SART II
CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
15
16
17
17.1
17.2
Warning ........................................................................... 1
General description ........................................................ 2
SART principle of operation .......................................... 3
Installation....................................................................... 5
SART General Assembly................................................ 6
Operating instructions ................................................... 7
Self test facility ............................................................... 8
Battery replacement ....................................................... 9
Technical description ................................................... 10
Function chart ............................................................... 10
Fault Finding ................................................................. 11
Servicing........................................................................ 11
Dimensions ................................................................... 12
Operation of marine radar for SART detection .......... 13
Radar Range Scale ....................................................................... 13
SART Range Errors....................................................................... 13
Radar Bandwidth ........................................................................... 13
Radar Side Lobes .......................................................................... 13
Detuning the Radar........................................................................ 13
Gain ............................................................................................... 14
Anti-Clutter Sea Control ................................................................. 14
Anti-Clutter Rain Control ................................................................ 14
Radar Displays .............................................................................. 14
Technical Specification................................................ 15
Declaration of Conformity ........................................... 16
End of Life Statement ................................................... 17
Battery Removal ............................................................................ 17
Disposal ......................................................................................... 17
1.
Warning
•
This SART II is an emergency device for use only in situations of
grave and imminent danger.
•
False alarms cost lives and money. Help to prevent them;
understand how to activate and disable your equipment.
•
Read the complete manual before installing, testing or using the
SART II.
•
The SART II contains no user serviceable parts. Return to your
dealer for service.
•
Dispose of this device safely. Contents include Lithium batteries;
do not incinerate, puncture, deform or short-circuit.
•
This device emits radio frequency radiation when activated.
Because of the levels and duty cycles, such radiation is not
classed as harmful. However, it is recommended that you do not
hold the radome while the SART II is activated.
•
If the security tab is broken, the SART II is not compliant with
SOLAS regulations and must be repaired or replaced.
Transportation
The SART contains a primary non-rechargeable Lithium battery, and may
have special transportation requirements depending on local and
international regulations in force at the time.
The battery pack contains 6.2g Lithium in total. Transport the SART II in
compliance with applicable regulations for this mass of hazardous material.
Disclaimer
The information and illustrations contained in this publication are to the best of our
knowledge correct at the time of going to print. We reserve the right to change
specifications, equipment, installation and maintenance instructions without notice as
part of our policy of continuous product development and improvement. No part of this
publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form,
electronic or otherwise without permission in writing from Kannad Marine. No liability
can be accepted for any inaccuracies or omissions in the publication, although every
care has been taken to make it as complete and accurate as possible.
1
2. General description
The SART II (Search And Rescue Transponder) is designed for survivor location
during search and rescue operations.
CARRY-OFF SART
Supplied as one integral unit. This is normally mounted in a bulkhead bracket
(supplied) which is used to stow the unit on the mother vessel. On abandoning to a
liferaft the SART II can be carried in one hand off the stricken vessel and mounted
through a port in the canopy of the liferaft using the telescopic pole.
The main body of the SART II is high visibility orange thermoplastic, attached to the
sealed replaceable battery pack by stainless steel fastenings. The joint is sealed
against water ingress by an O-ring.
Operation is by a rotating switch ring providing ON, OFF and TEST functions. The
ON position is reached by breaking a security tab. The switch ring is spring loaded
so that it returns automatically from the TEST position.
The Lithium battery is fitted with internal overload protection and has a five year
storage life. Non-reversible electrical connections are provided in the SART II body
and battery pack to facilitate battery replacement.
Each SART II carries a unique serial number and this can be located on the label
affixed to the orange body.
LIFERAFT SART
Supplied with or without mast. Normally it is packed as part of the liferaft
equipment. The mast version is mounted in the same manner as the carry-off
version; the version without the mast is intended to be hung from the highest point
inside the liferaft.
The SART II itself is identical with the carry-off version.
2
3. SART principle of operation
Actuating a SART enables a survival craft to show up on a search vessel's radar
display as an easily recognised series of dots.
RADAR (radio detection and ranging) is a device carried by most ships which is
used to determine the presence and location of an object by measuring the time for
the echo of a radio wave to return from it, and the direction from which it returns.
A typical ship's radar will transmit a stream of high power pulses on a fixed
frequency anywhere between 9.2GHz and 9.5GHz. It will collect the echoes
received on the same frequency using a display known as a Plan Position Indicator
(PPI), which shows the ship itself at the centre of the screen, with the echoes
dotted around it. Echoes further from the centre of the screen are thus further from
the ship and the relative or true bearing of each echo can be easily seen.
