MANUAL 12 4 4 MultiMode™ MOTOR CONTROLLER

MANUAL 12 4 4 MultiMode™ MOTOR CONTROLLER
MODEL
MANUAL
12 4 4
MultiMode™
MOTOR CONTROLLER
© 2001 CURTIS INSTRUMENTS, INC.
DESIGN OF CURTIS PMC 1200 SERIES
CONTROLLERS PROTECTED BY U.S.
PATENT NO. 4626750.
CURTIS PMC
235 East Airway Boulevard
Livermore, California 94568 USA
Tel: 925-961-1088
Fax: 925-961-1099
www.curtisinst.com
1244 Manual, p/n 16958
Rev. B: January 2001
1244 Manual
p/n 16958, Rev. B: January 2001
© 2001 CURTIS INSTRUMENTS, INC.
CURTIS INSTRUMENTS, INC.
200 KISCO AVENUE
MOUNT KISCO, NEW YORK 10549 USA
☎ 914-666-2971 FAX 914-666-2188
CURTIS PMC
235 EAST AIRWAY BOULEVARD
LIVERMORE, CALIFORNIA 94550 USA
☎ 925-961-1088 FAX 925-961-1099
ADDITIONAL OFFICES located in
Bulgaria, China, England, France, Germany,
India, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Puerto
Rico, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland
www.curtisinst.com
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
1.
OVERVIEW ....................................................................... 1
2.
INSTALLATION AND WIRING ..................................... 4
Mounting the Controller .............................................. 4
Connections: Low Current .......................................... 6
Connections: High Current ........................................ 7
Wiring: Controller ...................................................... 8
Wiring: Throttle ........................................................ 10
5kΩ–0, 2-wire resistive throttle (“Type 1”) ......... 11
0–5V, current source, 3-wire pot, and electronic
single-ended throttles (“Type 2”) ................ 12
0–5kΩ, 2-wire resistive throttle (“Type 3”) ......... 15
0–5V and 3-wire pot wigwag-style
throttles (“Type 4”) ..................................... 15
CAN-Nodes throttle (“Type 5”) ......................... 16
Wiring: Fault Outputs .............................................. 16
Wiring: Contactor Drivers ........................................ 16
Wiring: Pedal Switch ................................................. 19
Wiring: Hour Meter .................................................. 19
Wiring: CAN Bus Interface ....................................... 19
Wiring: Emergency Reverse ....................................... 19
Contactor, Switches, and Other Hardware ................. 21
3.
PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS ............................... 23
Acceleration Parameters .............................................. 26
Acceleration Rate, M1–M4 ................................. 26
Braking Rate, M1–M4 ........................................ 26
Deceleration Rate ................................................ 26
Quick Start ......................................................... 26
Taper Rate .......................................................... 27
Speed Parameters ....................................................... 27
Maximum Speed, M1–M4 ................................. 27
Creep Speed, M1–M4......................................... 27
Regen Speed ........................................................ 27
Throttle Parameters .................................................... 28
Control Mode ..................................................... 28
Throttle Type ..................................................... 29
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
iii
CONTENTS
Throttle Deadband ............................................. 30
Throttle Max ...................................................... 32
Throttle Map, M1–M4 ....................................... 34
Throttle Braking Percent, M1–M4 ..................... 36
Current Limit Parameters ........................................... 36
Drive Current Limit, M1–M4 ............................ 36
Braking Current Limit, M1–M4 ......................... 36
Minimum Field Current Limit ........................... 36
Maximum Field Current Limit ........................... 37
Restraint .............................................................. 37
Emergency Reverse Current Limit ...................... 38
Current Ratio ...................................................... 38
Field Control Parameters ........................................... 38
Field Map Start ................................................... 38
Field Map ........................................................... 39
Fault Parameters ......................................................... 41
High Pedal Disable (HPD) ................................. 41
Static Return to Off (SRO) ................................. 41
Fault Code .......................................................... 42
Output Driver Parameters .......................................... 43
Main Contactor Driver Interlock ........................ 43
Main Contactor Dropout Delay ......................... 43
Main Coil Open Check ...................................... 44
Main Contactor Weld Check .............................. 44
Auxiliary Driver Dropout Delay ......................... 44
Auxiliary Coil Open Check ................................. 44
Reverse Signal Open Check ................................ 45
Electromagnetic Brake Delay .............................. 45
Electromagnetic Brake Open Check ................... 45
Contactor Holding Voltage ................................. 46
Contactor Pull-in Voltage ................................... 46
Other Parameters ....................................................... 46
Battery Voltage ................................................... 46
Anti-Tiedown ..................................................... 47
Sequencing Delay ................................................ 47
Pedal Interlock .................................................... 47
Emergency Reverse Enable .................................. 48
Emergency Reverse Check .................................. 48
Node Address ...................................................... 48
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
iv
CONTENTS
Precharge ............................................................ 49
Load Compensation ............................................ 49
4.
OEM-SPECIFIED, FACTORY-SET PARAMETERS ..... 50
MultiMode™ Enable ................................................ 50
Accessory Driver Enable ............................................. 50
CAN Bus Enable ........................................................ 51
5.
INSTALLATION CHECKOUT ..................................... 52
6.
VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT ............... 54
Major Tuning ............................................................ 54
Tuning the active throttle range .......................... 54
Tuning the controller to the motor ..................... 57
Setting the unloaded vehicle top speed ................ 59
Equalizing loaded and unloaded vehicle speed .... 60
Fine Tuning ............................................................... 62
Response to increased throttle ............................. 62
Response to reduced throttle ............................... 63
Smoothness of direction transitions .................... 63
Ramp climbing ................................................... 65
Ramp restraint .................................................... 66
7.
PROGRAMMER OPERATION ..................................... 67
Programmer Operating Modes ................................... 69
Peace-of-Mind Programming ..................................... 71
Programmer Menus .................................................... 73
8.
DIAGNOSTICS AND TROUBLESHOOTING ............ 78
Programmer Diagnostics ............................................ 78
LED Diagnostics ........................................................ 80
Fault Output Drivers ................................................. 81
9.
MAINTENANCE ............................................................ 82
Cleaning ..................................................................... 82
Diagnostic History ..................................................... 82
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
Glossary of Features and Functions ............. A-1
Throttle Mounting Dimensions .................. B-1
Specifications ............................................... C-1
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
12345678901
v
FIGURES
FIGURES
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
FIG.
1:
Curtis PMC 1244 electronic motor controller ....................... 1
FIG.
2:
Mounting dimensions, Curtis PMC 1244 controller .............. 4
FIG.
3:
Standard wiring configuration ................................................ 8
FIG.
4:
Wiring for 5kΩ–0 throttle (“Type 1”) ................................. 11
FIG.
5:
Wiring for wigwag throttle,
using the 5kΩ–0 throttle input (“Type 1”) .......................... 11
FIG.
6:
Wiring for 0–5V throttle (“Type 2”) .................................... 12
FIG.
7:
Wiring for 3-wire potentiometer throttle (“Type 2”) ............ 13
FIG.
8:
Wiring for current source throttle (“Type 2”) ...................... 13
FIG.
9:
Wiring for Curtis ET-XXX electronic throttle (“Type 2”) .... 14
FIG.
10:
Wiring for 0–5kΩ throttle (“Type 3”) ................................. 15
FIG.
11:
Wiring for fault outputs ....................................................... 16
FIG.
12:
Wiring for main and auxiliary
contactor coils when using the
interlock and dropout delay features ..................................... 18
FIG.
13:
Wiring for emergency reverse
(applicable to walkie vehicles only) ....................................... 20
FIG.
14:
Effect of adjusting the neutral deadband parameter ........ 30, 31
FIG.
15:
Effect of adjusting the throttle max parameter ................ 32, 33
FIG.
16:
Throttle maps for controller
with maximum speed set at 100%
and creep speed set at 0 ........................................................ 34
FIG.
17:
Throttle maps for controller
with maximum speed set at 80%
and creep speed set at 10% ................................................... 35
vi
FIGURES / TABLES
FIGURES, cont’d
FIG.
18:
Influence of various parameters on
controller output response to throttle demand .................. 35
FIG.
19:
Field current relative to armature current,
with field map parameter set at 50% and 20% .................. 40
FIG.
B-1: Mounting dimensions, Curtis PMC standard
5kΩ, 3-wire throttle pot .................................................. B-1
FIG.
B-2: Mounting dimensions, Curtis PMC potboxes ................. B-1
FIG.
B-3: Mounting dimensions, Curtis PMC footpedal ................ B-2
FIG.
B-4: Mounting dimensions, Curtis electronic throttle ............. B-2
TABLES
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
TABLE
1: Voltages at throttle wiper input ....................................... 10
TABLE
2: Mode selection ................................................................ 22
TABLE
3: Programmable throttle types ............................................ 29
TABLE
4: Fault categories ................................................................ 43
TABLE
5: Troubleshooting chart ..................................................... 79
TABLE
6: Status LED fault codes .................................................... 80
TABLE
7: Fault category codes ......................................................... 81
TABLE
C-1: Specifications, 1244 controller ................................... C-1
vii
1 — OVERVIEW
1
OVERVIEW
Curtis PMC 1244 MultiMode™ controllers are separately excited motor speed
controllers designed for use in a variety of material handling vehicles. These
programmable controllers are simple to install, efficient, and cost effective.
Typical applications include low lifts, stackers, fork lifts, reach trucks, personnel
carriers, counterbalance trucks, order pickers, boom trucks, and other industrial
vehicles.
Fig. 1 Curtis PMC
1244 MultiMode™
electronic motor
controller.
The 1244 MultiMode™ controller offers smooth, silent, cost effective
control of motor speed and torque. A four quadrant, full-bridge field winding
control stage is combined with a two quadrant, half-bridge armature power stage
to provide solid state motor reversing and regenerative braking power without
additional relays or contactors. The 1244 controller can also be specified to be
compatible with CAN Bus communication systems.
These controllers are fully programmable by means of the optional handheld
1307 programmer. Use of the programmer provides diagnostic and test capability as well as configuration flexibility.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
1
1 — OVERVIEW
Like all Curtis PMC motor controllers, the 1244 offers superior operator control
of the vehicle’s motor drive speed. Features include:
✓
Full-bridge field and half-bridge armature power MOSFET design,
providing
• infinitely variable forward, reverse, drive, and brake control
• silent high frequency operation
• high efficiency
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
✓
Regenerative braking, providing longer operation on a single battery charge
and reducing motor brush wear and motor heating
✓
Programmability through the 1307 handheld programmer
✓
Complete diagnostics through the 1307 programmer and the internal Status
LED
✓
Two fault outputs provide diagnostics to remotely mounted displays
✓
Continuous armature current control, reducing arcing and brush wear
✓
Automatic braking when throttle is reduced from either direction; this
provides a compression braking feel and enhances safety by automatically
initiating braking in an operator hands off condition
✓
Deceleration Rate, Load Compensation, and Restraint features prevent
downhill runaway conditions; speed is controlled to within approximately
20% of level surface value
✓
MultiMode™ allows four user-selectable vehicle operating personalities
✓
Programmable to match individual separately excited motor characteristics
✓
Meets or exceeds EEC fault detect requirements
✓
Vehicle top speed is controlled and limited in each mode
✓
Linear temperature and undervoltage cutback on motor currents; no sudden
loss of power under any thermal conditions
✓
High pedal disable (HPD) and static return to off (SRO) interlocks prevent
vehicle runaway at startup
✓
Creep speed adjustable from 0% to 25% in each mode
✓
Continuous diagnostics during operation, with microprocessor power-on
self-test
2
1 — OVERVIEW
✓
Internal and external watchdog circuits ensure proper software operation
✓
Programmable coil drivers provide adjustable contactor pull-in and holding
voltages
✓
Hour-meter enable output is active whenever the controller is providing
motor current
✓
Optional Electromagnetic Brake Driver provides automatic control of an
electromagnetic brake or other similar function
✓
Optional Reverse Signal Driver provides a low signal any time the vehicle is
driving or braking in reverse
✓
Optional Auxiliary Driver provides a low signal to power an auxiliary
contactor or other similar function
✓
Driver outputs are short circuit protected and provide built-in coil spike
protection
✓
Controller is programmable to provide throttle control of motor speed,
applied motor voltage, or motor torque
✓
Can be configured for CAN Bus compatibility.
Familiarity with your Curtis PMC controller will help you install and operate it
properly. We encourage you to read this manual carefully. If you have questions,
please contact the Curtis office nearest you.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
3
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Controller
2
Fig. 2 Mounting
dimensions, Curtis PMC
1244 controller.
INSTALLATION AND WIRING
MOUNTING THE CONTROLLER
The outline and mounting hole dimensions for the 1244 controller are shown in
Figure 2.
The controller can be oriented in any position, and meets the IP64/IP67
ratings for environmental protection against dust and water. However, the
location should be carefully chosen to keep the controller as clean and dry
as possible. When selecting the mounting position, be sure to also take into
7.1 (0.28) dia.,
4 plcs
M8 thread, 3 plcs
M6 thread, 2 plcs
178
(7.00)
159
(6.25)
STATUS
LED
9.5
(0.375)
210 (8.25)
229 (9.00)
81
(3.19)
12.7
(0.50)
Dimensions in millimeters (and inches)
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
4
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Controller
consideration (1) that access is needed at the top of the controller to plug the
programmer into its connector, and (2) that the built-in Status LED is visible
only through the view port in the label on top of the controller.
To ensure full rated power, the controller should be fastened to a clean, flat
metal surface with four 6 mm (1/4") diameter screws, using the holes provided.
Although not usually necessary, a thermal joint compound can be used to
improve heat conduction from the controller heatsink to the mounting surface.
☞
CAUTION
Working on electric vehicles is potentially dangerous. You should protect
yourself against runaways, high current arcs, and outgassing from lead acid
batteries:
RUNAWAYS — Some conditions could cause the vehicle to run out of control.
Disconnect the motor or jack up the vehicle and get the drive wheels off the
ground before attempting any work on the motor control circuitry. NOTE: If
the wrong throttle type is selected with the handheld programmer, the
vehicle may suddenly begin to move.
— Electric vehicle batteries can supply very high
power, and arcs can occur if they are short circuited. Always open the battery
circuit before working on the motor control circuit. Wear safety glasses, and
use properly insulated tools to prevent shorts.
HIGH CURRENT ARCS
LEAD ACID BATTERIES — Charging or discharging generates hydrogen gas,
which can build up in and around the batteries. Follow the battery
manufacturer’s safety recommendations. Wear safety glasses.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
5
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Controller
CONNECTIONS
Low Current Connections
Three low current connectors are built into the 1244 controller. They are located
in a row on the top of the controller:
24-pin
6-pin
4-pin
The 24-pin connector provides the logic control connections. The mating
connector is a 24-pin Molex Mini-Fit Jr. connector part number 39-01-2245
using type 5556 terminals.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 4
Pin 5
Pin 6
Pin 7
Pin 8
Pin 9
Pin 10
Pin 11
Pin 12
keyswitch input (KSI)
interlock input
Mode Select 1 input
Mode Select 2 input
Fault 1 output
Fault 2 output
emergency reverse input
pedal switch input
coil return input
forward input
reverse input
hour meter enable output
Pin 13
Pin 14
Pin 15
Pin 16
Pin 17
Pin 18
Pin 19
Pin 20
Pin 21
Pin 22
Pin 23
Pin 24
throttle: 3-wire pot high
throttle: pot low
throttle: 3-wire pot wiper or 0–5V
throttle: 2-wire 5kΩ–0 or 0–5kΩ input
main contactor driver output
auxiliary contactor driver output
reverse signal driver output
electromagnetic brake driver output
(not used)
emergency reverse check output
(not used)
(not used)
6
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Controller
A 6-pin low power Molex connector is provided for the CAN Bus interface.
However, the CAN Bus option must be specified for this interface to be active.
The mating connector is a Molex Mini-Fit Jr. p/n 39-01-2065 using type 5556
terminals.
6
5
4
3
2
1
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
+15V supply (limited)
ground return (B-)
CAN H I/O line
Pin 4
Pin 5
Pin 6
L termination
H termination
CAN L I/O line
The +15V supply should only be used with the CAN system or speed sensor and
not to power any other external systems.
The L and H terminations provide a 120Ω termination impedance for the
CAN H I/O and CAN L I/O inputs if necessary. Refer to the Curtis CAN
Protocol Document to determine the proper termination for a given application.
A 4-pin low power connector is provided for the handheld 1307 programmer. A
complete programmer kit with the appropriate connecting cable can be ordered:
Curtis p/n 168961101 for the User Programmer (model 1307M-1101)
Curtis p/n 168962101 for the OEM Programmer (model 1307M-2101).
If a programmer is already available but has an incompatible cable, the 1244
mating cable can be ordered as a separate part: Curtis PMC p/n 16185.
High Current Connections
Five tin-plated solid aluminum bus bars are provided for the high current
connections to the battery (B+ and B-), the motor armature (M-), and the motor
field (F1 and F2). These bus bars incorporate threaded mounting studs designed
to accept mounting bolts. The B+, B-, and M- bus bars are threaded to accept M8
CABLE-FREE ZONES
bolts to a depth of 3/4". The F1 and F2 bus bars are threaded to accept
M6 bolts to a depth of 5/8". This simplifies the assembly
STATUS
and reduces the mounting hardware necessary for the
LED
power connections. The tightening torque applied to
the bolts should not exceed 16.3 N·m (12 ft-lbs) for the
F1
F2
M6 bolts or 20 N·m (15 ft-lbs) for the M8 bolts.
Exceeding these specifications could damage the bus
bars’ internal threads, resulting in loose connections.
BMB+
☞
CAUTION
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
Power cables must not be routed over the indicated areas. Otherwise they may
interfere with the proper operation of sensitive electromagnetic components
located underneath.
7
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Controller
WIRING: Standard Configuration
Figure 3 shows the typical wiring configuration for most applications. The
interlock switch is typically a seat switch, tiller switch, or foot switch.
Standard Power Wiring
Motor armature winding is straightforward, with the armature’s A1 connection
going to the controller’s B+ bus bar and the armature’s A2 connection going to
the controller’s M- bus bar.
The motor’s field connections (F1 and F2) to the controller are less obvious.
The direction of vehicle travel with the forward direction selected will depend on
MAIN
CONTACTOR
COIL
FORWARD
REVERSE
5 kΩ–0 THROTTLE
(TYPICAL)
MODE SELECT 2
MODE SELECT 1
INTERLOCK
B-
F1
M-
B+
F2
KEYSWITCH
MAIN
CONTACTOR
A
B-
A2
A1
F1
F2
POWER
FUSE
POLARITY
PROTECTION
DIODE
CONTROL
FUSE
B+
Fig. 3 Standard wiring configuration, Curtis PMC 1244 controller.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
8
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Controller
how the F1 and F2 connections are made to the controller’s two field terminals
and how the motor shaft is connected to the drive wheels through the vehicle’s
drive train.
Standard Control Wiring
Wiring for the input switches and contactors is shown in Figure 3; the connector
is shown in more detail below.
24-pin detail (see Fig. 3):
ELECTROMAGNETIC
BRAKE
DRIVER
EMERGENCY
REVERSE
CHECK
(factory option)
2-WIRE
POT
(5 kΩ)
AUX
CONTACTOR
DRIVER
REVERSE
SIGNAL
DRIVER
MAIN
CONTACTOR
DRIVER
POT
LOW
POT
WIPER
POT
HIGH
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
HOUR
METER
PEDAL
SWITCH
FORWARD
REVERSE
COIL
RETURN
EMERGENCY
REVERSE
(walkies only)
MODE
SELECT
2
FAULT
2
FAULT
1
INTERLOCK
MODE
SELECT
1
KEYSWITCH
INPUT (KSI)
The main contactor coil must be wired directly to the controller as shown in
Figure 3. The controller can be programmed to check for welded or missing main
contactor faults and uses the main contactor coil driver output to remove power
from the controller and motor in the event of various other faults. If the main
contactor coil is not wired to Pin 17, the controller will not be able to open
the main contactor in serious fault conditions and the system will therefore
not meet EEC safety requirements.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
9
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Throttle
WIRING: Throttle
Various throttles can be used with the 1244 controller. They are categorized as
one of five types in the programming menu of the handheld programmer.
