FM 11-21 TACTICAL SIGNAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS,ARMY, CORPS, AND DIVISION 1961

FM 11-21 TACTICAL SIGNAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS,ARMY, CORPS, AND DIVISION 1961
MHI
Copy 3
FM 11-21
DEPARTMENT
0 F THE
ARMY
FIELD
MANUAL
TACTICAL
SIGNAL COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS, ARMY, CORPS,
AND DIVISION
HEADQUARTERS,
DEPARTMENT
NOVEMBER 1961
AGO 2522B
OF THE ARMY
FM 11-21
]AELt
HEADQUARTERS,
MANUAL)
J
No. 11-21
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON 25, D. C., 21 November 1961
TACTICAL SIGNAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS,
ARMY, CORPS, AND DIVISION
Paragraph Page
CHAPTER 1.
2.
Section I.
II.
III.
IV.
CHAPTER
3.
INTRODUCTION
Purpose -.....
Scope -........
References .-..-----SIGNAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
General
Basic considerations -----------------------............
Signal communication requirements Signal centers ---------------Signal communication .-..Transmission media .-....Field army area communication system
---------------------General ------Field army area signal communication troop units__
Radio nets -......
................
..
Messenger serviceCorps signal communication system
General ---------------------------------...-..............
Trunking systems
---------Signal centers ---.
Utilization of field army area communication system
Radio nets -.............
Messenger service -......
D)ivision area communication system
General -..-----------Signal centers ------------------------------...- .
Lateral communication
..--Infantry division -.
.......Armored and mechanized division -.
Airborne division .................------SIGNAL COMIMUNICATION PLANNING
General -----------.....-------...--.---.
Basic considerations------.---Planning procedures -----.
.
Planning guidance .
Analysis of communication requirements.General plan.---------------------------Assignments of tasks.-..-----------I)etailed system design -.-.-.Orders and records ---------------------------
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CHAPTER 4.
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APPENDIX I.
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APPLIED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
General ----------------
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Systems and circuit engineering -----------------Telephone traffic engineering ..-..
Teletypewriter traffic engineering ..-..
Manually switched teletypewriter system- ...
Tape relay system ---------------------------Sole-user teletypewriter service ----------------Reserve facilities -....
SIGNAL COMMUNICATION CONTROL
General -.
..-------Field army organization for signal communication
control-...
Applications of control .-.......................
Signal center and unit communication designators_
System designation -.............
.
...
..
Circuit numbering system-Signal locator and routing service--..
.........--Records and reports ----.
Electronic accounting machine applications ........
Telephone directory service -..
SIGNAL CENTER DISPLACEMENT
Displacement of field army signal centers --------Displacement of corps signal centers -----------I)isplacement of division signal centers ---------.------------------REFERENCES
GUIDE FOR PLANNING TACTICAL SIGNAL
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS -------------
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1. Purpose
This manual is prepared as a guide for personnel who must
plan, engineer, control, and supervise the installation, operation,
and maintenance of field army, corps, or division signal communication systems.
Scope
a. This manual contains information on signal communication
systems, requirement planning, applied system engineering, signal
communication control, and signal center displacement for field
army, corps, and division.
b. The material contained herein is applicable without modification to both nuclear and nonnuclear warfare.
c. The diagrams included in this manual are sample illustrations
only.
d. Users of this manual are encouraged to submit recommended
changes or comments to improve the manual. Comments should
be keyed to the specific page, paragraph, and line of the text in
which change is recommended. Reasons should be provided for
each comment to insure understanding and complete evaluation.
Comments should be forwarded direct to Commandant, USA
Signal School, Fort Monmouth, N.J.
2.
References
The publications listed in appendix I provide additional information on subjects related to the material contained in this manual.
Their use will assist the reader to better understand and employ
the material presented herein.
3.
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CHAPTER 2
SIGNAL COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS
Section I. GENERAL
4.
Basic Considerations
a. Tactical commanders continually stress dispersion, mobility,
and flexibility in the employment of tactical units. However,
dispersion, mobility, and flexibility can be realized only if signal
communication systems are designed to support these operational
concepts and provide the commander with the necessary capability for control. The signal communication system must be able
to absorb damage from nuclear attack without complete disruption of signal communications. It must be flexible and capable of
quick reaction to changes in operational plans and task organization. It must be able to support all command requirements, as well
as certain sole-user circuit requirements of higher headquarters.
It must provide, as an integral feature, communication security
to the maximum extent possible, consistent with operational considerations.
b. The communication system, of a field army, is composed of
the field army area communication system, the communication
system organic to subordinate corps, the area communication
system of the divisions, and other communication facilities of
units integral to the field army.
Signal Communication Requirements
The tactical communication system is designed to:
a. Provide continuous communication service to widely dispersed units and installations utilizing security equipment where
required.
b. Meet changes in task organization and, at the same time,
facilitate relocation of units, command posts (CP's) and installations.
c. Provide patching facilities to permit the electrical rerouting
and physical relocation of circuits with a minimum of system
changes.
d. Be able to operate at extended distances; have a high capacity potential to meet demands placed upon it, and be composed
of building-block type units so that changing requirements can be
met by adding or removing unit elements.
e. Provide continuity of communication service during nonnuclear or nuclear warfare.
5.
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-f. Provide a common-user system over which sole-user circuits
can be provided on the basis of precedence or volume of traffic as
approved by the commander.
g. Be sufficiently mobile to support the elements of a rapidly
moving tactical force.
Signal Centers
A signal center is a grouping of signal communication facilities
that are installed, operated, and maintained by U.S. Army Signal
Corps units. Each signal center normally provides a communications center and messenger service, telephone and teletypewriter
switching, circuit testing and rerouting facility, radio/wire integration stations, radio, radio relay and carrier transmission and
receipt media. Additional facilities, such as facsimile and automatic data processing, may be provided when authorized. The
two types of signal centers are command signal centers and area
signal centers.
a. Command Signal Centers. Command signal centers provide
signal facilities for specific command headquarters and to designated units located in their immediate vicinity.
b. Area Signal Centers. Area signal centers provide signal
facilities within designated geographical areas, and serve all units
within the area requiring such support. Area signal centers remain under the operational control of the signal officer of the command providing the area center. Internal communication of supported units remains the responsibility of those units.
6.
Signal Communication
a. Telephone. The telephone system for tactical units is designed primarily as a common-user system. Telephone requirements are largely dictated by the density of military population
and missions of the units or activities. A great number of calls
originating in the division area will go directly to activities and
units outside of the division area. Calls from division to army
units are likely to cover great distances and, to avoid delays and
transmission losses, they must be routed through the minimum
number of switching points.
b. Teletypewriter. Teletypewriter is the principal electrical
facility used to transmit message traffic between signal centers.
In addition, many units and activities have organic teletypewriter
sets operated by their own personnel. Examples of teletypewriter
use are(1) Normally, teletypewriter sets are connected to teletypewriter switchboards, in a teletypewriter system similar
to the telephone system. Some teletypewriter circuits
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may be patched around the switching centers to provide
direct communication.
(2) Signal centers utilize multichannel teletypewriter carrier systems and teletypewriter switchboards to provide
the circuit needs for teletypewriter service.
(3) Teletypewriter is also used with single-channel mobile
radio sets. This type of facility retains the advantages of
teletypewriter and provides the additional advantages of
mobility and flexibility of service. Radio teletypewriter
(RATT) equipment is used in command and administrative radio nets, emergency communication nets, special
purpose nets such as those used for the coordination of
air-ground operations, weather information, flight plans,
and aircraft identification.
c. Communications Center. Communications centers, provided
at all signal centers, are established by the signal unit that installs
and operates the signal center. Each communications center
normally includes a message center section, a cryptographic section, and transmitting and receiving section.
d. Facsimile. Facsimile is a very effective method for the
transmission of graphic data, such as charts, maps, diagrams,
and photographs. The signal officer provides facsimile service
between installations as required. For example, facsimile service
may be required between the echelons of army headquarters, between army headquarters and corps headquarters, and between
aviation installations. Circuits for facsimile service should be
provided on a sole-user basis when the volume or precedence of
traffic justifies such action.
e. Data Processing. Automatic data processing (ADP) (command control information systems) may be used for many functions; for example, fire control, target analysis, intelligence, personnel, supply, and similar operations. ADP facilities and equipment are to be managed to the maximum extent practical as an
integral part of the signal communication system. Use of ADP
in the field army requires signal communication channels for the
transmission of data. Data may be transferred by data transceivers operating at teletypewriter speed, or data may be transferred directly between computers at high speeds over wide band
communication circuits. In the former case, teletypewriter quality
circuits are sufficient. In the case of data transfer between computers, high quality wide band circuits equivalent to many voice
circuits are required. Data cards or tape may be transmitted
by messenger.
f. Cryptographic. Cryptographic equipment is used to provide
a degree of communication security. The ultimate objective is the
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transmission of all message traffic, whether classified or unclassified, over circuits protected by on line encryption equipment.
(1) Crypto-equipment and associated material is used to
provide security of communications. Information pertaining to communications security is contained in FM
32-5.
(2) Cryptographic equipment can be used either off or on
line depending upon the particular needs of the user and.
the type of equipment provided.
(a) Off line equipment is normally not associated with
communication equipment.
(b) On line equipment is associated with specific communications means and provides encryption/decryption simultaneously with transmission/reception. On
line equipment should be used to the maximum extent
possible to insure speed of service consistent with
security requirements.
(3) Cryptologistic support in any given theater of operations is provided by Command Issuing Offices, Field Army
Issuing Offices, and Distribution Authorities. Within
CONUS, cryptologistic support is provided by COMSEC
Regional Issuing Offices and Distribution Authorities.
8. Transmission Media
Signal communication facilities are interconnected by a transmission medium to form a communication system. The transmission medium is provided by one or a combination of the following:
a. Wire. Wire is a major medium of communications because of
its reliability and relative security and freedom from interference
as compared with radio. Its employment is limited in rapidly
moving tactical situations because of the installation time required.
Field cable used with carrier equipment is the principal type of
wire system used in the field army.
b. Radio. Radio is a major medium of communications.
(1) High frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF)
radio sets can be installed in vehicles to provide mobility.
(2) High-power radio sets are used for long range communication, emergency communication, communication
in air-ground operations, and to establish command and
administrative radio nets.
(3) Low-power short range radio sets are used at the lower
command levels.
(4) Radio/wire integration stations, provided at designated
signal centers, give considerable flexibility to the use of
radio in the field army area.
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c. Radio Relay. Radio relay is a major medium of transmission
because of its great mobility, flexibility, and relative ease of installation. Although radio relay uses frequencies in the very high
frequency (VHF), ultra high frequency (UHF) or super high
frequency (SHF) range with transmission characteristics which
may limit the range to line-of sight, intermediate repeaters can
extend the range to several hundred miles. Radio repeaters may
be eliminated in certain applicable cases through use of tropospheric scatter equipment. Radio relay is always used in conjunction with carrier or multiplexing equipment providing many
channels of communication and achieving more efficient use of
the radio frequency spectrum available.
d. Messenger Service. A properly organized messenger service
is one of the most effective means of communications for transmitting bulk materials, such as orders, requisitions, packages,
data cards, and maps. Signal messenger service can be used to
deliver documents classified up to and including secret.
Section II. FIELD ARMY AREA COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM
9.
General
a. The field army area communication system is composed of
signal centers interconnected by trunk circuits under centralized
control. Each signal center provides all signal facilities required
to support the units and activities within its assigned area of responsibility. Each signal center of the field army area communication system is interconnected with at least two others to provide
divided and alternate routing and permit distribution of the traffic
load. Command signal centers may be directly interconnected
when availability of facilities, distance, and other factors permit.
b. The field army area communication system varies in configuration, size, and composition according to the following factors:
(1) Mission, composition, and organization of the field army.
(2) Location and disposition of the supported forces, units,
and installations.
(3) Characteristics of the area of operation.
(4) Enemy capabilities.
(5) Availability of indigenous facilities.
(6) Number of signal centers comprising the system.
(7) Communication-electronics requirements of the supported forces, units, and installations.
c. The field army area communication system is interconnected
through its area and command signal centers with the headquarters of corps, the area communication system of the divisions,
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and other major subordinate commands comprising the field army.
Army area signal centers may be physically located within the
division area. In the rear of the field army area, signal facilities
operated by the Signal Long Lines Command are located to interconnect with field army signal centers and to provide the field
army access to the theater army communication system. Figure 1
illustrates the interconnection of various signal centers by multichannel communication systems.
d. The field army area communication system is designed
primarily as a common-user system. When communication requirements cannot be satisfied by the use of common-user facilities because of the need for immediate reaction, or when the volume
of justifiable traffic from one given point to another is great,
sole-user circuits may be provided. The requirement for sole-user
facilities must be properly justified in terms of urgency or volume
of traffic and carry the approval of the field army commander.
This approval should be indicated in the signal portion of the field
army SOP for recurring and established requirements. Authority
to approve sole-user circuits should be delegated to the Army
Signal Officer for temporary or unforeseen requirements.
10. Field Army Area Signal Communication Troop Units
The field army area communication system is installed, operated, and maintained by the combat area signal group (with its
signal combat area battalions and a signal cable construction
battalion), an army signal battalion, a signal communications
center operations company, and such other units as required.
The number and types of battalions may be tailored to meet the
tactical communications requirements of the field army. The
signal combat area battalions install, operate, and maintain the
army signal centers and the interconnecting trunks (FM 11-86).
The signal cable construction battalion installs field cable for
trunk circuits and field cable for extension purposes as required
(FM 11-15). The army signal battalion provides the command
signal centers which serve the echelons of field army headquarters.
