our catalog
Weather Monitoring
Instruments & Systems
2013 Catalog
www.novalynx.com
Table of Contents
Applications
3
System Design ......................................................................... 4
Site Considerations .................................................................. 5
Typical System Drawings ........................................................ 6
Typical System Drawings ........................................................ 7
Typical System Drawings ........................................................ 8
Weather Stations
9
110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station ................................... 10
110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station ................................... 11
110-WS-18 Portable Weather Station .................................... 12
110-WS-18 Portable Weather Station .................................... 13
110-WS-16SML Display Software ....................................... 14
110-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software ....................... 15
110-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software ............................. 16
Davis Vantage Pro2 Weather Station ..................................... 17
Kestrel 3000 & 4000 Pocket Weather Meters ....................... 18
Data Acquisition
19
195-WS-16 Data Logger ....................................................... 20
195-WS-16 Data Logger ....................................................... 21
195-WS-16AD Automatic Voice Dialers .............................. 22
140-400 Spread Spectrum Radio ........................................... 23
195-26800 Meteorological Display ....................................... 24
Signal Conditioning
25
130-200 Series Signal Conditioners ...................................... 26
135-100 Series Signal Conditioning Translator Boards ........ 27
135-104 General Purpose Translator Board .......................... 28
Group 395 Enclosures ........................................................... 29
Analog Look-up Table ........................................................... 30
Analog & Digital Displays
31
Analog Displays .................................................................... 32
Digital Displays ..................................................................... 32
Upper Air
33
Meteorological Balloons ....................................................... 34
Meteorological Balloons ....................................................... 35
400-2090 Sight Clinometer ................................................... 36
400-2095 Ceiling Light Projector ......................................... 36
Visibility
37
400-SVS1 Sentry Visibility Sensor ....................................... 38
400-6000 Visibility Sensor .................................................... 39
400-CBME40/80 Cloud Ceilometer ...................................... 40
Lightning Detection
41
410-SKYSCAN Hand-Held Lightning Detector .................. 42
Wind
43
WeatherPort General Purpose Wind Sensors ........................ 44
WeatherPort High Sensitivity Wind Sensors ......................... 45
NovaVane Wind Speed & Direction Sensors ........................ 46
200-2218 Analog Indication Wind System ........................... 47
200-05103 Wind Monitor ...................................................... 48
200-05305 Wind Monitor - Air Quality ................................ 49
200-27005 Gill UVW Anemometer ...................................... 50
200-06201 Wind Tracker Display ......................................... 51
200-03002 Wind Sentry ........................................................ 52
200-81000 Ultrasonic Anemometer ...................................... 53
200-85000 Ultrasonic Anemometer ...................................... 54
200-7000 WindSonic Ultrasonic Anemometer ..................... 55
200-1390 WindObserver II Ultrasonic Anemometer ............ 56
200-101908 Current Loop Wind Sensors .............................. 57
200-102083 Wind Mark III Wind Sensors ............................ 58
200-2020 Micro Response Wind Sensors ............................. 59
200-2030 Micro Response Wind Sensors ............................. 60
200-WS-21-A Dual Set Point Wind Alarm ........................... 61
200-WS-23 Current Loop Wind Sensor ................................ 62
200-455 Totalizing Anemometer with 10-Min Timer ........... 63
200-WS-25 Wind Logger with Real-Time Display .............. 64
200-2520 Wind Meter ........................................................... 65
200-2530 Wind Speed Indicator ............................................ 65
200-960 Handheld Anemometer ........................................... 66
Kestrel 1000 Pocket Wind Meter .......................................... 67
La Crosse EA-3010U Anemometer ....................................... 67
Calibration Accessories ......................................................... 68
Calibration Accessories ......................................................... 69
Wind Direction Calibrators ................................................... 70
Wind Speed Calibrators ......................................................... 70
200-2620 Wind Sock ............................................................. 71
200-2510-A 260-2511-A Totalizing Anemometer ................ 72
Temperature & Humidity
73
225-5020-A Hygrothermograph ............................................ 74
220-730 Dial Hygrometer ..................................................... 75
225-930 Dial ThermoHygrometer ......................................... 75
210-4410 Standard Thermometer .......................................... 76
210-4420 Min-Max Thermometer Set .................................. 76
225-520 Pocket Sling Psychrometer ..................................... 77
225-570 Sling Psychrometer ................................................. 77
225-564 Fan Psychrometer .................................................... 78
225-566 Battery Psychrometer .............................................. 78
225-5230 Assmann Psychrometer ......................................... 79
225-569 Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule ............................ 80
225-HMP60 Humidity/Temp ................................................ 81
225-HMP155 Humidity/Temp .............................................. 81
210-4470 & 210-4480 Temperature Sensors ........................ 82
210-201, 210-301, & 201-600 Temperature Sensors ............ 83
210-TP1 Temperature Sensor ................................................ 84
210-WE700 Temperature Sensor .......................................... 85
225-THT-1 Temperature & Humidity Sensor ....................... 86
210-41342 Temp & 225-41382 T/RH ................................... 87
225-42603 Temp Tracker ...................................................... 87
210-5320 Series Dew Cell ..................................................... 88
Fuel Moisture Sticks & Scale ................................................ 89
250-124 Soil Moisture Sensor ............................................... 89
210-421-A General Purpose Temperature Alarm .................. 90
210-EC Series Frost Alarms .................................................. 91
225-HM34 Relative Humidity & Temperature Indicator ...... 92
225-RH520A RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder ................... 93
225-445703 Big Digit Hygro-Thermometer ......................... 94
380-280 Radiation Shield ...................................................... 95
380-281 Radiation Shield ...................................................... 95
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
1
Table of Contents
380-41003 Radiation Shield .................................................. 96
380-43408 Radiation Shield .................................................. 97
380-43502 Radiation Shield .................................................. 97
380-600 Thermometer Shelter ............................................... 98
380-601 Small Instrument Shelter ......................................... 98
380-605 Large Instrument Shelter ......................................... 99
220-HMK15 Humidity Calibrator ....................................... 100
220-HMK41 Calibration Kit ............................................... 100
Barometric Pressure
101
230-P111 Dial Barometer .................................................... 102
230-600 Series Barometric Pressure Sensors ...................... 103
230-PTB110 Series Analog Barometers .............................. 104
230-278 Barometric Pressure Transducer ........................... 105
230-276 Barometric Pressure Sensor .................................. 106
110-WS-16BP Barometric Pressure Sensor ........................ 107
230-WE100 Barometric Pressure Sensor ............................ 108
230-M202 Handheld Barometer-Altimeter ......................... 109
230-044 Handheld Barometer-Altimeter-Compass ............. 110
Solar Radiation
111
240-8101 Star Pyranometer ................................................. 112
240-152 Shadow Band ........................................................ 113
240-200SZ Silicon Pyranometer ......................................... 114
240-120 SP-Lite Silicon Pyranometer ................................. 115
240-140 & 240-150 Silicon Cell Pyranometer .................... 116
240-6450 Solar Radiation Sensor ........................................ 117
240-CMP3 Pyranometer ...................................................... 118
240-8104 Albedometer ........................................................ 119
240-8111 Pyrradiometer ...................................................... 120
240-8110 Net Radiometer ................................................... 121
240-100 Net Radiometer ..................................................... 122
240-110 NR-Lite Net Radiometer ....................................... 123
240-CUV4 Broadband UV Radiometer .............................. 124
240-1070 Sunshine Recorder .............................................. 125
240-CSD3 Sunshine Duration Sensor ................................. 126
Precipitation
127
260-2500 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges .............................. 128
260-2501-A Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge ............................ 129
260-2505 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge ................................ 130
260-52202 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge .............................. 131
260-7852 Rain Collector ..................................................... 132
260-2530 Fence Post Rain Gauge ....................................... 133
260-2531 Plastic Rain Gauge .............................................. 133
260-2510 NWS Type Rain Gauge ....................................... 134
260-2520 Forestry Rain Gauge ........................................... 135
260-700 Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor ............................. 136
260-2590 Precipitation Detector ......................................... 137
260-2591 Leaf Wetness Sensor ........................................... 137
260-2101 Rain Logger ........................................................ 138
260-2102 Rain Logger ........................................................ 139
260-952 Rain Gauge Wind Screen ...................................... 140
260-950 Mounting Plate ...................................................... 140
260-2595 Rain Gauge Calibrator ........................................ 141
260-2696 Digital Event Counter ......................................... 142
2
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260-2597 Pocket Counter .................................................... 142
Evaporation
143
Group 255 Evaporation Stations ......................................... 144
Group 255 Evaporation Stations ......................................... 145
255-212 Min-Max Thermometer ......................................... 146
255-200 Evaporation Pan .................................................... 146
255-100 Analog Output Evaporation Gauge ....................... 147
255-110 Evaporation Gauge Tester ..................................... 147
255-620-A Automatic Refill System ................................... 148
255-704-A Evaporation Logger .......................................... 149
255-250 Evaporation Pan Platform ..................................... 150
Water Level & Flow
151
280-FP Flow Probes ............................................................ 152
280-330 Submersible Pressure Transducer ......................... 153
280-IRU-9400 Ultrasonic Sensor ........................................ 154
Water Quality
155
270-WQ Water Quality Sensors .......................................... 156
270-WQ Water Quality Sensors .......................................... 157
Towers & Lightning Protection
159
Tripod Towers ...................................................................... 160
Aluminum Towers ............................................................... 160
Mounting Hardware & Accessories .................................... 161
Tower Lightning Protection ................................................. 162
Sensor Line Lightning Protection ....................................... 162
Power Supplies
163
310-120 Series Rechargeable Batteries ............................... 164
Group 310 AC Power Supplies ........................................... 165
Group 320 Solar Panel Battery Chargers ............................ 166
Pens, Ink, Clocks, & Charts
167
Pens and Ink ........................................................................ 168
Replacement Clocks ............................................................ 169
Chart Paper .......................................................................... 170
Chart Paper .......................................................................... 171
Chart Paper Examples ......................................................... 172
Reference
173
Conversion Factors .............................................................. 174
Wind Conversion Table ....................................................... 175
Temperature Conversion Table ............................................ 176
Relative Humidity Table ...................................................... 177
Pressure Conversion Table .................................................. 178
Glossary of Meteorological Terms ...................................... 179
Index
210
Ordering Information .......................................................... 220
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Applications
Tripod Tower Weather Station with 4-20 mA Outputs
Remote Weather Station with Telephone Communications
NEMA-4X Enclosure with Two Translator Boards and Analog Barometer
Typical Analog Output Evaporation Station
Applications
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System Design
NovaLynx is an industry leader in the design, fabrication,
and integration of meteorological systems. Using the best
possible combination of sensors, signal conditioning, and
data acquisition technologies, NovaLynx can customize
and fit any combination of meteorological sensors and
signal processing equipment to customer applications.
Sensors with signal translators provide a variety of
systems supporting analog signal displays, digital panel
meter displays, and strip chart recordings. NovaLynx
also provides several data logger based systems for
digital signal acquisition, display, and storage, with
additional data processing using personal computers.
Telemetry systems for either analog or digital data allow
transmission of data to locations at some distance from
the sensors.
In addition to the standard array of meteorological
sensors, signal conditioners, data loggers, and recorders,
NovaLynx provides towers, sensor masts and mast
adapters, cables, solar radiation shields with or without
fans, and installation assistance.
Special system hardware not shown in this catalog can be
provided. NovaLynx can design and manufacture custom
mounting hardware such as sensor mounting fixtures,
enclosures, and panels, as well as configure standard
products to meet unique requirements. Additional
information is provided in the catalog sections covering
specific system components. Custom system quotations
with descriptive literature are available upon request.
Regulation Conforming Systems: NovaLynx can
configure custom systems to meet strict governmental
regulations. Government agencies such as the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department
of Energy (DOE) require certain manufacturers and
industries to monitor pollution generating processes by
using meteorological monitoring equipment to track
pollution dispersion. These special systems require
specific meteorological instrumentation, installed with
specific hardware at exact elevations and in some cases
at more than one location. The sensors and signal
conditioning equipment provided by NovaLynx allows
easy configuration in order to meet the rigid
requirements involved in these strict applications.
4
Tower-Mounted Meteorological Monitoring System
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Applications
Site Considerations
Selecting the proper site for weather station sensors is
just as important as selecting the proper sensor for a
particular application. Siting standards should be given
first consideration in sensor placement, however, unusual
requirements may call for special siting techniques. The
discussion below refers to installations in the northern
hemisphere.
Wind Speed and Direction
The quality of wind sensors can be diminished by poor
exposure to local topography. Placement of the wind
sensors should follow standards established by agencies
such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
and the United States National Weather Service (NWS).
The standard exposure of wind instruments over level,
open terrain is 33' (10 meters) above the ground
(WMO 1971). Open terrain means the distance between
the wind sensors and the nearest obstruction is at least
ten times the height of that obstruction.
For roof-mounted sensors, the exposure should be at a
height that is at least 1.5 times the height of the building.
For extremely tall buildings this rule can be difficult to
follow. For tall buildings, the sensors should be at least
33' (10 meters) above the roof or above the tallest
obstruction on the roof. Whenever possible the sensors
should be placed on the upwind side of the building.
Ventilation and exhaust vents must be avoided.
For ground-mounted sensors near a building, the upwind
side of the building is preferred, with the sensors located
at a distance that is at least one times the height of the
building. The downwind side of the building requires that
the sensors be located at a distance of five to ten times
the height of the building. When wind sensors are located
too close to a building “wind-milling” of the direction
vane will occur and the speed sensor will measure
artificial gustiness. The sensors are actually monitoring
the wind turbulence created by the building.
While the WMO standard for siting wind sensors at ten
meters above ground level provides ambient wind
monitoring, in micrometeorology wind sensors are often
placed closer to the ground. This allows for wind
monitoring in the environment of interest. Multiple levels
of sensors may be used to provide more detailed wind
information.
Preliminary studies of the sensor location should be
performed using flags, smoke, or by temporary
installation of the sensors.
If wind sensors must be located amid vegetation, pick a
spot that is about equidistant from the tallest trees or
shrubs. A clearing with a diameter at least ten times the
height of the tallest tree or shrub would be ideal. Even
with the best possible location amid vegetation, it is
sometimes necessary to add some height to the sensor
mast in order to get better exposure.
Relative Humidity, Air Temperature, and
Dew Point Temperature
These sensors should be installed in a properly ventilated
solar radiation shield for accurate ambient measurements.
Cotton region type instrument shelters provide the
standard aspiration and solar protection for these sensors.
Mast-mounted self aspirated and motor aspirated shields
may provide adequate exposure as well, depending on the
application. Mast-mounted sensors are usually positioned
at “shelter” height, or about four feet above ground level,
on the north side of the mast.
Solar Radiation
Solar radiation sensors may be mast or pole mounted.
They should always be located in an open area, in full
view of the sun at all times. When mast mounting or
placing in an area where nearby obstructions are present,
locate the sensor to the south of all obstacles. This will
prevent shadows created by the nearby obstacles from
passing over the sensor. These sensors are usually
mounted approximately two meters above ground level.
Precipitation
Whether heated or unheated, rain and snow sensors
should always be located in a relatively flat, open area.
Some obstructions can be helpful to block the wind for
more accurate catch. However, leaves from trees can
cause increased gauge maintenance. If natural wind
breaks are not available, a wind screen accessory is
recommended.
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
5
Applications
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Typical System Drawings
Indicating Wind Station
Recording and Indicating Wind Station
Indicating Wind Station with 4-20 mA Outputs
Wind Station with Wind Tracker Displays
6
Recording, Indicating, and Logging Wind Station
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Applications
Typical System Drawings
Roof Mounted Weather Station
Indicating Wind Station with Wireless Data Transmission System
Ten Meter Tower Weather Station
PC-Based Weather Station
Data Logger Weather Station
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
7
Applications
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Typical System Drawings
Wind Sensor
200-05103
Wind Sensor Cable
330-0524
Solar Radiation Shield - 380-281
Temp/RH Sensor - 225-HMP50Y
Temp/RH Sensor Cable - 330-0524
30-FT TOWER
FREE STANDING
MODEL 190-611
NEMA-4X Junction Box
WS-16N Data Logger
+12 Vdc Battery
& Charging Circuit
Direct Data Download
or Optional Telephone Modem
8
Analog Output Barometer
230-600
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
260-2500E
Rain Gauge Cables
Wind Screen
Signal - 330-0220
260-952
Power - 330-0316
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Weather Stations
110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station ................................... 10
110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station ................................... 11
110-WS-18 Portable Weather Station .................................... 12
110-WS-18 Portable Weather Station .................................... 13
110-WS-16SML Display Software ....................................... 14
110-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software ....................... 15
110-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software ............................. 16
Davis Vantage Pro2 Weather Station ..................................... 17
Kestrel 3000 & 4000 Pocket Weather Meters ....................... 18
Weather Stations
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110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station
The Model 110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station is a
computer-based meteorological system designed as a
“user friendly” solution for data storage and real-time
monitoring of weather conditions. The standard package
includes:
• Wind Speed
• Data Logger
• Wind Direction
• Tripod & Mast
• Air Temperature
• Radiation Shield
• Relative Humidity
for temp/humidity
• Barometric Pressure
• Cables & Mounts
• Precipitation
• Set-Up Disk
Additional sensor options include solar radiation, water
or soil temperature, auxiliary air temperature, rain gauge
upgrade, wind sensor upgrade, evaporation, soil
moisture, water level, gas detection, and others.
The unique modular system design provides simple menu
selections for adding or replacing sensors. The
110-WS-16D Data Acquisition Module features
nonvolatile memory, selectable averaging intervals,
12 bit analog conversion, 0.1% F.S. accuracy, two alarm
outputs, and optional modem communications.
The WS-16 is supplied with an attractive desktop data
acquisition module with a memory capacity of 128KB
RAM (approximately 45 days at 15 minute intervals with
6 sensors). The standard system includes a 120Vac power
adaptor and RS232 serial port for connection to a
personal computer. For outdoor or remote applications,
two enclosure options are available. One is for sites with
AC power and the other utilizes a solar panel. Both
options include a NEMA-4X enclosure and rechargeable
battery to allow continued operation in the event of
power failure.
110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station with optional NEMA-4X enclosure & solar panel
Data can be viewed using Windows HyperTerminal or
other terminal programs such as Procomm. A one page
real-time text display, an ASCII row and column format,
or ALOHA format may be selected. A menu is provided
for setting the date and time, alarms, logging interval,
etc. Optional graphical display software is available for
viewing real-time and historical data charts and graphs.
110-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software
10 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Weather Stations
110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station
Specifications
Ordering Information
Data Acquisition Module
Reporting units: Selectable, °F, °C, mph, knots, m/s, km/hr
Operating power: 10-16 Vdc
Power consumption: 60 mA maximum, w/o power saver enabled
< 5 mA, with power saver enabled
Serial port: 9-pin d-sub connector, selectable baud rate, flow control
Memory: 128KB RAM, nonvolatile (45 days at 15 minute intervals with
6 sensors). Expandable to 640KB.
110-WS-16
Operating Temperature
Transducers: -40° to 140° F (-40° to 60° C)
Data acquisition module: -40° to 140° F (-40° to 60° C)
110-WS-16D
200-WS-02E
110-WS-16TH-B
110-WS-16THS
110-WS-16BP
110-WS-16RC
110-WS-16TM
110-WS-16P
Timekeeping
Format: MM/DD and HH:MM
Accuracy: ± 30 seconds/month
110-WS-16EPA
Barometric Pressure
Range: 28.25 to 30.75 inHg (965 to 1041 mb)
Measurement span: 2.50 inHg (85 mb)
Resolution: ± 0.01 inHg or ± 0.3 mb
Altitude offset: 0 to +10,000 feet, screwdriver adjustable
Absolute Accuracy: 0.05 inHg
Options:
110-WS-16N-A
Wind Speed
Range: 0 to 125 mph (0-57 m/s)
Resolution: > 0.1 mph
Accuracy: ± 1 mph
Starting threshold: 0.8 mph
Time constant: 2 seconds
Wind Direction
Range: 0-360°
Resolution: > 1%
Accuracy: ± 3%
Starting threshold:
200-WS-02E: 1.2 mph
200-WS-05E: 0.5 mph
200-WS-05E
Temperature
Range: -40° to +140° F
Resolution: > 0.1° F
Accuracy: ± 1° F
Relative Humidity
Range: 0-100% RH
Accuracy: ± 3% (10-90%)
Rain Gauge
Resolution: 0.01"/tip
Accuracy: ± 4% up to 3"/hour
Max rate: Unlimited
Solar Radiation (optional)
Sensor: Silicon pyranometer
Spectral range: 0.4 to 1.1 microns
Sensitivity: 80mV / 1000w/m2 approx
Accuracy: ± 5%
Wireless radio communication packages are available for use with the
WS-16. See the Model 140-400 Spread Spectrum Radio or call us for
more information.
Windows HyperTerminal Display
Modular Weather Station
includes the following components:
Data Acquisition Module in Desktop Enclosure,
includes set-up disk and 6’ serial cable
Wind Speed/Direction Sensor, 40' cable
Outdoor Temperature & Relative Humidity Sensor,
40' cable
Radiation Shield for temp/rh sensor
Barometric Pressure Sensor, 18" cable
Rain Gauge, includes mounting arm and 40' cable
5' Tripod & 5' Sensor Mast (8’ total)
Power Supply, for desktop enclosure, 120Vac
High Sensitivity Modular Weather Station
same as above but with:
High Sensitivity Wind Sensor, 40' cable
Data Acquisition Module in NEMA Enclosure
includes 7AH battery, 20W solar panel, mast
mounting hardware, 6’ serial cable and set-up disk
110-WS-16N-A33 Same as above but 33AH battery, 20W solar panel
110-WS-16N-B
Data Acquisition Module in NEMA Enclosure
includes 7AH battery, 110-200Vac charger, mast
mounting hardware, 6’ serial cable and set-up disk
110-WS-16CC
Waterproof Carrying Case, 33" x 20" x 12"
Does not hold tripod & mast.
110-WS-16HHD
Hand Held PC for local display of real time data
110-WS-16M6
Memory Expansion to 640KB
110-WS-16M
Telephone Modem
110-WS-16M-DC Telephone Modem, 12 Vdc
110-WS-16PE
Power Supply, for desktop enclosure, 220Vac
110-WS-16PBU
Battery Backup for WS-16D
110-WS-16SML
Display Software
110-WS-16SMM
Met Manager Software
110-WS-16STR
Graphical Display Software
110-WS-16STR-H HTML Option
110-WS-16SR
Solar Radiation Sensor, incl mtg arm and 40' cable
110-WS-16SRD
Solar Radiation Sensor, incl mtg bkt and 40' cable
110-WS-16T
Auxiliary Air Temperature Sensor, 40' cable
110-WS-16TWS
Water or Soil Temperature Sensor, 40' cable
110-WS-16USB
USB to DB9 Serial Adapter
1205-05/xxx
Serial Cable, specify 25', 50', 100', or call for longer
330-0220
Additional Cable for rain, per foot
330-0424
Additional Cable for wind, per foot
330-0524
Additional Cable for temp/humidity, per foot
110-WS-16SML Display Software
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
110-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software
www.novalynx.com
11
Weather Stations
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110-WS-18 Portable Weather Station
The Model 110-WS-18 Portable Weather Station is
designed for application in which weather data is
required for a temporary period. The complete system is
housed in a weatherproof case weighing approximately
20 pounds and can be deployed by one man in less than
five minutes without the use of tools. Sensors are
pre-wired for quick deployment and ease of installation.
Just turn on the power switch and the unit is operating.
Applications include hazmat/emergency management
situations, fire management, and temporary meteorological
surveys. The system is compatible with NOAA designed
CAMEO/ALOHA Plume Modeling Software.
The basic system includes sensors for wind speed, wind
direction, and temperature. Various other sensor options
include, but are not limited to, relative humidity, barometric
pressure, solar radiation, and precipitation. Two auxiliary
channels are available for integration with gas monitoring
sensors or other non-meteorological parameters.
The data logger includes 128KB RAM (approximately
45 days at 15 minutes intervals. Additional memory is
available. The system is 12V battery powered with a
7AH battery that will operate for approximately five days
between charging. A 110V battery charger/power supply
is included. An optional solar panel is available. The data
logger will communicate with Windows HyperTerminal
Software for real-time monitoring of data and for data
downloading. NovaLynx also offers several graphical
display software programs.
110-WS-18 Portable Weather Station (shown without temperature sensor)
110-WS-18 Carrying Case
110-WS-18SMM Met Manager Software
12 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Weather Stations
110-WS-18 Portable Weather Station
Specifications
Optional Sensors
Data Logger
Reporting units: English or Metric, all measurements
Operating power: 10-16 Vdc
Power consumption: 60 mA maximum
Serial port: 9-pin d-sub connector, selectable baud rate, flow control
Memory: 128KB RAM nonvolatile (45 days at 15 minute intervals with 6
sensors). Expandable to 640KB.
Barometric Pressure
Range: 28.25 to 30.75 inHg (965 to 1041 mb)
Measurement span: 2.50 inHg (85 mb)
Resolution: ± 0.01 inHg or ± 0.3 mb
Altitude offset: 0 to +10,000 feet, screwdriver adjustable
Absolute Accuracy: .05 inHg
Operating Temperature
Transducers: -40° to 140° F (-40° to 60° C)
Data acquisition module: -40° to 140° F (-40° to 60° C)
Timekeeping
Format: MM/DD and HH:MM
Accuracy: ± 30 seconds/month
Wind Speed
Range: 0 to 125 mph (0-57 m/s)
Resolution: > 0.1 mph
Accuracy: ± 1 mph
Starting threshold: 0.8 mph
Time constant: 2 seconds
Wind Direction
Range: 0-360°
Resolution: > 1%
Accuracy: ± 3%
Starting threshold: 1.2 mph
Temperature
Range: -40° to +140° F
Resolution: > .1° F
Accuracy: ± 1° F
Relative Humidity
Range: 0-100% RH
Accuracy: better than ± 3%
Carrying Case
Size: 20" x 17" x 8"
Weight: 20 lbs
Tripod
Height: 36" (with mast 8')
Weight: 12 lbs
Rain Gauge
Resolution: 0.02"/tip
Accuracy: ± 4% up to 3"/hour
Max rate: Unlimited
Solar Radiation
Sensor: Silicon Pyranometer
Spectral range: 0.4 to 1.1 microns
Sensitivity: 80mV / 1000w/m2 approx
Accuracy: ± 5%
Ordering Information
110-WS-18-A
110-WS-18-B
Portable Weather Station (ws/wd/t)
Portable Weather Station (ws/wd/t/rh)
110-WS-18BP
110-WS-18H
110-WS-18RG
110-WS-18SR
110-WS-18TH
110-WS-18TWS
110-WS-18M6
110-WS-18HHD
110-WS-18USB
110-WS-18SML
110-WS-18SMM
110-WS-18STR
110-WS-18STR-H
110-WS-18SP
Options
Barometric Pressure Sensor
Relative Humidity Sensor
Rain Gauge, 0.02"/tip, 25' cable
Solar Radiation Sensor
Temp/Humidity Sensor
Water/Soil Temperature Sensor
Memory Expansion to 640KB
Hand Held PC for local display of real time data
USB to DB9 Serial Adapter
Display Software
Met Manager Software
Graphical Display Software
HTML Option
Solar Panel, 10 watt (will not fit in carrying case)
Windows HyperTerminal Display
110-WS-18STR Graphical Display Software
110-WS-18SML Display Software
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
13
Weather Stations
www.novalynx.com
110-WS-16SML Display Software
The Model 110-WS-16SML Display Software is a
graphical Windows application for viewing and storing
data from your WS-16 meteorological Station. With the
WS-16SML software you can connect to your station to
view real-time data or to download data logged in the
WS-16 memory. The connection can be made over a
direct wire link or via a dial-up modem. Real-time data
received by the software are processed according to
algorithms recommended by the U.S. National Weather
Service and the World Meteorological Organization. The
processed results can be viewed on the display page as
numeric data or on the charts page in strip chart graphs.
The terminal page can be used to communicate directly
with the WS-16’s on-board user interface (menus) for
setting up the station or view raw data.
Features include:
• Connects to WS-16 station by direct wire link or
dial-up modem.
• Received data from WS-16 in real-time (every
5 seconds).
• Performs error checking on all transferred data.
• Processes Data in large format Characters with high
color contrast for viewing at a distance.
• Provides strip-chart graphs of real time data. The
graphs have auto-scaling Y-axes, adjustable time base,
direct readout cursors, zoom, and scroll.
• Equipped with an ANSI terminal emulator for
communication with the WS-16’s user interface menus.
• Provides “one click” command for downloading
logged data from the WS-16.
• Logs and stores on computer hard disk over 50
user-selected parameters, such as hourly and daily wind
gust, rainfall totals, high and low temperature, etc.
110-WS-16SML Display Software - Real Time Display
110-WS-16SML Display Software - Graphs
System requirements:
• Microsoft Windows 98/Me/XP, Windows NT 4.0, or
Windows 2000
• SVGA video capability with 800 x 600 pixels and 256
colors (minimum)
• 10 MB space on hard disk for program storage
Ordering Information
110-WS-16SML Display Software
110-WS-16SML Display Software - Terminal
14 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Weather Stations
110-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software
The Model 110-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software
is a Windows software program for data logger
applications. It communicates with WS-16 data loggers
for monitoring and display of sensors and devices.
WS-16STR includes the graphical design and terminal
software runtime interface in one package. There are no
limits on the number of loggers or sensor data points you
can set or use. The standard Windows interface and setup
tools make it easy to design new screens with graphs and
indicators for your application.
Data that has been stored in the WS-16 can be
downloaded and the historical trend graph charts can be
analyzed for daily or monthly highs and lows.
With the optional HTML output, screens can be sent to a
shared network drive on a timed basis, allowing anyone
to view the various pages using an internet browser.
Features include:
• Real-time graphical software
• Powerful data presentation
• Supports real-time and stored archived data
• Built-in terminal program, direct connect and dial-up
• Scheduled automatic downloading
• Can display minimum, maximum, averages, graphs,
alarms, time of min-max, etc.
• Calculated outputs, e.g. albedo, daily evaporation,
delta temperature, etc.
• Your own images can be added
• Can be customized for special applications
• All types of graphs, line, bar, area, 3-D
• Full color and font support
• Can easily be set-up and customized with a little
typing and a few clicks of the mouse
System requirements:
• Runs on Windows 98/ME/XP/NT/2000
• Requires a minimum of 32MB RAM
• For use with the WS-16 Data Logger
Ordering Information
110-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software, on compact disc
110-WS-16STH HTML Option
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
15
Weather Stations
www.novalynx.com
110-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software
dual y-axis, and so on. These graphs can be printed or
copied to the clipboard.
• Generates a number of very useful reports including
various data log reports, daily summary report, rainfall
report, wind frequency distribution report, monthly
parameter report, monthly data recovery, etc.
• And has many other features including data export to
another drive path in comma-delimited, dBase, and
Paradox formats.
110-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software
The Model 110-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software
provides a powerful and easy way to acquire and view
weather data in a variety of ways. This data may include
any combination of wind speed, wind direction,
temperature, humidity, pressure, and precipitation.
Additional data may include solar radiation, soil
moisture, soil temperature, evaporation, and others.
Some features of the Met Manager software include:
• Acquires data in real-time or from the internal memory
of the datalogger.
• Acquired data is stored in a database on the local PC, or
on a Microsoft®-compatible network file server.
• Stores and presents acquired data into database tables at
user-selected intervals of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes
and hourly. The data can represent averages, totals (for
example rain), minimums, maximums, standard
deviations, rates of change, etc.
• Data records in each data table can be kept indefinitely
or can be automatically deleted from the database.
• Calculates derived parameters such as resultant vector
horizontal wind speed, resultant vector horizontal wind
direction, unit vector horizontal wind direction, Sigma
Theta (from horizontal wind direction), Sigma Phi (from
vertical wind direction), peak wind speed, dewpoint, wet
bulb temperature, relative humidity, heat index, wind
chill, solar energy from solar radiation (W/m²), growing
degrees (hours and days), heating or cooling degrees
(hours and days), chill hours, reference
evapotranspiration, etc.
• Makes extensive use of graphics. The user can setup
named trend charts with multiple traces per chart, use of
16 NovaLynx Corporation
Runs on Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP and Win 7 in x86
mode. Met Manager can run on a desktop or notebook
computer, or on a workstation of a Microsoft-compatible
network. Network architectures include peer-to-peer and
file-server.
Met Mirror™ software allows you to create and maintain a
mirror image of data tables on a network file-server from a
database managed by Met Manager on a workstation.
Met Viewer™ software is useful for allowing other
network users to have access to the weather database. In
a peer-to-peer or file-server network, Met Viewer
attaches to the database maintained by Met Manager, or
to a replicated database maintained by Met Mirror. With
Met Viewer, you can recall, graph, view, report, and
export the data in a variety of ways, and in the same way
as Met Manager. The Met Viewer software product is
purchased separately from Met Manager.
Ordering Information
110-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software
110-WS-16SMV Met Viewer Software, available for 1, 5, 10, 20, or
unlimited users.
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Weather Stations
Davis Vantage Pro2 Weather Station
Vantage Pro2 Console
Optional 100-6450 Solar Radiation Sensor
Diffuser element and housing are carefully designed for
accurate cosine response. Silicon photo diode provides
good match to solar spectrum. Includes built-in level and
3' (0.9 m) cable.
Vantage Pro2 Weather Station
The 100-6152C Vantage Pro2 Weather Station offers
forecasting, on-screen graphing, and much more, all on a
large 3-1/2" x 6" (90 x 150 mm) LCD display. Quick
view icons show the forecast at a glance, sunny, partly
sunny, cloudy, rain, or snow, while a moving ticker-tape
display gives more details. Mostly clear with little
temperature change? Increasing clouds and cooler with
precipitation within four to six hours? Whatever the
forecast, Vantage Pro2 will let you know. Backlit display
for easy viewing. Mounts on desk, shelf, or wall. US and
metric units of measure. Optional data logger must be
ordered separately.
Sensor Suite
The Vantage Pro2 includes an innovative integrated sensor
suite, which combines rain collector, temperature and
humidity sensors, and wind speed and direction sensors all
into one package, making setup easier than ever and
improving performance and reliability. Wind sensor is
detachable for ultimate flexibility. Mount with integrated
sensor suite, or mount separately using the included 40'
(12 m) cable. Rain collector with self-emptying tipping
bucket is exceptionally accurate. Read rainfall amounts in
0.01" or 0.25 mm increments. Temperature and humidity
sensors are located inside the radiation shield. The shield
protects the sensors from solar radiation and other sources
of radiated and reflected heat. The optional tripod (must be
ordered separately) makes installation even easier. Brackets
on the legs tilt to mount on roof or uneven terrain.
Optional 100-6490 UV Sensor
Measures the sunburning portion of the UV spectrum.
Allows you to display UV index, dvose rate, and daily
and accumulated dose. Includes 3' (0.9 m) cable.
Optional 100-6510 WeatherLink Data Logger
For weather data collection, analysis, and display,
connect Vantage Pro2 to your personal computer. The
WeatherLink data logger fits neatly into the Vantage Pro
console, storing your weather data even when the
computer is off. Transfer data to the PC when you like.
Later, use the software to create graphs, generate
summaries, and more, all with your own weather
database. WeatherLink lets you share your weather with
the world on your own weather web site. WeatherLink
software establishes the Internet connection and transfers
the files using FTP.
Ordering Information
100-6152C
100-6450
100-6490
100-6510USB
100-6510SER
100-6520
100-6510X
100-7716
100-7717
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Vantage Pro2 Weather Station, includes console with
AC-power adapter, integrated sensor suite with 40'
(12 m) anemometer cable, mounting hardware, and a
100' (30 m) cable connecting the console to the
sensor suite. Console may be powered using the
included AC-power adapter or with three C batteries.
Solar Radiation Sensor with 3' (0.9 m) cable
UV Sensor with 3' (0.9 m) cable
WeatherLink for Vantage Pro2, Windows USB Version
WeatherLink for Vantage Pro2, Windows Serial Version
WeatherLink for Vantage Pro2, Mac OS X
Extra User License Kit
Mounting Tripod, includes 2 3' swaged masts, u-bolts
Mounting Pole Kit, consists of 2 2' swaged masts, u-bolts
www.novalynx.com
17
Weather Stations
www.novalynx.com
Kestrel 3000 & 4000 Pocket Weather Meters
The Kestrel® Tracker is the next generation of weather
monitoring. You can now measure every major environmental
condition, easily and accurately, right in the palm of your hand.
The chart mode allows users to recall and graph up to 2,000
measurements, along with the date and time of storage.
Barometric Pressure, Altitude, Density Altitude, Temperature,
Humidity, Wind Speed, Wind Chill, Dew Point, Wet Bulb, and
Heat Index... all in one pocket sized instrument.
The Kestrel® 4000 features
• Current, Maximum, and Average Wind Speeds
• Air, Water, and Snow Temperature
• Wind Chill
• Relative Humidity
• Dewpoint
• Heat Stress Index
• Barometric Pressure
• Altitude
• Density Altitude
• Wet Bulb Temperature
• Graph and recall trends
• Easy to read, backlit display
• Time and date
• Customize screens to display user-selected measurements
• Flip-top impeller cover allows use of other functions
while protecting the impeller (hard cases available.)
• Automatically store measurements, even when the
unit is turned off
• Manually store measurements with the press of a button
• Chart up to 2,000 measurements
• Impeller can be replaced without tools
• Exterior temperature, humidity, and pressure sensors
for fast and accurate readings
• Humidity sensor can be recalibrated in the field
• Includes neck and wrist lanyards, protective pouch
and 2 AAA batteries
• Waterproof and floats
• 2-year warranty
• Assembled in the USA
18 NovaLynx Corporation
100-3000 Pocket Wind Meter
200-4000 Pocket Wind Meter
The Kestrel® 3000 measures
• Current Wind Speed
• Maximum Wind Gust
• Average Wind Speed
• Air, Water, and Snow Temperature
• Wind Chill
• Relative Humidity
• Heat Stress Index
• Dewpoint
Ordering Information
100-0830
100-0840GRY
100-0802
100-0804SER
100-0804USB
100-0805
200-0801
Kestrel 3000 Pocket Weather Meter, red
Kestrel 4000 Pocket Weather Tracker, dark gray
also available in safety orange and olive drab
RH Calibration Kit
PC Interface, serial port
PC Interface, USB port
Kestrel Carrying Case, black
Replacement Impeller
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Data Acquisition
195-WS-16 Data Logger ....................................................... 20
195-WS-16 Data Logger ....................................................... 21
195-WS-16AD Automatic Voice Dialers .............................. 22
140-400 Spread Spectrum Radio ........................................... 23
195-26800 Meteorological Display ....................................... 24
Data Acquisition
www.novalynx.com
195-WS-16 Data Logger
The 195-WS-16N Data Logger is designed specifically
for collecting meteorological data. It has a versatile
processor that can be used in systems from portable
stations to networks. It is a complete package with sensor
interfaces, data processing and logging, communications
interfaces, and software for display, reporting, and data
retrieval via a standard RS232 cable. Two independent
user programmable alarms are supplied.
The 195-WS-16N supports a large variety of sensors. A
30-pin terminal strip is supplied for directly connecting
analog and digital sensors without the need for external
signal conditioning components or special programming.
Sensor data are sampled every 2 seconds and logged at
intervals selected by the user. The averaging period and
logging interval can also be changed by the user. Each
data record is logged with time and date. Data memory is
backed with a 7 year lithium battery. Wind data are
calculated in vector and scalar forms. The internal
microprocessor determines weather parameters, generates
standard reports, handles communications, and performs
self-diagnostic tests.
Front
Rear
The 195-WS-16N is typically powered by 12 Vdc.
Operating current is less than 55 mA at 12 Vdc. An
optional low power version is available for remote
battery operated stations.
195-WS-16D Data Logger in Desktop Enclosure (power supply sold separately)
The 195-WS-16N is a completely self-contained data
collector and processor for automatic stations. It is
designed to withstand exposure to severe outdoor weather
conditions. All components are contained in the rugged
NEMA-4X weatherproof fiberglass enclosure. Internal
circuit boards have surface mounted components for
improved reliability. Three stages of lightning and
transient protection are included on all signal and power
connections. A desktop version is available for indoor use.
Data can be viewed using Windows HyperTerminal or
other terminal programs such as Procomm. A one page
real-time text display or an ASCII row and column
format may be selected. A menu is provided for setting
the date and time, alarms, logging interval, etc. Optional
graphical display software is available for viewing
real-time and historical data charts and graphs.
195-WS-16N Data Logger in NEMA-4X Enclosure
(shown with optional accessories)
20 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Data Acquisition
195-WS-16 Data Logger
Specifications
Analog Inputs
Number of channels: 7 voltage inputs, 3 inputs for 10K thermistor
Input ranges: 100 mV, 1.0 V, 2.0 V, 5.0 V
Accuracy: 0.1% F.S., 5 V range (-40 to 60 °C)
Sample rate: 1 KHz maximum
Resolution: 12 bit
Digital Inputs/Outputs
Frequency inputs: 3 counters, 16-bit each independent of processor
Maximum count rate: 10 KHz
Input modes: 2 high speed inputs for sine wave or square wave
anemometers, 1 input for contact closure rain gauges
Alarm outputs: 2 open collector @ 2 A max for high or low threshold events
Serial Channels
RS232C port: 1 port with hardware and software handshaking, baud
rates 110 bps to 56 Kbps, 9 pin d-sub connector
195-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software
Processor Functions
Configuration: Stored in non-volatile EEPROM
Standard data memory: 128 KB SRAM with battery backup
Optional data memory: 640 KB
Calendar clock: Date, time, leap year, accuracy ±30 sec/month
Backup battery: For memory and clock, 7 year life
Power Requirements
Input voltage: +7 to 40 Vdc
Operating current: < 55 mA @ 12 Vdc
Power saver mode: .5 mA @ 12 Vdc
Input protection: Fuse, surge protection, reverse polarity,
and over-voltage
Supply sources: Battery, solar power, unregulated DC
Environmental Characteristics
Operating temperature: -40 to 60 °C
Humidity: 0-90% RH non-condensing
Construction
Circuit boards: approx 90% surface mounted components, internal
power and ground planes, and built-in EMI and ESD protection
Lightning protection: Minimum 2 stages of protection devices on all
signal and power lines when connected to an external earth ground.
Includes MOVs on wind sensor input.
Connections: User interface PCB 30-pin screw terminal, ground lug
NEMA-4X enclosure: 13" x 11" x 6" fiberglass
Desktop enclosure: 7" x 7" x 3-3/4" aluminum
Windows HyperTerminal Display
NovaLynx Corporation
Ordering Information
195-WS-16N
195-WS-16D
195-WS-16A
195-WS-16HHD
195-WS-16M
110-WS-16MDC
195-WS-16M6
195-WS-16P
195-WS-16PE
195-WS-16SML
195-WS-16SMM
195-WS-16STR
195-WS-16USB
320-600
395-A
395-C
395-E
395-H
195-WS-16SML Display Software
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Data Logger in NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure,
with 6’ serial cable, no power supply (order below)
Data Logger Desktop Enclosure, with 6’ serial cable,
no power supply (order below)
Audible Alarm Option
Hand Held PC for local display of real time data
Telephone Modem
Telephone Modem, 12 Vdc
Optional Memory Expansion to 640KB
AC Power Supply, for desktop enclosure, 120V
AC Power Supply, for desktop enclosure, 220V
Display Software
Met Manager Software
Graphical Display Software
USB to DB9 Serial Adapter
Solar Panel Battery Charger, 10W
Tower or Mast Mount Hardware Assy
12Vdc Power Supply/Battery Charger Assy,
for NEMA enclosure, 100-240Vac
(battery not included)
Sunshield Assy
7AH Battery Assy
195-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software
www.novalynx.com
21
Data Acquisition
www.novalynx.com
195-WS-16AD Automatic Voice Dialers
The 195-WS-16AD Series Automatic Voice Dialers are compatible with continuous, momentary, normally closed
(NC) and normally open (NO) dry contact or voltage sensors. They can be programmed to sequentially dial any
combination of four standard telephone, most cellular telephones, alpha.voice pagers and/or numeric pagers. The
dialer features busy-line and no answer detection to ensure timely transmissions of the recorded message. EEPROM
and non-volatile memory for complete programming retention in the event of extended power loss.
195-WS-16AD21 Features
• Sends two messages to up to four telephone numbers or delivers numeric code to four local pagers
or any combination of both (two zones, four numbers, 51 second message maximum)
• Automatically skips to next number when line is busy or no answer
• Dialing is continuous and stops when alarm input resets
• Can be configured for line siezure
• Listen-in and two-way voice capabilities
• Playback voice message through internal speaker
• Remote turn-off feature
• User-friendly function keys to program numbers and voice programming
• LED display to show keyed-in telephone numbers when programming
• Two programmable alarm inputs: NC, NO or voltage
• Aux output, switched 12V for sirens or buzzers
195-WS-16AD45 Features
• Dials up to 4 different numbers (one zone, one message, 16 second message maximum)
• Transmits either voice or numeric messages (for pagers)
• Automatically redials busy or unanswered numbers (up to 10 times for each number)
• Internal 9V battery provides 4 hours of stand-by power (195-WS-16AD45 only)
• Works alone or in conjunction with remote alarm
Dimensions
Ordering Information
Size: 6.0" x 4.0" x 1.5" (152.4 x 101.6 x 38.1 mm)
Weight: 10 oz (283.5 g)
195-WS-16AD21
195-WS-16AD21P
195-WS-16AD45
195-WS-16AD45P
22 NovaLynx Corporation
Automatic Voice Dialer
AC Power Supply 120V
Automatic Voice Dialer
AC Power Supply 120V
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Data Acquisition
140-400 Spread Spectrum Radio
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ideal for remote weather station applications
Long range, low power, low cost, wireless serial communication
Plug-and-Play (no configuration required)
Transparent operation supports existing software & systems
Retries & acknowledgements for guaranteed packet delivery
Low power modes include shutdown pin, cyclic sleep,
& serial port sleep for current consumption as low as 1 mA
• Signal strength register for link quality monitoring & debugging
The Model 140-400 Spread Spectrum Radio was
designed to provide end users with an easy to install
wireless serial communication link. Used with the WS-16
Data Logger and a high-gain antenna, it provides data
communication up to 20 miles. When configured as an
addressable unit, it is suitable for use in a network of up
to four weather stations.
Functionality is provided by the serial connection, power
switch, indicator lights, high quality antenna, mounting
plates, and power source inputs.
The 140-400 has the best sensitivity in the industry,
making it one of the longest range low-cost radio
modems available to date. It provides high performance
and dependable operation.
The 140-400 requires no configuration to operate, simply
plug-and-communicate. Output serial data from any
RS232 port into the radio to send FCC & ETSI approved,
frequency hopping spread spectrum data to the receiver.
Ordering Information
140-400
140-400A11
140-400A15
140-400A8
140-400C20
140-400C20Y
140-400C40
140-400C40Y
140-400C6Y
Specifications
General
Frequency: 902-928 MHz
Spreading spectrum type: Frequency hopping, direct FM
Serial data interface: RS232/422/485
I/O data rage: Software selectable 1,200-57,000 bps
Power Requirements
Supply voltage: 7-18 Vdc
Transmit current: 200 mA
Receive current: 70 mA
Power down current: < 1 mA
Physical Properties
Enclosure type: Extruded aluminum, black anodized
Enclosure size: 2.75" x 5.50" x 1.124" (7.90 x 13.90 x 3.80 cm)
Weight: 7.1 oz (200 g)
Operating temperature: -40° to +85° C
Antenna
Type: 1/2 wave dipole whip
Gain: 2.1 dB
Length: 6.75" (17.1 cm)
Impedance: 50 ohms unbalanced
Performance
Indoor/Urban range: Up to 1,500' (457 m)
Outdoor LOS range: Up to 7 mi (11 km) with dipole, up to 20 mi (32 km)
with hi-gain antenna
900 MHz Spread Spectrum Radio (2 required)
Includes Stand-Alone Radio Modem
1/2 Wave Dipole Antenna (0-2 miles)
DB-9 Male to DB-9 Female Serial Cable
Null Modem Adapter
AC Power Adapter 115V
Yagi Antenna 11dB (0-11 miles)
Yagi Antenna 15 dB (0-20 miles)
Yagi Antenna 8 dB (0-7 miles)
Dipole Antenna Extension Cable 20'
Yagi Antenna Cable 20'
Dipole Antenna Extension Cable 40'
Yagi Antenna Cable 40'
Yagi Antenna Cable 6'
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
23
Data Acquisition
www.novalynx.com
195-26800 Meteorological Display
The 195-26800 Meteorological Display offers a unique
and flexible solution for meteorological data measurement,
recording and display. Advanced design has features and
flexibility to perform a wide variety of monitoring tasks.
From simple display of a single variable to recording data
from a complete sensor suite, the 26800 can satisfy
countless measure-ment needs.
High Resolution Display: The 26800 features a large,
high-contrast LCD screen. The display text and layout are
fully programmable so measured data can be displayed in a
wide variety of formats. Up to 8 screens may be used. Display
illumination is easily adjusted for best viewing in any light.
Fully Programmable: The real strength of the 26800 is the
ability of the user to custom program the device to perform
virtually any task. A user-friendly PC program allows easy
formatting of the program parameters, display screens and
recording functions. Programming is also possible using
front panel controls when a PC is unavailable.
Data Storage: The 26800 has built-in memory for storage
of large amounts of recorded data. More than 2 million data
points may be stored. Data retrieval is simplified by the
handy communication program provided.
Wide Variety of Inputs: The 26800 is supplied with a large
selection of sensor inputs. Wind, temperature, precipitation,
humidity, and other sensors are easily connected through
the back-panel terminals. Frequency, voltage, current-loop,
and serial inputs are provided. All values are completely
scalable in the program.
Useful Outputs: Many output options are available from
the 26800. Terminals are available for calibrated voltage
outputs and current outputs as well as serial outputs.
Switched outputs provide alarm capability.
Practical Design: Compact configuration is easily panel
mounted. Adjustable stand permits table top use as well.
Specifications
Dimensions: 200 mm (7.8 in) x 144 mm (5.7 in) x 54 mm (2.1 in)
Panel cutout: 194 mm (7.6 in) x 138 mm (5.4 in)
Weight: 0.8 kg (1.8 lb)
Operating temperature: 0° to 50° C
Storage temperature: -30° to 50° C
Display
Adjustable high-brightness, high-contrast with 8 user programmable
screens. Large font capacity: 3 rows x 20 characters per screen. Small
font capacity: 6 rows x 40 characters per screen. Both font sizes may
be used together on the same screen.
24 NovaLynx Corporation
Power
Nominal 12 Vdc at 250 mA with maximum backlight.
10 to 30 Vdc at 4 W max
Terminals or coaxial jack for included AC-power adapter
Memory
2,162,688 single-precision floating point values for data records.
256 temporary floating point values for user program
1 to 512 user program instructions
Voltage Input
Channels: 8 different or 16 single-ended inputs in any combination.
Measurement range: 4 Channels 0 to 5 Vdc, 12 Channels -2.5 to 5 Vdc
Resolution: 16 bit minimum.
Conversion rate: 6 Hz to 3.5 kHz in 10 steps.
50/60 Hz Rejection: Greater than 95 dB at 6 Hz sampling rate
Accuracy: 0.1% from 0° to 40° C
Pulse/Frequency Input
Channels: 4 Inputs. Each may be configured for Low Level AC or
Switch Closure/TTL with built-in debounce.
Range: 0 to 2500 Hz
Threshold: 30 mVp-p for Low Level AC input. 2.5VDC for Switch
Closure/TTL
Excitation
Channels: 2 outputs regulated 5Vdc at 10mA for potentiometer or RTD
excitation
Voltage/Current Output
Channels: 4 outputs. Each channel may be configured as a voltage or
current output.
Range: Voltage 0 to 5Vdc. Current 0 to 20mA
Resolution: 12-bits (1.25 mV or 0.005 mA)
Serial I/O
Channels: 2 ports. One for RS232, one for RS485. Both channels are
full duplex with no handshaking, 1 start, 8 data, 1 stop, no parity.
Baud rate: 1200 to 230,400 baud
Switch Output
Channels: 4 solid state switch outputs
Voltage/Current: Each switch can handle 60Vdc at 5A. Switched line
must be referenced to ground.
Ordering Information
195-26800
195-26800H
195-26880
195-00811
Meteorological Translator, 115V, 50-60 Hz
Meteorological Translator, 230V, 50-60 Hz
Rack Mounting Panel (19")
Custom Programming for 195-26800
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Signal Conditioning
130-200 Series Signal Conditioners ...................................... 26
135-100 Series Signal Conditioning Translator Boards ........ 27
135-104 General Purpose Translator Board .......................... 28
Group 395 Enclosures ........................................................... 29
Analog Look-up Table ........................................................... 30
Signal Conditioning
www.novalynx.com
130-200 Series Signal Conditioners
The 130-200 Series Signal Conditioners is a full line of
field configurable conditioners useful for transmitting
process control setpoints to remote PID controllers or
interfacing position sensors to data acquisition and
control systems. Individual modules mount on DIN rails
and provide 1800 Vdc isolation between input, output,
and power. The field configurable input and output offers
flexible, wide range capability for DC currents, AC/DC
voltage, frequency, and RTD signals. Most NovaLynx
sensors will directly connect to the conditioners and
provide an isolated output as selected; 4 to 20 mA, 0 to 5
or 10 Vdc, 0 to 1 mA. The Q2 version provides a two
channel isolated 4-20 mA current loop in proportion to
two DC inputs. The 4-20mA output is loop powered from
12 to 35 Vdc, slectable input 0-.5V, 1V, 5V, 100V, 1
mA.Signal conditioners are available for the following
inputs:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ordering Information
130-205
130-205Q2
130-206
130-207
130-208
130-209
130-H902
130-H910
DC Voltage Input (Relative Humidity, Barometric
Pressure, Solar Radiation)
Loop-Powered Signal Conditioner, 2 ch (Solar Rad)
RTD Input (Temperature, Dew Point)
Potentiometer Input (Wind Direction, Evaporation)
Frequency Input (Wind Speed)
AC Voltage Input (Power Line)
DIN Rail Power Supply, 115 Vac 24 Vdc @ 200 mA
DIN Rail Power Supply, 115 Vac 24 Vdc @ 1000 mA
Note: All units supplied with a section of DIN rail for mounting.
Refer to section on power supplies for other suitable power sources.
Refer to page on enclosures for suitable desktop or NEMA enclosures.
DC voltage
AC voltage
DC output proportional to a potentiometer input
Frequency
Platinum and copper RTDs
Specific for high density applications
Specifications
Input power: 9 to 30 Vdc, 1.5 W typical, 2.5 W maximum
Accuracy: including linearity and hysteresis ±0.1% @ 25°C
Stability: Temp <±0.025%/°C
Isolation: 1800 Vdc between input, output and power
Dimensions: 4.4" (112 mm) H x 3" (76 mm) D x 0.5" (12 mm) W
Operating temperature range: 0 to 55°C (32 to 131°F)
Storage temperature range: -25 to +70°C (-13 to +158°F)
Operating humidity: 15 to 95% @ 45°C
Voltage output: 0-5 V, 0-10 V (selectable)
Impedance: <10 ohms
Drive: 10 mA, max
Current output: 0-1 mA, 4-20 mA, 0-20 mA (selectable)
Impedance: >100 Kohm
Compliance: 0-1 mA: 7.5 V, max (7.5K ohm) 4-20 mA: 12 V, max
(600 ohm) 0-20 mA: 12 V, max (600 ohm)
Input: Each conditioner supports a wide range of specific inputs that
support most of the NovaLynx sensors. Consult a sales rep for specific
input specifications for each unit.
Mounting: Horizontal din rail mounting is recommended
Size: 3.54"W x 4.34"D x .50"H
26 NovaLynx Corporation
130-200 Series Signal Conditioners
130-205Q2 Loop-Powered Signal Conditioner
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Signal Conditioning
135-100 Series Signal Conditioning Translator Boards
•
•
•
•
12 Vdc Input Power
Wind Speed & Direction
Rainfall Accumulation
Analog Outputs
The 135-100 Series Translator Boards are a complete
line of analog signal conditioning interfaces for almost
any sensor input and desired output. Circuit boards
utilize the latest technology in low-power solid-state
components. They can be used individually or in
combinations to create customized systems. NEMA-4X,
mast mount, 19" rack mount, and desktop enclosures are
available.
135-100 WS/WD Translator PCB
The Model 135-100 Wind Translator Board provides
signal conditioning for wind speed and direction with
voltage or current output. The circuit provides a regulated
voltage to the wind direction potentiometer and converts
wind speed pulse, AC or switch closure sensor outputs to
a DC output. 0-100 mph and 0-360° typically = 0-5 Vdc
outputs.
Specifications
Power: 12 Vdc ± 20%
Power consumption: 20 mA nominal
Inputs: Wind speed sensor (frequency), Wind direction sensor
(potentiometer)
Outputs: 0 to 5 Vdc or 0 to 1 mA (open collector)
Overall accuracy: 0.5%
Operating temperature: -30° to +60°C
Storage temperature: -40° to +80°C
Relative humidity: 0-100% non-condensing
Connectors: Screw terminals
Size: 3-1/2" x 2-1/2"
Weight/shipping: 4 oz/1 lb
Ordering Information
135-100
350-290
Wind Speed/Wind Direction Translator PCB,
0-5 Vdc or 0-1 mA
Transient Protection, per input channel
The following must be specified when ordering:
Wind sensor model number
Wind speed range, mph, knots, m/s, or kmh
Wind speed full scale unit (0-100 mph is standard)
Output type, 0-5 Vdc or 0-1 mA
395-301
395-A-003
NEMA Enclosure
Mast Mounting Hardware
135-102 Digital-to-Analog Conversion PCB
The Model 135-102 Precipitation D to A Conversion
Board converts digital pulses to voltage or current
output. Use with tipping bucket rain gauges or other
pulse output devices like contact anemometers or flow
sensors. The circuit accumulates switch closure events
and converts the events into a linear increasing DC
output. When the circuit accumulates it’s maximum
count the output resets to zero and starts the process over
again.
Specifications
Power: 12 Vdc ± 20%
Power consuption: 15-20 mA nominal
Inputs: Two wire switch closure
Inputs: 0-1000 counts (10 bit resolution), other ranges are available
(0-10, 0-100, 0-500, etc.)
Outputs: 0-1 or 4-20 mA, or 0-5 Vdc
Zero reset: on-board or external
Operating temperature: -30° to +60°C
Storage temperature: -40° to +80°C
Relative humidity: 0-100% non-condensing
Connectors: Screw terminals
Size: 3-1/2" x 2-1/2"
Weight/shipping: 4 oz/1 lb
Ordering Information
135-102
350-290
Digital to Analog Conversion PCB, 10 bit resolution,
0-1 or 4-20 mA, or 0 5 Vdc
Transient Protection, per input channel
The following must be specified when ordering:
Number of events required for full scale (0-1000 is standard)
DC Output, 0-1 or 4-20 mA, or 0-5 Vdc
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
27
Signal Conditioning
www.novalynx.com
135-104 General Purpose Translator Board
The Model 135-104 General Purpose Translator Board
is designed to support up to three separate analog sensors
and one wind speed sensor, producing four independent
analog output signals, one for each sensor. The board is
designed for applications requiring either desktop
enclosures, rack mounted enclosures, or outdoor box
mounted enclosures. A +12 Vdc power source is required
for circuit operation. Typical power consumption for the
translator board is approximately 30 mA.
The translator board can be configured to provide one of
three difference types of output signals; 0-5 Vdc, 0-1 mA,
or 4-20 mA, 400 ohms maximum load. Sensors can be
configured for any one of the three types of output signals
or all three sensors can be set for the same type of output
signal. All sensor input wiring and output signal wiring is
accomplished using circuit board terminal blocks.
The circuit board has been designed to eliminate customer
calibration of the circuitry. On most of the printed circuit
boards manufactured by NovaLynx, there are no
potentiometers for adjusting input or output signal levels.
All board calibration is accomplished by selecting
precision resistors to set the output span and zero to
match the characteristics of the sensor as well as to meet
the requirements of the user.
Specifications
Power: 12 Vdc ±20%
Power consumption: 20 mA nominal
Inputs: 1 each frequency (to 1 Khz), switch closure, ac voltage, 3 each
voltage, resistance, current
Outputs: 4 each, specify one: 0-5 Vdc, 0-1 mA, 4-20 mA (into
400 ohms max), 4 each alarm 12 Vdc @ 100 mA (current source,
135-114/115 only), 12 Vdc battery voltage
Overall accuracy: 0.5%
Controls: Alarm set points adjustable with on-board or off-board
potentiometer (135-114/115 only)
Operating temperature: -30° to +60°C
Storage temperature: -40° to +80°C
Relative humidity: 0-100% non-condensing
Connectors: Screw terminals
Size: 5.8" x 5.1"
Weight/shipping: 8 oz/1 lb
Ordering Information
135-104
135-114
135-115
350-290
General Purpose Translator PCB, 4 channels,
0-5 Vdc, 0-1 mA, or 4-20 mA
General Purpose Translator PCB, 1 channel and
1 alarm output
General Purpose Translator PCB, 4 channels with
alarms on 4 channels
Transient Protection, per input channel
The following must be specified when ordering:
Sensor model number for each input channel
Full scale values and units (example 0-100 mph, -40° to +120°F)
Desired output on each channel, 0-5 V, 0-1 mA, or 4-20 mA
The Models 135-114 and 135-115 have additional alarm
circuitry for applications requiring relay contact outputs
to turn on and/or off weather sensitive equipment or for
storm warnings. External relays can be provided to drive
alarm equipment.
Model 135-104 General Purpose Translator Board
28 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Signal Conditioning
Group 395 Enclosures
NovaLynx provides an assortment of enclosures which
can be used to mount various translator boards and other
devices such as meters, relays, thermostats, radios,
lightning protection devices, and terminal strips.
Standard enclosures are desktop, rack mount, NEMA
polycarbonate weathertight, and NEMA-4X fiberglass
weatherproof. Custom enclosures are also available.
Consult NovaLynx for more information.
Ordering Information
Specifications
395-110 Series Small Desktop Enclosures
Case: Blue anodized aluminum with clear anodized panels,
terminal strip on back
Power: Input 115 Vac, Output 12 Vdc @ 300mA
Size: 5"H x 7"W x 11"D
Weight/shipping: 5 lbs/7 lbs
395-120 Series Large Desktop Enclosures
Case: Blue anodized aluminum with clear anodized panels,
terminal strip on back
Power: Input 115 Vac, Output 12 Vdc @ 300mA
Size: 5"H x 13"W x 11"D
Weight/shipping: 7 lbs/9 lbs
395-123 Series Rack Mount Enclosures
Front panel: Clear anodized aluminum with rack handles
Power: Input 115 Vac, Output 12 Vdc @ 300mA
Size: 5" or 7" or 9"H x 19"W x 8"D
Note: Most rack mount enclosures require custom machining and
silkscreening.
395-300 Series NEMA Polycarbonate Enclosures
Light gray polycarbonate with screw-down lid, includes backplate
395-301 size: 4.5"H x 3.88"W x 1.89"D
395-302 size: 4.5"H x 6.95"W x 2.68"D
395-110
395-120
Small Desktop Enclosure, 115 Vac
Large Desktop Enclosure, 115 Vac
395-123-#
Rack Mount Enclosure, specify 5", 7", or 9"
395-301
395-302
395-A-003
Small NEMA Polycarbonate Enclosure
Large NEMA Polycarbonate Enclosure
Tower or Mast Mounting Hardware
395-0604
395-0806
395-1008
395-1210
395-1412
395-1614
395-A
NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure with backplate
NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure with backplate
NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure with backplate
NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure with backplate
NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure with backplate
NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure with backplate
Tower or Mast Mounting Hardware, for mid-size
boxes (0806, 1008, 1210)
Unistrut Tower or Mast Mounting Hardware, for large
boxes (1412, 1614)
12Vdc Power Supply/Battery Charger Assy, 100240Vac input (battery not included)
Solar chargers can be used in place of ac chargers.
See 320 Series Solar Panels.
Sunshield, for midsize boxes (0806, 1008, 1210)
Sunshield, for large boxes (1412, 1614)
4AH Battery Assy
7AH Battery Assy
12AH Battery Assy
Battery assemblies include battery, mounting
hardware, and battery cable. Order ac or solar panel
battery charger separately, see above. Larger
batteries are available on special order.
395-B
395-C
Note:
395-E
395-F
395-G
395-H
395-I
Note:
395-240
395-250
395-990
MS Type Quick Release Connector
Termination Strip, 12 position
Desiccant (2 packs)
395 Series NEMA-4X Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester Enclosures
come standard with aluminum backplate, hinged door with latches, and
desiccant pack. Most are gray. The 395-1210 is white.
Sizes available (UL/CSA inside dimensions):
395-0604: 6"H x 4"W x 4.45"D
395-0806: 8"H x 6"W x 4.15"D
395-1008: 10"H x 8"W x 4.64"D
395-1210: 12"H x 10"W x 4.79"D
395-1412: 14"H x 12"W x 5.79"D
395-1614: 16"H x 14"W x 5.79"D
395-123 Rack Mount Enclosure
395-300 Series Polycarbonate Enclosures
395-1210 with mounting hardware
395-120 Large Desktop Enclosure, optional meters
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
29
Signal Conditioning
www.novalynx.com
Analog Look-up Table
mA
0-1
mA
4-20
VOLTS
0-1
VOLTS
0-5
0.00000
0.03125
0.06250
0.09375
0.12500
0.15625
0.18750
0.21875
0.25000
0.28125
0.31250
0.34375
0.37500
0.40625
0.43750
0.46875
0.50000
0.53125
0.56250
0.59375
0.62500
0.65625
0.68750
0.71875
0.75000
0.78125
0.81250
0.84375
0.87500
0.90625
0.93750
0.96875
1.00000
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0
0.00000
0.03125
0.06250
0.09375
0.12500
0.15625
0.18750
0.21875
0.25000
0.28125
0.31250
0.34375
0.37500
0.40625
0.43750
0.46875
0.50000
0.53125
0.56250
0.59375
0.62500
0.65625
0.68750
0.71875
0.75000
0.78125
0.81250
0.84375
0.87500
0.90625
0.93750
0.96875
1.00000
0.000
0.156
0.313
0.469
0.625
0.781
0.938
1.094
1.250
1.406
1.563
1.719
1.875
2.031
2.188
2.344
2.500
2.656
2.813
2.969
3.125
3.281
3.438
3.594
3.750
3.906
4.063
4.219
4.375
4.531
4.688
4.844
5.000
30 NovaLynx Corporation
MPH
0-100
DIR
0-360o
0.000
3.125
6.250
9.375
12.500
15.625
18.750
21.875
25.000
28.125
31.250
34.375
37.500
40.625
43.750
46.875
50.000
53.125
56.250
59.375
62.500
65.625
68.750
71.875
75.000
78.125
81.250
84.375
87.500
90.625
93.750
96.875
100.000
0.00
11.25
22.50
33.75
45.00
56.25
67.50
78.75
90.00
101.25
112.50
123.75
135.00
146.25
157.50
168.75
180.00
191.25
202.50
213.75
225.00
236.25
247.50
258.75
270.00
281.25
292.50
303.75
315.00
326.25
337.50
348.75
360.00
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
TEMP
0-128o
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
68
72
76
80
84
88
92
96
100
104
108
112
116
120
124
128
BP
950-1050 mb
950
953
956
959
963
966
969
972
975
978
981
984
988
991
994
997
1000
1003
1006
1009
1013
1016
1019
1022
1025
1028
1031
1034
1038
1041
1044
1047
1050
BP
In Hg
28.05
28.15
28.24
28.33
28.42
28.51
28.61
28.70
28.79
28.88
28.98
29.07
29.16
29.25
29.35
29.44
29.53
29.62
29.71
29.81
29.90
29.99
30.08
30.18
30.27
30.36
30.45
30.55
30.64
30.73
30.82
30.91
31.01
Analog & Digital Displays
Analog Displays .................................................................... 32
Digital Displays ..................................................................... 32
Analog & Digital Displays
www.novalynx.com
Analog Displays
Digital Displays
A complete line of Analog Display Dials is available to
provide an indication of the output signal from signal
conditioning modules or data loggers. Each dial is 6" in
diameter and includes a black bezel. A lance-type pointer
moves over the scale’s 250° arc. The galvanometric
meter has a linearity of ± 2%. Mounting hardware is
provided to install the dials in a customer-supplied panel.
A standard two-dial indicator console is available.
Custom panels are also available. Consult NovaLynx for
details and prices.
NovaLynx offers both LCD and LED Digital Displays.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is selected for ease of reading in
bright light or sunlight. LED (Light Emitting Diode) displays
are usually preferred in most other applications where their
red display can be easily observed. Like analog displays,
digital displays may be used in conjunction with signal
conditioners and data loggers. Desktop displays and custom
panels for 19" rack mount are available. Consult NovaLynx
for more information.
Specifications
Dials
Meter: 0-1 mA
Impedance: 250 ohms typical
Linearity: ± 2%
Scale length: 10.5" over 250° arc
Zero adjust: Mechanical
Mounting: Flush, 3 threaded studs
Size: 6" Dia x 2.5" D (152 mm x 64mm)
Weight/shipping: 1.25 lbs/3 lbs
Standard Console
Input: 0 to 5 Vdc (passive circuit)
Impedance: 5,000 ohms typical
Enclosure: Slope front painted aluminum
Size: 14" W x 7.75" H x 6.75" D
Weight/shipping: 5 lbs/9 lbs
Ordering Information
300-1172
300-11722
300-11725
300-1173
300-1174
300-11761
300-11763
300-1178
300-1180
300-11800
Wind Speed Dial, 0-100 mph
Wind Speed Dial, 0-120 mph
Wind Speed Dial, 0-120 knots
Wind Direction Dial, 0-360°
Wind Direction Dial, 0-540°
Temperature Dial, -40 to +120°F
Temperature Dial, 0 to +120°F
Relative Humidity Dial, 0-100%
Barometric Pressure Dial, 945-1045 mb
Barometric Pressure Dial, 27.5-31.5" Hg
300-400 Series
Dual Analog Display Console includes two 300-1170
series meters and two 5 Vdc to 1 mA passive circuits.
Specify meter range and parameters.
Specifications
Small Meters
LCD: 4.5 to 5.5 Vdc at 5 mA
LED: 4.5 to 5.5 Vdc at 200 mA
Range: 0-5 Vdc standard (4-20 mA optional)
Display: 0.48" LCD, 0.56" LED
Overall size: 2.7" W x 1.1" H x 4.03" D (meter only)
Large Displays (3", 5", 9", 12")
Custom, consult NovaLynx for details
Enclosures
Custom, consult NovaLynx for details.
Ordering Information
300-550
300-650
300-50XXX
LED Meter, specify range, 3-1/2 digit
LCD Meter, specify range, 3-1/2 digit
Large Digital Displays
395-120 Desktop Enclosure with LED Display
Other parameters and ranges are available.
A small setup and artwork charge will be added for custom ranges.
300-11725 Analog Display
32 NovaLynx Corporation
300-50XXX Custom Large Digital Display
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Upper Air
Meteorological Balloons ....................................................... 34
Meteorological Balloons ....................................................... 35
400-2090 Sight Clinometer ................................................... 36
400-2095 Ceiling Light Projector ......................................... 36
Upper Air
www.novalynx.com
Meteorological Balloons
The Model 400 Series Meteorological Balloons are
produced by rotational molding of natural rubber. Their
uniform wall thickness prevents premature blowouts, and
they are ozone resistant. Reinforced necks allow use in
strong winds without tearing. These balloons are not
recommended for tethering.
Each balloon is inflated, inspected, and tested before
being dusted and sealed in a moistureproof polyethylene
bag. They may be stored up to seven years if kept in a
cool, dark room. No preflight conditioning is required.
Two basic types of balloons are available. The smaller
pilot (or ceiling) balloons are usually tracked with a
theodolite. These balloons are not designed to carry a
payload. Three different colors provide easier sighting
under varying weather conditions. The natural color has
the greatest visibility on clear days; red is easiest to see
in scattered clouds; and black is best for overcast
conditions. Small lights can be used to illuminate pilot
balloons for easier sighting during nighttime observations.
Balloon weight is chosen based on the altitude and
ascent rate required. The larger sounding balloons are
designed to carry a radiosonde aloft, and these balloons
are usually used in conjunction with a rawinsonde
tracking station. They can also carry other types of
payload, such as radar targets. The burst altitude required
should be used to determine the balloon weight needed.
Specifications are based on performance tests conducted
at the factory. They are taken from hydrogen-inflated
balloons. Helium inflation may provide different results.