Type 1: two-wire 5kΩ–0 throttles
Type 2: 0–5V throttles, current source throttles, three-wire potentiometer
throttles, and electronic throttles—wired for single-ended operation
Type 3: two-wire 0–5kΩ throttles
Type 4: 0–5V and three-wire potentiometer throttles—wired for wigwagstyle operation
Type 5: CAN-Nodes throttles
The operating specifications for these throttle types are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1 THROTTLE WIPER INPUT: THRESHOLD VALUES
THROTTLE
TYPE
PARAMETER
MINIMUM
THROTTLE
FAULT
THROTTLE
DEADBAND
(0% throttle)
(25% throttle
(active range)
HPD
THROTTLE
MAX
(100% modulation)
MAXIMUM
THROTTLE
FAULT
1
Wiper Voltage
Wiper Resistance
0.1 V
—
3.3 V
5.0 kΩ
1.0 V
3.8 kΩ
0.2 V
0 kΩ
4.4 V
7.5 kΩ
2
Wiper Voltage
Wiper Resistance
(none)
—
0.2 V
—
1.4 V
—
5.0 V
—
5.5 V
—
3
Wiper Voltage
Wiper Resistance
0.1 V
—
0.2 V
0 kΩ
1.0 V
1.3 kΩ
3.3 V
5.0 kΩ
4.4 V
7.5 kΩ
4
Wiper Voltage
0.5 V
0.5 kΩ
4.4 V (fwd)
0.6 V (rev)
4.4 kΩ (fwd)
0.6 kΩ (rev)
4.5 V
Wiper Resistance
3.1 V (fwd)
1.9 V (rev)
3.1 kΩ (fwd)
1.9 kΩ (rev)
Wiper Voltage
Wiper Resistance
N/A
N/A
5
Notes:
2.5 V (fwd)*
2.5 V (rev)*
2.5 kΩ (fwd)*
2.5 kΩ (rev)*
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
4.5 kΩ
N/A
N/A
The Upper and Lower Deadbands are valid for nominal 5kΩ potentiometers or 5V sources
with the default Throttle Deadband and Throttle Max parameter settings of 0% and 100%
respectively. These values will change with variations in the Throttle Deadband and
Throttle Max parameter settings—see Section 3, pages 30 and 32.
The HPD threshold is 25% of the active throttle range and is dependent on the programmed Throttle Deadband and Throttle Max settings.
* With 0% Throttle Deadband, there is no neutral point on a Type 4 throttle. It is
recommended that an 8% minimum deadband be used with Type 4 throttles.
All throttle fault protection is accomplished by monitoring the wiper input. This
provides throttle fault protection that meets all EEC requirements. Thus, no
additional fault protection is required on any throttle type used with the 1244
controller.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
10
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Throttle
Wiring for various throttles is described below. NOTE: In the text, throttles
are identified by their nominal range and not by their actual operating range.
If the throttle you are planning to use is not covered, contact the Curtis
office nearest you.
5kΩ–0 Throttle (“Type 1”)
The 5kΩ–0 throttle (called a “Type 1” throttle in the programming menu of the
handheld programmer) is a 2-wire resistive throttle that connects between the
2-Wire Pot and Pot Low pins (Pins 16 and 14), as shown in Figure 4. It doesn’t
matter which wire goes on which pin. For Type 1 throttles, zero speed corresponds to a nominal 5 kΩ measured between the two pins and full speed
corresponds to 0Ω. (NOTE: This wiring is also shown in the standard wiring
diagram, Figure 3.)
Fig. 4 Wiring for 5kΩ–0
throttle (“Type 1”).
FASTER
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
5kΩ–0
PIN KEY
Pin 16 2-Wire Pot
Pin 14 Pot Low
In addition to accommodating the basic 5kΩ–0 throttle, the Type 1 throttle
can also be used to implement a wigwag-style throttle. Using a 20kΩ pot wired
as shown in Figure 5, the pot wiper can be set such that the controller has 5 kΩ
between Pins 16 and 14 when the throttle is in the neutral position. The throttle
mechanism can then be designed such that rotating it either forward or back
decreases the resistance between Pins 16 and 14, which increases the controller
output. The throttle mechanism must provide signals to the controller’s forward
and reverse inputs independent of the throttle pot resistance. The controller will
Fig. 5 Wiring for 20kΩ
potentiometer used as part
of a wigwag-style throttle
(“Type 1”).
FASTER
FASTER
20 kΩ
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PIN KEY
Pin 16 2-Wire Pot
Pin 14 Pot Low
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
11
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Throttle
not sense direction from the pot resistance with Throttle Type 1. For true
wigwag-style control—without the necessity of providing independent forward
and reverse input signals—see Throttle Type 4.
If the total resistance between Pins 14 and 16 is greater than 7.5 kΩ, the
controller’s 4.4 V upper fault limit will be exceeded and the controller output will
be disabled. This provides broken wire protection, and also serves as an indication that the potentiometer’s nominal value has increased and the pot needs to be
replaced.
0–5V, 3-Wire Potentiometer, Current Source,
and Electronic Single-Ended Throttles (“Type 2”)
With these throttles (“Type 2” in the programming menu) the controller looks
for a voltage signal at the wiper input (Pin 15). Zero speed will correspond to 0V
and full speed to 5 V. A 3-wire pot, voltage source, voltage sensor, or current
source can be used with this throttle type. The wiring for each is slightly different.
0–5V Throttle
Two ways of wiring the 0–5V throttle are shown in Figure 6. The active range for
this throttle is from 0.2V (at 0% Throttle Deadband) to 5.0 V (at 100% Throttle
Max), measured relative to B-.
0–5V throttles (“Type 2”).
(a)
Sensor-referenced
0–5V throttle
SENSOR
+
SENSOR OUTPUT (0–5V)
Fig. 6 Wiring for
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PIN KEY
Pin 15 0–5V Input
Pin 14 Pot Low
SENSOR GROUND
(b)
Ground-referenced
0–5V throttle
+
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PIN KEY
B-
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
24
Pin 15 0–5V Input
12
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Throttle
3-Wire Potentiometer (1kΩ–10kΩ) Throttle
The 3-wire potentiometer is used in its voltage divider mode, with the voltage
source and return being provided by the 1244 controller. Pot High (Pin 13)
provides a current limited 5V source to the pot, and Pot Low (Pin 14) provides
the return path. The pot wiper is then connected to the Wiper Input (Pin 15).
If a 3-wire pot is used in the application, the controller will provide full throttle
fault protection in accordance with EEC requirements. Potentiometers with total
resistance values between 1kΩ and 10kΩ can be used with Throttle Type 2.
Wiring is shown in Figure 7.
Fig. 7 Wiring for 3-wire
potentiometer throttle
(“Type 2”).
1kΩ–10kΩ
ON
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
OFF
PIN KEY
Pin 15 Pot Wiper
Pin 14 Pot Low
Pin 13 Pot High
Current Sources As Throttles
A current source can also be used as a throttle input, as shown in Figure 8. A
resistor, Rthrottle, must be used to convert the current source value to a voltage. The
resistor should be sized to provide a 0–5V signal variation over the full current
range.
Fig. 8 Wiring for current
source throttle (“Type 2”).
I source
B-
R throttle
B-
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PIN KEY
Pin 15 0–5V Input
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
13
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Throttle
Curtis ET-XXX Electronic Throttle
The Curtis ET-XXX (manufactured by Hardellet) provides a 0–5V throttle and
forward/reverse inputs for the 1244 controller. Wiring for the ET-XXX is shown
in Figure 9.
Fig. 9 Wiring for Curtis
ET-XXX electronic throttle
(“Type 2”).
ET-XXX
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
B+
KEYSWITCH
WHT/
GRN
WHT/BRN
GREEN
B-
ORANGE
BLACK
B-
BLACK/WHITE
WHITE
PIN KEY
Pin 15 0–5V Input
connector
Pin 11 Reverse
Pin 10 Forward
Pin 1 KSI Input
The ET-XXX can be integrated into a control head to provide wigwag-style
throttle control. Alternatively, a complete control head assembly is available from
Curtis. This control head assembly—the CH series—combines the ET-XXX
throttle with a variety of standard control head switch functions for use in walkie
and lift truck applications.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
14
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Throttle
0–5kΩ Throttle (“Type 3”)
The 0–5kΩ throttle (“Type 3” in the programming menu) is a 2-wire resistive
throttle that connects between the 2-Wire Pot and Pot Low pins (Pins 16 and 14)
as shown in Figure 10. Zero speed corresponds to 0Ω measured between the two
pins and full speed corresponds to 5 kΩ. This throttle type is not appropriate for
use in wigwag-style applications.
Fig. 10 Wiring for
0–5kΩ throttle
(“Type 3”).
FASTER
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0–5kΩ
PIN KEY
Pin 16 2-Wire Pot
Pin 14 Pot Low
If the total resistance between Pins 14 and 16 is greater than 7.5 kΩ, the
controller’s 4.4 V upper fault limit will be exceeded and the controller output will
be disabled. This provides broken wire protection, and also serves as an indication that the potentiometer’s nominal value has increased and the pot needs to be
replaced.
0–5V and 3-Wire Potentiometer Wigwag-Style Throttles (“Type 4”)
With these throttles (“Type 4” in the programming menu) the throttle can be
used in true wigwag style. Any potentiometer value between 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ is
supported. If a 5kΩ potentiometer is used, the neutral point will be with the wiper
at 2.5 kΩ (measured between the Pot Wiper and Pot Low pins [Pins 15 and 14]).
The controller will provide increasing speed in the forward direction as the wiper
is moved toward Pot High, with maximum forward speed reached at 4.5 kΩ. The
controller will provide increasing speed in the reverse direction as the wiper is
moved toward Pot Low, with maximum reverse speed reached at 0.5 kΩ.
A 0–5V voltage source can also be used as the wiper input (see Figure 6).
However, the minimum and maximum wiper voltage must not exceed the 0.5V
and 4.5V fault limits.
With a Type 4 throttle, no direction signals to the controllers’ forward and
reverse inputs are required. Direction is determined by the wiper input value.
The throttle interface to the controller is similar to that for Type 2 throttles.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
15
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Fault Outputs and Contactor Drivers
CAN-Nodes Throttle (“Type 5”)
The “Type 5” throttle option is designed for use with CAN-based control
systems. No connections are required to the throttle input pins (Pins 13–16) or
direction pins (Pins 10 and 11), because all communications are handled through
the 6-pin CAN-Nodes interface connector. Details on how to combine a given
throttle with the CAN-Nodes system are provided in the Curtis CAN Protocol
Document. Fault detection for Type 5 throttles is handled by the CAN CRC
(Cyclic Redundancy Check) function, which is part of each node in the CAN Bus
architecture.
WIRING: Fault Outputs
The 1244 controller has two fault output drivers, at Pin 5 and Pin 6, which can
be used to provide diagnostic information either to a display panel on the vehicle
or to a remote location. These outputs are rated at 10mA maximum current at the
nominal battery pack voltage. For information on programming these outputs,
see Section 3: Programmable Parameters.
Wiring for the Fault 1 and Fault 2 outputs is shown in Figure 11.
Fig. 11 Wiring for fault
outputs.
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
+
PIN KEY
Pin 6
Pin 5
Fault 2 Output
Fault 1 Output
Fault 1
-
Fault 2
B-
WIRING: Contactor Drivers
The 1244 controller provides contactor coil drivers (at Pins 17–20) for the main
contactor, auxiliary contactor, reverse signal, and electromagnetic brake functions. These four outputs are low side drivers, designed to energize contactor coils.
The auxiliary, reverse signal, and electromagnetic brake drivers are optional
functions. They are available only if the Accessory Driver option is specified—see
Section 4, page 50.
It is not necessary to specify the contactors’ coil voltage at the nominal
battery pack voltage as long as the Contactor Pull-In Voltage and Contactor
Holding Voltage parameters are programmed to accommodate the coils’ voltage
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
16
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Contactor Drivers
rating. However, all coil voltage ratings should be the same, since only one value
of pull-in and holding voltage can be specified for all four of the drivers.
The driver outputs are rated at 2 amps and overcurrent protected at 3 amps.
The controller can be programmed to check for missing coil faults. These checks
can be disabled using a 1307M-2101 programmer—see Section 3, pages 44 and
45. A coil suppression diode is provided internally to protect the drivers from
inductive spikes generated at turn-off. To take advantage of the controller’s
internal coil suppression diode, Pin 9 must be wired such that the return path to
the contactor drivers cannot be opened by any switches or contactors.
The driver loads are not limited to contactor coils. Any load can be
connected to a Pin 17–20 driver as long as it does not exceed the driver’s 2 amp
current rating.
For information on programming the various contactor-related parameters,
see Section 3: Programmable Parameters.
Main Contactor Driver
In the standard configuration, the main contactor driver (Pin 17) pulls low when
the keyswitch input is enabled; this wiring is shown in the standard wiring
diagram (Figure 3, page 8).
Alternatively, the main contactor driver can be programmed not to pull low
until the interlock input as well as the keyswitch input is enabled. To do this, the
Main Contactor Driver Interlock parameter must be set to “On.” If the Main
Contactor Driver Interlock parameter is On, the Main Contactor Dropout
Delay parameter can be set to allow the main contactor to remain engaged for up
to 40 seconds after the interlock signal has been disabled. If the interlock and
delay functions are used, the main contactor and the coil return (Pin 9) must
both be wired to KSI. This alternative wiring is shown in Figure 12.
Auxiliary Contactor Driver
Like the main contactor driver, the auxiliary contactor driver (Pin 18) pulls low
when the interlock input is enabled. The output will be pulse-width-modulated
at the coil holding voltage along with the main, reverse signal, and electromagnetic brake contactor drivers, if the Holding Voltage parameter is set to less than
100%.
If desired, the Auxiliary Contactor Dropout Delay parameter can be set to
allow the auxiliary contactor to remain engaged for up to 40 seconds after the
interlock signal has been disabled. If the delay function is used, the auxiliary
contactor and the coil return (Pin 9) must both be wired to KSI rather than the
interlock input. This alternative wiring is shown in Figure 12.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
17
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Contactor Drivers
Fig. 12 Wiring for main,
ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE
CONTACTOR
COIL
auxiliary, reverse signal,
and electromagnetic brake
contactor coils, using the
interlock and dropout
delay functions.
REVERSE SIGNAL
CONTACTOR
COIL
AUXILIARY
CONTACTOR
COIL
MAIN
CONTACTOR
COIL
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
INTERLOCK
KEYSWITCH
PIN KEY
Pin 20
Pin 19
Pin 18
Pin 17
Electromagnetic Brake
Reverse Signal
Auxiliary Contactor
Main Contactor
Pin 9
Pin 2
Pin 1
Coil Return
Interlock Input
KSI Input
+
B-
Reverse Signal Driver
The reverse signal driver (Pin 19) pulls low when the vehicle is moving in the
reverse direction, either in drive or in braking mode. This driver is designed to
drive a reverse signal beeper or warning lamp that operates when one input is
pulled low. The output will be pulse-width-modulated at the coil holding voltage
along with the main, auxiliary, and electromagnetic brake contactor drivers, if the
holding voltage parameter is set to less than 100%.
Electromagnetic Brake Driver
The electromagnetic brake driver (Pin 20) pulls low when the controller receives
a throttle request or detects that the vehicle is still in braking mode. If desired, the
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
18
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Misc. Features
Brake Delay parameter can be set to allow the brake to remain disengaged for up
to 5 seconds after braking to neutral has been completed. If the delay function is
used, the brake driver and the coil return (Pin 9) must both be wired to KSI rather
than the interlock input. This alternative wiring is shown in Figure 12.
If the Throttle Braking parameter has been set to zero, the brake delay time
begins when the throttle is returned to neutral and the PWM output decelerates
to zero. The output will be pulse-width-modulated at the coil holding voltage
along with the main, auxiliary, and reverse signal contactor drivers, if the holding
voltage parameter is set to less than 100%.
WIRING: Pedal Switch
When the Pedal Switch option is enabled, controller output is possible only when
the pedal input (Pin 8) is pulled to B+. This feature allows a switch connected to
the throttle mechanism to guarantee zero controller output when the operator
releases the throttle. This adds a safety feature to protect against throttle failures
that cause controller output when the throttle is in neutral.
Alternatively, the pedal input can be wired into the brake pedal circuit to
automatically force zero controller output when the brake pedal is depressed,
regardless of throttle request.
WIRING: Hour Meter
The hour meter output (Pin 12) pulls to B+ to enable an hour meter whenever
current is flowing in the motor. This allows accurate accumulation of vehicle
operating hours. The output is current limited to 20 mA, and is compatible with
Curtis 700 and 800 series hour meters. For wiring, consult the documentation
supplied with the hour meter.
WIRING: CAN Bus Interface
Refer to the Curtis CAN Protocol Document for information about the CAN
Bus interface.
WIRING: Emergency Reverse
If you are installing a 1244 controller in a walkie vehicle, the emergency reverse
switch should be wired to Pin 7, as shown in Figure 13. Emergency reverse is
activated when the keyswitch is On and the emergency reverse input is pulled to
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
19
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Misc. Features
Fig. 13 Wiring for
emergency reverse
(applicable to walkie
vehicles only).
+
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
EMERGENCY
REVERSE
PIN KEY
Pin 22 Emergency Reverse Check
Pin 7
B-
Emergency Reverse
emergency reverse wiring check (optional)
☞
CAUTION
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
B+ by closing the emergency reverse switch. After the emergency reverse switch
is released, normal controller operation is not resumed until neutral (no direction)
is selected or until the interlock switch is cycled. CAUTION: The polarity of the
F1 and F2 connections will affect the operation of the emergency reverse feature.
The forward and reverse switches and the F1 and F2 connections must be
configured so that the vehicle drives away from the operator when the emergency
reverse button is pressed.
An optional wire connected directly to the emergency reverse switch provides for broken wire protection when that feature is enabled by the OEM. The
emergency reverse check feature periodically pulses the emergency reverse circuit
to check for continuity in the wiring. If there is no continuity, controller output
is inhibited until the wiring fault is corrected. The emergency reverse wiring
check wire (see dotted line in Figure 13) should be connected to the emergency
reverse switch terminals and to Pin 22.
For information about the emergency reverse parameters, see Section 3:
Programmable Parameters.
20
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Switches, etc.
CONTACTOR, SWITCHES, and OTHER HARDWARE
Main Contactor
A main contactor is recommended for use with any 1244 controller. A main
contactor allows the controller and motor to be disconnected from the battery.
This provides a significant safety feature in that the battery power can be removed
from the drive system if a controller or wiring fault results in battery power being
applied to the motor.
A single-pole, single-throw (SPST) contactor with silver-alloy contacts, such
as an Albright SW180 or SW200 (available from Curtis), is recommended for use
as the main contactor. It is not necessary to specify the coils at the nominal
battery pack voltage as long as the Contactor Pull-In Voltage and Contactor
Holding Voltage are programmed to accommodate the coil’s voltage rating—see
Section 3, page 46. The contactor coil should be specified with a continuous
rating if the Holding Voltage parameter is to be set at 100%. Intermittent duty
coils can be specified if they are used with appropriate Holding Voltage values.
Keyswitch and Interlock Switch
The vehicle should have a master on/off switch to turn the system off when not
in use. The keyswitch input provides logic power for the controller. The interlock
switch provides a safety interlock to prevent operation when a mechanical brake
is engaged or to ensure operator presence before the vehicle is allowed to move.
The keyswitch and interlock switch provide current to drive the various contactor
coils as well as the controller’s internal logic circuitry and must be rated to carry
these currents.
Forward, Reverse, Mode Select, and Pedal Switches
These input switches can be any type of single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switch
capable of switching the battery voltage at 25 mA.
Reverse Polarity Protection Diode
For reverse polarity protection, a diode should be added to the control circuit.
This diode will prohibit main contactor operation and current flow if the battery
pack is accidentally wired with the B+ and B- terminals reversed. It should be sized
appropriately for the maximum contactor coil and fault diode currents required
from the control circuit. The reverse polarity protection diode should be wired as
shown in the standard wiring diagram (Figure 3, page 8).
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
21
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Switches, etc.
Circuitry Protection Devices
To protect the control circuitry from accidental shorts, a low current fuse
(appropriate for the maximum current draw) should be connected in series with
the battery feed to the keyswitch. Additionally, a high current fuse should be
wired in series with the main contactor to protect the motor, controller, and
batteries from accidental shorts in the power system. The appropriate fuse for
each application should be selected with the help of a reputable fuse manufacturer
or dealer. The standard wiring diagram (Figure 3, page 8) shows the recommended location for each fuse.
Mode Select Switch Operation
The two mode select switches (Mode Select 1 and Mode Select 2) together define
the four operating modes. The switch combinations are shown in Table 2. Wiring
for the mode select switches is shown in the standard wiring diagram (Figure 3,
page 8).
Table 2
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
MODE SELECTION
OPERATING MODE
MODE
SELECT
SWITCH 1
MODE
SELECT
SWITCH 2
MultiMode™ 1
OPEN
OPEN
MultiMode™ 2
CLOSED
OPEN
MultiMode™ 3
OPEN
CLOSED
MultiMode™ 4
CLOSED
CLOSED
22
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS
3
PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS
The 1244 controller has a number of parameters that can be programmed by
means of a 1307 handheld programmer. These programmable parameters allow
the vehicle’s performance characteristics to be customized to fit the needs of
individual vehicles or vehicle operators.
Each controller is shipped with the parameter settings specified by the
OEM. For each programmable parameter, the specification process includes
designating whether it is to have User or OEM-only access rights. The OEM
specifies which—if any—parameters the user (dealer, distributor, etc.) will be
able to adjust. Accordingly, Curtis PMC offers two versions of the 1307 programmer: the 1307M-1101 is the User programmer (which can adjust only those
parameters with User access rights) and the 1307M-2101 is the OEM programmer (which can adjust all the programmable parameters).