It also provides the personnel and equipment to install and maintain a main and alternate. field army tactical operations center
(FATOC) (FM 11-95). The signal communications center operations company provides internal communications for operational
headquarters within the field army as required.
11. Radio Nets
Frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM)
radio nets form an integral part of the field area communication
system. Details on the composition of field army radio nets and
their use are covered in FM 11-95.
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12. Messenger Service
a. Regular and special air and motor messengers link the field
army headquarters and its echelons with army area signal centers
and major subordinate units of the field army. Details on the employment of signal units providing messenger service in the field
army area communication system may be found in FM 11-95
and in FM 11-86.
b. The field army area communication system employs scheduled air and motor messengers between the field army headquarters, its echelons, major subordinate units, and pouch distribution centers. It also employs scheduled messengers between
each army area signal center and a designated pouch distribution
center. Pouch distribution centers are army area signal centers
that have been designated to handle pouched message traffic in
order to reduce the long-haul messenger runs and provide more
effective messenger service in the field army area communication
system.
c. The messenger schedules of the corps and divisions are coordinated with the field army area communication system messenger schedule to assure timely messenger connections.
Figure 1.
Section III.
Type field army multichannel communication system.
(Located in back of manual)
CORPS SIGNAL COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM
13. General
a. The corps signal communication system provides communication facilities from corps headquarters to corps troops and
divisions. The corps communications system is provided in addition to the army area communication system. By providing a
direct link between corps CP and CP's of the major attached
units, the corps communication system reduces the reaction time
of the corps. The corps signal communication system is connected into the field army communication system (fig. 2). At least
two echelons of corps headquarters are connected to two army
area signal centers through trunk circuits which are the responsibility of army signal troops. The corps signal communication
system incorporates all the means of signal communication.
b. A corps signal battalion installs, operates, and maintains
the corps signal communication system. This system provides
internal communications for echelons of the corps headquarters
(fig. 3), trunk circuits from corps headquarters to major subordinate units, to include a radio relay system from corps artillery
to its major subordinate units, and corps messenger service. The
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corps signal officer is normally delegated operational control of the
corps signal battalion by the corps commander.
c. The corps signal battalion consists of a headquarters and
headquarters company, a command operations company, and a
field operations company. For details on the organization and
employment of the corps signal battalion, refer to FM 11-92.
14. Trunking Systems
a. Multichannel communication trunks of the corps signal communication system extend between echelons of corps headquarters,
and from corps headquarters direct to major subordinate headquarters, attached divisions, and other combat and special units
(fig. 3). When corps rear is established, the corps communication
trunks are extended to that echelon. However, this may be
accomplished through the field army area communication system.
Priority is placed upon use of radio relay for corps trunks; however, field cable is installed when practicable.
b. Multichannel communication facilities of the corps signal
battalion are provided to establish trunks between corps artillery
headquarters and attached field artillery groups. Trunks also
are established between corps artillery and each division artillery
(fig. 3).
Figure 2.
Corps communication system integrated with the field army communication system, schematic diagram.
(Located in back of manual)
15. Signal Centers
Signal communication is provided for corps headquarters
through signal centers established at each echelon of the command.
The principal command signal centers in the corps communication
system are at corps main, corps advance, and corps rear. Trunks
connecting with the field army area communication system are the
responsibility of army signal troops.
16. Utilization of Field Army Area Communication System
Corps headquarters and field army headquarters are connected
by circuits routed through multichannel systems interconnecting
army area signal centers and by point-to-point facilities. The
latter may be high-frequency radio circuits, radio relay systems,
and/or field cable. Divisions use the field army system for communication direct to field army units and installations on administrative and logistical matters in which corps headquarters is not
involved. The corps signal communication system, integrated with
the field army area communication system, provides the degree of
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flexibility required of signal communication on the nuclear battlefield.
17. Radio Nets
Corps radio communication facilities are provided at each
echelon of corps headquarters, and at subordinate corps unit headquarters as required. Stations are operated in both the field army
and corps nets. In general, corps organizations provide their own
radio station for operation in corps and army nets. Corps provides radio teletypewriter stations for entry by corps artillery
and special units into certain corps nets. The nets established
and those in which corps stations operate are discussed in detail
in FM 11-92. The radio nets of the corps form an integral part
of the corps communication system.
18. Messenger Service
Corps operates a signal messenger service providing scheduled
and special air and motor messenger runs. Scheduled messenger
runs are established to provide the most frequent and economical
service practicable. Corps signal messenger service also prepares
and handles pouched message distribution through the field army
area messenger system.
Section IV.
DIVISION AREA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
19. General
a. The division area communication system is installed, operated, maintained, and controlled by personnel of the division
signal battalion. The system is composed of forward area signal
centers and command signal centers interconnected through multiand single-channel circuits, radio/wire integration stations, and
signal messenger service.
b. The division signal officer (DSO), assisted by his staff, plans
and directs the installation and operation of the division area communication system. The battalion S3, under the direction of the
DSO, establishes and operates a division systems control and signal
information center which supervises circuit routing, circuit assignment, emergency rerouting, and designation of control terminals for the system.
20. Signal Centers
a. General. Signal centers are interconnected by multichannel
radio relay and, when the situation permits, by field cable. Command signal centers are located at each echelon of division headquarters and at the division support command CP. The system is
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extended to other users by field cable, field wire, or by FM radio/
wire integration links.
b. Trunks. Trunks of the division area communication system
provide a means of communication from the echelons of division
headquarters to immediate subordinate elements, and between
subordinate elements. They provide circuits for other division elements as required, to supplement the organic communications of
these elements.
c. Circuits. The division area communication system is comprised mainly of common-user circuits. To meet special requirements, sole-user circuits may be allocated to an organization
for full-time use to provide point-to-point communication.
d. Signal Center Interconnections.
(1) Command and forward area signal centers are .interconnected by trunk circuits. Each center is linked to at
least two other centers; this provides alternate routing
between centers to cope with emergencies, to facilitate
traffic handling, to distribute the traffic load, and to reduce telephone switching.
(2) The division area communication system is integrated
with the corps and the field army communication systems.
Corps signal troops provide an interconnecting link between the corps and the division area communication
systems, usually terminating at the division main signal
center. The field army provides an interconnecting link
between the field army and division area communication
systems, usually terminating at the division support command signal center.
21. Lateral Communication
Normally, lateral communications are provided between divisions. It is the responsibility of the division on the left to provide
communication to the division on the right unless directed otherwise by a common commander. Lateral circuits between divisions
may be provided through the field army area communication system to augment or supplement facilities provided by the divisions.
22. Infantry Division
a. General. A type division area communication system is
illustrated in figure 4. Type multichannel networks are shown in
figures 5, 6, and 7. Radio nets form an integral part of the division
area communication system.
(1) FM and AM radio normally are used as an initial means
of communications, particularly when other means,
such as wire or radio relay, are unavailable or unsuit14
AGO 2522B
able. As other means become available, the use of radio
may be curtailed and, when practicable, radio stations
are placed on standby or listening silence as dictated
by the situation.
(2) Although radio nets are designated functionally (command, intelligence, warning), traffic and other considerations will frequently dictate that the nets be combined
and used for more than one type of traffic.
b. Signal Centers. The infantry division signal battalion has
the capability to install, operate, and maintain the following
signal centers:
(1) Division main.
(2) Division alternate.
(3) Division support command.
(4) Division rear.
(5) Three forward signal centers.
c. Additional Installations. If required, additional installations
will be established, such as(1) Switching facilities.
(2) Own terminals on radio relay systems to adjacent divisions.
(3) Facilities for a division fire support coordination center
(FSCC).
d. Messenger Service.
(1) Scheduled and special air messenger runs are the normal
method of the messenger support provided the division.
Air messengers are supplemented by ground motor messengers. The aviation battalion is responsible for providing aircraft and aviators for both scheduled and
special air messenger service. Messenger service is
normally provided from higher unit headquarters to
lower headquarters. However, special messengers may
be dispatched from lower to higher unit headquarters
when the situation warrants.
(2) Messengers operating in the division messenger service
make deliveries directly to the signal centers and to
headquarters message centers of the brigades and to
other major divisional elements. The forward area
signal centers serve only as messenger pickup and delivery points for the divisional unit elements in their
respective areas. The division area ground messenger
service is normally provided by messengers operating
in pairs for optimum security. If increased messenger
service is required, messengers may have to operate
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separately. In this case, an additional person should be,
assigned to each messenger as a security guard.
23. Armored and Mechanical Divisions
The armored and mechanized divisions employ an area communication system similar to that employed by the infantry di-
SUPPLEMENTED BY:
lIGHFREQUENCYAMRADIO.
FM RADIOMESSENGER SER
VICE, AND RAOiO/WIRE
INTEGRATION,
TO
A
1
ARMYAREA
LEGEND
SIENAL
LEGEN
CEGNT'
2 12-C.ANNEL RADIO
RELAYSYSTEMS
2TCHANN.EL
RADIO
RELAY SYSTEM
8D
$
SPIRALFOURCABLE
CARRIERSYSTEM
FIELDWIRE
CIRCUITS
FM 11-50-5
Figure 4.
Type division area Communication system.
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vision. The armored and mechanized divisions depend to a greater
degree on internal radio communication than does the infantry
division.
s - .TO
TO AJA DIV
IF REQUIRED
AJA DIV
IF REQUIRED
XX
TO CORPS
RE.A
TO ARMY AREA
SIGNAL CENTER
UTILIZATION OF RA0DI RELAY SETS AN/MRC-69
UNIT
COMMITTED
RESERVE
T
TO ARMY AREA
SIGNAL CENTER
t
LEGEND:
2-2 CHANNELRADIO
RELAYSYSTEMS
¶
f
12 CHANNELRAOIO
RELAYSYSTEM
COMOOP CO
DIV MAIN
OIV ALTN
DIV SPT
MFOCOMM CO
tWO COMOSIG PLAT
FWO AREA SIG
CEN PLAT
5
0
2
2
4
5
6
$
NOTE:
2 EA AN/MRC-54 AND AN/MRC-69
NOa HO COUNCOMMITTED.
SPIRAL FOURCABLE
FMII-50-C
Figure 5.
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Type multichannel communication network for the offense.
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SIG
/
AN/MRC-54
IN
TOAJA DIV
iF REQUIRED
TO AJA DIV
IF REQUIRED
TO CORPS
REAR
SSICEN
rI
TOARMY
AREA SIG CEN
LEGEND:
TO ARMY
AREA 51E CEN
UTILIZATION OF RADIO RELAY/REPEATER
AN/MRC-69
COMMITTED- 25
RESERVE - 8
AN/MRC-54
COMMITTEDI
RESERVE- I
SETS
12 CHANNEL
RADIDORELAY
SYSTEM
RADIO RELAY
STATION
Figure 6.
18
FM 11-50
Type multichannel communication network for the defense.
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Lr ,
xx
TO BE INSTALLEOD
BY USE OF ACFT
OR MTR VEH
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XX
DIRECTION
OF
MOVEMENT
?
AN/MRC-69:
COMMITTEO-15
AN/MRC-54:
COMMtTTED-O
LEGEND:
12 CHANNELRADIO
RELAY SYSTEM.
---
PROPOSED INSTALLATION,
Figure 7.
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RESERVE -18
RESERVE - 2
NOTE:
SIGNAL CENTERS CONSIST OF RADIO RELAY
TERMINAL AND PATCHING FACILITIES. OTHER
FACILITIES ARE CARRIED IN COLUMNFOR
COMMITMENT AS REQUIREO.
FMII-5O-D
Type multichannel communication network for the advance to
contact.
19
24.
Airborne Division
a. General. The airborne division employs a division area communication system. Tactical radio nets established in the airborne division augment the communication facilities of the division multichannel communication system. The nets provide flexible
communication for the initial assault phase of an airborne operation, for rapid displacement of major command posts, and for
periods during which personal voice communication between commanders is desired. Radio sets within division headquarters and
division units are primarily for internal organizational communication and for communication between major division units.
Radio equipment is also provided for communication between division and higher headquarters. A type airborne division multichannel communication system is illustrated in figure 8.
b. Signal Centers. The airborne signal battalion has the
capability to install, operate, and maintain the following signal
centers:
(1) Division headquarters.
(2) Three area signal centers.
(3) Division alternate signal center.
(4) Division support command signal center.
c. Additional Installations. If required, additional installations
will be established, such as-facilities for an FSCC.
d. Radio Nets. Detailed information concerning the internal
and external radio nets in which the airborne division operates is
contained in FM 11-57. The radio nets of the airborne division,
as do those of the infantry and armored divisions, form an integral
part of the airborne division area communication system.
e. Messenger Service Division Headquarters. Messenger service in the signal battalion is limited to two 2-man messenger
teams with vehicles. The division aviation battalion is responsible
for providing aircraft and aviators for both scheduled and special
air messenger service.
20
AGO 2522B
LEGEND'
T
4 CHANNEL
RELAY
RADtO
SPIRAL-FOUR
CABLE
INTEGRATION IFMI
>
FIELD WIRE
FM I1-57-2
Figure 8.
Type airborne division multichannel communication network.
AGO 2522B
21
CHAPTER 3
SIGNAL COMMUNICATION PLANNING
25. General
Signal communication plans are developed for each tactical
plan. The planning cycle for the signal planner follows the same
tested sequence used by the tactical planner. This chapter provides broad guidance for the signal planner at army, corps, and
division level. It applies, regardless of the nature of the situation. In general, two types of situations are considered; first,
situations involving the installation of complete initial systems;
and second, situations requiring the modification or expansion of
existing systems.