Specifications and Ordering Information
Model Nominal Weight
gm
Pilot Balloons:
400-8210
10
400-8230
30
400-8231
30
400-8232
30
400-8233
100
400-8234
100
400-8235
100
400-8236
200
Color
Neck Dia
in (mm)
Uninflated Dia
in (cm)
Std Inflated Dia
ft (cm)
Burst Dia
ft (cm)
red
red
black
natural
red
black
natural
natural
0.9 (23)
0.6 (14)
0.6 (14)
0.6 (14)
0.6 (14)
0.6 (14)
0.6 (14)
1.3 (32)
3.2 (8)
7.1 (18)
7.1 (18)
7.1 (18)
13.8 (35)
13.8 (35)
13.8 (35)
18.9 (48)
1.5 (46)
2.1 (64)
2.1 (64)
2.1 (64)
2.4 (74)
2.4 (74)
2.4 (74)
3.9 (118)
2.0 (60)
3.3 (102)
3.3 (102)
3.3 (102)
4.4 (133)
4.4 (133)
4.4 (133)
8.9 (270)
Sounding Balloons:
400-8237
300
400-8239
500
400-8242
800
natural
natural
natural
1.3 (32)
1.3 (32)
1.3 (32)
23.6 (60)
32.7 (83)
42.5 (108)
5.0 (154)
5.7 (175)
6.1 (185)
12.8 (390)
17.7 (540)
22.3 (680)
Options:
400-8260-10
400-8266
400-8318
10G Balloon Filling System, includes pressure hose, valve, and 10gm weighted nozzle
Helium Tank Regulator
Pilot Balloon Light, 2.5 volt, 0.3 amp bulb, water-activated battery, weight 0.34 oz
Performance Test Specifications
Weight
Free Lift
gm
gm
Pilot Balloons:
10
50
30
140
100
160
200
850
Sounding Balloons:
300
1400
500
1700
800
2000
Results
Payload
gm
Gross Lift
gm
Inflation Vol
cu ft (cu M)
Inflation Dia
ft (M)
Ascent Rate
M/Min
Altitude at Burst
Mi (Km)
—
—
—
—
60
170
260
1050
1.9 (0.05)
5.5 (0.16)
8.4 (0.24)
33.9 (0.96)
1.5 (0.5)
2.2 (0.7)
2.5 (0.8)
4.0 (1.2)
150
200
200
350
4.3 (7)
7.8 (12.5)
9.3 (15)
11.8 (19)
630
1150
1150
2330
3350
3950
75.2 (2.1)
108.1 (3.1)
127.4 (3.6)
5.2 (1.6)
5.9 (1.8)
6.2 (1.9)
400
400
400
13.0 (21)
15.2 (24.5)
17.4 (28)
34 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Upper Air
Meteorological Balloons
Sounding balloons can carry payloads greater than those
listed in the chart if the gross lift of the balloon is
increased. This is done by increasing the inflation
volume. (Note the burst diameter of the balloon to avoid
overfilling.) The ascent rate and burst altitude will vary
from the values given. The following formulas can be
used to calculate approximate values. Experimentation
will probably be required.
Meteorological Balloon
400-8318 Pilot Balloon Light
Pilot Balloons --- Altitude vs. Time
10
9
oon
ball
m
g
00
ift, 1
ee l
r
f
n
gm
alloo
503
gm b
0
3
,
e lift
n
m fre
balloo
139 g
10 gm
,
t
f
li
free
75 gm
Altitude (1000 m)
8
7
6
5
4
3
e
45 gm fre
2
balloon
lift, 10 gm
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
Minutes of Flight
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
34
Upper Air
400-2090 Sight Clinometer
www.novalynx.com
400-2095 Ceiling Light Projector
This National Weather Service pattern Ceiling Light
Projector is a small, compact device that measures cloud
height to approximately 3,000 feet with the use of a 6
volt, 100 watt, sealed beam lamp powered from a built-in
step-down transformer operating on 120 Vac at 50/60 Hz.
The transformer can be easily rewired for 220 Vac use.
Lamp life is limited to 50 hours and the projector is
provided with a three-minute limit switch for connecting
to a power source to conserve lamp life. Silicone gaskets
permit quick and trouble-free lamp replacement.
400-2090 Sight Clinometer
Sight clinometers are used to measure the angle of
elevation between a viewer and the light generated by a
ceiling light projector when reflected on to a base of a
cloud. This information, together with a knowledge of
the base line distance between the observer and the
projector, is used to determine the cloud height - using
simple trigonometric tables supplied with the sight
clinometer.
The Model 400-2090 Sight Clinometer is designed to
conform to U.S. National Weather Service Specification
K110-SP001. The Sight Clinometer consists of a bottle
shaped sighting tube, complete with a 1/4" peep-sight
and soft rubber eye shield, cross wires, a quadrant scale
graduated into one degree intervals from 0-90 degrees,
and a pendant arm, complete with index line, clamped
into position by a clutch.
The Model 400-2095 Ceiling Light Projector is
supplied with one lamp installed, one spare lamp, a timer
switch, a 3" test level and complete instructions for
installation, operation, and maintenance - ready for
mounting onto a user-furnished 2" o.d. support pipe. All
hardware items are of stainless steel and the housing is of
cast aluminum.
Specifications
Size: 9" diameter, 13" high
Weight: 18 lbs
Shipping: 25 lbs
Ordering Information
400-2095
400-15-45
400-15-187
400-50-209P3
Ceiling Light Projector
Replacement Lamp (6 V, 100 watt)
Replacement Transformer
Replacement Silicone Sealing Ring (2 required)
The outer end of the sighting tube is three inches in
diameter to permit a wide view of the projector light
spot, as well as of the surrounding dark sky. Cross wires
aid the observer in centering the sight clinometer onto the
light spot. The instrument is supplied complete with
carrying case and instructions for operation and
maintenance.
Specifications
Weight: 2 lbs
Shipping: 6 lbs
Ordering Information
400-2090
Sight Clinometer
400-2095 Ceiling Light Projector
36 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Visibility
400-SVS1 Sentry Visibility Sensor ....................................... 38
400-6000 Visibility Sensor .................................................... 39
400-CBME40/80 Cloud Ceilometer ...................................... 40
Visibility
www.novalynx.com
400-SVS1 Sentry Visibility Sensor
Specifications
Performance
Range: 30 m to 16 km (other ranges available)
Accuracy: ± 10%
Time Constant: 60 sec
Scatter Angle: 42 deg nominal
Source: 880 nm LED
Power
AC Version: 100-240 Vac, 14 VA; 75 VA with hood heaters
DC Version: 10-36 Vdc, 6 VA; 18 VA with hood heaters
The Model 400-SVS1 Sentry Visibility Sensor
measures atmospheric visibility, also known as
meteorological optical range (MOR), by determining the
amount of light scattered by particles (smoke, dust, haze,
fog, rain, and snow) in the air that passes through the
optical sample volume. A 42-degree forward scatter angle
is used to ensure performance over a wide range of
particle sizes.
Performance in all weather conditions was a design
prerequisite for the Sentry. An integrated, one-piece
housing design keeps all cabling internal to the sensor for
the ultimate protection against the elements. The sensor
housing is made from anodized aluminum and the
enclosures are rugged, UV-resistant fiberglass rated to
IP66. Based on the proven experience of the NWS and
FAA, the sensor uses a “look down” geometry to reduce
window contamination and clogging from blowing snow.
The windows use continuous duty anti-dew heaters and
thermostatically controlled external hood heaters are
offered for protection in extreme environments. All
power and signal lines to the Sentry are protected with
surge and EMI filtering to help guarantee uninterrupted
service for the life of the sensor.
Installation and maintenance effort is minimal for the
Sentry. A flange located on the bottom of the sensor
signal processing box mates with a user supplied 1-1/2
inch IPS pipe. Power and signal connections are made
through waterproof cable glands to terminal boards in the
signal processing box. Cables are not included.
Environmental
Temperature: -40 to 60 °C
Humidity: 0-100%
Protection: IP66 (NEMA-4X)
Physical
Dimensions: 889 mm W x 292 mm H x 305 mm D (35" x 11.5" x 12")
Weight: 8 kg (18 lb)
Mounting: Nominal 40 mm pipe, 48.3 mm o.d. max
(1-1/2" IPS pipe, 1.9" o.d. max)
Data Outputs
Standard: 0-10 Vdc analog
Optional:
0-5 Vdc analog
4-20 mA single ended or isolated
Serial RS232, RS422, RS485
Wireless RF modem
Ordering Information
400-SVS1-xx-y-H-P Sentry Visibility Sensor, specify:
-xx
(AC) 100-240Vac or (DC) 10-36 Vdc
-y = analog output (1) 0-10 Vdc, (2) 0-5 Vdc, or
(A) 4-20 mA single-ended, (B) 4-20 mA isolated
-y = serial output (MA) RS232 serial data, (MB) RS422 serial data,
or (MF) RS485 serial data
-H
(H) hood heaters or (blank) no heaters
-P
(P) 1" pipe flange or (blank) standard 1-1/2" size
400-SVS1-20004
Calibration Fixture
400-SVS1-20007
Day/Night Photometer (for MA, MB, MF options)
400-SVS1-20014
Mounting Bracket
400-SVS1-20016
Hood Extensions (2/set) for areas with severe
lens contamination
400-SVS1-30023
Serial RS232 Test Cable (for MA, MB, MF options)
400-SVS1-70009
AC Power Cable 3C 18AWG 3M
400-SVS1-70010-xx Signal Cable 1 Twisted Pair 22AWG Shielded
Specify xx length of cable in meters
400-SVS1-70011-xx DC Power Cable 2C 20AWG Shielded
Specify xx length of cable in meters
400-SVS1-70015
RF Modem, RS232 (for MA, MB, MF options)
400-SVS1-70016
RF Modem, USB (for MA, MB, MF options)
Calibration of the Sentry in the field is as simple as
connecting a factory supplied calibration fixture and
following a simple procedure that takes less than 30
minutes. Semiannual calibration is recommended.
38 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Visibility
400-6000 Visibility Sensor
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Model 400-6000 Visibility Sensor is designed to
monitor visibility conditions over a range of 0-50 miles
(0-80 km). The 400-6000 includes both analog and
digital outputs. Analog output ranges of 0-1, 0-5, or 0-10
volts and 4-20 mA are available. Also included are alarm
outputs, which can be adjusted to alarm at user preset
visibility thresholds. Two alarm channels are standard,
making it possible to indicate good/medium/poor
visibility by setting the appropriate thresholds. Digital
RS232 and RS485 output at 300-38,400 Baud can be
used to indicate the present visibility and provide
diagnostic information.
These sensors are designed to provide both accuracy and
reliability in a cost effective package. Applications
include lighthouses, highways, resort areas, as well as
shipboard and other marine platforms.
Visibility is detected using widely accepted principles of
forward scattering. A high output infrared LED
transmitter projects light into a sample volume, and light
scattered in a forward direction is collected by the
receiver. The light source is modulated to provide
excellent rejection of background noise and natural
variations in background light intensity. The sensor’s
analog output signal is proportional to visibility.
Visibility is also compared to the preset alarm thresholds,
so that when alarm conditions are reached, the outputs
are switched. Visibility thresholds can be set to any value
within the instrument range. Alarm outputs are toggled
from 0 to 5 V, or from 5 to 0 V, when the alarm condition
is satisfied.
Uses proven optical geometry
U-bolt mounting for simple installation
110 Vac, 220/240 Vac, 12 Vdc
Low power consumption
Dual alarm settings
User configurable analog output
CE approved
47 CFR 15
The sensors are assembled around a compact, lightweight
housing, which can be installed on a simple pipe mast.
They are constructed entirely of corrosion resistant
materials for durability. The standard unit includes small
heaters to prevent condensation on the optics. Optional
hood heaters are available for areas where the sensor will
operate in freezing weather. Transmitter and receiver
hoods are designed to divert precipitation away from the
optical paths. Calibration is possible under most weather
conditions. The wide range of output options allows the
sensor to conform to most installation requirements.
Specifications
Range: 20 feet - 50 miles (6 m - 80 km)
Accuracy: ± 10% or 10 feet (3m)
Scatter angle: 42° nominal
Source: Infrared LED
Outputs:
Analog: 0-1, 0-5, or 0-10 Volts
Alarms: 2 channels, TTL Hi/Lo
Digital: RS232, RS422, 300 to 38,400 baud
Environmental:
Temperature: -40° to +130° F (-40° to +55° C)
Humidity: 0-100%
Power requirements: 17 W
Heater power: 25 W
Dimensions: 41" W x 11" H x 21" D
Weight: 20 lbs
Mounting: U-bolts for 1-1/4" to 2"
Ordering Information
400-6000-1
400-6000-2
400-6000-3
400-6000CK
Visibility Sensor, 110 Vac
Visibility Sensor, 220 Vac
Visibility Sensor, 12 Vdc
Calibration Kit
Unless otherwise specified, standard configuration will be: miles,
RS232, 9600 baud, N, 8, 1, 0-10 volts, 4-20 mA, analog limit 10 miles
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
39
Visibility
www.novalynx.com
400-CBME40/80 Cloud Ceilometer
A built-in test system indicates failures in the event of a
malfunction. The electronics are located in two easily
replaceable subunits, i.e. a power supply module and
printed circuit board. The subunits, as well as the laser
diode which is placed on the printed circuit board, can be
replaced by spare parts without adjustments or
recalibration.
Specifications
Range: 30-12,500 feet and 30-25,000 feet
Resolution: 20 feet
Accuracy: 20 feet or 2%, whichever is greater
Measuring interval: Selected ranges
Outputs: RS232C, V.23 alt. V.21, Bell 103 alt. Bell 212
Output data: Cloud height (multiple bases)
Monitoring data
Back scatter signal profile
Operating temperature: -40° to +50°C
Power supply: 120/230V, 50 Hz, 25 VA, 200 VA (heater)
Color: White
Weight: 14 kg without stand
Laser safety: Class 1 laser product SSIFS 1980:2 (SS-EN60825)
400-CBME40A Cloud Ceilometer
• Reliable operation
• Easy installation and maintenance
• Very long laser life (calc 10 year)
• 12,500 and 25,000 feet measuring range capability
• Low weight and low power consumption
The Model 400-CBME40 Cloud Ceilometer is a standalone instrument designed for fixed and mobile
installations where accurate and reliable cloud height
information is required. The design is based on the
LIDAR principle. The light emitting component is a low
power diode laser with the output power limited to an
eye-safe level. Real time digitizing technique is
employed in signal detection and the powerful INTEL
80186 microprocessor is used in signal processing.
Options
Mobile version with local display
Stand for permanent installation
12 Vdc (not connected to heater)
Green color
Accessories
Graphic program with storing functions, for IBM-PC (DOS 5)
Display unit, chart recorder
Demodulator V.23 - RS232
Ordering Information
400-CBME40
400-CBME80
400-CHI-BE
400-CHI-BL
400-CHI-DM
400-CHI-S
400-CHI-SS
400-CHI-SW
Cloud Ceilometer, 12,500 feet detection
Specify 110Vac or 220Vac operation
Specify RS232 or FSK output
Cloud Ceilometer, 25,000 feet detection
Specify 110Vac or 220Vac operation
Specify RS232 or FSK output
Digital Display
Blower Option
FSK Modem
Support Stand
Sun Shutter
Display Software, for Windows
The 400-CBME40 has outputs for different types of
display and recording units. An RS232 interface supports
local control, test, and data acquisition. For remote
control and data acquisition, there is an FSK modem.
40 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Lightning Detection
410-SKYSCAN Hand-Held Lightning Detector .................. 42
Lightning Detection
www.novalynx.com
410-SKYSCAN Hand-Held Lightning Detector
The Model 410-SKYSCAN Lightning Detector is a
hand-held instrument used to detect lightning as far as 40
miles away and accurately range its approach, by both an
audible tone and by four LEDs which are ranged in miles
(20-40, 8-20, 3-8, 0-3). This feature tells the user if the
storm is moving towards, away, or parallel to their position.
ACCURACY: State-of-the-art electronics and full digital
microprocessor ensures accuracy and reliability.
POWER: SkyScan can be powered by two 9V batteries,
120Vac adapter, or by a 12Vdc cigarette lighter adapter.
Unit has automatic shut-off after five hours of continuous
operation for extended battery life.
RANGE SELECT: Allows user to choose range at which
detected lightning strokes will sound audible alarm.
TONE ON/OFF: Permits user to turn on/off the audible
tone, permitting operation in situations where a distinctive
audible warning alarm would be intrusive.
STORM DISTANCE: Indicates range of detected lightning
strokes by lighting high-intensity LEDs and sounding
audible alarm. One LED will light for a lightning strike
20-40 miles away, two for a lightning strike 8-20 miles
away, three for a lightning strike 3-8 miles away (highly
dangerous situation), and all four for a lightning strike
within three miles.
BATTERY SAVE: This mode deactivates all LEDs except
battery save. SkyScan still provides audible warning of
lightning strikes, while extending battery life from 40-50
hours to as much as 75+ hours.
LOW BATTERY: Lights when SkyScan has approx five
hours of operational life remaining in the batteries.
SEVERE STORM WARNING: Warns users of especially
strong thunderstorms or squall lines which might produce
especially strong winds, heavy rains, or even tornados.
SkyScan will sound a continuous alarm for fifteen seconds
and lights the severe storm warning LED for a minimum of
fifteen minutes. The unit will repeat the process every
fifteen minutes until the severe weather activity has cleared.
SKYSCAN CASE: Electronics are protected by a rugged,
weather-resistant plastic case, permitting use in any typical
outdoor application.
42 NovaLynx Corporation
410-SkyScan Hand-Held Lightning Detector
Specifications
Dimensions: 6.5"H x 3.1"W x 1.5"D
Weight: 10.8 oz without batteries
Ordering Information
410-SKYSCAN
410-SKAC
410-SKAC-220
410-SKDC
410-SKLC
410-SKMB
SkyScan Hand-Held Lightning Detector
Faceplate in kilometers is available on request.
AC Adapter 120V/60Hz
AC Adapter 220V
Cigarette Lighter Adapter
Carrying Case
Wall Mounting Bracket
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
WeatherPort General Purpose Wind Sensors ........................ 44
WeatherPort High Sensitivity Wind Sensors ......................... 45
NovaVane Wind Speed & Direction Sensors ........................ 46
200-2218 Analog Indication Wind System ........................... 47
200-05103 Wind Monitor ...................................................... 48
200-05305 Wind Monitor - Air Quality ................................ 49
200-27005 Gill UVW Anemometer ...................................... 50
200-06201 Wind Tracker Display ......................................... 51
200-03002 Wind Sentry ........................................................ 52
200-81000 Ultrasonic Anemometer ...................................... 53
200-85000 Ultrasonic Anemometer ...................................... 54
200-7000 WindSonic Ultrasonic Anemometer ..................... 55
200-1390 WindObserver II Ultrasonic Anemometer ............ 56
200-101908 Current Loop Wind Sensors .............................. 57
200-102083 Wind Mark III Wind Sensors ............................ 58
200-2020 Micro Response Wind Sensors ............................. 59
200-2030 Micro Response Wind Sensors ............................. 60
200-WS-21-A Dual Set Point Wind Alarm ........................... 61
200-WS-23 Current Loop Wind Sensor ................................ 62
200-455 Totalizing Anemometer with 10-Min Timer ........... 63
200-WS-25 Wind Logger with Real-Time Display .............. 64
200-2520 Wind Meter ........................................................... 65
200-2530 Wind Speed Indicator ............................................ 65
200-960 Handheld Anemometer ........................................... 66
Kestrel 1000 Pocket Wind Meter .......................................... 67
La Crosse EA-3010U Anemometer ....................................... 67
Calibration Accessories ......................................................... 68
Calibration Accessories ......................................................... 69
Wind Direction Calibrators ................................................... 70
Wind Speed Calibrators ......................................................... 70
200-2620 Wind Sock ............................................................. 71
200-2510-A 260-2511-A Totalizing Anemometer ................ 72
Wind
www.novalynx.com
WeatherPort General Purpose Wind Sensors
This series of WeatherPort Wind Sensors are moderately
priced quality transducers designed for general application. A
combination of injection molded thermoplastic, anodized
aluminum, and stainless steel parts contribute to reliable
operation in adverse environments.
These sensors are easy and inexpensive to maintain. The
combination three cup anemometer and wind vane units utilize
an in-line configuration, eliminating the need for a crossarm.
The anemometer produces a series of output pulses having a
frequency directly proportional to wind speed. Wind direction
is measured by a balanced vane coupled to a 20k ohm
conductive plastic potentiometer. With a constant excitation
voltage of less than 15 volts, the output from the wiper arm is
proportional to the wind azimuth angle.
200-WS-01 Wind Speed Sensor
Specifications
Model 200-WS-01 Wind Speed Sensor
Accuracy: 0.5 mph or ± 3%
Turning radius: 4.25"
Size: 4.5" H x 8.5" W
Speed threshold: 0.8 mph
Mounting: 1" o.d. pipe
Transducer: Magnetic reed switch
Cable: 40', 2 conductor, 24 AWG
Speed constant: 1.25 mph=1 pps
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/2 lbs
Measurement range: 0-99 mph
Model 200-WS-04 Wind Direction Sensor
Azimuth accuracy: ± 3°
Resolution: < 1°
Transducer: 20K ohm pot, single wiper Time constant: 2 sec
Potentiometer gap: 5°
Turning radius: 6"
Distance constant: 1.5'
Size: 12-1/2" H x 8" W
Damping ratio: 0.4
Mounting: 1" o.d. pipe
Vane threshold: 1.2 mph
Cable: 40', 3 conductor, 24 AWG
Measurement range:
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/2 lbs
0-360° mechanical, 355° electrical
200-WS-04 Wind Direction Sensor
Model 200-WS-02 Wind Speed & Direction Sensor
The 200-WS-02 is a combination of the above sensors,
mounted in an in-line configuration.
Cable: 40’, 5 conductor, 24 AWG
Weight/Shipping: 2 lbs/3 lbs
Environmental
Operating temperature: -40° to +60°C
Relative humidity: 0-100%
Ordering Information
200-WS-01
200-WS-02
200-WS-04
200-600
200-601
330-0224
330-0324
330-0524
Wind Speed Sensor, 40' cable
Wind Speed & Direction Sensors, 40' cable
Wind Direction Sensor, 40' cable
Crossarm, 24" wide, without sensors
Wind Speed & Direction Sensors on Crossarm, 40' cable
Additional Cable, per foot (WS-01)
Additional Cable, per foot (WS-04)
Additional Cable, per foot (WS-02)
44 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
200-WS-02 Combination Wind Speed & Direction Sensor
Wind
WeatherPort High Sensitivity Wind Sensors
The WeatherPort High Sensitivity Wind Sensors are
similar to those shown on the previous page, but they are
specially configured to meet U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency requirements for PSD (Prevention of
Significant Deterioration).
Specifications
Speed
Turning radius: 4.25"
Speed threshold: 0.8 mph
Transducer: Magnetic reed switch
Speed Constant: 1.25 mph = 1 pps
Measurement range: Speed 0-99 mph
Accuracy: 0.5 mph or ± 3%
Direction
Azimuth accuracy: ± 3°
Transducer type: 20K ohm potentiometer, single wiper
Potentiometer gap: 5°
Measurement range: 0-360°
Linearity: 1%
Distance constant: 2.6'
Damping ratio: 0.4
Vane threshold: 0.8 mph
Turning radius: 12.5"
200-WS-05 High Sensitivity Wind Sensor
Overall
Dimensions:
WS-04H: 12-1/2" H x 16-1/2" L x 1-1/2" W
WS-05: 12-1/2" H x 16-1/2" L x 8" W
Mounting: 1.07" i.d. fits over 1" o.d. (3/4" i.d.) pipe
Cable: 40', 5 conductor, 24 AWG, shielded
Weight/shipping: 2 lbs/4 lbs
200-605 High Sensitivity Wind Speed & Direction Sensors on crossarm
Ordering Information
200-WS-04H
200-WS-05
200-605
330-0324
330-0524
High Sensitivity Wind Direction Sensor, 40' cable
High Sensitivity Wind Speed & Direction Sensors,
40' cable
High Sensitivity Wind Speed & Direction Sensors on
Crossarm, 40' cable
Additional Cable, per foot (WS-04H)
Additional Cable, per foot (WS-05)
200-601 General Purpose Wind Speed & Direction Sensors on crossarm
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
45
Wind
www.novalynx.com
NovaVane Wind Speed & Direction Sensors
Wind direction is measured by the response of the
aerodynamic body which aligns itself with the direction
of the horizontal wind. The sensor shaft is attached
directly to the wind direction transducer, producing an
output signal which varies in proportion to the horizontal
angle of the wind.
Specifications
Wind Speed
Sensor: 4-blade propeller, 13.78" (350 mm) diameter
Transducer: AC generator, 4-pole
Range: 0-200 mph (0-90 m/s)
Output signal: 20 Vac 84 Hz, typical at 100 mph
Accuracy: ± 0.3 m/s for winds less than 10 m/s, ± 3% for winds greater
than 10 m/s (with 1.1K ohm load)
Starting speed threshold: 1.5 mph (0.7 m/s)
Distance constant: 9.9 ft (3 m)
200-2201 NovaVane Wind Speed & Direction Sensor
The NovaVane Wind Speed and Direction Sensor
is designed for use in high wind and marine
environments. It features a sensitive four-blade propeller
made of high impact plastic to withstand gale force
winds. The body of the sensor is constructed of
aluminum and high impact plastic. The base is aluminum
with a mounting hole pattern that matches other marine
style sensors. The NovaVane provides a single sensor
design to measure both wind speed and wind direction.
The use of internal wiring and slip rings enables speed
and direction transducers to operate inside the same
housing. The aerodynamic design of the housing and the
materials used in the fabrication of the instrument
contribute to the durability and the responsiveness of
the sensor.
Wind speed is measured by the response of the propeller
to the wind. The propeller is coupled directly to a
precision-built four-pole AC generator which produces
an alternating current with a voltage that is proportional
to the wind velocity. The generator is brushless,
providing long life and reliable performance at low
temperatures.
46 NovaLynx Corporation
Wind Direction
Sensor: aerodynamic counter-balanced body
Transducer:
200-2201: 1K ohm potentiometer, single-wiper
200-2206: AC synchro, 115 Vac primary, 90 Vac secondary
Range: 0-360° azimuth
Resolution: 1° (depends upon monitoring device)
Output signal: potentiometer 0-1000 ohms typical, synchro 90 Vac,
three phase
Accuracy: potentiometer linearity ± 2°, synchro ± 2 degrees
Threshold: 1.5 mph (0.7 m/s)
Damping ratio: 0.36
Power consumption
Wind speed: none, self-generating
Wind direction: potentiometer 0.1 VA, synchro 25 VA
General
Operating temperature: -50° to +60° C
Dimensions:
Height: 26.4" (670 mm)
Body length: 27.2" (690 mm)
Base diameter: 5.9" (150 mm)
Weight/shipping: 11.5 lbs/22 lbs (5.2 kg/10 kg)
Ordering Information
200-2201
200-2206
200-21101
200-03631
395-304
330-0524
330-0820
NovaVane Wind Speed & Direction Sensor,
AC generator and potentiometer
NovaVane Wind Speed & Direction Sensor,
AC generator and synchro
Mast Adaptor, for mounting NovaVane to 1.66"
(42 mm) o.d. mast
Current Loop Converter 4-20 mA
Termination J-Box
Signal Cable for 200-2201, per foot
Signal Cable for 200-2206, per foot
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-2218 Analog Indication Wind System
The Model 200-2218 Analog Indicating Wind System
consists of a rugged sensor capable of withstanding
hurricane force winds and a console for remote display of
wind speed and direction. The sensor is a Model
200-2206 NovaVane which measures wind speed using a
four-blade propeller coupled to an ac generator
transducer. Wind direction is monitored by a counterbalanced tail which drives a synchro transducer.
The indicator console should be installed indoors and
may be located up to 1000 feet from the sensor. Two
indicator consoles may be used to display the output of a
single sensor. In this case the Model 200-22152 Master
Indicator Console is connected to the sensor and provides
an output signal to the Model 200-22155 Slave Indicator
Console. Special order synchro to analog outputs are
available.
The indicator console includes electronics to condition
the sensor signals for display. The ac voltage
representing wind speed is converted to a dc voltage and
scaled. The resulting signal is displayed on a jewel and
pivot type galvanometric dial. The standard indicating
ranges are 0-120 mph, 0-120 knots, or 0-45 m/s. Other
ranges are available on special order.
Specifications
The rotation of the direction sensor synchro is received
by an identical synchro in the console. The attached wind
direction needle travels proportionally over the 6" diameter
dial. Because the synchro output has no discontinuity at
north, indication is continuous over the complete 0-360°
range. Four cardinal points are noted on the dial.
Indicator Console
Input transducers: Speed: ac generator; Direction: synchro
Indicators: Speed: pivot and jewel meter, 6" diameter dial
Direction: synchro receiver, 6" diameter dial
Indicating range: Speed: 0-120 mph, 0-120 knots, or 0-45 m/s,
must be specified at time of order; Direction: 360° continuous
Graduations: Speed: 1 mph, 1 knot, or 1 m/s; Direction: 10°
Dial linearity: ± 2%
Input voltage: 115 Vac, 50/60 Hz (230 Vac optional)
Size: 14" W x 7.75" H x 6.75" D
Weight/Shipping: 7 lbs/14 lbs (3.2 kg/6.4 kg)
Sensor
See Model 200-2206 NovaVane
Ordering Information
200-2218
200-22151
200-22152
200-22155
200-221-230V
200-2206
200-2206SA
330-0820
200-2206 NovaVane Wind Speed & Direction Sensor
Analog Indicating Wind System, consists of 200 2206
NovaVane and 200-22151 Indicator Console (115 Vac
input), specify wind speed range 0-120 mph,
0-120 knots, or 0-45 m/s
Wind Indicator Console, specify units and range
Master Wind Indicator Console for use when a
second (slave) display is needed, specify units and
range
Slave Wind Indicator Console, specify units and
range
230 Vac Input Option for above consoles
NovaVane sensor alone, ac generator and synchro
transducers
Synchro to Analog Output Assy, consult factory
Signal Cable, per foot
200-22151 Wind Indicator Console
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
47
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-05103 Wind Monitor
signal for each channel, useful in high noise areas or for long
cables (up to several kilometers). Signal conditioning
electronics are integrated into the sensor junction box.
Specifications
The Model 200-05103 Wind Monitor is a high performance,
rugged wind sensor. Its simplicity and corrosion-resistant
construction make it ideal for a wide range of wind measuring
applications. The instrument is made of UV stabilized plastic
with stainless steel and anodized aluminum fittings. Precision
grade, stainless steel ball bearings are used. Transient protection
and cable terminations are in a convenient junction box. The
instrument mounts on standard 1" pipe.
The wind speed sensor is a four blade helicoid propeller.
Propeller rotation produces an AC sine wave voltage signal with
frequency directly proportional to wind speed. Slip rings and
brushes are eliminated for increased reliability. The wind
direction sensor is a rugged yet lightweight vane with a
sufficiently low aspect ratio to assure good fidelity in fluctuating
wind conditions. Vane angle is sensed by a precision
potentiometer housed in a sealed chamber. With a known
excitation voltage applied to the potentiometer, the output
voltage is directly proportional to vane angle. A mounting
orientation ring assures correct realignment of the wind direction
reference when the unit is removed for maintenance.
For offshore and marine use, Model 200-05106 Wind
Monitor-MA features special waterproof bearing lubricant and a
sealed, heavy duty cable pigtail in place of the standard junction
box. Separate signal conditioning for voltage or current outputs
is available.
The Wind Monitor is available with two additional output signal
options. Model 200-05103V offers calibrated 0-1 Vdc outputs
(0-5 Vdc optional), convenient for use with many data loggers.
Model 200-05103L provides a calibrated 4-20 mA current
48 NovaLynx Corporation
Range
Wind speed: 0-60 m/s (134 mph)
Gust survival: 100 rn/s (220 mph)
Azimuth: 360° mechanical, 355° electrical (5° open)
Accuracy
Wind speed: ± 0.3 rn/s (0.6 mph)
Wind direction: ± 3°
Threshold*
Propeller: 1.0 m/s (2.2 mph) 05103, 1.1 m/s (2.4 mph) 05106
Vane: 1.1 m/s (2.4 mph) 05103, 1.3 m/s (2.9 mph) 05106
Dynamic Response*
Propeller distance constant (63% recovery) 2.7 m (8.9 ft)
Vane delay distance (50% recovery) 1.3 m (4.3 ft)
Damping ratio: 0.3
Damped natural wavelength: 7.4 m (24.3 ft)
Undamped natural wavelength: 7.2 m (23.6 ft)
Signal Output
Wind speed: magnetically induced AC voltage, 3 pulses
per revolution. 1800 rpm (90 Hz) = 8.8 m/s (19.7 mph)
Azimuth: analog DC voltage from conductive plastic
potentiometer- resistance 10K ohms, linearity 0.25%,
life expectancy- 50 million revolutions
Power Requirement
Potentiometer excitation: 15 Vdc maximum
Dimensions
Overall height: 37 cm (14.6")
Overall length: 55 cm (21.7")
Propeller: 18 cm (7") diameter
Mounting: 34 mm (1.34") diameter (standard 1" pipe)
Weight
Sensor weight: 1.0 kg (2.2 lbs)
Shipping weight: 2.3 kg (5 Ibs)
*Nominal values, determined in accordance with ASTM standard procedures.
200-05103V (0-1 Vdc Outputs)
Power Requirement: 8-24 Vdc (5 mA @ 12 Vdc)
Operating Temperature: -50° to 50° C
Output Signals: 0-1.00 Vdc full scale, 0-5.00 Vdc optional
200-05631 (4-20 mA Outputs)
Power Requirement: 8-30 Vdc (40 mA max.)
Operating Temperature: -50° to 50° C
Output Signals: 4-20 mA full scale
Ordering Information
200-05103
200-05103L*
200-05103V*
200-05103-45
200-05106
200-05603B*
200-05631B*
330-0524
Wind Monitor, less cable
Wind Monitor, 4-20mA output
Wind Monitor, specify 0-1 Vdc or 0-5 Vdc
Alpine Wind Monitor
Wind Monitor-MA (Marine Model), 10' cable
Wind Sensor Interface, specify 0-1 Vdc or 0-5 Vdc
Wind Line Driver, 4-20 mA current loop
Signal Cable, per foot
*Specify wind speed scaling:
0-50 m/s
Add suffix “M”
0-100 mph
Add suffix “P”
0-100 knots
Add suffix “N”
0-200 km/hr
Add suffix “K”
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-05305 Wind Monitor - Air Quality
calibrated 4-20 mA current signal for each channel, useful
in high noise areas or for long cables (up to several
kilometers). Signal conditioning electronics are integrated
into the sensor junction box.
Specifications
The Model 200-05305 Wind Monitor-AQ is a high
resolution wind sensor designed specifically for air quality
applications. It combines simple, corrosion-resistant
construction with low threshold, fast response and excellent
fidelity. The Wind Monitor-AQ meets the requirements of
the following regulatory agencies: • U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency-Ambient Monitoring Guidelines for
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD). • U.S.
Nuclear Regulatory Agency-NRC Regulatory Guide 1.23
Meteorological Programs in Support of Nuclear Power
Plants. • American Nuclear Society-Standard for
Determining Meteorological Information at Power Plants.
Wind speed is sensed by a lightweight, carbon fiber
thermoplastic (CFT), helicoid propeller. Propeller rotation
produces an AC sine wave voltage signal with frequency
directly proportional to wind speed. Slip rings and brushes
are not used. The instrument body is UV stabilized plastic
with stainless steel and anodized aluminum fittings.
Precision grade, stainless steel ball bearings are used
throughout. Transient protection and cable terminations are
located in a convenient junction box. The instrument
mounts on standard 1" pipe.
The wind direction sensor is a lightweight vane with
performance characteristics that assure excellent fidelity in
fluctuating wind conditions. Vane position is sensed by a
precision potentiometer. Output is a DC voltage directly
proportional to vane angle.
The Wind Monitor-AQ is available with two additional
output signal options. Model 200-05305V offers calibrated
0-1 Vdc outputs (0-5 Vdc optional), convenient for use with
many data loggers. Model 200-05305L provides a
Range
Wind speed: 0-50 m/s (112 mph)
Azimuth: 360° mechanical, 355° electrical (5° open)
Accuracy
Wind speed: ±0.2 m/s (0.4 mph)
Wind direction: ±3°
Threshold*
Propeller: 0.4 m/s (0.9 mph)
Vane: 0.5 m/s (1.0 mph) at 10° displacement
Dynamic Response*
Propeller distance constant (63% recovery): 2.1 m (6.9 ft)
Vane delay distance (50% recovery): 1.2 m (3.9 ft)
Damping ratio: 0.45
Damped natural wavelength: 4.9 m (16.1 ft)
Undamped natural wavelength: 4.4 m (14.4 ft)
Signal Output
Wind speed: magnetically induced AC voltage, 3 pulses per revolution.
1800 rpm (90 Hz) = 9.2 m/s (20.6 mph)
Azimuth: analog DC voltage from conductive plastic potentiometerresistance 10K ohms, linearity 0.25%, life expectancy- 50 million
revolutions
Power Requirement
Potentiometer excitation: 15 Vdc maximum
Dimensions
Overall height: 38 cm (15.0 in)
Overall length: 65 cm (25.6 in)
Propeller: 20 cm (7.9") diameter
Mounting: 34 mm (1.34") diameter (standard 1" pipe)
Weight
Sensor weight: 0.7kg (1.5 lbs)
Shipping weight: 2.3 kg (5 lbs)
*Nominal values, determined in accordance with ASTM standard procedures.
Shielded bearings lubricated with type LO-1 light general purpose instrument oil.
200-05305V (0-1 Vdc outputs)
Power Requirement: 8-24 Vdc (5 mA @ 12 Vdc)
Operating Temperature: -50° to 50° C
Output Signals: 0-1.00 Vdc full scale, 0-5.00 Vdc optional
200-05305L (4-20 mA outputs)
Power Requirement: 8-30 Vdc (40 mA max.)
Operating Temperature: -50° to 50° C
Output Signals: 4-20 mA full scale
Ordering Information
200-05305
200-05305L*
200-05305V*
200-05603B*
200-05631B*
330-0524
Wind Monitor-AQ, less cable
Wind Monitor, 4-20 mA output
Wind Monitor, specify 0-1 Vdc or 0-5 Vdc
Wind Sensor Interface, specify 0-1 Vdc or 0-5 Vdc
Wind Line Driver, 4-20 mA current loop
Signal Cable, per foot
*Specify wind speed scaling:
0-50 m/s
Add suffix “M”
0-100 mph
Add suffix “P”
0-100 knots
Add suffix “N”
0-200 km/hr
Add suffix “K”
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
49
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-27005 Gill UVW Anemometer
The Model 200-27005 Gill UVW Anemometer measures
the three orthogonal vectors of the wind, along wind
component “U”, across wind component “V”, and vertical
wind component “W”. The three propeller anemometer
sensors are mounted at right angles on a common mast.
Each sensor measures the wind component parallel with
its axis of rotation. Propeller response as a function of
wind angle approximates the cosine law, allowing true
wind velocity and direction to be calculated.
The UVW Anemometer is designed for maximum
sensitivity at lower wind speeds. Optional carbon fiber
thermoplastic (CFT) propellers are available for
applications requiring greater range and durability. Rain
and dust are excluded from the precision bearings by a
continuous duty air blower that keeps the instrument
under a slight positive pressure.
The propeller anemometer is a precision air speed
measuring instrument. The four blade helicoid propeller
drives a miniature tach-generator. Output voltage is
directly proportional to the axial component of the wind
speed. Signal polarity indicates direction of propeller rotation.
The propeller anemometer is also available with single or
dual direction photochopper transducer. The propeller
anemometer is especially suited for measuring the vertical
wind component. Since normal wind direction seldom
exceeds ±30º from horizontal, propeller response can be
calibrated to follow the cosine law within 3% over this range.
Specifications
08274 Expanded Polystyrene Propeller (EPS)
Diameter: 22 cm
Pitch: 29.4 cm wind passage per revolution
Range: 0-25 m/s (55 mph)
Threshold:* 0.3 m/s (0.6 mph)
Distance constant:* 1.0 m (3.2 ft)
08254 Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Propeller (CFT)
Diameter: 20 cm
Pitch: 30.0 cm wind passage per revolution
Range: 0-35 m/s (80 mph)
Threshold:* 0.4 m/s (0.8 mph)
Distance constant:* 2.1 m (6.9 ft)
Signal Output
Standard tach-generator transducer: Analog DC voltage proportional to
wind component. Polarity indicates rotation direction. 1800 RPM
(500 mV) = 8.8 m/s (19.7 mph).
Optional photochopper transducer: Voltage pulse with frequency
proportional to wind component. 10 pulses per revolution. 1800 RPM
(300 Hz) = 8.8 m/s (19.7 mph)
Power Requirement
24 Vac/12 W for blower motor in UVW Anemometer (separate 115/230V
transformer supplied). Propeller Anemometer with tach-generator is
self-powered. Optional photochopper transducer requires 5-15 Vdc at 11 mA.
Dimensions
UVW Anemometer: overall height 107 cm (42"), each sensor projects
41 cm (16"), base diameter 16 cm (6.2"), mounting 34 mm (1.34")
diameter (standard 1" pipe).
Propeller Anemometer: Overall length with mounting 43 cm (17"),
housing diameter 2.5 cm (1"), mounts on standard 3/4" pipe.
Weight
UVW Anemometer: 3.6 kg (7.9 lbs), shipping weight 8.2 kg (18 lbs)
Propeller Anemometer: 0.5 kg (1.2 lbs)
*Nominal values determined in accordance with ASTM standard procedures.
Ordering Information
200-27005
add suffix “T”
add suffix “J”
200-27106
add suffix “D”
add suffix “F”
add suffix “T”
200-08274
200-08254
330-0820
50 NovaLynx Corporation
UVW Anemometer with 200-08274 EPS Propellers,
less cable
Optional 200-08254 CFT Propellers
Optional 12 Vdc Blower
Propeller Anemometer with 08274 EPS Propeller,
standard tach-generator transducer, less cable
Optional single-direction photochopper
Optional two-direction photochopper, specify 3, 6, or
15 pulses per revolution
Optional 200-08254 CFT Propeller
EPS Propeller, 22 cm diameter
CFT Propeller, 20 cm diameter
Signal Cable, per foot
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-06201 Wind Tracker Display
The Model 200-06201 Wind Tracker wind speed and
wind direction indicator offers big performance in a
compact display. Wind speed is displayed in your choice
of units, knots, mph, km/h, m/s. Maximum wind speed is
saved on the display until reset by the operator. Wind
direction information is clearly displayed on a circular
compass pattern of LEDs. Multicolored segments give a
quick visual indication of current direction and direction
variability. Real-time or averaged data can be displayed.
The 200-06206 Marine Wind Tracker indicates wind
angle relative to vessel heading. Front panel brightness
control allows adjustment for best viewing in any light.
Ordering Information
200-06201-75
add suffix “C”
add suffix “H”
200-06206-75
add suffix “H”
200-06260
200-06280
Wind Tracker, 120V/60Hz adapter
Optional 0-540° Wind Direction Range
Optional 230V/50-60Hz Adapter
Marine Wind Tracker, 120V/50Hz adapter
Optional 230V/50-60Hz Adapter
Protective Enclosure
Rack Mounting Panel, 19" rack
A variety of wind sensors are supported. Standard outputs
are 0-5 Vdc and RS485 for additional displays. Alarms for
both wind speed and wind direction are provided. The
Wind Tracker is very compact. Face size is 144 mm x 144 mm
to fit standard DIN panel configurations. Depth is 36 mm
for easy mounting on vertical bulkheads or wall surfaces.
12-30 Vdc power enables the Wind Tracker to be powered
by external batteries or AC wall adapter (included).
Specifications
Wind Speed Range
0-100 mph, 0-50 m/s, 0-200 km/h, 0-100 knots
Wind Direction Range
200-06201: 0-360° (36 points)
200-06206: 0-180° (port and starboard)
Display Resolution
Wind Speed & Maximum: 1 unit (0.1 M/S only)
Wind Direction: 10° (36 points circular), 1° (digital display mode)
Compatible Sensors
Wind Monitor, Wind Sentry, 200-101908 Current Loop Wind Sensor,
200-7000-3 WindSonic, 200-WS-22 Current Loop Wind Sensor,
200-2201 NovaVane, Other sensors can be used with this display if the
output can be set up for the correct 4-20 mA signals
Other Inputs/Outputs
RS485 for additional slave displays
NMEA compatibility on 200-06206 only
Voltage Outputs
0-5 Vdc Full Scale for WS & WD
Alarm Relays
Normally Open contacts for WS & WD, with adjustable delays
Contact Rating
5A resistive, 2A inductive @ 24 Vac/30 Vdc
Remote Displays
Up to 16 remote displays can be connected to one sensor
Power Requirement
12-30 Vdc, 4.5 W
Dimensions
144 mm (5.65") x 144 mm (5.65") x 36 mm (1.4")
Panel Cutout: 138 mm (5.43") x 138 mm (5.43")
Weight
Display: 1 lb (0.45 kg)
Shipping: 3 lb (1.4 kg)
200-06201 Wind Tracker
200-06206 Marine Wind Tracker with optional 200-06260 Protective Enclosure
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
51
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-03002 Wind Sentry
The Model 200-03002 Wind Sentry Anemometer and
Vane are professional quality wind sensors which are
suitable for a wide range of wind measurement
applications. These moderately priced sensors are
principally of thermoplastic construction providing
excellent corrosion resistance, low sensor weight, and
minimal parts count. In addition to being available as a
set complete with crossarm, the sensors are also available
separately with mounting brackets.
The anemometer has three hemispherical molded plastic
cups. Cup wheel rotation produces an AC sine wave
voltage signal with frequency directly proportional to
wind speed. This AC voltage signal is induced in a coil
by a two pole circular magnet mounted on the cup wheel
shaft. One complete sine wave cycle is produced for each
cup wheel revolution.
Wind vane position is transmitted by a 10k ohm
precision conductive plastic potentiometer which
requires a regulated excitation voltage. With a constant
voltage applied to the potentiometer, the output signal is
an analog voltage directly proportional to azimuth angle.
The plastic vane is molded directly on the anodized
aluminum vane shaft.
Strain reliefs with seals are provided for cable entry to
the sensors and termination junction box.
Specifications
Range
Wind speed: 0-50 m/s (112 mph)
Gust survival: 60 m/s (134 mph)
Azimuth: 360o mechanical, 355o electrical (5o open)
Accuracy
Wind speed: ± 1.1 mph
Wind direction: ± 5°
Threshold*
Cup Anemometer: 1.1 m/s (2.5 mph)
Vane: 1.3 m/s (2.9 mph) at 10o displacement
1.9 m/s (4.2 mph) at 5o displacement
Dynamic Response
Cup wheel distance constant: 2.3 m (7.5 ft)
Vane delay distance: 0.5 m (1.6 ft)
Damping ratio: 0.20
Signal Output
Wind speed: Magnetically induced AC sine wave voltage, 1 pulse per
revolution, 1800 rpm (30 Hz) = 22.8 m/s (51.0 mph)
Azimuth: Analog DC voltage from conductive plastic potentiometer resistance 10K ohms, linearity 0.5%, life expectancy 20 million
revolutions.
Power Required
Potentiometer excitation: Regulated voltage recommended, 5-15 Vdc
Sensor interface: 5-15 Vdc unregulated
Line driver: 12-30 Vdc unregulated (depending upon line and load
resistance)
Dimensions
Overall height: 32 cm (12.6")
Crossarm length: 28 cm (11") between instrument centers
Vane length: 22 cm (8.7")
Cup wheel: 12 cm (4.7") dia
Mounting: 34 mm (1.34") dia (standard 1" pipe)
Weight
Sensors: 0.7 kg (1.5 lbs)
Shipping: 1.3 kg (3 lbs)
*
Nominal values determined in accordance with ASTM standard procedures.
Ordering Information
200-03002
200-03002L
200-03101
200-03301
200-03603*
200-03631*
330-0524
200-03002 Wind Sentry
52 NovaLynx Corporation
Wind Sentry Anemometer and Vane with Crossarm,
less cable
Wind Sentry with 4-20 mA Output
Wind Sentry Anemometer with Mounting Bracket,
less cable
Wind Sentry Vane with Mounting Bracket, less cable
Wind Sensor Interface (specify 0-1 Vdc or 0-5 Vdc)
Wind Line Driver (4-20 mA current loop)
Sensor Cable, per foot
*
Specify wind speed scaling
0-50 m/s
Add suffix “M”
0-100 knots
Add suffix “N”
0-200 km/hr
Add suffix “K”
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-81000 Ultrasonic Anemometer
arranged so that measurement are made through a
common volume, thereby improving the validity of the
measurement. A fast 160 Hz sampling rate ensures
superior measurement resolution.
Superior environmental resistance is achieved by using
UV stabilized thermoplastic, stainless steel, and anodized
aluminum components. Electrical connections are made
via an easily accessible junction box. The unit mounts on
standard 1" pipe.
Specifications
Operating Temperature
-50 to +50 °C
200-81000 Ultrasonic Anemometer
The Model 200-8100 Ultrasonic Anemometer is a
three-dimensional no-moving-parts wind sensor.
Two-dimensional anemometers meet the need for
economy, but they ignore the important vertical wind
component. The 200-81000 measure three dimensional
wind velocity based on the transit time of ultrasonic
acoustic signals. From speed of sound, sonic temperature
is derived. Speed of sound and sonic temperature are
corrected for crosswind effects.
Measurement data are available as voltage output signals
or serial output using RS232 or RS485 connections. Both
voltage and serial output may be configured for various
output formats. Operating parameters may be edited
using ordinary terminal software on a PC. Simple menus
make it easy. All parameters are stored in nonvolatile
memory.
The sensor features robust construction with three
opposing pairs of ultrasonic transducers supported by
stainless steel members. This arrangement provides
rigidity to the anemometer while offering a measure of
protection to the transducers. The transducers are
Range
Wind speed: 0 to 40 m/s (0 to 90 mph)
Resolution: 0.01 m/s
Threshold: 0.01 m/s
Accuracy: ± 1% rms ± 0.05 m/s (0 to 30 m/s) ± 3% rms (30 to 40 m/s)
Wind direction: 0 to 360 degrees
Elevation range: ± 60 degrees
Resolution: 0.1 degree
Accuracy: ± 2 degrees (1 to 30 m/s) ± 5 degrees (30 to 40 m/s)
Speed of sound: 300 to 360 m/s
Resolution: 0.01 m/s
Accuracy: ± 0.1% rms ± 0.05 m/s (0 to 30 m/s)
Sonic temperature: -50 to +50 ºC
Resolution: 0.01 ºC
Accuracy: ± 2 ºC (0 to 30 m/s)
Serial Output
RS232 or RS485
1200 to 38400 baud
4 to 32 Hz (user-selected)
User programmable ASCII output configuration (select from U, V, W,
Speed of sound, Sonic temperature, 2D speed, 3D speed, Azimuth,
Elevation)
Preset outputs:
NMEA- Marine Standard
RMYT- Wind Tracker
Units: m/s, cm/s, MPH, Knots, Km/hr
Analog Voltage Outputs
4 voltage outputs, 0 to 5000 mV (select from U, V, W, Sonic
temperature or Speed, Azimuth, Elevation, Sonic temperature)
Power Requirement
12 to 30 Vdc , 4 watts
Dimensions
56 cm high x 17 cm radius (3 support arms)
Weight/Shipping: 1.7 kg (3.8 lb)/4.5 kg (10 lb)
Ordering Information
200-81000
330-0524
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Ultrasonic Anemometer
Cable, per foot
www.novalynx.com
53
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-85000 Ultrasonic Anemometer
The Model 200-85000 Ultrasonic Anemometer is a
2-axis, no-moving-parts wind sensor. It is ideal for
general meteorological applications requiring accurate,
reliable wind measurement.
The sensor features durable, corrosion-resistant
construction with opposing pairs of ultrasonic
transducers secured in a streamlined molded frame.
The 85000 is fully wind-tunnel tested and calibrated to
provide accurate wind measurement over a wide
operating range.
The standard sensor includes many useful output options.
Analog voltage outputs are provided for wind speed and
wind direction. A variety of serial output formats are also
available on the standard sensor. These include ASCII
text, RMYT (compatible with Wind Tracker display), and
NMEA formats. Operating parameters may be edited
using ordinary terminal software on a PC. Simple menus
make it easy. All parameters are stored in nonvolatile
memory.
Superior environmental resistance is achieved by using
UV stabilized thermoplastic, stainless steel, and anodized
aluminum components. The sensor installs on readily
available 1" IPS pipe (1.34" o.d.). Wiring connections are
made in a convenient weatherproof junction box with
screw terminals; special mounting adapters, connectors,
and cables are not required.
Specifications
Wind Speed: 0 to 70 m/s (0 to 156 mph)
Resolution: 0.1 m/s
Accuracy: (30 m/s) ± 2% or 0.1 m/s, (70 m/s) ± 3%
Wind Direction: 0 to 360 degrees
Resolution: 1 degree
Accuracy: ± 2 degrees
Serial Output: RS232 or RS485
Formats: ASCII Text, RMYT, NMEA
Units: m/s, mph, knots, km/hr
Analog Voltage Outputs:
Wind Speed: 0 to 5 V
Wind Direction: 0 to 5 V
200-85000 Ultrasonic Anemometer
Dimensions:
34 cm high x 17 cm wide
Weight: 0.7 kg (1.5 lb)
Shipping Weight: 1.6 kg (3.5 lb)
Ordering Information
200-85000
330-0524
Ultrasonic Anemometer
Cable, per foot
Power Requirement: 9 to 16 Vdc, 30 mA typical
Operating Temperature: -50 to +50 °C
54 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-7000 WindSonic Ultrasonic Anemometer
A lightweight unit, the 200-7000 WindSonic Ultrasonic
Anemometer is of a robust, high strength construction.
Without the need for expensive on-site calibration or
maintenance, and with a corrosion free exterior,
WindSonic is a true fit and forget unit.
The flexible design enables you easily to configure
WindSonic to deliver the information you require. By
using the software provided it is possible to select the
output rate and choose the units of measurement that suit
your application. Ensuring accuracy and reliability,
WindSonic automatically transmits an anemometer status
code with each output to indicate its operating status.
Available in three options, providing a number of
different digital and analog outputs, WindSonic is supplied
with NMEA and RS232 digital output as standard.
Maintenance free, quick and easy to install, WindSonic is
designed to be mounted using a standard pole fitting and
comes complete with all screw fittings, a mating marine
grade connector, and comprehensive user manual.
Providing accurate results in all weather conditions,
WindSonic exhibits a number of distinct advantages:
• Consistent performance throughout life
(no accuracy degradation due to wear of moving parts)
• Corrosion free, UV resistant material
• Low start speed (0.01 m/s, 0.09 knots)
• Maintenance free
• No calibration required
• Robust construction
• Software configurable
• Status code output
• True 0-359° operation (no dead band on direction output)
• Wind speed and direction from a single unit
Ordering Information
200-7000-1
200-7000-2
200-7000-3
200-7000-4
200-7000-00
200-7000-01
200-7000-02
200-7000-03
200-7000-04
330-04TP24
WindSonic Ultrasonic Anemometer
RS232 output
WindSonic Ultrasonic Anemometer
RS232/422/485 output
WindSonic Ultrasonic Anemometer
RS232/422/485 and 0-5V or 4-20 mA output
WindSonic Ultrasonic Anemometer
SDI-12 output
WindSonic Connector Kit, not assembled
9-Pin Serial Connector Kit, not assembled
WindSonic Cable Assembly Fee
WindSonic Mounting Stub
WindSonic Boom Mounting Assy
Signal Cable, per foot
200-7000 WindSonic Ultrasonic Anemometer
Specifications
Outputs
Output 1, 2, or 4 outputs per second
Parameters Wind Speed and Direction or U and V (vectors)
Units of measure m/s, knots, mph, kph, ft/min
Wind Speed
Range 0-134 mph (0-60 m/s)
Accuracy ± 2%
Resolution 0.02 mph (0.01 m/s)
Wind Direction
Range 0 to 359° – no dead band
Accuracy ± 3°
Resolution 1°
Anemometer Status
Message supplied as part of standard output
Power Requirement
Anemometer 9-30 Vdc @ 14.5 mA typical for option 1
Outputs
Option: 1 RS232 (9600 baud)
Option 2: RS232 + RS422 + RS485 (9600 baud) + NMEA*
Option 3: RS232 + RS422 + RS485 + NMEA* + 0-5V or 4-20 mA
Option 4: SDI-12
*NMEA 0183 Version 3
Maximum Recommended Cable Length
RS232: 20' (6.5 m)
RS422/485: 3200' (1 km)
Analog voltage: 20' (6.5 m)
Analog current: resistance dependent, max 250 ohms
Environmental
Moisture Protection IP65
Operating Temperature -31° to +158° F (-35° to +70° C)
Storage Temperature -40° to +194° F (-40° to +90° C)
Operating Humidity < 5% to 100%
EMC
EN 61000-6-2: 2001
EN 61000-6-3: 2001
MTBF: 15 years
Materials: External Construction LURAN S KR 2861/1C ASA/PC
Dimensions
Size 5.6" x 6.3" (142 x 160 mm)
Weight 1 lb (0.45 kg)
Optional Factory Calibration: Traceable to national standards
Mounting: Pipe Mounting 1.75" (44.45 mm) diameter
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
55
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-1390 WindObserver II Ultrasonic Anemometer
Specifications
The WindObserver II provides the
best solution on the market for
reliable, accurate, and costeffective wind speed and
directional measurement. The
elimination of moving parts
together with a rugged stainless
steel construction means that
WindObserver II is virtually
maintenance-free and requires no
calibration on site. The heated head
keeps the unit free from ice and
snow, providing continuous use
even in the most extreme weather
conditions.
A new flexible design ensures that
the WindObserver II can be
configured by the user to their
exact requirements, which may
include analogue outputs, 10 Hz
output, heating, or sonic
temperature.
The Windows™-based WindCom communications
package allows the user to operate the anemometer in
various modes, permitting the measurement of U & V
vectors or wind speed and direction. Communication is
via an RS422 bidirectional link, which allows several
units to be networked together and data to be logged on
demand. The WindObserver II has been rigorously tested
to internationally recognised standards and meets the
stringent performance criteria specified by airport,
marine, oil, production, meteorological, and utility
organizations around the world.
Ordering Information
200-1390-PK-006 WindObserver II, RS422, 2m cable
200-1390-PK-006/10M Same as 200-1390-PK-006 except 10m cable
200-1390-PK-007 WindObserver II, heated, RS422, 2m cable
200-1390-PK-007/10M Same as 200-1390-PK-007 except 10m cable
200-1390-PK-026 WindObserver II, RS422 & Analog, 2m cable
200-1390-PK-026/10M Same as 200-1390-PK-026 except 10m cable
200-1390-PK-027 WindObserver II, heated, RS422 & Analog, 2m cable
200-1390-PK-027/10M Same as 200-1390-PK-027 except 10m cable
200-1390-MB
Mouting Bracket
56 NovaLynx Corporation
DIMENSIONS
Size: 405mm x 210mm
Weight: 1.5kg
MEASUREMENT
Output: 1Hz, 4Hz, 10Hz
Parameters: UV, Polar, NMEA, Tunnel
Units: M/S, Knots, MPH, KPH Ft/min
Averaging: Flexible 1-3600 seconds
WIND SPEED
Range: 0-65 m/s (0-145 mph)
Starting Threshold: 0.01 m/s
Accuracy: 2%
Resolution: 0.01 m/s
Offset: ± 0.01 m/s
DIRECTION
Range: 0-359°
Dead Band Direction: None
Accuracy: ± 2°
Resolution: 1°
SONIC TEMPERATURE
Range: -40deg;C to +70°C (refer to user
manual)
DIGITAL OUTPUT
Communication: RS422, full duplex
Baud Rates: 1200 2400 4800 9600 19200 38400
Formats: 8 data, odd, even or no parity
Anemometer Status: Supplied as part of standard message
ANALOGUE OUTPUT - OPTIONAL
Quantity: 3 (speed, direction, status or sonic temp)
Scale: Multiples of ± 10 m/s up to 70 m/s
Type ± 2.5V, 0-5V or 4-20mA
V Output Rsistance: 60 Ohms
4-20mA Loading: 10-300 Ohms
MATERIALS
External Construction: Stainless Steel 316
ENVIRONMENTAL
Moisture Protection: IP66 (NEMA4X)
Operating Temperature: -55°C to +70°C
Humidity: 5% to 100% RH
Precipitation: 300mm/hr
EMC: EN 61000-6-2 : 2001
EN 61000-6-3 : 2001
Icing: MILSTD810E Method 521.1 Procedure 1
MISC
Standards: Traceable to NAMAS standards
Site Calibration: None Required
Integrity Check Unit (Zero Wind) supplied as optional extra
POWER REQUIREMENT
Anemometer Only: 9-30 Vdc (40mA @ 12 Vdc)
Heating Optional: 3A @ 24V ac or dc
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-101908 Current Loop Wind Sensors
•
•
•
•
•
Low Threshold
Lightweight
Low Power CMOS Design
4-20 mA Outputs
Optional External Heaters
The Model 200-101908 Current Loop Wind Sensors
combine accuracy and reliability with low cost. Sensors
with current loop outputs are ideal for applications
requiring more than a few hundred feet of separation
between the sensor and the signal conditioning, data
acquisition, or display systems. These same sensors are also
effective in high electrical noise environments.
Additionally, the amount of wiring is reduced when current
loops are used which can help to reduce both the total cost
and time of installation of a turn-key system.
The 200-101908 Current Loop Wind Sensors meet the
EPA’s Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)
requirements. They are also well suited for general wind
monitoring applications. Wind speed is sensed by a
three-cup anemometer and is converted to an electrical
signal by a 20-slot photochopper which uses a solid-state
light source for maximum reliability. Wind direction is
sensed by a counterbalanced wind vane coupled to a
precision, low torque potentiometer. Both the wind speed
and wind direction sensors use stainless steel precision ball
bearings for maximum life and low threshold. Traceability
to NIST is available as an option for each anemometer cup
assembly by comparison testing against an NIST transfer
standard at the factory wind tunnel.
Specifications
Wind Speed
Accuracy: 0.25 mph or ±1.5% (±0.11 m/s)
Threshold: <1 mph (<0.45 m/s)
Distance constant: 15.0' (4.6 m) of air max,
8.0' (2.4 m) of air max (optional)
Operating range: 0-125 mph (0-55 m/s)
Signal output: 4-20 mA proportional to 0-100 mph
Power requirements: 24 Vdc at 20 mA maximum
Heater power: 115 Vac, 60 Hz, 20 watts; 220 Vac, 50 Hz, 20 watts
Weight: less than 2 lbs (0.9 kg)
Turning radius: 3.75" (9.5 cm)
Operating temperature: -40° to 140°F (-40° to 60°C)
Wind Direction
Accuracy: ±3°
Threshold: <1 mph (<0.45 m/s)
Distance constant: 15.0' (4.6 m) of air max
8.0' (2.4 m) of air max (optional)
Damping ratio: 0.4-0.6 at 10° initial angle of attack
Operating range: 0-360° mechanical
Signal output: 4-20 mA proportional to 0-540°
Power requirements: 24 Vdc at 20 mA maximum
Heater power: 115 Vac 60 Hz 20 watts; 220 Vac 50 Hz 20 watts
Weight: less than 2 lbs (0.9 kg)
Turning radius: 17.5" (41.9 cm)
Operating temperature: -40° to 140°F (-40° to 60°C)
Ordering Information
200-101908-3
200-101908-5
200-101234-0
200-101234-1
200-101949
200-101982
330-0420
200-1012/xxx
Current Loop Wind Sensors 0-360°, less cable & conn
Current Loop Wind Sensors 0-540°, less cable & conn
External Heater, 115 Vac
External Heater, 220 Vac
Digital Current Loop Display (WS/WD)
Connector
SensorCable, per foot
Heater Cable with Connector, specify cable length
The wind sensors and their crossarm are an integral unit.
The prewired crossarm mounts on a 3/4" IPS vertical pipe
stub (1.05" o.d.). Orientation of the crossarm is along an
east-west plane. A 24 Vdc/50 mA source is required to
operate the wind set over a four conductor cable which can
be up to a mile in length. The 24 Vdc/50 mA source can be
supplied by the Model 200-101949 Wind Speed/Wind
Direction Current Loop Display or by any customer
supplied voltage source which meets the 24 Vdc/50 mA
requirements.
Optional external heaters are available for both sensors.
These heaters consume approximately 10 watts of power
per sensor and are thermostatically controlled. The optional
external heaters require customer supplied AC power.
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
57
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-102083 Wind Mark III Wind Sensors
•
•
•
•
Low Threshold
Lightweight
Low Power CMOS Design
Optional External Heaters
The Wind Mark III Wind Sensors combine accuracy
and reliability with low cost. The sensors meet EPA
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)
requirements. They are also well suited for general wind
monitoring applications.
Wind speed is sensed by a three-cup anemometer and is
converted to an electrical signal by a 20-slot
photochopper, which uses a solid-state light source for
maximum reliability. Wind direction is sensed by a
counterbalanced wind vane coupled to a precision,
low-torque potentiometer. Both the wind speed and wind
direction sensors use stainless steel precision ball
bearings for maximum life and low threshold.
Traceability to NIST is available as an option for each
anemometer cup assembly by comparison testing against
an NIST transfer standard in the factory wind tunnel.
The sensors and their crossarm are an integral unit. The
prewired crossarm mounts on a 3/4 inch IPS vertical pipe
stub (1.05" o.d.) Orientation of the crossarm is along an
East-West plane.
Specifications
Wind Speed
Accuracy: 0.25 mph or ± 1.5% (± 0.11 m/s)
Threshold: < 1 mph (<0.45 m/s)
Distance constant: 15.0' (4.6 m) of air max,
8.0' (2.4 m) of air max (optional)
Operating range: 0-125 mph (0-55 m/s)
Signal output: Nominal 2.0 Vpp into 4.7 Kohm, frequency proportional
to wind speed, amplitude dependent on supply voltage
Power requirements: 5-7 Vdc @ 1 mA nominal
Heater power: 115 Vac, 60 Hz, 20 watts; 220 Vac, 50 Hz, 20 watts
Weight: less than 2 lbs (0.9 kg)
Turning radius: 3.75" (9.5 cm)
Operating temperature: -40° to 140°F (-40° to 60°C)
Wind Direction
Accuracy: ± 3°
Threshold: < 1 mph (<0.45 m/s)
Distance constant: 15.0' (4.6 m) of air max,
8.0' (2.4 m) of air max (optional)
Damping ratio: 0.4-0.6 at 10° initial angle of attack
Operating range: 0-360° mechanical
Signal output: Variable DC voltage, magnitude proportional
to wind direction
Power requirements: Max 5 mA through 2 Kohms
Heater power: 115 Vac, 60 Hz, 20 watts; 220 Vac, 50 Hz, 20 watts
Weight: less than 2 lbs (0.9 kg)
Turning radius: 17.5" (41.9 cm)
Operating temperature: -40° to 140°F (-40° to 60°C)
Ordering Information
200-102083
200-101234-0
200-101234-1
200-102138
200-101944
200-100609-0
330-0624
200-1012/xxx
200-101278
Wind Mark III Wind Sensors with Crossarm, less
cable and connector
External Heater, 115 Vac
External Heater, 220 Vac
Replacement Cup Assy, black Lexan
Replacement Vane Assy, fast response magnesium
Connector
Sensor Cable, per foot
Heater Cable with Connector, specify cable length
Wind System consisting of: 200-WM-III Wind Sensor
Set, 50' of wind cable with connector, electronics
package in NEMA enclosure with analog outputs
0-5V or 0-1V, 0 to 50/100 mph and 0 to 540°
Signal conditioners for the WM-III sensors are available in modular
form with a variety of full scale ranges, engineering units, outputs, and
several other options. Consult factory for information.
58 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-2020 Micro Response Wind Sensors
200-2030 Micro Response Anemometer
The Micro Response Wind Sensors have been carefully
designed to provide accuracy, sensitivity, dependability,
and ease of use. They are sensitive enough to catch the
slightest breeze, yet rugged enough to withstand gale
force winds. Fixed keying of the sensor bodies makes
orientation necessary one time only. The crossarm can be
installed quickly and accurately on a tower or mast.
Micro Response Wind Sensors are selected when the
requirement is for high response, low maintenance
sensors.
The Model 200-2020 Micro Response Wind Vane is a
highly reliable, low threshold wind direction sensor. It
responds to winds as low as 0.5 mph. The machined
aluminum body is aerodynamically shaped to combat
sensor-induced turbulence. A labyrinth beneath the vane
assembly prevents water and dust particles from reaching
the sealed bearings at the top of the shaft. The reinforced,
lightweight foam tail has a butyrate skin and a stainless
steel counterweight.
As the vane turns, it rotates a stainless steel shaft held in
place with instrument-grade bearings. A waterproof,
wirewound potentiometer with zero gap is coupled to the
base of the shaft. This potentiometer has excellent
linearity. Very low torque (0.15 inch ounces) is required
to move the wiper. The use of a single wiper doubles the
life expectancy of the potentiometer compared to
dual-wiper potentiometers. Electronic switching in the
signal conditioning module provides a range of 0-540°.
The Model 200-2023 Crossarm is recommended for
mounting the vane in conjunction with the micro
response anemometer. A mast adapter is available for
mounting either sensor alone on a 1" (25 mm) o.d. mast.
200-2020 Micro Response Vane
Once installed and oriented, the sensors can be removed
from the crossarm or mast adapter for maintenance and
reinstalled without reorientation. A keyed connector
allows replacement in the original position only.
Specifications
Micro Response Vane
Sensor: Counterbalanced tail
Transducer: 5K-ohm potentiometer, single wiper
Excitation: 1 mA, +5 Vdc
Range: 0-360° or 0-540°
Accuracy: ±2°, 5o deadband at North
Resolution: <1°
Potentiometer linearity: 0.5%
Threshold: 0.5 mph (0.22 m/s)
Damping ratio: 0.4
Delay distance: 3.5' (1.1 m)
Operating temperature: -40° to +60°C
Materials: Aluminum body with foam tail
Size: Body: 12" H x 2.75" dia (305 mm x 70 mm)
Turning radius: 18" (457 mm)
Mounting: Direct to 200-2023 crossarm or with adapter
to 1" (25 mm) o.d. mast
Weight/shipping: 2.5 lbs/7 lbs (1.1 kg/3.2 kg)
Crossarm
Size: 48" W x 6" H x 1" square (1219 mm x 152 mm x 25 mm)
Mounting: 1" (25 mm) o.d. mast
Weight/shipping: 3.5 lbs/5 lbs (1.6 kg/2.3 kg)
Heater
Heating capability: To approx 20°C above ambient temperature
at 0 mph wind
Control: Optional Model 200-10681 thermostat
Input voltage:
200-20201: 115 Vac, 50/60 Hz
200-20201-A: 230 Vac, 50/60 Hz
Power: 20 W standard
Size: 2.64" dia x 1.5" H (67 mm x 38 mm)
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/2 lbs (0.4 kg/0.9 kg)
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
59
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-2030 Micro Response Wind Sensors
The Model 200-2030 Micro Response Anemometer is a
highly responsive and rugged 3-cup anemometer
designed to measure very low
wind speeds (0.5 mph
threshold). It is constructed
entirely of stainless steel and
anodized aluminum to resist
corrosive environments. Like
its wind vane counterpart, the
micro response anemometer
has an aerodynamically
shaped body and utilizes a
labyrinth to prevent dust and
water from reaching the
bearings.
Rotation of the main shaft by
200-2030 Anemometer
the cup assembly moves a
slotted disc through a photon
beam, which is generated by a long-life infrared LED.
The interruption of the beam causes a pulse output with a
frequency proportional to wind speed. A quick release
waterproof connector is standard. The photon-coupled
chopper is mounted on the connector and can be removed
from the body simply by removing the connector.
One other type of micro response anemometer is
available, similar to 200-2030 except in terms of output.
The 200-2031 utilizes a dc generator to produce a dc
voltage proportional to wind speed. The main shaft
couples the cup assembly directly to the generator.
Output is approximately 5.5 mV/mph.
The Model 200-20201 Heaters are available for use in
cold climates to minimize freezing of the vane and
anemometer shafts. The heater assembly mounts between
the top and bottom sections of the sensor body. It
consists of a solid block of aluminum with a machined
cavity containing a 20-watt heater. The block acts as a
heat sink. The heater raises the block’s temperature 20°C
above the ambient temperature. Environmental
connectors are supplied with the heater. An optional
thermostat is available. One thermostat will control any
number of heaters.