The MultiMode™ feature of these controllers allows operation in four
distinct modes. These modes can be programmed to provide four different sets
of operating characteristics, which can be useful for operating in different
conditions—such as slow precise indoor maneuvering in one mode; faster, long
distance, outdoor travel in another mode; and application-specific special conditions in the remaining two modes.
Eight parameters can be configured independently in the four modes:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
acceleration rate (M1–M4)
braking rate (M1–M4)
maximum speed (M1–M4)
creep speed (M1–M4)
throttle map (M1–M4)
throttle braking percent (M1–M4)
drive current limit (M1–M4)
braking current limit (M1–M4).
Controllers can be factory-set to allow only one mode of operation if a
MultiMode™ system is not desirable for the application—see Section 4. It is not
necessary to have all eight MultiMode™ parameters on or off together; one or
any combination of these parameters can be specified as single-mode and the
others specified as MultiMode™.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
23
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS
The programmable parameters are described in the following order. They
are listed in the text by the abbreviated names that appear in the programmer’s
Program Menu. Not all of these parameters are displayed on all controllers; the
list for any given controller depends on its specifications.
There are additional parameters that can only be configured at the factory.
The manufacturer can specify how these parameters will be configured, but they
are not programmable using the 1307 programmer. See Section 4: OEM Specified,
Factory Set Parameters.
Acceleration Parameters
Acceleration Rate, M1–M4
Braking Rate, M1–M4
Deceleration Rate
Quick Start
Taper Rate
Speed Parameters
Maximum Speed, M1–M4
Creep Speed, M1–M4
Regen Speed
Throttle Parameters
Control Mode
Throttle Type
Throttle Deadband
Throttle Maximum
Throttle Map, M1–M4
Throttle Braking Percent, M1–M4
Current Limit Parameters
Drive Current Limit, M1–M4
Braking Current Limit, M1–M4
Minimum Field Current Limit
Maximum Field Current Limit
Restraint
Emergency Reverse Current Limit
Current Ratio
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
24
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS
Field Control Parameters
Field Map Start
Field Map
Fault Parameters
High Pedal Disable (HPD)
Static Return to Off (SRO)
Fault Code
Output Driver Parameters
Main Contactor Driver Interlock
Main Contactor Dropout Delay
Main Coil Open Check
Main Contactor Weld Check
Auxiliary Driver Dropout Delay
Auxiliary Coil Open Check
Reverse Signal Open Check
Electromagnetic Brake Delay
Electromagnetic Brake Open Check
Contactor Holding Voltage
Contactor Pull-In Voltage
Other Parameters
Battery Voltage
Anti-Tiedown
Sequencing Delay
Pedal Interlock
Emergency Reverse Enable
Emergency Reverse Check
Node Address
Precharge
Load Compensation
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
25
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Acceleration Parameters
Acceleration Parameters
M1–M4, ACCEL RATE
The acceleration rate defines the time it takes the controller to accelerate from
0% output to 100% output. A larger value represents a longer acceleration time
and a gentler start. Fast starts can be achieved by reducing the acceleration time,
i.e., by adjusting the accel rate to a smaller value. The acceleration rate is
adjustable from 0.1 second to 5.0 seconds, in 0.1 second increments. It can be set
independently for each of the four operating modes.
M1–M4, BRAKE RATE
The braking rate defines the time it takes the controller to increase from 0%
regen braking current to 100% regen braking current when braking is requested.
A larger value represents a longer time and therefore a gentler increase in braking
strength. Full braking strength is achieved more quickly when the braking rate
parameter value is reduced. The braking rate is adjustable from 0.1 second to 5.0
seconds, in 0.1 second increments, and can be set independently for each of the
four operating modes.
DECEL RATE
The deceleration rate defines the time it takes the controller output to respond
to a decrease in applied throttle. The deceleration rate defines the vehicle’s braking
characteristic for any reduction in throttle, including to neutral, that does not
include a request for the opposite direction. It also defines the characteristic for
braking after Emergency Reverse is released. The decel rate is adjustable from 0
to 10 seconds, in 0.1 second increments. The decel rate works in conjunction with
the throttle braking percent parameter, which must be set greater than zero for the
programmed decel rate to be active. The decel rate is not a MultiMode™
parameter, and its value will therefore affect all four operating modes.
QUICK START
The quick start function provides faster than normal acceleration in response to
fast changes in throttle demand. Upon receiving a sudden high throttle demand
from neutral, the quick start function causes the controller to exceed its normal
acceleration rate. The quick start algorithm is applied each time the throttle passes
through neutral and the controller is not in braking mode. Quick start is
adjustable from 0 to 10, in increments of 1. Increasing the value “livens” the vehicle’s
acceleration response to fast throttle movements.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
26
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Speed Parameters
TAPER RATE
The taper rate parameter sets the rate at which the regenerative braking command ramps down at the completion of regen braking. This controls the feel of
the vehicle as it slows down and approaches zero speed. The taper rate should be
adjusted such that during a full speed direction transition, the vehicle comes to
a smooth stop before accelerating in the opposite direction. The taper rate
parameter is adjustable from 0 to 64 in increments of 1, with each increment
representing 1/32 of a second. This parameter is not active during plug braking.
Speed Parameters
M1–M4, MAX SPEED
The maximum speed parameter defines the maximum controller output at full
throttle. This parameter is adjustable from 0% to 100%, in 1% increments.
M1–M4, CREEP SPEED
The creep speed parameter defines the initial controller output generated when
a direction is first selected. No applied throttle is necessary for the vehicle to enter
the creep mode, only a direction signal. The output maintains creep speed until
the throttle is rotated out of the throttle deadband (typically 10% of throttle).
Creep speed is adjustable from 0% to 25% of the controller duty cycle, in
1% increments. The specified creep speed percentage is not displayed as a
throttle percent in the programmer’s Test Menu when a direction is selected and
zero throttle is applied; only the throttle command is displayed.
REGEN SPEED
The regen speed parameter defines the vehicle speed above which the controller
initiates regenerative braking; below this speed, plug braking is used. Once the
vehicle begins regen braking, the system will continue to regen brake all the way
to zero speed. This threshold is important as it will affect the smoothness of
direction transitions when jockeying between forward and reverse at low speeds.
Regen braking provides the most benefit when the vehicle is decelerated from fast
speeds, whereas plug braking provides noticeably smoother direction changes at
slow speeds. The regen speed parameter is adjustable from 0% to 100% of the
vehicle speed, in 1% increments. Recommendations for adjusting the regen
braking parameter are provided in Section 6: Vehicle Performance Adjustment.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
27
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
Throttle Parameters
CTRL MODE
The control mode parameter tailors the controller’s output response to throttle
commands. The two control modes allow the throttle position to define either
applied motor current or applied motor voltage.
In current control mode (Type 0), the throttle position controls the
current flowing in the motor. The controller varies the percentage of
battery voltage applied to the motor to achieve the requested motor
current, thus controlling the motor torque. The operator will increase
throttle demand to accelerate and reduce the throttle demand once the
desired vehicle speed is reached. Any conditions that result in an
increase in motor loading or more motor torque will require an increase
in throttle demand to maintain the same vehicle speed. The throttle
braking percent, current ratio, and decel rate parameters are not active
in the current control mode.
In voltage control mode (Type 1), the throttle position controls the
percentage of battery voltage and current applied to the motor. The
current that is allowed to flow in the motor can be modified using the
current ratio parameter; see page 38. In voltage control mode, changes
in motor loading will result in only a small change in vehicle speed
unless the current limit is reached.
Acceleration and deceleration characteristics of the vehicle in response to throttle
changes in any of these modes will be determined by tuning parameters such as
accel rate, quick start, etc.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
28
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
THROTTLE TYPE
The 1244 controller accepts a variety of throttle inputs, through various combinations of its four throttle input pins. The most commonly used throttles can be
hooked up directly: 5kΩ–0 and 0–5kΩ 2-wire rheostats, 3-wire pots,
0–5V throttles, Curtis ET-1XX electronic throttles, and CAN-Nodes based
throttles.
The standard throttle input signal type options—Types “1” through “5” in
the throttle type programming menu—are listed in Table 3. Wiring information
and performance characteristics for each throttle type are presented in Section 2.
Table 3 PROGRAMMABLE THROTTLE TYPES
THROTTLE
TYPE
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
DESCRIPTION
1
5kΩ–0, 2-wire rheostat
2
single-ended 3-wire potentiometer (1kΩ to 10kΩ range)
or single-ended 0–5V input (from voltage throttle,
Curtis ET-1XX electronic throttle, or current source)
3
0–5kΩ, 2-wire rheostat
4
wigwag 3-wire potentiometer (1kΩ to 10kΩ range)
or wigwag 0–5V input (from voltage throttle)
5
CAN-Nodes throttle
29
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
THRTL DEADBAND
The throttle deadband parameter defines the throttle pot wiper voltage range the
controller interprets as neutral. Increasing the throttle deadband setting increases
the neutral range. This parameter is especially useful with throttle assemblies that
do not reliably return to a well-defined neutral point, because it allows the
deadband to be defined wide enough to ensure that the controller goes into
neutral when the throttle mechanism is released.
Examples of deadband settings (30%, 10%, 0%) are shown in Figure 14 for
throttle types 1 through 4, using a nominal 5kΩ–0 potentiometer. (For throttle
type 5, see the Curtis CAN Protocol Document.)
Fig. 14 Effect of
adjusting the throttle
deadband parameter
(Throttle Types 1 and 2).
5kΩ–0 Throttle: Type 1
0
5V
30% Deadband
2.3V
(3.2kΩ)
0.2V
(0Ω)
10% Deadband
0.2V
(0Ω)
3.0V
(4.5kΩ)
0% Deadband
0.2V
(0Ω)
3.3V
(5.0kΩ)
0–5V Single-Ended Throttle: Type 2
0
5V
30% Deadband
2.0V
10% Deadband
0.5V
0% Deadband
0.2V
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
30
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
cont’d Effect of
adjusting the throttle
deadband parameter
(Throttle Types 3 and 4).
Fig. 14,
0–5kΩ Throttle: Type 3
0
5V
30% Deadband
3.3V
(5.0kΩ)
1.2V
(1.4kΩ)
10% Deadband
3.3V
(5.0kΩ)
0.6V
(450Ω)
0% Deadband
3.3V
(5.0kΩ)
0.2V
(0Ω)
0–5V Wigwag Throttle: Type 4
0
5V
30% Deadband
0.5V
(500Ω)
1.3V
(1.3kΩ)
3.7V
(3.7kΩ)
4.5V
(4.5kΩ)
10% Deadband
0.5V
(500Ω)
2.1V
(2.1kΩ)
2.9V
(2.9kΩ)
4.5V
(4.5kΩ)
0% Deadband
0.5V
(500Ω)
2.5V
(2.5kΩ)
Notes: Voltages shown are at the pot wiper relative to B-.
KEY
Throttle
Deadband
0%
4.5V
(4.5kΩ)
Controller
Output
100%
For throttle types 1 and 3, the deadband points are
defined in terms of the nominal 5kΩ pot resistance.
Using a pot of greater or lesser resistance will give
different values for the deadband points.
Throttle Max parameter set at 100%.
The programmer displays the throttle deadband parameter as a percentage
of the nominal throttle wiper voltage range and is adjustable from 0% to 30%,
in 2% increments. The default deadband setting is 10%. The nominal throttle
wiper voltage range depends on the throttle type selected. See Table 1 (page 10)
for the characteristics of your selected throttle type.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
31
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
THROTTLE MAX
The throttle max parameter sets the wiper voltage required to produce 100%
controller output. Decreasing the throttle max setting reduces the wiper voltage
and therefore the full stroke necessary to produce full controller output. This
feature allows reduced-range throttle assemblies to be accommodated.
Examples are shown in Figure 15 for throttle types 1 through 4, using a
nominal 5kΩ potentiometer. These examples illustrate the effect of three different throttle max settings (100%, 90%, 60%) on the full-stroke wiper voltage
required to attain 100% controller output.
Fig. 15 Effect of
adjusting the throttle
max parameter
(Throttle Types 1 and 2).
5kΩ–0 Throttle: Type 1
0
5V
100% Throttle Max
30% Deadband
0.2V
(0Ω)
2.3V
(3.2kΩ)
90% Throttle Max
30% Deadband
0.6V
(450Ω)
2.3V
(3.2kΩ)
90% Throttle Max
10% Deadband
3.0V
(4.5kΩ)
0.6V
(450Ω)
60% Throttle Max
10% Deadband
1.7V
(2.2kΩ)
3.0V
(4.5kΩ)
0–5V Single-Ended Throttle: Type 2
0
5V
100% Throttle Max
30% Deadband
2.0V
90% Throttle Max
30% Deadband
4.5V
2.0V
90% Throttle Max
10% Deadband
4.5V
0.2V
60% Throttle Max
10% Deadband
0.2V
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
3.0V
32
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
Fig. 15,
cont’d
Effect of adjusting the
throttle max parameter
(Throttle Types 3 and 4).
0–5kΩ Throttle: Type 3
0
5V
100% Throttle Max
30% Deadband
3.3V
(5.0kΩ)
1.2V
(1.4kΩ)
90% Throttle Max
30% Deadband
3.0V
(4.5kΩ)
1.2V
(1.4kΩ)
90% Throttle Max
10% Deadband
0.5V
(400Ω)
3.0V
(4.5kΩ)
60% Throttle Max
10% Deadband
2.7V
(3.9kΩ)
0.5V
(400Ω)
0–5V Wigwag Throttle: Type 4
0
5V
100% Throttle Max
30% Deadband
0.5V
(500Ω)
1.3V
(1.3kΩ)
3.7V
(3.7kΩ)
4.5V
(4.5kΩ)
90% Throttle Max
30% Deadband
0.7V
(700Ω)
3.7V
(3.7kΩ)
1.3V
1.3kΩ)
4.3V
(4.3kΩ)
90% Throttle Max
10% Deadband
0.7V
(700Ω)
2.1V
(2.1kΩ)
4.3V
(4.3kΩ)
2.9V
(2.9kΩ)
60% Throttle Max
10% Deadband
1.3V
(1.3kΩ)
2.1V
(2.1kΩ)
0%
3.7V
(3.7kΩ)
Notes: Voltages shown are at the pot wiper relative to B-.
KEY
Throttle
Deadband
2.9V
(2.9kΩ)
Controller
Output
100%
For throttle types 1 and 3, the deadband points are
defined in terms of the nominal 5kΩ pot resistance.
Using a pot of greater or lesser resistance will give
different values for the deadband points.
The programmer displays the throttle max parameter as a percentage of the
active throttle voltage range. The throttle max parameter can be adjusted from
100% to 60%, in 2% increments. The nominal throttle wiper voltage range
depends on the throttle type selected. See Table 1 (page 10) for the characteristics
of your selected throttle type.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
33
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
M1–M4, THRTL MAP
The throttle map parameter modifies the vehicle’s response to the throttle input.
This parameter determines the controller output, based on the selected throttle
control mode, for a given amount of applied throttle. Setting the throttle map
parameter at 50% provides a linear output response to throttle position. Values
below 50% reduce the controller output at low throttle settings, providing
enhanced slow speed control. Values above 50% give the vehicle a faster, jumpier
feel at low throttle settings.
The throttle map can be programmed in 5% increments between 20% and
80%. The number refers to the controller output at half throttle, as a percentage
of the throttle’s full active range. The throttle’s active range is the voltage or
resistance between the 0% output point (throttle deadband) and the 100%
output point (throttle max). For example, if maximum speed is set at 100% and
creep speed is set at 0, a throttle map setting of 50% will give 50% output at half
throttle. The 50% setting corresponds to a linear response. Six throttle map
profiles (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 80%) are shown as examples in Figure 16, with
the maximum speed set at 100% and the creep speed set 0.
Fig. 16 Throttle maps for
100
CONTROLLER OUTPUT (PWM percent)
controller with maximum
speed set at 100% and
creep speed set at 0.
THROTTLE MAP
90
80%
60%
80
50%
40%
70
30%
60
20%
50
SPEED PARAMETERS
40
0%
30
100%
Creep Speed
Max Speed
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
THROTTLE INPUT (percent of active range)
Lowering the max speed or raising the creep speed limits the controller’s
output range. Throttle map profiles with the creep speed raised from zero to 10%
and the max speed reduced from 100% to 80% are shown in Figure 17. The
throttle map is always a percentage of the controller’s output range. So, in these
examples, the throttle map is a percentage of the 10–80% output range; a 40%
throttle map setting will give 38% output at half throttle (40% of the 70% range,
which is 28%, shifted up to 38% because it starts at the 10% creep speed).
Controller output will begin to increase above the set creep speed as soon as the
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
34
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
throttle is rotated out of its normal neutral range (deadband). Controller output
will continue to increase, following the curve defined by the throttle map setting,
as the throttle input increases and will reach maximum output when the throttle
input enters the upper deadband (crosses the throttle max threshold).
Fig. 17 Throttle maps for
100
CONTROLLER OUTPUT (PWM percent)
controller with maximum
speed set at 80% and creep
speed set at 10%.
THROTTLE MAP
90
80%
60%
80
50%
40%
70
30%
60
20%
50
SPEED PARAMETERS
40
30
10%
Creep Speed
80%
Max Speed
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
THROTTLE INPUT (percent of active range)
The Throttle Map operates within the window established by the Creep
Speed, Max Speed, Throttle Deadband, and Throttle Max parameters, as shown
in Figure 18. Creep Speed and Max Speed define the controller’s output range,
while Throttle Deadband and Throttle Max define the throttle’s active range.
These four parameters, together with the Throttle Map, determine the controller’s
output response to throttle demand.
Fig. 18 Influence of
100
SPEED PARAMETERS
90
80% Max Speed
60
50
40
90% Throttle Max
70
HALF THROTTLE
80
15% Throttle Deadband
CONTROLLER OUTPUT (PWM percent)
various parameters on
controller output response
to throttle demand.
10%
Creep Speed
80%
Max Speed
THROTTLE
PARAMETERS
15%
Deadband
90%
Throttle Max
40%
Throttle Map
40% Throttle Map
(38% output at half throttle)
30
20
10
10% Creep Speed
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
THROTTLE INPUT (percent)
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
35
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Current Limit Parameters
M1–M4, THRT BRK %
The throttle braking percent parameter establishes the braking force applied to
the vehicle when the throttle is reduced. Throttle braking is engaged when the
controller transitions from drive to neutral. The controller recognizes neutral as
the condition where neither direction switch is closed, regardless of throttle input.
This parameter is adjustable from 0% to 100% of the regen braking current limit
specified for a given mode, in 2% increments.
Current Limit Parameters
M1–M4, DRIVE C/L
The drive current limit parameter allows adjustment of the maximum current
the controller will supply to the motor during drive operation. This parameter can
be used to reduce the maximum torque applied to the drive system by the motor
in any of the modes. The drive current limit is adjustable from 200 amps to the
controller’s full rated current, in 5 amp increments. The full rated current
depends on the controller model.
M1–M4, BRAKE C/L
The braking current limit parameter allows adjustment of the maximum current
the controller will supply to the motor during regen braking operations. During
regen braking, this parameter controls the regen current from the motor’s
armature into the battery. The braking current limit is adjustable from 100 amps
up to the controller’s full rated current, in 5 amp increments. The full rated
current depends on the controller model.
FIELD MIN
The minimum field current limit parameter defines the minimum allowed
current in the motor’s field winding. Its setting will determine the vehicle’s
maximum speed and, to some extent, the smoothness with which the vehicle
starts and transitions from one direction to another. If the Field Min value is set
high, the vehicle’s top speed will be reduced, but torque bumps may be evident
when the vehicle is inched or changes direction.
One of the greatest advantages of the Field Min parameter is that it will
prevent uncontrolled acceleration when the vehicle encounters a decline. The
vehicle’s speed is limited when it goes down ramps or when it is unloaded from
trucks, etc.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
36
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Current Limit Parameters
The Field Min parameter is adjustable from 2 to 20 amps, in 0.5 amp
increments. Recommendations for adjusting the Field Min parameter are provided in Section 6: Vehicle Performance Adjustment.
FIELD MAX
The maximum field current limit parameter defines the maximum allowed
current in the motor’s field winding. Its setting will determine the motor’s
maximum torque during both drive and braking, and will limit the power
dissipation in the field winding itself. The Field Max parameter is adjustable from
7.5 amps to the controller’s full rated field current limit, in 0.5 amp increments.
Recommendations for adjusting the Field Max parameter are provided in Section 6:
Vehicle Performance Adjustment.
RESTRAINT
Because the 1244 controller is configured to provide throttle braking, overspeed will
cause the controller to create a braking current and thus limit or “restrain” the
overspeed condition. The restraint parameter, in combination with throttle braking
percent parameter, determines how strongly the controller will attempt to limit the
vehicle speed to the existing throttle setting. This function works at all throttle
settings, including zero throttle. It is applicable when throttle is reduced or when
the vehicle begins to travel downhill.