The SART operates by receiving a pulse from the search radar and sending back a
series of pulses in response, which the radar will then display as if they were
normal echoes. The first return pulse, if it sent back immediately, will appear in the
same place on the PPI as a normal echo would have done. Subsequent pulses,
being slightly delayed, appear to the radar like echoes from objects further away. A
series of dots is therefore shown, leading away from the position of the SART. This
distinctive pattern is much easier to spot than a single echo such as from a radar
reflector. Moreover, the fact that the SART is actually a transmitter means that the
return pulses can be as strong as echoes received from much larger objects.
A complication arises from the need for the SART to respond to radars which may
be operating at any frequency within the 9GHz band. The method chosen for the
SART is to use a wideband receiver (which will pick up any radar pulses in the
band), in conjunction with a swept frequency transmitter. Each radar pulse received
by the SART results in a transmission consisting of 12 forward and return sweeps
through the range 9.2GHz to 9.5GHz. The radar will only respond to returns close
to its own frequency of operation (i.e. within its receive bandwidth), so a "pulse" is
produced at the radar input each time the SART sweep passes through the correct
frequency.
A slow sweep would give the radar a stronger echo to deal with as the sweep
would be inside the operating bandwidth for a longer period. The delay for the
sweep to reach the operating frequency may however lead to an unacceptable
range error, as delayed echoes appear to be coming from more distant objects.
To minimise this problem, the SART uses a "sawtooth" response, sweeping quickly,
then slowly for each of its twelve forward and return sweeps. At long range, only
the slow sweeps, giving the strongest returns, are picked up. At close range,
where errors are more important, the fast sweeps are also detected. As the first
sweep is a fast one, then the range error is minimised and should be less than 150
metres.
3
The timescale over which all this occurs is very short. Each "fast" sweep takes
about 0.4µs, each "slow" sweep about 7.5µs. The complete series of twelve
forward and return sweeps is therefore complete within 100µs. Displayed on the
PPI, the spacing between each pair of dots will be 0.6 nautical miles.
On a long range setting, a typical radar will be triggering the SART every
millisecond - but only during the period that the rotating radar scanner is pointing in
the correct direction. Most modern radars use sophisticated noise rejection
techniques, which prevent the display of echoes which are not synchronized with
the radar's own transmissions, so one radar will not normally be confused by a
SART's response to neighbouring radar.
The SART indicates that it has been triggered by lighting an indicator LED
continuously (it flashes in standby mode) and by sounding an integral buzzer. If no
radar pulses are detected for a period exceeding 15 seconds, the SART reverts to
"standby" mode.
4
4. Installation
The preferred mounting location is inside the vessel, and protected from the
elements, usually on the ship’s bridge wing. The SART II should be mounted where
it will not get in the way of day-to-day operations, but where it can readily be
accessed near an emergency exit in the event it is needed.
Do not install the SART II within the ship's radar beam.
Fix the mounting bracket to a bulkhead in a convenient location. The recommended
fixing is by M5 marine grade stainless steel (e.g. A4/316) bolts; length is dependent
upon application. The bolts should be secured with either stainless steel locking
nuts or stainless steel nuts with stainless steel shake proof washers.
Mount the SART II, dome uppermost, onto the bracket by locating the lugs on the
SART II pole mount into the slots in the bracket. Push down the SART II into place.
Figure 1
Bracket mounting holes: 4 holes, 5.5mm diameter
.
NOTE: Safe compass distance 1.5m.
5
5
SART General Assembly
Ring for internal
liferaft mounting
Mounting
pole
Radome
Operating
switch ring
Battery pack
Lanyard
6
Bulkhead
Mounting
Bracket
6
Operating instructions
Remove from bulkhead bracket:
Lift the SART II from the bracket
To switch on:
Break the security tab away from the body of the SART II
Rotate the switch ring clockwise (i.e. to the left) to the ON position marked
by “1”
Switch ring
ON
Security tab
To extend the telescopic pole:
1. Grasp the rubber cover at the bottom of the pole, and twist the pole to
release it in the pole mount. Pull the pole down and twist to lock in
place in the pole mount.
2. Remove the rubber cover from the bottom of the pole; allow the pole
sections to drop. Lock sections together by twisting each section.
To deploy in a survival craft (liferaft):
Extend the SART II supporting pole as described above
Tether the SART II to a suitable point using the lanyard which unwinds
from its base
Inset the SARTII through the port in the canopy
Position the bottom of the support pole in the antenna pocket
Secure the pole to the canopy support
Some survival craft have the SART already packed as part of the inventory. In
general, these models of SART are not fitted with the support pole. The SART
should be switched ON then suspended by its top loop from the highest point of the
survival craft.
