Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure PDF

Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure PDF
Using EMC Celerra Storage with
VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure
Version 4.0
• Connectivity of VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure
to Celerra Storage
• Backup and Recovery of VMware vSphere or VMware
Infrastructure on Celerra Storage
• Disaster Recovery of VMware vSphere or VMware
Infrastructure on Celerra Storage
Yossi Mesika
Copyright © 2008, 2009, 2010 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved.
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subject to change without notice.
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IN THIS PUBLICATION, AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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All other trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Contents
Errata
EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management
replaces EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware............................. 21
Preface
Top five optimization recommendations .................................28
Chapter 1
Introduction to VMware Technology
1.1 VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
virtualization platforms ............................................................. 30
1.2 VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
data centers .................................................................................. 34
1.3 Distributed services in VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure ............................................................................... 45
1.4 Backup and recovery solutions with VMware vSphere and
VMware Infrastructure............................................................... 50
1.4.1 VMware Data Recovery ............................................. 50
1.4.2 VMware Consolidated Backup ................................. 52
1.5 VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager ......................... 54
1.5.1 Key benefits of VMware SRM ................................... 55
1.6 VMware View ........................................................................ 57
1.6.1 Key benefits of VMware View .................................. 57
1.6.2 Components of the VMware View solution ........... 58
1.7 VMware vCenter Converter ................................................ 60
1.7.1 Migration with vCenter Converter........................... 61
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
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Chapter 2
EMC Foundation Products
2.1 EMC Celerra ..........................................................................
2.1.1 Celerra unified storage platform ..............................
2.1.2 Celerra gateway ..........................................................
2.2 Celerra Manager....................................................................
2.3 EMC CLARiiON....................................................................
2.4 EMC Symmetrix ....................................................................
2.4.1 Symmetrix VMAX platform......................................
2.5 Relevant key Celerra features .............................................
2.5.1 Celerra Virtual Provisioning .....................................
2.5.2 Celerra SnapSure ........................................................
2.5.3 Temporary writeable snap ........................................
2.5.4 Celerra iSCSI snapshots .............................................
2.5.5 Celerra Replicator .......................................................
2.5.6 EMC Replication Manager and Celerra...................
2.5.7 Celerra Data Deduplication.......................................
Chapter 3
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VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Configuration Options
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 88
3.2 Storage alternatives............................................................... 89
3.3 Configuration roadmap ....................................................... 90
3.4 VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure installation 93
3.5 Storage considerations ......................................................... 94
3.5.1 AVM ............................................................................. 96
3.5.2 MVM............................................................................. 97
3.5.3 Storage considerations for using Celerra EFDs.... 107
3.6 VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure
configuration ............................................................................. 109
3.6.1 ESX and Celerra storage settings............................ 109
3.6.2 ESX iSCSI HBA and NIC driver configuration .... 120
3.6.3 VMkernel port configuration in ESX ..................... 120
3.7 Using NFS storage .............................................................. 128
3.7.1 Add a Celerra file system to ESX............................ 128
3.7.2 Create a NAS datastore on an ESX server............. 133
3.8 Using iSCSI storage ............................................................ 137
3.8.1 Configuration considerations for Celerra iSCSI with
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure ............. 138
3.8.2 Add a Celerra iSCSI device/LUN to ESX ............. 139
3.8.3 Create VMFS datastores on ESX............................. 174
3.8.4 Create RDM volumes on ESX servers.................... 182
3.9 Introduction to using Fibre Channel storage .................. 205
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3.9.1 Create LUNs and add them to a storage group ... 205
3.9.2 Create a RAID group................................................ 205
3.9.3 Present the LUN to VMware vSphere or VMware
Infrastructure...................................................................... 219
3.10 Virtual machine considerations....................................... 222
3.10.1 Virtual machine disk partitions alignment ......... 222
3.10.2 Virtual machine swap file location....................... 229
3.10.3 Guest OS SCSI timeout settings ............................ 236
3.10.4 Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCI) adapters....................... 237
3.11 Monitor and manage storage........................................... 248
3.11.1 Celerra file system notification ............................. 248
3.11.2 vCenter Server storage monitoring and alarms . 254
3.12 Virtually provisioned storage.......................................... 258
3.12.1 Configure a NAS datastore on a virtually
provisioned NFS file system............................................. 259
3.12.2 Considerations to use Virtual Provisioning over
NFS....................................................................................... 259
3.12.3 Create a virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN.......... 261
3.12.4 Configure a VMFS datastore on a virtually
provisioned iSCSI LUN..................................................... 261
3.12.5 Considerations to use Virtual Provisioning over
iSCSI/VMFS ....................................................................... 262
3.12.6 Leverage ESX thin provisioning and Celerra Virtual
Provisioning........................................................................ 263
3.12.7 Virtual storage expansion using Celerra storage 265
3.13 Storage multipathing ........................................................ 278
3.13.1 Configure VMware NMP with Celerra iSCSI and the
ESX iSCSI software initiator ............................................. 278
3.13.2 Multipathing using Microsoft iSCSI Initiator and
Celerra iSCSI inside a Windows guest OS ..................... 284
3.13.3 Scaling bandwidth of NAS datastores on Celerra
NFS....................................................................................... 292
3.13.4 VMware vSphere configuration with Celerra iSCSI
using PowerPath/VE ........................................................ 298
3.14 VMware Resiliency ........................................................... 315
3.14.1 The rationale for VMware Resiliency .................. 315
3.14.2 EMC recommendations for VMware Resiliency with
Celerra ................................................................................. 315
3.14.3 Install appropriate SCSI drivers ........................... 316
3.14.4 Summary for VMware Resiliency with Celerra . 319
3.14.5 Considerations for Windows virtual machines.. 319
3.14.6 Considerations for Linux virtual machines ........ 320
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
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3.14.7 Upgrade LSI Logic Parallel drivers to
LSI Logic Storport drivers ................................................ 321
3.14.8 Using paravirtual drivers in vSphere 4
environments...................................................................... 333
Chapter 4
Cloning Virtual Machines
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 348
4.2 Cloning methodologies ...................................................... 349
4.2.1 Clone Virtual Machine wizard in vCenter Server 349
4.2.2 VMware vCenter Converter.................................... 352
4.3 Cloning virtual machines by using Celerra-based
technologies ............................................................................... 353
4.3.1 Clone virtual machines over NAS datastores using
Celerra SnapSure ............................................................... 354
4.3.2 Clone virtual machines over iSCSI/vStorage VMFS
datastores using iSCSI snapshots .................................... 355
4.3.3 Clone virtual machines over iSCSI or RDM volumes
by using iSCSI snapshots.................................................. 357
4.4 Celerra-based cloning with Virtual Provisioning........... 359
4.4.1 Clone virtual machines over NAS using SnapSure
and Virtual Provisioning .................................................. 359
4.4.2 Clone virtual machines over VMFS or RDM using
iSCSI snapshot and Virtual Provisioning....................... 360
4.5 Conclusion ........................................................................... 363
Chapter 5
Backup and Restore of Virtual Machines
5.1 Backup and recovery options............................................ 366
5.2 Recoverable as compared to restartable copies of data . 367
5.2.1 Recoverable disk copies ........................................... 367
5.2.2 Restartable disk copies............................................. 367
5.3 Virtual machines data consistency ................................... 369
5.4 Backup and recovery of a NAS datastore........................ 371
5.4.1 Logical backup and restore using Celerra
SnapSure ............................................................................. 371
5.4.2 Logical backup and restore using Replication
Manager .............................................................................. 373
5.4.3 Physical backup and restore using the nas_copy
command ............................................................................ 376
5.4.4 Physical backup and restore using Celerra NDMP
and NetWorker .................................................................. 376
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5.4.5 Physical backup and restore using Celerra
Replicator ............................................................................ 378
5.4.6 Physical backup and restore using Replication
Manager............................................................................... 378
5.5 Backup and recovery of a vStorage VMFS datastore over
iSCSI ............................................................................................ 382
5.5.1 Logical backup and restore using Celerra iSCSI
snapshots............................................................................. 382
5.5.2 Logical backup and restore using Replication
Manager............................................................................... 384
5.5.3 Physical backup and restore using Celerra
Replicator ............................................................................ 385
5.5.4 Physical backup and restore using Replication
Manager............................................................................... 387
5.6 Backup and recovery of an RDM volume over iSCSI .... 388
5.7 Backup and recovery using VCB ...................................... 389
5.8 Backup and recovery using VCB and EMC Avamar ..... 395
5.9 Backup and recovery using VMware Data Recovery .... 398
5.10 Virtual machine single file restore from a Celerra
checkpoint .................................................................................. 401
5.11 Other file-level backup and restore alternatives........... 404
5.12 Summary ............................................................................ 406
Chapter 6
Using VMware vSphere and VMware Virtual
Infrastructure in Disaster Restart Solutions
6.1 Overview .............................................................................. 410
6.2 Definitions ............................................................................ 411
6.2.1 Dependent-write consistency.................................. 411
6.2.2 Disaster restart........................................................... 411
6.2.3 Disaster recovery....................................................... 412
6.2.4 Roll-forward recovery .............................................. 412
6.3 Design considerations for disaster recovery and disaster
restart .......................................................................................... 413
6.3.1 Recovery point objective.......................................... 413
6.3.2 Recovery time objective ........................................... 413
6.3.3 Operational complexity............................................ 414
6.3.4 Source server activity ............................................... 415
6.3.5 Production impact .................................................... 415
6.3.6 Target server activity................................................ 415
6.3.7 Number of copies of data......................................... 415
6.3.8 Distance for the solution .......................................... 416
6.3.9 Bandwidth requirements ......................................... 416
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6.3.10 Federated consistency ............................................ 416
6.3.11 Testing the solution ................................................ 417
6.3.12 Cost ........................................................................... 417
6.4 Geographically distributed virtual infrastructure ......... 419
6.5 Business continuity solutions............................................ 420
6.5.1 NAS datastore replication ....................................... 420
6.5.2 VMFS datastore replication over iSCSI ................. 435
6.5.3 RDM volume replication over iSCSI...................... 446
6.5.4 Site failover over NFS and iSCSI using VMware SRM
and Celerra ......................................................................... 446
6.5.5 Site failback over NFS and iSCSI using VMware
vCenter SRM 4 and EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for
VMware vCenter SRM ...................................................... 449
6.6 Summary .............................................................................. 453
Appendix A
CLARiiON Back-End Array Configuration for Celerra
Unified Storage
A.1 Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration ................. 457
A.2 Present the new CLARiiON back-end configuration to
Celerra unified storage ............................................................ 468
Appendix B
Windows Customization
B.1 Windows customization ................................................... 470
B.2 System Preparation tool .................................................... 471
B.3 Customization process for the cloned virtual
machines .................................................................................... 472
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VMware vSphere architecture ................................................................. 30
VMware vSphere data center physical topology.................................. 35
vNIC, vSwitch, and port groups ............................................................. 36
VMware vNetwork Distributed Switch ................................................. 38
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure storage architecture . 39
Raw device mapping................................................................................. 41
Storage map of vSphere inventory objects ............................................ 44
VMware vMotion ...................................................................................... 45
Storage vMotion......................................................................................... 46
VMware DRS.............................................................................................. 47
VMware HA ............................................................................................... 48
VMware Fault Tolerance .......................................................................... 49
VMware Data Recovery............................................................................ 51
Site Recovery Manager ............................................................................. 55
VMware View with VMware vSphere 4 ................................................ 57
VMware vCenter Converter..................................................................... 60
Celerra block diagram............................................................................... 64
Celerra storage topology .......................................................................... 66
Celerra unified storage ............................................................................. 68
Celerra gateway storage ........................................................................... 69
Celerra Manager GUI................................................................................ 70
Celerra Replicator ...................................................................................... 79
EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware .......................................................... 83
Celerra Data Deduplication calculator ................................................... 85
Celerra storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure 89
Configuration roadmap............................................................................ 90
Storage layout ............................................................................................ 99
Volumes .................................................................................................... 101
Create a stripe volume ............................................................................ 102
New Volume ............................................................................................ 103
File Systems .............................................................................................. 105
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New File System ......................................................................................
Sample storage layout.............................................................................
Network Interface Properties ................................................................
Modify NFS.MaxVolumes on each ESX host ......................................
Set Net.TcpipHeapSize and Net.TcpipHeapMax parameters ..........
Configure ESX NFS heartbeat parameters...........................................
VMkernel configuration - Add Networking .......................................
Add Network Wizard - Connection Type ...........................................
VMkernel - Network Access ..................................................................
Add Network Wizard - VMkernel - Connection Settings .................
Add Network Wizard - VMkernel - IP Connection Settings ............
DNS Configuration .................................................................................
Routing......................................................................................................
Add Network Wizard - Ready to Complete .......................................
File Systems ..............................................................................................
New File System ......................................................................................
NFS Exports..............................................................................................
NFS Export Properties ............................................................................
Add Storage..............................................................................................
Add Storage - Select Storage Type........................................................
Add Storage - Locate Network File System ........................................
Add Storage - Network File System .....................................................
Security Profile.........................................................................................
Firewall Properties ..................................................................................
Storage Adapters .....................................................................................
iSCSI Initiator Properties........................................................................
General Properties...................................................................................
Add Send Target Server .........................................................................
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Dynamic Discovery .................................
Wizards - Select a Wizard ......................................................................
New iSCSI Lun Wizard ..........................................................................
Select/Create Target ...............................................................................
Select/Create File System ......................................................................
Enter LUN Info ........................................................................................
LUN Masking...........................................................................................
Overview/Results ...................................................................................
Storage Adapters .....................................................................................
Rescan .......................................................................................................
Storage Adapters .....................................................................................
Storage Adapters - Properties................................................................
iSCSI Initiator Properties........................................................................
General Properties...................................................................................
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Dynamic Discovery .................................
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Add Send Target Server .........................................................................
Wizards - Select a Wizard ......................................................................
Remove from Inventory option .............................................................
Datastores .................................................................................................
Datastores - Delete...................................................................................
iSCSI Target Properties - Target ............................................................
iSCSi Target Properties - LUN Mask ....................................................
Networking ..............................................................................................
iSCSi Initiator Properties ........................................................................
iSCSi Initiator Properties - Discovery ...................................................
Add Target Portal ....................................................................................
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Target portal added .................................
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Targets .......................................................
Log On to Target......................................................................................
Advanced Settings...................................................................................
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Targets .......................................................
Datastores .................................................................................................
Add Storage - Select Storage Type ........................................................
Add Storage - Select Disk/LUN............................................................
Add Storage - Select VMFS Mount Options ........................................
Add Storage - Current Disk Layout......................................................
Add Storage - Properties ........................................................................
Add Storage - Disk/LUN - Formatting................................................
Add Storage - Ready to Complete ........................................................
New Virtual Machine option .................................................................
Create New Virtual Machine .................................................................
Create New Virtual Machine - Name and Location...........................
Create New Virtual Machine - Datastore.............................................
Create New Virtual Machine - Virtual Machine Version ..................
Create New Virtual Machine - Guest Operating System...................
Create New Virtual Machine - CPUs....................................................
Create New Virtual Machine - Memory...............................................
Create New Virtual Machine - Network ..............................................
Create New Virtual Machine - SCSI Controller ..................................
Create New Virtual Machine - Select a Disk .......................................
Create New Virtual Machine - Select a Disk .......................................
Create New Virtual Machine - Create a Disk ......................................
Create New Virtual Machine - Advanced Options ............................
Create New Virtual Machine - Ready to Complete............................
Edit Settings..............................................................................................
Virtual Machine Properties ....................................................................
Add Hardware.........................................................................................
Add Hardware - Select a Disk ...............................................................
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Add Hardware - Select and Configure a Raw LUN........................... 202
Add Hardware - Select a Datastore ...................................................... 202
Add Hardware - Advanced Options.................................................... 203
Add Hardware - Ready to Complete ................................................... 204
Create a Storage Pool .............................................................................. 206
Create Storage Pool ................................................................................. 207
Disk Selection........................................................................................... 208
Create LUNs from a RAID group ......................................................... 209
Create LUN .............................................................................................. 210
Confirm: Create LUN ............................................................................. 210
Message: Create LUN - LUN created successfully............................. 211
Create Storage Group ............................................................................. 212
Create Storage Group ............................................................................. 212
Confirm: Create Storage Group ............................................................ 213
Success: Create Storage Group .............................................................. 213
Connect Hosts .......................................................................................... 214
Select a host for the storage group........................................................ 215
Confirm the connected host................................................................... 215
Connect Host operation succeeded ...................................................... 216
Select LUNs for the storage group........................................................ 217
Select LUNs .............................................................................................. 218
Confirm addition of LUNs to the storage group ................................ 219
Successful addition of LUNs to the storage group............................. 219
Rescan FC adapter................................................................................... 220
Rescan dialog box.................................................................................... 220
FC LUN added to the storage................................................................ 221
Command prompt - diskpart ................................................................ 224
Select the disk........................................................................................... 224
Create a partition with a 1 MB disk boundary.................................... 224
Computer Management ......................................................................... 225
NTFS data partition alignment (Windows system Information) ..... 227
NTFS data partition alignment (wmic command) ............................. 228
Allocation unit size of a formatted NTFS data partition ................... 228
Output for a Linux partition aligned to a 1 MB disk boundary (starting
sector 2048) ................................................................................................. 229
Output for an unaligned Linux partition (starting sector 63) ........... 229
Edit Virtual Machine Swapfile Location.............................................. 231
Virtual Machine Swapfile Location ...................................................... 232
List of datastores...................................................................................... 233
Advanced Settings................................................................................... 234
Mem.Host.LocalSwapDirEnabled parameter ..................................... 235
Mem.Host.LocalSwapDir parameter.................................................... 236
Edit DWORD Value ................................................................................ 237
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Edit Settings for the virtual machine ....................................................
Virtual Machine Properties ....................................................................
Add Hardware.........................................................................................
Select a Disk..............................................................................................
Create a Disk ............................................................................................
Advanced Options...................................................................................
Ready to Complete ..................................................................................
Change the SCSI controller type ...........................................................
Change SCSI Controller Type................................................................
Virtual Machine Properties ....................................................................
Disk Management....................................................................................
Notifications .............................................................................................
New Notification: Storage Projection ...................................................
Storage Usage...........................................................................................
Notifications page....................................................................................
New Notification: Storage Projection ...................................................
Notifications page....................................................................................
List of Datastores .....................................................................................
General tab................................................................................................
Alarm settings ..........................................................................................
Actions tab ................................................................................................
Create virtually provisioned NFS file system .....................................
NAS datastore in vCenter Server ..........................................................
Creating the virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN ...................................
iSCSI VMFS datastore in vCenter Server .............................................
Virtual machines provisioned ...............................................................
Create a Disk ............................................................................................
File Systems ..............................................................................................
Extend File System ..................................................................................
Auto Extend Enabled ..............................................................................
iSCSI LUN expansion..............................................................................
Extend iSCSI LUN ...................................................................................
Configuration tab.....................................................................................
Data capacity ............................................................................................
iSCSI datastore expansion ......................................................................
Additional available space .....................................................................
iSCSI datastore expansion ......................................................................
Test Properties..........................................................................................
Increase Datastore Capacity...................................................................
Disk Layout ..............................................................................................
Extent Size.................................................................................................
Ready to complete page..........................................................................
Add Extent in VMware Infrastructure .................................................
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iSCSI Target Properties...........................................................................
LUN Mask ................................................................................................
vSwitch configuration.............................................................................
Rescan .......................................................................................................
Properties..................................................................................................
iSCSI_ppve Properties ............................................................................
iSCSI Disk Manage Paths .......................................................................
iSCSI Target Properties...........................................................................
LUN Mask ................................................................................................
vSwitches ..................................................................................................
iSCSI Initiator Properties........................................................................
Discovery ..................................................................................................
Log On to Target......................................................................................
Advanced Settings...................................................................................
Advanced Settings...................................................................................
Target Properties .....................................................................................
Device Details ..........................................................................................
Network page ..........................................................................................
New Network Device .............................................................................
Interfaces...................................................................................................
New Network Interface ..........................................................................
Create a VMkernel port ..........................................................................
vSwitch3 Properties ................................................................................
vSwitch3 Properties ................................................................................
Celerra Data Mover interfaces...............................................................
PowerPath architecture ..........................................................................
Claim rule to ESX server ........................................................................
Kernel and esx conf .................................................................................
Rescan the ESX host ................................................................................
iSCSI Target Properties...........................................................................
LUN Mask ................................................................................................
Storage Adapters .....................................................................................
Storage.......................................................................................................
Add Storage wizard ................................................................................
Select Disk/LUN .....................................................................................
Current Disk Layout ...............................................................................
Ready to Complete..................................................................................
vCenter Server storage configuration ..................................................
iSCSI_ppve Properties ............................................................................
iSCSI Disk Manage Paths .......................................................................
PowerPath ................................................................................................
iSCSI Target Properties...........................................................................
vSwitches ..................................................................................................
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iSCSI Target Properties...........................................................................
Rescan........................................................................................................
Add a new iSCSI LUN to the ESX host ................................................
iSCSI_ppve Properties ............................................................................
iSCSI Disk Manage Paths .......................................................................
Windows virtual machines system event viewer ...............................
Upgrade the LSI Logic PCI-X Ultra 320 driver ...................................
Hardware Update Wizard......................................................................
Install software.........................................................................................
Select device driver from a list...............................................................
Select the device driver ...........................................................................
Install from Disk ......................................................................................
Locate File .................................................................................................
Select device driver .................................................................................
Completing the Hardware Update Wizard .........................................
ESX host ....................................................................................................
Datastore Browser ...................................................................................
Configuration file ....................................................................................
Update virtual machine file configuration ..........................................
LSI Storport drivers are upgraded successfully..................................
Virtual Machine Properties ....................................................................
Browse Datastores ...................................................................................
Virtual Machine Properties ....................................................................
Install the third-party driver ..................................................................
Select VMware PVSCSI Controller .......................................................
Virtual Machine Properties ....................................................................
Select Hard Disk ......................................................................................
Select a Disk..............................................................................................
Create a Disk ............................................................................................
Advanced Options...................................................................................
Ready to Complete ..................................................................................
Virtual Machine Properties ....................................................................
Change SCSI Controller Type................................................................
Clone Virtual Machine wizard ..............................................................
Host/Cluster ............................................................................................
Datastore ...................................................................................................
Disk Format ..............................................................................................
Guest Customization...............................................................................
Ready to Complete ..................................................................................
Create a writeable checkpoint for NAS datastore ..............................
Promote a snapshot .................................................................................
Assign a new signature option ..............................................................
File system usage on Celerra Manager.................................................
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
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16
Parameter setting using Celerra Manager ...........................................
Checkpoint creation in Celerra Manager GUI 5.6 ..............................
ShowChildFsRoot Server Parameter Properties in Celerra Manager
Datastore Browser view after checkpoints are visible .......................
Job Wizard ................................................................................................
Restoring the datastore replica from Replication Manager ..............
Replica Properties in Replication Manager .........................................
Read-only copy of the datastore view in the vSphere client.............
NDMP recovery using EMC NetWorker.............................................
Backup with integrated checkpoint......................................................
Mount Wizard - Mount Options ...........................................................
VMFS mount options to manage snapshots........................................
Celerra Manager Replication Wizard...................................................
VCB............................................................................................................
NetWorker configuration settings for VCB .........................................
VCB backup with EMC Avamar Virtual Edition ...............................
VMware Data Recovery .........................................................................
VDR backup process ...............................................................................
Mapped CIFS share containing a virtual machine in the vCenter
Server.........................................................................................................
Virtual machine view from the vSphere client ...................................
Registration of a virtual machine with ESX.........................................
Select a Wizard.........................................................................................
Select a Replication Type........................................................................
File System................................................................................................
Specify Destination Celerra Network Server ......................................
Create Celerra Network Server .............................................................
Specify Destination Credentials ............................................................
Create Peer Celerra Network Server ....................................................
Overview/Results ...................................................................................
Specify Destination Celerra Network Server ......................................
Select Data Mover Interconnect ............................................................
Source Settings.........................................................................................
Specify Destination Credentials ............................................................
Destination Settings ................................................................................
Overview/Results ...................................................................................
Select Data Mover Interconnect ............................................................
Select Replication Session's Interface....................................................
Select Source.............................................................................................
Select Destination ....................................................................................
Update Policy...........................................................................................
Select Tape Transport .............................................................................
Overview/Results ...................................................................................
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
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Command Successful ..............................................................................
NFS replication using Replication Manager........................................
Select a Wizard.........................................................................................
Select a Replication Type........................................................................
Specify Destination Celerra Network Server ......................................
Create Celerra Network Server .............................................................
Specify Destination Credentials ............................................................
Create Peer Celerra Network Server ....................................................
Overview/Results ...................................................................................
Specify Destination Celerra Network Server ......................................
Data Mover Interconnect........................................................................
Source Settings .........................................................................................
Specify Destination Credentials ............................................................
Destination Settings.................................................................................
Overview/Results ...................................................................................
Select Data Mover Interconnect.............................................................
Select Replication Session's Interface....................................................
Select Source .............................................................................................
Select Destination ....................................................................................
Update Policy ...........................................................................................
Overview/Results ...................................................................................
Command Successful ..............................................................................
VMFS replication using Replication Manager ....................................
VMware vCenter SRM with VMware vSphere...................................
VMware vCenter SRM configuration...................................................
Create RAID Group option ....................................................................
Create Storage Pool .................................................................................
Disk Selection ...........................................................................................
Create LUN option ..................................................................................
Create LUN...............................................................................................
Confirm: Create LUN..............................................................................
Message: Create LUN .............................................................................
Select LUNs ..............................................................................................
Storage Group Properties .......................................................................
Confirm .....................................................................................................
Success.......................................................................................................
Disk mark..................................................................................................
System Preparation tool..........................................................................
Reseal option ............................................................................................
Generate new SID ....................................................................................
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Tables
1
2
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5
6
Default and recommended values of ESX NFS heartbeat
parameters .................................................................................................
SCSI driver recommendations for Windows guest OSs .....................
Linux guest OS recommendations .........................................................
Virtual machine cloning methodology comparison............................
Backup and recovery options .................................................................
Data replication solution .........................................................................
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
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20
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Errata
ErrataEMC
EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management replaces
EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware.
Description
Following the recent release of EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified
Storage Management, EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware is no longer
supported, and is not available for download. Therefore, customers
should use EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage
Management instead.
All references in this document to EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware or
its documentation should be regarded instead as references to EMC VSI
for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management or its
documentation.
Affected sections
Information on
EMC VSI for
VMware vSphere:
Unified Storage
Management
References to EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware and its documentation
in the following sections must be regarded as references to EMC VSI for
VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management.
◆
Section 2.5.7, “Celerra Data Deduplication,” on page 81: References
to the plug-in, including the figures.
◆
Section 3.3, “Configuration roadmap,” on page 90: References to
the plug-in in the note.
◆
Section 4.3, “Cloning virtual machines by using Celerra-based
technologies,” on page 353: References to the plug-in in the note.
The EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management Release
Notes contain installation instructions and supplemental information.
The EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management Product
Guide contains prerequisites and best practices. These two documents
provide more information on the features of EMC VSI for VMware
vSphere: Unified Storage Management that are broader than those of
EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware. Read both these documents
before installing EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage
Management.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
21
Contents of the
EMC VSI for
VMware vSphere:
Unified Storage
Management
solution
Installing EMC VSI
for VMware
vSphere: Unified
Storage
Management
22
The EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management
solution contains the following:
◆
EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management 4.0 Zip file
(P/N 300-012-064)
◆
EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management Read Me
First (P/N 300-012-099)
◆
EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management Release
Notes (P/N 300-012-098)
◆
EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management Product
Guide (P/N 300-012-100)
EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management is
distributed as a Zip file containing a single-file installer. After you
download the Zip file from the EMC Powerlink® website and unzip the
file, the EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified Storage Management
software can be installed. The EMC VSI for VMware vSphere: Unified
Storage Management Release Notes contain detailed installation
instructions.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Preface
As part of an effort to improve and enhance the performance and
capabilities of its product lines, EMC periodically releases revisions of
its hardware and software. Therefore, some functions described in this
document may not be supported by all versions of the software or
hardware currently in use. For the most up-to-date information on
product features, refer to the product release notes.
Audience
This TechBook describes how VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure work with EMC Celerra storage systems and software
technologies. The intended audience for this TechBook is storage
administrators, system administrators, and VMware vSphere and
VMware Infrastructure administrators. This document can also be used
by individuals who are involved in acquiring, managing, or operating
EMC Celerra storage arrays and host devices.
Readers of this guide are expected to be familiar with the following
topics:
◆
EMC Celerra system operation
◆
EMC Celerra Manager
◆
EMC CLARiiON
◆
EMC Symmetrix
◆
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure operation
Note: This TechBook was previously called VMware ESX using EMC Celerra
Storage Systems.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
23
Related
documentation
24
Related documents include the following from EMC:
◆
EMC Celerra Replicator Adapter for VMware vCenter Site Recovery
Manager Version 4.0—Release Notes
◆
EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter Site Recovery
Manager—Release Notes
◆
Managing EMC Celerra Volumes and File Systems with Automatic
Volume Management Technical Module
◆
Managing EMC Celerra Volumes and File Systems Manually Technical
Module
◆
PowerPath/VE for VMware vSphere Installation and Administration
Guide 5.4
◆
Implementing Virtual Provisioning on EMC CLARiiON and Celerra with
VMware Virtual Infrastructure—Applied Technology white paper
◆
EMC Infrastructure for Deploying VMware View in the Enterprise EMC Celerra Unified Storage Plaforms—Solution Guide
◆
Configuring NFS on Celerra TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Configuring iSCSI Targets on Celerra TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Managing Celerra Volumes and File Systems with Automatic Volume
Management TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Configuring and Managing Celerra Networking TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Configuring and Managing Celerra Network High Availability
TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Configuring Standbys on Celerra TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Configuring NDMP Backups on Celerra TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Using SnapSure on Celerra TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Using Celerra Replicator (V2) TechModule Version 5.6
◆
Using Celerra AntiVirus Agent Technical Module Version 5.6
◆
Using the Celerra Data Deduplication Technical Module Version 5.6
◆
E-Lab Interoperability Navigator utility
◆
Using EMC CLARiiON Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure TechBook
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
The following related documents are from VMware:
Conventions used
in this document
◆
ESX Configuration Guide - ESX 4.0 and vCenter Server 4.0
◆
ESX Server 3 Configuration Guide Update 2 and later for ESX Server 3.5
and VirtualCenter 2.5
◆
Recommendations for Aligning VMFS Partitions—VMware Performance
Study
◆
SAN System—Design and Deployment Guide
EMC uses the following conventions for special notices.