The restraint parameter is adjustable from 1 to 10. Setting the parameter to
a high value will cause strong braking, in an effort to bring the vehicle speed
down to the requested speed. Setting the restraint value to 1 will result in
minimal regen braking.
At zero throttle, the restraint function will also attempt to keep the motor at
zero speed. This will help hold the vehicle from running away down ramps when
braking to neutral is completed and the mechanical or electromagnetic brake has
not engaged. The higher the restraint parameter value, the stronger the braking
force applied to the motor and the slower the vehicle will creep down the ramp.
This creeping speed will depend on the restraint setting, the steepness of the
ramp, and the vehicle load. The restraint feature can never hold a vehicle
perfectly stationary on a ramp and is not intended to replace a mechanical or
electromagnetic brake for this purpose. The throttle braking percent parameter
is not active in this situation, and the controller will supply up to the maximum
programmed regen current limit. Recommendations for adjusting the restraint
parameter are provided in Section 6: Vehicle Performance Adjustment.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
37
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Field Control Parameters
EMR REV C/L
The emergency reverse current limit parameter defines the maximum braking
current provided through the motor when the emergency reverse function is
engaged. The emergency reverse current limit is adjustable from 50 amps to the
controller’s full rated braking current limit, in 5 amp increments.
CURRENT RATIO
The current ratio parameter defines how much of the programmed drive current
will be available to the motor at reduced throttle requests. This will determine the
maximum torque the motor can provide at partial throttle. The current ratio
parameter can be set to 1, 2, 4, or 8. These settings represent a multiplication
factor applied to the current that would otherwise be available. For example, if
20% throttle is requested with the current ratio set at 1, 20% of the battery voltage
and 20% of the drive current will be allowed to flow in the motor (assuming a
50% throttle map setting). If the current ratio is set at 2 under these same
conditions, 40% of the current will be available; if it is set at 4, 80%. The
controller will never allow more than the programmed drive current to flow in the
motor. If the current ratio is set at 8 with 20% throttle requested, the controller
will allow only 100% of the drive current and not 160%.
Because the current ratio parameter affects how much torque the motor can
provide, high current ratio settings will result in improved ramp climbing with
partial throttle, but may cause too much jumpiness at startup.
NOTE: The current ratio parameter is valid only when the control mode
parameter is set to Type 1 (Voltage Control).
Field Control Parameters
FLD MAP START
The field map start parameter defines the armature current at which the field
map starts to increase from the Field Min value. This parameter is expressed in
amperes, and is adjustable from 0 to one half the controller’s full rated armature
current value, in 5 amp increments. The Field Map Start parameter is used to
equalize the vehicle’s maximum speed when loaded and unloaded.
Increasing the Field Map Start value increases the maximum load the vehicle
can carry while still maintaining maximum speed on a level surface. Whether the
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
38
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Field Control Parameters
vehicle’s loaded speed will actually increase depends on the armature current
being drawn at that load. If the armature current is already below the Field Map
Start setting, increasing the Field Map Start value will not affect the vehicle’s
loaded speed.
Care should be taken to ensure that high Field Map Start values do not move
the motor’s operating characteristics outside its safe commutation area. Recommendations for adjusting the Field Map Start parameter to achieve various
performance characteristics are provided in Section 6: Vehicle Performance
Adjustment Guidelines.
FIELD MAP
The field map parameter defines the variation of the field winding current as a
function of armature current. It controls how much field current is applied for a
given armature current, and is adjustable from 0% to 100%, in 5% increments.
The Field Map parameter is set as a percentage of the field current between
the Field Min and Field Max values. As shown in Figure 19, the Field Map
parameter increases or decreases the field current at the armature current that is
halfway between the Field Map Start current and the controller’s programmed
drive current limit. This point on the armature current curve is referred to as the
Field Map Midpoint.
With the Field Map set at 50% and the Field Map Start set at zero, the
motor’s field current increases linearly with increasing armature current—thus
emulating a series wound motor. Decreasing the field map setting reduces the
field current at a given armature current, i.e., it weakens the field. As the field
current is reduced, the motor will be able to maintain speeds closer to the
maximum speed value.
Care should be taken to ensure that excessively low Field Map values do not
move the motor’s operating characteristics outside its safe commutation region.
Recommendations for adjusting the Field Map parameter to achieve various
performance characteristics are provided in Section 6: Vehicle Performance
Adjustment Guidelines.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
39
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Field Control Parameters
Fig. 19 Field current
Field Max
FIELD CURRENT
relative to armature
current, with field map
parameter set at 50%
and 20%.
Field Map
(50%)
Field Min
0
0
Field Map Start
Field Map Midpoint
100%
ARMATURE CURRENT
FIELD CURRENT
Field Max
Field Map
(20%)
Field Min
0
0
Field Map Start
Field Map Midpoint
100%
ARMATURE CURRENT
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
40
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Fault Parameters
Fault Parameters
HPD
The high pedal disable (HPD) feature prevents the vehicle from driving the
motor if greater than 25% throttle is applied when the controller is turned on. In
addition to providing routine smooth starts, HPD also protects against accidental
sudden starts if problems in the throttle linkage (e.g., bent parts, broken return
spring) give a throttle input signal to the controller even with the throttle released.
If the operator attempts to start the vehicle with the throttle already applied,
the controller will inhibit output to the motor until the throttle is reduced below
25%. For the vehicle to run, the controller must receive a KSI input—or a KSI
input and an interlock input—before receiving a throttle input. Either type of
HPD (HPD on KSI input alone or HPD on KSI plus interlock inputs) can be
selected via the programmer. HPD can also be disabled. To meet EEC requirements, the HPD feature must be programmed to Type 1 or 2.
Sequencing delay (see page 47) can be used to provide a variable delay before
the controller is disabled, if desired.
No HPD (Type 0)
HPD function is disabled.
Interlock-type HPD (Type 1)
To start the vehicle, the controller must receive an interlock switch input in
addition to a KSI input before receiving a throttle input. Controller operation will
be disabled immediately if throttle input is greater than 25% at the time the
interlock switch is closed. Normal controller operation is regained by reducing the
throttle demand to less than 25%.
KSI-type HPD (Type 2)
To start the vehicle, the controller must receive a KSI input before receiving a
throttle input. Controller operation will be disabled immediately if throttle input
is greater than 25% at the time KSI is enabled. If throttle is applied before the
interlock switch is closed but after the KSI input has been enabled, the vehicle will
accelerate to the requested speed as soon as the interlock switch is closed. Normal
operation is regained by reducing the throttle demand to less than 25%.
SRO
The static return to off (SRO) feature prevents the vehicle from being started
when “in gear.” SRO checks the sequencing of the interlock input—or the
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
41
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Fault Parameters
interlock input and KSI—relative to a direction input. The interlock input—or
the interlock plus KSI inputs—must come on before a direction is selected. If a
direction is selected before or simultaneously (within 50 msec) with the interlock
input, the controller is disabled.
Three types of SRO are available (along with a “no SRO” option):
Type 0:
Type 1:
Type 2:
Type 3:
no SRO
SRO on interlock input plus a direction input
SRO on KSI plus interlock input plus a direction input
SRO on KSI plus interlock input plus forward direction input.
If your controller is programmed so that both KSI and interlock inputs are
required (SRO Type “2”), the following sequence must be followed to enable the
controller: STEP 1, turn on KSI; STEP 2, activate interlock (input “high”); and then
STEP 3, select a direction. The interval between steps 1 and 2 is the same as
between steps 2 and 3; that is, KSI input must precede interlock input by at least
50 msec. Once the controller is operational, turning off either KSI or the
interlock causes the controller to turn off; re-enabling the controller requires the
3-step sequence.
Similarly, if your controller is programmed so that KSI, interlock, and
forward inputs are all required (SRO Type “3”), they must be provided in that
sequence in order to enable the controller. Note, however, that operation is
allowed if a reverse input precedes the interlock input; this can be useful when
operating a walkie on ramps.
Sequencing delay (see page 47) can be used to provide a variable delay before
disabling the controller, if desired.
FAULT CODE
The 1244 controller’s fault code drivers allow faults to be displayed in either of
two different formats: Fault Code format or Fault Category format.
With the fault code parameter specified “On,” the controller’s fault outputs
will provide information in Fault Code format. With the fault code parameter
specified “Off,” the controller’s fault outputs will provide information in Fault
Category format.
In Fault Code format, the two fault lines operate independently. When a fault
is present, the Fault 1 driver (Pin 5) provides a pulsed signal equivalent to the
fault code flashed by the controller’s built-in Status LED. This signal can be used
to drive an LED located on the display panel to provide the fault code information to an operator, or to any remote panel. The Fault 2 driver (Pin 6) pulls low
(to B-) and remains on until the fault is cleared; it can also be used to drive a
remote LED. When no faults are present, these outputs will both be open (off).
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
42
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Output Driver Parameters
In Fault Category format, the two fault lines together define one of four fault
categories. Table 4 describes the four fault categories, shows the state of the two
outputs for each category, and lists the faults that might be present when each of
the four fault category signals is transmitted.
Table 4
FAULT
FAULT 1
CATEGORY OUTPUT
(Pin 5)
FAULT 2
OUTPUT
(Pin 6)
FAULT CATEGORIES
POSSIBLE EXISTING FAULTS
0
HIGH
HIGH
(no faults present, or controller not operational)
1
LOW
HIGH
HW Failsafe; M-, Current Sensor, or Motor
Fault; Throttle Fault; Emergency Reverse
Wiring Fault; Contactor or Output Driver Fault;
Precharge Fault
2
HIGH
LOW
Low Battery Voltage; Overvoltage; Thermal
Cutback
3
LOW
LOW
HPD; SRO; Anti-Tiedown
Output Driver Parameters
MAIN CONT INTR
The main contactor driver interlock parameter allows the manufacturer to
define a dual switch requirement to operate the vehicle. When this parameter is
set to “On,” the controller requires that both the KSI input (Pin 1) and the
interlock input (Pin 2) be pulled high (to B+) before the controller will engage the
main contactor. The main contactor will open after the interlock switch is opened
and the sequencing and main open delays expire. If this parameter is set to “Off,”
only the KSI input is required for the main contactor to be engaged.
MAIN OPEN DLY
The main contactor dropout delay parameter is applicable only if the main
contactor driver interlock parameter has been set to “On.” The dropout delay
parameter can then be set to allow the main contactor to remain closed for a
period of time after the interlock switch is opened. The delay time is programmable from zero to 40 seconds, in 1 second intervals. The delay is useful for
preventing unnecessary cycling of the main contactor and for maintaining power
to auxiliary functions, such as a steering pump motor, that may be used for a short
time after the brake has been applied or the operator has gotten up from the seat.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
43
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Output Driver Parameters
MAIN CHECK
The main coil open check parameter defines whether the controller performs
missing coil checks to ensure that the main contactor has closed properly. When
this parameter is set to “On,” the controller senses the voltage at the main driver
input (Pin 17) to confirm that the main contactor coil is properly connected, and
also tests that the main contactor has indeed closed each time it is commanded
to do so. If the criteria for either of these tests are not met, the controller will
inhibit operation and issue a fault. Neither of these tests is performed if the main
check parameter is set to “Off.”
WELD CHECK
The main contactor weld check parameter defines whether the controller tests
the main contactor to ensure that it is not welded closed. If the weld check
parameter is set to “On,” this check is performed when the keyswitch is first
engaged and then each time the main contactor is commanded to open. This
check is not performed if the parameter is set to “Off.”
AUX DELAY
The auxiliary driver dropout delay parameter can be set to allow the auxiliary
driver to remain active for a period of time after the interlock switch is opened.
The delay time is programmable from 0 to 10 seconds, in 0.1 second intervals.
NOTE: The auxiliary driver dropout delay parameter is applicable only if the
accessory driver enable has been specified “On.” The accessory driver enable is a
factory-set parameter, and is described in Section 4.
AUX CHECK
The auxiliary coil open check parameter defines whether the controller performs
missing coil checks on the auxiliary driver output. When this parameter is set to
“On,” the controller senses the voltage at the auxiliary driver output (Pin 18) to
confirm that the auxiliary contactor coil is properly connected. If the criteria for
this test are not met, the controller will inhibit operation and issue a fault. This
test is not performed if the aux check parameter is set to “Off.”
NOTE: The aux check parameter is applicable only if the accessory driver
enable has been specified “On.” The accessory driver enable is a factory-set
parameter, and is described in Section 4.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
44
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Output Driver Parameters
REV DRVR CHECK
The reverse signal open check parameter defines whether the controller performs missing load checks on the reverse signal driver output. When this
parameter is set to “On,” the controller senses the voltage at the reverse signal
driver output (Pin 19) to confirm that the reverse signal driver load is properly
connected. If the criteria for this test are not met, the controller will inhibit
operation and issue a fault. This test is not performed if the reverse signal open
check parameter is set to “Off.”
NOTE: The reverse signal open check parameter is applicable only if the
accessory driver enable has been specified “On.” The accessory driver enable is a
factory-set parameter, and is described in Section 4.
EM BRAKE DELAY
The electromagnetic brake delay parameter is applicable only if the accessory
driver enable has been specified “On.” The accessory driver enable is a factory-set
parameter, and is described in Section 4.
The electromagnetic brake delay parameter can be set to delay engaging the
electromagnetic brake for a specified period of time after the controller senses
that braking has been completed and the vehicle has come to a stop. The delay
time is programmable from 0 to 5 seconds, in 0.1 second intervals.
EM BRAKE CHECK
The electromagnetic brake open check parameter defines whether the controller performs missing coil checks on the electromagnetic brake driver output.
When this parameter is set to “On,” the controller senses the voltage at the
electromagnetic brake driver output (Pin 20) to confirm that the electromagnetic
brake coil is properly connected. If the criteria for this test are not met, the
controller will inhibit operation and issue a fault. This test is not performed if the
electromagnetic brake open check parameter is set to “Off.”
NOTE: The electromagnetic brake open check parameter is applicable only if
the accessory driver enable has been specified “On.” The accessory driver enable
is a factory-set parameter, and is described in Section 4.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
45
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Other Parameters
CONT HOLDING
The contactor holding voltage parameter defines the output duty cycle of the
main, auxiliary, reverse, and electromagnetic brake drivers. This parameter is
adjustable from 20% to 100% of the battery voltage, in 2% increments. It allows
the OEM to reduce the average applied voltage so that a contactor coil or other
load that is not rated for the full battery voltage can be used.
For example, contactor coils rated for 12V could be used with a 36V system
if the contactor holding voltage parameter were set to 34%. The parameter can
be set lower than the rated contactor coil voltage, as long as it is set high enough
to hold the contactor closed under all shock and vibration conditions the vehicle
will be subjected to. Low settings minimize the current required to power the
coil, thereby reducing coil heating and increasing battery life. Recommended
values for the contactor holding voltage parameter should be determined with
specifications or advice from the contactor manufacturer.
This parameter affects all the driver outputs, so the loads on each driver must
allow operation at the set holding voltage. In addition, the loads on each driver
must be compatible with a PWM signal (if the parameter is set to a value less than
100%), as the output is pulse width modulated.
CONT PULL IN
The contactor pull-in voltage parameter sets the peak voltage applied to the
loads connected to the main, auxiliary, reverse and electromagnetic brake drivers.
Typically these loads are contactor coils. The pull-in parameter allows a high
initial voltage to be supplied when the driver first turns on, to ensure contactor
closure. After 0.1 second, the driver voltage drops to the value specified by the
contactor holding voltage parameter. Recommended values for this parameter
should be determined with specifications or advice from the contactor manufacturer. This parameter is adjustable from 20% to 100% of the nominal battery
voltage, in 2% increments.
Other Parameters
VOLTAGE
The battery voltage parameter sets the overvoltage and undervoltage protection
thresholds for the electronic system. This parameter determines when regen
should be cut back to prevent damage to batteries and other electrical system
components due to overvoltage. Similarly, the undervoltage threshold protects
systems from operating at voltages below their design thresholds. This will ensure
proper operation of all electronics whenever the vehicle is driven. The battery
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
46
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Other Parameters
voltage parameter can be set from 2 to 7, and should always be set to the system’s
nominal battery pack voltage:
SETTING
NOMINAL
BATTERY PACK VOLTAGE
2
3
4
5
6
7
24V
36V
48V
60V
72V
80V
ANTI-TIEDOWN
The anti-tiedown feature prevents operators from taping or “tying down” the
mode select switches in order to operate permanently in Mode 2 or Mode 4. On
startup, when the interlock switch is first closed, the anti-tiedown feature checks
which operational mode is selected. If the mode select switches are requesting
Mode 2 or Mode 4, the controller will ignore the request and default to Mode 1
or Mode 3 respectively. The controller will remain in Mode 1 or Mode 3 until the
Mode Select 1 switch is released and reactivated.
Anti-tiedown is primarily used in walkie applications. It can be programmed
“On” or “Off.”
SEQUENCING DLY
The sequencing delay feature allows the interlock switch to be cycled within a
set time (the sequencing delay), in order to prevent inadvertent activation of HPD
or SRO. This feature is useful in applications where the interlock switch may
bounce or be momentarily cycled during operation. The sequencing delay
parameter can be set from 0 to 3 seconds, in increments of 0.1 second, with 0
corresponding to no delay.
PEDAL INTR
The pedal interlock parameter can be programmed as “On” or “Off.” When
“On,” it requires that the pedal switch input (Pin 8) be active (pulled to B+) before
the controller will supply power to the motor. This feature is useful in systems that
use a seat or foot switch to guarantee operator presence for vehicle operation.
Alternatively, a switch connected to the brake pedal can be configured to open
immediately so that motor drive is disabled and will not interfere with the
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
47
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Other Parameters
mechanical braking function. In this arrangement, when the brake pedal is
released the controller output accelerates through its programmed acceleration
curve to the existing throttle request.
The controller does not require the pedal signal to engage the main contactor,
and the main contactor will not cycle on and off when the pedal switch is opened
and closed.
EMR REV ENABLE
The emergency reverse enable parameter enables or disables the emergency
reverse function. When it is set to “On,” the controller will be prepared to
implement the emergency reverse current limit for enhanced braking and the
direction change to reverse when the emergency reverse input (Pin 7) is pulled
high (to B+). When the emergency reverse enable parameter is set to “Off,” the
controller will not respond to any input to Pin 7 and the emergency reverse
current limit and emergency reverse check parameters will not be active.
EMR REV CHECK
The emergency reverse check parameter is applicable only when the emergency
reverse feature is being used in the application. If emergency reverse is not being
used, this parameter should be set to “Off.”
When enabled (programmed “On”), the emergency reverse check tests for
continuity from the emergency reverse check output (Pin 22) to the emergency
reverse input (Pin 7). Therefore, the emergency reverse wiring should be connected as closely as possible to the controller side of the emergency reverse switch,
as shown in Figure 13. If the controller detects this open wire fault, it will disable
its output until the wiring fault is fixed. The emergency reverse function will still
be active when this fault exists.
NODE ADDR
The node address parameter determines which address the controller will respond
to when used with a CAN Bus communications system. The address can be
specified from 1 to 15. This parameter is valid only when the CAN Bus function
has been specified for the controller; see Section 4.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
48
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Other Parameters
PRECHARGE
The precharge parameter enables or disables the precharge function. When this
parameter is set to “On,” the precharge function does not close the main contactor
until the internal power capacitor bank charges to within 10% of the battery
voltage. Charging is accomplished internally and an external precharge resistor is
not required. If the capacitor voltage does not reach this theshold, a precharge
fault is issued and the main contactor is never closed. This reduces inrush current
stresses on the capacitor bank and provides protection against allowing full battery
power to be engaged if there is a short in the output section. Setting the parameter
to “Off” disables the precharge function. The precharge function is required for
systems using 48V (or higher) battery packs.
LOAD COMP
The load compensation parameter actively adjusts the applied motor voltage as a
function of motor load current. This results in more constant vehicle speeds over
variations in load and in driving surface (ramps, etc.) without the vehicle operator
having to constantly adjust the throttle position. This parameter will also help
equalize loaded and unloaded vehicle speeds. Higher load compensation values will
cause the controller to be more aggressive in attempting to maintain vehicle speed.
However, too much load compensation can result in jerky vehicle starts and speed
oscillation (“hunting”) when the vehicle is unloaded.
The load compensation parameter is adjustable from 0 to 25. Recommendations for adjusting this parameter are provided in Section 6: Vehicle Performance Adjustment.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
49
4 — OEM-SPECIFIED, FACTORY-SET PARAMETERS
4
OEM-SPECIFIED PARAMETERS
(SET AT FACTORY)
In addition to the programmable parameters described in Section 3, there are
three parameters that can be set at the factory per the OEM’s specification:
— MultiMode™ Enable
— Accessory Driver Enable
— CAN Bus Enable
These parameters are not programmable with the 1307 programmer. If a change
is desired, the controller must be returned to an authorized Curtis facility for
reconfiguration.