7
7
Self test facility
Regular testing of the SART II is advised. The duration of the test should be limited
to as short a time as possible as the SART II response may be received by other
vessels which are within range.
There are no operational differences between TEST and ON modes; the rotary
switch must be held in the TEST position, on release it returns to the OFF position.
1.
2.
3.
Ensure compliance with all applicable Health and Safety instructions when
working in proximity to a radar transmitter.
Locate the SART II within the line of sight of an operating approved marine
Radar.
Rotate the switch ring anticlockwise (i.e. to the right) to the TEST position, and
hold it in this position, and hold it in this position for a minimum of 30 seconds.
4.
a)
If the SART II responds to the radar, the red light in the base of the SART
II will be continuously lit and the buzzer will sound every 2 seconds.
Ensure the SART meets this requirement for the full 30 seconds.
b) If the SART II does not respond to the radar, the red light will flash every 2
seconds and the buzzer will not sound.
If the SART does not respond to the radar for the full 30 seconds it has failed
the test
5.
6.
Switch off the SART II by releasing the switch ring; check that it returns fully to
the OFF position.
During the annual survey, perform the self test and verify the SART
performance by observing the response on the radar.
TEST
Indicator light
8
8
Battery replacement
The battery should be changed 5 years from the date of manufacture shown on the
label or after use.
It is recommended that battery change should only be performed by an authorised
service agent, in order that a complete assessment and integrity check can be
performed. The replacement battery kit is available from an authorised service
agent and contains all necessary components.
9
9
Technical description
A single switched antenna is used for both receive and transmit functions; the
switch normally connects the antenna to the receiver circuit. In the standby mode
only the receiver portion of the SART II is powered to reduce battery consumption
to a minimum. In this condition the indicator circuit causes the LED to flash once
every two seconds.
On receipt of a radar pulse the video amplifier and detector circuit causes the rest
of the circuitry to become active and the unit switches to transmit mode. In this
condition the indicator circuit causes the LED to remain steady and the buzzer to
sound every two seconds.
The detection of a radar pulse causes the switch to connect the antenna to the
transmitter circuit. The output stage is fed by a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO),
whose frequency is determined by a sweep generator. When triggered by the
detector the sweep generator turns on the VCO and causes it to produce exactly 12
forward and reverse frequency sweeps before shutting down again.
If no radar pulses are detected for a period of 15 seconds the unit reverts to
standby mode.
10 Function chart
SART II STATUS
BUZZER
RED LED
OFF
OFF
OFF
STANDBY MODE
(TEST or ON)
OFF
FLASHING
EVERY 2 SECONDS
ACTIVELY
TRANSPONDING
(TEST or ON)
ON
EVERY 2 SECONDS
ON
10
11
Fault Finding
Fault finding is limited to performing the self test and verifying the SART response
on the radar.
12
Servicing
The SART contains no user-serviceable parts, and consequently should be
returned to an authorised Sailor service agent for repair. Ensure compliance with
the appropriate regulations for transportation of Lithium material, as detailed in the
Transportation section on the front inside cover.
11
13 Dimensions
12
14
Operation of marine radar for SART detection
14.1
Radar Range Scale
When looking for a SART it is preferable to use a range scale between 6 and 12
nautical miles. This is because the spacing between the SART responses is about
0.6 nautical miles (1125 metres) and it is necessary to see a number of responses
to distinguish the SART from other responses.
14.2
SART Range Errors
There are inherent delays in the SART responses; the SART has a trigger delay
and may also have to sweep through the whole radar band before reaching the
frequency of the search radar. At medium ranges of about 6 nautical miles the
range delay may be between about 150 metres and 0.6 nautical miles beyond the
SART position. As the SART is approached the radar delay of the first dot should
be no more than 150 metres beyond the SART position.
14.3
Radar Bandwidth
This is normally matched to the radar pulse length and is usually switched with the
range scale and the associated pulse length. Narrow bandwidths of 3.5MHz are
used with long pulses on long range and wide bandwidths of 10-25MHz with short
pulses on short ranges. Any radar bandwidth of less than 5MHz will attenuate the
SART signal slightly so it is preferable to use a medium bandwidth to ensure
optimum detection of the SART. The Radar operating manual should be consulted
about the particular radar parameters and bandwidth selection.
14.4
Radar Side Lobes
As the SART is approached side lobes from the antenna may show the SART
responses as a series of arcs or concentric rings. These can be removed by the
use of the anti-clutter sea control although it may be operationally useful to observe
the side lobes as these will confirm that the SART is near to the ship.