Note: A note presents information that is important, but not hazard-related.
!
CAUTION
A caution contains information essential to avoid data loss or
damage to the system or equipment.
!
IMPORTANT
An important notice contains information essential to operation
of the software or hardware.
WARNING
A warning contains information essential to avoid a hazard that
can cause severe personal injury, death, or substantial property
damage if you ignore the warning.
DANGER
A danger notice contains information essential to avoid a hazard
that will cause severe personal injury, death, or substantial
property damage if you ignore the message.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
25
Typographical conventions
EMC uses the following type style conventions in this document:
Normal
Used in running (nonprocedural) text for:
• Names of interface elements (such as names of windows, dialog boxes, buttons,
fields, and menus)
• Names of resources, attributes, pools, Boolean expressions, buttons, DQL
statements, keywords, clauses, environment variables, functions, utilities
• URLs, pathnames, filenames, directory names, computer names, filenames, links,
groups, service keys, file systems, notifications
Bold
Used in running (nonprocedural) text for:
• Names of commands, daemons, options, programs, processes, services,
applications, utilities, kernels, notifications, system calls, man pages
Used in procedures for:
• Names of interface elements (such as names of windows, dialog boxes, buttons,
fields, and menus)
• What user specifically selects, clicks, presses, or types
26
Italic
Used in all text (including procedures) for:
• Full titles of publications referenced in text
• Emphasis (for example a new term)
• Variables
Courier
Used for:
• System output, such as an error message or script
• URLs, complete paths, filenames, prompts, and syntax when shown outside of
running text
Courier bold
Used for:
• Specific user input (such as commands)
Courier italic
Used in procedures for:
• Variables on command line
• User input variables
<>
Angle brackets enclose parameter or variable values supplied by the user
[]
Square brackets enclose optional values
|
Vertical bar indicates alternate selections - the bar means “or”
{}
Braces indicate content that you must specify (that is, x or y or z)
...
Ellipses indicate nonessential information omitted from the example
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
The team that wrote this TechBook
This TechBook was authored by a team from Unified Storage Solutions
based at Research Triangle Park in North Carolina.
The main author is Yossi Mesika. Yossi has 15 years of experience in
software engineering in the areas of virtualization, network-attached
storage, and databases.
Additional contributors to this TechBook are:
◆
Saranya Balasundaram
◆
Venkateswara Rao Etha
◆
Bala Ganeshan - Symmetrix Partner Engineering
◆
John Jom
◆
Sheetal Kochavara - USD Corporate Systems Engineering
◆
Vivek Srinivasa
We'd like to hear from you!
Your feedback on our TechBooks is important to us! We want our books
to be as helpful and relevant as possible, so please feel free to send us
your comments, opinions and thoughts on this or any other TechBook:
[email protected]
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
27
Top five optimization recommendations
When using EMC Celerra storage with VMware vSphere or VMware
Infrastructure, consider the following key optimization
recommendations. Nevertheless, this list does not replace the need to
review the various recommendations that are included in this
document.
Virtual machines alignment — Follow the guidelines for virtual
machines alignment when deploying virtual machines on Celerra
storage (NFS and iSCSI). This guideline includes partition alignment,
and for Windows virtual machines, adjustment of the NTFS allocation
unit size. Section 3.10.1, “Virtual machine disk partitions alignment,”
on page 222 provides more details.
Uncached write mechanism for Celerra NFS — When deploying
virtual machines on Celerra NFS storage, it is recommended to enable
the uncached write mechanism because it can improve the overall
virtual machine performance. Section 3.6.1.1, “Celerra uncached write
mechanism,” on page 109 provides more details.
VMware resiliency with Celerra storage — Follow the guidelines for
VMware resiliency with Celerra. This includes settings in ESX, in the
virtual machines, and in the guest operation systems. This would allow
the virtual machines to better withstand Celerra events such as Data
Mover reboot and Data Mover failover. Section 3.14, “VMware
Resiliency,” on page 315 provides more details.
VMware multipathing and failover with Celerra storage — Follow
the guidelines for I/O multipathing when using Celerra with VMware
vSphere or VMware Infrastructure. This can improve the overall
performance and resource utilization of the virtual data center. Section
3.13, “Storage multipathing,” on page 278 provides more details.
ESX thin provisioning and Celerra Virtual Provisioning — With
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure, leverage Celerra Virtual
Provisioning for better storage utilization. In addition to this, use ESX
thin provisioning with VMware vSphere. This can improve the overall
storage utilization. Section 3.11.1, “Celerra file system notification,” on
page 248 provides more details.
28
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
1
Introduction to VMware
Technology
This chapter presents these topics:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
1.1 VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure virtualization
platforms .................................................................................................
1.2 VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure data centers ......
1.3 Distributed services in VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure..........................................................................................
1.4 Backup and recovery solutions with VMware vSphere and
VMware Infrastructure .........................................................................
1.5 VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager ....................................
1.6 VMware View ...................................................................................
1.7 VMware vCenter Converter ...........................................................
Introduction to VMware Technology
30
34
45
50
54
57
60
29
1.1 VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure virtualization
platforms
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure are two virtualization
platforms from VMware. VMware Infrastructure 3.5 is the previous
major release of the platform, whereas VMware vSphere 4 is the next
generation of the platform that VMware recently released. VMware
vSphere and VMware Infrastructure virtualization platforms consist of
various components including ESX/ESXi hosts and VMware vCenter
Server. In addition, VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure offer
a set of services like distributed resource scheduling, high availability,
and backup. The relationship between the various components within
the VMware vSphere platform is shown in Figure 1 on page 30.
Figure 1
30
VMware vSphere architecture
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
ESX and ESXi — ESX and ESXi are the foundation to deliver
virtualization-based distributed services to IT environments. As a core
building block of VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure, both
ESX and ESXi form a production-proven virtualization layer that
abstracts processor, memory, storage, and networking resources into
multiple virtual machines running side-by-side on the same physical
server. Sharing hardware resources across a large number of virtual
machines increases hardware utilization and decreases capital and
operating costs.
The two versions of ESX available are:
◆
VMware ESX — Contains a built-in service console, which is
installed as the first component and is used to bootstrap the ESX
server installation. Using a command line interface, the service
console can then be used to configure ESX. ESX is available as an
installable DVD-ROM boot image. The service console is a virtual
machine consisting of a Red Hat Linux kernel. It runs inside the ESX
server and can be used to run local commands or scripts agents
within it.
◆
VMware ESXi — VMware ESXi does not contain a service console.
It is available in two forms: VMware ESXi Embedded and VMware
ESXi Installable. ESXi Embedded is a firmware that is built into a
server's physical hardware or as an internal USB drive. ESXi
Installable is a software that is available as an installable CD-ROM
boot image. The ESXi Installable software can be installed on a
server's hard drive or on an external USB drive.
vCenter Server — vCenter Server delivers centralized management,
operational automation, resource optimization, and high availability to
IT environments. Virtualization-based distributed services provided by
vMotion, VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS), and VMware
High Availability (HA) equip the dynamic data center with
unprecedented levels of serviceability, efficiency, and reliability.
Automated resource optimization with VMware DRS aligns available
resources with predefined business priorities while streamlining
labor-intensive and resource-intensive operations. Migration of live
virtual machines with vMotion makes the maintenance of IT
environments nondisruptive. VMware HA enables cost-effective
application availability independent of hardware and operating
systems.
VMware Virtual Machine — A virtual machine is a representation of a
physical machine by software. A virtual machine as an entity exists as a
series of files on the disk. For example, there is a file for the hard drives,
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure virtualization platforms
31
a file for memory swap space, and for virtual machine configuration. A
virtual machine has its own set of virtual hardware (such as RAM, CPU,
NIC, and hard disks) upon which an operating system and an
application is loaded. The operating system sees a consistent and
normalized set of hardware regardless of the actual physical hardware
components. VMware virtual machines use advanced hardware
features such as 64-bit computing and virtual symmetric
multiprocessing.
VMware vSphere Client and VMware Infrastructure Client —
Interfaces that allow administrators and users to connect remotely to
vCenter Server or ESX/ESXi from any Windows machine.
VMware vSphere Web Access and VMware Infrastructure Web
Access — Web interfaces for virtual machine management and remote
console access.
Some of the optional components of VMware vSphere 4 and VMware
Infrastructure are:
VMware vMotion — VMware vMotion enables the live migration of
running virtual machines from one physical server to another.
VMware Storage vMotion — Storage vMotion enables the migration of
virtual machine files from one datastore to another, even across storage
arrays, without service interruption.
VMware High Availability (HA) —VMware HA provides high
availability for applications running on virtual machines. In the event
of a server failure, affected virtual machines are automatically restarted
on other production servers with spare capacity.
VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) —VMware DRS
leverages vMotion to dynamically allocate and balance computing
capacity across a collection of hardware resources aggregated into
logical resource pools.
VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) — When VMware FT is enabled for a
virtual machine, a secondary copy of the original (or primary) virtual
machine is created in the same data center. All actions completed on the
primary virtual machine are also applied to the secondary virtual
machine. If the primary virtual machine becomes unavailable, the
secondary machine becomes active and provides continuous
availability. VMware Fault Tolerance is unique to VMware vSphere.
vNetwork Distributed Switch — This feature, which is also unique to
VMware vSphere, includes a distributed virtual switch, which is
created and maintained by vCenter Server and spans many ESX/ESXi
32
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
hosts, enabling significant reduction of ongoing network maintenance
activities and increasing network capacity. This allows virtual machines
to maintain consistent network configuration and advanced network
features and statistics as they migrate across multiple hosts.
VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB) — This feature provides a
centralized facility for agent-free backup of virtual machines with
VMware Infrastructure. It simplifies backup administration and
reduces the impact of backups on ESX/ESXi performance.
VMware Data Recovery — A backup and recovery product for
VMware vSphere environments that provides quick and complete data
protection for virtual machines. VMware Data Recovery is a disk-based
solution that is built on the VMware vStorage API for data protection
and is fully integrated with vCenter Server.
Pluggable Storage Architecture (PSA) — A modular partner plug-in
storage architecture that enables greater array certification flexibility
and improved array-optimized performance. PSA is a multipath I/O
framework that allows storage partners to enable array compatibility
asynchronously to ESX release schedules. VMware partners can deliver
performance-enhancing multipath load-balancing behaviors that are
optimized for each array.
VMware vSphere Software Development Kit (SDK) and VMware
Infrastructure SDK — SDKs that provide a standard interface for
VMware and third-party solutions to access VMware vSphere and
VMware Infrastructure.
vStorage APIs for data protection — This API leverages the benefits of
Consolidated Backup and makes it significantly easier to deploy, while
adding several new features that deliver efficient and scalable backup
and restore of virtual machines.
Like Consolidated Backup, this API offloads backup processing from
ESX servers, thus ensuring that the best consolidation ratio is delivered,
without disrupting applications and users. This API enables backup
tools to directly connect the ESX servers and the virtual machines
running on them, without any additional software installation. The API
enables backup tools to do efficient incremental, differential, and
full-image backup and restore of virtual machines.
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure virtualization platforms
33
1.2 VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure data centers
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure virtualize the entire IT
infrastructure including servers, storage, and networks. VMware
vSphere and VMware Infrastructure aggregate these resources and
present a uniform set of elements in the virtual environment. With
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure, IT resources can be
managed like a shared utility and resources can be dynamically
provisioned to different business units and projects.
A typical VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure data center
consists of basic physical building blocks such as x86 virtualization
servers, storage networks and arrays, IP networks, a management
server, and desktop clients.
The physical topology of a VMware vSphere data center is illustrated in
Figure 2 on page 35.
34
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 2
VMware vSphere data center physical topology
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure data centers
35
Network architecture
The virtual environment provides similar networking elements as the
physical world: virtual network interface cards (vNIC), virtual switches
(vSwitch), and port groups. VMware vSphere introduced a new type of
switch architecture, called vNetwork Distributed Switch, that expands
this network architecture.
The network architecture is depicted in Figure 3.
Figure 3
vNIC, vSwitch, and port groups
Like a physical machine, each virtual machine has one or more vNICs.
The guest operating system and applications communicate with the
vNIC through a standard device driver or a VMware optimized device
driver in the same way as a physical NIC. Outside the virtual machine,
the vNIC has its own MAC address and one or more IP addresses, and
responds to the standard Ethernet protocol in the same way as a
physical NIC. An outside agent cannot detect that it is communicating
with a virtual machine.
VMware vSphere 4 offers two types of switch architecture: vSwitch and
vNetwork Distributed Switch. A vSwitch works like a layer 2 physical
switch. Each ESX host has its own vSwitch. One side of the vSwitch has
port groups that connect to virtual machines. The other side has uplink
connections to physical Ethernet adapters on the server where the
36
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
vSwitch resides. Virtual machines connect to the outside world through
the physical Ethernet adapters that are connected to the vSwitch
uplinks. A vSwitch can connect its uplinks to more than one physical
Ethernet adapter to enable NIC teaming. With NIC teaming, two or
more physical adapters can be used to share the traffic load or provide
passive failover in the event of a physical adapter hardware failure or a
network outage. With VMware Infrastructure, only vSwitch is
available.
Port group is a unique concept in the virtual environment. A port group
is a mechanism for setting policies that govern the network connected
to it. A vSwitch can have multiple port groups. Instead of connecting to
a particular port on the vSwitch, a virtual machine connects its vNIC to
a port group. All virtual machines that connect to the same port group
belong to the same network inside the virtual environment, even if they
are on different physical servers.
The vNetwork Distributed Switch is a distributed network switch that
spans many ESX hosts and aggregates networking to a centralized
cluster level. Therefore, vNetwork Distributed Switches are available at
the data center level of the vCenter Server inventory. vNetwork
Distributed Switches abstract configuration of individual virtual
switches and enables centralized provisioning, administration, and
monitoring through VMware vCenter Server. Figure 4 on page 38
illustrates a vNetwork Distributed Switch that spans between ESX
server hosts.
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure data centers
37
Figure 4
VMware vNetwork Distributed Switch
Storage architecture
The VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure storage architecture
consists of abstraction layers to manage the physical storage
subsystems. The key layer in the architecture is the datastores layer.
Figure 5 on page 39 shows the storage architecture.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 5
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure storage architecture
A datastore is like a storage appliance that allocates storage space for
virtual machines across multiple physical storage devices. The
datastore provides a model to allocate storage space to the individual
virtual machines without exposing them to the complexity of the
physical storage technologies, such as Fibre Channel SAN, iSCSI SAN,
direct-attached storage, or NAS.
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure data centers
39
A virtual machine is stored as a set of files in a datastore directory. A
virtual disk, inside each virtual machine, is also a set of files in the
directory. Therefore, operations such as copy, move, and backup can be
performed on a virtual disk just like with a file. New virtual disks can
be hot-added to a virtual machine without powering it down. In such a
case, either a virtual disk file (.vmdk) is created in a datastore to
provide new storage space for the hot-added virtual disk or an existing
virtual disk file is added to a virtual machine.
The two types of datastores available in this storage architecture are
vStorage VMFS and NAS. A VMFS datastore is a clustered file system
built across one or more physical volumes (LUNs) originating from
block storage systems. A NAS datastore is a NFS volume on a file
storage system. In this case, the storage is managed entirely by the file
storage system.
VMFS datastores can span multiple physical storage subsystems. A
single VMFS volume can contain one or more LUNs from a local SCSI
disk array on a physical host, a Fibre Channel SAN disk farm, or an
iSCSI SAN disk farm. New LUNs added to any of the physical storage
subsystems are detected and can be made available to all existing or
new datastores. The storage capacity on a previously created VMFS
datastore (volume) can be hot-extended by adding a new physical LUN
from any of the storage subsystems that are visible to it as long as the
VMFS volume extent has not reached the 2 TB minus 1 MB limit.
Alternatively, a VMFS volume can be extended (Volume Grow) within
the same LUN. With VMware vSphere, this can be done without
powering off physical hosts or storage subsystems. If any of the LUNs
(except for the LUN which has the first extent of the spanned volume)
within a VMFS volume fails or becomes unavailable, only virtual
machines that interact with that LUN are affected. All other virtual
machines with virtual disks residing in other LUNs continue to
function as normal.
Furthermore, a VMFS datastore can be configured to be mapped to a
physical volume on a block storage system. To achieve this, the
datastore can be configured with virtual disks that map to a physical
volume on a block storage system. This functionality of vStorage VMFS
is called Raw Device Mapping (RDM). RDM is illustrated in Figure 6 on
page 41.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 6
Raw device mapping
With RDM functionality, a virtual machine can be given direct access to
a physical LUN in the storage system. This is helpful in various use
cases in which the guest OS or the applications within the virtual
machine require direct access to the physical volume. One example of
such a use case is a physical-to-virtual clustering between a virtual
machine and a physical server.
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure data centers
41
New VMware vSphere 4 storage-related features
The key storage-related features that are new and available with
VMware vSphere 4 are:
42
◆
Virtual disk thin provisioning — VMware vSphere offers an
option to create thin provisioned virtual disks when deploying or
migrating virtual machines. VMware vCenter Server has also been
updated with new management screens and capabilities such as
raising alerts, alarms, and improved datastore utilization reports to
enable the management of over-provisioned datastores. Virtual disk
thin provisioning increases the efficiency of storage utilization for
virtualization environments by using only the amount of
underlying storage resources needed for that virtual disk. In the
past, thin provisioning was the default format for only virtual disks
created on NAS datastores in VMware Infrastructure. However,
VMware has integrated the management of virtual disk thin
provisioning and now fully supports this format for all virtual disks
with the release of vSphere. Virtual disk thin provisioning should
not be confused with thin provisioning capabilities that an array
vendor might offer. In fact, with vSphere, it is even possible to thin
provision a virtual disk at the datastore level that resides on a thinly
provisioned device on the storage array.
◆
Storage vMotion — This technology performs the migration of the
virtual machine while the virtual machine is active. With VMware
vSphere, Storage vMotion can be administered through vCenter
Server and works across all storage protocols including NFS (in
addition to Fibre Channel and iSCSI). In addition, Storage vMotion
allows the user to move between different provisioning states. For
example, from a thick to thin virtual disk.
◆
VMFS Volume Grow — VMFS Volume Grow offers a new way to
increase the size of a datastore that resides on a VMFS volume. It
complements the dynamic LUN expansion capability that exists in
many storage array offerings today. If a LUN is increased in size,
then the VMFS Volume Grow enables the VMFS volume extent to
dynamically increase in size as well (up to the standard 2 TB minus
1 MB limit).
◆
Pluggable Storage Architecture (PSA) — In vSphere, leveraging
third-party storage vendor multipath software capabilities is
introduced through a modular storage architecture that allows
storage partners to write a plug-in for their specific capabilities.
These modules communicate with the intelligence running in the
storage array to determine the best path selection and leverage
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
parallel paths to increase performance and reliability of the I/O
from the ESX to the storage array. Typically the native multipath
driver (NMP) supplied by VMware will be used. It can be
configured to support round-robin multipath as well. However, if
the storage vendor module is available, it can be configured to
manage the connections between the ESX and the storage. EMC
PowerPath®/VE is an excellent example of such a storage vendor
module.
◆
Datastore alarms — Datastore alarms track and warn users on
potential resource over-utilization or event conditions for
datastores. With the release of vSphere, alarms can be set to trigger
on events and notify the administrator when critical error
conditions occur.
◆
Storage reports and maps — Storage reports help monitor storage
information like datastore, LUNs, virtual machines on datastore,
and host access to datastore. Storage maps help to visually
represent and understand the relationship between a vSphere
datacenter inventory object and the virtual and physical storage
resources available for this object. Figure 7 on page 44 shows a
storage map that includes both NFS and iSCSI storage resources
from EMC Celerra®.
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure data centers
43
Figure 7
44
Storage map of vSphere inventory objects
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
1.3 Distributed services in VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure include distributed
services that enable efficient and automated resource management and
high availability of virtual machines. These services include VMware
vMotion, VMware Storage vMotion, VMware DRS, and VMware HA.
The VMware vSphere platform introduced a new distributed service,
VMware Fault Tolerance (FT). This section describes these services and
illustrates their functionality.
Shared storage, such as EMC Celerra, EMC CLARiiON®, and EMC
Symmetrix®, is required to use these services.
VMware vMotion
Virtual machines run on and consume resources from ESX/ESXi.
vMotion enables the migration of running virtual machines from one
physical server to another without service interruption, as shown in
Figure 8 on page 45. vMotion can help perform maintenance activities
such as upgrade or security patches on ESX hosts without any
downtime. vMotion is also the foundation for DRS.
Figure 8
VMware vMotion
Distributed services in VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
45
Storage vMotion
Storage vMotion enables the migration of virtual machines from one
datastore to another datastore without service interruption, as shown in
Figure 9 on page 46. This allows administrators, for example, to offload
virtual machines from one storage array to another to perform
maintenance, reconfigure LUNs, resolve out-of-space issues, and
upgrade VMFS volumes. Administrators can also use Storage vMotion
to optimize the storage environment for improved performance by
seamlessly migrating virtual machine disks. With VMware vSphere,
Storage vMotion is supported across all available storage protocols,
including NFS. Furthermore, with VMware vSphere, Storage vMotion
is fully integrated into vCenter Server and does not require any CLI
execution.
Figure 9
Storage vMotion
VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS)
VMware DRS helps to manage a cluster of physical hosts as a single
compute resource. A virtual machine can be assigned to a cluster. DRS
will then find an appropriate host on which the virtual machine will
run. DRS places virtual machines in such a way that the load across the
cluster is balanced, and cluster-wide resource allocation policies (such
as reservations, priorities, and limits) are enforced. When a virtual
machine is powered on, DRS performs an initial placement of the
46
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
virtual machine on a host. As cluster conditions change (such as the
load and available resources), DRS migrates virtual machines
(leveraging vMotion) to other hosts as necessary. When a new physical
server is added to a cluster, DRS enables virtual machines to
immediately and automatically take advantage of the new resources
because it distributes the running virtual machines by way of vMotion.
Figure 10 on page 47 shows the DRS.
Figure 10
VMware DRS
DRS can be configured to automatically execute virtual machine
placement, virtual machine migration, and host power actions, or to
provide recommendations, which the data center administrator can
assess and manually act upon. For host power actions, DRS leverages
the VMware Distributed Power Management (DPM) feature. DPM
allows a DRS cluster to reduce its power consumption by powering
hosts on and off based on cluster resource utilization.
VMware High Availability (HA)
If a host or virtual machines fail, VMware HA automatically restarts the
virtual machines on a different physical server within a cluster. All
applications within the virtual machines have the high availability
benefit through application clustering.
HA monitors all physical hosts and virtual machines in a cluster and
detects failure of hosts and virtual machines. An agent placed on each
physical host maintains a heartbeat with the other hosts in the resource
Distributed services in VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
47
pool. Loss of a heartbeat initiates the process of restarting all affected
virtual machines on other hosts. VMware tools help HA check the
health of virtual machines. Figure 11 on page 48 gives an example of
VMware HA.
HA ensures that sufficient resources are available in the cluster at all
times to restart virtual machines on different physical hosts in the event
of a host failure.
Figure 11
VMware HA
VMware Fault Tolerance (FT)
VMware FT, which was introduced in VMware vSphere, provides
continuous availability by protecting a virtual machine (the primary
virtual machine) with a shadow copy (secondary virtual machine) that
runs in virtual lockstep on a separate host. Figure 12 on page 49 shows
an example of VMware FT.
It is worth noting that at this time FT is provided as an initial release
that is supported in a limited configuration. VMware vSphere
documentation provides further details on the configuration supported
for FT.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 12
VMware Fault Tolerance
Inputs and events performed on the primary virtual machine are
recorded and replayed on the secondary virtual machine to ensure that
the two remain in an identical state. Actions such as mouse-clicks and
keystrokes that are recorded on the primary virtual machine are
replayed on the secondary virtual machine. Because the virtual
machine is in virtual lockstep with the primary virtual machine, it can
take over execution at any point without interruption or loss of data.
Distributed services in VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
49
1.4 Backup and recovery solutions with VMware vSphere and
VMware Infrastructure
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure platforms include a
backup and recovery solution for virtual machines that resides in the
data center. VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB) is such a solution for
VMware Infrastructure environments. VMware Data Recovery is a
backup application for VMware vSphere environments that is based on
the VMware vStorage for Data Protection API. The following two
sections provide further details on these two solutions.
1.4.1 VMware Data Recovery
VMware Data Recovery is a new backup and recovery solution for
VMware vSphere. VMware Data Recovery, distributed as a VMware
virtual appliance, creates backups of virtual machines without
interrupting their use or the data and services they provide. VMware
Data Recovery manages existing backups and removes backups as they
become older. It also supports target-based deduplication to remove
redundant data. VMware Data Recovery supports the Microsoft
Windows Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS), which provides the
backup infrastructure for certain Windows operating systems. VMware
Data Recovery is built on the VMware vStorage for Data Protection
API. It is integrated with VMware vCenter Server and enables
centralized scheduling of backup jobs. Integration with vCenter Server
also enables virtual machines to be backed up, even when they are
moved using VMware vMotion or VMware DRS.
Figure 13 on page 51 illustrates how VMware Data Recovery works.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 13
VMware Data Recovery
Backups can be stored on any virtual disk supported by virtual
machines hosted on VMware ESX, including SANs, NAS devices, or
Common Internet File System (CIFS) based storage such as SAMBA. All
backed-up virtual machines are stored in a deduplicated store.
1.4.1.1 Benefits of deduplication store
VMware deduplication store technology used by VMware Data
Recovery provides tight integration, evaluating patterns to be saved to
restore points and performing checks to see if identical sections have
already been saved. To maximize deduplication rates, ensure that
similar virtual machines are backed up to the same destination because
VMware supports storing the results of multiple backup jobs to use the
same deduplication store. While backing up similar virtual machines to
Backup and recovery solutions with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
51
the same deduplication store may increase space savings, similar
virtual machines do not need to be backed up during the same job.
(Deduplication is evaluated for all virtual machines stored, even if some
are not currently being backed up.) VMware Data Recovery is designed
to support deduplication stores that are up to 1 TB in size and each
backup appliance is designed to support the use of two deduplication
stores. VMware Data Recovery does not impose limits on the size of
deduplication stores or the number of deduplication stores. But, if more
than two stores are used or if the size of a store exceeds 1 TB, the
performance may be affected.
1.4.2 VMware Consolidated Backup
VCB integrates with third-party software to perform backups of virtual
machine disks with VMware Infrastructure.
The following are the key features of VCB:
◆
Integrate with most major backup applications to provide a fast and
efficient way to back up data in virtual machines.
◆
Eliminates the need for a backup agent in a virtual machine (for
crash-consistent backup only).
◆
Reads virtual disk data directly from the SAN storage device by
using Fibre Channel or iSCSI, or by using a network connection to
an ESX server host.
◆
Can run in a virtual machine to back up virtual machines that reside
on a storage device accessed over a network connection.
◆
When used with iSCSI, VCB can run in a virtual machine.
◆
Supports file-level full and incremental backup for virtual machines
running Microsoft Windows operating system and image-level
backup for virtual machines running any operating system.
◆
Can be used with a single ESX/ESXi host or with a vCenter Server.
◆
Supports the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS), which provides
the backup infrastructure for certain Windows operating systems
running inside ESX 3.5 update 2 and later.
1.4.2.1 How VCB works
VCB consists of a set of utilities and scripts that work in conjunction
with third-party backup software. To ensure that VCB works with
specific backup software, either VMware or the backup software
vendor provides integration modules that contain the required
pre-backup and post-backup scripts.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
The third-party backup software, integration module, and VCB run on
the VCB proxy, which is either a physical or a virtual machine that has
Microsoft Windows operating system installed.
Backup and recovery solutions with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
53
1.5 VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager
VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager (SRM) delivers advanced
capabilities for disaster recovery management, nondisruptive testing,
and automated failover. VMware SRM can manage the failover from
production data centers to disaster recovery sites, as well as the failover
between two sites with active workloads. Multiple sites can even
recover into a single shared recovery site. VMware SRM can also help
with planned data center failovers such as data center migrations.
VMware SRM is integrated with a range of storage replication
technologies including EMC SRDF® for Symmetrix, EMC MirrorView™
for CLARiiON, EMC Celerra Replicator™, and EMC RecoverPoint.
VMware SRM 4 introduces NFS storage replication support,
many-to-one failover using shared recovery sites, and full integration
with VMware vSphere 4.
54
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 14
Site Recovery Manager
1.5.1 Key benefits of VMware SRM
VMware SRM provides capabilities to do the following:
Disaster recovery management
◆
Create and manage recovery plans directly from VMware vCenter
Server. These recovery plans can be extended with custom scripts.
Access to these recovery plans can be controlled with granular
role-based access controls.
VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager
55
◆
Discover and display virtual machines protected by storage
replication using integration certified by storage vendors.
◆
Monitor the availability of remote sites and alert users of possible
site failures.
◆
Store, view, and export results of test and failover execution from
VMware vCenter Server.
◆
Leverage iSCSI, Fibre Channel, or NFS-based storage replication
solutions.
◆
Recover multiple sites into a single shared recovery site.
Nondisruptive testing
◆
Use storage snapshot capabilities to perform recovery tests without
losing replicated data.
◆
Connect virtual machines to an existing isolated network for testing
purposes.
◆
Automate the execution of recovery plan tests. Customize the
execution of tests for recovery plan scenarios. Automate the cleanup
of testing environments after completing tests.
Automated failover
56
◆
Initiate the recovery plan execution from VMware vCenter Server
with a single button. Manage and monitor the execution of recovery
plans within VMware vCenter Server.
◆
Automate the promotion of replicated datastores for recovery by
using adapters created by leading storage vendors for their
replication platforms.
◆
Execute user-defined scripts and pauses during recovery.
◆
Reconfigure virtual machine IP addresses to match the network
configuration at the failover site.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
1.6 VMware View
VMware View is an end-to-end desktop virtualization solution that
leverages VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure to enable
customers to manage and secure virtual desktops across the enterprise
from within the data center.
Figure 15
VMware View with VMware vSphere 4
1.6.1 Key benefits of VMware View
VMware View provides the capabilities to do the following:
◆
Get control and manageability in a single solution — VMware View
is a comprehensive solution that provides the functionality that
most organizations need to connect and manage their remote clients
and centralized virtual desktops while keeping data safe and secure
VMware View
57
in the data center. Designed for desktop administrators, VMware
View offers an intuitive web-based management interface with
Microsoft Active Directory (AD) integration for user authentication
and policy enforcement. Centralized administration of all desktop
images helps simplify upgrades, patches, and desktop maintenance,
and enables the use of VMware View to manage connections
between remote clients and their centralized virtual desktop.
◆
Support remote users without sacrificing security — Since all the
data is maintained within the corporate firewall, VMware View
minimizes overall risk and data loss. Built-in SSL encryption
provides secure tunneling to virtual desktops from unmanaged
devices. Furthermore, optional integration with RSA SecurID
enables two-factor authentication.
◆
Provide end users with a familiar desktop experience — With
VMware View, end users get the same desktop experience that they
would have with a traditional desktop. The VMware View display
protocol, PC over IP (PCoIP), provides a superior end-user
experience over any network on up to four different displays.
Adaptive technology ensures an optimized virtual desktop delivery
on both the LAN and the WAN and addresses the broadest list of
use cases and deployment options with a single protocol.
Personalized virtual desktops, complete with applications and
end-user data and settings, can be accessed anywhere and anytime
with VMware View.
◆
Extend the power of VMware vSphere to the desktop — VMware
View is built on VMware vSphere 4 and can automate desktop
backup and recovery of business processes in the data center.
1.6.2 Components of the VMware View solution
The components of the VMware View solution are:
58
◆
VMware View Manager — VMware View Manager is an
enterprise-class desktop management solution that streamlines the
management, provisioning, and deployment of virtual desktops.
◆
VMware View Composer — VMware View Composer is an
optional tool that uses VMware Linked Clone technology to rapidly
create desktop images that share virtual disks by using a master
image. This conserves disk space and streamlines management.
◆
VMware ThinApp — VMware ThinApp is an optional application
virtualization software that decouples applications from operating
systems and packages them into an isolated and encapsulated file.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
This allows multiple versions of applications to execute on a single
desktop without conflict, or the same version of an application to
run on multiple operating systems without modification.
◆
Offline Desktop (experimental) — Offline Desktop is a technology
that allows complete virtual desktops to be moved between the data
center and the physical desktop devices, with the security policies
intact. Changes to the virtual desktop are intelligently synchronized
between the data center and the physical desktop devices.
VMware View
59
1.7 VMware vCenter Converter
VMware vCenter Converter is an optional module of VMware vCenter
Server to import, export, or reconfigure source physical machines,
virtual machines, or system images of VMware virtual machines.
Figure 16
60
VMware vCenter Converter
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
1.7.1 Migration with vCenter Converter
Migration with vCenter Converter involves cloning a source machine
or image and encapsulating, configuring virtual hardware, and
registering it with the destination. The tool allows the conversion of
virtual machines, which are managed by vCenter Server, to different
VMware virtual machine formats and exports those virtual machines
for use with other VMware products.
vCenter Converter can be used to perform the following tasks:
◆
Convert running remote physical machines to virtual machines and
import the virtual machines to ESX/ESXi or ESX/ESXi hosts that
are managed by vCenter Server.
◆
Convert and import virtual machines, such as those created with
VMware Workstation or Microsoft Virtual Server 2005, to ESX/ESXi
hosts that are managed by vCenter Server.
◆
Convert third-party backup or disk images to ESX/ESXi hosts that
are managed by vCenter Server.
◆
Restore VCB images to ESX/ESXi hosts that are managed by
vCenter Server.
◆
Export virtual machines managed by vCenter Server hosts to other
VMware virtual machine formats.
◆
Reconfigure virtual machines managed by vCenter Server hosts so
that they are bootable.
◆
Customize virtual machines in the vCenter Server inventory (for
example, to change the hostname or to update network settings).
It is important to note that vCenter Converter does not support creating
thin provisioned target disks on ESX 4 and ESXi 4. However, this can be
achieved by performing a Storage vMotion migration after the virtual
machines have been imported using vCenter Converter. Furthermore,
thin provisioned virtual disks are supported using the standalone
edition of this tool, VMware vCenter Convertor Standalone. This
edition runs separately from vCenter Server.
Depending on the vCenter Converter component installed, perform hot
or cold cloning by using a command line interface, or with the vCenter
Converter Import, Export, or Reconfigure wizard available in the
VMware vSphere Client.
VMware vCenter Converter
61
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
2
EMC Foundation
Products
This chapter presents these topics:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
2.1 EMC Celerra......................................................................................
2.2 Celerra Manager ...............................................................................
2.3 EMC CLARiiON...............................................................................
2.4 EMC Symmetrix ...............................................................................
2.5 Relevant key Celerra features.........................................................
EMC Foundation Products
64
70
71
73
76
63
2.1 EMC Celerra
EMC Celerra platforms cover a broad range of configurations and
capabilities that scale from midrange to high-end networked storage.
Although differences exist along the product line, there are some
common building blocks. These building blocks are combined to fill out
a broad and scalable product line with consistent support and
configuration options.
A Celerra frame provides n+1 power and cooling redundancy and
supports a scalable number of physical disks, depending on the model
and the needs of the solution. The primary building blocks in a Celerra
system are:
◆
Data Movers
◆
Control Stations
Data Movers move data back and forth between the LAN and the
back-end storage (disks). The Control Station is the management station
for the system. The Celerra system is configured and controlled through
the Control Station. Figure 17 shows how Celerra works.
Figure 17
64
Celerra block diagram
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Data Movers
A Celerra system has one or more Data Movers installed in its frame. A
Data Mover is an independent server running EMC's optimized NAS
operating system and data access in real time (DART). Each Data Mover
has multiple network ports, network identities, and connections to
back-end storage. Each Data Mover can support multiple iSCSI, NFS,
and/or Common Internet File System (CIFS) shares. In many ways, a
Data Mover operates as an independent server, bridging the LAN and
the back-end storage disk array.
Multiple Data Movers are grouped together as a single system for high
availability and user friendliness. To ensure high availability, Celerra
supports a configuration in which one Data Mover acts as a standby for
one or more active Data Movers. When an active Data Mover fails, the
standby boots and takes over the identity and storage of the failed
device. Data Movers in a cabinet are logically grouped together so that
they can be managed as a single system by using the Control Station.
Control Station
The Control Station is the single point of management and control of a
Celerra frame. Regardless of the number of Data Movers or disk drives
in the system, the administration of the system is done through the
Control Station. Control Stations not only provide the interface to
configure Data Movers and back-end storage, but they also provide
heartbeat monitoring of the Data Movers. Even if a Control Station is
inoperable for any reason, the Data Movers continue to operate
normally. The Celerra architecture provides an option for a redundant
Control Station to support continuous management for an increased
level of availability.
The Control Station runs a version of the Linux OS that EMC has
optimized for Celerra and NFS/CIFS administration. Figure 17 on
page 64 shows a Celerra system with two Data Movers. The Celerra
NAS family supports up to eight Data Movers depending on the
product model.
Basics of storage on Celerra
Celerra provides access to block and file data using iSCSI, CIFS, and
NFS and Fibre Channel protocols. These storage protocols provide
standard TCP/IP and Fibre Channel network services. Using these
network services, EMC Celerra platforms deliver a complete
multi-protocol foundation for a VMware vSphere virtual data center, as
depicted in Figure 18 on page 66.
EMC Celerra
65
Figure 18
Celerra storage topology
Celerra supports a range of advanced features such as Virtual
Provisioning™, advanced VMware integrated local and remote
replication, advanced storage tiering, and mobility. Furthermore,
Celerra also includes advanced IP-based technologies such as IPv6 and
10 GbE. These are now supported with VMware vSphere 4.
The Celerra family includes two platforms: Celerra unified storage and
Celerra gateway. The Celerra unified storage and gateway
configurations are described in the following sections.
2.1.1 Celerra unified storage platform
The Celerra unified storage platform is comprised of one or more
autonomous Data Movers, also called X-Blades, a Control Station blade
(one or two blades for NS-960), called X-Blades, and a Storage Processor
Enclosure (SPE). The X-Blades control data movement from the disks to
the network. Each X-Blade contains two Intel processors and runs
EMC's DART operating system, designed and optimized for high
performance, multi-protocol network file and block access. The SPE
manages the back-end CLARiiON disk arrays that include disk array
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
enclosure (DAEs), which can hold up to 15 disk drive modules. The SPE
has two storage processors (SPs) that deliver the same processing
power as the X-Blades and is based on the industry-leading EMC
UltraScale™ architecture. The SPs provide Fibre Channel connectivity to
the X-Blades and to the external Fibre Channel clients by using
additional Fibre Channel ports in the SPs. The X-Blades provide NAS
and iSCSI connectivity by using IP ports. The combination of the
front-end X-Blades with the SPE back end forms an integrated and
high-availability offering in the midtier IP storage market.
Depending on the operating needs, Celerra can be deployed in several
operating modes including primary/standby, primary/primary, or
advanced N+1 clustering. Primary/standby is designed for
environments that cannot tolerate any system downtime due to
hardware failure. In this mode, one of the X-Blades operates in the
standby mode while the second one manages all the data movement
between the network and the storage.
Other environments that value performance over continuous
availability can choose to operate their dual X-Blade Celerra unified
storage systems in primary/primary mode. Through a simple menu
selection, both X-Blades can be made available to handle unusually
large loads and user populations that can bring standard file servers to
a virtual standstill.
All Celerra unified storage platforms deliver NFS, CIFS, iSCSI, and
Fibre Channel (FC) capabilities to consolidate application storage and
file servers. The Celerra unified storage platforms include the NX4,
NS-120, NS-480, and NS-960.
Figure 19 on page 68 shows Celerra unified platforms that support
NFS/CIFS, FC, and iSCSI.
EMC Celerra
67
Figure 19
Celerra unified storage
2.1.2 Celerra gateway
The Celerra gateway is a dedicated IP storage gateway optimized to
bring fast file access, high availability, and advanced functionality to
existing SAN infrastructures (CLARiiON or Symmetrix storage arrays).
It has the same features as the Celerra unified storage platforms but
combines a NAS head and existing SAN storage for a flexible,
cost-effective implementation that maximizes the utilization of existing
resources.
The Celerra gateway platforms include NS-40G and NS-G8.
Figure 20 on page 69 shows Celerra gateway platforms that support
NFS/CIFS, FC, and iSCSI.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 20
Celerra gateway storage
EMC Celerra
69
2.2 Celerra Manager
Celerra Manager is a web-based software tool that enables intuitive
management of the EMC Celerra IP storage (NFS, CIFS, and iSCSI)
solution and ensures high availability. Celerra Manager helps to
configure, administer, and monitor Celerra networked storage from a
single online interface, saving time and eliminating the need for a
dedicated management workstation.
Celerra Manager Basic Edition supports the most common functions to
configure and manage a single device, from at-a-glance statistics to
simple user/group quota controls. The Celerra Manager Advanced
Edition offers greater configuration, data migration, and monitoring
capabilities across multiple Celerra environments. An example of the
Celerra Manager GUI is shown in Figure 21.
Figure 21
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Celerra Manager GUI
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
2.3 EMC CLARiiON
EMC CLARiiON is a midtier storage system that can be connected to a
Celerra gateway platform. EMC CLARiiON is a highly available
storage system designed for no single points of failure, and delivers
industry-leading performance for mission-critical applications and
databases. CLARiiON storage systems provide both iSCSI and Fibre
Channel connectivity options for open systems hosts, and supports
advanced data replication capabilities. The core software that runs on
CLARiiON, called FLARE®, provides a robust set of functions
including data protection, host connectivity, and local and remote data
replication such as RecoverPoint and MirrorView™.
CLARiiON uses a modular architecture that allows the system to grow
nondisruptively as business requirements change. The two major
components are the SPE and the DAE. The SPE contains two
independent high-performance storage processors that provide
front-end connectivity, read and write cache, and connectivity to the
back end. The DAE provides the back-end storage and each DAE can
hold up to 15 disk drive modules. Multiple DAEs can be interconnected
across multiple back-end loops to meet capacity and performance
requirements.
CX4 is the current generation of CLARiiON. It uses the UltraFlex™
technology that uses cut-through switch technology and full 4 Gb/s
back-end disk drives along with 8 Gb/s and 4 Gb/s Fibre Channel
front-end connections. 10 Gb/s and 1 Gb/s iSCSI connections are also
available. The UltraScale architecture provides both high performance
and reliability with advanced fault-detection and isolation capabilities.
High performance Flash and Fibre Channel disks and low-cost and
high-capacity SATA disk technologies can be deployed within the same
storage system, enabling tiered storage solutions within a single
system.
CLARiiON implements a LUN ownership model where I/O operations
for a LUN are serviced by the owned storage processor. Because
physical disk drives are shared by both storage processors, in the event
of a path failure, the LUN ownership can be moved (trespassed) to the
peer storage processor, allowing the I/O operation to proceed. This
ownership model provides high availability and performance, by
balancing the workload across processing resources. With release 26 of
the FLARE operating environment, the Asymmetric Logical Unit
Access (ALUA) standard is supported. ALUA provides asymmetric
active or active LUN ownership for the CLARiiON. With ALUA, either
storage processor can accept an I/O operation and will forward it to the
EMC CLARiiON
71
owner storage processor through the internal high-speed messaging
interface. This capability requires that the path management software
support the ALUA standard. EMC PowerPath leverages the ALUA
architecture to optimize the performance and to provide advanced
failover intelligence for CLARiiON. VMware vSphere 4 supports
ALUA connectivity to CLARiiON.
CLARiiON arrays provide the flexibility to configure data protection
levels appropriate for the application performance and availability
requirements. A combination of RAID 0, 1, 3, 1/0, 5, and 6 can be
configured within the same system. Additional availability features
include nondisruptive software and hardware upgrades, proactive
diagnostics, alerts, and phone-home capabilities. CLARiiON also
supports global hot sparing and provides automatic and online
rebuilds of redundant RAID groups when any of the group's disk
drives fail.
The current CX4 family includes the midrange CX4-960, CX4-480,
CX4-240, and CX4-120. The AX4 is an entry-level storage system with a
similar architecture and many of the same features and interfaces as the
arrays in the CX4 family.
Compatibility and interoperability between CLARiiON systems enable
customers to perform data-in-place upgrades of their storage solutions
from one generation to the next, protecting their investment as their
capacity and connectivity demands increase.
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2.4 EMC Symmetrix
EMC Symmetrix is a high-end storage system that can be connected to a
Celerra gateway platform. Symmetrix hardware architecture and the
EMC Enginuity™ operating environment are the foundations for the
Symmetrix storage platform.
This environment consists of the following components:
◆
Symmetrix hardware
◆
Enginuity-based operating functions
◆
Solutions Enabler
◆
Symmetrix application program interface (API)
◆
Symmetrix-based applications
◆
Host-based Symmetrix applications
◆
Independent software vendor (ISV) applications
Symmetrix storage systems provide advanced data replication
capabilities, full mainframe and open systems support, and flexible
connectivity options, including Fibre Channel, FICON, ESCON (DMX-4
and earlier), Gigabit Ethernet, and iSCSI.
Interoperability between Symmetrix storage systems enables customers
to migrate storage solutions from one generation to the next, protecting
their investment even as their storage demands expand.
Symmetrix-enhanced cache director technology allows configurations
of up to 512 GB of cache on the DMX-4 and up to 1 TB for the VMAX.
Symmetrix storage arrays feature Dynamic Cache Partitioning that
optimizes the storage by allowing administrators to allocate and
reserve portions of the cache to specific devices or groups of devices.
Dynamic Cache Partitioning allows the definition of a maximum of
eight cache partitioned groups, including the default group to which all
devices initially belong.
The Symmetrix on-board data integrity features include:
◆
Continuous cache and on-disk data integrity checking and error
detection/correction
◆
Fault isolation
◆
Nondisruptive hardware and software upgrades
◆
Automatic diagnostics and phone-home capabilities
EMC Symmetrix
73
At the software level, advanced integrity features ensure that
information is always protected and available. By choosing a mix of
RAID 1 (mirroring), RAID 1/0, high-performance RAID 5 (3+1 and 7+1)
protection, and RAID 6, users have the flexibility to choose the
protection level most appropriate to the value and performance
requirements of their information. Symmetrix DMX-4 and VMAX are
EMC's latest generation of high-end storage solutions.
From the perspective of the host operating system, a Symmetrix system
appears as multiple physical devices connected through one or more
I/O controllers. The host operating system addresses each of these
devices using a physical device name. Each physical device includes
attributes, vendor ID, product ID, revision level, and serial ID. The host
physical device maps to a Symmetrix device. In turn, the Symmetrix
device is a virtual representation of a portion of the physical disk called
a hypervolume.
2.4.1 Symmetrix VMAX platform
The EMC Symmetrix VMAX Series with Enginuity is a new entry to the
Symmetrix product line. Built on the strategy of simple, intelligent, and
modular storage, it incorporates a new scalable fabric interconnect
design that allows the storage array to seamlessly grow from an
entry-level configuration into the world's largest storage system.
Symmetrix VMAX scales up to 2 PB of usable protected capacity and
consolidates more workloads with a much smaller footprint than
alternative arrays. The Symmetrix VMAX provides improved
performance and scalability for demanding enterprise storage
environments while maintaining support for EMC's broad portfolio of
platform software offerings.
The Enginuity operating environment for Symmetrix version 5874 is a
feature-rich Enginuity release supporting Symmetrix VMAX storage
arrays. With the release of Enginuity 5874, Symmetrix VMAX systems
deliver new software capabilities that improve capacity utilization, ease
of use, business continuity, and security.
The Symmetrix VMAX also maintains customer expectations for
high-end storage in terms of availability. High-end availability is more
than just redundancy; it means nondisruptive operations and upgrades,
and being always online.
Symmetrix VMAX provides:
◆
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Nondisruptive expansion of capacity and performance at a lower
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
◆
Sophisticated migration for multiple storage tiers within the array
◆
The power to maintain service levels and functionality as
consolidation grows
◆
Simplified control for provisioning in complex environments
Many of the new features provided by the new EMC Symmetrix VMAX
platform can reduce operational costs for customers deploying
virtualization solutions and enhance functionality to enable greater
benefits.
EMC Symmetrix
75
2.5 Relevant key Celerra features
This section describes key features of EMC Celerra storage systems to
consider with ESX. For a complete description of all Celerra features,
refer to the Celerra documentation.
2.5.1 Celerra Virtual Provisioning
Celerra Virtual Provisioning is a thin provisioning feature used to
improve capacity utilization. With Virtual Provisioning, provided
through Celerra file systems and iSCSI LUNs, storage is consumed in a
pragmatic manner. Virtual Provisioning allows for the creation of
storage devices that do not pre-allocate storage capacity for virtual disk
space until the virtual machine application generates some data to the
virtual disk. The virtual provisioning model avoids the need to
overprovision disks based upon the expected growth.
Storage devices still represent and support the upper size limits to the
host that access them. But in most cases, the actual disk usage falls well
below the apparent allocated size. The benefit is that like virtual
resources in the ESX server architecture, storage is presented as a set of
virtual devices that share from a pool of disk resources. Disk
consumption increases based upon the needs of the virtual machines in
the ESX environment. As a way to address future growth, Celerra
monitors the available space and can be configured to automatically
extend the file system size as the amount of free space decreases.
2.5.2 Celerra SnapSure
The Celerra SnapSure™ feature creates a read-only, or read-writeable,
logical point-in-time image (checkpoint) of a production file system
(PFS). SnapSure can maintain up to 96 PFS checkpoints and 16
read-writeable checkpoints while allowing PFS read-only applications
continued access to the real-time data. The principle of SnapSure is
copy old on modify. When a block within the PFS is modified, a copy
containing the block's original content is saved to a separate volume
called the SavVol. Subsequent changes made to the same block in the
PFS are not copied into the SavVol. The original blocks from the PFS (in
the SavVol) and the unchanged PFS blocks (remaining in the PFS) are
read by SnapSure according to a bitmap and blockmap data-tracking
structure. These blocks combine to provide a complete point-in-time file
system image called a checkpoint. Celerra version 5.6 and later support
the creation of writeable checkpoints. A writeable checkpoint is always
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
created from a baseline read-only checkpoint, and each baseline
checkpoint can only have one writeable checkpoint associated with it at
a time.
2.5.3 Temporary writeable snap
A read/write snap or checkpoint is a feature of the SnapSure product
that provides a mountable and shareable file system, created from a
baseline read-only snap.
Read/write snap allows the creation of a fully usable, lightweight copy
of a file system without the space requirements of a full clone. This type
of snap can be used for such applications as database testing, VMware
VDI, general data re-purposing that requires update access to the file
system copy (such as reporting and data mining)
Each writeable snap is built on a read-only snap. When an NFS or a
CIFS client writes to a writeable snap, SnapSure saves the changed
blocks in the SavVol save area. While using a writeable snap, SnapSure
uses the snapshot bitmap and blockmap to locate file system blocks in
the same way as a read-only snap, while also tracking written blocks
(from the host writing to the mounted read/write snap) in the SavVol,
to provide an updateable point-in-time picture of the PFS.
SnapSure can maintain up to 16 writeable snaps per file system. Only
one writeable snap is allowed per read-only snap.
2.5.4 Celerra iSCSI snapshots
A Celerra iSCSI snapshot is a point-in-time representation of the data
stored on an iSCSI LUN. Snapshots can be created either by a host
application (such as the CBMCLI commands on a Linux host or
Replication Manager on a Windows host) or on the Control Station.
Each snapshot requires only as much space as the data that is changed
in the production LUN. In addition to available space restrictions, the
Celerra Network Server supports a maximum of 2,000 snapshots per
iSCSI LUN.
Each snapshot creates a copy of the production LUN (PLU). The
currently allocated (modified) blocks in the PLU are transferred to the
snapshot, which becomes the owner of those blocks. The PLU shares
the allocated blocks with the snapshot. Subsequent snapshots of the
PLU repeat the process. The latest snapshot takes ownership of blocks
written (allocated) to the PLU since the previous snapshot, and also
shares the allocated blocks owned by previous snapshots.
Relevant key Celerra features
77
Unless promoted, a snapshot is not visible to the iSCSI initiator. The
promotion operation creates a temporary writeable snapshot (TWS)
and mounts it to an iSCSI LUN so that it can be configured as a disk
device and used as a production LUN. The TWS also shares the
allocated blocks owned by the promoted snapshot. For the promotion
of the iSCSI LUN snapshot (TWS), the Celerra administrator can choose
to reserve the same space as the size of the production LUN or only
hold the changes. For most use cases, including VDI, EMC recommends
no extra space reservation for promoted iSCSI LUN snapshots (TWS). A
snapshot can be promoted only once (that is, an already promoted
snapshot cannot be promoted). After a snapshot is demoted, it can be
promoted again. Typical uses of the promoted snapshot are to restore
damaged or lost data by using the data on the SLU or to provide an
alternative data source. Snapshots can be used within a backup process.
However, one should be aware that snapshots are only crash-consistent
(as if after a power failure) and cannot guarantee application-consistent
data. If an application-consistent backup of virtual machines or
datastores is required, EMC suggests that EMC Replication Manager
must be leveraged in combination with Celerra snapshots to orchestrate
an application-consistent backup. Although a promoted snapshot LUN
is writeable, any changes made to the LUN are allocated to the TWS
alone. When the snapshot is demoted, the LUN is unmounted and its
LUN number is unassigned. Any data written to the promoted LUN is
lost and irretrievable. A production LUN can also be restored from a
snapshot. This operation performs a fast (destructive) restore, which
deletes all newer snapshots.
2.5.5 Celerra Replicator
Celerra Replicator is an asynchronous remote replication infrastructure
tool for Celerra. It is accessed through Celerra Manager and supports a
single, intuitive interface for all types of replications - file systems,
virtual Data Movers, and iSCSI LUNs. It produces a read-only,
point-in-time copy of a source file system, an iSCSI LUN, or a virtual
Data Mover and periodically updates this copy, making it consistent
with the source object.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 22
Celerra Replicator
With Celerra Replicator, users can set granular recovery point objectives
(RPOs) for each of the objects being replicated, allowing business
compliance service levels to be met especially when scaling a large NAS
infrastructure. The recovery time objective (RTO) is the maximum
amount of time allowed after the declaration of a disaster for recovery
or restart to a specified point of consistency. As with RPO, each solution
with varying RTO has a different cost profile. Defining the RTO is
usually a compromise between the cost of the solution and the cost to
the business when applications are unavailable. Celerra version 5.6 and
Relevant key Celerra features
79
later support the use of Celerra Replicator V2. This new version
consolidates data replication and can be used to replicate both file
systems and iSCSI LUNs with the same mechanism.
Celerra Replicator can maintain up to 1,024 replication sessions per
Data Mover. Administrators can protect extremely large IP storage
deployments or have finer granularity in segmenting their information
based on RTO/RPO requirements.
Users can implement policy-based, adaptive QoS by specifying a
schedule of times, days, and bandwidth limits on the source to the
destination IP network interconnects.
Celerra Replication supports 1 to N replication and cascading. With 1 to
N replication, an object can be replicated from a single source to up to
four remote locations. With cascading, replication allows a single object
to be replicated from a source site (Site A) to a secondary site (Site B),
and from there to a tertiary site (Site C). Cascading replication is
typically used in a multi-tiered disaster recovery strategy. The first local
hop is used to allow operational recovery with a short recovery point
objective where there may be a network locality to allow a local office to
actually run applications from the Celerra located at the secondary
location. Typically RPOs will be of the order of minutes, given that
Celerra Replicator is an asynchronous data replication solution. The
tertiary location is used for major and wide-reaching disaster scenarios
and protection of the local disaster recovery site and RPOs from the
secondary site to this tertiary site would be of the order of hours.
2.5.6 EMC Replication Manager and Celerra
EMC Replication Manager manages EMC point-in-time replication
technologies and coordinates the entire data replication process from
discovery and configuration to the management of multiple disk-based
replicas. With Replication Manager, the right data can be put in the
right place at the right time, on-demand, or based on schedules and
policies that are defined.
Replication Manager provides a graphical user interface for managing
the replication of iSCSI LUNs. It controls the creation of snapshots,
marks the snapshots for replication, and initiates the copy job from the
source to the destination. Before creating a snapshot, the Replication
Manager ensures that applications are in a quiescent state and that the
cache is flushed so that the snapshot is consistent from the point of view
of client applications.
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2.5.7 Celerra Data Deduplication
The Celerra Data Deduplication feature provides data reduction
through data compression and data deduplication. The main objective
of Celerra Data Deduplication is to increase the file storage efficiency by
eliminating redundant data from files located on the file system. By
reducing the data stored in the file system, the cost of storing the
information is decreased.
With VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure, Celerra Data
Deduplication provides data reduction cost savings capabilities in two
usage categories:
◆
Efficient deployment and cloning of virtual machines that are
stored on Celerra file systems using NFS.
◆
Efficient storage of file-based business data stored on NFS/CIFS
network shares that are mounted or mapped by virtual machines.
The following two sections describe how each of these usage categories
uses the capabilities of the Celerra Data Deduplication technology. The
Using the Celerra Data Deduplication Technical Module available on
Powerlink® provides further information on the Celerra Data
Deduplication feature.
Efficient deployment and cloning of virtual machines that are stored
on Celerra file systems using NFS.
Starting from Celerra version 5.6.48, Celerra Data Deduplication was
enhanced to also target active virtual disk files (VMDK files) for data
compression and cloning purposes. This feature is for VMware vSphere
virtual machines that are deployed on Celerra-based NFS datastores.
Celerra Data Deduplication allows the VMware administrator to
compress a virtual machine at the Celerra level. This can reduce storage
consumption by up to 50 percent and permit the storage of additional
virtual machines on the same file system. The compression of virtual
machines places an added overhead on the file system that can cause
some performance impact on the virtual machines. Celerra Data
Deduplication includes several optimization techniques to greatly
minimize this performance impact. Read operations from a compressed
virtual machine are performed by uncompressing only the portion of
the file store requested. On the other hand, write operations are
performed on a set-aside file from which the data is periodically
compressed into the original file. The outcome of both these techniques
Relevant key Celerra features
81
for handling read and write operations to a compressed virtual machine
is a performance impact that is typically negligible compared to a
non-compressed virtual machine.