MULTIMODE™ ENABLE
A key feature of Curtis PMC MultiMode™ controllers is their capability of being
configured for optimized performance in four distinctly defined modes. However, should the OEM prefer to offer only a single mode of operation in a given
application, the MultiMode™ feature can be disabled. Each of the 1244 controller’s
eight MultiMode™ parameters can be individually defined as MultiMode™ or
single mode.
OEM specifies ➤ On or Off
Default setting ➤ On
ACCESSORY DRIVER ENABLE
The 1244 controller provides three accessory drivers: an auxiliary driver (Pin 18),
a reverse signal driver (Pin 19), and an electromagnetic brake driver (Pin 20).
The auxiliary driver (Pin 18) provides a connection to B- when KSI and
the interlock (if enabled) are activated. The driver will release after the
programmed auxiliary driver dropout delay when the interlock switch
is turned off.
The reverse signal driver (Pin 19) provides a connection to B- whenever
the vehicle is moving in reverse, regardless of whether it is driving or
braking. When the vehicle is moving forward or is in neutral, the output
remains open. The reverse signal driver provides a continuous connection to B- (or a 500Hz pulsed signal if the contactor holding voltage is
set at less than 100%) but is not intended to pulse an audible alarm.
The electromagnetic brake driver (Pin 20) will engage (pull to B-) when
the throttle is applied or when creep speed is greater than zero and a
direction is selected. It will release, after the programmed electromagCurtis PMC 1244 Manual
49
4 — OEM-SPECIFIED, FACTORY-SET PARAMETERS
netic driver delay, when the throttle is returned to neutral or when the
vehicle has come to a stop. When the electromagnetic brake driver is
used, the neutral braking parameter must be set to a value greater than
zero.
When the accessory driver enable is specified “On,” these three drivers are
enabled. If none of these drivers is required, the accessory driver enable parameter
should be specified as “Off.”
Each accessory driver output is rated at 2 amperes and is monitored for open
connection and overcurrent faults. An internal diode provides coil suppression
through the coil return output (Pin 9). Wiring for the accessory drivers is shown
in Figure 12, page 18.
When the accessory driver enable is specified “On,” it also enables various
programmable parameters associated with the accessory drivers: the auxiliary
driver dropout delay, the auxiliary coil open check, the reverse signal open check,
the electromagnetic brake dropout delay, and the electromagnetic brake open
check. For more information on these programmable parameters, see Section 3.
Any component can be controlled by any of the accessory outputs provided
its current requirements do not exceed the driver’s 2 amp rating.
The three accessory drivers are enabled or disabled as a group; it is not
possible, for example, to have the electromagnetic brake driver enabled and the
auxiliary driver and reverse signal driver disabled.
OEM specifies ➤ On or Off
Default setting ➤ On
CAN BUS ENABLE
When enabled, this parameter configures the 1244 controller for use with CANbased control systems.
OEM specifies ➤ On or Off
Default setting ➤ Off
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
50
5 — INSTALLATION CHECKOUT
5
INSTALLATION CHECKOUT
Before operating the vehicle, carefully complete the following checkout procedure. If you find a problem during the checkout, refer to the diagnostics and
troubleshooting section (Section 8) for further information.
The installation checkout can be conducted with or without the handheld
programmer. The checkout procedure is easier with a programmer. Otherwise,
observe the Status LED (located in the controller’s label area) for diagnostic
codes. The codes are listed in Section 8.
☞
Put the vehicle up on blocks to get the drive wheels up
off the ground before beginning these tests.
CAUTION
Do not stand, or allow anyone else to stand, directly in
front of or behind the vehicle during the checkout.
Make sure the keyswitch is off, the throttle is in neutral,
and the forward and reverse switches are open.
Wear safety glasses and use well-insulated tools.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
1.
If a programmer is available, connect it to the programmer connector.
2.
Turn the keyswitch on. The programmer should power up with an initial
display, and the controller’s Status LED should begin steadily blinking
a single flash. If neither happens, check for continuity in the keyswitch
circuit and controller ground.
3.
If you are using a programmer, put it into the diagnostic mode by
pressing the DIAGNOSTICS key. The display should indicate “No Known
Faults.” Close the interlock switch (if one is used in your application).
The Status LED should continue blinking a single flash and the
programmer should continue to indicate no faults.
If there is a problem, the LED will flash a diagnostic code and the
programmer will display a diagnostic message. If you are conducting
the checkout without a programmer, look up the LED diagnostic code
in Section 8 (Diagnostics and Troubleshooting).
When the problem has been corrected, it may be necessary to cycle
the keyswitch in order to clear the fault.
51
5 — INSTALLATION CHECKOUT
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
4.
With the interlock switch closed, select a direction and operate the
throttle. The motor should begin to turn in the selected direction. If it
turns in the wrong direction, first verify the wiring to the forward and
reverse switches. If the wiring is correct, turn off the controller, disconnect the battery, and exchange the motor’s field connections (F1 and F2)
on the controller. The motor should now turn in the proper direction.
The motor should run proportionally faster with increasing throttle. If
not, refer to Section 8.
5.
If you are using a programmer, put it into the test mode by pressing
the TEST key. Scroll down to observe the status of the forward, reverse,
interlock, emergency reverse, and mode switches. Cycle each switch in
turn, observing the programmer. The programmer should display the
correct status for each switch.
6.
Take the vehicle down off the blocks and drive it in a clear area. It should
have smooth acceleration and good top speed. Recommended procedures for tuning the vehicle’s driving characteristics are presented in
Section 6: Vehicle Performance Adjustment.
7.
Test the deceleration and braking of the vehicle.
8.
Verify that all options, such as high pedal disable (HPD), static return
to off (SRO), and anti-tiedown are as desired.
9.
On walkie vehicles, check the emergency reverse feature. If you have the
optional emergency reverse check wiring, verify that the check circuit is
operational by momentarily disconnecting one of the emergency reverse
wires. The vehicle should coast to a stop, with a fault indicated.
10.
If you used a programmer, disconnect it when you have completed the
checkout procedure.
52
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
6
VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
The 1244 controller is a very powerful vehicle control system. Its wide variety of
adjustable parameters allow many aspects of vehicle performance to be optimized. This section provides explanations of what the major tuning parameters
do and instructions on how to use these parameters to optimize the performance
of your vehicle. Once a vehicle/motor/controller combination has been tuned,
the parameter values can be made standard for that system or vehicle model. Any
changes in the motor, the vehicle drive system, or the controller will require that
the system be tuned again to provide optimum performance.
The tuning procedures should be conducted in the sequence given, because
successive steps build upon the ones before. The tuning procedures instruct
personnel how to adjust various programmable parameters to accomplish specific
performance goals. It is important that the effect of these programmable parameters be understood in order to take full advantage of the 1244 controller’s
powerful features. Please refer to the descriptions of the applicable parameters in
Section 3 if there is any question about what any of them do.
MAJOR TUNING
Four major performance characteristics are usually tuned on a new vehicle:
➀
➁
➂
➃
Tuning the Active Throttle Range
Tuning the Controller to the Motor
Setting the Unloaded Vehicle Top Speed
Equalization of Loaded/Unloaded Vehicle Speed.
These four characteristics should be tuned in the order listed.
➀
Tuning the Active Throttle Range
Before attempting to optimize any specific vehicle performance characteristics, it
is important to ensure that the controller output is operating over its full range.
To do this, the throttle should be tuned using the 1307 handheld programmer.
The procedures that follow will establish Throttle Deadband and Throttle Max
parameter values that correspond to the absolute full range of your particular
throttle mechanism. It is advisable to provide some buffer around the absolute full
range of the throttle mechanism to allow for throttle resistance variations over
time and temperature as well as variations in the tolerance of potentiometer values
between individual throttle mechanisms.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
53
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
➀-A
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
Tuning the Throttle Deadband
STEP
1. Jack the vehicle wheels up off the ground so that they spin freely.
STEP
2. Plug the 1307 programmer into the controller and turn on the
keyswitch and interlock switch (if used).
STEP
3. When the programmer instructs you to select a menu, select the
Test Menu. The Throttle % should be visible at the top of the
display. You will need to reference the value displayed here.
STEP
4. Scroll down until the Forward Input is visible. The display
should indicate that the forward switch is Off.
STEP
5. Slowly rotate the throttle forward until the display indicates
that the forward switch is On. Use care with this step as it is
important to identify the threshold throttle position at which
the forward switch is engaged and the controller recognizes the
forward command.
STEP
6. Without moving the throttle, scroll up to display the Throttle
% and read the value shown. This value should be zero. If the
Throttle % value is zero, proceed to Step 7. If it is greater than
zero, the Throttle Deadband parameter must be increased and
the procedure repeated from Step 5 until the Throttle % is zero
at the forward direction engagement point.
STEP
7. While observing the Throttle % value in the programmer’s Test
Menu, continue to rotate the throttle past the forward switch
engagement point. Note where the Throttle % value begins to
increase, indicating that the controller has begun to supply
drive power to the motor. If the throttle had to be rotated
further than desired before the Throttle % value began to
increase, the Throttle Deadband parameter value must be
decreased and the procedure repeated from Step 5. If the
amount of rotation between the point at which the Forward
switch is engaged and the Throttle % value begins to increase
is acceptable, the Throttle Deadband is properly tuned.
STEP
8. If a bidirectional (wigwag) throttle assembly is being used, the
procedure should be repeated for the reverse direction. The
Throttle Deadband value should be selected such that the
throttle operates correctly in both forward and reverse.
54
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
➀-B
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
Tuning the Throttle Max
STEP
1. Jack the vehicle wheels up off the ground so that they spin freely.
STEP
2. Plug the 1307 programmer into the controller and turn on the
keyswitch and interlock switch (if used).
STEP
3. When the programmer instructs you to select a menu, select the
Test Menu. The Throttle % should be visible at the top of the
display. You will need to reference the value displayed here.
STEP
4. Rotate the throttle forward to its maximum speed position and
observe the Throttle % value. This value should be 100%. If it
is less than 100%, the Throttle Max parameter value must be
decreased to attain full controller output at the maximum
throttle position. Use the programmer to decrease the Throttle
Max parameter value, and repeat this step until the value is
100%.
STEP
5. Now that the full throttle position results in a 100% value for
Throttle %, slowly reduce throttle until the Throttle % value
drops below 100% and note the throttle position. This represents the extra range of motion allowed by the throttle mechanism. If this range is large, you may wish to decrease it by
increasing the Throttle Max parameter value. This will provide
a larger active throttle range and more vehicle control. Using
the programmer, increase the Throttle Max parameter value
and repeat the test until an appropriate amount of extra range
is attained.
STEP
6. If a bidirectional (wigwag) throttle assembly is being used,
repeat the procedure for the reverse direction. The Throttle
Max value should be selected such that the throttle operates
correctly in both forward and reverse.
55
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
➁
Tuning the Controller to the Motor
The 1244 controller has the flexibility to be tuned to nearly any separately excited
motor from any manufacturer. Parameters in the 1307 programmer’s Program
Menu allow full control of the motor’s maximum armature current during
driving and braking and full control of the motor’s maximum and minimum field
current as well as the field current relationship to the armature current. This
flexibility allows motor performance to be maximized while protecting it from
operating outside its safe commutation region.
In order to properly tune the controller, the following information should
be obtained from the motor manufacturer:
Maximum Armature Current Rating
Maximum Field Current Rating
Minimum Field Current Rating
Field Resistance, hot and cold.
The performance of a separately excited motor changes depending on temperature. This is due to the change in field winding resistance as the motor heats up
through use. When the field winding temperature increases, so does its resistance
and therefore the maximum current that can be forced through the winding is
reduced. Reductions in the field current over the motor’s typical operating
temperature range can be 10% to 50%. Since the maximum available field current
determines the maximum torque that can be produced by the motor, the vehicle’s
performance under load and up inclines will change as the motor heats up. The
change in performance can be limited by tuning the motor when it is hot rather
than cold. Therefore, it is recommended that the following procedure be performed with a hot motor.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
STEP
1. Using the programmer’s Program Menu, set the Drive Current
Limit parameter value in each mode to the smaller of: (a) the
motor’s peak armature current rating, or (b) the maximum
controller drive current limit. This value can later be adjusted
to establish the desired vehicle driving feel in each mode.
STEP
2. Set the Braking Current Limit parameter value in each mode to
the smaller of: (a) the maximum motor armature current
rating, or (b) the maximum controller braking current limit.
This value can later be adjusted to establish the desired vehicle
braking feel in each mode.
STEP
3. To set the Field Max parameter value, first decide whether you
want to maintain consistent vehicle operation throughout the
motor’s temperature range. If you do, proceed to Step 4. If,
56
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
however, maintaining operational consistency across motor
temperature is not a concern, but achieving maximum torque
is, proceed to Step 5.
STEP
4. For the most consistent operation across temperature, set the
Field Max parameter to the maximum field current available at
low battery voltage with a hot motor. To determine this current, divide the low battery voltage (typically 70% of nominal)
by the high temperature field winding resistance specification
provided by the manufacturer. Set the Field Max parameter to
this value. This will provide good consistency between motor
performance in both hot and cold states.
STEP
5. For the maximum torque regardless of temperature, set the
Field Max parameter to the motor’s rated absolute maximum
field current. To determine the absolute maximum field current, divide the nominal battery voltage by the low temperature
field winding resistance specification provided by the manufacturer. Set the Field Max parameter to this value. This will
provide the maximum possible torque under all conditions.
This has now set the Max Field parameter. The next step is to set the Min Field
parameter. NOTE: The Field Min parameter should never be set below the
rated value specified by the manufacturer. Operating the motor at lower field
currents than specified will result in operation outside the motor’s safe commutation region and will cause arcing between the brushes and commutator
significantly reducing motor and brush life. The Field Min parameter value can
be increased from the manufacturer’s specified value to limit the vehicle’s top
speed. (Setting the vehicle top speed will be addressed later in this section.)
If the controller is tuned such that the system is operating outside the
motor’s safe commutation region, there will be audible and visual indications.
Under normal operation, the motor will emit a whine with a pitch that increases
with increasing rotation speed. If a “scratchy” sound is also heard, this is usually
an indication that pin arcing is occurring in the motor and it is operating outside
its safe commutation region. This operation is normally accompanied by a strong
smell from the motor. If the brushes and commutator bars are visible, arcing may
be visible. The further outside the safe commutation region the motor is
operating, the worse the arcing will be. Operation outside the safe commutation region is very detrimental to the motor. The Field Min and possibly also
the Field Map parameter should be increased until the indications of arcing stop.
Decreasing the Field Map Start parameter will also help to move operation back
into the safe commutation region.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
57
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
➂
Setting the Unloaded Vehicle Top Speed
The controller and vehicle should be configured as follows prior to setting the
maximum unloaded vehicle speed:
• Max Speed = 100%, all modes
• Drive Current Limit as established in tuning procedure ➁
• Field Map = 50%
• Field Map Start = 50% of the specified drive current limit
• Field Min = manufacturer’s specified minimum or 3 amperes
• Load Comp = 0
• The vehicle should be unloaded
• The vehicle battery should be fully charged.
The vehicle should be driven on a flat surface in a clear area during this procedure.
Since the vehicle may initially be traveling at speeds in excess of the final intended
speed, precautions should be taken to ensure safety of test personnel and anyone
in the test area.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
STEP
1. Select the programmer’s Program Menu and scroll down until
the Field Min parameter is at the top of the display.
STEP
2. Power up the vehicle and apply full throttle. While driving the
vehicle with full throttle applied, adjust the Field Min parameter value to set the desired top speed. Increasing the Field Min
value decreases the vehicle’s top speed; decreasing the Field Min
value increases the vehicle’s top speed. CAUTION: Do not decrease the Field Min parameter value below the motor manufacturer’s recommended minimum field current value, and do
not increase it above 10 amps. NOTE: If the Field Min value is
too low, the vehicle speed may oscillate or surge even at constant
throttle. If oscillation or surge is observed, increase the Field
Min value until the vehicle speed remains constant at constant
throttle.
STEP
3. If the Field Min parameter value is increased to 10 amps and the
vehicle top speed has still not been sufficiently reduced, the Max
Speed parameter should be used to bring the vehicle top speed
down to the desired level. First, decrease the Field Min parameter, setting it to optimize smooth starting. Then adjust the
Max Speed parameter per Step 4 to bring the vehicle top speed
58
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
down to the desired level. NOTE: If the Field Min parameter is
set too high, the high initial torque created by the high field
current may cause overly abrupt starts; this is why we recommend using the Max Speed parameter in those cases where a
moderate Field Min setting does not sufficiently reduce the
vehicle top speed.
➃
STEP
4. Scroll up the Program Menu until the Max Speed parameter is
at the top of the display. While driving the vehicle with the Field
Min set at the value selected in Step 3, decrease the Max Speed
parameter value until the desired vehicle top speed is set.
STEP
5. For Walkie/Rider Applications: Typically, different top speeds
are desired for walkie and rider operation. To tune a walkie/
rider vehicle’s top speed, first tune it for rider operation. Use the
Field Min parameter to tune the vehicle top speed. Then, to set
the top speed for walkie operation, leave the Field Min parameter unchanged and decrease the Max Speed parameter until the
desired walking speed is reached.
Equalization of Loaded and Unloaded Vehicle Speed
The top speed of a loaded vehicle can be set to approach the unloaded top speed
by tuning the 1244 controller’s Field Map Start and Load Compensation
parameters. It is recommended that you review the description of the Field Map
Start parameter (page 38) and Load Compensation parameter (page 49) before
starting this procedure.
STEP
1. The vehicle’s unloaded top speed should already have been set.
If it was not, it should be set before the vehicle’s loaded top
speed is established.
STEP
2. Once the vehicle’s unloaded top speed has been set, load the
vehicle to the desired load capacity. Leave the Field Min and
Speed Max parameters at the settings determined during the
unloaded test.
STEP
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
3A. If the intent is to minimize the difference between the loaded
and unloaded vehicle speeds, then:
(i) Drive the fully loaded vehicle on flat ground with full throttle
applied. When the vehicle reaches maximum speed, observe the
armature current displayed in the programmer’s Test Menu.
(ii) Set the Field Map Start parameter slightly higher than the
observed armature current value.
59
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
(iii) Test the loaded/unloaded speed variation. If it is unacceptable, proceed to (iv).
(iv) Increase the Load Compensation parameter and retest the
speed regulation. The Load Compensation parameter can be
increased until the desired regulation is achieved or the vehicle
speed begins to oscillate (“hunt”) at low throttle.
STEP
3B. If the intent is to make the loaded speed less than the unloaded
speed (for reasons of safety, efficiency, or reduced motor heating), then:
(i) Unload the vehicle and drive it on flat ground with full throttle
applied. When the vehicle reaches maximum speed, observe the
armature current displayed in the programmer’s Test Menu.
(ii) Set the Field Map Start parameter to the observed armature
current value.
(iii) Load the vehicle and drive it on flat ground with full
throttle applied. Further adjustments to the vehicle’s loaded
speed can now be made by varying the Field Map parameter.
Increasing the Field Map parameter value will decrease the
vehicle’s loaded speed, and decreasing the Field Map parameter
value will increase the vehicle’s loaded speed.
If the Field Map Start parameter is set too high, the motor’s
safe commutation region may be exceeded. If this is the case, reduce the
Field Map Start parameter to a safe value. Then, adjust the Field Map
parameter as needed to reach the desired loaded top speed. Reducing the
Field Map parameter will help bring the loaded speed closer to the
unloaded speed. However, care must still be taken because it is possible
for too low Field Map values—like too high Field Map Start values—to
result in operation outside the motor’s safe commutation region.
CAUTION:
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
60
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
FINE TUNING
Four additional vehicle performance characteristics can be adjusted:
➄
➅
➆
⑧
⑨
Response to Increased Throttle
Response to Reduced Throttle
Smoothness of Direction Transitions
Ramp Climbing
Ramp Restraint.
These characteristics are related to the “feel” of the vehicle and will be different
for various applications. Once the fine tuning has been accomplished, it should
not have to be repeated on every vehicle.
➄
Response to Increased Throttle
The vehicle’s response to quick or slow throttle increases can be modified using
the Accel Rate, Current Ratio, Quick Start, and Throttle Map parameters.
Optimal vehicle response is tuned by adjusting these parameters and then
accelerating the vehicle from a dead stop under various throttle transition
conditions.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
STEP
1. Set Quick Start = 0 and Throttle Map as desired.
STEP
2. Drive the vehicle and adjust the Accel Rate for the best overall
acceleration response. If the vehicle starts too slowly under all
driving conditions, the Accel Rate should be reduced.
STEP
3. Increasing vehicle acceleration. If acceleration feels good for
slow or moderate throttle transitions but the vehicle initially
starts too slowly, set the Current Ratio to 2 or higher. If
acceleration is not satisfactory when the throttle is transitioned
quickly from zero to full speed, increase the Quick Start parameter value to obtain the desired fast throttle response.