26. Basic Considerations
The process of communication planning consists primarily of
determining how capabilities can best be utilized to meet requirements. Selection of a course of action is based on analysis and
comparison of possible solutions in the light of certain basic considerations. These considerations are mission, time, troops, enemy
capabilities, logistics, and characteristics of the area of operations.
a. Mission. The signal mission can be determined only through
an analysis of the mission of the command. Fulfillment of the
signal mission thus determined then becomes the overriding consideration.
b. Time. Under time, the communication planner considers how
long he has for planning, the length of time available for installation, and the probable duration of.the operation.
c. Troops. All aspects of the troop structure of the command
must be considered. The number, type, mission, dispositions,
and organic communication capability of all units must be known
if requirements are to be accurately determined. Knowledge of
the status of signal troops is essential to the understanding of
capabilities.
d. Enemy Capabilities. The signal communication planner considers primarily the ability of the enemy to interfere with or disrupt communications and the vulnerability of his radio communications to intercept and subsequent intelligence exploitation. In
this respect, the planner must consider the requirement for communications security.
e. Logistics. The elements of logistics which most affect communication planning are supply, maintenance, and transportation.
22
AGO 2522B
f. Characteristicsof the Area of Operation. These characteristics include weather, terrain, size, and shape of the area and
existing signal communication facilities.
27. Planning Procedures
Successful signal communication planning depends upon the
accomplishment of a series of specific procedures. These include
the issuance of planning guidance, analysis of communication requirements, design of general plan to meet requirements, assignment of tasks, detailed system design, publication of orders, and
maintenance of records.
a. Planning Guidance. This includes criteria for circuit allocations, priorities, transmission, and traffic engineering data; provision for reserve facilities for expansion or replacement purposes; and limitations on use of organic means or indigenous
facilities. Much of the detail of this guidance is placed in the
standing operating procedure (SOP) of the command and thus
requires only review and updating for application to a specific
operation.
b. Analysis of Communication Requirements. The degree to
which requirements are analyzed will depend on the time available
for planning and the information known to the planner. Requirements must be converted to allocations during the planning
process.
c. Design of General Plan. After the analysis of requirements,
as many courses of action are developed as time and the situation
permit. All courses of action must be capable of meeting the requirements, if adopted. Selection of the best of the proposed
courses of action results in a general plan to meet the signal communication requirements. This must then be translated into detailed system design and task assignments.
d. Detailed System Design. Once the planner has determined
which elements will be interconnected, what means will be utilized,
and how circuits will be routed, he makes his detailed system design.
e. Assignment of Tasks. Signal units are assigned tasks in
terms of units to be supported or areas of responsibility. Whenever possible, mission type orders are utiliied.
f. Orders and Records. The culmination of the planning cycle
is the issuance of orders. The signal communication planner is
interested in records primarily for their effect on future plans.
28. Planning Guidance
a. Allocations. The command SOP should contain a tabulation
of common-user and sole-user circuit allocations. These should
AGO 2522B
23
further specify the type service, such as telephone, teletypewriter,
data, or facsimile. This tabulation is particularly important at
field army level. An example is given in table I. Only those soleuser circuits considered necessary for all operations should be
contained in the SOP. Criteria for establishment of additional
sole-user circuits should be stated in terms of traffic volume or
precedence of traffic.
Table I.
Example of Common and Sole-User Circuit Allocations, Field Army
Circuits
Telephone
circuits
1. Common-user tributary trunk circuit.
a. From nearest army area signal center to all division sup-4
.............-port commands..
b. From each corps main and each corps advance Cl to the
-.- ------7...-.
two nearest army area signal centers .
c. From army main to the two nearest army area signal
centers --....---....
d. From army alternate to the two nearest army area signal
centers ........---.-e. From the nearest army area signal center to..
(I) Each brigade or similar sized unit-....
(2) Each group or similar sized unit -_4...
..........
.
.
(3) Each sepltrate Iattaliont or similar sized unit
.
(4) Each mobile army surgical or evacnation hospital.
(5) Each surface-to-air missile (SAiM) battalion ..
(6) Each surface-to-air missile (SSM) unit (medium and
..-.
heavy)
-…------.-.-.-3-----(7) Each supply point
(8) Each general depot head q(uarters
….......
(9) Each technical service depot
2. Common user direct trunks.
From armv mlil, to.l-EaL:h corps main
Armv rear-................
TI'heater arllr or army grolup…-)-.....---Aimi'v :lternIate
---3. Local loop.
a. From nearest army area signal center to each separate
….......
compLLan, selpar:ate platoon, or similar-sized unit
b. In additionll to the above, add a requirement of 25 local
lines for ealch signal center to provide service for activities,
Isuhlas the count:erintelligence corps (CIC), (criminal investigaT)), traffic
tin dletachinIt (CII)), rail transplortattion office (1T(
control poi ts ('ICI' ), shower points, and the Ried Cross, etc.,
Itha:t are nornmally on troop lists.---·1. Sole-user.
a. Ai, DIeferse Artillery (DI)A).
(I) Front armi air defense command post (AAI)CI') at
I)rigade t o(a) Army murain -- - - - - - - -- - -
24
24
Teletypewriter
circuits
7
4
4
11 .
6
II
6
6
2
.
....3
.
2
.4
I1
1
2
4
3
4
4
4
(i
6......--
...
25
2 AGO 2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~52
AGO 2522sB
Table I.
Example of Common and Sole-User Circuit Allocations, Field ArmyContinued
Telephone
Circuits
circuits
(b) Air defense element (AI)E), FATOC, I fill-duplex
(FD)X) secure teletypewriter (TT) circuit ..
(c) Each ADA group
....
..........--.....
(d) Army alternate -----------------.(e) Army air defense command post (AAI)CP) at each
corps
.---------------------------(2) Each ADA group attached to corps to the CTOC
(3) From each of the army AI)A groups to(a) Army flight operations center (FOC) ---------.
(b) Tactical air force control reporting center (AFCRC)
_
(c) Subordinate firing battalions excluding automatic
weapons selfpropelled battalions
b. Field Artillery.
(1) From army fire support element (FSE), FATOC, to(a) Army artillery fire direction center (FI)C)
(b) Each corps fire support element (FSE) at corps
tactical operations center (CT()C) ..-..
(2) From army artillery FI)C to each missile unit retained
under army artillery control..
…l.------------(3) From fire support element (FSE) at CTOC to fire support coordination center (FSCC) at division -.--c. Army Aviation. From army aviation element (AAE) at
tactical operations center to FOC l-half-duplex (HI)X) TT
weather circuit, and 1-full-duplex (FDX) TT circuit -----d. Field Army Tactical Operation Center (FATOC).
(I) From G2-G3 operations, FATOC, at army main to
to each subordinate corps G2-G3 operations I FDX
secure 11'TT
circuit -I
(2) From G2-G3 operations, FATOC, to the army main
switchboard 3 (HD)X) secure TT circuits ...............(3) From tactical air support element (TASE), for the air
request nets-i HDX secure RATT circuit for each
net. These are to operate by remote control from the
TASE van at FATOC
................--..
Teletype-
writer
circuits
1..
2
2
2
2
2
_2
2
1lI
I
.
.....
II
I
1
2
I
-
3
3
(4) From tactical air support element (TASE), FATOC for
information and ground liaison nets, three FD)X
secure teletypewriter RATl' circuits. These are to
operate by remote control from the TASE van at
FATOC ----.-.-.-.-.-.-----------------.
3
e. Army Alternate and Alternate FATOC. Duplicate facilities must be established for army alternate and the alternate
FATOC.
AGO 2522B
25
b. Priorities. Priorities are used primarily to determine the
order of installation or reconstitution of facilities. They may be
published as a separate SOP item or in conjunction with the allocation lists. Publication as a separate item is preferred, since
detailed listing of priorities is not in consonance with the use of
mission type orders. Thus, a separate item would give classes of
priorities as opposed to specific circuit priorities and would leave
certain latitude to those who install, operate, and control the
system. An example of classes of priorities is given in table II.
A table published in this form would require a brief narrative
statement giving guidelines for its application.
Table 11I. Sample of Classes of Circuit Priorities
Priority
I
II
III
IV
V
Clan
Command control of combat elements.
Intelligence and nuclear control.
Fire control, command control for combat support elements.
i)irect support logistics.
All others.
c. Transmissionand Traffic Engineering Data. A more detailed
discussion of this subject is discussed in chapter 4 of this manual.
d. Reserve Facilities. The requirements for reserve facilities
should be stated in broad terms. The SOP should specify a 20
percent reserve on systems in operation, one spare system for each
three in operation, and one reserve signal center for each five
area centers in operation. A further statement should be included
specifying the conditions under which reserve facilities might be
committed.
e. Limitations. The variety of limitations which might be imposed because of peculiarities of a situation are too numerous to
discuss in detail. They may be dictated by any of the basic considerations given in paragraph 26. For example, enemy capabilities may require limitations on the use of radio relay; the
logistical situation might demand restrictions on wire; or time
may dictate installation of an austere area system with heavy
reliance on messengers and HF radio nets.
29. Analysis of Communication Requirements
The analysis of communication requirements involves collecting
certain factual data and placing it in proper form for use in
further planning.
a. Source of Data. In analyzing requirements, the signal communication planner may use any or all of the following sources:
26
AGO 2522B
(1) Troop and station list. These are particularly important
at field army level when installation of a complete initial
system is indicated. Possible use of the electrical accounting machine (EAM) cards prepared by The Adjutant General (AG) greatly enhances the value of these
lists in detailed planning.
(2) Administrative and operations overlays. For broad
planning where time is of the essence, these become the
primary source of information on distribution of requirements.
(3) Circuit allocation list. Refer to paragraph 28a and
table I.
(4) Equipment lists. These show the major items of signal
communication equipment authorized to assigned and
attached units (table III).
(5) Traffic studies. The primary use of traffic studies is the
refinement of detailed design of the system.
(6) Past experience. Each signal communication planner
draws on his own past experience as well as previous
results recorded in permanent records of the command.
b. Form. Where time is of the essence, the above data may be
considered in broad planning without conversion to other forms.
(1) Division and corps. The nature of the system, the relative stability of the troop list, and the time normally
available for planning dictate the use of requirements
data without conversion at these levels. Broad plans can
usually be developed from a study of operation and administrative overlays in conjunction with SOP circuit
allocations.
(2) Field army. Where planning time is limited or when
planning objectives involve only the expansion or modification of existing systems, it is normally possible for
the planner at field army level to follow the same procedures used at division and corps. If installation of a
complete system is anticipated and sufficient time and
information are available, it is desirable to place the data
in more useable form.
(a) Circuit requirement listings. These listings may be
prepared manually as shown in table IV, using the
troop and station lists in conjunction with SOP circuit
allocations. A faster method would be to obtain EAM
cards from the AG and use them to print out units and
locations as desired. If further use of the data is
anticipated in future planning, control, routing, or
AGO 2522B
27
information service, a duplicate set of cards should be
made with additional information as required. To gain
accurate totals in the preparation of the above listing,
it will be noted that certain tentative decisions as to
provision of circuits must be made at this time. For
example, according to the SOP circuit allocations, a
NIKE battalion is authorized two common-user trunks
from an area center to its unit switchboard, and an
ordnance company is authorized one loop from an area
center. However, in preparing circuit requirement
listings, the planner must tentatively decide whether
an ordnance company supporting a NIKE battalion
warrants a separate circuit or should gain area access
through the NIKE battalion. His decision would be
based primarily on the relative location of the two
units.
(b) Requirements density overlay. This overlay has application in the planning of a complete initial installation.
It is particularly effective in preparation for field exercises and maneuvers or occupation of planned positions. It is prepared simply by transferring the total
circuit requirements for each 10,000 meter grid square
onto a gridded overlay. This gives the planner a complete graphic picture of the requirements densities. It
assists in the selection of general locations of signal
centers and the division of the army area into areas of
responsibility for signal units. Figure 9 shows a type
employment of field army signal units based on plans
such as above.
30. General Plan
The preparation of the general plan involves the developing of
courses of action, analysis and comparison of these, and reaching
of a decision. This decision is expanded into a concept to include
the following:
a. Number and type of signal installations that will comprise
the system.
b. General plan for division of responsibilities.
c. Provisions for reserve.
d. Broad plan for interconnections.
31. Assignment of Tasks
Using the general plan as a guide, tasks are assigned to all
signal units to insure the meeting of known or anticipated requirements.
28
AGO 2622B
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i
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I
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eq
w
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I
1<0~
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I
l
I
I.-
I
Il
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:
v6'
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AGO 2522B
0:
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Table 11.
Sample Circuit Requirements List Format
MAP 1:250,000 Southern France
100,000 Meter Grid Square: LMi
10,000 Meter (GridSquare: 2040
Circuit leluirements
Unit
Coordinates
Common-user
Tel
14 AI)A Gp
514 Eng Bn
872 QM Co
2247
2342
2241
6 trunks
2 trunks
2 locals
TT
Sole-urer
Remarks
Tel
TT
2
0
0
2 locals
8
0
0
0
0
Note: The data contained in this list can be converted to punch card form for use with eletrical
accounting machines.
The card may also contain other data useful for unit location, routing
service, and sim ilar inforation.
Threse data may also be fed into automatic data proessing
systems (A l)PS).
a. Division and Corps. Tasks for signal elements at'division
and corps level are assigned on a basis of units or installations to
be supported. Missions may include direct support missions with
secondary missions of general support to other units in the area.
b. Field Army. Signal units of the field army are assigned tasks
either in terms of units to be supported or areas of responsibility.
(1) Army signal group. Communications elements of the
army signal group normally are given missions to provide direct support to command posts, operations centers,
or logistical centers. These direct support missions may
or may not include provision of access systems to area
centers.