Furthermore, Celerra Data Deduplication also provides the ability to
perform efficient, array-level cloning of virtual machines. Two cloning
alternatives are available:
◆
Full Clone - With this operation the VMware administrator can
create a full virtual machine clone. This operation is comparable to a
native VMware vSphere clone operation. A full clone operation can
be done across Celerra file systems (provided they are from the
same Data Mover). However, a full clone operation is performed on
the Celerra level rather than at the ESX level. Therefore the ESX
cycles that would have been spent to perform the cloning operation
natively are freed up. Because the clone operation is done at the
Celerra level, data need not pass on the wire to and from the ESX
server. This results in a virtual machine clone operation that is more
efficient, and can be up to 2 to 3 times faster than a native vSphere
virtual machine clone operation.
◆
Fast Clone - with this operation the VMware administrator can
create a clone of a virtual machine that holds only the changes to the
cloned virtual machines while referring to the source virtual
machine for unchanged data. A fast clone operation is done within
a single file system. Here too the clone operation is done at the
Celerra array level. But, in the case of a fast clone, the operation is
almost instantaneous because no data needs to be copied from the
source virtual machine at the time the cloned virtual machine is
created. This is very similar to a Celerra iSCSI snapshot operation
except that in this case the operation is done on files rather than
LUNs.
Furthermore, all the virtual machine compression and cloning
operations available in Celerra Data Deduplication are virtual machine
based rather than file system based. This provides the administrator
with high flexibility to use Celerra Data Deduplication with VMware
vSphere to further reduce the Celerra storage consumption.
To perform these operations, Celerra Data Deduplication can be
configured with the EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware. This vCenter
Server Plug-in allows the VMware administrator to perform
Celerra-based virtual machines compression and cloning operations
using only the VMware vSphere Client.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
The plug-in also allows the VMware administrator to provision and
manage Celerra NFS storage for virtual machines deployment.
Figure 23 shows an example of using the EMC Celerra Plug-in for
VMware on a VMware vSphere virtual machine.
Figure 23
EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware
EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware—Solution Guide provides more
information on the VMware vCenter Plug-in and how it can be used
with VMware vSphere.
Relevant key Celerra features
83
Efficient storage of file-based business data stored on NFS/CIFS
network shares that are mounted or mapped by virtual machines
In addition, Celerra Data Deduplication provides a high degree of
storage efficiency by eliminating redundant files with minimal impact
on the end-user experience. This feature also goes one step further and
compresses the remaining data. This two-step process can reduce
required storage space by up to 50 percent.
Celerra Data Deduplication automatically targets files that are the best
candidates for deduplication and subsequent compression in terms of
the file access frequency and file size. Furthermore, with Celerra
version 5.6.47.11 or later, Celerra Data Deduplication was enhanced to
target large files, as well as active files using the CIFS compressed file
attribute (for files exported using the CIFS protocol). When using a
tiered storage architecture, Celerra Data Deduplication can also be
enabled on the secondary tier to reduce the archived data set size.
With VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure, Celerra Data
Deduplication can be used on Celerra file systems that are mounted or
mapped by virtual machines using NFS or CIFS. This is suitable for
business data such as home directories and network-shared folders.
Similarly, Celerra Data Deduplication can be used on archived virtual
machines. This eliminates redundant data in these file systems and
improves the storage efficiency of these file systems.
Celerra Data Deduplication calculator
EMC provides a deduplication calculator that produces a printable
graph of the estimated savings that can be realized with the Celerra
Data Deduplication feature. This calculator can be used with the two
usage categories of Celerra Data Deduplication with VMware vSphere
and VMware Infrastructure. This is a web application that estimates the
effect of Celerra Deduplication on a data set based on a user-entered
about the size and type of stored data. Figure 24 on page 85 shows an
example of this application. The Celerra Data Deduplication calculator
is available on EMC.com.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 24
Celerra Data Deduplication calculator
Relevant key Celerra features
85
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
3
VMware vSphere and
VMware Infrastructure
Configuration Options
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 88
3.2 Storage alternatives.......................................................................... 89
3.3 Configuration roadmap................................................................... 90
3.4 VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure installation .......... 93
3.5 Storage considerations..................................................................... 94
3.6 VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration .... 109
3.7 Using NFS storage.......................................................................... 128
3.8 Using iSCSI storage........................................................................ 137
3.9 Introduction to using Fibre Channel storage ............................. 205
3.10 Virtual machine considerations.................................................. 222
3.11 Monitor and manage storage...................................................... 248
3.12 Virtually provisioned storage ..................................................... 258
3.13 Storage multipathing ................................................................... 278
3.14 VMware Resiliency ...................................................................... 315
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure Configuration Options
87
3.1 Introduction
Celerra unified storage provides flexible network deployment options
for VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure including CIFS, NFS,
iSCSI, and FC connectivity.
This chapter contains the following information about integrating
Celerra unified storage with VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure:
88
◆
Storage considerations for using Celerra with VMware vSphere or
VMware Infrastructure
◆
Configuration of VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
when using Celerra storage
◆
Use of Celerra CIFS, NFS, iSCSI, and FC storage with VMware
vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
◆
Virtual machine considerations when using VMware vSphere and
VMware Infrastructure with Celerra
◆
Storage multipathing of VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure
◆
VMware resiliency with EMC Celerra
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
3.2 Storage alternatives
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure support the NFS, iSCSI,
and FC protocols as storage for virtual machines. Celerra unified
storage supports all these protocols. NFS is the only NAS protocol
supported for virtual machines. Celerra CIFS can also be used to store
and share user data and can be mounted inside the virtual machines.
With iSCSI and FC protocols, ESX builds VMFS volumes on top of the
LUNs. The Celerra NFS file system and iSCSI LUNs can be provisioned
using Celerra Manager or CLI. FC LUNs are provisioned from the
CLARiiON back end by using Navisphere Manager.
Using these network services, Celerra platforms deliver a complete
multi-protocol foundation for a VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure virtual data center as shown in Figure 25.
Figure 25
Celerra storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Storage alternatives
89
3.3 Configuration roadmap
Figure 26 shows the roadmap that identifies the configuration steps to
use Celerra storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure.
Figure 26
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Configuration roadmap
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
The configuration blocks in Figure 26 on page 90 are:
1. NIC and iSCSI HBA driver configuration with ESX server —
Configure the physical NIC or the iSCSI HBA that will be used to
connect the ESX server to Celerra. Section 3.6.2, ”ESX iSCSI HBA
and NIC driver configuration,” on page 120 provides details about
the configuration.
2. VMkernel port configuration in ESX server — Configure the ESX
server for IP storage connections to Celerra for both NFS and iSCSI
network storage protocols. Section 3.6.3, ”VMkernel port
configuration in ESX,” on page 120 provides details about the
configuration.
3. Based on the storage protocol, complete the NFS, iSCSI, or FC
configuration steps.
• NFS
Add Celerra file systems to or from an ESX server — Create
and export the Celerra file system to the ESX server. Section
3.7.1, ”Add a Celerra file system to ESX,” on page 128 provides
details about these procedures.
Create NAS datastores on ESX server — Configure NAS
datastores in the ESX server on the provisioned file system from
Celerra. Section 3.7.2, ”Create a NAS datastore on an ESX
server,” on page 133 provides details about this procedure.
• iSCSI
Add and remove iSCSI LUNs to or from the ESX server —
Configure a Celerra iSCSI LUN and link it to the ESX server.
Section 3.8.2, ”Add a Celerra iSCSI device/LUN to ESX,” on
page 139 provides details about these procedures.
Create VMFS datastores on the ESX server — Configure a
VMFS datastore over the iSCSI LUN that was provisioned from
Celerra. Section 3.8.3, ”Create VMFS datastores on ESX,” on
page 174 provides details about this procedure.
• FC
Add and remove CLARiiON LUNs to or from the ESX server
— Configure a CLARiiON FC LUN and link it to the ESX server.
Section 3.9, “Introduction to using Fibre Channel storage,” on
page 205 provides details about these procedures.
Configuration roadmap
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Create VMFS datastores on the ESX server — Configure a
VMFS datastore over the FC LUN that was provisioned from
CLARiiON. Section 3.9, “Introduction to using Fibre Channel
storage,” on page 205 provides details about this procedure.
Note: The chapter includes applicable procedures for using Celerra storage
with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure. However, starting from
Celerra version 5.6.48, the EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware is available. This
plug-in allows administrators to conveniently configure and provision
Celerra-based NAS datastores from the VMware vSphere Client interface.
Using this plug-in, administrators can also perform Celerra-based virtual
machines’ compression and cloning operations leveraging the enhanced
Celerra data deduplication technology. For details about this plug-in and how it
can be used, refer to the EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware—Solution Guide.
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3.4 VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure installation
VMware ESX 3.5 and 4 can be installed on a local disk of the physical
server. No special configuration is required on ESX during its
installation with Celerra storage. Similarly, the VMware ESXi
Installable editions 3.5 and 4.0 can be installed on a local disk of the
physical server. The VMware documentation provides additional
information about installing ESX.
VMware vCenter Server should also be installed as a part of the
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure suite. VMware
documentation provides additional information about installing
vCenter Server. Other components can also be installed based on the
requirements.
The following link on VMware provides information about optional
components that are available for VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure:
http://www.vmware.com/products/
The following link provides information about VMware vSphere
installation and administration:
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/vs_pubs.html
The following link provides information about VMware Infrastructure
installation and administration:
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/vi_pubs.html
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure installation
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3.5 Storage considerations
This section explains the storage considerations to use Celerra with
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure. Celerra offers several
disk types, which are selected based on the use cases. Similarly, the
Celerra RAID type selection also depends on the protection and
performance required. After RAID is configured on the required
number of spindles, the volumes should also be configured using one
of the volume management alternatives available in Celerra.
Celerra disk types
Four types of storage device technologies can be used on EMC unified
platforms: Enterprise Flash Drive (EFD), Fibre Channel (FC), Serial
Attached SCSI (SAS), and Serial-ATA (SATA). Celerra NX4 can use SAS
and SATA hard drives, whereas all other Celerra models can use EFD,
FC, and SATA hard drives.
EFDs are recommended for virtual machines or parts of virtualized
applications with low response time and high-throughput
requirements. FC hard drives are recommended for large-capacity,
high-performance VMware environments. SAS hard drives provide
performance and reliability that is equivalent to FC drives. SATA drives
are recommended to back up the VMware environment and to store
virtual machine templates and ISO images.
RAID configuration with Celerra unified storage
Celerra unified storage provides mirrored and striped (RAID 1/0) and
striped with parity (RAID 3/RAID 5/RAID 6) options for performance
and protection of the devices that are used to create ESX volumes. RAID
protection is actually provided by the underlying captive CLARiiON
array of the Celerra unified storage system. The storage and RAID
algorithm chosen is largely based on the throughput requirements of
the applications or virtual machines. Parity RAID such as RAID 5 and
RAID 6 provides the most efficient use of disk space to satisfy the
requirements of the applications. RAID 1/0 mirrors and stripes, with
data written to two disks simultaneously. Data transfer rates are higher
than with RAID 5, but RAID 1/0 uses more disk space for mirroring.
From tests performed in EMC labs, RAID with parity protection
mechanisms was chosen for both virtual machine boot disk images and
the virtual disk storage used for the application data. RAID 6 provides
added disk protection over RAID 5. An understanding of the
application and storage requirements in the computing environment
will help to identify the appropriate RAID configuration for servers
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
where very large pools of disks are used. Celerra uses advanced on-disk
parity and proactive soft-error and is not susceptible to dual-disk
failures during the RAID 5 rebuild.
Storage pool
Storage pools are used to allocate available storage to Celerra file
systems. Storage pools can be created automatically by Celerra
Automatic Volume Management (AVM) or manually by the system
administrator. A storage pool must contain volumes from only one
disk type and must be created from equally sized CLARiiON LUNs.
Use one or both types of AVM storage pools to create file systems:
◆
System-defined storage pools
◆
User-defined storage pools
System-defined storage pools
System-defined storage pools are predefined and available with Celerra
Network Server. The pre-defined storage pools cannot be created or
deleted because they are set up to make managing volumes and file
systems easier than manually managing them. Some of the attributes of
the system-defined storage pools can be modified, but this is generally
unnecessary.
User-defined storage pools
If applications require precise placement of file systems on particular
disks or locations on specific disks, AVM user-defined storage pools
enable greater control. Disk volumes can be reserved so that the
system-defined storage pools cannot use them.
Celerra volume management
In Celerra, users can create and manage Celerra volumes and file
systems manually or automatically for VMware. Celerra offers flexible
volume and file system management. Volume management provides
the flexibility to create and aggregate different volume types into usable
file system storage that meets the configuration needs of VMware
vSphere and VMware Infrastructure. There are a variety of volume
types and configurations available to optimize the file system's storage
potential. Users can divide, combine, and group volumes to meet
specific configuration needs. Users can also manage Celerra volumes
and file systems without having to create and manage underlying
volumes.
Storage considerations
95
Two types of volume management are available in Celerra to provision
storage:
◆
Automatic Volume Management (AVM)
◆
Manual Volume Management (MVM)
For most VMware deployments, Celerra AVM works well. Some
deployments such as virtualized databases and e-mail servers will
benefit from MVM. This is because MVM allows administrators to
configure storage locations that are tailored and sized for each
application object to maximize the performance of I/O-intensive
applications. Section 3.5.2, ”MVM,” on page 97 provides more details
about MVM. With the current release of Celerra (5.6.47 or later), it is
recommended that MVM be used for EFDs.
The following sections provide further details about the two volume
management types.
3.5.1 AVM
AVM automates volume creation and management. AVM runs an
internal algorithm that identifies the optimal location of the disks that
make up a file system. Storage administrators are only required to select
the storage pool type and the desired capacity to establish a file system
that can be presented to ESX as NAS and block storage without creating
and managing the underlying volumes.
The storage pools are configured as part of the Celerra unified storage
installation base on the configuration of the back-end CLARiiON
captive storage. This allows users to conveniently deploy file systems
on these storage pools without the need to configure the back-end
storage or to specify specific storage locations for these file systems.
However, a skilled user can modify the configuration of the back-end
CLARiiON storage and present it to Celerra (for example, when new
disks where added to Celerra unified storage). Appendix A, “ CLARiiON
Back-End Array Configuration for Celerra Unified Storage,” provides
further details.
The Celerra AVM feature automatically creates and manages usable file
system storage. After the disk volumes are added to the storage pool,
AVM uses an internal algorithm that identifies the optimal location of
the disks that make up a file system. Users can directly create file
systems on this usable storage.
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Managing EMC Celerra Volumes and File Systems with Automatic Volume
Management Technical Module provides detailed information about
Celerra AVM configuration.
File system configuration with AVM
File systems should be provisioned from Celerra storage pools to be
used as VMware storage. Multiple Celerra file systems can be
provisioned from the Celerra system-defined storage pool using
Celerra Manager GUI or CLI. This is the default method to create file
systems in Celerra. All that is required is to select the storage pool and
to specify the size of the file system. AVM then optimally allocates
capacity from the storage pool for the file system.
To create a file system using Celerra Manager GUI, refer to steps 1 to 4
in Section 3.7.1, ”Add a Celerra file system to ESX,” on page 128.
To create a file system using CLI with a system-defined storage pool,
use the following command:
$ nas_fs -name <name> -create size=<size> pool=<pool>
storage=<system_name>
where:
name is the name of the file system.
size is the amount of space users want to add to the file system.
Enter the size in gigabytes by typing <number> G (for example, 250
G), in megabytes by typing <number> M (for example, 500 M), or
by typing <number> T for terabytes (for example, 1 T).
pool is the storage pool name.
system_name is the storage system from which space for the file
system is allocated.
Example:
$ nas_fs -name ufs1 -create size=10G pool=symm_std
storage=00018350149
3.5.2 MVM
MVM enables the storage administrator to create and aggregate
different volume types into a usable file system storage that meets the
configuration needs. There are various volume types and configuration
options available from which the file system can be optimized to use
the storage system's potential.
Storage considerations
97
Note: Given the complexity of MVM and the wide range of possible
configuration options that it includes, it is only recommended for NAS experts.
AVM is more appropriate for most users.
RAID and LUN configuration with MVM
With FC, SAS, SATA disks, use the RAID 5 (4+1) group in CLARiiON.
Create two LUNs per RAID group and load-balance LUNs between
CLARiiON SPs. Stripe across all RAID groups with a 32 KB Celerra
stripe element size (default). Create a metavolume on the stripe
volume. Section 3.5.3, ”Storage considerations for using Celerra EFDs,”
on page 107 provides configuration details about EFDs.
Managing EMC Celerra Volumes and File Systems Manually Technical
Module provides detailed information about Celerra AVM
configuration.
Sample storage layout with MVM
Figure 27 on page 99 is a sample storage layout that shows the storage
configuration for three shelves. It is recommended to have one hot
spare for 15 disks. This layout shows seven 4+1 RAID 5 groups (the
leftmost RAID group in shelf 0_0 is not counted because it is used for
Celerra software). Two LUNs are created on each RAID group with
alternate SP ownership. A stripe volume is created across one LUN
with alternate SP ownership in each RAID group (for example, a stripe
volume is created with LUNs d41+d45+543+d32+d33+d40+d36). Using
this stripe volume, a metavolume is created and a single file system is
created on the metavolume.
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Figure 27
Storage layout
Storage considerations
99
3.5.2.1 Determine storage availability
Before a new volume is created, unused disk space must be identified.
If a disk is unused, its space is available for volume and file system
creation. The simplest way to determine storage availability on the
Celerra Network Server is to find out which disks are unused.
To view a list of unused disks and their sizes, use the following
command:
$ nas_disk -list
3.5.2.2 Create volumes
Different types of volumes can be created.
Stripe volumes
A stripe volume is a logical arrangement of participating disk, slice, or
metavolumes organized, as equally as possible, into a set of interlaced
stripes. Stripe volumes achieve greater performance and higher
aggregate throughput because all participating volumes can be active
concurrently.
Stripe size
The stripe size can be 32 KB, 64 KB, or 256 KB. The recommended stripe
depth must be typed in multiples of 8,192 bytes with a recommended
size of 32,768 bytes (default) for file systems running in an NFS
environment with a CLARiiON storage system.
Metavolume
File systems can only be created and stored on metavolumes. A
metavolume is an end-to-end concatenation of one or more disk
volumes, slice volumes, stripe volumes, or metavolumes. A
metavolume is required to create a file system because metavolumes
provide the expandable storage capacity that is needed to dynamically
expand file systems. A metavolume also provides a way to form a
logical volume larger than a single disk.
Create a stripe volume
To create a stripe volume using Celerra Manager:
1. Select Storage > Volumes in Celerra Manager. The Volumes page
appears.
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Figure 28
Volumes
2. Click New. The New Volume dialog box appears.
3. Select Stripe and name the new storage volume. Select the disk
volumes. From the Stripe Size (KB) box, select the stripe size as 32.
Storage considerations
101
Figure 29
Create a stripe volume
In CLI, to create a stripe volume, use the following command:
$ nas_volume -name <name> -create -Stripe <stripe_size>
<volume_name>,<volume_name>,...
where:
name is the name of the stripe volume
stripe_size is the size of the stripe volume in megabytes
volume_name is the name of the volume
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Example:
To create a stripe volume called stv1, type:
$ nas_volume -name stv1 -create -Stripe 8192
d10,d12,d13,d15
Create a metavolume
To create a metavolume using Celerra Manager:
1. Select Storage > Volumes in Celerra Manager. The Volumes page
appears.
2. Click New. The New Volume dialog box appears.
Figure 30
New Volume
3. In Type, select Meta.
4. In the Volume Name field, type the name of the new storage
volume.
Storage considerations
103
5. In Volumes CLSTD field, select the stripe volume and then click
OK. The metavolume is created.
In CLI, to create a metavolume from a stripe volume, use the following
command:
$ nas_volume -name <name> -create -Meta <volume_name>
where:
name is the name of the stripe volume
volume_name is the name assigned to the metavolume
3.5.2.3 File system configuration with MVM
A file system is simply a method of naming and logically organizing
files and directories on a storage system. A file system on a Celerra
Network Server must be created and stored on a metavolume. A
metavolume is required to create a file system; the metavolume
provides the expandable storage capacity that might be needed to
dynamically expand a file system.
Create a single file system on the metavolume using Celerra Manager
GUI or CLI:
1. In Celerra Manager, click File Systems on the left pane, and then
click New. The New File System page appears.
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Figure 31
File Systems
2. Select Meta Volume and name the file system. Select the
metavolume created in Section 3.5.2.2, ”Create volumes,” on
page 100 for the file system creation.
Storage considerations
105
Figure 32
New File System
To create a file system using CLI, use the following command:
$ nas_fs -name <name> -create <volume_name>
where:
name is the name assigned to a file system
volume_name is the name of the existing volume
Example:
To create a file system with existing volumes called ufs1, type:
$ nas_fs -name ufs1 -create mtv1
The file system created will be used for NFS export to create the NAS
datastore or for creating the iSCSI LUN for creating the VMFS
datastore. Section 3.7, ”Using NFS storage,” on page 128 provides
details about configuring the NFS export, and Section 3.8.3, ”Create
VMFS datastores on ESX,” on page 174 provides details about creating
a VMFS datastore.
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3.5.3 Storage considerations for using Celerra EFDs
An EFD is based on a single-level cell-based flash technology and is
suitable for high-performance and mission-critical applications.
Celerra supports EFDs beginning from version 5.6.43.8. EMC EFDs are
currently available in two variants: tuned performance and tuned
capacity. All EFDs that are 100 GB and larger are tuned-capacity drives.
CLARiiON cache settings when using Celerra EFDs
The CLARiiON write cache for all EFD LUNs used by Celerra must be
enabled, and the CLARiiON read cache for all EFD LUNs must be
disabled.
RAID and LUN configuration when using Celerra EFDs
Currently, Celerra only supports RAID 5 (4+1 or 8+1) with EFDs.
Furthermore, with EFDs, it is recommended that four LUNs per EFD
RAID group be created. Balance the ownership of the LUNs between
the CLARiiON storage processors.
Sample EFD storage layout
Figure 33 is a sample EFD storage layout that shows five disks
configured in RAID 5 (4+1). An EFD hot spare is also configured. Four
LUNs are configured on the RAID group with alternate SP ownership.
Figure 33
Sample storage layout
With the current release (5.6.47 or later), Celerra MVM is recommended
to configure EFD volumes. Users can stripe across multiple dvols from
the same EFD RAID group. A Celerra stripe element size of 256 KB is
recommended and can greatly improve sequential write performance
without impacting other workloads.
Storage considerations
107
File system configuration when using Celerra EFDs
File system creation is similar to the procedure followed with non-EFDs
using MVM. Section 3.5.2.3, ”File system configuration with MVM,” on
page 104 provides further details.
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3.6 VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
Celerra platforms cover a broad range of configuration and capabilities
that scale from midrange to high-end network storage. Although
differences exist along the product line, there are some common
building blocks. These building blocks are combined to fill out a broad,
scalable product line with consistent support and configuration
options.
3.6.1 ESX and Celerra storage settings
When using VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure with Celerra,
consider the following ESX and Celerra settings for optimal
functionality and performance:
◆
Celerra uncached write mechanism
◆
Celerra AntiVirus Agent
◆
Jumbo frames
◆
Maximum number of NAS datastores
◆
ESX NFS heartbeat settings for NFS timeout
Use the default ESX and Celerra settings otherwise.
The following sections provide further details on each of these settings.
3.6.1.1 Celerra uncached write mechanism
The uncached mechanism is recommended as it can enhance write
performance to Celerra over the NFS protocol. This mechanism allows
well-formed writes (for example, multiple disk blocks and disk block
alignments) to be sent directly to the disk without being cached on the
server.
The uncached write mechanism is designed to improve the
performance of applications with many connections to a large file such
as a virtual disk file of a virtual machine. This mechanism can enhance
access to such large files through the NFS protocol.
By default, the uncached mechanism is turned off on Celerra. However,
it can be turned on for a specific file system. When replication software
is used, enable the uncached option on the primary file system. The
uncached option should also be enabled on the secondary file system to
maintain the performance in case of a failover.
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
109
Celerra version 5.6.46.3 or later is required to use the uncached write
mechanism on Celerra NFS with VMware vSphere or VMware
Infrastructure.
The uncached write mechanism can be turned on for a specified file
system using the Control Station command line or the CLI interface in
Celerra Manager.
To enable uncached on a mounted file system, it is not necessary to
unmount the file system and disrupt access to it. Simply issue the
server_mount command using this procedure as though the file system
is not mounted.
From the Control Station command line or the CLI interface in Celerra
Manager, type the following command to enable the uncached write
mechanism for a file system:
$ server_mount <movername> -option <options>, uncached
<fs_name> <mount_point>
where:
movername is the name of the specified Data Mover
options specifies the mount options, separated by commas
fs_name is the name of the file system
mount_point is the path to mount point for the specified Data Mover
Example:
$ server_mount server_2 -option uncached ufs1 /ufs1
Output:
server_2: done
To turn off the uncached option, use the following command:
$ server_umount <movername> -perm {fs_name|mount_point}
Example:
$ server_umount server_2 -perm ufs1
Output:
server_2: done
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
It is possible to disable uncached on a mounted file system that has
uncached enabled. However, it is necessary to disrupt access to the file
system and shut down the virtual machines associated with the file
system.
To disable uncached on a mounted file system that has uncached
enabled:
1. Power off the virtual machines that are running on the datastore
that is configured on the affected file system. Alternatively, critical
virtual machines can be migrated online to another datastore using
Storage vMotion.
2. At this point, when no virtual machine is running on the affected
file system, enter the following two commands from the Control
Station command line or the CLI interface in Celerra Manager. It is
important to ensure that the commands are entered one after the
other.
$ server_umount <movername> -perm <fs_name>
$ server_mount <movername> -option
<options><fs_name><mount_point>
where:
<options> does not include uncached
Example:
$ server_umount server_2 -perm ufs1
$ server_mount server_2 -option rw ufs1/ufs1
After executing both commands, all virtual machines that were running
on the affected datastore can be powered on.
3.6.1.2 Celerra AntiVirus Agent
Celerra AntiVirus Agent (CAVA) provides an antivirus solution to
file-based clients using an EMC Celerra Network Server. It uses
industry-standard CIFS protocols in a Microsoft Windows Server 2003,
Windows 2000, or Windows NT domain. CAVA uses third-party
antivirus software to identify and eliminate known viruses before they
infect files on the storage system. CAVA provide benefits such as scan
on first read, scan on write, and automatic update of virus definition
files to ensure that infected files will not be stored in the Celerra based
shared storage.
Further details on CAVA can be found in the Using Celerra AntiVirus
Agent Technical Module.
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
111
The Celerra antivirus solution is only for clients running the CIFS
protocol. If NFS or FTP protocols are used to move or modify files, the
files are not scanned for viruses. Therefore, files accessed by ESX as part
of the virtual machine deployment (that is, files virtualized in virtual
disks) will not be scanned for viruses. Furthermore, since CAVA is a
file-based solution, block-level storage that is presented to ESX from
Celerra will not be scanned for viruses as well.
However, files accessed by Windows virtual machines through the CIFS
protocol (that is, by using mapped network shares from Celerra) will be
scanned for viruses.
CAVA is most suitable for user data that is accessed using CIFS such as
home directories and network shares. This will permit a centralized
solution for virus scanning avoiding the need to scan these files locally
on each virtual machines.
When CAVA is used, action is required in order to ensure that the
third-party antivirus software that is configured as part of the CAVA
will not attempt to scan virtual disk files. However, if CAVA is not used
in the system no further action is required.
Therefore, if CAVA is used, use either one of the following steps:
◆
For NFS file systems that are presented to ESX, mount the file
system on the Celerra Data Mover with the noscan option. This will
instruct CAVA not to scan this file system. This is the optimal
alternative, as it would get CAVA to focus solely on the file systems
that hold files that should be scanned. If CAVA is not used, using
the noscan option will have no performance impact on the file
system because this option is only used by CAVA.
◆
Alternatively, if a file system is presented to ESX using NFS and
simultaneously also to virtual machines using CIFS, then CAVA can
be configured to exclude all file types that are used for file
encapsulation of a virtual machine. This involves using the excl=
parameter in the viruschecker.conf configuration file.
EMC recommends using the noscan mount option for NFS file systems
presented to ESX. File systems containing virtual machine files and
shared as NFS exports should not also be shared as CIFS shares.
Therefore, the reminder of this section will focus on the first alternative.
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Disable CAVA virus scanning on file systems presented to ESX using
NFS
By default, a Celerra file system is mounted with virus scanning
enabled. If CAVA is used, this setting should be turned off for file
systems that are presented to ESX using NFS. This can be done using
the noscan option. When using replication software, enable the noscan
option on the primary file system. The noscan option should also be
enabled on the secondary file system to prevent virus scanning in case
of a failover.
Use the procedure outlined to turn on the noscan option for a file
system that is presented to ESX using NFS. From the Control Station
command line, or the CLI interface in Celerra Manager, enter the
following command to turn on the noscan option for a file system:
$ server_mount <movername> -option <options>,noscan
<fs_name> <mount_point>
where:
movername is the name of the specified Data Mover
options specifies mount options, separated by commas
fs_name is the name of the file system
mount_point is the path to mount point for the specified Data Mover
Example:
$ server_mount server_2 -option rw,uncached,noscan ufs1
/ufs1
Output:
server_2: done
As seen in the example, it is possible and recommended to enable both
the noscan option and the uncached write mechanism in a single
server_mount command.
To enable noscan on a mounted file system, it is not necessary to
unmount the file system and disrupt access to it. Simply issue the
server_mount command using this procedure as though the file system
is not mounted.