STEP
4. Achieving better control at low speeds. If the vehicle responds
well for fast, full range throttle transitions but is too jumpy
during low speed maneuvering, reduce the Quick Start, reduce
the Throttle Map, and/or set the Current Ratio = 1. If these
adjustments are insufficient or unacceptable, you may want to
define a separate operational mode for precision maneuvering.
The Accel Rate, Max Speed, and Drive Current Limit parameters can be tuned exclusively for this precision-maneuvering
mode to obtain comfortable vehicle response.
61
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
➅
Response to Reduced Throttle
The way the vehicle responds when the throttle is reduced or completely released
can be modified using the Decel Rate, Throttle Braking %, and Restraint
parameters. This response is particularly noticeable when the vehicle is traveling
downhill.
➆
STEP
1. Set the Decel Rate and Throttle Braking % parameters based on
the desired time for the vehicle to stop upon release of throttle
when traveling at full speed with full load. If the vehicle brakes
too abruptly when the throttle is released, increase the Decel
Rate and/or decrease the Throttle Braking %.
STEP
2. The default Restraint setting should work well for most vehicles. If the vehicle exhibits excessive overspeed when driving
down a ramp, increase the Restraint value. If the vehicle “speed
hunts” while driving down a ramp or brakes too abruptly at
small reductions in throttle, decrease the Restraint value.
STEP
3. If the Restraint value has been adjusted, retest braking behavior
when throttle is reduced to ensure that it still has the desired
feel. If it does not, the Decel Rate and/or Throttle Braking %
should be re-adjusted as in Step 1.
Smoothness of Direction Transitions
After the major performance and responsiveness tuning has been completed,
additional fine tuning can be performed in the vehicle’s transitions betweeen
braking and driving. These transitions are affected by the Taper Rate, Accel Rate,
Braking Rate, and Braking Current Limit parameters.
➆ -A Drive-to-Brake Transitions
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
STEP
1. If the transition is too slow: decrease the Braking Rate parameter value for faster braking.
STEP
2. If the transition is too abrupt: increase the Braking Rate parameter value for slower braking.
STEP
3. If the braking distance is too long: increase the Braking Current Limit parameter value or decrease the Braking Rate parameter value.
STEP
4. If the applied braking torque is too high: reduce the Braking
Current Limit parameter value. Reducing the braking current
will also reduce motor heating, improve brush life, and improve
62
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
the forward-to-reverse transition feel. NOTE: If the braking
current limit is changed, evaluation and adjustment of the
Throttle Braking % parameter may be necessary to obtain the
response originally set in procedure ➅ .
➆ -B Forward-to-Reverse Transitions
STEP
1. Begin this test set with the Taper Rate parameter set to 64.
Drive the vehicle and transition directly from forward to reverse. A slight pause should be noticeable at the zero speed
point. Reduce the Taper Rate parameter value until the pause
is eliminated. Reducing the Taper Rate value further may cause
a slight bump during the direction transition.
STEP
2. If the transition is slow or the vehicle feels sluggish: reduce the
Accel Rate parameter value.
STEP
3. If the vehicle exhibits a small bump at zero speed: increase the
Taper Rate parameter value.
➆ -C Low Speed vs. High Speed Braking
The 1244 controller is capable of both regenerative and plug
braking, and can be programmed to use one or the other as a
function of vehicle speed. Plug braking provides quicker response and direction transition at low speeds, while regen
braking is more powerful and efficient at high speeds. The
Regen Speed parameter is used to define the threshold vehicle
speed at which the type of braking changes from one to the
other.
To determine the ideal Regen Speed parameter for your application, jockey the vehicle back and forth from forward to
reverse at low speeds. Increase the Regen Speed parameter value
until the vehicle feels more responsive during the direction
changes. Then drive the vehicle at high speed and test the
braking. If the braking feels weak, reduce the Regen Speed
parameter value.
The Regen Speed parameter can be adjusted from 0% to 100%
of the vehicle speed. In other words, the point at which the
controller enables regen braking can be set anywhere within the
vehicle’s entire speed range. However, setting the Regen Speed
parameter to a high percentage of the maximum vehicle speed
will result in weak braking at high speeds along with increased
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
63
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
motor heating. Additionally, no energy will be returned to the
batteries to extend the total charge time and the motor brush
wear will be higher than if regen braking is used. Typical Regen
Speed values are between 10% and 60% of the maximum
vehicle speed.
⑧
Ramp Climbing
The vehicle response to increased gradients such as loading ramps can be tuned
via the Field Map parameter. Decreasing the Field Map parameter allows faster
vehicle speeds while climbing ramps, but it will also have the effect of reducing
the ability of the controller to generate torque in the vehicle’s mid range speeds.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
STEP
1. If faster vehicle speed is desired when climbing ramps, decrease
the Field Map parameter value until the desired ramp climbing
speed is attained. It should be noted that if the motor’s torque
capability is exceeded under the conditions of load and ramp
gradient, vehicle speed will be limited by the motor’s capability
and the desired vehicle speed may not be attainable. The system
will find a compromise point at which sufficient motor torque
is generated to climb the ramp at an acceptable speed. If the
Field Map parameter value is reduced to 0% and the desired
speed is still not attained, the system is being limited by the
motor’s torque capability under these operating conditions.
Caution should be used in reducing the Field Map parameter
since at low Field Map values it is possible that the motor could
be operated outside its safe commutation region.
STEP
2. If the drive system cannot produce sufficient torque for a fully
loaded vehicle to climb the desired ramp, try increasing the
Field Map, Field Max, and/or Drive Current Limit parameters.
The impact of increasing these parameter values on other
driving characteristics must be evaluated. Increasing the Field
Max will provide more field current, and increasing the Drive
Current Limit will provide more armature current. If the Field
Max is set at the manufacturer’s specified limit and the Drive
Current Limit is set at the rated maximum, then vehicle speed
up the ramp is limited by the motor or the vehicle’s gearing and
cannot be increased by tuning the controller. NOTE: To determine if the controller’s armature current is at its set value during
ramp climbing, read the “Arm Current” in the programmer’s
Test Menu.
64
6 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
⑨
Ramp Restraint
The Restraint parameter can be used to limit vehicle movement after the vehicle
has come to a stop. If the vehicle brakes to a stop on an incline and the brake has
not engaged, the Restraint function will limit the rate at which the vehicle travels
down the incline. Higher values of Restraint will result in slower vehicle creeping
down the incline. The Restraint function can never hold a vehicle perfectly
stationary on an incline and is not intended to replace a mechanical or electromagnetic brake for this purpose. However, it will prevent uncontrolled vehicle
coasting in this situation.
The Restraint parameter also influences the vehicle’s response to reduced
throttle. If the Restraint parameter is set to a high value in order to slow the
vehicle’s downhill creeping when it is stopped on an incline, this high Restraint
setting will also affect the vehicle’s response to reduced throttle. Therefore, the
Restraint parameter should be set with both situations in mind. For tuning the
vehicle’s response to reduced throttle, see tuning procedure ➅ , page 63.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
65
7 — PROGRAMMER OPERATION
7
PROGRAMMER OPERATION
The universal 1307 Curtis PMC handheld programmer (optional) allows you to
program, test, and diagnose Curtis PMC programmable controllers. The programmer is powered by the host controller, via the modular connector located on
the front of the controller.
When it is first plugged into the controller, the programmer displays the
controller’s model number, date of manufacture, and software revision code.
Following this initial display, the programmer displays a prompt for further
instructions.
+
+
CURTIS PMC
+
+
+
+
++++++++++++++++++++
A 4-line LCD display is
presented in this window
The LED in the corner of
the key lights up to identify
the mode of operation
PROGRAM
Scroll the 4-line
display (up and down)
with these two keys
TEST
SCROLL
DISPLAY
MORE INFO
A DIVISION OF CURTIS INSTRUMENTS INC.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
DIAGNOSTICS
CHANGE
VALUE
Choose the Program, Test,
or Diagnostics Mode with
one of these three keys
Change the selected
item’s value (up or down)
with these two keys
Get more information
about selected items with
this key. Also, use this
key in combination with
other keys to put the
programmer in Special
modes.
66
7— PROGRAMMER OPERATION
The programmer is operated via an 8-key keypad. Three keys select operating
modes (Program, Test, Diagnostics), two scroll the display up and down, and two
change the values of selected parameters. The eighth key, the MORE INFO key, is
used to display further information about selected items within any of the three
standard modes. In addition, when pressed together with the PROGRAM or
the DIAGNOSTICS key, the MORE INFO key selects the Special Program mode or the
Special Diagnostics mode.
The display window presents a 4-line LCD display. The display is visible even in
bright sunlight. You can adjust the display contrast in the Special Program mode.
When one of the menu keys is pressed, the LED at the corner of the key lights up,
identifying the mode of programmer operation. For example, if the TEST key is
pressed, the LED at the corner of the key indicates that the programmer is now in
the Test mode, and the Test Menu is displayed.
Four lines of a menu are displayed at a time. The item at the top of the display
window is the selected item. To select an item, scroll within the menu until the
desired item is positioned at the top of the display window. The selected item is
always the top line. (In the Program mode, the selected item is highlighted by a
flashing arrow.) To modify a parameter or obtain more information about it, it
must be scrolled to the top position in the display window.
To scroll up and down within a menu, use the two SCROLL DISPLAY arrow keys.
The SCROLL DISPLAY arrow keys can be pressed repeatedly or be held down. When
a key is held down, the scrolling speed increases the longer the key is held.
SCROLL
DISPLAY
A small scroll bar at the left of the display window provides a rough indication of
the position of the four displayed items within the entire menu. That is, when the
bar is at the top of the window, the top of the menu is displayed. As you scroll
through the menu, the bar moves downward. When the bar is at the very bottom
of the window, you have reached the end of the menu. This sample display is from
the Program Menu:
scroll bar
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
M1
M2
M3
M4
DR I VE
DR I VE
DR I VE
DR I VE
C/
C/
C/
C/
L
L
L
L
>400
400
350
275
selected item
67
7 — PROGRAMMER OPERATION
CHANGE
VALUE
The two CHANGE VALUE arrow keys are used to increase or decrease the value of a
selected menu item. Like the SCROLL DISPLAY arrow keys, the CHANGE VALUE arrow
keys can be pressed repeatedly or be held down. The longer a key is held, the faster
the parameter changes. This allows rapid changing of any parameter.
An LED on each CHANGE VALUE arrow key indicates whether the key is
active and whether change is permissible. When the value of a parameter is being
increased, the LED on the “up” CHANGE VALUE key is on until you reach the
maximum value for that parameter. When the LED goes off, you cannot increase
the value.
The MORE INFO key has three functions: (1) to display more information about the
selected item, (2) to access the Special Program and Special Diagnostics modes
(when used together with the PROGRAM and DIAGNOSTICS keys), and (3) to initiate certain commands (such as the Self Test).
“More information” is available in all of the programmer operating modes.
After using the MORE INFO key to display additional information about the
selected item, press the MORE INFO key again to return to the original list.
OPERATING MODES:
PROGRAM, TEST, DIAGNOSTICS, SPECIAL PROGRAM, SPECIAL DIAGNOSTICS
PROGRAM
In the Program mode, accessed by pressing the PROGRAM key, all the adjustable
parameters and features of the controller are displayed (four at a time), along with
their present settings. The setting of the selected item—the item at the top of the
display, with the flashing arrow—can be changed, using the two CHANGE VALUE
keys.
The LEDs on these keys indicate whether there is still room for change. That
is, when the upper limit of a parameter’s range is reached, the LED on the “up”
key no longer lights up, indicating that the present value cannot be increased;
when the lower limit is reached, the LED on the “down” key no longer lights up.
The MORE INFO key, when used in the Program mode, displays a bar graph
along with the minimum and maximum values possible for the selected parameter. Parameters can be changed either from the main Program Menu or after
the MORE INFO key has been pressed and the additional information is being
displayed (see example below).
selected parameter
bar graph
minimum value
MODE 1 ACCE L ERA T I ON
RA T E , SECS
MI N 0 . 1
set value
1.3
MAX 5 . 0
maximum value
units
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
68
7— PROGRAMMER OPERATION
The Program Menu is presented at the end of this section. NOTE: Some items
may not be available on all 1244 models.
TEST
DIAGNOSTICS
*
MORE INFO
PROGRAM
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
In the Test mode, accessed by pressing the TEST key, real-time information is
displayed about the status of the inputs, outputs, and controller temperature. For
example, when the status of the forward switch is displayed, it should read
“On/Off/On/Off/On/Off” as the switch is repeatedly turned on and off. In the
Test mode, the item of interest does not need to be the top item on the list; it only
needs to be among the four items visible in the window. The Test mode is useful
for checking out the operation of the controller during initial installation, and also
for troubleshooting should problems occur.
The MORE INFO key, when used in the Test mode, causes additional information to be displayed about the selected item (top line in the window).
The Test Menu is presented at the end of this section. NOTE: Some items
may not be available on all 1244 models.
In the Diagnostics mode, accessed by pressing the DIAGNOSTICS key, currently
active faults detected by the controller are displayed.
The MORE INFO key, when used in the Diagnostics mode, causes additional
information to be displayed about the selected item.
A list of the abbreviations used in the Diagnostics display is included at the
end of this section.
The Special Program mode allows you to perform a variety of tasks, most of
which are self-explanatory. Through the Special Program Menu, you can revert to
earlier settings, save controller settings into the programmer memory, load the
controller settings from the programmer into a controller, clear the controller’s
diagnostic history, adjust the contrast of the programmer’s LCD display, select the
language to be displayed by the programmer, and display basic information
(model number, etc.) about the controller and the programmer.
To access the Special Program mode, first press the MORE INFO key. Then,
while continuing to hold the MORE INFO key, press the PROGRAM key. The LED
on the PROGRAM key will light, just as when the programmer is in Program
mode. To distinguish between the Program and Special Program modes, look at
the menu items in the display.
69
7— PROGRAMMER OPERATION
CONTROLLER CLONING
Two of the Special Program Menu items—“Save Controller
Settings in Programmer” and “Load Programmer Settings
into Controller”—allow you to “clone” controllers. To do
this, simply program one controller to the desired settings,
save these settings in the programmer, and then load them
into other similar (same model number) controllers, thus
creating a family of controllers with identical settings.
The MORE INFO key is used initially to access the Special Program mode, and once
you are within the Special Program mode, it is used to perform the desired tasks.
To adjust the contrast in the display window, for example, select “Contrast
Adjustment” by scrolling until this item is at the top of the screen, and then
press MORE INFO to find out how to make the adjustment.
The Special Program Menu is presented at the end of this section.
*
MORE INFO DIAGNOSTICS
In the Special Diagnostics mode, the controller’s diagnostic history file is
displayed. This file includes a list of all faults observed and recorded by the
controller since the history was last cleared. (NOTE: The maximum and minimum
temperatures recorded by the controller are included in the Test Menu.) Each fault
is listed in the diagnostic history file only once, regardless of the number of times
it occurred.
To access Special Diagnostics, first press the MORE INFO key. Then, while
continuing to hold the MORE INFO key, press the DIAGNOSTICS key. The LED on
the DIAGNOSTICS key will light, just as when the programmer is in Diagnostics
mode.
The MORE INFO key, when used within the Special Diagnostics mode, causes
additional information to be displayed about the selected item.
To clear the diagnostic history file, put the programmer into the Special
Program mode, select “Clear Diagnostic History,” and press the MORE INFO key
for instructions. Clearing the diagnostic history file also resets the maximum/
minimum temperatures in the Test Menu.
PEACE-OF-MIND PROGRAMMING
Each time the programmer is connected to the controller, it acquires all the
controller’s parameters and stores them in its temporary memory. You can revert
back to these original settings at any time during a programming session via the
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
70
7— PROGRAMMER OPERATION
Special Program Menu. Select “Reset All Settings” by scrolling it to the top of the
display window, press the MORE INFO key, and follow the instructions displayed.
Any inadvertent changing of parameters can be “undone” using this procedure—
even if you can’t remember what the previous settings were—as long as the
programmer has not been unplugged and power has not been removed from
the controller.
Programmer Self Test
You can test the programmer by displaying two special test screens. Press
the MORE INFO key while the programmer is powering up. During the Self Test,
you can toggle between the two test screens by pressing the SCROLL DISPLAY keys.
The first screen turns on every LCD element, and the second screen displays all
the characters used in the various menus. As part of the Self Test, you can also test
the keys by pressing each one and observing whether its corner LED lights up. To
exit the Self Test, unplug the programmer or turn off the controller, and then repower it without holding the MORE INFO key.
⇐
SCROLL
DISPLAY
⇒
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
! " # $%& ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 123 45 6 789 : ; <= >?
@A B C D E FG H I J K L M NO
P Q R S T U VWX Y Z x > Ω°
71
7 — PROGRAMMER OPERATION
PROGRAMMER MENUS
Items are listed for each menu in the order they appear in the actual menus
displayed by the handheld programmer.
Program Menu (not all items available on all controllers)
QU I C K
S T AR T
Nominal battery voltage, in volts
Mode 1 drive current limit, in amps
Mode 2 drive current limit, in amps
Mode 3 drive current limit, in amps
Mode 4 drive current limit, in amps
Mode 1 braking current limit, in amps
Mode 2 braking current limit, in amps
Mode 3 braking current limit, in amps
Mode 4 braking current limit, in amps
Mode 1 throttle braking, as % of brake C/L
Mode 2 throttle braking, as % of brake C/L
Mode 3 throttle braking, as % of brake C/L
Mode 4 throttle braking, as % of brake C/L
Mode 1 acceleration rate, in seconds
Mode 2 acceleration rate, in seconds
Mode 3 acceleration rate, in seconds
Mode 4 acceleration rate, in seconds
Deceleration rate, in seconds
Mode 1 braking rate, in seconds
Mode 2 braking rate, in seconds
Mode 3 braking rate, in seconds
Mode 4 braking rate, in seconds
Quick-start throttle factor
T A P ER
R A T E
Regen braking decrease rate when approaching zero speed, in 1/32 s
VO L T AGE
M1
DR I V E
C / L
M2
DR I V E
C / L
M3
DR I V E
C / L
M4
DR I V E
C / L
M1
BRA K E
C / L
M2
BRA K E
C / L
M3
BRA K E
C / L
M4
BRA K E
C / L
M1
T HR T
BRK
%
M2
T HR T
BRK
%
M3
T HR T
BRK
%
M4
T HR T
BRK
%
M1
ACCE L
RA T E
M2
ACCE L
RA T E
M3
ACCE L
RA T E
M4
ACCE L
RA T E
DEC E L
R A T E
M1
BRA K E
RA T E
M2
BRA K E
RA T E
M3
BRA K E
RA T E
M4
BRA K E
RA T E
M1
MA X
S P E ED
M2
MA X
S P E ED
M3
MA X
S P E ED
M4
MA X
S P E ED
M1
CRE E P
S P E ED
M2
CRE E P
S P E ED
M3
CRE E P
S P E ED
Mode 1 maximum speed, as % PWM output
Mode 2 maximum speed, as % PWM output
Mode 3 maximum speed, as % PWM output
Mode 4 maximum speed, as % PWM output
Mode 1 creep speed, as % PWM output
Mode 2 creep speed, as % PWM output
Mode 3 creep speed, as % PWM output
(Menu continues on next page.)
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
72
7 — PROGRAMMER OPERATION
Program Menu, cont’d
M4
CRE E P
REGEN
S P E ED
Minimum speed for regen braking, as % of vehicle speed
S P E ED
MODE
C T R L
T HROT T L E
T HR T L
Mode 4 creep speed, as % PWM output
T Y P E
D E ADB AND
Control mode1
Throttle type 2
Throttle neutral deadband, as % of 5kΩ pot
T HROT T L E
MA X
Throttle input req’d for 100% PWM, as % of 5kΩ pot
M1
T HR T L
MA P
M2
T HR T L
MA P
M3
T HR T L
MA P
M4
T HR T L
MA P
Mode 1 throttle map, as %
Mode 2 throttle map, as %
Mode 3 throttle map, as %
Mode 4 throttle map, as %
Minimum field current, in amps
Maximum field current, in amps
F I E L D
M I N
F I E L D
MA X
F L D
MA P
F I E L D
S T AR T
CURR EN T
RA T I O
RE S T RA I N T
L OAD
COMP
HPD
SRO
S EQU ENC I NG
D L Y
MA I N
CON T
I N T R
MA I N
OP EN
D L Y
WE L D
CH ECK
MA I N
AUX
CH ECK
DE L A Y
AUX
CHEC K
EM
BRA K E
DE L A Y
EM
BRA K E
CH ECK
DRVR
CH ECK
RE V
Armature current at which field map takes effect, in amps
Field winding current, as % armature current
MA P
CON T
PU L L
CON T
HO L D I NG
I N
EMR
RE V
ENA B L E
EMR
RE V
C / L
EMR
RE V
CHEC K
A N T I - T I E D OWN
Current ratio: factor of 1, 2, 4, or 8
Ramp restraint: 1 to 10
Load compensation: 0 to 25
High pedal disable (HPD) type 3
Static return to off (SRO) type 4
Sequencing delay, in seconds
Main contactor interlock: On or Off
Main contactor dropout delay, in seconds
Main contactor weld check: On or Off
Main coil open check: On or Off
Auxiliary driver dropout delay, in seconds
Auxiliary coil open check: On or Off
Electromagnetic brake delay, in seconds
Electromagnetic brake open check: On or Off
Reverse signal open check: On or Off
Contactor coil pull-in voltage, as %
Contactor coil holding voltage, as %
Emergency reverse function: On or Off
Emergency reverse current limit, in amps
Emergency reverse wiring check: On or Off
Anti-tiedown: On or Off
(Menu continues on next page.)