60 NovaLynx Corporation
Specifications
Micro Response Anemometer
Sensor: 3-cup assembly, black lexan, 2" diameter cups
Transducer:
200-2030 light chopper
200-2031 dc generator
Excitation: 200-2030 25 mA, +12 Vdc
Light source: 200-2030 LED
Output:
200-2030: 30 pulses/revolution, 900 Hz at 89 mph
200-2031: approx 5.5 mV/mph
Range: 0-100 mph (0-45 m/s)
Accuracy: ± 0.15 mph or 1%
Threshold:
200-2030: 0.5 mph (0.22 m/s)
200-2031: 1 mph (0.45 m/s)
Distance constant: 5' (1.5 m)
Operating temperature: -40° to +60°C
Materials: Stainless steel and anodized aluminum
Size: Body: 12" H x 2.75" dia (305 mm x 70 mm)
Turning radius: 3.8" (97 mm)
Mounting: Direct to 200-2023 crossarm or with adapter
to 1" (25 mm) o.d. mast
Weight/shipping: 2.5 lbs/7 lbs (1.1 kg/3.2 kg)
Ordering Information
200-2020
200-2030
200-2031
200-2023
200-20231
200-20201
200-20201-A
200-10681
200-M488035
200-M488036
200-M488037
330-0220
330-0320
330-0524
Micro Response Wind Vane
Micro Response Anemometer, light chopper
Micro Response Anemometer, dc generator
Crossarm for mounting two micro response wind
sensors to 1" (25 mm) o.d. mast
Mast Adapter to mount one micro response wind
sensor to 1" (25 mm) o.d. mast
Sensor Heater Assembly, 115 Vac
Sensor Heater Assembly, 230 Vac
Thermostat Control for sensor heater; one thermostat
required for any number of heaters; requires junction
box
Spare Parts Kit for 200-2020, including tail assembly,
potentiometer, 2 bearings, and 4 set screws
Spare Parts Kit for 200-2030, including cup assembly,
light chopper assembly, 2 bearings, 2 E-rings, and 3
set screws
Spare Parts Kit for 200-2031, including cup assembly,
dc generator, 2 bearings, 2 E-rings, and 2 set screws
Cable for 200-2031, per foot
Cable for 200-2020, per foot
Cable for 200-2030, per foot
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-WS-21-A Dual Set Point Wind Alarm
200-WS-21 Dual Set Point Wind Alarm
Wind Alarm Display
The Model 200-WS-21-A Dual Set Point Wind Alarm
is a microprocessor-based wind alarm system. It sounds
an alarm and controls the operation of two electrical
relays whenever wind speed reaches either of two
independently user selected limits. It has 0 to 100 mph
wind speed measurement and alarm range. A liquid
crystal display provides a readout of the measured wind
speed, maximum wind speed, and it is also used to
display the menus for the user to select the alarm
parameters.
Specifications
Each of the two set point alarms control a self-contained
Form “C” electrical relay. These relays may be used to
control small electrical devices or to control external
power relays for high current or inductive loads. An
audible alarm, which may be user silenced, is also
included within the WS-21-A. To eliminate erratic or
premature operation of controlled devices, the WS-21-A
includes provision for setting a delay or confirmation
interval prior to initiation of an alarm and also a delay
time prior to negating an alarm.
All set points and the maximum wind speed value are
stored in non-volatile memory so that these values are
not lost if there is a power failure. The circuits are
designed to have high electrical noise immunity to
transient spikes generated by loads being switched with
the alarm relays. The unit restarts in the running mode
after a power failure.
The Model 200-WS-01B Anemometer is a compact
three-cup unit which conveniently mounts on a 1.062"
o.d. pipe (3/4" I.P.S. pipe). The contactor-type speed
transducer permits use of an interconnecting cable of
almost unlimited length.
Wind speed transducer: Sealed magnetic switch
Measurement range: 0-100 mph
Survivability range: 125 mph
Average speed resolution: 0.1 mph
Starting threshold speed: 1 mph
Integration interval: 2 seconds
Measurement accuracy: 1 mph or ± 3% which ever is larger
Alarm ON and/or OFF delay: 0-99 seconds
Timing accuracy: ± 2%
Controls:
Protected push buttons that select:
Run or set values
Select menu items
Increment/decrement alarm settings
Reset stored maximum speed value
Rocker switches that select:
English or Metric units
Audio alarm on or off
Wind or Temperature mode
Indicators:
LEDs for alarm point 1 & 2
2 line x 16 character LCD
Display character size: 3 x 8 mm
Operating temperature: Control module only -20° to +50°C
Input power: 12V ac or dc
Current: 50 mA maximum
Alarm: Contacts rated 3A @ 24 Vdc / 115Vac
Form “C” (SPDT) configuration
Anemometer cable length: 40' standard, 2-conductor 24 AWG
Weight/shipping 1lb/2lbs
Ordering Information
200-WS-21-A
200-WS-21P
200-WS-01B
330-0224
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Dual Set Point Wind Alarm
Power Pack, 110-240Vac
Replacement Anemometer
Additional Cable, per foot
www.novalynx.com
61
Wind
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200-WS-23 Current Loop Wind Sensor
Current Loop Wind Sensor Printed Circuit Board in NEMA Enclosure
200-WS-02 Wind Speed & Direction Sensor
The WeatherPort Model 200-WS-23 Wind Sensor
monitors wind speed and direction. The electronics
converts the raw signals from the wind sensors to
proportional 4 to 20 mA current loop values for use by
process control or monitoring systems. It acts like a
variable resistance that draws 4-20 mA when powered
with 8 to 30 Vdc. No external power is required because
the encoding electronics for wind speed and for wind
direction are isolated and powered from their respective
2-wire current loops.
Specifications
Two versions are offered. The 200-WS-23 measures both
wind speed and direction, while the 200-WS-23S
measures wind speed only. Both systems consist of two
subassemblies, a wind sensor and a signal conditioning
electronics package in a NEMA housing. Although it has
only one PC board, it contains two completely
independent circuits, one for wind speed and one for
wind direction.
The wind sensor includes a three cup anemometer and
wind vane. The sensor is ruggedly constructed of UV
resistant ABS plastic and anodized aluminum parts, and
includes 40' of cable. Additional cable lengths can be
supplied. The electronics package is supplied in a
gasketed wall mount NEMA enclosure.
Wind Speed
Speed threshold: 0.8 mph
Transducer type: Reed switch
Speed constant: 1.25 mph = 1 pps
Measurement range: 0-100 mph (standard)
Optional: 0-50 m/s, 0-100 knots, 0-200 km/hr
Accuracy: 1 mph or ± 3%
Wind Direction
Azimuth accuracy: ± 3°
Bearings: Bushing
Potentiometer gap: 5°
Threshold: 1.2 mph
Measurement range: 0-360°
Current Loop
Accuracy: ± 1% full scale
Output span: 4 to 20 mA, proportioned to 0-100 mph
Output span: 4 to 20 mA, proportioned to 0-360o
Supply voltage range: 8 to 30 Vdc
2-wire loop interface: Screw terminal block
Interface power: Derived from current loop
Circuit time constant: 1 sec
Temperature range: -58° to 122° F (-50° to 50° C)
Dimensions
Wind speed and direction: 12" H x 10" W
Wind speed only: 4.5" H x 8.5" W
Electronics enclosure size: 4.7" H x 4.7" W x 2.25" D
Sensor cable length: 40'
Weight/Shipping: 4 lbs/6 lbs
Ordering Information
200-WS-23
200-WS-23S
200-WS-01B
200-WS-02F
330-0524
395-A-003
62 NovaLynx Corporation
Current Loop Wind Speed & Direction Sensor
Current Loop Wind Speed Sensor
Replacement Wind Speed Sensor
Replacement Wind Speed & Direction Sensor
Additional Sensor Cable, per foot
Optional Mast Mounting Hardware, for electronics encl
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-455 Totalizing Anemometer with 10-Min Timer
Model 200-455 Totalizing Anemometer with Optional Carrying Case and Optional Battery
The Model 200-455 Totalizing Anemometer with Continuous Counting and 10-Minute Totalizer provides a record of
the total horizontal wind movement past a fixed point, measured to the nearest 0.1 mile. The unit may be run in either
continuous or 10-minute mode. The 10-minute mode automatically logs the wind run distance for a period of ten
minutes and then shuts down. The results of a logging event are displayed to the nearest tenth of a mile on the liquid
crystal display until the operator resets the counter to zero. The system includes an anemometer with 40' cable and a
control module which digitally displays the total wind run distance. The system is powered by an external 12 volt
battery, such as the 200-455B4 or 200-455B7 (not included).
Specifications
Ordering Information
Anemometer
Type: 3-cup anemometer, 4.25" turning radius, injection molded,
glass filled nylon cups
Accuracy: 1 mph
Threshold: 1 mph
Cup constant: 80.5 cup revolutions = 0.1 wind run miles
Speed constant: 1 Hz = 1.49 mph
Electrical output: Switch closure, 3 closures per revolution
Cable: 2-conductor 24 AWG shielded PVC jacket, 40' standard
Mount: 1-1/16" o.d. pipe (standard 3/4" I.P.S. pipe),
set screw adjustment
Weight: 1 lb
200-455
200-455CC
200-455B4
200-455B7
310-140
330-0224
Totalizing Anemometer, includes sensor with
40' cable and control module
Carrying Case
Battery Assembly, 12 Vdc 4 AH
Battery Assembly, 12 Vdc 7 AH
AC Battery Charger
Add’l Signal Cable, per foot
Control Module
Display: 7 digit LCD, with 0.2" character height; internal 3V lithium
battery provides 10 year display life
Controls: Function select switch, 10-minute cycle start switch, and
red LED indicator showing that 10-minute cycle is in progress
Calibration: 0.1 mile
Control module power supply: +12 Vdc (+9 to +24 Vdc range),
not included
Current Drain: 5 mA dc continuous, 8 mA dc 10-minute mode
Cable: 2-conductor for connection to external 12 Vdc, 6' standard
Size: 5.25" wide x 2.375" high x 5.25" deep
Weight: 2 lbs
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
63
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-WS-25 Wind Logger with Real-Time Display
The 200-WS-25 Wind Logger with Real-Time Display
is designed to provide an affordable and easy-to-use
solution to monitor wind speed and direction data. It
records wind speed, gust, wind direction, time and date,
and battery voltage.
The wind logger records directly to a Secure Digital
(SD™) card up to 2GB. No special computer interface
cables are required. A new file is created and saved to the
card for each day the logger is in use. Data is stored in a
text file in Comma Separated Value (CSV) format and
can easily be viewed and analyzed using standard
spreadsheet software.
Using the recorded data is simple. The SD™ card is
inserted into a card reader attached to the USB port on
your computer (Windows, Macintosh, or Linux) and will
then show up as a drive. To view and graph the data,
click on the spreadsheet corresponding to the day of
interest. Microsoft Excel, OpenOffice.org, or practically
any spreadsheet program can be used to view, graph, and
analyze your wind data.
Example of a wind logger data record:
200-WS-25 Wind Logger with Real-Time Display
shown with optional tripod, sensor mast, and mast mounting hardware
Features
Easy set-up with the three front panel buttons, no computer required.
Adjustable logging interval: 10 to 50,000 seconds (e.g., a 60 sec interval will log 88 days on a 128MB SD™ card)
LCD Display: Screen displays current information and is used for configuring the data logger.
Simple menu-driven interface makes setup easy. A bright backlight makes the logger easy to use at night.
Clock: An accurate real-time clock is used to time-stamp each measurement, accurate to within 10 minutes per year.
Logging: The data logger supports Secure Digital™ or Multi Media Card™ 128 megabytes up to 2 gigabytes.
Communications: An available RS232 serial port is a feature of every wind logger.
Ordering Information
Options
200-WS-25
200-WS-25T
200-WS-25TS
200-WS-01B
190-510
190-312
395-A
200-WS-25SP
Wind Logger with Real-Time Display
includes 200-WS-02F Wind Sensor with 40' cable,
Wind Data Logger in NEMA-4X Enclosure,
12V 7AH Battery, AC Battery Charger,
SD™ Memory Card, and USB SD™ Card Reader
64 NovaLynx Corporation
Optional Temperature Sensor, 25' cable
Optional Solar Radiation Shield for Temp Sensor
Replacement Wind Speed Sensor, 40' cable
5’ Tripod
5’ Sensor Mast
Mast Mounting Hardware
5W Solar Panel Battery Charger
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-2520 Wind Meter
200-2530 Wind Speed Indicator
• Simple Operation
• Convenient Size
• ± 0.5 mph
• Direct Reading Dual Scale
• 100% Pneumatic
• Constructed of Rugged Plastic
The Model 200-2520 Wind Meter is an easy-to-use
wind speed meter. The user simply holds the meter at eye
level while facing the wind, and wind speed is indicated
by the position of a white pith ball in the tube. Two
scales are provided: low (2 to 10 mph) and high (4 to 66
mph). Covering a hole at the top of the meter allows
reading on the higher scale. Accuracy is ± 0.5 mph on the
low scale and ± 2 mph on the high scale.
The Model 200-2530 Wind Speed Indicator includes a
rugged sensor for measurement of wind speed and an
attractive indicator for mounting either indoors or
outdoors. The sensor is a pitot tube with a vane which
directs it into the wind. Pressure is transmitted through
plastic tubing to a red oil-base fluid in the indicator tube.
The level of the fluid indicates wind speed both in miles
per hour and on the Beaufort scale. Wind direction can
be observed from the vane position. All mounting
hardware for both the sensor and the indicator is
included.
Specifications
Low range: 2 to 10 mph
High range: 4 to 66 mph
Accuracy: ±0.5 mph (low range) to ±2 mph (high range)
Size: 6.75" H x 1.75" W x 0.6" D (171 mm x 44 mm x 15 mm)
Weight/shipping: 0.2 lb/1 lb (0.1 kg/0.4 kg)
Ordering Information
200-2520
Wind Meter
Specifications
Sensor: Pitot tube
Range: 0 to 80 mph, 1 to 12 Beaufort scale
Dimensions:
Sensor: 11" H x 4.75" turning radius (279 mm x 121 mm)
Indicator: 6" H x 7.5" W x 1.75" D (152 mm x 191 mm x 44 mm)
Weight/Shipping: 4 lbs/8 lbs (1.8 kg/3.6 kg)
Ordering Information
200-2530
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind Speed Indicator, includes sensor, indicator, 50'
of connecting tubing, and mounting hardware
www.novalynx.com
65
Wind
www.novalynx.com
200-960 Handheld Anemometer
The Model 200-960 Handheld Anemometer utilizes a
three-cup design to eliminate the cumbersome need to
orient the device as measurements are obtained
irrespective of wind direction, a major benefit in practical
use that provides accurate readings at any time. The large
LCD display shows the current wind speed, max wind
speed, average wind speed, and bar graph of current
Beaufort values. By a simple push of a button you can
select one of the following units: kilometers/hour, knots,
meters/second, or miles/hour. An integrated tripod thread
allows stationary use of the Windtronic 2. A combination
of precision mechanics and quartz-controlled electronics
guarantees the highest level of accuracy over the entire
temperature range. A standard lithium battery will supply
your wind meter with power for approximately 10 years.
After that time, you can simply replace the battery
yourself.
Specifications
Sensor head: Cup-Type, jewel bearing
provides readings irrespective of wind direction
LCD-Display:
Current wind speed
Average wind speed*
Maximum wind speed*
Beaufort bar graph
(* max 8 days data storage)
Wind Speed Units: (Selectable)
KM/H (kilometers/hour)
KTS (Knots)
M/S (meter/second)
MPH (miles/hour)
Measuring Range:
2.5-150 KM/H
1.3-81 Knots
0.7-42 M/S
1.5-93 MPH
Resolution: 0.1 (0-19.9), 1 (20-150)
Accuracy: typ ± 4%, ± 1 digit
Housing:
Tripod thread in bottom of housing
Plastic, densely bonded
Water-resistant and floats
Nylon protective bag
Battery: Button cell CR2032, replaceable
Battery life: up to 10 years
Dimensions: approx 127 x 55 x 28 (39) mm
Weight: approx 95 grams
200-960 Windtronic 2
Ordering Information
200-960-1 Windtronic 2 Handheld Anemometer with Case
66 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
Kestrel 1000 Pocket Wind Meter La Crosse EA-3010U Anemometer
The Kestrel® 1000 measures
• Current Wind Speed
• Maximum Wind Gust
• Average Wind Speed
Quality by Design
• All instruments and accessories are completely
assembled in the USA
• Patented user-replaceable impeller
• Low friction sapphire jewel bearing
Features
• Protective cover with sure-grip overmolding
• Data hold function
• Large easy-to-read display
• Waterproof and floats
• Lanyard and battery included
• Two-year warranty
Orderintg Information
200-0810
200-0801
Kestrel 1000 Pocket Wind Meter
Replacement Impeller
La Crosse EA-3010U Features
• Wind Speed (mph, km/h, m/s, knots)
• Displays MAX & Average
• Wind Speed Since Power On
• Beaufort Scale Bar Graph (0-12)
• Wind Chill (°F or °C)
• Temperature (°F or °C)
• Backlight with Auto Off
• Battery Saving Auto Off
• Neck Band Included for Easy Carrying
Specifications
• Maximum measured speed : 67 mph
• Minimum measured speed : 0.44 mph
• Resolution-wind speed : 0.1 for all units
• Temperature measuring range : -21.8 to 138.2 °F
(-29.9 to 59 °C)
• Resolution-temperature : 0.2°F ( 0.1°C)
• Power requirements : 1 CR2032 button cell
Ordering Information
200-3010
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
La Crosse Handheld Anemometer
www.novalynx.com
67
Wind
www.novalynx.com
Calibration Accessories
The Model 200-18802 Anemometer Drive provides a
convenient and accurate way to rotate clockwise or
counter-clockwise at any rate between 200 and 15,000
RPM in 100 RPM increments. The LCD display id
referenced to an accurate and stable quartz timebase. For
completely portable operation, the unit can be operated
on internal batteries. For extended operation, an AC wall
adapter is included.
The Model 200-18811 Anemometer Drive is identical to
the 200-18802 except the drive motor incorporates a gear
reducer for operation in the range of 20 to 990 RPM in
10 RPM increments. The lower range is recommended
for cup anemometer calibration.
The Mode200-l 18112 Vane Angle Bench Stand is used
for benchtop wind direction calibration of the Wind
Monitor family of sensors. The mounting post engages
the direction orientation notch on the Wind Monitor. An
easy to read pointer indicates 0-360° with 0.5° resolution.
The Model 200-18212 Vane Angle Fixture Tower Mount,
similar to the 200-18112, the tower mount feature allows
use on the tower as well as the bench top. The fixture is
temporarily placed on the tower between the Wind
Monitor and its tower mounting. Index keys and notches
are engaged to preserve direction reference.
Specifications
Specifications
Range: 0-360°
Resolution: 0.5°
200-18802
Range: 200-15,000 RPM in 100 RPM increments
Rotation: Clockwise or counter-clockwise
Display resolution: 1 RPM
Quartz timebase reference: 0.1 RPM
Power requirements: 2 x 9V (alkaline or lithium) batteries, 115Vac wall
adapter included (230Vac add suffix H)
Ordering Information
200-18112
200-18212
Vane Angle Bench Stand
Vane Angle Fixture - Tower Mount
200-18811
Range: 20-990 RPM in 10 RPM increments
Display resolution: 0.1 RPM
Ordering Information
200-18802
200-18811
add suffix H
Anemometer Drive, 200-15000 RPM
Anemometer Drive, 20-990 RPM
230V/50-60Hz input power
200-18802 Anemometer Drive
68 NovaLynx Corporation
200-18112 Vane Angle Bench Stand
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
Calibration Accessories
The Model 200-18310 Propeller Torque Disc checks
anemometer bearing torque with 0.1 gm/cm resolution.
The disc temporarily replaces the propeller for torque
measurement or simple yet accurate pass/fail checks.
Charts included with the unit relate torque to propeller
threshold with limits for acceptable bearing performance.
The Model 200-18312 Cup-Wheel Torque Disc checks
cup anemometer bearing torque.
The Model 200-18301 Vane Alignment Rod helps align
the vane of a wind sensor to a known direction reference
during installation. The base of the device has an index
key that engages the direction orientation notch in the
sensor allowing the sensor to be removed without losing
wind direction reference.
The Model 200-18331 Vane Torque Gauge checks vane
bearing torque of Wind Monitor family of sensors. Slip
the fixture over the main housing and make simple yet
accurate vane torque measurements. Charts relating vane
torque to vane threshold provide limits for acceptable
bearing performance.
Specifications
200-18310
Range: 0-5.4 gm/cm
Resolution: 0.1 gm/cm
200-18331
Range: 0-50 gm/cm
Resolution: 5 gm/cm
Ordering Information
200-18301
200-18310
200-18312
200-18331
200-2916 Compass
The Model 200-2916 Compass is a rugged, liquid-filled
siting compass. It is housed in a sturdy plastic case and
has a jewelled pivot for smooth operation and luminous
letters for easy reading. A sighting slot, wire hairline, and
lens are built-in for precise orientation.
The 200-2916 is used to align various wind direction
sensors to true North. Orientation of the wind sensor is
done after the weather station is set up. True North is
usually found by reading a magnetic compass and
applying the correction for magnetic declination, where
magnetc declination is the number of degrees between
True North and Magnetic North.
Specifications
Size: 2" diameter x 1" thick
Weight/shipping: 3 oz/1 lb
Ordering Information
200-2916
Compass
Vane Alignment Rod
Propeller Torque Disc
Cup-Wheel Torque Disc
Vane Torque Gauge
200-18310 Propeller Torque Disc
For converting magnetic bearings to true bearings
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
68
Wind
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Wind Direction Calibrators
Wind Speed Calibrators
The 200-1249-A Wind Direction Calibrator is a
mechanical device used to calibrate systems which
include Micro Response or Low Threshold Wind Vanes
(Model 200-2020 or 200-2005). It mounts directly on the
vane and has three possible uses. First, it can be used to
position the vane at four points, exactly 90° apart, to
check the readings of output devices. Second, it can be
used in sigma system calibration to give a direction
change of exactly 90°. And third, it can be used to hold
the vane tail in place during orientation to north. A
similar mechanical device, Model 200-1247, is available
to assist in wind direction calibration of the Skyvane
wind sensor.
Two types of Wind Speed Calibrators are available in
the Model 200-1230 Series. The first type, including
Models 200-1234-A, 200-1235-A, and 200-1236-A, is
designed for tower calibration of Micro Response and
Low Threshold Anemometers. The calibrator mounts
directly on the anemometer shaft and rotates the shaft at
a known rate using a constant speed motor. The unit
requires 115 Vac for operation. The Model 200-12341
Power Cable can be used to connect the calibrator to the
power supply of a 380-8190 Solar Radiation Shield.
Ordering Information
200-1247
200-1249-A
Wind Direction Calibrator, for use with Skyvane
Wind Direction Calibrator, for use with 200-2005 or
200-2020 Vane
The second type of wind speed calibrator is more suited
to laboratory or bench calibration applications. This type,
including Models 200-1230, 200-1231, and 200-1233, is
attached to the anemometer shaft by neoprene tubing.
The calibrator must be supported near the anemometer.
The constant speed synchronous motor driving these
units requires 115 Vac 60 Hz. On special order, 230 Vac
50 Hz models can be supplied; however, the rotation rate
will be lower due to the lower input frequency.
Ordering Information
200-1230
200-1231
200-1233
Handheld Wind Speed Calibrator, 300 rpm
(250 rpm at 50 Hz)
Handheld Wind Speed Calibrator, same as 200-1230
except 1800 rpm (1500 rpm at 50 Hz)
Handheld Wind Speed Calibrator, same as 200-1230
except 600 rpm (500 rpm at 50 Hz)
Please consult NovaLynx for price and availability of the 200-1234-A,
200-1235-A, and 200-1236-A calibrators.
200-1249-A Wind Direction Calibrator
200-1233 Hand-Held Wind Speed Calibrator
70 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Wind
200-2620 Wind Sock
The Model 200-2620 Wind Sock is a cloth cone open at
both ends and used to indicate wind direction. It can also
be used to estimate wind speed by its angle. The most
common application of wind socks is wind indication at
small airports.
Our wind socks are manufactured in the USA of
international orange nylon for high visibility, and are
urethane coated for superior fade resistance and color
retention. The hems and seams are double-stitched for
strength. The standard wind sock is 8 feet long, with a
throat diameter of 18 inches.
The sock laces onto either the 200-26201 Ball Bearing
Frame or the 200-26202 Hoop and Bail Frame, which
supports the throat. The 200-26201 frame includes a
short length of threaded pipe for attaching to a
supporting pole using a 3/4" pipe coupler (coupler is not
included). The 200-26202 includes a 3/4" pipe coupler.
Specifications
200-26201 Ball Bearing Frame
shown with 200-2620 Wind Sock
Size: 8' L x 18" throat dia x 8" tail dia (2.4 m x 457 mm x 203 mm)
Weight/shipping:
Wind sock: 1.5 lbs/2 lbs (0.7 kg/0.9 kg)
Ball bearing frame: 7 lbs/9 lbs (UPS 30 lbs oversize) (3 kg/4 kg)
Hoop and bail frame: 3 lbs/5 lbs (2 kg/3 kg)
Ordering Information
200-2620
200-26201
200-26202
Wind Sock
Ball Bearing Frame
Hoop and Bail Frame
200-26202 Hoop and Bail Frame
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
71
Wind
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200-2510-A 260-2511-A Totalizing Anemometer
• 8-Digit Electronic Counter
• Pre-Drilled Mounting Base
• English or Metric Models
The 200-2510/11-A Totalizing Anemometer is equipped
with a counter to provide a simple, yet precise, method of
determining average wind speed and total air passage. It
has been redesigned to replace the old mechanical
instruments that are no longer being produced. The new
unit is self-contained and consists of an anemometer for
wind measurement readings and a programmable 8-digit
electronic LCD digital display that converts cup rotation
to counter increment. Average wind speed can be
calculated from the difference between successive
counter readings divided by the time interval between
readings. The easy-to-read display is housed in a
NEMA-4X enclosure and is powered by an internal
lithium battery with a 5+ year life. The unit can be
calibrated to readout in miles or kilometers.
In an evaporation station, the anemometer is typically
mounted on the platform supporting the evaporation pan.
The unit is supplied with a pre-drilled mounting flange
for this purpose.
Specifications
Sensor: 3-cup assembly, glass reinforced nylon, 1.125" diameter cups
Transducer: Magnet reed switch, permanent magnet
Output: Counter increment
Counter type: 8-digit electronic, LCD in NEMA-4X enclosure
Counter range: 0 to 9,999,999.9 mile or kilometer
Resolution (counter and contact): 0.1 mile or 0.1 km
Sensor range: 0 to 100 mph (0 to 45 m/s)
Threshold: 0.8 mph (0.35 m/s)
Cup constant: 960 revolutions/mile (428 revolutions/km)
Materials: Thermoplastic, anodized aluminum, stainless steel
Mounting: Pre-drilled flanged base
Size: Body: 5.5" W x 5" D x 16" H (140 x 127 x 400 mm)
Turning radius: 6"
Weight/shipping: 5 lbs/9 lbs (2.3 kg/4 kg)
200-2510-A Totalizing Anemometer
Ordering Information
200-2510-A
200-2511-A
200-WS-01C
Totalizing Anemometer with Digital Display, miles
Totalizing Anemometer with Digital Display, kilometers
Replacement Wind Speed Sensor
72 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
225-5020-A Hygrothermograph ............................................ 74
220-730 Dial Hygrometer ..................................................... 75
225-930 Dial ThermoHygrometer ......................................... 75
210-4410 Standard Thermometer .......................................... 76
210-4420 Min-Max Thermometer Set .................................. 76
225-520 Pocket Sling Psychrometer ..................................... 77
225-570 Sling Psychrometer ................................................. 77
225-564 Fan Psychrometer .................................................... 78
225-566 Battery Psychrometer .............................................. 78
225-5230 Assmann Psychrometer ......................................... 79
225-569 Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule ............................ 80
225-HMP60 Humidity/Temp ................................................ 81
225-HMP155 Humidity/Temp .............................................. 81
210-4470 & 210-4480 Temperature Sensors ........................ 82
210-201, 210-301, & 201-600 Temperature Sensors ............ 83
210-TP1 Temperature Sensor ................................................ 84
210-WE700 Temperature Sensor .......................................... 85
225-THT-1 Temperature & Humidity Sensor ....................... 86
210-41342 Temp & 225-41382 T/RH ................................... 87
225-42603 Temp Tracker ...................................................... 87
210-5320 Series Dew Cell ..................................................... 88
Fuel Moisture Sticks & Scale ................................................ 89
250-124 Soil Moisture Sensor ............................................... 89
210-421-A General Purpose Temperature Alarm .................. 90
210-EC Series Frost Alarms .................................................. 91
225-HM34 Relative Humidity & Temperature Indicator ...... 92
225-RH520A RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder ................... 93
225-445703 Big Digit Hygro-Thermometer ......................... 94
380-280 Radiation Shield ...................................................... 95
380-281 Radiation Shield ...................................................... 95
380-41003 Radiation Shield .................................................. 96
380-43408 Radiation Shield .................................................. 97
380-43502 Radiation Shield .................................................. 97
380-600 Thermometer Shelter ............................................... 98
380-601 Small Instrument Shelter ......................................... 98
380-605 Large Instrument Shelter ......................................... 99
220-HMK15 Humidity Calibrator ....................................... 100
220-HMK41 Calibration Kit ............................................... 100
Temperature & Humidity
www.novalynx.com
225-5020-A Hygrothermograph
The chart is installed on a self-contained, battery-operated
clock. The drum rotation may be selected as 1 day
(26 hours), 7 days (176 hours), or 31 days. Internal parts of
the hygrothermograph are chrome plated brass. Pivots are
polished instrument-grade stainless steel for fast response.
The base of the case is cast aluminum. Large openings in
the sides, end, and bottom permit free flow of ambient air to
the sensors. A glass window in the hinged cover makes
chart reading easy. Recording is accomplished using
reliable, replaceable cartridge pens. When the
hygrothermograph is used outdoors, it must be protected
from direct solar radiation by installing it in an instrument
shelter.
Specifications
The Model 225-5020-A Hygrothermograph is a precision,
self-contained instrument that measures and records
ambient temperature and relative humidity simultaneously
on a double scale chart. It is ideal for measurements in
laboratories, computer rooms, libraries, museums, or
agricultural areas.
The hygrothermograph employs an aged bimetal strip
which distorts with changes in temperature. This distortion
is magnified through a lever system which moves a pen arm
over the upper half of a 7" high chart. The response is
linear. Temperature is recorded over a 60°C or 110°F span.
The span can be adjusted up or down to match the
temperature range of the installation site. Corresponding
charts are available. Normal calibration adjustments are
made by turning a knurled knob which moves the pen up or
down the scale through movements of the lever system.
A specially treated bundle of human hair is used to measure
relative humidity over the full range of 0-100%. The hair
expands and contracts with increasing or decreasing water
vapor in the air. This movement is transmitted to the pen
arm using a linkage system. Opposing quadrants in the
linkage linearize the nonlinear response of the hair bundle.
74 NovaLynx Corporation
Measurements: Temperature and Humidity
Temperature Sensor: Aged Bimetal Strip
Span: 60°C, 110°F (adjustable)
Accuracy: ±1%
Graduations: 1°C, 2°F
Humidity Sensor: Hair Bundle
Range: 0-100% RH
Accuracy: ±1% mid-scale, ±3% extremes
Graduations: 1%
Chart size: 7" H x 11" L (178 mm x 280 mm)
Clock type: 1.5 Vdc battery-operated (2 AA cells)
Drum rotation: 1 day (26 hrs), 7 days (176 hrs), or 31 days, switch selectable
Pen type: Cartridge
Size: 12.5" L x 11.5" H x 6" D (318 mm x 292 mm x 152 mm)
Weight/shipping: 10 lbs/16 lbs (4.5 kg/7.3 kg)
Ordering Information
225-5020-A
225-50211
390-8827-A
390-88101
390-88102
225-5020-GL
Charts
225-50201
225-50202
225-50203
225-50204
225-50205
225-50206
225-50207
225-50208
225-50209
225-50212
225-50213
225-50214
390-M699120
Hygrothermograph with battery-operated 1-7-31 day
clock, two pens, and one pack of weekly or monthly
charts (specify charts)
Replacement Hair Bundle
Replacement Clock
Replacement Cartridge Pen, blue ink
Replacement Cartridge Pen, red ink
Replacement Plexiglass Window (T950114)
Range
-20 to +40°C, 0-100%
+10 to +120°F, 0-100%
-30 to +80°F, 0-100%
-20 to +40°C, 0-100%
+10 to +120°F, 0-100%
-30 to +80°F, 0-100%
-20 to +40°C, 0-100%
+10 to +120°F, 0-100%
-30 to +80°F, 0-100%
-10 to +50°C, 0-100%
-5 to +55°C, 0-100%
-10 to +50°C, 0-100%
-10 to +50°C, 0-100%
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Drum Rotation
7 days
7 days
7 days
1 day
1 day
1 day
31 days
31 days
31 days
7 days
31 days
1 day
31 days
Charts/Box
55
55
55
400
400
400
25
25
25
55
25
400
25
Temperature & Humidity
220-730 Dial Hygrometer
225-930 Dial ThermoHygrometer
When great accuracy ( ± 3%) is called for, specify the
Model 220-730 Precision Hygrometer. It has a polished
brass case (6" dia x 1-5/8" D) and a 4-3/4" white dial,
graduated every 1%. The “Supratherm” synthetic sensor
element is very responsive and durable. Three holes in
the flange permit easy wall mounting (screws included).
The Model 225-930 Precision Thermohygrometer
provides accurate humidity and temperature readings. It’s
an ideal instrument for homes, museums, health clubs,
storage facilities, etc. The upper scale shows humidity
from 20% to 100%, as measured by the “Supratherm”
element, which is accurate to ± 3%. The lower scale is
temperature, from -4° to 122°F (°C also). The polished
brass case is 6" dia x 1-5/8" D. The white dial is 4-3/4"
dia. In the flange there are three holes for mounting
(screws included) to a wall.
Ordering Information
220-730
Dial Hygrometer
Ordering Information
225-930
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Dial Thermohygrometer
www.novalynx.com
75
Temperature & Humidity
www.novalynx.com
210-4410 Standard Thermometer
210-4420 Min-Max Thermometer Set
The Model 210-4410 Standard Mercury Thermometer
is 10-1/2 inches long and is mounted on a stainless steel
back. Two models are available: the Model 210-4410
with a range of -38° to +130°F and the Model 210-4411
with a range of -38° to +55°C. Accuracy is ± 0.15°F
above freezing. A stainless steel support is available to
mount the thermometer the proper distance from a wall.
The 210-4420 Series Min-Max Thermometer Sets,
made to U.S. National Weather Service specifications,
consist of a Townsend support (a weatherproof metal
stand and base with two adjustable thermometer holders
attached to rotatable metal posts), a maximum indicating
thermometer and a minimum indicating thermometer,
each secured to a stainless steel metal plate. The mercury
filled maximum thermometer is 10-1/2" long with
graduations and numerals etched in the glass. It has a
constricted capillary just above the bulb which prevents
the mercury from flowing back with lowering
temperatures. It remains fixed at the warmest temperature
to which it has been exposed. The minimum thermometer
is also an etched stem type, 10-1/2" long, similar to the
maximum thermometer. It has a long, thin, dark colored
float, held in tension in the capillary, which moves down
towards the bulb with lowering temperatures. When the
air temperature warms, the alcohol rises past the float,
which remains fixed at the minimum temperature.
Specifications
Range: 210-4410: -38° to +130°F
210-4411: -38° to +55°C
Accuracy: ± 0.15°F above 32°F
Size: 12" L x 1" W (305 mm x 25 mm)
Weight/shipping: 0.25 lb/1 lb (0.1 kg/0.5 kg)
Ordering Information
210-4410
210-4411
210-4412
Standard Thermometer, °F
Standard Thermometer, °C
Mounting Support
Specifications
Range: 210-4420: Minimum -50° to +120°F, Maximum -38° to +130° F
210-4421: Minimum -45° to +50°C, Maximum -38° to +55 °C
Graduations: 1°F, 0.5°C
Accuracy: ± 0.2°C above 0°C
Size (thermometer): 10.5" L x 1" W (267 mm x 25 mm)
Weight/shipping (set): 2 lbs/5 lbs (0.9 kg/2.3 kg)
Ordering Information
210-4420
210-4421
210-4422
210-4425
210-4426
210-4429
210-4430
Min-Max Thermometer Set, °F includes 210-4429 and
210-4425 Thermometers, 210-4422 Townsend Support
Min-Max Thermometer Set, °C includes 210-4430 and
210-4426 Thermometers, 210-4422 Townsend Support
Townsend Support
Maximum Thermometer, -38° to +130°F
Maximum Thermometer, -38° to +55°C
Minimum Thermometer, -50° to +120°F
Minimum Thermometer, -45° to +50°C
Other ranges available. Contact NovaLynx.
210-4410 Standard Thermometer
210-4420 Min-Max Thermometer Set
76 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
225-520 Pocket Sling Psychrometer
225-570 Sling Psychrometer
The Model 225-520 Pocket Sling Psychrometer is only
7.5" in overall length and comes with a convenient
pocket-size carrying case. The two 5.5" red liquid filled
thermometers are attached to an aluminum back with a
handle for whirling. The handle folds down when not in
use. Instrument range is either +20° to +110°F or
-5° to +45°C. Humidity tables are provided. Replacement
wicks are available.
The Model 225-570 Sling Psychrometer is a standard
sling psychrometer meeting U.S. National Weather
Service recommendations. It consists of two 9.5" red
liquid filled thermometers mounted on a stainless steel
back. The wet bulb thermometer has a muslin wick
covering the bulb. A wooden swivel handle with a chain
for whirling is attached to the thermometer back. The
Model 225-570 Sling Psychrometer has a range of
-20° to +120°F; the range of the Model 225-571 is
-30° to +50°C. Humidity tables are provided with each
instrument. Replacement wicks are available.
Specifications
Range:
225-520: +20° to +110°F (1° graduations)
225-521: -5° to +45°C (1° graduations)
Size: 7.5" L x 1" W (190 mm x 25 mm)
Weight/shipping: 0.3 lb/1 lb (0.1 kg/0.5 kg)
Ordering Information
225-520-A
225-521-A
225-522-A
225-523-A
225-568-A
Pocket Sling Psychrometer °F; includes case
Pocket Sling Psychrometer °C; includes case
Replacement Thermometer for Model 225-520
Replacement Thermometer for Model 225-521
Replacement Wicks, 24" length
Specifications
Range:
225-570: -20° to +120°F (1° graduations)
225-571: -30° to +50°C (0.5° graduations)
Accuracy: ± .5°F (± .25°C)
Size: 12" L x 1.5" W (305 mm x 38 mm)
Weight/shipping: 0.4 lb/1 lb (0.2 kg/0.5 kg)
Ordering Information
225-570-A
225-571-A
225-572-A
225-573-A
225-568
Sling Psychrometer °F
Sling Psychrometer °C
Replacement Thermometer °F
Replacement Thermometer °C
Replacement Wicks, 24" length
Model 225-520 Pocket Sling Psychrometer
Model 225-570 Sling Psychrometer
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
77
Temperature & Humidity
www.novalynx.com
225-564 Fan Psychrometer
225-566 Battery Psychrometer
The Model 225-564 Fan Psychrometer is used for
determination of dew point and relative humidity. It
consists of 9.5" dry and wet bulb thermometers mounted
on a common back, a water bottle, fan, motor, and 6-volt
battery. It is easier to read and provides more consistent
results than a
conventional sling
psychrometer.
The Model 225-566 Battery Operated Psychrometer
quickly and easily measures wet-bulb and dry-bulb
temperatures. These can be converted into relative
humidity or dew point temperature using a chart on the
instrument face, a psychrometric slide rule (provided), or
tables (also provided) for a more accurate determination.
The components are
mounted on a wooden
base. The bulb of the
lower thermometer is
covered with a close
fitting tubular muslin
wick. When the fan is
turned on for a period
of 2-3 minutes, water
is evaporated from the
wick-covered
thermometer. The wet
bulb and dry bulb
temperatures are
recorded and the
humidity is
determined using the
Model 225-564 Fan Psychrometer
chart provided or a
psychrometric slide rule. Thermometer range is
-20° to +120°F or -30° to +50°C. The unit comes
complete with humidity chart and instructions.
Replacement wicks are available.
Specifications
Range:
225-564: -20° to +120°F (1° graduations)
225-565: -30° to +50°C (0.5° graduations)
Size: 7" W x 5.5" D x 14.5" H
Accuracy: ± 0.5°F or ±0.25°C
Weight/shipping: 4 lbs/5 lbs
Ordering Information
225-564-A
225-565-A
225-568
225-572-A
225-573-A
225-990
225-991
Fan Psychrometer, °F
Fan Psychrometer, °C
Replacement Wicks, 24" length
Replacement Thermometer, °F
Replacement Thermometer, °C
Replacement Motor
Replacement Battery
78 NovaLynx Corporation
The instrument is self contained and portable. It is small
enough to be hand-held, but has an opening on the rear of
the plastic case for wall-mounting if required. Three “D”
cell batteries provide power for up to 1,000 observations.
The instrument
is designed to
meet federal
specification
GG-P-725B
type III style B.
It consists of a
matched pair of
8" long
mercury
thermometers,
a permanent
magnet fan
motor, a two
ounce plastic
water bottle,
and an
Model 225-566 Battery Operated Psychrometer
illuminating
lamp. The small fan creates an air flow of 15 feet/second
over the thermometer bulbs and the lamp illuminates the
thermometers from behind. Two models are available:
the 225-566F with a range of +10° to +120°F and the
225-566C with a range of -15° to +45°C.
Specifications
Range: 225-566F: +10° to +120°F (1° graduations)
225-566C: -15° to 45°C (0.5° graduations)
Accuracy: ±0.3°F or ±0.2°C
Size: 10" W x 4.5" D x 2" H (254 mm x 114 mm x 51 mm)
Weight/shipping: 1.25 lbs/3.5 lbs (0.6 kg/1.6 kg)
Ordering Information
225-566F
225-566C
225-567F
225-567C
Note:
Battery Operated Psychrometer, °F; includes carrying
case, water bottle, psychrometric slide rule, RH
tables, extra wicking, and spare light bulb
Battery Operated Psychrometer, °C
Replacement Thermometer, °F (set of 2)
Replacement Thermometer, °C (set of 2)
Non-mercury thermometers are available.
Add -A to above part numbers.
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
225-5230 Assmann Psychrometer
The Model 225-5230 Assmann Psychrometer utilizes
two precision mercury thermometers with 3-point
calibrations. A calibration certificate gives the correction
required at each point. Corrected accuracy is better than
± 0.1°C. The double-tube thermometers are protected by
a chrome-plated brass case. The thermometer bulbs are
guarded by double-walled radiation shields thermally
isolated from the main housing by a plastic bushing.
Aspiration of the bulbs is accomplished by a springwound fan which will provide eight minutes of aspiration
per winding.
Two models are available, the 225-5230 measures over a
range of -30° to +50°C and the 225-5231 has a range of
-20° to +130°F. Each instrument is supplied with a wind
shield, a mounting support, a syringe to moisten the wetbulb wick, extra wicks, psychrometric tables, and a
wooden carrying case.
Specifications
Range:
225-5230: -30° to +50°C (0.2° graduations)
225-5231: -20° to +130°F (0.5° graduations)
Accuracy: ± 0.1°C with corrections provided
Size: 4" dia x 16" L (100 mm x 405 mm)
Weight/shipping: 3 lbs/10 lbs (1.4 kg/4.5 kg)
Ordering Information
225-5230
225-5231
225-52301
225-52311
225-568
225-5230 Assmann Psychrometer
Assmann Psychrometer, °C
includes accessories and carrying case
Assmann Psychrometer, °F
includes accessories and carrying case
Spare Thermometer for 225-5230
with calibration certificate
Spare Thermometer for 225-5231
with calibration certificate
Replacement Wick Material, 24" length
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
79
Temperature & Humidity
www.novalynx.com
225-569 Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule
The 225-569 Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule quickly
converts wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures to relative
humidity. The user simply lines up the two temperatures
and reads relative humidity directly. The RH scale ranges
from 10% to 100% with graduations of 2%. Values to 1%
RH may be estimated. Two models are available. The
225-569F Slide Rule has a temperature scale of 20° to
100°F, and the 225-569C has a scale of -5° to 50°C. Both
are small, lightweight, and durable.
80 NovaLynx Corporation
Specifications
Scale:
225-569C: -6° to +49°C (1°)
225-569F: +20° to +120°F (0.5°; 1° from 100-120°)
Size: 7" L x 1.4" W (178 mm x 36 mm)
Weight: 0.5 oz (14 g)
Ordering Information
225-569C
225-569F
Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule, °C
Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule, °F
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
225-HMP60 Humidity/Temp
225-HMP155 Humidity/Temp
The 225-HMP60A Relative Humidity & Temperature
Sensor features the laser trimmed INTERCAP®
capacitive for accurate relative humidity measurements.
The chip is user replaceable and requires no calibration.
A membrane filter protects the sensor from dirt and dust. The
225-HMP60A also measures temperature. The sensor
should be mounted in a solar radiation shield when
placed outdoors.
The 220-HMP155D Humidity Sensor provides reliable
humidity measurement utilizing a new generation
HUMICAP 180R sensor that has excellent stability and
withstands well in harsh environments. The probe
structure is solid and the sensor is protected with a
sintered teflon filter. The 220-HMP155D is especially
designed for use in meteorological applications and
hydrological weather stations. It has a weatherproof IP66
housing and 11 feet of cable with an 8-pin MP12
connector. An electrical circuit in the sensor body
converts the capacitance to a voltage output which is
linearly proportional to the ambient relative humidity.
Calibration adjustment potentiometers are provided.
Specifications
Humidity measurement range: 10 to 90% (for which accuracy
is specified)
Humidity accuracy: Better than ± 3% @ +68°F (+20°C)
Humidity operating range: 0-100% RH
Stability: ± 2% RH over 2 years
Temperature measurement range: -40° to +140°F (-40° to +60°C)
Temperature accuracy: 1.1°F (± 0.6°) @ +68°F (+20°C)
Input power: 7-28 Vdc
Current consumption: 2 mA typical
Output signal: 0 to 1 Vdc standard, 0 to 5 Vdc available
Housing material: Chrome-coated aluminum (IP 65)
Size: 0.47" Dia (12 mm) x 3" L (80 mm), threaded M12 x 1
Cable length: 12" (313 mm) with molded connector
Cable connector: Screw-on 4-pin M8 molded 1.5" L (37 mm)
The 225-500-B Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor
has the addition of an integrated circuit transducer that
provides a linear microamp current output proportional to
temperature. The 225-501-B utilizes a one-element
thermistor and the 225-HMP155A uses an active
temperature circuit with a linear 0-1 Vdc output. Contact
NovaLynx for other temperature sensor options.
Ordering Information
Specifications
225-HMP60A
220-HMP155D Humidity Sensor
Sensing element: Thin film capacitor, with membrane filter
Measuring range: 0-100% RH
Output: 0-1 Vdc with high and low calibration adjustments
Accuracy: ± 1% (0-90% RH) ± 2% (90-100% RH) at 20
Response time: 20 seconds with filter
Operating temperature: -40° to +140°F (-40° to 60°C)
Excitation voltage: 7-35 Vdc
Power consumption: < 4 mA
Size: 0.75" Dia x 9.45" L
Weight/shipping: 10 oz/1 lb
220-15778
220-17039
330-0524
Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor,
with 4-pin connector
Replacement Humidity Chip, INTERCAP®
Replacement Membrane Filter
Sensor Cable for 225-HMP60, 5C 24AWG
225-HMP155A Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor
Humidity: Same as 220-HMP155D
Temperature: Same as 225-HMP60A
225-500-B Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor
Humidity: Same as 220-HMP155D
Temperature: Same as 210-201
225-501-B Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor
Humidity: Same as 220-HMP155D
Temperature: Same as 110-WS-16T
225-HMP155A & 225-HMP60A Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensors
Ordering Information
220-HMP155D
225-HMP155A
225-500-B
225-501-B
220-180R
220-219452SP
330-0524
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Relative Humidity Sensor, 11' cable
Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor, 11' cable
Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor, 11' cable
Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor, 11' cable
Replacement Humidity Sensing Element
Replacement Teflon Filter
Sensor Cable, 5 conductor 24AWG shielded
www.novalynx.com
81
Temperature & Humidity
www.novalynx.com
210-4470 & 210-4480 Temperature Sensors
NovaLynx offers a wide variety of temperature probes
for air, water, and soil temperature measurements. Most
of the probes will interface to various data loggers with
some additional external conditioning resistors. Some of
the probes require signal conditioning to produce a linear
analog output, i.e. 0-5 Vdc or 4-20 mA. For correct air
temperature measurements the probes should be placed
in a solar radiation shield. NovaLynx offers a variety of
solar radiation shields to choose from.
The Model 210-4470 Platinum Resistance Temperature
Probes can input directly to a temperature recorder or to a
signal conditioning module to provide an analog voltage
output proportional to temperature. The 99.99% pure
platinum wire has a resistance of 100 ohms at 0°C. The
platinum element is encased in a 6" long stainless steel
housing and the cable is sealed to prevent moisture
intrusion. Other probe configurations (piercing models,
thermowell adapters, etc.) are available on special order.
The 210-4480 Series Thermistor Probes incorporate a
3-element thermistor composite and its measuring range
is -50°C to +50°C when used in conjunction with the
thermolinear network.
Specifications
Specifications
Sensor element: 3-element composite thermistor
Range: -50°C to +50°C
Accuracy and interchangeability:
± 0.1°C when incorporated in a thermolinear network
Time constant: 1.4 minute
Size: 210-4480: 0.43" Dia x 5.25" L
Signal conditioner: 195-208 Resistor Network for NovaLogger and
other dataloggers requires a regulated low level DC source from the
datalogger.
Ordering Information
210-4480-A
210-4480-B
210-4480-C
210-4485
195-208
330-0420
Air Temperature Probe, 3-element thermistor,
includes 5' cable
Air Temperature Probe, includes 20' cable
Air Temperature Probe, includes 30' cable
Water/Soil Temperature, includes 50' cable
Precision Resistor Network
Cable, 4 conductor 20 AWG shielded
Sensor element: 100 ohm platinum wire
Range: -50°C to 100°C
Absolute interchangeability and accuracy:
210-4470: ± 0.3°C
210-4470-A: ± 0.1°C
Time constant: 15 seconds
Probe size: 0.4" dia x 6" L
Weight/shipping: 0.5 lb/1 lb
Signal conditioner: 210-TX92A-1-L RTD Transmitter
-40° to 140° F (-40° to +60 °C), 4-20 mA
Ordering Information
210-4470
210-4470-A
210-TX92A-1-L
330-0324
330-0424
Platinum Resistance Temperature Probe, ± 0.3° C
accuracy, includes 10' of 3 conductor cable
Platinum Resistance Temperature Probe, ± 0.1° C
accuracy, includes 3' of 4 conductor cable
RTD Transmitter, -40/140F (-40/60C)
Cable, 3 Conductor 24 AWG
Cable, 4 Conductor 24 AWG
Model 210-4470 & 210-4480 Series Temperature Probes
82 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
210-201, 210-301, & 201-600 Temperature Sensors
The Model 210-201 Air Temperature Sensor and the
Model 210-600 Water/Soil Temperature Sensor are
two-terminal integrated circuit transducers that provides
a liner output current proportional to the absolute
temperature. Laser trimming of the chip’s thin film
resistors is used to calibrate the output. They are supplied
with 25' cable but can be used with longer lengths
because the high impedance current is insensitive to
voltage drop over long lines. These probes will interface
with most of the NovaLoggers with an external resistor.
The 135-104 Series Translator Boards will convert the
signal to an analog signal, i.e. 0-5V to 4-20 mA.
Specifications
Range: -40° to +140°F (-40° to +60°C)
Output: 1μA/°K for supply voltages between +4 and +30 V
(298.2 μA at 25°C)
Accuracy: ± 0.4°C
Linearity: 0.3°C
Humidity: 0-100% RH
Size: 2" L x 1/4" dia
Weight: 1 lb/2 lb
Ordering Information
210-201
210-600
330-0324
330-0218DB
Air Temperature Sensor, includes 25' cable
Water/Soil Temperature Sensor, includes 25' cable
Cable, 3 conductor 24 AWG shielded
Cable for water & soil probes, 2 conductor 20 AWG
direct burial
The Model 210-301 Temperature Sensor is a
three-terminal integrated circuit sensor whose output
voltage is linearly proportional to the Fahrenheit
temperature. This sensor does not require any external
calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of
± 0.5°F at room temperature and ± 1.5°F over a full
0-120°F temperature range. It operates from 5-30 Vdc
and has a linear 10mV/°F output. With a common
reference to input and output, it easily interfaces with
most dataloggers and outputs a direct reading analog
output, i.e. 0.8 Vdc = 80°F.
Specifications
Range: 0°F to 300°F
Output: 0 to 1.2 Vdc, current drain 0.075 mA
(with single DC power supply 5-30 Vdc)
Accuracy: ± 0.5°F at 77°F, ± 1.5°F over full range
Linearity: ± 0.5°F typical
Humidity: 0-100% RH
Size: 2" L x 1/4" dia
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/2 lb
Ordering Information
210-301
210-301W
330-0324
Air Temperature Sensor, includes 25' cable
Water or Soil Temp Sensor, includes 25' cable
Cable, 3 conductor 24 AWG shielded
210-201 & 210-301 Temperature Sensor
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
83
Temperature & Humidity
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210-TP1 Temperature Sensor
The Model 210-TP1 Air Temperature Sensor provide
accurate temperature measurements in harsh
environmental conditions as well as indoor locations.
The probe is normally placed in a solar radiation shield
or wooden shelter. Standard industrial outputs (0-5 Vdc
or 4-20 mA) are available for digital displays, recorders,
data loggers, and telemetry systems. The electronic
signal conditioning unit is molded in line with the sensor.
Specifications
Sensor
Element: Precision integrated circuit
Accuracy: ± 0.8°F (± 0.4°C)
Maximum range: -40° to +120°F
210-TP1 Temperature Sensor
Sensor Cable
Outer sheath: Black polypropylene
Wire: 22 gauge, shielded
Sensor cap: Potted PVC
Temperature: -40° to +60°C
Humidity: 100%
Signal Conditioning
Range: -40° to +120°F (-40° to +48.9°C)
Output: 0-5 Vdc or 4-20 mA, 3-wire device
Power: 9-24 Vdc, < 5mA
Enclosure: Potted ABS thermoplastic (in line)
Size: 1" x 0.75" x 2"
Cable: 40' total, 25' sensor to enclosure, 15' enclosure to output cable
Weight/shipping: 3 lbs/5 lbs
Ordering Information
210-TP1
210-TP1C
210-CAB1
210-CAB2
Temperature Sensor -40 to +120°F, 0-5 Vdc output
Temperature Sensor -40 to +120°F, 4-20 mA output
TP1 Sensor Cable (from sensor to enclosure)
TP1 Signal Cable (from enclosure to output cable)
84 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
210-WE700 Temperature Sensor
The Model 210-WE700 Temperature Sensor is a
two-wire loop-powered device. The sensor is totally
potted and sealed. It can be used for air temperature or
water temperature applications. For air temperature, the
probe is normally installed in a solar radiation shield or
wooden instrument shelter.
Specifications
Type: Precision RTD
Output: 4-20 mA
Range: -58° to +122°F (-50° to +50°C)
Accuracy: ± 0.2°F (± 0.1°C)
Operating voltage: 10-36 Vdc
Current draw: Same as sensor output
Warm-up time: 5 seconds minimum
Operating temperature: -50° to +100°C
Sensor size: 3/4" diameter x 4-1/2"
Sensor cap: Potted stainless steel
Cable: 2 conductor, 25' standard
Weight/shipping: 1/2 lb/2 lbs
210-WE700 Temperature Sensor
Ordering Information
210-WE700
201-WE700C
Temperature Sensor
Additional Cable, per foot
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
85
Temperature & Humidity
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225-THT-1 Temperature & Humidity Sensor
The 225-THT-1 Temperature & Humidity Sensor is
configured for measuring relative humidity and
temperature in environmental control systems, where
condensation or dust will commonly be encountered. A
fully gasketed watertight enclosure, locking strain relief
connections, and a brass sintered filter protect the
electronics and sensors from environmental or
mechanical damage.
Specifications
An electronic circuit in the enclosure converts the capacitance
to a voltage output which is linearly proportional to the
ambient relative humidity. Temperature is sensed by a
100 ohm platinum resistance element and converted to a
linear analog output. The sensor should be mounted in a
solar radiation shield when placed outdoors. The remote
probe comes with four feet of cable and a mounting clamp.
Response time (without filter):
Relative humidity: 90% of measured value in 15 seconds
Temperature: approximately 60 seconds
The sensor can be powered by 10-30Vdc,
120Vac 50/60Hz, or 220Vac 50/60Hz. It features three
outputs for relative humidity and three outputs for
temperature, 0-1V, 0-5V, and 4-20mA. All six outputs are
available on a terminal strip inside the enclosure and can
be used at the same time.
Ordering Information
225-THT-1
225-THT-BC
225-THT-PC6
225-THT-PC25
330-0524
380-281-THT
Temperature and Humidity Sensor
Battery Cable, per foot
AC Power Cable (115V plug), 6'
AC Power Cable (115V plug), 25'
Signal Cable, per foot
Solar Radiation Shield with mast mounting harware
86 NovaLynx Corporation
Sensors:
Relative humidity: Capacitive (thin film)
Temperature: PT100 RTD
Range:
Relative Humidity: 5.0% to 95% RH
Temperature: -5° to 175°F (-20° to 80°C)
Accuracy: ±2% RH, ±0.5°C
Output:
0 to 1 Vdc for 0-100% RH
0 to 5 Vdc for 0-100% RH
4 to 20 mA for 0-100% RH
0 to 1 Vdc for -20° to 80°C
0 to 5 Vdc for -20° to 80°C
4 to 20 mA for -20° to 80°C
Operating range: -4° to 180°F (-20° to 80°C)
Power supply required:
120 Vac, 50/60 Hz or
220 Vac, 50/60 Hz or
10 to 30 Vdc
Housing: ABS plastic, watertight, with strain reliefs
Filter: sintered brass
Dimensions:
Housing: 4.8" x 4.8" x 2.2"
Probe: 6.25" x 1" diameter, includes 4' cable
Weight/Shipping: 18 oz/2 lbs
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
210-41342 Temp & 225-41382 T/RH
225-42603 Temp Tracker
The Model 210-41342 Temperature Probe is a
1000 Ohm Platinum RTD encased in a stainless steel
protective sheath. The sensing element is securely
mounted in a convenient junction box. For special
applications, the temperature probe is available with
various output options. The 4-20 mA current output is
useful in high noise, industrial settings or for long cable
lengths. The 0-1 Vdc option provides a calibrated voltage
output signal. Low power circuitry makes it ideal for
field studies and remote data-logging applications.
Specifications
The 225-41382 Relative Humidity & Temperature Probe
combines a high accuracy humidity sensor and a
1000 Ohm Platinum RTD. Available with 0-1 Vdc or
4-20 mA outputs, sensors are mounted in a common
junction box.
The 225-46203 Temp Tracker is a versatile temperature,
dew point, and relative humidity indicator. Measured
values are displayed on the front panel in large
illuminated digits: temperature is shown on the left,
relative humidity on the right. Maximum and minimum
values are saved and can be viewed at any time. Use with
the 225-41382LC Humidity & Temperature Probe.
Ordering Information
210-41342LC
210-41342LF
210-41342VC
210-41342VF
Temperature Probe, °C, 4-20 mA output
Temperature Probe, °F, 4-20 mA output
Temperature Probe, °C, 0-1 Vdc output
Temperature Probe, °F, 0-1 Vdc output
225-41382LC2
225-41382LF2
225-41382VC
225-41382VF
Humidity & Temperature Probe, °C, 4-20 mA output
Humidity & Temperature Probe, °F, 4-20 mA output
Humidity & Temperature Probe, °C, 0-1 Vdc output
Humidity & Temperature Probe, °F, 0-1 Vdc output
225-46203
225-46203H
380-41003P
Temp Tracker, 110V
Temp Tracker, 230V
Multi-Plate Solar Radiation Shield
Temperature (41342, 41382)
Calibrated Measuring Range:
-50 to 50 °C (suffix C)
-50 to 150 °F (suffix F)
Response Time: 10 seconds (without filter)
Accuracy at 23 °C: ± 0.3 °C
Sensor Type: Platinum RTD
Output Signal: V Option: 0-1 Vdc
L Option: 4-20 mA
Relative Humidity (41382)
Measuring Range: 0-100% RH
Accuracy at 20-25 °C: ± 1% RH
Stability: Better than ± 1% RH per year
Response Time: 10 seconds (without filter)
Sensor Type: Rotronic Hygromer™
Output Signal: V option: 0-1 Vdc
L option: 4-20 mA
Power Required
V Option: 10-28 Vdc
L Option: 10-28 Vdc
41342
5 mA
20 mA
41382
8 mA
40 mA
Temp Tracker (46203)
Range:
Temperature: -50.0 to 150.0 °F, -50.0 to 50.0 °C
Relative Humidity: 0-100%
Display resolution:
Temperature: 0.1 °F, 0.1 °C
Relative Humidity: 1%
Dewpoint: 1 °F, 1 °C
Voltage outputs: 0-5 Vdc Full Scale for T & RH
Alarm relays: Normally open contacts for T & RH
Contact rating 5A resistive, 2A inductive @ 250 Vac, 30 Vdc
Remote displays: 16 maximum
Power requirement: 12 to 30 Vdc, 4.5 W
Dimensions: 5.43" x 5.65" x 1.4" (144 mm x 144 mm x 138 mm)
Temp Tracker
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Relative Humidity &Temperature Probes
www.novalynx.com
87
Temperature & Humidity
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210-5320 Series Dew Cell
210-5320 Dew Cell
The Model 210-5320 Dew Cells are improved versions
of the traditional lithium chloride (LiCl) sensor. The
sensors include a bifilar heater composed of a pair of
gold wire electrodes. These are wound over a fiberglass
wick treated with LiCl. The LiCl is highly hygroscopic.
As it absorbs water from the atmosphere, its conductance
increases. This causes additional current to run through
the heater, heating the sensor, or dew cell, to the
equilibrium temperature at which the LiCl again becomes
nonconductive. Equilibrium temperature is measured by
a temperature sensor located in the hollow cavity under
the heater and is translated to dew point temperature
based on a linear relationship.
Two types of dew cells are available, differing only in
their temperature sensors. The 210-5320 utilizes a
3-element thermistor, while the 210-5321 features a 100
ohm platinum resistance probe. Both models include a
perforated protective shield, temperature sensor leads,
and heater leads. The heater requires 24 Vac for
excitation, making AC power and a transformer
necessary for dew cell operation.
Specifications
Dew Cell
Measuring range: -40° to +40°C
Temperature sensor:
210-5320: Thermistor composite (same as 4480-A)
210-5321: 100 ohm platimum resistance
Accuracy*: ± 1.3°C
*After the appropriate correction, based on relative humidity, is added.
Time constant: 2.0 minutes (typical operation inside 8152-A Shield)
Heater winding: Gold wire
Salt: 8% LiCl solution
Operating temperature: -40° to +55°C
Operating humidity: 17-100% RH at -12°C, 12-100% RH at 30°C
Storage conditions: -40° to +85°C, 0-70% RH
Input voltage: 24 Vac
Power consumption: 2.4 VA
Size: 0.375" dia x 3.75" L (10 mm x 95 mm)
Weight/shipping: 0.5 lb/1 lb (0.22 kg/0.45 kg)
Ordering Information
210-5320
210-5321
210-53212
210-53212-A
380-43408DPT
330-0320
To protect the dew cell from sunlight and the elements
when it is used outdoors, it must be installed in a
radiation shield or an instrument shelter. The 38043408DPT Motor-Aspirated Radiation Shield includes a
transformer and a mounting adapter for the 210-5320. It
will also hold a temperature probe. The 210-53212 Dew
Cell Power Supply is designed for use with a dew cell
installed in an instrument shelter. The 210-53212 consists
of a transformer, a ballast resistor, and a terminal strip,
all in a weatherproof enclosure.
88 NovaLynx Corporation
330-0420
M482020
Dew Cell, 3 element thermistor
Dew Cell, 100 ohm platinum resistance
Stand-Alone Power Supply, 115 Vac
Stand-Alone Power Supply, 230 Vac
Motor-Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield (holds one
dew point sensor and one temperature sensor)
Cable to connect dew cell transformer to AC power;
3-conductor, 20 AWG, shielded
Cable to connect dew cell to signal conditioning
module; 4-conductor, 20 AWG, shielded
Lithium Chloride Solution, for re-treating the sensor
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
Fuel Moisture Sticks & Scale
250-124 Soil Moisture Sensor
The Model 225-7918 Fuel Moisture Sticks are used to
estimate moisture content of small forest fuels for
prescribed burning operations and to determine forest fire
danger ratings. The sticks are placed over a duff bed of
coniferous needles or hardwood leaves in the area where
moisture is to be measured. The exposed sticks are then
weighed on the 225-7917 Fuel Moisture Scale and the
weight in excess of the oven-dry weight represents fuel
moisture. Sticks should be replaced every 90 days.
The Model 250-124 Soil Moisture Sensor monitors soil
moisture reliably in all types of soils at all moisture
levels. Soil moisture in fields, turf, landscapes, and
greenhouses may be monitored equally well. The sensor
output signal may be used to directly control irrigation.
The sensor reads the percent of available moisture by
volume, independent of soil texture.
Specifications
Materials: 4 ponderosa pine sapwood dowels spaced 1/4" apart on
2 hardwood connecting dowels and secured with wire brads or staples,
and a brass screw hook. Dowels are oven-dried to uniform moisture
content of 15% or less.
Overall dimensions: 2-3/4" wide x 18-1/2" long
Oven-dry weight: 100 grams
Ordering Information
225-7917
225-7918
225-7919
Fuel Moisture Scale
10-Hour Fuel Moisture Stick
Support Brackets, set of 2
Water is the primary factor in determining the dielectric
constant of soil. The soil moisture sensor measures the
dielectric constant which is directly related to water
content in reasonable growing conditions. The probe
consists of a small electronic module, encapsulated for
environmental protection, attached to one end of the
cylindrical probe. A 10' cable is provided to supply
power and read out the soil moisture signal. Exposed
material is epoxy.
Specifications
Power requirements: 12 Vdc ± 20% @ 40mA
Output: 4-20mA, 0-1mA, or 0-5Vdc = 0-100% soil moisture (Linear)
Overall size: 3/4" diameter x 27" long
Shipping weight: 3 lbs
Turn-on time: 1 second from power up
Operating temperature range: 0-70°C
Ordering Information
250-124C-1
250-124C-4
250-124V
250-12CAB
Soil Moisture Sensor, 0-1 mA output
Soil Moisture Sensor, 4-20 mA output
Soil Moisture Sensor, 0-5 V output
Additional Cable, per foot
225-7917 Fuel Moisture Scale with 225-7918 Fuel Moisture Stick
250-124 Soil Moisture Sensor
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
89
Temperature & Humidity
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210-421-A General Purpose Temperature Alarm
The Model 210-421-A Temperature Alarm is a
microprocessor-based dual-setpoint temperature alarm
suitable for environmental and industrial applications. It
can also be configured as a frost alarm. It sounds an
alarm and controls the operation of two electrical circuits
whenever the temperature reaches either of two
independently set limits. The temperature range is -40° to
160° F (-40° to 71° C) and the alarm range is the same.
The alarms can be selected to operate either greater than
or less than the selected temperature output. A liquid
crystal display provides readout of the measured
temperatures and is also used to display maximum and
minimum temperatures as well as the values of the various
alarm parameters using a series of setup menus.
Self-contained relays for each alarm point can be used to
actuate external devices such as small pumps or sirens.
These internal relays may be used to control external
power relays if high current loads are to be switched. An
audible alarm, which may be silenced if desired, is also
included within the 210-421-A. To eliminate erratic or
premature operation of controlled devices, the 210-421-A
includes provision for setting a delay or conformation
interval prior to the initiation of an alarm and also a
delay time prior to negating an alarm.
All setpoints and maximum and minimum temperature
values are stored in non-volatile memory so that these
values are not lost if there is a power failure. The circuits
are designed to have high electrical noise immunity to
transient spikes generated by loads being switched with
the alarm relays. The unit restarts in the running mode
after a power failure.
The temperature sensing probe is based on a precision
thermistor and is designed to measure over a wide range
of temperatures. The Model 380-280 Solar Radiation Shield
is recommended for use with the air temperature probe in
outdoor applications.
90 NovaLynx Corporation
210-421-A General Purpose Temperature Alarm
Specifications
Temperature sensor: Precision thermistor
Measurement range: -40° to +160° F (-40° to +71° C)
Alarm range: -40° to +160° F (-40° to +71° C)
Resolution: 0.1°
Accuracy: ± 0.5° F (± 0.2° C)
Alarm ON and OFF delay range: 0-99 seconds
Controls: Protected push buttons that select
Run or set variables
Select menu item
Increment alarm setting
Decrement alarm setting
Clear stored max and min values
Indicators: LEDs for alarm point 1 and 2
2 line x 16 character LCD
Display character size 3x8 mm
Operating temperature: Control module only -20° to +50° C
Input power: 12 Vac or dc
Current: 50 mA maximum
Alarm: Contacts rated 3A @ 24 Vdc/115 Vac
Form “C” (SPDT) configuration
Temperature cable length: 40' 2-conductor
Weight/Shipping: 1 lb/2 lbs
Ordering Information
210-421-A
210-421W-A
210-421P
330-0224
330-0218DB
380-280
Temperature Alarm
Temperature Alarm, with waterproof probe
Plug-In Power Pack, 12V/500mA
Add’l Cable for 210-421-A, per foot (max 100')
Add’l Cable for 210-421W-A, per foot (max 100')
Solar Radiation Shield
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
210-EC Series Frost Alarms
•
•
•
•
American made
Easy to use - Simple, proven design
Lighted scale
Alarm buzzer and light
These low cost instruments monitor temperature and
sound an alarm when temperature falls to the setpoint.
Models 210-EC1 and 210-EC2 both have a temperature
meter with a monitor scale range of 10° to 110° F. The
210-EC1 has an alarm setpoint range of 25° to 35° F. The
210-EC2 (shown) has an alarm setpoint range of
30° to 40° F.
Specifications
The Model 210-EC1C has a temperature meter with a
monitor scale range of -10° to +40° C and an alarm
setpoint range of -4° to +2° C.
Ordering Information
All three models include a sensor probe with 1' cable,
which may be wired up to a mile from the frost alarm
using ordinary 20 AWG or larger copper cable or
telephone type wire.
Accuracy: ± 2%
Alarm setpoint range:
EC1 25° to 35° F
EC2 30° to 40° F
EC1C -4° to +2° C
Alarm buzzer: 75 dB at 2 feet
Size: 6-1/4" x 3-3/4" x 2" deep
Weight: 1 lb 10 oz
210-EC1
210-EC2
210-EC1C
210-277-5
Frost Alarm 25/35F
Frost Alarm 30/40F
Frost Alarm -4/+2C
Replacement Temperature Sensor
The frost alarms come with a plug-in transformer that
operates from 110 Vac/60 Hz. A separate 12 Vdc power
input is also provided so the unit may be connected to a
12 volt backup battery to allow the system to remain
operational in the event of power failure.
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
91
Temperature & Humidity
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225-HM34 Relative Humidity & Temperature Indicator
•
•
•
•
•
Lightweight, pocket-size
Extendable probe
Automatic power off
Measures humidity and temperature
Fast response with ± 2% accuracy
The Model 225-HM34 Relative Humidity and
Temperature Indicator provides a fast and convenient
way to spot-check relative humidity and temperature.
The instrument includes a “hold” button which allows
the user to retain a relative humidity or temperature
measurement until it has been noted or recorded. If no
measurements are made for 3 minutes, the unit
automatically switches itself off. This automatic poweroff function prevents accidental discharge of the battery.
The 225-HM34 incorporates the HUMICAP® Sensor,
which is accurate, durable, and insensitive to dust and
most chemical contaminants. Both the humidity and
temperature sensors are housed in an extendable probe
that is retracted back into the rugged plastic casing for
storage, creating a compact and easy to carry device.
Each unit includes a 9-volt battery, attached probe,
protective membrane filter, and carrying case.
Specifications
Relative Humidity
Sensor type: HUMICAP®H thin film capacitive sensor
Range: 0-100% RH
Accuracy: ± 2% (0-90% RH), ± 3% (90-100% RH)
Resolution: 0.1% RH
Temperature dependence: ± 0.02% RH/°F (± 0.04% RH/°C)
Response time (90%): 10 sec with membrane filter, 5 sec with plastic grid
Temperature
Sensor: Pt 100 IEC 751 1/3 Class B
Range: -4° to +140°F (-20° to +60°C)
Accuracy: ± 0.5°F (± 0.3°C)
Resolution: 0.1°F (0.1°C)
Temperature dependence: ± 0.02°F/°F (± 0.02°C/°C)
General
Display: 3 1/2 digit LCD
Power supply: 9 V battery
Battery life: 50 h
Hold function: Push-button hold of displayed value
Power off: Automatic, after 3 minutes, unless “hold” is activated
Size: 6.3" x 2.2" x 1.1" (160 mm x 57 mm x 27 mm)
Weight/shipping: .5 lbs/2 lbs
92 NovaLynx Corporation
225-HM34 Pocket-Sized Humidity & Temperature Indicator
Ordering Information
225-HM34-C
225-HM34-F
Handheld Humidity and Temperature Indicator, °C
Handheld Humidity and Temperature Indicator, °F
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
225-RH520A RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder
The 225-RH520A RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder
offers simultaneous numerical and graphical display of
humidity and temperature readings, plus time and date. It
measures humidity (10 to 95% RH) and temperature
(-20.0°F to 140.0°F) and calculates dew point. Utilizes a
large dual graphical LCD display with adjustable vertical
and horizontal TAC resolution. Internal memory records up
to 49,000 data points and can be transferred to a PC via
RS-232 serial port for further data analysis. LCD indicates
percentage of memory remaining. Replaceable probe does
not require recalibration. Probe extends up to 1 meter for
measurements in closed environments. Audible and visual
alarm has Hi/Low setpoints. Output socket is used with
optional external alarm module. Desk or wall mount.