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3.6.1.3 Jumbo frames
Jumbo frames improve the performance of certain I/O-intensive
applications such as databases and backup. VMware vSphere supports
jumbo frames for IP-based storage. It is important to set jumbo frames
in all components in the data path from ESX to Celerra. Therefore,
jumbo frames should be set on the VMkernel port group and vSwitch in
ESX, on the physical network switch, and on the Data Mover ports in
Celerra. Set the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) to 9,000.
Jumbo frames must be enabled on the following devices:
◆
The ESX host CLI should be used to configure jumbo frames on the
VMkernel port group and vSwitch:
1. Use the following command to set MTU in the vSwitch:
esxcfg-vswitch -m 9000 <vSwitch name>
2. Create a port group to attach the VMkernel interface.
3. Create a new VMkernel interface with jumbo frames enabled by
using the following command:
esxcfg-vmknic -a -i <VMkernel IP> -n <VMkernel mask>
-m 9000 -p <VMkernel portgroup>
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◆
Set MTU on the physical switch that connects ESX and Celerra. For
details about setting jumbo frames, refer to the switch
documentation.
◆
In the Celerra Manager GUI, MTU can be set for an interface from
the Network folder.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 34
Network Interface Properties
3.6.1.4 Adjust the ESX maximum number of NAS datastores
By default, ESX 4 supports eight NAS datastores and can support a
maximum of 64 datastores. In contrast, ESX 3.5 can support a maximum
of 32 datastores. If the ESX setting is adjusted, more datastores can be
presented to an ESX host simultaneously. An example is when many
virtual machines are deployed across a large number of file systems.
To adjust the ESX maximum number of NAS datastores, perform the
following steps on each ESX host:
1. Log in to the vSphere Client or the VMware Infrastructure Client
and select the server from the Inventory area.
2. Click the Configuration tab and click Advanced Settings from the
left pane. The Advanced Settings dialog box appears.
3. Select NFS to display the NFS settings for the ESX host.
4. Modify NFS.MaxVolumes to 64 (or 32 with VMware Infrastructure)
as shown in Figure 35 on page 116.
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
115
Figure 35
Modify NFS.MaxVolumes on each ESX host
Note that presenting additional datastores to ESX may require
additional server resources. To accommodate this additional ESX, heap
memory should be allocated. Heap is the memory allocated in runtime
during the VMkernel program execution. To do this, the following
settings should be made on each ESX host: Net.TcpipHeapSize to 30,
and Net.TcpipHeapMax to 120 as shown in Figure 36 on page 117.
Refer to the VMware KB article 2239 at
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2239 for more details and for the steps to
define the settings.
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Figure 36
Set Net.TcpipHeapSize and Net.TcpipHeapMax parameters
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
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3.6.1.5 ESX host timeout settings for NFS
The following NFS heartbeat parameters should be tuned to increase
the NAS datastore availability:
◆
NFS.HeartbeatTimeout
The amount of time taken before the NFS heartbeat request
terminates.
◆
NFS.HeartbeatMaxFailures
The number of consecutive heartbeat requests that must fail before
the NFS server is marked as unavailable.
◆
NFS.HeartbeatDelta
The amount of time after a successful GETATTR request before the
heartbeat world issues a heartbeat request for a volume. If an NAS
datastore is in an unavailable state, an update is sent every time the
heartbeat world runs (NFS.HeartbeatFrequency seconds).
◆
NFS.HeartbeatFrequency
The frequency at which the NFS heartbeat world runs to see if any
NAS datastore needs a heartbeat request.
Table 1 lists the default and recommended values of ESX NFS heartbeat
parameter settings, which ensure that virtual machines will be
consistent during Data Mover outages.
Table 1
Default and recommended values of ESX NFS heartbeat parameters
ESX NFS parameters
Default
Recommended
NFS.HeartbeatFrequency
9
12
NFS.Heartbeat Timeout
5
5
NFS.HeartbeatDelta
5
5
NFS.HeartbeatMaxFailures
3
10
To view and modify the ESX NFS heartbeat parameters, perform the
following steps on each ESX host:
1. Log in to the vSphere Client or the VMware Infrastructure Client
and select the server from the Inventory area.
2. Select the ESX host.
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3. Click Configuration and click Advanced Settings. The Advanced
Settings dialog box appears.
4. Select NFS as shown in Figure 37 on page 119.
5. Modify the required NFS heartbeat parameters, and then click OK.
Figure 37
Configure ESX NFS heartbeat parameters
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
119
Section 3.14, “VMware Resiliency,” on page 315 provides more details
on this recommended setting.
3.6.2 ESX iSCSI HBA and NIC driver configuration
Drivers for supported iSCSI HBA and NIC cards are provided by
VMware as part of the VMware ESX distribution. The VMware
Compatibility Guide provides information about supported HBA and
NIC cards with VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure. The EMC
E-Lab Interoperability Navigator utility available on EMC Powerlink
provides information about supported HBA and NIC cards for
connectivity of VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure to Celerra.
3.6.3 VMkernel port configuration in ESX
The VMkernel port group enables the use of iSCSI and NFS storage on
ESX. When storage is configured on Celerra, the ESX host must have a
VMkernel port group defined with network access to the Celerra
storage. At a functional level, the VMkernel manages the IP storage
interfaces including those used for iSCSI and NFS access to Celerra.
When ESX is configured for IP storage with Celerra, the VMkernel
network interfaces are configured to access one or more Data Mover
iSCSI targets or NFS servers.
To configure the VMkernel interface:
Note: This configuration also applies to VMware Infrastructure.
1. Log in to the vSphere Client or the VMware Infrastructure Client
and select the server from the Inventory area.
2. Click Configuration and click Networking from the left pane. The
Networking page appears.
3. Click Add Networking.
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Figure 38
VMkernel configuration - Add Networking
The Add Network Wizard appears.
Figure 39
Add Network Wizard - Connection Type
4. Select VMkernel, and then click Next. The VMkernel - Network
Access dialog box appears.
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
121
Figure 40
VMkernel - Network Access
5. To set the network access:
a. Select the vSwitch that will handle the network traffic for the
connection.
b. Select the checkboxes for the network adapters the vSwitch will
use. Select adapters for each vSwitch so that virtual machines or
other services that connect through the adapter can reach the
correct Ethernet segment. If no adapters appear under Create a
virtual switch, all network adapters in the system are being used
by existing vSwitches. Create a new vSwitch without a network
adapter, or select a network adapter that an existing vSwitch
uses.
c. Click Next. The VMkernel - Connection Settings dialog box
appears.
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Figure 41
Add Network Wizard - VMkernel - Connection Settings
6. To set the connection settings:
a. Type a Network Label to identify the VMkernel connection
when managing the connection and identify the VLAN ID
(Optional) that the port group's network traffic will use.
b. Select Use this port group for VMotion to enable this port
group to advertise itself to another host as the network
connection where vMotion traffic should be sent. This property
can be enabled for only one vMotion and IP storage port group
for each host. If this property is not enabled for any port group,
migration with vMotion to this host is not possible.
c. If required, select Use this port group for Fault Tolerance
logging, and then click Next. The VMkernel - IP Connection
Settings dialog box appears.
Note: It is recommended that Fault Tolerance logging be done on a
dedicated interface. The VMware Availability guide provides further
information (VMware vSphere only).
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
123
Figure 42
Add Network Wizard - VMkernel - IP Connection Settings
7. To specify the VMkernal IP settings, do one of the following:
• Select Obtain IP settings automatically to use DHCP to obtain
IP settings.
• Select Use the following IP settings to specify IP settings
manually.
8. If Use the following IP settings is selected, provide the following
details:
a. Type the IP Address and Subnet Mask for the VMkernel
interface. This address must be different from the IP address set
for the service console.
b. Click Edit to set the VMkernel Default Gateway for VMkernel
services, such as vMotion, NAS, and iSCSI.
c. Click DNS Configuration. The name of the host is entered by
default. The DNS server addresses that were specified during
installation and the domain are also preselected.
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Figure 43
DNS Configuration
d. Click Routing. The service console and the VMkernel each need
their own gateway information. A gateway is needed for
connectivity to machines not on the same IP subnet as the
service console or VMkernel. The default is static IP settings.
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
125
Figure 44
Routing
e. Click OK, and then click Next.
9. On an IPv6-enabled host, select No IPv6 settings to use only IPv4
settings on the VMkernel interface, or select Use the following IPv6
settings to configure IPv6 for the VMkernel interface.
Note: This dialog box does not appear when IPv6 is disabled on the host.
10. If IPv6 is used for the VMkernel interface, select one of the
following options to obtain IPv6 addresses:
• Obtain IPv6 addresses automatically through DHCP
• Obtain IPv6 addresses automatically through router
advertisement
• Static IPv6 addresses
11. If static IPv6 addresses are used:
a. Click Add to add a new IPv6 address.
b. Type the IPv6 address and subnet prefix length, and then click
OK.
c. To change the VMkernel default gateway, click Edit.
12. Click Next.
13. In the Ready to Complete dialog box, verify the settings and click
Finish to complete the process.
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Figure 45
Add Network Wizard - Ready to Complete
Because the VMkernel interface is in effect the I/O path to the data, it is
a recommended practice to segment the Celerra network traffic from
other network traffic. This can be achieved either through a private
LAN in a virtual LAN environment, or through a dedicated IP SAN
switch and a dedicated physical NIC. Based on the throughput
requirements for the virtual machines, additional interfaces can be
configured for additional network paths to the Celerra Data Mover.
Section 3.13, “Storage multipathing,” on page 278 provides further
details about implementing advanced multipathing configurations
with Celerra.
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure configuration
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3.7 Using NFS storage
The configuration of Celerra NFS with VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure includes two primary steps:
◆
Add a Celerra file system to ESX – In Celerra, create a Celerra file
system and export it to ESX.
◆
Create a NAS datastore on ESX – In ESX, configure a NAS
datastore in ESX on the provisioned Celerra file system.
The following sections provide details about these two steps.
3.7.1 Add a Celerra file system to ESX
The administrator should make appropriate changes such as creating
and exporting a file system to the EMC Celerra storage. Create an NFS
export using Celerra Manager. Exported file systems are available
across the network and can be presented to the ESX hosts.
To create a Celerra file system and add it to ESX:
1. Create a file system using Celerra Manager. Section 3.5, ”Storage
considerations,” on page 94 provides details about the file system
configuration considerations.
2. In Celerra Manager, click File Systems on the left pane.
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Figure 46
File Systems
3. Click New. The New File System page appears. Enter the details,
and then click OK.
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129
Figure 47
New File System
4. Enable recommended settings for the file system by using the
following command:
$ server_mount <movername> -option <options> <fs_name>
<mount_point>
<options>:
[uncached] [noscan]
Section 3.6.1.1, ”Celerra uncached write mechanism,” on page 109
provides steps on how to turn on the uncached option when
mounting the filesystem.
Section 3.6.1.2, “Celerra AntiVirus Agent,” on page 111 provides
information for the noscan option if CAVA is used.
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5. To create an NFS export, click NFS Exports in Celerra Manager, and
then click New. The NFS Exports page appears.
Figure 48
NFS Exports
6. Select the File System and Path and click New. The NFS export is
created.
The NFS export must include the following permissions for the
VMkernel port that is configured in the VMware ESX server:
• Root Hosts – Provides the VMkernel port with root access to the
file system
• Access Hosts – Provides only the VMkernel port mount with
access to the file system (while denying such access from other
hosts)
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Figure 49
NFS Export Properties
7. Configure access permissions for the VMkernel port on the NFS
Export.
8. To view the access permissions, type the VMkernel port IP address
in the Root Hosts and Access Hosts fields. Figure 49 shows an NFS
export that consists of required access permissions for the VMkernel
port.
9. Click OK. The NFS export is created.
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3.7.2 Create a NAS datastore on an ESX server
vCenter Server and VMware Infrastructure are used to configure and
mount NFS file systems from Celerra to the ESX hosts. The vSphere
Client is also used to assign a datastore name to the export. The
datastore name is the key reference that is used to manage the datastore
within the ESX environment.
A NAS datastore is viewed as a pool of space used to provision virtual
machines. One or more virtual disks and all the virtual machine's
encapsulated files are created within the datastore and assigned to each
newly created virtual machine. Each virtual machine can have one (or
more) virtual disks that will contain the guest OS and the applications.
Section 3.10, ”Virtual machine considerations,” on page 222 provides
the configuration consideration to create virtual machines.
NAS datastores offer support for virtual disks, virtual machine
configuration files, snapshots, disk extension, vMotion, and disaster
recovery services.
Additionally, Celerra provides support for replication, local snapshots,
NDMP backups, and virtual provisioning of the file systems used for
ESX.
To create a NAS datastore on a Celerra file system that was exported to
ESX:
Note: This configuration also applies to VMware Infrastructure.
1. Log in to the vSphere Client (or VMware Infrastructure Client) and
select the server from the Inventory area.
2. Click Configuration and click Storage from the left pane.
Figure 50
Add Storage
Using NFS storage
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3. Click Add Storage. The Add Storage wizard appears.
Figure 51
Add Storage - Select Storage Type
4. Select Network File System, and then click Next. The Locate
Network File System dialog box appears.
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Figure 52
Add Storage - Locate Network File System
5. In the Server field, type the Celerra network interface IP. In the
Folder field, type the name of the file system with NFS Export.
Section 3.7.1, ”Add a Celerra file system to ESX,” on page 128
provides details about how to create the NFS export. Click Next.
The Network File System dialog box appears.
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Figure 53
Add Storage - Network File System
6. Click Finish to complete the creation of the NAS datastore.
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3.8 Using iSCSI storage
The configuration of Celerra iSCSI with VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure includes three primary steps:
◆
Add a Celerra iSCSI LUN/device to ESX – In Celerra and ESX,
configure a Celerra iSCSI LUN and present it to the ESX server.
◆
Create a VMFS datastore on ESX – In ESX, configure a VMFS
datastore over the iSCSI LUNs that were provisioned from Celerra.
VMware ESX, the key component of the VMware vSphere and VMware
Virtual Infrastructure virtualization platforms, supports iSCSI storage
provisioning.
iSCSI is a transport protocol for sending SCSI packets over TCP/IP
networks. The iSCSI architecture is based on the client/server model in
which an iSCSI host system (client) encapsulates SCSI packets through
an iSCSI initiator and sends them to a storage device (server) through
an iSCSI target. Similar to FC storage, storage provisioning of iSCSI
storage in ESX servers is accomplished by creating a VMFS datastore
that contains iSCSI LUNs that are configured on the iSCSI storage
system.
A dynamic virtualized environment requires changes to the storage
infrastructure. This may include the addition and removal of storage
devices presented to an ESX server. Both of these functions can be
performed when ESX is online. However, since the removal of storage
from an existing environment poses a high level of risk, extreme care is
recommended if storage is removed from an ESX server. Adding or
removing EMC Celerra iSCSI devices to and from an ESX server
requires two steps:
◆
Configuration changes must be made to the Celerra storage array
◆
Configuration changes made to the VMware ESX server
The configuration changes on the EMC Celerra storage array can be
made using Celerra Manager. Subsequently, steps must be taken to
make the VMkernel discover the new configuration.
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3.8.1 Configuration considerations for Celerra iSCSI with VMware vSphere and
VMware Infrastructure
This section describes items to review when configuring Celerra iSCSI.
3.8.1.1 iSCSI HBA and NIC
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure support iSCSI hardware
initiators and Ethernet NICs with Celerra iSCSI. An iSCSI hardware
initiator reduces the load on the ESX host CPU because of its own I/O
processor. Host bus adapters (HBAs) over iSCSI allow virtual machines
access to logical SCSI devices, just as a physical HBA allows access to
physical storage devices. The NICs over iSCSI that connect to the
Ethernet network help in NIC teaming, which in turn helps in NIC
failover and iSCSI traffic load balancing across the NICs to multiple
iSCSI targets. For information on supported HBA to be used with
Celerra iSCSI, refer to EMC E-Lab Navigator on Powerlink.
3.8.1.2 ESX iSCSI initiator and guest OS iSCSI initiator
ESX iSCSI initiator provides an interface for an iSCSI client (ESX host)
to access storage on the iSCSI target (storage device). Two
implementations of iSCSI initiators are available in ESX: software
initiator and hardware initiator.
A software initiator is a driver that interacts with the ESX host to
connect to the iSCSI target through an Ethernet adapter that is attached
to the ESX host. A hardware initiator is an adapter card that is installed
on the ESX host that implements connectivity from the iSCSI client (ESX
host) to the iSCSI target.
A third implementation of iSCSI initiator is through a guest OS iSCSI
initiator. Guest OS iSCSI initiators are thirty-party software iSCSI
initiators available for download and can be successfully installed to a
supported guest operating system running in a virtual machine. Tests
conducted by VMware have shown that the performance of the
Microsoft software initiator running inside a virtual machine is almost
equal to running the software initiator within a physical server
The "Running a Third-Party iSCSI initiator in the Virtual Machine"
section in the SAN System - Design and Deployment Guide provides more
information about how to use a third-party initiator in a VMware
environment.
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3.8.2 Add a Celerra iSCSI device/LUN to ESX
This is the first primary step to configure Celerra iSCSI with ESX. This
section provides details on how to add an iSCSI LUN in Celerra and
how to present it to ESX for iSCSI-based connectivity.
Before adding an iSCSI device in Celerra, install and configure an iSCSI
initiator. There are three types of initiators that can be installed based on
the preferred iSCSI configuration alternative — ESX software initiator,
ESX hardware initiator, and Microsoft software initiator. Each type has
a distinct installation method. Section 3.8.2.1, ”ESX iSCSI software
initiator,” on page 139, Section 3.8.2.2, ”ESX iSCSI hardware initiator,”
on page 154, and Section 3.8.2.4, ”Microsoft iSCSI software initiator,” on
page 163 provide further details.
The configuration of iSCSI devices requires the ESX host to have a
network connection configured for IP storage and to have the iSCSI
service enabled. Section 3.6.2, ”ESX iSCSI HBA and NIC driver
configuration,” on page 120 provides details about how to configure the
VMkernel.
3.8.2.1 ESX iSCSI software initiator
To configure an iSCSI LUN using the ESX software initiator:
Note: This configuration also applies to VMware Infrastructure.
1. Log in to the vSphere Client and select the server from the
Inventory pane.
2. Click Configuration and click Security Profile from the left pane.
The Security Profile page appears.
Using iSCSI storage
139
Figure 54
Security Profile
3. Click Properties. The Firewall Properties page appears.
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Figure 55
Firewall Properties
4. Select Software iSCSI Client, and then click OK.
5. In the vSphere Client, click Configuration and select Storage
Adapters from the Hardware pane. The Storage Adapters page
appears.
Using iSCSI storage
141
Figure 56
Storage Adapters
6. Click Properties The iSCSI Initiator Properties dialog box appears.
It displays the iSCSI properties such as Name, Alias, Target
discovery methods, and Software Initiator Properties.
Figure 57
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iSCSI Initiator Properties
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
7. Click Configure. The General Properties dialog box appears. It
displays the iSCSI Properties and Status.
Figure 58
General Properties
8. Select Enabled. At this point, it is recommended to change the iSCSI
Name to a name that is more user-friendly such as
iqn.1998-01.com.vmware:<FQDN>. For example:
iqn.1998-01.com.vmware:esx001-lab-corp-emc-com. Click OK to
save the changes.
9. In the iSCSI Initiator Properties dialog box, click Dynamic
Discovery, and then click Add. The Add Send Target Server dialog
box appears.
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143
Note: Target discovery addresses are set up so that the iSCSI initiator can
determine which storage resource on the network is available for access.
VMware vSphere support two discovery methods: Dynamic Discovery and
Static Discovery. With Dynamic Discovery, each time the initiator contacts a
specified iSCSI server, a Send Targets request is sent to the server by the
initiator. The server responds by supplying a list of available targets to the
initiator.
Figure 59
Add Send Target Server
10. Type the IP addresses of the Data Mover interfaces using which the
iSCSI initiator communicates, and then click OK. After the host
establishes the Send Targets session with this system, any newly
discovered targets appear in the Dynamic Discovery list.
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Figure 60
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Dynamic Discovery
11. Configure the iSCSI LUNs on Celerra and mask them to the IQN of
the software initiator defined for this ESX server host.
Note: The IQN can be identified in the iSCSI Initiator Properties dialog
box as shown in Figure 29 on page 102. The default device name for the
software initiator is vmhba32. The IQN name can also be obtained by using
the vmkiscsi-iname command from the service console. The management
interface is used to enable the iSCSI service and to define the network
portal that is used to access the Celerra iSCSI target.
The Celerra Manager iSCSI wizard can be used to configure an iSCSI
LUN.
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145
Figure 61
Wizards - Select a Wizard
12. Click New iSCSI Lun. The New iSCSI Lun Wizard appears.
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Figure 62
New iSCSI Lun Wizard
13. Select the Data Mover information, and then click Next. The
Select/Create Target dialog box appears.
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147
Figure 63
Select/Create Target
14. Select the target for the new iSCSI LUN, and then click Next. The
Select/Create File System dialog box appears.
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Figure 64
Select/Create File System
15. Select the file system to create the new LUN, and then click Next.
The Enter LUN Info dialog box appears.
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149
Figure 65
Enter LUN Info
16. Type the new LUN number and the size of the new LUN, and then
click Next. The LUN Masking dialog box appears. Click Next.
Note: If the IQN of the ESX server software is known, the LUN can be
masked to the host for further configuration. LUNs are provisioned
through Celerra Manager from the Celerra file system and masked to the
IQN of the ESX server host iSCSI software initiator. Like NFS, the VMkernel
network interface is used to establish the iSCSI session with the Celerra
target.
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Figure 66
LUN Masking
17. If the IQN of the ESX server software is known, the LUN can be
masked to the host for further configuration. If there are multiple
ESX servers, click Enable Multiple Access and add the IQNs of the
remaining ESX servers in the VMware DRS Cluster. Click Next. The
CHAP Access (Optional) dialog box appears.
Note: LUNs are provisioned through Celerra Manager from the Celerra file
system and masked to the IQN of the ESX server host iSCSI software
initiator. Like NFS, the VMkernel network interface is used to establish the
iSCSI session with the Celerra target.
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151
Figure 67
Overview/Results
18. Click Next. A final summary of the LUN creation appears. Click
Finish.
19. After the configuration steps are complete on the ESX server and
Celerra, return to the Storage Adapters page of the vCenter Server
as shown in Figure 68 on page 153. Scan the iSCSI bus to identify
the LUNs that have been configured for this ESX server host.
In the Hardware area of the Configuration tab, select Storage
Adapters. In the Storage Adapters page, click Rescan or right-click
an individual adapter and click Rescan to rescan just that adapter.
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Figure 68
Storage Adapters
To discover new disks or LUNs, select Scan for New Storage
Devices. To discover new datastores or to update a datastore after
its configuration has been changed, select Scan for New VMFS
Volumes.
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153
Figure 69
Rescan
If new VMFS datastores are discovered, they appear in the datastore
list. New storage devices (devices without an existing VMFS
datastore) will need to be named and formatted.
3.8.2.2 ESX iSCSI hardware initiator
To configure an iSCSI LUN using an ESX iSCSI hardware initiator:
1. Log in to the vSphere Client or VMware Infrastructure Client and
select the server from the Inventory area.
2. Click Configuration, and then select Storage Adapters from the left
pane. The Storage Adapters page appears.
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Figure 70
Storage Adapters
3. Verify if the iSCSI HBA is successfully installed on the ESX host and
functioning correctly.
Note: The HBA appears in the Storage Adapters section of the
Configuration page.
Figure 71
Storage Adapters - Properties
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155
4. Select the hardware adapter, and then click Properties. The iSCSI
Initiator Properties dialog box appears.
Figure 72
iSCSI Initiator Properties
5. Click Configure. The General Properties dialog box appears.
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Figure 73
General Properties
6. Type the required details such as IP Address of the hardware
initiator, Subnet Mask, and Default Gateway, and then click OK.
7. In the iSCSI Initiator Properties dialog box, click Dynamic
Discovery.
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Figure 74
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Dynamic Discovery
8. Click Add. The Add Send Target Server dialog box appears.
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Figure 75
Add Send Target Server
9. Type the IP address of the Data Mover interfaces using which the
iSCSI initiator communicates, and then click OK.
10. Configure the iSCSI LUNs on Celerra and mask them to the IQN of
the hardware initiator defined for this ESX server host.
Note: The IQN can be identified in the iSCSI Initiator Properties dialog box.
Note: The Celerra Manager iSCSI Wizard can be used to configure an iSCSI
LUN. If the IQN of the ESX server is known, the LUN can be masked to the
host for further configuration. LUNs are provisioned through Celerra
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Manager from the Celerra file system and masked to the IQN of the ESX
server host iSCSI hardware initiator. Similar to NFS, the VMkernel network
interface is used to establish the iSCSI session with the Celerra target.
11. To create a new iSCSI LUN, use the New ISCSI Lun wizard
available in Celerra Manager as shown in Figure 76.
Figure 76
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The procedure to create a new iSCSI LUN using the New iSCSI Lun
Wizard is explained in Section 3.8.2.1, ”ESX iSCSI software
initiator,” on page 139 starting from step 10 onwards.
12. After the configuration steps have been completed on the ESX
server and the Celerra, return to the Storage Adapters page as
shown in Figure 76 on page 160, and scan the iSCSI bus to identify
the LUNs that have been configured for this ESX server host.
3.8.2.3 Remove iSCSI devices from the ESX server
Extreme care must be taken before removing iSCSI devices from an
existing environment. A datastore can be removed by using the
VMware Infrastructure Client.
To remove iSCSI devices from the ESX server:
Note: This configuration also applies to VMware Infrastructure.
1. Power off or migrate all virtual machines that use the datastore to
be removed. Virtual machines that are still required should be
migrated to another VMFS datastore without disruption using
Storage vMotion.
2. For each virtual machine remaining in the affected datastore, select
it from the inventory. Right-click the virtual machine, and then
select Remove from Inventory.
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Figure 77
Remove from Inventory option
3. Select the ESX server, and then click Configuration.
4. Click Storage from the Hardware area. The Datastores page
appears.
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Figure 78
Datastores
5. Select the datastore to be removed, and then click Delete. The
datastore is removed from the list of datastores.
Figure 79
Datastores - Delete
6. Mask or remove the LUN from the Celerra storage array and rescan
it to prevent the ESX server from discovering the LUN again.
3.8.2.4 Microsoft iSCSI software initiator
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure support the ability to run
an iSCSI software initiator on the guest OS that runs inside the virtual
machine. This is needed in cases where the virtual machine should
leverage the iSCSI features available in the Windows guest OS and
bypass the iSCSI features of ESX. An example is using MSCS for a
virtual to physical Windows-based clustering. This configuration is
fully supported with Celerra. In this case, the iSCSI software initiator
must be supported to run in the guest OS. For Windows, Microsoft is
providing such a software initiator.
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Configure Celerra to use Microsoft iSCSI
To configure Celerra to use Microsoft iSCSI:
1. Provision the iSCSI LUN using Celerra Manager on a file system
and add it to an iSCSI target.
Figure 80
iSCSI Target Properties - Target
2. From Celerra Manager, click iSCSI followed by Targets. Right-click
the appropriate iSCSI target, and then select Properties to display
the iSCSI Target Properties as shown in Figure 80.
3. To grant the iSCSI LUN to the ESX software initiator, which is
connected to the target, click the LUN Mask tab to display the list of
configured LUN masks for the selected iSCSI target as shown in
Figure 81.
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Figure 81
iSCSi Target Properties - LUN Mask
4. Select the respective iqn. Right-click the iqn. Select Properties. Edit
Grant LUNs by typing in the corresponding LUN and click Apply.
Configure ESX and virtual machines
To configure ESX and virtual machines:
1. Add vSwitches and add physical NICs to the vSwitches.
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Figure 82
Networking
2. Add a virtual NIC to the virtual machine and connect the NIC to a
different virtual machine network.
Configure Microsoft iSCSI initiator in the Windows guest OS using
Celerra iSCSI
To configure Microsoft iSCSI initiator in the Windows guest OS using
Celerra iSCSI:
1. Install the latest Microsoft iSCSI initiator.
2. From the Control Panel, start iSCSI Initiator Properties. The iSCSI
Initiator Properties dialog box appears.
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Figure 83
iSCSi Initiator Properties
3. Click Discovery. The Discovery tab appears.
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Figure 84
iSCSi Initiator Properties - Discovery
4. Click Add Portal. The Add Target Portal dialog box appears.
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Figure 85
Add Target Portal
5. Type the Celerra target portal IP address from two different subnets
(from two different switches for network redundancy), and then
click OK. The target portals are added.
Figure 86
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Target portal added
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6. In the iSCSI Initiator Properties dialog box, click Targets. The list
of targets appears.
Figure 87
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Targets
7. Select the appropriate Celerra target, and then click Log on. The Log
On to Target dialog box appears.
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Figure 88
Log On to Target
8. Select Automatically restore this connection when the computer
starts.
9. Click Advanced. The Advanced Settings dialog box appears.
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Figure 89
Advanced Settings
10. Select the Source IP and Target portal for the session, and then click
OK. A new session is created.
11. Similarly, create another session by specifying another Source IP
and Target portal.
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Figure 90
iSCSI Initiator Properties - Targets
12. In the iSCSI Initiator Properties dialog box, verify that the initiator
status in the targets list is in a connected stage to complete the
process.
Note: If a Windows virtual machine is configured to use Microsoft iSCSI
initiator, the virtual machine can access Celerra iSCSI LUNs directly without
going through the virtualization layer. Refer to the Microsoft website
(www.microsoft.com) to download the software initiator.