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
73
7 — PROGRAMMER OPERATION
Program Menu, cont’d
F AU L T
CODE
P ED A L
I N T R L C K
PRECHARGE
NOD E
ADDR
Fault output type 5
Pedal switch interlock: On or Off
Precharge function: On or Off
CAN-Bus address: 1 through 15
Program Menu Notes
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
1
Control modes (for detail, see Section 3: Programmable Parameters, page 28)
Type 0: Current control mode—throttle controls motor torque
Type 1: Voltage control mode—throttle controls motor speed
2
Throttle types (for detail, see Throttle Wiring in Section 2)
Type 1: 5kΩ–0
Type 2: single-ended 0–5V, 3-wire pot, current source, and electronic throttles
Type 3: 0–5kΩ
Type 4: wigwag 0–5V and 3-wire pot
Type 5: CAN-Nodes type throttles
3
HPD types
Type 0:
Type 1:
Type 2:
(for detail, see Section 3: Programmable Parameters, page 41)
no HPD
HPD unless KSI and interlock inputs received before throttle request
HPD unless KSI input is received before throttle request
4
SRO types
Type 0:
Type 1:
Type 2:
Type 3:
(for detail, see Section 3: Programmable Parameters, page 41)
no SRO
SRO unless interlock input is received before a direction is selected
SRO unless KSI + interlock inputs received before direction selected
SRO unless KSI + interlock + forward inputs received in that order
5
Fault output types (for detail, see Section 3: Programmable Parameters, page 42)
On: Fault Code format
Off: Fault Category format
74
7 — PROGRAMMER OPERATION
Test Menu (not all items available on all controllers)
T HROT T L E
ARM
CURR EN T
F I E L D
ARM
CURREN T
P WM
F I E L D
B A T T
CA P
Throttle reading, as % of full throttle
Motor armature current, in amps
Motor field current, in amps
Motor armature appl’d duty cycle, as %
Motor field applied duty cycle, as %
Voltage at KSI
Voltage at controller’s B+ bus bar
Heatsink temperature, in °C
Forward switch: on/off
Reverse switch: on/off
Controller operating mode: 1 to 4
Interlock switch: on/off
Pedal switch: on/off
Emergency reverse switch: on/off
Tachometer input: pulses per second
Main contactor: open/closed
Auxiliary driver: open/closed
Reverse driver status: on(low)/off(high)
Brake driver status: on(low)/off(high)
Fault 1 driver status: on(low)/off(high)
Fault 2 driver status: on(low)/off(high)
Controller’s functional state: 0 to 13 *
Mode Select 1 switch: on/off
Mode Select 2 switch: on/off
%
P WM
VO L T AGE
VO L T AGE
HE A T S I N K
T EMP
F ORWA R D
I NPU T
RE V ERS E
I NPU T
MOD E
I N T R L CK
P ED A L
EMR
I NPU T
I N PU T
RE V
MOTOR
MA I N
I NPU T
R PM
CON T
AUX
CON T
RE V
OU T PU T
BRA K E
OU T PU T
F AU L T
1
OU T PU T
F AU L T
2
OU T PU T
CON T RO L
S T A T E
MOD S E L
1
MOD S E L
2
* Control states are used for diagnostic and troubleshooting purposes.
Special Program Menu
RE S E T
S E T T I NGS
S E T T I NGS >
PROG
PROG
S E T T I NGS >
CON T
C L E AR
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A L L
CON T
D I AG
H I S TOR Y
CON T RA S T
AD J US TMEN T
L ANGUAGE
S E L EC T I ON
P ROGR A MME R
I N FO
CON T RO L L ER
I N FO
Revert to original settings
Save controller settings in programmer
Load programmer settings in controller
Clear diagnostic history memory
Adjust display contrast
Select displayed language
Display programmer information
Display controller information
75
7 — PROGRAMMER OPERATION
Diagnostics and Special Diagnostics “Menu”
This is not a menu as such, but simply a list of the possible messages you may see
displayed when the programmer is operating in either of the Diagnostics modes.
The messages are listed in alphabetical order for easy reference.
A N T I - T I E D OWN
ARM
B B
S EN SOR
W I R I NG
CON T
F I E L D
F L D
CH ECK
DR VR
OC
OP EN
S EN SOR
HPD
HW
F A I L S A F E
1
HW
F A I L S A F E
2
HW
F A I L S A F E
L OW
M -
B A T T ERY
3
VO L T AGE
SHOR T ED
MA I N
CON T
DNC
MA I N
CON T
WE L DED
M I S S I NG
NO
CON T AC TOR
K N OWN
F AU L T S
OV ER VO L T AGE
PRECHARGE
F AU L T
SRO
T HERMA L
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
CU T B ACK
T HROT T L E
F AU L T
1
T HROT T L E
F AU L T
2
Mode 2 or 4 selected at startup
Armature sensor fault
Emerg. reverse wiring check failed
Contactor driver overcurrent
Field winding open or disconnected
Field sensor fault
High pedal disable (HPD) activated
Power-on self test fault
External watchdog fault
Internal watchdog fault
Battery voltage too low
M- output shorted to BMain contactor did not close
Main contactor welded
Missing contactor
No known faults
Battery voltage too high
Precharge fault
Static return to off (SRO) activated
Cutback, due to over/under temp
Throttle out of range
Throttle low fault
76
8 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
8
DIAGNOSTICS AND TROUBLESHOOTING
The 1244 controller provides diagnostics information to assist technicians in
troubleshooting drive system problems. The diagnostics information can be
obtained by observing the appropriate display on the handheld programmer, the
fault codes issued by the Status LED, or the fault display driven by the controller’s
Fault 1 and Fault 2 outputs. Refer to the troubleshooting chart (Table 5) for
suggestions covering a wide range of possible faults.
PROGRAMMER DIAGNOSTICS
The programmer presents complete diagnostic information in plain language.
Faults are displayed in the Diagnostic Menu (see column 2 in the troubleshooting
chart), and the status of the controller inputs/outputs is displayed in the Test
Menu.
Accessing the Diagnostic History Menu provides a list of the faults that have
occurred since the diagnostic history file was last cleared. Checking (and clearing)
the diagnostic history file is recommended each time the vehicle is brought in for
maintenance.
The following 4-step process is recommended for diagnosing and troubleshooting an inoperative vehicle: (1) visually inspect the vehicle for obvious
problems; (2) diagnose the problem, using the programmer; (3) test the circuitry
with the programmer; and (4) correct the problem. Repeat the last three steps as
necessary until the vehicle is operational.
Example: A vehicle that does not operate in “forward” is brought in
for repair.
STEP 1:
Examine the vehicle and its wiring for any obvious problems,
such as broken wires or loose connections.
2: Connect the programmer, select the Diagnostics Menu, and
read the displayed fault information. In this example, the display
shows “No Known Faults,” indicating that the controller has not
detected anything out of the norm.
STEP
STEP 3:
Select the Test Menu, and observe the status of the inputs and
outputs in the forward direction. In this example, the display shows
that the forward switch did not close when “forward” was selected,
which means the problem is either in the forward switch or the switch
wiring.
STEP 4:
Check or replace the forward switch and wiring and repeat the
test. If the programmer shows the forward switch closing and the
vehicle now drives normally, the problem has been corrected.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
77
8— DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
Table 5 TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
LED
CODE
1,2
PROGRAMMER
LCD DISPLAY
FAULT
CATEGORY
EXPLANATION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
HW FA I L SA FE 1 - 2 - 3
1
self-test or watchdog fault
1. Controller defective.
M - SHOR TED
1
internal M- short to B-
1. Controller defective.
F I E L D OPEN
1
field winding fault
1. Motor field wiring loose.
2. Motor field winding open.
ARM S ENSOR
1
armature current sensor fault
1. Controller defective.
F L D S ENSOR
1
field current sensor fault
1. Controller defective.
THROT T L E FAU L T 1
1
wiper signal out of range
1. Throttle input wire open.
2. Throttle input wire shorted to B+ or B-.
THROT T L E FAU L T 2
1
pot low fault
1. Throttle pot defective.
2. Wrong throttle type selected.
2,2
SRO
3
SRO fault
1. Improper sequence of KSI, interlock, and
direction inputs.
2. Wrong SRO type selected.
3. Interlock or direction switch circuit open.
4. Sequencing delay too short.
2,3
HPD
3
HPD fault
1.
2.
3.
4.
2,4
B B W I R I NG CHECK
1
emergency reverse wiring fault
1. Emergency reverse wire open.
2. Emergency reverse check wire open.
3,1
CON T DRVR OC
1
cont. driver output overcurrent
1. Contactor coil shorted.
3,2
MA I N CONT WE L DED
1
welded main contactor
1. Main contactor stuck closed.
2. Main contactor driver shorted.
3,3
PREC HARGE F AU L T
1
internal voltage too low at startup
1. Controller defective.
2. External short, or leakage path to B- on
external B+ connection.
1,3
2,1
Improper seq. of direction and throttle inputs.
Wrong HPD type selected.
Misadjusted throttle pot.
Sequencing delay too short.
M I S S I NG CON TACTOR
1
missing contactor
1. Any contactor coil open or not connected.
3,4
MA I N CONT DNC
1
main contactor did not close
1. Main contactor missing or wire to coil open.
4,1
LOW B A T TERY VOL TAGE
2
low battery voltage
1. Battery voltage <undervoltage cutback limit.
2. Corroded battery terminal.
3. Loose battery or controller terminal.
4,2
OVERVOL TAGE
2
overvoltage
1. Battery voltage >overvoltage shutdown limit.
2. Vehicle operating with charger attached.
3. Battery disconnected during regen braking.
4,3
THERMA L CUT BACK
2
over-/under-temp. cutback
1.
2.
3.
4.
4,4
ANT I - T I EDOWN
3
Mode 2 or Mode 4 selected at
startup
1. Mode switches shorted to B+.
2. Mode switches “tied down” to select Mode 2
or Mode 4 permanently.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
Temperature >85°C or < -25°C.
Excessive load on vehicle.
Improper mounting of controller.
Operation in extreme environments.
78
8 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
LED DIAGNOSTICS
A Status LED is built into the 1244 controller. It is visible through a window in
the label on top of the controller. This Status LED displays fault codes when there
is a problem with the controller or with the inputs to the controller. During normal
operation, with no faults present, the Status LED flashes steadily on and off. If the
controller detects a fault, a 2-digit fault identification code is flashed continuously
until the fault is corrected. For example, code “3,2”—welded main contactor—
appears as:
¤ ¤ ¤
¤ ¤
(3,2)
¤ ¤ ¤
¤ ¤
(3,2)
¤ ¤ ¤
¤ ¤
(3,2)
The codes are listed in Table 6.
Table 6 STATUS LED FAULT CODES
LED CODES
LED off
solid on
0,1
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
3,1
3,2
3,3
3,4
4,1
4,2
4,3
4,4
EXPLANATION
no power or defective controller
controller or microprocessor fault
¤
¤ ¤
¤ ¤¤
¤ ¤¤¤
¤ ¤¤¤¤
¤¤ ¤
¤¤ ¤¤
¤¤ ¤¤¤
¤¤ ¤¤¤¤
¤¤¤ ¤
¤¤¤ ¤¤
¤¤¤ ¤¤¤
¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤ ¤
¤¤¤¤ ¤¤
¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤
■
controller operational; no faults
[not used]
hardware failsafe fault
M-, current sensor, or motor fault
[not used]
throttle fault
static return to off (SRO) fault
high pedal disable (HPD) fault
emergency reverse circuit check fault
contactor driver overcurrent
welded main contactor
precharge fault
missing contactor, or main cont. did not close
low battery voltage
overvoltage
thermal cutback, due to over/under temp.
anti-tiedown fault
NOTE:
Only one fault is indicated at a time, and faults are not queued up. Refer
to the troubleshooting chart (Table 5) for suggestions about possible causes of the
various faults.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
79
8 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
FAULT OUTPUT DRIVERS
The 1244 controller provides two fault output drivers designed for use with a
display to provide fault information to the operator. The fault output drivers,
Fault 1 (Pin 5) and Fault 2 (Pin 6), are open collector drivers rated at 10 mA
maximum current at the nominal battery voltage. They are intended to drive
display LEDs but can be used to drive anything that operates within the drivers’
limits. These outputs can be configured to display faults in Fault Code format or
Fault Category format—see Section 3, page 42.
In Fault Code format, the two fault outputs operate independently. The
Fault 1 line flashes the same codes, at the same time, as the controller’s built-in
Status LED (see Table 6). This line can therefore be used to drive an LED located
on the display panel in order to provide fault code information directly to the
operator. The Fault 2 line pulls to ground (B-) when a fault is present; it can be
used to drive a remote LED that simply indicates whether or not there is a fault.
When no faults are present, both of the fault lines are in their normal state (high).
In Fault Category format, the two fault outputs together define one of four
fault categories, as listed in Table 7. When a fault occurs, the Fault 1 and Fault
2 lines (Pins 5 and 6) go to the state indicating the category of the particular fault:
LOW/HIGH, HIGH/LOW, or LOW/LOW. When the fault is cleared, the fault ouputs
return to their normal state (i.e., HIGH/HIGH).
Table 7 FAULT CATEGORY CODES
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
FAULT 1
DRIVER
FAULT 2
DRIVER
FAULT
CATEGORY
HIGH
HIGH
0
(no known faults)
LOW
HIGH
1
Hardware failsafe fault
M-, current sensor, or motor fault
Throttle fault
Emergency reverse wiring fault
Contactor or output driver fault
Precharge fault
HIGH
LOW
2
Low battery voltage
Overvoltage
Thermal cutback, due to over/under temp
LOW
LOW
3
Static return to off (SRO) fault
High pedal disable (HPD) fault
Anti-tiedown fault
POSSIBLE FAULT
80
9 — MAINTENANCE
9
MAINTENANCE
There are no user serviceable parts in the Curtis PMC 1244 controller. No
attempt should be made to open, repair, or otherwise modify the controller.
Doing so may damage the controller and will void the warranty.
It is recommended that the controller be kept clean and dry that its
diagnostics history file be checked and cleared periodically.
CLEANING
Periodically cleaning the controller exterior will help protect it against corrosion
and possible electrical control problems created by dirt, grime, and chemicals that
are part of the operating environment and that normally exist in battery powered
systems.
☞
CAUTION
When working around any battery powered vehicle, proper safety precautions should be taken. These include, but are not limited to: proper training,
wearing eye protection, and avoiding loose clothing and jewelry.
Use the following cleaning procedure for routine maintenance. Never use a high
pressure washer to clean the controller.
1.
Remove power by disconnecting the battery.
2.
Discharge the capacitors in the controller by connecting a load (such as
a contactor coil or a horn) across the controller’s B+ and B- terminals.
3.
Remove any dirt or corrosion from the power and signal connector areas.
The controller should be wiped clean with a moist rag. Dry it before
reconnecting the battery.
4.
Make sure the connections are tight. Refer to Section 2, page 7, for
maximum tightening torque specifications for the battery and motor
connections.
DIAGNOSTIC HISTORY
The handheld programmer can be used to access the controller’s diagnostic history
file. Connect the programmer, press the MORE INFO key, and then—while continuing to hold the MORE INFO key—press the DIAGNOSTICS key. The programmer will
read out all the faults that the controller has experienced since the last time the
diagnostic history file was cleared. The faults may be intermittent faults, faults
caused by loose wires, or faults caused by operator errors. Faults such as contactor
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
81
9— MAINTENANCE
faults may be the result of loose wires; contactor wiring should be carefully
checked. Faults such as HPD or overtemperature may be caused by operator habits
or by overloading.
After a problem has been diagnosed and corrected, it is a good idea to clear
the diagnostic history file. This allows the controller to accumulate a new file of
faults. By checking the new diagnostic history file at a later date, you can readily
determine whether the problem was indeed fixed.
To clear the diagnostic history file, go to the Special Program Menu by
pressing and holding the MORE INFO key, and then pressing the PROGRAM key.
Scroll through the menu until “Clear Diagnostic History” is the top line in the
display, and then press MORE INFO again. The programmer will prompt you to
acknowledge or cancel. See Section 7 of this manual for more detail on programmer operation.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
82
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY OF FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS
Acceleration rate
The acceleration rate is the time required for the controller to increase from 0 to
100% drive output. The acceleration rate is a MultiMode™ parameter and is
programmable from 0.1 to 5.0 seconds—see Section 3, page 26.
The accel rate parameter together with the Current Ratio, Quick Start, and
Throttle Map parameters allows the OEM to tune the vehicle’s performance in
response to increased throttle—see Section 6, page 62.
Access rights
Each programmable parameter is assigned an access level—OEM or User—that
defines who is allowed to change that parameter. These levels are assigned by the
OEM when the controller is originally specified. Restricting parameter access to
the OEM reduces the likelihood of important performance characteristics being
changed by someone unfamiliar with the vehicle’s operation. In some cases, it may
be necessary to restrict a parameter’s access to ensure that it is not set to a value in
violation of EEC or other safety regulations. The 1307M-1101 User programmer
can adjust only those parameters with User access. The 1307M-2101 OEM
programmer can adjust all the parameters with User or OEM access rights.
Typically, OEMs supply 1307M-1101 programmers to their dealers and distributors so that the User-access parameters (for example, the acceleration rate and
maximum speed) can be set to each customer’s liking, and so that the programmer’s
testing and diagnostics capabilities can be used.
Anti-tiedown
The anti-tiedown feature is designed to discourage operators from taping or
otherwise “tying down” the mode select switches in order to operate permanently
in Mode 2 or Mode 4. At startup, when the interlock switch is first closed, the
anti-tiedown feature checks which operational mode is selected. If the mode
switches are requesting Mode 2 or Mode 4 (Mode Select 1 switch closed), the
controller will ignore the request and default to Mode 1 or Mode 3. The
controller will remain in Mode 1 or Mode 3 until the Mode Select 1 switch is
released and reactivated.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-1
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Auxiliary driver
The auxiliary driver is a low side driver capable of pulling a 2 ampere load to B-.
This output is overcurrent protected. It is designed to drive a contactor coil, but
can be used to drive any load requiring less than 2 amperes.
Braking rate
The braking rate is the time required for the controller to increase from 0 to 100%
braking current when braking is requested. The braking rate is a MultiMode™
parameter and is programmable from 0.1 to 5.0 seconds—see Section 3, page 26.
CAN Bus
CAN (Controller Area Network) Bus provides a two-wire communications
system for electric vehicles. It is widely used in automotive applications and is also
well suited to electrically controlled material handling systems. Use of the CAN
Bus system considerably reduces the complexity of the vehicle’s wire harness.
Additionally, the CAN Bus communications protocol provides error and fault
detection to ensure proper signal and command transmission and reception. The
CAN Bus system carries a high level of immunity to electromagnetic interference,
as well. For information regarding the CAN-Nodes protocol that Curtis uses in
its controllers, refer to the Curtis CAN Protocol Document—available from local
Curtis offices.
Control mode
The control mode parameter determines whether throttle position controls
applied current (Type 0) or applied voltage (Type 1). Selection is made with the
programmer—see Section 3, page 28.
Creep speed
Creep speed is activated when a direction is first selected. The output maintains
creep speed until the throttle is rotated out of the throttle deadband (typically 10%
of throttle). Creep speed is a MultiMode™ parameter and is programmable from
0 to 25% of the PWM duty cycle—see Section 3, page 27.
Current limiting
Curtis PMC controllers limit the motor current to a preset maximum. This feature
protects the controller from damage that might result if the current were limited
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-2
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
only by motor demand. PWM output to the armature and field power sections is
reduced until the motor current falls below the set limit level.
In addition to protecting the controller, the current limit feature also
provides some protection to the rest of the system. By eliminating high current
surges during vehicle acceleration, stress on the motor and batteries is reduced
and their efficiency enhanced. Similarly, there is less wear and tear on the vehicle
drivetrain, as well as on the ground on which the vehicle rides.
The drive and braking current limits are programmable independently in
each of the four modes—see Section 3, page 36.
Current ratio
The 1244 controller’s current limit increases with increased throttle, according to
an algorithm developed to produce smooth starts and good overall vehicle driving
characteristics. The current ratio parameter allows the OEM to adjust the amount
of current available at low throttle requests in order to provide quicker startups and
improved ramp climbing at partial throttle if that is desired for a specific
application. Refer to Section 3, page 38, for the range of programmable settings,
and to Section 6 for instructions on how to use this parameter to tune vehicle
performance.