14.5
Detuning the Radar
To increase the visibility of the SART in clutter conditions the radar may be detuned
to reduce the clutter without reducing the SART response. Radar with automatic
frequency control may not permit manual detuning of the equipment. Care should
be taken in operating the radar detuned, as other wanted navigational and anticollision information may be removed. The tuning should be returned to normal
operation as soon as possible.
13
14.6
Gain
For detecting a SART at maximum range, the radar should be adjusted to its
maximum gain setting.
14.7
Anti-Clutter Sea Control
For optimum range SART detection, this control should be set to the minimum.
Care should be exercised as targets in sea clutter may be obscured. Some radar
sets have automatic/manual anti-clutter sea control facilities in which case the
operator should switch to manual.
14.8
Anti-Clutter Rain Control
This should not be used when trying to detect SARTs as the SART responses may
be removed by this control. Some sets have automatic/manual anti-clutter rain
control facilities in which case the operator should switch to manual.
14.9
Radar Displays
These sketches show the appearance of a SART response at different ranges.
SART response
from distant
liferaft (5-6 miles)
SART response
from liferaft at
medium range (2-3
miles).
Note widening of
“echoes”
14
SART response
close to vessel
(<1 mile).
Display now
shows “rings”
caused by
strength of
signal
15 Technical Specification
FREQUENCY:
POLARIZATION:
SWEEP RATE:
RESPONSE
SIGNAL:
FORM OF SWEEP:
PULSE EMISSION:
EIRP:
RX SENSITIVITY:
DURATION:
TEMP RANGE:
RECOVERY TIME:
ANTENNA HEIGHT:
RESPONSE DELAY:
ANTENNA BEAM:
WEIGHT:
DIMENSIONS:
BUOYANCY:
9.2GHz - 9.5GHz
Horizontal
5µs per 200MHz nominal
12 sweeps
Forward:
7.5µs ± 1µs
Reverse:
0.4µs ± 0.1µs
100µs nominal
>400mW (+26dBm)
Better than –50dBm (0.1 mW/m2) (Note 1)
96 hours in standby condition followed by a minimum of
8 hours of transmission while being continuously
interrogated with a pulse repetition frequency of 1kHz.
Operating: -200C to +550C
Storage:
-300C to +650C
Following excitation: 10µs or less
Greater or equal to 1m (Note 2)
0.5µs or less
Vertical: +/-12.5 degrees
Azimuth: Omnidirectional to +/-2dB
SART II only:
360g
SART II + pole:
510g
SART II complete:
530g
Overall, in bracket:
288 x 101 x 90mm
Buoyant
Note
1. Effective receiver sensitivity includes antenna gain.
2. The effective antenna height applies to equipment required to meet
Regulation 6.2.2 of Chapter III and 7.1.3 and 8.3.1 of Chapter IV of
the 1988 Amendments to the 1974 SOLAS Convention.
Standards
Complies with IMO Resolution A.802(19)
Test and Approval Standards are specified on the Declaration of Conformity
following.
15
16 Declaration of Conformity
16
17
End of Life Statement
At the end of the SART’s useful life, it is vital that the battery be disconnected from
the main unit to prevent false alarms. False alarms cause expensive disruption to
Search and Rescue services and may endanger lives as a consequence. It is also
necessary that the SART and its battery pack be disposed of in a manner that does
not present a threat of environmental damage.
17.1
Battery Removal
To disconnect the battery, turn the SART over and remove the three battery
retaining screws using a cross headed screwdriver. Gently prise the battery from
the main unit; Note that this will also release the ‘O’ ring seal. Cover the terminals
of the battery pack with sticky tape to prevent inadvertent short-circuiting.
17.2
Disposal
The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive aims to minimise
any adverse impact of electronic equipment on the environment, both during the
product lifetime and when it becomes waste. Within the European Union this
legislation is mandated by Directive 2002/96/EC, and there is similar legislation in
most other continents. The directive applies to all electronic products such as IT,
household appliances, portable electronics etc., and imposes requirements to
collect, treat, recover and recycle each product at its end of life. Electronic end-user
products must also carry a WEEE label (as below) and recovery and recycling
information has to be provided to the recycler.
This SART product contains traces of lithium in the battery pack. In addition it may
contain lead and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), both in the housing material
and circuit boards.
In keeping with the directive, it is strongly recommends that this SART product and
its battery pack be disposed of in a sensible and considerate manner. For example,
do not simply discard the product in the domestic waste. Instead take it to a civil
recycling facility, or contact your local agent for advice.
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86-920-005 Issue 8
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