(2) Combat area signal group. Units of the combat area
signal group are given mission-type orders for the support of all units in a given area of responsibility. Wherever possible, the planning of extension facilities is left
to the unit concerned. The area-type mission includes the
provision of access systems to major units. For example,
an area signal center may be assigned a specific geographical area and, in addition, be required to provide
one 12-channel system to an echelon of corps which is
located in another signal center area. This is necessary
in all cases where a unit or activity is allocated access to
more than one signal center. Selection of areas of responsibility is based primarily on geographical considerations and anticipated requirements.
(a) Complete system. The first step in assignment of tasks
for installation of a complete system is selection of
30
AGO 2522B
general locations for signal centers. These general
locations must be selected based on a study of the area
of operations, planned dispositions of major combat
elements, and anticipated deployment of other elements. Exact areas of responsibility can be assigned
after receipt of the troop and station list. Publication
of these lists makes available more accurate data on
the distribution of communication requirements. Final
task assignments can thus be based on consideration
both of a unit's capability to cover an area and its
capacity for handling a communication load. Once
areas are assigned, units select exact locations conforming as closely as possible to general locations previously selected.
(b) Expansion of existing system. This normally involves
either extending the area of responsibility of a unit or
commitment of reserve signal units. Circumstances
normally dictate extension of an area of responsibility
first, since all planning for expansion is based on
anticipated needs. This area will normally show only
lateral and rear boundaries, with forward boundaries
being designated later based on actual developments.
When commitment of a reserve unit is necessary, the
time and general location are given and the unit is
required to report specific locations through channels.
As reserve elements are committed, every effort is
made to reconstitute this reserve by releasing units
serving sparsely populated areas and adjusting boundaries accordingly.
c. Construction Elements. The assignment of missions to
construction units at all levels may be done on an area
basis, a unit-to-be-supported basis, or a combination
thereof.
32.
Detailed System Design
Once the general plan has been developed and tasks have been
assigned, the planner must go back to the original planning
guidance and proceed with detailed planning. During this phase,
plans are prepared to meet each specific requirement and tasks are
refined to insure meeting these requirements.
a. Extension Facilities. The plan for local distribution at each
installation is developed by the unit providing communications
support. Approval of these plans is required only in cases involving frequency utilization or the use of critical equipment.
Completed plans are forwarded to higher headquarters for incluAGO 2522B
31
sion in the overall plan, use in future planning, and provision of
information service.
b. Interconnections. The detailed mechanics of planning interconnections are covered in other field manuals and in chapters 4
and 5 and appendix II of this manual. This paragraph outlines an
orderly procedure for the accomplishment of this planning.
(1) Planning a complete system. Essentially, the planning
of a complete system is accomplished through the preparation of a series of charts and diagrams based on the
general plan, tasks assigned to units, and planning guidance. A logical sequence for this planning is as follows:
(a) Traffic diagrams. These are prepared for sole-user
and common-user circuits and include telephone, teletypewriter, fascimile, data, and tape-relay circuits.
They show only the terminals and do not reflect the
routing of circuits. The actual number of circuits are
based on SOP circuit allocations (table I) and traffic
and transmission engineering data (ch. 4 and app. II).
(b) Fundamental trunking plan. This plan is a worksheet
showing only which center will have direct systems.
It does not show the number of systems or the means
to be employed.
(c) Routing worksheets. Using the traffic diagrams and
the fundamental trunking plan, worksheets are prepared showing the routing of each circuit. Systems,
channels, or means are of no concern at this point. The
primary purpose of these worksheets is to determine
the number of systems required and the adequacy of
the fundamental trunking plan. In the process of
preparing the worksheets, the fundamental trunking
plan may be modified as required.
(d) Systems diagram. The preparation of a systems diagram involves totalling the circuits of all types between centers, adding a reserve factor, and determining the number of systems required. The inclusion
of media to be utilized is optional on this diagram.
(e) Selection of media. If not included in the above diagram, selection of media is the next logical step. These
must be based on planning guidance. Basic considerations influencing the selection of media are time,
characteristics of the area, enemy capabilities, logistics, and capabilities of troops providing support. At
this time, the use of existing facilities must be considered.
32
AGO 2522B
(f) Issuance of orders. At this point, plans are formalized
and orders issued. Each subordinate element in turn
issues implementing orders in greater detail.
(2) Modification of an existing system. Minor modifications
of an existing system are brought about by movement of
units or changes in traffic flow. These normally do not
involve command decisions and may be accomplished as
a function of systems control as outlined in chapter 5.
(3) Extension of an existing system. The extension of an
existing system normally involves changes in unit missions and/or commitment of additional signal communication troops. These require command decisions and
must be directed through command channels. Extension
of a system must be planned based on anticipated requirements generated by changes in the tactical situation. Sufficient latitude must be given in plans for extension to provide for adjustments without further
command action. Procedures for planning the extension
of a system are generally the same as shown in (1)
above.
33.
Orders and Records
Detailed guidance as to form and content of signal orders and
records is contained in FM 11-16. In addition, examples of orders
and records which might be used by systems control are contained
in chapter 5 of this manual.
Figure 9.
AGO 2522B
Type signal unit employed, field army eormmunieation system.
(Located in back of manual)
33
CHAPTER 4
APPLIED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
34. General
Signal communication engineering in the field army is generally
limited to consideration of single or multichannel systems. The
equipment comes in preengineered packages that are to be integrated in building block fashion. A need always exists for an
orderly and logical method of organizing the signal communication
system.
35. Systems and Circuit Engineering
a. Signal communication equipment for the army communication system is listed in the tables of organization and equipment
(TOE's) of the army signal units. This equipment is authorized
in standardized component groupings. Each equipment is described in its respective technical manual that covers the installation, operation, and maintenance of the equipment.
b. Overall detailed guidance for systems engineering is provided in the TM 11-486-series of manuals. TM 11-486-3 and TM
11-486-6 are particularly applicable to the army signal system.
These manuals emphasize the standard methods of using U.S.
Army Signal Corps equipment. Applicable guidelines and standards are to be adhered to as much as possible.
c. Communication control circuits are required to effectively
engineer, maintain, and operate the signal communication systems
of field army, corps, and the divisions. Normally, one voice circuit
will be required from the field army, corps, or division systems
control center to each subordinate signal center. Where possible
these circuits should be on a conference network. In the case of
the field army, one teletypewriter circuit in addition to the voice
circuit will be required. Communication control circuits are sometimes referred to as system(s) control circuits, engineering circuits, or facilities control circuits. For the purpose of this manual,
communication control circuits are those circuits established and
utilized exclusively by the field army, corps, or division signal
officer in the engineering, installation, operation, and maintenance
of the signal communication system for which he has staff responsibility.
d. Some of the major problems encountered in communication
systems engineering for the field army are the selection, allocation,
utilization, and administration of radio frequencies. These problems are the responsibility of the frequency allocation branch,
34
AGO 2522B
communication division, army signal section. The field army is the
lowest command level that has personnel specifically authorized
to handle this function. The fact that frequencies are assigned to
the field army, as an item of the signal operation instructions
(SOI) of a higher headquarters, does not give the field army
exclusive rights to those frequencies. Successful communication
systems engineering requires coordination and liaison with other
frequency users (such as civil authorities, higher headquarters,
other services, and adjacent armies). Coordination and liaison
must be thorough and continuing to prevent interference with
other essential services, such as navigational aids, traffic control
systems, operational channels for tactical aircraft, forward aircontrollers, missile guidance systems, civilian facilities, and other
existing communication systems. Further limitations may be
imposed due to political, atmospheric, and terrain problems where
the operation is taking place.
e. To achieve maximum flexibility and to meet unforeseen difficulties, as well as to provide adequate information for engineering purposes, a complete up-to-date record of all frequency
assignments for the field army systems and systems of other
frequency users operating in the field army area must be maintained. The frequency allocation branch must establish procedures whereby subordinate units may quickly receive frequency
assignments for new systems being established and be prepared to
provide immediate frequency changes when required. As a general
practice, alternate frequencies cannot be provided in reserve for
a unit, because of the shortage of frequencies and the basic requirement for spot engineering of each frequency used. Frequency assignment plans, as outlined in applicable technical
manuals, are excellent when the field army is assigned an exclusive
block of frequencies, for its own use, by higher headquarters. In
actual practice, the field army is not the only user, and frequency
assignment procedures have to be based on close coordination,
available frequencies, frequency sharing, terrain, and experience
gained.
f. A standard transmission plan has been adopted by the army
to assure a system of communication with technical characteristics
that will meet the army's need for rapid, reliable, secure, and
high-quality service. It is based primarily on the amount of transmission loss which can be tolerated in a circuit between two terminal instruments. When the distances between units in the army
area becomes excessive, exceptions to the army standard transmission plan may be justified. This may be accomplished by
reducing the loss in the long-distance trunk circuit (i.e., terminal
grade to via grade trunks) and allowing more loss to occur in the
local network.
AGO 2522B
35
g. Military systems are engineered so as not to exceed a maximum loss of 36 decibels (db) between terminal instruments. When
the loss reaches 36 db, speech may become unintelligible.
h. To meet special problems encountered under tactical conditions, it may be necessary to modify the standard transmission
plan. The goal is to modify the plan only as necessary to solve
these problems and without destroying its universal application
throughout the theater.
36. Telephone Traffic Engineering
a. The objectives of traffic engineering, as compiled in TM 11486-2, must be amended so that they can be adapted to a tactical
communication system. These objectives are(1) To determine the expected traffic load of the communication system, and to provide this information in time to
permit delivery of personnel and equipment at the proper
time and place.
(2) To determine whether the trunking system meets the
traffic requirements of all switching centers.
(3) To assure that policies and practices of operating personnel properly meet the needs of the commands.
(4) To coordinate with signal officers, their staffs, and operating personnel of subordinate, adjacent, and higher
commands, to assure that efficient use is made of all
signal equipment and personnel throughout the communication system.
b. Detailed traffic engineering, in accordance with TM 11-4862 and TM 11-486-3, is performed at field army level for the installation of the field army communication system. It is a function
of the traffic branch, communication division, army signal section.
The field army is the lowest command level that has personnel
designated by TOE to perform traffic engineering; however, traffic
studies should be made at all echelons as part of communications
system planning.
c. The design and layout of a communication system is primarily dictated by the signal mission. Due to the requirement for
personal contact between commanders and staff officers and for the
processing of large volumes of record traffic, specific engineering
of the communication system will be based on telephone and teletypewriter requirements. In correlating these data, considerations
should also be given to facsimile and data transmission requirements.
d. After the field army communication system has been established, valuable traffic engineering data, such as the party called,
the calling party, and the frequency and length of the calls, are
36
AGO 2522B
available. This information is collected and analyzed; then,
through-trunks, direct circuits, and specially engineered local circuits may be installed to improve the system. A general guide for
planning tactical signal systems, when no actual experience data
is available, is provided in appendix II.
e. Operators of local switchboards, and subscribers connected
directly to the switchboard at signal centers, depend on the signal
centers for routing information. Routing information is furnished
the signal centers in form of route bulletins, prepared by the field
army systems control center.
37. Teletypewriter Traffic Engineering
Teletypewriter service falls into three general categoriesmanually switched, tape relay, and sole user. Machines used for
teletypewriter service are of two general types-page printing
and tape. Tape-handling machines are not limited to use on a taperelay system. Such machines may be used on any teletypewriter
system to provide increased speed of service through the use of
automatic transmission; however, a page printer must be associated with each tape machine used in terminal service. This is
necessary in order to produce page copy for delivery, as tape copy
should not be delivered to staff personnel. In the initial planning
phases, when actual operating data does not exist, teletypewriter
circuits are based entirely upon the number of teletypewriters
available, and their capabilities. It is assumed that the existence
of teletypewriters on the TOE's of the various units, including
the signal combat area companies, has been adequately justified.
When determining circuit requirements, where data does not exist,
procedures such as those outlined in appendix II may be used.
When operating experience data are available, standard engineering procedures are used to determine the circuit requirements.
38. Manually Switched Teletypewriter System
The manually switched teletypewriter system includes teletypewriters used by signal centers, communications centers, and
other subscribers, such as staff sections, units, and activities.
Essentially, this system provides a teletypewriter switchboard to
which all subscribers are connected. The teletypewriter switchboard is then connected by suitable trunk circuits to other teletypewriter switchboards. These interconnections form a network
that provides service to all subscribers in the system. The number
of circuits for such a system is initially determined by the number
of machines in a given area and the probable traffic to be handled
by each machine.
AGO 25228
37
39.
Tape Relay System
a. General. The tape relay system in the field army is a network of point-to-point teletypewriter facilities established for the
transmission of message traffic by the torn tape method. Tape
relay stations of the field army usually operate as part of the
theater tape-relay system to integrate efficiently the transmission
of traffic throughout the theater (fig. 10). To achieve a measure of
reliability within the tape relay system in the field army, tape
relay stations (major and minor relays) have been dispersed
throughout the field army area. These tape relay stations are
established at designated signal centers. While all installed army
signal centers will qualify as major tape relay stations in the tape
relay system as defined by ACP 121 ( ), only specifically designated army area signal centers (AASC's) will be assigned responsibilities as major relay stations. In the same light, the tape-relay
stations of major headquarters also qualify as major tape-relay
stations due to the alternate routes provided. However, the taperelay stations of major command headquarters should be considered as a minor relay station with terminal facilities and
alternate routes provided for the receipt and transmission of tape
relay traffic at the prerogative of the commander. This is necessary to avoid channelizing great amounts of relay traffic at the
signal centers of major headquarters. A tape relay system incorporating these concepts is shown in Figure 11. In this system, all
tributaries (subscribers) would be assigned a fixed three letter
suffix which would remain the same wherever they were located
throughout the field army. Specially designated army area signal
centers would be selected and assigned routing designators of
5 letters, (i.e., UUTFM UUTFL UUTFX and UUTFG). In figure
10, UUTFM is further designated as the control and information
relay center for the field army. The remaining major tape relay
stations act as control and information relay centers in their respective zones.
b. Routing IndicatorPlan. The routing indicator plan outlined
in ACP 121 ( ) is adaptable to the tape-relay operation of the
field army. The system is based on a principle that permits quick
routing without detailed reference to a routing directory. When a
unit moves from one tape-relay area to another, changes in the
routing indicator and the routing directory are required.
c. Field Army Tape-Relay System. The number of tape-relay
stations established for a field army is determined by the number
and location of the users and the volume of their traffic. As a
general rule, tape-relay stations are established in the corps zone
to provide tape-relay service for the corps and divisions. Two or
38
AGO 2522B
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AGO 2522B
39
more tape-relay stations are required in the army service area to
provide normal tape-relay functions for echelons of field army
headquarters and other units and activities.