Complete with built-in stand, detachable probe with 3ft
(1m) cable, RS232 cable, 110 Vac adaptor and 3 AA
batteries.
Specifications
Relative humidity range: 10 to 95.0% RH
Temperature range: -20.0 to 140.0 °F (-28 to 60 °C)
Accuracy: ± 3% RH; ± 1.8 °F (± 1°C)
Dimensions: 5" x 7.7" x 0.9" (129 x 195 x 22 mm)
Weight: 12.6 oz (357 g)
Ordering Information
225-RH520A
RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder
includes 110Vac adapter
225-RH520A-220 RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder
includes 220Vac adapter
225-RH520A-NIST RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder with NIST
Certificate
225-RH522
Replacement Humidity-Temperature Probe
225-SL123
AC Alarm Relay Module 9' cable (3m)
225-SL124
DCAlarm Relay Module 9' cable (3m)
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
93
Temperature & Humidity
225-445703 Big Digit Hygro-Thermometer
The 225-445703 Big Digit Hygro-Thermometer
displays simultaneous measurements of temperature and
relative humidity with 1" digits on super large LCD
display. Features minimum and maximum memory with
reset for both temperature and humidity readings,
Fahrenheit/Celsius switchable temperature units, and low
battery indicator. Comes complete with built-in tilt stand,
wall mounting bracket, and 1.5V AAA battery. Suitable
applications include factories, greenhouses, museums,
libraries, and offices to monitor temperature and
humidity conditions and record extremes during the day.
CE approved.
Specifications
Measuring range:
Temperature: 14 to 140°F (-10 to 60°C)
Humidity: 10% to 99%
Accuracy:
Temperature: 1.8°F within 32 to 122°F (1°C within 0 to 50°C)
Humidity: 5% RH within 25-85% RH and 32 to 122°F (-10 to 60°C)
Dimensions: 4.3x3.9x0.78" (110x100x20mm)
Ordering Information
225-445703
Big Digit Hygro-Thermometer
94 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
Temperature & Humidity
380-280 Radiation Shield
380-281 Radiation Shield
The Model 380-280 Solar Radiation Shield is a low
cost solution for protecting temperature and relative
humidity probes. It consists of four molded plastic plates
and a powder coated aluminum mounting arm. The
wedge-shaped plates provide maximum airflow around
the probe while at the same time minimizing direct
exposure of the probe tip to sunlight. The shield is
shaped to allow natural air convection around the probe
so that the air being measured inside the shield is a good
representation of the outside air. The shield also provides
protection from rain and snow. The 380-280 can be used
with sensors from 0.25" diameter up to 0.75" diameter.
The lower protective shroud provides added protection
for sensors up to 8" in length.
The Model 380-281 Solar Radiation Shield is designed
with a highly reflective white surface to reflect the sun’s
direct radiation. It is constructed of powder coated
aluminum and consists of a flat deflection plate, three
wedge-shaped plates, and a mounting arm. The wedgeshaped plates provide maximum airflow around the
probe while at the same time minimizing direct exposure
of the probe tip to sunlight. The use of multiple plates
with openings in the top of each promotes a rising flow
of air through the shield. The shield provides protection
from scattered as well as direct radiation. The 380-281 is
often used at weather stations where no ac power is
available to run a motor aspirated shield.
Specifications
Capacity: 1 probe (temperature, humidity, or temperature/humidity)
Radiation error: 2°F (1°C) @ WS > 3 mph
Material: UV stabilized ABS plates, PVC top cap,
white powdercoated aluminum mounting bracket
Mounting: 1.25" o.d. U-bolt
Size: 4" Dia x 10" H (102 mm x 254 mm)
mounting arm 6" L (152 mm)
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/2 lbs
Ordering Information
380-280
Self-Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield
The Model 380-283 Fan Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield
includes a solar powered fan mounted on top of the shield.
Specifications
Capacity: 1 probe (temperature, humidity, or temperature/humidity)
Radiation error: 2°F (1°C) @ WS > 3 mph
Material: Aluminum
Finish: Gloss white powder coat
Mounting: 1.25" o.d. U-bolt
Size: 6" Dia x 12.5" H (152 mm x 318 mm)
mounting arm 6" L (152 mm)
Weight/shipping: 2.5 lbs/4 lbs (1.1 kg/1.8 kg)
Ordering Information
380-281
380-283
380-280 Solar Radiation Shield
Self-Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield
Fan-Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield, solar powered
380-281 Solar Radiation Shield
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
95
Temperature & Humidity
www.novalynx.com
380-41003 Radiation Shield
The Model 380-41003 Multi-Plate Radiation Shield
protects temperature and relative humidity sensors from
error-producing solar radiation and precipitation.
Compact size and light weight make this shield useful for
many applications. The multiple discs have a unique
profile that blocks direct and radiated solar radiation, yet
permits easy passage of air. The disc material is specially
formulated for high reflectivity, low thermal
conductivity, and maximum weatherability. The rugged
U-bolt mounting clamp attaches easily to any vertical
pipe up to 2" diameter.
Specifications
Sensor types: Accommodates temperature and humidity sensors
up to 26 mm (1") diameter
Radiation error: @ 1080 W/m2 intensity, dependent on wind speed
0.4°C (0.7°F) RMS @ 3 m/s (6.7 mph)
0.7°C (1.3°F) RMS @ 2 m/s (4.5 mph)
1.5°C (2.7°F) RMS @ 1 m/s (2.2 mph)
Construction:
UV stabilized white thermoplastic plates
Aluminum mounting bracket, white
Stainless steel U-bolt clamp
Dimensions: 12 cm (4.7") diameter x 27 cm (10.6") high
Mounting fits vertical pipe 25-50 mm (1-2") diameter
Weight/shipping: 0.7 kg (1.5 lb)/1.4 kg (3 lb)
Ordering Information
380-41003
380-41003P
380-41390
96 NovaLynx Corporation
Solar Radiation Shield, includes universal adapter for
sensors up to 12.5 mm diameter
Solar Radiation Shield, includes custom sensor
adapter, specify diameter from 12.5 to 26 mm
Junction Box, specify sensor diameter (6 mm max)
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
380-43408 Radiation Shield
The Model 380-43408 Motor
Aspirated Radiation Shield provides
maximum sensor protection from
incoming short wave solar radiation and
outgoing long wave radiation. The
shield employs concentric downward
facing intake tubes and a small canopy
shade to isolate the sensor from direct
and indirect radiation. A continuous duty
blower draws ambient air through the
intake tubes and across the sensor
minimizing heat transfer to the sensor.
Compact shield components reduce
radiation absorption and improve
aspiration efficiency. Specially selected plastic materials
provide high reflectivity, low conductivity, and
maximum weatherability. The versatile DC blower is
designed for continuous duty of 80,000 hours at 25° C.
Brushless electronic commutation is achieved using
dependable solid state circuitry.
Specifications
Sensor types: Accommodates temperature and humidity sensors
up to .75" (19 mm) diameter
Radiation error: @ 1000 W/m2 intensity
Ambient temperature: 0.4°F (0.2°C) RMS
Delta T: 0.1°F (0.05°C) RMS with like shields equally exposed
Aspiration rate: 11 to 25 fps (3.4 to 7.6 m/s) depending on sensor size
Power requirement: 12 Vdc @ 500 mA for blower, AC adapter included
Construction:
UV stabilized thermoplastic shield, white
Aluminum cross tube & mounting brackets, white painted
Stainless steel u-bolt clamp
Dimensions:
Length: 43-75" (110-190 cm) adjustable
Shield: 1.3" (34 mm) dia x 4" (10 cm) length
Blower housing: 5.9" (15 cm) dia x 3.5" (9 cm) length
Mounting: Adjustable V-blocks and u-bolts fit vertical, horizontal,
or diagonal tower members 1-2" (25-50 mm) dia
Weight/shipping: 5.3 lbs/13 lbs (2.4 kg/5.9 kg)
Ordering Information
380-43408
380-43408H
380-43482
380-41390
Motor Aspirated Shield, 110V/60Hz AC adapter
Motor Aspirated Shield, 230V/50-60Hz AC adapter
Probe Top Cover
Accessory Junction Box, specify sensor diameter
(10 mm max)
380-43502 Radiation Shield
The Model 380-43502 Aspirated Radiation Shield
provides maximum sensor protection from incoming short
wave solar radiation and outgoing long wave radiation. The
shield employs a triple walled intake tube and multiple
canopy shades to isolate the sensor from precipitation and
solar radiation. A continuous duty blower draws ambient air
through the intake tubes and across the sensor, minimizing
radiation errors. Compact shield components reduce
radiation absorption and improve aspiration efficiency.
Specially selected plastic materials provide high reflectivity,
low conductivity, and maximum weatherability. The
versatile DC blower is designed for cntinuous duty of more
than 80,000 hours (9 years) at 77°F (25°C). Brushless
electronic commutation is achieved using dependable solid
state circuitry.
Specifications
Sensor types: Accomodates temperature and humitidy sensors
up to .94" (24mm) in diameter
Radiation error: @ 1000 W/m2 intensity
Ambient temperature: 0.4°F (0.2°C) RMS
Delta T: 0.1°F (0.05°C) RMS with like shields equally exposed
Aspiration rate: 16 to 35 fps (5 to 11 m/s) depending on sensor size
Power requirement: 12-14 Vdc @ 500 mA for blower, AC adapter
included
Construction:
UV stabilized white thermplastic shield and blower housing
Aluminum mounting bracket, white coated
Stainless steel u-bolt clamp
Dimensions:
Overall: 13" high x 8" dia (33 cm x 20 cm)
Shield: 2.8" dia x 4.7" length (70 mm x 12 cm)
Blower housing: 6.7" dia x 4.3" (17 cm x 11 cm)
Mounting: V-block and u-bolt fits vertical post or tower members
1-2" (25-50 mm) diameter
Weight/Shipping: 2.5 lb/6 lb (1.1 kg/2.7 kg)
Ordering Information
380-43502
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Aspirated Radiation Shield
www.novalynx.com
97
Temperature & Humidity
www.novalynx.com
380-600 Thermometer Shelter
380-601 Small Instrument Shelter
Instrument shelters protect temperature and relative
humidity sensors and other instruments against errors and
damage due to solar radiation, wind, and precipitation.
The Model 380-601 Small Instrument Shelter
conforms to U.S. Weather Bureau Specification No.
450.0164 and is made to hold thermographs,
hygrothermographs, and other recording instruments.
Sides are horizontally slatted for free airflow while
providing protection from sun, wind, and rain. The
double roof provides additional protection against direct
solar radiation. Mounts on a post (not supplied). The
shelter is shipped completely assembled.
The Model 380-600 Thermometer Shelter will house a
thermometer or temperature dial. It is constructed of
wood with louvered front and sides. The bottom panel
has holes to increase natural ventilation. The shelter is
painted white and includes a lock and key. Mounting
holes are provided to install the 380-600 on a wall or
post. Ideal installation is on a wall with a northern
exposure to prevent excessive heating by the sun. If
installed on a post, protection from direct sunlight must
be provided. Shipped assembled.
Specifications
Material: Wood, white latex painted finish
Size: 19.5" H x 19" W x 11.25" D outside, 15" x 15" x 7.25" inside
Weight/shipping: 22 lbs/26 lbs
Specifications
Ordering Information
Material: Wood, white latex painted finish
Size: 23.5" H x 10" W x 7.5" D outside, 18" x 8" x 5.75" inside
Weight/shipping: 9 lbs/12 lbs
380-601
Small Instrument Shelter
Ordering Information
380-600
Thermometer Shelter
380-601 Small Instrument Shelter
380-600 Thermometer Shelter
98 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Temperature & Humidity
380-605 Large Instrument Shelter
The Model 380-605 Large Instrument Shelter is built
to National Weather Service standards. It is sometimes
called a Cotton Region Shelter. The enclosure is large
enough to house several recording instruments, such as
hygrothermographs. Thermometers and sensor probes
can be mounted on a board which spans the inside of the
box. The shelter is constructed of clear pine and painted
with three coats of white latex paint. It has louvers on all
four sides and vents in the bottom to provide natural
ventilation while excluding solar radiation and
precipitation, allowing ambient conditions to exist inside.
A double roof provides added protection against direct
solar radiation. A lock and key are included for security.
Optional wood or metal legs are available. For best
results, shelter should be installed over short grass. Legs
should be anchored to prevent overturning of the shelter
in high winds. Shipped partially assembled, the shelter
can be assembled easily in approximately 30 minutes.
Specifications
380-605 Large Instrument Shelter
Material: Clear pine, white latex painted finish
Hardware: Brass or stainless steel
Thermometer mount: Interior cross-board
Size: 31.5" H x 30.25" W x 20.75" D outside, 26"x 27.25" x 18" inside
Wood legs: 48"
Metal legs: 60"
Weight/shipping: 55 lbs/70 lbs
Wood legs: 20 lbs/25 lbs
Metal legs: 10 lbs/15 lbs
380-605 Large Instrument Shelter with 380-609 Metal Leg Kit
Ordering Information
380-605
380-608
380-609
Large Instrument Shelter
Wood Leg Kit
Metal Leg Kit
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
99
Temperature & Humidity
www.novalynx.com
220-HMK15 Humidity Calibrator
220-HMK41 Calibration Kit
The 220-HMK15 Humidity Calibrator makes
calibration and spot checking of humidity probes and
transmitters easy and reliable. The operating principle is
based on the fact that a saturated salt solution generates a
certain relative humidity in the air above it. The reading
of the humidity probe can then be adjusted accordingly.
This is a generally accepted and reliable method for
calibrating humidity instruments. The structure of the
HMK15 is designed to ensure fast and stable temperature
equilibration. No external power is required. In addition
to laboratory use, it is also suitable for on-site checks.
Special transit covers make the HMK15 simple to
transport. The HMK15 includes a thermometer for
measuring the temperature during calibration. It can also
be used for checking the temperature measurement
accuracy of the transmitter. The accuracy of the
thermometer is ± 0 54°F (± 0.3°C).
The 220-HMK41 Calibration Kit includes HMI41,
HMP46, NIST traceable certificate of calibration, and
carrying case. The HMI41 hand held indicator has an easyto-read LCD display. Temperature readout is available in
either degrees Centigrade or Fahrenheit. In addition to
displaying humidity and temperature readings, the HMI41
can calculate dewpoint and wet bulb temperature, absolute
humidity and mixing ratio. Calculated variables are
available in metric and non-metric. The HMP46 humidity
and temperature probe is solid and rugged; its stainless steel
probe head is made to withstand rough handling in
mechanically demanding applications. These features, plus
fast response time, high measurement accuracy and
excellent stability, as well as the wide temperature range of
the probe, make the HMI41/HMK46 combination an ideal
choice for the most demanding applications.
Specifications
The standard HMK15 consists of the following parts:
• Two salt chambers, chamber covers, and transit covers
• Base plate
• Calibrated thermometer
• Measurement cup and mixing spoon
Each salt chamber has holes with a diameter of 12, 13.5, and 18.5 mm.
There are two holes with a diameter of 13.5 mm.
Ordering Information
220-HMK15
220-19766HM
220-HM27032
220-5135
220-5136
220-5137
Humidity Calibrator
Extra Salt Chamber
Carrying Bag
Lithium Chloride (11%) 100 grams
Potassium Sulfate (97%) 100 grams
Sodium Chloride (75%) 100 grams
Specifications
Humidity
Range: 0-100%
Accuracy: ± 2% 0-90% RH, ± 3% 90-100% RH
Temperature
Range: -40/+212°F (-40/+100°C)
General
Typical ranges of calculated variables:
Dewpoint temp: -40/+122°F (-40/+100°C)
Absolute humidity: 0/262 gr/ft3 (0/600 g/m3)
Wet bulb temperature: 32/212°F (0-100°C)
Mixing ratio: 0/4200 gr/lb d.a. (0/600 g/kg d.a.)
Cable length: 1500 mm, extended spiral cable
Operating temperature range: -4/+140°F (-20/+60°C)
Electronics housing: ABS plastic, NEMA-4 (IP 65)
Probe head: stainless steel
Sensor protection: sintered filter
Weight: 450 g
Ordering Information
220-HMK41
220-19446
220-HMK15 Humidity Calibrator
100 NovaLynx Corporation
Humidity Calibration Kit
Serial Communication Cable
220-HMK41 Calibration Kit
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Barometric Pressure
230-P111 Dial Barometer .................................................... 102
230-600 Series Barometric Pressure Sensors ...................... 103
230-PTB110 Series Analog Barometers .............................. 104
230-278 Barometric Pressure Transducer ........................... 105
230-276 Barometric Pressure Sensor .................................. 106
110-WS-16BP Barometric Pressure Sensor ........................ 107
230-WE100 Barometric Pressure Sensor ............................ 108
230-M202 Handheld Barometer-Altimeter ......................... 109
230-044 Handheld Barometer-Altimeter-Compass ............. 110
Barometric Pressure
www.novalynx.com
230-P111 Dial Barometer
The Model 230-P111 Dial Barometer is rated at ± 0.05
inches (about ± 1.5 millibars) in mid-range. The 6"
lacquered brass case houses a precision rack-and-pinion
temperature-compensated movement, and the main
pointer has a knife edge to minimize parallax error when
taking readings. Not recommended for use above 3,500 feet.
Specifications
Sensor: aneroid bellows
Indicating range: 27.50-31.50 inches, 931-1067 millibars
Graduations: 0.05 inches, 1 millibar
Ordering Information
230-P111
Dial Barometer
230-P111 Dial Barometer
102 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Barometric Pressure
230-600 Series Barometric Pressure Sensors
The 230-600 Series Barometric Pressure Sensors offer
unparalleled performance and flexibility for atmospheric
pressure measurement. The barometer is available in two
configurations to satisfy a variety of applications; Model
230-600C provides a 4-20 mA current output, Model
230-600V provides 0-5 Vdc output. Both models offer
serial output in addition to the analog signal.
When ordered with a NovaLynx data logger, the
barometer can be mounted inside the data logger
enclosure. For other applications, the 230-601 series
consists of the same 230-600 sensor mounted inside a
weathertight polycarbonate enclosure and includes 25' of
output signal cable. Cable connections are inside.
Mounting hardware is available for easy attachment to
towers and masts.
Specifications
Operating range:
500-1100 mb (14.7-32.5 inHg) Standard Factory Default
Other pressure ranges within the 500 to 1100 mb span may be selected
via software commands but the full scale output signal range will always
be the same, 0-5000mV. For example, 750 to 850 mb = 0-5 Vdc.
Output signal:
4-20 mA (230-600C)
0-5 Vdc (230-600V)
Serial RS232 (all models)
Operating temperature:
-50° to +60°C
Accuracy:
± 0.3 mb (.01 inHg) @ 20°C
± 0.5 mb (.015 inHg) over temperature range
Power requirement:
7 to 30 Vdc at 25 mA (230-600C)
7 to 30 Vdc at 3 mA (230-600V)
Dimensions:
Sensor with backplate 3.5" L x 2.4" W x 0.8" D (90 x 60 x 20 mm)
Enclosure 4.7" x 4.7" x 2.25"
Weight/Shipping:
Sensor only .2 lb/1 lb
Sensor in enclosure 1.2 lbs/2 lbs
Other:
Sea-level offset
230-600 Barometric Pressure Sensor
Ordering Information
230-600C
230-600V
230-601C
230-601V
330-0524
395-A-003
Barometric Pressure Sensor, 4-20mA output
Barometric Pressure Sensor, 0-5V output
Barometric Pressure Sensor, in polycarb enclosure,
includes 25' cable, 4-20mA output
Barometric Pressure Sensor, in polycarb enclosure,
includes 25' cable, 0-5V output
Additional Cable, per foot
Mast Mounting Hardware
230-601 Barometric Pressure Sensor in Weatherproof Enclosure
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 103
Barometric Pressure
www.novalynx.com
230-PTB110 Series Analog Barometers
Specifications
The 230-PTB110 Barometer is designed both for
accurate barometric pressure measurements at a room
temperature and for general environmental pressure
monitoring over a wide temperature range.
The PTB110 barometer uses the Vaisala BAROCAP®
Sensor, a silicon capacitive absolute pressure sensor
developed for barometric pressure measurement
applications. The sensor combines the outstanding
elasticity characteristics and mechanical stability of
single-crystal silicon with the proven capacitive
detection principle.
The excellent long-term stability of the barometer
minimizes or even removes the need for field adjustment
in many applications.
The PTB110 is suitable for a variety of applications, such
as environmental pressure monitoring, data buoys, laser
interferometers, and in agriculture and hydrology. The
compact PTB110 is especially ideal for data logger
applications as it has low power consumption. Also an
external on/off control is available. This is practical when
the supply of electricity is limited.
Operating range:
230-PTB1104: 600-1060 mb
230-PTB1105: 800-1060 mb
Temperature range: -40/+140 °F (-40/+60 °C)
Humidity range: Non-condensing
Linearity* ± 0.25 mb
Hysteresis* ± 0.03 mb
Repeatability* ± 0.03 mb
Calibration uncertainty** ± 0.15 mb
Accuracy at +20 °C*** ± 0.3 mb
* Defined as ± 2 standard deviation limits of end-point non-linearity,
hysteresis error or repeatability error.
** Defined as ± 2 standard deviation limits of inaccuracy of the working
standard including traceability to NIST.
*** Defined as the root sum of the squares (RSS) of end-point nonlinearity, hysteresis error, repeatability error and calibration uncertainty
at room temperature.
Total accuracy at
+59/+77 °F (+15/+25 °C): ± 0.3 mb
+32/+104 °F (0/+40 °C): ± 0.6 mb
-4/+113 °F (-20/+45 °C): ± 1.0 mb
-40/+140 °F (-40/+60 °C): ± 1.5 mb
Long-term stability: ± 0.1 mb/year
Supply voltage 10-30 Vdc
Current consumption: less than 4 mA
Output voltage: 0-2.5 Vdc or 0-5 Vdc
Resolution: 0.1 mb
Load resistance: Minimum 10 kohm
Load capacitance: Maximum 47 nF
Settling time: 1 s to reach full accuracy after power-up
Response time: 500 ms to reach full accuracy after a pressure step
Pressure connector: M5 (10-32) internal thread
Pressure fitting: Barbed fitting for 1/8"
Minimum pressure limit: 0 mb abs
Maximum pressure limit 2000 mb abs
Electrical connector: Removable connector for 5 wires (AWG 28-16)
Terminals
Pin 1: external triggering
Pin 2: signal ground
Pin 3: supply ground
Pin 4: supply voltage
Pin 5: signal output
Housing material (plastic cover): ABS/PC blend
Housing classification: IP32
Metal mounting plate: Aluminum
Dimensions: 3.54" x 2.69" x 1.11" (90 mm x 68.4 mm x 28.1 mm)
Weight/Shipping: 3 oz (90 g)/1 lb (.5 kg)
Electromagnetic compatibility:
Complies with EMC standard EN 61326-1, Generic Environment
Ordering Information
230-PTB1104
230-PTB1105
104 NovaLynx Corporation
Analog Barometric Pressure Transmitter
600-1060 mb
Analog Barometric Pressure Transmitter
800-1060 mb
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Barometric Pressure
230-278 Barometric Pressure Transducer
Specifications
Performance Data
Pressure Range
500
600
Temperature
Accuracy (mb)
68°F (20C)
±0.6
±0.5
32-104°F (0/40C) ±1.2
±1.0
4-122°F (-20/50C) ±2.0
±1.5
40-140°F (-40/60C) ±2.5
±2.0
Non-Linearity
±0.5
±0.4
Hysteresis
±0.06
±0.05
Non-Repeatability
±0.04
±0.03
Resolution 0.01 mb
Long term stabilty: 0.1 mb/yr
Warm-up: < 1 sec from shutdown mode
(Warm-up shift < 0.1 mb maximum)
Response time: < 100 mSec
Proof pressure: 1500 mb
Burst pressure: 2000 mb
230-278 Barometric Pressure Transducer
The Model 230-278 Barometric Pressure Transducer
is designed for use in environmental applications that
require excellent accuracy, fast dynamic response, and
long-term stability and reliability. To withstand the
environmental extremes typically found in Automated
Weather Station (AWS) and environmental monitoring
applications, the 230-278 housing is constructed of
stainless steel and polyester. A removable 5-pin terminal
strip module is provided for easy connection to data
logger and signal connections, and a 1/8" barbed fitting
is used for pressure connection. The transducer’s
footprint (3.6" x 2.4" x 1.0") makes it ideal for use as a
new or drop-in replacement to existing configurations.
The 230-278 is operable in temperatures from -40°F to
+140°F (-40°C to +60°C). This unit consumes low levels
of power (3mA nominal) while in operation. Its sleep
mode feature reduces power consumption to 1 µA, and
provides instant startup for applications where pressure
readings must be taken quickly.
±0.3
±.06
±1
±1.5
±0.25
±0.03
±0.02
Environmental Data
Operating temperature: -40°F to +140°F (-40°C to +60°C)
Storage temperature: -76°F to +248°F (-60°C to +120°C)
Physical Description
Case: Stainless steel and polyester
Pressure fitting: 1/8" (i.d.) barbed fitting
Electrical connection: 5-pin terminal block
Dimensions: 3.6" x 2.4" x 1.0"
Weight: 4.8 oz (135g) approx
Electrical Data
Electrical circuit: 3 or 4 wire
Excitation:** 9.5 to 28 Vdc
Output:*** 0 to 2.5 Vdc
0 to 5 Vdc
Output impedance: < 10 ohms
Output noise: < 50 microvolts
Current consumption: 3 mA nominal (operating mode)
1 μA (sleep mode)
** Internal regulation minimizes effect of excitation variation, with
< 0.02 mb output change over 9.5 Vdc to 28 Vdc range
*** Zero output saturates at about 20 mV
Ordering Information
230-278-5
230-278-6
Principles of Operation The 230-278 utilizes the
Setraceram™ capacitive sensor and proprietary custom
IC analog circuit. This fundamentally simple design and
thermally stable glass fused ceramic sensing capsule is
coupled with a sophisticated capacitance charge-balance
IC circuit where accurate signal conditioning and
environmental compensation is performed. The
Setraceram™ sensor provides excellent thermal
expansion coefficient and low mechanical hysteresis,
which contributes to the long-term stability of the
instrument.
800
230-278-8
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Barometric Pressure Transducer, 0-5 Vdc
500 to 1100 mb
Barometric Pressure Transducer, 0-5 Vdc
600 to 1100 mb
Barometric Pressure Transducer, 0-5 Vdc
800 to 1100 mb
www.novalynx.com 105
Barometric Pressure
www.novalynx.com
230-276 Barometric Pressure Sensor
The Model 230-276 Barometric Pressure Sensor is an
extremely accurate and stable transducer based on the
Setraceram sensing element. This glass fused ceramic
capacitive sensing capsule is the heart of this environmental
pressure transducer because of its inherent thermal stability,
low hysteresis and fundamentally simple design. The
custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)
works hand-in-hand with the Setraceram sensor to achieve
long term stability and high accuracy. This circuit also
allows the 230-276 to operate with as little as 5.0 Vdc
excitation (optional) for remote battery or solar powered
applications. The standard unit has a convenient mounting
bracket and simple 1/8" tube fitting for quick installation.
Model 230-276 Barometric Pressure Transducer
Specifications
Range: 600 to 1100 mb, maximum pressure 20 psia
800 to 1100 mb, maximum pressure 20 psia
Accuracy: < ±0.25% FS RSS of non-linearity, hysteresis,
and non-repeatability
Resolution: Infinite, limited only by output noise level (0.005%FS)
Thermal effects: < 1%, zero; < 1% span, 30° to 130°F (0° to 55°C)
Long Term Stability: < ± 0.25% FS over 6 months at 70°F
Time Constant: < 10 milliseconds to reach 90% final output with step
function pressure input
Operating temperature: 0 to 175°F (-20 to 80°C)
Vibration: 2 g from 5 Hz to 500 Hz
Acceleration: 10 g maximum
Shock: 50 g operating, 1/2 sine 10 ms
Pressure fitting: 1/8" tube fitting
Electrical connection: 2 foot multiconductor cable
Excitation power: 12 Vdc standard @ 25 mA
Output: 0.1 to 5.1 Vdc
Output inpedance: 5 ohms
Output noise: < 200 microvolts RMS (0 Hz to 100 Hz)
Size: 2.08" W x 0.87" D x 2.08" H
Weight/shipping: 0.5 lbs/1.5 lbs
Ordering Information
230-276-8
230-276-6
330-0524
Barometric Pressure Sensor, 800-1100 mb range
Barometric Pressure Sensor, 600-1100 mb range
Cable, 5-conductor, 24 AWG
106 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Barometric Pressure
110-WS-16BP Barometric Pressure Sensor
The 110-WS-16BP Barometric Pressure Sensor uses a
piezoresistive sensing element which responds to
changes in barometric pressure with a corresponding
change in resistance. This resistance is converted to a
voltage from which a microprocessor (or another data
processor) calculates the barometric pressure at the
elevation where the barometer is located.
Specifications
Because barometric pressure varies with elevation, the
BP sensor must be adjusted to read correctly for the
elevation at which it is installed. This is done using the
offset adjustment screw located on the side of the sensor.
Ordering Information
Range: 28.25 to 30.75 in Hg (956.6 to 1041.3 mb)
Measurement span: 2.50 in Hg (85 mb)
Resolution: ± 0.01 in Hg or ± 0.3 mb
Altitude offset: 0 to +10,000 feet, screwdriver adjustable
Absolute Accuracy: 0.05 in Hg
Input power: 10 to 18 Vdc
Output voltage: 0 to 5 Vdc = 2.5 in Hg (85 mb) span
110-WS-16BP Barometric Pressure Sensor
The sensor is designed to be mounted indoors. This
arrangement assumes that the barometric pressure
indoors and outdoors is equal. An 18" length of cable is
provided.
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 107
Barometric Pressure
www.novalynx.com
230-WE100 Barometric Pressure Sensor
The highly accurate Model 230-WE100 Barometric
Pressure Sensor covers a pressure range from 800 to
1100 mb. The barometric pressure transmitter is fully
temperature compensated within an operating range of 40° to 65° C. The barometric pressure sensors are suplied
with 25' of marine grade cable, with lengths up to 500'
available upon request. The barometric pressure
transmitter’s output is 4-20 mA with a two-wire
configuration.
Specifications
Output: 4-20 mA
Range: 800-1100 mb
Accuracy: ± 1% of full scale
Linearity/Hysteresis: ± 0.1%
Operating voltage: 10-36 Vdc
Current draw: Same as sensor output
Warm up time: 3 seconds minimum
Operating temperature: -40° to +55°C
Sensor size: 3" x 2" x 1"
Weight: 0.13 lb
230-WE100 Barometric Pressure Sensor
Ordering Information
230-WE100
230-WE100C
Barometric Pressure Sensor
Additional Cable, per foot
108 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Barometric Pressure
230-M202 Handheld Barometer-Altimeter
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Easy to use
Rugged and sensitive
Highly accurate
Ideal portable pressure reference for weather station
site certification and production process monitoring
Displays station or sea level pressure
Altitude in feet or meters
NIST certificate included
CE compliant
The 230-M202 Handheld Digital Barometer-Altimeter
combines accurate pressure sensing with the power of
microprocessor-based computations to provide instantaneous
pressure and altitude readings. A combination of small size,
digital display, versatility, and high accuracy make it ideal
for field measurements or as a portable pressure reference.
Keypad controls provide access to the operating functions.
Pressure or altitude may be displayed in a variety of units.
The LCD display shows the data output and operating
mode. Data logging mode stores up to 240 readings for
future recall. The unit is powered by four AA alkaline
batteries (included) which provide approximately 100 hours
of continuous use.
The 230-M202 includes features for minimum and maximum
(Min/Max) value capture, tare readings, and user selectable
engineering units. A selectable altitude function allows
users to enter site altitude above sea level in order to display
local barometric pressure or barometric pressure corrected
to sea level. User referenced altitude (referenced to map or
trig markers) or altitude based on US Standard Atmosphere of
1962 can be selected for display. Using the altitude function
with the Min/Max and Tare features makes the 230-M202
very useful for accurately measuring changes in altitude.
This instrument measures atmospheric pressure very
accurately, to within 0.015" Hg. The 316 stainless steel
pressure sensor has extremely low sensitivity to shock,
vibration, acceleration, and changes in orientation or
temperature, yet features high sensitivity to pressure
variations. The device is temperature compensated over its
operating temperature range. Each unit comes with a
certificate of calibration traceable to NIST.
Specifications
Units
Pressure
mm Hg
in Hg
mb
kPa
psi
Altitude
feet
meters
Full Scale
Accuracy
Resolution
1000
39.37
1333
133
19.33
± .015
± .01
± .2
± .02
± .01
.1
.001
.1
.01
.001
36,000
10,973
±9
±3
1.0
1.0
Approvals: CE compliant
Display: 5 significant digit LCD (0.25" high)
2 line x 16 alphanumeric characters
NIST traceability: NIST certificate supplied
Power: 4 AA alkaline batteries (included) with user enabled automatic shut-off
Temperature:
Storage: -40° to +140° F (-40° to +60° C)
Operating: 23° to +122° F (-5° to +50° C)
Process connections: 1.8" female NPT, 316SS
Enclosure: 14 ounce (6.5" x 3.6" x 2.25") ABS plastic case
Media compatibility: Isolated AI sensor for fluids compatible with 316SS
Pressure limits: 77 PSIA (4,000 mm Hg Abs)
Tare: Nulls applied pressure to allow measurement of vacuum, gauge
pressure, or change in pressure or altitude from a reference point
Min/Max capture: Capture speed is equal to the selected damping rate
Damping rates: User selectable from 0.1 to 25 seconds
Backlight: Green, changes to Red for over pressure
Engineering unit selection: mm Hg, PSI, in Hg, mbar, bar, kPa, Torr
Altitude: Displayed in feet or meters. Can be set by user based on map
or trig marker information or standard altitude uses U.S. Standard
Atmosphere of 1962 data
Contrast Adjustment: Adjusts display for best viewing
Accuracy: (Full Scale = 38.674 PSIA or 2,000 mm Hg Abs)
± 0.015% F.S. from 0-1,000 mm HgA
± 0.025% F.S. 0-1,000 - 2,000 mm HgA
Field recalibration: Supported through firmware feature
Weight/shipping: 1.6 lb/3 lbs
Ordering Information
230-M202
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Handheld Digital Barometer-Altimeter
includes NIST certificate and protective boot
www.novalynx.com 109
Barometric Pressure
www.novalynx.com
230-044 Handheld Barometer-Altimeter-Compass
• Altitude profile for graphical information about altitude changes
• Storage of maximum, minimum, and total readings
• Accumulated ascents
• Weather forecast with symbols
• Barometer 300-1100 mb (hPa)
• Real and relative air pressure
• Temperature in Celsius and Fahrenheit
• Electronic compass with rotating bezel ring
• Clock with date and stop watch
• Easy-to-read high-contrast backlit liquid crystal display
The 230-044 Digital Barometer Altimeter and
Compass uses a high-precision, extremely responsive air
pressure transducer to display absolute pressure, altitude,
and corrected barometric pressure on an easy-to-read
high-contrast liquid crystal display. An electronic
thermometer and weather forecast symbols are also
incorporated into the design, making the 230-044 a very
versatile pocket weather instrument. Easy to use, it
features more than twenty functions from just five keys,
and can be operated with one hand. For determining
pressure-change trends or logging altitude excursion,
there is an LCD barograph display. Minimum, maximum,
and cumulative values can be obtained easily.
Lightweight and compact, the 230-044 includes a lanyard
for field portability.
110 NovaLynx Corporation
Specifications
Altitude measuring range: -700 m to +9,000 m (-2,300' to +29,500')
Altitude resolution: 1 meter or 1 foot
Accuracy: within ± 5 m (16') 0-4000 m, ± 8 m (26') 4000-6000 m
Pressure measuring range: 300-1,100 mb (hPa) only
Pressure resolution: 1 mb (hPa), Absolute & Sea Level
Temperature measuring range: 10°C to +70°C (-4°F to +158°F)
Temperature resolution: 0.1°F, 0.1°C
Compass: 0-360° with 1° resolution and 16 cardinal indicators
Clock: Date and time, 2 alarms, chronograph with 1/100 second resolution
Weather forecast display: 3 symbols
Dimensions: 73 mm L x 60 mm W (2.9" x 2/4")
Batteries: 2 x 3V CR2032 lithium batteries, included
Weight/shipping: < 1 lb/2 lbs
Ordering Information
230-044
Digital Barometer Altimeter and Compass
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Solar Radiation
240-8101 Star Pyranometer ................................................. 112
240-152 Shadow Band ........................................................ 113
240-200SZ Silicon Pyranometer ......................................... 114
240-120 SP-Lite Silicon Pyranometer ................................. 115
240-140 & 240-150 Silicon Cell Pyranometer .................... 116
240-6450 Solar Radiation Sensor ........................................ 117
240-CMP3 Pyranometer ...................................................... 118
240-8104 Albedometer ........................................................ 119
240-8111 Pyrradiometer ...................................................... 120
240-8110 Net Radiometer ................................................... 121
240-100 Net Radiometer ..................................................... 122
240-110 NR-Lite Net Radiometer ....................................... 123
240-CUV4 Broadband UV Radiometer .............................. 124
240-1070 Sunshine Recorder .............................................. 125
240-CSD3 Sunshine Duration Sensor ................................. 126
Solar Radiation
www.novalynx.com
240-8101 Star Pyranometer
The Model 240-8101 Star Pyranometer is a basic
instrument for measuring direct and diffuse solar
radiation (global radiation).The sensing element is
composed of 12 wedge-shaped, thin copper sectors
arranged radially, 6 white alternating with 6 black. Six
chromel-constantan thermocouples are embedded in each
sector to produce a 72 junction thermopile. Output from
the thermopile is approximately 15µV/W/m². The white
sectors of the sensing element are painted with a Kodak
paint that yields an almost perfect reflective surface. The
black sectors are painted a highly absorbent flat black.
When the sensor is exposed to solar radiation, a
temperature difference is created between the black and
white sectors. This temperature difference is proportional
to the radiation intensity and is not affected by ambient
temperature.
The windshield protecting the sensor is a 2.75" diameter,
polished crystal glass dome which admits
electromagnetic radiation between 0.3 and 3 microns.
The highly reflective outer surface, along with the mass
of the case, keeps the case interior at ambient
temperature. Instrument leveling is accomplished by
means of a bull’s-eye level and three leveling feet.
When used in conjunction with an optional shadow band,
the star pyranometer will measure diffuse solar radiation.
Direct radiation can be measured using two star
pyranometers: one, with a shadow band, to measure
diffuse radiation and a second, without the shadow band,
to measure both direct and diffuse. The difference
between the two
measurements is
direct radiation.
240-8101 Star Pyranometer
with 240-8106 Protective Housing
The Model 240-8106
Protective Housing
uses a ventilator to
blow air from the
bottom to the top of
the star pyranometer,
keeping the glass
dome free of
condensation, dew,
and rain. In addition,
there is an electric
heater that turns on at
approximately +10°C
(+50°F) which assists
112 NovaLynx Corporation
240-8101 Star Pyranometer
in keeping the glass dome clear when it snows. This unit
will help keep maintenance to a low level. The glass
dome must be kept clean at all times to provide accurate
readings. The unit requires 24 Vac at 80 Va for proper
operation.
Specifications
Sensing element: 12 black & white copper segments with
6 thermocouples each
Spectral sensitivity: 0.3 to 3 μm
Azimuth response: < 3% of the value
Cosine response: < 3% of the value, zenith angle 0-80°
Response time: < 25 sec(95%), < 45 sec (99%)
Measuring range: 0-1500 W/m²
Resolution: <1 W/m²
Stability: < 1% per year (temporary operation)
Temperature effect: < 1% of the value between -20°C to +40°C
Linearity: < 0.5% in the range 0.5-1330 W/m²
Impedance: About 35 ohm
Output: About 15 μV/W/m² or 4-20 mA = 0-1500 W/m²
Ambient temperature: -40°C to +60°C / -40°F to +140°F
Size: 5.4" Dia x 3.6" H
Weight/shipping: 1.9 lbs/4 lbs
Ordering Information
240-8101
240-8102
240-153
240-8101-C
240-8101-D
240-8101-OR
240-8101-SG
240-8101-SGC
240-8106
240-8106PS
240-USEA
Star Pyranometer (mV output), with 3 meters cable
Star Pyranometer (4-20mA output), with 3 m cable
Tower Mount, 1' boom with tower mounting hardware
Additional Cable, per meter
Glass Dome
O-Rings, set of 3
Silica Gel, 100 grams
Silica Gel Container. filled
Protective Housing, 24 Vac
Power Adapter for 240-8106, 220 Vac to 24 Vac
Amplifier PCB 0-5V Output
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Solar Radiation
240-152 Shadow Band
The Model 240-152 Shadow Band is used with a
pyranometer for measurement of diffuse sky radiation.
The shadow band prevents direct solar radiation from
reaching the pyranometer. If used in conjunction with a
second pyranometer without a shadow band, direct
radiation can be calculated by finding the difference
between the two pyranometer measurements.
The shadow band is ruggedly constructed of black
anodized aluminum, weighs approximately 24 pounds,
and uses a 3" band of approximately 25" diameter to
shade the pyranometer. A platform at the center supports
the pyranometer in a level position. The declination
setting must be adjusted regularly. Engraved markings
for latitude and solar declination make the device easy to
set up.
Specifications
240-152 Shadow Band, shown with 240-8101 Star Pyranometer
Accuracy: Correctable to 2%
Latitude adjustment: Ring rotates 0-60°
Declination adjustment: Slide ± 25°
Band width: 3" (76 mm)
Ring diameter: 25" (635 mm)
Mount: Platform
Leveling: 3 adjustment thumbscrews
Size: 26" W x 29" H x 23" D
Weight/shipping: 24 lbs/86 lbs (dim wt)
Ordering Information
240-152
Shadow Band
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 113
Solar Radiation
240-200SZ Silicon Pyranometer
The Model 240-200SZ Silicon Pyranometer is designed
for field measurement of global solar radiation in agricultural,
meteorological, and solar energy studies. In clear
unobstructed daylight conditions, the 240-200SZ compares
favorably with first class thermopile type pyranometers, but
at a fraction of the cost. It features a silicon photovoltaic
detector mounted in a fully cosine-corrected miniature
head. Current output, which is directly proportional to solar
radiation, is calibrated under natural daylight conditions in
units of watts per square meter (W/m²). Under most
conditions of natural daylight, the error is less than 5%.
Because the spectral response of the 240-200SZ does not
include the entire solar spectrum, it must be used only in the
natural daylight conditions for which it was calibrated. It
should not be used under vegetation, artificial lights, in a
greenhouse, or to measure reflected solar radiation.
Specifications
Sensor: High stability silicon voltaic detector (blue enchance)
Accuracy: ± 5% typical under natural daylight conditions
Sensitivity: 100 μA per 1000 W/m² typical
Linearity: Max deviation of 1% up to 3000 W/m²
Stability: < ± 2% change over a one year period
Response time: 10 μs
Temperature dependence: 0.15% per °C max
Cosine correction: Cosine corrected up to 80° angle of incidence
Azimuth: < ± 1% error over 360° at 45° elevation
Tilt: no error induced from orientation
Operating temperature: -40°C to +65°C (-40°F to +149°F)
Sensor housing: Weatherproof anodized aluminum case with
acrylic diffuser and stainless steel hardware
Size: 3" Dia x 1.4" H
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/2 lbs
Ordering Information
240-200SZ
Silicon Pyranometer with mounting and leveling
fixture, 10' cable
240-200SZ/50
Silicon Pyranometer with mounting and leveling
fixture, 50' cable
240-200SZ/100 Silicon Pyranometer with mounting and leveling
fixture, 100' cable
240-153
Tower Mount, 1' boom with tower mounting hardware
240-LI200SZ-A4 Amplifier PCB, 4-20 mA loop
240-LI200SZ-A5 Amplifier PCB, 0-5 V
114 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
Solar Radiation
240-120 SP-Lite2 Silicon Pyranometer
The 240-120 SP-Lite2 Silicon Pyranometer is designed
for routine global solar radiation measurements on a plane
surface. It is suitable for all weather operation. The sensor
measures the solar energy received from the entire
hemisphere. It is ideal for measuring available energy.
Applications include photo voltaic/solar energy monitoring,
agricultural evapotranspiration estimation, air pollution
dispersion calculations using the Delta-T method, and
educational uses. The SP-Lite2 employs a photo-diode
detector that generates a voltage output signal proportional
to the total amount of incoming solar radiation. Sensitivity
is proportional to the cosine of the solar angle of incidence,
allowing for accurate and consistent measurement. The
good cosine response performance is due to the unique
conical shaped self-cleaning diffuser design. The SP-Lite2
is suitable for use with a digital voltmeter or data logger.
Irradiance in W/m² units can be derived by dividing sensor
output signal violtage by the factory supplied calibration
coefficient.
Specifications
Sensitivity: Approx 80 mV/1000 W/m²
Spectral response: Equals silicon
Temperature range: -30 to +70 °C
Response time: Less than 1 sec
Range: +2000 W/m²
Temperature dependence: ± 0.15%/°C
Cosine error up to 80 degrees: < 10%
Spectral range: 0.4-1.1 micron
The SP-Lite2 Silicon Pyranometer compares favorably to ISO 9060
specified First Class Thermopile Pyranometers under clear and
unobstructed natural daylight conditions and fully complies with CE
directives.
Ordering Information
240-120
240-153
240-120-A
330-0220S
SP-Lite2 Silicon Pyranometer
includes 3 meters cable
Tower Mount, 1' boom with tower mounting hardware
Amplifier PCB, specify output
Cable, 2-conductor, 20 AWG shielded
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 115
Solar Radiation
www.novalynx.com
240-140 & 240-150 Silicon Cell Pyranometer
The Model 240-140 Silicon Cell Pyranometer measures
global solar radiation. When used with the 240-152 Shadow
Band, it will measure diffuse radiation. This pyranometer is
low cost, lightweight, and easy to install. The 240-150
includes a mounting and leveling plate. The sensor is a
silicon photovoltaic cell that absorbs radiation from 0.35 to
1.15 microns. The silicon cell converts this light energy into
electrical energy and the output voltage (approximately
80 mV/1000 W/m²) is essentially linear with light
intensity. Because the instrument is light sensitive, not heat
sensitive, full scale response time is less than one
millisecond. If the output is integrated over a daily period,
the accuracy of the value is within ± 3%. Accuracy of
instantaneous values is ± 5%.
240-150 Silicon Cell Pyranometer with Mounting and Leveling Plate
Specifications
Sensor: Silicon photovoltaic cell
Spectral response: 0.35 to 1.15 microns
Sensitivity: Approx 80 mV/1000 W/m²
Full scale response time: < 1 millisecond
Impedance: 1 ohm
Accuracy: ± 5%
Temperature compensation: +4° to +60°C
Windshield: Pyrex glass dome
Leveling: Circular level and 3 threaded feet
Size: 5" Dia x 2" H
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/2 lbs
Ordering Information
240-140
240-140/20
240-140LM
240-150
240-153
135-100-SR
330-0220S
Silicon Cell Pyranometer, 10' cable
Silicon Cell Pyranometer, 20' cable
Leveling/Mounting Plate Kit
Silicon Cell Pyranometer, with leveling/mounting
plate, 10' cable
Tower Mount, 1' boom with tower mounting hardware
Amplifier PCB for 240-140/150, 100mV to 5V
Cable, 2-conductor, 20 AWG shielded
116 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Solar Radiation
240-6450 Solar Radiation Sensor
Solar Radiation Sensor
Shown in 110-WS-16SRD Configuration (includes mounting arm and 40’ cable)
The 240-6450 Solar Radiation Sensor, or solar
pyranometer, measures global radiation, the sum at the
point of measurement of both the direct and diffuse
components of solar irradiance. The sensor’s transducer,
which converts incident radiation to electrical current, is
a silicon photodiode with wide spectral response.
The outer shell shields the sensor body from thermal
radiation and provides an airflow path for convection
cooling of the body, minimizing heating of the sensor
interior. It includes a cutoff ring for cosine response, a
level indicator, and fins to aid in aligning the sensor with
the sun’s rays. The space between the shield and the body
also provides a runoff path for water, greatly reducing the
possibility of rain or irrigation water entrapment. The
diffuser is welded to the body for a weathertight seal; it
provides an excellent cosine response. The transducer is
an hermetically-sealed silicon photodiode; the included
amplifier converts the transducer current into 0 to +2.5
Vdc output corresponding to 0 to 1500 W/m². Springloaded mounting screws, in conjunction with the level
indicator, enable rapid and accurate leveling of the
sensor. Each sensor is calibrated against a secondary
standard which is calibrated periodically against an
Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer in natural
daylight.
The sensor is a 3-wire device and requires a low current,
less than 2mA dc power to operate the internal amplifier
Specifications
General
Operating temperature: -40° to +150° F (-40° to +65° C)
Storage temperature: -50° to +158° F (-45° to +70° C)
Transducer: Silicon photodiode
Spectral response (10% points): 400 to 1100 nanometers
Cosine response
Percent of reading: ±3% (0° to ±70° incident angle);
±10% (±70° to ±85° incident angle)
Percent of full scale: ±2% (0° to ±90°)
Cable: 3-conductor, 24 AWG, 15'
I/O Specifications
White wire: Output (0 to +3Vdc); 1.67 mV per W/m²
Black wire: Ground
Red wire: +3 to +7Vdc ±10%; 1mA (typical)
Temperature Coefficient: +0.067% per °F (+ 0.12% per °C)
Reference temperature: 77°F (25°C)
Correction per degree above reference temp:
-0.067% of reading per °F (-0.12% per °C)
Correction per degree below reference temp:
+0.067% of reading per °F (+0.12% per °C)
Housing material: UV-resistant PVC plastic
Dimensions (length x width x height): 2.00" x 2.75" x 2.25" (51x70x57 mm)
Weight: 1.5 lbs (680 g)
Sensor Output
Resolution and units: 1 W/m²
Range: 0 to 1800 W/m²
Accuracy: ±5% of full scale (Reference: Eppley PSP at 1000 W/m²)
plus 45 W/m² per 100' (30 m) of additional cable
Drift: Up to ±2% per year
Ordering Information
240-6450
240-153-6450
330-0324
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Solar Radiation Sensor, includes 15' cable
Tower Mounting Bracket
Additional Cable, per foot
www.novalynx.com 117
Solar Radiation
www.novalynx.com
240-CMP3 Pyranometer
The 240-CMP3 Pyranometer is an instrument for
measuring the solar irradiance. The thermopile sensor
construction measures the solar energy that is received
from the total solar spectrum and the whole hemisphere
(180 degrees field of view). The output is expressed in
Watts per meter square. The CMP3 pyranometer is
designed for continuous indoor and outdoor use.
The CMP3 Pyranometer (ISO Second Class) is intended
for shortwave global solar radiation measurements in the
spectral range from 310 to 2800 nm. The thermopile
detector measures irradiance up to 2000 W/m² with
response time < 18 seconds and typical sensitivity
10 µV/W/m² that varies < 5% from -10 to +40 ºC.
Operating temperature range is -40 to +80 ºC and the
stability is better than 1% per year.
240-CMP3 Pyranometer
The CMP3 Pyranometer features a snap-on white sun
shield, integrated leveling, and a weatherproof connector
which is supplied pre-wired with 10 m of signal cable for
simple installation. An optional mounting rod and longer
cable lengths are available. Two CMP3s can easily be
mounted back-to-back to make a low cost albedometer.
Specifications
Spectral range (50% points): 310 to 2800 nm
Sensitivity (μV/W/m²): 5 to 15
Response time (95 %): < 18 s
Non-linearity (0-1000 W/m²): 2.5%
Non-stability (change/year): < 1%
Max irradiance: 2000 W/m²
Field of view (degrees): 180
Housing material: Anodized aluminum body
Dimensions: 79 x 67 mm
Weight: 300g and 600g with cable
Two 240-CMP3 Pyranometers
in albedometer configuration. Shown with optional
240-CMP3-MR Mounting Rod.
Ordering Information
240-CMP3
240-CMP3-MR
Pyranometer, includes 10 meters cable
Mounting Rod, 300 mm long x 12 mm dia
118 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Solar Radiation
240-8104 Albedometer
•
•
•
•
WMO & ISO 9060 First Class
Two separate outputs
Global and reflected solar radiation
Independent from ambient temperature
Model 240-8104 Albedometer
The Model 240-8104 Albedometer is essentially a
combination of two star pyranometers, one facing
upward and one facing downward. The upward facing
pyranometer measures global radiation (diffuse and
direct solar radiation), while the downward facing
pyranometer measures reflected solar radiation. Separate
outputs are provided for each pyranometer, which can be
recorded together on a strip chart recorder. Albedo, the
fraction of incident radiation reflected by a surface, can
be calculated from the output data (albedo = reflected
radiation ÷ global radiation). Short-wave net radiation
can also be calculated.
Like the 240-8101 Star Pyranometer, the 240-8104
Albedometer has a spectral response of 0.3 to 3 microns.
Thus, no long-wave terrestrial radiation is measured.
This is the major difference between the albedometer and
the 240-8111 Pyrradiometer, which measures short and
long-wave radiation and is similar in appearance to the
240-8104.
Each star pyranometer is protected by a crystal glass
dome. Desiccant tubes are attached to the housing to
absorb internal moisture. An 8" long mounting handle is
provided. Circular levels are included on each face to aid
in installation. Each sensor is supplied with a calibration
certificate.
Specifications
Sensing element: 12 black & white copper segments with
6 thermocouples each
Sensitivity: 0.3 to 3 μm
Azimuth response: < 3% of the value
Cosine response: < 3% 0.95% of the value, 0° to 80° zenith angle
± 3% from 60° to 80° zenith angle
Response time: < 25 seconds
Measuring range: 0-1500 W/m²
Resolution: < 1 W/m²
Stability: < 1% per year (temporary operation)
Temperature effect: < 1% of the value between -20 °C to 40°C
Linearity: < 0.5% in the range 0.5-1330 W/m²
Impedance: Approx 35 ohms
Ambient temperature: -40°C to +60°C
Windshield: Polished glass dome, 2.75" dia x 0.08" thick (70 x 2 mm)
Leveling: Bull’s-eye level on each face
Size: 14.6" L x 4.5" W x 4.2" H (371 x 114 x 107 mm)
Weight/shipping: 3.5 lbs/10 lbs (1.6 kg/4.5 kg)
Cable: 2 polar shielded, 3 m length
Ordering Information
240-8104
240-8104-D
240-8104-OR
240-8104-SG
240-8104-SGC
330-0524
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Albedometer; including 2 desiccant tubes, silica gel,
and 3 meters of cable
Glass Dome, 2 required
O-Rings, set of 6
Silica Gel, 100 grams
Silica Gel Container, filled
Additional Cable, per foot
www.novalynx.com 119
Solar Radiation
www.novalynx.com
240-8111 Pyrradiometer
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WMO First Class
Long-wave and short-wave measurements
Independent from ambient temperature
Separate outputs for upward and
downward radiation
Model 240-8111 Pyrradiometer
The Model 240-8111 Pyrradiometer is a total
hemispherical radiometer, used for exact determination
of net radiation in short-wave and long-wave radiation
range (0.3 to >30 µm) with two separately working
receivers and with a built-in Pt-100 resistance
thermometer to determine reference temperature. Two
black, radiation absorbing plates act as sensors, one
facing upward and one facing downward. Each transfers
the energy absorbed to a separate 90-junction
copper-constantan thermopile. Both of the two outputs
are approximately 15 µV/W/m², one representing
downward total radiation and the other representing
upward total radiation. The difference between these two
provides net radiation.
Lupolene domes shield the thermopiles from wind and
moisture. Lupolene is essentially transparent to radiation
from 0.3 to 60 microns. Two desiccant tubes are supplied
to remove water vapor from inside the instrument
housing. For long-term applications, fittings permit
attachment of a nitrogen source for continuous purging.
Levels are embedded in both the top and bottom faces of
the pyrradiometer, and a 10" mounting arm is included.
120 NovaLynx Corporation
Specifications
Internal temperature sensor: 100-ohm platinum resistance sensor
Spectral Sensitivity: 0.3 to >30 μm
Azimuth response: < 5% of the value
Cosine response: < 5% of the value, zenith angle 0° to 80°
Response time: < 25 sec (95%), < 45 sec (99%)
Measuring range: 0-1500 W/m²
Resolution: < 1 W/m²
Stability: < 3% per year (temporary operation)
Temperature effect: < 2% of the value between -20°C to + 40°C
Linearity: < 2% in the range 0.5-1330 W/m²
Impedance: About 190 ohm/receiver plate
Output: About 15 μV/W/m²
Ambient temperature: -40°C to + 60°C
Windshield: Lupolene dome, 2.4" (62 mm) diameter
Leveling: Bull’s-eye levels on each face
Size: 14" L x 4" W x 3.5" H (355 x 100 x 90 mm)
Weight/shipping: 4 lbs/7 lbs (1.8 kg/3.2 kg)
Cable: 4 polar shielded, 5 m length
Ordering Information
240-8111
240-8111-D
240-8111-OR
240-8111-PT
240-8111-SG
240-8111-SGC
330-0420
Pyrradiometer, including 2 desiccant tubes, silica gel,
platinum resistance temperature sensor, and 5
meters of cable
Lupolene Dome, 2 required
O-Rings, set of 4
Pt-100 Platinum Element
Silica Gel, 100 grams
Silica Gel Container, filled
Additional Cable, per foot
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Solar Radiation
240-8110 Net Radiometer
• WMO First Class
• Independent from ambient temperature
• Direct and instantaneous determination
of net radiation
240-8110 Net Radiometer
The Model 240-8110 Net Radiometer is an instrument
for direct and instantaneous determination of net
radiation (difference between incident and reflected
radiation) in short and long wavelength range.
The receiver plate facing up measures short-wave global
radiation and long-wave radiation of the atmosphere
according to its temperature. The receiver plate facing
down measures reflected short-wave radiation and longwave radiation according to the temperature emitted by
the surface beneath the sensor. Both of the receiver plates
are electrically cross-connected, thus, a direct
determination of net radiation is possible.
A positive sign of the value measured means radiation
flux directed to the reference surface, a negative sign
radiation flux off the reference surface. Hence follows
that the reference surface is gaining radiant energy when
positive values are measured. At negative signs the
surface looses energy by long-wave radiation.
Specifications
Spectral sensitivity: 0.3 to >30 μm
Azimuth response: 0.5% of the value
Cosine response: < 5% of the value, zenith angle 0° to 80°
Response time: < 25 sec (95%), < 45 sec (99%)
Measuring range: 0-1500 W/m² (positive & negative)
Resolution: < 1 W/m²
Stability: < 3% per year (temporary operation)
Temperature effect: < 2% of the value between -20°C to +40°C
Linearity: < 2% in the range 0.5-1330 W/m²
Impedance: About 5 ohm
Output: About 15 μV/W/m² (positive & negative)
Ambient temperature: -40°C to +60°C (-40°F to +140°F)
Size: 21" L x 2" W x 1.5" H
Weight/shipping: l lb/4 lbs
Ordering Information
240-8110
240-8110-C
240-8110-D
240-8110-OR
240-8110-SG
240-8110-SGC
Net Radiometer, includes desiccant tube, silica gel,
and 3 meters cable
Additional Cable, per meter
Lupolene Dome, 2 required
O Rings, set of 3
Silica Gel, 100 grams
Silica Gel Container, filled
The instruments consists of the sensor with a desiccant
(silica gel) container and a 400 mm (16") long support
arm. The sensing element of the instrument consists of 16
Cu-CuNi thermocouple covered by two circular
blackened copper plates (receiver plates) which are
protected by two lupolene domes. Watertight sealing is
achieved by two fixing rings and o-rings. Two bull’s-eye
levels permit horizontal adjustment. The silica gel
container is incorporated in the front of the case.
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 121
Solar Radiation
240-100 Net Radiometer
The Model 240-100 Net Radiometer contains a high
output 60 junction thermopile with a nominal resistance
of 4 ohms and linear calibration. The thermopile is
mounted in a glass reinforced plastic frame with a
built-in level. A ball joint is supplied on the stem to
facilitate leveling. Thermopile surfaces (or sensor
surfaces) and surrounding surfaces are flat black and the
frame is black to reduce internal reflections.
Sensor surfaces are protected from excessive convective
cooling by a hemispherical polyethylene windshield.
Polyethylene is used for the windshield material because
it is transparent to both long and shortwave energy. The
windshield is heavy duty and is self supporting so no
pressurization is required. A desiccant supply is
contained in the support arm to keep air spaces inside the
windshield dry. The instrument and its support arm also
contain purge ports. A mounting bracket is supplied for
mounting to horizontal or vertical pipes.
Specifications
Spectral response: 0.25 to 60 μm
Nominal calibration factors: For positive values 9.3 W/m²/mV¹
For negative values 11.6 W/m²/mV¹
Nominal resistance: 4 ohms
Time constant: Approx 30 sec
Wind affect: Positive up to 5.9% reduction @ 7m/s
Negative up to 1% reduction @ 7 m/s
Power required: None
Windshield: Polyethylene dome, 0.25mm thick
Support arm: 0.02m D x 0.75m L
Size: 57mm H x 72mm W x 177mm L
Standard cable: Shielded 2-conductor, 7m long
Weight/Shipping: 2 lbs/5 lbs
Ordering Information
240-100
240-M488084
330-0220S
Fritschen Type Net Radiometer, includes 25' cable
Spare Parts Kit, including 2 domes, 2 o-rings, and
silica gel desiccant
Additional Cable, per foot
122 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
Solar Radiation
240-110 NR-Lite2 Net Radiometer
The 240-110 NR-Lite2 Net Radiometer is designed for
routine measurement of net radiation which is the
balance between incoming and outgoing radiation under
outdoor conditions. The detector is based on a Teflon
coated, weather resistant black conical absorber. In contrast
to other sensor designs, NR-Lite2 requires no fragile plastic
domes. This results in a virtually maintenance free design.
The NR-Lite2 is suitable for:
• Agricultural Meteorology: Evapotranspiration
calculations and crop damage prevention
• Building physics: Study of thermal stress and
heat balance
• Road Safety: Highway condition monitoring
The NR-Lite2 is easy to use. It is based on a thermopile
sensor. The voltage is proportional to the net radiation. It
can be directly connected to voltmeter or data logger
with a mV input. The NR-Lite2 is suitable for conditions
outdoor use and fully complies with CE regulations.
Specifications
Spectral response: 0-100 microns
Detector protection: Teflon coated (no domes)
Sensitivity (upper detector): 10 µV/W/m² (nominal)
Recommended output range
For atmospheric application: -25 to +25 mV
Sensor asymmetry: ± 20%
Range: -2000 to +2000 W/m²
Response time (1/e): 20 sec (nominal)
Temperature range: -30 °C to +70 °C
Directional error (0-60 degrees at 1000 W/m²): < 30 W/m²
Support arm: 16 x 400 mm
Sensor enclosure: 80 mm dia
Ordering Information
240-110
240-110-A
220-0220S
NR-Lite2 Net Radiometer, includes 15m cable
Amplifier PCB, specify output
Additional Cable, per foot
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 123
Solar Radiation
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240-CUV4 Broadband UV Radiometer
The 240-CUV4 Broadband UV Radiometer is a
general-purpose instrument for applications in
meteorology, for material testing, for monitoring of
lamps, and for use in ageing tests in solar simulators.
High quality dome and diffuser give optimised
directional response, an optical filter provides sensitivity
to combined UV-A and UV-B as shown in the graph
below. The photodiode generates a voltage output
linearly proportional to the UV intensity.
Specifications
A waterproof plug and socket cable connection facilitates
easy installation. The snap-on sun shield covers the
connector and allows viewing of the integrated bubble
level. The screw-in drying cartridge can be removed by
simply using a coin, for replacement of the desiccant that
is supplied in convenient refill packets.
Spectral range: 305 to 385 nm
Sensitivity: 1 mV / W / m²
Temperature dependence of sensitivity: +0.1%/ºC
Response time (95%): < 1%
Non-linearity: < 1%
Maximum irradiance: 100 W/m²
Operating temperature: –40 to +80 °C
Directional error: < 10%
Ordering Information
240-CUV4
240-CUV4-C
Broadband UV Radiometer, 32' cable
Additional Cable, per meter
CUV 4 is not suitable for the measurement of specific
parts of the UV spectrum such as UV-A, UV-B, UV-E /
UV-Index. For measurement of these parameters please
contact NovaLynx for recommendations.
124 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Solar Radiation
240-1070 Sunshine Recorder
The Model 240-1070 Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder
employs a glass sphere to focus the sun’s rays to an
intense spot, which will char a mark on a curved card
mounted concentrically with the sphere. As the earth
rotates, the position of the spot moves across the card.
When the sun is obscured, the trace is interrupted. At the
end of the day the total length of the trace, less gaps, is
proportional to the duration of sunshine.
The record cards are made from a special board which
produces a clearly visible trace even in weak sunlight. The
cards are treated to char rather than burn to ensure clarity
of the trace. Different cards are used for different seasons.
Each card is marked with hourly intervals. An optional
transparent plastic template marked with scales enables
the length of the curved trace to be accurately measured.
Specifications
Latitude adjustments: 0-65° N or S
Sphere: 102 mm ± 1.3 mm
Focal length-sodium D light: 74.9 mm ± 0.25 mm
Dimensions: 240 mm x 187 mm x 165 mm
Weight/Shipping: 10 lbs/14 lbs
Ordering Information
240-1070
240-1071
240-1072
240-1073
240-1074
Campbell-Stokes Pattern Sunshine Recorder,
45-65° N/S, includes 1 package of record cards
Campbell-Stokes Pattern Sunshine Recorder,
0-45° N/S, includes 1 package of record cards
Sunshine Record Cards (1 year supply)
200 summer, 200 winter, 100 spring/autumn
Transparent Measuring Template
Replacement Glass Sphere
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 125
Solar Radiation
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240-CSD3 Sunshine Duration Sensor
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Waterproof plug-and-socket cable connection for easy installation and servicing
Humidity indicator to show when a change of drying cartridge is necessary
Larger capacity drying cartridge that is easier to change at reduced intervals
Glass tube, instead of plastic, for improved resistance to scratching by storm-blown sand and ice
Operating temperature range -40º to +70º Celsius
The Model 240-CSD3 Sunshine Duration Sensor
provides the number of sunshine hours per day. The
240-CSD3 has no moving parts and uses three
photo-diodes with specially designed diffusers to make
an analog calculation of when it is sunny (direct solar
irradiance greater than 120 W/m²). An output is switched
high or low to indicate “sunny” or “not sunny”
conditions. The calculated direct irradiance value is also
available.
The 240-CSD3 operates from 12 Vdc power and has
built-in heaters to dissipate rain, snow, and frost. These
are normally switched externally but an optional internal
thermostat control is available.
Specifications
Spectral range: 400 to 1100 nm
Operating temperature: -40ºC to 70ºC
Sunshine Yes signal: 1 ± 0.1 V if direct irradiance signal > 120 W/m²
Sunshine No signal: 0 ± 0.1 V if direct irradiance signal < 120 W/m²
Accuracy of sunshine hours: > 90% in monthly total
Analog output signal: 1 mV per W/m² of direct irradiance
Accuracy of direct signal: > 90% for clear sky
Non-stability: < 2% change per year
Temperature dependence: < 0.1%/K
Response time: < 1 ms
Power requirement: 12 Vdc
Ordering Information
240-CSD3
240-CSD3-T
Sunshine duration sensors are widely used in weather
networks to provide the number of sunshine hours per
day for tourist information. In agriculture the 240-CSD3
monitors the amount of sunshine received by crops.
126 NovaLynx Corporation
Sunshine Duration Sensor
includes 15 meters cable
Sunshine Duration Sensor, with internal thermostat
includes 15 meters cable
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Precipitation
260-2500 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges .............................. 128
260-2501-A Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge ............................ 129
260-2505 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge ................................ 130
260-52202 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge .............................. 131
260-7852 Rain Collector ..................................................... 132
260-2530 Fence Post Rain Gauge ....................................... 133
260-2531 Plastic Rain Gauge .............................................. 133
260-2510 NWS Type Rain Gauge ....................................... 134
260-2520 Forestry Rain Gauge ........................................... 135
260-700 Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor ............................. 136
260-2590 Precipitation Detector ......................................... 137
260-2591 Leaf Wetness Sensor ........................................... 137
260-2101 Rain Logger ........................................................ 138
260-2102 Rain Logger ........................................................ 139
260-952 Rain Gauge Wind Screen ...................................... 140
260-950 Mounting Plate ...................................................... 140
260-2595 Rain Gauge Calibrator ........................................ 141
260-2696 Digital Event Counter ......................................... 142
260-2597 Pocket Counter .................................................... 142
Precipitation
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260-2500 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges
The Model 260-2500 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge is a
dependable instrument used for measuring precipitation.
Rainfall entering the 8" or 12" funnel collector is directed
to the tipping bucket assembly. When an incremental
amount of precipitation has been collected, the bucket
assembly tips and activates a magnetic reed switch. The
sample is discharged through the base of the gauge. A
momentary electrical contact closure is provided for each
increment of rainfall. This contact closure is used to
operate the Model 260-6113-A Event Recorder or other
data acquisition systems. A level is provided on the base
for correct positioning of the unit. The unit is
manufactured of anodized aluminum and powder coated
aluminum. The funnel has a screen to prevent debris
from entering the gauge. It is shipped complete with
mounting brackets and 25' of cable.
The Model 260-2500E Electric Rain/Snow Gauge is
used where 115V power is available and precipitation is
often in the form of snow. A heating kit has been added
to the basic Model 260-2500 Rain Gauge to provide the
capability for measuring snowfall. The 260-2500E has a
400 watt heater unit installed on the base of the rain
gauge. The outer tube is insulated and a freeze point
thermostat controls the temperature at the funnel. Snow
falling into the funnel is melted and the resulting water
drains into the tipping bucket assembly. It includes 25' of
power cable and 25' of signal cable.
Specifications
Capacity: Unlimited
Orifice:
Model 260-2500: 8" (20 cm)
Model 260-2500-12: 12" (30 cm)
Calibration: 0.01", 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm
Accuracy: ±1% at 2"/hr
Output: 0.1 second switch closure
Contact rating: 3 watts, 0.25 amps, 24 Vdc
Size:
Model 260-2500: 8" x 17"
Model 260-2500-12: 12" x 20"
Weight/Shipping:
Model 260-2500: 7 lb/12 lb
Model 260-2500-12: 14 lb/18 lb
Note: 1 mm calibration is not available for 260-2500-12 series.
128 NovaLynx Corporation
260-2500 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
Ordering Information
260-2500
260-2500M
260-2500M.25
260-2500M.5
260-2500E
260-2500ME
260-2500ME.25
260-2500ME.5
8" Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip
8" Rain Gauge, 1 mm/tip
8" Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/tip
8" Rain Gauge, 0.5 mm/tip
8" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip, 115 Vac
8" Electric Rain Gauge, 1 mm/tip, 115 Vac
8" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/tip, 115 Vac
8" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.5 mm/tip, 115 Vac
260-2500-12
260-2500M-12.25
260-2500E-12
260-2500ME-12.25
12" Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip
12" Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/tip
12" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip, 115 Vac
12" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/tip, 115 Vac
260-2500H
260-2500H-12
260-2500HC/25
260-2500HC/75
330-0220
260-2595
260-2596
260-950
260-952
Heater Kit for 8" 260-2500, 115 Vac
Heater Kit for 12" 260-2500-12, 115 Vac
Additional Heater Cable, 25' add’l (50' total)
Additional Heater Cable, 75' add’l (100' total)
Additional Signal Cable, per foot
Rain Gauge Calibrator
Digital Event Counter
Rain Gauge Mounting Plate
Rain Gauge Wind Screen
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Precipitation
260-2501-A Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
The Model 260-2501-A Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
was designed for the National Weather Service to provide
a reliable, low-cost tipping bucket rain sensor. It has been
updated and improved with the addition of an inner
funnel to even the flow of rainfall into the gauge,
providing better accuracy at higher rainfall rates. Its
simplicity of design assures trouble-free operation, yet
provides accurate rainfall measurements. The tipping
bucket mechanism activates a sealed reed switch that
produces a contact closure for each 0.01", 0.25 mm, or
1 mm of rainfall. The gauge has an 8" orifice and is
manufactured of powder coated and anodized aluminum.
The funnel screen prevents debris from entering the
gauge. Shipped complete with mounting legs and 25' of
signal cable.
Specifications
260-2501-A Rain Gauge with 260-950 Mounting Plate
Sensor type: Tipping bucket
Output: 0.1 second switch closure
Switch: Sealed reed switch
Sensitivity: 1 tip per 0.01", 1 tip per 1 mm, or 1 tip per 0.25 mm
Accuracy: ±2% up to 2"/hr
Contact rating: 3 watts, 0.25 amps, 24 Vdc
Size: 8" dia x 13.75" high
Mounting: 3 legs, ¼" diameter bolt holes on 9½" diameter bolt circle
Weight/shipping: 3.5 lbs/5 lbs
Ordering Information
260-2501-A
260-2501M-A
260-2501M-A.25
260-2501M-A.5
330-0220
8" Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip, incl 25' cable
8" Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 1 mm/tip, incl 25' cable
8" Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/tip, incl 25' cable
8" Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 0.5 mm/tip, incl 25' cable
Additional Signal Cable, per foot
260-2595
260-2597
260-2501MB
260-950
260-952
260-955
Rain Gauge Calibrator
Pocket Size Digital Event Counter
Rain Gauge Side Mounting Bracket
Rain Gauge Mounting Plate
Rain Gauge Wind Screen, 24" legs
Wind Screen Mounting Kit
260-2501-A Rain Gauge with 260-2501MB Side Mounting Bracket
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 129
Precipitation
www.novalynx.com
260-2505 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge - Discontinued
The Model 260-2505 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
utilizes the highest quality materials and unique funnel
design for accurate rainfall measurement. Rain is
collected by an 8" diameter brass orifice with a precision
machined edge. Collected water passes through screens
that filter debris, and it then funnels into a small
catchment basin. The basin is constructed so that the
force of the falling water is dissipated at the basin. Water
that reaches the tipping buckets has a constant head taken
from a point above the bottom of the basin. With this
feature, the accuracy of the gauge at the calibration rate
(0.5" per hour) is extended to rainfall rates as high as 2"
per hour. Buckets tip as they fill which activates a sealed
reed switch. This produces pulses which can be directed
to event recorders, dataloggers, or other data acquisition
devices. Case exterior is stainless steel. All moving parts
are chrome plated. A built-in level and predrilled feet aid
proper installation of the gauge. Screens prevent insect
intrusion at all openings.
Specifications
Orifice: 20 cm (7.874")
Accuracy: 0.5% up to 2.0"/hr
Calibration: 0.01" or 0.25 mm
Capacity: Unlimited
Output: 0.1 second switch closure
Switch: Form A reed
Cable: 2-conductor, 20AWG, 33' (10 m) standard
Size: 8" dia x 18" (203 mm x 457 mm)
Weight/shipping: 8 lbs/15 lbs (3.6 kg/6.8 kg)
Ordering Information
260-2505
260-2505M
330-0220
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 0.25mm/tip
Additional Signal Cable, per foot
130 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Precipitation
260-52202 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
The 260-52202 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge meets the
specifications of the World Meteorological Organization
(WMO). The design uses a proven tipping bucket
mechanism for simple and effective rainfall
measurement. The bucket geometry and material are
specially selected for maximum water release, thereby
reducing contamination and errors. Catchment area of
200 cm2 and measurement resolution of 0.1 mm meet the
recommendations of the WMO. Extensive use of molded
thermoplastic components ensures maximum
performance and value. Leveling screws and bullseye
level are built-in for easy and precise adjustment in the
field. Measured precipitation is discharged through a
collection tube for verification of total rainfall. Model
260-52202 is heated for operation in cold temperatures.
Power adapter is included. An unheated version, Model
260-52203, is available for use in moderate climates.
Specifications
Size: 18 cm dia x 30 cm high (39 cm high with mounting base)
Catchment Area: 200 cm2
Resolution: 0.1 mm per tip
Accuracy: 2% up to 25 mm/hr, 3% up to 50 mm/hr
Output: Magnetic reed switch (N.O.), rating 24 Vac/dc 500 mA
Operating Temperature: -20°C to +50°C (heated)
Power: 24 Vac @ 18 Watts for heater only
Mounting: Clamp for 1" (1.34" dia) iron pipe or 3 bolts on 160 mm dia circle
Other: Leveling adjustment, thermostatic control for heater, intake screen
Ordering Information
260-52202
260-52202H
260-52203
260-52250
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, heated, 110 Vac
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, heated, 220 Vac
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, unheated
Bird Wire Assembly
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 131
Precipitation
260-7852 Rain Collector
The Model 260-7852 Rain Collector is a tipping bucket
rain gauge designed to meet the guidelines of the World
Meteorological Organization. Rain enters the collector
cone, passes through a debris-filtering screen, and
collects in one chamber of the tipping bucket. The bucket
tips when it has collected an amount of water equal to the
increment in which the collector measures (0.01" or
0.2mm). As the bucket tips, it causes a switch closure and
brings the second tipping bucket chamber into position.
The rain water drains out through the screened drains in
the base of the collector.
The body and base of the collector are constructed of
tough, UV resistant plastic. The tipping bucket pivots on
bearings that minimize friction and wear. Stainless steel
adjustment screws under each chamber of the tipping
bucket allow you to fine-tune the calibration. Mounting
holes are predrilled in the base and a built-in leveling
trough aids in installation.
Specifications
Sensor type: Tipping bucket with magnetic reed switch
Accuracy: ± 4%
Output: Contact closure
Attached cable length: 40' (12 m)
Cable type: 4-conductor, 26 AWG
Recommended maximum cable length: 900' (270 m)
Housing Material: UV-stabilized ABS plastic
Dimensions:
Rain collector: 8.75" diameter x 9.5" high (16.5 x 24 cm)
Collection area: 31 in² (200 cm²)
Weight: 2 lbs 3 oz (1 kg)
Ordering Information
260-7852
260-7852M
260-153-7852
Rain Collector, 0.01"/tip
Rain Collector, 0.2mm/tip
Tower Mounting Arm, 1'
132 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
Precipitation
260-2530 Fence Post Rain Gauge
260-2531 Plastic Rain Gauge
The wedge-shaped Model 260-2530 Fence Post Rain
Gauge can measure up to 6" (150 mm) of rainfall.
English and metric graduations are permanently molded
in durable, weather-resistant plastic. The minimum
graduation is 0.01" (or 0.1 mm). Screws are provided to
mount the gauge.
The Model 260-2531 Plastic Rain Gauge measures up
to 11" (280 mm) of precipitation and is made of clear,
tough butyrate. The internal measuring tube, with a
capacity of 1" (25 mm), is graduated to 0.01" or 0.2 mm.
Precipitation greater than 1" overflows into the outer
cylinder and is measured by pouring into the measuring
tube. The receiving funnel and measuring tube are
removed for collection of snow. A sturdy, rust-proof
mounting bracket is included with the gauge.
Specifications
Capacity: 6" (150 mm)
Resolution: 0.01" (0.1 mm)
Size: 2.5" W x 2.25" D x 13.5" L (64 mm x 57 mm x 343 mm)
Weight/shipping: 0.5 lbs/2 lbs (0.2 kg/0.9 kg)
Ordering Information
260-2530
Fence Post Rain Gauge
Specifications
Capacity: 11" (280 mm)
Resolution: 0.01" (0.2 mm)
Size: 4" dia x 14" H (102 mm x 356 mm)
Weight/shipping: 2 lbs/4 lbs (0.9 kg/1.8 kg)
Ordering Information
260-2531
260-2531M
260-2531BP
260-2531F
260-2531MT
260-2531MMT
260-2531OT
200-2530 Fence Post Rain Gauge
Plastic Rain Gauge, english graduations
Plastic Rain Gauge, metric graduations
Replacement Backplate (Mounting Bracket)
Replacement Funnel
Replacement Measuring Tube, english
Replacement Measuring Tube, metric
Replacement Outer Tube
260-2531 Plastic Rain Gauge
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 133
Precipitation
260-2510 NWS Type Rain Gauge
The Model 260-2510 National Weather Service Type
Rain and Snow Gauge is an all aluminum rain gauge
with a total capacity of 20" of rainfall.
The upper portion of the funnel is cylindrical in shape
and is turned to a sharp edge. Rainwater falling into the
funnel is delivered into the receiver. The ratio is 10 to 1,
so that 1" of rainfall delivers 10" of water to the receiver.
The capacity of the receiver is 2" of rainfall. Any excess
overflows into the outer chamber so it can be measured
after the quantity in the receiver has been recorded and
removed. The gauge can be read to 0.01".
When used as a snow gauge, the receiver and funnel are
removed. Snowfall is collected in the overflow can and
melted for measurement with the receiver and dipstick.
A black plexiglass measuring stick with both english and
metric markings is included. An optional tripod support
is available.
Specifications
Orifice: 8" (200 mm)
Capacity: 20" (500 mm)
Resolution: 0.01" (0.25 mm)
Material: Aluminum
Finish: White powder coat, anodized funnel
Size: 8" dia x 27" H (210 mm x 686 mm)
Weight/shipping (gauge only): 7 lbs/8 lbs (3.2 kg/3.6 kg)
Weight/shipping (tripod support): 8 lbs/10 lbs (3.6 kg/4.5 kg)
Ordering Information
260-2510
260-2510S
260-2510MS
Rain and Snow Gauge
includes measuring stick with english and metric units
Tripod Support
Measuring Stick (24" length) english and metric
134 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
Precipitation
260-2520 Forestry Rain Gauge
The Model 260-2520 Forestry Rain Gauge includes a
removable funnel, a calibrated measuring tube, a black
plexiglass measuring stick graduated to 0.01" and 0.2
mm, and an overflow can. An optional support bracket is
available.
The measuring tube holds exactly 0.5". Any excess
overflows into the outer chamber so it can be measured
after the quantity in the measuring tube has been
recorded and removed. Total gauge capacity is 7".
When used as a snow gauge, the funnel and measuring
tube are removed. Snowfall is collected in the overflow
can and melted for measurement with the measuring tube
and dipstick.
Specifications
Orifice: 8" (200 mm)
Capacity: 7" (178 mm)
Resolution: 0.01" (0.2 mm)
Material:
Gauge: White powdercoated aluminum
Funnel: Black anodized aluminum
Support bracket: Black powdercoated steel
Size: 8.25" Dia x 11" H (209 mm x 279 mm)
Weight/shipping (gauge): 3 lbs/5 lbs (1.4 kg/2.3 kg)
Weight/shipping (support bracket): 2 lbs/3 lbs (0.9 kg/1.4 kg)
Ordering Information
260-2520
260-2520S
260-2520MS
Forestry Rain Gauge
includes measuring stick with english and metric units
Support Bracket
Measuring Stick (6" length) english and metric
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 135
Precipitation
www.novalynx.com
260-700 Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor
The Model 260-700 Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor is
an inexpensive solution for remotely measuring snow
depth or water levels. The sensor works by measuring the
time required for an ultrasonic pulse to travel to and from
a target surface. An integrated temperature probe with
solar radiation shield provides an air temperature
measurement for properly compensating the distance
measured. An embedded microcontroller calculates a
temperature compensated distance and performs an error
checking routine.
Both distance and air temperature are output as an analog
signal between 0 to 2.5 Volts or 0 to 5 Volts.
Measurements can also be output digitally as serial
ASCII. Specify analog or digital output at time of order.
260-700 Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor
Due to the simplified interface, the depth sensor can
interface with any datalogger or control system that can
delay at least 3 seconds after powering up before
measuring the output.
Specifications
Power: +12 to 24 Vdc, 50 mA (maximum sample time 2.4 seconds)
Analog output: 0 to 2.5 or 0 to 5 Vdc
Digital output: 1200 baud serial ASCII
Range: .5 to 10 meters (1.6 to 32.8 feet)
Beam width: 22 degrees
Accuracy: ±1 cm or .4% distance to target
Resolution: 3 mm (0.12 inches)
Temperature range: -40° to +70°C (-40° to 158°F)
Mounting: 1/2" galvanized threaded pipe
Size: 8 x 8 x 13 cm (3 x 3 x 5 inches)
Weight: .6 kg (1.3 lbs)
Cable length: 7.6 meters (25 feet)
Maximum cable length: 304 meters (1000 feet) for analog output,
76 meters (250 feet) for digital output
Temperature Sensor Specifications
Accuracy: 1°C, -40° to +85°C
Resolution: .5°C
Depth Sensor Beam Width Example
Ordering Information
260-700
260-700-D
260-700-C
136 NovaLynx Corporation
Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor
Specify 0-2.5 or 0-5 Vdc output
Includes 25’ cable
Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor, digital output
Additional Signal Cable, per foot
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Precipitation
260-2590 Precipitation Detector
260-2591 Leaf Wetness Sensor
The Model 260-2590 Precipitation Detector is used to
detect the onset of rainfall. A gold plated grid sensor
activates the circuit when water is deposited onto the
grid. The presence of water activates an internal relay
that may be used to operate larger capacity external
relays, alarms, doors, or may be used as an input to a
data acquisition system.
An internal heater constantly dries the grid to prevent
relay activation during times of dew, fog, or light
moisture that is not actual precipitation. During periods
of normal precipitation the heater is unable to dry the
grid and the relay is activated. The heater power may be
disconnected allowing the detector to be operated as a
leaf wetness sensor.
The solid state electronics are mounted in a sealed
weatherproof enclosure. The precipitation detector may
be tilted to allow water to drain off. A mounting bracket
is provided with the sensor to allow mounting onto a 1"
pipe by a U-bolt. The wind screen may be used to prevent
premature drying of the grid during precipitation events
accompanied by high winds.
260-2590 Precipitation Detector
The unit requires +12 Vdc power for operation. A 115 Vac
power adapter is provided with each unit. Power adapters
for voltages other than 115 Vac are available upon request.
Specifications
Sensor: Gold plated grid 4" dia
Output: Relay (0.5 amps)
Heater: Resistive element
Power: 12 Vdc (235 mA max.) 115 Vac 60 Hz adapter supplied,
optional 220 Vac 50/60 Hz adapter available
Size: Overall 4" dia x 2" high
Weight/shipping: 4 lbs/5 lbs (1.8 Kg/2.3 Kg)
Ordering Information
260-2590
260-2591
260-2592
330-0524
260-2590 Precipitation Dectector shown without wind screen
Precipitation Detector, 115 Vac, 25' cable
Leaf Wetness Sensor, 115 Vac, 25' cable
Leaf Wetness Sensor with heater control, 115 Vac,
25' cable
Additional Cable, per foot
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 137
Precipitation
www.novalynx.com
260-2101 Rain Logger
The Model 260-2101 Rain Logger
is an inexpensive event data logger
that connects to standard tipping
bucket rain gauges to provide
detailed rainfall history. The data
can be useful in a wide range of
fields such as agriculture, forestry,
hydrology, and climatology.
This compact unit in a
weatherproof case records the date
and time of each bucket tip, along with the accumulated
totals. Manual recording of rain gauge data is eliminated
by this convenient unit, saving time and ensuring that
critical readings are not missed. The data is stored in
nonvolatile EEPROM memory that retains collected data
even if the battery fails.
The 8000 tip/event capacity can record up to 80" of
rainfall between readouts at 0.01" per tip. A red light
blinks every two seconds when the unit is logging. Each
tip/event is logged with resolution down to 0.5 second. A
lithium battery provides approximately one year of
continuous use and is easily replaced by the user. The
unit can be mounted inside or outside the rain gauge
housing (avoid direct sunlight).
For start up and readout, the 260-2101 connects easily to
your PC using the Model 260-2101SK PC Starter Kit.
The starter kit includes the software program, a serial
interface cable, and a manual for software operation. The
cable connects to an available 9-pin serial port on your
PC. A portable data transfer unit is also available to
download data from up to 60 rain loggers.
Programmable features include:
tipping bucket rain gauges, we recommend setting the
lockout to one second to eliminate switch bounce.
The software lets you readout recorded data, view it in
tabular and graphical formats, or export it for use with
other programs such as Microsoft Excel and Lotus 1-2-3
spreadsheets. The data includes date and time stamp, plus
the logger’s start and stop times. The software also
synchronizes logger and data transfer unit clocks to
computer clock and checks battery status.
Specifications
Event type: Relay contact opening (rain gauge tip)
Event resolution: 0.5 seconds
Minimum event duration: 20 microseconds
Operating temperature: -20° to +70°C (-4° to +158°F)
Timekeeping accuracy: ±1 minute per week at 20°C
Capacity: 8000 events
Battery: CR-2032 lithium
Case: NEMA-type weatherproof enclosure
Size: 4.3" x 3.5" x 1.8" (108 x 89 x 44 mm)
Weight/shipping: 3.3 oz/1 lb
• Delayed start - The starting date and time can be
programmed to begin recording up to three months after
the logger is initialized.
Ordering Information
• Wrap around when full - The logger can be
programmed to stop recording when the memory is full,
or to wrap around and overwrite the oldest data.
260-2101SK4
• Debounce/lockout - The logger has a lockout feature
that enables it to ignore events for a programmable
period of time after an event is recorded. For use with
138 NovaLynx Corporation
260-2101
260-2101SK3
260-2101TU
Rain Logger, 8000 event capacity
PC Starter Kit, includes ver 3.x software and serial
interface cable
PC Starter Kit, includes ver 4.x software and serial
interface cable
Data Transfer Unit, Discontinued
Minimum system requirements: Pentium processor or better running
Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP. Must have one available serial port.
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Precipitation
260-2102 Rain Logger
The 260-2102 Rain Logger is an event data logger that
connects to standard tipping bucket rain gauges to
provide detailed rainfall history. The data can be useful
in a wide range of fields such as agriculture, forestry,
hydrology, and climatology.
This compact unit comes in a weatherproof case. It
records the date and time of each bucket tip, along with
the accumulated totals. Data is stored in nonvolatile
EEPROM memory that retains collected data even if the
battery fails. Direct USB connectivity provides fast data
readout.
The 2102 runs for up to 1 year on a user-replaceable
battery.
The 43,000 tip/event capacity can record up to 430" of
rainfall between readouts at 0.01" per tip. A red light
blinks every two seconds when the unit is logging. For
start up and readout, the 260-2102 connects easily to
your PC using the 195-BHW-LITE Starter Kit. The
starter kit includes software CD, a USB interface cable,
and a manual. The cable connects to an available USB
port on your PC.
Analysis Functions for Event Logger Data
• Number of events
• Cumulative event totals
• Print preview
Other Features
• Offload logged data or check status while logging
• Print graphs
• Print preview
Rain Logger in Waterproof Case
Specifications
Event type: Relay contact opening (rain gauge tip)
Event resolution: 0.5 seconds
Minimum event duration: 20 microseconds
Operating temperature: -4° to +158° F (-20° to +70° C)
Timekeeping accuracy: ±1 minute per week at 20° C
Capacity: 43,000 events
Battery: CR-2032 lithium
Logger case (waterproof): Clear ABS, 2.7" x 4.3" x 1.3"
Minimum System Requirements for Windows PC
Microsoft Windows XP Professional or Home Edition,
Windows 2000 Professional, Windows Vista, or Windows 7
Sun Java Runtime Environment (JRE) version 1.4.2 or greater
(included on the installation CD)
256 MB System RAM (512 MB recommended)
USB Port
800 x 600 (minimum) Display Resolution, 256 Colors
(1024 x 768 or greater recommended)
Minimum System Requirements for Mac
Mac OS X versions 10.3.9 or 10.4.x
Java Runtime Environment (JRE) version 1.4.2 or 1.5
256 MB System RAM (512 MB recommended)
7 MB Free Disk Space
USB Port required for supported USB devices,
either directly on PC or via ethernet
1024 x 768 Display Resolution (minimum)
Ordering Information
260-2102
195-BHW-LITE
195-BHW
195-U-DT-1
Sample Screen Shot
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Rain Logger, logs up to 43K time events
includes input cable and battery
Software Lite for Windows or Mac
includes USB interface cable
Software Pro for Windows or Mac
includes USB interface cable
U-Shuttle Data Transporter
retrieves data from up to 63 rain loggers
requires 195-BHW Software
www.novalynx.com 139
Precipitation
www.novalynx.com
260-952 Rain Gauge Wind Screen
260-950 Mounting Plate
260-952 Precipitation Gauge Wind Screen
260-2501 Rain Gauge with 260-950 Mounting Plate
The Model 260-952 Rain Gauge Wind Screen
minimizes the formation of strong updrafts that can
distort the trajectories of precipitation particles falling
toward a gauge. The screen also generates turbulent air
motions over the gauge orifice to break up streamlines
and thus improve the catch. Use of a wind screen is
recommended with all precipitation gauges located in
windy areas. The screen consists of 32 free-swinging
metal leaves, evenly spaced around a 48" diameter. Each
leaf is fabricated from 20-gauge sheet metal, 16" long,
3" wide at the top and 2" wide at the bottom. One of the
quadrants swings out to permit easy access to the gauge.
Two lengths of legs (2' and 3') are available due to
variations in gauge height. A mounting kit is available for
mounting to a wooden platform.
The Model 260-950 Rain Gauge Mounting Plate is an
easy and convenient way to mount your rain gauge. The
mounting plate is sized to fit the 260-2500 and 260-2501
rain gauges. Welded to the bottom of the plate is a hub
that will accept a standard 1" (1.34" o.d.). pipe.
Hardware is supplied for mounting the rain gauge to the
plate. The plate should be leveled prior to installing the
gauge.
Specifications
260-950
Specifications
Material: Aluminum
Size: 10.75" Dia
Weight/shipping: 2 lbs/3 lbs
Ordering Information
Rain Gauge Mounting Plate
Material: 20-gauge sheet metal, zinc-plated
Size: 48" Dia x 24" H (1219 x 610 mm)
Weight/shipping: 45 lbs/48 lbs
Ordering Information
260-952
260-953
260-954
260-955
Rain Gauge Wind Screen, 24" legs
Rain Gauge Wind Screen, 36" legs
Leg Extender Kit, converts 260-952 to 260-953
Wind Screen Mounting Kit, flange adapters and
#12 x 1-1/4" wood screws
140 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Precipitation
260-2595 Rain Gauge Calibrator
The Model 260-2595 Rain Gauge Calibrator is
designed to simplify the field verification and calibration
procedures for tipping bucket rain gauges. Included are a
946 ml calibrated plastic bottle, a precision machined
water dispenser with four interchangeable orifices (these
provide constant flow rates necessary for dynamic
testing), and a 10 ml syringe useful in static tests.
Calibration charts for all NovaLynx tipping bucket rain
gauges are provided. Charts for other rain gauges are
available.
Static calibration, adjusting each bucket to tip for a
measured volume of water, is recommended for initial
calibration adjustments. The 10 ml syringe allows very
accurate water volume measurements.
Dynamic calibration, adjusting both buckets to achieve
the correct output count for a measured volume of water
at a constant flow rate, is recommended for minor
adjustments and verification. The four orifices provide a
wide range of rainfall rates. To obtain the error band of a
gauge, test the dynamic operation both above and below
the calibrated rate.
Field verification is standardized by providing a
controlled water volume at a constant flow rate. To verify
that gauge operation is within the specified accuracy,
compare the output count of tips to the calibration chart.
Specifications
Calibrated bottle: Plastic with embossed lettering, fill ring molded into
bottle at 946 ml point
Orifice sizes: 1/32", 1/16", 3/32", and 1/8" dia
Ordering Information
260-2595
Rain Gauge Calibrator
Spare Parts
16000200
16000201
16000202
16000203
16000204
16000205
Plastic Bottle 32 oz
Orifice 1/32"
Orifice 1/16"
Orifice 3/32"
Orifice 1/8"
Syringe, 10cc x 1/5cc
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 141
Precipitation
www.novalynx.com
260-2696 Digital Event Counter
260-2597 Pocket Counter
260-2596 Digital Event Counter
260-2597 Pocket Size Event Counter
The Model 260-2596 Digital Event Counter is useful
for counting tips at sites where monitoring equipment has
no local display capability. The counter has a reset button
on the display face and the liquid crystal display is
visible even in bright sunlight.
The Model 260-2597 Pocket-Size Digital Event
Counter is a low cost solution for counting tips when
calibrating a tipping bucket rain gauge. This compact
counter has a reset button on the display face and
mounting clip on the back. The liquid crystal display is
visible even in bright sunlight. The unit is self-powered
with a 2-wire connection.
The 260-2596 is a general purpose, miniature digital event
counter that operates from switch contact or NPN open
collector inputs. This unit provides years of silent operation
without mechanical wear and is self-powered with a 2-wire
connection that eliminates power wiring.
Specifications
Display: 6-digit LCD, 0.2" high
Power: 3 volts
Battery: Lithium
Count input: Switch contact or solid-state transistor switch.
Count speed: 100 counts/sec.
Operating temperature: -30´°C to +75°C
Weight: 3 oz. without batteries
Ordering Information
260-2596
Digital Event Counter
142 NovaLynx Corporation
•
•
•
•
Battery-powered
LCD display is visible even in bright sunlight
Clips to edge of rain gauge funnel
Reset button on front of unit
Specifications
Display: 5-digit LCD 0.3" high
Size: 2" wide x 1.5" high x 1" deep
Battery: AG12 button cell
Count input: Switch contact
Built-in debounce: 2 counts/second max
Ordering Information
260-2597
Pocket-Size Digital Event Counter
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Evaporation
Group 255 Evaporation Stations ......................................... 144
Group 255 Evaporation Stations ......................................... 145
255-212 Min-Max Thermometer ......................................... 146
255-200 Evaporation Pan .................................................... 146
255-100 Analog Output Evaporation Gauge ....................... 147
255-110 Evaporation Gauge Tester ..................................... 147
255-620-A Automatic Refill System ................................... 148
255-704-A Evaporation Logger .......................................... 149
255-250 Evaporation Pan Platform ..................................... 150
Evaporation
www.novalynx.com
Group 255 Evaporation Stations
The Group 255 Evaporation Stations are complete
systems used to measure the amount of water lost each
day to evaporation. There are two commonly used
procedures for making these measurements. In both, a
U.S. National Weather Service Class A Evaporation Pan,
10 inches deep and 47.5 inches in diameter, holds the
water and is normally installed on a wooden platform set
on the ground in a grassy location.
One alternative for measuring the daily evaporation loss
is to use a graduated hook gauge set on a stillwell to
determine the water level in the pan. The hook gauge is
adjusted until the point just breaks the water surface, and
a reading is taken from the attached scale. The second
alternative uses a stillwell with a fixed point. Each time a
measurement is taken, the pan is refilled to the level of
the point using a calibrated graduate. The graduate has a
surface area of 1/100 that of the pan, so that the amount
of water added is the equivalent evaporation. The choice
between these alternatives is generally made on a
practical basis, such as the availability of daily
replacement water.
The U.S. National Weather Service standard evaporation
and climatological station requires daily observations to
collect the data; thus, it is not suitable for remote,
unattended locations. The recommended layout of the
plot and instruments for a
station in the northern
hemisphere is shown in the
diagram. The 16' x 20' plot is
the minimum for the equipment
shown. Accessories such as a
rain gauge wind screen would
require enlargement of the plot
to 20' x 20'. This station should
be installed on a sod surface
where obstructions are no closer
than 4 times their height.
Shadows should not fall on the
evaporation pan except for brief
periods at sunrise and sundown.
NovaLynx can provide the
instruments to satisfy U.S.
National Weather Service
requirements.
144 NovaLynx Corporation
255-214 Hook Gauge
255-205 Stillwell
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
255-211E Replacement Graduate
Evaporation
Group 255 Evaporation Stations
The amount of evaporation is a function of temperature, humidity, wind,
and other ambient conditions. In order to relate the evaporation to
current or expected conditions, the maximum and minimum
temperatures of the water and the amount of air passage are normally
recorded along with evaporation. Instruments for measuring air
temperature, humidity, rainfall, and other parameters are described in
their respective catalog sections.
Specifications
Evaporation Pan
Material: Low carbon stainless steel
Construction: Heliarc welded, with 1/2" drain plug
Size: 10" H x 47.5" I.D. (254 mm x 1206 mm)
Weight/shipping: 50 lbs/62 lbs (23 kg/ 28 kg) (Box 49" x 48" x 10")
Hook Gauge
Span: 3" or 7 cm
Graduations, stem: Major divisions 1" or 1 cm
Minor divisions 0.1" or 0.1 cm (1 mm)
Graduations, dial: Major divisions 0.01" or 0.1 mm
Minor divisions 0.002" or .02 mm
Size: 7" L x 5.25" Dia (178 mm x 133 mm)
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/3 lbs (0.5 kg/1.4 kg)
Stillwell
Material: Stainless steel
Size: 4" Dia x 9" H (102 mm x 229 mm)
Weight/shipping: 6.5 lbs/10 lbs (2.9 kg/4.5 kg)
Ordering Information
Hook Gauge Evaporation Station, English (Class A Station)
255-200
Evaporation Pan
255-205
Stillwell
255-212F
Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer °F
255-214
Hook Gauge, English units
200-2510
Totalizing Anemometer, miles
Hook Gauge Evaporation Station, Metric
255-200
Evaporation Pan
255-205
Stillwell
255-212C
Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer °C
255-215
Hook Gauge, metric
200-2511
Totalizing Anemometer, kilometers
Fixed Point Evaporation Station, English
255-200
Evaporation Pan
255-210
Stillwell with Fixed Point
255-211E
Replacement Graduate, English
255-212F
Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer °F
200-2510
Totalizing Anemometer, miles
Fixed Point Evaporation Station, Metric
255-200
Evaporation Pan
255-210
Stillwell with Fixed Point
255-211M
Replacement Graduate, Metric
255-212C
Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer °C
200-2511
Totalizing Anemometer, kilometers
Stillwell with Fixed Point
Height of point: 7.5" (191 mm)
Material: Stainless steel
Size: 4" Dia x 9" H (102 mm x 229 mm)
Weight/shipping: 6.6 lbs/10 lbs (3.0 kg/4.5 kg)
Replacement Graduate
Graduations: 0.01" or 0.2 mm
Material: Polycarbonate
Size: 4.75" I.D. x 16" H (121 mm x 406 mm)
Weight/shipping: 1.5 lbs/3 lbs (0.7 kg/1.4 kg)
Floating/Submersible Thermometer
Type: U-tube minimum-maximum
Range: -5° to +50° C or +20° to +125° F
Reset: Magnet
Mounting: Polypropylene floats with sun shield
Size: 13.5"L x 6"W x 1"H with floats, 11.25"L x 6"W x 1"H w/o floats
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/3 lbs (0.5 kg/1.4 kg)
Totalizing Anemometer
Sensor: 3-cup assembly, 4" diameter cups
Counter type: 6-digit mechanical
Counter resolution: 0.1 mile or 0.1 km
Materials: Cast aluminum and polycarbonate cups
Mounting: Pre-drilled flanged base
Size: 12" Dia x 16" H (305 mm x 406 mm)
Weight/shipping: 5 lbs/9 lbs (2.3 kg/4 kg)
Wooden Platform
Material: Pressure treated 2x6 & 2x4 lumber
Size: Assembled 4' x 4', Disassembled 10" x 10" x 4'
Weight/shipping: 55 lbs/60 lbs
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 145
Evaporation
www.novalynx.com
255-212 Min-Max Thermometer
255-200 Evaporation Pan
The Model 255-212 Min-Max Thermometer can be
configured as either a floating or submersible
thermometer for measuring the minimum and maximum
temperatures of water, such as in an evaporation pan. It
features a u-tube thermometer mounted on a nonmagnetic base. The built-in solar radiation shield protects
the thermometer against direct sunlight, as well as
providing protection against breakage.
The Model 255-200 Evaporation Pan is a standard,
National Weather Service Class A type for evaporation
measurement. It is normally installed on a wooden
platform set on the ground in a grassy location. The pan
is filled with water and exposed to represent an open
body of water. The pan is normally filled to within 2.5
inches of the top of the pan. The evaporation rate can be
measured by manual readings or with an analog output
evaporation gauge.
In a float-mounted installation, two floats are installed on
the thermometer base to float the thermometer
approximately 1/4" below the water surface. The
thermometer is then attached to an anchor using flexible
lines at least 10" long, but short enough to keep the unit
approximately one foot from the edge of the pan and
the gauge.
In a submerged installation, the thermometer base rests
on the bottom of the pan. A non-magnetic handle is
fastened to the bulb end of the base and hooked over the
edge of the pan. The thermometer should be located on
the inside-bottom of the south side of the pan (in the
northern hemisphere) to ensure that the thermometer bulb
is shaded as much as possible from the direct rays of the
sun. The thermometer must be submerged gently to keep
the small indicators inside the thermometer tube from
being moved away from the mercury column.
Specifications
Material: Low carbon stainless steel
Construction: Heliarc welded, 1/2" drain plug
Size: 10" H x 47.5" Dia (254 mm x 1026 mm)
Weight/shipping: 50 lbs/62 lbs (23 kg/28 kg)
Shipping carton dimensions: 49" x 48" x 10"
Ordering Information
255-200
Class A Stainless Steel Evaporation Pan
Specifications
255-212C and 255-212F
Thermometer type: U-tube minimum-maximum
Range: 225-212C: -5° to +50° C, 255-212F: +20° to +125° F
Reset: Magnet
255-200 Evaporation Pan
255-212D
Thermometer type: Digital minimum-maximum
Range: -58 to 572° F or -50 to 300° C
Resolution: 0.1° from -19.9° to 199.9°, otherwise 1°
Accuracy: ± 0.5° C or ± 1° C
General
Dimensions: 11-1/4" long without floats, 13-1/2" with floats
Weight/shipping: 1 lb/3 lbs
Ordering Information
255-212C
255-212F
210-44921
210-44931
210-44332
Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer, °C
Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer, °F
Replacement Thermometer, °F
Replacement Thermometer, °C
Replacement Magnet
255-212D
210-4039
Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer, digital
Replacement Thermometer
146 NovaLynx Corporation
255-212 Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Evaporation
255-100 Analog Output Evaporation Gauge
The Model 255-100 Analog Output Evaporation
Gauge is used to determine the evaporation rate by
measuring the changing water level in an evaporation
pan. A standard National Weather Service Class A
Evaporation Pan is recommended. The instrument
consists of a float, pulley, and counterweight attached to
a precision 1000-ohm potentiometer mounted through a
gear assembly in a weatherproof housing. The triangular
base plate is equipped with three leveling screws. The
potentiometer produces a resistance output proportional
to the position of the float which can be monitored on
site using a data logger or a strip chart recorder, or
monitored remotely by telemetry equipment. The gauge
can be placed directly in the pan, or connected to the pan
by using the 255-100P/F stainless steel pipe and fittings.
Specifications
Potentiometer:
Accuracy: 0.25%
Rotation: Continuous
Resistance: 1000 ohms
Operating temperatures: -40° C to 60° C
Linearity: 0.25%
Range: 0-10"
System accuracy: Gauge with pan & pipes ± 0.25% over 10" range
Float: 4" diameter
Height: 27-1/2"
Diameter: 8"
Base: 16" triangle with leveling screws
Water input port: 1/2" NP coupling, female
Cable: 3 conductor, 50’ included
Weight/Shipping: 7-1/2 lbs/15 lbs (Box 15" x 15" x 30")
255-100 Analog Output Evaporation Gauge
Ordering Information
255-100
255-100P/F
255-100P/F-S
255-100POT
Analog Output Evaporation Gauge, 50' cable
Stainless Steel Conntecting Pipe and Fittings
for attaching gauge to pan, 60"
Stainless Steel Connecting Pipe and Fittings, 6"
Replacement Potentiometer
255-110 Evaporation Gauge Tester
The Model 255-110 Evaporation Gauge Tester works
with the 255-100 Evaporation Gauge to provide a direct
reading in inches,
corresponding to the
output from the
evaporation gauge.
The tester is used to
set-up the evaporation
gauge during initial
installation and can be
used to provide a
direct reading of daily
evaporation loss.
255-110 Evaporation Gauge Tester
Specifications
Range: 0 to 10.00 inches
Resolution: 0.01 inches
Temperature range: 0° to 50°C (32° to 122°F)
Humidity range: Non-condensing
Accuracy: Better than ± 0.25% of reading
Display: 3-1/2 digit, 7 segment 0.5" high LCD
Batteries: 9 V display, 1.5 V tester
Size: 5" H x 3" W x 2" D
Weight/shipping: 12 oz/2 lbs
Ordering Information
255-110
255-110MS
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Evaporation Gauge Tester
3-Pin MS Connector Option (for use with old-style
evaporation gauge)
www.novalynx.com 147
Evaporation
255-620-A Automatic Refill System
The Model 255-620-A Automatic Refill System
provides a simple method to automatically refill an
evaporation pan at specified times. It consists of a digital
electronic water timer and an automatic float valve. The
water timer switches on at a user-specified time, allowing
water from an external water source to flow into the pan.
Works with low (gravity flow) or high (city) water
pressure. The float valve will stop the water flow at
approximately 8-1/2" to 9-1/2" depending upon the water
pressure. The timer then shuts off until the next
programmed time.
Specifications
Power: 4 alkaline “AA” batteries
Operating temperature: 0-50° C
Operating humidity: 0-100%
Housing: Aluminum and plastic, waterproof
Water connection: Standard garden hose fitting
Size: 8" x 6" x 4" approx
Weight/Shipping: 4 lbs/7 lbs
Ordering Information
255-620-A
Automatic Refill System
148 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
Evaporation
255-704-A Evaporation Logger
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The 255-704-A is a 4 channel data logger, set up to record the evaporation pan level.
The logger is a 12 bit device and can provide a 0.002" resolution.
43,000 date and time stamped measurements can be stored.
The software provides easy logger setup via direct connect USB.
Stored data is collected by a direct USB interface cable connected to a laptop or PC.
Graphing: View multiple parameters on one graph, zoom and axis-control tools.
Check logger status: Verify logger operation while logging and current readings.
Export data to other programs: Microsoft® Excel or other ASCII-compatible programs.
The internal lithium battery has a 1 year battery life.
The Model 255-704-A Evaporation Logger is an
inexpensive data logger that can be connected to the 255-100
Analog Output Evaporation Gauge to provide recording
history. The data can be useful in a wide range of fields
such as agriculture, landfill assessments, and climatology.
The logger is mounted inside a waterproof enclosure that
can be attached to the evaporation gauge. When ordered
together, the logger comes installed inside of the 255-100
Evaporation Gauge. It is easy to use and reliable. With
proper care it will provide years of accurate and reliable
measurements. Optional water and air temperature sensors
can be connected to the logger to record temperature
readings along with the evaporation pan level.
Specifications
255-704-A Evaporation Logger, shown with 255-100 Evaporation Gauge
Inputs: 4 channel logging 0-2.50 Vdc inputs (12 bit)
Channel 1 is setup for the evaporation sensor input
Channels 2, 3, and 4 can be used as temperature inputs
Measurement capacity:43,000 measurements
Download in 30 seconds via direct USB interface
Programmable sample rate 1 sec to 18 hours
Programmable start time or push-button start
Operating temperature: -20° to +70°C (-4° to +158°F)
Timekeeping accuracy: ± 1 minute per week at 20°C
Battery: CR-2032 lithium, 1-year battery life
Outer enclosure size: 3.5"x3.5" x 2"
Weight/shipping: 0.5 lbs/2 lbs
Windows Computer System Requirements
Microsoft Windows XP Professional or Home Edition, or Windows 2000
Professional, or Windows 2000 Server, Sun Java (JRE) version 1.4.2 or
greater (included on the installation CD), USB port, 256 MB system
RAM (512 MB recommended), 800 x 600 minimum display resolution
(1024 x 768 or greater recommended).
Ordering Information
255-704-A
195-BHW
Evaporation Logger in Watertight Enclosure
includes cable to evap gauge
Evaporation Logger Software for PC and Mac
includes USB interface cable, logger to computer
Sample 195-704BHW-PC Software Screen
195-CABLE-USBMB 6' USB Interface Cable
210-TMC/20
Water or Air Temperature Sensor, 20' cable
380-280
Solar Shield for Air Temperature Sensor
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 149
Evaporation
255-250 Evaporation Pan Platform
150 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
Water Level & Flow
280-FP Flow Probes ............................................................ 152
280-330 Submersible Pressure Transducer ......................... 153
280-IRU-9400 Ultrasonic Sensor ........................................ 154
Water Level and Flow
www.novalynx.com
280-FP Flow Probes
The Flow Probe is a highly
accurate water velocity
instrument for measuring
flows in open channels and
partially-filled pipes. It
consists of a protected water
turbo-prop positive
displacement sensor coupled
with an expandable probe handle ending in a digital readout
display. The water flow meter incorporates true velocity
averaging for the most accurate flow measurements. The
flow probe is ideal for storm water runoff studies, sewer
flow measurements, measuring flows in rivers and streams,
and monitoring water velocity in ditches and canals.
The fow probe incorporates the unique Turbo-Prop
Propeller Sensor, which uses the most accurate positive
displacement technique available for velocity sensing. The
turbo-prop is designed to shed debris and is protected inside
a 2" diameter housing. The probe housing may be placed
directly on the bottom of a pipe or streambed for measuring
low flows down to 2" in depth. The flow meter propeller
rotates freely on its bearing shaft with no mechanical
interconnections for minimal friction. Magnetic material in
the propeller tip passes a pickup point in the water velocity
meter handle producing electrical impulses that are carried
to the readout display by an internal cable. The turbo-pop is
easily removed for cleaning or replacement.
The Water Velocity Computer receives an electrical signal
from the propeller, amplifies the signal, and converts the
reading to feet per second (or meters per second, depending
on programming). The large LCD screen displays average,
minimum, and maximum water velocity readings. Up to 30
sets of minimum, maximum, and average data readings can
be stored in the water velocity computer. These data points
can be reviewed on the computer screen for later analysis.
The water velocity computer has a water-resistant housing
and incorporates a unique four-button operation for
changing functions and resetting the display. The water
velocity computer is powered by a non-replaceable battery
that will last approximately five years with normal use.
Low battery warnings will also display as appropriate.
The Flow Probe Handle can telescope from 3.7 feet to 6
feet in length (FP111), 5.5 feet to 15 feet (FP211), or 2.5
feet to 5.5 feet (FP311). The handle is constructed of
anodized aluminum for light weight and long life. The 15
foot length of the FP211 allows for measuring sewer flows
152 NovaLynx Corporation
from street level and measuring stream flows from low
bridges, while the 2.5 foot collapsed length of the FP311 is
ideal for carrying into remote flow monitoring areas. A
3-foot (1.7-foot for the FP311) mylar coated staff gauge
(graduated in hundredths of a foot and centimeters) is
attached to the lower section of the probe for instant water
depth measurements and accurate propeller positioning.
The flow probe can be used to measure the True Average
Water Velocity of a channel’s flow. As long as the turboprop sensor is in the water flow, the computer will average
the water velocity. One reading is taken per second and a
continuous average water velocity is displayed. To obtain
the true average velocity, the flow probe should be slowly
moved throughout the cross sectional area being measured.
Once the reading becomes steady, the true average water
velocity of the cross sectional area is obtained. This allows
for highly accurate flow measurements, which average the
differences in velocities that occur throughout a flow’s
cross-section and with water surges over time. The average
water velocity can be saved by pressing the SAVE button
and reviewed later.
Specifications
Range: 0.3-19.9 FPS (0.1-6.1 MPS)
Accuracy: 0.1 FPS
Averaging: True digital running average. Updated once per second.
Display: LCD, Glare and UV Protected
Control: 4 button
Datalogger: 30 sets, MIN, MAX, and AVG
Features: Timer, Low battery warning
Sensor Type: Protected turbo-prop propeller with magnetic pickup
Weight/Shipping:
FP111: 2 lbs (0.9 kg)/13 lbs (5.9 kg)
FP211: 3 lbs (1.4 kg)/23 lbs (10.4 kg
FP311: 2.8 lbs (1.3 kg)/19 lbs (8.6 kg)
Expandable Length:
FP111: 3.7 to 6 ft (1.1 to 1.8 m)
FP211: 5.5 to 15 ft (1.7 to 4.6 m)
FP311: 2.5 to 5.5 ft (0.76 to 1.7 m)
Materials:
Probe: PVC and anodized aluminum with stainless steel water bearing
Computer: ABS/Polycarbonate housing with polyester overlay
Power: Internal lithium battery, Approx 5 year life, non-replaceable
Operating temperature: -4° to 158° F (-20° to 70° C)
Storage temperature: -22° to 176° F (-30° to 80° C)
Carrying case: The flow probe is shipped in a padded carrying case.
Approvals: CE
Ordering Information
280-FP111
280-FP111-S
280-FP211
280-FP211-S
280-FP311
Flow Probe (3.7' to 6' handle)
Flow Probe (3.7' to 6' handle with swivel)
Flow Probe (5.5' to 15' handle)
Flow Probe (5.5' to 15' handle with swivel)
Flow Probe (2.5' to 5.5' handle)
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Water Level and Flow
280-330 Submersible Pressure Transducer
The Model 280-330 Pressure Transducer (PT)
combines a submersible probe, designed specifically for
depth and level measurements, with the convenience of
an external signal conditioning circuit mounted in a
desiccant box.
The probe’s pressure sensing element is isolated from the
water by a titanium diaphragm and the electronics are
housed in a titanium body. The PT cable, which is molded
to the body, is a thick wall polyurethane jacketed cable with
an integral vent tube and Kevlar strain relief cord.
280-330 Submersible Pressure Transducer
An accurate water level measurement requires a dry
ambient air pressure reference that the desiccant box
provides. The PT is supplied with a can of indicating
desiccant that changes from blue to pink when the
desiccant bag should be replaced. Both the can and bag
are rechargeable.
Specifications
Probe
Pressure range: 0 to 5 through 0 to 250 psig
Over pressure: 4x
Combined non-linearity, hysteresis, and repeatability: ± 0.1% F.S. BSL
Long term drift: Typically ± 0.1% F.S. temperature range
Operation: -20° to 60°C
Compensated: -2° to 30°C
Temperature effects: ± 0.3% total error band
PT cable length: 40' standard, 500' max
(consult factory for longer lengths)
Dimensions: 0.69" Diameter x 3.8" Long
Signal Conditioning and Desiccant Box
Range: 25.5' standard
Output: 0 to 5 Vdc
Power: 10 to 15 Vdc, 20 mA
Signal cable: 25', 5 conductor shielded
Dimensions: 6" x 4" x 4"
Weight: 3 lbs
Ordering Information
280-330
280-330C
Pressure Transducer, specify range in feet
Add’l Vented Cable, per foot
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 153
Water Level & Flow
www.novalynx.com
280-IRU-9400 Ultrasonic Sensor
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Range from 0.5 to 35 ft (150 mm to 10.67 m)
Self-contained sensor
Works for water and snow level
Easy to install
Internal temperature compensation
Virtually maintenance free
Programmed via computer interface using
the RST-3001 (USB) or the RST-2001A
(RS232) module or RS232 and Windows™
compatible software
Outputs
• 4-20 mA
• 0-2.5 V or 0-5 V (selectable via software)
The 280-IRU-9400 Ultrasonic Sensor uses ultrasonic
technology to provide a non-contact method of detecting
level of water or snow. The ultrasonic sensor transmits
pulsed waves of high frequency sound. If the sound wave
meets a reflective object, such as liquid, it bounces back
toward the sensor. The sensor records the time required
for the sound wave to travel to the target and return.
Using the speed of sound, which is a well-known
variable, the sensor calculates the distance to the object.
Until recently, the many factors that influence the speed
of sound created inaccurate readings. Now with low cost
microprocessor technology, many of these variables can
be factored into the equation and eliminated.
Temperature change is one such variable. The 280-IRU9400 sensors use internal temperature compensation to
offset the effects of these changes. The 280-IRU-9400
can also compensate for other variables, such as wave
action, agitators, and humidity. Sensor adjustments are
made via a computer USB interface using an RST
module* and Windows™ compatible software.
Specifications
Operating Range: 0.5 to 35 feet (0.15 to 10.67 meters)
Available Outputs: 4-20 mA, 0-2.5 V / 0-5 V (selectable via software)
Operating Voltage: 12-28 Vdc
Programming Voltage: 15-28 Vdc
Total Current Draw: 75 mA @ 24 Vdc
Maximum Power Rating: 2.5 W
Housing: Polycarbonate/PET blend
Mounting: 2 inch NPT or 3/4 inch NPT
Transducer Type: Electrostatic
Ratings: NEMA 12
Approvals: CSA General Purpose (pending)
Response Time: Programmable (20 ms minimum)
Sample Rate: Programmable (1-22 Hz)
Resolution: 0.1 inch (2.5 mm)
Accuracy: ± 0.25% of detected range (with no temperature gradient)
Adjustments: USB interface using RST-3001, or RS232 interface
using RST-2001A
Operating Temperature: -40° to +140° F (-40° to 60° C)
Beam Pattern: 9° off axis (at full signal strength and sensitivity
settings)
Electrical Connection: Pigtail
Frequency: 50 kHz
Ordering Information
280-IRU-9423-C6
*The RST module is sold separately. The software is
included with RST unit.
280-IRU-9429-C6
280-RST-2001A
280-RST-3001
154 NovaLynx Corporation
Ultrasonic Sensor, 4-20 mA
Includes 6' cable, specify if addl cable is required
Note: this is a 4-wire device (not loop powered)
Ultrasonic Sensor, 0-2.5 V / 0-5 V
Includes 6' cable, specify if addl cable is required
RST Module, RS232
RST Module, USB
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Water Quality
270-WQ Water Quality Sensors .......................................... 156
270-WQ Water Quality Sensors .......................................... 157
Water Quality
www.novalynx.com
270-WQ Water Quality Sensors
The 270-WQ101 Submersible Temperature Sensor is a
rugged reliable water temperature measuring device. The
temperature transmitter probe is molded
to 25' of marine grade cable, with lengths
up to 500' available. The temperature
sensor has a two wire configuration for
minimum current draw. The temperature transmitter’s
electronics are completely encapsulated in marine grade
epoxy within a stainless steel housing.
Output: 4-20 mA
Range: -58 to 122°F (-50 to 50°C)
Accuracy: ± 0.2°F or ± 0.1°C
Maximum pressure: 40 psi
Operating voltage: 10-36 Vdc
Current draw: Same as sensor output
Warm-up time: 5 seconds minimum
Operating temperature: -58 to 122°F (-50 to 50°C)
Size of probe: 3/4" diameter x 4-1/2" long (1.9 cm x 11.4 cm)
Weight: 8 ounces (227 g)
Ordering Information
270-WQ101
270-WQEXC
Temperature Sensor, includes 25' cable
Extra Cable, over included cable length, up to 500'
The 270-WQ-COND Conductivity Sensors are suitable for
measuring conductivity in a wide variety of applications
including laboratories, streams, rivers, and groundwater. The
conductivity sensor’s small size and rugged housing make it
useful for hand held measurements or permanent installation.
Conductivity Range: 0 to 200 μS/cm, 200 to 2000 μS/cm,
2 to 20 mS/cm, 20 to 200 mS/cm, 200 to 2000 mS/cm
Conductivity Resolution: 0.1 μS/cm, 1 μS/cm,
0.01 mS/cm, 0.1 mS/cm, 1 mS/cm
Conductivity Accuracy: +0.5% of reading
Temperature Range: 23 to 158°F (-5 to 70°C)
Temperature Resolution: 0.02°F (0.01°C)
Temperature Accuracy: +0.4°F (0.2°C)
Temperature Compensation: automatic (2%/°C normalized to 25°C)
Temperature Response: 99% in <20 seconds
Output: Dual 4-20 mA (Conductivity and Temperature)
Maximum Pressure: 35 psi (82 ft (25m))
Immersion Depth: 1.4 inches (36 mm)
Operating Voltage: 10-36 Vdc
Current Draw: 20 mA plus sum of both sensor outputs
Warm Up Time: 12 seconds minimum
Operating Temperature: 23 to +158°F (-5 to +70°C)
Storage Temperature: -4 to +212°F (-20 to +100°C)
Dimensions: 0.86" diameter x 8" long (2.2 cm x 202 mm)
Weight: 8 oz (227 g) plus cable
The 270-WQ201 pH Sensor is a rugged reliable water pH
measuring device. The pH transmitter
is mounted on 25' of marine grade
cable, with lengths up to 500' available
on request. The pH sensor output is
4-20 mA with a three wire configuration.
The pH transmitter’s electronics are completely encapsulated
in marine grade epoxy within a stainless steel housing.
The pH transmitter also uses a removable shield and
replaceable pH sensor element for easy maintenance.
Output: 4-20 mA
Range: 0-14 pH
Accuracy: 2% of full scale
Maximum pressure: 40 psi
Operating voltage: 10-30 Vdc
Current draw: 5.5 mA plus sensor output
Warm-up time: 3 seconds minimum
Operating temperature: 23 to +131°F (-5 to +55°C)
Size of probe: 1-1/4" diameter x 10" long (3.2 cm x 25.4 cm)
Weight: 1 lb (454 g)
Ordering Information
270-WQ201
270-WQEXC
pH Sensor, includes 25' cable
Extra Cable, over included cable length, up to 500'
The 270-WQ401 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor is a rugged
reliable water oxygen level measuring
device. The dissolved oxygen sensors are
attached to 25' of marine grade cable,
with lengths up to 500' available upon
request. The dissolved oxygen sensor
output is 4-20 mA with a three wire configuration. The
dissolved oxygen sensor’s electronics are completely
encapsulated in marine grade epoxy within a stainless steel
housing. The dissolved oxygen sensor uses a removable
shield and dissolved oxygen element for easy maintenance.
Output: 4-20 mA
Range: 0-100% saturation, 0-8 ppm, temperature compensated to 25°C
Accuracy: ± 0.5% of full scale
Maximum pressure: 40 psi
Operating voltage: 10-36 Vdc
Current draw: 15.5 mA plus sensor output
Warm-up time: 10 seconds minimum
Operating temperature: -40 to +131°F (-40 to +55°C)
Size of probe: 1-1/4" diameter x 11" long (3.2 cm x 27.9 cm)
Weight: 1 lb
Membrane: 0.001 FEP Teflon (standard)
Combined error: 2% FS
Ordering Information
Ordering Information
270-WQ-COND Conductivity Sensor, includes 25' cable
Specify conductivity sensor range when ordering
270-WQEXC
Extra Cable, over included cable length, up to 500'
270-WQ401
270-WQEXC
156 NovaLynx Corporation
Dissolved Oxygen Sensor, includes 25' cable
Extra Cable, over included cable length, up to 500'
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Water Quality
270-WQ Water Quality Sensors
The Model 270-WQ730 Turbidity Sensor is a highly
accurate submersible instrument for environmental or
process monitoring. Applications include water quality
testing and management, river monitoring, stream
measurement, reservoir water quality testing, groundwater
testing, water and wastewater treatment, and effluent and
industrial control. In accordance with USEPA Method 180.1
for turbidity measurement, the turbidity sensor is a 90
degree scatter nephelometer. The sensor directs a focused
beam into the monitored water. The light beam reflects off
particles in the water and the resultant light intensity is
measured by a photodetector positioned at 90 degrees to the
light beam. The detected light intensity is directly
proportional to the turbidity of the water. The turbidity sensor
utilizes a second light detector to correct for light intensity
variations, color changes, and minor lens fouling.
The Model 270-WQ770-B Turbidity Meter combines the
turbidity sensor described above with a handheld meter that
has a 6-digit LED screen, 4-button control panel, and an
internal 9V battery. The handheld portable water meter can
be used for enivronmental or process sites that do not require
permanent monitoring. The meter will display readings
directly in either nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) or
parts per million (PPM). The meter also includes an
automatic shutoff feature to conserve battery power.
Range:
Sensor 0-50 NTU and 0-1000 NTU
Meter 0-50 NTU or 0-1000 NTU selectable
Accuracy: ± 1% of full scale
Meter Resolution: 12 bit
Output: 4-20mA (sensor, both ranges), LED screen (meter)
Method: Nephelometer with correction
Operating voltage: 10-36 Vdc @ 40 MS (sensor)
Internal 9Vdc battery (meter)
Current draw: 30 mA plus sensor output (sensor)
Warm-up time: 5 seconds minimum (sensor)
Operating temperature:
Sensor 14 to 122°F (-10 to +50°C)
Meter 32 to 122°F (0 to +50°C)
Materials: 306 stainless steel, delrin, polyurethane jacketed cable
Maximum pressure: 30 psi
Light source: Infrared LED, (880nm)
Cable length: Sensor=25' standard (optional to 500')
Size: Sensor= 1-1/2" dia x 8.5" long (3.8 cm x 21.6 cm)
Weight: 1 lb (454 g) (sensor); 2 lbs (907 g) (meter+sensor)
Ordering Information
270-WQ730
270-WQ770-B
270-WQEXC
Turbidity Sensor, includes 25' cable
Turbidity Meter, includes 10' cable
Please specify 50 or 1,000 NTU setup at time of order.
Extra Cable, over included cable length, up to 500'
Note: The 270-WQ sensors are designed for fresh water use only.
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 157
Water Quality
158 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com
Towers &
Lightning Protection
Tripod Towers ...................................................................... 160
Aluminum Towers ............................................................... 160
Mounting Hardware & Accessories .................................... 161
Tower Lightning Protection ................................................. 162
Sensor Line Lightning Protection ....................................... 162
Towers & Lightning Protection
www.novalynx.com
Tripod Towers
Aluminum Towers
The tripod towers provided by NovaLynx are constructed
of steel tubing for durability and strength. Five foot and
ten foot heights are available. Horizontal bracing is a
feature of the tripod towers. The tower’s foot brackets
can be bolted onto concrete foundations or onto wooden
platforms for either permanent or temporary installation.
Sensors may be clamped directly onto the tower legs or
elevated above the tower using insertable masts. For
stability, both tripod towers require that the mast be
inserted into the two collar clamps. Guy kits are
recommended for areas with high winds and for masts
that extend above the tower by ten feet. Locations
exposed to lightning require a grounding kit.
NovaLynx provides free-standing towers with legs
constructed of tubular aluminum in a triangle pattern.
The equilateral triangle formed by the welded aluminum
rod cross bracing produces the same superior strength as
in steel towers, but with lighter weight for the same
height. A nine foot long section with a tapered end is
used as the top section of the stacked tower. This same
tapered section may be used by itself to form a nine foot
tower. Base plates are available for easy installation into
concrete or onto roofs. Guy wires are normally required
for roof mount tower. Heavy-duty versions of the
aluminum towers are available for use in high winds.
Other tower configurations are available. Contact
NovaLynx for details.
Ordering Information
190-505
190-510
190-520
3' Tripod
5' Tripod
10' Tripod
Ordering Information
190-610
190-611
190-612
190-618
190-619
190-618-HD
190-619-HD
Weather Station with 5' Tripod
160 NovaLynx Corporation
10' Aluminum Tower, tapered top, w/o base
30' Aluminum Stacked Tower, std duty, w/o base
30' Aluminum Stacked Tower, heavy duty, w/o base
Ground Mount, standard duty, base section 4' x 14"
each side
Roof Mount, standard duty, base plate 14" each side
Ground Mount, heavy duty, base section 4' poles, 3 each
Roof Mount, heavy duty, base plate 18" each side
Weather Station with 10' Tower
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Weather Station with 30' Tower
Towers & Lightning Protection
Mounting Hardware & Accessories
NovaLynx provides a variety of mounting hardware for
sensor installations onto towers. Mounting hardware such
as vertical masts and horizontal booms are furnished as
optional equipment and are not included as part of tower
model numbers. Special accessories for stacked towers
such as safety climbs, work platforms, lights, and anticlimb devices are available when specified at the time of
tower order. Grounding kits and guy kits are also sold as
optional equipment for towers. Mounting stubs of various
diameters are available to support the various types of
sensors. NovaLynx can help you select the proper
hardware to match the sensors being mounted on the
tower.
Ordering Information
190-205
190-210
190-211
190-212
190-213
190-221
190-222
190-302
190-310
190-311
190-312
190-320
190-321
190-322
190-330
190-331
190-340
190-341
190-350
190-351
190-410
190-411
190-412
190-413
190-414
190-420
190-421
190-422
190-423
Tripod Guy Kit for 5' Tripod, without earth anchors
Tripod Guy Kit for 10' Tripod, without earth anchors
Earth Anchors for Tripod Guy Kit, 15" auger style, set of 3
Roof Anchors for Tripod Guy Kit, 5/8" x 14" eye-bolt
and plates, set of 3
Heavy Duty Earth Anchor (one), 6" diameter x 48" long
Tower Guy Kit, for towers up to 30', ground mount
Tower Guy Kit, for towers up to 30', roof mount
Aluminum Sensor Mast, 3' swaged-type, 1.25" one
end, 1.062" opposite end
Aluminum Sensor Mast, 5' x 1.34" o.d. threaded one end
Aluminum Sensor Mast, 5' x 1.66" o.d. threaded one end
Aluminum Sensor Mast, 5' swaged-type, 1.25" one
end, 1.062" opposite end
Aluminum Sensor Mast, 10' x 1.34" o.d. threaded one end
Aluminum Sensor Mast, 10' x 1.66 o.d. threaded one end
Aluminum Sensor Mast, 10' swaged-type, 1.25" one
end, 1.062" opposite end
Galvanized Sensor Mast, 5' x 1.34" o.d. threaded one end
Galvanized Sensor Mast, 5' x 1.66" o.d. threaded one end
Galvanized Sensor Mast, 10' x 1.34" o.d. threaded one end
Galvanized Sensor Mast, 10' x 1.66 o.d. threaded one end
Mast Adapter, reduces 1.34" o.d. mast to 0.84" o.d.
Mast Adapter, reduces 1.34" o.d. mast to 1.05" o.d.
6' Fixed Horizontal Boom, 2" square, galvanized
6' Retractable Horizontal Boom, 2" square
6' Fixed Horizontal Boom, 1-1/2" sq, galvanized
6' Fixed Horizontal Boom, 1-1/2" sq, galvanized, with
mounting hardware for 240-150 Solar Rad Sensor
6' Fixed Horizontal Boom, 1-1/2" sq, galvanized, with
mounting hardware for precip gauge
Mounting Stub, 0.084" o.d. x 6" stub
Mounting Stub, 1.05" o.d. x 6" stub
Mounting Stub, 1.34" o.d. x 6" stub
Mounting Stub, 1.66" o.d. x 6" stub
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 161
Towers & Lightning Protection
Tower Lightning Protection
www.novalynx.com
Sensor Line Lightning Protection
Sensor line surge arrestor packages protect the sensor
signal lines and dedicated or switched telephone lines. Each
package utilizes a two-stage transient suppressor. When a
surge occurs, a zener diode clamps the voltage (24 Vdc)
at a safe level and series resistors absorb the remainder of
the voltage. A gas discharge tube is activated if the
voltage is greater than 150 Vac. These components absorb
the bulk of the transient and discharge it to earth ground.
After the transient passes, the entire circuit recovers
automatically. The 350-B380-24V protects four lines and
the 350-B480-24V protects eight lines. Screw terminals
are provided for input and output connections. These line
arrestors are normally mounted in a junction box.
NovaLynx offers customized packaged units consisting
of a junction box, surge board, ac protection, fused
115 Vac input/output circuits, ground rod, and ground
cable. Consult the factory for a quotation.
Ordering Information
Electrical surges due to lightning are common sources of
sensor and data acquisition equipment failure. The
lightning protection packages described below improve
the likelihood of continued functioning of equipment
exposed to frequent lightning storms, and these packages
are highly recommended for systems in such locations.
Protection against a direct lightning strike, of course,
cannot be guaranteed.
Tower grounding kits use ground rods and copper cable
or copper strips to conduct any electrical charges due to
lightning directly to the ground. In the 190-121, a straight
ground rod is mounted to the tower leg at the top of the
tower. The 190-122 provides an angled rod, for use when
wind sensors will be mounted on top of the tower. The
190-120 does not use a top-mounted ground rod, but uses
25 foot by 1-1/2" copper strips, clamps, and ground rods
attached to each tower leg. The 190-110 is a low cost
grounding kit designed for use with a tripod. Mounting
hardware is included with each package. Ground cable
must be ordered separately, except for the 190-110.
AC power lines to the junction box and to instruments on
the tower are protected by the 350-1077 and 350-1077-A
Secondary AC Power Surge Arrestors. When a surge
occurs, these devices divert it to earth ground and
immediately self-restore. The 350-1077 and 350-1077-A
must be mounted in a junction box.
162 NovaLynx Corporation
190-110
190-120
190-121
190-122
330-T605000
330-T605004
330-T713018
350-1077
350-1077-A
350-B380-24V
350-B480-24V
Tripod Grounding Kit; 1 ground rod, clamps,
5' wire #4AWG
Tower Grounding Kit; 1-1/2" copper strips, clamps,
and ground rods attached to each tower leg
Tower Grounding Kit; includes 2 straight ground rods
and mounting hardware. Requires 330-T605004
Ground Cable.
Tower Grounding Kit; includes 1 angled ground rod,
1 straight ground rod, and mounting hardware.
Requires 330-T605004 Ground Cable.
Ground Cable, #4 copper, PVC jacket
Ground Cable, 2/0 bare copper, for use with tower
lightning protection kits. Length should equal the height of
the tower plus the distance to the ground rod.
Ground Rod, copper plated, 8 feet
Secondary (Junction Box) AC Power Surge Arrestor,
115/230 Vac
Secondary (Junction Box) AC Power Surge Arrestor,
220-277 Vac
Sensor Line Surge Protector, 4 lines
Sensor Line Surge Protector, 8 lines
350-B480-24V Sensor Line Surge Protector
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Power Supplies
310-120 Series Rechargeable Batteries ............................... 164
Group 310 AC Power Supplies ........................................... 165
Group 320 Solar Panel Battery Chargers ............................ 166
Power Supplies
www.novalynx.com
310-120 Series Rechargeable Batteries
The 310-120 Series Rechargeable Batteries are
non-spillable lead acid batteries. The unique construction
and sealing techniques guarantee leakproof operation in
any position with no adverse effect to capacity or service
life. An electrolyte suspension system consisting of a
high porosity, glass fiber material in conjunction with
plates, totally absorbs and contains the electrolyte.
The 310-120 Series batteries have an expected life span
of 3 to 5 years in float service applications. More that
1000 discharge/recharge cycles can be realized,
dependent on the average depth of discharge. They have
been designed to withstand occasional over discharge.
While it is not recommended, 310-120 Series batteries
can recover their full capacity under normal charging
conditions, even when they have been subjected to
extreme over discharge.
In normal float service, the gases generated inside the
battery are continually recombined, and return to the water
content of the electrolyte. Therefore, electrical capacity is
not lost due to “drying up” of the electrolyte. Actually,
through the gradual and very slow corrosion of the
electrodes, the battery will eventually lose capacity and
come to the end of service life. It should be noted that the
corrosive process will be accelerated by high ambient
operating temperatures and/or high charging voltage.
The 310-120 Series batteries can be operated in parallel
for applications requiring more power. For custom power
requirements, factory engineers can design a charging
system theat may include large capacity storage batteries.
164 NovaLynx Corporation
Specifications
Nominal voltage: 12V
Nominal capacity:
310-120:
20 hr rate of 0.20A to 10.5V 4.0Ah
10 hr rate of 0.37A to 10.5V 3.7Ah
5 hr rate of 0.68A to 10.2V 3.4Ah
1 hr rate of 2.40A to 9.60V 2.4Ah
310-121:
20 hr rate of 0.6A to 10.50V 12.0Ah
10 hr rate of 1.1A to 10.50V 11.0Ah
5 hr rate of 2.1A to 10.20V 10.5Ah
1 hr rate of 7.2A to 9.60V 7.2Ah
310-122:
20 hr rate of 0.35A to 10.50V 7.0Ah
10 hr rate of 0.65A to 10.50V 6.5Ah
15 hr rate of 1.19A to 10.20V 5.95Ah
1 hr rate of 4.20A to 9.60V 4.2Ah
Weight (approx):
310-120: 3.74 lbs (1.7 kgs)
310-121: 8.82 lbs (4 kgs)
310-122: 6.17 lbs (2.64 kgs.)
Operating temperature range:
Charge: 5° to 122° F (-15° to 50° C)
Discharge: -4° to 140° F (-20° to 60° C)
Charge retention (shelf life) at 68° F (20° C):
1 month 97%, 3 months 91%, 6 months 85%
Life expectancy:
Standby use: 3 to 5 years
Cycle use (approx):
100% depth of discharge 250 cycles
50% depth of discharge 550 cycles
30% depth of discharge 1200 cycles
Sealed construction:
Can be operated in any position without leakage.
Housing material: ABS Resin
Ordering Informaton
310-120
310-122
310-121
310-126
Rechargeable Battery, 12 Volt 4 Amp Hour
Rechargeable Battery, 12 Volt 7 Amp Hour
Rechargeable Battery, 12 Volt 12 Amp Hour
Rechargeable Battery, 12 Volt 33 Amp Hour
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Power Supplies
Group 310 AC Power Supplies
NovaLynx offers a selection of AC power supplies
including single, dual, and triple output models providing
various levels of DC voltages required to power the
NovaLynx signal conditioning boards, data loggers, and
sensors. The wall mount models are chassis-mountable
and will fit into the NovaLynx enclosures. The 310-144
can also be used as a float charger to trickle charge the
310-120 series batteries.
Specifications
310-144 Power Supply/AC Adapter/Float Charger
Used where 12 Vdc at less than 300mA is required
Input: 100-240 Vac
Output: 13.8 Vdc @ 300 mA (regulated)
Size: 2-1/8" x 2" x 1-7/8" (potted, plastic)
310-170 Power Supply Chassis
Used to power up to two 300 series LED meters
Input: 115 Vac or 220 Vac
Output: 5 Vdc @ 500 mA
Size: 2" x 2" x 4" (open frame, metal)
310-300 Isolation Transformer
Used where a 220 Vac source is stepped down to 115 Vac
Input: 220 Vac 50/60 Hz
Output: 115 Vac, 50 VA
Size: 3" x 2-1/2" x 2-1/2" (metal transformer, open)
Ordering Information
310-144
310-170
310-300
Power Supply/AC Adapter/Float Charger, 100240 Vac, 13.8 Vdc
Power Supply Chassis, 115 Vac or 220 Vac, 5 Vdc
Isolation Transformer, 220 Vac 50/60 Hz, 115 Vac
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 165
Power Supplies
www.novalynx.com
Group 320 Solar Panel Battery Chargers
Meteorological instruments and systems are often located
in remote areas to gather localized weather data. These
remote areas may not have commercial grade power or
the local power lines may not be accessible for use at the
instrument site. To overcome this lack of power, most
meteorological instruments and systems have been
designed to operate from +12 volt batteries. Because
batteries have a limited capacity, they need to be replaced
with fully charged batteries on a regular schedule or
battery charging must be provided at the remote site.
The 320 Series Solar Panels use the sun’s energy to
recharge batteries. These panels feature regulator circuits
designed to allow effective charging of the 310 series
batteries. A charging regulator used with the solar panel
prevents the batteries from being over-charged and from
being charged at current levels that could damage the
batteries. The regulator also prevents the battery power
from being discharged back through the solar panel at
night. The Model 320-600 Solar Panel, when used with a
7 AH battery, will typically provide continuous operation
for a 60 to 80 mA load. For custom power requirements
factory engineers can design a charging system which
may include large capacity storage batteries.
320-600 Solar Panel
All of the standard panels include 20' of cable, regulator,
and mounting brackets. The mounting brackets are
designed to mount on a 1.05" o.d. vertical pipe or pole
and have provision to adjust the elevation angle.
Specifications
320-600 Solar Panel
Maximum output: 0.6 Amps (10 Watts)
Regulated voltage output: 14.3 V
Size: 14.1" x 13"
Weight/shipping: 6 lbs/8 lbs
320-900 Solar Panel
320-900 Solar Panel
Maximum output: 1.4 Amps (20 Watts)
Regulated voltage output: 14.3 V
Size: 23" x 14"
Weight/shipping: 8 lbs/10 lbs
Note: Ratings at conditions of 1000 Wm² at 25°C
Ordering Information
320-600
320-900
330-0220
Solar Panel, 600 mA, 12 Vdc
Solar Panel, 1.4 Amp, 12 Vdc
Additional cable, 2 conductor, 20 AWG
166 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Pens, Ink, Clocks, & Charts
Pens and Ink ........................................................................ 168
Replacement Clocks ............................................................ 169
Chart Paper .......................................................................... 170
Chart Paper .......................................................................... 171
Chart Paper Examples ......................................................... 172
Pens, Ink, Clocks, and Charts
www.novalynx.com
Pens and Ink
PENS
INK
For Graphic Instruments
For Graphic Instruments
Model
Type
For
8810
(M666013)
50257
50258
50259
88101
(M666110)
88102
(M666111)
V-point
All except Sigma and Skyline Series
These small bottles fit inside the instrument case and are designed to fill V-point
pens. The bottles can be refilled using the bulk ink below.
Cartridge, red
Cartridge, violet
Cartridge, blue
Cartridge, blue
Sigma and Skyline Series
Sigma and Skyline Series
Sigma and Skyline Series
All except Sigma and Skyline Series
Cartridge, red
All except Sigma and Skyline Series
Model
Type
Color
Amount
8820
(M666124)
8821
(M666123)
Medium dry
Blue
15 ml
Medium dry
Red
15 ml
For Strip Chart Recorders
For Strip Chart Recorders
Model
Type
For
These small bottles are designed to fit inside the recorder case for convenient
pen maintenance. Each recorder type utilizes a different bottle shape, as shown.
These bottles can be refilled using the bulk ink below.