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3.8.3 Create VMFS datastores on ESX
A VMFS datastore can be created on ESX after the Celerra iSCSI device
is added using one of the methods explained in Section 3.8.2, ”Add a
Celerra iSCSI device/LUN to ESX,” on page 139.
To create a VMFS datastore using the VMware vSphere Client or the
VMware Infrastructure Client:
1. Log in to the vSphere Client and select the server from the
Inventory area.
2. Click Configuration, and then click Storage from the left pane. All
available datastores on ESX are displayed.
Figure 91
Datastores
3. To create a datastore, click Add Storage. The Add Storage wizard
appears.
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Figure 92
Add Storage - Select Storage Type
4. Select Disk/LUN, and then click Next. The Select Disk/LUN dialog
box appears.
Note: The wizard presents all available iSCSI or SCSI attached devices.
Devices that have existing VMware file systems are not presented. This is
independent of whether or not that device contains free space. However,
devices with existing non-VMFS formatted partitions but with free space
are visible in the wizard.
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Figure 93
Add Storage - Select Disk/LUN
5. Select the appropriate device in the list, and then click Next. The
iSCSI device can be selected based on the LUN number.
6. Based on whether the LUN is blank or not, the following dialog box
appears:
• If the LUN is blank, the Current Disk Layout dialog box appears
as shown in Figure 95 on page 179.
• If the LUN presented has a VMFS volume, the Select VMFS
Mount Options dialog box appears (Figure 94 on page 177).
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Figure 94
Add Storage - Select VMFS Mount Options
7. To resignature a VMFS datastore copy, select Assign a new
signature.
In VMware Infrastructure, administrators must configure the LVM
advanced configuration parameters, LVM.DisallowsnapshotLun
and LVM.EnableResignature, to control the clone behavior. To
discover the storage to the ESX server, select the appropriate
combination of the LVM advanced configuration parameters.
The LVM.DisallowsnapshotLun and LVM.EnableResignature
parameters have the following combinations.
• Combination 1 (default combination): EnableResignature=0,
DisallowSnapshotLUN=1
In this combination, snapshots of VMFS volumes cannot be
discovered into the ESX server regardless of whether the ESX
server has access to the original LUN or not. The VMFS
formatted LUNs must have the same ID for each ESX server.
• Combination 2: EnableResignature=1,
DisallowSnapshotLUN=1 (default value)
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In this combination, the snapshots of the VMFS volumes are
discovered into the same ESX servers without any VMFS
formatting. The LUNs are resignatured automatically.
• Combination 3: EnableResignature=0,
DisallowSnapshotLUN=0
In this combination, only one snapshot of a given LUN is
available to the ESX server and this LUN will not be
resignatured.
To modify the ESX LVM parameters:
a. From the VMware Infrastructure Client, connect to the
vCenter Server.
b. Select the ESX server.
c. Click Configuration and click Advanced Settings. The
Advanced Settings dialog box appears.
d. Select LVM.
e. Change the values of LVM.EnableResignature to 1, and retain
the default value (1) of the LVM.DisallowSnapshotLUN
parameter (as per combination 2).
f. Click OK. The values are accepted.
g. Rescan the HBAs. The promoted LUNs are added to the
storage without the VMFS formatting.
8. Click Next. The Current Disk Layout dialog box appears.
Note: Use the datastore resignature to retain the data stored on the VMFS
datastore. In VMware Infrastructure, to add the LUN to the storage without
resignature, the LVM advanced configuration parameter,
LVM.EnableResignature must be set to 1. To configure the virtual machine
advanced parameters, select the server from the Inventory area, select
Configuration, and select Advanced Settings from the Software area.
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Figure 95
Add Storage - Current Disk Layout
9. The entire disk space for the storage configuration is automatically
presented. Click Next. The Properties dialog box appears.
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Figure 96
Add Storage - Properties
10. Type the datastore name, and then click Next. The Disk/LUN Formatting dialog box appears.
Figure 97
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Add Storage - Disk/LUN - Formatting
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
11. Maintain the default selections, and then click Next. The Ready to
Complete dialog box appears.
Note: The block size of the VMware file system influences the maximum
size of a single file on the file system. The default block size (1 MB) should
not be changed unless a virtual disk larger than 256 GB has to be created on
that file system. However, unlike other file systems, VMFS-3 is a self-tuning
file system that changes the allocation unit based on the size of the file that
is being created. This approach reduces wasted space commonly found in
file systems with an average file size smaller than the block size.
Figure 98
Add Storage - Ready to Complete
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12. Click Finish. The VMFS datastore is now created on the selected
device.
3.8.4 Create RDM volumes on ESX servers
RDM is a mapping file in a separate VMFS volume that acts as a proxy
for a raw physical device, which is a SCSI device used directly by a
virtual machine. The RDM contains metadata to manage and redirect
disk access to the physical device.
An RDM volume provides a virtual machine with direct access to a
LUN in Celerra. This is unlike a VMFS datastore where the virtual
machine really accesses a file in the VMFS datastore. With RDM, the
virtual machine and the applications running in it can be configured
knowing that its virtual disk is a one-to-one mapping to a physical LUN
in Celerra. An RDM volume enables applications that need access to a
physical LUN, such as SAN management applications and
virtual-to-physical clustering, to be run in a virtual machine.
Previously, it was regarded that an RDM volume will have better
performance than a VMFS datastore. However, VMware has shown
that there is no significant performance difference from using an RDM
volume. VMware, therefore, does not recommend using an RDM
volume unless it is required by the applications, when access to the
storage would be configured and managed centrally within ESX for all
virtual machines.
RDM volumes are created on ESX servers by presenting LUNs to the
ESX server and then adding the raw LUN through the virtual machine's
Edit Settings option.
To create a RDM volume on ESX:
1. Create a virtual machine.
2. Configure RDM on the virtual machine.
3.8.4.1 Create a virtual machine
To create and configure a virtual machine:
1. Log in to the VMware vSphere Client or the VMware Infrastructure
Client.
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Figure 99
New Virtual Machine option
2. Right-click the host and select New Virtual Machine. The Create
New Virtual Machine wizard appears.
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Figure 100 Create New Virtual Machine
3. Select Custom, and then click Next. The Name and Location dialog
box appears.
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Figure 101 Create New Virtual Machine - Name and Location
4. Type the name and select the location for the new virtual machine,
and then click Next. The Datastore dialog box appears.
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Figure 102 Create New Virtual Machine - Datastore
5. Select the datastore where the new virtual machine must be created,
and then click Next. The Virtual Machine Version dialog box
appears.
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Figure 103 Create New Virtual Machine - Virtual Machine Version
6. Select Virtual Machine Version: 7 if the following conditions are
fulfilled:
• If the virtual machine created will run on ESX server version 4
and later and VMware Server 2.0.
• If the virtual machine should have any of the latest VMware
vSphere virtual machine features.
• If the virtual machine does not need to be migrated to ESX 3.
Note: This option is not available in VMware Infrastructure.
7. Click Next. The Guest Operating System dialog box appears.
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Figure 104 Create New Virtual Machine - Guest Operating System
8. Choose the desired compatibility mode for the RDM volume:
virtual or physical:
• Virtual compatibility mode for an RDM specifies full
virtualization of the mapped device. It appears to the guest
operating system exactly the same as a virtual disk file in a
VMFS volume. The real hardware characteristics are hidden.
Virtual mode allows customers using raw disks to realize the
benefits of VMFS, such as advanced file locking for data
protection and snapshots for streamlining development
processes. Virtual mode is also more portable across storage
hardware than physical mode, presenting the same behavior as a
virtual disk file.
• Physical compatibility mode for an RDM specifies minimal SCSI
virtualization of the mapped device, allowing the greatest
flexibility for SAN management software. In physical mode, the
VMkernel passes all SCSI commands to the device, with one
exception: the REPORT LUNs command is virtualized, so that
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the VMkernel can isolate the LUN for the owning virtual
machine. Otherwise, all physical characteristics of the
underlying hardware are exposed. Physical mode is useful to
run SAN management agents or other SCSI target based
software in the virtual machine. Physical mode also allows
virtual-to-physical clustering for cost-effective high availability.
9. Select the Guest Operating System, and then click Next. The CPUs
dialog box appears.
Figure 105 Create New Virtual Machine - CPUs
10. Select the number of processors in the virtual machine, and then
click Next. The Memory dialog box appears.
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Figure 106 Create New Virtual Machine - Memory
11. Type or select the virtual machine's memory size, and then click
Next. The Network dialog box appears.
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Figure 107 Create New Virtual Machine - Network
12. Select the type of network connection the virtual machine will use.
Select the number of NICs to connect. Click Next. The SCSI
Controller dialog box appears.
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Figure 108 Create New Virtual Machine - SCSI Controller
13. Select the SCSI controller, and then click Next. VMware
Infrastructure only has Bus Login Parallel and LSI Logic Parallel
SCSI controllers available. Click Next. The Select a Disk dialog box
appears.
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Figure 109 Create New Virtual Machine - Select a Disk
14. Select the type of disk based on the following:
• If the virtual machine is booted from the RDM volume, select Do
not create disk, and then click Next. The Ready to Complete
dialog box appears (Step 16).
• If the boot disk is created in the datastore and the RDM volume
is added as an additional disk, select Create a new virtual disk
(Figure 110 on page 194).
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Figure 110 Create New Virtual Machine - Select a Disk
15. Click Next. The Create a Disk dialog box appears.
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Figure 111 Create New Virtual Machine - Create a Disk
16. Type or enter the Disk Size and Disk Provisioning policy, and then
click Next. The Advanced Options dialog box appears.
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Figure 112 Create New Virtual Machine - Advanced Options
17. Maintain the default values, and then click Next. The Ready to
Complete dialog box appears.
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Figure 113 Create New Virtual Machine - Ready to Complete
18. Click Finish to create the virtual machine.
3.8.4.2 Configure an RDM volume
To configure an RDM volume on a virtual machine:
Note: This configuration also applies to VMware Infrastructure.
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1. Log in to the VMware vSphere Client or the VMware Infrastructure
Client.
2. Create a virtual machine using the Create New Virtual Machine
wizard. Section 3.8.4.2, ”Configure an RDM volume,” on page 197
provides details about the procedure.
Figure 114 Edit Settings
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3. Right-click the virtual machine, and then select Edit Settings. The
Virtual Machine Properties dialog box appears.
Figure 115 Virtual Machine Properties
4. Click Add. The Add Hardware wizard appears. This wizard allows
users to add raw device mapping to a virtual machine.
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Figure 116 Add Hardware
5. Select Hard Disk, and then click Next. The Select a Disk dialog box
appears.
Note: Because these are raw devices, VMware file systems do not exist on
these LUNs.
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Figure 117 Add Hardware - Select a Disk
6. Select Raw Device Mappings, and then click Next. The Select and
Configure a Raw LUN dialog box appears.
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Figure 118 Add Hardware - Select and Configure a Raw LUN
7. Select the target LUN, and then click Next. The Select a Datastore
dialog box appears.
Figure 119 Add Hardware - Select a Datastore
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8. Select the VMware file system that hosts the mapping file for the
RDM, and then click Next. The Advanced Options dialog box
appears.
Figure 120 Add Hardware - Advanced Options
9. Maintain the default value for the Virtual Device Node, and then
click Next. The Ready to Complete dialog box appears.
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Figure 121 Add Hardware - Ready to Complete
10. Verify the settings, and then click Finish to create the volume.
Ensure that the RDM volumes are aligned for application data
volumes.
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3.9 Introduction to using Fibre Channel storage
Note: The following section includes an introduction to provisioning Fibre
Channel storage from Celerra unified storage to VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure. As such, this section highlights the steps to provision such
storage. Using EMC CLARiiON Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure TechBook available on Powerlink provides further details and
considerations for using Celerra Fibre Channel storage with VMware vSphere
and VMware Infrastructure.
EMC Celerra unified storage is based on a CLARiiON storage
consisting of two storage processors (SPs). To leverage the FC storage,
the front-end ports on the CLARiiON SPs can be connected to an FC
SAN switch or directly connected to FC HBAs on the ESX host.
The prerequisite to configure the FC LUN with EMC Celerra and
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure is that FC zoning process
must be completed
Zoning is required for security and management of the FC fabric. The
host can access the storage only after zoning. The zoning described in
this section, called Name Zoning, is based on the World Wide Number
(WWN) of ports.
3.9.1 Create LUNs and add them to a storage group
To create a storage device and add it to ESX:
◆
Create a RAID group
◆
Create LUNs from a RAID group
◆
Create a storage group
◆
Connect hosts
◆
Add LUNs to a storage group
3.9.2 Create a RAID group
Note: RAID 1/0 is used for FC configuration.
To create a RAID group:
1. In Navisphere Manager, right-click the RAID Group, and then click
Create RAID Group.
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Figure 122 Create a Storage Pool
The Create Storage Pool dialog box appears.
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Figure 123 Create Storage Pool
2. Select the Storage Pool ID and RAID Type. Select Manual, and
then click Select. The Disk Selection dialog box appears.
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Figure 124 Disk Selection
3. From the Available Disks area, select the required disks for the
RAID type. It is recommended to use the disks on the same bus in
consecutive order. Click OK to complete the disk selection. The
selected disks appear in the Selected Disks area.
4. Click Apply. The RAID group is created.
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3.9.2.1 Create LUNs from a RAID group
To create LUNs from a RAID group:
1. In Navisphere Manager, right-click the RAID group on which LUNs
must be created, and then click Create LUN.
Figure 125 Create LUNs from a RAID group
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209
The Create LUN dialog box appears.
Figure 126 Create LUN
2. Select the RAID Type, User Capacity, LUN ID, and Number of
LUNs to create, and then click Apply. A confirmation message
appears.
Figure 127 Confirm: Create LUN
3. Click Yes. A confirmation message appears.
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Figure 128 Message: Create LUN - LUN created successfully
4. Click OK. A LUN is created.
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3.9.2.2 Create a storage group
To create a storage group that is connected to an ESX host:
1. In Navisphere Manager, right-click Storage Groups, and then click
Create Storage Group.
Figure 129 Create Storage Group
The Create Storage Group dialog box appears.
Figure 130 Create Storage Group
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2. Type an appropriate name for the storage group, and then click OK.
A confirmation dialog box appears.
Note: The name refers to the domain name of the ESX server.
Figure 131 Confirm: Create Storage Group
3. Click Yes. A confirmation message appears.
Figure 132 Success: Create Storage Group
4. Click OK.
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3.9.2.3 Connect hosts
To add the host, which will access the LUNs, to the storage group:
1. In Navisphere Manager, right-click the storage group created, and
then click Connect Hosts.
Figure 133 Connect Hosts
The Storage Group Properties dialog box appears.
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Figure 134 Select a host for the storage group
2. From the Available Hosts area, select the appropriate host and click
the arrow to move the host into the Hosts to be Connected area.
Click OK. A confirmation message appears.
Figure 135 Confirm the connected host
3. Click Yes. A confirmation message appears.
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Figure 136 Connect Host operation succeeded
4. Click OK. Another confirmation message appears when the hosts
are added successfully to the storage group.
3.9.2.4 Add LUNs to the storage group
The host can access the required LUNs only when the LUN is added to
the storage group that is connected to the host. To add LUNs to the
storage group:
1. In Navisphere Manager, right-click the storage group, and then
click Select LUNs.
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Figure 137 Select LUNs for the storage group
The Storage Group Properties dialog box appears.
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217
Figure 138 Select LUNs
2. From the Available LUNs area, select the LUNs that must be added,
and then click Apply. The selected LUNs are added to the Selected
LUNs area.
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3. Click OK. A confirmation message appears.
Figure 139 Confirm addition of LUNs to the storage group
4. Click Yes. Another confirmation message appears.
Figure 140 Successful addition of LUNs to the storage group
5. Click OK. The LUNs are added successfully.
3.9.3 Present the LUN to VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure
To present the LUN to VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure,
complete the configuration steps on Celerra and then go to the Storage
Adapter on vCenter Server. Scan the FC adapter to identify the LUN
that is configured for this ESX server host. Subsequently, complete the
following steps:
1. In the Hardware area of the Configuration tab, select Storage
Adapters, and then click Rescan in the Storage Adapters area.
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219
Note: Alternatively, you can right-click the selected storage adapter, and
then click Rescan.
Figure 141 Rescan FC adapter
The Rescan dialog box appears.
2. To discover new LUNs, select Scan for New Storage Devices. To
discover new datastores or to update a datastore after its
configuration has been changed, select Scan for New VMFS
Volumes.
Figure 142 Rescan dialog box
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After rescan is completed, the FC LUN is added to the storage.
Figure 143 FC LUN added to the storage
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3.10 Virtual machine considerations
When using Celerra NFS and iSCSI storage, consider the following
items to help achieve optimal performance and functionality in virtual
machines:
◆
Virtual machine disk partitions alignment
◆
Virtual machine swap file location
◆
Guest operating system SCSI timeout settings
◆
Paravirtual virtual SCSI adapter (PVSCSI)
3.10.1 Virtual machine disk partitions alignment
The alignment of disk partitions in a virtual machine can greatly affect
its performance. A misaligned disk partition in a virtual machine may
lead to degraded overall performance for the applications running in
the virtual machine. The best practice from VMware is to align virtual
machine partitions. Recommendations for Aligning VMFS Partitions —
VMware Performance Study, available on the VMware website, provides
more information about alignment.
Furthermore, Microsoft recently recommended aligning disk partitions
to 1 MB track boundaries for most Windows systems in cases that are
applicable when using shared storage such as Celerra (refer to
Microsoft TechNet article 929491).
For optimal overall performance, EMC also recommends aligning
virtual machines that are deployed over Celerra NFS and iSCSI. The
following recommendations should therefore be considered:
◆
Create the datastore by using the VMware vSphere Client or the
VMware Infrastructure Client instead of using CLI.
◆
The benefits of aligning boot partitions are generally marginal. It is
more important to align the app/data disk partitions that sustain
the heaviest I/O workload. If there is only a single virtual disk,
consider adding an app/disk partition.
◆
Align application/data disk partitions to a 1 MB disk boundary in
both Windows and Linux.
Note: This step is not required for Windows 2008, Windows Vista, or Windows
7 where disk partitions are aligned to 1 MB by default.
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◆
For Windows app/data partitions, use the allocation unit size
recommended by the application. Use a multiple of 8 KB if no
allocation unit size is recommended.
◆
For NFS, consider using the uncached option on Celerra (Section
3.6.1.1, “Celerra uncached write mechanism,” on page 109). This
can be particularly helpful with random workloads that contains
writes. The uncached option can also help with Linux data
partitions and with Windows data partitions that were formatted
with a 4 KB allocation unit size.
Note: The procedures in this section are also applicable to VMware
Infrastructure.
3.10.1.1 Datastore alignment
Datastore alignment refers to aligning the datastore in the storage
location on which it is configured. A NAS datastore that is configured
on a Celerra file system is aligned by default. A VMFS datastore that is
created using the VMware vSphere Client or the VMware Infrastructure
Client is also aligned by default.
3.10.1.2 Virtual machine alignment
Virtual machine alignment refers to aligning the virtual machine disk
partitions to 64 KB track boundaries. VMware recommends this for
VMFS data partitions to reduce latency and increase throughput.
Furthermore, recently Microsoft recommended aligning virtual
machine partitions to 1 MB track boundaries for most Windows
systems in some cases that are applicable when using shared storage
such as Celerra (see Microsoft TechNet article 929491).
3.10.1.3 Align virtual machines provisioned from Celerra storage
To use with Celerra storage, Windows virtual machines and Linux
virtual machines must be aligned. This section explains the aligning
procedures.
Aligning Windows virtual machines
Note: This step is not required for Windows 2008, Windows Vista, or Windows
7 because on these newer operating systems, partitions are created on 1 MB
boundaries by default for disks larger than 4 GB (64 KB for disks smaller than 4
GB).
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223
To create an aligned data partition, use the diskpart.exe command. This
example assumes that the data disk to be aligned is disk 1:
1. At the command prompt, type diskpart.
Figure 144 Command prompt - diskpart
2. Type select disk 1.
Figure 145 Select the disk
3. Type the create partition primary align=1024 command to create a
partition to align to a 1 MB disk boundary.
Figure 146 Create a partition with a 1 MB disk boundary
4. Type Exit.
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Set the allocation unit size of a Windows partition
Windows Disk Manager is used to format an NTFS data partition with
an allocation unit size of 8 KB. If the application recommends another
value, use that value instead.
To set the allocation unit size of a Windows partition:
1. Right-click My Computer on the desktop, and then select Manage.
The Computer Management dialog box appears.
2. In the left pane, select Disk Management. The disks are displayed
in the right pane.
3. Select the unformatted disk, right-click and then select Format. The
Format dialog box appears.
Figure 147 Computer Management
4. Select the allocation unit size as 8192 (8 KB), and then click OK. A
confirmation message appears.
5. Click OK.
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225
Align Linux virtual machines
Use the fdisk command to create an aligned data partition:
1. At the command prompt, type fdisk /dev/sd<x> where <x> is the
device suffix.
2. Type n to create a new partition.
3. Type p to create a primary partition.
4. Type 1 to create partition Number 1.
5. Select the defaults to use the complete disk.
6. Type t to set the partition's system ID.
7. Type fb to set the partition system ID to fb.
8. Type x to go into expert mode.
9. Type b to adjust the starting block number.
10. Type 1 to choose partition 1.
11. Type 2048 to set the starting block number to 2048 for a 1 MB disk
partition alignment.
12. Type w to write label and partition information to disk.
3.10.1.4 Identify the alignment of virtual machines
The following section explains the procedures to identify the Windows
and Linux virtual machine alignment.
To check whether the virtual machine is aligned:
1. From the Start menu, select Programs > Accessories > System
Tools > System Information. The System Information dialog box
appears.
2. Select Components > Storage > Disks. The right pane lists
information about all the configured disks.
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Figure 148 NTFS data partition alignment (Windows system Information)
3. Scroll the list to locate the information for the data disk. The
Partition Starting Offset information for the data disk should
display 1,048,576 bytes to indicate alignment to a 1 MB disk
boundary.
An alternative command line based method to check if the virtual
machine is aligned is to type wmic partition get StartingOffset, Name
at the command prompt. The partition starting offset is displayed.
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227
Figure 149 NTFS data partition alignment (wmic command)
3.10.1.5 Partition allocation unit size
To identify the allocation unit size of an existing data partition, use the
fsutil command. In the following example, E drive is the NTFS data
partition that is formatted with an allocated unit size of 8 KB.
At the command prompt, type fsutil fsinfo ntfsinfo <drive letter>. The
details appear.
The Bytes Per Cluster mentions the value in bytes of the allocation unit
size of the data partition.
Figure 150 Allocation unit size of a formatted NTFS data partition
3.10.1.6 Identify Linux virtual machine alignment
To identify the current alignment of an existing Linux data partition,
use the fdisk command. In the following example, /dev/sdb is the data
partition that was configured on a Linux virtual machine.
In the terminal session, type fdisk -lu <data partition>. The results are
displayed.
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Figure 151 Output for a Linux partition aligned to a 1 MB disk boundary (starting
sector 2048)
The unaligned disk shows the starting sector as 63.
Figure 152 Output for an unaligned Linux partition (starting sector 63)
3.10.2 Virtual machine swap file location
When a virtual machine is powered on, a corresponding swap file is
created. The virtual machine can power on only when the swap file is
available. With both VMware Infrastructure and VMware vSphere, the
swap file of a virtual machine is placed by default in the same location
as the virtual machine configuration file (.vmx file). Nevertheless, ESX
provides the option to place the swap file in another datastore or in the
local storage of the ESX host.
For optimum performance, an ESX server uses the balloon approach
whenever possible possible to reclaim memory that is considered least
valuable by the guest operating system. However, swapping is used
when the balloon driver is temporarily unable to re-declare memory
quickly to satisfy present system demands. However, swapping is used
when the balloon driver is temporarily unable to reclaim memory
quickly enough to satisfy current system demands. The balloon driver,
also known as the vmmemctl driver, collaborates with the ESX server to
reclaim memory that is considered least valuable by the guest operating
system. The balloon driver may be unavailable either because VMware
tools was not installed or because the driver has been disabled or not
running (for example, while the guest operating system is booting). The
balloon driver essentially acts like a native program in the operating
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229
system that requires memory. The driver uses a proprietary ballooning
technique that provides predictable performance, which closely
matches the behavior of a native system under similar memory
constraints. This technique effectively increases or decreases memory
pressure on the guest operating system, causing the guest to invoke its
own native memory management algorithms.
Swapping is a reliable mechanism of a last resort that a host uses only
when necessary to reclaim memory. Standard-demand paging
techniques swap pages back in when the virtual machine needs them.
Such swapping is done for each virtual machine on a specific swap file.
The recommended configuration for the swap file location is placing
the virtual machine's swap file on a high-speed/high-bandwidth
storage system that results in minimal performance impact.
It is important to note that placing the swap file in the local storage does
not limit the ability to perform vMotion on the virtual machine.
Furthermore, because this file contains only dynamic information that
is only relevant to the current run of the virtual machine, there is no
need to protect this file. Also, the network usage while the swap is
placed in the local storage reduces by 6 percent to12 percent. Therefore,
it is recommended to use the virtual machine swap space on the local
storage because it offers backup and replication storage savings. Virtual
machine swap data is the part of the virtual machine that does not need
to be backed up or replicated.
Using the local storage of the ESX host for placing the swap file can
affect DRS load balancing and HA failover in certain situations. While
designing an ESX environment by placing the swap file on the local
storage of the ESX host, some areas must be focused on to guarantee
HA and DRS functionality. Moreover, vMotion performance may get
affected because of copying swap files from one host local storage to
another host local storage.
When using host local storage swap setting to store the virtual machine
swap files, the following factors must be considered:
230
◆
Amount of ESX hosts inside the cluster
◆
HA configured host failover capacity
◆
Amount of active virtual machines inside the cluster
◆
Consolidation ratio (virtual machine per host)
◆
Average swap file size
◆
Free disk space local VMFS datastores
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Using host local swap can be a valid option for some environments, but
additional calculation of the factors mentioned above is necessary to
ensure sustained HA and DRS functionality
To adjust the swap file location for virtual machines running on a
specific ESX host:
1. Log in to the VMware vSphere Client or the VMware Infrastructure
Client and select the server from the Inventory area.
2. Click Configuration on the ESX server host.
Figure 153 Edit Virtual Machine Swapfile Location
3. Click Virtual Machine Swapfile Location, and then click Edit. The
Virtual Machine Swapfile Location dialog box appears.
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231
Figure 154 Virtual Machine Swapfile Location
4. Select Store the swapfile in a swapfile datastore selected below. A
list of datastores is presented.
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Figure 155 List of datastores
5. Select the local storage of the ESX host where the virtual machine
swap files must be placed, and then click OK.
6. Restart the virtual machines.
The location of the virtual machine swap file can also be adjusted
from the virtual machine advanced parameters tab:
To configure the virtual machine advanced parameters, select the
server from the Inventory area, select the Configuration tab, and
then select Advanced Settings from the Software area.
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Figure 156 Advanced Settings
The Advanced Settings dialog box appears.
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Figure 157 Mem.Host.LocalSwapDirEnabled parameter
7. Select Mem from the left pane. The parameters are displayed in the
right pane.
◆
Mem.Host.LocalSwapDirEnabled
This parameter helps to enable the use of the host-local swap
directory. The values for this parameter are 0 for Min and 1 for Max.
If the Mem.HostLocalSwapDir is set with the directory path of the
local storage, the parameter value must be set to1. For performance
testing, the value of this parameter must be 1 to place the swap file
on the local storage and 0 to place the swap file along with the
virtual machine on the deployed NFS storage.
◆
Mem.HostLocalSwapDir
This parameter allows specifying the host-local directory for the
virtual machine swap file. Updating this parameter allows the
administrator to set the swap file location manually and also control
settings for the swap memory directory location. Changing this
parameter value can help finetune the running of virtual machines.
For example, the parameter value for Mem.HostLocalSwapDir for
local storage can be
/vmfs/volumes/48c935cc-9fae65b6-3e7d-001ec9e34ca0.
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Figure 158 Mem.Host.LocalSwapDir parameter
3.10.3 Guest OS SCSI timeout settings
For virtual machines with Windows guest OS, the disk SCSI timeout
registry parameter controls the I/O wait time for completion of I/Os.
This parameter setting should be tuned to help the virtual machines
survive SCSI timeout errors (such as disk, symmpi) and to sustain the
guest OS and applications for an extended time during Celerra failure
events.
To modify the disk SCSI timeout registry parameter setting:
1. From the Start menu, click Run and type regedit. The Registry
Editor appears.
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2. In the left pane, double-click HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE >
SYSTEM > CURRENT CONTROL SET > SERVICES > DISK.
3. Right-click TimeOutValue. The Edit DWORD Value dialog box
appears.
Figure 159 Edit DWORD Value
4. In the Value data field, type 360. Select Decimal, and then click OK.
The DWORD values are updated.
5. Restart the virtual machine. The new parameter is applied.
6. Section 3.14, ”VMware Resiliency,” on page 315 provides more
information about VMware resiliency with EMC Celerra.
3.10.4 Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCI) adapters
PVSCSI adapters are high-performance storage adapters that can result
in greater throughput and lower CPU utilization. It is best suited for
environments, especially SAN environments, where hardware or
applications drive a very high amount of I/O throughput. PVSCSI
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237
adapters are recommended because it offers improved I/O
performance, as much as 18 percent reduction in the ESX 4 host CPU
usage.
A PVSCSI adapter also reduces the cost of virtual interrupts and
batches the processing of I/O requests. With vSphere Update 1, the
PVSCSI adapter is supported for both boot and data virtual disks. With
Windows 2003 and Windows 2008 guest OS, the PVSCSI adapter was
found to improve the virtual machine resiliency during Celerra and
storage network failure events.
Paravirtual SCSI adapters are supported on the following guest
operating systems:
◆
Windows Server 2008
◆
Windows Server 2003
◆
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5
Paravirtual SCSI adapters have the following limitations:
◆
Hot-add or hot-remove requires a bus rescan from within the guest.
◆
Disks with snapshots might not experience performance gains
when used on Paravirtual SCSI adapters or if memory on the ESX
host is overcommitted.
◆
If RHEL 5 is upgraded to an unsupported kernel, data might not be
accessible from the virtual machine's PVSCSI disks. Run
vmware-config-tools.pl with the kernel-version parameter to regain
access.
◆
Because the default type of newly hot-added SCSI adapter depends
on the type of primary (boot) SCSI controller, hot-adding a PVSCSI
adapter is not supported.
◆
Booting a Linux guest from a disk attached to a PVSCSI adapter is
not supported. A disk attached using PVSCSI can be used as a data
drive, not a system or boot drive. Booting a Microsoft Windows
guest from a disk attached to a PVSCSI adapter is not supported in
versions of ESX prior to ESX 4.0 Update 1.
Refer to the VMware KB article #1010398 for further details.
To configure a disk to use a PVSCSI adapter:
Note: This PVSCSI configuration does not apply to VMware Infrastructure.
1. Launch a vSphere Client and log in to an ESX host.
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2. Select a virtual machine, or create a new one. Section 3.8.4, “Create
RDM volumes on ESX servers,” on page 182 provides information
about creating a virtual machine.
3. Ensure that a guest operating system that supports PVSCSI is
installed on the virtual machine.
Note: Booting a Linux guest from a disk attached to a PVSCSI adapter is not
supported. Booting a Microsoft Windows guest from a disk attached to a
PVSCSI adapter is not supported in versions of ESX before ESX 4.0 Update 1. In
these situations, the system software must be installed on a disk attached to an
adapter that supports the bootable disk.
4. In the vSphere Client, right-click the virtual machine, and then click
Edit Settings.
Figure 160 Edit Settings for the virtual machine
The Virtual Machine Properties dialog box appears.
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239
Figure 161 Virtual Machine Properties
5. Click Hardware, and then click Add. The Device Type dialog box
appears.
Figure 162 Add Hardware
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6. Select Hard Disk, and then click Next. The Select a Disk dialog box
appears.
Figure 163 Select a Disk
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241
7. Select Create a new virtual disk, and then click Next. The Create a
Disk dialog box appears.
Figure 164 Create a Disk
8. Select the Disk Size, Disk Provisioning, and Location for the disk.
Click Next. The Advanced Options dialog box appears.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 165 Advanced Options
9. Select a Virtual Device Node between SCSI (1:0) to SCSI (3:15).
Select the Mode, and then click Next. The Ready to Complete
dialog box appears.
Virtual machine considerations
243
Figure 166 Ready to Complete
10. Click Finish. A new disk and controller are created.
11. Select the new controller, and then click Change Type.
Figure 167 Change the SCSI controller type
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
The Change SCSI Controller Type dialog box appears.
Figure 168 Change SCSI Controller Type
12. Select VMware Paravirtual, and then click OK. The SCSI controller
type changes.
Virtual machine considerations
245
Figure 169 Virtual Machine Properties
13. Click OK. The Virtual Machine Properties dialog box closes.
14. Power on the virtual machine.
15. Install VMware Tools. VMware Tools includes the PVSCSI driver.
16. Power on the virtual machine and select Start > Programs >
Administrative Tools > Computer Management.
17. From the right pane, select Disk Management from the Storage
menu.
18. Right-click the newly added disk in the left pane.
19. Scan and format the hard disk.
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Figure 170 Disk Management
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247
3.11 Monitor and manage storage
When using Celerra storage with VMware vSphere and VMware
Infrastructure, monitor the storage resource utilization at the Celerra
and vCenter Server level. When Celerra Virtual Provisioning is used in
conjunction with vSphere thin provisioning, it is very critical to monitor
the storage utilization using Celerra notification and datastore alarms
to prevent an accelerated out-of-space condition.
Datastore alarms are only available in VMware vSphere. At the vCenter
level, create datastore alarms for the corresponding datastores to
monitor the utilization.
This section explains how to configure Celerra notifications and
vSphere alarms.
3.11.1 Celerra file system notification
Use Celerra notifications to monitor Celerra file systems used for NAS
or VMFS datastores. Celerra notifications can be used for storage usage
and for storage projections.
Notifications are actions that the Control Station takes to respond to
particular events. Some examples of notifications are e-mail messages
or an SNMP trap after a hardware failure.
Resource notifications are based on resource usage parameters that the
user specifies to receive notifications at various stages of usage
problems. The user defines the conditions or threshold for an event that
triggers a notification.
The three types of resource notifications are:
◆
Storage usage
◆
Storage projections
◆
Data Mover load
Users must monitor the space utilization in file systems, storage pools,
and virtually provisioned file systems because these may get filled up
and may possibly result in a denial of write access. Notifications can be
configured and customized based on the file system, storage pool
usage, and time-to-fill predictions. These predictions (also known as
projection notifications) can take into account automatic file system
extension (with and without specified maximum sizes) and automatic
storage pool extension.
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Notifications are particularly important as they provide a warning
about overprovisioned resources. When an overprovisioned resource
reaches its limit, it is considered to be more critical than a regular
resource reaching its limit. For example, if an overprovisioned file
system that uses a virtually provisioned LUN runs out of space, disk
errors occur. If a storage pool is overprovisioned, an automatically
extending file system will not be able to automatically extend.
3.11.1.1 Configure storage usage notifications
To configure a notification based on the percentage of the maximum
automatically extending file system size used:
1. In Celerra Manager, select Notifications in the left pane. The
Notifications page appears.
Figure 171 Notifications
Monitor and manage storage
249
2. Click Storage Usage, and then click New. The New Notification:
Storage Usage page appears.
Figure 172 New Notification: Storage Projection
3. Complete the following steps:
a. In the Storage Type field, select File System.
b. In the Storage Resource list box, select the name of the file
system.
Note: Notifications can be added for all file systems.
c. In the Notify On field, select Maximum Size.
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Note: Maximum Size is the auto-extension maximum size and is valid only
for auto-extending file systems.
d. In the Condition field, type the percentage of storage (% Used),
and select the % Used from the list. The notification is sent when
the file system reaches this value.
Note: Select Notify Only If Over-Provisioned to trigger the notification
only if the file system is overprovisioned. If this checkbox is not selected, a
notification is always sent when the condition is met.
e. Type the e-mail or SNMP address, which consists of an IP
address or host name and community name. Separate multiple
e-mail addresses or trap addresses with commas.
f. Click OK. The configured notification is displayed in the
Storage Usage page.
Figure 173 Storage Usage
Monitor and manage storage
251
Configure Celerra notifications - Storage projections
To configure notifications based on the projected time to fill the
maximum automatically extending file system size:
1. In Celerra Manager, select Notifications in the left pane. The
Notification page appears.
Figure 174 Notifications page
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2. Click Storage Usage, and then click New. The New Notification:
Storage Usage page appears.
Figure 175 New Notification: Storage Projection
3. Complete the following steps:
a. In Storage Type field, select File System.
b. In the Storage Resource list box, select the name of the file
system.
Note: Notifications can be added for all file systems.
c. In the Warn Before field, type the number of days to send the
warning notification before the file system is projected to be full.
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253
Note: Select Notify Only If Over-Provisioned checkbox to trigger this
notification only if the file system is overprovisioned. If this checkbox is not
selected, a notification is always sent when the condition is met.
d. Specify optional e-mail or SNMP addresses, which consist of an
IP address or host name and community name. Multiple e-mail
addresses or trap addresses must be separated by commas.
e. Click OK.
Figure 176 Notifications page
3.11.2 vCenter Server storage monitoring and alarms
Alarms are notifications that occur in response to selected events,
conditions, and states with the objects in the inventory. A vSphere
Client connected to a vCenter Server can be used to create and modify
alarms.
Note: This is applicable only for VMware vSphere.
3.11.2.1 Create datastore alarms
Datastore alarms can be set for an entire data center, host, or a single
datastore. To create a datastore alarm:
1. From vCenter Server, select the host, click Configuration, and then
click Storage. The list of datastores appears.
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Figure 177 List of Datastores
2. Right-click the required datastore, and select Alarm > Add Alarm.
The Alarm Settings dialog box appears.
Figure 178 General tab
Monitor and manage storage
255
3. Click General and complete the following steps:
a. In the Alarm name field, type the name of the alarm.
b. In the Description field, type the description of the alarm.
c. In the Monitor list box, select Datastore.
d. Select Monitor for specific conditions or state, for example
CPU usage, power stage.
Note: To disable the alarm, clear this option.
4. Click Triggers and complete the following steps:
a. Click Add.
b. Select Datastore Disk Usage (%) as the trigger type and set the
warning and alert percentages.
Note: Multiple trigger types can be added to the same alarm. The Trigger if
any of the conditions are satisfied option is selected by default.
Figure 179 Alarm settings
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5. Click Actions and complete the following steps:
Note: Alarm actions are operations that occur in response to triggered
alarms.
a. Click Add. A notification, trap, or a command is added.
b. In the third column, select Once or Repeat (to repeat actions)
when the alarm changes from normal to warning and from
warning to alert.
Figure 180 Actions tab
Note: Similarly, an action can be added when the alarm changes from warning
or alert to normal.
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257
3.12 Virtually provisioned storage
Celerra Manager can be used to set up Virtual Provisioning on a file
system. To enable Virtual Provisioning on a file system, the Auto
Extend Enabled and the Virtual Provisioning Enabled checkboxes must
both be selected, as shown in Figure 181. Note that High Water Mark
(HWM) is the trigger point at which Celerra Network Server extends
the file system. The default is 90 percent. Maximum Capacity (MB) is
the maximum size that the file system can grow and it is the virtual size
seen by the ESX server.
Figure 181 Create virtually provisioned NFS file system
After the virtually provisioned file system is created, it is presented to
the ESX server with its maximum capacity.
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3.12.1 Configure a NAS datastore on a virtually provisioned NFS file system
NAS datastore can be created on a virtually provisioned Celerra file
system. The virtually provisioned NFS export appears on the ESX
server as a datastore. The NAS datastore capacity that appears on the
vCenter Server is the file system's maximum capacity assigned when
creating the Celerra virtually provisioned file system.
Figure 182 NAS datastore in vCenter Server
Note: The ESX server is unaware of the file system's allocated capacity.
3.12.2 Considerations to use Virtual Provisioning over NFS
Consider the following points when using Virtual Provisioning with
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure over NFS:
◆
Additional virtual machines can be created on the datastore even
when the aggregated capacity of all their virtual disks exceeds the
datastore size. Therefore, it is important to monitor the utilization of
the Celerra file system to address, in advance, any upcoming
storage shortage.
◆
The Virtual Provisioning characteristics of the virtual disk of an
affected virtual machine are preserved for the following operations:
• Virtual machine creation and Windows/Linux guest OS
installation
• Virtual disk extension using the vmkfstools CLI utility
• Virtual machine cloning and virtual disk extension using
VMware Converter
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259
◆
All Celerra-based operations to manipulate the virtual machine
storage also preserve the virtual-provisioning characteristics of the
virtual disk of an affected virtual machine. These operations are:
• NAS datastore extension using Celerra file system extension
• NAS datastore cloning using Celerra SnapSure
• NAS datastore replication using Celerra Replicator
◆
For VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure (with vCenter
Server v2.5 Update 6 and ESX v3.5 Update 5), Virtual Provisioning
characteristics of the virtual disk of an affected virtual machine are
preserved for the following VMware operations:
• Virtual machine cloning using vCenter Server (including cloning
from a virtual machine and from a template)
• Offline virtual machine migration (such as cold migration) using
vCenter Server
• Online virtual machine migration (such as hot migration) using
Storage vMotion
Note: For VMware Infrastructure, it is important to note that even with the
above VMware Infrastructure release installed, this will not be the default
behavior. To ensure that the Virtual Provisioning characteristics of the virtual
disk will be preserved, some manual configuration is required on ESX (for
using zeroedthick formatting policy). Refer to VMware KB article #1017666 for
details.
However, for previous VMware Infrastructure releases, this is not the
case.
These operations will result in the virtual disk becoming fully
provisioned or thick (the allocated capacity of the virtual disk will
become equal to the maximum capacity specified during the creation of
the virtual disk).
With these previous VMware Infrastructure releases, the VMware
vCenter Converter can be used for virtual machine cloning instead of
native cloning. To do this, extend or shrink the disk by at least 1 MB to
preserve the virtual provisioning characteristics of the virtual disk.
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3.12.3 Create a virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN
A virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN should be created on a virtually
provisioned file system. Section 3.12.1, “Configure a NAS datastore on a
virtually provisioned NFS file system,” provides more information
about how to create a virtually provisioned file system.
However, instead of using Celerra Manager or the Celerra Manager
New iSCSI LUN wizard to create the LUNs, use the following Celerra
CLI command to create a virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN on a
virtually provisioned file system:
$server_iscsi <data mover> -lun -number <lun number>
-create <iSCSI target name> -size <Lun size in GB> -fs <VP
file system name> -vp yes
Figure 183 Creating the virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN
In this example, a virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN is created on the file
system file_vp with a maximum size of 100 GB.
After a iSCSI LUN is created, it is presented to the ESX server with its
maximum capacity. The iSCSI LUN must be provisioned using Celerra
Manager on a file system and added to an iSCSI target. Grant access to
the iSCSI LUN to the ESX server, which is connected to the target. Refer
to Section 3.8.2, “Add a Celerra iSCSI device/LUN to ESX,” on page
139 to complete the configuration of the iSCSI LUNs.
3.12.4 Configure a VMFS datastore on a virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN
A VMFS datastore can be created on a virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN.
Section 3.8.3, “Create VMFS datastores on ESX,” on page 174 provides
more information about creating a VMFS datastore.
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The VMFS datastore capacity that appears on the vCenter Server is the
iSCSI LUN capacity assigned while it was created. The ESX server is
unaware of the iSCSI LUN allocated capacity.
Figure 184 iSCSI VMFS datastore in vCenter Server
3.12.5 Considerations to use Virtual Provisioning over iSCSI/VMFS
Consider the following points when using Virtual Provisioning with
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure over iSCSI/VMFS:
◆
Additional virtual machines cannot be created on the datastore
when the aggregated capacity of all their virtual disks exceeds the
datastore size. But the file system on which the iSCSI LUN is
created can become full, preventing further allocation to the iSCSI
LUN that contains the VMFS datastore. Therefore, to avoid
potential data loss, monitor the file system utilization to ensure that
the file system has enough space for LUN growth.
◆
The Virtual Provisioning characteristics of the virtual disk of an
affected virtual machine are preserved for the following VMware
operations:
• Virtual machine creation and Windows/Linux guest OS
installation
• Virtual disk extension using the vmkfstools CLI utility
• Virtual machine cloning and virtual disk extension using
◆
All Celerra-based operations to manipulate the virtual machine
storage also preserve the virtual-provisioning characteristics of the
virtual disk of an affected virtual machine. These operations are:
• VMFS datastore extension using Dynamic iSCSI LUN Extension
• VMFS datastore cloning iSCSI snapshots
• VMFS datastore replication using Celerra Replicator
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◆
For VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure (with vCenter
Server v2.5 Update 6 and ESX v3.5 Update 5), Virtual Provisioning
characteristics of the virtual disk of an affected virtual machine are
preserved for the following VMware operations:
• Virtual machine cloning using vCenter Server (including cloning
from a virtual machine and from a template)
• Offline virtual machine migration (for example, cold migration)
using vCenter Server
• Online virtual machine migration (for example, hot migration)
using Storage vMotion
Note: For VMware Infrastructure, it is important to note that even with this
VMware Infrastructure release installed, this will not be the default behavior. To
ensure that the Virtual Provisioning characteristics of the virtual disk will be
preserved, some manual configuration is required on ESX (for using
zeroedthick formatting policy). Refer to VMware KB article #1017666 for details.
However, for previous VMware Infrastructure releases, this is not the
case. These operations will result in the virtual disk becoming fully
provisioned or thick (the allocated capacity of the virtual disk will
become equal to the maximum capacity specified during the creation of
the virtual disk).
With these previous VMware Infrastructure releases, the VMware
vCenter Converter can be used for virtual machine cloning instead of
native cloning. To do this, extend or shrink the disk by at least 1 MB to
preserve the virtual provisioning characteristics of the virtual disk.
3.12.6 Leverage ESX thin provisioning and Celerra Virtual Provisioning
With VMware vSphere 4, thin provisioning is supported at the virtual
disk level for virtual machines.
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Virtual machines that are provisioned on a Celerra NAS datastore with
a thin provisioned or a normal file system will have thin virtual disks
by default. Virtual disk provisioning policy setting for NFS is shown in
Figure 185.
Figure 185 Virtual machines provisioned
Virtual machines that are provisioned on a Celerra thin provisioned file
system or on a standard iSCSI LUN can be configured to have thin
virtual disks as shown in Figure 186. It should be noted that fault
tolerance cannot be used on virtual machines with VMFS-based thin
virtual disks.
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Figure 186 Create a Disk
Thin provisioned virtual disks on thin provisioned Celerra NFS and
iSCSI is beneficial because it maximizes the storage utilization from
using both layers of virtual provisioning (VMFS and Celerra). However,
even more than before, such datastores should be monitored for usage
by using vCenter datastore alarms and Celerra notifications to prevent
an accelerated out-of-space condition. Section 3.11.2, “vCenter Server
storage monitoring and alarms,” on page 254 provides more
information about how to configure datastore alarms and Celerra
notifications.
3.12.7 Virtual storage expansion using Celerra storage
This section describes how to expand a virtual datastore provisioned on
a Celerra system. This includes two parts:
◆
Celerra storage expansion (NFS file system and iSCSI LUN)
◆
VMware datastore expansion (NAS datastore, VMFS datastore)
The section also covers cases where it is possible to perform this
expansion nondisruptively.
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3.12.7.1 Celerra storage expansion
For both NFS file system and iSCSI LUNs, the load on the affected
datastore can continue while the Celerra storage is expanded. All
virtual machines that are running from this datastore can remain
powered on throughout this operation.
NFS file system expansion
To extend a Celerra NFS file system:
1. Select the NFS file system to be extended, and then click Extend.
Figure 187 File Systems
The Extend File System dialog box appears.
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Figure 188 Extend File System
2. In the Extend Size by (MB) field, type the new size for the file
system.
Alternatively, the Auto Extend Enabled option can also be selected
when creating the file system. When this option is selected, the
automatic file system extension is enabled on a file system created
with AVM. This option is disabled by default. If enabled, the file
system automatically extends when the high water mark is reached
(default is 90 percent).
Figure 189 shows the New File System dialog box where this
option is available.
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Figure 189 Auto Extend Enabled
iSCSI LUN expansion
To expand an iSCSI LUN:
1. From Celerra Manager, click the iSCSI link on the left panel, select
the LUN tab, and then select LUN to Extend. Click Extend as shown
in Figure 190.
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Figure 190 iSCSI LUN expansion
The Extend iSCSI LUN dialog box appears.
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Figure 191 Extend iSCSI LUN
2. If the underlying file system does not have enough space, expand
the file system and then extend the LUN.
3. Type the size to extend the iSCSI LUN, and then click OK.
3.12.7.2 VMware datastore expansion
After the NFS file system or iSCSI LUN is expanded, the VMware
datastore can be expended. NAS datastore expansion and VMFS
datastore expansion is explained in the following section.
NAS datastore expansion with Celerra
To expand the NAS datastore with Celerra:
1. In Celerra Manager, extend the underlying file system as described
in Section 3.12.7.1, “Celerra storage expansion,” on page 266.
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2. From vCenter Server, review the datastore capacity. For this, select
the ESX host from the Inventory area, and click the Configuration
tab. Click Storage from the Hardware area, and review the
datastore capacity.
Figure 192 Configuration tab
3. Click Refresh. The datastore capacity is updated.
Note: In the figure, the capacity is extended by 10 GB.
Figure 193 Data capacity
Note: The load on the NAS datastore can be maintained as before. The virtual
machines running on the expanded NAS datastore can also remain powered on.
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VMFS datastore expansion with Celerra iSCSI
With VMware vSphere, VMFS volumes provide a new way to increase
the size of a datastore that resides on it. If a LUN is increased in size,
VMFS Volume Grow enables the VMFS volume to dynamically increase
in size as well. With VMFS Volume Grow, the process of increasing the
size of the VMFS volume is integrated through the vCenter Server GUI,
where the size can be entered in the VMFS Volume Properties dialog
box. Provided that the additional capacity on the existing extent is there
or has been recently increased in capacity, the VMFS volume can now
be expanded dynamically up to 2 TB limit per LUN. For VMFS volumes
that might already span multiple extents, the VMFS Volumes Grow can
be used to grow each of those extents up to 2 TB as well.
Add extend
In Celerra Manager, extend the underlying iSCSI LUN as described in
the Section , “iSCSI LUN expansion,” on page 268. To extend the
VMFS datastore:
1. Rescan the HBA.
Figure 194 iSCSI datastore expansion
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The additional space on the LUN is displayed in the vCenter Server
after the rescan.
Figure 195 Additional available space
2. After the rescan, select the ESX host from the Inventory area, and
then click Configuration. Select Storage from the Hardware pane.
All the available datastores are listed in the right pane.
Figure 196 iSCSI datastore expansion
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3. Select the appropriate datastore that must be extended, and then
click Properties. The test Properties page appears.
Figure 197 Test Properties
4. Click Increase. The Increase Datastore Capacity dialog box
appears.
Figure 198 Increase Datastore Capacity
Note: To add a new extent, select the device for which the expandable
column reads No. To expand an existing extent, select the device for which
the expandable column reads Yes.
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5. Select a device from the list of storage devices, and then click Next.
The Current Disk Layout dialog box appears.
Figure 199 Disk Layout
6. Review the disk layout, and then click Next. The Extent Size dialog
box appears.
Figure 200 Extent Size
7. Clear Maximize capacity, and then select the capacity for the extent.
8. Click Next. The Ready to Complete dialog box appears.
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275
Note: Select the Maximize capacity checkbox to take the maximum
extended size in the case of the extended existing device. When extending
the LUN with a new added LUN, the maximum available space in the new
LUN appears. By default, the Maximize capacity checkbox is selected.
Figure 201 Ready to complete page
9. Review the proposed layout and the new configuration of the
datastore, and then click Finish.
Note: After growing an extent in a shared VMFS datastore, refresh the datastore
on each host that can access this datastore.
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However, in VMware Infrastructure, select the appropriate datastore
that must be extended, and then click Properties. The iscsidatastore
Properties page appears. Click Add Extent. Review the datastore
expansion, and then click the Finish button. Also, in VMware
Infrastructure, power off or suspend all virtual machines running in the
affected VMFS datastore if the same LUN is extended. VMFS datastores
can also be extended using another LUN. In that case, the virtual
machines do not need to be powered off to complete the Add Extent
operation.
Figure 202 Add Extent in VMware Infrastructure
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3.13 Storage multipathing
Celerra iSCSI SAN provides multiple paths between the ESX host and
the Celerra storage. This protects against single-point failures and
enables load balancing. Pluggable Storage Architecture (PSA) is
introduced in vSphere. PSA is a VMkernel layer that coordinates the
simultaneous operation of multiple multipathing plug-ins (MPP). The
default plug-in shipped with vSphere is VMware Native Multipathing
plug-in (NMP). The two NMP sub plug-ins are Storage Array Type
plug-ins (SATPs) and Path Selection plug-ins (PSPs). The specific details
to handle the path failover for a given storage array are delegated to a
Storage Array Type Plug-in (SATP). A PSP handles the specific details
to determine which physical path is used to issue an I/O request to a
storage device. SATPs and PSPs are provided by VMware, and
additional plug-ins are provided by third-party vendors. Also, for
additional multipathing functionality, a third-party MPP can be used in
addition to or as a replacement for NMP. EMC PowerPath/VE for
vSphere is the industry's first MPP that supports both EMC arrays and
third-party arrays.
With VMware Infrastructure, only VMware NMP can be used for using
multiple paths between the Celerra storage and the ESX host.
For Celerra NFS, it is possible to design high-availability configurations
with multiple paths for scaling the bandwidth with both VMware
vSphere and VMware Infrastructure.
3.13.1 Configure VMware NMP with Celerra iSCSI and the ESX iSCSI software
initiator
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure have inbuilt native
multipathing (NMP) capabilities for iSCSI. This section explains the
process to configure VMware NMP with Celerra iSCSI and the ESX
iSCSI software initiator.
VMware NMP has three inbuilt PSPs:
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◆
Fixed — This is the policy that gets selected by default for Celerra.
The preferred path is used for I/O. In case of preferred path failure,
I/O reverts to another available path. I/O will revert to the
preferred path after it is restored.
◆
Most Recently Used (MRU) — All I/O use the available active
path. In case of failure, the I/O moves to another available path.
The I/O continues in this path even after the original path is
restored.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
◆
Round-Robin — Active path is used for a number of I/O
operations. Other paths are used for a number of I/O operations.
The paths are rotated after reaching the specified I/O operations.
Round-Robin PSP can be used for Celerra iSCSI to use multiple
active paths simultaneously and that will effectively increase the
available bandwidth between the Celerra iSCSI LUN and the ESX
host.
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Using vSphere NMP with Celerra iSCSI
To use vSphere NMP with Celerra iSCSI:
1. Create a new iSCSI LUN. Refer step 10 onwards in Section 3.8.2.1,
“ESX iSCSI software initiator,” on page 139.
Note: Make the iSCSI target available on two network interfaces that are on
two different subnets.
Figure 203 iSCSI Target Properties
Note: Grant the iSCSI LUN to the ESX software initiator that is connected to the
target.
Figure 204 LUN Mask
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2. Create two vSwitches and one VMkernel port for each vSwitch.
Section 3.6.3, “VMkernel port configuration in ESX,” on page 120
provides more information.
Note: Ensure that the VMkernel port is on two different subnets as those of
Celerra. One physical NIC should be connected to each vSwitch.
Figure 205 vSwitch configuration
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3. Rescan the ESX iSCSI software initiator to find the Celerra iSCSI
LUN and to ensure that the two paths are available.
Figure 206 Rescan
Figure 207 Properties
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4. Click Add Storage. The Add Storage wizard appears.
5. Add the new iSCSI LUN to the ESX host.
6. Select the datastore, and then click Properties. The iSCSI_ppve
Properties page appears.
Figure 208 iSCSI_ppve Properties
7. Click Manage Paths. The iSCSI Disk Manage Paths dialog box
appears.
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Figure 209 iSCSI Disk Manage Paths
8. From the Path Selection list, select Round Robin (VMware). The
path changes after the specified I/O operations.
3.13.1.1 Use hardware iSCSI initiators with vSphere NMP
Hardware iSCSI initiators can also be used with vSphere NMP. The
procedure is similar to the ESX software iSCSI initiator configuration as
explained in Section 3.8.1.1, “iSCSI HBA and NIC,” on page 138.
3.13.1.2 Change the default number of I/O operations per path in Round Robin
The default number of I/O operations per path before the next path is
used is 1000. The following command can be used to increase the speed
of switching between paths. The value can be set to 1 for Celerra, and
the paths will be switched for each I/O operation. If the switching
value is changed to 1, multiple paths are made use of at the same time.
However, this results in some CPU overheard on the ESX host.
esxcli --server <servername> nmp roundrobin setconfig --device <lun
ID> --iops <IOOperationLimit_value> --type iops
3.13.2 Multipathing using Microsoft iSCSI Initiator and Celerra iSCSI inside a
Windows guest OS
This method allows the Windows guest OS to directly access and
manage Celerra iSCSI LUNs. Microsoft iSCSI initiator provides
guest-based multipathing and load balancing through MPIO (or
MC/S). Some applications such as virtualized databases, e-mail
systems, and clusters benefit from host-based multipathing. This
method can be used with both vSphere and VMware Infrastructure.
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Multiple connections per session (MCS) and MPIO are the two
technologies that support Microsoft iSCSI initiator to enable
redundancy and load balancing. EMC Celerra supports multiple
sessions using Microsoft MPIO and MCS.
MCS enables multiple TCP/IP connections from the Microsoft iSCSI
initiator to the target for the same iSCSI session.
Microsoft MPIO enables the Microsoft iSCSI initiator to log in multiple
sessions to the same target and aggregate duplicate devices into a single
device exposed to Windows. Each session to the target can be
established using different NICs, network infrastructure, and target
ports. If one session fails, another session can continue the I/O
processing without interrupting the application.
For MCS, the load-balancing policies apply to connections in a session
and to all LUNs exposed in the session. For Microsoft MPIO, the
load-balancing policies apply to each LUN individually.
Microsoft MPIO must be used when different load-balancing policies
are required for different LUNs.
Note: Microsoft does not support the layering of MPIO and MCS, although it is
technically possible.
3.13.2.1 Configure Celerra to use Microsoft iSCSI
To configure Celerra to use Microsoft iSCSI:
1. Create a new iSCSI LUN. Refer step 10 onwards in Section 3.8.2.1,
“ESX iSCSI software initiator,” on page 139.
Note: Make the iSCSI target available on two network interfaces that are on two
different subnets.
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Figure 210 iSCSI Target Properties
2. Grant the iSCSI LUN to the ESX software initiator, which is
connected to the target.
Figure 211 LUN Mask
3.13.2.2 Configure ESX and virtual machines
To configure ESX and virtual machines:
1. Add two vSwitches and add physical NICs to the vSwitches.
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Note: Ensure that the physical NICs are connected to two different subnets
similar to Celerra.
Figure 212 vSwitches
2. Add two virtual NICs to the virtual machine and connect each NIC
to different virtual machine networks.