40. Sole-User Teletypewriter .Service
Sole-user teletypewriter service is provided on point-to-point
circuits by the field army area communication system, the corps
communication system, and the division area communication systems. Sole-user circuits may be authorized when the volume or
precedence of traffic between two specific points is sufficiently
high to warrant them.
41. Reserve Facilities
a. A reserve signal communication capacity should be maintained at each signal center to provide communications during
critical situations. During such periods, when traffic requirements
may temporarily exceed system capacity, service to low priority
subscribers is curtailed. The order of precedence is recommended
by the command signal officer in accordance with the tactical situation, coordinated with the general staff, and approved by the
commanding general.
b. A communication system must provide for operating spares
to replace equipment that becomes inoperative. Upon the repair
of inoperative equipments they become operating spares. The
operating spares provide a method of minimizing delays due to
equipment failure. Operating spares should not be considered as
a reserve facility for use in establishing additional facilities.
c. Flexibility of the field army area communication system can
be maintained by holding signal combat area companies in reserve.
The reserve companies will provide the troops and equipment to
establish signal centers as required.
40
AGO 2522B
CHAPTER 5
SIGNAL COMMUNICATION CONTROL
42.
General
The field army is a mobile and extremely flexible organization,
tailored for specific combat missions. The field army area communication system meets the army requirements for flexibility and
reliability by circuit routing through multichannel communication
systems. In order to achieve the necessary degree of flexibility
and reliability, the communication system must be engineered to
the known and prospective needs arising from the army's mission,
and control of multichannel systems and individual circuits must
be carefully exercised. Effective control is achieved by centralized
planning and decentralized execution. This philosophy requires
that systems and circuit control be effected at the lowest possible
level. The three types of control area. Communications Control. This is the process by which communications resources are matched with communication requirements generated by the overall mission of the command. Communication control is a responsibility of the signal officer, it involves
planning and operations and is normally executed through his
signal staff.
b. Systems Control. This is the detailed engineering and operation of multichannel systems at each applicable level of signal
command. Systems control sections operate within the limits of
policies, plans, resources, and SOP's furnished by the next higher
echelon. Systems control at local facilities may be referred to as
facilities control.
c. Circuit Control. This is the engineering of individual circuits
between one or more signal centers or subscribers to meet the
requirements of the army signal plan.
43.
Field Army Organization for Signal Communication
Control
a. At the field army level, communication control is provided by
the communications division, army signal staff. This section prepares broad plans for the communication network to meet both
current and future communications requirements. The army
signal staff prepares the signal plan and makes recommendations
for circuit allocations, priority of installation and rerouting, and
frequency allocation within the field army. Upon approval of the
plan, mission-type orders are prepared and issued to army signal
troops. To achieve close and continuous coordination of the comAGO 2522B
41
munication system with the operations of the command, all or any
part of these functions may be performed by a signal element
located at the tactical operations center.
b. Systems control at field army level is accomplished by establishing a systems control center. Because the center must have
immediate access to both the army signal section and the area
signal centers in order to exercise its technical control over the
network, it is normally located near the army main command post.
An alternate center is always established. The systems control.
center is manned by the systems control and information section
of the combat area signal group. The center normally operates
under the control of the combat area signal group. Relations with
units of the field army signal battalion are governed by policies
and SOP's provided by the army signal officer. The systems control center may be placed under the operational control of the
field army signal officer. The field army systems control center(1) Prepares and issues detailed systems and circuit orders
to implement the orders and directives of the field army
signal officer.
(2) Coordinates the operation of the network to facilitate
integration of the field army area system with systems
installed by subordinate (corps and division) and coequal
commands (air force and navy).
(3) Analyzes traffic to determine the current efficiency of the
network, and compiles experience data for future references.
(4) Prepares and issues rerouting directives and plans based
upon circuit priorities furnished by the army signal
officer.
(5) Establishes and operates a signal information service
which collects, records, and disseminates signal directory
service and communication-routing information to all
components of the field army communication system.
(6) Coordinates the field army area messenger service.
(7) Advises commanders of signal units on the location and
displacement of individual army area signal centers.
(8) Maintains detailed records reflecting the current communications situation.
(9) Establishes standard control procedures for all subordinate control centers and exercises control of the field
army area communication system through these subordinate control centers.
c. Each signal combat area battalion establishes a systems control center at or adjacent to one of the signal centers operating
in its area of responsibility. Battalion control centers are under
42
AGO 2522B
the technical control of the field army systems control center, and
perform in essentially the same manner as the field army control
center within their geographical area. An alternate control center
is always established.
d. Each signal combat area company establishes a facilities
control center at its signal center to plan and supervise internal
operation of the center and provide extension facilities to subscribers in its area. The facilities control center issues circuit and
systems orders to provide for local distribution within its area of
responsibility. The facilities control center at each company
operates under the technical control of the battalion control center.
e. The army signal battalion establishes a systems control center at the army main signal center and facilities control centers
at each of the other command signal centers. The systems control
center of the army signal battalion is under the technical control
of the field army systems control center.
f. The corps establishes its own internal command communication system, but depends on the field army area communications
network for area communication. The corps signal battalion establishes a central systems control center under the supervision of the
battalion S3. Facilities control centers are established at other
signal centers serving echelons of the corps command. Facilities
control centers within the corps are under the technical control of
the corps systems control center. Circuits that enter both the army
and the corps communication systems are controlled by the higher
headquarters. In all other respects, the corps systems control
center performs functions for the corps communication system
similar to those listed for the field army systems control center.
g. The division establishes and controls its own area communication system. A systems control and information center is established at or adjacent to the main signal center. Facilities control
centers are established at each signal center. Where circuits use
the division area system and the systems of higher headquarters,
circuit control is under the direction of the higher headquarters.
The division system control center fulfills functions similar to
those listed for the field army systems control center. An alternate
systems control center is designated.
44. Applications of Control
a. The following are some examples of how control might be
applied to typical field army problems. In all cases a sole-user
circuit is selected to simplify the explanation.
(1) A request is received at army signal center MON 711
from an engineer battalion for installation of a sole-user
circuit previously allocated to it. Both terminals of this
AGO 2522B
43
circuit are now being served by MON 711. The facilities
control center at MON 711 prepares plans and issues circuit orders for the installation. When the circuit order is
completed, facilities control at MON 711 informs the
systems control center of its parent battalion, which in
turn informs the field army systems control center.
(2) A request is received at army signal center MON 712
from a quartermaster group for a previously allocated
sole-user circuit to one of its battalions now being served
by MON 714 (a unit served by the same area signal
battalion). The request is forwarded from MON 712 to
the battalion systems control center, with all available
information. Since both subscribers are located within
the area signal battalion's area of responsibility, ,he
battalion systems control center prepares plans and issues the circuit installation order. Upon completion of
the installation, the field army systems control center is
notified.
(3) A request is received at army signal center MON 730
from an ordnance battalion for a previously allocated
sole-user circuit to the army ordnance officer. Since this
circuit must be routed out of the signal battalion area,
the request will be forwarded to the field army systems
control center, where the circuit will be engineered and
the circuit installation order issued.
b. In the three cases illustrated above, the lowest unit capable
of controlling the entire circuit prepared the plans and issued the
circuit installation order. It should be noted that all circuits cited
were preallocated by action of the army signal staff. This preallocation is a portion of signal staff planning. Requests for communications not previously allocated must be referred to the army
signal staff for action.
45. Signal Center and Unit Communication Designators
a. Basically, the signal center and unit communication designator consists of two parts, the unit telephone directory name and
an exchange number. For signal communication purposes, the
communication designator identifies command signal centers, area
signal centers, and the organizational elements and activities of
the field army.
b. Telephone directory names are assigned to each unit equipped
with a switchboard. These names are assigned by theater headquarters and subordinate headquarters and are published as a part
of an item in the SOI or standing signal instructions (SSI).
44
AGO 2522B
c. The telephone directory name should be a simple two-syllable
word that is easily understood when spoken over the telephone.
d. Field army, corps, and divisions are assigned blocks of exchange numbers for their use. Separate companies, battalions,
and other subordinate units that have switchboards are assigned
separate telephone directory names and exchange numbers. An
example of this is the assignment of telephone directory names
and exchange numbers to engineer units. Engineer companies
often operate away from their parent battalions; thus, they should
be assigned a separate exchange number for each company. A
recommended exchange number assignment follows:
(1) Exchange numbers for divisionsElement or signal center
Command signal centers
Area signal centers
Subordinate elements
Exchange No.
______________-___50-59
.--------.
.................
.
...... 60-69
.
. __. .. 70-249
................
(2) Exchange numbers for corps:
Element or signal center
Exchange No.
Command signal centers
.
_____.____________
Subordinate elements ...-..
(3)
....................- 250-259
260-699
Exchange numbers for field army:
Element or signal center
Exchange No.
Command signal centers _____ .
____.__________.700-709
Area signal centers __.-.._____
_________-.-__ __ 710-745
Subordinate elements _______
______________..746-2500
.--
e. An explanation of the assignment of telephone directory
names and exchange numbers is shown below(1) Assume that the 10th U.S. Army is composed of the
1st Corps, 2d Corps, and 3d Corps, and that the following
telephone directory names have been assigned in the
theater army SOI:
10th Army
.
.-..
.......................
MONARCH
1st Corps -______..
.
...............
CRYSTAL
2d Corps
.-...........................
DANGER
3d Corps
__......_......... ......
AMBER
(2) Using the telephone directory names and exchange
numbers as explained above, a sample of directory listings would appear as follows:
Elemenmt or signal center
Communication designator
10th Army main
_________ .-- ___________.MONARCH 700
Army area signal center
.
.............
MONARCH 710
42d Missile Battalion (AJAX) Artillery .----MOHAWK 752
Element or signal center
Communication designator
1st Corps Main _____.-....___
__________. CRYSTAL 250
2d Corps Main _____- _.___.____
__._____ DANGER 250
3d Corps Main
.
.-...................
AMBER 250
1st Corps Artillery __.-._.____
______.__.CRYSTAL 368
AGO 2522B
45
(3) Local extensions of each large exchange are numbered
consecutively from 200 up to the maximum number permitted by the size of the exchange. The two-digit numbers 00 to 99 are not used, except for small tactical
manual switchboards such as the SB-22 and SB-86, and
the numbers from 100 to 199 are reserved for special
purposes. The uniform series of tactical telephone numbers described in FM 24-20, which is directly applicable
to small switchboards using two-digit numbering, must
be modified for application to larger switchboards. For
example, in an infantry brigade using an SB-86 switchboard, the use of a two-digit number series will permit
the assignment of number 3 to the S-3 in accordance
with FM 24-20. In a corps headquarters, using an AN/
TTC-7 switchboard with 200 line capacity numbered
200-399, the numbers 203 and 303 can be assigned to the
G-3 section. If additional lines are required by that
section, numbers ending in digits other than 03 must be
assigned. In this event, a possible solution would be to
assign 253 and 353 to the G-3 section. On the other hand,
in the Army headquarters where a 600 line capacity
switchboard is used, the G-3 may be assigned all 03
numbers from 203 to 703 if desired.
(4)
During the displacement of any headquarters or activity,
the designator used at the new location is the same as
that used at the old, except that the suffix JUMP is added.
After the old location is closed out, the suffix is dropped.
(5) In certain situations, the signal combat area companies
may be required to operate one or more satellite switchboards from the area center switchboard. To maintain
the integrity of the area center designation, the satellite
switchboards use the same designation as that of the area
center, followed by word suffixes as required. Word
suffixes, such as RED, WHITE, or BLUE, are suggested
for this purpose. For example, a satellite switchboard of
MONARCH 710 would be MONARCH 710 RED.
(6) Telephone directory names and exchange numbers should
not be regarded as a code. They have no security value,
but are intended only as a convenience in system operation. However, telephone directories often include complete troop listings which might afford valuable orderof-battle information to an enemy. Therefore, it may be
necessary to apply a security classification to the directory, or to add the identification marking FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY, as determined by command policy.
46
AGO 2522B
46.
System Designation
a. To identify the telephone or teletypewriter multichannel
communication system between any two signal centers, it is necessary to use the communication designator of the two connected
signal centers (figure 11). The same numbering method is used
for both telephone and teletypewriter systems; however, the suffix
TG is added to a teletypewriter designator. The absence of this
suffix indicates that it is a telephone system. When one or more
systems are required between two signal centers, the letters A, B,
C, etc., are used immediately after the exchange number of the
signal center having responsibility for the system. Examples of
systems designation are shown below.
(1) One voice system between 10th Army (MONARCH)
signal centers 710 and 711 would be designated MON
710A-711.