Decel rate
The deceleration rate defines the time the controller takes to reduce its PWM
output to zero when the throttle request is reduced from 100% to zero. The decel
rate is programmable from 0 to 10 seconds—see Section 3, page 26.
The decel rate parameter together with the Restraint and Throttle Braking
Percent parameters allows the OEM to tune the vehicle’s performance in response to reduced throttle, especially when traveling downhill—see Section 6,
page 63.
Emergency reverse
Emergency reverse is activated when the keyswitch is On and the emergency
reverse input is pulled high, provided the controller is configured with this feature
active. Typically, 1244 controllers are used on rider vehicles. Emergency reverse
is only applicable to walkies. If you plan to install your 1244 controller on a walkie,
refer to Section 2, page 19, and to Section 3, page 48, for instructions regarding
emergency reverse.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-3
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Environmental protection
The 1244 controller is housed in a rugged ABS plastic case providing environmental protection that meets the requirements of IP64/IP67. The controller
should be kept clean and dry to ensure long life. Additional protection is
recommended if the controller is mounted in a location exposed to dirt or water
splash.
ET-series electronic throttles
The ET-1XX is a wigwag-style throttle control assembly, manufactured by
Hardellet for Curtis. It provides a 0–5V signal in both the forward and reverse
directions. Use of this throttle control assembly requires that the controller’s
throttle input be configured for a Type 2 (single-ended 0–5V) throttle.
Fault categories
The 1244 controller is equipped with two fault drivers. These drivers can be
configured to provide information in “fault category” or “fault code” format. If
the drivers are configured in “fault category” format, they will indicate one of
three categories of faults. The Fault Categories are defined in Table 7—see Section
8, page 81.
Fault codes
The 1244 controller provides fault information by flashing Fault Codes. When
a fault occurs, the fault code can be read directly from the Status LED built into
the controller’s cover. In addition, the controller has two output drivers that can
be configured to provide information in “fault category” or “fault code” format.
If the drivers are configured in “fault code” format, they will drive fault indicator
LEDs located on a remote panel. The information displayed by these remote
panel LEDs will be identical to that displayed by the controller’s built-in Status
LED. The Fault Codes are defined in Table 6—see Section 8, page 80.
Fault detection and response
An internal microcontroller automatically maintains surveillance over the functioning of the controller. When a fault is detected, the appropriate fault code is
signalled via the controller’s built-in Status LED, which is externally visible
through the label on top of the controller. If the fault is critical, the controller is
disabled. More typically, the fault is a remediable condition and temporary—for
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-4
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
example, an HPD fault is cleared when the throttle is returned to neutral. The
faults covered by the 1244 controller’s automatic fault detection system are listed
in Table 5—see Section 8, page 79.
Fault recording
Fault events are recorded in the controller’s diagnostic history file. Multiple
occurrences of the same fault are recorded as one occurrence. This fault event list
can be loaded into the programmer for readout. The programmer’s Special
Diagnostics mode provides access to the controller’s diagnostic history file—the
entire fault event list created since the diagnostic history file was last cleared. The
Diagnostics mode, on the other hand, provides information about only the
currently active faults.
Fault recovery (including recovery from disable)
Almost all faults require a cycling of the keyswitch or interlock switch to reset the
controller and enable operation. The only exceptions are these:
FAULT
RECOVERY
anti-tiedown
contactor overcurrent
HPD
overvoltage
SRO
thermal cutback
throttle faults
undervoltage
(all other faults)
when Mode Select 1 switch is released
when condition clears
when throttle is lowered below HPD threshold
when battery voltage drops below overvoltage
when proper sequence is followed
when temperature returns to acceptable level
when condition clears
when battery voltage rises above undervoltage
(cycle keyswitch or interlock switch)
Field map
The field map parameter determines the relationship between the shunt field
winding current and the armature current. The field map parameter affects
vehicle acceleration and midrange torque characteristics. This parameter is
programmable—see Section 3, page 39.
Field map and the other field current parameters (field map start, field max,
field min) allow the OEM to tune the vehicle’s performance characteristics—see
Section 6, pages 57–61.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-5
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Field map start
The field map start parameter defines the armature current at which the field map
starts to increase. The field map start parameter is used to help equalize the
vehicle’s maximum speed when loaded and unloaded. This parameter is programmable—see Section 3, page 38.
Field map start and the other field current parameters (field map, field max,
field min) allow the OEM to tune the vehicle’s performance characteristics—see
Section 6, pages 57–61.
Full bridge
The 1244 controller uses a full bridge design for control of the field winding. This
eliminates the need for external direction contactors. The result is a higher
reliability product that is smaller and simpler to install.
Half bridge
The 1244 controller uses a half bridge topology for the armature drive. This
provides reliable and highly efficient vehicle control with full all-electronic
regenerative braking to zero speed.
High-pedal-disable (HPD)
The HPD feature prevents the vehicle from driving the motor if the controller is
turned on when greater than 25% throttle is applied. Two types of HPD are
available (along with a “no HPD” option). Selection is made with the programmer—see Section 3, page 41.
Interlock switch
This switch is a controller-enable input intended to provide a secondary operational interlock for the controller in addition to the keyswitch input. If an
interlock switch is used, it must be closed—providing a high signal to the
interlock pin (Pin 2)—in order for the controller to operate. This safety interlock
is used on most material handling vehicles. Cycling the interlock switch or the
keyswitch clears most faults and re-enables operation.
KSI
KSI (Key Switch Input) provides power to the controller’s logic board, initializes
the microprocessor, and starts diagnostics. In combination with the interlock
switch input, KSI enables all logic functions.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-6
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Load compensation
The load compensation feature automatically adjusts the applied motor voltage as
a function of motor load current. This results in more constant vehicle speeds over
variations in motor loading due to ramps and cargo weights—without the
operator having to constantly adjust the throttle position. The load compensation
parameter is programmable—see Section 3, page 49.
The load compensation and Field Map Start parameters allow the OEM to
tune the vehicle’s loaded top speed to approach its unloaded top speed—see
Section 6, pages 60–61.
M- fault detect
This feature determines if the M- power connection is being held low (to B-) by
an internal or external fault condition. If an M- fault is detected, the controller
will inhibit PWM output and release the main and auxiliary contactors. M- fault
detection is not performed if greater than 85% throttle is being requested or if
emergency reverse is activated.
MOSFET
A MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) is a type of
transistor characterized by its fast switching speeds and very low losses.
MultiMode™
The MultiMode™ feature of the 1244 controller allows the vehicle to be operated
with four distinct sets of characteristics. The four modes can be programmed to
be suitable for operation under different conditions, such as slow precise indoor
maneuvering in one mode; faster, long distance, outdoor travel in another mode;
and application-specific special conditions in the remaining two modes. For more
information about MultiMode™ operation, refer to Section 3.
OEM (= Original Equipment Manufacturer)
Overtemperature
Because of their efficiency and thermal design, Curtis PMC controllers should
barely get warm in normal operation. Overheating can occur, however, if the
controller is undersized for its application or otherwise overloaded. The 1244
controller constantly monitors its internal heatsink temperature. Starting at
85°C, the drive and braking current limits are linearly decreased from full set
current down to zero at 95°C.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-7
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Full current limit and performance return automatically after the controller
cools down. Although occasional overtemperature operation is usually not damaging to the controller, it does suggest a mismatch. If thermal cutback occurs
often in normal vehicle operation, the controller is probably undersized for the
application and a higher current model should be used. Continuous operation in
overtemperature will overstress the power components and reduce the lifetime
and reliability of the controller.
Overvoltage cutoff
The overvoltage protection feature inhibits the PWM and shuts down the
controller, if the voltage exceeds the factory-set limit. Overvoltage can result
during battery charging or from an improperly wired controller. Controller
operation resumes when the voltage is brought within the acceptable range. The
cutoff voltage and re-enable voltage are percentages of the battery voltage, and are
defined by the Battery Voltage parameter setting—see Section 3, page 46.
Plug braking
The 1244 controller uses plug braking as well as regen braking to apply braking
torque to the vehicle’s motor. Plug braking takes place when braking is requested
and the vehicle speed is less than the programmed regen speed. During plug
braking, the current is limited to the drive current limit.
PWM
Pulse width modulation (PWM), also called “chopping,” is a technique that
switches battery voltage to the motor on and off very quickly, thereby controlling
the speed of the motor. Curtis PMC 1200 series controllers use high frequency
PWM—in this case, 16 kHz—which permits silent, efficient operation.
Quick-start
Upon receiving a quick throttle demand from neutral, the controller will momentarily exceed normal acceleration in order to overcome inertia. The “quick-start”
algorithm is applied each time the vehicle passes through neutral and is not in
braking mode. If the vehicle is braking, the quick-start function is disabled,
allowing normal braking to occur. The quick-start parameter is programmable—
see Section 3, page 26.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-8
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Regenerative braking
Regenerative braking occurs when current generated by the motor during braking
is allowed to flow back into the batteries. Regen braking results in less motor
heating and reduced brush wear compared with plug braking. Regen braking also
provides some return of energy to the battery pack, allowing longer vehicle
operating periods.
The braking rate defines the time it takes the controller to increase from 0%
to 100% regen braking current when braking is requested. The braking rate is a
MultiMode™ parameter and is programmable from 0.1 to 5.0 seconds—see
Section 3, page 26.
The regen speed parameter defines the threshold vehicle speed above which
the controller initiates regen braking. Below this speed, plug braking is used. The
regen speed is programmable from 0 to 100% of the vehicle speed—see Section
3, page 27.
Restraint
When the vehicle speed exceeds the requested throttle, the restraint feature causes
the motor to apply a braking force and “restrain” the vehicle to the requested speed.
The restraint parameter defines the amount of braking current the controller
allows in the motor when it attempts to prevent the vehicle from overspeed—see
Section 3, page 37.
The restraint parameter together with the Decel Rate and Throttle Braking
Percent parameters allows the OEM to tune the vehicle’s performance in response to reduced throttle, especially when traveling downhill—see Section 6,
page 63.
The restraint parameter also can be used to limit the vehicle’s rate of downhill creeping when it is stopped on an incline and the brake has not engaged—
see Section 6, page 66.
Reverse polarity protection
Reverse voltage will damage the controller. Reverse polarity protection is provided
by including a diode in series with the control line as shown in the standard wiring
diagram, Figure 3. When this diode is used, reversing the battery’s B+ and Bconnections to an otherwise properly wired controller will not allow the main
contactor to be engaged. This protects the controller from being damaged by the
reverse polarity.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-9
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Safe commutation region
The safe commutation region includes all the combinations of field current and
armature current that allow proper commutation between the motor’s brushes
and the armature. If the motor operates outside this region, arcing and severe
heating and brush wear will occur. The motor manufacturer should be able to
provide curves defining the safe combinations of field and armature current. We
highly recommend that you obtain these curves and use them when tuning the
1244 controller to a particular motor.
Sequencing delay
Sequencing delay allows the interlock switch to be momentarily opened within
a set time (the sequencing delay), thus preventing inadvertent activation of HPD
or SRO. This feature is useful in applications where the interlock switch may
bounce or be momentarily cycled during operation. The sequencing delay is
programmable from 0 to 3 seconds, with 0 corresponding to no delay—see Section
3, page 47.
Speed limiting
The maximum speed can be limited in each of the four modes. This is done in
two ways: through the maximum speed parameter (see Section 3, page 27) and
through the minimum field current limit parameter (see Section 3, page 36). The
latter (the Min Field parameter) is the primary means of adjusting vehicle top
speed. Guidelines for adjusting maximum speed are presented in Section 6:
Vehicle Performance Adjustment.
Static-return-to-off (SRO)
The SRO feature prevents the vehicle from being started when “in gear” (i.e., with
a direction already selected). Three types of SRO are available (along with a “no
SRO” option). Selection is made with the programmer—see Section 3, page 41.
Status LED
A Status LED (Light Emitting Diode) is built into the controller. It is visible
through the label located on top of the controller. The Status LED flashes a 2digit fault identification code when a fault is detected by the controller. The fault
code continues to flash until the fault has been corrected and the fault condition
has been cleared. Clearing the fault condition typically requires cycling KSI for
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-10
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
faults detected during startup, and cycling the interlock switch for faults detected
during operation. The fault codes are defined in Table 6—see Section 8, page 80.
Taper rate
The taper rate defines how gradually the vehicle slows down at the completion of
regen braking. The taper rate is programmable—see Section 3, page 27.
Temperature compensation for current limits
Full temperature compensation provides constant current limits throughout the
normal operating range (heatsink temperatures of -25°C to +85°C). The temperature sensor that regulates the current limits is also used to calculate the
heatsink temperature displayed by the programmer.
Throttle braking
The throttle braking feature provides automatic braking when the controller’s
throttle input is reduced. The strength of braking is determined by the programmed Throttle Braking Percent parameter value. Throttle braking can be
disabled (i.e., set to 0%) if this feature is not desired. Throttle Braking Percent is
a MultiMode™ parameter—see Section 3, page 36.
The Throttle Braking Percent parameter together with the Decel Rate and
Restraint parameters allows the OEM to tune the vehicle’s performance in response
to reduced throttle, especially when traveling downhill—see Section 6, page 63.
Throttle deadband (neutral deadband)
The throttle deadband is the pot wiper voltage range that the controller interprets
as neutral. The throttle deadband is typically set at 10%. A higher setting increases
the neutral range, which can be useful with throttle assemblies that do not return
reliably to a well-defined neutral point. The throttle deadband parameter is
programmable—see Section 3, page 30, and Section 6, page 55.
Throttle map
The throttle map parameter determines the controller’s static throttle map,
adjusting the throttle characteristics to suit your specific application and enhance
your vehicle’s performance. The throttle map parameter modifies the controller’s
PWM output relative to the requested throttle amount. The throttle map is a
MultiMode™ parameter—see Section 3, page 34.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-11
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
Throttle max
The throttle max parameter allows accommodation of throttles that do not
provide the standard full range of voltage or resistance variation at the throttle
input. Reducing the throttle max parameter value allows full controller output
with a throttle input less than that specified in Table 1 (page 10). The throttle max
parameter can be programmed to fit your specific vehicle’s requirements—see
Section 3, page 32, and Section 6, page 56.
Throttle types
The 1244 controller accepts a variety of throttle inputs, through various combinations of its three throttle input pins. The most commonly used single-ended
and wigwag throttles (5kΩ–0 and 0–5kΩ pots, 3-wire pots, 0-5V throttles, and
the Curtis ET-XXX electronic throttle) can be used simply by selecting the
appropriate throttle type in the programmer’s Program Menu—see Section 3, page
29. The controller can also be specified to receive throttle signals from a CANbased communications system—see Section 4, page 51.
Tuning
The 1244 controller provides a variety of programmable parameters to assist in
tuning the vehicle to meet the customer’s needs. Section 6: Vehicle Performance
Adjustment presents information and procedures for tuning specific operating
characteristics on any vehicle.
Undertemperature
When the controller is operating at less than -25°C, the drive current limit is cut
back to approximately one-half its rated value. The controller will warm itself at
this reduced current and when its internal temperature rises above -25°C, full
current will become available.
Undervoltage protection
Undervoltage protection automatically cuts back the controller output if battery
voltage is detected below the undervoltage point at startup, or when the battery
voltage is pulled below the undervoltage point by an external load. The undervoltage cutback point is determined by the battery voltage parameter, which
should be identical to the system’s nominal battery pack voltage—see Section 3,
page 46.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-12
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
During normal operation, the controller duty cycle will be reduced when the
batteries discharge down to less than the undervoltage level. If the motor current
is such that the batteries are being pulled below the minimum point, the duty
cycle will be reduced until the battery voltage recovers to the minimum level. In
this way the controller “servos” the duty cycle around the point which maintains
the minimum allowed battery voltage.
If the voltage continues to drop below the undervoltage level to a severe
undervoltage condition (due to battery drain or external load), the controller
continues to behave in a predictable fashion, with its output disabled.
Watchdog (external, internal)
The external watchdog timer guards against a complete failure of the microprocessor, which would incapacitate the internal watchdog timer. This independent
system check on the microprocessor meets the EEC’s requirement for backup fault
detection.
The external watchdog timer safety circuit shuts down the controller (and
the microprocessor) if the software fails to generate a periodic external pulse train.
This pulse train can only be created if the microprocessor is operating. If not
periodically reset, the watchdog timer times out after 15–20 msec and turns off
the controller. The external watchdog also directly shuts down the PWM drive
to the MOSFETs. It can only be reset by cycling KSI.
The internal watchdog timer must be reset periodically by correct sequential
execution of the software. If not reset, the internal timer times out and the
microprocessor is “warm booted.” This causes the microprocessor to shut down
its outputs—thus shutting down the controller—and attempt to restart.
Welded contactor checks
The 1244 controller checks for a welded main contactor at startup. If a welded
contactor is detected, the controller inhibits its output until the fault is removed
and the keyswitch power is cycled. A welded main contactor fault is indicated in
the programmer’s Diagnostic Menu as well as by the controller’s Status LED.
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-13
APPENDIX
APPENDIXA:
B: GLOSSARY
THROTTLES
APPENDIX B
THROTTLE MOUNTING DIMENSIONS
Fig. B-1 Mounting
dimensions,
Curtis PMC standard
5kΩ, 3-wire throttle
potentiometer,
p/n 98191.
14
(0.56)
20 (0.81)
28 (1.1)
6 (0.25)
35 (1.38)
ELEC. SPECS: ELECTRICAL TRAVEL 40°± 3°
TOTAL RESISTANCE (nominal) 5 kΩ
HOPOFF RESISTANCE (max) 10 Ω
Dimensions in millimeters and (inches)
Fig. B-2 Mounting
dimensions,
Curtis PMC potboxes.
35
(1.38)
45°
42 (1.65)
10 (0.38)
60
(2.37)
32
(1.25)
52 (2.06)
RIGHT-HAND OPERATION
COM. N.O. N.C.
WITH MICROSWITCH: PB-6
WITHOUT MICROSWITCH: PB-5
6
(0.25)
89 (3.5)
102 (4.0)
LEFT-HAND OPERATION
N.C. N.O. COM.
WITH MICROSWITCH: PB-9
WITHOUT MICROSWITCH: PB-10
Dimensions in millimeters and (inches)
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-14
B-1
APPENDIX
APPENDIXA:
B: GLOSSARY
THROTTLES
Fig. B-3 Curtis PMC footpedal FP-2.
112 (4.4)
1.8 m
(6 ft)
≈15 °
244 (9.6)
GRN
ON
BLK
112
(4.4)
WHT
N.O.
WIRING:
GREEN / BLACK / WHITE =
throttle input
BLUE = switch, common
ORANGE = switch, normally
COM.
BLU
open
ORG
Dimensions in millimeters and (inches)
Fig. B-4 Mounting
6 × 6 (0.24 × 0.24)
dimensions,
Curtis electronic throttle
(ET series).
VIS TC 3×12
∅ M5
99
(3.90)
24
(0.94)
44
(1.73)
24
(0.94)
69
(2.72)
116 °
22
(0.87)
44
(1.73)
22
(0.87)
Dimensions in millimeters and (inches)
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-15
B-2
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
C: SPECIFICATIONS
A: GLOSSARY
APPENDIX C
SPECIFICATIONS
Table C-1 SPECIFICATIONS: 1244 CONTROLLER
Nominal input voltage
PWM operating frequency
Electrical isolation to heatsink
24 –36 V, 36–48 V, and 36–80V
16 kHz
500 V ac (minimum)
KSI input voltage (minimum)
KSI input current (no contactors engaged)
16.8 V for 24–36 V systems
160 mA without programmer; 200 mA with programmer
Logic input voltage
Logic input current
>7.5 V High; <1 V Low
10 mA
Operating ambient temperature range
Heatsink overtemperature cutback
Heatsink undertemperature cutback
-40°C to 50°C (-40°F to 122°F)
85°C (185°F)
-25°C (-13°F)
Package environmental rating
Weight
Dimensions (L × W × H)
IP64/IP67
3.9 kg (8.5 lb)
229 × 178 × 81 mm (9.0" × 7.0" × 3.2")
NOMINAL
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
ARMATURE
CURRENT
LIMIT
ARMATURE
2 MIN
RATING
ARMATURE
1 HOUR
RATING *
FIELD
2 MIN
RATING
(volts)
(amps)
(amps)
(amps)
(amps)
1244-44XX
24–36
400
400
160
60
1244-45XX
1244-46XX
24–36
24–36
500
600
500
600
175
190
60
60
1244-47XX
24–36
700
700 †
190
60
MODEL
NUMBER
1244-54XX
36–48
400
400
140
50
1244-55XX
1244-56XX
36–48
36–48
500
600
500
600
160
160
50
50
1244-64XX
1244-65XX
36–80
36–80
400
500
400
500
125
140
50
50
1244-66XX
36–80
600
600 †
140
50
* at 25°C ambient temperature
†
1-minute rating
Curtis PMC 1244 Manual
A-16
C-1
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement