/12/2001
f610509
Fig. 4.1, Ignition Switch Positions
In the OFF position, the key slot is vertical; the key
can be inserted and removed only in this position.
The following can be operated in the off position (regardless of whether the key is inserted): The lowbeam headlights, taillights, brake lights, road lights,
dome lights, clearance lights, turn signals, hazard
warning lights, horn, CB radio, power windows, cigarette lighter, clock, and electric oil pan heater.
In the ACCESSORY position, the key is turned counterclockwise. The radio, stereo system, mirror heat,
air dryer, backup lights, and all of the electrical systems that are operable in the off position are operable in the accessory position.
In the ON position, the key is turned clockwise and
all electrical systems are operable. The low air pressure and low oil pressure warning lights (or messages) and buzzer operate until the engine is started
and pressure is built up.
Electrical System
The Business Class® M2 features a new type of
electrical system, different from any previous vehicle.
Multiple electrical signals are carried along a simplified set of wires, reducing the size of wiring bundles.
There are significantly fewer wires overall, meaning
less chance of damage, shorts and other problems.
For more information about these controls, see under
the headings "Axle Switches" and "Suspension
Dump Switch."
Lighting Controls
The lighting controls mentioned under this heading
generally operate through switches located on the
dash.
Two types of dash switches are used:
• Paddle switches with a single paddle located in
the center of the switch. The paddle can be
raised or lowered to perform a function.
• Rocker switches that can be pressed at either
the upper or lower end to perform a function.
Certain rocker switches are guarded to prevent
them from being switched on or off accidentally.
When the panel lights are on, most switch legends
are backlit with a colored light, usually green. This
allows the driver to find the switch more easily in the
dark. When the switch is on, the switch icon is normally backlit with a colored light, usually amber.
Some switch icons are dead-fronted (not visible until
the switch is turned on). When turned on, some
switches are illuminated from within by a red or
amber LED (light-emitting diode).
Control Panels
The left-hand control panel (Fig. 4.2) contains a louvered window outlet for the face vents of the heating,
4.1
Controls
ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC), and
four switches arranged in a vertical line, usually the
headlight, panel light increase/decrease, and the
cruise control On/Off and Set/Resume switches.
The HVAC climate control panel is on a separate
panel below the auxiliary dash panel, between the
two cupholders.
Exterior Light Controls
Headlight/Parking Light Switch
2
3
4
1
The headlight/parking light switch (Fig. 4.3) is a
paddle switch located on the left-hand control panel
above the cruise control switches. When the paddle
is lowered, the parking lights illuminate (the front turn
signals, the cab marker and identification lights, and
the taillights). When the paddle is raised, the lowbeam headlights illuminate, along with all the parking
lights. To turn off all lights, return the paddle to the
center position.
5
f610579a
10/15/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Left-Hand Control Panel
Instrumentation Control Unit
Right-Hand Control Panel
Radio Panel
Auxiliary Dash Panel
Fig. 4.2, Switch and Gauge Panels
The instrument cluster (ICU3-M2) is located right behind the steering wheel. No controls are installed on
the standard instrument cluster.
The right-hand control panel (Fig. 4.2) usually contains the transmission push-button shift selector (on
vehicles with automatic or automated transmission)
and the trailer brake lever (hand control valve). On
vehicles with manual transmission, a variety of
switches are installed here. If there is a dashmounted air-restriction indicator, it is often mounted
here.
The radio panel contains two louvered dash outlets
for the face vents of the HVAC, one on either side of
the radio (if installed).
The auxiliary dash panel (Fig. 4.2) below the radio
panel contains the marker interrupt switch, the air
brake valve knobs, the cigarette lighter, and a variety
of switch options.
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Raise the paddle to illuminate the headlights, low beam.
Lower the paddle to illuminate the parking lights.
Fig. 4.3, Headlight/Parking Light Switch
NOTE: The front turn signal is the amber lens in
each headlight unit. The low-beam headlight is
the top clear lens in each headlight unit.
When the headlights or parking lights are on, the
panel lights also illuminate. An amber light in the
switch backlights either the top icon (for headlights
and parking lights) or the bottom icon (for parking
lights only).
Panel Light Increase/Decrease Switch
When the panel lights are on, they can be either
brightened or dimmed by using the INCR/DECR
rocker switch just below the headlight switch
(Fig. 4.4). To brighten the panel lights, press on the
upper part of the rocker (at the INCR legend). To dim
4.2
Controls
the panel lights, press on the lower part of the rocker
(at the DECR legend).
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Raise the paddle to flash the marker lights.
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Fig. 4.4, Panel Light Increase/Decrease Switch
When the panel lights are on, both legends are backlit in green.
Daytime Running Lights
Switching on the ignition and releasing the parking
brakes automatically activates the daytime running
lights, if equipped. The daytime running lights will
operate until the parking brakes are applied or the
headlights are turned on.
Fig. 4.5, Marker Light Interrupt Switch
The low beam headlights must be turned on before
the road lights can be turned on. The road lights will
not illuminate if the high beam headlights are already
on, and switching from low beams to high beams will
switch off the road lights.
To turn the road lights on, press on the upper part of
the rocker (at the road light icon). See Fig. 4.6. To
turn the road lights off, press on the lower part of the
rocker (at the ROAD LAMP legend).
NOTE: Daytime running lights are standard on
all Canadian vehicles.
The daytime running lights illuminate at about twothirds of normal power.
Marker Light Interrupt Switch
The marker light interrupt (MRKR INT) paddle switch
temporarily flashes the marker lights and taillights
(Fig. 4.5). With the vehicle lights on, raise the paddle
to briefly turn off the marker lights and taillights. With
the vehicle lights off, raise the paddle to briefly turn
on the marker lights and taillights.
Turning off the vehicle lights automatically turns off
the marker lights. When the panel lights are on, the
marker light icon and MRKR INT legend are backlit
in green.
Road Light Switch, Optional
The road light (ROAD LAMP) rocker switch operates
the optional road lights, which are recessed into the
front bumper or mounted on the lower edge of a cutout in the center of the front bumper.
4.3
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Fig. 4.6, Road Light Switch
When the road lights are on, the road light icon is
backlit in amber. When the panel lights are on, the
ROAD LAMP legend is backlit in green.
Utility Light Switch, Optional
The utility light switch operates one of the following
lights or sets of lights:
• A single round utility light swivel-mounted in
the center of the cab roof;
Controls
• Two round utility lights mounted in fixed posi-
tions on each side of the cab roof;
• Two flush-mounted utility lights mounted on the
back of the cab, one on each side.
To turn the utility light(s) on, press in on the upper
part of the utility light (UTLY LAMP) rocker switch
(Fig. 4.7). To turn the utility light(s) off, press on the
lower part of the rocker (at the UTLY LAMP legend).
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To remove the lens, press in at the mounting tabs
(arrows).
Fig. 4.8, Rear Dome Light
1
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2
Fig. 4.7, Utility Light Switch
When the utility lights are on, the diagonal light beam
icon is backlit in red. When the panel lights are on,
the UTLY LAMP legend is backlit in green.
Spotlight, Optional
The spotlight switch is located on the pivoting handle
of the spotlight. There may be a single spotlight assembly mounted on the driver’s door, or one on each
door.
Interior Lights and Light Controls
3
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1. Overhead Console
2. Trimplate
f610587
3. Light Assembly
Fig. 4.9, Overhead Console Dome Lights
The interior lights include dome lights, red map
lights, and clear reading lights.
Light Replacement
Rear Dome Light
Dome Lights
To replace the rear dome light (Fig. 4.8), do the following steps:
Diffuse dome lights are installed on all cabs. The
standard dome light has a clear lens and is installed
on the back of the cab above the rear window. See
Fig. 4.8 for the rear dome light.
On cabs with an overhead console, there is an optional overhead dome light assembly containing a
diffuse dome and a clear reading light. See Fig. 4.9
for the optional dome/reading lights on the overhead
console.
1.
Press in on the lens at the four mounting tabs
(arrows).
2.
Replace the bullet-type bulb and install the lens
on the lamp base with the button at the bottom.
Overhead Console Dome/Reading Lights
To replace the overhead console dome/reading lights
(Fig. 4.9), do the following steps:
4.4
Controls
1.
Remove the tapping screws that attach the lamp
assembly and trimplate to the overhead console.
2.
Separate the lamp assembly from the trimplate
and disconnect the wiring harness.
3.
Replace the lamp assembly.
4.
Snap the lamp assembly and trimplate together.
5.
Connect the lamp assembly to the wiring harness.
6.
Insert the tabs on the trimplate into the slots on
the overhead console attachment plate.
7.
Center the lamp assembly in the headliner cutout
and install the center tapping screw.
8.
Install the remaining tapping screws.
Dome Light Switches
In the standard cab, there is one dome light switch in
the driver’s door that turns on the diffuse dome light
when the driver’s door is opened. In one option, two
switches are installed, so that the diffuse dome light
turns on when either the driver’s or passenger’s door
is opened.
Clear Reading Lights, Optional
Clear reading lights are available as a option. They
are included only in the light assembly installed in
the overhead console, located next to the diffuse
dome light in the same fixture (Fig. 4.9). Like the
dome lights, the reading lights are door-activated.
4
5
1
2
3
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Press down on the upper part of the rocker to activate
the hazard warning flashers.
1. Washer Button
2. Wiper Control Dial
3. Turn Signal Lever
4. Hazard Flasher (red rocker switch)
5. Multifunction Switch Module
Fig. 4.10, Multifunction Turn Signal Switch
Turn-Signal Controls
The turn signal lever (Fig. 4.11) is mounted on the
steering column. Moving the lever down turns on the
left turn signal lights; moving it up turns on the right
turn signal lights.
Multifunction Turn Signal
Switch
The multifunction turn signal switch is attached to the
steering column, just below the steering wheel, on
the left-hand side. This switch has the following
functions:
• The turn signals
• The windshield wipers and washers
• The headlight high beams
• The hazard warning flasher
See Fig. 4.10 for the multifunction switch and its
component parts.
4.5
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f820384
Move the lever down to turn on the left turn signals.
Move the lever up to turn on the right turn signals.
Fig. 4.11, Turn Signal Controls
When one of the turn-signal lights is on, a green indicator arrow flashes at the far left or far right of the
warning and indicator light panel.
Controls
The lever automatically returns to the neutral position
(self-cancels the switch) when the steering wheel
returns to the straight ahead position after a turn. To
cancel the signal manually, move the lever to the
neutral position.
Windshield Wiper/Washer Controls
the control dial clockwise as far as it will go (to the
OFF setting) turns the wipers off.
The washers are operated by a yellow button at the
very end of the turn signal lever. To operate the
washers, press the button in and hold it in until you
want the washers to stop.
Headlight High Beams
CAUTION
Do not move the wiper arms manually. Wiper
motor damage will occur if the arms are moved.
The wipers are operated by a rotary switch in the
wiper control dial, which is on the end of the turn signal lever. See Fig. 4.12. There are five delay settings, marked on the dial by lines of increasing
length, and two steady speed settings, LO and HI.
Push the turn signal lever forward, towards the windshield, to turn on the high-beam headlights. Pull the
turn signal lever back to its original position to turn
them off. See Fig. 4.13.
1
2
2
3
1
4
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5
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Rotate the control dial away from you to turn the wipers
on, or speed them up.
Rotate the control dial towards you to slow the wipers
down, or turn them off.
1. Washer Button
2. OFF Position
3. Delay Positions
4. Wipers On, Low Speed
5. Wipers On, High Speed
Fig. 4.12, Wiper/Washer Controls
Rotating the control dial forward (in a counterclockwise direction) turns the wipers on. If they are already on, rotating the handle further forward (to a
faster speed setting) increases the speed of the wipers through the various delay settings, and to LO and
then HI.
f820385
Move the lever away from you to turn on the high beams.
Move the lever back to its original position to turn them
off.
Move the lever towards you to flash the high beams
momentarily.
1. Turn Signal Lever
2. Boot
Fig. 4.13, Headlight High Beams
When the high beam headlights are on, a blue light
illuminates on the instrument cluster between the tachometer and speedometer. For vehicles built to operate in the United States, switching on the high
beams will switch off the road lights.
NOTE: The ignition switch must be on for the
high beams to work.
With the headlight low beams on, pull the lever backward, towards the steering wheel, to flash the high
beams (turn them on momentarily).
Rotating the control dial in the opposite direction
(clockwise) causes the wipers to slow down. Rotating
4.6
Controls
The headlight low beams remain on continuously
during high beam operation. If the low beam headlights are turned off by use of the headlight switch,
the high beams turn off also.
The air horn is controlled by a wire lanyard hanging
down just inboard on the driver’s door. See Fig. 4.15.
Pull downward on the lanyard to sound the air horn.
Hazard Warning Flasher
The hazard warning light flasher (Fig. 4.10) is a red
rocker switch located on the top of the multifunction
switch module. When the flashers are activated, all
of the turn signal lights (front, side, and rear) and the
two green indicator arrows on the control panel will
blink on and off.
To flash the hazard warning lights, press down on
the upper part of the rocker (towards the dash). To
stop the hazard warning lights, press down on the
lower part of the rocker (towards the steering wheel).
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To sound the air horn, pull down on the lanyard (arrow).
Horn Controls
NOTE: It is possible to have both the electric
and the air horn installed on one vehicle.
Electric Horn
A single electric horn is standard. Dual electric horns
are available as an option.
The button for the electric horn is located in the center of the steering wheel. To sound the horn, press
down on the button. See Fig. 4.14.
Fig. 4.15, Air Horn Control
Powertrain Controls
After-Treatment System (ATS)
Request/Inhibit Regen Switch
A parked regen of the ATS can be initiated with the
request/inhibit regen switch. It may also be used to
inhibit the vehicle from performing an automatic
regen. See Fig. 4.16.
The style and function of switch will vary with the engine make and model. See the engine operation
manual for operation details.
1
To sound the electric horn, press down on the horn
button.
1. Horn Button
Fig. 4.14, Electric Horn Control
Air Horn, Optional
Single and dual air horns are available as options.
4.7
RGEN
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Fig. 4.16, Request/Inhibit Regen Switch
f610848
Controls
Cruise Control Switches
CAUTION
Do not attempt to shift gears without using the
clutch pedal when the cruise control is engaged.
Failure to follow this precaution will result in a
temporarily uncontrolled increase in engine
speed; transmission damage and gear stripping
could result.
1
On standard models, cruise control is activated by
two dash switches. See Fig. 4.17. On some models,
cruise control can be activated by a button on the
transmission shift knob.
2
• The On/Off Switch—this two-position rocker
switch bears the legend SPD CNTL on the
lower half of the switch. When cruise control is
on, an amber light illuminates in the top part of
the switch.
• The Set/Resume Switch—this three-position
paddle switch bears the legend RES/ACC
above the paddle and SET/CST below the
paddle.
NOTE: For more information about cruise control operation, see Chapter 7.
Engine Brake Switch, Optional
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To turn cruise control on, press the upper half of the On/
Off (rocker) switch. To turn cruise control off, press the
lower half of the On/Off (rocker) switch.
1. Cruise Control On/Off (rocker) Switch
2. Cruise Control Set/Resume (paddle) Switch
Fig. 4.17, Cruise Control Switches, Dash-Mounted
1
2
The engine brake switch controls the degree of engine braking. Normally there are two paddle
switches, a two-position On/Off Switch to activate the
engine brake, and a two-position HI-LO Switch to
control the amount of engine braking.
To turn the two-position On/Off Switch on, raise the
paddle. When the two-position switch is on, an
amber LED (light-emitting diode) illuminates inside
the switch.
To turn the two-position HI-LO Switch on high, raise
the paddle (at the HI-LO icon). To turn the twoposition HI-LO Switch on low, lower the paddle (at
the ENG BRK legend). See Fig. 4.18.
A three-position switch is used on MBE900 engines
equipped with both the regular engine brake and the
constant-throttle (decompression) brake. It works the
same as the two-position HI-LO switch, except that
there is a third (off) position when the switch is left at
its normal position.
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1. On/Off Switch
2. HI-LO Switch
Fig. 4.18, Engine Brake Switches
The engine brake turns off automatically or when the
clutch pedal is pressed. On vehicles without a clutch
pedal, the brake pedal can be used to deactivate the
engine brake. For more information about engine
brake operation, see Chapter 7.
When the panel lights are on, the HI-LO icon is backlit in amber on the HI-LO switch. On both switches,
4.8
Controls
the ENG BRK legend is backlit in green when the
panel lights are on.
Exhaust Brake Switch, Optional
The optional exhaust brake is controlled by a dashmounted rocker switch to help slow the vehicle when
the accelerator is released. See Chapter 7 under the
heading "Exhaust Braking System, Optional" for additional information.
To turn the exhaust brake on, press on the upper
part of the rocker (at the light inside the switch). The
exhaust brake turns off automatically. See Fig. 4.19
or Fig. 4.20.
Engine Fan Switch, Optional
The engine cooling fan can be turned on by the engine fan switch (ENG FAN legend). The fan will continue to operate for a set amount of time and then
turn off unless the coolant temperature is high
enough to continue the fan operation.
To turn the engine fan on, press on the upper part of
the rocker (at the fan icon). See Fig. 4.21.
When the engine fan is running, the fan blade icon is
backlit in amber. When the panel lights are on, the
ENG FAN legend is backlit in green.
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Fig. 4.19, Exhaust Brake Switch
Fig. 4.21, Engine Fan Switch
Transmission Controls
If so equipped, the transmission range control valve
and splitter valve are attached to the gearshift knob.
Transmission shift pattern labels are located inside
the cab. See Chapter 8 for complete transmission
operating instructions.
On vehicles with standard Allison On-Highway Series
automatic transmission, the shift selector is leveractivated. The display mounted on the steering column provides four forward ranges and one reverse
range. See Fig. 4.22.
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f610589a
Fig. 4.20, Exhaust Brake Switch
When the exhaust brake switch is on, an amber LED
illuminates inside the switch. When the panel lights
are on, the EXHST BRK legend is backlit in green.
When the transmission is in D (drive), the vehicle will
operate in the overdrive (5th) gear. To shift down into
the direct drive (4th) gear, use the overdrive lockout
switch (O/D legend). See Fig. 4.23. The transmission
will shift into 4th gear and remain in that gear unless
a range inhibitor is active, such as engine overspeed.
See Chapter 8 for more information about range
inhibitors.
To shift to fourth gear, press on the upper part of the
rocker (at the LED). The LED will come on and stay
4.9
Controls
Axle Switches
1
2
All axle switches contain a red LED (light-emitting
diode) that illuminates the switch from within when
the switch is turned on (the upper part of the rocker
is pressed). The legend under the LED, if any, is not
visible until the switch is turned on.
IMPORTANT: A guard is positioned around all
axle switches to prevent unintentional activation.
NOTE: For more information on axle switch
function, see Chapter 8.
3
Differential Lock Switch
CAUTION
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f270119
1. All Series, Standard (without park)
2. 1000/2400 Series, Optional (with park)
3. 2000 Series, Optional (with auto-apply parking
brake)
Fig. 4.22, Steering Column-Mounted Shift Controls
Differential lock should only be engaged when
the vehicle is stopped or moving slowly at low
throttle. This will prevent internal axle damage.
The differential lock switch is a two-position guarded
rocker switch. See Fig. 4.24. It causes the wheels on
each axle governed by the switch to rotate together.
It is also known as side-to-side wheel lock.
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Fig. 4.23, Overdrive Lockout Switch
illuminated until the bottom part of the rocker switch
is pressed.
On vehicles with Allison MD Series automatic transmission or Eaton Autoshift automated transmission, a
push-button shift selector provides four, five, or six
forward ranges and one reverse range. See Chapter 8 for more information about the push-button shift
selector.
f610596
Fig. 4.24, Differential Lock Switch
To lock the wheels together, press the upper half of
the rocker momentarily (at the LED). To turn off differential lock, press the upper half of the rocker
again.
When the panel lights are on, the double-axle icon is
backlit in green.
IMPORTANT: The differential lock switch is
guarded to prevent unintentional switch activation. If the LED in the switch begins to blink during normal operation, when the switch has not
been activated, this indicates an error condition.
4.10
Controls
Bring the vehicle to an authorized Freightliner
service facility as soon as possible.
The axle shift switch is a two-position guarded rocker
switch installed on vehicles with two-speed axles.
See Fig. 4.26.
Interaxle Lock Switch
CAUTION
The interaxle lock should not be engaged on a
vehicle with obviously spinning wheels. Engagement at high speed or power can damage the
axle(s).
The interaxle lock switch is a two-position guarded
rocker switch installed on vehicles with dual drive
axles. See Fig. 4.25. It causes both axle shafts to
rotate together.
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f610594
Fig. 4.26, Axle Shift Switch
To shift the axle from low speed to high speed, press
the upper half of the rocker momentarily (at the
LED). To turn the axle shift off (switch from high
speed back to low speed), press the upper half of
the rocker again.
10/26/2001
f610595
Fig. 4.25, Interaxle Lock Switch
To lock the axles together, press the upper half of the
rocker momentarily (at the LED). To turn off interaxle
lock, press the upper half of the rocker again.
When the panel lights are on, the double-axle icon is
backlit in green.
IMPORTANT: The interaxle lock rocker switch is
guarded to prevent unintentional switch activation. This switch does not have a diagnostic
blink function when inactive.
Axle Shift Switch
CAUTION
To prevent transmission and axle damage, make
sure the automatic transmission is in high range
when performing an axle shift with the vehicle
moving.
4.11
NOTE: On vehicles with tandem drive axles,
there is an interlock that prevents a 2-speed
axle from shifting whenever the interaxle lock is
on.
When the panel lights are on, the AXLE SHIFT legend is backlit in green.
IMPORTANT: The axle shift switch is guarded to
prevent unintentional switch activation. If the
LED in the switch begins to blink during normal
operation, when the switch has not been activated, this indicates an error condition. Bring the
vehicle to an authorized Freightliner service facility as soon as possible.
All-Wheel-Drive Controls,
Optional
All-wheel-drive (AWD) allows the driver to direct
driveline power to all four axles, front and rear. Two
switches are used to control AWD: an AWD operation
switch used to activate all-wheel-drive, and an AWD
range switch used to select the high or low range.
AWD controls are not multiplexed.
Controls
AWD Operation Switch
The AWD operation switch is a two-position rocker
switch with a light-emitting diode (LED) that illuminates when AWD is engaged. The legend LOCKED
is underneath the LED on the upper half of the
switch. On the lower half is the legend AWD. See
Fig. 4.27. When the panel lights are on, the AWD
legend is backlit in green.
at the upper end and HIGH RANGE at the lower
end. On vehicles with a power take-off unit (PTO),
the three-position switch has a neutral (N-TRL) position in the middle. See Fig. 4.28. When the panel
lights are on, the HIGH RANGE legend is backlit in
green.
1
LOCKED
2
LO
RANGE
LO
N−TRL
HIGH
RANGE
HIGH
RANGE
AWD
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f610807
Fig. 4.27, AWD Operation Switch
To engage AWD, press the upper half of the rocker
switch. The LED illuminates to indicate that AWD is
engaged. To turn off AWD, press the lower half of the
switch. The LED goes out to indicate the AWD is no
longer engaged.
f610808
1. Two-Position Switch
2. Three-Position Switch
Fig. 4.28, AWD Range Switches
Two-Position Switch (no PTO)
When AWD is engaged, the LOCKED legend is
backlit in red. In addition, a red indicator with the legend T-CASE ENGAGED displays on the dash message center.
On vehicles without a PTO, high range is considered
standard operation. To activate the low range, press
the upper half of the switch. When the low range is
activated, the LO RANGE legend is backlit in red. In
addition, a red indicator with the legend T-CASE LO
RNG displays on the dash message center. To
switch back to HIGH RANGE, press the lower half of
the switch.
AWD Range Switch
Three-Position Switch (with PTO)
CAUTION
To prevent damage to the transfer case and the
driveline, stop the vehicle and apply the parking
brake before using the range switch.
The AWD range switch is used under similar conditions to those of the axle shift switch on a two-speed
rear axle. Use the high range when driving at normal
speeds under off-road conditions, or on non-paved
surfaces. Use the low range when extra traction is
needed at lower speeds; for example, under conditions of mud, snow, or ice. This switch should be
used only when AWD has been engaged.
In most cases, the AWD range switch is a twoposition rocker switch with the legends LO RANGE
IMPORTANT: Always use the N-TRL switch position when operating the PTO.
On vehicles with a PTO, neutral is considered standard operation (switch in the middle position). An
amber indicator with the legend T-CASE NTRL displays on the dash message center.
To activate the high range, press the lower half of the
switch. No indicator displays on the dash message
center with the high range activated. Press the upper
half to return to N-TRL.
To activate the low range, press the upper half of the
switch. A red indicator with the legend T-CASE LO
RNG displays on the dash message center. On the
switch, the LO N-TRL legend is backlit in red. Press
4.12
Controls
the lower half to return to N-TRL, and then press the
lower half again to select HIGH RANGE.
Braking
Parking Brake Control Valve
The yellow diamond-shaped knob (Fig. 4.29) on the
auxiliary dash panel operates the parking brake control valve (park brake switch). Pulling the yellow knob
applies the tractor parking brakes (spring brakes).
Pushing in the knob releases the tractor parking
brakes. Before the parking brakes can be released,
the air pressure in either air brake system must be at
least 65 psi (448 kPa).
1
Trailer Brake Lever
The trailer brake lever (hand control valve) is used
for applying the trailer brakes without applying the
truck or tractor brakes. It is usually mounted on the
right-hand control panel. See Fig. 4.30. See Chapter 9 under the heading "Dual Air Brake System" for
operating instructions.
2
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Fig. 4.30, Trailer Brake Lever
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03/10/99
1. Trailer Air Supply Valve (red knob)
2. Parking Brake Control Valve (yellow knob)
Fig. 4.29, Brake Valve Control Knobs
See Chapter 9 under the heading "Dual Air Brake
System" for further information about the parking
brake control valve.
Trailer Air Supply Valve
The red octagonal-shaped knob (Fig. 4.29) on the
auxiliary dash panel operates the trailer air supply
valve. After the vehicle and its air hoses are connected to a trailer, and the pressure in the air system
is at least 65 psi (448 kPa), the red knob must be
pushed in (and should stay in) to charge the trailer
air supply system and release the trailer spring parking brakes. Before disconnecting a trailer or when
operating a vehicle without a trailer, the red knob
must be pulled out.
See Chapter 9 under the heading "Dual Air Brake
System" for further information about the trailer air
supply valve.
4.13
Meritor™ WABCO® Antilock Braking
System (ABS)
The Meritor WABCO Antilock Braking System (ABS)
has an amber tractor indicator light (TRACTOR ABS
legend) and, if equipped with automatic traction control (ATC), an amber wheel spin indicator light
(WHEEL SPIN legend). See Fig. 4.31.
On vehicles equipped with a compatible trailer, there
is also an amber trailer indicator light (TRAILER ABS
legend).
See the brake system operating instructions in Chapter 9 for more information about ABS.
Adjustable Steering Column
To tilt the steering column, press down on the foot
pedal located below the steering column. Tilt the
steering column up or down to the desired position.
Release the foot pedal to lock the steering column in
place. See Fig. 4.32.
To telescope the steering column, press down on the
foot pedal located below the steering column. Pull
the steering wheel closer to you or push the steering
Controls
2
1
3
5
1
2
10/12/2000
f610454
1. Tractor ABS Indicator
2. Wheel Spin Indicator
(optional)
3. Trailer ABS Indicator
3
Fig. 4.31, ABS Indicator Lights
4
wheel farther away from you. Release the foot pedal
to lock the steering column in place.
Other Dash-Mounted Controls
Windshield-Fan Switches, Optional
Ceiling-mounted defogger fans are operated by
LOW/OFF/HIGH toggle switches located in the base
of the fan.
Cigarette Lighter
Push in the lighter to heat the element. The lighter
will stay in and will automatically pop out when the
element is hot.
CB Radio Connections
An antenna connection and positive (+) and negative
(–) power connections are provided for a CB radio.
Suspension Dump Switch
NOTICE
Do not operate the vehicle over uneven ground
such as ramps, speed bumps, curbs, etc. with
the air springs deflated. Doing this may lead to
air bag separation from the piston, preventing the
suspension air springs from reinflating.
07/19/2006
f610799
1. Multifunction Turn
Signal Switch
2. Headlight Switch
3. Ignition Switch
4. Adjustable Steering
Column foot Pedal
5. Steering Wheel
Fig. 4.32, Adjustable Steering Column
NOTICE
Never exhaust air from the suspension while
driving. When the air is exhausted, the suspension will not absorb road shocks, and components may be damaged.
The suspension dump switch is a two-position
guarded rocker switch (Fig. 4.33). It allows the air in
the vehicle air suspension to be quickly exhausted,
lowering the rear of the vehicle. This makes it easier
to connect to, or disconnect from, a trailer.
To lower the rear of the vehicle quickly, press the
upper half of the rocker momentarily (at the LED). To
4.14
Controls
will also autofill if the vehicle is operated with the
suspension dumped, and the speed is over 5 mph
(e.g. -- driver forgot to inflate the bags or there was a
system failure).
Suspension Autofill Override Valve
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f610597
Fig. 4.33, Suspension Dump Switch
raise the suspension to its normal height, press the
upper half of the rocker again.
The suspension autofill override option is a dash air
valve, that keeps the suspension deflated when the
ignition is turned off. To operate it, turn off the ignition
then push the override valve knob. See Fig. 4.34.
When the ignition is turned on, the override valve will
release automatically, and the suspension will autofill.
The suspension dump switch will then operate normally as described previously.
When the panel lights are on, the tractor icon is
backlit in green.
IMPORTANT: The suspension dump switch is
guarded to prevent unintentional switch activation. This switch does not have a diagnostic
blink function when inactive.
SH TO
PU
When the suspension dump switch is pressed, three
responses are possible: a normal response, a slow
response, and an abnormal response.
Normal Response: The LED in the switch blinks
while the suspension is deflating or filling. When it is
completely deflated, the LED comes on steady and
stays illuminated. In normal operation, the suspension may dump or fill so quickly that the blinking of
the switch is barely noticeable.
If operation of the switch is not possible for any reason (vehicle is moving faster than 5 mph, ignition is
turned off, etc.), the LED will stop blinking and turn
off.
Slow Response: If operation of the switch is slowed
for any reason (by cold weather, low air pressure,
etc.), the switch will continue to blink until the suspension completes a dump or fill. As in the normal
response, the LED comes on steady and stays illuminated when the suspension if fully deflated.
Abnormal Response: If the LED blinks for more than
10 seconds, the suspension dump mechanism may
not be operating properly. Bring the vehicle to an authorized Freightliner service facility for testing.
If the ignition is turned off while the vehicle is in
dump mode, the power to the dump solenoid is cut
off to prevent battery drain, and the suspension system will autofill the rear air springs. The suspension
4.15
09/11/2007
f321102
Fig. 4.34, Suspension Autofill Override Valve
Heater/Air Conditioner Control
Panel
Standard controls (Fig. 4.35) for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system (HVAC) consist of
an eight-speed fan switch, an air selection switch,
and a temperature control switch. On vehicles with
air conditioning, the panel also contains a telltale
LED and an air recirculation button. See Chapter 6
for detailed operating instructions for the HVAC.
Seat Controls
Bench Seat Adjustment Controls
The standard bench seat has one control: the seat
slide lever. See Fig. 4.36. The two-person bench
Controls
1
2
seat to prevent damage to the seat and the cab interior.
3
All adjustment controls for a suspension seat are located on the seat base. See Chapter 5 for complete
instructions.
2
3
1
0
4
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f831452
1. Fan Switch
2. Air Selection Switch
3. Temperature Control Switch
Fig. 4.35, HVAC Climate Control Panel, Standard
seat and the non-suspended passenger seat have
no controls.
1
2
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f910481
1. Three-Person Seat
2. Seat Slide Lever
Fig. 4.36, Full Bench Seat
Suspension Seat Adjustment Controls
All controls for adjusting air suspension seats are
located within easy reach of the occupant.
Due to the maximum adjustability of mid- and highback air suspension seats, it is possible to combine
the seat back recline adjustment and the seat slide
adjustment so that the seat back contacts the backwall. It is the responsibility of the driver to adjust the
4.16
5
Cab Features
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
Seat Belts and Tether Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8
Cab Amenities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
Windshield Washer Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
Cab Features
Windows
Mirrors
Standard windows operate mechanically using a
hand crank.
The standard outside mirrors are mounted on the
door frame. There is a primary rear view mirror and a
convex mirror.
Power windows are optional, and can be installed on
one side or both sides. One power window switch
(window icon) will be installed on the dash for each
window. See Fig. 5.1. If your vehicle is equipped with
power windows, press up to raise the window; press
down to lower the window. Releasing the switch
causes the window to stop.
Mirror Heat Switch, Optional
One or both outside door mirrors can be heated to
keep them clear of fog, frost, and ice.
To heat the mirrors, press the upper part of the mirror heat switch (MIRR HEAT) on the dash. See
Fig. 5.3. When the mirror heat switch is on, an
amber indicator light illuminates inside the switch.
MIRR
HEAT
10/09/2001
f610522
Press up to raise the window; press down to lower the
window. Releasing the switch causes the window to stop.
Fig. 5.1, Power Window Switch
Standard vent (wing) windows do not open. Operating vent windows are optional. To open the operating
vent window, turn the latch on the window and push
the window open. See Fig. 5.2.
10/09/2001
f610524
To heat the mirrors, press up; press down to turn off the
heat.
Fig. 5.3, Mirror Heat Switch
The mirror heat switch is a smart switch (fully multiplexed).
Power Mirrors, Optional
The main outside mirrors, if heated, can be equipped
with an electrical remote control located on the
driver’s door. See Fig. 5.4.
To select the mirrors on the left-hand side, press the
left side of the mirror select switch. To select the mirrors on the right-hand side, press the right side of the
mirror select switch.
1
The keypad has four arrow keys, pointing up, down,
left, and right. To adjust the mirror position, press the
keypad in the direction you want the mirror to move.
2
f670096
10/05/2001
1. Latch
2. Vent Window
Fig. 5.2, Operating Vent Window (optional)
5.1
Down View Mirror, Optional
A down view mirror can be installed on the top of the
passenger door frame to allow the driver a view of
Cab Features
the area adjacent to the right side of the cab. See
Fig. 5.5.
Unless otherwise noted, all seat adjustments should
be made while seated and before the engine is
started.
Due to the high degree of adjustability found in highback air suspension seats, it is possible to set the
seat back recline adjustment and the seat slide adjustment in such a combination that the seat back
will come into contact with the rear wall of the cab. It
is the responsibility of the driver to adjust the seat to
prevent damage to the seat and the cab interior.
2
1
The following is a description of adjustments that are
available on one or more seats. Not all seats have all
of the adjustments listed below.
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f610523
1.
To adjust the mirror position, press the keypad on the
door in the direction you want the mirror to move.
1. Mirror Select Switch
Seat Slide (fore-and-aft): When this adjustment is
made, the entire seat moves forward or backward on its track (Fig. 5.6).
2. Keypad
Fig. 5.4, Power Mirror Switch Pad
B
A
1
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f910482
A. Seat Slide (fore-and-aft) Adjustment
B. Isolator Feature
1. Mirror
Fig. 5.5, Down View Mirror (optional)
Seats
Fig. 5.6, Seat Slide Adjustment and Isolator Feature
2.
Isolator: This feature (also referred to as backslap isolator or Chugger-Snubber®) reduces the
amount of road shock by isolating the occupant
from the motion of the vehicle, and allowing the
upper seat to move in a simple pendulum motion. Whenever the isolator is not desired, it can
be locked out (Fig. 5.6).
3.
Lumbar Support: Lumbar support changes the
shape of the seat back to give more or less support to the occupant’s lumbar (lower back) area.
General Information
WARNING
Keep hands, tools, and other objects away from
the scissor points under the seats. Failure to do
so could cause personal injury.
5.2
Cab Features
This adjustment is either mechanical or air controlled, depending on make and model of the
seat (Fig. 5.7).
B
A
B
A
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f910484
A. Backrest Tilt
B. Seat Cushion Tilt
Fig. 5.8, Cushion Tilt Adjustments
10/05/2001
A. Lumbar Support
f910483
B. Headrest Adjustment
Fig. 5.7, Lumbar Support and Headrest Adjustment
4.
Headrest: When this adjustment is made, the
upper part of the backrest (back cushion)
changes angle to provide head and upper back
support (Fig. 5.7).
5.
Backrest Tilt: This adjustment pivots the backrest
forward or backward (Fig. 5.8).
6.
Seat Cushion Tilt: This adjustment raises or lowers the front and/or back of the seat (bottom)
cushion. This adjustment is easier to perform
when all weight is removed from the seat
(Fig. 5.8).
7.
Seat Tilt: When this adjustment is made, the seat
assembly, both backrest and seat cushion, tilts
forward or backward (Fig. 5.8).
8.
9.
5.3
A
10/05/2001
Ride Height Adjustment: The entire seat moves
up or down when adjusting the ride height. The
adjustment is either manual or air controlled, depending on the make and model of the seat
(Fig. 5.9).
Damper: When you sit on the seat, a leveling
valve places you in the center of the ride zone.
When the damper is adjusted properly under nor-
f910485
A. Ride Height
Fig. 5.9, Ride Height Adjustment
mal driving conditions, the seat should not top or
bottom against the limits of the vertical travel.
10. Ride Firmness: A firmer ride gives a better feel
for the road but less protection against unevenness in the road surface. A softer ride smooths
out the bumps.
Cab Features
Bench Seats
Lumbar Support
The three-person full bench seat is standard. See
Fig. 5.10.
To adjust the lumbar support, use the lumbar support
switches on the side of the seat.
Height Adjustment
To raise or lower the height of the seat, use the
height adjustment switch on the side of the seat.
1
Bottom Cushion Extension
To adjust the fore-and-aft position of the seat cushion, remove your weight from the seat, then lift up
and pull forward on the cushion adjustment handle.
To return the cushion to the aft position, lift up and
push rearward.
Fore/Aft Seat Slide
2
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f910481
1. Three-Person Seat
2. Seat Slide Lever
Fig. 5.10, Full Bench Seat
The full bench seat has a seat slide adjustment to
allow more or less leg room for the driver and passengers. Release the seat slide lever and push backwards or forwards to move the seat along its track.
To adjust the fore-and-aft position of the entire seat,
move the fore-and-aft seat adjustment lever to the
left and slide the seat forward or backward to the
desired position. Move the lever back to its original
position to lock the seat in place.
Fore/Aft Isolator
To engage the isolator, turn the isolator knob rearward to the unlocked position. Turn the isolator knob
forward to the locked position when the isolator feature is not desired.
High-back air suspension seats are optional for both
driver’s and passenger’s seats. Also available are a
non-suspended passenger’s seat, and a two-person
bench seat with a safe or tool box located under the
seat.
Shock Absorber
No adjustments are possible on the two-person
bench seat or the non-suspended passenger seat.
Front Cushion Height
To adjust the amount of damping the shock absorber
provides, move the lever up to increase damping;
move the lever down to decrease damping.
See Fig. 5.11 for seat adjustment controls. Not all
models of the seat have all the adjustments listed
below.
To adjust the height of the front of the cushion, remove your weight from the seat, then turn the adjustment knob toward the front of the seat (clockwise) to
increase cushion height. To lower the cushion height,
turn the adjustment knob toward the rear of the seat
(counterclockwise).
Backrest Tilt
Rear Cushion Height
To tilt the backrest, lean forward slightly to remove
pressure from the cushion, then turn the knob forward or rearward to achieve the desired position.
To adjust the height of the rear of the seat cushion,
remove your weight from the seat and turn the rear
cushion adjustment knob to one of three positions.
Freightliner High-Back Seat
5.4
Cab Features
1
6
4
2
10
9
3
5
8
7
07/18/2007
f910576
NOTE: Not all models of the seat have all the adjustment controls shown.
1. Rear Cushion Height Adjustment
Knob
2. Fore/Aft Isolator
3. Front Cushion Height Adjustment
Knob
4.
5.
6.
7.
Bottom Cushion Extension Handle
Fore/Aft Seat Slide Lever
Backrest Tilt Knob
Heater Button
8. Shock Absorber Lever
9. Height Adjustment Switch
10 Lumbar Support Switches
Fig. 5.11, Freightliner High-Back Seat
Heater
Isolator
To turn on the heat option, press the button. To turn
off the heat option, press the button again. If the vehicle has Optimized Idle, seat heating will not operate with the key in accessory mode. Optimized Idle
may also turn seat heating off to reduce stress on
the batteries.
To engage the isolator, put the seat slide and isolator
lever in the center position. Lock out the isolator by
moving the lever to the right.
Bostrom Seat
Seat Slide Adjustment
Move the seat slide and isolator lever (Fig. 5.12) to
the left and hold it there to slide the seat forward or
backward to the desired position.
5.5
Lumbar Support
To increase lumbar support, rotate the lumbar support knob forward. To decrease lumbar support, rotate the knob rearward.
On seats equipped with air lumbar support, press the
control valve upward to increase lumbar support.
Press the control valve downward to decrease lumbar support.
Cab Features
National 2000 Series Seat
Seat Slide Adjustment
Move the seat slide lever (Fig. 5.13) to the left and
hold it there to slide the seat forward or backward to
the desired position. Move the lever back to its original position to lock the seat in place.
1
7
7
6
4
5
10/10/96
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
2
3
6
f910131
Backrest Tilt Lever
Air Lumbar Support Control Valve (optional)
Damper Adjustment Switch
Height Adjustment Switch
Seat Cushion Tilt Knob
Seat Slide and Isolator Lever
Lumbar Support Knob (standard)
1
5
4
3
2
Fig. 5.12, Bostrom Seat
Seat Cushion Tilt
Rotate the seat cushion tilt knob to increase or decrease seat cushion tilt.
Backrest Tilt
To tilt the backrest, lean forward slightly to remove
pressure from the cushion and hold the backrest tilt
lever rearward. Lean backward slowly to the desired
position and release the lever to lock the backrest in
place.
Ride Height and Damper Adjustment
To raise the seat, press the upper portion of the
height adjustment switch. To lower the seat, press
the lower portion of the switch.
Press the damper adjustment switch to adjust the
damper.
f910445
11/14/2000
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Backrest Tilt Knob
Lumbar Support Switch
Height Adjustment Switch
Seat Slide Lever
Front Cushion Height Adjustment Handle
Isolator Handle
Rear Cushion Adjustment Knob
Fig. 5.13, National 2000 Series Seat
Isolator
To use the isolator feature, turn the isolator handle to
the horizontal position. Turn the isolator handle down
to lock out the isolator.
Lumbar Support
To adjust the lumbar support, use the lumbar support
switch on the side of the seat to give more or less
support to your lower back.
5.6
Cab Features
Backrest Tilt
To tilt the backrest, turn the backrest tilt knob until
the desired position is reached.
right. To lock out the isolator, move the isolator lever
to the center position.
Seat Cushion Adjustment
To adjust the height of the front of the seat cushion,
lift the front cushion height adjustment handle, and
pull forward or push back to the desired setting.
1
To adjust the height of the rear of the seat cushion,
remove your weight from the seat and turn the rear
cushion adjustment knob to one of three positions.
2
Ride Height Adjustment
4
To raise or lower the height of the seat, use the
height adjustment switch on the side of the seat.
5
Sears Seat
Seat Slide Adjustment
Push the seat slide (fore-and-aft adjustment) lever
(Fig. 5.14) all the way to the left and slide the seat
forward or backward, as desired. Release the lever
to lock the seat in the desired position.
3
3
8
4
5
2
6
7
10/09/2001
f910486
NOTE: Armrests are optional.
1. Lumbar Support Lever
2. Backrest Lever
3. Ride Height Knob
4. Shock Absorber Bracket (ride firmness)
5. Pin (ride firmness)
6. Snap Ring (ride firmness)
7. Seat Slide and Isolator Lever
8. Seat Cushion Adjustment
Fig. 5.15, Sears Fleetmaster Seat (with isolator)
Lumbar Support
1
10/08/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
f910487
Seat Slide Lever
Seat Cushion Tilt Adjustment
Ride Height Knob
Lumbar Support Lever
Backrest Lever
Fig. 5.14, Sears Low Profile Seat
Isolator
To engage the isolator (if installed), move the seat
slide and isolator lever (Fig. 5.15) all the way to the
5.7
Move the three-position lumbar support lever upward
to increase lumbar support (firmer). Move the lever
downward to decrease lumbar support (less firm).
NOTE: This three-position lever (see inset) does
not rotate a full 360 degrees.
For seats with air support, use the aft rocker switch
on the control panel on the left-hand side of the seat
(Fig. 5.16). Press up to make the seat firmer; press
down to make the seat less firm.
Seat Cushion Tilt
To raise the seat cushion, lift upward on the front of
the seat cushion, and then push it rearwards. To
Cab Features
Seat Belts and Tether Belts
General Information
Seat belt assemblies are designed to secure persons
in the vehicle to help reduce the chance of injury or
the amount of injury resulting from accidents or sudden stops. For this reason, Daimler Trucks North
America LLC urges that the driver and all passengers, regardless of age or physical condition, use
seat belts when riding in the vehicle.
WARNING
10/08/2001
1
2
f910488
1. Ride Height Switch
2. Air Lumbar Support Switch
Fig. 5.16, Air Controls, Sears Seat
lower the seat cushion, pull forward on the front of
the seat cushion, and then push downwards.
Backrest Adjustment
To adjust the backrest, push downwards on the backrest lever just below the bottom of the backrest cushion. With the lever down, lean forward or backward
to the desired position. Release the lever to lock the
backrest in place.
Ride Height Adjustment
Push the ride height knob inwards to inflate the air
cylinder, raising the height of the seat. Pull the ride
height knob outwards to deflate the air cylinder, lowering the height of the seat.
For seats with air support, use the forward rocker
switch on the control panel on the left-hand side of
the seat (Fig. 5.16). Press up to raise the seat; press
down to lower the seat.
Ride Firmness Adjustment
For a softer ride, remove the snap ring and pin from
the shock absorber bracket (see inset). Relocate the
pin in the other set of holes in the bracket and secure it with the snap ring.
Always use the vehicle’s seat belt system when
operating the vehicle. Failure to do so can result
in severe personal injury or death.
Seat belt assemblies in Daimler Trucks North
America (DTNA) vehicles meet Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 209, "Type 1" and "Type 2" requirements.
When transporting a child, always use a child restraint system or the vehicle seat belts as appropriate. To determine whether a child restraint system is
required, review and comply with applicable state
and local laws. Any child restraint used must comply
with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213,
"Child Restraint Systems." When providing a child
restraint system, always carefully read and follow all
instructions pertaining to installation and usage for
the child. Make certain the child remains in the restraint system at all times when the vehicle is in motion.
In addition to seat belt assemblies, tether belts are
installed on suspension-type seats. Tether belts help
secure the seat to the floor and are intended to restrain the seat and seat belt in case of an accident or
sudden stop.
IMPORTANT: Seat belts have a finite life which
may be much shorter than the life of the vehicle.
Regular inspections and replacement as needed
are the only assurance of adequate seat belt
security over the life of the vehicle.
5.8
Cab Features
Seat Belt Inspection
introduce a small amount of slack into the seat belt,
resulting in a more comfortable ride.
WARNING
Inspect and maintain seat belts. When any part of
a seat belt system needs replacement, the entire
seat belt must be replaced, both retractor and
buckle side. Any time a vehicle is involved in an
accident, and the seat belt system was in use,
the entire vehicle seat belt system must be replaced before operating the vehicle. Do not attempt to modify the seat belt system; doing so
could change the effectiveness of the system.
Failure to replace worn or damaged seat belts, or
making any modifications to the system, may result in personal injury or death.
B
A
Inspect the seat belts and tether belts (if so
equipped).
1.
Check the web for fraying, cuts, extreme dirt and
dust, or for severe fading from exposure to sunlight, especially near the buckle latch plate and in
the D-loop guide area.
2.
Check operation of the buckle, latch, Komfort
Latch or Sliding Komfort Latch (if equipped), web
retractor, and upper seat belt mount on the door
pillar. Check all visible components for wear or
damage.
3.
03/11/2010
f910620
A. Disengaged
B. Engaged
Fig. 5.17, Komfort Latch
Check the seat belt and tether belt connection
points and tighten any that are loose.
Seat Belt Operation
Three-Point Seat Belt With Komfort Latch
or Sliding Komfort Latch
WARNING
Wear three-point seat belts only as described
below. Three-point seat belts are designed to be
worn by one person at a time. In case of an accident or sudden stop, personal injury or death
could result from misuse.
Fasten the seat belts before driving. Fastening a
three-point seat belt while driving creates a hazard.
When engaged and used properly, the Komfort Latch
(Fig. 5.17) and the Sliding Komfort Latch (Fig. 5.18)
5.9
11/18/2010
f910621a
Fig. 5.18, Sliding Komfort Latch
1.
Slowly pull the latch end of the three-point seat
belt out of the retractor and pull it across your
Cab Features
If equipped with a Komfort Latch, pull on the
shoulder strap to lessen the pressure of the strap
on your shoulder and chest. Allow no more than
1 inch (2.5 cm) of slack between your chest and
the shoulder harness. More slack can significantly reduce the seat belt effectiveness in an
accident or a sudden stop. While holding the belt
slack, press the Komfort Latch lever up, clamping the seat belt webbing (Fig. 5.20 and
Fig. 5.21).
lap (from outboard to inboard) far enough to engage the buckle. If the retractor locks too soon,
allow the belt to retract slightly, then slowly pull it
out again.
2.
Fasten the three-point seat belt by pushing the
latch into the buckle. Listen for an audible click.
See Fig. 5.19.
A
f910004a
01/18/95
Fig. 5.19, Fastening the Three-Point Belt
3.
Tug on the seat belt to make sure it is securely
fastened. If the buckle unlatches, repeat this
step. If the problem continues, replace the threepoint seat belt.
4.
Snug the seat belt to your waist.
5.
Position the shoulder strap diagonally across
your chest with the adjustable D-loop bracket (if
equipped). If desired, engage the Komfort Latch
or Sliding Komfort Latch as follows.
If equipped with a Sliding Komfort Latch, make
sure that the shoulder strap is snug against your
chest. Without loosening the shoulder strap,
push the Sliding Komfort Latch switch to the
"ON" position. See Fig. 5.18. To activate the
latch lean forward until you hear a click. This will
allow for approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) of slack
between your chest and the shoulder harness.
Once engaged, the latch will allow you to lean
forward about 5 inches (13 cm) without having to
reset the latch. Leaning forward more than 5
inches (13 cm) will disengage the Sliding Komfort Latch, requiring it to be reset.
f910048a
01/06/95
A. 1 Inch (2.5 cm) Maximum
Fig. 5.20, Adjusting Shoulder Harness Clearance,
Komfort Latch
11/02/95
f910144
Fig. 5.21, Locking the Komfort Latch
6.
Unbuckle the three-point seat belt and release
the Komfort Latch or the Sliding Komfort Latch
as follows.
If equipped with a Sliding Komfort Latch, unbuckle the seat belt, then tug on the shoulder
5.10
Cab Features
belt to release the Sliding Komfort Latch, or
press the Sliding Komfort latch to the "OFF" position, then unbuckle the seat belt.
If equipped with a Komfort Latch, unbuckle the
seat belt, then release the Komfort Latch by giving the shoulder belt a quick tug. If you lean forward against the shoulder belt, the Komfort Latch
will automatically release, and will need to be
reset.
NOTE: Neither the Komfort Latch nor the Sliding
Komfort Latch need to be manually released in
an emergency situation. Each will release by
itself under rough road or other abnormal conditions. Make sure the three-point seat belt is
completely retracted when it is not in use.
Cab Amenities
Cup Holders
There are two cup holders molded into the lower part
of the auxiliary dash panel, one on either side of the
HVAC control head.
Cab Storage
There are storage bins in the dash and the overhead
console. On vehicles with optional individual driver’s
and passenger seats, there is a center storage console between the seats.
There is a dash storage bin located under the cup
holders on the center panel. The bin has a hinged
cover and can be used to store sunglasses. There is
also a small storage pocket above the radio.
Overhead Storage
Vehicles without an overhead console have two storage bins located above the windshield.
On vehicles equipped with an overhead console,
most vehicles have a storage bin located in the overhead console. See Fig. 5.22. The overhead storage
bin is often removed and replaced with a CB radio.
Two map holders with netted openings are located
overhead, one on either side of the overhead
console.
5.11
Center Storage Console (optional)
On vehicles with individual driver’s and passenger’s
seats, a center storage console can be installed between the seats.
The center storage console has a table top that can
be lifted up to deploy a writing surface. See
Fig. 5.23.
In another version, the center storage console has a
printer top with a paper slot in it. See Fig. 5.24.
Windshield Washer Reservoir
The standard location for the windshield washer reservoir is on the right-hand side of the cab underneath
the door, just above the trailing edge of the top cab
step. See Fig. 5.25.
Cab Features
2
1
3
f680027
10/08/2001
1. Overhead Storage Bin
2. Overhead Console
3. Map Holder Netting
Fig. 5.22, Overhead Storage
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
10/08/2001
10/08/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
f680026
Table Top
Storage Console Cover
Storage Area
Storage Console Base
1. Printer Top
2. Printer/Paper Area
f680025
3. Storage Console Base
Fig. 5.24, Center Storage Console (printer option)
Fig. 5.23, Center Storage Console (with writing surface)
5.12
Cab Features
3
1
2
10/08/2001
1. Cab
2. Washer Reservoir Fill Cap
3. Top Step
Fig. 5.25, Windshield Washer Reservoir
5.13
f820378a
6
Heater, Ventilator and Air
Conditioner
Climate Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Heater, Ventilator and Air Conditioner
Climate Control Panel
The climate control panel allows you to control the
heating, ventilating, defrosting, and air conditioning
functions. The climate control panel without air conditioning is shown in Fig. 6.1. The climate control
panel with air conditioning is shown in Fig. 6.2.
Fan Switch
The fan switch controls the fan speed and forces
fresh or recirculated air through the air outlets. The
fan switch has eight fan speeds and an off position.
To increase airflow, turn the fan switch to the right or
to a higher number. To decrease the airflow, turn the
switch to the left or to a lower number.
Air Selection Switch
The air selection switch allows you to control the flow
of air through the face outlets, the floor outlets, the
defrost (windshield) outlets, or a combination of
these outlets to give you nine air selection modes on
a system without air conditioning. See Fig. 6.3. A
system with air conditioning has 11 air selection
1
2
3
2
1
3
0
4
06/17/2003
f831452a
1. Fan Switch
2. Air Selection Switch
3. Temperature Control Switch
Fig. 6.1, Climate Control Panel Without Air Conditioning
2
1
3
2
3
1
0
06/18/2003
1. Fan Switch
2. Air Selection Switch
4
5
4
3. Temperature Control Switch
4. Recirculation Button
f831453a
5. Recirculation Indicator
Fig. 6.2, Climate Control Panel With Air Conditioning
6.1
Heater, Ventilator and Air Conditioner
modes, four of which are air conditioning modes. See
Fig. 6.4.
6
5
4
3
7
4
5
2
6
8
3
9
2
10
A
1
7
1
8
06/18/2003
9
06/17/2003
f831455
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Face Mode
Selection Between Face Mode and Bi-Level Mode
Bi-Level Mode
Selection Between Bi-Level Mode and Floor Mode
Floor Mode
Selection Between Floor Mode and Floor/Defrost
Mode
7. Floor/Defrost Mode
8. Selection Between Floor/Defrost Mode and Defrost
Mode
9. Defrost Mode
Fig. 6.3, Air Selection Switch Without Air Conditioning
2.
3.
4.
Face Mode: Directs all airflow through the face
or instrument panel outlets.
f831462
A. Air Conditioning Modes
1. Air Conditioning Face Mode
2. Selection Between Air Conditioning Face Mode and
Air Conditioning Bi-Level Mode
3. Air Conditioning Bi-Level Mode
4. Selection Between Air Conditioning Bi-Level Mode
and Face Mode
5. Face Mode
6. Selection Between Face Mode and Floor Mode
7. Floor Mode
8. Selection between Floor Mode and Floor/Defrost
Mode
9. Floor/Defrost Mode
10. Selection between Floor/Defrost Mode and Defrost
Mode
11. Defrost Mode
Fig. 6.4, Air Selection Switch With Air Conditioning
Air Selection Switch Without Air
Conditioning
1.
11
through the floor outlets and 25 percent through
the defrost outlets.
7.
Floor/Defrost Mode: Directs the airflow equally
to the floor outlets and the defrost outlets.
8.
Bi-Level Mode: Directs the airflow equally to the
face outlets and the floor outlets.
Selection between Floor/Defrost Mode and
Defrost Mode: Directs 75 percent of the airflow
through the defrost outlets and 25 percent
through the floor outlets.
9.
Selection between Bi-Level Mode and Floor
Mode: Directs 25 percent of the airflow through
the face outlets and 75 percent through the floor
outlets.
Defrost Mode: Directs all airflow through the
defrost outlets.
Air Selection Switch With Air
Conditioning
Selection between Face Mode and Bi-Level
Mode: Directs 75 percent of the airflow through
the face outlets and 25 percent through the floor
outlets.
5.
Floor Mode: Directs all airflow through the floor
outlets.
1.
Air Conditioning Face Mode: Directs all airflow
through the face or instrument panel outlets.
6.
Selection between Floor Mode and Floor/
Defrost Mode: Directs 75 percent of the airflow
2.
Selection between the Air Conditioning Face
Mode and the Air Conditioning Bi-Level
6.2
Heater, Ventilator and Air Conditioner
Mode: Directs 75 percent of the airflow to the
face outlets and 25 percent to the floor outlets.
3.
Air Conditioning Bi-Level Mode: Directs the
airflow equally to the face outlets and the floor
outlets.
4.
Selection between the Air Conditioning BiLevel Mode and the Face Mode: Directs 25
percent of the airflow to the face outlets and 75
percent to the floor outlets.
5.
Face Mode: Directs all airflow through the face
outlets.
6.
Selection between Face Mode and Floor
Mode: Directs the airflow equally through the
face outlets and the floor outlets.
7.
8.
9.
The recirculation mode is only available on vehicles
with air conditioning.
The recirculation mode limits the amount of outside
air entering the cab. Press the recirculation button to
prevent dusty or smoky air from entering the cab.
The recirculation mode can also be used to decrease
the time required to cool or heat the cab interior during extreme outside temperature conditions. When
the recirculation mode is on, the recirculation indicator will be on. See Fig. 6.2.
The recirculation mode is not available when the air
selection switch is in one of the following modes:
• floor/defrost mode
Floor Mode: Directs all airflow through the floor
outlets.
• selection between floor/defrost mode and de-
Selection between Floor Mode and Floor/
Defrost Mode: Directs 75 percent of the airflow
through the floor outlets and 25 percent through
the defrost outlets.
• defrost mode
Floor/Defrost Mode: Directs the airflow equally
to the floor outlets and the defrost outlets. The
recirculation button will not work in this mode.
10. Selection between Floor/Defrost Mode and
Defrost Mode: Directs 75 percent of the airflow
through the defrost outlets and 25 percent
through the floor outlets. The recirculation button
will not work in this mode.
11. Defrost Mode: Directs all airflow through the
defrost outlets. The recirculation button will not
work in this mode.
Temperature Control Switch
The temperature control switch is used to select the
desired temperature. Turn the switch to the left
(counterclockwise) for cool air, or to the right (clockwise) for hot air. There are 21 positions on the temperature control switch ranging from full cool air to
full hot air.
Fresh Air Mode
Fresh air, or outside air, is circulated through the
heating and air conditioning system unless the recirculation mode, if equipped, is turned on.
6.3
Recirculation Mode
frost mode
When the recirculation mode is turned on, it will stay
on for 20 minutes, or until the recirculation button is
pressed again, or the air selection switch is turned to
a defrost mode.
IMPORTANT: On vehicles built before May 2,
2003, the recirculation mode turns off after
twenty minutes and can be turned back on
when the recirculation button is pressed again.
On vehicles built from May 2, 2003, the system
enters a partial recirculation mode for five minutes after being in full recirculation mode for 20
minutes. This cycle repeats as long as the system is in recirculation mode.
NOTE: To prevent the buildup of fumes or odors
inside the cab on a vehicle built before May 2,
2003, do not use the recirculation mode for
more than 20 minutes. It is recommended that
the recirculation mode remains off for five minutes before it is turned back on.
Defrosting
Before using any of the defrost modes, clear the
screen at the base of the windshield if snow or ice is
present.
Heater, Ventilator and Air Conditioner
Air Conditioning, Optional
There are four air conditioning modes on the air selection switch. The air conditioning settings on the air
selection switch are blue, in addition to the selection
between the air conditioning bi-level mode and the
face mode.
Failure to observe these precautions could cause
an explosion or fire, resulting in serious property
damage, and personal injury or death.
IMPORTANT: Operate the air conditioner at
least five minutes each month, even during cool
weather. This helps prevent drying and cracking
of the refrigerant compressor seals and reduces
the chance of refrigerant leaks in the system.
NOTE: The heating and air conditioning system
has a brushless blower motor with a protection
or shutdown mode to prevent damage due to
overheating and overcurrent conditions. If the
brushless blower motor goes into a protection
mode, the motor will operate at a slower speed.
If the overheating or overcurrent condition continues, the motor will shut down and stop completely.
The motor will resume proper operation after the
motor has cooled or the overcurrent condition
has been resolved. It will be necessary to cycle
the fan switch off, and then on, to reset the
motor. If the problem appears repeatedly, take
the vehicle to an Freightliner dealer or authorized service outlet for repairs.
Accessory Heaters
Optional accessary heaters are available from the
factory in several configurations. Familiarize yourself
with the equipment on your specific vehicle, and follow the manufacturer’s operating and maintenance
instructions.
WARNING
Do not operate fuel-operated heaters in an area
where flammable vapors, including gasoline or
diesel fumes, are present, such as at filling stations and tank farms. Turn off a fuel-operated
heater and allow it shut down completely before
entering an area where flammable gases or liquids are present. Heaters continue to operate for
up to three minutes after being turned off.
6.4
7
Engines
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Diesel Exhaust Fluid and Tank, EPA10 and Newer Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Engine Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7
Cold-Weather Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Starting After Extended Shutdown or Oil Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Engine Break-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Engine Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Cold-Weather Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10
High-Altitude Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11
Engine Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11
Cruise Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11
Power Takeoff (PTO) Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.13
Engine Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.13
Exhaust Braking Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.15
Engines
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
IMPORTANT: Depending on local jurisdictional
guidelines, vehicles that are domiciled outside of
the U.S. and Canada may not have emissions
aftertreatment systems (ATS) that are compliant
with EPA regulations.
NOTICE
Follow these guidelines for engines that comply
with EPA07 or newer regulations, or damage may
occur to the aftertreatment device (ATD) and the
warranty may be compromised.
• Use ultralow-sulfur diesel with 15 ppm sul-
fur content or less.
• Do not use fuel blended with used engine
lube oil or kerosene.
• Engine lube oil must have a sulfated ash
level less than 1.0 wt %; currently referred
to as CJ-4 oil.
IMPORTANT: Using non-specification fuels or
oils can lead to shortened diesel particulate filter
(DPF) cleaning or replacement intervals. For
example, using CJ-4+ oil with 1.3% sulfated ash
(30% more ash content) may result in the need
for DPF cleaning or replacement 20 to 30%
sooner than would normally be required.
IMPORTANT: See the engine manufacturer’s
operation manual for complete details and operation of the ATS.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel
Consumption Standards
Vehicles and/or engines manufactured after December 31, 2006 and domiciled in the U.S. or Canada
are required to meet all EPA and NHTSA regulations
effective as of the vehicle build date. Engines manufactured between January 1, 2007 and December 31,
2009 meet EPA07 requirements. Engines manufactured between January 1, 2010 and December 31,
2012 meet EPA10 requirements.
Model year 2013 and later vehicles meet additional
requirements as specified by GHG14 requirements.
These vehicles are equipped with components that
increase fuel efficiency and reduce GHG emissions.
7.1
Components may include, but are not limited to, lowrolling resistance tires; aerodynamic devices such as
hood, cab/sleeper extenders, and fuel tank fairings;
vehicle speed limiter; and idle shutdown timer. If replacement of any drag-reducing component is required, the replacement component must meet or
exceed the drag reduction performance of the originally installed component in order to maintain compliance with GHG14 requirements.
EPA07 Engines
Engines built between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 are required to meet EPA07 guidelines
for reduced exhaust emissions of particulate matter
and nitrogen oxides (NOx). NOx is limited to just
over 1 gram per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp-hr),
and particulate matter cannot exceed 0.01 g/bhp-hr.
The EPA07 ATS varies according to engine manufacturer and vehicle configuration, but the exhaust muffler is replaced by an aftertreatment device (ATD).
Inside the ATD, the exhaust first passes over the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), then passes through
the diesel particulate filter (DPF), which traps soot
particles. The soot is burned to ash during a process
called regeneration (regen).
EPA10 and Newer Engines
The EPA mandates that all engines built after December 31, 2009 must reduce the level of emissions
exhausted by the engine to the following levels:
• Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) – 0.2 g/bhp-hr
• Particulate Matter (PM) – .01 g/bhp-hr
To meet EPA guidelines, engines that are compliant
with EPA10 and newer regulations use an ATS that
has, in addition to a DOC/DPF device like that used
in an EPA07 ATD, a Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR) device to reduce NOx downstream of the engine. After exhaust gases leave the DPF, a controlled
quantity of diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is injected into
the exhaust stream. In the presence of heat, DEF is
converted to ammonia gas, which reacts with NOx in
the selective catalyst chamber to yield nitrogen and
water vapor, which exit through the tailpipe.
Regeneration
The harder an engine works, the better it disposes of
soot. If the exhaust temperature is high enough, a
process called passive regeneration (regen) occurs
Engines
as the vehicle is driven normally. However, if the engine isn’t running hot enough, the electronic controls
may initiate an active regen, whereby extra fuel is
injected into the exhaust stream to superheat and
reduce the soot trapped in the DPF to ash. Active
regen happens only when the vehicle is moving
above a certain speed, determined by the engine
manufacturer. See your engine operation manual for
complete details. Both active and passive regen happen automatically, without driver input.
NOTE: The regen switch can initiate a parked
regen only when the DPF lamp is illuminated.
WARNING
Active regeneration can occur automatically anytime the vehicle is moving. The exhaust gas temperature could reach 1500°F (800°C), which is hot
enough to cause a fire, heat damage to objects
or materials, or personal injury to persons near
the exhaust outlet. The exhaust temperature can
remain high even after the vehicle has stopped.
When stopping the vehicle shortly after an automatic regen, ensure the exhaust outlets are directed away from structures, trees, vegetation,
flammable materials, and anything else that may
be damaged or injured by exposure to high heat.
RGEN
f610848
03/09/2012
Fig. 7.1, Regen Request Switch
See Regen Switches, below, for instructions on
preventing automatic regen if necessary.
When operating conditions do not allow for ATD filter
cleaning by active or passive regen, the vehicle may
require a driver-activated parked regen. When this
occurs, the DPF lamp illuminates, indicating that a
regen is required. The driver must either bring the
vehicle up to highway speed to increase the load
(thus starting an active regen), or park the vehicle
and initiate a parked regen. See Regen Switches,
below, for instructions on initiating a parked regen.
Regen Switches
The regen request switch, located on the dash, is
used to initiate a parked regen. See Fig. 7.1. The
function of the switch varies by the engine make and
model in the vehicle. See the engine operation
manual for switch operation details.
Some vehicles may be equipped with a regen
request/inhibit switch. See Fig. 7.2. To stop a regen
in progress or prevent the start of a regen, press the
lower half of the switch. Regen is then delayed until
the switch is no longer active.
f610944
07/30/2009
Fig. 7.2, Regen Request/Inhibit Switch
WARNING
During parked regen, exhaust temperatures are
very high and could cause a fire, heat damage to
objects or materials, or personal injury to persons near the exhaust outlet.
Before initiating a parked regeneration, make certain the exhaust outlets are directed away from
structures, trees, vegetation, flammable materials, and anything else that may be damaged or
injured by prolonged exposure to high heat.
To initiate a parked regen, perform the following
steps.
1.
Park the vehicle away from all flammable materials,set the parking brake, and put the transmission in neutral.
7.2
Engines
2.
Start and warm the engine until the coolant temperature is at least 150°F (66°C).
3.
Lift the regen request switch guard and press
and hold the yellow button for five seconds. As
the regen process is initiated, engine rpm increases and the HEST lamp illuminates to indicate extremely high exhaust temperatures.
IMPORTANT: The driver must remain with the
vehicle during the entire regen cycle.
4.
5.
The regen cycle will finish after 20 to 60 minutes,
at which time engine idle speed drops to normal
and the vehicle can be driven normally. The
HEST lamp is extinguished when vehicle speed
exceeds 5 mph (8 km/h) or the system has
cooled to normal operating temperature.
To stop a parked regen at any time during the
process:
• depress the clutch pedal, brake pedal, or
accelerator pedal;
• press and hold the regen inhibit switch until
idle returns to normal;
• shut down the engine.
ATS Warning Lamps
There are three warning lamps that alert the driver of
high exhaust temperature, the need to perform a
parked regen or service the DPF, or of an engine
fault that affects emissions. A decal attached to the
driver’s sun visor explains the ATS warning lamps.
Fig. 7.3.
See Fig. 7.4 for an explanation of the ATS warnings,
and actions required to avoid engine protection sequences.
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
A steadily illuminated yellow malfunction indicator
lamp (MIL) indicates an engine fault that affects
emissions. See Fig. 7.5.
DPF Status Lamp
When soot accumulates in the DPF and the DPF status lamp illuminates, see Fig. 7.6, perform a parked
regen or bring the vehicle up to highway speed to
increase the load (thus starting an active regen).
7.3
If the DPF status lamp blinks while the CHECK engine lamp is illuminated, initiate a parked regen immediately in order to prevent an engine derate.
If the red STOP engine lamp illuminates with the
blinking DPF lamp and the CHECK engine lamp,
begin a parked regen in order to prevent an engine
shutdown. Park the vehicle and perform a parked
regen.
High Exhaust System Temperature
(HEST) Lamp
Slow (10-second) flashing of the high exhaust system temperature (HEST) lamp indicates that a
parked regen is in progress, and the engine’s high
idle speed is being controlled by the engine software,
not the vehicle driver.
Steady illumination of the HEST lamp alerts the
driver of high exhaust temperature during the regen
process if the vehicle speed is below 5 mph (8 km/
h), or during a parked regen. See Fig. 7.7.
Maintenance
Authorized service facilities must perform any DPF
service. For warranty purposes, maintain a record
that includes:
• date of cleaning or replacement;
• vehicle mileage;
• particulate filter part number and serial number.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid and Tank,
EPA10 and Newer Engines
Diesel Exhaust Fluid
Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is used in the ATS to
lower NOx in the exhaust stream. DEF is colorless
and close to odorless (it may have a slightly pungent
odor similar to ammonia). It is nontoxic, nonflammable, and biodegradable. It is mildly corrosive to
aluminum, but does not affect the strength or structure of the aluminum.
White crystals may be noticeable around components that come into contact with DEF. The crystals
are easily removed with water.
DEF consumption varies depending on ambient conditions and vehicle application.
Engines
IMPORTANT
DPF Regen Needed
1
2
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
regeneration is needed.
If flashing, regenerate as soon as
possible. Engine derate possible.
Hot exhaust can cause fire.
Hot Exhaust
Keep flammables and people away
from exhaust.
3
DEF Refill Needed
DEF
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) level is
low. Engine derate likely.
Refill tank with certified DEF.
See operator’s manual for complete instructions.
11/30/2010
24−01656−000
f080161
Fig. 7.3, Warning Lamp Decal, Sun Visor
Freezing Conditions
DEF Tank
DEF freezes to slush at around 12°F (-11°C). It is not
damaged or destroyed if frozen, and is fully usable
when thawed. The DEF in the tank is allowed to
freeze while a vehicle is non-operational. At start-up,
normal operation of the vehicle is not inhibited if the
DEF is frozen; an immersion heater with engine coolant flowing through it warms the DEF once the engine is running, allowing the SCR system to operate.
Engines that are compliant with EPA10 and newer
regulations are equipped with a DEF tank located on
the driver’s side of the vehicle behind the battery box
or forward of the fuel tank. See Fig. 7.8 and Fig. 7.9.
The DEF tank has a 19 mm filler neck inlet that prevents the hose from a diesel outlet from being inserted, and has a blue cap for easy identification.
Pre-2013 DEF supply lines are electrically-heated
and are purged when the engine is shut down; complete purging of the DEF lines requires approximately
five minutes after the engine is shut down.
DEF supply lines with engine model year 2013 and
newer are designed to survive freezing conditions
while containing DEF, so purging is not required.
Fuel/DEF Gauge
The diesel fuel and DEF levels are measured in a
dual-purpose gauge. See Fig. 7.10.
Fuel level is indicated at the top of the gauge. Below
the fuel level, a low fuel warning lamp illuminates
amber when the fuel level drops below 1/8th of the
capacity.
The lower portion of the gauge has a DEF warning
lamp that illuminates amber when the DEF tank is
near empty, and a lightbar that indicates the level of
7.4
Engines
EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM INFORMATION
WARNING
INDICATOR
LAMP(S)
CHECK
(Solid)
(Flashing)
Level 1
Level 2
(Flashing)
CHECK
STOP
(Flashing)
Level 3
Level 4
Indicator Lamp
Message(s)
Filter Regeneration
Recommended
Filter Regeneration
Necessary
Parked Regeneration
Required − Engine
Derate
Parked Regeneration Required −
Engine Shut Down
Diesel Particulate
Filter Condition
Filter is reaching
capacity.
Filter is now
reaching maximum
capacity.
Switch.
Filter has reached
maximum capacity.
Filter has exceeded
maximum capacity.
Required Action
Bring vehicle to
highway speeds to
allow for an Automatic
Regeneration or
perform a Parked
Regeneration.
To avoid engine
derate bring vehicle
to highway speeds
to allow for an
Automatic
Regeneration or
perform a Parked
Regeneration as
soon as possible.
Vehicle must be
parked and a Parked
Regeneration must
be performed −
engine will begin
derate.
Vehicle must be parked and a
Parked Regeneration or Service
Regeneration must be performed.
Check engine operator’s manual
for details −engine will shut down.
HEST (High Exhaust
System Temperature)
Flashing
A regeneration is in
progress.
Solid
Exhaust Components
and exhaust gas are
at high temperature.
When stationary, keep
away from people and
flammable materials
or vapors.
For a driver performed Parked Regeneration, vehicle must be equipped with a dash mounted Regeneration Switch.
See Engine Operator’s Manual for complete Regeneration Instructions.
24−01583−000B
06/29/2009
f080147
Fig. 7.4, ATS Warning Lamps
09/25/2006
f610814a
09/25/2006
Fig. 7.5, Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
DEF in the tank. The DEF light bar illuminates as follows:
• Four bars illuminated green—Between 75%
and 100% full
• Three bars illuminated green—Between 50%
and 75% full
• Two bars illuminated green—Between 25%
and 50% full
• One bar illuminated green—Between approxi-
mately 10% and 25% full
7.5
f610815a
Fig. 7.6, DPF Status Lamp
• One bar illuminated amber—DEF very low, re-
fill DEF
• One bar flashing red—DEF empty, refill DEF
DEF Warnings and Engine Limits
IMPORTANT: Ignoring the DEF warning lights
results in limited engine power, with the application of a 5 mph (8 km/h) speed limit after the
engine is shut down and started again.
Engines
09/25/2006
f610816a
Fig. 7.7, HEST Lamp
1
2
f470541
07/24/2009
1. DEF Tank
2. Fuel Tank
Fig. 7.9, DEF Tank Located Forward of the Fuel Tank
• The MIL lamp illuminates
Detroit engines: Power is limited, with a 55 mph (90
km/h) speed limit.
Cummins engines: Power is limited with progressively harsher engine power limits applied.
DEF Tank Empty and Ignored
1
2
f470542
07/24/2009
1. Batteries
2. DEF Tank
Fig. 7.8, DEF Tank Located Behind the Battery Box
DEF Level Low—Initial Warning
When the DEF level is low, the following lamps notify
the driver. See Fig. 7.11. Refill the DEF tank in order
to cancel the warning sequence.
• One bar of the DEF level indicator illuminates
amber—DEF very low, refill DEF
• The DEF warning lamp illuminates solid amber
DEF Empty
When the DEF level reads empty, the following
lamps notify the drive. See Fig. 7.12.
• One bar of the DEF level indicator flashes
red—DEF empty, refill DEF
If the empty warning is ignored and the DEF tank is
not refilled, the red STOP engine lamp illuminates in
addition to the MIL lamp and CHECK engine lamp
(on vehicles with a Cummins ISB or ISC/L engine.)
See Fig. 7.13.
If the DEF is not refilled, a 5 mph (8 km/h) speed
limit is applied after the next engine shutdown or if a
fuel refill is detected.
DEF Contamination or SCR Tampering
NOTICE
Once contaminated DEF or tampering has been
detected, the vehicle must be taken to an authorized service facility to check the SCR system for
damage and to deactivate the warning lights and
engine limits.
If contaminated DEF or tampering with the ATS is
detected, the DEF warning light flashes and the MIL
• The DEF warning lamp flashes amber
7.6
Engines
1/2
1/2
1/2
ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY
ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY
ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY
E
F
E
DEF
E
1
F
E
DEF
F
E
2
A
F
DEF
F
E
B
F
C
11/08/2010
f611037
A. Green bars—DEF level indicators
B. One bar illuminated amber—DEF very low, refill DEF
1. Low Fuel Warning Lamp
C. One bar flashing red—DEF empty, refill DEF
2. DEF Warning Lamp
Fig. 7.10, Fuel/DEF Gauge
A
A
B
B
07/09/2009
f470537
A. DEF Warning Lamp (illuminated)
B. DEF Lightbar (one bar amber)
Fig. 7.11, DEF Level Low Initial Warning
lamp illuminates to warn the driver. The CHECK engine lamp also illuminates on vehicles with a Cummins ISB or ISC/L engine. See Fig. 7.13.
• Detroit engines: Engine power is limited with
progressively harsher limits applied. If the fault
is not corrected, the STOP engine light illuminates and a 5 mph (8 km/h) speed limit is applied after the next engine shutdown or if a fuel
refill is detected.
• Cummins engines: Engine power is limited with
progressively harsher limits applied. If the fault
is not corrected, the STOP engine light illuminates and a 5 mph (8 km/h) speed limit is ap-
7.7
11/08/2010
f470539a
NOTE: MIL illuminates. CHECK engine lamp illuminates
if Cummins ISB or ISC/L engine. Engine power is limited.
A. DEF Warning Lamp (flashing)
B. DEF Lightbar (one bar flashing red)
Fig. 7.12, DEF Empty Warning
plied after the next engine shutdown, or while
parked and idling.
Engine Starting
For cold-weather starting, refer to "Cold Weather
Starting" later in this chapter.
This engine chapter is to serve as a guide for best
practices only. Each make and model engine may
have operating characteristics that are unique to that
particular engine, and will be documented in the engine manufacturer’s literature. Always refer to specific
Engines
4.
A
Turn the ignition switch to ON. See Fig. 7.14.
The following actions should occur:
• electronic gauges complete a full sweep of
their dials
• warning and indicator lamps illuminate,
then are extinguished
B
• DEF level indicator illuminates all seg-
11/08/2010
ments green, then turns them off one at a
time before turning the leftmost segment
amber and then red
f470540a
NOTE: STOP engine light and MIL illuminate, engine
power is limited, speed limit of 5 mph (8 km/h)
A. DEF Warning Lamp (flashing)
B. DEF Lightbar (one bar flashing red)
• During cold conditions, the WAIT TO
START lamp may illuminate.
Fig. 7.13, DEF Empty and Ignored Warning
instructions and recommendations from the engine
manufacturer.
NOTE: Before starting the engine, read Chapter 3 for detailed information on how to read the
instruments and see Chapter 4 for detailed information on how to operate the controls. Read
the operating instructions in the manufacturer’s
engine operation manual before starting the
engine.
WARNING
Never pour fuel or other flammable liquid into the
air inlet opening in the air intake in an attempt to
start the vehicle. This could result in a flash fire
causing serious personal injury or property
damage.
1.
Before engine start-up, complete the pretrip inspections and maintenance procedures in Chapter 11.
2.
Set the parking brake.
3.
For manual transmissions, place the transmission in neutral and fully depress the clutch pedal.
Do not depress the accelerator pedal.
For automatic transmissions, put the transmission in neutral. Do depress the accelerator pedal.
NOTE: Depending on local jurisdictional emissions regulations, vehicles and/or engines that
are domiciled outside of the U.S. and Canada
may not be equipped with the WAIT TO START
or START BLOCKED lamp.
07/19/2006
f610805
Fig. 7.14, Ignition Switch
NOTE: The length of time the WAIT TO START
lamp remains illuminated depends on the ambient temperature. The lower the ambient temperature, the longer the lamp will be illuminated.
NOTE: If the ignition switch is turned to START
before the gauge sweep has completed or if the
starter has overheated, the START BLOCKED
lamp may illuminate. Turn the ignition switch
back to ON, wait for the lamp to go out, then
turn the ignition switch to START again.
5.
Once the gauge sweep has completed, turn the
ignition key to the START position. Release the
key the moment the engine starts.
NOTICE
Do not rev the engine if the oil pressure gauge
indicates no oil pressure. Shut down the engine
7.8
Engines
if oil pressure does not build within approximately ten seconds. Check to determine the
cause of the problem. Operating the engine with
no oil pressure will damage the engine.
6.
It is not necessary to idle the engine before engaging or starting the operation, but load should
be applied gradually during the warm-up period
until the oil temperature reaches 140°F (60°C).
7.
Apply load gradually during the warm-up period.
NOTICE
If the oil pressure gauge indicates no oil pressure, shut down the engine within approximately
ten seconds to avoid engine damage.
8.
Check the oil pressure gauge for any drop in lubricating oil pressure or mechanical malfunction
in the lubricating oil system. Minimum oil pressure at idle is 7 psi (50 kPa).
Cold-Weather Starting
Electronic engines do not normally require special
starting aids.
See the engine manufacturer’s operation manual for
starting aids that are approved for specific engines.
Starting After Extended
Shutdown or Oil Change
Before engine start-up, complete the engine pretrip
and post-trip inspections and maintenance procedures in Chapter 11.
NOTICE
Engine Break-In
Each engine must pass a full-load operating test on
a dynamometer before shipment, thereby eliminating
the need for a break-in. Before running the engine
for the first time, follow the instructions in the engine
manufacturer’s operation manual specific to your engine.
Engine Operation
Safety and Environmental
Considerations
All Freightliner diesel engines comply with the requirements of the Federal (U.S.) Clean Air Act. Once
an engine is placed in service, the responsibility for
meeting local jurisdictional regulations is with the
owner/operator.
IMPORTANT: EPA emissions regulations apply
to vehicles domiciled in Canada and the U.S. at
the time of printing this manual. Vehicles that
are domiciled outside of the U.S. and Canada
may not have engines with an emission aftertreatment system that is compliant with EPA
regulations, depending upon local statutory
emissions guidelines.
NOTICE
It is extremely important that the following guidelines be followed for vehicles with EPA07 or
newer engines, or damage may occur to the aftertreatment device, and the warranty may be
compromised.
• Use ultralow-sulfur diesel with 15 ppm sul-
fur content or less.
Failure to eliminate water-diluted lubricating oil
may lead to serious engine damage at startup.
• Do not use fuel blended with used engine
An engine in storage for an extended period of time
(over winter, for example) may accumulate water in
the oil pan through normal condensation of moisture
on the internal surfaces of the engine. Oil diluted by
water cannot provide adequate bearing protection at
start-up. For this reason, change the engine oil and
filters after extended storage.
• Use only engine lube oil with a sulfated ash
7.9
lube oil or kerosene.
level less than 1.0 wt %; currently referred
to as CJ-4 oil.
Adequate maintenance of the engine and the diesel
particulate filter (DPF) are the responsibility of the
owner/operator, and are essential to keep the emission levels low. Good operating practices, regular
maintenance, and correct adjustments are factors
that will help keep emissions within the regulations.
Engines
Normal Operation
WARNING
Do not operate the engine in an area where flammable vapors such as gasoline or diesel fumes
are present. Shut off the engine when in an area
where flammable liquids or gases are being
handled. Failure to observe these precautions
could result in serious injury or death.
Every engine has an operating range in which it performs most efficiently. The operating range extends
from maximum torque rpm at the low end, to engine
rated speed at the high end. Most engines deliver
best fuel economy when operated in the low- and
mid-speed segments of the efficiency range and produce maximum horsepower at rated speed, which is
also the recommended maximum speed of the engine. For further engine-specific information, refer to
the engine manufacturer’s operation manual.
Prolonged idling of engines is not recommended, and
is illegal in some states. Idling produces sulfuric acid,
that is absorbed by the lubricating oil, and eats into
bearings, rings, valve stems, and engine surfaces. If
you must idle the engine for cab heat or cooling, use
the high idle function of the cruise control switches.
An idle speed of 900 rpm should be enough to provide cab heat in above freezing ambient temperatures.
If the engine is programmed with the idle shutdown
timer, ninety seconds before the preset shutdown
time, the CHECK ENGINE light will begin to flash at
a rapid rate. If the position of the clutch pedal or service brake changes during this final ninety seconds
the idle shutdown timer will be disabled until reset.
Cold-Weather Operation
Satisfactory performance of a diesel engine operating
in low ambient temperatures requires modification of
the engine, surrounding equipment, operating practices, and maintenance procedures. The lower the
temperature, the greater the amount of modification
required. For service products approved for use in
cold weather for your engine, see the engine manufacturer’s engine operation manual, supplied in the
vehicle documentation package.
If satisfactory engine temperature is not maintained,
maintenance costs will increase due to greater engine wear. If the engine coolant temperature be-
comes too low, raw fuel will wash the lubricating oil
off the cylinder walls and dilute the crankcase oil,
causing all moving parts of the engine to suffer from
poor lubrication.
If the engine is in good mechanical condition and the
precautions necessary for cold-weather operation are
taken, ordinary cold weather will not cause difficulty
in starting or loss of efficiency.
The following points are important to observe when
operating in cold weather:
• Check for cracks in the batteries, for corrosion
of the terminals, and for tightness of the cable
clamps at the terminals.
• Charge the batteries to full capacity. Replace
any battery that is damaged.
• If equipped, turn off the load disconnect switch
after the engine is shut down, to prevent battery discharge.
• Have the alternator output checked at an au-
thorized service provider.
• Check the condition and tension of the drive
belts.
• Refer to the engine manufacturer’s engine op-
eration manual for recommended heaters, lowviscosity lubricating oils, wintergrade fuels, and
approved coolants.
NOTICE
For Detroit engines (EPA07 and newer), use of a
winterfront is not recommended, as it can cause
false fault codes with the engine and aftertreatment system, and possible emission component
failures.
If using a winterfront, leave at least 25% of the grille
opening exposed in sectioned stripes that run perpendicular to the charge-air-cooler tube-flow direction. This assures even cooling across each tube,
and reduces header-to-tube stress, and possible
chance of component failure. For engine-specific
guidelines, see below:
Cummins and Mercedes-Benz engines: A winterfront
may be used to improve cab heating while idling, and
only when the ambient temperature remains below
10°F (-12°C).
7.10
Engines
Detroit engines (EPA07 and newer): Use of a winterfront is not recommended. Using a winterfront can
cause excessive fan run time, increased fuel consumption, and failure of the DEF system heaters to
operate correctly, resulting in fault codes, poor performance, and power reduction. A winterfront should
only be used temporarily in the following situations:
• to improve cab heating while idling in an ex-
tremely cold ambient temperature;
• when the ambient temperature remains below
-22°F (-30°C) and the engine is unable to
maintain a running coolant temperature of
175°F (80°C) during normal over-the-road operation.
ning, this heat is carried away by oil circulation,
but if the engine is stopped suddenly, the turbocharger temperature may rise as much as 115°F
(46°C).
NOTICE
Except in an emergency, do not shut down the
engine when the coolant temperature is above
194°F (90°C). To do so could damage the engine.
3.
Turn off the ignition switch and shut down the
engine.
Cruise Control
High-Altitude Operation
Engines lose horsepower when operated at high altitude because the air is too thin to burn as much fuel
as at sea level. This loss is about three percent for
each 1000 feet (300 m) altitude above sea level for a
naturally aspirated engine.
All Business Class M2 engines are altitudecompensated by the use of a turbocharger. This reduces smoky exhaust at high altitudes, requires less
downshifting, and allows the engine to make better
use of its fuel. Nevertheless, shift gears as needed to
avoid excessive exhaust smoke.
WARNING
Do not use the cruise control system when driving conditions do not permit maintaining a constant speed, such as in heavy traffic or on roads
that are winding, icy, snow-covered, slippery, or
roads with a loose driving surface. Failure to follow this precaution could cause a collision or
loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in personal injury or property damage.
Dash-Mounted Switches
NOTICE
Engine Shutdown
1.
With the vehicle stopped, apply the parking
brake, and place the transmission in neutral.
NOTICE
Idle the engine one to two minutes before shutting it down. After hard operation, shutting down
the engine without idling may cause damage to
the turbocharger.
2.
Cruise control is activated by two dash-mounted
switches (Fig. 7.15).
• On/Off Switch—this two-position rocker is la-
beled SPD CNTL on the lower half of the
switch. When cruise control is on, an amber
light illuminates the top part of the switch.
Allow the engine to idle one to two minutes before shutting it down. This allows the lubricating
oil and the coolant to carry heat away from the
combustion chambers, bearings, shafts, and
seals. The extreme heat may cause bearings to
seize or oil seals to leak.
IMPORTANT: Bearings and seals in the turbocharger are subjected to the high heat of combustion exhaust gases. While the engine is run-
7.11
When the cruise control is engaged, do not attempt to shift gears without using the clutch
pedal. Failure to follow this precaution will result
in a temporarily uncontrolled increase in engine
speed. Transmission damage and gear stripping
could result.
• Set/Resume Switch—this three-position paddle
switch is labeled RES/ACC above the paddle
and SET/CST below the paddle.
1.
To cruise at a particular speed:
1.1
Press the upper half of the On/Off switch.
Engines
3.
To resume a preselected cruise speed:
3.1
Ensure the cruise control is on.
3.2
Momentarily raise the paddle of the Set/
Resume switch. Cruise will return to the
last speed selected.
1
NOTE: If vehicle speed drops below the
minimum cruise control speed, cruise control
will disengage. To resume to the preselected
cruise speed, increase vehicle speed to
above minimum cruise control speed and
press the ACC/RES button.
NOTE: The speed memory is lost whenever the
ignition is turned off or the cruise control switch
is toggled to Off.
2
4.
To increase cruise speed, raise and hold the
paddle of the Set/Resume switch until the vehicle
accelerates to the desired speed.
5.
To decrease cruise speed, lower and the paddle
of the Set/Resume switch until the vehicle decelerates to the desired speed.
f610510
09/13/2001
To turn cruise control on, press the upper half of the On/
Off switch. To turn cruise control off, press the lower half
of the On/Off switch.
To increase cruise speed, raise and hold the paddle of
the Set/Resume switch to RES/ACC until the vehicle
accelerates to the desired speed. To decrease cruise
speed, lower and the paddle of the Set/Resume switch to
SET/CST until the vehicle decelerates to the desired
speed.
1. Cruise Control On/Off Switch
2. Cruise Control Set/Resume Switch
Shift Knob Controls, Optional
Cruise control can also be activated by the optional
PAUSE, RESUME, and SET buttons on the transmission shift knob (Fig. 7.16).
Fig. 7.15, Cruise Control Switches
1.2
Depress the accelerator pedal until the
speedometer reaches the desired speed.
1.3
Momentarily lower the paddle of the Set/
Resume switch to set the desired speed.
NOTE: The speed memory is lost whenever the
ignition switch is turned to OFF, or cruise control
is turned off.
2.
To disengage the cruise control, do one of the
following:
• Press the lower half of the on/off switch
button.
• Depress the brake pedal.
• Depress the clutch pedal (on a manual
transmission only).
05/23/95
f260316
Fig. 7.16, Cruise Control Buttons on the Transmission
Shift Knob
1.
To cruise at a particular speed, do these steps:
1.1
Hold the accelerator pedal down until the
speedometer reaches the desired speed.
7.12
Engines
To disengage the cruise control, do these steps:
NOTE: Do not attempt to change gears while
the vehicle is moving. The transmission will ignore the request.
2.1
5.
Press down the clutch pedal (on manual
transmission only)
To end the mobile mode, bring the vehicle to a
stop. The clutch will open and shut down power
to the PTO.
6.
Push the PAUSE button on the transmission shift knob.
To resume stationary mode, shift to neutral. The
PTO will engage.
7.
To end stationary mode, press the dash switch.
When the light in the switch goes out, power to
the PTO is shut off.
1.2
2.
2.2
3.
Push the SET button on the transmission
shift knob.
Press down the brake pedal (on automatic
and manual transmission) or
To resume a preselected cruise speed, push the
RESUME button on the transmission shift knob.
Cruise will return to the last speed selected.
NOTE: If the ignition is shut off, the speed
memory will be lost.
4.
To adjust cruise speed up, push the SET button
and hold it in until the vehicle accelerates to the
desired speed.
5.
To adjust cruise speed down, push the RESUME
button and hold it in until the vehicle decelerates
to the desired speed.
Power Takeoff (PTO) Governor
Engine power takeoffs (PTO) are devices used to tap
into engine power to run auxiliary devices, such as
hydraulic pumps that power additional equipment.
The following instructions are general guidelines for
operating a PTO.
Engine Braking
Each engine manufacturer uses a specific engine
brake for their engine. Regardless of the manufacturer, the engine brake is operated with the principles
outlined in this chapter. Refer to the engine manufacturer’s operation manual for details of their particular
engine brake product.
WARNING
To avoid injury from loss of vehicle control, do
not activate the engine brake system under the
following conditions:
• on wet or slippery pavement, unless the
vehicle is equipped with antilock braking
system (ABS) and you have had prior experience driving under these conditions;
1.
Set the parking brake and put the transmission in
neutral.
• when driving without a trailer or pulling an
2.
Press the dash-mounted PTO switch. Release
the switch when the amber light behind the
switch begins to blink.
• if the tractor drive wheels begin to lock, or
When the light is steadily illuminated, the PTO is
engaged and ready to operate. In stationary
mode, the vehicle must remain in neutral with the
parking brake set.
3.
To activate the mobile mode, shift from neutral to
reverse, 1st, or 2nd gear. The clutch will open
and the PTO will disengage for a moment.
4.
Touch the throttle pedal to close the clutch and
engage the PTO in mobile mode. The PTO may
be operated with the transmission in reverse,
neutral, 1st, or 2nd gears only.
7.13
empty trailer;
there is fishtail motion after the engine
brake is activated.
Whenever vehicle braking is required on good road
conditions, the engine brake may be used in conjunction with the service brakes. There is no time
limit for operation of the engine brake. However, an
engine brake does not provide the precise control of,
and is not a substitute for, service brakes.
WARNING
Usage of the engine brake as the primary braking
system can cause unpredictable stopping distances, that could result in personal injury or
Engines
property damage. Service brakes are the primary
vehicle braking system.
The control speed varies, depending on vehicle
weight and the downhill grade.
Two dash-mounted switches control the engine
brake:
For faster descent, select a higher gear than that
used for control speed. Service brakes must then be
used intermittently to prevent engine overspeed and
to maintain desired vehicle speed.
• The On/Off switch (ENG BRK), is used to turn
the engine brake on and off. See Fig. 7.17.
When the engine brake is on, an amber light
will illuminate behind the switch.
• The engine brake intensity switch (HI/MED/LO
or, in some cases, HI/LO) controls the amount
of engine braking. When the panel lights are
on, the ENG BRK legend is backlit in green.
1
2
For slower descent, select a lower gear, being careful not to overspeed the engine. Occasional deactivation of the engine brake may be necessary to maintain the designated road speed under these
conditions.
If the engine is equipped with both cruise control and
an engine brake, the engine brake can operate automatically while in cruise control mode. If the cruise
control/engine brake function is turned on in the
DDEC VI system programming, the engine brake will
come on low when the set road speed increases a
few mph (km/h) above the cruise set speed. The
maximum amount of braking is selected with the
dash switches. When the vehicle returns to the set
cruise speed, the engine brake will turn off.
The engine brake will only operate when the accelerator pedal is fully released. Depressing the clutch
will also prevent the engine brake from operating.
f610588
10/17/2001
1. Engine Brake On/Off
2. Engine Brake Intensity Switch
Fig. 7.17, Engine Brake Switches
Since the engine brake is most effective at rated engine speed, gear selection is very important. Gearing
down the vehicle within the limits of the rated engine
speed makes the engine brake more effective. Recommended engine braking speed is above 1800 rpm
and below the rated speed.
WARNING
The engine brake must be disengaged when
shifting gears using the clutch pedal. If the engine brake is engaged when the transmission is
in neutral, the braking power of the engine brake
can stall the engine, which could result in loss of
vehicle control, possibly causing personal injury
and property damage.
"Control speed" is the speed at which the engine
brake performs 100 percent of the required downhill
braking, resulting in a constant speed of descent.
Vehicles equipped with ABS have the ability to turn
the engine brake off if wheel slip is detected. The
engine brake will automatically turn back on once
wheel slip is no longer detected.
The DDEC VI system will deactivate the engine
brake when the engine speed falls below 1000 rpm
or when the vehicle slows down to a preset speed,
depending on DDEC programming. This prevents
stalling the engine.
Engine Brake Operation
Depending on the brake type, the engine brake may
be disabled when engine temperature falls below a
set level.
NOTICE
Do not allow the engine to exceed 2500 rpm. Serious engine damage could result.
To activate the engine brake after the engine is
warmed up and the vehicle is in motion:
1.
Remove your feet from both the clutch and
throttle pedals.
7.14
Engines
2.
Press the On/Off switch to toggle the engine
brake on. See Fig. 7.17. The engine brake will
engage at the rate last set on the brake intensity
switch.
3.
Move the intensity switch to the desired intensity.
On vehicles with a HI/MED/LO intensity switch,
LO will provide 1/3 of the full braking capacity of
the engine, MED will provide 2/3 of the full braking capacity, and HI will provide maximum engine
braking. On vehicles with a HI/LO intensity
switch, LO will provide ½ of the full braking capacity of the engine; HI will provide maximum
engine braking.
4.
Use the intensity switch set at the LO position
when driving on flat, open stretches of road. If
the service brakes are still required to slow down
on a grade, switch to a higher setting on the
dash switch until there is no need for the service
brakes. Grade descent speed should be such
that the service brakes are used infrequently and
remain cool, thus retaining their effectiveness.
5.
For maximum retarding, maintain the top governed speed of the engine through the appropriate selection of gears. When shifting gears, the
engine brake will disengage when the clutch
pedal is depressed, then engage when the clutch
pedal is released.
6.
To cancel the engine brake application, toggle
the On/Off to off.
Exhaust Braking Systems
Exhaust Brake Switch
The optional exhaust brake is controlled by a dashmounted rocker switch to help slow the vehicle when
the accelerator is released.
To turn the exhaust brake on, press on the upper
part of the rocker (at the light inside the switch). The
exhaust brake turns off automatically. See Fig. 7.18
or Fig. 7.19.
When the exhaust brake switch is on, an amber LED
illuminates inside the switch. When the panel lights
are on, the EXHST BRK legend is backlit in green.
Mercedes-Benz Exhaust Brake
An exhaust brake is an optional auxiliary braking system that assists but does not replace the service
7.15
11/28/2001
f610589
Fig. 7.18, Exhaust Brake Switch
03/31/2009
f610589a
Fig. 7.19, Exhaust Brake Switch
brake system. The exhaust brake can be used alone
or together with the constant-throttle valves for steep
or long grades. The exhaust brake switch located on
the control panel, in combination with the accelerator
and clutch pedals, allows the driver to make maximum use of the exhaust brake in off-highway and
mountain driving as well as in traffic or high-speed
highway driving.
When only the exhaust brake is installed, a twoposition switch on the dash controls the engine braking system. The exhaust brake is only active when
the engine speed is between 1100 and 2700 rpm.
Depressing the accelerator or clutch pedal deactivates the exhaust brake. The ABS system, when active, also deactivates the exhaust brake.
The exhaust brake is a butterfly valve mounted in the
exhaust pipe. When the driver’s foot is not on the
accelerator pedal and the upper half of the exhaust
brake switch is pressed in, with the amber light on
the switch illuminated, an air cylinder shuts the butterfly valve, which restricts the flow of exhaust gases
Engines
and retards the engine. This retarding action is carried through the engine and drivetrain, slowing the
vehicle and reducing the need for frequent service
brake applications.
Exhaust brakes are not intended for use as the primary braking system during vehicle operation.
Operating Characteristics
WARNING
Do not use the exhaust brake when driving on
slippery or low-traction road surfaces. Failure to
follow this precaution could result in a loss of
vehicle control and possible personal injury or
property damage.
Before starting the engine, make sure that the lower
half of the exhaust brake switch is pressed in and
the amber light is not illuminated. Do not turn the exhaust brake on until the engine has reached normal
operating temperatures.
When you remove your feet from both the accelerator and clutch pedals and the upper half of the exhaust brake switch is pressed in with the amber light
illuminated, the exhaust brake is applied. The following conditions should exist if the brake is operating
properly:
• A slight change in the sound of the engine may
be noticed when the exhaust brake is applied.
• Exhaust smoke should appear normal.
• Engine temperature should remain in the nor-
mal operating range.
• Road speed usually decreases when the ex-
haust brake is applied during a descent. When
the vehicle is carrying a heavy load or the
grade is extremely steep, you may need to
apply the service brakes occasionally.
• Do not expect a retarding effect similar to sud-
den hard application of the service brakes. The
exhaust brake retards the vehicle with a
smooth braking effect.
• During a descent, the tachometer usually
shows a drop in rpm, depending on the grade
and the vehicle load.
• Depending on the grade and vehicle load, you
may or may not feel the retarding force acting
against your body when the brake is applied.
The retarding force of the brake may not always be noticed, but it is actually preventing
the vehicle from going much faster.
Make sure the exhaust brake is turned off before
shutting down the engine.
Driving Downhill
While approaching a steep grade, make sure that the
upper half of the exhaust brake switch is pressed in,
with the amber light illuminated. The exhaust brake
comes on as soon as you remove your foot from the
accelerator pedal. While going down the grade, use
a low enough gear to safely descend with a minimum
application of the service brakes. As a general guideline, use the same gear as you would to ascend the
hill.
NOTICE
Do not allow the engine to exceed its governed
speed, or serious engine damage could result.
Apply the service brakes to reduce the engine rpm or
make a slower descent by using a lower gear.
Pacbrake® Exhaust Brake
The Pacbrake exhaust brake is intended as a
supplement to the service brakes and will not bring
the vehicle to a complete stop. The Pacbrake will
assist in the control or reduction of road speed in
conjunction with, or independent of, the service
brakes. The amount of retarding or braking force is
controlled by the driver.
Pacbrake Operation (Caterpillar)
The Pacbrake is controlled by the exhaust brake
switch and the throttle pedal. All applications are additionally affected, controlled, or governed by engine
speed through transmission gear selection. The Allison MD3060 transmission has automatic downshifting when the exhaust brake is requested. See the
information on the "Allison World Transmission" later
in this chapter.
On some applications, when the Pacbrake is in use,
it may be necessary to check that the cruise control
is not set and that the throttle is in the idle position.
On some applications, the engine, transmission,
cruise control, and the Pacbrake exhaust brake may
7.16
Engines
electronically interact with each other, which automatically operates their functions. Following are
some examples of the programmed options that may
be available with the cruise control in the on position:
A
A
A
• The coast mode engages the Pacbrake when
the service brake is applied and disengages
when the service brake is released.
• The latch mode engages the Pacbrake when
the service brake is applied and the Pacbrake
remains on after the service brake is released.
The Pacbrake is disengaged when another
input (depressing the throttle or clutch, engine
speed drops below 800 rpm, or the exhaust
brake switch is turned off) is supplied.
• The manual mode does not require the cruise
control switch to be on, and operates the
Pacbrake manually at the driver’s discretion.
The amount of braking power the engine will develop
is related to the speed (rpm) of the engine. The
higher the engine rpm, the greater the retarding
power.
Certain conditions may require that the transmission
be downshifted in order to generate adequate rpm
for the amount of retarding power required. Pacbrake
exhaust brakes are designed and approved for safe
use at 300 rpm above the engine’s maximum governed rpm. Refer to individual engine manufacturer’s
specifications.
The Pacbrake will function best if it is used all of the
time. However, if the vehicle is used inconsistently or
seasonally, it may be necessary to perform a preventive maintenance procedure.
1.
2.
With the engine shut down, use any oil-free or
nonpetroleum-based high-heat lubricant, and
spray or coat a sufficient amount on the restricter
valve shaft and the attaching locations at each
end of the actuation cylinder. See Fig. 7.20.
With your hands or a pair of pliers, motion the
valve several times to distribute the lubricant
down the shaft and the attaching locations.
NOTE: Starting the engine and idling for short
periods of time is not recommended. During a
cold engine start-up, enough moisture is developed within the engine and the exhaust system
to create a corrosion hazard that could affect
the future operation of the Pacbrake. The brake
housing may trap water in the valve shaft bore
7.17
03/06/2000
f490228
A. Lubrication Point
Fig. 7.20, Pacbrake Exhaust Brake and Air Cylinder
causing corrosion in an improperly functioning
or nonfunctioning brake. If it is necessary to periodically start the engine, it is recommended
that normal operating temperatures be attained
before shutting down the engine.
Allison World Transmission
Pacbrake exhaust brakes used with the Allison World
Transmission MD series, are interfaced with the
transmission electronic control module (ECM). An
exhaust-brake-enabled transmission ECM will usually
provide converter lockup in gears two through six.
Effective exhaust braking begins when the transmission automatically downshifts into fifth gear (62 mph
or less). Once on, the Pacbrake exhaust brake will
control road speed and/or slow the vehicle sufficiently that the transmission will automatically downshift, if necessary, to Allison’s preselect mode.
The preselect mode is normally assigned to second
gear; however, the transmission can be reprogrammed by an Allison Transmission Distributor to
third or fourth gear, should the operator desire. If additional retarding power is required before the automatic downshifting occurs, you can select a lower
transmission gear on the Allison shift selector.
8
Drivetrain
Clutches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Allison On-Highway Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3
Allison MD Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5
Eaton® Fuller® Straight-Shift Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8
Eaton Fuller Range-Shift Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9
Eaton Fuller AutoShift™ Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.12
Freightliner SmartShift Shift Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.15
Eaton Fuller UltraShift Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.15
Eaton Fuller UltraShift PLUS Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.21
Mercedes-Benz Manual Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.25
Mercedes-Benz Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.26
Meritor™ Drive Axles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.30
Drivetrain
Clutches
Clutch Operation
Applying the Clutch Brake
The purpose of the clutch brake is to stop the transmission gears from rotating in order to engage the
transmission gears quickly in making an initial start.
To apply the clutch brake, put the transmission in
neutral and press the clutch pedal to the floor.
CAUTION
Never apply the clutch brake while the vehicle is
moving. The clutch pedal should never be
pressed down fully before putting the transmission in neutral. Considerable heat will be generated, which will be detrimental to the friction
discs, release bearings, and transmission front
bearings.
Applying the clutch brake with the transmission still in
gear puts a reverse load on the gear. At the same
time, it will have the effect of trying to stop or decelerate the vehicle with the clutch brake. Rapid wear of
friction discs will take place necessitating frequent replacement.
Vehicle Overload, or Overloading the
Clutch
CAUTION
Overloading will not only result in damage to the
clutch, but also to the entire powertrain.
Clutches are designed for specific vehicle applications and loads. These limitations should not be exceeded.
Riding the Clutch Pedal
Riding the clutch pedal is destructive to the clutch.
Partial clutch engagement permits slippage, and generates excessive heat. Riding the clutch pedal will
also put a constant thrust load on the release bearing, which can thin out the lubricant. Release bearing
failures can be attributed to this type of misuse.
8.1
Holding the Vehicle on an Incline With a
Slipping Clutch
A slipping clutch accumulates heat faster than it can
be dissipated, resulting in early clutch failures. Never
use the clutch to hold a vehicle on a hill.
Coasting With the Clutch Released
(pedal down) and the Transmission in
Gear
WARNING
Do not coast with the clutch released (pedal depressed) and the transmission in gear. High
driven-disc rpm could cause the clutch facing to
be thrown off the disc. Flying debris could cause
injury to persons in the cab.
If the transmission remains in a low gear and the vehicle gains speed, as may occur on a downgrade,
the input shaft and clutch driven disc will turn at
speeds that are higher than normal. This occurs because the rear wheels and the driveline become the
input for the transmission, and a higher-than-normal
speed for a given transmission gear translates to a
higher rpm value for the clutch driven disc.
Clutch driven discs are designed to allow for some
amount of excess rotational speed, but the facing
has a limited burst strength. If the clutch driven disc
rpm increases too much, the clutch facing can be
thrown off the disc(s).
Engaging the Clutch While Coasting
Engaging the clutch while coasting can result in tremendous shock loads and possible damage to the
clutch as well as to the entire drivetrain.
Report Erratic Clutch Operation Promptly
Reporting erratic clutch operation as soon as possible will give maintenance personnel a chance to
inspect the clutch components.
CAUTION
Operating the vehicle with incorrect clutch pedal
free-travel could result in clutch damage. See
Group 25 of the Business Class® M2 Workshop
Manual for free-pedal adjustment procedures and
specifications.
Drivetrain
On mechanical clutch linkages, free-pedal travel
should be included and commented on daily in the
driver’s report, since clutch free-pedal travel is the
best guide to the condition of the clutch and the release mechanism.
Clutch Lubrication
The release bearing should be lubricated at frequent
intervals. See Group 25 of the Business Class® M2
Maintenance Manual for intervals and procedures.
Clutch Wear
CAUTION
The major reason clutches wear out too soon is excessive heat. Clutches are designed to absorb and
dissipate more heat than encountered in typical operation. The temperatures developed in typical operation will not break down the clutch friction surfaces. However, if a clutch is slipped excessively or
required to do the job of a fluid coupling, high temperatures develop quickly and destroy the clutch.
Temperatures generated between the flywheel,
driven discs, and pressure plates can be high
enough to cause the metal to flow and the friction
facing material to char and burn.
CAUTION
Do not allow sustained slippage of the clutch;
this could severely damage the clutch disc, pressure plate, or flywheel. Damage caused by clutch
slippage due to improper break-in is not warrantable.
Slipping and excessive heat are practically nonexistent when a clutch is fully engaged. But during the
moment of engagement, when the clutch is picking
up the load, it generates considerable heat. An incorrectly adjusted or slipping clutch will rapidly generate
sufficient heat to destroy itself.
The most important items that a driver should be
aware of to ensure long service life of the clutch include: starting in the right gear, recognizing clutch
malfunctions, and knowing when to adjust a clutch.
Clutch Adjustments
Some clutches have an internal adjustment. See the
applicable section in Group 25 of the Business
Class® M2 Workshop Manual for clutch adjustment
procedures and specifications.
CAUTION
Operating the vehicle with the clutch incorrectly
adjusted could result in clutch or clutch brake
failure.
Failure to lubricate the release bearing as recommended could result in release bearing damage
and damage to the clutch.
NOTE: The Sachs hydraulic clutch does not require lubrication of the release bearing.
Sachs Hydraulic Clutch
The Sachs hydraulic clutch is a 14.5-inch (365 mm)
push-type clutch that is used with the MercedesBenz medium-duty transmissions, models MBT520
and MBT660.
NOTE: All Mercedes-Benz transmission models
require a hydraulic clutch system. For more information on the Mercedes-Benz transmissions,
see under the heading "Mercedes-Benz Manual
Transmissions."
The clutch hydraulic system consists of three main
components:
• A pedal unit, including the pedal, master cylin-
der and fluid reservoir,
• A slave cylinder at the clutch,
• A hydraulic hose that connects the master and
slave cylinders.
Keep the clutch fluid reservoir full to the MAX mark.
If fluid level falls below the MIN mark, have the hydraulic system checked for leaks at an authorized
Freightliner service facility. Use only DOT 4 brake
fluid to fill the reservoir.
The hydraulic clutch provides smooth, quiet, and reliable clutch actuation with a minimum of maintenance.
Pressure builds up in the master cylinder when the
clutch pedal is pressed. This pressure is transmitted
through the brake fluid in the hose to the slave cylinder, where it acts directly on the clutch release fork.
8.2
Drivetrain
Allison On-Highway
Transmissions
The Allison on-highway transmissions are fully automatic and include the 1000 Series™, 2000 Series™,
and 2400 Series™. Refer to the Allison website for
additional information, www.allisontransmission.com.
Safety Precautions
WARNING
Do not leave the vehicle unattended with the engine running. If you leave the vehicle and the engine is running, the vehicle can move suddenly,
which could result in personal injury or property
damage.
1000 Series
On vehicles with Allison 1000 series transmissions,
do the following steps if you have to leave the cab
with the engine running (for example, when checking
the transmission fluid):
Without Park Position
6.
Chock the rear tires and take any other steps
necessary to keep the vehicle from moving.
2000 Series
On vehicles with Allison 2000 series transmissions,
do the following steps if you have to leave the cab
with the engine running (for example, when checking
the transmission fluid):
Without Auto-Apply Parking Brake
Follow the instructions for vehicles with 1000 series
transmissions, under the heading "Without Park Position."
With Auto-Apply Parking Brake
1.
Bring the vehicle to a complete stop using the
service brake.
2.
Ensure that the engine is at low idle rpm.
3.
Put the transmission in PB (auto-apply parking
brake).
4.
Apply the parking brake (if equipped), and make
sure it is properly engaged.
5.
Chock the rear tires and take any other steps
necessary to keep the vehicle from moving.
1.
Bring the vehicle to a complete stop using the
service brake.
2400 Series
2.
Ensure that the engine is at low idle rpm.
3.
Put the transmission in neutral.
On vehicles with 2400 series transmissions, follow
the instructions for vehicles with 1000 series transmissions.
4.
Apply the parking brake, and make sure it is
properly engaged.
5.
Chock the rear tires and take any other steps
necessary to keep the vehicle from moving.
With Park Position
1.
Bring the vehicle to a complete stop using the
service brake.
2.
Ensure that the engine is at low idle rpm.
3.
Put the transmission in P (park).
4.
Apply the parking brake (if equipped), and make
sure it is properly engaged.
5.
Engage the park range by slowly releasing the
service brake.
8.3
Range Inhibit Indicator, 2000 and
2400 Series
A RANGE INHIBIT indicator is a standard feature of
the 2000 series and 2400 series transmissions. The
RANGE INHIBIT indicator comes on to alert the
driver that transmission operation is being inhibited
and that the range shifts being requested by the
driver may not occur. When certain operating conditions are detected by the TCM (transmission control
module), the controls will lock the transmission in the
current operating range.
Shift inhibits occur under the following conditions:
• Shifts from neutral to reverse or from neutral to
a forward range when the engine is above idle,
greater than 900 rpm.
Drivetrain
• Forward/reverse directional shifts are typically
not permitted if appreciable output shaft speed
is detected.
• When some types of unusual transmission op-
erating conditions are detected by the TCM,
the TCM temporarily limits transmission operation until the vehicle can be driven to a service
location. When this type of situation is detected, the TCM will lock the transmission in a
safe gear range.
• The TCM will prevent shifts from park or neu-
tral to range when auxiliary equipment, such as
a power takeoff unit (PTO), is in operation.
Operating Instructions, On-Highway
Transmissions
Allison automatic transmissions are electronically
controlled. The shift selector provides five or six forward ranges and one reverse range.
P (Park, optional on 1000 and 2400
Series)
Use park when turning the engine on or off, to check
vehicle accessories, to operate the engine in idle for
longer than 5 minutes, and for stationary operation of
the power takeoff, if equipped. This position places
the transmission in neutral and engages the park
pawl of the transmission.
NOTE: This does not apply the parking brake.
PB (Auto-Apply Parking Brake, optional
on 2000 Series)
Do not idle in reverse for more than 5 minutes. Select P (park), PB (auto-apply parking brake), or N
(neutral) when time at idle exceeds 5 minutes.
NOTE: The shift into reverse may not succeed if
a range inhibitor is active. Check for illumination
of the RANGE INHIBIT indicator.
N (Neutral)
The neutral position places the transmission in neutral. This position is used when starting the engine
and for stationary operation.
WARNING
Failure to apply the vehicle parking brakes when
the transmission is in neutral may allow the vehicle to move unexpectedly, possibly causing
property damage or personal injury.
When neutral is selected, the vehicle service brakes,
parking brake, or emergency brake must be applied.
Selecting neutral does not apply vehicle brakes unless an auxiliary system to apply the parking brake is
installed.
WARNING
Do not coast in neutral. Coasting in neutral can
cause an accident, possibly resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
Do not let the vehicle coast in neutral. If the vehicle
is allowed to coast in neutral, the engine brake will
not work and you could lose control of the vehicle.
CAUTION
The auto-apply parking brake places the transmission in neutral and applies the parking brake.
Coasting in neutral can cause severe transmission damage.
R (Reverse)
Reverse is used to back the vehicle. When the selector is in reverse, the reverse warning signal will
sound. Always bring the vehicle to a complete stop
before shifting from a forward range to reverse, or
from reverse to a forward range.
CAUTION
Extended idling in reverse may cause transmission overheating and damage.
D (Drive)
WARNING
When going downhill, use a combination of
downshifting, braking, and other retarding devices to control vehicle speed and the engine’s
rated governed speed. Failure to do so could reduce vehicle braking, possibly causing loss of
vehicle control and resulting in personal injury or
property damage.
8.4
Drivetrain
In the drive position, the transmission will initially go
into first range when drive is selected. As vehicle
speed increases, the transmission will upshift automatically through each available range up to fourth
range or fifth range. As the vehicle slows, the transmission will downshift automatically.
When going downhill, downshift to a lower transmission range to increase engine braking and to help
maintain control. The transmission has a feature to
prevent automatic upshifting above the lower range
selected. However, during downhill operation, the
transmission may upshift to the next higher range, if
the engine is exceeding its governed speed in the
lower range.
CAUTION
Do not idle in drive for more than 5 minutes. Extended idling in drive may cause transmission
overheating and damage. Always select PB (autoapply parking brake) or P (park) if time at idle is
longer than 5 minutes.
NOTE: The shift into drive may not succeed if a
range inhibitor is active. Check for illumination
of the RANGE INHIBIT indicator.
4 and 3 (Fourth and Third Ranges,
optional)
Use the fourth or third range for city traffic and for
braking on steep downgrades.
3 and 2 (Third and Second Ranges,
standard)
Use the third or second range for heavy city traffic
and for braking on steeper downgrades.
1 (First Range)
Use first range when pulling through mud or deep
snow, when maneuvering in tight spaces, or when
driving up or down very steep grades. First range
provides the vehicle with its maximum driving torque
and maximum engine braking effect.
NOTE: To have the transmission select these
ranges automatically, leave the selector lever in
D (drive).
8.5
Allison MD Series
Refer to the Allison website for additional information,
www.allisontransmission.com.
Safety Precautions
WARNING
Do not leave the vehicle unattended with the engine running. If you leave the vehicle and the engine is running, the vehicle can move suddenly,
which could result in personal injury or property
damage.
On vehicles with MD series transmissions, do the
following steps if you have to leave the cab with the
engine running (for example, when checking the
transmission fluid):
1.
Bring the vehicle to a complete stop using the
service brake.
2.
Put the transmission in N (neutral).
3.
Ensure that the engine is at low idle (500 to 800
rpm).
4.
Apply the parking brake and emergency brakes,
and make sure they are properly engaged.
5.
Chock the rear tires and take any other steps
necessary to keep the vehicle from moving.
Operating Instructions, MD Series
The Allison MD transmission is electronically controlled and comes with a push-button shift control
that provides five or six forward ranges and one reverse range. The push-button shift selector has an R
(reverse), an N (neutral), a D (drive), an up arrow, a
down arrow, a mode button, and a digital display.
New shift controls — known as "fourth generation" —
were introduced in mid-2006. They replaced the previous units that are commonly referred to as "WTEC
III". See Fig. 8.1 and Fig. 8.2.
R (Reverse)
Press the R button to select reverse. The digital display will show R when reverse is selected. Always
bring the vehicle to a complete stop and let the engine return to idle before shifting from a forward
range to reverse, or from reverse to a forward range.
Drivetrain
2
NOTE: The shift into reverse may not succeed if
a range inhibitor is active. When reverse is selected, always be sure that R is not flashing.
3
N (Neutral)
1
R
WARNING
4
N
D
f270113
07/27/2006
1. Digital Display
2. Mode Identification
Label
3. Mode Indicator LED
4. Mode Button
Fig. 8.1, WTEC III Push-Button Shift Selector
1
2
When starting the engine, make sure that the service brakes are applied. Failure to apply the service brakes may result in unexpected vehicle
movement, which could cause severe personal
injury or death. Failure to apply the vehicle parking brakes when the transmission is in neutral
may allow the vehicle to move unexpectedly, possibly causing property damage or personal injury.
Press the N button to select neutral. The digital display will display N when neutral is selected. It is not
necessary to press neutral before starting the vehicle. The ECU (electronic control unit) or TCM
(transmission control module) automatically places
the transmission in neutral at start-up.
WARNING
3
Failure to apply the vehicle parking brakes when
the transmission is in neutral may allow the vehicle to move unexpectedly, possibly causing
property damage or personal injury.
4
When neutral is selected, the vehicle service brakes,
parking brake, or emergency brake must be applied.
Selecting neutral does not apply vehicle brakes unless an auxiliary system to apply the parking brake is
installed.
f610804
07/27/2006
1. Digital Display
2. Mode Identification
Label
3. Mode Indicator LED
4. Mode Button
Fig. 8.2, Fourth Generation Push-Button Shift Selector
CAUTION
Extended idling in reverse may cause transmission overheating and damage.
Do not idle in reverse for more than 5 minutes. Select neutral when time at idle exceeds 5 minutes.
WARNING
Do not coast in neutral. Coasting in neutral can
cause an accident, possibly resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
Do not let the vehicle coast in neutral. If the vehicle
is allowed to coast in neutral, the engine brake will
not work and you could lose control of the vehicle.
Always select neutral before turning off the engine.
Neutral is also used during stationary operation of
the power takeoff if your vehicle is equipped with a
PTO.
8.6
Drivetrain
D (Drive)
When the D button is pushed, the highest forward
range will appear in the display. The transmission will
normally go into first range when drive is selected
(except for those units programmed to start in second range). As vehicle speed increases, the transmission will upshift automatically through each range.
As the vehicle slows, the transmission will downshift
automatically.
CAUTION
Do not idle in drive for more than 5 minutes. Extended idling in drive may cause transmission
overheating and damage. Always select neutral if
time at idle is longer than 5 minutes.
NOTE: The shift into drive may not succeed if a
range inhibitor is active. When drive is selected,
always be sure that D is not flashing.
5, 4, 3, and 2 (Fifth, Fourth, Third, and
Second Ranges)
Occasionally, road conditions, load, or traffic conditions will make it desirable to restrict automatic shifting to a lower range. Lower ranges provide greater
braking for going down grades. The lower the range,
the greater the braking effect.
Push the up or down arrows on the push-button shift
selector to select individual forward ranges. The digital display will display your choice of range. When a
lower range is selected, the transmission may not
downshift until the vehicle speed or engine RPM (engine governed speed) is reduced.
WARNING
When going downhill, use a combination of
downshifting, braking, and other retarding devices to control vehicle speed and the engine’s
rated governed speed. Failure to do so could reduce vehicle braking, possibly causing loss of
vehicle control and resulting in personal injury or
property damage.
When going downhill, downshift to a lower transmission range to increase engine braking and to help
maintain control. The transmission has a feature to
prevent automatic upshifting above the lower range
selected. However, during downhill operation, if the
8.7
engine governed speed is exceeded in the lower
range, the transmission may upshift to the next
higher range.
1 (First Range)
Use the first range when pulling through mud or
deep snow, when maneuvering in tight spaces, or
when driving up or down steep grades. First range
provides the vehicle with its maximum driving torque
and maximum engine braking effect. Push the down
arrow until the first range appears on the display.
Up and Down Arrows
When a lower range is desired, after D has been
pressed, press the down arrow until the desired
range is shown on the display. Pressing the down
arrow continuously causes the range position to continue to go down until the button is released or the
lowest range is attained.
When the transmission is in drive and the down
arrow has the transmission in a lower range position,
press the up arrow to shift to a higher selector position. Pressing the up arrow continuously causes the
range position to continue to rise until the button is
released or the highest available position is attained.
Pressing the up or down arrows does not override
the transmission automatic shifting operation. If a
higher or lower position is selected, the transmission
continues shifting through the ranges according to
the vehicle operating characteristics until the highest
or lowest selected position is reached.
Mode Button
The MODE button starts a specialized input or output
function that has been previously programmed into
the ECU or TCM. Pressing the MODE button
changes transmission operation for a specific function.
Mode Indicator LED
When the MODE button is pressed, the mode indicator LED illuminates. A mode identification label, located above the MODE button, identifies the function
associated with a mode change.
Drivetrain
Digital Display
General Information, Straight-Shift
The dual digital display shows both the selected
range (SELECT) and actual range attained (MONITOR). The single digital display shows the selected
range.
Eaton Fuller 5-speed FS models are fully synchronized. They have five forward speeds and one reverse. See Fig. 8.3 for the shift pattern.
Oil Level Sensor
R
Allison MD Series transmissions have an electronic
oil level sensor to read fluid level information. The
fluid level diagnostic will display whether the oil level
is OK, too low, or too high. It will also display a default code and indicate if the preconditions (of receiving the fluid level information) are not met.
IMPORTANT: Maintain the the proper fluid level
at all times. If the fluid level is too low, the converter and clutch do not receive an adequate
supply of fluid. If the level is too high, the transmission may shift erratically or overheat.
To access the oil level display mode, park the vehicle
on a level surface, shift to N (Neutral), apply the
parking brake, and idle the engine. Then simultaneously press both the up and down arrows once. The
oil level will display at the end of a two-minute countdown.
NOTE: During normal operation, an illuminated
mode indicator LED signifies the specialized
mode operation is in use.
To enter diagnostics mode, first park the vehicle and
apply the parking brake. Then simultaneously press
both the up and down arrows twice.
Eaton® Fuller® Straight-Shift
Transmissions
Refer to the Eaton website for additional information,
www.roadranger.com.
4
N
1
3
5
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Fig. 8.3, Shift Pattern, 5-Speed FS Models
Eaton Fuller 6-speed FS and FSO models are fully
synchronized. They have six forward speeds and one
reverse. See Fig. 8.4 for the shift pattern.
R
1
Diagnostic Codes
Diagnostic codes are numerical indications relating to
a malfunction in transmission operation. These codes
are logged in the TCM/ECU memory. The most severe or most recent code is listed first. A maximum of
five codes (numbered d1-d5) may be listed in
memory at one time. If the mode indicator LED is
illuminated, the displayed code is active. If it is not
illuminated, the displayed code is not active.
2
3
5
4
6
N
2
05/21/2008
f261048
Fig. 8.4, Shift Pattern, 6-Speed FS and FSO Models
Eaton Fuller 7-speed T models are not synchronized.
They have seven forward speeds and one reverse.
See Fig. 8.5 for the shift pattern.
These transmissions are designed for use with onhighway, fuel economy engines where a minimum of
shifting is desired and less gear reduction is acceptable.
Operation, Straight-Shift
1.
Always use first gear when starting to move the
vehicle forward.
IMPORTANT: Do not rest your foot on the clutch
pedal while driving. This causes partial clutch
8.8
Drivetrain
4.2
R
2
4
6
On synchronized models, disengage the
clutch and move the shift lever to the next
lower gear.
7
On unsynchronized models, disengage the
clutch and move the shift lever to neutral.
Engage the clutch again. With the shift
lever in neutral, disengage the clutch and
move the shift lever to the next lowest
gear.
N
1
3
5
f261051
05/21/2008
Fig. 8.5, Shift Pattern, 7-Speed T Models
disengagement which could cause premature
clutch wear.
2.
Use the sequence described above to
shift progressively down through each
successive lower gear, as driving conditions require.
On unsynchronized models, press the clutch
pedal to the floor to contact the clutch brake only
when engaging the first or reverse gears.
Refer to the Eaton website for additional information,
www.roadranger.com.
To upshift, do the following steps:
3.1
Accelerate to engine governed speed.
3.2
On synchronized models, disengage the
clutch and move the shift lever to second
gear.
3.3
3.4
Engage the clutch and note the drop in
engine rpm before accelerating up to engine governed speed again.
Continue upshifting using the same sequence described in the previous step.
Follow the pattern on the shift lever.
To downshift, do the following steps:
4.1
8.9
4.4
Eaton Fuller Range-Shift
Transmissions
On unsynchronized models, disengage the
clutch and move the shift lever to neutral.
Engage the clutch again. With the shift
lever in neutral, disengage the clutch and
move the shift lever to second gear.
4.
Engage the clutch smoothly.
On synchronized models, press the clutch pedal
to the floor when shifting gears. Double-clutching
is unnecessary.
NOTE: If the vehicle is moving when shifting,
press the clutch pedal just far enough to disengage the clutch. Pressing it to the floor will engage the clutch brake, if so equipped, causing
premature clutch brake wear.
3.
4.3
Wait until the engine speed drops to the
rpm noted immediately after the upshift.
General Information, Range-Shift
Eaton Fuller 9-Speed Models
Eaton Fuller 9-speed range-shift models are not synchronized. They have nine forward speeds and two
reverse speeds. The shift lever controls five forward
gears and one reverse gear in the transmission front
section, and the range lever controls a LO and HI
range in the two-speed auxiliary section. The first
position in the front section is used only as a starting
gear. The other four ratios are used once in LO
range and once again in HI range. See Fig. 8.6 for
the shift patterns.
After shifting out of the first gear position, use the
Roadranger® "repeat H" shift pattern. Select both LO
range and HI range with the range lever (range
knob). It is used once during the upshift sequence
and once during the downshift sequence.
Always preselect the range shift. After preselection,
the transmission will automatically make the synchronizer range shift as the shift lever passes through
neutral.
Eaton Fuller 10-Speed Models
Eaton Fuller 10-speed range-shift models are not
synchronized. They have ten forward speeds and
Drivetrain
HI
7
3
5
1
LO
9-Speed
Direct or
Overdrive
11/23/99
Move the range lever up for HI range, down for LO
range.
R
7
2
9
4
A
N
6
1
8
3
10
5
2
4
R
1
3
2
4
R
2
1
3
R
5
7
6
8
f260323
4
R
2
5
1
3
f260329
4
5
f260324
R
6
7
8
f260329
9
10
f260330
When downshifting, the driver preselects the range
lever for LO range and the range shift occurs automatically during the shift lever movement to the next
gear position.
Eaton Fuller Deep-Reduction Models
Eaton Fuller deep-reduction models are not synchronized. They have a five-speed front section and a
two-speed auxiliary section which has an extra deep
reduction gear. The LO gear in the front section is
used only as a starting gear. The other four ratios
are used once in LOW RANGE and once in HIGH
RANGE giving eight highway ratios. LO-LO is selected by the DEEP REDUCTION lever on the dashboard. See Fig. 8.8 for the shift pattern.
R R
R
B
f261053
12/15/1999
A. HI Range
3
Table 8.1, Eaton Fuller Shift Progressions
two reverse speeds. The shift lever controls five forward gears and one reverse gear in the transmission
front section, and the range lever controls a LO and
HI range in the two-speed auxiliary section. The five
forward gears selected in LO range are used again
in HI range to provide the 10 progressive forward
gears. See Fig. 8.7 for the shift patterns. See
Table 8.1 for the shift progressions.
HI
10-Speed
Direct or
Overdrive
B. LO Range
Fig. 8.6, Shift Pattern, 9-Speed Models
LO
LOW
1
f260322
f261047
A. HI Range
R
B
8
4
6
2
LO
Model
A
N
Eaton Fuller Shift Progressions
LO Range
HI Range
Off-Highway On-Highway
7
3
N
B. LO Range
LO
Fig. 8.7, Shift Pattern, 10-Speed Models
LO−LO
Once the highest shift lever position (fifth gear) is
reached in LO range, the driver preselects the range
shift lever for HI range. The range shift occurs automatically as the shift lever is moved from fifth gear
position to the sixth gear position.
5
1
6
2
8
4
f260123a
03/12/96
Fig. 8.8, Shift Pattern, Deep Reduction
Operation, Range-Shift
1.
When operating off-highway or under adverse
conditions, always use low gear when starting to
move the vehicle.
8.10
Drivetrain
When operating on-highway, with no load or
under ideal conditions, use first gear when starting to move the vehicle.
5.
While in the top gear of the low-range shift pattern and ready for the next upshift, flip the range
preselection lever up into high range. Doubleclutch through neutral and shift into the bottom
gear in high range. As the shift lever passes
through neutral, the transmission will automatically shift from low range to high range.
6.
With the transmission in high range, shift progressively up through each of the high range
gears, double-clutching between shifts.
For all conditions, use the highest gear that is
still low enough to start the vehicle moving with
the engine idling and without excessively slipping
the clutch.
2.
Use the clutch brake to stop gear rotation when
shifting into low (or first) or reverse when the vehicle is stationary. The clutch brake is applied by
pressing the clutch pedal all the way to the floor.
Downshifting
For normal upshifts and downshifts, only a partial
disengagement of the clutch is necessary to
break engine torque.
1.
With the transmission in high range, shift progressively down to the bottom gear in high
range, double-clutching between shifts.
3.
Do not make range shifts with the vehicle moving
in reverse gear.
2.
4.
Never attempt to move the range preselection
lever with the gear shift lever in neutral while the
vehicle is moving. Preselection with the range
preselection lever must be made prior to moving
the shift lever out of gear into neutral.
5.
Do not shift from high range to low range at high
vehicle speeds.
When in the bottom gear of the high-range shift
pattern and ready for the next downshift, push
the range preselection lever down into low range.
Double-clutch through neutral and shift into the
top gear of the low-range shift pattern. As the
shift lever passes through neutral, the transmission will automatically shift from high range to
low range.
3.
With the transmission in low range, downshift
through the low range gears as conditions require.
6.
Use double-clutching between all upshifts and
downshifts.
7.
After your shifting ability improves, you may want
to skip some of the ratios. This may be done
only when operating conditions such as load,
grade, and road speed permit.
Upshifting
Never use the clutch brake when downshifting or
as a brake to slow the vehicle.
Operation, Deep-Reduction Models
Upshifting
1.
Position the gear shift lever in neutral. See
Fig. 8.8 for the shift pattern. Start the engine,
and bring the air system pressure up to 95 to
125 psi (655 to 862 kPa).
Position the range preselection lever down into
low range.
2.
Position the range preselection lever down, into
low range.
3.
Press the clutch pedal to the floor. Shift into low
or first gear, then engage the clutch with the engine at or near idle speed to start the vehicle
moving. Accelerate to 80 percent of engine governed speed.
NOTE: If conditions are difficult, start out in LOLO. Move the DEEP REDUCTION lever on the
dashboard to the IN position. Otherwise start
out in LO with the DEEP REDUCTION lever in
the OUT position.
4.
Shift progressively up from low or 1st gear to the
top gear in low range, double-clutching between
shifts and accelerating to 80 percent of engine
governed speed.
1.
Position the gear shift lever in neutral. Start the
engine and bring the air system pressure up to
100 to 120 psi (689 to 827 kPa).
2.
8.11
Drivetrain
3.
Depress the clutch pedal to the floor. Shift into
LO gear; then, engage the clutch, with the engine at or near idle rpm to start the vehicle moving. The vehicle will start in LO or LO-LO depending on the DEEP REDUCTION lever
position.
4.
To upshift if in LO-LO, move the DEEP REDUCTION lever to the OUT position and immediately
release the accelerator, depress the clutch pedal
once to break torque, and reengage the clutch.
The auxiliary section will shift from LO-LO to LO
when the gears reach the same speed.
5.
6.
Shift progressively upward from LO through 1st,
2nd, 3rd, and 4th gears while the range preselection lever is in LO. Always double-clutch between gears.
When in 4th gear and ready for the next upshift,
pull up the range preselection lever and move
the shift lever, double-clutching, to the 5th gear
position. As the shift lever passes through neutral, the auxiliary section will automatically shift
from low to high range.
CAUTION
Never move the shift lever into the LO gear position after high range preselection or anytime the
auxiliary section is in high range. Transmission
damage could result.
7.
Continue upshifting from 5th gear through 8th
gear, always double-clutching between gears.
Downshifting
1.
While in high range, move the gear shift lever
from 8th gear through 5th gear as conditions require, always double-clutching between gears.
2.
When in 5th gear and ready for the next downshift, push down the range preselection lever and
move the shift lever to the 4th gear position,
being sure to double-clutch. As the shift lever
passes through neutral, the auxiliary section will
automatically shift from high to low range.
3.
4.
While in the low range, continue downshifting
from 4th through LO as conditions require, always double-clutching between gears.
gear position and the auxiliary section is in the
low range. Then, move the DEEP REDUCTION
lever on the dashboard to the IN position. Immediately release the accelerator, depress the
clutch pedal once to break torque, engage the
clutch, and accelerate. The auxiliary section will
automatically shift from LO to LO-LO when the
gears reach the same speed.
CAUTION
Never use the clutch brake when downshifting, or
as a brake to slow the vehicle. This will cause
premature clutch brake wear.
Eaton Fuller AutoShift™
Automated Transmissions
Refer to the Eaton website for additional information,
www.roadranger.com.
IMPORTANT: Before starting the vehicle, always
do the following:
• Be seated in the driver’s seat.
• Place the transmission in neutral.
• Set the parking brakes.
• Press the clutch pedal (if equipped) down to
the floor.
The AutoShift ASW is an automated 6-speed Eaton
Fuller transmission. No clutch is necessary to operate the vehicle.
The AutoShift AS2 is a partially automated 10-speed
Eaton Fuller transmission. The driver must use the
clutch and put the transmission in neutral to start and
stop the vehicle. A push-button shift selector
(Fig. 8.9) is used with AutoShift AS2 and ASW
transmissions.
IMPORTANT: If you have to leave the cab with
the engine running:
• Place the transmission in neutral.
• Set the parking brakes.
• Chock the tires.
Do not downshift into LO-LO from LO unless operating conditions make it necessary. If it is necessary, make sure that the shift lever is in the LO
8.12
Drivetrain
• To select drive, press the D button. When drive
is engaged, the telltale LED will light up next to
the D button.
10
1
• To select low gear, press the LOW button.
When low is engaged, the telltale LED will light
up next to the LOW button.
9
8
2
• To change gears manually, press the MANUAL
3
• Use the shift buttons (upshift/downshift) to
4
button. When the manual mode is engaged,
the telltale LED will light up next to the
MANUAL button.
change the current starting gear selection in R,
D, and LOW. In MANUAL, the shift buttons can
be used to select gears.
• In automatic mode, the number of the forward
5
7
6
gear currently engaged appears continually on
the mode indicator when in drive. In MANUAL,
the last gear selected appears on the mode
indicator.
• If the SERVICE indicator illuminates, take the
vehicle as soon as possible to an authorized
Freightliner service facility.
• The mode button is reserved for future use.
11/14/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Not Used
R (reverse)
N (neutral)
D (drive)
MANUAL Mode
Low Gear Hold
f261145
7. Upshift/Downshift
Arrows
8. SERVICE Light
9. Mode Indicator
10. Mode Button
Fig. 8.9, Eaton Push-Button Shift Selector
Push-Button Shift Selector
Gear information is presented to the driver on the
push-button shift selector, usually mounted on the
right-hand control panel. On this display, the information is presented as follows:
• To select neutral, press the N button. When
neutral is engaged, the telltale LED will light up
next to the N button.
• To select reverse, press the R button. When
reverse is engaged, the telltale LED will light
up next to the R button.
8.13
IMPORTANT: To prevent engine overspeed, the
transmission software will override both
MANUAL and LOW if necessary. The system
will not respond to gear selection requests that
will either overspeed or excessively lug the
engine.
Automatic Mode
The AutoShift AS2 transmission is normally operated
in an automatic mode. To select MANUAL mode,
press the MANUAL button on the push-button shift
selector.
When the transmission is in automatic mode, the
transmission automatically selects and engages the
gears, although the transmission will respond to upshift and downshift requests as though in manual
mode. See the instructions for shifting under heading
"Manual Mode" below.
Manual Mode
When the transmission is in manual mode, the driver
must select the appropriate gear, using the shift buttons on the push-button shift selector.
Drivetrain
To upshift in MANUAL, press the upshift button (up
arrow), and release. The number of the gear will appear on the mode indicator. If the requested gear is
available, the transmission will shift up.
NOTE: Neutral is always available during vehicle operation. When in neutral, requests to
upshift or to downshift are ignored.
D (Drive)
CAUTION
Do not attempt to upshift until the vehicle has
reached a sufficient speed. The clutch absorbs
the speed difference by generating heat, which
causes the clutch to wear out too soon.
Many drivers upshift into the next gear or even skipshift into a higher gear before the vehicle has
reached the correct speed. This type of shifting is
almost as bad as starting off in a gear that is too
high. When the engine speed (rpm) and the vehicle
speed (mph or km/h) are too far apart, the clutch
must absorb the difference in speed by generating
heat.
To downshift in MANUAL, press the downshift button
(down arrow), and release. The number of the gear
will appear on the mode indicator. If the requested
gear is available, the transmission will shift down.
If any requested gear is not available, an audible
warning will sound and the digital display will indicate
that the gear is not available.
Selecting Gears
R (Reverse)
Reverse (R) is used to back the vehicle. Make sure
the vehicle comes to a full stop and the clutch pedal
has been pressed before shifting into reverse.
Drive (D) is used for normal highway driving. In drive,
the transmission shifts into the proper gear for starting, and then automatically selects additional gears
as needed, in a range between the starting gear and
the highest gear.
To select drive, press the clutch pedal to the floor.
Then press the D button. Slowly release the clutch
pedal and drive the vehicle.
To start up in a gear other than the normal starting
gear, push the upshift arrow with D selected, and
while the vehicle is stopped.
IMPORTANT: AutoShift will not start up in any
gear higher than third gear.
The number of the gear selected will flash on the
auxiliary display until the driver presses the clutch
pedal. This gear will be stored in memory as the default starting gear until a different starting gear is selected by the driver, or until the engine is shut down.
NOTE: The transmission may be programmed
so that it is not possible to select a starting gear
other than the preprogrammed starting gear.
L (Low)
N (Neutral)
LOW is used to hold the transmission in low gear
when descending steep hills. If LOW is selected
when the vehicle is stopped, the transmission remains in low gear until drive is selected. If LOW is
selected while the vehicle is moving, the transmission downshifts at a higher engine speed than normal, in order to maximize the engine braking effect.
Neutral (N) is used for starting, parking, or any stationary operation. No gear is selected. The transmission must be in neutral to start the engine.
To select LOW, press the clutch pedal to the floor.
Then press the LOW button. Slowly release the
clutch pedal and drive the vehicle.
IMPORTANT: If the vehicle starts up in any gear
but neutral, bring the vehicle to an authorized
Freightliner service facility as soon as possible.
IMPORTANT: Before parking the vehicle, always
do the following:
To select reverse, press the clutch pedal to the floor.
Then press the R button.
To select neutral, press the clutch pedal to the floor.
Then press the N button. Set the parking brakes and
slowly release the clutch pedal.
• Place the transmission in neutral.
• Set the parking brakes.
• Chock the tires, if parking on an incline.
8.14
Drivetrain
Freightliner SmartShift Shift
Control
5
The SmartShift transmission control is an electronic
transmission control device. It is installed with the
following transmissions:
1
• Eaton Fuller UltraShift™
It replaces the typical floor-mounted shift lever or
dash-mounted push button control.
SmartShift accepts driver requests for transmission
functions and transmits them through hard wiring to
the transmission control unit (TCU). SmartShift is a
true shift-by-wire system.
SmartShift offers two main advantages over conventional transmission control devices. Without a floormounted shift control, usable cab space is increased.
The SmartShift control mounts to the right-hand side
of the steering column and is operated by the fingers
of the driver’s right hand, allowing both hands to remain on the steering wheel.
A two-position slide switch (Fig. 8.10) is mounted on
the body of the control lever just before the paddle
widens out. The slide switch allows the driver to
choose automatic (AUTO) or manual (MAN) mode.
In AUTO mode, gears shift automatically, without
driver interaction. Manual gearshifts are accomplished by a momentary pull or push on the control in
the plane perpendicular to the steering wheel. Pull
upward (toward you) on the control to upshift and
push downward (away from you) to downshift. The
control is spring-loaded and returns to mid-position
when released after an upshift or downshift.
For Eaton Fuller UltraShift and UltraShift PLUS
(Fig. 8.10), a four-position ®, N, D, L) selector switch
is located at the end of the lever. For the MercedesBenz AGS (Fig. 8.11), a three-position ®, N, D) selector switch is located at the end of the lever.
Embedded in the selector switch is a small neutral
lock button to prevent accidental shifts into gear from
neutral. Any time you shift through N, press down on
the neutral lock button to move the switch from neutral (N) to another gear, such as drive (D), low (L), or
8.15
8
9
2
10
11
• Eaton Fuller UltraShift PLUS
• Mercedes-Benz Automated Gear Shift (AGS)
7
4
3
General Information, SmartShift
6
01/24/2003
12
f270120
To upshift manually, pull the lever up (towards you). To
downshift manually, push the lever down (away from
you).
1. SmartShift Control Lever
2. Slide Switch (forward driving mode switch)
3. MAN Mode (of slide switch)
4. AUTO Mode (of slide switch)
5. Upshift Direction
6. Reverse Position (of selector switch)
7. Selector Switch
8. Neutral Lock Button
9. Neutral Position (of selector switch)
10. Drive Position (of selector switch)
11. Low Position (of selector switch)
12. Downshift Direction
Fig. 8.10, SmartShift Control (with Eaton Fuller
UltraShift and UltraShift PLUS)
reverse ®). When shifting to N, it is not necessary to
press the neutral lock button.
Eaton Fuller UltraShift
Automated Transmissions
The Eaton® Fuller® UltraShift™ transmission uses
the four-position SmartShift control lever on the
steering column to change gears, combined with a
gear indicator on the right-hand control panel as
shown in Fig. 8.12. All forward shifts can be made
either manually or automatically, at the driver’s
choice. No clutch pedal is required to operate the
vehicle.
General Information, UltraShift ASW
UltraShift ASW is a six-speed medium-duty fully automated transmission used on the M106 only. Sixspeed UltraShift ASW uses a "wet" clutch system in
which the drive and driven discs rotate in a bath of
transmission fluid (Dexron III).
Drivetrain
5
General Information, UltraShift DM
7
4
3
1
6
8
UltraShift DM is a ten-speed heavy-duty fullyautomated transmission used on the M112 only. Tenspeed UltraShift DM uses a dry clutch system which
is offered only on this automated transmission system.
9
2
10
11
11/11/2002
f270080
To upshift manually, pull the lever up (towards you). To
downshift manually, push the lever down (away from
you).
1. SmartShift Control Lever
2. Slide Switch
3. MAN Mode (of slide switch)
4. AUTO Mode (of slide switch)
5. Upshift Direction
6. Reverse Position (of selector switch)
7. Selector Switch
8. Neutral Lock Button
9. Neutral Position (of selector switch)
10. Drive Position (of selector switch)
11. Downshift Direction
Operation, UltraShift
Power Up
NOTE: These operating instructions apply
equally to six-speed UltraShift ASW and tenspeed UltraShift DM, with the exceptions explained below.
1.
With the parking brake set, select neutral (N) by
moving the selector switch to the N position.
2.
With the transmission in neutral, turn on the ignition switch. The "CHECK TRANS" and "TRANS
TEMP" telltale lights come on and go out again
(bulb check). See Fig. 8.13.
1
2
CHECK
TRANS
Fig. 8.11, SmartShift Control (with Mercedes-Benz AGS)
TRANS
TEMP
1
BRAKE
2
10/27/2003
f610677
1. "CHECK TRANS" Light
2. "TRANS TEMP" Light
Fig. 8.13, Telltale Lights, UltraShift Transmission
10/13/2003
3.
After the ignition is turned on, the current gear
indicator shows the dot display, arranged in a
square pattern. All dots in the pattern should light
up, without gaps or spaces. See Fig. 8.14.
4.
Wait for the current gear indicator to show a solid
"N." When the "N" is solid, rather than flashing,
the UltraShift transmission control unit (TCU) is
powered up. Apply the service brake and start
the engine.
f270079
To know what gear the transmission is in, look at the
current gear indicator.
1. Gear Indicator
2. SmartShift Control
Fig. 8.12, Shift Controls and Indicators, UltraShift
Transmissions
8.16
Drivetrain
7.2
To stop on a hill or grade, press and hold
the brake pedal to keep the vehicle from
moving.
On steep hills, set the parking brake.
When parking, chock the tires, front and/or
rear. Never hold a hill with the throttle
pedal. This will cause the clutch to overheat.
Power Down
1.
Apply the service brake.
2.
Select neutral (N) by moving the selector switch
to the N position. When the "N" on the gear indicator is solid, rather than flashing, the UltraShift
TCU is ready to power down. See Fig. 8.13.
3.
With the transmission in neutral, set the parking
brake.
4.
Turn off the ignition key and shut down the engine.
f610678
10/13/2003
Fig. 8.14, Power-Up Dot Display
5.
Select drive (D) by pressing in the neutral lock
button and moving the selector switch downward
to the position below neutral. Release the parking brake. The gear is displayed on the current
gear indicator.
NOTE: When D is selected, the transmission
controller starts up in second gear. On both sixspeed Ultrashift ASW and ten-speed Ultrashift
DM, the driver can select to start up in first. No
other start gear is available.
6.
Automatic and Manual Modes
The SmartShift control has a slide switch located on
the body of the control lever just before the paddle
widens out. See Fig. 8.15. The slide switch controls
the forward driving mode, automatic or manual.
On a level grade, release the service brake and
press down on the throttle pedal to allow the vehicle to move forward.
WARNING
When starting or stopping on hills and grades,
use extra care to prevent the vehicle from rolling
back. A rollback accident could cause death, serious personal injury, or property damage.
7.
2
1
3
Prevent the vehicle from rolling backward when
stopped on a hill or grade, or when the vehicle is
starting from a stop on a hill or grade.
7.1
To start from a full stop on a hill or grade,
quickly move your foot from the brake
pedal and press firmly on the throttle
pedal.
On steep hills, set the parking brake and
release it only when there is enough engine power to prevent rollback.
01/21/2004
f270079c
1. Slide Switch (controls forward driving mode)
2. Selector Switch (controls gear selection)
3. Neutral Lock Button (prevents accidental shift into
gear)
Fig. 8.15, Switches, Ultrashift Transmission
8.17
Drivetrain
To change mode at any time, move the slide switch
in the desired direction. This allows the driver to respond to a wide range of driving conditions, such as
blind corners, tight curves, and steep hills.
IMPORTANT: Whatever the mode, it is always
possible to shift manually by moving the lever
up or down as needed. When the engine speed
is within 75 revolutions per minute (rpm) of the
load-based shift point for an automatic shift, the
UltraShift TCU will advance the shift.
In either mode, the gear indicator displays the current gear. See Fig. 8.16.
shift if the engine speed is within 75 rpm of the loadbased shift point for that gear.
If the driver presses down on the throttle pedal after
a manual downshift in automatic mode, the transmission will upshift again if the UltraShift TCU requires
it.
Manual Mode (MAN)
In manual drive mode (MAN), upshifts and downshifts are made by the driver:
• To shift up, pull the lever up (towards you).
• To shift down, push the lever down (away from
you).
The system will hold the current gear until the driver
requests a shift. In downhill situations in particular,
the driver must be alert to vehicle speed by downshifting and/or using the service brake.
A shift request will still be refused if the selected gear
would cause engine overspeed or excessive lugging.
Selecting Gears
Reverse
f610680
10/13/2003
NOTE: The gear indicator displays the current gear. In
this example, it displays first gear.
Fig. 8.16, Current Gear Display
At the start of a shift, the current gear continues to
display until the transmission has been pulled into
neutral. At this point, as the transmission is synchronizing for the new (target) gear, the gear indicator
flashes the number of the new gear.
Reverse (R) is at the upper end of the four-position
selector switch located at the end of the SmartShift
control lever. To select R, press in the neutral lock
button and move the selector switch upward to the
position above neutral.
Six-speed UltraShift ASW has one reverse gear.
When reverse is selected, the letter "R" displays on
the gear indicator. See Fig. 8.17.
When the shift is complete, the new gear displays
solid, without flashing.
Automatic Mode (AUTO)
In automatic drive mode (AUTO), upshifts and downshifts are made by the transmission without driver
intervention. Press in the neutral lock button, move
the selector switch to drive (D), and press down on
the throttle pedal. The transmission will shift automatically.
If driving conditions require, it is still possible to request a manual shift. The transmission will make the
f610681
10/14/2003
Fig. 8.17, Reverse Gear Display
8.18
Drivetrain
Ten-speed UltraShift DM has two reverse gears, reverse low and reverse high. To shift manually between them, use the shift lever as described for MAN
mode. There is no AUTO mode for reverse.
When reverse low is selected, the letter "R" displays
on the current gear indicator. When reverse high is
selected, the letter "H" displays on the current gear
indicator.
IMPORTANT: Under normal conditions, do not
select reverse with the vehicle moving forward.
The vehicle must be moving at less than two miles
per hour (3 km/h) before selecting reverse. If reverse
is selected when the vehicle is moving faster, an audible alert will sound and continue sounding at threesecond intervals until the control lever is returned to
the D position. When the vehicle is moving at the
proper speed, reverse can be engaged.
On ten-speed UltraShift DM only, if necessary to rock
the vehicle, use the selector switch to shift back and
forth at low speed between reverse and drive.
Neutral
IMPORTANT: Always start the engine with the
transmission in neutral, the parking brake set,
and the service brakes applied.
Neutral (N) is directly below R on the four-position
selector switch located at the end of the SmartShift
control lever. To select N, move the selector switch to
the position below R. When neutral is selected, the
letter "N" displays on the gear indicator. See
Fig. 8.18.
WARNING
Do not coast in neutral. Coasting in neutral can
cause an accident, possibly resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
Neutral is always available during operation, whatever the vehicle speed. When in neutral, requests to
upshift or downshift are ignored. If the selector switch
is moved from neutral to drive while the vehicle is
moving, the transmission will shift into a gear within
the engine’s operating speed range.
When shifting from neutral, always press on the
brake pedal. If the brake pedal is not pressed, the
transmission will not shift, the current gear display
will flash "N," and an audible alert will sound.
NOTE: To reset the transmission, return the selector switch on the SmartShift lever to N and
attempt the shift again, this time with the brake
pedal pressed.
Before shutting down the engine, return the selector
switch to "N." When the ignition is turned off, the
transmission will reset to neutral in a few minutes
regardless of the position of the shift lever.
Drive
Drive (D) is directly below N on the four-position selector switch located at the end of the SmartShift
control lever. To select D, press in the neutral lock
button and move the selector switch to the position
below N. When drive is selected, the number of the
currently selected forward gear (1 through 6 on sixspeed UltraShift ASW; 1 through 10 on ten-speed
UltraShift DM) displays on the gear indicator. See
Fig. 8.16.
When in drive, requests to upshift or downshift are
enabled. Either manual or automatic mode can be
selected on the slide switch.
Two starting gears are available, first and second.
The default starting gear is second, but first can be
selected by the driver, if desired. To change the starting gear, press the brake pedal and select D with the
vehicle stopped. The current gear indicator will display the starting gear. Move the shift lever up or
down until the desired starting gear is displayed.
f610679
10/13/2003
Fig. 8.18, Neutral Display
8.19
The UltraShift TCU adapts to the working conditions
of each vehicle and its driver. After power-up or a
load change, it needs to learn the new conditions.
Drivetrain
While learning, it may hold a gear too long before
upshifting. Start the upshift manually. It may take
three or four shifts before UltraShift succeeds in
learning the new load-based shift points, but after
that it will handle the shifting automatically.
Low
Low (L) is located at the lower end of the fourposition selector switch located at the end of the
SmartShift control lever. To select L, press in the
neutral lock button and move the selector switch to
the position below D.
When in low, the current gear is maintained. Requests to upshift are not enabled.
IMPORTANT: If the engine is approaching overspeed, the UltraShift TCU will override the current gear setting and upshift to prevent engine
damage.
To enhance engine braking, downshifts are performed at higher rpm than normal.
If L is selected from neutral while stopped, the vehicle starts up in first gear and stays there until the
engine approaches overspeed.
Upshifting
To request an upshift with the transmission in drive,
pull the control lever up (towards you). If the gear is
available, the transmission upshifts and the new gear
displays on the gear indicator. No skip shifts are
available while upshifting.
No upshifts are available in low, except to prevent
engine overspeed.
If the transmission does not upshift quickly enough
after power-up or a load change, begin the shift
manually. The UltraShift TCU will learn the new loadbased shift conditions after three or four shifts.
If the gear requested is unavailable, a tone will
sound. An unavailable request to upshift is not stored
in memory. The upshift must be requested again.
Downshifting
NOTE: The driver can manually downshift at
any time, even when the slide switch is set to
AUTO mode.
If the gear is available, the transmission downshifts
and the new gear displays on the gear indicator. Skip
shifts are available while downshifting.
For best engine braking, select low while moving. In
low, downshifts are performed at higher rpm than in
drive.
IMPORTANT: If the engine is approaching overspeed, the UltraShift TCU will override the current gear setting and upshift to prevent engine
damage.
If the gear requested is unavailable, a tone will
sound. An unavailable request to downshift is not
stored in memory. The downshift must be requested
again.
When coasting to a stop, the UltraShift TCU may not
finish the downshift until the driver presses down on
the throttle pedal again.
IMPORTANT: A downshift request can never
result in a shift into neutral, even if the vehicle is
in the drive position in the lowest possible gear.
Before starting down a hill, slow down. Downshift to
a speed that you can control without hard pressure
on the service brakes.
Before entering a curve, slow down to a safe speed.
Downshift if necessary. This lets you use some
power through the curve to help the vehicle be more
stable on the turn. It also allows you to regain speed
faster as you come out of the curve.
UltraShift Diagnostics
Clutch Calibration
NOTE: Clutch calibration only occurs on sixspeed UltraShift ASW.
The UltraShift TCU automatically adjusts for clutch
wear. The calibration takes place whenever the following conditions are met:
• The engine is at normal operating temperature
• The vehicle is stopped
• The engine is at idle speed
• The selector switch on the control lever is in
neutral
To request a downshift with the transmission in drive
or low, push the control lever down (away from you).
8.20
Drivetrain
Calibration may take up to two minutes to complete.
The engine may slow and return to normal idle several times during calibration.
To stop calibration at any time, select one of the
drive positions on the selector switch (R, D, or L).
Clutch Protection Fault
Excessive clutch slippage creates heat and reduces
the life of the clutch. These are some conditions
which lead to clutch abuse:
• Using the throttle to hold the vehicle on a
grade
• Starting the vehicle in too high a gear
• Overloading the vehicle
• Using high idle with the vehicle in gear
The UltraShift TCU is programmed to prevent clutch
abuse. When the clutch overheats, the following
alerts take place:
• The "TRANS TEMP" light comes on
• The gear indicator displays "CA"
• A warning tone sounds at one second intervals
The alerts continue until the clutch cools, the throttle
is released, or the clutch is fully engaged.
4.
Wait at least two minutes with the engine shut
down.
5.
Restart the engine.
If the problem continues, contact an authorized
Freightliner or Eaton service facility.
Locked In Gear
If the transmission becomes locked in gear, a dash
(–) will appear on the gear indicator when the vehicle
is restarted during the reset procedure.
NOTE: If the transmission becomes locked in
gear while the vehicle is moving, increased
braking effort may be required to stop the vehicle.
If the current gear indicator displays a dash during
power-up with the selector switch in neutral, do the
following steps:
1.
Make sure the parking brake is set.
2.
Turn off the ignition and wait at least two minutes.
3.
Apply the service brakes.
4.
With the service brakes applied, release the
parking brake.
5.
Make sure the selector switch is in neutral and
turn on the ignition key. Do not attempt to start
the engine at this time.
6.
If necessary to get the transmission to shift into
neutral, release the pressure on the brake pedal
slightly.
Once the UltraShift TCU reaches neutral, a solid
"N" will appear on the current gear indicator and
the vehicle will start. Make sure the service
brakes are applied and the parking brake is set.
System Problem
In the event of a problem, do the following steps:
1.
Note the driving conditions at the time the problem occurred.
2.
Record the status of the transmission at the time
of the problem (AUTO or MAN mode, gear setting R, N, D, or L, current gear, engine speed,
etc.)
7.
3.
Reset the system, using the procedure below.
If the gear indicator continues to display a dash, contact an authorized Freightliner or Eaton service facility.
Reset Procedure
Transmission operation can sometimes be restored
by doing the following reset procedure:
1.
Stop the vehicle when it is safe to do so.
2.
Place the selector switch in neutral and turn off
the ignition.
3.
Check all harness connectors as described in
Chapter 11.
8.21
Eaton Fuller UltraShift PLUS
Automated Transmissions
Eaton Fuller UltraShift PLUS automated transmissions use shift selection software and electric clutch
actuation; a clutch pedal is not needed to operate the
vehicle. These transmissions use the four-position
Drivetrain
SmartShift control (see Fig. 8.10) on the steering
column to select mode, direction, neutral, low, and to
make manual shifts. To know what gear the transmission is in, see the current gear indicator on the dash.
Forward shifts can be made either manually or
automatically.
Power Up
NOTE: Engine cranking is delayed until the
transmission power-up is complete and the gear
display shows a solid "N".
1.
With the parking brake set, turn the ignition
switch to the ON position.
2.
Start the engine.
3.
Apply the service brake.
NOTE: If the service brake is not applied while
selecting a starting gear, the initial start gear will
not be found and the driver will need to select
Neutral and press the service brake while selecting the desired mode.
4.
Select the desired mode and starting gear. (Inappropriate start gear selections are ignored to
avoid damaging the transmission.)
5.
Release the parking brake.
6.
Release the service brake and apply the accelerator.
Power Down
1.
Select Neutral on the shift control.
NOTE: If the gear display does not show a solid
"N", neutral has not yet been obtained. Neutral
should always be reached before powering
down an UltraShift PLUS, except in cases of
emergency.
2.
Set the parking brake.
3.
Turn off the ignition, and shut down the engine.
Reverse (R)
NOTE: If attempting to select a non-Neutral
mode without applying the service brakes, the
transmission will not shift into gear. To shift into
gear, select Neutral, apply the service brakes,
and select the desired mode again. Also, the
vehicle will not engage reverse above 2 mph (3
km/h).
Reverse (R) is at the upper end of the four-position
selector switch located at the end of the SmartShift
control. To select R, press in the neutral lock button
and move the selector switch to the position above
neutral. The default Reverse gear is engaged.
NOTICE
Avoid launching the vehicle in high range.
Launching the vehicle in high range increases
the likelihood of clutch abuse and could be detrimental to clutch life.
Automatic Mode (AUTO)
In automatic drive mode (AUTO), upshifts and downshifts are made by the UltraShift PLUS without driver
intervention. Press in the neutral lock button, move
the selector switch to Drive (D), and press down on
the throttle pedal. The transmission will shift automatically.
NOTE: If attempting to select a non-Neutral
mode without applying the service brakes, the
transmission will not shift into gear. To shift into
gear, select Neutral, apply the service brakes,
and select the desired mode again.
In Drive, the start gear is automatically selected. The
selected start gear can vary depending on several
vehicle inputs such as load, grade, and axle/
transmission ratio. The start gear can be changed
using the SmartShift control, provided the selected
gear would allow the vehicle to launch without damaging the transmission. If the start gear is changed
using the SmartShift control, it will be the default until
the vehicle is powered down or the selection is
changed again manually.
IMPORTANT: Prior to ascending a steep grade,
either reduce the default start gear by one
(using the SmartShift control) or apply full
throttle for the duration of the grade so the vehicle maintains the proper engine and vehicle
speed during the entire grade.
In Drive, the transmission automatically performs upshifts and downshifts. However, when the transmission is near the shift point, the shift can be forced
using the upshift or downshift function of the SmartShift control.
8.22
Drivetrain
NOTE: The transmission may deny a shift while
ascending or descending a grade if the load of
the vehicle and grade of the terrain in combination with the drivetrain ratio and engine torque
fall outside of the acceptable range to perform a
shift. If the shift is denied, a tone will sound.
Manual Mode (MAN)
In manual mode (MAN), the driver selects upshifts
and downshifts instead of letting the UltraShift PLUS
select them automatically. Manual shifting may be
helpful when traversing a work site, railroad tracks,
or steep grades, for example. To drive forward, press
in the neutral lock button, move the selector switch to
Drive (D), and press down on the throttle pedal. To
shift up, pull the lever up (towards you); to shift
down, push the lever down (away from you). The
system holds the current gear unless a shift is requested or if the system initiates a manual mode
override.
NOTE: The transmission may deny a shift while
ascending or descending a grade if the load of
the vehicle and grade of the terrain in combination with the drivetrain ratio and engine torque
fall outside of the acceptable range to perform a
shift. If the shift is denied, a tone will sound.
NOTE: If attempting to select a non-Neutral
mode without applying the service brakes, the
transmission will not shift into gear. To shift into
gear, select Neutral, apply the service brakes,
and select the desired mode again.
Manual Mode Override
The system is equipped with a manual mode override function. If the vehicle is being "back driven" (for
example, descending a grade and vehicle speed exceeds engine speed) and the engine speed is excessively high, the system will upshift automatically.
Also, if the start gear is changed and it causes the
engine to lug at takeoff, the system will override the
current position and select the best available gear.
Low (L)
Low (L) is at the lower end of the four-position selector switch located at the end of the SmartShift control. Use Low when wanting to maximize engine
braking and minimize the use of the brake pedal—for
example, when driving down long grades or when
8.23
coming to a stop. To select Low, press in the neutral
lock button and move the selector switch to the L
position. The lowest available start gear will be selected (the starting gear cannot be changed in Low).
If Low is selected while moving, the transmission will
not upshift (unless the system initiates a Low override). The system will downshift at the earliest opportunity to provide maximum engine braking.
NOTE: If attempting to select a non-Neutral
mode without applying the service brakes, the
transmission will not shift into gear. To shift into
gear, select Neutral, apply the service brakes,
and select the desired mode again.
Low Override
The system is equipped with a Low override function.
If the vehicle is being "back driven" (for example, descending a grade and vehicle speed exceeds engine
speed) and the engine speed is excessively high, the
system will upshift automatically. Also, if the start
gear is changed and it causes the engine to lug at
takeoff, the system will override the current position
and upshift.
Clutch Abuse Protection
Although a vehicle equipped with an UltraShift PLUS
uses an automated clutch, the clutch can still overheat and slip with improper use. The clutch abuse
protection feature helps protect the clutch if the automated clutch starts to overheat. When the clutch
abuse protection feature initiates and sounds a warning tone, full clutch actuation must be completed
quickly. If it is not completed quickly enough, the system will either open the clutch (if the throttle pedal is
not being pressed) or close the clutch (if the throttle
pedal is being pressed). If the abuse continues, the
system will open the clutch and take away throttle
control briefly to allow the clutch to cool down.
To protect the clutch:
• Select the lowest possible start gear for the
application.
• Use Creep Mode when appropriate.
• Use the service brakes and the Hill Start Aid
when launching on a grade.
• Minimize the time it takes to engage the clutch
from rest.
Drivetrain
• Do not use the throttle to hold the vehicle on a
grade; use the service brakes.
• Do not use the throttle to stop roll back on an
incline after Hill Start Aid disengages; use the
service brakes, and then relaunch.
• Do not continually start and stop, especially
when loaded; use a lower gear or Creep Mode.
Creep Mode
The Creep Mode function allows the vehicle to maintain a constant speed at engine idle without the
driver holding the throttle pedal position. This mode
is useful for very low-speed maneuvering and applications where steady vehicle speed is required. The
vehicle speed is determined by the selected gear
ratio operating at governed low engine idle speed.
Any available gear may be selected, though the
transmission will downshift or exit Creep Mode to
prevent stalling if the engine lugs due to load conditions.
By default, Creep Mode can be activated while in
Manual Mode or Low. Eaton’s ServiceRanger diagnostic software can be used to enable Creep Mode
in Automatic Mode and/or Reverse.
Engaging Creep Mode
To engage Creep Mode:
1.
Select Low or Manual Mode and the desired
gear (while stopped or moving).
2.
Apply the throttle pedal to accelerate the vehicle
until the clutch is closed (engaged).
3.
Release the throttle pedal. The vehicle will continue moving at governed low engine idle speed.
Exiting Creep Mode
To exit Creep Mode, apply the throttle pedal to accelerate temporarily, or select a higher gear in Manual
Mode. (Creep Mode can be resumed in the selected
gear by releasing the throttle pedal.)
NOTE: The transmission will exit Creep Mode if
the engine lugs 150 rpm below the governed
low engine idle speed. In this case, a lower gear
should be selected if available.
Hill Start Aid
UltraShift PLUS transmissions are equipped with a
Hill Start Aid (HSA) feature to prevent the vehicle
from rolling while on grades steeper than 3% and
allow for a controlled launch. A grade sensor is used
to determine when to engage the feature.
HSA is "on" by default. It can be turned off by pressing and releasing the override switch on the dash.
HSA will turn back on after the first successful
launch.
When the vehicle is stopped on a grade greater than
3% and in a forward mode or reverse, depress the
service brakes then release them. The vehicle will
begin to move after 3 seconds, and the clutch will
perform partial engagements to slow the vehicle motion. Either step on the brake or apply the throttle to
continue negotiating the grade.
Engine Overspeed Protection
The system will upshift if necessary to prevent engine overspeed in Drive, Manual, and Low.
Shuttle Shifting
Shuttle shifting from reverse to any forward mode is
only allowed if the vehicle speed is approximately
zero.
Auto Start Gear Selection and
Override
The UltraShift PLUS system uses various inputs to
automatically select the best start gear in Drive and
Manual. This selection can be changed using the
SmartShift control; however, if the selection requested could cause damage or engine lugging, the
request will be denied and a tone will sound.
Skip Shifting
When appropriate, the UltraShift PLUS system may
skip shift in Drive. When prevailing conditions like
load and grade allow, skip shifts can be performed in
Manual mode using the SmartShift control.
Auto Neutral
The UltraShift PLUS system will automatically shift to
neutral if the vehicle is left in Drive and the parking
brake is set. "AN" will show on the gear display. To
8.24
Drivetrain
re-engage the transmission, select Neutral and then
either Drive or Reverse on the shift control (it will reengage regardless of whether the parking brake is
released).
Automatic Traction Control
The UltraShift PLUS system requires the Automatic
Traction Control (ATC) option to be enabled when
driving in soft soil/sand to prevent wheel slippage
and shifting issues. The ATC system has two modes:
"normal" (for sand and loose road surface) and a
mud/snow setting.
loads or powering up, the system needs to relearn
these inputs for the first few shifts to make the
proper adjustments.
Coasting
When coasting to a stop on level terrain, the UltraShift PLUS system may not downshift into the lower
gears. It will select a gear after the throttle is applied.
Mercedes-Benz Manual
Transmissions
ATC Normal Mode
In normal mode, the system will engage the brakes
on the wheel or side that the wheel slip is occurring
to help the vehicle gain traction. The point at which
the traction control will actuate the braking system
increases with throttle: low throttle allows the system
to brake the wheels earlier; heavy/full throttle raises
the point of the acceptable wheel slip.
CAUTION
Operating a manual transmission with the fluid
level higher or lower than recommended can result in transmission damage.
Mercedes-Benz transmissions use a simple 6-speed
gear pattern as shown in Fig. 8.19.
Adhere to the following points when driving in ATC
normal mode:
1
• If using Automatic mode in soft soil and/or
do not attempt an upshift and try to maintain
the current gear.
• If the vehicle comes to a stop in the sand it
may be necessary to back up prior to attempting forward movement.
ATC Mud/Snow Mode
To select the mud/snow mode, depress the ATC
switch. This mode raises the wheel slip speed that is
allowed before the traction control activates. The
point at which the traction control will actuate the
braking system increases with throttle: low throttle
allows the system to brake the wheels earlier; heavy/
full throttle raises the point of the acceptable wheel
slip.
Load-Based Shifting
The UltraShift PLUS system is adaptive and will
change the shift points based on grade, engine RPM,
throttle position, and vehicle load. After changing
8.25
5
N
sand, maintain the engine speed between
1000 and 1300 rpm to prevent unnecessary
upshifting.
• If using Manual mode in soft soil and/or sand,
3
R
05/03/2001
2
4
6
f261098
Fig. 8.19, Shift Pattern, M-B Transmissions
Always use first gear when starting to move the vehicle forward.
IMPORTANT: Do not rest your foot on the clutch
pedal while driving. This causes partial clutch
disengagement which could cause premature
clutch wear.
While traveling, check the tachometer regularly to be
sure the engine speed is within the most economical
range (1400 to 2000 rpm).
On level roads, drive in the highest usable gear,
keeping engine speed down.
Drivetrain
CAUTION
Do not rest your hand on the gear shift lever
while driving. This can cause synchronizer damage.
When approaching an uphill grade, shift down ahead
of time to prevent loss of engine rpm. When approaching a downhill grade, shift down ahead of time
to prevent runaway speed. For information about
shift points and "progressive shifting," see Chapter 7.
the driver’s pressure on the brake and throttle pedals. To know which gear the transmission is in, look
at the round current gear indicator on the right-hand
control panel as shown in Fig. 8.12.
The TCU always selects first gear to start the vehicle
in motion. It is possible, in manual mode, to start an
unloaded or lightly loaded vehicle in second gear. In
most cases, second gear is acceptable for downhill
starts. In other situations, for best results always start
moving in first gear. Loaded vehicles, or vehicles on
substantial grades, must start moving only in first
gear.
Change gears only when absolutely necessary. Skip
gears if needed.
When shifting, always press the clutch pedal all the
way down. Do not force the gear lever.
Before shifting into reverse, be sure the engine is
idling and the vehicle is not moving.
CAUTION
If the transmission locks up while driving, making further shifting impossible, continue driving
in the gear already selected to reach service assistance, as circumstances allow. Or, safely park
the vehicle off the roadway and contact your
nearest Freightliner dealer or other qualified service provider for roadside assistance. To prevent
further transmission damage, do not move the
vehicle from a standing start unless this can be
accomplished safely, taking into account the gear
that is engaged and the load on the vehicle.
Mercedes-Benz Automated
Transmissions
CAUTION
At the first sign of a transmission malfunction,
take the vehicle out of service immediately. Depending on the type of problem, further shifting
may not be possible, and driveline torque may be
interrupted.
Operation, AGS
Power Up
1.
With the parking brake set and/or the brake
pedal pressed down, select neutral (N) by moving the selector switch to the center position.
2.
With the transmission in neutral, turn on the ignition switch. The "CHECK TRANS" and "TRANS
TEMP" telltale lights come on and go out again
(bulb check). See Fig. 8.13.
3.
On power up, the current gear indicator shows
the dot display, arranged in a square pattern. All
dots in the pattern should light up, without gaps
or spaces. See Fig. 8.14.
4.
When the current gear indicator shows "N," start
the engine.
General Information, AGS
The AGS Automated Gear Shift is a fully automated
6-speed medium-duty transmission. The clutch is activated by a hydraulic system that is integral to the
transmission. No clutch pedal is needed to operate
the vehicle.
AGS transmissions use the SmartShift control lever
on the steering column to select gears. A manual
shift is possible at any time by moving the SmartShift
lever up or down as needed.
NOTE: No matter what the circumstances, do
not start the engine unless the current gear indicator shows "N." See Chapter 13 for jump starting information.
5.
Select drive (D) by pressing in the neutral lock
button and moving the selector switch downward
to the position below neutral. Release the parking brake and/or service brake pedal. The gear is
displayed on the current gear indicator.
The transmission control unit (TCU) can direct all
forward shifts in response to driving conditions and
8.26
Drivetrain
NOTE: When D is selected, the transmission
starts up in first gear. To start up in second gear
(downhill start, vehicle unloaded or lightly
loaded), pull up on the SmartShift lever when
the current gear indicator displays "1."
6.
On a level grade, press down on the throttle
pedal to allow the vehicle to move forward. The
vehicle will not move until the pedal is depressed.
WARNING
When starting or stopping on hills and grades,
use extra care to prevent the vehicle from rolling
back. A rollback accident could cause death, serious personal injury, or property damage.
7.
in death, serious personal injury, or property
damage.
4.
Turn the ignition switch off and shut down the
engine.
5.
If the current gear indicator flashes "PB" when
the engine is shut down, set the parking brake
and move the selector switch to "N."
Automatic and Manual Modes
The SmartShift control has a slide switch located on
the body of the lever just before the paddle widens
out. See Fig. 8.20. The slide switch controls the forward driving mode, automatic or manual.
Prevent the vehicle from rolling backwards when
stopped on a hill or grade, or when the vehicle is
starting from a stop on a hill or grade.
7.1
To start from a full stop on a hill or grade,
quickly move your foot from the brake
pedal and press firmly on the throttle
pedal.
2
1
3
On steep hills, set the parking brake and
release it only when there is enough engine power to prevent rollback.
7.2
To stop on a hill or grade, press and hold
the brake pedal to keep the vehicle from
moving.
On steep hills, set the parking brake.
Never hold a hill with the throttle pedal.
This will cause the clutch to overheat.
Power Down
f270079b
1. Slide Switch (controls forward driving mode)
2. Selector Switch (controls gear selection)
3. Neutral Lock Button (prevents accidental shift into
gear)
Fig. 8.20, Switches, AGS Transmissions
1.
Bring the vehicle to a complete stop.
2.
Set the parking brake.
3.
Move the selector switch to N. Wait until "N" appears on the current gear indicator.
WARNING
Always apply the parking brake before shutting
down the engine. AGS will shift into neutral after
shutdown, regardless of the position of the shift
lever. If you do not set the parking brake, the vehicle could roll and cause an accident resulting
8.27
01/19/2004
To change mode at any time, move the slide switch
in the desired direction. This allows the driver to respond to a wide range of driving conditions, such as
blind corners, tight curves, and steep hills.
IMPORTANT: Whatever the mode, it is always
possible to shift manually by moving the lever
up or down as needed.
In either mode, the gear indicator displays the current gear. See Fig. 8.16.
Drivetrain
Automatic Mode (AUTO)
• To shift up, pull the lever up (towards you).
Automatic drive mode (AUTO) is recommended for
most driving conditions. For the best fuel economy,
always use AUTO mode.
• To shift down, push the lever down (away from
In AUTO mode, upshifts and downshifts are made by
the transmission without driver intervention. Press in
the neutral lock button, move the selector switch to
drive (D), and press down on the throttle pedal. The
transmission will shift automatically through the forward gears.
If driving conditions require, it is still possible to request a manual shift. The transmission will make the
shift unless the selected gear would cause engine
overspeed.
If the driver presses down on the throttle pedal after
a manual downshift in automatic mode, the transmission will upshift again if the TCU requires it.
On downgrades, the transmission holds the current
gear until the driver requests a shift, or presses the
throttle pedal.
WARNING
While driving off-road or with locked differential
in AUTO mode, use extra caution. Shifts of the
AGS could interrupt power to the drive wheels,
causing a rollback accident while climbing steep
grades at low speeds. A rollback accident could
cause death, serious personal injury, or property
damage.
Manual Mode (MAN)
Manual mode may be required under certain conditions, such as:
• In difficult or slippery conditions
• On hills, steep grades, or other situations
where driveline torque interruption is not desirable
• During off-road driving or driving with a locked
differential
• In downhill driving where control of engine
braking is needed
• If necessary to hold a specific gear on a down-
grade
In manual drive mode (MAN), upshifts and downshifts are made by the driver:
you).
The system will hold the current gear until the driver
requests a shift. In downhill situations in particular,
the driver must be alert to vehicle speed and maintain vehicle control by downshifting and/or using the
service brakes as needed.
When braking or slowing in MAN, downshift as necessary to prevent lugging the engine when speed is
resumed. If the vehicle comes to a complete stop,
the TCU resets the transmission to neutral.
NOTE: A downshift request will be refused if the
selected gear would cause engine overspeed.
Cruise Control
Cruise control is fully functional with AGS transmission in either AUTO or MAN mode.
In AUTO, the TCU will adjust the gear selections to
maintain the speed settings as desired. No driver
action is necessary.
In MAN, the vehicle speed settings must be within
the engine speed range for the gear selected. If the
engine cannot maintain set speed due to changes in
road grade, the driver must downshift or upshift as
necessary.
For vehicles equipped with a power take-off (PTO)
unit, two modes of operation are possible, stationary
and mobile. For PTO operation, see Chapter 7.
Selecting Gears
Reverse
Reverse (R) is at the upper end of the three-position
selector switch located at the end of the SmartShift
control lever. To select reverse (R), press in the neutral lock button and move the selector switch upward
to the position above neutral. When reverse is selected, the letter "R" displays on the gear indicator.
See Fig. 8.17.
IMPORTANT: The vehicle must come to a complete stop before selecting reverse. If reverse is
selected with the vehicle moving forward, an
audible alert will sound and continue sounding
at three-second intervals until the selector
switch is returned to N or D.
8.28
Drivetrain
Once the vehicle has come to a complete stop, reverse can be engaged.
the currently selected forward gear (1, 2, 3, 4 , 5, or
6) displays on the gear indicator.
Neutral
Upshifting
Neutral (N) is in the center of the three-position selector switch located at the end of the SmartShift
control lever. Always start the engine in neutral. To
select neutral, move the selector switch to the center
position. When neutral is selected, the letter "N" displays on the gear indicator. See Fig. 8.18.
NOTE: The driver can manually upshift at any
time, even when the slide switch is set to AUTO
mode.
WARNING
Do not coast in neutral. Coasting in neutral can
cause an accident, possibly resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
Neutral is always available during operation, whatever the vehicle speed. When in neutral, requests to
upshift or downshift are ignored. If the selector switch
is moved from neutral to drive while the vehicle is
moving, the transmission will shift into a gear within
the operating torque range of the engine.
WARNING
Always apply the parking brake before shutting
down the engine. AGS will shift into neutral after
shutdown, regardless of the position of the shift
lever. If you do not set the parking brake, the vehicle could roll and cause an accident resulting
in death, serious personal injury, or property
damage.
Before shutting down the engine, return the selector
switch to "N." When the ignition is turned off, the
transmission will reset to neutral during power down.
Drive
To request an upshift with the transmission in drive,
pull the control lever up (towards you). If the gear is
available, the transmission upshifts and the new gear
displays on the gear indicator.
As in a manual transmission, upshifting too early
causes engine lugging and uneven operation.
To achieve smooth operation in MAN mode, upshift
when the engine speed reaches approximately 2000
revolutions per minute (rpm). Heavy loads or steep
grades require higher rpm; lighter loads require lower
rpm.
An unavailable request to upshift is not stored in
memory. The upshift must be requested again.
Downshifting
NOTE: The driver can manually downshift at
any time, even when the slide switch is set to
AUTO mode.
To request a downshift with the transmission in drive,
push the control lever down (away from you). If the
gear is available, the transmission downshifts and
the new gear displays on the gear indicator.
Downshifts are not available if the engine speed after
the shift would exceed 2700 rpm. If the gear requested is unavailable, an audible alert will sound.
An unavailable request to downshift is not stored in
memory. The downshift must be requested again.
IMPORTANT: The vehicle must come to a complete stop before selecting drive. If drive is selected with the vehicle moving in reverse, an
audible alert will sound and continue sounding
at three-second intervals until the selector
switch is returned to N or R.
To achieve smooth operation in MAN mode, downshift when the engine speed reaches approximately
1200 rpm.
Drive (D) is at the lower end of the three-position selector switch located at the end of the SmartShift
control lever. To select drive, press in the neutral lock
button and move the selector switch to the position
below neutral. When drive is selected, the number of
Before entering a curve, slow down to a safe speed.
Downshift if necessary. This lets you use some
power through the curve to help the vehicle be more
stable when turning. It also allows you to regain
speed faster as you come out of the curve.
8.29
Before starting down a hill, slow down. Downshift to
a speed that you can control without hard pressure
on the service brakes.
Drivetrain
AGS Diagnostics
CAUTION
At the first sign of a transmission malfunction,
take the vehicle out of service immediately. Depending on the type of problem, further shifting
may not be possible, and driveline torque may be
interrupted.
NOTE: After hydraulic fluid loss, a special procedure is required to fill the hydraulic reservoir.
This procedure must be carried out by an authorized Freightliner service facility.
Meritor™ Drive Axles
Refer to the Meritor website for additional information, www.arvinmeritor.com.
System Malfunction
Drive Axles With Differential Lock
If the "CHECK TRANS" telltale light comes on while
driving, the audible alert sounds, and the current
gear indicator begins to flash between the current
gear and "SM" (system malfunction), there is a problem which may or may not be apparent to the driver.
Bring the vehicle at once to a safe stopping place
and call an authorized Freightliner service facility for
assistance.
The Meritor driver-controlled differential lock feature
(side-to-side wheel lock, traction control, or traction
equalizer) is available on single-drive or dual-drive
rear axles. It is available on both axles of a dualdrive vehicle, or on one only. It is only available on
drive axles. Differential lock must only be used under
adverse road conditions where greater traction is
needed. With differential lock on, the turning radius is
increased and vehicle handling is affected. The differential lock switch (Fig. 8.21) allows the driver to lock
the wheels on the same axle together. The red differential lock warning light illuminates on the dash message center when differential lock is engaged.
Clutch Overload
If the "TRANS TEMP" telltale light comes on while
driving and the current gear indicator begins to flash
between the current gear and "CO" (clutch overload),
the clutch has begun to overheat.
The clutch overload may have been caused by improper driving practices such as frequent and rapid
start/stop driving, or hillholding with the throttle pedal.
In this case, allow the clutch to cool, and continue
on, but cease the improper driving practices.
If the clutch overload message returns or continues,
the clutch is worn or damaged. Bring the vehicle at
once to a safe stopping place and call an authorized
Freightliner service facility for assistance.
Low Hydraulic Fluid Level
IMPORTANT: The only hydraulic fluid permitted
in this system is Pentosin CHF 11S. No other
fluid can be substituted.
If the "CHECK TRANS" telltale light comes on while
driving and the current gear indicator begins to flash
between the current gear and "FL" (fluid level), there
has been an unusual loss of hydraulic fluid. Bring the
vehicle at once to a safe stopping place and call an
authorized Freightliner service facility for assistance.
The hydraulic reservoir holds about 1.05 quarts (one
liter) of Pentosin CHF 11S.
10/26/2001
f610596
Fig. 8.21, Differential Lock Switch
Differential lock provides maximum traction under
slippery conditions. When the differential lock is engaged, the clutch collar completely locks the differential case, gearing, and axle shafts together, maximizing the traction of both wheels and protecting against
spinout.
Under normal traction conditions, do not use the differential lock feature.
8.30
Drivetrain
Differential Lock Switch
CAUTION
Differential lock should only be engaged when
the vehicle is stopped or moving slowly at low
throttle. This will prevent internal axle damage.
Normally, when differential lock is available on dualdrive vehicles, one switch activates the lock on both
rear drive axles. As an option, it possible to have two
differential lock switches, one for the forward rear
and one for the rearmost drive axle. It is also possible for some vehicles to have differential lock on
only one of the drive axles.
A two-position guarded rocker switch (Fig. 8.21) controls differential lock, causing the wheels on each
axle governed by the switch to rotate together. To
lock the wheels together, press the upper half of the
rocker momentarily (at the red LED). To unlock the
wheels, press the upper half of the rocker again.
IMPORTANT: The differential lock rocker switch
is guarded to prevent unintentional switch activation. If the LED in the switch begins to blink
during normal operation, when the switch has
not been activated, this indicates an error condition. Bring the vehicle to an authorized Freightliner service facility as soon as possible.
When the differential lock switch is pressed, three
responses are possible: a normal response, a slow
response, and an abnormal response.
Normal Response: The LED in the switch blinks until
the axle has responded to the request to lock the
wheels. At this point, the LED comes on steady and
stays illuminated. In normal operation, the wheels
may lock so quickly that the blinking of the switch is
barely noticeable.
If operation of the switch is not possible for any reason (ignition is turned off, vehicle is moving faster
than 25 mph, etc.), the LED will stop blinking and
turn off.
Slow Response: If operation of the switch is slowed
for any reason (vehicle moving too fast, low air pressure, etc.), the switch will continue to blink until the
wheels are able to lock. As in the normal response,
the LED comes on steady and stays illuminated once
the wheels have locked.
8.31
NOTE: If the vehicle is moving too fast, let up
slightly on the accelerator. As the vehicle slows,
the wheels will lock.
Abnormal Response: If the LED blinks for more than
30 seconds, the lock mechanism may not be fully
engaged/disengaged. Bring the vehicle to an authorized Freightliner service facility for testing.
Differential Lock Operation
WARNING
Locking the wheels when the vehicle is traveling
down steep grades or when the wheels are slipping could damage the differential and/or lead to
loss of vehicle control, causing personal injury
and property damage.
Lock the wheels only when the vehicle is standing
still or moving at very low speed, less than 5 mph (8
km/h). Never lock the wheels when the vehicle is
traveling down steep grades or when the wheels are
slipping.
NOTE: On some vehicles, the differential lock
system is connected through the low speed
range of the transmission. If this system is used,
the transmission must be in the low speed
range for the wheels to fully lock.
WARNING
A vehicle with locked wheels can still slip sideways, causing possible loss of vehicle control,
personal injury, and property damage.
Be especially careful when driving under slippery
conditions with the wheels locked. Though forward
traction is improved, the vehicle can still slip sideways.
If the vehicle is moving, maintain a constant vehicle
speed when the differential lock is turned on. Briefly
let up on the accelerator to relieve torque on the
gearing, allowing the wheels to lock completely.
When the wheels are fully locked, the turning radius
will increase because the vehicle understeers. See
Fig. 8.22. Drive cautiously and do not exceed 25
mph (40 km/h).
To disengage differential lock after leaving poor road
conditions, operate the differential lock switch as discussed above while maintaining vehicle speed. Let
Drivetrain
A
B
10/26/2001
f610595
f350079a
02/09/96
A. Turning Radius When the Differential Lock is
Engaged (understeer condition)
B. Turning Radius When the Differential Lock is
Disengaged
Fig. 8.22, Turning Radii
up momentarily on the accelerator to allow the
wheels to fully unlock, then resume driving at normal
speed.
NOTE: If the differential lock system is connected with the transmission in its low speed
range, shifting out of the low speed range will
also disengage the differential lock function. The
switch will blink until the wheels unlock, and
then go out.
Tandem Drive Axles With Interaxle
Lock
CAUTION
The interaxle lock should not be engaged on a
vehicle with obviously spinning wheels. Engagement at high speed or power can damage the
axle(s).
Meritor has an interaxle lock (axle lock, interaxle differential lockout) feature that is standard on all dualdrive (tandem-drive) vehicles. Interaxle lock is recommended for use under adverse road conditions
where greater traction is needed. See the axle manufacturer’s manual provided with the vehicle for more
information.
The interaxle lock switch (Fig. 8.23) allows the driver
to lock both rear axles together. The red interaxle
warning light illuminates on the dash message center
when interaxle lock is engaged.
Fig. 8.23, Interaxle Lock Switch
When the interaxle lock is not engaged, there is differential action between the two axles. The differential compensates for different wheel speeds and
variations in tire size. Keep the interaxle lock disengaged when driving on roads where traction is good.
When the interaxle lock is engaged, the differential
action between the two axles is locked. Both drive
axles now share the power. Both axles, and both
sets of wheels, turn together at the same speed. The
interaxle lock should be used when the vehicle encounters poor traction conditions; however, it also
increases drivetrain and tire wear and should be
used only when improved traction is required.
Interaxle Lock Switch
A two-position guarded rocker switch (Fig. 8.23) controls interaxle lock, causing both axle shafts to rotate
together. To lock the axles together, press the upper
half of the rocker momentarily (at the red LED). To
turn off interaxle lock, press the lower half of the
rocker (at the double-axle icon).
IMPORTANT: The interaxle lock rocker switch is
guarded to prevent unintentional switch activation. This switch does not have a diagnostic
blink function when inactive.
When the interaxle lock switch is pressed, three responses are possible: a normal response, a slow response, and an abnormal response.
Normal Response: The LED in the switch blinks until
the interaxle lock is engaged. At this point, the LED
comes on steady and stays illuminated. In normal
operation, the interaxle may lock so quickly that the
blinking of the switch is barely noticeable.
8.32
Drivetrain
If operation of the switch is not possible for any reason (ignition is turned off, vehicle is moving too fast,
etc.), the LED will stop blinking and turn off.
Slow Response: If operation of the switch is slowed
for any reason (by cold weather, low air pressure,
etc.), the switch will continue to blink until the axles
lock together, or for a maximum of 10 seconds. As in
the normal response, the LED comes on steady and
stays illuminated.
Abnormal Response: If the LED blinks for more than
30 seconds, the lock mechanism may not be fully
engaged/disengaged. Bring the vehicle to an authorized Freightliner service facility for testing.
when greater traction and maximum pulling power is
needed at low engine speed (rpm).
Under normal operating conditions, the vehicle is operated using the high-speed gear ratios of the axle.
Under extreme weather or off-road conditions, at low
speed and rpm and/or to pull heavy loads, the vehicle must be operated using the low-speed, or reduction, gear ratios of the axle.
Axle Shift Switch
The axle shift switch is a two-position guarded rocker
switch (Fig. 8.24) installed on vehicles with twospeed axles.
Interaxle Lock Operation
To engage interaxle lock and achieve maximum pulling power in slippery or hazardous road conditions,
operate the interaxle lock switch as discussed above,
while maintaining vehicle speed. Let up momentarily
on the accelerator until the axle lock engages. Proceed over poor road conditions with caution. Do not
wait until traction is lost and the tires are spinning
before engaging the interaxle lock.
10/26/2001
CAUTION
f610594
Fig. 8.24, Axle Shift Switch
Do not turn on the interaxle lock switch when the
tires are slipping. Do not continuously operate
the vehicle with the interaxle lock engaged during good road conditions. To do so could result
in damage to the axle gearing and excessive tire
wear.
To shift the axle from low speed to high speed, press
the upper half of the rocker momentarily (at the
LED). To turn the axle shift off (switch from high
speed back to low speed), press the upper half of
the rocker again. When the axle has shifted speed,
the LED turns off.
To disengage the interaxle lock after leaving poor
road conditions, operate the interaxle lock switch as
discussed above while maintaining vehicle speed.
Let up momentarily on the accelerator to allow the
axles to fully unlock, then resume driving at normal
speed.
When the panel lights are on, the AXLE SHIFT legend is backlit in green.
Axle Shift
CAUTION
To prevent transmission and axle damage, make
sure the automatic transmission is in high range
when performing an axle shift with the vehicle
moving.
Axle shift is a function installed on vehicles with twospeed axles to allow the use of the low speed range
8.33
IMPORTANT: The axle shift rocker switch is
guarded to prevent unintentional switch activation. If the LED in the switch begins to blink during normal operation, when the switch has not
been activated, this indicates an error condition.
Bring the vehicle to an authorized Freightliner
service facility as soon as possible.
When the axle shift switch is pressed, three responses are possible: a normal response, a slow response, and an abnormal response.
Normal Response: The LED in the switch blinks until
the axle shifts speed. At this point, the LED comes
on steady and stays illuminated. In normal operation,
Drivetrain
the axle may shift so quickly that the blinking of the
switch is barely noticeable.
If operation of the switch is not possible for any reason (interaxle lock is on, ignition is turned off, etc.),
the LED will stop blinking and turn off.
Slow Response: If operation of the switch is slowed
for any reason (by cold weather, low air pressure,
etc.), the switch will continue to blink until the axle
shifts. As in the normal response, the LED comes on
steady and stays illuminated.
Abnormal Response: If the LED blinks for more than
30 seconds, the axle shift function/mechanism may
not be operating correctly. Bring the vehicle to an
authorized Freightliner service facility for testing.
Axle Switch Interlock
NOTE: On vehicles with tandem drive axles,
there is an interlock that prevents an axle from
shifting speed whenever the interaxle lock is on.
If the axle shift switch is pressed when the interaxle
lock is on, the axle shift will not be completed. The
LED does the following:
• If the LED is off, the LED comes on briefly and
turns off again.
• If the LED is on, it stays on.
To complete the axle shift, turn off the interaxle lock
and press the axle shift switch again. If still needed,
the interaxle lock can then be reactivated.
8.34
9
Steering and Brake Systems
Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meritor WABCO® Antilock Braking System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enhanced Stability Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1
9.1
9.4
9.5
9.6
Steering and Brake Systems
Steering System
The power steering system includes the power steering gear, hydraulic hoses, power steering pump, reservoir, steering wheel and column, and other components. Some models are also equipped with a
separate hydraulic power cylinder on the right side of
the front axle, or a right-hand slave gear.
ing wheel spokes should be at the 3 o’clock and 9
o’clock positions or within 10 degrees of these positions. See Fig. 9.1.
The power steering pump, driven by the engine, provides the power assist for the steering system. If the
engine is not running, there is no power assist.
If the power-assist feature does not work due to hydraulic fluid loss, steering pump damage, or another
cause, bring the vehicle to a safe stop. Do not drive
the vehicle until the cause of the problem has been
corrected.
WARNING
Driving the vehicle without the power-assist feature of the steering system requires much greater
effort, especially in sharp turns or at low speeds,
which could result in an accident and possible
injury.
NOTICE
Never steam clean or high-pressure wash the
steering gear. Internal damage to gear seals, and
ultimately the steering gear, can result.
Drivers should carefully use the power available with
a power steering system. If the front tires become
lodged in a deep hole or rut, drive the vehicle out
instead of using the steering system to lift the tires
out of the hole.
NOTICE
Avoid turning the tires when they are against a
curb, as this places a heavy load on steering
components and could damage them.
Steering Wheel Adjustment
Two steering wheels are available: a standard 18inch (450-mm) steering wheel and an optional 20inch (500-mm) steering wheel.
When there is no load on the vehicle and the front
tires are pointed straight ahead, the standard steer-
9.1
10°
10°
2
1
10°
10°
05/10/2007
f462075
1. 9 o’Clock
2. 3 o’Clock
Fig. 9.1, Steering Wheel Centered
On the optional 20-inch (500-mm) wheel, the steering
wheel spokes should be at the 4 o’clock and 8
o’clock positions or within 10 degrees of these positions. For steering wheel adjustment procedures, see
Group 46 of the Business Class® M2 Workshop
Manual.
Air Brake System
A dual air brake system consists of two independent
air systems that use a single set of brake controls.
Each system has its own reservoirs, plumbing, and
brake chambers. The primary system operates the
service brakes on the rear axle; the secondary system operates the service brakes on the front axle.
Service brake signals from both systems are sent to
the trailer.
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle with the front brakes
backed off or disconnected. Backing off or disconnecting the front brakes will not improve vehicle handling and may lead to loss of vehicle
control, resulting in property damage or personal
injury.
Steering and Brake Systems
Air Brake System, General
Information
The warning light and buzzer come on if air pressure
drops below 64 to 76 psi (441 to 524 kPa) in either
system. If this happens, check the dual system air
pressure gauge to determine which system has low
air pressure. Although the vehicle’s speed can be
reduced using the brake pedal, either the front or
rear service brakes will not be operating at full capacity, causing a longer stopping distance. Bring the
vehicle to a safe stop and have the air system repaired before continuing.
IMPORTANT: In the event of a total loss of service brakes with full system air pressure, use
the parking brake control valve (yellow knob) to
bring the vehicle to a complete stop in the safest location possible.
Before a vehicle with insufficient system air pressure
can be moved, the spring parking brakes must be
released by applying an external air source at the
gladhands, or by manually caging the parking brake
springs.
WARNING
Do not release the spring parking brakes and
then drive the vehicle. There would be no means
of stopping the vehicle, which could result in serious personal injury or vehicle damage. Before
releasing the spring parking brakes, make the
connection to a towing vehicle or chock the tires.
After correcting the brake system problem, uncage
the spring parking brakes before resuming normal
vehicle operation.
Primary Air Brake System
Loss of air pressure in the primary air system causes
the rear service brakes to become inoperative. The
secondary air system will continue to operate the
front brakes and the trailer brakes (if equipped).
Secondary Air System
Loss of air pressure in the secondary air system
causes the front axle brakes to become inoperative.
The primary air system will continue to operate the
rear service brakes and the trailer brakes (if
equipped).
Air Brake System Operation
Before driving your vehicle, allow time for the air
compressor to build up a minimum of 100 psi (689
kPa) pressure in both the primary and secondary
systems. Monitor the air pressure system by observing the dual system air pressure gauge and the lowair-pressure warning light and buzzer. The warning
light and buzzer shut off when air pressure in both
systems reaches 64 to 76 psi (441 to 524 kPa).
IMPORTANT: Before driving the vehicle, secure
all loose items in the cab so that they will not fly
forward during a full brake application. Make
sure all passengers are wearing seat belts.
During normal brake stops, depress the brake pedal
until braking action slows down the vehicle. Increase
or decrease the pressure on the pedal so that the
vehicle comes to a smooth, safe stop. Apply the
parking brake if the vehicle is to be parked.
IMPORTANT: An air brake proportioning system
may be used in tractor air brake systems when
the vehicle is not equipped with antilock braking
system (ABS). When operating in bobtail mode,
the rear brake chambers (on which the axle
load has been greatly reduced) receive reduced
(proportional) air pressure, while the front axle
brake chambers receive full (normal) air pressure. This results in a different brake pedal
"feel," as the pedal seems to require more travel
and/or effort to slow or stop the vehicle. However, the air brake proportioning system actually
improves vehicle control when the tractor is in
bobtail mode. When the tractor is towing a
trailer, the rear brake chambers will receive full
(normal) application air pressure.
When parking a vehicle attached to a trailer that
does not have spring parking brakes, apply the tractor parking brake. Chock the trailer tires before disconnecting the vehicle from the trailer.
WARNING
If a trailer or combination vehicle is not equipped
with spring parking brakes, do not park it by pulling out only the trailer air supply valve knob.
This would apply only the trailer service brakes.
If air were to bleed from the trailer brake system,
9.2
Steering and Brake Systems
the trailer brakes would release, possibly causing
an unattended runaway vehicle.
NOTICE
Never apply the service and spring parking
brakes simultaneously. To do so transmits excessive input force to the brake components, which
could damage or cause eventual failure of brake
actuating components.
Brake Controls
The trailer brake lever (hand control valve) is used
for applying the trailer brakes without applying the
truck or tractor service brakes. It is usually mounted
on the right-hand control panel. See Fig. 9.2. The
valve can be partially or fully applied, but in any partially applied position, it will be overridden by a full
application of the brake pedal. Moving the lever
down applies the trailer brakes, while moving it up
releases the trailer brakes. The lever will automatically return to the up position when it is released.
65 psi (448 kPa), the trailer air supply valve must be
pushed in. It should stay in to charge the trailer air
supply system and to release the trailer spring parking brakes.
Pull the trailer air supply valve out before disconnecting a trailer or when operating a vehicle without a
trailer. If pressure in both air systems drops to 35 to
45 psi (242 to 310 kPa), the trailer air supply valve
automatically pops out, exhausting the trailer air supply, and applying the trailer service or spring parking
brakes.
1
2
f610291
03/10/99
1. Trailer Air-Supply-Valve Knob
2. Parking-Brake-Valve Knob
WARNING
Do not use the trailer service brakes for parking;
they are not designed for this purpose. If air
bleeds out of the trailer air tank during parking,
the vehicle could roll, causing serious personal
injury or property damage.
Fig. 9.3, Brake Valve Knobs
The yellow diamond-shaped knob in the control
panel actuates the parking brake valve. See Fig. 9.3.
Pulling out the parking brake valve applies both the
tractor and trailer parking brakes and automatically
causes the trailer air supply valve to pop out.
NOTICE
Do not use the spring parking brakes if the service brakes are hot, such as after descending a
steep grade. To do so could damage the brakes.
Allow hot brakes to cool before using the spring
parking brakes.
f610591
10/17/2001
Fig. 9.2, Trailer Brake Lever
The red octagonal-shaped knob in the control panel
actuates the trailer air supply valve. See Fig. 9.3.
After the vehicle’s air hoses are connected to a
trailer and the pressure in both air systems is at least
9.3
Do not use the spring parking brakes during
freezing temperatures if the service brakes are
wet. To do so could cause them to freeze. If the
brakes are wet, drive the vehicle in low gear and
lightly apply the brakes to heat and dry them.
If the trailer is not equipped with spring parking
brakes, pulling out the parking brake valve applies
the tractor parking brake and the trailer service
brakes. When the tractor and trailer parking brakes
(or trailer service brakes) are both applied, the trailer
Steering and Brake Systems
brakes are released by pushing in the trailer air supply valve, leaving the tractor parking brake applied.
Air pressure in the primary or secondary reservoir
must be at least 65 psi (448 kPa) before the tractor
spring parking brakes, or the trailer service or spring
parking brakes, can be released.
A
Automatic Slack Adjusters
Automatic slack adjusters should never be manually
adjusted except during routine maintenance of the
foundation brakes (e.g., replacing shoes), during
slack adjuster installation, or in an emergency situation.
When the brake pushrod stroke exceeds the legal
brake adjustment limit on a vehicle, there is likely a
mechanical problem with the foundation brake components or the adjuster is improperly installed.
Visit a repair facility as soon as possible when
brakes equipped with automatic slack adjusters are
determined to be out of adjustment.
WARNING
Manually adjusting an automatic slack adjuster to
bring the pushrod stroke within legal limits is
likely masking a mechanical problem. Adjustment
is not repairing. Before adjusting an automatic
slack adjuster, troubleshoot the foundation brake
system and inspect it for worn or damaged components. Improperly maintaining the vehicle braking system may lead to brake failure, resulting in
property damage, personal injury, or death.
Hydraulic Brake System
Hydraulic Brake System, General
Information
The hydraulic brake system includes a power
booster, master cylinder, reservoir, hydraulic lines, a
brake rotor on each wheel hub, and a brake caliper
and pad assembly at each rotor.
The master cylinder controls braking power to the
front and rear brakes. The Bendix Hydro-Max®
power booster is attached to the rear of the master
cylinder and is connected to the power steering system (which provides pressurized power steering
fluid). An electrical backup pump operates if there is
inadequate fluid flow from the power steering pump
to the power booster.
B
f460513a
04/26/2012
A. Open caps and check fluid level.
B. Fill to this level.
Fig. 9.4, Hydraulic Brake Reservoir
The brake system warning light illuminates if there is
a problem within the system. Bring the vehicle to a
safe stop and correct the problem before continuing
operation of the vehicle. See Group 42 of the
Business Class® M2 Workshop Manual for hydraulic
brake system troubleshooting and adjustment procedures.
Hydraulic Brake System Operation
IMPORTANT: Make sure that the fluid level in
the master cylinder reservoir is up to the ridge
that surrounds the reservoir. See Fig. 9.4. Use
only heavy-duty brake fluid, DOT 3 or DOT 4, in
the hydraulic brake system.
IMPORTANT: Before driving the vehicle, secure
all loose items in the cab so that they will not fly
forward during a full brake application. Make
sure all passengers are wearing seat belts.
During normal brake stops, depress the brake pedal
until braking action slows down the vehicle. Increase
or decrease the pressure on the pedal so that the
vehicle comes to a smooth, safe stop. Apply the
parking brake if the vehicle is to be parked.
When parking a vehicle attached to a trailer, apply
the tractor parking brake. Chock the trailer tires before disconnecting the vehicle from the trailer.
9.4
Steering and Brake Systems
Meritor WABCO® Antilock
Braking System
The Meritor WABCO Antilock Braking System (ABS)
is an electronic wheel speed monitoring and control
system that works with the brake system. ABS passively monitors vehicle wheel speed at all times, and
controls wheel speed during emergency stops or
wheel lock situations.
NOTICE
An accumulation of road salt, dirt, or debris on
the ABS tone wheels and sensors can cause the
ABS warning light to come on. If the ABS light
does come on, the tone rings and sensors
should be inspected for corrosion and serviced if
necessary. The service should include cleaning
of the tone rings and sensors. If any tone ring on
a vehicle shows severe corrosion, all tone rings
on that vehicle should be replaced.
During winter months in areas where corrosive
materials are used on the highways, periodically
clean the underside of the vehicle, including the
tone rings and sensors, to ensure proper ABS
function and to protect the components from corrosion. Clean more frequently when unusually
corrosive chemicals are being used.
IMPORTANT: For proper ABS system operation,
do not change tire sizes. The sizes of the tires
installed during production are programmed into
the electronic control unit (ECU). Installing
different-sized tires could result in a reduced
braking force, leading to longer stopping distances.
The ABS includes signal-generating tone wheels and
sensors located in the wheel hubs of each sensed
wheel. The sensors transmit vehicle wheel speed
information to an electronic control unit ECU located
behind the center dash. The ECU’s main circuit interprets the speed sensor signals and calculates wheel
speed, wheel retardation, and a vehicle reference
speed. If the calculations indicate wheel lockup, the
main circuit signals the appropriate modulator valve
to reduce braking pressure. During emergency braking, the modulator valve alternately reduces, increases, or maintains air pressure supply in the
brake chamber to prevent front and rear wheel
lockup.
9.5
The Meritor WABCO ABS combines one front-axle
control channel with one rear-axle control channel to
form one control circuit. For example, the sensor and
modulator valve on the left-front axle form a control
circuit with the sensor and modulator valve on the
right-rear axle.
The ECU has a safety circuit that constantly monitors
the wheel sensors, traction control valve (if
equipped), modulator valves, and the electrical circuitry. If the safety circuit senses a failure in any part
of the ABS, the tractor warning lamp (TRACTOR
ABS) illuminates and the control circuit where the
failure occurred is switched to normal braking action.
The remaining control circuit will retain the ABS effect. Even if the ABS is completely inoperative, normal braking ability is maintained.
The ABS indicator lamp illuminates after the ignition
is switched on and will go out within three seconds if
the system is functioning correctly. If the ABS indicator lamp does not illuminate, or does not go out after
three seconds, have the vehicle serviced before
operation.
During emergency or reduced-traction stops, fully
depress the brake pedal until the vehicle comes to a
safe stop. Do not pump the brake pedal. With the
brake pedal fully depressed, the ABS will control all
wheels to provide steering control and a reduced
braking distance.
Although the ABS improves vehicle control during
emergency braking situations, the driver still has the
responsibility to change driving styles depending on
existing traffic and road conditions. For example, the
ABS cannot prevent an accident if the driver is
speeding or following too closely.
Trailer ABS Compatibility
The Meritor WABCO ABS is designed to communicate with a trailer ABS, if they are compatible. Compatibility will result in the illumination of the TRAILER
ABS lamp during vehicle start-up and fault detection.
The TRAILER ABS lamp will not illuminate unless a
compatible trailer is connected to the tractor. The
dash-mounted lamp will operate as follows when a
compatible trailer is properly connected to the tractor:
• When the ignition key is turned to the ON posi-
tion, the TRAILER ABS lamp will illuminate momentarily, then turn off.
Steering and Brake Systems
• If the lamp illuminates momentarily during ve-
hicle operation, then shuts off, a fault was detected and corrected.
• If the lamp illuminates and stays on during ve-
hicle operation, there is a fault with the trailer
ABS. Repair the trailer ABS system immediately to ensure full antilock braking capability.
IMPORTANT: If a compatible trailer is connected, and the lamp is not illuminating momentarily when the ignition key is turned to the ON
position, it is possible that the lamp is burnt out.
Automatic Traction Control
Vehicles with electronic engines and ABS may have
Automatic Traction Control (ATC). On these vehicles,
the ATC system automatically limits wheel spin during reduced-traction situations. In normal braking applications, the standard air brake system is in effect.
An additional solenoid valve is installed. During
reduced-traction situations, the ATC solenoid valve
controls air pressure to the modulator valves and
they in turn increase, hold, or reduce pressure to the
appropriate brake chambers to provide better traction
whenever wheel spin occurs.
When the ATC system is in the NORMAL mode, it
will apply gentle braking to the spinning wheel, to
feed power to the wheel(s) with better traction. If
both wheels are spinning, the system will signal the
engine to reduce power.
ATC includes a deep snow and mud option to increase available traction on extra soft surfaces like
snow, mud, or gravel. A momentary contact rocker
switch labeled ATC will be located on the dash.
Pressing the switch will temporarily allow more wheel
spin. The activation of the deep snow and mud option is indicated by a flashing WHEEL SPIN lamp.
Pressing the switch again will cycle the system back
to normal operation.
NOTICE
The deep snow and mud option is intended to be
used under specific slippery conditions that require momentary increased wheel spin. Using
this option for an extended period of time may
damage the vehicle brake system.
After the ignition switch is turned on, the TRACTOR
ABS lamp and the WHEEL SPIN indicator lamp illu-
minate for about three seconds. After three seconds,
the warning lights go out if all of the tractor’s ABS
components are working.
IMPORTANT: If any of the ABS warning lights
do not work as described above, or illuminate
while driving, repair the ABS immediately to ensure full antilock braking capability.
Enhanced Stability Control
WARNING
Enhanced Stability Control (ESC) is intended only
as an aid for a conscientious and alert driver.
Carefully read the information in this manual to
understand this system and its limitations. ESC
is not a substitute for safe driving procedures.
Failure to drive safely, and use the system properly, could result in personal injury and/or death
and property damage.
ESC automatically reduces engine power, applies the
engine brake, and/or applies the tractor and trailer
brakes when the acceleration sensor detects that the
vehicle is at risk of rolling over. In addition, ESC offers the added capability of complete directional stability (yaw control) in oversteer and understeer conditions to reduce the likelihood of drift-out or jackknife.
The system determines where the driver is attempting to steer the vehicle and how much brake demand
is required in order to more precisely control the vehicle in an emergency situation.
ESC works by constantly comparing the driver’s intention with the vehicle’s actual behavior. The system
does this by monitoring systems such as wheel
speed, steering angle, yaw rate, lateral acceleration,
throttle position, and brake application. A central microcomputer analyzes the collected data and triggers
a response to keep the vehicle on course when an
unstable condition is detected.
The roll stability control system automatically reduces
engine power, applies the engine brake, and/or applies the tractor and trailer brakes when the acceleration sensor detects that the vehicle is at risk of rolling
over. The control can intervene even before an advisory message is displayed.
When the system detects that the vehicle is at risk of
oversteering or understeering, it applies individual
tractor wheel end brakes and trailer brakes, activates
9.6
Steering and Brake Systems
the engine brake (if equipped), and/or cuts engine
power, depending on the severity. As a result, the
driver has full control over the vehicle until the system detects a potential risk and intervenes accordingly. ESC operates automatically; the driver does
not monitor or activate the system.
9.7
10
Fifth Wheels and Trailer
Couplings
Fifth
Fifth
Fifth
Fifth
Wheels, General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheel Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheel Uncoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheel Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1
10.1
10.4
10.7
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
Fifth Wheels, General
Information
Fifth Wheel Lubrication
WARNING
WARNING
Do not use any fifth wheel that fails to operate
properly. Doing so may cause loss of vehicle
control, possibly resulting in severe personal injury or death.
Air-Suspension Dump Valve
The air-suspension dump valve may be used to adjust the tractor height to aid with coupling to or uncoupling from a trailer. See Fig. 10.1. When the
switch is set to LOWER, the air-suspension dump
valve deflates the air springs to lower the rear of the
vehicle. In the AUTO position, the automatic ridecontrol valves operate for normal driving.
WARNING
Keep the fifth wheel plate lubricated to prevent
binding between the tractor and trailer. A binding
fifth wheel could cause erratic steering and loss
of vehicle control, possibly resulting in personal
injury or death.
The standard fifth wheel plate must be kept well lubricated with chassis grease to prevent friction and
binding between the tractor fifth wheel plate and the
trailer.
For a low-lube fifth wheel plate, inspect the condition
of the low-lube pads. There should be no damaged
or missing pieces. Slight puckering at the outside
edges is normal.
For lubrication instructions, see Group 31 of the
Business Class M2 Maintenance Manual.
Fifth Wheel Coupling
Never exhaust air from the suspension while
driving. The suspension will not absorb road
shocks, possibly damaging components, and vehicle handling may be compromised. This could
result in loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in severe personal injury or death.
Fifth wheel coupling is activated with the lock control
handle located on either the right side or left side of
the fifth wheel. Coupling has successfully occurred
when the kingpin has been forced into the jaws and
the lock control handle has moved to the locked
position.
NOTICE
NOTICE
Do not operate the vehicle over uneven ground
such as ramps, speed bumps, curbs, etc. with
the air springs deflated. Doing this may lead to
air bag separation from the piston, preventing the
suspension air springs from inflating.
Some fifth wheels may be mounted on sliding
rails. Before attempting to couple a trailer to a
sliding fifth wheel, the slide feature must be
locked to prevent the top plate from sliding rapidly forward or rearward, causing damage to the
fifth wheel or kingpin.
Fontaine and Holland Fifth Wheels
Coupling
10/26/2001
Fig. 10.1, Air-Suspension Dump Valve
10.1
1.
Chock the front and rear of the trailer tires to
prevent the trailer from moving.
2.
Ensure the fifth wheel jaw is fully open and the
operating rod is in the unlocked position. See
Fig. 10.2 or Fig. 10.3.
3.
Make sure the fifth wheel top plate is tilted so the
ramps are as low as possible.
f610597
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
1
1
2
A
2
1
1
3
B
2
f310110a
10/26/2010
NOTE: Make sure the safety latch is down when the
control handle is locked.
A. Unlocked
1. Safety Latch
B. Locked
2. Lock Control Handle
Fig. 10.2, Fontaine Locking Mechanism
4.
f310447
11/02/2010
1. Safety Latch
2. Operating Rod (locked)
3. Operating Rod (unlocked)
Fig. 10.3, Holland Simplex SE Locking Mechanism
Position the tractor so that the center of the fifth
wheel is in line with the trailer kingpin. The kingpin should be in a position to enter the throat of
the locking mechanism.
D
C
A
NOTICE
Attempting to couple at the wrong height may
cause improper coupling, which could result in
damage to the fifth wheel or kingpin.
5.
Adjust the trailer height if required.
For a standard fifth wheel plate, the trailer
should contact the fifth wheel approximately 4 to
8 inches (10 to 20 cm) behind the fifth wheel
pivot. See Fig. 10.4.
For a low-lube fifth wheel plate, the fifth wheel
must slide freely under the trailer, and the trailer
should contact the fifth wheel at the pivot. See
Fig. 10.5.
6.
With the fifth wheel lock opening aligned with the
trailer kingpin, back the tractor slowly toward the
trailer. After sliding under the trailer, STOP to
B
10/28/2010
A. Fifth wheel must lift
trailer
B. Adjust trailer height
f311124
C. Ramps tilted down
D. 4 to 8 inches
Fig. 10.4, Trailer Connection Point, Standard Fifth
Wheel
prevent from hitting the kingpin too hard, then
resume backing slowly until the fifth wheel locks.
On a standard fifth wheel, the fifth wheel must lift
the trailer.
On a low-lube fifth wheel, do not lift the trailer as
this may damage the fifth wheel plate.
10.2
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
B
A
B
09/10/2010
f311126
A. No gap between trailer
and fifth wheel
B. Kingpin inside lock
A
Fig. 10.6, Coupling Inspection
09/10/2010
f311125
A. Adjust trailer height
Fig. 10.5, Trailer Connection Point, Low-Lube Fifth
Wheel
7.
Apply the tractor parking brakes.
WARNING
A visual inspection is required by law. Some improper couplings can pass a pull test. Sound is
not reliable. Get out of the cab and look. Incorrect coupling could cause the trailer to disconnect, possibly resulting in serious personal injury
or death.
8.
Perform a coupling inspection, checking that
there is no gap between the bottom of the trailer
and the fifth wheel, and that the kingpin is securely locked. See Fig. 10.6
When lockup has occurred, the fifth wheel control handle moves to the locked position. Make
sure that the safety latch is down over the lock
control handle to hold the control handle in the
locked position. (The safety latch will only rotate
down if the operating rod is fully retracted in the
locked position.) See Fig. 10.2 for Fontaine fifth
wheels. See Fig. 10.3 for Holland fifth wheels.
9.
Release the tractor parking brakes. Test for kingpin lockup slowly inching the tractor forward, pulling on the trailer against the chocks.
10. After lockup is completed, connect the tractor-to-
trailer air system lines and the electrical cable to
the trailer. Take care to prevent dirt or foreign
material from entering the air system lines.
10.3
NOTICE
B. Ramps tilted down
Always make sure the connection hanger keeps
the trailer air hoses and electrical cables positioned so that they do not rub on anything. Rubbing may wear through hoses or cables, resulting
in air leaks, or exposed or broken wires, potentially affecting trailer brake or electrical systems.
11. Charge the air brake system with air, checking
that the air connections do not leak.
WARNING
Incorrect fifth wheel lock adjustment could cause
the trailer to disconnect, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
12. With the trailer wheels chocked and the brakes
set, check for clearance between the kingpin and
the fifth wheel jaws by moving the tractor forward
and backward against the locked kingpin. If slack
is present, uncouple the trailer and have the fifth
wheel inspected and adjusted by a certified
technician.
Jost Fifth Wheel Coupling
1.
Tilt the ramp down.
2.
Open the kingpin locks. See Fig. 10.7.
3.
Back the vehicle close to the trailer, centering the
kingpin on the fifth wheel.
4.
Chock the trailer wheels.
5.
Connect the air lines and electrical cable.
6.
Ensure that the red trailer air supply valve (trailer
brake) is pulled out, and that the trailer parking
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
nect, possibly resulting in serious personal injury
or death.
10. Apply the tractor parking brake, then perform a
A
physical check for positive kingpin lockup, and
that there is no gap between the trailer and the
fifth wheel. See Fig. 10.6.
11. Ensure that the release handle is in the locked
position adjacent to the casting. See Fig. 10.8.
12. Release the tractor parking brakes and test for
09/10/2010
A. Lock held open by catch mechanism
Fig. 10.7, Jost Release Handle Unlocked
brakes are set. See Chapter 5 in this manual for
operation of the dash-mounted brake controls.
2.
Chock the trailer rear wheels.
3.
Lower the trailer landing gear until the weight is
removed from the fifth wheel.
4.
Disconnect the tractor-to-trailer air system lines
and electrical cable. Plug the air lines to prevent
dirt or foreign material from entering the lines.
For a standard fifth wheel plate, the trailer
should contact the fifth wheel approximately 4 to
8 inches (10 to 20 cm) behind the pivot. See
Fig. 10.4.
5.
Verify that both the yellow parking-brake and red
trailer-air-supply knobs are out, the tractor and
trailer parking brakes are set, and that the trailer
is prepared for uncoupling.
For a low-lube fifth wheel plate, the fifth wheel
must slide freely under the trailer, and the trailer
should contact the fifth wheel at the pivot. See
Fig. 10.5.
6.
Release the kingpin locking mechanism following
the instructions for each manufacturer below.
Adjust the trailer height (if required).
6.1
Fontaine: Lift the safety latch and pull the
lock control handle to the unlocked position.
6.2
Holland: In the locked position the safety
indicator swings freely over the operating
rod. See Fig. 10.9, View A.
Back the tractor under the trailer.
On a standard fifth wheel, the fifth wheel must lift
the trailer.
On a low-lube fifth wheel, do not lift the trailer as
this may damage the fifth wheel plate.
9.
Manual Uncoupling
Apply the tractor and trailer parking brakes.
Attempting to couple at the wrong height may
cause improper coupling, which could result in
damage to the fifth wheel or kingpin.
8.
Fifth Wheel Uncoupling
1.
NOTICE
7.
kingpin lockup by slowly moving the tractor forward, pulling on the trailer against the chocks.
f311128
After sliding under the trailer, STOP to prevent
from hitting the kingpin too hard, then resume
backing slowly until the fifth wheel locks.
WARNING
A visual inspection is required by law. Some improper couplings can pass a pull test. Sound is
not reliable. Get out of the cab and look. Incorrect coupling could cause the trailer to discon-
To unlock the mechanism, manually rotate
the safety indicator toward the rear of the
fifth wheel. See Fig. 10.9, View B.
Pull the operating rod out. When the
upper operating rod shoulder is outside
the slot, raise the handle and place the
shoulder of the upper rod against the plate
casting, above the slot. See Fig. 10.9,
View C.
10.4
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
OK
OK
09/10/2010
f311127
Fig. 10.8, Jost Release Handle Locked
The fifth wheel is now in the lockset position and is ready for uncoupling. As the
tractor pulls away from the trailer the kingpin forces the jaw to rotate, contacting the
lock. Continued rotation of the jaw forces
the lock to move outward, and drops the
upper rod back into the slot. See Fig. 10.9
View D. The wheel is now ready for
coupling.
6.3
7.
Jost: Pull the retractable handle out, then
secure it in the open position with the
catch.
Release the tractor parking brake then drive out
slowly, allowing the trailer to slide down the fifth
wheel and pick-up ramps.
been uncoupled and coupled again. Failure to do
so may result in separation of the trailer from the
tractor, possibly causing serious personal injury
or death.
Preparing the Trailer for Uncoupling
Before using the air valve to unlock a fifth wheel
kingpin, prepare the trailer as follows.
1.
Apply the tractor and trailer parking brakes.
2.
Chock the trailer rear wheels.
3.
Lower the trailer landing gear until the weight is
removed from the fifth wheel.
4.
Disconnect the tractor-to-trailer air lines and electrical cable. Plug the air lines to prevent dirt or
foreign material from entering the lines.
Air-Actuated Uncoupling
An air-actuated kingpin release valve is optional with
all fifth wheels. See Fig. 10.10.
Fontaine and Holland Fifth Wheels AirActivated Kingpin Unlock
NOTE: In the event of an air system failure, airactuated kingpins can be manually released following the instructions for manual unlocking.
1.
WARNING
Once the kingpin release valve has been pulled
the kingpin lock is released. The vehicle MUST
NOT be driven with the trailer until the trailer has
10.5
Verify that both the yellow parking-brake and red
trailer-air supply knobs are out, the tractor and
trailer parking brakes are set, and that the trailer
is prepared for uncoupling.
NOTE: On Fontaine and Holland fifth wheels, if
the tractor parking brake is not set, the airactuated kingpin-release valve will not activate.
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
3
1
A
4
C
2
B
D
11/02/2010
f311133
A. Locked Position
B. Unlatched Position (safety indicator rotated towards the
rear of the fifth wheel)
1. Safety Indicator
2. Operating Rod
C. Lockset Position (upper rod resting against casting
above slot)
D. Open Position (ready for recoupling)
3. Upper Rod
4. Plate Casting
Fig. 10.9, Holland Kingpin Locking Mechanism
2.
Pull and hold the kingpin release valve until the
kingpin lock mechanism opens and locks in
place. See Fig. 10.10.
3.
Release the pull valve.
4.
Release the tractor parking brake.
5.
Drive out from under the trailer.
Jost Fifth Wheels Air-Activated Kingpin
Unlock
1.
Verify that both the yellow parking-brake and red
trailer-air-supply knobs are out, the tractor and
trailer parking brakes are set, and that the trailer
is prepared for uncoupling.
10.6
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
The maximum axle weight ratings are shown on the
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)
label or Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
(CMVSS) label attached to the left rear door post of
the tractor. The desired load on the axle is no less
than 80 percent of the maximum axle weight rating,
but in no instances should the axle load exceed the
maximum axle weight rating given on the FMVSS or
CMVSS label.
Manual Slide Operation
10/26/2010
f611102
The manual slide feature is operated from the fifth
wheel plate with a manual release handle using the
following procedure. See Fig. 10.11.
Fig. 10.10, Air-Actuated Kingpin Release Valve
1
NOTE: With Jost fifth wheels, if the trailer parking brake is not set the air-actuated valve will
not activate.
2.
Release the tractor parking brake.
3.
Pull and hold the kingpin release valve, then
drive forward slowly.
4.
After the trailer has slid down the fifth wheel and
pick-up ramps, release the pull valve.
Fifth Wheel Slide
WARNING
Adjust the fifth wheel slide correctly, and do not
overload any tractor axle by incorrectly loading
the trailer. Incorrect slide adjustment or improper
axle loading could cause erratic steering and
loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
On sliding fifth wheel assemblies, the fifth-wheel
plate is attached to rails that allow forward and rearward movement of the fifth wheel to optimally distribute the load across the axles. Slots are evenly
spaced along the slide rails, and retractable wedges
are positioned through the slots to hold the fifth
wheel in the desired position.
The amount of load distribution on the front steering
axle and rear drive axle(s) will have a direct effect on
the steering control of the vehicle. Determine the
front and rear axle weights by weighing the vehicle
on scales designed for this purpose.
10.7
2
07/25/95
f310190
1. Locking Wedge
2. Slide Release Pull Handle
Fig. 10.11, Manual Release Sliding Fifth Wheel
(Fontaine shown)
1.
Stop the tractor and trailer in a straight line on
level ground. Pull the red trailer air supply knob
to apply the trailer parking brakes.
2.
Apply the tractor parking brake, then release the
sliding mechanism using the appropriate method
for the fifth wheel manufacturer.
2.1
Fontaine: Lift the slide release pull handle
to disengage it from the guide plate. Then,
pull out the handle until it is in the unlocked position and can be positioned
against the guide plate to hold it out. The
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
handle will stay in the unlocked position
until it is manually disengaged from the
guide plate. See Fig. 10.12.
5.
Release the tractor parking brakes, then slowly
move the tractor forward or backward until the
fifth wheel is in the desired location.
NOTICE
When moving the fifth wheel to the desired position, be sure the trailer landing gear will not at
any time come in contact with the tractor frame
or other components. Make sure that the front of
the trailer will not come in contact with the rear
of the cab or with other components if they extend beyond the rear of the cab.
WARNING
10/26/2010
f310050
Fig. 10.12, Releasing the Sliding Fifth Wheel, (Fontaine)
2.2
Holland: Pull the operating rod out. Make
sure both side plungers have released.
See Fig. 10.13.
Check that the locking wedges have seated in the
slots. Failure to achieve complete lockup may
allow disengagement of the tractor from the
trailer, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
6.
Apply the tractor parking brakes, then lock the
sliding member in position using one of the following methods:
6.1
Fontaine: Disengage the slide release
pull handle from the guide plate. The slide
release pull handle is spring-loaded in the
locked position and will seek the locked
position when disengaged from the guide
plate. After the slide release pull handle
returns to the fully locked position, visually
and physically check the locking wedges
to make sure they are fully inserted into
the slots in the slide rails. Make sure the
handle is locked in position against the
guide plate.
6.2
Holland: Raise the operating rod so that it
is free to move inward. Make sure that the
lock pins have seated in the base plate
rail holes and the operating rod moves
into the locked position.
5
4
6
3
8
3
2
7
1
10/26/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
Baseplate
Bolted Stop
Baseplate Rail
Fifth Wheel Mount
f310445
5.
6.
7.
8.
Slider Saddle Plate
Safety Latch
Operating Rod
Operating Lever
Fig. 10.13, Sliding Fifth Wheel Manual Release,
(Holland Simplex)
3.
Lower the trailer landing gear just enough to remove the weight from the tractor.
4.
Chock the front and rear of the trailer tires to
prevent the trailer from moving.
NOTE: The fifth wheel may need to be moved
slightly to enable the locking wedges to enter
the fully locked position.
10.8
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
Air Slide Operation
The slide feature may be operated with an air switch
mounted in the dash, that operates an air cylinder
that locks and unlocks the slide. See Fig. 10.14.
A
02/22/2011
f611114
Fig. 10.14, Air-Slide Switch
1.
Set the air-slide switch to UNLOCK. See
Fig. 10.14
Ensure the locking plungers have released. See
Fig. 10.15.
For Jost fifth wheels, the mechanism activates as
shown in Fig. 10.16.
2.
Lower the trailer landing gear just enough to remove the weight from the tractor.
1
B
09/10/2010
f311131
A. Unlocked
B. Locked
Fig. 10.16, Jost Sliding Fifth Wheel
3.
Pull the red trailer-air-supply knob to set the
trailer-parking brakes.
4.
Slowly move the tractor forward or backward
until the fifth wheel is in the desired location.
NOTICE
Ensure the trailer landing gear does not come in
contact with the tractor frame or other components, and that the front of the trailer will not
come in contact with the rear of the cab or other
components if they extend beyond the rear of the
cab.
5.
2
f310189
07/25/95
1. Locking Wedge
2. Air Cylinder
Fig. 10.15, Air-Operated Sliding Fifth Wheel (Fontaine
shown)
10.9
Apply the tractor parking brakes.
WARNING
Check that the locking wedges have seated in the
slots. Failure to achieve complete lockup may
allow disengagement of the tractor from the
Fifth Wheels and Trailer Couplings
trailer, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
6.
Set the air-slide switch to LOCK. Visually inspect
the locking wedges or plungers to make sure
that they are fully inserted in the slide rail slots.
Verify that the plungers have engaged by tugging
the tractor forward while the trailer brakes are
locked and the wheels are chocked.
NOTE: The fifth wheel may need to be moved
slightly to enable the locking wedges to fully
lock.
10.10
11
Pretrip and Post-Trip
Inspections and
Maintenance
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspection Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Daily Pretrip Inspection and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
Weekly Post-Trip Inspection and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.11
Monthly Post-Trip Inspection and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.13
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspection
Checklists
Regulations in Canada and the U.S. clearly indicate
that it is the driver’s responsibility to perform an inspection, and ensure the complete road-worthiness
of a vehicle, before placing it into service. Commercial vehicles may be subject to inspection by authorized inspectors, and an unsafe vehicle can be taken
out of service until the driver or owner repairs it.
Use the following checklists to ensure that vehicle
components are in good working condition before
each trip. Careful inspections eliminate stops later to
fix overlooked or forgotten items.
The checklists in this chapter can be copied and kept
as a record that the procedures have been completed. For details on how to inspect each item on
the checklists, see the corresponding procedure
(step number) in this chapter.
NOTE: Checklists in this chapter correspond
with the procedures and steps later in this chapter. Your vehicle may not be equipped with all
components listed below.
Checklists
Daily Pretrip Inspection Checklists
See the following tables for a list of procedures that
should be performed daily, before the first trip. Place
a check mark in the complete (Comp.) column to
indicate a procedure has been performed.
Inspector
Date
1
2
Suspension and Slack Adjusters
Suspension components
Slack adjusters
1
2
3
4
5
6
Wheels and Tires
Comp.
Wheel covers
Tire condition
Tire inflation
Rims and wheel components
Wheel bearing oil seals and lubrication levels
Mud Flaps
11.1
Comp.
Comp.
2
3
4
Saddle Tank Areas
Drain air reservoirs (without automatic drain
valves)
Fuel tank(s) secure
Frame rails and crossmembers
Visible exhaust components
Engine Compartment
Leakage under engine
Air intake system
Engine oil level
Power steering reservoir level
Engine coolant level
Visible engine wiring
Frame rails
Comp.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Cab
Comp.
Reset dash-mounted air intake restriction
indicator
Air-pressure warning system
Air governor cut-in and cut-out pressures
Air pressure build-up time
Air system leakage
Air pressure reserve
Mirrors, windows, windshield
Horn, windshield wipers, windshield washers
Heater and defroster
Interior lights
Exterior lights
Seat belts and tether belts
Fuel level
Mirror adjustment
Service brakes
Natural Gas Fuel System Inspection
Fuel tanks
Required decals
Vent caps
Plumbing components, fuel fill fitting, fuel
lines
Fuel gauge components, fuel level sender
cable, LNG fuel tank pressure
Coolant hoses
LNG fuel tank pressure
LNG vaporizer
Comp.
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
Weekly Post-Trip Inspection Checklist
See the following table for procedures that should be
performed weekly, post-trip. Place a check mark in
the complete (Comp.) column to indicate a procedure has been performed.
Inspector
1
2
3
4
5
6
Engine Compartment
Windshield washer reservoir level
Air intake restriction indicator
Automatic transmission fluid level
Water in fuel/water separator
Steering components
Serpentine drive belts
Date
Comp.
Monthly Post-Trip Inspection Checklists
See the following tables for procedures that should
be performed monthly, post-trip. Place a check mark
in the complete (Comp.) column to indicate a procedure has been performed.
Inspector
Comp.
Comp.
2
3
Driver-Side Saddle Tank Area
Drain air reservoirs (with automatic drain
valves)
Batteries
Aerodynamic components
Engine Compartment
Hood and bumper
Hydraulic clutch reservoir
Radiator and heater hoses
Steering wheel play
Comp.
1
2
3
4
1
Natural Gas Fuel System
System leak test
Drain CNG high-pressure fuel filter housing
Comp.
Fluids Added
Use the following table to note any fluids that were
added during the inspection and maintenance procedures.
Fluids Added During Inspection
Fluid
Amount Added
Wheel Bearing Oil Seal
Lubricant
Engine Oil
Power Steering Fluid
Engine Coolant
Windshield Washer Fluid
Automatic Transmission
Fluid
Hydraulic Clutch Fluid,
DOT4
Date
Brake Components
Brake system components
Brake chambers
Air brake lines
Flex air hoses
Brake linings and brake drums
Brake lining thickness
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
11.2
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
Daily Pretrip Inspection and
Maintenance
4
Complete the following inspection and maintenance
procedures to ensure that vehicle components are in
good working condition before each trip. A driver who
is familiar with the vehicle and drives it regularly can
perform the daily inspections, then add the weekly
and monthly post-trip inspections as scheduled.
6
7
3
NOTE: If any system or component does not
pass this inspection, it must be corrected before
operating the vehicle. Whenever equipment requires adjustment, replacement, and/or repair,
see the Business Class M2 Workshop Manual
for procedures and specifications.
8
2
If the driver does not operate the vehicle on a consistent basis, all daily, weekly, and monthly inspection and maintenance procedures should be performed before the trip.
IMPORTANT: The pre- and post-trip checklists,
inspections, and maintenance procedures detailed in this chapter are not all-inclusive.
Refer to other component and body manufacturers’ instructions for specific inspection and
maintenance instructions, as well as local, state,
and federal guidelines.
5
9
1
10
f421398
06/17/2003
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
7/16-inch Adjusting Nut
Grease Fitting
Boot
Link
Brake Chamber Piston Rod
Clevis
1/2-inch Clevis Pin
1/4-inch Clevis Pin
Grease Relief Opening
Slack Adjuster Spline
Fig. 11.1, Gunite Automatic Slack Adjuster
• Inspect slack adjuster boots, if equipped,
for cuts or tears.
Suspension and Slack Adjuster
Inspection
• Inspect anchor straps, if equipped, for
Walk around the vehicle and visually inspect suspension and slack adjuster components.
• Look for worn clevis pins on brake cham-
1.
• Look for missing or damaged cotter pins
Inspect the following suspension components for
signs of structural damage, cracks, or wear.
• springs
• spring hangers
• shocks
• suspension arms
• suspension brackets
• axle seats
• bushings
2.
11.3
Inspect slack adjusters for signs of damage. See
Fig. 11.1, Fig. 11.2, or Fig. 11.3.
damage.
ber pushrods.
on the clevis pins.
• Ensure chamber piston rods are in line
with the slack adjusters.
Wheel and Tire Inspection
Walk around the vehicle and visually inspect each
wheel and tire assembly.
IMPORTANT: Wheel covers decrease drag force
as a vehicle moves, thereby improving fuel efficiency. If replacement of a wheel cover is necessary, the replacement cover must meet or exceed the drag reduction performance of the
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
1
2
3
4
3
5
6
7
9
8
4
8
7
6
2
5
10/11/2005
A
f421397
A. Rotate the control arm toward the brake chamber
until you can feel it contacting the internal stop.
1. Clevis
2. Slack Adjuster
3. Clevis Pin
4. Manual Adjusting Nut
5. Control Arm
6. Control-Arm Washers and Nut
7. Anchor Strap Slot
8. Anchor Strap
9. Brake Chamber
Fig. 11.2, Haldex Automatic Slack Adjuster
originally installed cover in order to maintain
compliance with greenhouse gas and full efficiency regulations (GHG14).
1.
If the vehicle was originally equipped with wheel
covers, ensure all wheel covers are present. Inspect wheel covers for damage or wear. Remove
wheel covers from rear drive wheels, if equipped,
prior to inspecting the tires and wheel components.
NOTE: During wheel cover installation, ensure
the V-notch in the liner inner retaining ring is
centered on the valve stem. The inner and outer
retaining rings should be uniformly aligned to
each other and to the wheel rim. The outer retaining ring of the liner is equipped with two
canvas flaps. When installing the face cover,
make sure the cover retaining ring is inserted
between the two canvas flaps on the liner outer
9
01/31/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1
10
f422530
Grease Fitting (if equipped)
Slack Adjuster Housing
Brake Chamber Pushrod
Clevis
Clevis Pin (large)
Clevis Pin (small)
Actuator Rod
Boot
Manual Adjusting Nut
Camshaft Splines
Fig. 11.3, Meritor Automatic Slack Adjuster
retaining ring so that the Velcro strips line up
between the face cover and the liner. Make certain the detachable view cover is centered on
the face cover, and the Velcro strips are
pressed firmly in place.
2.
Inspect each tire for the following:
• valve stem caps on every tire, screwed on
finger-tight
• bulges, cracks, cuts, and penetrations
• oil contamination (petroleum derivatives will
soften the rubber and destroy the tire)
11.4
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
• tread depth—if tread is less than 4/32 inch
(3 mm) on any front tire, or less than 2/32
inch (1.5 mm) on any rear tire, replace the
tire
• debris lodged between duel tire sets
Consult the rim or wheel manufacturer for the
correct tire inflation pressure for the vehicle
load.
4.
IMPORTANT: Low-rolling resistance (LRR) tires
minimize wasted energy as a tire rolls, thereby
decreasing rolling effort and improving fuel efficiency. If tire replacement is necessary, replacement tires must meet or exceed the rolling resistance of the originally installed tires in order to
maintain compliance with greenhouse gas and
full efficiency regulations (GHG14).
Contact your tire manufacturer/supplier to determine the rolling resistance of the originally installed tires. Visit www.epa.gov/smartway for
additional information and resources.
3.
Check tire inflation.
For inflation pressures and maximum loads, see
the tire manufacturer’s guidelines. Inflate the tires
to the applicable pressures if needed.
Examine each rim and wheel component. Check
the wheel nuts or rim nuts for indications of
looseness.
4.1
WARNING
Have any worn or damaged wheel components
replaced by a qualified person using the wheel
manufacturer’s instructions and the wheel industry’s standard safety precautions and equipment.
Otherwise a vehicle or workshop accident could
occur, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
4.2
If a tire has been run flat or under-inflated, check
the wheel and tire for damage before adding air.
Keep compressed air reservoirs and lines dry
during tire inflation. Use well-maintained inline
moisture traps and service them regularly.
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle with underinflated or
overinflated tires. Incorrect inflation can stress
the tires and make the tires and rims more susceptible to damage, possibly leading to rim or
tire failure and loss of vehicle control, resulting
in serious personal injury or death.
Use the recommended torque values and follow
the proper tightening sequence. Insufficient
wheel nut torque can cause wheel shimmy, resulting in wheel damage, stud breakage, and extreme tire tread wear. Excessive wheel nut torque
can break studs, damage threads, and crack
discs in the stud hole area.
4.3
5.
A weekly pressure loss of 4 psi (28 kPa) or more
in a tire may indicate damage. The tire should be
inspected and, if necessary, repaired or replaced
by a qualified tire service facility.
11.5
Inspect for broken, cracked, badly worn,
bent, rusty, or sprung rings and rims.
NOTICE
NOTICE
IMPORTANT: The load and cold inflation pressure must not exceed the rim or wheel manufacturer’s recommendations, even though the
tire may be approved for a higher load inflation.
Remove all dirt and debris from the assembly. Rust streaks or metal build-up
around stud holes, or out-of-round or worn
stud holes, may be caused by loose wheel
nuts.
Make sure all wheel nuts are tightened. If
tightening is necessary, use the tightening
pattern in Fig. 11.4 or Fig. 11.5.
Inspect the outboard side of all wheel hubs and
the hub oil seal area on the inboard side of each
wheel for signs of oil leakage. If any oil is found
on wheel and tire or brake components, remove
the vehicle from service until the leak has been
fixed.
If needed, fill the hubs to the level indicated on
the hub cap. See Group 35 of the Business
Class M2 Maintenance Manual for recommended
lubricants.
6.
Check that mud flaps are undamaged and hang
10 inches (25.4 cm) or less from the ground.
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
1.
10
1
Drain the brake system air reservoirs (reservoirs
without automatic drain valves only).
8
WARNING
3
6
5
4
7
Never operate the engine with the fuel tank shutoff valves partially closed. This could damage the
fuel pump, causing sudden loss of engine power,
possibly resulting in serious personal injury due
to reduced vehicle control.
2.
9
2
f400081a
08/23/93
If equipped with fuel tank shutoff valves, be sure
the valves are fully open.
Fig. 11.4, Tightening Pattern, 10-Hole Wheels
1
3.
Inspect visible frame rails for missing bolts, shiny
areas, or rust streaks. Check all visible crossmembers for damage or signs of looseness.
4.
Inspect visible components of the exhaust system to ensure connections are tight.
2
4
7
Inspect upstream of the aftertreatment device
(ATD) for cracking or signs of leaks, such as soot
trails. Inspect downstream of the ATD for signs of
exhaust leaks, such as blistering or warping of
nearby components.
6
5
Ensure fuel tanks are secured to their mounting
brackets and that the mounting brackets are secured to the frame.
Engine Compartment Inspection
3
8
03/08/2012
f400052a
Fig. 11.5, Tightening Pattern, 8-Hole Wheels
Saddle Tank Area Inspections
1.
Check the ground underneath the engine for fuel,
oil, or coolant leaks.
2.
Inspect the air intake system for leaks or damage.
NOTICE
WARNING
When draining the air reservoir, do not look into
the air jets or direct them toward anyone. Dirt or
sludge particles may be in the airstream and
could cause injury.
Failure to maintain a sealed air intake system
could allow the entry of dirt and contaminants
into the engine. This could adversely affect engine performance and result in engine damage.
2.1
Push the reset button on the air intake
restriction indicator located on the air
cleaner, if equipped.
2.2
Check the air intake duct from the air
cleaner to the engine intake. Make sure
the duct components are secure and airtight.
NOTICE
If the water drained from the air reservoirs is
cloudy or oily, it may indicate a problem with the
compressor. If oil is allowed to contaminate the
air dryer, it will not remove the water from the air
brake system, which could adversely affect braking.
11.6
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
2.3
3.
Check the vacuator (spitter) valve(s) for
damage, and make sure the lips of the
valve are pliable and free of debris.
Check the engine oil level.
1
NOTICE
Operating the engine with the oil level below the
minimum fill (or "add") mark or above the maximum fill (or "full") mark could result in engine
damage.
3.1
Check the oil level with the vehicle parked
on a level surface. See the engine manufacturer’s guidelines for engine shutdown
time requirements prior to checking the oil
level.
05/21/2007
Fig. 11.6, Power Steering Fluid Reservoir
5.1
IMPORTANT: On engines that comply with
EPA07 or newer regulations, use CJ-4 engine oil with less than 1% sulfated ash. Failure to use CJ-4 oil may void the warranty on
emission aftertreatment components.
3.2
If the oil level is at or below the minimum
fill (or "add") mark on the dipstick, add
enough oil to maintain the level between
the minimum and maximum fill marks. See
the engine operation manual for recommended lubricants.
For natural gas vehicles, use only Exxon
Busgard® Geo 15W-40 natural gas engine
oil.
4.
Check the power steering reservoir fluid level.
The power steering fluid level should be between
the MIN COLD mark and the middle mark just
above it. See Fig. 11.6. If needed, fill the reservoir with automatic transmission fluid that meets
Dexron III or TES-389 specifications.
NOTICE
5.
11.7
Check the engine coolant level in the radiator
surge tank.
If the coolant is low, fill the surge tank to
the MAX line with a 50/50 mixture of water
and the type of antifreeze currently installed in your vehicle.
For natural gas vehicles, use only Fleetguard ES Compleat™ EG Premix 50/50
engine coolant.
5.2
If the surge tank was empty, start the engine after refilling and check the level
again when the engine is at operating
temperature.
6.
Inspect visible engine wiring for damage or
looseness.
7.
Inspect visible frame rails for missing bolts, shiny
areas, or rust streaks.
Cab Inspection
1.
Push the reset button on the dash-mounted air
intake restriction indicator, if equipped.
2.
With the ignition switch in the OFF position,
check the air-pressure warning system.
2.1
If not previously drained, drain the air reservoirs using moderate brake applications
until pressure in both reservoirs is less
than 70 psi (483 kPa).
2.2
Turn the ignition to the ON position. The
ICU will complete a full gauge sweep and
bulb check, and the warning buzzer will
sound. Ensure the BRAKE AIR lamp remains illuminated and the warning buzzer
continues to sound after the gauge sweep
is complete.
Low coolant could result in engine overheating,
which could cause engine damage.
IMPORTANT: The surge tank must be cool to
check the coolant level.
f462079
1. Filler Cap
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
3.
Check air governor cut-in and cut-out pressures.
3.1
4.
Maximum Allowable Air Leakage
Pressure Drop:
psi (kPa) Per Minute
Description
Released Applied
Truck or Tractor Only
2 (14)
3 (21)
Truck or Tractor w/Single Trailer
3 (21)
4 (28)
Table 11.1, Maximum Allowable Air Leakage
WARNING
Check air pressure build-up time.
4.1
With the air system fully charged, make
one full brake application and note the air
pressure reading on the primary air
gauge.
4.2
Further reduce air pressure using moderate brake applications, then run the engine at governed rpm.
4.3
Note the time that the pressure reaches
the previously noted reading on the primary air gauge, then note the time that
the air pressure reaches cut-out pressure.
4.4
5.
With the engine idling, apply the brake
pedal several times. The air governor
should cut in when pressure in the primary
air reservoir (top air gauge) reaches approximately 100 psi (689 kPa).
Check the air pressure reserve.
With the engine still off, make one full brake application and observe the pressure drop on the
primary air gauge. If pressure drops more than
25 psi (172 kPa), eliminate any leaks before operating the vehicle.
Start the engine and ensure the BRAKE
AIR lamp goes out and the buzzer silences when pressure reaches approximately 70 psi (483 kPa) in both air reservoirs.
The air governor should cut out at approximately 120 psi (827 kPa). For vehicles with an optional dryer reservoir
module (DRM), the cut-out pressure is
approximately 130 psi (896 kPa).
3.2
6.
If it takes longer than 30 seconds to reach
cut-out pressure after the primary air
gauge passes the previously noted pressure (noted after one full brake application), eliminate any leaks or replace the air
compressor before operating the vehicle.
Check air leakage in the system.
5.1
5.2
With the parking brake applied, the transmission out of gear, and the air system
fully charged, release the service brakes
and shut down the engine.
Wait one minute and note the air pressure
drop in psi (kPa) per minute from the primary air reservoir.
If the pressure drop exceeds the limits
shown in Table 11.1, eliminate any leaks
before operating the vehicle.
When cleaning windshields and windows, always
stand on the ground or on a secure ladder or
platform. Use a long-handled window cleaner. Do
not use the cab steps, tires, fenders, fuel tanks,
engine, or under-hood components to access the
windshield or windows. Doing so could cause a
fall and result in an injury.
7.
Inspect the mirrors, window glass, and windshield for cracks or other damage.
8.
Ensure that the horn, windshield wipers, and
windshield washers are operating properly.
These devices must be in good working order for
safe vehicle operation.
9.
Ensure the heater and defroster are operating
properly.
10. Check the operation of all interior lights.
10.1
Turn on the headlights and leave them on.
Ensure all equipped gauge bulbs illuminate in the dash message center.
10.2
Ensure all equipped driver control
switches illuminate.
10.3
Ensure both turn signal indicator bulbs
illuminate in the dash message center
when the turn signal switch is activated.
11. Check the operation of all exterior lights. See
Fig. 11.7.
11.1
Activate the high-beam headlights and
hazard warning lights.
11.8
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
making any modifications to the system, may result in personal injury or death.
1
3
2
2
12.1
Check the web for fraying, cuts, extreme
dirt and dust, or for severe fading from
exposure to sunlight, especially near the
buckle latch plate and in the D-loop guide
area.
12.2
Check operation of the buckle, latch, Komfort Latch or Sliding Komfort Latch (if
equipped), web retractor, and upper seat
belt mount on the door pillar. Check all
visible components for wear or damage.
12.3
Check the seat belt and tether belt connection points and tighten any that are
loose.
4
WARNING
5
8
7
10/31/2001
8
6
f543920
NOTE: The parking lights, front clearance lights, and
taillights all function as turn signals.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Utility Light
Identification Light
Marker Lights
Front Clearance Light
5.
6.
7.
8.
Headlight Low Beam
Headlight High Beam
Parking Light
Road Light
Fig. 11.7, Exterior Lights
11.2
Exit the cab and check that all exterior
lights and reflectors are clean and intact.
11.3
Check that the brake lights, taillights,
headlights, turn signals, marker lights,
identification lights, and clearance lights
are working properly.
12. Inspect the seat belts and tether belts.
WARNING
Inspect and maintain seat belts. When any part of
a seat belt system needs replacement, the entire
seat belt must be replaced, both retractor and
buckle side. Any time a vehicle is involved in an
accident, and the seat belt system was in use,
the entire vehicle seat belt system must be replaced before operating the vehicle. Do not attempt to modify the seat belt system; doing so
could change the effectiveness of the system.
Failure to replace worn or damaged seat belts, or
11.9
Never fill fuel tanks to more than 95 percent of
their liquid capacity. This could make them more
likely to rupture from impact, possibly causing
fire and resulting in serious personal injury or
death by burning.
Do not mix gasoline or alcohol with diesel fuel.
This mixture could cause an explosion, possibly
resulting in serious personal injury or death. Do
not fill the fuel tanks in the presence of sparks,
open flames, or intense heat. These could ignite
the fuel, possibly causing severe burns.
IMPORTANT: On engines that comply with
EPA07 or newer regulations, use ultralow-sulfur
diesel (ULSD) with 15 ppm sulfur content or
less. Failure to use ULSD fuel may void the
warranty on emission components.
13. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank(s). To keep
condensation to a minimum, fuel tanks should be
filled at the end of each day.
14. Adjust the rearview and down view mirrors as
necessary.
15. Test the service brakes.
15.1
With the engine running and air system
fully charged, set the parking brake.
15.2
Put the vehicle in the lowest gear and
gently attempt to move it forward. The vehicle should not move.
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
If the vehicle moves, the parking brakes
are not operating correctly and must be
repaired before the vehicle is operated.
7
10
5
11
Inspect fuel tanks for dents, scratches, gouges,
or other signs of damage. Inspect the fuel lines
and connections for leaks.
Check that the fuel tanks are securely mounted.
Look for signs of abrasion between components.
12
4
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Fuel System:
Ensure that the CNG fuel cylinder storage box is
secured to the frame. Inspect for signs of looseness.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Fuel System: Ensure that the LNG fuel tank is secured to the
mounting brackets and that the mounting
brackets are secured to the frame. Ensure all
rubber isolator straps are secure around the LNG
fuel tank.
2.
9
6
Natural Gas Fuel System Inspection,
If Equipped
1.
8
Check for the presence of all required decals
present in the following locations:
• Gas detection system overhead console;
• Above the door handle on both doors;
• Left front bumper;
• End-of-frame crossmember;
3
2
1
05/05/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
• LNG fuel tank fill port (maximum psi), if
f470533
Pressure Control Regulator
Vapor Shutoff Valve
Fuel Fill Hose
Secondary Relief Valve (red cap)
Fuel Fill Fitting
Fuel Level Sender Box
Primary Relief Valve
Tank Pressure Gauge
Fill Vent Fitting
Excess Flow Valve
Fuel Shutoff Valve (liquid)
Fill Check Valve
Fig. 11.8, LNG Tank Plumbing Components
equipped.
3.
CNG Fuel System: Each fuel cylinder should
have two caps (one on each end), which are visible on the back of the CNG fuel cylinder storage
box. One additional cap is located on the pressure relief valve on the inboard side of the CNG
fuel box, next to the fuel outlet line.
LNG Fuel System: A red cap should be present
on the secondary relief valve (Fig. 11.8).
4.
flow valves, if equipped, for signs of damage or
leaks. See Fig. 11.8 or Fig. 11.9.
Check for the presence of vent caps on pressure
relief valves and devices. If any caps are missing, have the fuel system inspected by a qualified technician.
Inspect all plumbing components, including the
fuel shutoff valve(s), primary and secondary relief
valves, and the LNG vapor shutoff and excess
Inspect the fuel fill fitting for signs of damage or
leaks.
Inspect all lines for signs of leaks or damage,
and check all threaded connections.
5.
Inspect all fuel gauge components for signs of
leaks or damage. Inspect the fuel level sender
cable and wiring.
6.
Inspect all coolant hoses for signs of chafing,
kinks, or leaks. The LNG fuel system utilizes
coolant hoses between the engine and the vaporizer; the CNG fuel system utilizes coolant
hoses between the engine and the pressure
regulator inside the fuel panel.
11.10
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
2.
2
1
After resetting the air intake restriction indicator
during the daily pretrip inspection, check the indicator again with the engine off.
2.1
H IG
H PRESS UR E
RE
LOW PRES S U
CYLINDERS
INSPECT CYLINDERS
EVERY 36 MONTHS
OR 36000 MILES
WHICHEVER OCCURS FIRST
Check a go/no-go indicator without graduations to see if the colored bar shows
through the clear window.
REGULATOR
INSPECT PRESSURE
RELIEF DEVICE
EVERY 2000 MILES
NATURAL
GAS
VEHICLE
110 PSIG
FILTER
ON
DRAIN HOUSING
EVERY 1500 MILES
REPLACE ELEMENT
EVERY 3000 MILES
3
OPEN VALVE
SLOWLY
M
SH AN
U U
VA T O AL
LV FF
E
3600 PSIG MAX.
SERVICE PRESSURE
4
04/30/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
f470556
High Pressure Gauge
Low Pressure Gauge
Manual Fuel Shutoff Valve
Fuel Fill Port
Air Intake Maximum Restriction Values (inH2O)
Pre-EPA07
EPA07 and
Engine
Engines
Newer Engines
Caterpillar
25
—
Cummins
25
25
Detroit Diesel
20
22
Mercedes-Benz
22
22
Table 11.2, Air Cleaner Element Maximum Restriction
Fig. 11.9, CNG Fuel Panel
7.
8.
If equipped with an LNG fuel system, check the
fuel tank pressure gauge to ensure that pressure
is within the normal range of 120 to 150 psi (827
to 1034 kPa). If tank pressure exceeds 230 psi
(1586 kPa) and the pressure relief valve does
not open automatically, vent the tank immediately.
Inspect the LNG vaporizer for signs of damage
or leaks. See Fig. 11.10. Inspect the vaporizer
mounting brackets for signs of looseness.
Weekly Post-Trip Inspection
and Maintenance
Engine Compartment Inspection
WARNING
Washer fluids may be flammable and poisonous.
Do not expose washer fluid to an open flame or
any burning material, such as a cigarette. Always
comply with the washer fluid manufacturer’s recommended safety precautions.
1.
Check the windshield washer reservoir fluid level.
The reservoir is usually located near the righthand frame rail.
11.11
Check an indicator with graduations to see
if air restriction exceeds the value shown
in Table 11.2.
2.2
If air restriction exceeds the maximum allowable value, operate the vehicle for one
more day, making sure not to run the engine over rated rpm. Refer to the engine
operation manual for more information on
rated rpm for your engine.
2.3
If air restriction exceeds the maximum
value again, replace the air cleaner. For
instructions, refer to Group 09 of the
Business Class M2 Workshop Manual.
3.
If the vehicle is equipped with an Allison automatic transmission, check the automatic transmission fluid level.
4.
Check for water in the fuel/water separator, if
equipped.
IMPORTANT: When draining fluid from a
fuel/water separator, drain the fluid into an
appropriate container and dispose of it properly. Many jurisdictions now issue fines for
draining fuel/water separators onto the
ground.
4.1
Place a suitable container under the fuel/
water separator.
NOTE: A hose may be used to direct water
into the container. Use a hose with a ½-inch
pipe thread on DAVCO models.
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
8
9
5
1
12
10
11
7
06/29/2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
2
3
4
Pressure Relief Device
Fuel Inlet Line
Check Valve
CNG Quick-Connect Port
6
f470536
5.
6.
7.
8.
Coolant Inlet Line
Vaporizer
Fuel Shutoff Solenoid Valve
Coolant Outlet Line
9.
10.
11.
12.
Pressure Gauge
Overpressure Regulator
Pressure Relief Valve
Fuel Outlet Line
Fig. 11.10, LNG Vaporizer Assembly
4.2
4.3
4.4
If the engine is equipped with a built-in
water separator, loosen the drain valve,
and allow the water to run out. Close the
drain valve, taking care not to overtighten
it.
5.
Inspect the steering components. See Fig. 11.13.
5.1
Inspect tie rods, steering arms, and the
drag link for signs of looseness (i.e., shiny
spots or rust tracks).
5.2
Check the steering gear mounting bolts
and pitman arm nut for signs of looseness.
DAVCO Models: Remove the vent cap
and open the drain. See Fig. 11.12.
5.3
Check the drag link nuts for missing cotter
pins.
Stop draining fluid when fuel begins to
drain out.
5.4
Inspect the steering intermediate shaft and
end yokes for excessive looseness or
other damage.
Alliance/Racor Models: Turn the drain plug
counterclockwise to open it. See
Fig. 11.11.
Alliance/Racor Models: turn the drain plug
clockwise to close it.
DAVCO Models: close the drain valve.
Install and hand-tighten the vent cap.
11.12
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
6
5
10
4
3
7
9
2
8
8
7
1
9
10
6
11
02/03/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Washers (qty 2)
Nuts (qty 2)
Frame Rail
Fuel Outlet Port
Fuel Inlet Port
Priming Pump
5
f470552
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Mounting Head
Mounting Bolts (qty 2)
Filter Element
Sight Bowl
Drain Plug
4
11
Fig. 11.11, Alliance Fuel/Water Separator Assembly and
Installation
3
NOTICE
2
12
Do not drive with a drive belt that is visibly worn
or damaged. If it fails, the lack of coolant flow
could rapidly cause damage to engine components.
6.
Inspect the serpentine drive belts for signs of
glazing, frayed edges, breaks, cracks, or oil contamination.
13
1
05/05/2009
Monthly Post-Trip Inspection
and Maintenance
Brake Component Inspection
Walk around the vehicle and visually the brake system components for visible damage.
11.13
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Inlet Port/Check Valve
Lower Housing
Bypass Valve
Filter Element
Spring
Cover O-Ring
Clear Cover
f470530
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Vent Cap O-Ring
Vent Cap
Collar
120VAC Pre-Heater
12VDC Pre-Heater
Drain Valve
Fig. 11.12, DAVCO Fuel/Water Separator (Fuel Pro 482
shown)
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
6.
Check the thickness of the brake linings. Replace brake linings on all brake assemblies on
the axle if any brake linings are worn to less than
approximately 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) at the thinnest
point.
Saddle Tank Area Inspections
1
WARNING
1
2
When draining the air reservoir, do not look into
the air jets or direct them toward anyone. Dirt or
sludge particles may be in the airstream and
could cause injury.
1
3
NOTICE
3
10/11/2001
f461916
1. Steering Gear Mounting Bolt
2. Pitman Arm Pinch Bolt Nut
3. Drag Link Nut
Fig. 11.13, Steering Gear Fasteners
1.
Inspect all visible brake system components for
missing fasteners or signs of looseness, such as
rust tracks.
If the water drained from the air reservoirs is
cloudy or oily, it may indicate a problem with the
compressor. If oil is allowed to contaminate the
air dryer, it will not remove the water from the air
brake system, which could adversely affect braking.
1.
Drain the brake system air reservoirs (reservoirs
with automatic drain valves only).
NOTE: Battery locations vary between vehicles.
2.
Inspect the batteries.
NOTICE
If the external breather tube or breather cap is
missing or incorrectly installed, road dirt and debris can adversely affect the operation of the
brake chamber. Once inside of the chamber, dirt
and debris can cause the internal parts of the
chamber to deteriorate faster.
2.
Inspect the exterior surfaces of brake chambers
for damage. Make sure that breather holes are
open and free of debris.
NOTE: Do not route air brake lines on top of
anything likely to be stepped on.
3.
Inspect air brake lines for dents, swelling, kinks,
twisting, abrasion, and damage, especially near
moving parts.
4.
Inspect flex air lines for deterioration or signs of
abrasion.
5.
Inspect for cracked, worn, or oil-contaminated
brake linings and brake drums (or rotors).
WARNING
Battery posts, terminals, and related accessories
contain lead and lead compounds, chemicals
known to the State of California to cause cancer
and reproductive harm. To prevent possible personal injury, always wash your hands after handling battery parts and related accessories.
2.1
Remove the battery box cover and inspect
all visible battery cables for loose wiring or
damage.
2.2
Check that the battery hold-down is secure.
IMPORTANT: Aerodynamic components decrease drag force as a vehicle moves, thereby
improving fuel efficiency. If replacement of an
aerodynamic component is necessary, replacement components must meet or exceed the
11.14
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
drag reduction performance of the originally installed component in order to maintain compliance with greenhouse gas and full efficiency
regulations (GHG14).
3.
IMPORTANT: Do not overtighten hose
clamps, as hose life can be adversely affected.
3.5
Inspect the following aerodynamic components, if
equipped, for structural damage, cracks, or wear.
• Chassis fairings
• Roof fairing/deflector
• Side skirts
• Cab extenders
• Battery access cover
Engine Compartment Inspection and
Adjustments
Ensure hose support brackets are securely fastened. Make sure hoses are not
located near sources of wear, abrasion, or
high heat.
IMPORTANT: When replacing hoses, install
service-type knitted or braided yarn-reinforced
neoprene hose. Extended-service-life silicone
hoses may also be used. See the Alliance Parts
Catalog at www.alliancebrandparts.com or
contact your Freightliner Dealer.
4.
Check the steering wheel for excessive play.
4.1
IMPORTANT: If replacement of the hood or
bumper is necessary, the replacement component must meet or exceed the drag reduction
performance of the originally installed item in
order to maintain compliance with greenhouse
gas and full efficiency regulations (GHG14).
Start the engine. With the front tires
straight ahead, turn the steering wheel
until motion is observed at the front
wheels.
4.2
Align a reference mark on the steering
wheel to a rule, then slowly turn the steering wheel in the opposite direction until
motion is again detected at the wheels.
1.
Inspect the bumper and hood for structural damage, cracks, or wear.
4.3
2.
Check the hydraulic clutch reservoir, if equipped.
If necessary, add DOT 4 brake fluid.
3.
Inspect the radiator and heater hoses, including
the clamps and support brackets.
Measure the lash (free play) at the rim of
the steering wheel. Excessive lash exists
if steering wheel movement exceeds 2-1/2
inches (64 mm) with a 20-inch (508-mm)
steering wheel, or 2-1/4 inches (57 mm)
with an 18-inch (450-mm) steering wheel.
4.4
If there is excessive lash, check the steering system for wear or incorrect adjustment before operating the vehicle.
3.1
Inspect the radiator and charge air cooler
for damage and accumulated debris.
Straighten bent or damaged fins to permit
airflow across all areas of the cores.
NOTE: When traveling through areas of high
insect concentration, it may be necessary to
clean the exterior of the radiator or the
charge air cooler core as often as every 200
miles (320 km).
3.2
Make sure the radiator inlet and outlet
hoses are pliable and are not cracking or
ballooning.
3.3
Make sure the heater hoses are pliable
and are not cracking or ballooning.
3.4
Tighten hose clamps as necessary.
11.15
Natural Gas Fuel System Inspection,
If Equipped
1.
Leak test all fuel system components, joints, and
fittings using a methane detector. A bubble solution can be used to pinpoint the exact location of
leaks.
Replace any leaking or damaged fuel tanks and
fuel lines; repair or replace leaking or damaged
fittings.
2.
Drain the CNG high-pressure fuel filter housing,
if equipped.
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
2.1
2.4
Purge the CNG fuel lines by closing the
CNG fuel cylinder shutoff valves. Start the
engine and let it idle until the fuel lines are
empty and the engine stops.
Slowly open the bleed valve on the manifold to relieve remaining fuel pressure
within the system. See Fig. 11.15.
6
Gauges on the fuel panel should now read
at or near 0 psi (0 kPa).
2.2
Close the manual fuel shutoff valve on the
fuel panel.
2.3
Remove the two capscrews that secure
the access cover to the fuel panel, then
remove the access cover. See Fig. 11.14.
Save the capscrews for installation.
5
7
4
8
3
2
8
14
1
13
05/04/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
7
2
6
5
4
3
2
9
10
12 11
f470558
Coolant Inlet Port
Coolant Outlet Port
Pressure Relief Valve
Pressure Regulator
Wiring Harness
Manifold Bleed Valve
Manifold
Manual Fuel Shutoff
Valve
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Fuel Fill Port
High-Pressure Filter
Filter Bowl
Filter Drain Plug
Solenoid Valve
Fuel Line To Cylinders
Fig. 11.15, CNG Fuel Panel Components
IMPORTANT: Some pressure may remain in
the fuel system between the solenoid valve
and the engine. Use caution when loosening
fittings, as a small amount of gas may leak
out.
1
05/04/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Fuel Panel Access Cover
Capscrews (qty 2)
Wiring Harness
Pressure Relief Valve and Cap
Coolant Outlet Line
Coolant Inlet Line
Fuel Inlet Line (to fuel cylinders)
Fuel Outlet Line (to engine)
Fig. 11.14, CNG Fuel Panel Assembly
f470557
2.5
Put a clean receptacle under the filter assembly.
2.6
Using an 11/16-inch wrench, remove the
drain plug from the filter bowl.
When all liquid has drained, install and
tighten the drain plug on the filter bowl.
2.7
Close the bleed valve on the manifold and
open the manual fuel shutoff valve on the
fuel panel.
Open the fuel cylinder shutoff valves.
11.16
Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
2.8
Use a methane detector to leak test all
fuel system components between the fuel
cylinders and the solenoid valve. A bubble
solution can be used to pinpoint the exact
location of leaks.
Repair or replace any leaking components.
2.9
11.17
Install the access cover on the fuel panel.
12
Cab Appearance
Cab Washing and Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care of Fiberglass Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care of Chrome Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care of Exterior Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dashboard Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Velour Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.2
12.3
Cab Appearance
Cab Washing and Polishing
CAUTION
When pressure washing the vehicle or leaving
the hood open when parked outdoors and subject to rain, cover the air cleaner inlet with a plastic bag to prevent water from entering the air intake system and possibly damaging the engine.
To protect the finish of your new vehicle, follow these
guidelines carefully:
• During the first 30 days, rinse your vehicle fre-
quently with water. If the vehicle is dirty, use a
mild liquid soap. Do not use detergent.
• During the first 30 days, do not use anything
abrasive on your vehicle. Brushes, chemicals,
and cleaners may scratch the finish.
• During the first 120 days, do not wax your
vehicle.
To extend the life of your vehicle’s finish, follow these
guidelines:
• Avoid washing your vehicle in the hot sun. Al-
ways use water. After the cab is completely
washed, dry it with a towel or chamois.
• Do not dust painted surfaces with a dry cloth,
as this will scratch the paint.
• Do not remove ice or snow from a painted sur-
face with a scraper of any sort.
• To prevent damage to the finish, wax it regu-
larly. If the finish has become dull, before waxing, remove oxidized paint using a cleaner specifically designed for this purpose. Remove all
road tar and tree sap before waxing. Freightliner recommends that a quality brand of
cleaner or cleaner-polish and polishing wax be
used.
Care of Fiberglass Parts
Wash unpainted fiberglass air fairings and shields
monthly with a mild detergent, such as dishwashing
liquid. Avoid strong alkaline cleansers.
Apply a wax specifically designed for fiberglass.
Care of Chrome Parts
To prevent rust, keep chrome parts clean and protected at all times. This is especially important during
winter driving and in coastal areas where there is
exposure to salt air.
When cleaning chrome parts, use clean water and a
soft cloth or sponge. A mild detergent may also be
used.
Sponge gently, then rinse. If necessary, use a nonabrasive chrome cleaner to remove stubborn rust or
other material. Do not use steel wool.
To help protect the chrome after cleaning, apply a
coat of polishing wax to the surface. Never use wax
on parts that are exposed to high heat, such as exhaust pipes.
Care of Exterior Lights
Clean the headlight lenses by hand only, using a
flannel cloth with mild, non-caustic soap or detergent,
and water.
CAUTION
Do not use a power buffer, paper towels, chemical solvents, or abrasive cleaners on the headlight lens, all of which can remove the UV coating
from the surface, and result in yellowing of the
lens.
Dashboard Care
• Do not let diesel fuel or antifreeze stand on a
painted surface. If either should occur, rinse
the surface off with water.
NOTICE
• To prevent corrosion, have any nicks or other
When cleaning the dashboard, instrument panel,
or gauge lens covers, do not use Armor-All Protectant®, STP Son-of-a-Gun®, window cleaner, or
other equivalent treatments. These cleaners contain vinyl plasticizers which can cause stress
crazing in the interior plastic panels and can result in cracking of the panels. Some cleaners can
damage on the finish touched up as soon as
possible.
• Park your vehicle in a sheltered area whenever
possible.
12.1
Cab Appearance
also have an adverse effect on the clear plastic
of instrument panels and gauge lens covers, resulting in a foggy or cloudy appearance. This
type of damage is not covered by vehicle warranty.
To clean the dashboard, instrument panel, and gauge
lens covers, use a cloth dampened with warm soapy
water. Make certain to wring the cloth out well before
cleaning, as excess water will damage the electrical
components.
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning
To prevent soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing to remove dust and dirt is recommended. Harsh
cleaning agents can cause permanent damage to
vinyl upholstery. To preserve the upholstery and prevent damage, carefully review the following sections
for recommended cleaning procedures. Waxing or
refinishing improves soil resistance and cleanability
for all vinyls. Any hard wax, such as that used on
automobiles, may be used.
Ordinary Dirt
Wash the upholstery with warm water and mild soap,
such as saddle or oil soap. Apply soapy water to a
large area and allow to soak for a few minutes, then
rub briskly with a cloth to remove the dirt. This can
be repeated several times as necessary.
ately and the area carefully cleaned, using a cloth
dampened with naphtha.
Paint, Shoe Heel Marks
Paint should be removed immediately. Do not use
paint remover or liquid-type brush cleaner on vinyl.
An unprinted cloth, dampened with naphtha or turpentine may be used. Use care to prevent contact
with parts of the upholstery that are not vinyl.
Sulfide Stains
Sulfide compounds, such as those found in eggs and
some canned goods, can stain after prolonged contact with vinyl. These stains can be removed by placing a clean, unprinted piece of cloth over the spotted
area and pouring a liberal amount of 6 percent hydrogen peroxide onto the cloth. Allow the saturated
cloth to remain on the spot for 30 to 60 minutes. For
stubborn spots, allow the hydrogen-peroxide saturated cloth to remain on the area overnight. Use caution to prevent the solution from seeping into the
seams or it will weaken the cotton thread.
Nail Polish and Nail Polish Remover
Prolonged contact with these substances causes permanent damage to vinyl. Careful blotting immediately
after contact minimizes damage. Do not spread the
liquid during removal.
If dirt is deeply imbedded, use a soft bristle brush
after applying the soap.
Shoe Polish
If dirt is extremely difficult to remove, wall-washing
preparations normally found around the home can be
used. Powdered cleaners, such as those used for
sinks and tiles, are abrasive and must be used with
caution as they can scratch the vinyl or give it a permanent dull appearance.
Most shoe polishes contain dyes which penetrate
vinyl and stain it permanently. Shoe polish should be
wiped off as quickly as possible using naphtha or
lighter fluid. If staining occurs, try the procedure used
for sulfide stains.
Chewing Gum
Harden the gum with an ice cube wrapped in a plastic bag, then scrape it off with a dull knife. Any remaining traces of gum can be removed with an allpurpose light oil (peanut butter will also work) and
wiped off.
Tars, Asphalts, and Creosote
Tars, asphalts, and creosote stain vinyl after prolonged contact. They should be wiped off immedi-
Ball Point Ink
Ball point ink can sometimes be removed if rubbed
immediately with a damp cloth, using water or rubbing alcohol. If this does not work, try the procedure
used for sulfide stains.
Miscellaneous
If stains do not respond to any of the treatments described above, it is sometimes helpful to expose the
vinyl to direct sunlight for up to 30 hours. Mustard,
ball point ink, certain shoe polishes, and dyes often
12.2
Cab Appearance
bleach out in direct sunlight leaving the vinyl undamaged.
Velour Upholstery Cleaning
To prevent soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing to remove dust and dirt is recommended. Spot
clean with a mild solvent or an upholstery shampoo,
or the foam from a mild detergent. When using a solvent or a dry-cleaning product, follow the instructions
carefully and clean only in a well-ventilated area.
Avoid any product that contains carbon tetrachloride
or other toxic materials. With either method, pretest a
small area before proceeding. Use a professional
upholstery cleaning service when extensive cleaning
is needed.
Grease and Oil-Based Stains
Dampen a small absorbent cloth with dry-cleaning
solvent or spot remover. Apply the cloth carefully to
the spot from the outer edge to the center. Pat and
blot the spot with a clean, dry cloth. Repeat several
times, as necessary, turning the cloths so that the
stain does not redeposit on the fabric.
Sugar and Water-Based Stains
Apply water-based detergent or cleaner, working in
circular motions. Pat and blot as dry as possible. Repeat if necessary before drying thoroughly.
Chewing Gum or Wax
Harden the gum or wax with an ice cube wrapped in
a plastic bag, then scrape it off with a dull knife. Excess wax can be absorbed by placing a thick white
blotter over the wax and heating with a warm (not
hot) iron. Remove the remainder by using the procedure for grease and oil-based stains.
Mildew
Brush the dry fabric with a soft brush. Sponge with
detergent, and blot. If the fabric is colorfast, dilute a
teaspoon of bleach in one quart (one liter) of cool
water. Apply with a swab, directly on the mildew
stain. Dab repeatedly with clear, cool water, and blot
dry.
12.3
13
In an Emergency
Hazard Warning Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire Extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Kit, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Filter Replacement, Davco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Starting With Jumper Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire in the Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1
13.1
13.1
13.1
13.2
13.5
13.7
In an Emergency
Hazard Warning Lights
WARNING
The hazard warning light flasher (Fig. 13.1) is part of
the multifunction turn signal switch. It is a red rocker
switch located on the top of the multifunction switch
module.
Use extreme care when placing flares in emergency situations that involve exposure to flammable substances such as fuel. An explosion or
fire could occur causing serious personal injury.
Emergency Filter
Replacement, Davco
4
5
1
2
If the filter cover on the Davco fuel/water separator is
broken, it will not be possible to operate the vehicle.
A standard spin-on filter will correct this problem.
Refer to the Davco web site for additional information, www.davcotec.com.
3
11/16/2001
To replace the filter on all Davco fuel/water separators, follow these procedures:
f820386
Press down on the upper part of the rocker to activate
the flashers.
1. Washer Button
2. Wiper Control Dial
3. Turn Signal Lever
4. Hazard Flasher (red)
5. Multifunction Switch Module
Fig. 13.1, Hazard Warning Flashers
To flash the hazard warning lights, press down on
the upper part of the rocker (towards the dash). To
stop the hazard warning lights, press down on the
lower part of the rocker (towards the steering wheel).
1.
Drain the fuel until it is below the level of the filter collar. See Fig. 13.2 for the model 232/233
fuel/water separator and Fig. 13.3 for the model
382 fuel/water separator.
2.
Remove the filter vent and vent seal.
NOTE: The filter vent and vent seal are not
needed in the emergency replacement. They
should be retained for later installation at the
time when the filter cover is replaced.
3.
Remove the filter collar using channel-lock pliers.
4.
Remove the filter cover, filter cover seal and
spring. Retain them for later assembly.
Fire Extinguisher
5.
A fire extinguisher is located in the cab by the
driver’s door.
Remove the filter element and dispose of it properly.
6.
Install the standard engine spin-on filter (included
in the emergency kit) on the threaded stud.
Emergency Kit, Optional
An optional emergency kit is located in the cab. The
kit includes one or more of the following: a first aid
kit, a reflective vest, a triangular reflector, a flare kit,
and (on vehicles with a Davco fuel/water separator) a
spin-on fuel filter element.
If there is an emergency while driving, cautiously pull
off the road. Turn on the hazard warning lights. Place
the flares and reflector along the side of the road to
alert other drivers that an emergency situation exists.
13.1
NOTE: Remove the rubber grommet from the
stud.
7.
Install the filter cover, filter cover seal, and
spring, as removed.
8.
Install the filter collar over the filter cover. Tighten
the filter collar finger-tight.
9.
Start the engine and run it at increased rpm for
one minute to purge air from the fuel lines.
In an Emergency
1
2
3
8
4
9
5
6
10
7
11/14/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
Filter
Filter
Filter
Filter
f470416
Vent
Vent Seal
Collar
Cover
5. Filter Cover Seal
6. Spring
7. Filter Element
8. Threaded Stud
9. Fuel Port
10. Drain
Fig. 13.2, Davco Model 232 and 233 Fuel/Water Separator
Emergency Starting With
Jumper Cables
When using jumper cables, follow the instructions
below.
WARNING
in the vicinity of the battery. Do not allow the vehicles to touch each other. Do not lean over the
batteries when making connections, and keep all
other persons away from the batteries. Failure to
follow these precautions could lead to severe
personal injury as a result of an explosion or
acid burns.
Batteries release explosive gas. Do not smoke
when working around batteries. Put out all flames
and remove all sources of sparks or intense heat
13.2
In an Emergency
1
2
3
8
9
4
5
6
10
11
7
11/14/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
Filter
Filter
Filter
Filter
f470417
Collar
Vent
Vent Seal
Cover
5.
6.
7.
8.
Filter Cover Seal
Spring
Filter Element
Threaded Stud
9. Fuel Port
10. Drain
11. Bottom Plate Collar
Fig. 13.3, Davco Model 382 Fuel/Water Separator
NOTICE
Make sure both starting systems have the same
voltage outputs, and avoid making sparks. Otherwise the vehicle charging systems could be severely damaged. Also, do not attempt to charge
isolated, deep-cycle batteries with jumper cables.
Follow the battery manufacturer’s instructions
when charging deep-cycle batteries.
NOTE: On vehicles equipped with an optional
jump-start post, attach the positive cable clamp
to that post instead of to the battery.
13.3
1.
Apply the parking brakes and turn off the lights
and all other electrical devices.
2.
To gain access to the batteries, open the battery
compartment. See Fig. 13.4. For detailed instructions, see Chapter 2.
NOTICE
Always connect the battery, jumper cables, and
charger correctly (positive-to-positive and
negative-to-negative). Connecting a charging device backwards (positive-to-negative) will blow
fuses that power the bulkhead module (BHM) and
In an Emergency
chassis module (CHM), and the devices they control will not work.
3.
Connect an end of one jumper cable to the positive terminal of the booster battery (or jump-start
post if equipped), and connect the other end of
the cable to the positive terminal of the discharged battery (or jump-start post if equipped).
See Fig. 13.5.
WARNING
Do the next step exactly as instructed and do not
allow the clamps of one cable to touch the
clamps of the other cable. Otherwise, a spark
could occur near a battery, possibly resulting in
severe personal injury from explosion or acid
burns.
4.
3
2
Connect one end of the second jumper cable to
the negative terminal of the booster battery, and
connect the other end of the cable to a ground at
least 12 inches (300 mm) away from the batteries of the vehicle needing the start. The vehicle
frame is usually a good ground. Do not connect
the cable to or near the discharged batteries.
WARNING
4
1
f543933
10/24/2001
1. Top Step
2. Battery
3. Cab
4. Battery Access Door
On vehicles with Mercedes-Benz AGS transmissions, make sure the current gear indicator displays "N" before starting the vehicle. If the transmision starts in gear, it could cause an accident
resulting in death, serious personal injury, or
property damage.
5.
Start the engine of the vehicle with the booster
batteries, and let the engine run a few minutes to
charge the batteries of the other vehicle.
6.
Attempt to start the engine of the vehicle with the
batteries receiving the charge. Do not operate
the starter longer than 30 seconds, and wait at
least two minutes between starting attempts to
allow the starter to cool.
7.
When the engine starts, let it idle a few minutes.
Fig. 13.4, Battery Compartment, Open
C
A
B
+
D
−
+
E
−
E
+
G
−
+
−
1
A
2
10/18/94
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.
2.
WARNING
F
f540303a
To Ground
3rd
To Frame (ground)
4th
Booster Battery
Discharged Battery
E. To Starter
F. 2nd
G. 1st
Do the next step exactly as instructed and do not
allow the clamps of one cable to touch the
clamps of the other cable. Otherwise, a spark
could occur near a battery, possibly resulting in
severe personal injury from explosion or acid
burns.
8.
Disconnect the grounded cable from the frame or
other non-battery location, then disconnect the
other end of the cable.
9.
Disconnect the remaining cable from the newly
charged battery (or jump-start post if equipped)
first, then disconnect the other end.
Fig. 13.5, Jumper Connections
13.4
In an Emergency
10. Close the battery compartment. For detailed in-
to the vehicle frame. Use protection to keep the
chains from damaging the frame.
structions, see Chapter 2.
5.
Towing
When it is necessary to tow the vehicle, make sure
the instructions below are closely followed to prevent
damage to the vehicle.
WARNING
Do not tow an unbraked vehicle if the combined
weight of both vehicles is more than the sum of
the gross axle weight ratings (GAWR) of the towing vehicle. Otherwise brake capacity will be inadequate, which could result in personal injury or
death.
NOTICE
Do not pass a sling (for example, a rope or chain)
from one tow hook to another to fasten for towing (see Fig. 13.6). Known as reeving, this practice is not permissible in most industrial applications of towing and hoisting. Reeving can
overload the hooks and result in damage to the
vehicle.
6.
Attach the towing device. Due to the many variables that exist in towing, positioning the lifting
and towing device is the sole responsibility of the
towing-vehicle operator.
7.
Lift the vehicle and secure the safety chains. If
extra towing clearance is needed, remove the
front wheels.
8.
Connect the clearance lights, taillights, and signal lights. Connect any special towing lights required by local regulations.
Front Towing Hookup
1.
Disconnect the battery ground cables.
NOTICE
Failure to remove the axle shafts when towing
the vehicle with the rear wheels on the ground
could result in damage to the transmission and
other parts.
2.
Remove both drive axle shafts. On dual drive
axles, if the vehicle is to be lifted and towed, remove only the rearmost drive axle shafts.
On vehicles equipped with an air fairing, remove
both the forward and rearmost drive axle shafts if
there is insufficient towing clearance.
3.
Cover the ends of the hubs with metal plates or
plywood cut to fit the axle opening, and drilled to
fit the axle shaft studs. This prevents lubricant
from leaking out and will keep contaminants from
getting into and damaging the wheel bearings
and axle lubricant.
NOTICE
Failure to protect the frame rails from the chains
could cause damage, leading to eventual frame
failure.
4.
13.5
On dual drive axles, if the vehicle is to be lifted
and towed, chain the forward rear-axle assembly
Remove the bumper end caps and chrome bumper (if equipped).
WARNING
Failure to chock the tires or connect the tow
truck’s air brake system before releasing the
spring parking brakes could allow the disabled
vehicle to suddenly roll. This could cause property damage or personal injury.
9.
Chock the tires on the disabled vehicle and connect the towing vehicle’s air brake system to the
vehicle being towed. Then, release the spring
parking brakes and remove the chocks.
Rear Towing Hookup
NOTICE
Using a rear towing hookup on a vehicle
equipped with a roof fairing could cause damage
to the cab structure.
If reverse towing at speeds above 45 mph (70
kph) is necessary, hold down the cab with tension straps looped over the cab shocks and
under the frame rails. Failure to do so could
In an Emergency
OK
2
1
1
OK
f880694
01/11/2006
IMPORTANT: Do not reeve when towing.
1. Tow Hook
2. Chain
Fig. 13.6, Reeving
allow the wind load to lift the cab unexpectedly,
resulting in damage to the air springs and other
components.
1.
If the vehicle is equipped with cab air suspension, and reverse towing at speeds above 45
mph (70 kph) is necessary, hold down the cab as
follows:
1.1
Drain the air from the cab air springs.
1.2
Loop a 2-inch (5-cm) ratchet-style tension
strap (rated 2000 lb [900 kg] minimum
work load) over the top of the cab shock
and under the frame rail. Tighten the strap
for a snug fit. If the cab is equipped with
two or more shocks, restrain the aftmost
shock on each side of the vehicle.
2.
Place the front tires straight forward and secure
the steering wheel in this position.
3.
Disconnect the battery ground cables.
NOTICE
Failure to protect the frame rails from the chains
could cause damage, leading to eventual frame
failure.
4.
On dual drive axles, using protection to keep the
chains from damaging the vehicle frame, chain
the forward-rear drive axle to the frame.
5.
Attach the towing device.
NOTE: Due to the many variables that exist in
towing, positioning the lifting and towing device
is the sole responsibility of the towing-vehicle
operator.
6.
Lift the vehicle and secure the safety chains. If
extra clearance is needed, remove the bumper
extension if equipped.
7.
Connect the clearance lights, taillights, and signal lights. Also connect any special towing lights
required by local regulations.
13.6
In an Emergency
Fire in the Cab
The incidence of fire in medium-duty trucks is rare,
according to data from the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard #302 limits the flammability of specified
materials used inside the cab, but despite this, most
materials will burn. The cab of this vehicle contains
urethane foam, which is of concern in this respect.
WARNING
Urethane foam is flammable! Do not allow any
flames, sparks, or other heat sources such as
cigarettes or light bulbs to contact urethane
foam. Urethane foam in contact with such heat
sources could cause a serious, rapid fire, which
could result in death, severe burns, or gas poisoning, as well as damage to the vehicle.
In Case of a Cab Fire
As quickly as possible, bring the vehicle to a safe
stop, apply the parking brake, turn off the ignition,
and get out of the vehicle.
13.7
14
Headlight Aiming
Preliminary Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
Checking Headlight Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
Adjusting Headlight Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
Headlight Aiming
Preliminary Checks
3.
Mark the vertical distances found in step 2 on
the screen or wall, directly in front of the headlights. These marks represent the desired locations of each headlight bulb center in the following steps. See Fig. 14.2, Items 2 and 3.
4.
Turn on the low-beam headlights.
5.
Identify the center of each beam projection by
marking the area of brightest intensity on the
wall. The area of brightest intensity should fall on
or very near the marks made during step 3. See
Fig. 14.3.
6.
Use Table 14.1 to determine the maximum vertical distance allowable between the marks made
in step 3 and the marks made in step 5. If the
vertical distance between the marks made in
steps 3 and 5 is greater than the maximum distance given in Table 14.1, adjust the vertical positioning of that headlight.
Before checking or adjusting the headlight aim, do
the following:
• Check that the hood is closed and latched.
• Check the suspension for proper functioning of
the leveling mechanism. On cabs with air suspensions, make sure that the height is properly
adjusted.
• Remove any large amounts of mud or ice from
the underside of the fenders.
• Check the springs for sagging or broken
leaves.
• Check for damage to the hood and hinge as-
sembly. Repair as necessary.
• With the vehicle unloaded, check that the tires
are inflated to the recommended air pressure.
• Clean the headlight lenses. Use a soft cloth
with mild, non-caustic soap or detergent, and
water.
Checking Headlight Aim
1.
2.
Park the vehicle on a level surface, 25 ft (7.6 m)
away from, and perpendicular to, a vertical
screen or wall. Shut down the engine and set the
parking brake. Chock the tires.
Each headlight has a height adjusting dot. See
Fig. 14.1. Measure the distance from the ground
to the height adjusting dot on each headlight.
Note those distances. See Fig. 14.2, Ref. A.
11/06/2002
f544236
Measure beam height from the ground to the small dot
roughly in the center of the headlight lens.
Fig. 14.1, Headlight Beam Height Adjusting Dot
14.1
Adjusting Headlight Aim
NOTE: Freightliner vehicles are offered with
various headlight assembly options. Because of
the various options, the location of adjustment
screws on the vehicle’s headlight assembly may
vary from what is shown here.
1.
Lift the flap over the rear end of the headlight
bucket to expose the two plastic adjusting knobs
on each headlight. See Fig. 14.4.
2.
If necessary, adjust the horizontal positioning of
the headlights so that each projection points directly forward.
3.
Turn the vertical adjustment knob to adjust the
headlight beam to meet the desired height. See
Table 14.1. Turn the knob clockwise to raise the
beam; turn the knob counterclockwise to lower it.
4.
Adjust the other headlight.
Headlight Aiming
2
3
A
A
B
B
7.6 m)
25 ft (
1
01/11/2012
A.
B.
1.
2.
f545850b
Measure the distance from the ground to the center of each headlight bulb.
Mark where the center of each headlight projection should appear.
Screen or Wall
3. Center of Left-Hand Headlight Projection
Center of Right-Hand Headlight Projection
Fig. 14.2, Headlight Aiming Screen/Wall
A
1
2
3
01/11/2012
f545851b
1. Low-Beam Angle Upper Limit
2. Ideal Low-Beam Projection
3. Low-Beam Angle Lower Limit
Fig. 14.3, Vertical Low-Beam Headlight Variation Limits
14.2
Headlight Aiming
1
2
f544235
11/05/2002
NOTE: The right-hand side headlight bucket is shown.
The left-hand side is opposite.
1. Horizontal (inboard) Adjusting Knob
2. Vertical (outboard) Adjusting Knob
Fig. 14.4, Headlight Adjusting Knobs
Distance Between Ground
and Headlight: in (mm)
22–36 (560–900)
36–48 (900–1200)
48–54 (1200–1400)
Vertical Low-Beam Headlight Variation Limits
Desired Variation (Fig. 14.3, Upper Limit (Fig. 14.3, Item
Item 2): in (mm)
1): in (mm) up
0
3.9 (100)
2 (50) down
2 (50)
2.5 (64) down
1.6 (40)
Table 14.1, Vertical Low-Beam Headlight Variation Limits
14.3
Lower Limit (Fig. 14.3, Item
3): in (mm) down
3.9 (100)
6 (150)
6.5 (165)
15
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting, and Engine Shutdown (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hybrid System Fault Lamps (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergencies (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jumpstarting (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1
15.2
15.2
15.2
15.3
15.3
15.3
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
Overview
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has both a diesel engine and an electric motor. Engine torque is augmented with electrical torque. The electric motor is
powered by batteries, which are charged by regenerative braking and, on vehicles equipped with the
ePTO option, the diesel engine.
The batteries cannot move the vehicle for long distances at highway speeds. In the event of a diesel
engine failure, drive the vehicle to a safe location as
quickly as possible.
Eaton Corporation developed and supplies the hybrid
electric system for Freightliner Trucks. The primary
system components are the hybrid drive unit (or
"HDU", which includes the electric generator/motor
and automated transmission), power electronics carrier (PEC), and the motor inverter/controller. Electric
power take-off (ePTO) and auxiliary power generator
(APG) components are optional on the HEV system.
Freightliner Trucks designed the stand-alone liquid
cooling system required to support the operation of
Eaton’s HEV system. Its primary system components
are the electric water pump, reservoir/expansion
tank, radiator, electric radiator fan, and coolant
plumbing.
High-Voltage Safety Features
The HEV has high-voltage cables and a service
switch on the PEC.
High-voltage cables are covered in orange insulation
and conduit. Each high-voltage component is tagged
with a warning or danger label.
IMPORTANT: The service switch on the PEC
should only be used for an emergency shutdown, or when the service manual or troubleshooting guide calls for work on the high-voltage
system. The service manual and troubleshooting
guide for the hybrid electric system are available
from www.roadranger.com.
The red service switch is located next to the highvoltage cable connections at one end of the PEC.
Pushing in the red service switch will shut down the
engine. The hybrid system will be disabled, and the
high-voltage batteries in the PEC, though still live,
are isolated in the PEC.
NOTE: The PEC may be mounted in an area
with limited access.
For information on emergency shutdowns, see
"Emergencies" in this chapter.
Cooling System
Body builders will develop the components for the
PTO, the PTO plumbing, and a safety switch to prevent the diesel engine from starting when the hood is
open.
The HEV requires a liquid cooling system for the
HDU, inverter, DC/DC Converter (if ePTO equipped),
and APG (if equipped). The HEV’s cooling system is
separate from the engine cooling system.
Regenerative Braking
For coolant, use a mixture of 50 percent ethylene
glycol and 50 percent water.
Regenerative braking reduces vehicle speed by converting some of the vehicle’s kinetic energy into electric energy to charge the hybrid system’s batteries.
When the accelerator pedal is at idle while coasting,
or the service brake is depressed to slow the vehicle,
the hybrid system charges the batteries.
The regeneration will feel as if the brake is being
lightly applied when you remove your foot from the
accelerator pedal. The full power of the service brake
is always available to the driver, and regenerative
braking is automatically shut off during an ABS (antilock brake) event.
The Eaton Hybrid Control Unit will automatically shut
off regenerative braking when the batteries are fully
charged.
15.1
Electric Power Take-Off (ePTO)
The Electric Power Take-Off (ePTO) option provides
standard hydraulic functions without continuous diesel engine operation. The PTO drive power is provided by the hybrid motor and hybrid batteries. When
the hybrid batteries deplete, the diesel engine automatically starts to recharge them and provide PTO
drive power. Once the batteries are fully charged, the
engine shuts down automatically. Vehicles with the
ePTO option are designed with a safety switch to
ensure the diesel engine does not start when the
hood is open.
A DC/DC converter is required for ePTO applications
to convert high-voltage DC to 12-volt DC.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
NOTE: To maintain a power supply from the vehicle’s low-voltage batteries, the alternator
charges them when the vehicle is being driven.
5.
Safety Precautions (HEV)
Apply the service brake, then release the parking
brake.
6.
With the service brake applied, press the desired
mode on the shift control to put the vehicle into
gear.
7.
Slowly release the service brake.
The HEV has high-voltage components, including
340-volt DC batteries and a 500-volt AC motor.
Never cut high-voltage cables or connectors. Do not
paint high-voltage cables.
Avoid direct pressure wash on high-voltage connections (PEC, DC/DC Converter) and the air intake and
exhaust on the PEC.
Starting, and Engine Shutdown
(HEV)
The Cranking System
The primary engine starter is the electric motor in the
HDU, which cranks the engine very quickly. The
back-up cranking system is the standard 12-volt
starter on the engine. If the hybrid system is offline
or the hybrid batteries are insufficiently charged, the
vehicle will automatically use the 12-volt cranking
system to start the engine.
Starting
1.
Set the parking brake.
2.
Place the key in the ignition, and turn it clockwise to the ON position to initiate power to the
hybrid system.
Wait for the gauges on the instrument panel to
complete two sweeps (one from left to right, and
one from right to left) and return to their normal
ranges.
3.
Ensure the transmission is in neutral. The gear
display should display a solid "N".
WARNING
Never start the engine unless the transmission is
in neutral and the brake is applied. Accidental
movement of the vehicle could result in property
damage, personal injury, or death.
4.
to return to the ON position. The engine will continue to run with the key in the ON position.
NOTE: The vehicle may be powered by the
electric motor or the diesel engine, depending
on battery charge and the demand for driveline
torque. If the electric motor alone is powering
the driveline, the diesel engine will stay at idle.
Engine Shutdown
1.
Place the transmission in neutral by selecting N
on the shift control.
IMPORTANT: The transmission must be in neutral for proper shutdown.
2.
Set the parking brake.
3.
Turn the key counterclockwise to the OFF position.
NOTE: Intermittent noises such as clicking and
transmission shifting may be audible from the
transmission while it completes a self-test and
shutdown.
Hybrid System Fault Lamps
(HEV)
There are two lamps on the dashboard that indicate
a hybrid system fault is active — the red STOP HYBRID lamp and the amber CHECK HYBRID lamp.
See Fig. 15.1. When the red STOP HYBRID lamp is
illuminated, do not drive the vehicle; have it towed to
a Freightliner dealer or an authorized service center
for repairs. When the amber CHECK HYBRID lamp
is illuminated, the vehicle can still be driven, though it
may operate without the assistance of the hybrid
electrical system.
Turn the key clockwise to the START position.
The engine will crank after a brief delay. As soon
as the engine starts, release the key, allowing it
15.2
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
• Do not cut into or open the DC/DC converter.
• Do not cut into or open the inverter.
If it is necessary to remove occupants using cutting
equipment, avoid high-voltage cables and the PEC.
CHECK
HYBRID
Jumpstarting (HEV)
STOP
HYBRID
07/09/2008
Jumpstarting vehicles equipped with the Eaton® Hybrid System is identical to Non-Hybrid vehicles,
which use the vehicle 12-volt battery system.
f611013
Fig. 15.1, Hybrid System Fault Lamps
Emergencies (HEV)
Emergency Shutdown
WARNING
After disabling the vehicle, power is maintained
in the high-voltage electrical system for up to five
minutes. Unprotected contact with any "live" high
voltage components can cause serious injury or
even death.
There are two options for performing an emergency
shutdown. The preferred method is to turn off the
ignition key. The other option is to disconnect the
low-voltage (12-volt) vehicle batteries. In either case,
the engine will shut down, dash lights will shut down,
the hybrid electrical system will shut down, and the
high-voltage batteries in the Power Electronics Carrier (PEC) will remain "live" but isolated in the PEC.
NOTE: If the service switch on the PEC is accessible, it may be pushed in to shut down the
hybrid electrical system and isolate the "live"
HEV batteries in the PEC.
In Case of an Accident or Fire
If the HEV becomes involved in an accident or fire,
be aware of the following:
• Use CO2 or dry chemical extinguishers. The
batteries in the PEC are lithium ion.
• Do not cut into high-voltage cables. The high-
voltage wiring is covered in orange insulation
or convoluted tubing.
• Do not cut into or open the PEC.
15.3
Towing (HEV)
When towing the vehicle, the output shaft of the
transmission must not be allowed to spin or turn. If
the vehicle is towed with the drive wheels still in contact with the road surface, the vehicle axle shafts or
driveline must be removed or disconnected. See
"Towing" in Chapter 13.
16
Natural Gas Vehicle
Natural Gas Vehicles, General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
Natural Gas Vehicles, Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
Natural Gas Fuel Tank Filling Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2
Natural Gas Detection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5
Natural Gas Engine Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.9
Major Repair and Replacement of Natural Gas Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.10
Natural Gas Vehicle
Natural Gas Vehicles, General
Information
The vehicle can be equipped with a compressed
natural gas (CNG) fuel system, or a liquefied natural
gas (LNG) fuel system. CNG is made by compressing natural gas to less than 1% of its volume at standard atmospheric pressure. LNG is created by condensing natural gas into a liquid by cooling it to
approximately -259°F (-162°C). CNG often contains
an odor-producing chemical, while LNG does not
have any odor.
Natural Gas Vehicles, Safety
Precautions
DANGER
Natural gas is highly flammable. Failure to observe the following safety precautions could lead
to the ignition of the natural gas, which could
cause serious bodily injury or death.
Follow these safety precautions when operating or
repairing a natural gas vehicle.
When vaporized at ambient temperatures, natural
gas is less dense than air, and it rises and disperses.
However, LNG is intially heavier than air due to its
cryogenic temperature. When released in large
amounts, it may drop or pool on the ground before
its temperature rises enough to vaporize. Cold atmospheric conditions may prevent natural gas from
dispersing quickly when released in large amounts.
• Do not start the engine if a natural gas leak is
Natural gas is nontoxic, but it can cause asphyxiation
if present in very large concentrations.
• Avoid open flames or sparks near a natural
For natural gas to burn, it must first vaporize, then
mix with air in the proper proportions (flammable
range is 5 to 15% by volume in air), and then be ignited.
• Cover eyes and exposed skin when working on
A typical natural gas fuel system consists of:
• Fuel supply cylinders that store compressed
gas at high pressure (CNG), or a tank that
stores liquefied gas at an extremely low temperature (LNG).
• A vaporizor or heat exchanging device that
changes LNG to gaseous form (LNG fuel systems only).
• Pressure relief and manual fuel shutoff valves.
• A filling connection with a check valve that pre-
vents the gas from flowing back out of the fuel
filling line.
• High-pressure and low-pressure fuel filters.
• A pressure control regulator that reduces the
high fuel tank or cylinder pressure to the lower
pressure needed for the engine.
• A fuel contents gauge that indicates the fuel
supply in the tank or cylinders.
16.1
detected.
• Do not transfer CNG from one vehicle to an-
other, as a buildup of static electricity could
cause a spark and ignite the fuel.
• Do not attempt to cut any fuel supply piping
components.
gas vehicle.
a natural gas fuel system or fueling a natural
gas vehicle.
• Permit no smoking or other ignition sources
within thirty feet of a natural gas vehicle.
• Have CO2 fire extinguishers (ABC minimum)
located in a highly visible and easily accessible
location.
• Use Purple-K powder (PKP) or a similar dry
powder to extinguish an LNG fire. Do not attempt use water around an LNG fire.
• Always purge the fuel lines before performing
maintenance or repairs on a natural gas fuel
system. To purge the lines, close the manual
fuel shutoff valve, and start the engine. Let the
vehicle idle until the fuel lines are empty and
the engine stops.
• Always use a natural gas detector to test the
system for leaks, whether an odor is present or
not. Routinely inspect the fuel filtering and
regulating mechanisms, and the fuel lines. A
bubble solution can be used to pinpoint the
exact location of leaks.
Natural Gas Vehicle
• Always tighten fasteners and fuel connections
to the required torque specification. Overtightening or undertightening could cause leaks.
• Close the fuel shutoff valve(s) before perform-
ing maintenance and repairs.
• Do not store a natural gas vehicle indoors for
any extended period of time. Do not bring a
natural gas vehicle indoors unless the workshop is equipped with a methane detection and
ventilation system.
In Case of Emergency
If a vehicle has sustained damage or a leak has
been discovered:
1.
Turn the ignition switch off, set the parking brake,
and disconnect the battery.
2.
Remove all ignition sources from the area surrounding the vehicle.
3.
If it is safe to do so, close all fuel shutoff valves.
4.
Open the vehicle doors to introduce fresh air.
5.
Use a natural gas detector to identify leaks in the
fuel system.
Natural Gas Fuel Tank Filling
Procedures
CNG Vehicle Fueling
CNG is moved from the fuel station storage tanks to
the vehicle cylinders through a metered dispenser.
During fueling, as pressure inside of the vehicle cylinders increases, so does the temperature. The dispenser shuts off when it determines the CNG cylinders are full.
CNG fuel cylinders cannot be filled to their full capacity of 3600 psi (24 800 kPa) in cooler weather. Since
temperature change causes gas to expand and contract, less pressure in the cylinders on a cold day is
equal to the same amount of gas at a higher pressure on a warm day. The fuel station dispenser has a
temperature-pressure compensating device, which
accounts for ambient temperature during fueling. See
Table 16.1 for approximate full cylinder pressures at
various temperatures.
CNG Temperature/Pressure Compensation Values
Fill Station Pressure Set Point
Temperature:
3000 psi (20 684
3600 psi (24 821
°F (°C)
kPa) Set Point
kPa) Set Point
100 (37.8)
3415 (23 546)
4086 (28 172)
90 (32.2)
3276 (22 587)
3909 (26 952)
80 (26.7)
3138 (21 636)
3754 (25 883)
70 (21.1)
3000 (20 684)
3600 (24 821)
60 (15.6)
2861 (19 726)
3445 (23 752)
50 (10)
2723 (18 774)
3288 (22 670)
40 (4.4)
2584 (17 816)
3131 (21 587)
30 (-1.1)
2446 (16 865)
2973 (20 498)
20 (-6.7)
2307 (15 906)
2814 (19 402)
10 (-12.2)
2169 (14 955)
2655 (18 306)
0 (-17.8)
2031 (14 003)
2495 (17 202)
-10 (-23.3)
1893 (13 052)
2336 (16 106)
-20 (-28.9)
1755 (12 100)
2180 (15 031)
-30 (34.4)
1616 (11 142)
2024 (13 955)
-40 (-40)
1477 (10 184)
1868 (12 879)
Table 16.1, CNG Temperature/Pressure Compensation
Values
Use the following steps to fuel a CNG vehicle.
1.
Shut down the engine and apply the parking
brake.
IMPORTANT: Close all windows and doors during the fueling process. Keeping windows and
doors closed allows for easier leak detection
inside the cab after fueling.
WARNING
Natural gas fuel tanks, lines, and valves are always pressurized. Always observe safety precautions. Failure to do so could lead to loss of control over a filling hose or to ignition of the natural
gas, which could cause serious bodily injury,
death, or severe property damage.
2.
Ensure all fuel cylinder shutoff valves are open.
See Fig. 16.1.
3.
Ensure the vehicle fuel system main shutoff
valve is open.
4.
Open the CNG fuel panel access door and remove the dust cap from the vehicle fuel fill port.
16.2
Natural Gas Vehicle
1
2
tion emergency shut-off switch to cease the flow
of CNG.
9.
Switch on the service pump. A slight hissing
noise may be heard as the fuel cylinders fill.
10. Watch the pressure gauge on the service pump.
3
When the gauge reads approximately 3600 psi
(24 800 kPa), or when the fill pressure stops
climbing, the CNG cylinders are full. The service
pump will shut itself down automatically. See
Table 16.1 for pressure compensation values
based on ambient temperatures.
4
11. Move the selector knob on the service pump to
8
7
6
5
the VENT position, if equipped. A short hiss will
be heard as a small amount of natural gas is
vented into the hose.
WARNING
04/22/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
f470554
Fuel Cylinder Storage Box
Fuel Cylinder Shutoff Valves (qty 5)
High-Pressure Gauge
Low-Pressure Gauge
Fuel Fill Port
Dust Cap
Manual Shutoff Valve
Fuel Panel Access Door
Fig. 16.1, CNG Fuel Cylinder Storage Box (5-cylinder
system shown)
5.
Ensure the O-ring is present inside the fuel fill
port. If the O-ring has been dislodged or is missing, the station dispensing nozzle will not connect securely to the fill port.
6.
Turn the selector knob on the service pump to
the VENT position, if equipped.
7.
Connect the quick coupling on the dispensing
nozzle securely to the vehicle fuel fill port.
8.
Turn the selector knob on the service pump to
the FILL position, if equipped.
IMPORTANT: If at any time the service pump or
vehicle begins to vent CNG uncontrollably, notify
a station attendant or activate the service sta-
16.3
Do not attempt to remove the fill station nozzle
from the tank fill fitting until venting of pressure
is noted. If no venting occurs, ask for assistance
from the station attendant. Removing an unvented coupling could result in an uncontrolled
hose, which could lead to property damage or
personal injury.
12. Remove the station dispensing nozzle from the
vehicle fill port.
13. Install the dust cap on the vehicle fuel fill port
and close the fuel panel access door.
LNG Vehicle Fueling
The LNG fuel tank is designed to be filled from any
LNG fuel source that has a 100 micron or finer fuel
filter and a fuel delivery pressure between 120 and
225 psi (827 and 1551 kPa).
The LNG fuel tank is designed to be top-filled
through a single hose with no vent return. As cold
LNG is sprayed into the vapor space of the tank, the
cold liquid condenses the vapor and creates space
for itself inside the tank, eliminating any need to vent
during the filling process.
The LNG tank is equipped with a small internal ullage tank for vapor space, which allows for fuel expansion and increases vehicle standby time. When
an LNG tank is full, fuel can continue to flow into the
ullage tank. However, if the ullage tank is completely
filled during fueling, standby time will be reduced to
Natural Gas Vehicle
zero and the primary relief valve will open almost
immediately after fueling, allowing excess LNG vapor
to escape. If fueling is stopped when the ullage tank
is empty (i.e., the fuel tank has sufficient vapor space
to accommodate fuel expansion due to temperature
increase), the vehicle will have approximately one
week of standby time before venting will occur.
2
4
Use the following steps to fuel an LNG vehicle.
1.
3
6
Shut down the engine and apply the parking
brake.
IMPORTANT: Close all windows and doors during the fueling process. Keeping windows and
doors closed allows for easier leak detection
inside the cab after fueling.
5
1
WARNING
Liquefied natural gas is a cryogenic liquid stored
at approximately -259°F (-162°C). Cryogenic
burns can be caused by coming into contact with
the pressurized liquid stream, or by coming into
contact with fuel system components that have
been cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Always
wear gloves and a face shield, and cover exposed skin when fueling.
2.
Remove the fuel fill fitting dust cap. See
Fig. 16.2.
3.
Using compressed air, remove any dirt, debris, or
water that may have collected in the fuel fill fitting and the station dispensing nozzle. Contaminants in the fuel system can cause drivability
problems.
WARNING
Natural gas fuel tanks, lines, and valves are always pressurized. Always observe safety precautions. Failure to do so could lead to loss of control over a filling hose or to ignition of the natural
gas, which could cause serious bodily injury,
death, or severe property damage.
4.
Connect the station fueling nozzle to the tank
fuel fill fitting.
5.
Connect an electrical ground clamp and cable to
the fuel tank.
IMPORTANT: An LNG tank which is first installed, or is on a vehicle that has not been op-
05/29/2009
6
1. Fuel Fill Fitting
2. Fuel Outlet Line
3. Primary Relief Vent
Line
f470534
4. Fill Vent Fitting
5. Shroud Cover
6. Shroud Cover Latches
Fig. 16.2, LNG Fuel Tank
erated in approximately ten days, is considered
to be a hot tank. When fueling a hot tank, LNG
entering the tank will immediately vaporize,
causing tank pressure to spike above 250 psi
(1724 kPa) and automatically shutting down the
station fuel pump. To prevent the pump from
shutting down, connect a vent line to the fill vent
fitting on the LNG tank to capture escaping
vapor, then open the shroud cover and open the
vapor shutoff valve (Fig. 16.3, Item 2).
6.
Open the station’s fill valve, if equipped, and
start fueling. Monitor the flow or line pressure as
filling progresses. When filling begins, line pressure will spike quickly until the vehicle tank cools
down. The flow and pressure will then remain
stable during the remainder of the filling
procedure.
IMPORTANT: When fueling a hot tank, initially
put 5 to 10 gallons (19 to 37 liters) of LNG in
the tank and manually stop the fueling process.
Drive the vehicle for 15 to 20 minutes to cool
the tank and reduce tank pressure, then continue fueling the tank to full.
16.4
Natural Gas Vehicle
7
8
Natural Gas Detection System
9
6
10
5
11
12
4
3
2
1
05/05/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
f470533
Pressure Control Regulator
Vapor Shutoff Valve
Fuel Fill Hose
Secondary Relief Valve (red cap)
Fuel Fill Fitting
Fuel Level Sender Box
Primary Relief Valve
Tank Pressure Gauge
Fill Vent Fitting
Excess Flow Valve
Fuel Shutoff Valve (liquid)
Fill Check Valve
Fig. 16.3, LNG Fuel Tank Plumbing Components
7.
When the tank is full, the line pressure will rapidly spike and the flow rate will fall. When a pressure rise or flow rate drop is observed, close the
station’s fill valve, if equipped.
NOTE: Do not over-fill an LNG tank. If the ullage tank is completely filled during fueling, tank
standby time will be reduced to zero and the
primary relief valve will open almost immediately
after fueling.
8.
Disconnect the station hose from the tank fuel fill
fitting.
9.
Disconnect the electrical ground clamp and cable
from the fuel tank.
10. Install the dust cap on the tank fuel fill fitting.
16.5
A gas detection system is standard equipment in all
Daimler Trucks natural-gas-fueled vehicles. This system has a sensor in the engine compartment and
one in the cab, both situated in high areas to detect
natural gas buildup as a result of leaks.
The AMGaDS III Plus is a natural gas detection system. This device is meant to serve as a supplemental warning only. It is not intended to replace standard safety practices that should be conducted
around flammable gases.
IMPORTANT: To function properly, the gas detection system must be powered at all times.
The gas detection system is directly powered by
the batteries, and can only be powered off by
disconnecting the batteries.When servicing a
natural-gas-fueled vehicle, disconnect the batteries only when necessary, and do not leave
the batteries disconnected for extended periods
of time.
The lower flammability limit (LFL) is the smallest
amount of the gas that supports a flame when mixed
with oxygen and ignited. Zero percent (0%) LFL indicates a gas-free atmosphere. One hundred percent
(100%) LFL indicates that gas concentration has
reached its lower flammability limit (5% gas in air by
volume). The red warning light and audible alarm
located in the overhead console activate when a sensor detects gas fumes in concentrations above 50%
LFL, and should allow ample time to utilize safety
procedures. However, individuals with special needs
should review the system with a professional safety
engineer.
Alarm Procedure
Before operating the vehicle, the driver must be familiar with the procedures as shown on the interior
sticker on the overhead panel (Fig. 16.4) and the
exterior sticker on the door (Fig. 16.5).
IMPORTANT: If an audible alarm activates, do
not operate any electrical switch, including
lights. Avoid causing sparks and stay away from
arcing switches and equipment. Do not use a
telephone, including cellular phones or any
types of portable communication or electronic
devices that have a battery.
Natural Gas Vehicle
If outside the vehicle when the audible alarm activates, do not open the cab door or hood.
In the event of an audible alarm, immediately follow
these procedures, as allowed by conditions:
04/28/2009
1.
Immediately shut off all engines. Extinguish any
cigarettes, pilot lights, flames, or other sources of
ignition in the area and adjacent areas.
2.
Manually close all fuel shutoff valves, including
those on the LNG tank or CNG cylinders.
3.
If the vehicle is indoors (as in a service shop),
immediately open windows and doors to provide
extra ventilation to the area. Do not start the engine or any other type of equipment until the gas
leak is corrected and the area cleared of natural
gas.
4.
Evacuate the area.
5.
Check the fuel lines, LNG tank/CNG cylinders,
and fittings to locate the leak. After the area is
cleared of natural gas and the alarm is no longer
active, have the vehicle inspected by a qualified
technician.
f080157
Fig. 16.4, Interior Warning Sticker
IMPORTANT: Do not consider the area clear
until all alarm indicators are off, and the alarm
panel light returns to green.
Sensors
Gas detection sensors are located on the cab overhead console and in the engine compartment on the
frontwall. The sensors are located in high areas,
where rising gas vapors will pass by or accumulate.
If the system detects that one of the sensors has
been disconnected or has malfunctioned, the sensor
fault light for that zone will illuminate. A failed sensor
may trigger and lock on an alarm. If a fault condition
or locked alarm continues after the sensor’s connection and wiring integrity has been verified, replace
the sensor.
04/28/2009
f080158
Fig. 16.5, Exterior Warning Sticker
If the vehicle is in motion when the audible alarm
activates, bring it to a safe stop, shut down the engine, and exit the vehicle. Do not open the hood.
The sensors are sensitive to all hydrocarbon vapors.
An alarm may be triggered by the use of chemicals
such as cleaners, paint, polish, lacquer, gasoline,
silicone, silicone spray, or other harsh chemicals.
The sensors will also detect hydrogen fumes from an
overcharged battery. If a sensor sends an alarm, but
no gas fumes are present, check for recent use of
chemicals or a battery charger.
16.6
Natural Gas Vehicle
NOTICE
Silicone-based chemicals and cleaners will permanently disable the sensors. When cleaning the
vehicle, cover the sensors with a plastic covering. Keep the sensors covered until the area has
been cleared of any cleaning fumes.
Harsh chemicals and extremely high temperatures may damage the sensor.
Puncture of or damage to the seal located inside
the sensor housing will significantly shorten the
sensor life.
Frequent exposure to high concentrations of gas
will accelerate sensor deterioration.
Overhead Console
The overhead console consists of an alarm panel on
the right side and the control module on the left side.
The alarm panel has a green light, a red light, a
buzzer, and a sensor. See Fig. 16.6. It is located
within view from outside of the vehicle. The large
green light is continuously illuminated during normal
operating conditions.
Before entering the vehicle, always verify that the
green light is illuminated. If the green light is not illuminated, do not enter the vehicle. Complete the
alarm procedure previously outlined.
The alarm panel meets the California Highway Patrol
Title 13-2008 and NFPA 52 2010 requirements. All
drivers and technicians using it should be trained regarding the red and green lights, and the audible
warning.
The control module, located on the left side of the
overhead console, contains the status lights and control buttons for the system. The areas that the sensors monitor are defined as Zone 1 (cab) and Zone 2
(engine compartment). The control module has lights
assigned to each zone that will illuminate if a sensor
detects a trace level leak (between 20% and 30%
LFL), a significant level leak (above 50% LFL), or if a
sensor is disconnected or malfunctioning.
• Trace Level: If either sensor detects gas fumes
at a concentration greater than 20% to 30%
LFL (1% gas in air by volume), the amber light
next to the Trace indicator for that zone will
flash. There is no buzzer alarm for a trace
16.7
level detection, and the large green light on the
alarm panel will remain illuminated.
• Significant Level: If either sensor detects gas
fumes at a concentration greater than 50% to
60% LFL (2.5% gas in air by volume), the
small red light next to the SIGNIFICANT indicator for that zone will flash. After approximately 15 seconds, the large green light on the
alarm panel will switch off, the red light will illuminate, and the buzzer will sound. All alarm
indicators will remain on as long as fumes are
detected.
• Sensor Fault: If the system detects that either
of the sensors has been disconnected or has
malfunctioned, an amber light next to the Sensor Fault indicator for that zone will illuminate.
The control module also has buttons used to test or
reset the the control module after an alarm. Red
lights next to each button indicate when they are engaged.
• Shutdown Reset: If an alarm has been acti-
vated and the Relay Engaged light is illuminated, the Shutdown Reset button will reset
the internal relay. Press the Shutdown Reset
button only after the gas has cleared, the
buzzer has turned off, and the alarm panel
light has returned to green.
• Push To Silence: If an alarm has been acti-
vated, the Push To Silence button will silence
the buzzer.
See Table 16.2 for the functions of all lights and buttons on the overhead console.
Testing
Daimler Trucks North America strongly recommends
that all operators follow California Code of Regulations (CCR) inspection requirements, regardless of
where the vehicle is operated. Per Title 13 CCR §
935 (2), gas detection systems should be tested
three times per calendar year at equal intervals. The
testing procedure should simulate the same operating environment in which the vehicle is used, with the
same gaseous fuel.
Natural Gas Vehicle
5
6
7
4
AMGaDS III Plus
Gas Detection System
Power
Push
To
Silence
Gas Concentration:
SIGNIFICANT
3
Silence
Engaged
10
11
Trace
12
13
2
ne
Zo
1
ne
Zo
Shutdown
Relay
Reset
Engaged
Sensor Fault
Push To Test
8
2
1
9
04/28/2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
f611034
Test Button
Sensor Fault Indicator Lights
Zone 1 Leak Indicator Lights
Power Indicator Light
Zone 2 Leak Indicator Lights
6.
7.
8.
9.
Silence Button
Silenced Engaged Light
Relay Engaged Light
Shutdown Reset Button
10.
11
12.
13.
Buzzer Alarm
Red Light
Green Light
Sensor
Fig. 16.6, AMGaDS III Plus Overhead Console
Item
Green Power Light
Display
Illuminated
Control Module Functions
Function
System is on.
Unlit
SIGNIFICANT Gas
Concentration Lights
Red (illuminated)
Trace Gas Concentration
Lights
Amber (flashing)
Sensor Fault Lights
Off
On
Action Required
None required.
Ensure the batteries are
connected and replace any blown
Detection system is not
fuses. If the gas detection system
functioning.
is still not functioning, replace the
system immediately.
Suspend vehicle operation
Dangerous gas concentration
immediately and follow alarm
detected.
procedures.
Use caution and monitor the
Minor gas concentration detected.
system.
Sensor is functioning properly.
None required.
Sensor has malfunctioned.
Replace the sensor immediately.
16.8
Natural Gas Vehicle
Item
Shutdown Reset Button
Relay Engaged Light
Display
—
On
Off
Control Module Functions
Function
Resets the system after an alarm
activation.
Relay is engaged and test or
alarm is being cleared.
Normal condition.
Test Button
—
Tests the overhead console
operation and circuitry.
Silence Button
—
Silences the alarm buzzer.
On
Indicates the buzzer is active but
silenced.
Off
Normal condition.
Silence Engaged Light
Action Required
Press to reset the system only
after the gas has cleared, the
buzzer has turned off, and the
alarm panel light has returned to
green.
Press the Shutdown Reset button.
None required.
Press and hold for one minute to
to activate a test of all overhead
console components.
Press to silence the alarm buzzer.
Suspend vehicle operation
immediately and follow alarm
procedures.
None required.
Table 16.2, Control Module Functions
Test results validating the performance of the gas
detection system within the parameters established
by the component manufacturer and NFPA 52 2010
should be maintained as a permanent part of the vehicle service records. Use of alcohol, propane, and
other harsh liquids or gases are not acceptable
methods for testing.
Always test the system and sensors after any component has been replaced, or if the vehicle has been
involved in an accident or fire. Ensure that the gas
detection system is wired directly to the battery.
It is recommended that the highest level of safety
validation be utilized if there are multiple validation
requirements in the state or locality where the vehicle
is operated or domiciled.
Overhead Console Test
Press and hold the Push To Test button for one minute. The system will proceed with a self-diagnostic
test that will include illumination of the Trace and
SIGNIFICANT gas concentration lights, and the sensor fault lights. Verify the large red light and buzzer
activate, and that all lights illuminate or flash to ensure that all bulbs are operational.
Sensor Test
The gas detection system sensors must be tested
using certified test gas, which can be purchased as
part of a test kit. Testing with alcohol or heavy gases
16.9
such as butane or propane does not satisfy CCR §
935 (2) or NFPA 52 regulations.
Expose each sensor to certified test gas for at least
thirty seconds. The system will proceed through the
alarm procedure consistent with a significant leak
and the buzzer will sound after approximately fifteen
seconds. If a sensor fails to respond after exposure
to the test gas, replace the sensor.
Natural Gas Engine Starting
NOTE: Before starting the engine, read Chapter 3 for detailed information on how to read the
instruments and Chapter 4 for detailed information on how to operate the controls. Read the
operating instructions in the engine manufacturer’s operation manual before starting the engine.
1.
Before engine start-up, complete the engine pretrip and post-trip inspections and maintenance
procedures in Chapter 11.
2.
Ensure the fuel shutoff valve is open.
3.
Set the parking brake.
4.
Ensure that the transmission shift control is in
Neutral (N), Park (P), or the Park Brake (PB) position.
Natural Gas Vehicle
5.
Without starting the engine, turn the ignition
switch to the ON position (Fig. 16.7). The electronic gauges on the instrumentation control unit
(ICU) will complete a full sweep of their dials, the
warning and indicator lights will illuminate, and
the buzzer will sound for three seconds.
09/12/2001
Replace any leaking or damaged fuel tanks/cylinders
and fuel lines; repair or replace leaking or damaged
fittings. Install parts and components in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
f610509
Fig. 16.7, Ignition Switch Positions
6.
Turn the ignition switch to the START position.
Press down on the clutch pedal, if equipped, but
do not press down on the accelerator pedal.
Release the key the moment the engine starts.
7.
Bring the engine up to operating speed gradually
as it warms up and develops stable oil pressure.
If the vehicle has not been operated previously in
a 24-hour period, allow the vehicle to idle for five
minutes.
NOTICE
Do not rev the engine if the oil pressure gauge
indicates no oil pressure. Shut down the engine
within approximately ten seconds to avoid engine
damage.
8.
Check the oil pressure gauge for any drop in lubricating oil pressure or mechanical malfunction
in the lubricating oil system.
Major Repair and Replacement
of Natural Gas Components
If a natural-gas-fueled vehicle is involved in an accident, remove the fuel tank or cylinders from service
and have them inspected by a qualified technician.
16.10
Index
Subject
Page
A
Adjustable Steering Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Adjusting Headlight Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
Air Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Air Brake System, General
Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2
Air Brake System Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2
Automatic Slack Adjusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4
Allison MD Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5
Operating Instructions, MD
Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5
Allison On-Highway
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3
Operating Instructions, OnHighway Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4
Range Inhibit Indicator, 2000
and 2400 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3
All-Wheel-Drive Controls,
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
AWD Operation Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12
AWD Range Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12
B
Back-of-Cab Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Climbing Down from Backof-Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6
Entering Back-of-Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6
Battery Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6
Battery Compartment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6
Cab (Battery) Isolation
Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Meritor™ WABCO® Antilock
Braking System (ABS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Parking Brake Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Trailer Air Supply Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Trailer Brake Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
C
Cab Amenities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
Cab Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
Cup Holders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
Cab Door Locks and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Cab Entry and Exit, Vehicles
With One Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
Entering from the Driver’s
Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
Entering from the
Passenger’s Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
I-1
Subject
Page
Exiting from the Driver’s Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
Exiting from the Passenger’s
Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Cab Entry and Exit, Vehicles
With Two Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
Entering from the Driver’s
Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
Entering from the
Passenger’s Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Exiting from the Driver’s Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Exiting from the Passenger’s
Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Cab Washing and Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Care of Chrome Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Care of Exterior Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Care of Fiberglass Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Checking Headlight Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
Climate Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Accessory Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4
Air Conditioning, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4
Air Selection Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Defrosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Fan Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Fresh Air Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Recirculation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Temperature Control Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Clutches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Clutch Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Clutch Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Clutch Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Clutch Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Sachs Hydraulic Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Cold-Weather Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10
Cold-Weather Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Component GWR Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Component Information Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Cruise Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11
Dash-Mounted Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11
Shift Knob Controls, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.12
D
Daily Pretrip Inspection and
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
Cab Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7
Engine Compartment
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6
Natural Gas Fuel System
Inspection, If Equipped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.10
Saddle Tank Area
Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6
Index
Subject
Page
Suspension and Slack
Adjuster Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
Wheel and Tire Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
Dashboard Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Diesel Exhaust Fluid and Tank,
EPA10 and Newer Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
DEF Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4
DEF Warnings and Engine
Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5
Diesel Exhaust Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Fuel/DEF Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4
Driver Message Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
Driving Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
Parked Screens/Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
E
Eaton Fuller AutoShift™
Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.12
Automatic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.13
Manual Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.13
Push-Button Shift Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.13
Selecting Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.14
Eaton Fuller Range-Shift
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9
General Information, RangeShift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9
Operation, Deep-Reduction
Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.11
Operation, Range-Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.10
Eaton Fuller UltraShift
Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.15
General Information,
UltraShift ASW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.15
General Information,
UltraShift DM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.16
Operation, UltraShift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.16
UltraShift Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.20
Eaton Fuller UltraShift PLUS
Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.21
Auto Neutral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.24
Auto Start Gear Selection
and Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.24
Automatic Mode (AUTO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.22
Automatic Traction Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.25
Clutch Abuse Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.23
Coasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.25
Creep Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.24
Engine Overspeed
Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.24
Hill Start Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.24
Load-Based Shifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.25
Low (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.23
Subject
Page
Manual Mode (MAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.23
Power Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.22
Power Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.22
Reverse (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.22
Shuttle Shifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.24
Skip Shifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.24
Eaton® Fuller® Straight-Shift
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8
General Information,
Straight-Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8
Operation, Straight-Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8
Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Emergencies (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3
Emergency Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3
In Case of an Accident or
Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3
Emergency Filter Replacement,
Davco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Emergency Kit, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Emergency Starting With
Jumper Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2
Emission Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Aftertreatment System
Indicators Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Certified Clean Idle Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3
EPA Noise Emission Control
Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Vehicle Emission Control
Information Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
ATS Warning Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
EPA07 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
EPA10 and Newer Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
and Fuel Consumption
Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Regeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Engine Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.13
Engine Brake Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.14
Engine Break-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Engine Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Normal Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10
Safety and Environmental
Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Engine Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11
Engine Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7
Enhanced Stability Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6
Exhaust Braking Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.15
Exhaust Brake Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.15
Mercedes-Benz Exhaust
Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.15
Pacbrake® Exhaust Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.16
I-2
Index
Subject
Page
F
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Fifth Wheel Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Fontaine and Holland Fifth
Wheels Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Jost Fifth Wheel Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Fifth Wheel Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7
Air Slide Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9
Manual Slide Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7
Fifth Wheel Uncoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4
Air-Actuated Uncoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5
Manual Uncoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4
Fifth Wheels, General
Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Air-Suspension Dump Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Fifth Wheel Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Fire Extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Fire in the Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7
In Case of a Cab Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7
Freightliner SmartShift Shift
Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.15
General Information,
SmartShift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.15
Fuse Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8
Main Fuse Box/PDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8
Trailer and Taillight Fuse
Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8
G
Grab Handles and Access
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
H
Hazard Warning Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Heater/Air Conditioner Control
Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
High-Altitude Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11
Hood Opening and Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
To Close the Hood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
To Open the Hood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
Horn Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Air Horn, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Electric Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
Electric Power Take-Off
(ePTO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
High-Voltage Safety
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
I-3
Subject
Page
Regenerative Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
Hybrid System Fault Lamps
(HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2
Hydraulic Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4
Hydraulic Brake System,
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4
Hydraulic Brake System
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4
I
Ignition Switch and Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Instrumentation Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Audible Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
Ignition Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8
Air Intake Restriction Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9
Ambient Temperature Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9
Coolant Temperature Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10
Engine Oil Temperature
Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11
Fuel Gauge, Pre-EPA10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11
Fuel/Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF) Gauge, EPA10 and
Newer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11
Primary and Secondary Air
Pressure Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12
Speedometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12
Tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12
Transmission Fluid
Temperature Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12
Turbocharger Boost
Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13
Voltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13
J
Jumpstarting (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3
L
Lighting Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exterior Light Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interior Lights and Light
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.4
M
Major Repair and Replacement
of Natural Gas Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.10
Mercedes-Benz Automated
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.26
Index
Subject
Page
AGS Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.30
General Information, AGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.26
Operation, AGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.26
Mercedes-Benz Manual
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.25
Meritor WABCO® Antilock
Braking System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5
Automatic Traction Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6
Trailer ABS Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5
Meritor™ Drive Axles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.30
Axle Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.33
Drive Axles With Differential
Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.30
Tandem Drive Axles With
Interaxle Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.32
Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Down View Mirror, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Mirror Heat Switch, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Power Mirrors, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Monthly Post-Trip Inspection
and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.13
Brake Component Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.13
Engine Compartment
Inspection and
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.15
Natural Gas Fuel System
Inspection, If Equipped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.15
Saddle Tank Area
Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.14
Multifunction Turn Signal Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Hazard Warning Flasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Headlight High Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
Turn-Signal Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Windshield Wiper/Washer
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
N
Natural Gas Detection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alarm Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overhead Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas Engine Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas Fuel Tank Filling
Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CNG Vehicle Fueling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LNG Vehicle Fueling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas Vehicles, General
Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas Vehicles, Safety
Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In Case of Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5
16.5
16.7
16.6
16.7
16.9
16.2
16.2
16.3
16.1
16.1
16.2
Subject
Page
O
Other Dash-Mounted Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CB Radio Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cigarette Lighter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suspension Autofill Override
Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suspension Dump Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windshield-Fan Switches,
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overhead Instrument Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.14
4.14
4.14
4.15
4.14
4.14
3.13
P
Power Takeoff (PTO) Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.13
Powertrain Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
After-Treatment System
(ATS) Request/Inhibit
Regen Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Axle Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
Cruise Control Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8
Engine Brake Switch,
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8
Engine Fan Switch, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Exhaust Brake Switch,
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Transmission Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspection
Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Fluids Added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2
Preliminary Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
S
Safety Precautions (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2
Seat Belts and Tether Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8
Seat Belt Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
Seat Belt Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
Seat Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
Bench Seat Adjustment
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
Suspension Seat Adjustment
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.16
Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
Bench Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
Bostrom Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5
Freightliner High-Back Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
National 2000 Series Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
Sears Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7
I-4
Index
Subject
Page
Starting After Extended
Shutdown or Oil Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9
Starting, and Engine Shutdown
(HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2
Engine Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2
Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2
The Cranking System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2
Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Steering Wheel Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
T
Towing (HEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front Towing Hookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear Towing Hookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3
13.5
13.5
13.5
V
Velour Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chewing Gum or Wax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grease and Oil-Based Stains . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mildew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sugar and Water-Based
Stains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ball Point Ink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chewing Gum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nail Polish and Nail Polish
Remover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ordinary Dirt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint, Shoe Heel Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shoe Polish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sulfide Stains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tars, Asphalts, and Creosote . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
W
Warning and Indicator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
Engine Protection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6
Weekly Post-Trip Inspection
and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.11
Engine Compartment
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.11
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Windshield Washer Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
I-5
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