(2) One voice system between 10th Army signal center 710
and 1st Corps main signal center (CRYSTAL 250)
would be designated MON 71OA-CRY 250.
(3) Three voice systems between 10th Army signal center
710 and 1st Corps main signal center (CRYSTAL 250)
would be designated as follows:
MON 710A-CRY 250
MON 710B-CRY 250
MON 710C-CRY 250
(4) Two teletypewriter systems between 10th Army Signal
centers 723 and 717 would be designated as follows:
MON 72SA-717 TG.
MON 723B-717 TG
(5) One teletypewriter system between 10th Army signal
center (MONARCH 723) and 2d Corps main signal center (DANGER 250) would be designated MON 723ADAN 250 TG.
b. A system may be further identified by adding suffixes to the
designator to identify the medium of transmission, number of
telephone channels, and number of telegraph channels. For
example, by adding the suffix V or S the transmission medium can
be shown. V would indicate VHF radio relay, and S would indicate spiral-four cable. By adding further numerical suffixes, the
number of telephone and teletypewriter channels, respectively,
can be indicated. Thus, system designators showing all of this
information would appear as follows:
MON 710A-711/V/11/4
MON 710B-711/S/11/8
MON 722A-DAN 250/V/11/8
AGO 2522B
47
c. The extent and manner of using these suffixes are determined by the command signal officer.
Figure 11.
Type army (two-corps) systems diagram.
(Located in back of manual)
47. Circuit Numbering System
a. Circuits are designated by numbers that identify the echelon
of command that initiates and establishes them. Blocks of circuit
numbers are assigned to various major command echelons throughout the theater for assignment to their circuits. These blocks of
circuit numbers are as follows:
Circuits for
Division
circuit number block
___.______ ….____
____ _________ 1000-1999
Corps
.................
2000-2999
Field army
___.________..__________
.-..
83000-7999
Army group
_____
_.-....... ___________ 8000-11999
ADLOG ________________.___________
12000-15999
BALOG _____
__.._____________________
16000-21999
TALOG ____- ___________
______________ 22000-24000
Theater Army
.-------------------____-____2400 0 -any limit
b. The command echelon that initiates the requirement for a
circuit provides the circuit number for control and identification.
This circuit number remains unchanged, even though the circuit
passes through the facilities of the systems belonging to one or
more subordinate or adjacent commands. Within the block allocation of circuit numbers for various command levels, priorities
for the installation and rerouting of circuits may be indicated
by use of especially designated sub-blocks. For example at field
army (circuit numbers 3000-7999) a sub-block 3000-3500 may
indicate all priority I circuits.
c. The first three letters of the unit telephone directory name
and the circuit number are used to identify a given circuit. For
example, MON 3001 indicates that this is circuit 3001 of the 10th
Army communication system. A circuit number with the suffix
TG indicates a teletypewriter circuit; a circuit number without a
suffix indicates a voice circuit.
d. To keep an accurate record of a circuit, it is necessary to
maintain the circuit order and record card. On the reverse side
of this card a trouble record may be kept. The sample circuit
order and record card format shown in table V indicates the point
of origin and termination of the circuit, the systems through
which the circuit passes, and the channel of the system used.
48
AGO 2522B
T'able 1'.
Sample Circuit Order and Record Card Formnal
3000
Circuit Order and Record Card (make entries in pencil)
(Circuit Number)
From MONA RCII 700
Circuit Order Number 258
)nate 28 January 1960
CRYSTAIL 250
To
Circuit, Contiol--MON 700
MONARCH
MONARCH
M(ONARCH
MONARCHI
MONARClH
MONARCH 720
MONARCH 718
MONARCH 714MONARCH 716
CRYSTAL 250
700
720
718
714
716
System
Channel
To
From
1
2
4
II
5
MON
MON
MON
MON
M()ON
700B-720
720C-718
714A-718
714B-716
716A-CRY 250
Table 17. Sample Circuit Order and Rlecord Card Formnat-Continued
(Reverse Side of Circuit Order and Record Card Format)
TR()UBLE RIECORI)
Reported
I)ate
Time
By
5/3/(;1/
0400Z
RW
Trouble found
Trouble
ower
Failure
Power Failure at
MON 720.
Date
Time
By
5/3/01
0350Z
RItW
48. Signal Locator and Routing Service
a. General. In any signal system an efficient and practical
locator and routing service is essential. Locator service provides
information on the location and directory designation of units
served by the communication system. Routing service provides
information to assist the switchboard operators in routing traffic
between signal centers. The information necessary to provide
this service is compiled and disseminated by the field army systems
control center and by subordinate control centers. A distinction is
made between locator and routing service for a signal system and
for unit telephone directories.
b. Responsibility.
(1) In the field army area communication system, locator
and routing information is compiled and disseminated by
the field army systems control center. Personnel and
facilities for this control center are provided by the sysAGO 2522B
49
tems control and signal information section of the headquarters and headquarters detachment, combat area
signal group. Personnel and facilities for subordinate
control centers are provided .by the battalion operation
and intelligence section, headquarters and headquarters
company, signal combat area battalions. Personnel and
facilities for facilities control are provided by the platoon
headquarters, signal center platoon, signal combat area
companies.
(2) Locator and routing service for the corps signal system
is the responsibility of the telephone operation section,
wire operations platoon, command signal operations
company, corps signal battalion. The corps systems
control center establishes collection and dissemination
procedures.
(3) Locator and routing service for the division area communication system is provided by the division systems
control center, established by the division signal battalion
S3. The S3 establishes collection and dissemination procedures.
(4) Locator and routing records maintained at each level of
control must be easily adaptable to a changing situation.
Changes to the locator records are made from information transmitted between levels of control. This data is
transmitted over circuits of the signal communication
facilities provided for control purposes. The first control center receiving information that a unit is leaving
or entering the system is responsible for initiating the
changes on the locator and routing records.
c. Unit Locator Service.
(1) Unit locator service provides geographical location
of users and the points of entry of their communication
facilities into the field army area communication system.
(2) The unit locator service is used by signal communication
personnel in traffic routing, messenger service, and systems engineering. Unit locator service provides, to chief
operators and other individuals responsible for determining routing, the destination in the communication system
of calls to specific units. This information, used in conjunction with routing information to that destination,
allows the calls to progress in accordance with an established traffic pattern.
(3) The field army systems control center prepares a unit
locator register that shows all organic and attached
units, their location, their unit directory designations,
50
AGO 2522B
and the signal center serving them. Units not part of, but
served by, the signal system are also shown. The locator
register is issued, initially, to- all signal centers. Once
issued, the register is maintained by the signal center.
This is done by posting information received through
control channels. A type format for a locator register is
shown in table VI.
d. Routing Service.
(1) Routing information is furnished the signal centers to
assist the switchboard operators in routing traffic
through the communication system. This information is
furnished to the switchboard operators in the form of
traffic diagrams and route bulletins.
(2) Routing information, used principally at signal centers,
is compiled and disseminated by the control centers of
the communication system. Local switchboard operators
depend on signal centers for routing information.
(3) Each switchboard operator requires routing information
to be able to contact all units served by the communication
system and to gain entrance into higher, lower, and
adjacent communication systems. The telephone route
bulletin and the telephone traffic diagram serve as the
major routing guides. Additional assistance can be obtained from the information and directory operator.
Telephone routing service is compiled and used as follows:
(a) The field army systems control center prepares a
master telephone traffic diagram which is issued to
subordinate signal centers. This diagram shows common-user trunks of the communication system. Each
signal center indicates on its copy of the traffic diagram all trunks to local exchanges within its area of
responsibility.
(b) The field army systems control center maintains a
traffic diagram of the field army area communication
system to show trunks to the theater communication
system and to adjacent communication systems.
(c) Telephone route bulletins are maintained at all signal
centers. A route bulletin is a list of all units served by
the communication system showing the signal center
through which each may be reached. Additions or
deletions are transmitted immediately, by the signal
center initiating the change, over a communication
control circuit to all other signal centers in the battalion area and, in the case of the field army area comAGO 2522B
51
munication system, to the battalion systems control
center. The battalion systems control center transmits
the change to the field army systems control center
where it is simultaneously transmitted to all other
battalion systems control centers.
(4) At least once a day, or as often as necessary, the field
army systems control center sends a complete new route
bulletin to each area and command signal center over
control circuits.
(5) The field army systems control center has at least one
information and directory operator to provide routing
information to the signal center chief operators for
trunking to higher, lower, and adjacent communication
systems, or to assist in routing calls within the communication system. A type format for a route bulletin is
shown in table VII.
(6) Routing service is provided by the first signal center
switchboard operator. The local operator extends the
call to the first signal center switchboard operator.
The first signal center switchboard operator then routes
the call to its destination and remains on the connection
until the final operator has received and understood the
final connection order.
49. Records and Reports
At field army, corps, and division level, the systems control
centers keep the signal sections informed as to the current operational status of the signal communication system and the availability of personnel and equipment to meet additional operational
demands. To accomplish this and to assure effective, accurate
control and operation of the signal system at each level, the applicable control centers must maintain and have available certain
essential records. These may include, but will not be limited to,
the following:
a. Line Route Map. A line route map is a map overlay that indicates the exact route and number of wire lines. Guidance as to
format is contained in FM 24-20.
b. Radio Relay Systems Map. A radio relay systems map (fig.
12) is a map overlay that indicates locations of radio relay
terminals and intermediate relay stations, operating radio frequencies, magnetic azimuth of antenna orientation, and location
of signal centers being served by the radio relay terminal sites.
At division and corps level it is prepared and disseminated as an
appendix to the signal battalion operations order; at field army it
is prepared and issued by the field army systems control center.
52
AGO 2522B
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AGO 2522B
53
Table VII.
Sample
l10th Army Telephone Rote BlHilelin Format
Effective: 010500 I)eC.1960
Unit collmmunication
designator
CRYSTAL. 250
JOKER 50
MONARCH 700
MONARCH 701
MONARCH 927
Communication designator of
signal center providing ervicee
MONARCH
MO()NARCH
MONARCH
MONARCH
MONARCH
715/716
718
720/726/701/710
723/729/700
715
c. Radio Net Diagram. A radio net diagram is a graphic display of the employment of AM and FM radio sets within a designated area. It shows number and type of sets, arrangements and
participants of the various radio nets, assigned frequencies and
call signs, and other related data as required. At division level
it is prepared and disseminated by the systems control center of
the signal section; at army, it is prepared and disseminated by the
field army signal section.
d. Communication Systems Diagram. A communications sys-
tems diagram is a working document which shows the multichannel systems available for use. It is used in systems control
centers as an aid to circuit routing. Each control center prepares a communication systems diagram showing its own area
of responsibility (fig. 11).
e. Telephone Traffic Diagram. A telephone traffic diagram is a
graphic display of the common-user telephone trunk circuits between signal centers.
(1) At division level, the diagram (fig. 13) is prepared
and disseminated by the division systems control center
or the signal section and shows the number of commonuser telephone trunk circuits in the division area communication systems. It also shows the number of common-user trunk circuits between the division system and
higher adjacent commands.
(2) At army level, the diagram (fig. 14) is prepared and
disseminated by the army signal section. It shows access
points to the telephone switching centers of higher,
lower, and adjacent commands and is used by the telephone operators for routing calls.
f. Teletypewriter Traffic Diagram. A teletypewriter traffic
diagram shows the number of common-user teletypewriter trunk
circuits between signal centers.
(1) At division level, it shows the number of common-user
54
AGO 2522B
teletypewriter trunk circuits within the division area
communication systems. It also shows the number of
common-user teletypewriter circuits between the division system and higher and adjacent commands (fig.
15).
(2) At army level, it shows access points to teletypewriter
switching centers of higher, lower, and adjacent commands (fig. 16). It is used by the teletypewriter switchboard operator for routing teletypewriter calls.
g. Division Sole-User Trafic Diagram. A division sole-user
traffic diagram contains the origin, number, destination, and
routing of all sole-user telephone and teletypewriter circuits in the
division area communication system. In addition, it shows sole
user circuits established by higher or adjacent commands that
occupy channels of any of the division multichannel systems. The
diagram is prepared by the division systems control center.
h. Army Sole-User Traffic Diagram. An army sole-user traffic
diagram (fig. 17) shows the origin, number, and designation of
all sole-user telephone and teletypewriter circuits approved for
installation within the field army. It is prepared by the army
signal section and is included in the signal portion of the Army
SOP. It is used by subscribers as a record of their allocation of
sole-user service, and by systems control centers in the preparation
of detailed circuit orders.
i. Unit Locator Register. A unit locator register gives the
exact geographical location of units, unit designations, and their
points of access to the particular communication system. This
information is used by signal communication personnel in routing of telephone calls, teletypewriter messages, and messengers.
Units not part of but served by the communication system are also
listed. The unit register, which is issued to all signal centers
upon initiation of operations, is maintained by the individual signal
centers. This is done by posting the changes as they occur. A
recommended format is shown in table VI.
(1) At division level, the register is prepared by the division
systems control center.
(2) At army level, the register is prepared by the field army
systems control center.
j. Telephone Route Bulletin. The telephone route bulletin is an
alphabetical listing of all units by telephone directory name or
communication designator. It lists the signal centers through
which each of these units can be reached. It is used by the signal
center telephone switchboard operator routing trunk calls. The
bulletin is prepared and maintained by all command and area
signal centers. A consolidated route bulletin is distributed periAGO 2522B
55
odically by the field army systems control center. Table VII
shows a type telephone route bulletin.
k. Circuit Register. A circuit register format (table VIII)
is a numerical listing of the block of circuit numbers assigned to
the particular unit. Columns in the register indicate the circuit
number, the type of circuit, the point of origin, and the destination.