87603
(M673051)
87611
87612
87613
87614
8811
8816
88161
8817
88171
8818
(M674120)
88103
88104
88105
88106
88108
88112
88116
M671118
M671119
Electronic
8750, 8760, 8761
Model
Cartridge, red
Cartridge, green
Electronic
Electronic
Capillary
Cartridge, red, long
Cartridge, blue, long
Cartridge, blue, short
Cartridge, red, short
Capillary (point only)
8760-A, 8761-A
8760-A
8760-A, 8761-A
8760-A
8700 Series
4742, 8740
4742, 8740
4741, 4742, 8740, 8741
4741, 4742, 8740, 8741
4730 Series, 8710 Series, 8730 Series
4730 Series and 8730 Series Recorders:
8849
Black
8850
Red
8851
Blue
8852
Green
Cartridge, red
Cartridge, green
Cartridge, blue
Cartridge, brown
Cartridge, red
Cartridge dotting wheel
Cartridge dotting wheel
Cartridge dotting wheel
Cartridge dotting wheel
8720, 8721, 8722, 8723
8720, 8722, 8723
8722, 8723
8723
4771, 8771
4776, 8776
8746
8736-A (6-point)
8736-B (12-point), 8736-C (24-point)
8711 Recorder and 1-Pen ET Recorders:
8855
Red
(M666128)
8860
Black
(M666127)
8710 Recorder and 2-Pen ET Recorders:
8856
Red
(M666025)
8857
Black
(M666035)
8858
Blue
(M666120)
Dotting Recorders:
8853
(M666027)
8854
(M666028)
PEN & INK KITS
Model
For
Includes
87502
87505
87601
(M673050)
87602
(M673049)
8751
8751
8750, 8760, 8761
5 cartridge pens, 1 syringe, 10 cc red ink
5 cartridge pens, 1 syringe, 10 cc green ink
5 cartridge pens, 1 syringe, 10 cc red ink
8750, 8760, 8761
5 cartridge pens, 1 syringe, 10 cc green ink
168 NovaLynx Corporation
Color
Amount
3 bottles, 20 cc each
3 bottles, 20 cc each
3 bottles, 20 cc each
3 bottles, 20 cc each
1 bottle, 40 cc
1 bottle, 40 cc
3 bottles, 20 cc each
3 bottles, 20 cc each
3 bottles, 20 cc each
6 different
6 bottles, 20 cc each
12 different
12 bottles, 20 cc each
Bulk Refill Ink
Model
Type
Color
Amount
88221
(M666107)
88222
(M666108)
88223
88224
88231
(M666105)
88232
(M666106)
88233
88234
Fast dry
Red
1 pint
Fast dry
Blue
1 pint
Fast dry
Fast dry
Medium dry
Green
Black
Red
1 pint
1 pint
1 pint
Medium dry
Blue
1 pint
Medium dry
Medium dry
Green
Black
1 pint
1 pint
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Pens, Ink, Clocks, and Charts
Replacement Clocks
CLOCKS
The graphic recording instruments in this catalog feature a new model clock. The rotation period of these clocks can be set at 1 day, 7 days, or 31 days. The desired
period is selected by means of a switch on the top of the clock. Tthe switch changes the pulse rate of an electronic circuit inside. These clocks are all batteryoperated, requiring two AA batteries.
Clock
Model No.
Type
Drum
Rotation
Drum
Diameter
Drum
Height
8825-A
Battery-operated
26/176 hours/31 days
4.32"
6.32"
4010, 4010-A, 4011, 4012, 4012-A,
4013, 4014, 4014-A, T601
8826-A
Battery-operated
26/176 hours/31 days
4.0"
5.06"
6113, 6113-A, 6114, 6115, P521,
6710, 6711, 6712, 6713, 6714
8827-A
Battery-operated
26/176 hours/31 days
3.66"
7.25"
4130, 4131, 5005, 5005-A, 5006,
5007, 5020, 5020-A, 5021, 5022,
5023, 5024, 5025, H302, 6505,
6845-A, 6845-B, 6848, 6848-A, 7010,
7010-A, 7011, 7012, 7013, 7014
8828-A
Battery-operated
26/176 hours/31 days
3.66"
3.75"
3008, 3009, 3010, 3010-A, 3011,
4110, 4110-A, 4111, 4112, 4112-A,
4113, 4114, 4115, T610, 5030,
5030-A, 5031, 5032, 5033, 5035,
H324, 6810, 6810-A, 6811, 6812,
6813, 7020, 7020-A, 7021, 7022,
7023, 7025, 7026, B231
8829-A
Battery-operated
26/176 hours/31 days
3.66"
10.44"
4030, 4030-A, 4031, 4032, 4032-A,
4033, 4034, 4035, 4036, 4037, 5010,
5010-A, 5011, 5012, 5013, 5014
8830-A
Battery-operated
26/176 hours/31 days
3.66"
5.06"
6507, 6508, 6509, 6510, 6510-A,
6511, 6512, 6513, 6513-A, 6514,
6760, 6761
8840-A
Battery-operated
26/176 hours/31 days
3.66"
7.032"
4020, 4020-A, 4021, 4022, 4022-A,
4023, 4024, 4025
For Instrument Model No.
Limited numbers of the older clocks are still available. These clocks feature rotation periods of either [1 day/7 days] or [31 days]. Selection of the daily or weekly period
is accomplished by a change gear. Spring-wound or battery-operated mechanisms may be available. Replacement clocks are available for discontinued as well as
active graphic recording instruments. Consult NovaLynx for more information.
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 169
Pens, Ink, Clocks, and Charts
www.novalynx.com
Chart Paper
For Graphic Instruments
Model
3008
R401
5005
5013
5023
5025
H302
P521
7013
7022
B201
Instrument
Description
Chart
Part No.
Pyranograph
M699170
M699171
Meteorograph
50051
50052
50053
50054
50055
50056
50057
50058
50059
50060
50061
50062
Meteorograph
M699083
M699087
M699089
M699091
Hygrothermograph
M699121
M699123
M699124
M699125
M699126
M699130
Sigma Hygrothermograph 50251 (M699113)
Skyline Hygrothermograph 50252 (M699117)
50253 (M699115)
Event Recorder
M699190
M699191
M699192
Microbarograph
M699061
M699063
Barographs
M699050
M699051
170 NovaLynx Corporation
WeatherMeasure
Model No.
C401-D
C401-W
C701-W-MB-HF
C701-W-MB-HC
C701-W-HG-LF
C701-W-HG-HF
C311-D-C
C311-D-HF
C311-W-HF
C311-D-WF
C311-W-LF
C311-W-CX
C302-W-HC
C302-W-HF
C302-W-LF
C501-D
C501-W
C501-M
C211-W-HG
C211-W-MB
C201-W-MB
C201-W-HG
Chart Range
Recording Period
0 to 2.5 ly/min
0 to 2.5 ly/min
-20 to 50°C, 0-100%, 940-1045 mb
-10 to 120°C, 0-100%, 940-1045 mb
-10 to 120°C, 0-100%, 27.9-31" Hg
-20 to 50°C, 0-100%, 705-785 mm Hg
-20 to 50°C, 0-100%, 940-1045 mb
-10 to 120°F, 0-100%, 940-1045 mb
-10 to 120°F, 0-100%, 27.9-31" Hg
-20 to 50°C, 0-100%, 705-785 mm Hg
-20 to 50°C, 0-100%, 940-1045 mb
-10 to 120°F, 0-100%, 940-1045 mb
-10 to 120°F, 0-100%, 27.9-31" Hg
-20 to 50°C, 0-100%, 705-785 mm Hg
10 to 120°F, 0-100%, 945-1045 mb
-10 to 50°C, 0-100%, 945-1045 mb
-30 to 80°F, 0-100%, 27.9-31" Hg
10-120°F, 0-100%, 27.9-31" Hg
-20 to 40°C, 0-100%
10 to 120°F, 0-100%
10 to 120°F, 0-100%
-30 to 80°F, 0-100%
-30 to 80°F, 0-100%
-15 to 45°C, 0-100%
0 to 55°C, 0-100%
20 to 120°F, 0-100%
-40 to 60°F, 0-100%
0-50 events
0-50 events
0-50 events
27.9-31" Hg
945-1045 mb
945-1045 mb
27.9 to 31" Hg
24 hours
168 hours
176 hours
176 hours
176 hours
176 hours
26 hours
26 hours
26 hours
26 hours
31 days
31 days
31 days
31 days
168 hours
168 hours
168 hours
168 hours
24 hours
24 hours
168 hours
24 hours
168 hours
168 hours
176 hours
176 hours
176 hours
24 hours
168 hours
31 days
168 hours
168 hours
31 days
168 hours
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
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Pens, Ink, Clocks, and Charts
Chart Paper
For Strip Chart Recorders
Model
2350
Instrument
Description
Recording Wind System
Chart
Number
23501
23502
W224
Recording Wind System Call NovaLynx
W225
Call NovaLynx
E- & FRecording wind System
87003
Series
87004
87005
4740
Temperature Recorder
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4770
Temperature Recorder
Call NovaLynx
5410
Temp/RH Recorder
Call NovaLynx
8342
Visibility Recorder
Call NovaLynx
8700
2-Pen Galvanometric
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8703
Recorder
Call NovaLynx
8701
1-Pen Galvanometric
Call NovaLynx
8702
Recorder
Call NovaLynx
8710
2-Pen Wide-Bed Recorder 23301
EW-12V/12V (Millivolt Input)
23302 (M699498)
M699497
8711
1-Pen or Multipoint
Call NovaLynx
8716
Wide-Bed Recorder
Call NovaLynx
EW-12V
(Millivolt or
Call NovaLynx
Thermocouple Input)
8720
2-Pen Wide-Bed Recorder Call NovaLynx
8721
1-Pen or Multipoint
Call NovaLynx
8726
Wide-Bed Recorder
Call NovaLynx
8722
3-Pen Wide-Bed Recorder Call NovaLynx
8723
4-Pen Wide-Bed Recorder Call NovaLynx
8750
1-Pen or 2-Pen Field
Call NovaLynx
8751
Recorder
Call NovaLynx
8771
1-Pen or Multipoint
Call NovaLynx
8776
Small Recorder
Call NovaLynx
EW-2200
1-Pen or Multipoint
Call NovaLynx
Wide-Bed Recorder
(Platinum Resistance
Input)
ET-12V
1-pen or Multipoint
Call NovaLynx
Recorder (Millivolt or
Thermocouple Input)
ET-2200
1-Pen or Multipoint
Call NovaLynx
Recorder (Platinum
Resistance Input)
For Strip Chart Graphic Instruments
Range
0-50/0-100
mph or m/s
0-360°
0-50/0-100, 0-540°
0-25/0-50, 0-540°
0-100/0-200, 0-540°
Model
5027
6120
6515
6516
6517
65225
6560
6575
6610
7030
Instrument
Description
Chart
Number
Strip Chart
Hygrothermograph
Long-term Event Recorder
Water Level Recorder
Call NovaLynx
Call NovaLynx
Call NovaLynx
Call NovaLynx
Call NovaLynx
Water Level Recorder
Call NovaLynx
Water Level Recorder
Call NovaLynx
Water Level Recorder
Call NovaLynx
Water Level Recorder
Call NovaLynx
Water Current Recorder
Call NovaLynx
Long-term Microbarograph Call NovaLynx
0-50/0-100, 0-540°
0-100, 0-360°
0-100, 0-540°
Note: The chart numbers in parentheses are no longer active.
Use the alternate numbers for ordering.
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Pens, Ink, Clocks, and Charts
Chart Paper Examples
Monthly
Weekly
Daily
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Reference
Conversion Factors .............................................................. 174
Wind Conversion Table ....................................................... 175
Temperature Conversion Table ............................................ 176
Relative Humidity Table ...................................................... 177
Pressure Conversion Table .................................................. 178
Glossary of Meteorological Terms ...................................... 179
Reference
Conversion Factors
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Reference
Wind Conversion Table
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Reference
Temperature Conversion Table
176 NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
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Reference
Relative Humidity Table
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Reference
Pressure Conversion Table
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Reference
Glossary of Meteorological Terms
A
Absolute humidity: In a system of moist air, the ratio of the
mass of water vapor to the total volume of the system. Usually
expressed as grams per cubic meter (g/m3).
Absolute instrument: An instrument whose calibration can be
determined by means of simple physical measurements on the
instrument. Compare to secondary instrument.
Absolute temperature: Temperature based on an absolute scale.
Absolute temperature scale: A temperature scale based on
absolute zero. See Kelvin temperature scale.
Absolute zero: A hypothetical temperature characterized by a
complete absence of heat and defined as 0°K, -273.15°C, or
-459.67°F.
Absorption: The process in which incident radiation is retained
by a substance. A further process always results from absorption.
Absorption hygrometer: A type of hygrometer which
measures the water vapor content of the atmosphere by means
of the absorption of vapor by a hygroscopic chemical.
Accretion: Growth of a cloud or precipitation particle by the
collision and union of a frozen particle with a super-cooled
water drop.
Accuracy: The degree of conformity of an indicated value to
an accepted standard value, or ideal value. See accuracy
rating, measured accuracy.
Accuracy rating: A number of quantity defining a limit that
errors will not exceed when a device is used under specified
operating conditions. Accuracy rating can be expressed in a
number of forms, i.e. in terms of the measured variable
(±1°C), percent of span (±0.5% of span), percent of upper
range value (±0.5% of upper range value F.S.), percent of
scale length (±0.5% of scale length), or percent of actual
output reading (±1% of actual output reading).
Acid rain: Precipitation that carries to earth sulfuric and nitric
acid accumulated from air pollutants.
Acre-foot: The volume of water required to cover one acre to
a depth of one foot; 43,560 cubic feet.
Actinograph: A recording actinometer.
Actinometer: An instrument which measures the intensity of
radiation by determining the amount of chemical change or
fluorescence produced by that radiation.
Actual pressure: The atmospheric pressure at the level of the
barometer. May or may not be the same as station pressure.
Adfreezing: The process by which one object becomes
adhered to another by the binding action of ice.
Adiabatic process: A thermodynamic change of state in a
system in which there is no transfer of heat or mass across the
boundaries of the system. In an adiabatic process, compression
always results in warming, expansion in cooling. Compare to
diabatic process.
Aeolian: Pertaining to the action or effect of the wind.
Derived from the name of the Greek god of the winds, Aeolus.
Aeolian anemometer: An anemometer utilizing the principle
that the pitch of the aeolian tones generated by air moving past
an obstacle is a function of the speed of the air. Largely a
curiosity and has been put to no practical application in
modern meteorology.
Aerial: Of or pertaining to the air, atmosphere, or aviation.
Also, same as antenna.
Aerograph: In general, any self-recording instrument carried
aloft by any means to obtain meteorological data.
Aerometeorograph: A self-recording instrument used on
aircraft for the simultaneous recording of atmospheric
pressure, temperature, and humidity.
AFOS: Automation of Field Operations and Services. A
communication system developed in the 1970s by the National
Weather Service which utilized minicomputers, video displays,
and high-speed communications to replace teletype and facsimile
machines. It was replaced by AWIPS in the 1990s.
Air current: Very generally, any moving stream of air. It has
no particular technical connotation.
Air density: The mass density of a parcel of air expressed in
units of mass per volume.
Airlight formula: See Koschmieder’s law.
Air meter: A small anemometer with flat vanes which
indicates the number of linear feet or meters of air which have
passed the instrument during its exposure.
Albedo: The ratio of the amount of electromagnetic radiation
reflected by a body to the amount incipient upon it, commonly
expressed as a percentage. The albedo is to be distinguished
from the reflectivity, which refers to one specific wavelength.
Albedometer: An instrument used for the measurement of the
reflecting power (the albedo) of a surface. A pyranometer
adapted for the measurement of radiation reflected from the
earth’s surface is sometimes employed as an albedometer.
ALERT: Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time. Flood
warning program, developed by the National Weather Service
in the 1970s, that uses remote sensors in the field to transmit
environmental data to a central computer in real time.
Allard’s law: A basic equation in night visual range theory,
relating the illuminance of a point source of light to distance
and the transmissivity of the atmosphere.
ALOHA: Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres. A
computer model used to predict how a hazardous gas cloud
might disperse in the atmosphere after an accidental chemical
release. Part of the CAMEO system.
Alter shield: A type of rain gauge shield consisting of freely
hanging, evenly spaced slats arranged circularly around the
gauge. The advantage of this shield is that the slats do not
easily accumulate snow, permitting its use on unattended
gauges. See rain gauge shield.
Altimeter: An instrument which determines the altitude of an
object with respect to a fixed level. There are two general
types of altimeters: (a) the pressure altimeter, which gives an
approximate measure of altitude from a pressure measurement
and an assumed standard temperature distribution; and (b) the
radio altimeter, which deduces altitude by electronic
techniques.
Altimeter setting: The value of atmospheric pressure to which
the scale of a pressure altimeter is set so as to indicate airport
elevation. The altimeter setting is included as part of an
aviation weather observation.
Anabatic wind: An upslope wind due to local surface heating.
Opposite of katabatic wind.
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Reference
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Analog: Pertaining to measurements or devices in which the
output varies continuously, i.e. voltage or rotation signals.
Compare to digital.
Anemo-biagraph: A recording pressure-tube anemometer in
which the wind scale of the float manometer has been made
linear by the use of springs, i.e. Dines anemometer.
Anemoclinograph: A recording anemoclinometer.
Anemoclinometer: General name for a type of instrument
which measures the inclination of the wind to the horizontal
plane. See bivane.
Anemograph: A recording anemometer.
Anemometer: A general term for instruments designed to
measure the speed or force of the wind. Italian architect Leon
Battista Alberti invented the first mechanical anemometer in
1450. Derived from the Greek word “anemos,” meaning wind.
Aneroid: Literally “not wet”, containing no liquid.
Aneroid barograph: An aneroid barometer arranged so that the
deflection of the aneroid capsule actuates a pen which graphs a
record on a rotating drum. Sometimes called aneroidograph.
Aneroid barometer: A barometer which measures
atmospheric pressure using one or a series of aneroid capsules.
Also called holosteric barometer.
Aneroid capsule: A thin metal disc partially evacuated of air
used to measure atmospheric pressure by measuring its
expansion and contraction.
Aneroidogram: The record of an aneroid barograph.
Angstrom compensation pyrheliometer: An absolute
instrument developed by Swedish physicist Knut Johan
Angstrom (1857-1910) for the measurement of direct solar
radiation. The radiation receiver station consists of two
identical manganin strips whose temperatures are measured by
attached thermocouples. One of the strips is shaded, while the
other is exposed to sunlight. An electrical heating current is
passed through the shaded strip so as to raise its temperature to
that of the exposed strip. The electric power required to
accomplish this is a measure of the solar radiation.
Angstrom pyrgeometer: An instrument developed by
Swedish physicist Knut Johan Angstrom (1857-1910) for
measuring the effective terrestrial radiation. It consists of four
manganin strips, of which two are blackened and two are
polished. The blackened strips are allowed to radiate to the
atmosphere while the polished strips are shielded. The
electrical power required to equalize the temperature of the
four strips is taken as a measure of the solar radiation.
Antenna: A conductor or system of conductors for radiating
and/or receiving radio energy. Also called aerial.
Antenna feed: See feed.
Antenna gain: See gain.
Antenna pattern: Same as radiation pattern.
Anticyclone: An area of high atmospheric pressure which has
a closed circulation that is anticyclonic (clockwise in northern
hemisphere and counterclockwise in southern hemisphere).
Antitriptic wind: In Jeffreys’ classification, a wind for which
the pressure force exactly balances the viscous force, in which
the vertical transfers of momentum predominate.
Apparent freezing point: Same as freezing point.
180 NovaLynx Corporation
Apparent temperature: The perceived temperature derived
from either a combination of temperature and wind (wind
chill) or temperature and humidity (heat index).
Approximate absolute temperature scale: A temperature
scale with the ice point at 273° and boiling point of water at
373°. It is intended to approximate the Kelvin temperature scale
with sufficient accuracy for many sciences, notably meteorology.
ARDC model atmosphere: See standard atmosphere.
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
A standard code used to represent data using 8 bits (7 data bits
and 1 parity bit) per character.
ASOS: Automated Surface Observing System. A network of
instrumented weather stations deployed primarily by the
National Weather Service to make weather observations
without operator involvement.
Aspiration meteorograph: An instrument, for the recording
of two or more meteorological parameters, in which the
ventilation is provided by a suction fan.
Aspiration psychrometer: A psychrometer in which the
ventilation is provided by a suction fan.
Aspiration thermograph: A thermograph in which ventilation
is provided by a suction fan.
Aspirator: A device attached to a meteorological instrument
to provide ventilation; usually a suction fan.
Assmann psychrometer: A special form of the aspiration
psychrometer, developed by German meteorologist Dr. Richard
Assmann, in which the thermometric elements are well shielded
from radiation. Psychrometric measurements may be taken with
the instrument in the presence of direct solar radiation.
Asynchronous: Lacking a relationship to a time base or clock.
In asynchronous communications, individual data characters
are sent at an arbitrary rate.
Atmidometer: Same as atmometer.
Atmometer: General name for an instrument which measures
the evaporation rate of water into the atmosphere. See clay
atmometer, evaporation pan, evapotranspirometer, Livingston
sphere, Piché evaporimeter, radio atmometer.
Atmoradiograph: A device for measuring the frequency of
occurrence of atmospherics whose intensity is greater than a
predetermined level.
Atmosphere: The envelope of air surrounding the earth and
bound to it more or less permanently by virtue of the earth’s
gravitational attraction. The system whose chemical
properties, dynamic motions, and physical processes constitute
the subject matter of meteorology. Also, a unit of pressure. See
standard atmosphere.
Atmospheric pressure (barometric pressure): The pressure
exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational
attraction exerted upon the “column” of air lying directly
above the point in question.
Atmospheric radiation: Infrared radiation emitted by or
being propagated through the atmosphere.
Attenuation: In physics, any process in which the flux density (or
power, amplitude, intensity, illuminance, etc.) of a “parallel beam” of
energy decreases with increasing distance from the source.
Attenuation is always due to the action of the transmitting medium
itself, mainly by absorption and scattering. In meteorological optics,
the attenuation of light is termed extinction.
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
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Reference
Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Audio-modulated radiosonde: A radiosonde whose carrier wave
is modulated by audio-frequency signals whose frequency is
controlled by the sensing elements of the instrument.
Aviation weather forecast: A forecast of weather elements of
particular interest to aviation; including ceiling, visibility,
upper winds, icing, turbulence, precipitation types, and storms.
Aviation weather observation: An evaluation, according to
set procedures, of those weather elements which are most
important for aircraft operations. Always includes cloud height
or vertical visibility, sky cover, visibility, obstructions to
vision, certain atmospheric phenomena, and wind speed and
direction. Complete observations include sea level pressure,
temperature, dew point temperature, and altimeter setting.
Compare to synoptic weather observation.
AWIPS: Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System.
The computerized system that processes NEXRAD and ASOS
data received at National Weather Service Forecast Offices.
AWOS: Automated Weather Observing System. A selfcontained weather station designed to make aviation weather
observations without operator involvement.
B
Backing: A change in wind direction in a counterclockwise
sense; opposite of veering.
Backlash: The play or loose motion in an instrument due to the
clearance existing between mechanically contacting parts.
Backplane: Area of a computer or other device where various
logic and control elements are interconnected. Often a printed
circuit board into which other circuit boards plug at right angles.
Balloon: See captive balloon, ceiling balloon, constant-level
balloon, free balloon, hurricane beacon, kytoon, Moby Dick
balloon, pilot balloon, radiosonde balloon, rockoon, skyhook
balloon, transosonde.
Balloon ceiling: The ceiling classification which is applied
when the ceiling height is determined by timing the ascent and
disappearance of a ceiling balloon or pilot balloon.
Balloon cover: A cover which fits over a large inflated balloon
to facilitate handling in high or gusty winds.
Balloon drag: A small balloon, loaded with ballast and inflated
so that it will explode at a predetermined altitude, which is
attached to a larger balloon.
Balloon shroud: Same as balloon cover.
Bandwidth: The number of cycles per second between the
limits of a frequency band.
Bankfull stage: The stage, on a fixed river gauge,
corresponding to the top of the lowest banks within the reach
for which the gauge is used as an index. Compare to flood stage.
Bar: A unit of pressure equal to 106 dyne per cm2 (106 barye),
1000 millibars, 29.53 inches of mercury.
Barogram: The record of a barograph.
Barograph: A continuous-recording barometer.
Barometer: An instrument for measuring the pressure of the
atmosphere. The two principal types are aneroid and mercurial.
Barometric altimeter: Same as pressure altimeter.
Barometric column: Same as mercury column.
Barometric constant: Factor relating the pressure and the
height of a column of mercury, for example,
1 mb = 0.750062 mm, 1 mm = 1.333224 mb.
Barometric correction table: Table or graph to facilitate
compensation of the instrumental errors of a mercury
barometer. The required compensation is generally very small
and is normally included in the barometric reduction table. See
compensation of instruments.
Barometric corrections: The corrections that must be applied to
the reading of a mercury barometer in order that this observed value
may be rendered accurate. There are four kinds. (1) The instrument
correction is the mean difference between the readings of a given
mercury barometer and those of a standard instrument. It is a
composite correction, including the effects of capillarity, index
misalignment, imperfect vacuum, and scale correction, which are the
barometric errors. (2) The temperature correction is applied to
account for the difference between the coefficient of expansion of
mercury and that of the scale. (3) The gravity correction is necessary
because the acceleration of gravity varies with both altitude and
latitude. (4) The removal correction is applied when the barometer
elevation differs from the adopted station elevation and/or
climatological station elevation. See also capacity correction. U.S.
Weather Bureau, 1941: Barometers and the Measurement of
Atmospheric Pressure, Circular F, 7th ed., rev
Barometric errors: See barometric corrections.
Barometric hypsometry: The technique of estimating
elevation by means of atmospheric pressure measurements.
Barometric pressure: Same as atmospheric pressure.
Baroswitch: A pressure-operated switching device used in a
radiosonde. In operation, the expansion of an aneroid capsule
causes an electrical contact to scan a radiosonde commutator
composed of conductors separated by insulators.
Barothermograph: An instrument that automatically records
pressure and temperature.
Basin: See river basin.
Basin accounting: See hydrologic accounting.
Basin lag: A computed characteristic of a particular river basin,
expressed as the time difference between the time-center of
mass of rainfall and the time-center of mass of resulting runoff.
Basin recharge: The difference between amounts of
precipitation and runoff for a given storm. It is that portion of
the precipitation that remains in the basin as soil moisture,
surface storage, ground water, etc.
Baud: A unit of signaling speed representing the number of
code elements sent per second; often, bits per second.
BCD: Binary Coded Decimal. A coding system in which each
decimal digit from 0 to 9 is represented by a 4-digit binary number.
Beaufort wind scale: A system of estimating and reporting
wind speed, originally based on the effect of various wind
speeds on the amount of canvas that a full-rigged nineteenth
century frigate could carry.
Bellani atmometer: An instrument which measures
evaporation by measuring the loss of water from a burette
reservoir through a ceramic disc.
Bellows: See aneroid capsule.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Bimetallic thermometer: A thermometer, the sensitive
element of which consists of two metal strips which have
different coefficients of expansion and are brazed together.
The distortions of the system in response to temperature
variations are used as a measure of temperature. It is a type of
deformation thermometer.
Bimetal strip: See bimetallic thermometer.
Binary: A numbering system using a base number of 2 and
having only two digits: 0 and 1. The fundamental system of
representing information with electrical pulses.
Bit: Abbreviation for binary digit. The smallest unit of
information, equal to one binary decision, i.e. 1/0, on/off, yes/no.
Bivane: A wind vane used to obtain the horizontal and vertical
components of the wind.
Black body: A hypothetical, ideal body which absorbs
completely all incident radiation, independent of wavelength
and direction. No actual substance behaves as a true black
body, although platinum black and other soots rather closely
approximate this ideal. However, one does speak of a black
body with respect to a particular wavelength interval. Compare
to gray body, white body.
Black-bulb thermometer: A thermometer whose sensitive
element has been made to resemble a black body by covering
it with lamp black. The thermometer is placed in an evacuated
transparent chamber which is maintained at a constant
temperature. The instrument responds to insolation, modified
by the transmission characteristics of its container.
Blizzard: A severe weather condition characterized by low
temperatures and strong winds bearing a great amount of
snow, either falling or picked up from the ground.
Boiling point: Temperature of equilibrium between the liquid
and vapor phases of a substance at a given pressure.
Bologram: The record obtained from a bolometer.
Bolometer: Instrument for measuring the intensity of radiant
energy. Its principle is based on the variation of electrical
resistance, with the incoming radiation, of one or both the
metallic strips which the instrument comprises.
Bottle thermometer: A thermoelectric thermometer used for
measuring air temperature. The name is derived from the fact
that the reference thermocouple is placed in an insulated bottle.
Bourdon tube: Closed, curved, flexible tube of elliptic cross
section which is deformed, according to type, by variations of
atmospheric pressure or temperature and so provides a
measurement of the particular parameter.
Breeze: Wind with a speed between 4 and 27 knots (4 and 31
mph); Beaufort scale numbers 2 through 6.
Bridled-cup anemometer: A combination cup anemometer
and pressure-plate anemometer, consisting of an array of cups
about a vertical axis of rotation, the free rotation of which is
restricted by a suitable spring arrangement.
British thermal unit: A unit of energy defined as the heat
required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one
degree Fahrenheit. It is equal to 252.1 calories or to 1055 joules.
Brontometer: A general term to designate apparatus designed
to observe the details of weather during thunderstorms.
182 NovaLynx Corporation
Bucket thermometer: A water-temperature thermometer
provided with an insulated container around the bulb. It is
lowered into the sea on a line until it has had time to reach the
temperature of the surface water, then withdrawn and read.
The insulated water surrounding the bulb preserves the
temperature reading and is available as a salinity sample.
Burst: A radar term for a single pulse of radio energy.
Bus: A set of electrical conductors, often on a backplane, that
carry data and power signals among the various components
of a computer.
Byte: The group of bits which a computer processes as a unit;
often, 8 bits.
C
Calibration: The process whereby a position on the scale of
an instrument is identified with the magnitude of the signal (or
input force) actuating the instrument.
Calibration error: The inaccuracy that the manufacturer
permits when the unit is calibrated in the factory.
Calm: Wind with a speed below 1 knot (1 mph); Beaufort
scale number 0.
Calorie: A unit of heat originally defined as the amount of
heat required to raise the temperature of water through one
degree centigrade (the gram-calorie or small calorie), but this
proved to be insufficiently precise. The 15° gram-calorie
(cal15) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature
of one gram of water from 14.5° to 15.5°C, and is equal to
4.1855 joules. The kilogram calorie or large calorie (Kcal,
kg-cal, or Cal) is 1,000 times as large as a calorie.
Calorimeter: An instrument designed to measure quantities of
heat. Sometimes used in meteorology to measure solar radiation.
Campbell-Stokes recorder: A sunshine recorder of the type in
which the time scale is supplied by the motion of the sun. It
consists essentially of a spherical lens which burns an image
of the sun upon a specially prepared card.
CAMEO: Computer-Aided Management of Emergency
Operations. A system of software applications used to plan for
and respond to chemical emergencies. Developed by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Canadian hardness-gauge: A type of disk hardness-gauge,
especially useful in relatively soft snow. See disk hardness gauge.
Candela: Unit of luminous intensity. One candela is one
lumen per steradian. Formerly called the candle.
Candle: A unit of luminous intensity of a light source. See candela.
Candlepower: Luminous intensity expressed in candelas.
Capacity correction: The correction applied to a mercury
barometer with a nonadjustable cistern in order to compensate
for the change in level of the cistern as the atmospheric
pressure changes. Thus, as the pressure falls, the height of the
cistern increases, due to the exchange of mercury between the
barometer tube and its cistern. This correction is not required
if the scale is calibrated as in the Kew barometer. See also
barometric corrections.
Capillary collector: An instrument for collecting liquid water
from the atmosphere.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Captive balloon: A buoyant balloon kept from rising freely by
means of a line secured to a point on the ground, as opposed to
a free balloon. See kytoon.
Carbon-film hygrometer element: An electrical hygrometer
element constructed of a plastic strip coated with a film of
carbon black dispersed in a hygroscopic binder. Variations in
atmospheric moisture content vary the volume of the binder
and thus change the resistance of the carbon coating. This
element is characterized by high sensitivity and rapid response.
Cardinal winds: Winds from the four cardinal points of the
compass; that is, north, east, south, and west winds.
Carrier frequency: The frequency of a carrier wave.
Carrier wave: Transmitted energy which is modulated in order
to carry information. Usually, it is in the form of a radio-frequency
sine wave, modulated either in amplitude or in frequency.
Carry-over: The portion of the streamflow during any month
or year derived from precipitation in previous months or years.
Catch: The amount of precipitation captured by a rain gauge.
Ceiling: The height ascribed to the lowest layer of clouds or
obscuring phenomena when it is reported as broken, overcast,
or obscuration and not classified as “thin” or “partial.” The
ceiling is termed unlimited when these conditions are not satisfied.
Ceiling balloon: A small balloon used to determine the height
of the cloud base. The height can be computed from the ascent
velocity of the balloon and the time required for its
disappearance into the cloud.
Ceiling classification: A description or explanation of the
manner in which the height of the ceiling is determined, i.e.
aircraft ceiling, balloon ceiling, estimated ceiling, indefinite
ceiling, measured ceiling, precipitation ceiling.
Ceiling light: A type of cloud height indicator which uses a
searchlight to project vertically a narrow beam of light onto
the cloud base. The height of the cloud is determined using a
clinometer, located at a known distance from the ceiling light,
to measure the angle included by the illuminated spot on the
cloud, the observer, and the ceiling light.
Ceiling projector: Same as ceiling light.
Ceilometer: An automatic, recording cloud height indicator.
Celsius temperature scale: International thermometric scale
on which the freezing point of water equals 0° and the boiling
point equals 100° at standard atmospheric pressure
(760 mm Hg). Named for Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius
(1701-1744), who devised the system in 1742.
Centibar: The pressure unit of the meter-ton-second system of
physical units, equal to 10 millibars or 104 dynes per cm2.
Centigrade temperature scale: The older name for the
Celsius temperature scale. Officially abandoned by
international agreement in 1948, but still in common use.
Centimeter-gram-second system: A system of physical units
based on the use of the centimeter, gram, and the second as
elementary quantities of length, mass, and time.
Channel storage: The water volume within a specified
portion of a stream channel.
Character: Part of a computer word that has meaning in itself;
often, a byte.
Chronograph: A clock-driven device for recording the time of
occurrence of an event or the time interval between the
occurrence of events.
Chronometric radiosonde: A radiosonde whose carrier wave
is switched on and off in such a manner that the interval of
time between the transmission of signals if a function of the
magnitude of the meteorological elements being measured.
Chronothermometer: A thermometer consisting of a clock
mechanism the speed of which is a function of temperature.
Cistern barometer: A mercury barometer in which the lower
mercury surface is larger in area than the upper surface. The
basic construction of a cistern barometer is as follows: A glass
tube one meter in length, sealed at one end, is filled with mercury,
and then inverted. The tube is mounted so that its mount
penetrates the upper surface of a reservoir of mercury called
the cistern of the barometer. See Fortin barometer, Kew barometer.
Class A pan: See evaporation pan.
Clay atmometer: An atmometer consisting of a porous
porcelain or ceramic container connected to a calibrated
reservoir filled with distilled water. Evaporation is determined
by the depletion of water in the reservoir.
Clear-air turbulence: Turbulence encountered by aircraft
when flying through air space devoid of clouds. Thermals and
wind shear are the main causes.
Clinometer: An instrument for measuring angles of
inclination. Used in conjunction with a ceiling light to measure
cloud height at night.
Cloud: A hydrometeor consisting of a visible aggregate of
minute water and/or ice particles in the atmosphere above the
earth’s surface. Cloud differs from fog only in that the latter is,
by definition, in contact with the earth’s surface.
Cloud base: For a given cloud or cloud layer, the lowest level
in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible
quantity of cloud particles.
Cloud height: The height of the cloud base above the local terrain.
Cloudburst: Any sudden and heavy rain, almost always of the
shower type.
CMOS: Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A
method of making silicon chips that results in low power
consumption by the circuits.
Coalescence: Formation of a single water drop by the union of
two or more colliding drops.
Cockeyed bob: A colloquial term in western Australia for a squall,
associated with thunder, on the northwest coast in summer.
Code-sending radiosonde: A radiosonde which transmits the
indication of the meteorological sensing elements in the form
of a code consisting of combinations of dots and dashes.
Collector: A class of instruments employed to determine the
electric potential at a point in the atmosphere, and ultimately
the atmospheric electric field.
Color temperature: An estimate of the temperature of an
incandescent body, determined by observing the wavelength at
which it is emitting with peak intensity (its color) and using
that wavelength in Wien’s law.
Combined error: The total of all deviations of a transducer’s
output from a specified straight line in a constant environment.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Comb nephoscope: A direct-vision nephoscope which is
constructed in the following manner: a comb consisting of a
cross-piece containing equispaced vertical rods is attached to
one end of a column eight to ten feet long and is supported on
a mounting that is free to rotate about its vertical axis. In use,
the comb is turned so that the cloud appears to move parallel
to the tips of the vertical rods.
Commutator: See radiosonde commutator.
Condenser-discharge anemometer: A contact anemometer
connected to an electrical circuit which is so arranged that the
average wind speed is indicated.
Conductivity: A unit measure of electrical conduction. The
facility with which a substance conducts electricity, as
represented by the current density per unit electrical-potential
gradient in the direction of flow. Electrical conductivity is the
reciprocal of electrical resistivity and is expressed in units
such as mhos (reciprocal ohms) per cm. It is an intrinsic
property of a given type of material under given physical
conditions (dependent mostly on temperature). Conductance,
on the other hand, varies with the dimensions of the conducting
system and is the reciprocal of the electrical resistance.
Compass points: The cardinal points of the compass, i.e.
north, south, east, west.
Compensated pyrheliometer: Pyrheliometer based on the
comparison of the heating of two identical metal strips, one
exposed to radiation, the other to a joule effect.
Compensation of instruments: The use of electromechanical
devices to reduce (compensate for) the sensitivities of
meteorological sensors to other parameters (e.g., the effect of
temperature on a pressure sensor).
Condensation: The process by which a vapor becomes a
liquid. In meteorology it occurs when water vapor changes to
dew, fog, or becomes a cloud.
Condensation nucleus: Small particle on which water
vapor condenses.
Conformal coating: A protective coating applied to circuits.
Constant-level balloon: A balloon designed to float at a
constant pressure level. This may be accomplished by a
pressure valve which controls the release of ballast so as to
maintain flight above a selected pressure level until the supply
of ballast is exhausted. See Moby Dick balloon, skyhook
balloon, transosonde.
Constant-pressure balloon: Same as constant-level balloon.
Contact anemometer: Anemometer which generates an electrical
contact output with a frequency proportional to wind speed.
Contact-cup anemometer: Same as contact anemometer.
Cooling-power anemometer: The general term for
anemometers operating on the principle that the heat transfer
to air from an object at an elevated temperature is a function of
the air speed. Examples are the hot-wire anemometer and the
katathermometer.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): The international
standard of time, kept by atomic clocks around the world.
Formerly known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), local time
at zero degrees longitude at the Greenwich Observatory,
England. UTC uses a 24-hour clock.
184 NovaLynx Corporation
Coriolis force: In meteorology, a deflecting force acting on a
body in motion and resulting from the earth’s rotation. It deflects
air currents to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left
in the southern hemisphere, thus having an effect on wind direction.
Coronagraph: An instrument for photographing the corona
and prominences of the sun at times other than at solar eclipse.
Cotton-region shelter: A medium-sized instrument shelter. It
is a white louvered box with a flat double roof and is mounted
four feet above the ground on a four-legged stand.
Counterradiation: The downward flux of atmospheric
radiation passing through a given level surface, usually taken
as the earth’s surface. This result of infrared (long-wave)
absorption and re-emission by the atmosphere is the principal
factor in the greenhouse effect.
CPU: Central Processing Unit. The part of a computer which
controls and directs all functions.
Creeping: Defect in the action of an aneroid barometer
resulting in a sluggish adjustment of the index toward the
correct reading when the barometer is subjected to a large and
rapid change in pressure.
Crosswind: A wind blowing in a direction perpendicular to the
course of a moving object.
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube. A display element, consisting of a
vacuum tube and screen, used with computers.
Cryopedometer: Instrument for measuring the depth to which
the soil is frozen.
Cup anemometer: Anemometer which measures wind speed
by the speed of rotation of 3 or 4 hemispherical or conical
cups, each fixed to the end of a horizontal arm projecting from
a vertical axis. Invented by Thomas Romney Robinson
(1792-1882), Irish astronomer and physicist, about 1845. See
condenser-discharge anemometer, contact anemometer.
Compare to bridled-cup anemometer.
Current meter: Any one of numerous devices for the
measurement of either speed alone or of both direction and
speed (set and drift) in flowing water.
Cyanometer: Generally, an instrument designed to measure or
estimate the blueness of the sky. See Linke-scale.
Cyclone: An area of low atmospheric pressure which has a
closed circulation that is cyclonic (counterclockwise in
northern hemisphere and clockwise in southern hemisphere).
D
Damping ratio: A constant which describes the performance
of a wind vane in response to a step change in wind direction.
It is calculated from the relative amount of overshoot on two
successive swings (half cycles) of a decaying oscillation. This
specification is dimensionless and is generally between 0.3 and 0.7.
Data acquisition: The process by which events in the real
world are translated into machine-readable signals.
Dead band: The range through which the input may be varied
without initiating a response. Usually expressed as a
percentage of full-scale range.
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Reference
Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Decibar: A unit of pressure used principally in oceanography.
One decibar (105 dynes/cm2) equals 0.1 bar. In the ocean,
hydrostatic pressure in decibars very nearly equals the
corresponding depth in meters.
Decibel: A measure of the relative power, or of the relative
values of two flux densities, especially of sound intensities and
radar power densities. The decibel is derived from the less
frequently used unit, the bel, named in honor of Alexander
Graham Bell.
Deformation thermometer: A thermometer using transducing
elements which deform with temperature. Examples are the
bimetallic thermometer and the Bourdon tube type of
thermometer.
Deepening: A decrease in the central pressure of a pressure
system. Usually applied to a low rather than to a high.
Degree day: A unit that represents one degree of deviation
from a reference point in the mean daily outdoor temperature
(usually 65°F) and that is used to measure heating and cooling
requirements. Generally, a measure of the departure of the
mean daily temperature from a given standard; one degree day
for each degree (°C or °F) of departure above (or below) the
standard during one day. Degree days are accumulated over a
“season.” As used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
freezing degree days are computed above and below 32°F,
positive if above and negative if below.
Degree hour: As used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
the departure (in °F) of the hourly temperature form a standard
32°F, positive if above and negative if below. Degree hours
may be accumulated over any period of time, depending upon
the use to which they are applied.
Delay distance: The length of air flow past a wind vane
required for the vane to respond to 50 percent of a step change
in wind direction. Expressed in feet or meters and calculated
from delay time times wind tunnel speed.
Delta temperature: The difference between temperature
measurements taken at two significant levels above the ground.
Temperatures at 10 and 40 meters are commonly used.
Depression: In meteorology, an area of low pressure; a low
or trough.
Dew: Water condensed onto objects at or near the ground, due
to the fact that their temperatures have fallen below the dew
point temperature of the surrounding air, but not below freezing.
Dew cell: An instrument used to determine dew point.
Dew point (or dew-point temperature): The temperature to
which a sample of air must be cooled, while the mixing ratio
and barometric pressure remain constant, in order to attain
saturation by water vapor. When this temperature is below
0°C, it is sometimes called the frost point.
Dew-point apparatus: Same as dew-point hygrometer.
Dew-point hygrometer: Hygrometer in which the dew (frost)
point is determined by observing the temperature of an
artificially cooled surface at the moment at which dew (frost)
first appears on it.
Dew-point spread: The difference between the air
temperature and the dew-point. Also called dew-point deficit,
dew-point depression.
Diabatic process: Thermodynamic change of state of a system
in which there is transfer of heat across the boundaries of the
system. Compare to adiabatic process.
Diamond-Hinnman radiosonde: A variable audio-modulated
radiosonde developed at the Bureau of Standards and used by
the United States weather services.
Diffuse solar radiation (sky radiation): Downward scattered
and reflected solar radiation, coming from the whole
hemisphere with the exception of the solid angle of the sun’s
disc on a surface perpendicular to the axis of this cone.
Diffusion hygrometer: A hygrometer based upon the
diffusion of water vapor through a porous membrane.
Digital: Pertaining to measurements or devices in which the
output varies in discrete steps, i.e. on-off or pulse signals.
Compare to analog.
Dines anemometer: A type of pressure-tube anemometer,
named after the inventor.
Dines radiometer: An instrument for measuring radiant
energy. It consists of an ether differential thermometer with
blackened bulbs. One of the bulbs is exposed to the unknown
radiation and the other to a black body source whose
temperature can be varied. Equality of radiation is indicated by
the balance of the differential thermometer.
Direct solar radiation: Radiation coming from the solid angle
of the sun’s disc, as opposed to diffuse sky radiation, effective
terrestrial radiation, or radiation from any other source. Direct
solar radiation is measured by pyrheliometers.
Discharge: Rate of flow of water past a point in a stream,
expressed as volume per unit time, i.e. cubic feet per second.
Disdrometer: Apparatus designed to measure and record the
size distribution of raindrops as they occur in the atmosphere.
Disk hardness gauge: An instrument for measuring snow
hardness in terms of the resistance of snow to the pressure
exerted by a disk attached to a spring-loaded rod, a gauge
calibrated in pounds per square inch registers the amount of
resistance. See Canadian hardness gauge.
Distance constant: The length of fluid flow (gas or liquid)
past a sensor required for the sensor to respond to 63.2% of a
step change in speed. Expressed in feet or meters. For
anemometers, this value is calculated from time constant times
wind tunnel speed.
Dobson spectrophotometer: A photoelectric
spectrophotometer which is used in the determination of the
ozone content of the atmosphere.
Doppler radar: Radar that can measure radial velocity, the
instantaneous component of motion parallel to the radar beam
(i.e., toward or away from the radar antenna). Named for J.
Christian Doppler, an Austrian physicist, who in 1842
explained why the whistle of an approaching train had a higher
pitch than the same whistle when the train was moving away.
Dosimeter: An instrument for measuring the ultraviolet in
solar and sky radiation.
Double-theodolite observation: A technique for making
winds aloft observations in which two theodolites located at
either end of a baseline follow the ascent of a pilot balloon.
Synchronous measurements of the elevation and azimuth
angles of the balloon, taken at periodic intervals, permit
computation of the wind vector as a function of height.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Downdraft: A relatively small-scale, downward moving
current of air.
Downward total radiation: Solar and terrestrial radiation
directed downwards (towards the earth’s surface); incoming
radiation.
Downwind: The direction toward which the wind is blowing;
with the wind.
Drainage area: The size of the area comprising a watershed or
river basin. Also called catchment area.
Drift: The variation over a period of time in device output
when the input parameter is fixed. Temperature change is a
common cause of drift.
Drizzle: Very small precipitation drops (diameters less than 0.5
mm) that appear to float with air currents while falling in an
irregular path. Unlike fog droplets, drizzle falls to the ground.
Dropsonde: A radiosonde which is dropped by parachute from
an aircraft for the purpose of obtaining soundings of the
atmosphere below.
Drosometer: An instrument used to measure the amount of
dew formed on a given surface.
Dry adiabatic lapse rate: The rate of decrease of temperature
with height when unsaturated air is lifted adiabatically (without
exchange of heat with its surroundings). The decrease is due to
expansion as the air is lifted to a lower pressure.
Dry-bulb temperature: Technically, the temperature
registered by the dry-bulb thermometer of a psychrometer.
However, it is identical with the temperature of the air and
may also be used in that sense.
Dry-bulb thermometer: Companion to the wet-bulb
thermometer in a psychrometer. Used to measure ambient air
temperature.
Dyne: The unit of force in the centimeter-gram-second system
of physical units, i.e. one gm cm per sec2, equal to 7.233 x 10-5
poundal.
E
EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
A standard code used to represent data using 8 bits per character.
Ebert ion-counter: An ion counter of the aspiration condenser
type, used for the measurement of the concentration and
mobility of small ions in the atmosphere.
Eddy velocity: Difference between the instantaneous wind
velocity at a point and the mean wind velocity taken over a
given time interval. Also called fluctuation velocity.
Effective snow melt: That part of snow melt that reaches
stream channels as runoff.
Effective terrestrial radiation: The difference between the
outgoing infrared terrestrial radiation of the earth’s surface and
the downcoming infrared counterradiation from the atmosphere.
Electrical hygrometer: A hygrometer which uses a transducing
element whose electrical properties are a function of
atmospheric water vapor content. The humidity strip and
carbon-film hygrometer element are examples of such a transducer.
186 NovaLynx Corporation
Electrical thermometer: A thermometer which uses a
transducing element whose element properties are a function
of its thermal state. Common meteorological examples of such
thermometers are the resistance thermometer and the
thermoelectric thermometer.
Electrolytic strip: Same as humidity strip.
Electrometer: An instrument for measuring differences of
electric potential.
Electronic theodolite: See radar theodolite, radio direction-finder.
Electroscope: A general name for instruments which detect
the presence of (but do not necessarily measure) small electrical
charges by electrostatic means. Compare to electrometer.
Emanometer: An instrument for the measurement of the
radon content of the atmosphere.
Eolian: Same as Aeolian.
Eppley pyrheliometer: A pyrheliometer of the thermoelectric
type. Radiation is allowed to fall on two concentric silver
rings, the outer covered with magnesium oxide and the inner
covered with lamp black. A system of thermocouples (thermopile) is
used to measure the temperature difference between the rings.
Attachments are provided so that measurements of direct and
diffuse solar radiation may be obtained.
EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
Programmable read-only memory which can be erased,
usually by ultraviolet light, and re-programmed.
Error: The difference between the measured value and the
true value. See instrument error, observational error, random
error, standard error, systematic error. See also accuracy,
accuracy rating, measured accuracy.
Error distribution: The probability distribution of random
errors, typically a normal distribution with a zero mean.
Evaporation: The process by which a liquid is transformed to
a vapor. The opposite of condensation.
Evaporation gauge: General name for an instrument which
measures the evaporation rate of water into the atmosphere.
Same as atmometer.
Evaporation hook gauge: See hook gauge.
Evaporation opportunity: The ratio of the actual amount of
water evaporated into the atmosphere to the evaporative
power. Also called relative evaporation.
Evaporation pan: A type of atmometer. It is a pan used in the
measurement of the evaporation of water into the atmosphere.
The NWS Class A pan is a cylindrical container 48 inches in
diameter and 10 inches deep.
Evaporation rate: The volume of liquid water evaporated per
unit area in unit time, usually measured as the depth of liquid
water lost per unit time from the whole area.
Evaporative power (or capacity): A measure of the degree to
which the weather or climate of a region is favorable to the
process of evaporation. Usually considered to be the rate of
evaporation, under existing atmospheric conditions, from a
surface of water which is chemically pure and has the
temperature of the lowest layer of the atmosphere.
Evaporimeter: Same as atmometer.
Evaporograph: Instrument which measures and records the
amount of evaporation over time.
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Reference
Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Evapotranspiration (ET): The combined processes by which
water is transferred from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere:
evaporation of liquid or solid water plus transpiration from plants.
Evapotranspirometer: A type of lysimeter that measures the
rate of evapotranspiration. It consists of a vegetation soil tank
so designed that all water added to the tank and all water left
after evapotranspiration can be measured.
Extinction: The attenuation of light.
F
FAA: Federal Aviation Administration.
Fahrenheit temperature scale: A temperature scale on which
the freezing point of water equals 32° and the boiling point
equals 212° at standard atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg).
Introduced in 1724 by German physicist Gabriel Daniel
Fahrenheit (1686-1736).
Feed: The source of illumination for an antenna reflector. Also
called antenna feed.
Fiducial point: A point (or line) on a scale used for reference
or comparison purposes. In calibration of meteorological
thermometers, for example, the fiducial points are 100°C
(212°F) and 0°C (32°F), which correspond to the boiling point
and ice point at standard pressure (760 mm Hg).
Fiducial temperature: That temperature at which, in a
specified latitude, the reading of a particular barometer
requires no temperature or latitude correction.
Field elevation: The officially designated elevation of an
airport above mean sea level, taken as the highest point on any
of the runways of the airport. Same as airport elevation.
Filling: An increase in the central pressure of a pressure
system; opposite of a deepening. More commonly applied to a
low rather than a high.
Fire-danger meter: A graphical aid used in fire weather
forecasting to calculate the degree of forest-fire danger (or
burning index). Commonly in the form of a circular slide rule,
the fire-danger meter relates numerical indices of (a) the
seasonal stage of foliage, (b) the cumulative effect of past
precipitation or lack thereof, (c) the measured fuel moisture,
and (d) the speed of the wind in the woods.
Fire weather: The state of the weather with respect to its
effect upon the kindling and spreading of forest fires.
Firmware: Programs or instructions which are stored in
read-only memory.
Firn: Old snow that has become granular and compacted as a
result of melting and refreezing.
Fixed-beam ceilometer: See ceilometer.
Flight forecast: An aviation weather forecast for a specific flight.
Float barograph: A type of recording siphon barometer. The
mechanically magnified motion of a float resting on the lower
mercury surface is used to record atmospheric pressure on a
rotating drum.
Floating pan: An evaporation pan in which the evaporation is
measured from water in a pan floating in a larger body of water.
Float-type rain gauge: A class of rain gauge in which the
level of the collected rain water is measured by the position of
a float resting on the surface of the water.
Flood: Overflowing by water of the normal confines of a
stream or other body of water, or accumulation of water by
drainage over areas which are not normally submerged.
Flood stage: That stage, on a fixed river gauge, at which overflow
of the natural banks of the stream begins to cause damage in any
portion of the reach for which the gauge is used as an index.
Flyoff: The total amount of water transferred to the
atmosphere by evapotranspiration.
Foehn: A warm, dry wind on the lee side of a mountain range, the
warmth and dryness due to adiabatic compression upon descent.
Fog: A hydrometeor consisting of a visible aggregate of
minute water droplets suspended in the atmosphere near the
earth’s surface. Fog differs from cloud only in that the base of
fog is at the earth’s surface while clouds are above the surface.
Fogbow: A faintly-colored circular arc similar to a rainbow
but formed on fog layers containing drops whose diameters
are 100 microns or less. Also called mistbow, white rainbow.
Föhn: See foehn.
Foot-candle: A unit of illuminance or illumination equal to
one lumen per foot2. This is the illuminance provided by a
light source of one candle at a distance of one foot.
Foot-lambert:A unit of luminance (photometric brightness).
The foot-lambert describes the luminance of a surface that emits
or reflects one lumen per square foot; it is the luminance of a
perfectly reflecting surface under an illumination of one footcandle. One foot-lambert equals 0.3183 candles per square foot.
Foot-pound: A unit of energy equal to 1.356 joules.
Forel scale: A scale of yellows, greens, and blues for recording
the color of sea water, as seen against the white background of a
Secchi disk.
Fortin barometer: A type of cistern barometer in which the
level of mercury in the cistern is adjusted to the zero point of
the scale before each reading.
Free balloon: A buoyant balloon rising freely in the
atmosphere, as opposed to a captive balloon.
Free lift: The actual lifting force of an inflated balloon,
usually expressed in grams.
Freezing level: Lowest altitude in the atmosphere over a given
location at which the air temperature is 0°C.
Freezing nucleus: Particle on which the freezing of water occurs.
Freezing point: Temperature at which a liquid solidifies under
any given set of conditions. It may or may not be the same as
the melting point or the more rigidly defined true freezing
point or (for water) ice point.
Fresh breeze: Wind with a speed between 17 and 21 knots (19
and 24 mph); Beaufort scale number 5.
Fresh gale: Wind with a speed between 34 and 40 knots (39
and 46 mph); Beaufort scale number 8.
Frost: Ice crystal deposits formed by sublimation (conversion
of water vapor directly to ice) when temperature and dew
point are below freezing.
Frequency modulation: A type of modulation in which the
frequency of a continuous radio carrier wave is varied in
accordance with the properties of a second (modulating) wave.
Frost-point hygrometer: An instrument for measuring the
frost point of the atmosphere.
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Reference
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
FSK: Frequency Shift Keying. A form of frequency
modulation of a data signal performed by a modem for
transmission over dedicated wire or phone lines.
F.S. output: The transducer’s output when the maximum
sensed value is applied to the transducer’s input. For example,
the F.S. output of a 4-20 mA transmitter is 20 mA, whereas its
span is only 16 mA.
Fuel-moisture: Determined by weighing a special type of
wooden stick that has been exposed in the woods, its weight
being proportional to its contained water. Sticks are rated 1-hour,
10-hour, 100-hour, or 1000-hour based on the time required to
lose or gain 63% of the difference between the dead fuel itself
and the surrounding atmosphere. Fuel moisture percentage is
computed by dividing the weight of “water” in the fuel by the
oven-dried weight of the fuel, then multiplying by 100.
Fujita tornado scale: Based upon damage patterns, classifies
twisters into six categories of wind speed (F0 thru F5), ranging
from 40 to 318 mph estimated wind speed, plus a hypothetical
F6 with winds from 318 mph to Mach 1. Developed in 1971
by T. Theodore Fujita of the University of Chicago. Also
known as the Fujita-Pearson Scale.
Full duplex: Operation mode of a communication circuit in
which each end can simultaneously transmit and receive.
G
Gain: An increase or amplification. There are two general
usages of the term in radar meteorology: (a) antenna gain (or
gain factor) is the ratio of the power transmitted along the
beam axis to that of an isotropic radiator transmitting the same
total power; and (b) receiver gain (or video gain) is the
amplification given a signal by the receiver.
Gain factor: See gain.
Gale: Wind with a speed between 28 and 55 knots (32 and 63
mph); Beaufort scale numbers 7 through 10.
Galilei: The unit of acceleration in the centimeter-gramsecond system of units, equal to one cm per sec2. Commonly
used in gravimetry.
Gas thermometer: A thermometer which utilizes the thermal
properties of gas. There are two forms of this instrument: (a) a
type in which the gas is kept at constant volume, and pressure
is the thermometric property; and (b) a type in which the gas is
kept at constant pressure, and volume is the thermometric
property. The gas thermometer is the most accurate of all
thermometers and is used as the standard instrument for
measurement of temperature.
Gauge relation: An empirical curve relating stream discharge
or stage at a point on a stream to discharge or stage at one or
more upstream points and, possibly, to other parameters. Also
called stage relation.
Gentle breeze: Wind with a speed between 7 and 10 knots (8
and 12 mph); Beaufort scale number 3.
Geostrophic wind: That horizontal wind velocity at which the
Coriolis acceleration exactly balances the horizontal pressure
force. It is directed along contour lines or isobars.
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Geostrophic wind level: The lowest level at which the wind
becomes geostrophic in the theory of the Ekman spiral. Also
called gradient wind level.
Geostrophic-wind scale: A graphical device used for the
determination of the speed of the geostrophic wind from the
isobar or contour-line spacing on a synoptic chart.
Gerdien aspirator: An instrument used for the determination
of the electrical conductivity of the atmosphere.
Glass: In nautical terminology, a contraction for “weather
glass” (a mercury barometer).
Glaze: A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth, formed by
the freezing of supercooled water on a surface.
Glime: An ice coating with a consistency intermediate
between glaze and rime.
Global radiation: The total of direct solar radiation and
diffuse sky radiation received by a unit horizontal surface.
Global radiation is measured by pyranometers.
Goldbeater’s-skin hygrometer: A hygrometer using
goldbeater’s skin as the sensitive element. Variations of the
physical dimensions of the skin caused by its hygroscopic
character indicate relative humidity. (Note: Goldbeater’s skin is
the prepared outside membrane of the large intestine of an ox. It
is used in goldbeating to separate the leaves of the metal.)
Goniometer: An instrument used for measuring geometric
angles. See radio direction-finder.
Gradient wind: Any horizontal wind velocity tangent to the
contour line of a constant pressure surface (or to the isobar of
a geopotential surface) at the point in question.
Gradient wind level: Same as geostrophic wind level.
Gram: A c.g.s. (centimeter-gram-second) unit of mass.
Originally defined as the mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water
at 4°C but now taken as the one-thousandth part of the
standard kilogram, a mass preserved by the International
Bureau of Weights and Measures.
Gram calorie: See calorie.
Gram-mole: See mole.
Gram-molecule: See mole.
Graphing board: Board that holds graph paper on which is
plotted information obtained from a pilot-balloon observation.
Grass minimum: The minimum temperature shown by a
minimum thermometer exposed in an open situation with its
bulb at the level of the tops of the grass blades of short turf.
Grass temperature: The temperature registered by a
thermometer with its bulb at the level of the tops of the grass
blades in short turf.
Gravity wind: A wind (or component thereof) directed down
the slope of an incline and caused by greater air density near
the slope than at the same levels some distance horizontally
from the slope. Also called drainage wind and sometimes
called katabatic wind.
Gray body: A hypothetical body which absorbs some constant
fraction, between zero and one, of all electromagnetic radiation
incident upon it, which fraction is the absorptivity and is
independent of wavelength. Compare to black body, white body.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Grid nephoscope: A direct-vision nephoscope constructed in the
following manner: A grid-work of bars is mounted horizontally
on the end of a vertical column and made free to rotate about
the vertical axis. The observer rotates the grid and adjusts his
or her position until some feature of the cloud appears to move
along the major axis of the grid. The azimuth angle at which
the grid is set is taken as the direction of cloud motion.
Ground-check chamber: A chamber use to check the sensing
elements of radiosonde equipment.
Ground-Hog Day: February 2nd. In American folklore, a day
that is popularly supposed to provide the key to the weather
for the remainder of the winter. Specifically, if the ground-hog
upon emerging from its hole casts a shadow, it will return
underground, thereby foreboding more wintery weather. There
is no convincing statistical evidence to support this belief.
Gust: A sudden brief increase in the speed of the wind,
followed by a lull or slackening. Compare to peak gust.
Gustiness components: The ratios, to the mean wind speed,
of the average magnitudes of the component fluctuations of
the wind along three mutually perpendicular axes.
Gustiness factor: A measure of the intensity of gusts given by
the ratio of the total range of wind speed between gusts and
the intermediate periods of lighter wind to the mean wind
speed, averaged over both gusts and lulls.
Gustsonde: An instrument, dropped from high altitude and
carried by a stable parachute, used to measure the vertical
component of turbulence aloft.
H
Hail: Precipitation composed of balls or irregular lumps of ice
with diameters between 5 and 50 mm.
Hair hygrograph: A recording hair hygrometer.
Hair hygrometer: A hygrometer in which the sensitive
element is a strand or strands of human hair, the length of
which is a function of the relative humidity of the air.
Half duplex: Operation mode of a communication circuit in
which each end can transmit and receive, but not simultaneously.
Hardware: Physical equipment used in data processing.
Compare to firmware, software.
Haze: Fine dust or salt particles dispersed through a portion of
the atmosphere; a type of lithometer. The particles are so small
they cannot be felt or seen with the naked eye. Many haze
formations are caused by the presence of an abundance of
condensation nuclei which may grow in size, due to a variety
of causes, and become mist, fog, or cloud.
Hazemeter: Name sometimes given to a transmissometer.
Head wind: A wind blowing in a direction opposite to the
heading of a moving object, thus opposing the object’s
intended progress; the opposite of a tailwind.
Heliograph: An instrument which records the duration of
sunshine and gives a quantitative measure of the amount of
sunshine by the action of the sun’s rays upon blueprint paper.
A type of sunshine recorder.
Heliostat: A clock-driven instrument mounting which
automatically and continuously points in the direction of the
sun. It is used with a pyrheliometer when continuous direct
solar radiation measurements are required.
Heliotropic wind: A subtle, diurnal component of the wind
velocity leading to a diurnal shift of the wind or turning of the
wind with the sun, produced by the east-to-west progression of
daytime surface heating.
Helium (He): An inert gas. A colorless, monatomic element
which is found to occur in dry air to the extent of only
0.000524 percent by volume. Helium is very light, having a
molecular weight of only 4.003 and specific gravity referred to
air of 0.138. Because helium is non-inflammable and has a
lifting power 92 percent of that of hydrogen, it is widely used
as the inflation gas for meteorological balloons.
Hexadecimal: A numbering system using a base number of 16
and including the ten decimal digits (0 to 9) along with six
alpha digits (A to F). Thus, a digit is available to represent
each of the possible values of a 4-bit binary digit.
High: An area of high barometric pressure, with its attendant
system of winds; an anticyclone.
Hi-reference signal: The audio-frequency signal transmitted by
the Diamond-Hinman radiosonde when the baroswitch pen
passes each fifteenth contact of the commutator, up to a number
determined by the design of the commutator, and each fifth
contact thereafter. This signal is transmitted so that the pressure,
temperature, and humidity may be more readily distinguished.
Histogram: A graphical representation of a frequency
distribution. The range of the variable is divided into class
intervals for which the frequency of occurrence is represented by
a rectangular column. The height of the column is proportional to
the frequency of observations within the interval.
Holosteric barometer: Same as aneroid barometer. Holosteric
means wholly made of solids, while aneroid means devoid of liquid.
Hook gauge: An instrument used to measure changes in the
level of the water in an evaporation pan. The gauge is
normally placed in a stillwell and adjusted so that the point of
the hook just breaks the water surface. The change in water
level is read on the attached micrometer.
Hot film anemometer: Anemometer which measures wind
speed by measuring the degree of cooling of a metal film heated
by an electric current. A type of cooling-power anemometer.
Hot wire anemometer: Anemometer which measures wind
speed by measuring the degree of cooling of a metal wire heated
by an electric current. A type of cooling-power anemometer.
Hotplate precipitation gauge: An instrument which measures
rainfall and snowfall by electronically maintaining the
temperature of two back-to-back round plates at a constant
temperature above ambient and measuring the difference of
the power required to hold them at that temperature. Developed
and patented by The National Center for Atmospheric
Research of Boulder, Colorado, and the Desert Research
Institute of Reno, Nevada.
Humidity: Water vapor content of the air. See absolute humidity,
dew point, mixing ratio, relative humidity, specific humidity.
Humidity coefficient: A measure, proposed by Angstrom, of
the precipitation effectiveness of a region.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Humidity element: The transducer of any hygrometer, i.e. that
part of a hygrometer that quantitatively “senses” atmospheric
water vapor.
Humidity strip: The humidity transducing element in a
Diamond-Hinman radiosonde. Also called electrolytic strip.
Hurricane balloon: See hurricane beacon.
Hurricane beacon: An air-launched balloon designed to be
released in the eye of a tropical cyclone, float within the eye at
predetermined levels, and transmit radio signals for RDF
positioning.
Hurricane-force wind: Wind with a speed above 64 knots (73
mph); Beaufort scale numbers 12 through 17.
Hurricane wind: In general, the severe wind of an intense
tropical cyclone (hurricane or typhoon). The term has no
further technical connotation, but, unfortunately, is easily
confused with the strictly defined hurricane-force wind.
Hydrogen (H): A colorless and odorless gaseous element. The
lightest and apparently the most abundant chemical element in
the universe. However, it is found only in trace quantities in
the observable portion of our atmosphere, only about 0.00005
percent by volume of dry air. Hydrogen has a molecular
weight of 2.0160 and specific gravity referred to air of 0.0695.
At one time hydrogen was the commonly used inflation gas
for meteorological balloons, but because of its dangerous
combustibility, it has been largely replaced by helium.
Hydrograph: A graphical representation of stage or discharge
at a point on a stream as a function of time.
Hydrography: The study of waters (including oceans, lakes,
and rivers) embracing either: (a) their physical characteristics,
from the standpoint of the oceanographer or limnologist; or (b)
the elements affecting safe navigation, from the point of view
of the mariner. Compare to hydrology.
Hydrologic accounting: A systematic summary of the terms
(inflow, outflow, and storage) of the storage equation as
applied to the computation of soil-moisture changes, groundwater changes, etc. An evaluation of the hydrologic balance of
an area. Also called basin accounting, water budget.
Hydrologic balance: Generally, the relative states of inflow,
outflow, and storage of moisture over a given area of earth’s surface.
Hydrologic cycle: The succession of stages through which
water passes on the ground and in the atmosphere: evaporation
from land or bodies of water, condensation to form clouds,
precipitation, accumulation in the soil or in bodies of water,
and re-evaporation.
Hydrologic year: Same as water year.
Hydrology: The scientific study of the waters of the earth,
especially with relation to the effects of precipitation and
evaporation upon the occurrence and character of water in
streams, lakes, and on or below the land surface. In terms of
the hydrologic cycle, the scope of hydrology may be defined
as that portion of the cycle from precipitation to re-evaporation
or return to the water of the seas. Applied hydrology utilizes
scientific findings to predict rates and amounts of runoff
(river-forecasting), estimate required spillway and reservoir
capacities, study soil-water-plant relationships in agriculture,
estimate available water supply, and for other applications
necessary to the management of water resources. Compare to
hydrography.
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Hydrometeor: A general term for atmospheric water in any of
its forms, i.e. clouds, fog, hail, ice crystals, rain.
Hydrometer: An instrument used for measuring the specific
gravity of a liquid.
Hydrophotometer: An instrument for measuring the
extinction coefficient in water.
Hydrosphere: The water portion of the earth as distinguished
from the solid part, called the lithosphere, and from the
gaseous outer envelope, called the atmosphere.
Hyetal: Of or pertaining to rain.
Hygristor: A modification of the dew cell used in
radiosonde equipment.
Hygrodeik: A form of psychrometer with wet-bulb and drybulb thermometers mounted on opposite sides of a specially
designed graph of the psychrometric tables. It is so arranged
that the intersections of two curves determined by the wet-bulb
and dry-bulb readings yield the relative humidity, dew-point,
and absolute humidity.
Hygrogram: The record made by a hygrograph.
Hygrograph: A hygrometer which includes an arrangement
for the time recording of atmospheric humidity.
Hygrometer: An instrument used to measure the water vapor
content of the air.
Hygroscope: An instrument that shows changes in humidity.
Hygroscopic: Readily taking up and retaining moisture.
Hygrothermograph: An instrument resulting from the
combination of a thermograph and a hygrograph and
furnishing, on the same chart, simultaneous time recording of
ambient temperature and humidity.
Hygrothermoscope: Apparatus using the combined simultaneous
action of a bimetallic thermometer and a hair hygrometer to move a
needle in front of a divided scale. Its construction permits dew point
variations to be indicated approximately.
Hypsometer: An instrument used to determine atmospheric
pressure or elevation by observing the boiling point of water
or other liquids. The sensitivity of the hypsometer increases
with decreasing pressure, making it more useful for high
altitude work.
Hysteresis: The maximum difference in output for any given
input (within the specified range) when the value is
approached first with increasing, and then with decreasing,
input signals. Caused by energy absorption in the elements of
the measuring instrument. Usually expressed as a percentage
of full-scale range.
Hythergraph: A type of climatic diagram whose coordinates are
some form of temperature vs. a form of humidity or precipitation.
I
Ice crystals: A type of precipitation composed of unbranched
crystals in the form of needles, columns, or plates. Usually has
a very slight downward motion and may fall from a cloudless sky.
Ice point: The true freezing point of water. The temperature at
which a mixture of air-saturated pure water and pure ice may
exist in equilibrium at a pressure of one standard atmosphere.
Icing-rate meter: An instrument for the measurement of the
rate of ice accretion on an unheated body.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
IFLOWS: Integrated Flood Observing and Warning System.
A joint undertaking by the National Weather Service and the
participating States to improve flood warning capabilities by
giving local communities the ability to obtain real-time rain
and stream level data.
IFR: Abbreviation for Instrument Flight Rules, but commonly
used to refer to the weather and/or flight conditions to which
these rules apply, i.e. low visibility.
Illuminance: The total luminous flux received on a unit area
of a given real or imaginary surface, expressed in such units as
the foot-candle, lux, or phot.
Illuminometer: Same as photometer.
Impactor: A general term for instruments which sample
atmospheric suspensoids by impaction. Same as impactometer.
Inaccuracy: The difference between the input quantity applied
to a measuring instrument and the output quantity indicated by
the instrument. The inaccuracy of an instrument is equal to the
sum of its instrument error and its uncertainty.
Inch of mercury: A common unit used in measurement of
atmospheric pressure. Defined as that pressure exerted by a
one-inch column of mercury at standard gravity and a
temperature of 0°C.
Index: The indicating part of an instrument. For example, the
hand of a watch or the meniscus of a mercury column.
Indicator: An instrument used to reveal but not necessarily
measure the presence of an electrical quantity. It is used to
display the output of a sensing element after suitable
amplification and modification. Sometimes called display.
Inert gas: Any one of six gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton,
xenon, and radon, all of whose shells of planetary electrons
contain stable numbers of electrons such that the atoms are
chemically inactive.
Infiltration: Movement of water through the soil surface into
the soil, or the quantity of water entering the soil. Infiltration is
equal to the total precipitation less the losses due to interception
by vegetation, retention in depressions on the land surface,
evaporation, and surface runoff.
Infiltration capacity: The maximum rate at which
precipitation can pass through the surface into the soil, for a
given soil in a given condition.
Infrared radiation: Electromagnetic radiation lying in the
wavelength interval between 0.8 micron and 1 millimeter. At
the lower limit of this interval, the infrared radiation spectrum
is bounded by visible radiation, while on its upper limit it is
bounded by microwave radiation.
Input (or input signal): The quantity to be measured (or
modulated, or detected, or operated upon) which is received by an
instrument. For a thermometer, temperature is the input quantity.
Insolation: In general, solar radiation received at the earth’s
surface. Contracted from incoming solar radiation.
Instrument: A term used to describe a sensor (or sensors), the
associated transducer(s), and the data readout or recording device.
Instrument correction: The mean difference between the
readings of a given instrument and those of a standard instrument.
Instrument error: The correctable part of the inaccuracy of
an instrument.
Instrument exposure: The physical exposure of an
instrument. The effect of immediate environment upon the
representativeness of the measurements obtained by
meteorological instruments is considerable and not always
correctable. The purpose of the instrument shelter is to provide
as good an exposure as possible.
Instrument flight rules (IFR): A set of regulations set down
by the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board to govern the operational
control of aircraft on instrument flight. The abbreviation of
this term is seldom used to denote the rules themselves, but is
in popular use to describe the weather and/or flight conditions
to which these rules apply.
Instrument landing system (ILS): A navigational aid used to
facilitate the landing of an aircraft at an airport in instrument
weather, i.e. low visibility.
Instrument shelter: A box-like structure designed to protect
certain meteorological instruments from exposure to direct
sunlight, precipitation, and condensation, while at the same
time providing adequate ventilation. Instrument shelters are
painted white, have louvered sides, usually a double roof, and
are mounted on a stand several feet above the ground with the
door side facing poleward. See cotton-region shelter,
Stevenson screen.
Instrument weather: In aviation terminology, route or
terminal weather conditions of sufficiently low visibility to
require the operation of aircraft under instrument flight rules.
Interceptometer: A rain gauge which is placed under trees or
foliage to determine the rainfall in that location. By comparing
this catch with that from a rain gauge set in the open, the amount
of rainfall which has been intercepted by foliage can be determined.
Interface: The point (physical and/or electrical) where two
distinct data processing elements meet.
International Geophysical Year: By international agreement,
a period during which greatly increased observation of worldwide
geophysical phenomena is undertaken through the cooperative
effort of participating nations. July 1957 to December 1958
was the first such year. However, precedent was set by the
International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932.
International index numbers: A system of designating
meteorological observing stations by number, established and
administered by the World Meteorological Organization.
Under this scheme, specified areas of the world are divided
into “blocks” each bearing a two-number designator. Stations
within each block have an additional unique three-number
designator, the numbers generally increasing from east to west
and from south to north.
International Practical Temperature Scale of 1948
(IPTS-48): Specified by the 9th General Conference of
Weights and Measures held in 1948. In the IPTS-48, the name
“degree Centigrade” was replaced by “degree Celsius.”
International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS68): Set by the 1968 General Conference of Weights and
Measures. In the IPTS-68, both thermodynamic and practical
units were defined to be identical and equal to 1/273.16 of the
thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. The
unit itself was renamed “the kelvin” in place of “degree
Kelvin” and designated “K” in place of “°K”.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
International Temperature Scale of 1927 (ITS-27): Adopted
by the 7th General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1927.
International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90): An
approximation to the thermodynamic temperature scale, it
became the internationally recognized standard on January 1,
1990. On the ITS-90 scale, the atmospheric boiling
temperature of water is approximately 373.124K (99.974°C).
International synoptic code: A synoptic code approved by
the World Meteorological Organization in which the
observable meteorological elements are encoded and
transmitted in “words” of five numerical digits length. Often
abbreviated synoptic code.
Isobar: A line of equal or constant pressure.
Isobaric: Of equal or constant pressure, with respect to either
space or time.
Iso-elastic spring: A spring which is designed to achieve a
fixed spring constant over a wide temperature range. Usually,
this involves an alloy with high nickel content such as Ni-Span
C. It is common for these springs to be stress relieved at
elevated temperature after forming.
Isohel: A line drawn through geographical points having the
same duration of sunshine (or other function of solar radiation)
during a given interval of time.
Isohume: A line drawn through points of equal humidity on a
given surface.
Isohyet: Line drawn through geographical points recording
equal amounts of precipitation during a given time period or
for a particular storm.
Isonep: A line drawn through all points on a map having the
same amount of cloudiness.
Isophane: A line drawn through geographical points where a
given seasonal biological event occurs on the same date.
Isopluvial: A line drawn through geographical points having
the same pluvial index.
Isotherm: A line of equal or constant temperature.
Isothermal layer: Atmospheric layer throughout which there
is no change of temperature with height, i.e. a zero lapse rate.
Isotropic radiation: Diffuse solar radiation which has the
same intensity in all directions.
Ivory point: A small pointer extending downward from the top
of the cistern of a Fortin barometer. The level of the mercury in
the cistern is adjusted so that it just comes in contact with the end
of the pointer, thus setting the zero of the barometric scale.
J
Jevons effect: The effect upon the measurement of rainfall
caused by the presence of the rain gauge.
Jordan sunshine recorder: A sunshine recorder of the type in
which the time scale is supplied by the motion of the sun. It
consists of two opaque metal semi-cylinders mounted with
their curved surfaces facing each other. Each of the semicylinders has a short narrow slit in its flat side. Sunlight
entering the slits falls on light sensitive paper which lines the
curved side of the semi-cylinder. One semi-cylinder covers
morning hours, the other afternoon hours.
Joule: A unit of energy equal to 107 ergs or to 0.2389 calories.
192 NovaLynx Corporation
K
Katabatic wind: Any wind blowing down an incline. If warm,
it is a foehn. If cold, it may be a fall wind or a gravity wind.
Katathermometer: A type of cooling-power anemometer
based upon the principle that the time constant of a
thermometer is a function of its ventilation.
Kelvin temperature scale: An absolute temperature scale with
the ice point of pure water defined as 273.16K. The size of the
degree is the same as on the Celsius scale, and the zero point is
absolute zero. Temperatures on this scale are called kelvins, not
degrees kelvin, the unit kelvin is not capitalized, and the symbol
(capital K) stands alone with no degree symbol. There are no
negative temperatures in the Kelvin scale. In photometry, the
Kelvin scale is used to express “color temperature,” a simplified
way to characterize the spectral properties of a light source.
Technically, color temperature refers to the temperature to which
one would have to heat a theoretical “black body” source to
produce light of the same visual color. The Kelvin temperature
scale is named after the British mathematician and physicist
William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who proposed it in 1848.
Kew-pattern barometer: Mercurial barometer with a fixed
scale and cistern and which therefore requires only one
adjustment before each reading.
Kilogram calorie: See calorie.
Koschmieder’s law: A basic equation in daytime visual range
theory, relating the apparent luminance of a distant black
object, the apparent luminance of the background sky above
the horizon, and the extinction coefficient of the atmosphere.
Knot: The unit of speed in the nautical system; one nautical
mile per hour. It is equal to 1.1508 statute miles per hour or
0.5144 meters per second.
Konimeter: An instrument for determining the dust content of
a sample of air. Also spelled conimeter.
Koniscope: An instrument which indicates the presence of
dust particles in the atmosphere. Also spelled coniscope.
Koschmieder’s Law: A basic equation in daytime visual range
theory, relating the apparent luminance of a distant black
object, the apparent luminance of the background sky above
the horizon, and the extinction coefficient of the air layer near
the ground. Also called airlight formula.
Krypton: An inert gas. An element found in the atmosphere to
the extent of only 0.000114 percent by volume. Its molecular
weight is 83.7.
Kytoon: A captive balloon used to maintain meteorological
equipment aloft at approximately a constant height. The
kytoon is streamlined and combines the aerodynamic
properties of a balloon and a kite.
L
Lambert: A unit of luminance (photometric brightness). One
lambert is the luminance of a surface that emits or reflects one
lumen per square centimeter. The lambert honors the German
physicist Johann Lambert (1728-1777), who showed that the
illuminance of a surface is inversely proportional to the square
of the distance from the light source.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Laminar Smooth, non-turbulent. Often used to describe cloud
formations which appear to be shaped by a smooth flow of air
traveling in parallel layers or sheets.
Langley: A unit of energy per unit area commonly employed
in radiation theory. Equal to one gram-calorie per square
centimeter.
Lapse line: A curve showing the variation of temperature with
height in the free air. See lapse rate.
Lapse rate: The decrease of an atmospheric variable with height,
the variable being temperature, unless otherwise specified.
Large calorie: See calorie.
Laurence: A common type of terrestrial scintillation;
shimmering over a hot surface (such as a roadway) on a quiet,
cloudless, summer day.
Leeward: Facing away from the wind.
Lee wave: A wave disturbance in airflow due to some barrier
in the flow, i.e. a hill or mountain.
LIDAR: Light Detecting And Ranging. A technique used to
detect atmospheric constituents or related parameters such as
atmospheric extinction coefficient. Light is produced in a
modulated source and the resulting backscattered or reflected
light is analyzed to quantify some property of the atmosphere.
Light: Visible radiation (about 0.4 to 0.7 microns in
wavelength) considered in terms of its luminous efficiency,
that is, evaluated in proportion to its ability to stimulate the
sense of sight.
Light air: Wind with a speed between 1 and 3 knots (1 and 3
mph); Beaufort scale number 1.
Light breeze: Wind with a speed between 4 and 6 knots (4
and 7 mph); Beaufort scale number 2.
Linearity: The maximum deviation of any points from a
straight line drawn as a “best fit” through the calibration points
of an instrument with a linear response curve. Usually
expressed as a percentage of full-scale range.
Linke-scale: A type of cyanometer, an instrument used to
measure the blueness of the sky. The Linke-scale is simply a
set of eight cards of different standardized shades of blue.
They are evenly numbered 2 to 26. The odd numbers are used
by the observer if he or she judges the sky color to lie between
any of the given shades.
Liquid thermometer: Thermometer in which the difference in
the rates of expansion with temperature of a liquid and its
receptacle is used as a measure of the temperature. The liquid
used may be ethyl alcohol, toluene, petroleum, or mercury.
Lithometeor: The general term for dry atmospheric
suspensoids, including dust, haze, smoke, and sand. Compare
to hydrometeor.
Lithosphere: The outer, solid portion of the earth; the crust of
the earth.
Livingstone sphere: An clay atmometer consisting of a
hollow ceramic sphere through which evaporation occurs.
Evaporation is measured by the loss of water from the
reservoir which feeds the sphere.
Lizard balloon: A balloon having a detachable tail which is
released when the balloon has undergone a predetermined
expansion. It thus serves to measure approximately the density
of the atmosphere at the point of release.
Local visual distance: The meteorological visual range,
which can be estimated from the average extinction coefficient
using the Koschmieder equation.
Local winds: Winds which, over a small area, differ from those
which would be appropriate to the general pressure distribution.
Long-wave radiation: Radiation with wavelengths greater
than 4 microns. (In meteorology, same as infrared radiation.)
Lo-reference signal: The audio-frequency signal transmitted
by the Diamond-Hinman radiosonde when the baroswitch pen
passes each fifth contact of the commutator up to a number
determined by the design of the commutator. It then signals
every contact except the fifth, which is transmitted as a hireference signal.
Low: An area of low barometric pressure, with its attendant
system of winds. Also called a depression or cyclone.
Low level wind shear: A local variation in the wind direction
or speed. This condition can present danger to aircraft,
especially at landing, when a sudden shift from headwind to
tailwind can cause a rapid loss of airspeed and lift.
Lucimeter: Instrument for measuring the mean intensity of
global solar radiation (direct and diffuse) near the earth’s
surface in a specified time interval.
Lull: A momentary decrease in the speed of the wind.
Lumen: A unit of luminous flux. The lumen is equal to the
luminous flux radiated into a unit solid angle (steradian) from
a small source having a luminous intensity of one candle. An
ideal source possessing an intensity of one candle in every
direction would radiate a total of 4 pi lumens. “Lumen” is a
Latin word for light.
Luminance: A measure of the intrinsic luminous intensity
emitted by a source in a given direction. Luminance is a
measure only of light. The comparable term for
electromagnetic radiation in general is radiance.
Luminescence: Any emission of light at temperatures below
that required for incandescence.
Luminous flux: The flux of visible radiation, so weighted as
to account for the manner in which the response of the human
eye varies with the wavelength of radiation. The basic unit for
luminous flux is the lumen.
Luminous intensity: The intensity (flux per unit solid angle)
of visible radiation weighted to take into account the variable
response of the human eye as a function of the wavelength of
light. Usually expressed in candles.
Lux: A photometric unit of illuminance or illumination equal
to one lumen per square meter.
Lysimeter: A type of evaporation gauge consisting of a tank or
pan of soil placed in a field so that the soil, water, thermal, and
vegetative properties in the tank duplicate as closely as
possible the properties of the surrounding area.
M
Magnetic wind direction: The direction, with respect to
magnetic north, from which the wind is blowing. Distinguish
from true wind direction.
Magneto anemometer: A cup anemometer with its shaft
mechanically coupled to a magneto.
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Magnetograph: A recording magnetometer.
Magnetometer: General name for an instrument which
measures the earth’s magnetic field intensity.
Manometer: An instrument for measuring the pressure of
gases and vapors. A mercury barometer is a type of manometer.
Marine barometer: A mercury barometer designed for use
aboard ship. The instrument is of the fixed-cistern type (see
Kew barometer). The mercury tube is constructed with a wide
bore for its upper portion and with a capillary bore for its
lower portion. This is done to increase the time constant of the
instrument and thus prevent the motion of the ship from
affecting the reading. The instrument is suspended in gimbals
to reduce the effects of pitch and roll of the ship.
Marine rainbow: A rainbow seen in the spray of the ocean. It
is optically the same phenomenon as the ordinary rainbow.
Marine thermometer: See sea-water thermometer, reversing
thermometer.
Mariners 1-2-3 Rule: A method of avoiding winds associated
with a tropical cyclone by taking into account the forecast
track error of the National Weather Service over a 10 year
period which is approximately 100 nm in 24 hours, 200 nm for
48 hours, and 300 nm in 72 hours. The forecast track error is
added to the 34 knot wind radii to compute the danger area.
MARPLOT: Mapping Applications for Response, Planning,
and Local Operational Tasks. Part of the CAMEO system.
MARS: Motor Aspirated Radiation Shield. See radiation shield.
Marvin sunshine recorder: A sunshine recorder of the type in
which the time scale is supplied by a chronograph. It consists of two
bulbs, one of which is blackened, which communicate through a
glass tube of small diameter. The tube is partially filled with mercury
and contains two electrical contacts. When the instrument is exposed
to sunshine, the air in the blackened bulb is warmed more than that in
the clear bulb. The warmed air expands and forces the mercury
through the connecting tube to a point where the electrical contacts
are shorted by the mercury. This completes the electrical circuit to the
pen of the chronograph.
Maximum thermometer: Thermometer used for measuring
the highest temperature attained during a given interval of
time, for example, a day.
Maximum-wind level: The height at which the maximum
wind speed occurs, determined in a winds-aloft observation.
Maxwell’s law: The statement that the viscosity of air is
independent of the density of air.
Mean radiant temperature: The temperature at which an object
gives out as much radiation as it receives from its surroundings.
Mean temperature: The average temperature of the air as
indicated by a properly exposed thermometer for a given time
period, usually a day, a month, or a year.
Measured accuracy: The maximum positive and negative
deviation observed in testing a device under specified
conditions and by a specified procedure. It is usually measured
as an inaccuracy and expressed as accuracy, typically in terms
of the measured variable, percent of span, percent of upper
range variable, percent of scale length, or percent of actual
output reading. See accuracy, accuracy rating.
Melting level: The level at which ice crystals and snowflakes
melt as they descend through the atmosphere.
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Melting point: The temperature at which a solid substance
undergoes fusion, i.e. melts, changes from solid to liquid form.
All substances have their characteristic melting points. For
very pure substances the temperature range over which the
process of fusion occurs is very small. The melting point of a
pure crystalline solid is a process of pressure. It increases with
increasing pressure for most substances. However in the case
of ice (and a few other substances) the melting point decreases
with increasing pressure. Under a pressure of one standard
atmosphere, the melting point of pure ice is the same as the ice
point, that is 0°C or 32°F.
Meniscus: The upper surface of a column of liquid.
Mercurial barometer: Same as mercury barometer.
Mercury: A metallic element of atomic weight 200.61, unique
(for metals) in that it remains liquid under all but very extreme
temperatures.
Mercury barometer: Barometer in which pressure is
determined by balancing air pressure against the weight of a
column of mercury in an evacuated glass tube.
Mercury column: (Also called barometer column, barometric
column.) The column of mercury employed in a mercury
barometer, the height of which (inches of mercury) is used as a
measure of atmospheric pressure.
Mercury-in-glass thermometer: A common type of liquid-inglass thermometer, used, in meteorology, in psychrometers and
as a maximum thermometer.
Mercury-in-steel thermometer: A liquid-in-metal
thermometer in which mercury is enclosed in a steel envelope.
The change in internal pressure caused by the temperature
variation is measured by a Bourdon tube which is connected to
the mercury by a capillary tube. This instrument is highly
accurate and has extremely good pen control when arranged as
a thermograph.
Mercury thermometer: A liquid-in-glass or liquid-in-metal
thermometer using mercury as the liquid.
Mesonet: A regional network of observing stations (usually
surface stations) designed to diagnose mesoscale weather
features and their associated processes.
Mesoscale: Pertaining to atmospheric phenomena having
horizontal scales ranging from a few to several hundred
kilometers, including thunderstorms, squall lines, fronts,
precipitation bands in tropical and extratropical cyclones, and
topographically generated weather systems such as mountain
waves and sea and land breezes.
Meteorogram: A record obtained from a meteorograph. A
chart in which meteorological variables are plotted against time.
Meteorograph: An instrument which automatically records
the measurement of two or more meteorological elements.
Meter-ton-second system: A system of physical units based
upon the use of the meter, the metric ton (106 grams), and the
second as elementary quantities of length, mass, and time,
respectively.
Michaelson actinograph: A pyrheliometer of the bimetallic
type used to measure the intensity of direct solar radiation.
Microbarm: That portion of the record of a microbarograph
between any two (or a specified small number) of successive
crossings of the average pressure level (in the same direction).
Analogous to microseism.
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Microbarogram: The record or trace made by a microbarograph.
Microbarograph: An aneroid barograph designed to record
atmospheric pressure variations of very small magnitude.
Micropluviometer: Rain gauge which registers precipitation
that is too light to be registered by ordinary recording of the
depth of water from precipitation. Same as ombrometer.
Microprocessor: A small, limited-capacity central processing
unit contained entirely on one semiconductor chip.
Microseism: A feeble oscillatory disturbance of the earth’s
crust, detectable only by very sensitive seismographs. Certain
types of microseisms seem to be closely correlated with
pressure disturbances. See microbarm.
Millibar: A unit of pressure which directly expresses the force
exerted by the atmosphere. Equal to 1000 dynes/cm² or 100 pascals.
Minimum thermometer: Thermometer used for measuring
the lowest temperature attained during a given interval of time,
for example, a day.
Mirror nephoscope: A nephoscope in which the motion of the
cloud is observed by its reflection in a mirror.
Mist: A hydrometeor consisting of an aggregate of microscopic
and more-or-less hygroscopic water droplets suspended in the
atmosphere. It reduces visibility to a lesser extent than fog. The
relative humidity of mist is often less than 95 percent.
Mistbow: Same as fogbow.
Mixing ratio: In a system of moist air, the dimensionless ratio
of the mass of water vapor to the mass of dry air. For many
purposes, the mixing ratio may be approximated by the
specific humidity.
MMTS: Maximum-Minimum Temperature System. Electronic
temperature measurement devices deployed by the US
National Weather Service as a part of their cooperative
network beginning in the mid-1980s.
Moby Dick balloon: A large plastic constant-level balloon for
duration flying (in excess of 24 hours) at altitudes above
40,000 feet, used for the determination of wind fields and the
measurement of upper atmospheric parameters.
Modem: A device that allows a terminal or computer at one
location to communicate with a terminal or computer at a
distant location via wire or phone lines.
Moderate breeze: Wind with a speed between 11 and 16 knots
(13 and 18 mph); Beaufort scale number 4.
Moderate gale: Wind with a speed between 28 and 33 knots
(32 and 38 mph); Beaufort scale number 7.
Modulation: The process of modifying some characteristic of
a wave (the carrier) so that it varies in step with the
instantaneous value of another wave (the modulating wave) in
order to transmit a message. The modified characteristic may
be frequency, phase, and/or amplitude.
Mole: A unit of mass numerically equal to the molecular
weight of the substance. The gram-mole or gram-molecule is
the mass in grams numerically equal to the molecular weight,
i.e. a gram-mole of oxygen is 32 grams.
Moll thermopile: A thermopile used in some types of radiation
instruments. See solarimeter.
Monsoon: A seasonal wind of persistent direction, characterized
by a pronounced change in direction between seasons.
Mountain barometer: Any conventional barometer fitted
with an extended scale so that atmospheric pressure
measurements may be made at both high and low altitudes.
Mount Rose snow sampler: A particular pattern of snow
sampler having an internal diameter of 1.485 inches so that
each inch of water in the sample weighs one ounce.
Moveable scale barometer: A mercury barometer of the fixed
cistern type in which a moveable scale terminating in an ivory
point is used to compensate for the variations in the height of
the mercury in the cistern.
MSL: Abbreviation for mean sea level.
MST radar: Abbreviation for mesosphere-stratospheretroposphere radar. A type of wind profiler designed to measure
winds and other atmospheric parameters up to altitudes of
100 km or more.
MTBF: Abbreviation for mean time between failures.
Multiple register: A chronograph used to make a time-record
of certain measured meteorological elements. The most
common type, the triple register, records wind direction and
speed, duration of sunshine, and amount of rainfall (sensed
respectively by a contact anemometer, Marvin sunshine
recorder, and tipping bucket rain gauge). The register consists
of a rotating, clock-driven drum on a helical axis, a separate
pen for each element, and the actuating mechanism for the
pens. Double registers are also used. Multiples registers of this
type are becoming obsolete.
Multiplexer: A device that combines several separate
communications signals into one and outputs them on a single line.
Muskingum method: A method of streamflow routing which
assumes that storage is a linear function of the weighted flow
in the reach and is adaptable to a simple mathematical solution.
N
Nansen bottle: A device used by oceanographers to obtain
subsurface samples of sea water. The “bottle” is lowered by
wire, its valves open at both ends. It is then closed in situ by
allowing a weight (called a messenger) to slide down the wire
and strike the reversing mechanism. This causes the bottle to
turn upside down, closing the valves and reversing the
reversing thermometers which are mounted on it in a special
thermometer case. If, as is usually the case, a series of bottles
are lowered, then the reversal of each bottle releases another
messenger to actuate the bottle beneath it.
Nautical mile: The nautical mile is closely related to the
geographical mile which is defined as the length of one minute
of arc on the earth’s equator. By international agreement, the
nautical mile is now defined as 1852 meters.
Nasen cast: A series of Nansen-bottle water samples and associated
temperature observations resulting from one release of a messenger.
Nephelometer: An instrument which measures the scattering
function of particles suspended in a medium in order to determine
the visual range through the medium. See visibility meter.
Nepheloscope: (1) An instrument for demonstrating the
temperature changes which occur in air that is rapidly expanded
or compressed. (2) A laboratory instrument for the production
of clouds by the condensation process. (3) Same as nephoscope.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Nephometer: A general term for instruments designed to
measure the amount of cloudiness.
Nephoscope: An instrument for determining the direction of
cloud motion. There are two basic designs of nephoscope, the
direct-vision nephoscope and the mirror nephoscope. Also
called nepheloscope.
Net pyranometer: An instrument for measuring the difference
of the solar radiation falling on both sides of a horizontal
surface from the whole hemisphere.
Net pyrgeometer: An instrument for measuring the difference
between incoming and outgoing terrestrial radiation.
Net radiation: The difference between downward and upward
(total) radiation; net flux of all radiation.
Net radiometer: An instrument for the measurement of the
net flux of downward and upward total (solar and terrestrial)
radiation through a horizontal surface.
Net solar radiation: The difference between the solar radiation
directed downward and upward; net flux of solar radiation.
Newtonian telescope: A reflecting type telescope with a 45°
mirror, so that the primary image is observed through a hole in
the side of the tube.
NEXRAD: Acronym for NEXt generation weather RADar. A
network of advanced Doppler radars, known as the WSR-88D
(Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler), developed in
the 1980s and implemented in the 1990s to replace the aging
network of WSR-57 and WSR-74 radar systems.
Nine light indicator: A remote indicator for wind speed and
direction used in conjunction with a contact anemometer and a
wind vane. The indicator consists of a center light, connected
to the contact anemometer, surrounded by eight equally
spaced lights which are individually connected to a set of
similarly spaced electrical contacts on the wind vane. Wind
speed is determined by counting the number of flashes of the
center light during an interval of time. Direction, indicated by
the position of the illuminated outer bulbs, is given to 16
points of the compass.
Nipher shield: A conically shaped, copper rain gauge shield.
Nonlinear: Not a linear function of the relevant variables.
Non-recording rain gauge: A rain gauge which indicates but
does not record the amount of precipitation captured.
Normal operating conditions: The range of operating
conditions within which a device is designed to operate and
for which operating influences are stated. See operating
conditions, reference operating conditions.
Normal-plate anemometer: A type of pressure-plate
anemometer in which the plate, restrained by a stiff spring, is
held perpendicular to the wind. The wind-activated motion of
the plate is measured electrically. The natural frequency of this
system can be made high enough so that resonance
magnification does not occur.
NRM wind scale: A wind scale adapted by the U.S. Forest
Service for use in the forested areas of the northern Rocky
Mountains (NRM). It is an adaptation of the Beaufort wind
scale. The difference between these two scales lies in the
specification of the visual effects of the wind. The force numbers
and the corresponding wind speeds are the same in both.
NWS: National Weather Service. Administered by the U.S.
Department of Commerce.
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O
Obscuring phenomenon: An atmospheric phenomenon, other
than clouds, which obscures a portion of the sky from the
point of observation. Also called obscuration.
Observational error: The difference between the true value
of some quantity and its observed value. Every observation is
subject to certain errors. Systematic errors affect the whole of
a series of observations in nearly the same way. For example,
the scale of an instrument may be out of adjustment. These
instrument errors can be detected and corrected by comparison
with a standard. The personal equation of an observer may
lead him or her to make small systematic errors in his or her
readings, for example, if the scale is not at eye level. Random
errors, which appear in any series of observations, are
generally small and as likely to be positive as negative. Their
magnitudes are usually distributed according to the error
distribution. Mistakes are widely discrepant readings.
Ombrometer: A rain gauge capable of measuring very small
amounts of precipitation. Also called micropluviometer, trace
recorder.
Ombroscope: An instrument which indicates the presence of
precipitation. The ombroscope consists of a heated, watersensitive surface which indicates by mechanical or electrical
techniques the occurrence of precipitation.
Operational weather limits: The limiting values of ceiling,
visibility, and wind, or runway visual range, established as
safety minima for aircraft landings and take-offs.
Operating conditions: Conditions to which a device is
subjected, not including the variable measured by the device.
See normal operating conditions, reference operating conditions.
Operating influence: The change in a performance
characteristic caused by a change in a specified operating
condition from reference operating condition, all other conditions
being held within the limits of reference operating conditions.
Orographic precipitation: Precipitation caused by the ascent
of moist air over an orographic barrier such as a mountain range.
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A
regulatory office of the U.S. Department of Labor.
Owens dust recorder: An instrument for rapidly obtaining
samples of airborne dust; a type of dust counter. Particles pass
through a cylindrical chamber, are drawn at high velocity
through a narrow slit, and then impinge upon a microscope
cover glass located a short distance from the slit. Analysis for
quantity and size of the particles is made using a microscope.
The vacuum required to operate the instrument is developed
by an attached hand pump.
P
PAR: Abbreviation for photosynthetically active radiation.
Parachute radiosonde: Same as dropsonde.
Paranthelion: A refraction phenomenon similar to a parahelion,
but occurring generally at a distance of 120° (occasionally 90°
and 140°) from the sun, on the parhelic circle.
Paraselene: A weakly colored lunar halo identical in form and
optical origin to the solar parhelion.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Paraselenic circle: A halo phenomenon consisting of a
horizontal circle passing through the moon, corresponding to
the parhelic circle through the sun. Produced by reflection of
moonlight from ice crystals.
Parahelic circle: A halo consisting of a faint white circle
passing through the sun and running parallel to the horizon for
as much as 360° of azimuth. Produced by reflection of
sunlight from ice crystals.
Parhelion: Either of two colored luminous spots that appear at
points 22° (or somewhat more) on both sides of the sun and at
the same elevation as the sun. Also called mock sun, sun dog.
Parallel data transmission (parallel output): A form of data
transmission in which the bits of each character are all sent
simultaneously, resulting in extremely fast communication but
requiring a communication path for each bit. Compare to serial
data transmission.
Parity: The addition of one or more redundant bits to
information to verify its accuracy.
Pascal: Name given to the unit of pressure in the International
System of Units (SI). Equal to 1 newton/meter2 or 0.01 millibar.
Pascal’s law: A hydrostatic principle that pressure supplied to
an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion
of the fluid and to the walls of the containing vessel.
Peak gust: In United States weather observing practice, the
highest “instantaneous” wind speed recorded at a station
during a specified period, usually the 24-hour observation day.
Therefore, a peak gust need not be a true gust of wind.
P-E index: Abbreviation for precipitation effectiveness index.
Pendulum anemometer: A pressure-plate anemometer
consisting of a plate which is free to swing about a horizontal
axis in its own plane above its center of gravity. The angular
deflection of the plate is a function of the wind speed. This
instrument is not used for station measurements because of the
false reading which results when the frequency of the wind
gusts and the natural frequency of the swinging plate coincide.
This was the earliest form of anemometer.
Penetrometer: A pointed device which indicates the amount
of resistance encountered when it is forced into a material such
as snow or soil. See ram penetrometer.
P-E quotient: Abbreviation for precipitation-evaporation quotient.
P-E ratio: Abbreviation for precipitation-evaporation ratio.
Percolation: The gravity flow of water within soil.
Permeability: Capacity of a soil or other surface to be
penetrated by water sinking into the ground under the force of
gravity. It thus expresses the rate of percolation.
Personal equation: A systematic observational error due to
the characteristics of the observer. The uncertainty in a reading
made by an observer may be acertained by a statistical analysis
of his or her readings.
Pers sunshine recorder: A sunshine recorder of the type in
which the time scale is supplied by the motion of the sun. The
instrument, which is pointed at the celestial pole, consists of a
hemispherical mirror mounted externally on the optical axis of
a camera. The lens of the camera forms an image of the sun
which is reflected by the hemispherical mirror so that as the
sun moves across the sky, the image traces an arc of a circle on
the photographic paper.
Phenolic: A plastic molding component formed by the
reaction of phenol and formaldehyde. It can be heavily
reinforced or “filled” with glass fibers or other materials.
Phenolics are known for their high impact strength, excellent
wear characteristics, and dimensional stability over a wide
temperature range.
Phot: A photometric unit of illuminance or illumination equal
to one lumen per square centimeter.
Photoelectric cell: A transducer which converts
electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible, and
ultraviolet regions into electrical quantities such as voltage,
current, or resistance. Also called photo cell.
Photoelectric photometer: See photometer.
Photoelectric transmittance-meter: An instrument for
measuring the transmissivity of the atmosphere; a type of
transmissometer. It consists of a constant-intensity collimated
light source located at a suitable distance from a photoelectric
cell. Variation in the turbidity of the atmosphere causes
changes in the intensity of the light received by the photo cell,
thereby varying its electrical output. Also called photoelectric
transmissometer.
Photographic barograph: A mercury barometer arranged so
that the position of the upper or lower meniscus may be
measured photographically. In one design the image of the
meniscus is formed on a rotating drum covered with sensitized
paper so that a continuous record of pressure as a function of
time is obtained.
Photometer: An instrument for measuring the intensity of
light or the relative intensity of a pair of lights. Also called an
illuminometer. If the instrument is designed to measure the
intensity of light as a function of wavelength, it is called a
spectrophotometer. Photometers may be divided into two
classes: photoelectric photometers in which a photoelectric cell
is used to compare electrically the intensity of an unknown light
with that of a standard light; and visual photometers in which
the human eye performs the function of a photo cell. A
photometer used to measure the intensity of a distant light is
referred to as a telephotometer or transmissometer.
Photopolarimeter: A polarimeter utilizing a Wollaston prism
as a polarizer and a Nicol prism as an analyzer.
Phytometer: A device, similar to a potometer, for measuring
transpiration, consisting of a vessel containing soil in which
one or more plants are rooted and sealed so that water can
escape only by transpiration from the plant.
Pibal: Contraction for pilot balloon observation.
Piche evaporimeter: An atmometer which uses a filter paper
disc as the evaporating element. The amount of water evaporated
through the paper is read at the graduated tube reservoir.
Pilot balloon: A small balloon whose ascent is followed by a
theodolite in order to obtain data for the computation of winds aloft.
Pilot balloon observation: A method of winds aloft
observation in which the elevation and azimuth angles of a
theodolite are read while visually tracking a pilot balloon.
Balloon height data is estimated from assumed balloon
ascension rates.
Pitot-static tube: Same as pitot tube.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Pitot tube: An instrument for measuring the relative speed of
a fluid. It consists of a concentric pipe arrangement in which
the inner pipe is open at one end and the outer pipe is
perforated and closed at both ends. Each pipe is connected to a
manometer. The unit is operated with the open end pointing
upstream, so that the inner pipe measures the total pressure
and the outer pipe measures the static pressure. The difference
between these pressures, the dynamic pressure, is proportional
to the square of the fluid speed.
Pitot tube anemometer: A pressure tube anemometer,
consisting of a pitot tube mounted on the windward end of a
wind vane and a suitable manometer to measure the developed
pressure and calibrated in units of wind.
Pluvial: Pertaining to rain, or more broadly, to precipitation.
Pluvial index: The amount of precipitation falling in one day,
or other specified period, that is likely to be equalled or
exceeded in any given place only once in a century. That is, a
precipitation amount that has a return period of 100 years.
Pluviograph: Same as recording rain gauge.
Pluviometer: Same as rain gauge.
Pluvioscope: Apparatus from which the nature and time of
precipitation may be determined.
Polarimeter: An instrument for determining the degree of
polarization of light. See photopolarimeter.
Polariscope: An instrument for studying, or examining
substances in, polarized light. See Savant polariscope.
Pole-star recorder: An instrument used to determine
approximately the amount of cloudiness during the dark hours.
It consists of a fixed long-focus camera positioned so that
Polaris is permanently within its field of view. The apparent
motion of the star appears as a circular arc on the photograph
and is interrupted as clouds come between the star and the camera.
Potential evaporation: Same as evaporative power.
Potential evapotranspiration: The amount of moisture
which, if available, would be removed from a given land area
by evapotranspiration. Expressed in units of water depth.
Potential temperature: Temperature assumed by an
unsaturated air parcel when brought adiabatically to a standard
pressure (1,000 mb).
Potentiometer: An instrument for measuring differences in
electric potential.
Potometer: A device, similar to a phytometer, for measuring
transpiration. It consists of a small vessel containing water and
sealed so that the only escape of moisture is by transpiration from a
leaf, twig, or small plant with its cut end inserted in the water.
Precipitable water: Amount of water, expressed as a depth or
as a mass, which would be obtained if all the water vapor in a
specified column of the atmosphere were condensed and
precipitated.
Precipitation: Any and all forms of water particles, liquid or
solid, that fall from the atmosphere and reach the ground.
Precipitation-effectiveness index: For a given location, a
measure of the long-range effectiveness of precipitation in promoting
plant growth. Also called precipitation-evaporation index.
Precipitation-effectiveness ratio: Same as precipitationevaporation ratio.
Precipitation-evaporation index: Same as precipitationeffectiveness index.
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Precipitation-evaporation quotient: A measure of long-term
precipitation effectiveness. The ratio of the normal annual
rainfall to the normal annual evaporation.
Precipitation-evaporation ratio: For a given locality and
month, an empirical expression devised for the purpose of
classifying climates numerically on the basis of precipitation
and evaporation.
Precipitation gauge: General term for any device that measures
precipitation; principally a rain gauge or snow gauge.
Precipitation scavenging: Removal of pollutants from the air
by either rain or snow.
Pressure altimeter: An aneroid barometer with a scale
graduated in altitude instead of pressure units.
Pressure gradient: The rate of decrease of pressure per unit
distance at a fixed time.
Pressure jump: A sudden, significant increase in station pressure.
Pressure-plate anemometer: An anemometer which measures
wind speed in terms of the drag which the wind exerts on a
solid body. See bridled-cup anemometer, normal-plate
anemometer, pendulum anemometer.
Pressue port: A device used to create a static pressure inlet for
a barometric pressure sensor by shielding the sensor from the
effects of wind.
Pressure tendency (barometric tendency): The change in
barometric pressure within a specified period of time (typically
3 hours for meteorological observations).
Pressure-tube anemometer: An anemometer which derives
wind speed from measurements of dynamic wind pressures.
Wind blowing into a tube develops a pressure greater than the
static pressure, while wind blowing across a tube develops a
pressure less than the static. This pressure differential, which is
proportional to the square of the wind speed, is measured by a
suitable manometer. See anemo-biagraph, Dines anemometer,
Pitot tube.
PROM: Programmable Read-Only Memory. Read-only
memory which can be programmed by the user using a special
hardware programmer.
Price meter: A current meter consisting of six conical cups,
mounted around a vertical axis, which rotate and generate a
signal with each rotation. Tail vanes and a heavy weight
stabilize the instrument.
Primary rainbow: The most common of the principal
rainbow phenomena, which appears as an arc of about 42°
about the observers antisolar point. On occasion, inside the
primary rainbow one or more supernumerary rainbows may be
seen. The secondary rainbow lies outside the primary rainbow
at an angular radius of about 50°.
Propeller anemometer: A rotation anemometer which has a
horizontal axis upon which helicoidal shaped vanes are
mounted. See windmill anemometer.
Protected thermometer: A reversing thermometer which is
encased in a strong glass outer shell that protects it against
hydrostatic pressure. Compare to unprotected thermometer.
Protocol: A set of rules or conventions used to standardize
data transfer between devices.
PSK: Phase Shift Keying. A form of phase modulation of a
data signal performed by a modem for transmission over
dedicated wire or phone lines.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Psychrograph: A self-recording psychrometer.
Psychrometer: An instrument used to measure the water vapor
content of the air. A type of hygrometer. It consists of a wet-bulb
and a dry-bulb thermometer. See aspiration psychrometer,
Assmann psychrometer, hygrodeik, sling psychrometer.
Psychrometric calculator: A device for computing certain
psychrometric data, usually the dew point and the relative
humidity, from known values of the dry-bulb and wet-bulb
temperatures and the atmospheric pressure. One type is the
circular slide-rule form and, like the psychrometric tables, it is
derived from the psychrometric formula.
Psychrometric tables: Tables prepared from the
psychrometric formula and used to obtain vapor pressure,
relative humidity, and dew point from values of wet-bulb and
dry-bulb temperatures.
p.t.u.: Abbreviation for the pressure, temperature, and
humidity data obtained by a radiosonde observation.
Pulse-time-modulated radiosonde: A radiosonde which
transmits the indications of the meteorological sensing
elements in the form of pulses spaced in time. The
meteorological data are evaluated from the intervals between
the pulses. Also called time-interval radiosonde.
Pyranograph: An instrument for recording global solar radiation.
Pyranometer: An instrument which measures combined direct
solar radiation and diffuse sky radiation. See pyrheliometer,
Robitzsch actinograph, solarimeter. See also albedometer.
Pyrgeometer: An instrument which measures the effective
terrestrial radiation. See Angstrom pyrgeometer.
Pyrheliometer: An instrument for measuring the intensity of
direct solar radiation at normal incidence. See Angstrom
compensation pyrheliometer, Eppley pyrheliometer,
Michaelson actinograph, silver-disc pyrheliometer,
spectropyrheliometer, water-flow pyrheliometer.
Pyrradiometer: An instrument for the measurement of both
solar and terrestrial radiation.
Q
QFE: Atmospheric pressure at field elevation.
QNH: Same as altimeter setting.
Quadrant electrometer: A very sensitive electrostatic
electrometer for measuring small potential differences.
R
Rabal: A method of winds aloft observation essentially the
same as a pilot balloon observation except the height data is
derived from the radiosonde observation rather than from
assumed ascension rates.
Radar: Acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging. An
electronic instrument used to detect distant objects and
measure their range by how they scatter or reflect radio
energy. Precipitation and clouds are detected by measuring the
strength of the electromagnetic signal reflected back. See
Doppler radar, NEXRAD.
Radarsonde: A system in which radar techniques are used to
determine the range, elevation, and azimuth of a radar target
carried aloft by a radiosonde, so that wind data may be
obtained along with the other meteorological data.
Radar theodolite: A radar which is used to obtain the
azimuth, elevation, and slant range of an airborne target.
Radar wind system: Apparatus in which radar techniques are
used to determine the range, elevation, and azimuth of a
balloon-borne target, to computer upper-air wind data. It is a
type of rawin system.
Radiance: In radiometry, a measure of the intrinsic radiant
intensity emitted by a radiator in a given direction.
Radiant energy: The energy of any type of electromagnetic
radiation. Also called radiation.
Radiant-energy thermometer: An instrument which
determines the black-body temperature of a substance by
measuring its thermal radiation.
Radiation: Emission or transfer of energy in the form of
electromagnetic waves or particles.
Radiation pattern: A diagram showing the intensity of the
radiation field in all directions from a transmitting radio or
radar antenna at a given distance from the antenna.
Radiation shield: A device used on certain types of
instruments to prevent unwanted radiation from affecting the
measurement of a quantity. Also called solar radiation shield.
Radiator: Any source of radiant energy, especially
electromagnetic energy.
Radio atmometer: An instrument designed to measure the
effect of sunlight on evaporation from plant foliage. It consists
of a porous clay atmometer whose surface has been blackened
so that it absorbs radiant energy.
Radio direction-finder: An instrument for determining the
direction from which radio waves approach a receiver. It may
consist of a manually operated direction indicator, or it may
use a servo system to position the antenna automatically in the
direction of the incident waves. This instrument may be used
in place of a theodolite for observation of a radiosonde. Also
called radio theodolite, radio goniometer.
Radio frequency (RF): The RF waves emanating from an
antenna are generated by the movement of electrical charges in
the antenna. Electromagnetic waves can be characterized by a
wavelength and a frequency. The wavelength is the distance
covered by one complete cycle of the electromagnetic wave,
while the frequency is the number of electromagnetic waves
passing a given point in one second. The frequency of an RF
signal is usually expressed in terms of a unit called the “hertz”
(abbreviated Hz). One Hz equals one cycle per second. One
megahertz (MHz) equals one million cycles per second.
Radio theodolite: An instrument for determining the direction
from which radio waves approach a receiver. It may consist of
a manually operated direction indicator, or it may use a servo
system to position the antenna automatically in the direction of
the incident waves.
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Radioactive snow gauge: A device which automatically
records the water equivalent of snow on a given surface as a
function of time. A small sample of a radioactive salt is placed
in the ground in a shielded collimator which directs a beam of
radioactive particles upwards. A Geiger-Müller counting
system located above the snow level measures the amount of
depletion of radiation caused by the presence of snow.
Radiometer: An instrument for measuring radiant energy. See
actinometer, Dines radiometer, photometer, Tulipian radiometer.
Radiosonde: A balloon-borne instrument for the simultaneous
measurement and transmission of meteorological data. It
includes transducers for the measurement of pressure,
temperature, and humidity; a modulator for the conversion of
the output of the transducers to a quantity which controls a
property of the radio frequency signal; a selector switch which
determines the sequence in which the parameters are to be
transmitted; and a transmitter which generates the radiofrequency carrier.
Radiosonde balloon: A balloon used to carry a radiosonde
aloft, considerably larger than pilot balloons or ceiling balloons.
Radiosonde commutator: A component of a radiosonde
consisting of a series of alternate electrically conducting and
insulating strips. As these are scanned by a contact the
radiosonde transmits temperature and humidity signals
alternately. The contact may be a baroswitch as in the
Diamond-Hinman radiosonde, or may be motor driven.
Radiosonde modulator: That part of an audio-modulated
radiosonde consisting of the baroswitch, the sensing elements,
the reference elements, and the relay.
Radiosonde observation: An evaluation of upper air
temperature, pressure, and humidity from radio signals
received from a balloon-borne radiosonde.
Radiosonde recorder: An instrument, located at the surface
observing station, which is used to record the data presented
by a radiosonde aloft.
Radiosonde transmitter: The component of the radiosonde
which includes the modulating blocking oscillator and the
radio-frequency carrier oscillator.
Radiosonde-radiowind system: Apparatus consisting of (a)
standard radiosonde and radiosonde ground equipment to
obtain upper-air data on pressure, temperature, and humidity,
and (b) a self-tracking radio direction-finder to provide the
elevation and azimuth angles of the radiosonde so that wind
vectors may be obtained. It is a type of rawinsonde system.
Rain: Precipitation composed of liquid water drops more than
0.5 mm in diameter, falling in relatively straight, but not
necessarily vertical, paths. Compare to drizzle.
Rain gauge: Instrument for measuring the depth of water from
precipitation that is assumed to be distributed over a horizontal,
impervious surface and not subject to evaporation.
Rain gauge shield: A device which surrounds a rain gauge and
acts to maintain horizontal flow in the vicinity of the funnel so
that the catch will not be influenced by eddies generated near the
gauge. See Alter shield, Nipher shield, Wild fence.
Rain-intensity gauge: An instrument which measures the
instantaneous rate at which rain is falling on a given surface.
Also called a rate-of-rainfall gauge.
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Rainbow: Any one of a family of circular arcs consisting of
concentric colored bands, arranged from red on the inside to
blue on the outside, which may be seen on a “sheet” of water
drops (rain, fog, spray). The most common of the many possible
is the primary rainbow. The second most common is the
secondary rainbow, seen outside the primary bow and having
the reverse spectral sequence. Tertiary and higher order bows
are exceedingly rare due to their low luminosity.
Supernumerary rainbows are seen fairly often just within the
primary bow.
Raindrop spectrograph: An instrument which automatically
determines the size distribution of raindrops.
RAM: Random Access Memory. The memory of a computer
which can be read and written into at any location without
passing through preceding locations.
Ram penetrometer: A cone-tipped metal rod designed to be
driven downward into deposited snow or firn. The measured
amount of force required to drive the rod a given distance is an
indication of the physical properties of the snow or firn.
Random: Eluding precise prediction, completely irregular.
Random error: The inherent imprecision of a given process
of measurement, the unpredictable component of repeated
independent measurements of the same object under sensibly
uniform conditions.
Range: The interval between the lower and upper measuring
limits of an instrument, i.e. a thermometer with a range of -35
to 50°C. Compare to span.
Rankine temperature scale: An absolute temperature scale
with the degree of the Fahrenheit scale and the zero point of
the Kelvin scale. The freezing point of water equals 491.67°.
The boiling point of water equals 671.67°. The temperature
scale is named after the Scottish engineer and physicist
William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859.
Raob: Contraction for radiosonde observation.
Rate-of-rainfall gauge: Same as rain-intensity gauge.
Rawin: A method of winds aloft observation accomplished by
tracking a balloon-borne radar target or radiosonde with either
radar or a radio theodolite.
Rawinsonde: A method of upper air observation consisting of
an evaluation of the wind speed and direction, temperature,
pressure, and humidity aloft by means of a balloon-borne
radiosonde tracked by radar or a radio theodolite.
Rawin target: A special type of radar target, usually a corner
reflector, tied beneath a free balloon and designed to be an
efficient reflector of radio energy.
RAWS: Remote Automated Weather Station. A network of
weather stations positioned throughout the U.S. that collect,
store, and forward data hourly via satellite to a computer
system located at the National Interagency Fire Center in
Boise, Idaho.
RDF: Radio Direction Finder.
Reach: A definite portion of a stream channel, commonly
taken between two gauging stations, but may be taken between
any two specified points.
Real-time: The actual time during which physical events
take place.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Reaumur temperature scale: A scale with the ice point at
zero degrees and the boiling point of water at 80 degrees, with
pressure of one atmosphere.
Receiver: (1) The initial component or the sensing element of
a measuring system. For example, the receiver of a rain gauge
is the funnel which captures the rain and the receiver of a
thermoelectric thermometer is the measuring thermocouple.
(2) An instrument used to detect the presence of and to
determine the information carried by electromagnetic
radiation, i.e. a radio receiver.
Recording potentiometer: An instrument which automatically
records the voltage applied to it, as a function of time.
Recording rain gauge: A rain gauge which automatically records
the amount of precipitation collected, as a function of time.
Reduction: In general, the transformation of data from a
“raw” form to some useable form. In meteorology, this often
refers to the conversion of the observed value of an element to
the value which it would theoretically have at some selected
or standard level. The most common reduction in weather
observing is that of station pressure to sea level pressure.
Reflected solar radiation (reflected global radiation):
Upward-directed solar radiation, reflected by the earth’s
surface and the atmosphere.
Reflecting nephoscope: Same as mirror nephoscope.
Reflection rainbow: A rainbow formed by light rays which
have been reflected from an extended water surface. Not to be
confused with a reflected rainbow whose image may be seen in a
still body of water. The center of a reflection rainbow is at the
same elevation as the sun but in the opposite part of the sky.
Reflector: In general, any object that reflects incident energy.
Usually it is a device designed for specific reflection characteristics.
Reflectometer: Downward-facing pyranometer used for
measuring reflected solar radiation.
Reference operating conditions: The range of operating
conditions of a device within which operating influences are
negligible. The range is usually narrow. Reference operating
conditions are the conditions under which reference
performance is stated and the base from which the values of
operating influences are determined. See normal operating
conditions, operating conditions.
Register: The writing component of a recording instrument.
Relative evaporation: See evaporative opportunity.
Relative humidity: The ratio of the existing amount of water
vapor in the air at a given temperature to the maximum
amount that could exist at that temperature. Usually expressed
in percent.
Repeatability: The closeness of agreement among a number
of consecutive output values measuring the same input value
under the same operating conditions, approaching from the
same direction. Usually measured as nonrepeatability but
expressed as repeatability, a percentage of span.
Reproducibility: The closeness of agreement among
measurements of the same value of the same quantity where
the individual measurements are made under different defined
conditions, i.e. by different methods or with different
measuring instruments.
Resistance thermometer: A type of electrical thermometer in
which the thermal element is a substance whose electrical
resistance varies with the temperature. Such thermometers can
be made with very short time constants and are capable of
highly accurate measurements.
Resolution: The smallest change in the environment that
causes detectable change in the indication of an instrument.
Compare to sensitivity.
Response: The value of the quantity measured, as indicated or
otherwise provided by a measuring instrument.
Response time: The time required for an instrument to register
a designated percentage (frequently 90%) of a step change in
the variable being measured.
Retreater: A defective maximum thermometer of the liquidin-glass type in which the mercury flows too freely through
the constriction. Such a thermometer will indicate a maximum
temperature that is too low.
Reversing thermometer: A mercury-in-glass thermometer
which records the temperature upon being inverted and retains
its reading until being returned to the first position.
RF: Abbreviation for radio frequency.
Ridge: An elongated area of relatively high pressure. Usually
associated with and most clearly identified as an area of
maximum anticyclonic curvature of the wind flow. The
opposite of a trough.
Rime: An accumulation of granular ice tufts on the windward
sides of exposed objects that is formed from supercooled fog
or cloud and built out directly against the wind.
River basin: The total area drained by a river and its
tributaries. Same as watershed.
River forecast: A forecast of the expected stage or discharge at
a specified time, or of the total volume of flow within a specified
interval of time, at one or more points along a stream.
River gauge: A device for measuring the river stage. Also
called stream gauge.
River stage: See stage.
RMS: Root Mean Square. This notation is used frequently with
error analysis. In that context, it is the square root of
the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the
individual calibration points from the theoretical or ideal response.
Robitzsch actinograph: A pyranometer developed by M.
Robitzsch. Its design utilizes three bimetallic strips which are
exposed horizontally at the center of a hemispherical glass bowl.
The outer strips are white reflectors and the center strip is a
blackened absorber. The bimetals are joined in such a manner
that the pen of the instrument deflects in proportion to the
difference in temperature between the black and white strips and
is thus proportional to the intensity of the received radiation.
Rocketsonde (meteorological rocket): A rocket designed
primarily for routine upper air observations in the lower
250,000 feet of the atmosphere, especially that portion
inaccessible to balloons (above 100,000 feet).
Rockoon: A high-altitude sounding system consisting of a
small solid-propellant research rocket carried aloft by a large
plastic balloon. The rocket is fired near the maximum altitude
of the balloon flight.
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ROM: Read Only Memory. A memory that cannot be altered
in normal use of a computer, Usually used to store information
permanently, such as firmware programs.
ROMAN: Real-Time Observations Monitor and Analysis
Network. A web-based weather observations monitor linking
RAWS, airport observations, and other miscellaneous
observations to a single user interface.
Rotating multicylinder: An instrument consisting of a series
of graduated cylinders possessing selective collection
efficiencies. It is used for the measurement of quantities
relating to the size distribution of cloud droplets.
Rotation anemometer: A type of anemometer in which the
rotation of an element serves to measure the wind. Rotation
anemometers are divided into two classes; those in which the
axis of rotation is horizontal, such as the windmill anemometer,
and those in which the axis of rotation is vertical, such as the
cup anemometer.
RS232: A standard interface between a computer input/output
port and a peripheral device. Signal properties including time
duration, voltage, and current, are specified by the Electronic
Industries Association.
RS422: A protocol similar to RS232 which makes use of
differential transmission to provide high speed data
transmission over significantly longer distances.
RS485: A protocol similar to RS232 which permits data
interchange on multidrop networks of up to 32 nodes using a
single twisted pair cable. In order for this protocol to be used,
each device on a network must have some level of intelligence
in order establish orderly data transfer over a single path.
Runoff: The portion of the precipitation on the land which
ultimately reaches the streams, especially the water from rain
or melted snow that flows over the surface.
Runway visibility: The visibility along an identified runway,
determined from a specified point on the runway with the
observer facing in the same direction as a pilot using the
runway. Compare to runway visible range.
Runway visual range (RVR): The maximum distance along
the runway at which the runway lights are visible to a pilot at
touchdown. Runway visual range may be determined by an
observer located at the end of the runway, facing in the
direction of landing, or by means of a transmissometer
installed near the end of the runway.
S
Salinometer: Any device or instrument for measuring salinity,
especially one based on electrical conductivity methods.
SAM: Station for Atmospheric Measurements. A portable
meteorological station used to provide weather data to the
ALOHA air model that predicts how a cloud of pollutant gas
might dispurse in the atmosphere after an accidental release.
Also see CAMEO.
Saturation: The condition of the atmosphere when the amount
of water vapor present is the maximum possible at the existing
temperature.
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Savart polariscope: A polariscope consisting of a specially
constructed double plate polarizer and a tourmaline plate
analyzer. Polarized light passing through the instrument is
indicated by the presence of parallel colored fringes, while
unpolarized light results in a uniform field.
SAWRS: Supplemental Aviation Weather Reporting Station. A
facility where weather observations are taken, prepared, and
transmitted by a local operator under federal government
supervision.
SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. A type of
industrial process control system used for gathering data in real time
from remote locations in order to control equipment and conditions.
Scale: The array of indicating marks and figure in relation to
which the position of an index is observed, i.e. a scale plate on
a recorder.
Scatter: The process by which small particles suspended in a
medium of a different refractive index diffuse a portion of the
incident radiation in all directions. In scattering no energy
transformation results, only a change in the spatial distribution of
the radiation. Along with absorption, scattering is a major cause
of the attenuation of radiation by the atmosphere.
Scattered radiation: Solar radiation scattered by particles in
the atmosphere.
Scattering coefficient: A measure of the attenuation due to
scattering of light as it traverses a medium containing
scattering particles.
Scintillation: Generic term for rapid variations in apparent
position, brightness, or color of a distant luminous object
viewed through the atmosphere.
Scintillometer: A type of photoelectric photometer used to
measure high-altitude winds on the assumption that stellar
scintillation is caused by atmospheric inhomogeneities being
carried along by wind near the tropopause level.
Scud: Ragged low clouds, usually stratus fractus. Most often
applied when such clouds are moving rapidly beneath a layer
of nimbostratus.
Sea level pressure: The atmospheric pressure at mean sea
level either directly measured by stations at sea level or
empirically determined from the station pressure and
temperature by stations not at sea level. Used as a common
reference for analyses of surface pressure patterns.
Sea rainbow: Same as marine rainbow.
Sea water thermometer: A thermometer designed for use in
measuring the temperature of sea water. One form consists of a
mercury-in-glass thermometer protected by a perforated metal
case. Another form consists of a mercury-in-glass thermometer
surrounded by a metal case which forms a well around the
bulb of the thermometer. When the thermometer is raised from
the water, a sample is retained in the well. See bucket
thermometer, reversing thermometer.
Secchi disk: A white disk 12" or more in diameter which is
lowered into the sea to estimate transparency of the water. The
depths are noted at which it first disappears when lowered and
reappears when raised.
Secondary instrument: An instrument whose calibration is
determined by comparison with an absolute instrument.
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Secondary rainbow: A rainbow of angular radius of about
50° often seen outside the primary rainbow of 42° radius. The
secondary rainbow is formed by two internal reflections
(rather than one as in the primary rainbow), plus two
refractions. Its spectral color sequence is from red inside to
violet outside. Because each reflection introduces light losses,
the secondary bow is much less bright than the primary bow.
Seisomograph: An instrument used to measure and record
earthquake vibrations and other earth tremors.
Sensing element: The element directly responsive to the value
of the measured variable.
Sensitivity: The ratio of the output of an instrument to the input
value, i.e. a rain gauge with a sensitivity of 1 tip per 0.01".
Sensor: The part of a measuring instrument which responds
directly to changes in the environment.
Serial data transmission (serial output): A form of data
transmission in which the bits of each character are sent one at
a time along a single communication path. Compare to parallel
data transmission.
Short-wave radiation: Radiation with wavelengths less than
4 microns.
Shower: Precipitation from a cumuliform cloud. Characterized
by the suddenness of beginning and ending, by the rapid
change in intensity, and usually by a rapid change in the
condition of the sky. The solid or liquid water particles are
usually bigger than the corresponding elements in other types
of precipitation.
Sigma Theta (wind direction): The standard deviation of
wind direction. Provides an indication of the variability of the
wind direction. Used in calculations of atmospheric stability.
SIGMET information: Meteorological information issued by a
watch office concerning the occurrence or forecast of weather
phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations.
Signal conditioning: The processing of the form or mode of a
signal so as to make it intelligible to, or compatible with, a
given device.
Significant level: In a radiosonde observation, a level (other
than a standard level) for which values of pressure,
temperature, and humidity are reported because temperature
and/or humidity data at that level is sufficiently important or
unusual to warrant the attention of the forecaster.
Simplex: Operation mode of a communication circuit in which
one end can only transmit and the other end can only receive.
Sine galvanometer: A magnetometer of the electromagnetic
type which is used to measure the horizontal intensity of the
earth’s magnetic field.
Siphon barograph: A recording siphon barometer.
Siphon barometer: A mercury barometer in which the tube is
U-shaped and the upper and lower mercury surfaces have the
same diameter.
Six’s thermometer: A thermometer, invented by James Six in
1782, which simultaneously indicates the maximum and
minimum temperatures attained during a given interval of
time. A U-tube min/max thermometer.
Sky cover: The amount of sky covered or concealed by clouds
or obscuring phenomena. It is reported in tenths, so that 0.0
indicates a clear sky and 1.0 (or 10/10) indicates a completely
covered sky. The following classifications are used in aviation
weather observations: clear, scattered, broken, overcast, partial
obscuration, obscuration.
Skyhook balloon: A large plastic constant-level balloon for
duration flying at very high altitudes.
Slant range: The line-of-sight distance between two objects.
Sleet: Frozen or partly frozen rain.
Sling psychrometer: Psychrometer to which a small chain or
rotary handle is attached so that the observer can rotate the
instrument rapidly to properly ventilate the thermometer bulbs.
SNOTEL: SNOw TELemetry. An automated network of
snowpack data collection sites. The Natural Resources
Conservation Service (NRCS), formerly the Soil Conservation
Service (SCS), has operated the Federal-State-Private
Cooperative Snow Survey Program in the western United
States since 1935. A standard SNOTEL site consists of a snow
pillow, a storage type precipitation gauge, an air temperature
sensor, and a small shelter for housing electronics.
Snow: Precipitation composed of white or translucent ice
crystals, chiefly in complex branched hexagonal forms.
Snow board: A flat, solid, white material, such as painted
plywood, approximately two feet square, which is laid on the
ground or snow surface to obtain more accurate measurements
of snowfall and water content.
Snow bridging: An effect noted primarily in wet snow
conditions when snow clings to the sides of a precipitation
gauge and gradually accumulates until the gauge orifice is
capped with accumulated snow. This effect can be minimized
by using large collectors, and wind screens around gauges.
Snow core: A sample of either freshly fallen snow, or the
combined old and new snow on the ground. obtained by
pushing a cylinder down through the snow layer and
extracting it.
Snow course: An established line or transect of measurements
of snow water equivalent across a snow field in representative
mountainous terrain, where appreciable snow accumulates, to
monitor seasonal snowpack.
Snow cutter: A saw-toothed piece of metal which slips over
the top of the overflow can of a standard rain gauge when it is
used to cut snow samples for the determination of water
content of snow on the ground. Not required except where ice
or dense snow accumulation are persistent problems.
Snow flurry: Snow shower, particularly of a very light and
brief nature.
Snow gauge: Apparatus designed to measure the amount of
precipitation falling in the form of snow. The device
determines the weight of the snow or the volume of water after
the snow melts.
Snow grains: Precipitation of very small, white, opaque
particles of ice, fairly flat or elongated, with diameters less
than 1 mm. The solid equivalent of drizzle.
Snow pellets (soft hail): Precipitation of white, opaque,
spherical or conical ice particles that are crisp and easily
crushed and that have diameters of 2 to 5 mm.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Snow pillow: An instrument used to measure snow water
equivalents. Snow pillows typically have flat stainless steel
surface areas. The pillow below this flat surface is filled with
antifreeze solution and the pressure in the pillow is related to
the water-equivalent depth of the snow on the platform.
Snow sampler: Snow gauge composed of a metal cylinder,
closed at one end, used to obtain a sample of snow from which
the water is measured after melting.
Snow stake: Graduated fixed stake used in regions of abundant
snowfall to facilitate the measurement of snow depth.
Snow stick: A portable rod used to measure snow depth.
Snow survey: Determination of the total amount of snow covering
a watershed or a given region. Both depth and water content of
the snow may be measured, and the results may be used to
predict the amount of water that will be available after melting.
Snow tube: Same as snow sampler.
Software: The programs and instructions which direct a computer.
Soil evaporimeter: Instrument used to measure the amount of
water evaporated from the soil surface during a given time interval.
Soil moisture: Moisture contained in the soil above the water
table, including water vapor which is present in the soil pores.
In some cases this term refers strictly to the humidity
contained in the root zone of plants.
Soil thermometer (geothermometer): Thermometer for
measuring the temperature in the soil at different depths.
Solar constant: Amount of solar radiation incident, per unit
area and time, on a surface which is perpendicular to the
radiation and is situated at the outer limit of the atmosphere,
the earth being at its mean distance from the sun. It equals
approximately 2.00 ly/min (1400 W/m2).
Solarimeter: Name sometimes used in place of pyranometer
as a generic term.
Solar radiation: The total electromagnetic radiation emitted
by the sun. About 99.9 percent of its energy output falls within
the wavelength interval from 0.15 microns to 4.0 microns, with
peak intensity near 0.47 microns. About one-half of the total
energy in the solar beam falls in the visible spectrum from 0.4
to 0.7 microns, and most of the other half falls in the near
infrared, a small additional portion falling in the ultraviolet.
Solar radiation shield: See radiation shield.
Solid-state device: An element that can control current
without moving parts, heated filaments, or vacuum gaps.
Sonic anemometer: An anemometer which measures wind
speed by means of the properties of wind-borne sound waves.
It operates on the principle that the propagation velocity of a
sound wave in a moving medium is equal to the velocity of
sound with respect to the medium plus the velocity of the
medium. The sonic anemometer is an absolute instrument and
has the advantages of a very short time-constant and an
absence of moving mechanical parts.
Sonic thermometer: A thermometer based upon the principle
that the velocity of a sound wave is a function of the
temperature of the medium through which it passes. Sonic
thermometers possess very short time-constants and eliminate
radiation error.
Sounding: Same as an upper air observation, but commonly
used to refer to a single complete radiosonde observation.
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Span: The algebraic difference between the upper and lower
limits of the measuring range of an instrument, e.g. a
thermometer with a range of -35 to 50°C has a span of 85°C.
Specific humidity: In a system of moist air, the dimensionless
ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass of the system.
Spectral hygrometer: A hygrometer which determines the
amount of precipitable moisture in a given region of the
atmosphere by measuring attenuation of radiant energy caused
by the absorption bands of water vapor.
Spectral solar radiation: Solar radiation of selected wavelengths.
Spectroheliograph: An instrument for taking photographs of
an image of the sun in monochromatic light.
Spectrohelioscope: Similar to the spectroheliograph, but used
for visual instead of photographic purposes.
Spectrophotometer: A photometer which measures the
intensity of radiation as a function of the frequency (or
wavelength) of the radiation.
Spectropyreheliometer: An instrument which measures the
spectral distribution of the intensity of direct solar radiation.
Spirit thermometer: A liquid-in-glass thermometer which
uses an organic substance such as alcohol as the thermometer
liquid. This type of thermometer has a low freezing point and a
high coefficient of expansion. It is less accurate, however, than
a mercury thermometer.
Splayed tail: A type of wind vane having a split or V-shaped
tail. The apex orients itself to the direction of the wind.
Squall: A strong wind characterized by a sudden onset, a
duration on the order of minutes, and a rather sudden decrease
in speed.
Staff gauge: A graduated scale placed in a position so that the
stage of a stream may be read directly from it. Staff gauges
may be placed on bridge piers or pilings, etc., or placed on
specially constructed supports.
Stage: The elevation of the water surface in a stream as
measured by a river gauge with reference to some arbitrarily
selected zero datum.
Standard atmosphere: A standard unit of atmospheric pressure,
defined as the pressure exerted by a 760 mm column of mercury at
standard gravity (980.665 cm/sec2) at 0°C. 1 standard atmosphere is
equal to 760 mm Hg, 29.9212 inches Hg, or 1013.250 mb. Also, a
hypothetical vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature,
pressure, and density which, by international agreement, is taken to
be representative of the atmosphere.
Standard error: The standard deviation (positive square-root
of the variation) of the errors associated with physical
measurements of an unknown quantity, or statistical estimates
of an unknown parameter or of a random variable.
Standard level (mandatory level): One of several
constant-pressure levels in the atmosphere for which a
complete evaluation of data derived from upper air
observations is required.
Static pressure vent: A vent used with pressure sensors to reduce
the effect of wind on the pressure inlet. It is normally mounted
remotely and connected to the sensor using airtight tubing.
Station pressure: The atmospheric pressure computed using
station elevation as the reference datum level. Station pressure
is usually the base value from which sea level pressure and
altimeter setting are determined.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Statute mile: A unit of distance equal to 5280 feet. It is
sometimes referred to as a land mile.
Stevenson screen: A type of instrument shelter. It is a wooden
box painted white with double louvered sides and mounted on
a stand four feet above the ground. Designed by Thomas
Stevenson, civil engineer (father of Robert Louis Stevenson).
Still well (or stilling well): A cylinder installed in a body of
water or an evaporation pan to hold a sensor, such as a float to
measure water level or a hook gage. The stillwell is constructed
so that there is free movement of water in and out of it, and it
therefore provides a representative sample of the water body.
It functions to protect the sensor in some cases and to provide
an undisturbed water surface in other cases.
Storm: Wind with a speed between 56 and 63 knots (64 and
72 mph); Beaufort scale number 11.
Stream gauge: Same as river gauge.
Strong breeze: Wind with a speed between 22 and 27 knots
(25 and 31 mph); Beaufort scale number 6.
Strong gale: Wind with a speed between 41 and 47 knots (47
and 54 mph); Beaufort scale number 9.
Sun dog: Same as parhelion.
Sunshine recorder: An instrument designed to record the
duration of sunshine at a given location without regard to
intensity. See Campbell-Stokes recorder, Jordan sunshine
recorder, Marvin sunshine recorder, Pers sunshine recorder.
Supercooled water: Liquid water at temperatures colder
than freezing.
Supernumerary rainbows: A set of weakly colored rainbow
arcs sometimes discernable inside a primary rainbow.
Super-pressure balloon: See constant-level balloon.
Switching power supply: A power supply which achieves its
output regulation by means of one or more active power
handling devices which are alternately placed in the “off” or
“on” states. It is more efficient than linear supplies which vary
the conduction of power devices to achieve output regulation.
Synchro: A motorlike device containing a rotor and a stator
and capable of converting an angular position into an electrical
signal, or an electrical signal into an angular position. When
several synchros are correctly connected, all of the rotors will
align themselves into the same angular position. This is useful,
since one synchro whose angular motion is forced to change,
can drive another synchro to indicate the angular change.
Synchronous: Having a specific relationship to a time base or
clock. In synchronous communications, data characters are
sent according to a timing signal which synchronizes the two
communicating devices.
Synoptic: In general, pertaining to or affording an overall
view. In meteorology, this term has become somewhat
specialized in referring to the use of meteorological data
obtained simultaneously over a wide area for the purpose of
obtaining a comprehensive and nearly instantaneous picture of
the state of the atmosphere. Thus, to a meteorologist,
“synoptic” takes on the additional connotation of simultaneity.
Synoptic weather observation: A surface weather
observation, made at periodic times, of sky cover, state of the
sky, cloud height, atmospheric pressure reduced to sea level,
temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, amount of
precipitation, hydrometeors and lithometeors, and special
phenomena that prevail at the time of the observation or have
been observed since the previous specified observation.
Compare to aviation weather observation.
Systematic error: That part of the inaccuracy of a measuring
instrument, or statistical estimate of a parameter, that is due to
a single cause or small number of causes having the same sign,
and hence, in principle, is correctable; a bias or constant offset
from the true value. In the absence of random errors, the true
value is equal to the instrumental reading or statistical mean
estimate minus the systematic error.
T
Tail wind: A wind blowing in the same direction as the
heading of a moving object, thus assisting the object’s
intended progress. The opposite of a head wind.
Teardrop balloon: A sounding balloon which, when
operationally inflated, resembles an inverted teardrop.
Telemeteorograph: Any meteorological instrument, such as a
radiosonde, in which the recording apparatus is located at
some distance from the measuring apparatus.
Telemeter: The measuring, transmitting, receiving, and indicating
apparatus for obtaining the value of a quantity at a distance.
Telemetry: The transmission of data collected at a remote
location over communications channels to a central station.
Telephotometer: A photometer that measures the received
intensity of a distance light source.
Telethermoscope: A temperature telemeter.
Temperature: In thermodynamics, the integrating factor of
the differential equation referred to as the first law of
thermodynamics. In statistical mechanics, a measure of
translational molecular kinetic energy (with three degrees of
freedom). In general, the degree of hotness or coldness as
measured on some definite temperature scale by means of any
of various types of thermometers.
Temperature coefficient: (1) The ratio of the speeds of a
chemical reaction at two temperatures differing by 10°C. (2) A
factor relating the response characteristics of a device with
changes in the ambient temperature.
Temperature correction: The correction applied to an
instrument to account for the effect of temperature upon its
response characteristics.
Temperature scale: See approximate absolute temperature
scale, Celsius temperature scale, centigrade temperature scale,
Fahrenheit temperature scale, international practical temperature
scale, international temperature scale, Kelvin temperature scale,
Rankine temperature scale, Reaumur temperature scale.
Tercentesimal thermometric scale: Sir Napier Shaw’s name
for the approximate absolute temperature scale.
Terminal: A generic term for any machine that enables a
human being to communicate with a computer.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Terrestrial radiation: The total infrared radiation emitted
from the earth’s surface. To be carefully distinguished from
atmospheric radiation, effective terrestrial radiation, and insolation.
Thaw: To free something from the binding action of ice by
warming it to a temperature above the melting point of ice.
Also, a warm spell when ice and snow melt.
Theodolite: An optical instrument which consists of a sighting
telescope mounted so that it is free to rotate around horizontal and
vertical axes, with graduated scales so that the angles of rotation may
be measured. Used to observe the motion of a pilot balloon.
Thermal shift: The change in the measured transducer output
caused by changes in ambient temperature. Usually expressed
a percentage of full scale.
Thermistor: A semiconductor which exhibits rapid and
extremely large changes in resistance for relatively small
changes in temperature.
Thermocouple: A temperature-sensing element which
converts thermal energy directly into electrical energy. In its
basic form it consists of two dissimilar metallic conductors
connected in a closed loop. Each junction forms a
thermocouple. If one thermocouple is maintained at a
temperature different from that of the other, an electrical
current proportional to this temperature difference will flow in
the circuit. The value varies with the materials used. Couples
of copper and constantan, which generate approximately 40
microvolts per °C of couple temperature difference, are often
used for meteorological purposes.
Thermodynamic temperature: A measure, in kelvins (K),
proportional to the thermal energy of a given body at equilibrium. A
temperature of 0K is called “absolute zero” and coincides with
the minimum molecular activity (i.e. thermal energy) of matter.
Thermodynamic temperature was formerly called “absolute
temperature.” In practice, the International Temperature Scale
of 1990 (ITS-90) serves as the basis for high-accuracy
temperature measurements in science and technology.
Thermoelectric thermometer: A type of electrical thermometer
consisting of two thermocouples which are series-connected
with a potentiometer and a constant-temperature bath. One
couple, called the reference junction, is placed in a
constant-temperature bath, while the other is used as the
measuring junction.
Thermogram: The record of a thermograph.
Thermograph: A self-recording thermometer.
Thermo-integrator: An apparatus, used in studying soil
temperatures, for measuring the total supply of heat during a
given period.
Thermometer: An instrument for measuring temperature by
utilizing the variation of the physical properties of substances
according to their thermal states. Thermometers may be classified
into types according to their construction; deformation thermometer,
electrical thermometer, gas thermometer, liquid-in-glass
thermometer, liquid-in-metal thermometer, sonic thermometer.
Thermometer screen: Same as instrument shelter.
Thermometer shelter: Same as instrument shelter.
Thermometer support: A device used to hold liquid-in-glass
maximum and minimum thermometers in the proper recording
position inside an instrument shelter, and to permit them to be
read and reset. See Townsend support.
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Thermopile: A transducer for converting thermal energy
directly into electrical energy. It is composed of pairs of
thermocouples which are connected either in series or in
parallel. Thermopiles are used in thermoelectric radiation
instruments when the output of a single pair of termocouples is
not large enough. See Moll thermopile, Eppley pyrheliometer.
Thermoscreen: Same as instrument shelter.
Thermostat: A device used to switch electrical current at a
selectable setpoint temperature.
Threshold (starting speed): The lowest value of a measured
quality at which a sensor responds. Compare to tracking.
Tide gauge: A device for measuring the height of tide. It may
be simply a graduated staff in a sheltered location where visual
observations can be made, or it may consist of an elaborate
recording instrument (sometimes called a marigraph) making a
continuous graphic record of tide height against time. Such an
instrument is usually actuated by a float in a pipe communicating
with the sea through a small hole which filters out shorter waves.
Time constant: The time required for an instrument to register
63.2% of a step change in the variable being measured.
Tipping-bucket rain gauge: A rain gauge where the
precipitation collected by the receiver empties into one side of
a chamber which is partioned transversely at its center and is
balanced bistably upon a horizontal axis. When a predetermined
amount of water has been collected, the chamber tips, spilling
out the water and placing the other half of the chamber under
the receiver. Each tip of the bucket generates a signal.
Torricelli’s tube: An early and once universal name for the
mercury barometer.
Torsion hygrometer: A hygrometer in which the rotation of
the hygrometric element is a function of humidity.
Totalizing anemometer: An anemometer in which the sensor
rotation is transmitted to a mechanical counter which directly
integrates the air movement past the sensor. Used to determine
total air passage (wind run). Average wind speed can be
calculated from the difference between successive counter
readings divided by the time interval between readings.
Total lift: The upward force produced by the gas in a balloon.
It is equal to the free lift plus the weight of the balloon and the
attached equipment.
Total radiation: The sum of solar and terrestrial radiation.
Townsend support: A fixed support for mounting maximum
and minimum thermometers of the liquid-in-glass type. The
support holds the thermometers at the correct operating attitude
and also permits their rotation for resetting when desired.
Trace: A precipitation amount of less than 0.005 inches. Also,
the record made by any self-registering instrument.
Trace recorder: Same as ombrometer.
Tracking: The lowest value of a measured quality at which a
sensor meets its accuracy specification.
Transducer: A device which converts energy from one form
into another, i.e. an ac generator transducer which converts the
mechanical motion of anemometer cups into an electrical signal.
Transmissivity: A measure of luminous flux remaining in a
light beam after it has passed through a specified distance of
the atmosphere.
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Reference
Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Transmissometer: An instrument which measures the
transmissivity of the atmosphere between two points for the
determination of visual range.
Transpiration: The process by which water in plants is
transferred as water vapor to the atmosphere. Also, the amount
of water so transferred.
Transponder ranging: An addition to a rawinsonde system
which allows determination of the slant range to the radiosonde.
Triple-point temperature: The temperature at which all three
phases of a substance can exist in equilibrium. This
temperature occurs at only one pressure. The triple-point of
water is 273.16°K and is the basis of the Kelvin scale.
Tropopause: The boundary between the troposphere and
stratosphere, usually characterized by an abrupt change in lapse
rate. Its height varies from 10 to 20 km. Regions above the
tropopause have greater atmospheric stability than regions below.
True freezing point: The temperature at which the liquid and
solid forms of a substance may exist in equilibrium at a given
pressure (usually one standard atmosphere). The true freezing
point of water is known as the ice point.
True wind direction: The direction, with respect to true north,
from which the wind is blowing. Distinguish from magnetic
wind direction. In all standard upper-air and surface weather
observations, it is true wind direction that is reported.
Trough: An elongated area of relatively low atmospheric
pressure. Usually associated with and most clearly identified
as an area of maximum cyclonic curvature of the wind flow.
The opposite of a ridge.
T-sonde: A radiosonde equipped to measure temperature only.
TTL: Transistor-Transistor Logic.
Tulipan radiometer: A calorimetric radiation instrument of
historic interest used for the measurement of outgoing heat radiation
from the earth during an interval of time. The time integration is
performed by allowing the radiation to fall on an uninsulated vessel
containing a volatile liquid. The amount of liquid distilled into a
connected insulated vessel is a measure of the incident radiation.
U
Ultraviolet radiation: Electromagnetic radiation of shorter
wavelength than visible radiation but longer than x-rays,
between 0.02 and 0.4 micron (200 and 4000 angstrom).
Uncertainty: The standard deviation of a sufficiently large
number of measurements of the same quantity by the same
instrument or method. The non-correctable part of the inaccuracy
of an instrument, it represents the limit of measurement precision.
The uncertainty of an instrument is caused by the unpredictable
effects upon its performance of such factors as friction,
backlash, and electronic noise.
Unprotected thermometer: A reversing thermometer (for
sea-water temperature) which is not protected against
hydrostatic pressure. The mercury bulb is therefore squeezed,
and the amount of mercury broken off on reversal is a function
of both temperature and of hydrostatic pressure.
Updraft: A relatively small-scale, upward moving current of air.
Upper air: That portion of the atmosphere which is above the
lower troposphere. Generally applied to levels above 850 mb.
Upper air observation: A measurement of atmospheric
conditions aloft, above the effective range of a surface weather
observation. Elements evaluated include temperature,
humidity, pressure, wind speed, and wind direction.
Upward total radiation: Solar and terrestrial radiation directed
upward (away from the earth’s surface); outgoing radiation.
Upwind: In the direction from which the wind is blowing.
UTC: Coordinated Universal Time.
V
VDT: Video Display Terminal. An input and display device
which includes a keyboard and a screen and allows a human to
communicate with a computer.
Vane: See wind vane.
Variograph: A recording variometer.
Variometer: A instrument designed to study small fluctuations
of some quantity. The microbarograph is an example of a
recording pressure variometer.
Vectopluviometer: A rain gauge or array of rain gauges designed
to measure the inclination and direction of falling rain.
Vector: Any quantity, such as force velocity, or acceleration,
which has both magnitude and direction at each point in space,
as opposed to scalar which has magnitude only. Such a quantity
may be represented geometrically by an arrow of length
proportional to its magnitude, pointing in the assigned direction.
Veering: A change in wind direction in a clockwise sense. The
opposite of backing.
Venturi tube: A tube designed to measure the rate of flow of
fluids. It consists of a tube having a constriction or throat at its
midsection. The difference between the pressure measured at
the inlet and at the throat is a function of the fluid velocity.
Compare to Pitot tube.
Vernier scale: A small, moveable graduated scale adjacent and
parallel to the main scale of an instrument. It provides a means
for interpolating between the graduations of the main scale.
Vertical anemometer: General name for an instrument
designed to measure the vertical component of the wind speed.
See anemoclinometer.
Vertical-current recorder: General term for an instrument
which records the vertical electric current in the atmosphere.
Vertical visibility: The distance that an observer can see
vertically into a surface-based obscuring phenomenon such as
fog, rain, or snow. The distance estimate must be based upon
ceiling balloon ascensions or ceiling light projector
measurements.
VFR: Abbreviation for visual flight rules, but commonly used
to refer to the relatively favorable weather and/or flight
conditions to which these rules apply.
Virga: Precipitation falling from a cloud, usually in wisps or
streaks, but evaporating before it reaches the ground.
Virtual temperature: Temperature to which absolutely dry air
would have to be brought in order for it to have the same
density as moist air, considered at the same pressure.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
Visibility: The greatest distance at which it is just possible to
see and recognize with the unaided eye (1) in the daytime, a
prominent dark object against the sky at the horizon, and (2) at
night, a known, preferably unfocused, moderately intense light
source.
Visibility meter: General term for an instrument used to make
direct measurements of visual range or measurements of the
physical characteristics of the atmosphere (or other medium)
which determine the visual range.
Visibility sensor: General term for an instrument used to make
direct measurements of visual range or measurements of the
physical characteristics of the atmosphere which determine the
visible range.
Visible radiation: Electromagnetic radiation lying within the
wavelength interval to which the human eye is sensitive, the
spectral interval from approximately 0.4 to 0.7 microns (4000
to 7000 angstroms). Bounded on the short-wavelength end by
ultraviolet radiation and on the long-wavelength end by
infrared radiation.
Visual range: The maximum distance, usually horizontally, at
which a given object or light source is just visible under
particular conditions of transmittance and background luminance.
VOLMET broadcast: Routine broadcast of meteorological
information for aircraft in flight.
Vortex thermometer: A thermometer used in aircraft which
automatically corrects for adiabatic and frictional temperature
rises by imparting a rotary motion to the air passing the
thermal sensing element.
Vorticity: A vector measure of local rotation in an airflow.
W
Wadi: A valley, gully, or streambed in northern Africa and
southwestern Asia that remains dry except during the rainy
season. A stream that flows through such a channel.
Wadi gauge: Same as river gauge or stream gauge.
Warning stage: The stage on a fixed river gauge at which it is
necessary to begin issuing warnings or river forecasts if
adequate precautionary measures are to be taken before flood
stage is reached.
Water: Dihydrogen oxide, molecular formula H2O.
Water balance: Balance of the water resources of a region,
comparing precipitation and inflow with outflow, evaporation,
and accumulation.
Water budget: See hydrologic accounting.
Water equivalent: The depth of water that would result from
the melting of snow or ice, assuming measurement on a
horizontal surface and no infiltration or evaporation.
Water-flow pyrheliometer: An absolute pyrheliometer,
developed by C.G. Abbott, in which the radiation-sensing
element is a blackened water-calorimeter.
Water-stage recorder: A device for obtaining a continuous
record of stage at a point on a stream. The most common
recorders consist of a float-actuated pen which traces a record
on a clock driven chart.
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Water table: The depth below which the ground is saturated
with water. No water table exists if the ground water is
confined by an overlying impermeable stratum, as in the case
of artesian ground water.
Water year: Any twelve-month period, usually selected to
begin and end during a relative dry season. Used a basis for
processing streamflow and other hydrologic data. The period
from October 1 to September 30 is widely used in the U.S.
Watershed: The total area drained by a river and its
tributaries. Same as river basin.
Watt: A unit of power equal to one joule per second or 107
ergs per second.
Wave pole: A device for measuring sea-surface waves. It
consists of a weighted pole below which a disk is suspended at
a depth sufficiently deep for the wave motion associated with
deep-water waves to be negligible. The pole will then remain
nearly as if anchored to the bottom, and wave height and
period can be acertained by observing or recording the length
of the pole that extends above the surface.
Wave recorder: An instrument for recording ocean waves.
Most recorders are designed for recording wind waves, that is
waves of periods up to about 25 seconds, but some are designed
to record waves of longer periods such as tsunamis or tides.
Wave staff: Same as wave pole.
Weather: The state of the atmosphere, mainly with respect to
its effects upon life and human activities. As distinguished
from climate, weather consists of the short-term (minutes to
months) variations of the atmosphere.
Weather glass: An old nautical term for mercury barometer.
Weather stick: Made of birch and attributed to northeast
Native American tribes, the stick is said to rise indicating fair
weather and to drop when inclement weather is approaching.
The movement of the tip appears to track the relative humidity.
Weighing rain gauge: A precipitation gauge consisting of a
receiver in the shape of a funnel which empties into a bucket
mounted upon a weighing mechanism. The weight of the catch
is recorded as inches of precipitation.
Weight barograph: A recording weight barometer.
Weight barometer: A mercury barometer which measures
atmospheric pressure by weighing the mercury in the column
or cistern.
Wet-bulb depression: Difference between the temperatures of
the dry-bulb and the wet-bulb thermometers of a psychrometer.
Wet-bulb temperature: The lowest temperature that can be
obtained on a wet-bulb thermometer in any given sample of
air. Obtained by evaporation of water (or ice) from the muslin
wick. Used in computing dew point and relative humidity.
Wet-bulb thermometer: A thermometer with a
muslin-covered bulb which is moistened. Used to measure
wet-bulb temperature.
Wet-bulb zero height (WBZ): The height above ground level
(in feet) where the wet-bulb temperature goes below 0°F.
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Glossary of Meteorological Terms
White body: A hypothetical “body” whose surface absorbs no
electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength. An idealization
exactly opposite to that of the black body. In nature, no true
white bodies are known. Most white pigments exhibiting high
reflectivity for visible radiation are fairly good absorbers in the
infrared range, hence they are not white bodies in the sense of
radiation theory. However, one does speak of a white body
with respect to a particular wavelength interval. Compare to
black body, gray body.
White rainbow: Same as fogbow.
Whole gale: Wind with a speed between 48 and 55 knots (55
and 63 mph); Beaufort scale number 10.
Wien’s law: One of the radiation laws which states that the
wavelength of maximum radiation intensity for a black body is
inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of the
radiating black body.
Wild fence: A wooden enclosure about sixteen feet square and
eight feet high with a precipitation gauge at its center. The
function of the fence is to minimize eddies around the gauge
and thus ensure a catch that is representative of the actual
rainfall or snowfall.
Wilting point: Value of soil moisture, expressed as a
percentage of the mass of dry soil, below which a plant living
in the soil dies by wilting.
Wind: Air in motion relative to the surface of the earth.
Almost exclusively used to denote the horizontal component.
Wind cone: Same as wind sock.
Wind direction: The direction from which the wind is blowing,
measured in points of the compass or in azimuth degrees.
Wind gust: See gust and peak gust.
Wind passage: The distance or length of flow of the air past a
point during a given interval of time.
Wind profiler: A radar that is used to measure vertical profiles
of the wind. Also called wind profiler radar, wind profiling radar.
Wind rose: A flower-like diagram indicating the relative
frequencies of different wind directions for a given station and
period of time.
Wind run: The distance or length of flow of the air past a
point during a given interval of time.
Wind shear: A local variation of the wind vector or any of its
components in a given direction.
Wind sleeve: Same as windsock.
Wind sock: A fabric cone attached to a metal ring and used to
indicate wind direction, often at airfields.
Wind speed: Rate of wind movement in distance per unit time.
Wind vane: An instrument used to indicate wind direction.
Wind vector: A component of the wind (often using Cartesian
coordinates, i.e. X and Y wind vectors). Also, an arrow
representing wind velocity, drawn to point in the direction of
the wind and with a length proportional to wind speed.
Wind velocity: A vector term which includes both wind speed
and wind direction.
Wind wave: A wave resulting from the action of wind on a
water surface.
Windmill anemometer: A rotation anemometer in which the
axis of rotation is horizontal. The instrument has either flat
vanes (as in the air meter) or helicoidal vanes (as in the
propeller anemometer). The relation between wind speed and
angular rotation is almost linear.
Winds aloft: The wind speed and direction at various levels in the
atmosphere above the level reached by surface weather observations.
Winds-aloft observation: The measurement and computation
of wind speeds and directions at various levels above the
surface of the earth. Methods include pilot balloon
observations, rabals, rawin or rawinsonde observations, radar
tracking, or acoustic sounding.
Winds-aloft plotting board: A graphical aid used in the
reduction of data from a winds aloft observation.
Windward: Situated on the side from which the wind blows.
Wiresonde: An atmospheric sounding instrument which is
supported by a captive balloon and used to obtain temperature
and humidity data from the ground level to a height of a few
thousand feet. The data is telemetered to the ground through a
wire cable.
Wire weight gauge: A river gauge in which a weight
suspended on a wire is lowered to the water surface from a
bridge or other overhead structure to measure the distance
from a point of known elevation to the water surface.
Word: A fixed-length group of bits representing the largest
data element handled as a unit by a computer. Word length is
determined by the capacity of the CPU registers.
Wyoming shield: A type of rain gauge shield consisting of of
two snow fences, developed by the University of Wyoming
Water Resources Research Institute. See rain gauge shield.
X-Y-Z
X-ray: Electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength,
lying within the wavelength interval of 0.1 to 1.5 angstroms
(between gamma rays and ultraviolet radiation). X-rays
penetrate various thicknesses of all solids, and they act on
photographic plates in the same manner as light. Secondary
x-rays are produced whenever s-rays are absorbed by a
substance. In the case of absorption by a gas, this results in
ionization.
Yagi-Uda antenna: Commonly known as Yagi antenna. A type
of directional antenna used on some types of radar and radio
equipment consisting of an array of elemental, single-wire dipole
antennas and reflectors. Invented in 1926 by Shintaro Uda and
Hidetsugu Yagi of Tohoku University, Japan.
Zephyr: Any soft, gentle breeze.
Zulu time: Same as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 209
Index
Index
100-0802 Kestrel RH Calibration Kit 18
100-0804SER Kestrel PC Interface, serial 18
100-0804USB Kestrel PC Interface, USB 18
100-0805 Kestrel Carrying Case 18
100-0830 Kestrel 3000 18
100-0840GRY Kestrel 4000, dark gray 18
100-6152C Vantage Pro Weather Station 17
100-6450 Solar Radiation Sensor 17
100-6490 UV Sensor 17
100-6510SER WeatherLink for Vantage Pro2 17
100-6510USB WeatherLink for Vantage Pro2 17
100-6510X Extra User License Kit 17
100-6520 WeatherLink for Vantage Pro2 17
100-7716 Mounting Tripod 17
100-7717 Mounting Pole Kit 17
110-WS-16 Modular Weather Station 11
110-WS-16BP Barometric Pressure Sensor 11
110-WS-16CC Carrying Case 11
110-WS-16D Data Acquisition Module 11
110-WS-16EPA High Sensitivity Weather Station 11
110-WS-16HHD Hand Held PC 11
110-WS-16M Telephone Modem 11
110-WS-16M6 Memory Expansion to 640KB 11
110-WS-16MDC Telephone Modem, 12 Vdc 11, 21
110-WS-16N-A Data Acquisition Module in NEMA 11
110-WS-16N-A33 Data Acquisition Module in NEMA 11
110-WS-16N-B Data Acquisition Module in NEMA 11
110-WS-16P Power Supply 11
110-WS-16PBU Battery Backup for WS-16D 11
110-WS-16PE Power Supply, 220Vac 11
110-WS-16RC Rain Gauge 11
110-WS-16SML Display Software 11, 14
110-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software 11, 16
110-WS-16SMV Met Viewer Software 16
110-WS-16SR Solar Radiation Sensor 11
110-WS-16SRD Solar Radiation Sensor 11
110-WS-16STH HTML Option 15
110-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software 11, 15
110-WS-16STR-H HTML Option 11
110-WS-16T Air Temperature Sensor 11
110-WS-16TH Temperature & Humidity Sensor 11
110-WS-16THS Solar Radiation Shield 11
110-WS-16TM Tripod & Sensor Mast 11
110-WS-16TWS Water or Soil Temperature Sensor 11
110-WS-18-A Portable Weather Station ws/wd/t 13
110-WS-18-B Portable Weather Station ws/wd/t/rh 13
110-WS-18BP Barometric Pressure Sensor 13
110-WS-18H Relative Humidity Sensor 13
110-WS-18HHD Hand Held PC 13
110-WS-18M2 Memory Expansion to 256KB 13
110-WS-18M5 Memory Expansion to 512KB 13
110-WS-18RG Rain Gauge 0.02"/tip 13
110-WS-18SML Display Software 13
110-WS-18SMM Met Manager Software 13
110-WS-18SP Solar Panel, 10 watt 13
110-WS-18SR Solar Radiation Sensor 13
110-WS-18STR Graphical Display Software 13
110-WS-18STR-H HTML Option 13
110-WS-18TH Temp/Humidity Sensor 13
110-WS-18TWS Water/Soil Temperature Sensor 13
110-WS-18USB USB to DB9 Serial Adapter 13
1205-05/xxx Serial Cable 11
130-205 DC Voltage Input (RH, BP, SR) 26
130-205Q2 Loop-Powered Signal Conditioner (SR) 26
130-206 RTD Input (Temp, Dew Point) 26
130-207 Potentiometer Input (Wind Dir, Evap) 26
130-208 Frequency Input (Wind Speed) 26
130-209 AC Voltage Input (Power Line) 26
130-H902 DIN Rail Power Supply 26
130-H910 DIN Rail Power Supply 26
135-100 WS/WD Translator PCB 27
135-100-SR Amplifier PCB, 0-5V 115
135-100-SR Amplifier PCB for 240-140/150 116
135-102 Digital to Analog Conversion PCB 27
135-104 General Purpose Translator PCB 28
135-114 General Purpose Translator PCB 28
135-115 General Purpose Translator PCB 28
140-400 900 MHz Spread Spectrum Radio 23
140-400A11 Yagi Antenna 11dB 23
140-400A15 Yagi Antenna 15 dB 23
140-400A8 Yagi Antenna 8 dB 23
140-400C20 Dipole Antenna Ext Cable 20' 23
140-400C20Y Yagi Antenna Cable 20' 23
140-400C40 Dipole Antenna Ext Cable 40' 23
140-400C40Y Yagi Antenna Cable 40' 23
140-400C6Y Yagi Antenna Cable 6' 23
16000200 Plastic Bottle for Calibrator 141
16000201 Orifice 1/32" 141
16000202 Orifice 1/16" 141
16000203 Orifice 3/32" 141
16000204 Orifice 1/8" 141
16000205 Syringe 141
190-110 Tripod Grounding Kit 162
190-120 Tower Grounding Kit 162
190-121 Tower Grounding Kit 162
190-122 Tower Grounding Kit 162
190-205 Tripod Guy Kit for 5' Tripod 161
190-210 Tripod Guy Kit for 10' Tripod 161
190-211 Earth Anchors for Tripod Guy Kit 161
190-212 Roof Anchors for Tripod Guy Kit 161
190-213 Heavy Duty Earth Anchor (one) 161
190-221 Tower Guy Kit, ground mount 161
190-222 Tower Guy Kit, roof mount 161
190-302 Aluminum Sensor Mast, 3' swaged-type 161
190-310 Aluminum Sensor Mast, 5' x 1.34" o.d. 161
190-311 Aluminum Sensor Mast, 5' x 1.66" o.d. 161
190-312 Aluminum Sensor Mast, 5' swaged-type 161
190-320 Aluminum Sensor Mast, 10' x 1.34" o.d. 161
190-321 Aluminum Sensor Mast, 10' x 1.66 o.d. 161
190-322 Aluminum Sensor Mast, 10' swaged-type 161
190-330 Galvanized Sensor Mast, 5' x 1.34" o.d. 161
190-331 Galvanized Sensor Mast, 5' x 1.66" o.d. 161
190-340 Galvanized Sensor Mast, 10' x 1.34" o.d. 161
190-341 Galvanized Sensor Mast, 10' x 1.66 o.d. 161
190-350 Mast Adapter, reduces 1.34" to 0.84" o.d. 161
190-351 Mast Adapter, reduces 1.34" to 1.05" o.d. 161
190-410 6' Fixed Horizontal Boom, 2" square 161
190-411 6' Retractable Horizontal Boom, 2" square 161
190-412 6' Fixed Horizontal Boom, 1-1/2" square 161
190-413 6' Fixed Horizontal Boom, 1-1/2" square 161
190-414 6' Fixed Horizontal Boom, 1-1/2" square 161
190-420 Mounting Stub, 0.084" o.d. x 6" stub 161
190-421 Mounting Stub, 1.05" o.d. x 6" stub 161
190-422 Mounting Stub, 1.34" o.d. x 6" stub 161
190-423 Mounting Stub, 1.66" o.d. x 6" stub 161
190-505 3' Tripod 160
190-510 5' Tripod 160
190-520 10' Tripod 160
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 211
Index
190-610 10' Aluminum Tower 160
190-611 30' Aluminum Stacked Tower, std duty 160
190-612 30' Aluminum Stacked Tower, heavy duty 160
190-618 Ground Mount, standard duty 160
190-618-HD Ground Mount, heavy duty 160
190-619 Roof Mount, standard duty 160
190-619-HD Roof Mount, heavy duty 160
195-00811 Custom Programming for 195-26800 24
195-208 Precision Resistor Network 82
195-26800 Meteorological Translator 24
195-26880 Rack Mounting Panel 24
195-BHW Software 139
195-BHW-LITE Software 139, 149
195-CABLE USB Interface Cable 149
195-U-DT-1 U-Shuttle Data Transporter 139
195-WS-16A Audible Alarm Option 21
195-WS-16AD21 Automatic Voice Dialer 22
195-WS-16AD45 Automatic Voice Dialer 22
195-WS-16D Data Logger Desktop Enclosure 21
195-WS-16HHD Hand Held PC 21
195-WS-16M Telephone Modem 21
195-WS-16M6 Optional Memory Expansion to 640KB 21
195-WS-16N Data Logger in NEMA-4X Enclosure 21
195-WS-16P AC Power Supply, 115V 21
195-WS-16PE AC Power Supply, 220V 21
195-WS-16SML Display Software 21
195-WS-16SMM Met Manager Software 21
195-WS-16STR Graphical Display Software 21
195-WS-16USB USB to Serial Adapter 21
200-03002 Wind Sentry Anemometer and Vane 52
200-03002L Wind Sentry with 4-20 mA Output 52
200-03101 Wind Sentry Anemometer 52
200-03301 Wind Sentry Vane 52
200-03603 Wind Sensor Interface 52
200-03631 Current Loop Converter 4-20 mA 46
200-03631 Wind Line Driver 52
200-05103 Wind Monitor 48
200-05103-45 Alpine Wind Monitor 48
200-05103L Wind Monitor, 4-20mA output 48
200-05103V Wind Monitor, specify 0-1Vdc or 0-5Vdc 48
200-05106 Wind Monitor-MA (Marine Model) 48
200-05305 Wind Monitor-AQ 49
200-05305L Wind Monitor, 4-20 mA output 49
200-05305V Wind Monitor, specify 0-1Vdc or 0-5Vdc 49
200-05603 Wind Sensor Interface, 0-1Vdc or 0-5Vdc 49
200-05603B Wind Sensor Interface, 0-1Vdc or 0-5Vdc 48
200-05631 Wind Line Driver, 4-20 mA 49
200-05631B Wind Line Driver, 4-20 mA 48
200-0581 Kestrel 1000, blue 67
200-06201 Wind Tracker, 110V 51
200-06201C Wind Tracker, 0-540° range 51
200-06201H Wind Tracker, 230V 51
200-06206 Marine Wind Tracker, 110V 51
200-06206H Marine Wind Tracker, 230V 51
200-06260 Protective Enclosure 51
200-06280 Rack Mounting Panel, 19" rack 51
200-0801 Kestrel Replacement Impeller 18, 67
200-08254 CFT Propeller 50
200-08274 EPS Propeller 50
200-100609-0 Connector 58
200-1012/xxx Heater Cable with Connector 57, 58
200-101234-0 External Heater, 115 Vac 57, 58
200-101234-1 External Heater, 220 Vac 57, 58
200-101278 Wind System 58
212 NovaLynx Corporation
www.novalynx.com
200-101908-3 Current Loop Wind Sensors 0-360° 57
200-101908-5 Current Loop Wind Sensors 0-540° 57
200-101944 Vane Assy, magnesium 58
200-101949 Digital Current Loop Display 57
200-101982 Connector 57
200-102083 Wind Mark III Wind Sensors w/Crossarm 58
200-102138 Cup Assy, black Lexan 58
200-10681 Thermostat Control 60
200-1230 Handheld Wind Speed Calibrator, 300 rpm 70
200-1231 Handheld Wind Speed Calibrator, 1800 rpm 70
200-1233 Handheld Wind Speed Calibrator, 600 rpm 70
200-1247 Wind Direction Calibrator, Skyvane 70
200-1249-A Wind Direction Calibrator, 2005 2020 70
200-1390 WindObserver II 56
200-18112 Vane Angle Bench Stand 68
200-18212 Vane Angle Fixture, tower mount 68
200-18301 Vane Alignment Rod 69
200-18310 Propeller Torque Disc 69
200-18312 Cup-Wheel Torque Disc 69
200-18331 Vane Torque Gauge 69
200-18802 Anemometer Drive, 200-15000 RPM 68
200-18811 Anemometer Drive, 20-990 RPM 68
200-2020 Micro Response Wind Vane 60
200-20201 Sensor Heater Assembly, 115 Vac 60
200-20201-A Sensor Heater Assembly, 230 Vac 60
200-2023 Crossarm 60
200-20231 Mast Adapter 60
200-2030 Micro Response Anemometer, light chopper 60
200-2031 Micro Response Anemometer, dc generator 60
200-21101 Mast Adaptor 46
200-2201 NovaVane, AC generator and pot 46
200-2206 NovaVane, AC generator and synchro 46, 47
200-2206SA Synchro to Analog Output Assy 47
200-221-230V 230 Vac Input Option 47
200-22151 Wind Indicator Console 47
200-22152 Master Wind Indicator Console 47
200-22155 Slave Wind Indicator Console 47
200-2218 Analog Indicating Wind System 47
200-23301 Chart 0-50/0-100 0-540° 171
200-23302 Chart 0-100 0-360° 171
200-23501 Chart 0-50/0-100 mph or m/s 171
200-23502 Chart 0-360° 171
200-2510 Totalizing Anemometer, miles 72, 145
200-2511 Totalizing Anemometer, kilometers 72, 145
200-2520 Wind Meter 65
200-2530 Wind Speed Indicator 65
200-2620 Wind Sock 71
200-26201 Ball Bearing Frame 71
200-26202 Hoop and Bail Frame 71
200-27005 UVW Anemometer 50
200-27005J 12Vdc Blower for UVW Anemometer 50
200-27005T With Optional CFT Propellers 50
200-27106 Propeller Anemometer 50
200-27106D With Optional Single-Direction Photocho 50
200-27106F With Optional Two-Direction Photochoppe 50
200-27106T With Optional CFT Propellers 50
200-2916 Compass 69
200-455 Totalizing Anemometer 63
200-455B4 Battery Assembly, 12 Vdc 4 AH 63
200-455B7 Battery Assembly, 12 Vdc 7 AH 63
200-455CC Carrying Case 63
200-600 Crossarm 44
200-601 Wind Speed & Direction Sensors w/Crossarm 44
200-605 High Sensitivity WS/WD Sensors w/Crossarm 45
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Index
200-7000-00 WindSonic Connector Kit 55
200-7000-01 9-Pin Serial Connector Kit 55
200-7000-02 WindSonic Cable Assembly Fee 55
200-7000-03 WindSonic Mounting Stub 55
200-7000-04 WindSonic Boom Mounting Assy 55
200-7000-1 WindSonic, RS232 55
200-7000-2 WindSonic, RS232/422/485 55
200-7000-3 WindSonic, RS232/422/485 & Analog 55
200-7000-4 WindSonic, SDI-12 55
200-81000 Ultrasonic Anemometer 53
200-85000 Ultrasonic Anemometer 54
200-960 Handheld Anemometer 66
200-M488035 Spare Parts Kit for 200-2020 60
200-M488036 Spare Parts Kit for 200-2030 60
200-M488037 Spare Parts Kit for 200-2031 60
200-WS-01 Wind Speed Sensor 44
200-WS-01C Replacement Sensor for 2510/11 72
200-WS-02 Wind Speed & Direction Sensors 11, 44
200-WS-02F Wind Sensor 64
200-WS-04 Wind Direction Sensor 44
200-WS-04H High Sensitivity Wind Direction Sensor 45
200-WS-05 High Sensitivity WS/WD Sensors 11, 45
200-WS-21-A Dual Set Point Wind Alarm 61
200-WS-21P Power Pack, 110-240Vac 61
200-WS-23 Current Loop Wind Sensor, WS/WD 62
200-WS-23S Current Loop Wind Sensor, speed only 62
200-WS-25 Wind Logger 64
210-201 Air Temperature Sensor 83
210-301 Air Temperature Sensor 83
210-301W Water or Soil Temp Sensor 83
210-41342LC Temperature Probe °C, 4-20 mA out 87
210-41342LF Temperature Probe °F, 4-20 mA out 87
210-41342VC Temperature Probe °C, 0-1 Vdc out 87
210-41342VF Temperature Probe °F, 0-1 Vdc out 87
210-421-A Temperature Alarm 90
210-421P Plug-In Power Pack, 12V/500mA 90
210-421W-A Water Temperature Alarm 90
210-4410 Standard Thermometer °F 76
210-4411 Standard Thermometer °C 76
210-4412 Mounting Support 76
210-4420 Min-Max Thermometer Set °F 76
210-4421 Min-Max Thermometer Set °C 76
210-4422 Townsend Support 76
210-4425 Maximum Thermometer -38/+130°F 76
210-4426 Maximum Thermometer -30/+55°C 76
210-4429 Minimum Thermometer -50/+120°F 76
210-4430 Minimum Thermometer -45/+50°C 76
210-44332 Replacement Magnet 146
210-4470 Platinum Resistance Temperature Probe 82
210-4470-A Platinum Resistance Temperature Probe 82
210-4480-A Air Temperature Probe, 5' cable 82
210-4480-B Air Temperature Probe, 20' cable 82
210-4480-C Air Temperature Probe, 30' cable 82
210-4485 Water/Soil Temperature 82
210-44921 Replacement Thermometer °F 146
210-44931 Replacement Thermometer °C 146
210-454039 Replacement Thermometer 146
210-5320 Dew Cell, 3 element thermistor 88
210-5321 Dew Cell, 100 ohm platinum resistance 88
210-53212 Stand-Alone Power Supply, 115 Vac 88
210-53212-A Stand-Alone Power Supply, 230 Vac 88
210-600 Water/Soil Temperature Sensor 83
210-CAB1 TP1 Sensor Cable, from sensor to encl 84
210-CAB2 TP1 Signal Cable, from encl to output 84
210-TMC/20 Water or Air Temperature Sensor 149
210-TP1 Temperature Sensor, 0-5Vdc 84
210-TP1C Temperature Sensor, 4-20mA 84
210-TX92A-1-L RTD Transmitter, for 210-4470 -4470- 82
210-WE700 Temperature Sensor 85
220-15778 Replacement Humidity Chip 81
220-17039 Replacement Membrane Filter 81
220-180R Replacement Humidity Sensing Element 81
220-19446 Serial Communiction Cable 100
220-19766HM Extra Salt Chamber 100
220-219452SP Replacement Teflon Filter 81
220-5135 Lithium Chloride (11%) 100 grams 100
220-5136 Potassium Sulfate (97%) 100 grams 100
220-5137 Sodium Chloride (75%) 100 grams 100
220-730 Dial Hygrometer 75
220-HM27032 Carrying Bag 100
220-HMK15 Humidity Calibrator 100
220-HMK41 Humidity Calibration Kit 100
220-HMP155D Relative Humidity Sensor 81
225-41382LC2 RH/Temp Probe °C, 4-20mA out 87
225-41382LF2 RH/Temp Probe °F, 4-20mA out 87
225-41382VC RH/Temp Probe °C, 0-1Vdc out 87
225-41382VF RH/Temp Probe °F, 0-1Vdc out 87
225-445703 Big Digit Hygro-Thermometer 94
225-46203 Temp Tracker, 110V 87
225-46203H Temp Tracker, 230V 87
225-500-B Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor 81
225-501-B Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor 81
225-5020-A Hygrothermograph 74
225-5020-GL Plexiglass Window (T95011) 74
225-50201 Charts -20/+40°C 0-100% 7d 74
225-50202 Charts +10/+120°F 0-100% 7d 74
225-50203 Charts -30/+80°F 0-100% 7d 74
225-50204 Charts -20/+40°C 0-100% 1d 74
225-50205 Charts +10/+120°F 0-100% 1d 74
225-50206 Charts -30/+80°F 0-100% 1d 74
225-50207 Charts -20/+40°C 0-100% 31d 74
225-50208 Charts +10/+120°F 0-100% 31d 74
225-50209 Charts -30/+80°F 0-100% 31d 74
225-50211 Replacement Hair Bundle 74
225-50212 Charts -10/+50°C 0-100% 7d 74
225-50213 Charts -5/+55°C 0-100% 31d 74
225-50214 Charts -10/+50°C 0-100% 1d 74
225-520-A Pocket Sling Psychrometer F 77
225-521-A Pocket Sling Psychrometer C 77
225-522-A Replacement Thermometer F 77
225-523-A Replacement Thermometer C 77
225-5230 Assmann Psychrometer °C 79
225-52301 Spare Thermometer for 225-5230 79
225-5231 Assmann Psychrometer °F 79
225-52311 Spare Thermometer for 225-5231 79
225-564-A Fan Psychrometer °F 78
225-565-A Fan Psychrometer °C 78
225-566C Battery Operated Psychrometer °C 78
225-566F Battery Operated Psychrometer °F 78
225-567C Repl Thermometer °C 2/set 78
225-567F Repl Thermometer °F 2/set 78
225-568 Replacement Wicks, 24" length 77, 78, 79
225-569C Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule °C 80
225-569F Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule °F 80
225-570-A Sling Psychrometer F 77
225-571-A Sling Psychrometer C 77
225-572-A Replacement Thermometer °F 78
225-572-A Replacement Thermometer F 77
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 213
Index
225-573-A Replacement Thermometer °C 78
225-573-A Replacement Thermometer C 77
225-7917 Fuel Moisture Scale 89
225-7918 10-Hour Fuel Moisture Stick 89
225-7919 Support Brackets, set of 2 89
225-930 Dial Thermohygrometer 75
225-990 Replacement Motor 78
225-991 Replacement Battery 78
225-HM34-C Handheld RH/Temp Indicator °C 92
225-HM34-F Handheld RH/Temp Indicator °F 92
225-HMP155A Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor 81
225-HMP60A Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor 81
225-RH520 RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder 110V 93
225-RH520-220 RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder 220V 93
225-RH520-NIST RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder 93
225-RH522 Humidity-Temperature Probe 93
225-SL123 AC Alarm Relay Module 93
225-SL124 DC Alarm Relay Module 93
225-THT-1 Temperature and Humidity Sensor 86
225-THT-BC Battery Cable, per foot 86
225-THT-PC25 AC Power Cable, 25' 86
225-THT-PC6 AC Power Cable, 6' 86
230-044 Digital Barometer Altimeter Compass 110
230-276-6 Barometric Pressure Sensor, 600-1100 mb 106
230-276-8 Barometric Pressure Sensor, 800-1100 mb 106
230-278 Barometric Pressure Transmitter 105
230-600C BP Sensor PCB 4-20mA 103
230-600V BP Sensor PCB 0-5V 103
230-601C BP Sensor in Encl 4-20mA 103
230-601V BP Sensor in Encl 0-5V 103
230-M202 Handheld Digital Barometer-Altimeter 109
230-P111 Dial Barometer 102
230-WE100 Barometric Pressure Sensor 108
240-100 Fritschen Type Net Radiometer 122
240-1070 Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder 45-65° 125
240-1071 Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder 0-45° 125
240-1072 Sunshine Record Cards 125
240-1073 Transparent Measuring Template 125
240-1074 Replacement Glass Sphere 125
240-110 NR-Lite Net Radiometer 123
240-110-A Amplifier PCB, specify output 123
240-120 SP-Lite Silicon Pyranometer 115
240-140 Silicon Cell Pyranometer 116
240-140LM Leveling/Mounting Plate Kit 116
240-150 Silicon Cell Pyranometer, with mtg plate 116
240-152 Shadow Band 113
240-153 Tower Mount, 1' boom 112, 114, 115, 116
240-200SZ Silicon Pyranometer, 10' cable 114
240-200SZ/100 Silicon Pyranometer, 100' cable 114
240-200SZ/50 Silicon Pyranometer, 50' cable 114
240-6450 Solar Radiation Sensor 117
240-8101 Star Pyranometer, mV output 112
240-8101-C Additional Cable, per meter 112
240-8101-D Glass Dome 112
240-8101-OR O-Rings, set of 3 112
240-8101-SG Silica Gel, 100 grams 112
240-8101-SGC Silica Gel Container. filled 112
240-8102 Star Pyranometer, 4-20mA output 112
240-8104 Albedometer 119
240-8104-D Glass Dome, 2 required 119
240-8104-OR O-Rings, set of 6 119
240-8104-SG Silica Gel, 100 grams 119
240-8104-SGC Silica Gel Container, filled 119
240-8106 Protective Housing, 24 Vac 112
214 NovaLynx Corporation
www.novalynx.com
240-8106PS Power Adapter, 220 Vac to 24 Vac 112
240-8110 Net Radiometer 121
240-8110-C Additional Cable, per meter 121
240-8110-D Lupolene Dome, 2 req 121
240-8110-OR O Rings, set of 3 121
240-8110-SG Silica Gel, 100 grams 121
240-8110-SGC Silica Gel Container, filled 121
240-8111 Pyrradiometer 120
240-8111-D Lupolene Dome, 2 req 120
240-8111-OR O-Rings, set of 4 120
240-8111-PT Pt-100 Platinum Element 120
240-8111-SG Silica Gel, 100 grams 120
240-8111-SGC Silica Gel Container, filled 120
240-CMP3 Pyranometer 118
240-CMP3-MR Mounting Rod 118
240-CSD3 Sunshine Duration Sensor 126
240-CUV3 Broadband UV Radiometer 124
240-LI200SZ-A4 Amplifier PCB, 4-20 mA 114
240-LI200SZ-A5 Amplifier PCB, 0-5 V 114
240-M488084 Spare Parts Kit, 240-100 3032-A 122
240-USEA Amplifier PCB 0-5V Output 112
250-124C-1 Soil Moisture Sensor, 0-1 mA output 89
250-124C-4 Soil Moisture Sensor, 4-20 mA output 89
250-124V Soil Moisture Sensor, 0-5 V output 89
250-12CAB Additional Cable, per foot 89
255-100 Evaporation Gauge, 50' cable 147
255-100P/F SS Connecting Pipe and Fittings 147
255-100POT Replacement Potentiometer 147
255-110 Evaporation Gauge Tester 147
255-110MS 3-Pin MS Connector Option 147
255-200 Evaporation Pan 145, 146
255-205 Stillwell 145
255-210 Stillwell with Fixed Point 145
255-211E Replacement Graduate, English 145
255-211M Replacement Graduate, Metric 145
255-212C Flt/Sub Min-Max Thermometer °C 145
255-212C Flt/Sub Min-Max Thermometer, °C 146
255-212D Flt/Sub Min-Max Thermometer, digital 146
255-212F Flt/Sub Min-Max Thermometer °F 145
255-212F Flt/Sub Min-Max Thermometer, °F 146
255-214 Hook Gauge, English units 145
255-215 Hook Gauge, metric 145
255-250 Evaporation Pan Platform 150
255-620 Automatic Refill System 148
255-704-A Evaporation Logger 149
260-153-7852 Tower Mounting Arm, 1' 132
260-2101 Rain Logger 138
260-2101SK3 PC Starter Kit, ver 3.x 138
260-2101SK4 PC Starter Kit, ver 4.x 138
260-2101TU Data Transfer Unit 138
260-2102 Rain Logger 139
260-2500 8" Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip 128
260-2500-12 12" Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip 128
260-2500E 8" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip 128
260-2500E-12 12" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip 128
260-2500H Heater Kit for 8" 260-2500 128
260-2500H-12 Heater Kit for 12" 260-2500-12 128
260-2500HC/25 Additional Heater Cable, 25' 128
260-2500HC/75 Additional Heater Cable, 75' 128
260-2500M 8" Rain Gauge, 1 mm/tip 128
260-2500M-12.25 12" Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/tip 128
260-2500M.25 8" Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/tip 128
260-2500M.5 8" Rain Gauge, 0.5 mm/tip 128
260-2500ME 8" Electric Rain Gauge, 1 mm/tip 128
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Index
260-2500ME-12.25 12" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/ 128
260-2500ME.25 8" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.25 mm/tip 128
260-2500ME.5 8" Electric Rain Gauge, 0.5 mm/tip 128
260-2501-A 8" Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge 0.01"/tip 129
260-2501M-A 8" Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge 1 mm/tip 129
260-2501M-A.25 8" Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge 0.25mm 129
260-2501M-A.5 8" Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge 0.5mm 129
260-2501MB Side Mounting Bracket 129
260-2505 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 0.01"/tip 130
260-2505M Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, 0.25mm/tip 130
260-2510 Rain and Snow Gauge 134
260-2510MS Measuring Stick (24") in/mm 134
260-2510S Tripod Support 134
260-2520 Forestry Rain Gauge, english 135
260-2520MS-E Measuring Stick (6") English 135
260-2520S Support Bracket 135
260-2530 Fence Post Rain Gauge 133
260-2531 Plastic Rain Gauge, english graduations 133
260-2531BP Replacement Backplate 133
260-2531F Replacement Funnel 133
260-2531M Plastic Rain Gauge, metric graduations 133
260-2531MMT Replacement Measuring Tube, metric 133
260-2531MT Replacement Measuring Tube, english 133
260-2531OT Replacement Outer Tube 133
260-2590 Precipitation Detector 137
260-2591 Leaf Wetness Sensor 137
260-2592 Leaf Wetness Sensor with Heater 137
260-2595 Rain Gauge Calibrator 141
260-2596 Digital Event Counter 142
260-2597 Pocket-Size Digital Event Counter 142
260-52202 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge 110 Vac 131
260-52202H Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge 220 Vac 131
260-52203 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge 131
260-52250 Bird Wire Assy 131
260-700 Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor 136
260-700-D Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor, digital 136
260-7852 Rain Collector 132
260-950 Rain Gauge Mounting Plate 140
260-952 Rain Gauge Wind Screen, 24" legs 140
260-953 Rain Gauge Wind Screen, 36" legs 140
260-954 Leg Extender Kit 140
260-955 Wind Screen Mounting Kit 140
270-WQ101 Temperature Sensor 156
270-WQ201 pH Sensor 156
270-WQ301 Conductivity Sensor 156
270-WQ401 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor 156
270-WQ720 Turbidity Sensor 157
270-WQ770 Turbidity Meter 157
280-330 Pressure Transducer, specify range in ft 153
280-330C Add'l Vented Cable, per ft 153
280-FP111 Flow Probe 152
280-FP211 Flow Probe 152
280-FP311 Flow Probe 152
280-IRU-9423-C6 Ultrasonic Sensor 154
280-IRU-9429 Ultrasonic Sensor 0-2.5 0-5V 154
280-RST-2001A RST Module, RS232 154
280-RST-3001 RST Module, USB 154
300-1172 Wind Speed Dial, 0-100 mph 32
300-11722 Wind Speed Dial, 0-120 mph 32
300-11725 Wind Speed Dial, 0-120 knots 32
300-1173 Wind Direction Dial, 0-360° 32
300-1174 Wind Direction Dial, 0-540° 32
300-11761 Temperature Dial, -40 to +120°F 32
300-11763 Temperature Dial, 0 to +120°F 32
300-1178 Relative Humidity Dial, 0-100% 32
300-1180 Barometric Pressure Dial, 945-1045 mb 32
300-11800 Barometric Pressure Dial, 27.5-31.5"Hg 32
300-400 Series Dual Analog Display Consoles 32
300-50XXX Large Digital Displays 32
300-550 LED Meter, specify range, 3-1/2 digit 32
300-650 LCD Meter, specify range, 3-1/2 digit 32
300-87003 Chart 0-50/0-100 0-540° 171
300-87004 Chart 0-25/0-50 0-540° 171
300-87005 Chart 0-100/0-200 0-540° 171
300-M699497 Chart 0-100 0-540 171
300-M699498 Use 390-23302 171
310-120 Rechargeable Battery 12V 4AH 164
310-121 Rechargeable Battery 12V 12AH 164
310-122 Rechargeable Battery 12V 7AH 164
310-126 Rechargeable Battery 12V 33AH 164
310-140 AC Power Supply/Adapter/Charger 115Vac 63, 165
310-170 Power Supply Chassis 115Vac or 220Vac 5Vdc 165
310-300 Isolation Transformer 220Vac-115Vac 165
320-600 Solar Panel 0.6A (10W) 21, 166
320-900 Solar Panel 1.4A (20W) 166
330-0220S Cable 2C 20AWG shielded 115, 116, 122
330-04TP24 Signal Cable 55
330-0820 Cable 8C 20AWG shielded 47
330-T605000 Ground Cable, #4 copper, PVC jacket 162
330-T605004 Ground Cable, 2/0 bare copper 162
330-T713018 Ground Rod, 8 feet 162
350-1077 AC Power Surge Arrestor 115/230 Vac 162
350-1077-A AC Power Surge Arrestor 220-277 Vac 162
350-290 Transient Protection, per input channel 27, 28
350-B380-24V Sensor Line Surge Protector, 4 lines 162
350-B480-24V Sensor Line Surge Protector, 8 lines 162
380-280 Self-Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield 95
380-281 Self-Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield 95
380-281-THT Solar Radiation Shield for 225-THT-1 86
380-283 Solar-Fan-Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield 95
380-41003 Solar Radiation Shield 96
380-41003P Solar Radiation Shield, custom adapter 96
380-41390 Junction Box 96, 97
380-43408 Motor Aspirated Shield 97
380-43408DPT Motor-Aspirated Solar Radiation Shiel 88
380-43408H Motor Aspirated Shield, 230Vac/50-60Hz 97
380-43482 Probe Top Cover 97
380-43502 Motor Aspirated Shield 97
380-600 Thermometer Shelter 98
380-601 Small Instrument Shelter 98
380-605 Large Instrument Shelter 99
380-608 Wood Leg Kit 99
380-609 Metal Leg Kit 99
390-50051 Charts -20/50°C 0-100% 940-1045mb 176h 170
390-50052 Charts -10/120°C 0-100% 940-1045mb 176h 170
390-50053 Charts -10/120°C 0-100% 27.9-31"Hg 176h 170
390-50054 Charts -20/50°C 0-100% 705-785mmHg 176h 170
390-50055 Charts -20/50°C 0-100% 940-1045mb 26h 170
390-50056 Charts -10/120°F 0-100% 940-1045mb 26h 170
390-50057 Charts -10/120°F 0-100% 27.9-31"Hg 26h 170
390-50058 Charts -20/50°C 0-100% 705-785mmHg 26h 170
390-50059 Charts -20/50°C 0-100% 940-1045mb 31d 170
390-50060 Charts -10/120°F 0-100% 940-1045mb 31d 170
390-50061 Charts -10/120°F 0-100% 27.9-31"Hg 31d 170
390-50062 Charts -20/50°C 0-100% 705-785mmHg 31d 170
390-50251 Charts C302-W-HC 0/55°C 0-100% 176h 170
390-50252 Charts C302-W-HF 20/120°F 0-100% 176h 170
390-50253 Charts C302-W-LF -40/60°F 0-100% 176h 170
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 215
Index
390-50257 Cartridge Pen, red 168
390-50258 Cartridge Pen, violet 168
390-50259 Cartridge Pen, blue 168
390-87502 Pen & Ink Kit, red, for 8751 168
390-87505 Pen & Ink Kit, green, for 8751 168
390-87601 Pen & Ink Kit, red, for 8750 8760 8761 168
390-87602 Pen & Ink Kit, green, for 8750 8760 8761 168
390-87603 Electronic Pen, for 8750 8760 8761 168
390-87611 Cartridge Pen, red, for 8760-A 8761-A 168
390-87612 Cartridge Pen, green, for 8760-A 168
390-87613 Electronic Pen, for 8760-A 8761-A 168
390-87614 Electronic Pen, for 8760-A 168
390-8810 V-point Pen 168
390-88101 Cartridge Pen, blue 168
390-88102 Cartridge Pen, red 168
390-88103 Cartridge Pen, red, 8720 8721 8722 8723 168
390-88104 Cartridge Pen, green, for 8720 8722 8723 168
390-88105 Cartridge Pen, blue, for 8722 8723 168
390-88106 Cartridge Pen, brown, for 8723 168
390-88108 Cartridge Pen, red, for 4771 8771 168
390-8811 Capillary Pen, for 8700 Series 168
390-88112 Cartridge Dotting Wheel, for 4776 8776 168
390-88116 Cartridge Dotting Wheel, for 8746 168
390-8816 Cartridge, red, long, for 4742 8740 168
390-88161 Cartridge, blue, long, for 4742 8740 168
390-8817 Cartridge, blue, short, for 4741 4742 874 168
390-88171 Cartridge Pen, red, short, for 4741 4742 168
390-8818 Capillary Pen Point Only 168
390-8820 Ink, medium dry, blue, 15 ml 168
390-8821 Ink, medium dry, red, 15 ml 168
390-88221 Ink, fast dry, red, 1 pint 168
390-88222 Ink, fast dry, blue, 1 pint 168
390-88223 Ink, fast dry, green, 1 pint 168
390-88224 Ink, fast dry, black, 1 pint 168
390-88231 Ink, medium dry, red, 1 pint 168
390-88232 Ink, medium dry, blue, 1 pint 168
390-88233 Ink, medium dry, green, 1 pint 168
390-88234 Ink, medium dry, black, 1 pint 168
390-8825-A Battery-operated Clock 26h/176h/31d 169
390-8826-A Battery-operated Clock 26h/176h/31d 169
390-8827-A Battery-operated Clock 26h/176h/31d 74, 169
390-8828-A Battery-operated Clock 26h/176h/31d 169
390-8829-A Battery-operated Clock 26h/176h/31d 169
390-8830-A Battery-operated Clock 26h/176h/31d 169
390-8840-A Battery-operated Clock 26h/176h/31d 169
390-8849 Black Ink, 3 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8850 Red Ink, 3 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8851 Blue Ink, 3 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8852 Green Ink, 3 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8853 Ink, 6 different, 6 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8854 Ink, 12 different, 12 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8855 Red Ink, 1 bottle, 40 cc 168
390-8856 Red Ink, 3 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8857 Black Ink, 3 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8858 Blue Ink, 3 bottles, 20 cc each 168
390-8860 Black Ink, 1 bottle, 40 cc 168
390-M666013 Use 390-8810 168
390-M666025 Use 390-8856 168
390-M666027 Use 390-8853 168
390-M666028 Use 390-8854 168
390-M666035 Use 390-8857 168
390-M666105 Use 390-88231 168
390-M666106 Use 390-88232 168
390-M666107 Use 390-88221 168
216 NovaLynx Corporation
www.novalynx.com
390-M666108 Use 390-88222 168
390-M666110 Use 390-88101 168
390-M666111 Use 390-88102 168
390-M666120 Use 390-8858 168
390-M666123 Use 390-8821 168
390-M666124 Use 390-8820 168
390-M666127 Use 390-8860 168
390-M666128 Use 390-8855 168
390-M671118 Cartridge Dotting Wheel, 6 point 168
390-M671119 Cartridge Dotting Wheel, 12 point 168
390-M673049 Use 390-87602 168
390-M673050 Use 390-87601 168
390-M673051 Use 390-87603 168
390-M674120 Use 390-8818 168
390-M699050 Charts C201-W-MB 945-1045mb 31d 170
390-M699051 Charts C201-W-HG 170
390-M699061 Charts C211-W-HG 170
390-M699063 Charts C211-W-MB 170
390-M699083 Charts C701-W-MB-HF 170
390-M699087 Charts C701-W-MB-HC 170
390-M699089 Charts C701-W-HG-LF 170
390-M699091 Charts C701-W-HG-HF 170
390-M699113 Use 390-50251 170
390-M699115 Use 390-50253 170
390-M699117 Use 390-50252 170
390-M699120 Charts -10/+50°C 0-100% 31d 74
390-M699121 Charts C311-D-C 170
390-M699123 Charts C311-D-HF 170
390-M699124 Charts C311-W-HF 170
390-M699125 Charts C311-D-WF 170
390-M699126 Charts C311-W-LF 170
390-M699130 Charts C311-W-CX 170
390-M699170 Chart C401-D 0-2.5ly/min 24h 170
390-M699171 Charts C401-W 0-2.5ly/min 168h 170
390-M699190 Charts C501-D 0-50 events 170
390-M699191 Charts C501-W 0-50 events 170
390-M699192 Charts C501-M 0-50 events 170
395-0604 NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure w/backplate 29
395-0806 NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure w/backplate 29
395-1008 NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure w/backplate 29
395-110 Small Desktop Enclosure, 115 Vac 29
395-120 Large Desktop Enclosure, 115 Vac 29
395-1210 NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure w/backplate 29
395-123-# Rack Mount Enclosure, 5", 7", or 9" 29
395-1412 NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure w/backplate 29
395-1614 NEMA-4X Fiberglass Enclosure w/backplate 29
395-240 MS Type Quick Release Connector 29
395-250 Termination Strip, 12 position 29
395-301 Small NEMA Polycarbonate Enclosure 29
395-302 Large NEMA Polycarbonate Enclosure 29
395-304 Termination J-Box 46
395-990 Desiccant (2 packs) 29
395-A Tower or Mast Mounting Hardware 21, 29
395-B Unistrut Tower or Mast Mounting Hardware 29
395-C Power Supply/Battery Charger Assy 100-240Vac 21, 29
395-E Sunshield, for mid-size boxes 21, 29
395-F Sunshield, for large boxes 29
395-G 4AH Battery Assy 29
395-H 7AH Battery Assy 21, 29
395-I 12AH Battery Assy 29
400-15-187 Replacement Transformer for 400-2095 36
400-15-45 Replacement Lamp for 400-2095 36
400-2090 Sight Clinometer 36
400-2095 Ceiling Light Projector 36
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Index
400-50-209P3 Replacement Silicone Sealing Ring 36
400-6000 Visibility Sensor 39
400-6000CK Calibration Kit 39
400-8210 Pilot Balloon, 10 gm, red 34
400-8230 Pilot Balloon, 30 gm, red 34
400-8231 Pilot Balloon, 30 gm, black 34
400-8232 Pilot Balloon, 30 gm, natural 34
400-8233 Pilot Balloon, 100 gm, red 34
400-8234 Pilot Balloon, 100 gm, black 34
400-8235 Pilot Balloon, 100 gm, natural 34
400-8236 Pilot Balloon, 200 gm, natural 34
400-8237 Sounding Balloon, 300 gm, natural 34
400-8239 Sounding Balloon, 500 gm, natural 34
400-8242 Sounding Balloon, 800 gm, natural 34
400-8260-A10 10G Balloon Filling System 34
400-8266 Helium Tank Regulator 34
400-8318 Pilot Balloon Light 34
400-CBME40 Cloud Ceilometer, 12,500 feet 40
400-CBME80 Cloud Ceilometer, 25,000 feet 40
400-CHI-BE Digital Display for CBME40/80 40
400-CHI-BL Blower Option for CBME40/80 40
400-CHI-DM FSK Modem for CBME40/80 40
400-CHI-S Support Stand for CBME40/80 40
400-CHI-SS Sun Shutter for CBME40/80 40
400-CHI-SW Display Software for CBME40/80 40
400-SVS1 Sentry Visibility Sensor 38
410-SKAC AC Adapter 120V/60Hz 42
410-SKAC-220 AC Adapter 220V 42
410-SKDC Cigarette Lighter Adapter 42
410-SKLC Carrying Case 42
410-SKMB Wall Mounting Bracket 42
410-SkyScan Hand-Held Lightning Detector 42
A
AC Power Surge Arrestor 162
Albedometer 119
Altimeter 109, 110
Aluminum Tower 160
Analog Display 32
Analog Indicating Wind System 47
Analog Look-up Table 30
Anemometer
44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 72
Anemometer Drive 68
Antenna 23
Assmann Psychrometer 79
Automatic Voice Dialer 22
B
Balloon Filling System 34
Balloons 34
Barometer 102, 103, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110
Barometric Pressure Dial 32
Barometric Pressure Sensor
11, 13, 103, 105, 106, 108, 110
Battery 164
Battery Backup for WS-16D 11
Battery Charger, AC 165
Battery Charger, Solar 166
Battery Operated Psychrometer 78
Bird Wire Assembly 131
C
Campbell-Stokes Pattern Sunshine Recorder 125
Ceiling Light Projector 36
Ceilometer 40
Class A Evaporation Pan 146
Class A Evaporation Station 145
Clinometer 36
Compass 69, 110
Conductivity Sensor 156
Conversion Factors 174
Cotton Region Shelter 99
Cup-Wheel Torque Disc 69
Current Loop Wind Sensor 57, 62
D
Data Acquisition Module 11
Data Logger 10, 21, 139
Data Transporter 139
Desiccant 29
Desktop Enclosure 29
Dew Cell 88
Dialer 22
Digital Barometer & Altimeter 110
Digital Barometer-Altimeter 109
Digital Compass 110
Digital Event Counter 142
Digital to Analog Conversion PCB 27
Display 24
Display Software 11, 13, 14, 21
Dissolved Oxygen Sensor 156
Dual Set Point Wind Alarm 61
E
Enclosure 29
Evaporation Gauge 147
Evaporation Gauge Tester 147
Evaporation Logger 149
Evaporation Pan 145, 146
Evaporation Pan Automatic Refill System 148
Evaporation Pan Platform 150
Evaporation Station 145
Event Counter 142
Event Logger 139
F
Fan Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield, solar power 95
Fan Psychrometer 78
Fence Post Rain Gauge 133
Fixed Point 145
Floating/Submersible Min-Max Thermometer 145, 146
Flow Probe 152
Forestry Rain & Snow Gauge 135
Fritschen Type Net Radiometer 122
Fuel Moisture Scale 89
Fuel Moisture Stick 89
G
General Purpose Translator PCB 28
Glossary 179
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 217
Index
Graphical Display Software 11, 13, 15, 21
Ground Cable 162
Ground Rod 162
Grounding Kit 162
H
Hair Bundle 74
Hand Held PC for local display 11, 13, 21
Handheld Barometer & Altimeter 110
Handheld Barometer-Altimeter 109
Handheld Humidity & Temperature Sensor 92
Handheld Wind Speed Calibrator 70
Heated Rain & Snow Gauge 128, 131
Helium Tank Regulator 34
High Sensitivity Modular Weather Station 11
High Sensitivity Wind Sensor 11
Hook Gauge 145
HTML Option for WS-16STR 15
HTML Option for WS-18STR 13
Humidity & Temperature Digital Chart Recorder 93
Humidity & Temperature Sensor 87, 92
Humidity Calibration Kit 100
Humidity Calibrator 100
Humidity Sensor 11, 13, 81
Hygro-Thermometer 94
Hygrometer Dial 75
Hygrothermograph 74
HyperTerminal 10, 20
I
Instrument Shelter 98
L
LCD Display 32
Leaf Wetness Sensor 137
LED Display 32
Lightning Detector 42
Lightning Protection 162
Lithium Chloride Solution 88
Loop-Powered Signal Conditioner 26
M
Marine Wind Tracker Display 51
Maximum Thermometer 76
Measuring Stick 134, 135
Met Manager Software 11, 13, 16, 21
Met Viewer Software 16
Meteorological Balloons 34
Meteorological Display 24
Meteorological Translator 24
Micro Response Anemometer 60
Micro Response Wind Vane 59
Min-Max Thermometer 146
Minimum Thermometer 76
Modem, Spread Spectrum Radio 23
Modular Weather Station 10, 11, 13
Motor Aspirated Solar Radiation Shield 97
Mounting Hardware for enclosures 29
218 NovaLynx Corporation
www.novalynx.com
N
NEMA Fiberglass Enclosure 29
NEMA Polycarbonate Enclosure 29
Net Radiometer 121, 122, 123
NovaLogger 2000 21
NovaVane Wind Speed & Direction Sensor 46, 47
P
Pens and Ink 168
pH Sensor 156
Pilot Balloon Light 34
Pilot Balloons 34
Pitot Tube 65
Plastic Rain Gauge 133
Platinum Temperature Sensor 82
Pocket Psychrometric Slide Rule 80
Pocket Sling Psychrometer 77
Portable Weather Station 12
Power Supply, AC 165
Power Supply, for desktop enclosure 11
Power Supply, Solar 166
Precipitation Detector 137
Pressure Conversion Table 178
Pressure Transducer 153
Procomm 10, 20
Propeller Torque Disc 69
Psychrometer 78, 79
Psychrometric Slide Rule 80
Pyranometer 112, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119
Pyrradiometer 120
R
Rack Mount Enclosure 29
Radio 23
Radiometer 121, 122, 123, 124
Rain Gauge 11, 13, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 135
Rain Gauge Calibrator 141
Rain Gauge Mounting Plate 140
Rain Gauge Side Mounting Bracket 129
Rain Gauge Wind Screen 140
Rain Logger 138, 139
Rechargeable Battery 164
Relative Humidity & Temperature Sensor 81
Relative Humidity Dial 32
Relative Humidity Sensor 11, 13, 81
Relative Humidity Table 177
Replacement Graduate 145
RH/Temp Digital Chart Recorder 93
RST Module 154
S
Sensor Line Lightning Protection 162
Sensor Line Surge Protector 162
Sentry Visibility Sensor 38
Shadow Band 113
Sight Clinometer 36
Signal Conditioners 26
Silicon Pyranometer 114, 116
SkyScan Lightning Detector 42
Sling Psychrometer 77
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
Index
Snow Depth Sensor 136
Snow Gauge 128, 131, 134, 135
Soil Moisture Sensor 89
Soil Temperature Sensor 11, 13, 83
Solar Panel Battery Charger 11, 13, 21, 166
Solar Radiation Sensor 11, 13, 17, 117
Solar Radiation Shield 11, 95, 96, 97
Sonic Anemometer 53, 54, 55, 56
Sounding Balloons 34
Spread Spectrum Radio 23
Standard Rain & Snow Gauge 134
Standard Thermometer 76
Star Pyranometer 112
Stillwell 145
Stillwell with Fixed Point 145
Sunshield for enclosures 29
Sunshine Duration Sensor 126
Sunshine Recorder 125
Surge Arrestor 162
T
Telephone Modem 11
Temp Tracker Display 87
Temperature & Humidity Sensor 11, 13, 86
Temperature Alarm 90
Temperature Dial 32
Temperature Digital Chart Recorder 93
Temperature Sensor 11, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 156
Thermohygrometer Dial 75
Thermometer 76, 77, 78, 79
Thermometer Shelter 98
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge 128, 129, 130, 131, 132
Totalizing Anemometer 63, 72, 145
Tower 160
Tower Grounding Kit 162
Tower Lightning Protection 162
Townsend Support 76
Translator 24
Transportable Weather Station 13
Tripod 160
Tripod Grounding Kit 162
Turbidity Meter 157
Turbidity Sensor 157
U
W
Water Flow Sensor 152
Water or Soil Temperature Sensor 11, 13, 83
Water Temperature Alarm 90
Water Velocity Sensor 152
Weather Meter 18
Weather Station 10, 12, 17
Weather Tracker 18
WeatherLink for Vantage Pro2 17
WeatherPort General Purpose Wind Sensors 44
WeatherPort High Sensitivity Wind Sensors 45
Wind Alarm 61
Wind Conversion Table 175
Wind Direction Calibrator 70
Wind Direction Dial 32
Wind Indicator Console 47
Wind Logger with Real-Time Display 64
Wind Mark III Wind Sensors 58
Wind Meter 18, 65, 67
Wind Monitor 48
Wind Monitor-AQ 49
Wind Monitor-MA 48
Wind Screen 140
Wind Sentry Anemometer and Vane 52
Wind Sock 71
Wind Speed & Direction Sensors
11, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 58, 62
Wind Speed Alarm 61
Wind Speed Dial 32
Wind Speed Indicator 65
Wind Tracker Display 51
Wind Translator PCB 27
WindCom Communications Package 56
WindObserver II 56
Windows HyperTerminal 10, 20
WindSonic 55
Windtronic 2 Handheld Anemometer 66
WM-III Wind Sensors 58
WS-16 Modular Weather Station 10
WS-18 Portable Weather Station 12
Y
Yagi Antenna 23
Ultrasonic Anemometer 53, 54, 55, 56
Ultrasonic Sensor 154
Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensor 136
USB to DB9 Serial Adapter 13
UV Radiometer 124
UV Sensor 17
UVW Anemometer 50
V
Vane 44, 45, 52, 57, 59
Vane Alignment Rod 69
Vane Angle Bench Stand 68
Vane Angle Fixture 68
Vane Torque Gauge 69
Vantage Pro2 Weather Station 17
Visibility Sensor 38, 39
Voice Dialer 22
NovaLynx Corporation PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
www.novalynx.com 219
Reference
www.novalynx.com
Ordering Information
NovaLynx Corporation
PO Box 240
Grass Valley, CA 95945-0240
Phone: (530) 823-7185
Toll Free: (800) 321-3577 U.S. only
Fax: (530) 823-8997
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: www.novalynx.com
NovaLynx Federal ID: 68-0237829
Payment Terms: Domestic payment terms are net 30 days
with approved credit. Visa, MasterCard, Discover, and
American Express credit cards are accepted. Card is charged at
the time of shipment. C.O.D. orders are accepted for domestic
shipments only. Some orders may require prepayment or
progress payments. Interest of 1.5% per month will be charged
on past due accounts. Discounts may be withdrawn on past due
accounts.
International Orders: Full payment is required in advance
by wire transfer, credit card, or bank draft on a US bank.
Confirmed irrevocable letter of credit may be accepted for some
orders. Please contact NovaLynx for instructions prior to
arranging any payment. Payment amount must include all
applicable charges including freight, export processing fees, and
banking charges. Please instruct your bank that you will absorb
all fees. NovaLynx must receive the full amount due.
A processing fee will be added to each international order to
defray some of the additional costs associated with international
commerce. This fee may be waived for orders under $500.00
paid by credit card or bank draft.
Minimum Order: No minimum purchase is required,
however NovaLynx charges $5.00 minimum shipping
($15.00 minimum for C.O.D. orders).
Pricing: All prices are in U.S. Dollars. Prices do not include
freight, installation, installation assistance, or any federal, state,
or local taxes. Orders shipped to a California address or received
by a customer at our factory may be subject to California sales
tax. Applicable taxes will be added as a separate item on the
purchaser’s invoice unless a valid exemption, California resale
certificate, or direct payment permit is provided to NovaLynx
prior to shipment.
Any certification and/or inspection specifications which are in
addition to the usual NovaLynx quality control procedures may
be subject to an additional charge.
Prices and specifications are subject to change without
notice.
220 NovaLynx Corporation
Discounts: Discounts will be considered on a case-by-case
basis. Qualification for discounts will be at the sole
discretion of NovaLynx. Quantity discounts apply to
number of units in a single purchase order. Blanket
orders for a specific number of units over a specific term
will be considered.
Shipping: Unless specific instructions accompany the
order, we will use our judgement as to the best method of
shipment. Most orders are shipped via United Parcel
Service. Special arrangements can be made for other
carriers. All shipments are F.O.B. Auburn, California.
Title and risk of loss will pass to the purchaser upon
delivery to the freight carrier. The purchaser is
responsible for all transportation and insurance charges.
Shipping containers are not returnable.
Returns: Unused products may be returned within 90 days
from date of purchase only with prior authorization and must be
resalable as new. A 15% restocking fee may be charged.
Sensors and cables with customer specified lengths carry a
minimum restocking fee of $50.00 per probe. Products that may
not be returned include: specially modified versions of our
standard hardware and software; obsolete products; nonstandard products obtained as a service to the customer. Please
call NovaLynx to obtain a return authorization number and
shipping instructions prior to returning any products to the
factory. We recommend using a carrier that provides a tracking
number and proof of delivery. The cost of sending a product to
NovaLynx for repair or replacement is paid by the customer.
NovaLynx will pay for the return shipment if the product is
deemed to be defective under warranty. Include the return
authorization number, a description of the problem, and
complete contact information with your shipment. Products that
arrive damaged in shipment, without a return authorization
number, or without appropriate documentation may be returned
to the sender unrepaired or may be scrapped if we are unable to
arrange return shipping. The warranty will be voided for
products damaged in shipment due to improper packaging.
Warranty: NovaLynx Corporation warrants that its
products are free from defects in material and
workmanship under normal use and service for a period
of one year from the date of shipment from factory.
NovaLynx’s obligations under this warranty are limited
to, at NovaLynx’s option: (i) replacing; or (ii) repairing;
any products determined to be defective. In no case shall
NovaLynx’s liability exceed product’s original purchase
price. This warranty does not apply to any equipment
that has been repaired or altered, except by NovaLynx, or
which has been subjected to misuse, negligence, or
accident. It is expressly agreed that this warranty will be
in lieu of all warranties of fitness and in lieu of the
warranty of merchantability.
PO Box 240 Grass Valley CA 95945
Phone: (530) 823-7185 Fax: (530) 823-8997 USA Toll Free: 1-800-321-3577
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