The register is used by control centers to identify circuits that
originate within the particular communication system. As each
circuit is assigned a number, the register is posted and a circuit
order and record card is prepared. As each circuit is cancelled,
the information is posted on the register and the circuit record
card is retired.
Table VIII.
Circoit number
Tylpe
Sample Circuit Register Formal
ircuit
Origin
Destinati)n
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
Tel
Tel
Tel
Tel
Tel
IMON-700
MON-700
MON-700
M()ON-700
MON-700
CRYSTAL.--250
CRYSTA L--250
M()N--702
MON-702
MON--702
3005
Tel
MON 700
MON--702
3006
3007
Tel
Tel
MON-700
M()N-700
10N--702
MON--720
3008
'Iel
MON-700
MON-720
3010
T
MON-700
M()N--72
I. Circuit Order and Record Card. A circuit order and record
card contains information pertaining to the facilities used on each
circuit (channel number, system number, or facility used). It also
indicates the circuit order number and the effective date. The contents of this card are transmitted in abbreviated format and constitute a circuit installation order to the signal center involved.
The circuit order and record card is prepared and maintained at
control centers. A type circuit order and record card format is
shown in table V.
m. CarrierSystem Record Card. A carrier system record card
indicates the facility used, the channels available for use, the
spare channels, the origin and destination of each channel in use,
and the circuit number for each circuit occupying a channel in the
system. The card is prepared and maintained at control centers.
A card is prepared and maintained for each carrier system operated. The reverse side of the card is used to indicate trouble on
the system or trouble on individual channels. One method of use
is to remove the card from the operational file and place it in an
56
AGo 2s522B
outage file during periods that the system is out because of trouble.
A record of the time in and time out maintained on the reverse of
the card will be the basis of a history of the system that can be
used for many purposes. A type format is shown in table IX.
Table IX.
Sample CarrierSystem Record Card Format
Carrier System Record Card
M(ON 700A-270
(System Number)
Facility used:
~
Terminal Equipment AN/TCC-7
Circuit No.
From
To
IMON 700
C:3 MON 700
MON 700
MON 700
MON 700
MON 710
MON 710
Spare
MON 710
MON 701
G3 CRY 250
CRY 250
CRY 250
MON 701
MON 711
MON 711
3701
3704
3769
3770
3790
3810
3811
MON 711
SI() 43'
MON 710-711 TG
Channel
I
2
3
4
5
0
7
8
9
Radio relay
Spare
Spare
Spare
10
II
12
see reverse side
system installation order
Table IX.
Sample Carrier System Record Card Format-Continued
(reverse side)
Carrier System Record Card Format
Time
,late
out
140012Z
190012Z
Time date in
140112Z
191504Z
Remarks
System out. Generator trouble, relay No. I
Channel 12 out. Bad ringer, terminal "B".
n. CarrierSystem Record Chart. A carrier system record chart
illustrates the individual systems that terminate at a particular
signal center and shows the use made of each channel. The
chart is prepared by and maintained at the individual signal centers. In some cases, it may be necessary to prepare two charts to
separate the telephone carrier systems and the teletypewriter
carrier systems. If this chart is covered with clean acetate, system
changes may be made with a grease pencil. A type format is
shown in table X.
AGO 26522B
57
C
i
C
AGO 2622B
50. Electronic Accounting Machine Applications
By using the systems, units, and circuit designators as discussed above, the problem of systems control and circuit control
becomes semi-mechanical in nature, and hence is amenable to EAM
and ADP applications. Figure 18 represents a possible machine
card layout format, applied to the problem of unit designation,
location, communication requirements, signal center providing
service, etc. Such a card, by either machine sorting or ADP
application, could be used to provide telephone directories, unit
locator files, signal center communications loads, etc. Similarly,
a circuit order and installation card may be punched (fig. 19)
showing the maximum center and system routing (seven signal
centers), and could be used as both a circuit order and a circuit
record. Such a card, by machine sorting, could be used to indicate
circuit routing, circuit and system utilization at each signal center, systems record cards, etc. Through ADP application, the
same input card could indicate system and channel availability,
system and channel usage, etc.
51. Telephone Directory Service
At division level, a telephone directory is prepared by the division signal section and distributed as an SOI item. At army level,
it is prepared by the field army signal section. The directory lists
all assigned and attached units and their associated directory
communication designator names. It also lists those units that
are not a part of, but which are served by, the particular signal
system. The control center notifies all'signal centers of changes
to the telephone directory. Signal centers and units prepare telephone directories in accordance with local requirements.
a. Subordinate control centers notify the higher control center
as soon as possible when circuits to units, located within their area
of responsibility, have been installed. The information to be provided to the higher control center normally includes, but is not
limited to(1) Unit designation.
(2) Communication designator name of unit, if not listed
in directory.
(3) Coordinates of unit.
(4) Type of circuit provided.
b. When units served by a signal center move, they notify
the signal center concerned- before disrupting their communication.
Figure 12.
Type field army (two-corps) radio-relay system map.
(Located in back of manual)
AGO 2522B
59
Figure13.
Type infantry division telephone traffic diagram.
(Located in back of manual)
Figure 14.
60
Type field army telephone traffic diagram.
(Located in back of manual)
AGO 2522B
AGO 2522B
Figure 16.
Type field army teletypewriter traffic diagram.
(Located in back of manual)
Figure 17.
Type army sole-user telephone and teletypewriter traffic diagram.
(Located in back of manual)
Figure 18.
Format for type machine card layout for unit designatorcard.
(Located in back of manual)
Figure 19.
Format for type machine card layout for circuit order and
record card.
(Located in back of manual)
62
AGO 2522B
CHAPTER 6
SIGNAL CENTER DISPLACEMENT
52. Displacement of Field Army Signal Centers
a. There are several methods of displacing the field army main
and the field army alternate signal centers. Based on existing
circumstances, the field army signal officer decides the method to
be used. Two methods are discussed below:
(1) Signal facilities that are not absolutely necessary at the
old command post are moved and established at the new
command post. This permits the headquarters to begin
operations at the new command post. Signal facilities
are moved to the new location as quickly as the situation
permits. The old command post is finally closed out.
(2) Operations are closed out completely at the old command
post, and the headquarters and signal facilities are moved
to the new command post. With this method, army
alternate headquarters must exercise control until the
new CP is ready to resume control. Army alternate is
then closed and moved to its new location.
b. The nature and size of the system requires displacement
of the field army area signal centers by establishing new centers
in the forward areas and closing out those in the rear areas.
(1) As corps and divisions move forward, the field army
area signal centers in reserve are committed to forward
areas to continue area support.
(2) Field army area signal centers in the army service
area are phased out to provide reserve or immediate displacement units. Two methods used to close out area signal centers are:
(a) The signal center is phased out by rerouting its trunk
circuits and by connecting the units left within the
area to another area signal center.
(b) Signal combat area companies are relieved by the
signal operations platoon of the headquarters and
headquarters company, signal combat area battalion.
This platoon may be used under the following conditions:
1. When the units requiring support in an area served
by an area signal center are reduced in number to
the extent that a full signal combat area company is
no longer required.
AGO 2622B
63
2. In an area where switching and trunking facilities
are required, but where no units are located.
c. When the army rear boundary is to be moved forward, the
signal section of field army headquarters coordinates with the
signal section of the theater army to assure that signal communication is provided to units that remain in the area.
d. Signal combat area companies held in reserve remain under
the control of their parent battalions, unless operational considerations make this impossible. These reserve companies are
kept in a ready status and should be located to facilitate future
employment.
53. Displacement of Corps Signal Centers
Frequent movement of echelons of corps headquarters causes
signal communication displacement operations to be carried on
continuously. Proposed future locations of command posts are
selected and surveyed, plans are developed for physical rearrangement and electrical rerouting of communication circuits, and all
effected elements are advised of the action to be taken to effect the
displacement. Physical movement of personnel and equipment is
then initiated. This movement is conducted in phases that permit
establishment of signal communications prior to the time operations are scheduled to begin at the new command post. The phases
also must permit communication to continue at the old command
post until communication is established at the new command post.
As a result, personnel and equipment must be available for displacement operations.
54. Displacement of Division Signal Centers
a. General. Signal centers of the division area communication
system must be able to displace without interrupting the continuity of service to users of the system. The task of providing
uninterrupted communication is made easier by intelligent, detailed advanced planning on the part of the division signal officer
and his close coordination with the division staff, particularly
G3. Certain basic principles to be considered in any displacement plan are to:
(1) Provide continuous communication service.
(2) Establish a complete and comprehensive procedure for
any contingency. This procedure must be followed by
personnel who install and operate the system, particularly
radio relay and circuit control personnel.
(3) Establish and follow a standardized method of circuit
control.
64
AGO 26522B
(4) Maintain displacement equipment in a ready state and
locate the equipment where it may be rapidly committed.
(5) Make maximum use of the alternate routing capabilities
provided by the division area communication system.
(6) Make provision for continuous service to subscribers
subsequent to displacement of a signal center.
b. Divisibn Main Signal Center. Methods of displacing command signal centers vary with tactical requirements. Accordingly,
it is impractical to explain every imaginable situation. The displacement procedures listed below are based on division main's
displacement to the division advance signal center; however, the
identical basic principles apply for displacement of all command
signal centers.
(1) Radio relay facilities. Radio relay equipment from the
reserve pool is moved to and installed at the new location.
Existing divisicr., main radio relay circuits are then
monitored and taken over by the advance group when
the command post moves forward. Old division main
closes down and its radio relay equipment reverts to the
reserve pool at the new location.
(2) Patching and Switching Facilities. Since patching and
switching facilities are already established at division
advance, the division main circuits need only be patched
into or through them. After the old division main signal
center is closed out, the patching and switching equipment can either be displaced to the next location of
division advance or reverted to the reserve pool.
(3) Radio facilities. It may be necessary to combine certain
radio nets to make a displacement. When this is required,
the division signal officer determines which nets are to
be combined. The radio/wire integration service operated at division advance provides integration facilities
for elements of division main as they move into their
new location. Full radio facilities are reestablished as
rapidly as personnel and equipment arrive at the new
location.
(4) Communications center facilities. These facilities are
already provided at division advance. When division
main closes out the old signal center, the communications
center equipment is moved to the new location of division main or to a new division advance location.
c. Division Advance Signal Center. The division advance signal
center affords close control of the forward elements of the division, provides alternate routing, and may serve as a location for
AGO 2522B
65
the displacement of the division main. The division advance signal
center generally displaces more frequently than division main.
(1) Radio relay facilities. Radio relay facilities are digplaced by moving the reserve equipment to the new division advance location, monitoring the present radio relay
system, and taking over at a predetermined time. After
the radio relay system has been taken over at the new
location, the released radio relay terminals at the old
division advance represent a reserve pool of equipment
for use during future displacements.
(2) Patchingand switching facilities. The telephone section
of the command signal center platoon, command operations company, is not authorized patching and switching
facilities for displacement purposes. However, there are
sufficient switching facilities available in the other telephone sections of the signal battalion that may be used
to support a displacement of division advance.
(3) Radio facilities. It may be necessary to combine certain
AM radio nets to facilitate a displacement. Upon completion of the displacement, these facilities are restored
at the new location to their full capabilities as rapidly
as possible. The FM facilities can be displaced without
any appreciable reduction of service.
(4) Communicationscenter facilities.. No displacement facilities are provided. To displace communications center
facilities at division advance, facilities are closed down,
moved to the new location, and then reestablished.
d. ForwardSignal Centers.
(1) General. Forward signal centers normally can displace
by employing only their authorized personnel and equipment. However, the division signal officer may augment
any signal center with personnel and equipment available elsewhere in the signal battalion.
(2) Radio relay facilities. Radio relay facilities at a forward signal center may consist of three radio terminals
(two in operation and one in reserve). Figure 20 indicates that one terminal is used as a single terminal in
system TAN 51A-61 and another terminal is used as a
double terminal in a systems TAN 60A-61 and TAN
61A-62. Methods of displacing radio relay facilities at
a particular forward signal center (in this case, center
61) are described in (a) through (d) below.
(a) The reserve terminal moves forward to establish a
new area signal center (TAN 61 JUMP).
66
AGO 2522B
(b) System TAN 51A-61 JUMP is established by using
one-half the reserve terminal that displaced to 61
JUMP.
(c) System TAN 51A-61 is closed out, and that terminal
is displaced to 61 JUMP, where it establishes systems
TAN 60A-61 JUMP and TAN 61A-62 JUMP.
(d) Systems TAN 60A-61 and TAN 61A-62 are closed
out when the command closes, and this equipment is
displaced to forward signal center TAN 61, (formerly
61 JUMP) and is held in reserve for the next displacement.
(3) Patching and switching facilities. Each forward signal center is authorized two patching panels (one in
operation and one in reserve). When an area signal
center displaces, the reserve patch panel moves forward
to the new location, where it is installed to handle the
switching and patching operations at the new signal center.
(4) Radio facilities. Radio facilities provided by a forward
signal center are a radio/wire integration station and an
FM radio set operated in the signal battalion command.
(5) Communications center facilities. No displacement facilities are provided. In order to displace the communications center facilities at an area signal center, the facilities must be closed down, moved to the next location,
and then reestablished.
Figure 20.
Type diagram for displacement of forward signal center radio
relay facilities (worksheet).
(Located in back of manual)
AGO 2522B
67
APPENDIX I
REFERENCES
1.
AR
AR
AR
Army Regulations
Army Field Commands
105-15
Dictionary of United States Army Terms
320-5
Military Abbreviation and Symbols
320-50
(Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity
Codes).
AR 380-40
AR 380-41
2.
Field Manuals
FM 11-8
FM 11-14
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
Safeguarding Cryptomatter
Control of Cryptomaterial
11-15
11-16
11-57
11-86
11-92
11-95
21-5
21-6
21-30
24-17
24-18
24-20
32-5
100-5
100-10
100-11
101-5
FM 101-10
Field Radio Relay Techniques
Army Signal Supply and Maintenance Battalion.
Signal Cable Construction Battalion
Signal Orders, Records, and Reports
Signal Battalion, Airborne Division
Combat Area Signal Battalion, Army
Corps Signal Battalion
Army Signal Battalion
Military Training
Techniques of Military Instruction
Military Symbols
Tactical Communications Center Operation
Field Radio Techniques
Field Wire and Field Cable Techniques
Communications Security (U)
Field Service Regulations; Operations
Field Service Regulations; Administration
Signal Communications Doctrine
Staff Officers' Field Manual; Staff Organization and Procedure.
Staff Officers' Field Manual: Organization,
Technical and Logistical Data.
3. Department of the Army Pamphlets
Index of Army Motion Pictures, Film Strips,
DA Pam 108-1
DA Pam 310-1
68
Slides, and Phono-Recordings.
Military Publications: Index of Administrative Publications (Army Regulations, Special Regulations, Circulars, Pamphlets,
AGO 2522B
DA Pam 310-2
DA Pam 310-3
DA Pam 310-4
DA Pam 310-7
Commercial Traffic Bulletins, Military
Traffic Management Bulletins, (Joint
Chiefs of Staff Publications, General Orders,
and Bulletins).
Military Publications: Index of Blank Forms
Military Publications: Index of Training Publications (Field Manuals, Reserve Officers
Training Corps Manuals, Training Circulars, Army Training Tests, War Department and Department of the Army Posters,
and Firing Tables and Trajectory Charts).
Military Publications: Index of Technical
Manuals, Technical Bulletins, Supply Bulletins, Lubrication Orders, and Modification Work Orders.
Military Publications: Index of Tables of
Organization and Equipment, Type Tables
of Distribution, and Tables of Allowances.
4. Technical Manuals
Electrical Communications Systems EngineerTM 11-486-1
ing: Military Communications Systems.
TM 11-486-2
Electrical Communication Systems Engineering: Traffic.
TM 11-486-3
Electrical Communications Systems Engineering: Transmission and Circuit Layout.
TM 11-486-6
Electrical Communication Systems Engineering: Radio.
TM 11-486-7
Electrical Communications Systems Engineering: Power.
Electrical Communications Systems EngineerTM 11-486-10
ing: Handbook.
Electrical Communications Systems EngineerTM 11-486-11
ing: Definitions and Abbreviations.
5. Allied Communication Publications
ACP 121
Communication Instructions-General (U)
BAFCOM-US Army Communication FreACP 194A
quency Plan (U).
6. Training Circular
DA Training Cir- Tactical Operations Center
cular 101-2
AGO 2522B
69
APPENDIX II
GUIDE FOR PLANNING TACTICAL SIGNAL
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
1. General
To assure the greatest possible reliability, traffic engineering
factors should be developed from actual operating experience.
Where such factors do not exist, standard factors must be used.
This appendix gives some general guidance in planning tactical
communication systems.
a. Communication equipment necessary for operating communication systems at various levels is authorized in the form of
standardized component groupings. Each of the components used
is described in a technical manual which covers the installation,
operation, and maintenance of the equipment.
b. Engineering of field army communications is relatively
simple, because of the inherent capability of the type of equipment authorized. A major problem is the selection, allocation,
and utilization of radio frequencies. Various frequency assignment plans are described in applicable equipment and engineering
manuals and in ACP 194A. Another problem is the selection,
allocation, and distribution of cryptosystems to insure compatible
cryptonetting.
c. Overall guidance for systems engineering is provided in
the TM 11-486-series of manuals. These guidelines and standards
should be adhered to as far as practicable.
Telephone
To determine the number of long-distance trunks required for
an army area signal center, it is necessary to first determine how
many local trunks and loops will be connected to the switchboard
of the area signal center. The following steps may be used to
estimate the number of long-distance trunks required to support
the subscribers of a given area signal center.
a. Total the local trunks and loops terminated at the signal
center. This total may be obtained by totaling the number of
telephone trunks and loops on the requirements density overlay
pertaining to the area of responsibility of this signal center.
See table IV.
b. Add to the number of loops calculated a general planning
factor of 25 loops for use within the immediate vicinity of the
area signal center.
2.
70
AGO 252211
c. Apply the following formula to determine long-distance
trunks required for this center.
Loops served x CR + local trunks x CR*
Average calls per hour
(1) CR represents the long distance calling rate for subscribers connected to the area center, by means of telephone loops. CR may be assumed to be 0.5 call per
hour for each loop.
(2) CR* represents the long-distance calling rate for each
local trunk connected to the area center switchboard.
CR* may be assumed to be 1.5 calls per hour for each
local trunk.
(3) The average calls per hour represents the average number of calls that may be handled at the area center
switchboard on one long distance trunk. This constant
may be assumed to be 7.5 calls per hour for each long
distance trunk.
Example:
An area center anticipated that it will provide 80 local
trunks to subscribers in its area. It anticipates installing
a total of 60 loops in its area of responsibility. Applying
the formula above to these anticipated requirements we
have:
loops served x CR + local trunks x 1.5
7.5
= 60 x 0.5 + 80 x 1.5
7.5
30 + 120 = 20 long distance trunks required to satisfy the antici7.5
pated subscriber load.
d. After the area signal center is installed, it is imperative
that actual traffic data be obtained and analyzed to accurately
modify the common user telephone system to meet requirements
in a realistic manner.
3.
Teletypewriter
When actual operating data are not available, use maximum
machine capacity to determine teletypewriter circuit requirements. Use TOE's to determine the number of teletypewriter
machines available; use the procedures below to determine
the number of circuits required for their operation.
a. Tape Equipment. To determine the maximum busy-hour
group count, multiply the number of tape machines in the signal
AGO 2G22B
71
center by 20,000. (Tactical tape machines are capable of handling
approximately 20,000 groups per day). Use this group count
figure and refer to the tables in the TM 11-486-series to arrive at
the approximate number of trunks required.
b. Manual Switched Service. Switched service, in this instance, means the use of keyboard-operated machines connected
to a switchboard. To determine the maximum busy-hour group
count, multiply the total number of keyboard operated machines
by 10,000. Use this figure and refer to the appropriate tables in
TM 11-486-series of manuals to determine the number of trunks
required.
4.
Sole-User Circuits
Message precedence and traffic volume are the two considerations in justifying allocation of circuits on a sole-user basis. Requirements must be verified by coordination with appropriate staff
sections and with the units that generate traffic requirements
based on operational needs.
72
AGO 2522B
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY:
G. H. DECKER,
General, United States Army,
Chief of Staff.
Official:
J. C. LAMBERT,
Major General, United States Ai 'my,
The Adjutant General.
Distribution:
Active Army:
Svc Colleges (2) except
USACGSC (150)
Br Svc Sch (5) except
USASCS (1500)
PMGS (100)
US ARADSCH (10)
USAAVNS (30)
AMSS (25)
USAIS (20)
USASESCS (100)
USMA (5)
PMS Sr Div Units (4)
PMS Jr Div Units (4)
PMS Mil Sch Div Units (4)
ACS (5)
USASRDL (5)
USAEPG (10)
MAAG (2)
Mil Msn (2)
Units organized under following TOE:
11-22 (10)
1132 (10)
11-66 (5)
11-137 (10)
NG: State AG (3); Units-same as Active Army except allowance is one
copy to each unit.
USAR: Same as Active Army except allowance is one copy to each unit.
For explanation of abbreviations used, see AR 320-50.
CNGB (50
Tech Stf, DA (2) ex cept
CSigO (15)
Tech Stf Bd (1)
USCONARC (5)
OS Maj Comd (10)
MDW (1)
Armies (10) except
Seventh USA (30)
EUSA (25)
Corps (5)
Div (10)
Bde (2)
Bg (1)
Bn (1) except
TOE 11-5 (25)
TOE 11-15 (25)
TOE 11-25 (25)
TOE 11-45 (25)
TOE 11-55 (25)
TOE 11-85 (25)
TOE 11-95 (25)
TOE 11-155 (10)
TOE 11-555 (25)
*U.S.
AGO 2522B
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OrFFICE:1961-610517
73
6
XXXX
NOTES:
I WHEN SPIRAL-FOUR CABLE I S
/XXXX
INSTALLED TO PROVIDETHESE
SYSTEMS, THE CABLE IS INSTALLED10
BY THE CABLE CONSTRUCTION
BATTALION.
XXXX
2. THE EXTENSION SYSTEMS TO THE
DIVISIONS NORMALLY TERMINATE
16
XXX-_-
LTN
l
717 \
\
/
-4GYGTEMSIy
ULTNHANNEL
GIC
-----
XXX
f
LEGEND:
MULTICHANNEL SYSTEMS
---PROVIDED BY FIELD
OPERATIONS COMPANY,
ARMY SIGNAL BATTALION.
SPT
14
/xxx
MULTICHANNEL SYSTEMS
PROVIDED BY COMBATAREA
SIGNAL COMPANIES
co
CEN
SI
AT DIVISION SUPPORT COMMIAND
SIG
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xx
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I ype
feld army multichannel communication system.
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gigure
-
TO ALL ATTACHED INF NV
2. BATT SRCUITS NOT SHOWN,
ITO ADJACENT ARMY AREASIGNAL CENTERS
Figure 1
Figusre 2.
Corps cominIiication system integrated with the field army
conmmnluIIication system, schematic diagram.
FMII-21--.
Figure 2
)
-°
------
LEGEND:
DESIGNATES AREA SIGNAL BATTALION'S
AREA OF COMMUNICATION RESPONSIBILITY.
IY!
r./
FM11-21-33
Figure 9.
Type signal unit employment, field army communication system.
Figure 9
I
we
;iue
o
IIL-G001
y
NON
11 =VO11 NON
H
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a
ah
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Figure 11.
Type army (two-corps) systems diagram.
Figure I ]
xxxx
MoW 713
aje ceE
ELEV
563
55
/~~D
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ON
4ALTN
711
~~
(~~NOTE
1
NOTES:
46
1.SYSTEM DESIGNATED AS RESERVE; TO BE PLACEOD IN OPERATION
ON ORDER WHEN SPIRAL-4 SYSTEM BECOMES
INOPERATIVE.
2. BROKEN LINE (---INDICATES AZIMUTHS
FOR
EMERGENCY U SE, SYS TEB S NOT ALWNAy S PRO VIDEO.
3. AZIMUTHS ARE GRID AZIMUATHS.E
xx
O
~COMPUTED
41 ELEVATIONS
S.
MAP:
(NOT
(ELEV)
GIVEN
DESIGNATED
/
ELEV·c,
(NOTE
1
1)
ELEV/
SIGCNxxSx
M.ON 715
V
IN METERS.A
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48
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LEV
524
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14
lit
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FM II-2
Figure 12.
Type field army (two-corps) radio-relay system map.
Figure
I I20
I20'1>
D
ALTN
J2ALTN7><20COM[
MAIN
2
SPT
2 20
0
REARa20
TELEPHONE TRAFFIC DIAGRAM
20TH INFANTRY DIVISION
20
ri
u\
u4
30
o
0
0
FM 11-21-19
XI\
Figure 13.
Type infantry division telephone traffic diagram.
Figure 13
.4
H
_r
a.
MI-I-24 2*
Figure 14.
Type field army telephone traffic diagram.
Figure 14
Figure 16.
Type field army teletypewriter traffic diagram.
FMi¥121-2
Figure 16
ALTN
IST CORPS
XXXX
4lE
3D CORPS
2D CORPS
AADcp
AADCP
T
6
2
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-..
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602
NOTE:
LEGEND:
ALL CIRCUITS TO ARMY MAIN HEADQUARTERS
AND ARMY MAIN FATOC ARE BRIDGED TO ARMY
ALTERNATE HEADQUARTERS AND ARMY ALTERNATE
FATOC IN ORDER FOR THEM TO FUNCTION WHEN
REQUIRED.
-
TELEPHONE
__ TELETYPEWRITER
FMII1-21-14
0
C,
X'
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Figure 17.
Type army sole8user telephone and teletypewriter traffic diagram.
Figure 17
CIRCUIT ORDER AND RECORD CARD
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M01932
Identification
1.
Circuit Number
1-4
2.
Unit Designator, originator
6-12
3.
Originating Signal Center, outgoing system
and Channel
4.
Next signal center designator, outgoing
system and channel
22 - 26
5.
Third signal center designator, outgoing
system and channel
29 - 33
6
Fourth signal center designator, outgoing
system and channel
35 - 39
7.
Fifth signal center designator, outgoing
system and channel
41-46
8.
Sixth signal center designator, outgoing
system and channel
47-51
9.
Terminal signal' center
53- 47
FMUZ 32
'3
Car rd Code:
Unit Title
LX
Colunms:
26
Unit Designator
28-34
Signal Center supporting
37-42
\Telephone loop requirement
Go
Sole-User circuit allocation
M
1
C
0.
Teletype loop requirement
54-56
Julian date
66-69
Unit grid location
71-76
FMI 1-21-101
C
ItCM
K
XX
0
01
10.
Unit designator, terminal
14-20
74-79
u1\
UN'
FMII-21-32
FMII- 21-102
Fignre 18.
Fornmat for type machine card layout for unit designator card.
I'1
Figure 18
Figure 19.
Format for type machine card layout for circuit order and
record card.
Figure 19[
Figure 20.
Il
Type diagram
for displacement of forward signal center radi
I relay facilities (worksheet).
Figure 20
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