3.13.2.3 Configure Microsoft iSCSI MPIO inside a Windows guest OS using Celerra iSCSI
To configure Microsoft iSCSI MPIO inside a Windows guest OS:
1. Install the latest Microsoft iSCSI initiator along with multipathing
support.
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287
2. From the Control Panel, start iSCSI Initiator Properties. The iSCSI
Initiator Properties dialog box appears.
Figure 213 iSCSI Initiator Properties
3. Click Discovery. The Discovery dialog box appears.
4. Click Add. The Add Target Portal dialog box appears.
5. Type the Celerra target portal IP address from two different subnets
(from two different switches for network redundancy), and then
click OK. The target portals are added.
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Figure 214 Discovery
6. Click Targets. The Targets dialog box appears.
7. Select the appropriate Celerra target, and then click Log On. The
Log on to Target dialog box appears.
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Figure 215 Log On to Target
8. Select Automatically restore this connection when the system
boots and Enable multi-path, and then click Advanced. The
Advanced Settings dialog box appears.
Figure 216 Advanced Settings
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9. Select the Source IP and Target Portal for the session, and then click
OK. A new session is created.
10. Similarly, create another session by specifying another Source IP
and Target Portal.
Figure 217 Advanced Settings
The selected target will have two sessions.
Figure 218 Target Properties
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291
11. Click Devices, and then select the appropriate Celerra disk and
click Advanced. The Device Details dialog box appears.
Figure 219 Device Details
12. Click MPIO, and then select the load-balancing policy to view
details on the paths available for the device.
3.13.3 Scaling bandwidth of NAS datastores on Celerra NFS
A single NAS datastore uses a single TCP session. Even though
multiple links are used, a single NAS datastore still uses a single
physical link for the data traffic to that datastore. This is because the
data flow uses only a single TCP session. Therefore, higher throughput
can be achieved by using multiple NAS datastores. This method can be
used with both vSphere and VMware Infrastructure.
The use of link aggregation on Celerra and the network switch enables
fault tolerance of NIC failures and also enables load balancing between
multiple paths. Cross stack Etherchannel (link aggregation across
physical switches) support is required in the physical switch. The
switch can be configured for static or dynamic LACP for Data Mover
ports and static LACP for ESX NIC ports. The load balancing on the
switch must be set to route based on IP hash for Etherchannel.
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Configure multiple paths for a NAS datastore
To configure multiple paths for a NAS datastore:
1. In Celerra Manager, click Network from the left pane. The Network
page appears in the right pane.
Figure 220 Network page
2. Click Devices, and then click New. The New Network Device
dialog box appears.
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293
Figure 221 New Network Device
3. In the Type field, select Link Aggregation.
4. In the 10/100/1000 ports field, select two Data Mover ports (Link
Aggregation must be done on the switches, for the corresponding
Celerra Data Mover interfaces and ESX host network ports).
5. Click Apply, and then click OK.
6. In the Network page, click Interfaces, and then click New.
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Figure 222 Interfaces
The New Network Interface page appears.
Note: Ensure that the interface IP addresses are on the same subnet.
Figure 223 New Network Interface
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295
7. Create two Celerra file systems and export as NFS mounts on the
same server where the interfaces are created. Section 3.7.2, “Create a
NAS datastore on an ESX server,” on page 133 provides more
information about NFS export.
8. Create a single VMkernel port on the same subnet in a vSwitch.
Add two physical NICs to the vSwitch, which must be located on
the same subnet.
Figure 224 Create a VMkernel port
9. Click Properties. The vSwitch3 Properties dialog box appears.
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Figure 225 vSwitch3 Properties
10. Select vSwitch, and then click Edit. The vSwitch3 Properties page
appears.
Figure 226 vSwitch3 Properties
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297
11. Click NIC Teaming, and select Route based on ip hash from the
Load Balancing list box.
12. Add the NAS datastore using two different Celerra Data Mover
interfaces.
Figure 227 Celerra Data Mover interfaces
Virtual machines can be distributed between the two datastores and
both the physical links will be used.
3.13.4 VMware vSphere configuration with Celerra iSCSI using PowerPath/VE
3.13.4.1 PowerPath/VE introduction
PowerPath/VE contains advanced features to streamline and automate
the I/O performance of VMware vSphere with EMC Celerra,
CLARiiON, Symmetrix, and non-EMC arrays.
vSphere native multipathing supports basic failover and manual
load-balancing policies, whereas PowerPath/VE automates path
utilization to dynamically optimize performance and availability. In
addition to this, PowerPath/VE offers dynamic load balancing,
auto-restore of paths, automated performance optimization, dynamic
path failover, and path recovery. The following figure shows the
architecture of PowerPath/VE.
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Figure 228 PowerPath architecture
3.13.4.2 PowerPath/VE setup requirements
ESX software iSCSI initiators with NICs and hardware iSCSI initiators
can be used with PowerPath/VE and Celerra iSCSI. PowerPath/VE for
VMware vSphere Installation and Administration Guide 5.4, available on
EMC Powerlink, provides information to install and license
PowerPath/VE.
The prerequisites are that PowerPath remote CLI (rpowermt) and
vSphere vCLI must be installed as part of the PowerPath/VE
installation.
Both NMP and PowerPath/VE can exist on the same ESX host to
manage the storage available to it. NMP and PowerPath/VE cannot
simultaneously manage the same storage device connected to the ESX
host. Claim rules are used to assign storage devices to either NMP or to
PowerPath/VE.
PowerPath/VE claims all Symmetrix, CLARiiON, and supported
third-party array devices by default after installation. For Celerra, users
must add a new claim rule using esxcli command from a remote client
where vSphere vCLI is installed.
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3.13.4.3 Claim Celerra iSCSI LUNs from PowerPath/VE
To claim Celerra iSCSI LUNs from PowerPath/VE:
1. From vSphere vCLI, add the following claim rule to the ESX server:
esxcli corestorage claimrule add --plugin="PowerPath"
--type=vendor --rule <rule #> --vendor="EMC"
--model="Celerra
Figure 229 Claim rule to ESX server
2. Type the following command to update the kernel and esx.conf:
esxcli corestorage claimrule load
Figure 230 Kernel and esx conf
3. Type the following command to verify whether the claim rule is
successfully loaded.
esxcli corestorage claimrule list
4. Reboot the ESX host.
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Figure 231 Rescan the ESX host
3.13.4.4 Configure PowerPath/VE multipathing for Celerra iSCSI using hardware iSCSI
initiators
1. Configure the hardware iSCSI initiator as given in Section 3.8.2.2,
“ESX iSCSI hardware initiator,” on page 154.
2. To create a new iSCSI LUN, refer to step 10 onwards in Section
3.8.2.1, “ESX iSCSI software initiator,” on page 139.
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Note: The iSCSI target must be made available on two network interfaces,
which are on two different subnets.
Figure 232 iSCSI Target Properties
Note: Grant the iSCSI LUN to both hardware initiators (on two different
subnets), which are connected to the target.
Figure 233 LUN Mask
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Figure 234 Storage Adapters
3. From vCenter Server, select the HBA and right-click it, and then
click Rescan.
Note: Rescan both hardware HBAs to discover the iSCSI LUN and to make
sure a path is available for each HBA port.
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4. Click Storage in the left pane. The Storage page appears.
Figure 235 Storage
5. Click Add Storage. The Add Storage wizard appears.
Figure 236 Add Storage wizard
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6. Select Disk/LUN, and then click Next. The Select Disk/LUN dialog
box appears.
Figure 237 Select Disk/LUN
7. Select the appropriate iSCSI LUN from the list, and then click Next.
The Current Disk Layout dialog box appears.
Figure 238 Current Disk Layout
8. Review the current disk layout, and then click Next. The Ready to
Complete dialog box appears.
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305
Figure 239 Ready to Complete
9. Review the layout, and then click Finish. The vCenter Server
storage configuration page appears.
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Figure 240 vCenter Server storage configuration
10. Select the datastore, and then click Properties. The iSCSI_ppve
Properties dialog box appears.
Figure 241 iSCSI_ppve Properties
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11. Click Manage Paths. The iSCSI Disk Manage Paths dialog box
appears.
Figure 242 iSCSI Disk Manage Paths
Note: The vSphere NMP policy cannot be selected because the Path Selection
list is not available. Both paths listed in the Paths area are used for active I/O by
PowerPath/VE.
PowerPath is managed through a remote CLI using rpowermt. Using
rpowermt, the state of the paths and devices can be monitored. The
default PowerPath policy for the Celerra iSCSI LUN is adaptive. The
other load-balancing policies available are Round Robin, Streaming
I/O, Least Block, and Least I/O.
Figure 243 PowerPath
Using rpowermt, the load-balancing and failover policy for devices can
be managed. The PowerPath/VE for VMware vSphere Installation and
Administration Guide 5.4 available on Powerlink provides more
information.
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3.13.4.5 Configure PowerPath/VE for Celerra iSCSI using an ESX software iSCSI initiator
and NICs
To configure PowerPath/VE for Celerra iSCSI using an ESX software
iSCSI initiator and NICs:
1. Create a new iSCSI LUN. Refer to step 10 onwards in Section 3.8.2.1,
“ESX iSCSI software initiator,” on page 139.
Note: Make the iSCSI target available on two network interfaces.
Figure 244 iSCSI Target Properties
2. Create two vSwitches and one VMkernel port for each vSwitch.
Note: Ensure that the VMkernel port is on two different subnets as that of
Celerra. One physical NIC should be connected to each vSwitch.
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309
Figure 245 vSwitches
3. Grant the Celerra LUN to the ESX iSCSI software initiator
connected to the target.
Figure 246 iSCSI Target Properties
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Figure 247 Rescan
4. Rescan the ESX iSCSI software initiator to discover the Celerra
iSCSI LUN and ensure that the two paths are available.
5. Add the new iSCSI LUN to the ESX host using the Add Storage
wizard as mentioned in Section 3.13.4.4, “Configure PowerPath/VE
multipathing for Celerra iSCSI using hardware iSCSI initiators,” on
page 301.
Storage multipathing
311
Figure 248 Add a new iSCSI LUN to the ESX host
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6. Select the datastore, and then click Properties. The iSCSI_ppve
Properties page appears.
Figure 249 iSCSI_ppve Properties
7. Click Manage Paths. The iSCSI Disk Manage Paths dialog box
appears.
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Note: The active paths and path owner are visible.
Figure 250 iSCSI Disk Manage Paths
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3.14 VMware Resiliency
With Celerra Data Mover outages, customers may face several
challenges in production virtual environments such as application
unavailability, guest operating system crash, data corruption, and data
loss. In production environments, the availability of virtual machines is
the most important factor to ensure that the data is available when
required.
Several factors affect the availability of virtual machines such as Data
Mover panic due to software errors, Data Mover failover due to
connectivity issues that cause disruption to clients by restarting the
services on the standby Data Mover, or Data Mover reboot due to
operations such as Celerra DART upgrades, which results in a Data
Mover downtime and makes the application unavailable for the
duration of the operation.
3.14.1 The rationale for VMware Resiliency
During Celerra failure events, the guest operating system (OS) loses
connection to the NAS datastore created on the Celerra file system, and
the datastore becomes inactive and unresponsive to user I/O.
Meanwhile, virtual machines hosted on the NAS datastore start
experiencing Disk SCSI timeout errors in the OS system event viewer.
To avoid these errors, EMC recommends several best practices to be
followed on ESX and guest operating systems to keep the application
and virtual machines available during Celerra Data Mover outage
events.
3.14.2 EMC recommendations for VMware Resiliency with Celerra
To avoid the downtime caused during the Celerra Data Mover outage
events, EMC recommends tuning the VMware environments as various
components of systems, such as ESX, guest operating system, disk
adapters, and so on. These best practices for VMware resiliency with
Celerra apply to both VMware Infrastructure 3.5 and VMware vSphere
4 environments:
◆
Configure customer environments with at least one standby Data
Mover to avoid a guest OS crash and the unavailability of
applications.
◆
Increase ESX NFS Heartbeat parameters to keep the NAS datastore
active during failure events.
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◆
Increase the disk timeout parameter on the guest operating system
to keep the virtual machines accessible.
3.14.2.1 Calculate the effective timeout period for a Celerra NFS volume on ESX
The formula to calculate the time taken for the ESX server to mark a
NAS datastore as unavailable is:
RoundUp (NFS.HeartbeatDelta, NFS.HeartbeatFrequency) +
(NFS.HeartbeatFrequency * (NFS.HeartbeatMaxFailures - 1)) +
NFS.HeartbeatTimeout
Let A= RoundUp (NFS.HeartbeatDelta, NFS.HeartbeatFrequency)
B= (NFS.HeartbeatFrequency * (NFS.HeartbeatMaxFailures - 1)
C= NFS.HeartbeatTimeout
Total (A+B+C) = Effective timeout period for ESX to mark the NAS
datastore as unavailable.
The following is an example to calculate the NAS datastore
unavailability timings as per the recommended values:
If
NFS.HeartbeatDelta = 5 s
NFS.HeartbeatFrequency = 12
NFS.HeartbeatMaxFailures = 10
NFS.HeartbeatTimeout = 5 s
Then, the effective timeout period for a ESX NFS volume can be
evaluated as,
A=Roundup (5,12) = 5, B = [12*(10-1)]=12*9=108, and C=5
Total A+B+C = 5+108+5 = 118 seconds
3.14.3 Install appropriate SCSI drivers
Increasing the Disk SCSI timeout and NFS Heartbeat parameters does
not help Windows guest operating systems to survive from timeout
errors caused during extended Celerra Data Mover outage events such
as Data Mover panic and Data Mover reboot. Virtual machines may
experience I/O failures, and disk and symmpi event errors are logged
in the systems event viewer.
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Figure 251 Windows virtual machines system event viewer
To avoid such I/O failures, EMC provides several workarounds using
VMware virtual SCSI drivers with guest operating systems:
◆
LSI Storport SCSI driver (Windows virtual machines)
◆
VMware Paravirtual SCSI adapter (VMware vSphere–based virtual
machines)
◆
The correct Linux guest operating system version (Linux virtual
machines)
The following section provides details about each of these
workarounds.
3.14.3.1 LSI Storport SCSI driver
For Windows Server 2003 virtual machines, EMC recommends the LSI
Storport SCSI driver instead of the native SCSI driver that is used with
ESX. The LSI Storport SCSI driver has architectural enhancements that
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provide performance improvements on large server systems with many
storage adapters. LSI Storport drivers are third-party drivers and can be
downloaded from the following link:
http://www.lsi.com/storage_home/products_home/host_bus_adapte
rs/scsi_hbas/lsi20320r/index.html
With ESX 3.5 update 3 and update 4 versions, LSI Storport SCSI drivers
are used to avoid SCSI timeout errors in Windows 2003 guest operating
systems. Section 3.14.7, “Upgrade LSI Logic Parallel drivers to LSI
Logic Storport drivers,” on page 321 shows how to upgrade from the
native LSI Logic parallel drivers to LSI Storport drivers in Windows
Server 2003 guest operating systems in VMware ESX 3.5 and VMWare
vSphere 4 environments.
For versions earlier than ESX 3.5 Update 3, use LSI Logic Storport
driver version 1.20.18 (or older) or LSI Logic SCSI port driver for the
Windows guests operating system.
With ESX 3.5 update 3 and update 4 versions, use the LSI Storport SCSI
drivers version 1.26.05 or later for the Windows guest operating system.
3.14.3.2 VMware Paravirtual SCSI Adapter (PVSCSI)
Paravirtualization is a virtualization technique that presents a software
interface to virtual machines that are similar but not identical to that of
the underlying hardware. For VMware vSphere–based virtual
machines, EMC recommends to configure virtual machines to use the
VMware Paravirtual SCSI adapter. Introduced with VMware vSphere 4,
PVSCSI adapter can be used with virtual disks.
VMware Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) is an enhanced and optimized
special-purpose driver for high-performance storage adapters that offer
greater throughput and lower CPU utilization for virtual machines.
They are best suited for environments where guest applications are
very I/O intensive. PVSCSI adapters avoid guest operating systems
SCSI timeout errors caused during the Celerra Data Mover failure
events.
PVSCSI with VMware vSphere 4 initial release
In the initial release of VMware vSphere 4, VMware Paravirtual SCSI
drivers are not supported for the OS boot disk of a virtual machine.
Hence, use LSI Storport drivers for the system disk and Paravirtual
drivers for the other virtual data disks of the virtual machine. Section
3.14.8, “Using paravirtual drivers in vSphere 4 environments,” on page
333 describes how to configure a PVSCSI adapter for virtual disks in
VMware vSphere environments.
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PVSCSI with VMware vSphere 4 update 1 and later
In VMware vSphere 4 update 1 (and later), Paravirtual drivers are
supported on the OS boot disk and virtual data disks in Windows 2003,
2008, and RHEL guest operating systems. Paravirtual drivers are
available as floppy disk images that can be used during the Windows
installation by selecting the F6 option during the guest operating
system setup. The floppy images for the PVSCSI driver are available in
the /vmimages/floppies/ folder in the ESX 4 host. The floppy images
for different operating systems versions are:
◆
Windows 2003 guest operating systems:
pvscsi-1.0.0.5-signed-Windows2003.flp
◆
Windows 2008 guest operating systems:
pvscsi-1.0.0.5-signed-Windows2008.flp
Note: VMware recommends creating a primary adapter for the disk that hosts
the system software (boot disk) and a separate PVSCSI adapter for the disk that
stores user data (data disks). The primary adapter is the default for the guest
operating system on the virtual machine.
3.14.4 Summary for VMware Resiliency with Celerra
This section provides the summary of the considerations that were
presented for the improved resiliency of virtual machines with VMware
vSphere or VMware Infrastructure and Celerra. The ESX NFS Heartbeat
Parameter settings must be increased on the ESX hosts to ensure that
the NAS datastore is available during the Celerra Data Mover outage,
as discussed in Section 3.6.1.5, “ESX host timeout settings for NFS,” on
page 118.
The following sections provide further resiliency considerations
specific to Windows and Linux based virtual machines.
3.14.5 Considerations for Windows virtual machines
Consider the following resiliency aspects with Windows virtual
machines:
◆
Increase the Disk SCSI timeout registry parameter setting from
default to survive Celerra Data Mover outages. Involve EMC
Professional Services to determine the appropriate Disk SCSI
timeout parameter setting for the customer environment, as
discussed in Section 3.10.3, “Guest OS SCSI timeout settings,” on
page 236.
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◆
Table 2
Install the SCSI driver recommended for Windows guest operating
systems. Table 2 shows the SCSI driver recommendations for
Windows guest operating systems in varied VMware ESX
environments.
SCSI driver recommendations for Windows guest OSs
Guest OS
versions
ESX 3.5 U3 and
later versions
Windows Server
2003 Enterprise
Edition R2
(32-bit,64-bit)
VMware vSphere 4
VMware vSphere 4 U1
LSI Storport drivers
LSI Storport drivers Guest OS disk
Paravirtual drivers additional disks
Paravirtual drivers
Windows Server
2008 Enterprise
Edition Service
Pack 2
Default drivers
Default drivers - Guest
OS disk Paravirtual
drivers - additional
disks
Default drivers or
Paravirtual drivers
Windows XP
Professional
Default drivers
Default drivers
Default drivers
3.14.6 Considerations for Linux virtual machines
During Celerra Data Mover outage events, NAS datastore becomes
inactive and the Linux partitions on guest operating systems become
read-only while continuously retrying I/O operations. VMware has
identified the problem with several versions of Linux guest operating
systems such as RHEL4 Update3, RHEL4 Update4, RHEL5, SLES10,
and SLES9 SP3. The Data Mover outage causes virtual machine
unavailability in all Linux distributions based on early 2.6 kernels.
Detailed information is available in the VMware KB article 51306.
The resiliency considerations for Linux virtual machines are:
◆
320
To avoid virtual machine unavailability, VMware recommends to
upgrade Linux guest operating systems to the recommended
versions as listed in Table 3.
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Table 3
Linux guest OS recommendations
Guest OS versions
Recommended OS versions
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 U4
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 U6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 U1 or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP2
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 SP3
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 SP4
Ubuntu 7.04
Ubuntu 7.10
◆
The disk timeout registry settings are increased to a larger value to
protect the guest operating systems from outage events.
The Linux command to increase the timeout value for the virtual
machines:
echo "360" > /sys/block/sda/device/timeout
◆
The default SCSI drivers are recommended on RHEL guest
operating systems.
3.14.7 Upgrade LSI Logic Parallel drivers to LSI Logic Storport drivers
Upgrading the Windows Server 2003 guest OS from the LSI Logic
parallel to LSI Logic Storport driver for the guest OS boot disk causes
Windows to crash with the blue screen of death (BSOD). To avoid this,
additional parameters are needed in the virtual machines configuration
file (*.vmx) of the guest OS.
Detailed information on these parameters is available in the VMware
KB article 1006224.
To upgrade the LSI Logic parallel drivers to LSI Storport drivers in ESX
3.5 and vSphere 4:
1. Log in to the Windows guest OS that runs in the virtual machine as
Administrator, and right-click My Computer.
2. Select Manage > Device Manager > SCSI and RAID Controllers.
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3. Right-click LSI Logic PCI-X Ultra320 SCSI Host Adapter, and
select Update Driver.
Figure 252 Upgrade the LSI Logic PCI-X Ultra 320 driver
The Hardware Update Wizard appears.
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Figure 253 Hardware Update Wizard
4. Select Yes, this time only, and then click Next.
Note: Download the driver from the LSI website and store the driver in the
specific location in the guest operating system.
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Figure 254 Install software
5. Select Install from a list or specific location (Advanced), and then
click Next.
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Figure 255 Select device driver from a list
6. Select Don't search. I will choose the driver to install, and then
click Next. The Select the device driver you want to install for this
hardware dialog box appears.
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Figure 256 Select the device driver
7. Click Have Disk. The Install from Disk dialog box appears.
Figure 257 Install from Disk
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8. Click Browse. The Locate File dialog box appears.
Figure 258 Locate File
9. Browse to the path of the device driver to upgrade the hardware,
and then click Open. The path of the file is displayed.
10. Click OK. The selected StorPort driver is available to upgrade the
hardware.
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Figure 259 Select device driver
11. Click Next. The Completing the Hardware Update Wizard dialog
box appears.
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Figure 260 Completing the Hardware Update Wizard
12. Click Finish.
13. Restart the virtual machine. The newly installed StorPort drivers are
applied to the guest OS.
Note: To resolve the Windows BSOD in ESX 3.5, complete the
following steps in addition to the steps described earlier.
14. Power off the virtual machines.
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15. In the ESX host, click Configuration in the right pane, and then
click Storage in the left pane.
Figure 261 ESX host
16. Right-click the required datastore, and then select Browse
Datastore. The Datastore Browser dialog box appears.
Figure 262 Datastore Browser
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17. From the left pane, select the required virtual machine hosted on the
datastore. The components of the virtual machines are listed in the
right pane.
18. Right-click the virtual machine configuration file, and then click
Download. The configuration file downloads to the specified
location.
19. Open the configuration file and add the parameter
lsilogic.iobar256="true".
Figure 263 Configuration file
20. Upload the updated virtual machine configuration file to the
datastore browser.
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Figure 264 Update virtual machine file configuration
21. Power on the virtual machines. The LSI StorPort Adapters are
successfully installed in the virtual machine.
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Figure 265 LSI Storport drivers are upgraded successfully
3.14.8 Using paravirtual drivers in vSphere 4 environments
The procedure to configure the paravirtual SCSI adapters as a system
boot disk for VMware vSphere 4 environments and to add the
paravirtual SCSI disks to the existing virtual machines is discussed in
detail in this section.
3.14.8.1 Configure a PVSCSI adapter as a system boot disk in VMware vSphere 4.1
environments
To configure a disk as PVSCSI adapter as system boot disk in VMware
vSphere 4.1 environments:
1. Launch the vSphere Client and log in to the ESX host system and
create a new virtual machine.
2. Ensure that a guest operating system that supports PVSCSI is
installed on the virtual machine.
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3. Right-click the virtual machine, and then click Edit Settings. The
Virtual Machine Properties dialog box appears.
Note: These drivers are loaded during the installation of the guest
operating system in the form of floppy disk images, which are available in
the [Datastore]/vmimages/floppies folder.
Figure 266 Virtual Machine Properties
4. Select Use existing floppy image in datastore, and then click
Browse. The Browse Datastore dialog box appears.
Note: Connect the floppy disk image after the Windows CD-ROM is booted
so that the system does not boot from the floppy drive.
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Figure 267 Browse Datastores
5. Browse to vmimages > floppies and select the floppy images of the
appropriate guest OS, and then click OK. The floppy image of the
guest OS is displayed, and the device status of the floppy image is
connected at power on.
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Figure 268 Virtual Machine Properties
6. Power on the virtual machine.
Note: The virtual machine boots from the CD-ROM drive.
7. Press F6. Windows Setup appears.
Note: This is required to instruct the operating system that third-party SCSI
drivers are used.
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Figure 269 Install the third-party driver
8. In the Device Status area of the Virtual Machine Properties dialog
box, select Connect at Power on and click OK. The newly created
virtual machine points to the PVSCSI SCSI driver.
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Figure 270 Select VMware PVSCSI Controller
9. Press ENTER. The third-party paravirtual SCSI drivers are
successfully installed.
10. Continue the Window guest OS setup.
Note: Booting a Microsoft Windows guest from a disk attached to a PVSCSI
adapter is not supported in versions of ESX prior to ESX 4.0 Update 1. In
these situations, install the system software on a disk attached to an adapter
that does support a bootable disk.
3.14.8.2 Add Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) adapters
To add a hard disk with a paravirtual SCSI adapter:
1. Start a vSphere Client and log in to an ESX host system.
2. Select an existing virtual machine or create a new one.
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3. Ensure that a guest operating system that supports PVSCSI is
installed on the virtual machine.
Note: The guest operating system currently supports the paravirtual
drivers Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5. If the guest operating system does not support
booting from a disk attached to a PVSCSI adapter, install the system
software on a disk attached to an adapter that supports a bootable disk In
the vSphere Client, right-click the virtual machine, and then click Edit
Settings.
In the vCenter Server, right-click the virtual machine and then click Edit
Settings. The Virtual Machine Properties dialog box appears.
Figure 271 Virtual Machine Properties
4. Click Hardware, and then click Add. The Add Hardware wizard
appears.
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Figure 272 Select Hard Disk
5. Select Hard Disk, and then click Next. The Select a Disk dialog box
appears.
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Figure 273 Select a Disk
6. Select Create a new virtual disk, and then click Next. The Create a
Disk dialog box appears.
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Figure 274 Create a Disk
7. Specify the virtual disk size and provisioning policy, and then click
Next. The Advanced Options dialog box appears.
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Figure 275 Advanced Options
8. Select a Virtual Device Node between SCSI (1:0) to SCSI (3:15).
Click Next. The Ready to Complete page appears.
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Figure 276 Ready to Complete
9. Click Finish. A new disk and controller are created.
10. In the Virtual Machine Properties dialog box, select the newly
created controller, and then click Change Type.
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Figure 277 Virtual Machine Properties
The Change SCSI Controller Type dialog box appears.
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Figure 278 Change SCSI Controller Type
11. Click VMware Paravirtual, and then click OK.
12. Power on the virtual machine.
13. Install VMware Tools. VMware Tools includes the PVSCSI driver.
14. Scan and format the hard disk.
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4
Cloning Virtual Machines
This chapter presents these topics:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
4.1 Introduction .................................................................................... 348
4.2 Cloning methodologies ................................................................. 349
4.3 Cloning virtual machines by using Celerra-based technologies 353
4.4 Celerra-based cloning with Virtual Provisioning ...................... 359
4.5 Conclusion....................................................................................... 363
Cloning Virtual Machines
347
4.1 Introduction
Cloning a virtual machine is the process of creating an exact copy of an
existing virtual machine in the same or a different location. By cloning
virtual machines, administrators can quickly deploy a group of virtual
machines based on a single virtual machine that was already created
and configured. To clone a virtual machine, copy the data on the virtual
disk of the source virtual machine and transfer that data to the target
virtual disk, which is the new cloned virtual disk.
System reconfiguration, also known as system customization, is the
process of adjusting the migrated operating system to avoid any
possible network and software conflicts, and enabling it to function on
the virtual hardware. Perform this adjustment on the target virtual disk
after cloning.
It is not mandatory to shut down virtual machines before they are
cloned. However, ideally, administrators should shut down the virtual
machines before copying the metadata and the virtual disks associated
with the virtual machines. Copying the virtual machines after they are
shut down ensures that all the data from memory has been committed
to the virtual disk. Hence, the virtual disk will contain a fully consistent
copy of the virtual machines, which can be used to back up or to
quickstart cloned virtual machines.
This chapter explains the primary methods available in VMware
vSphere and VMware Infrastructure to clone virtual machines. It also
explains Celerra-based technologies that can be used to clone virtual
machines.
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4.2 Cloning methodologies
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure provide two primary
methods to clone virtual machines — VMware vCenter Converter and
the Clone Virtual Machine wizard in vCenter Server.
4.2.1 Clone Virtual Machine wizard in vCenter Server
To clone a virtual machine by using the Clone Virtual Machine wizard:
1. Right-click the virtual machine in the inventory and select Clone.
The Clone Virtual Machine wizard appears.
Note: For VMware Infrastructure 3.5, it is recommended that
administrators shut down the virtual machine before cloning. For VMware
vSphere and Celerra-based cloning, the state of the virtual machine does
not matter.
Figure 279 Clone Virtual Machine wizard
Cloning methodologies
349
2. Type the name of the virtual machine, select the inventory location,
and then click Next. The Host/Cluster dialog box appears.
Figure 280 Host/Cluster
3. Select the host for running the cloned virtual machine and click
Next. The Datastore dialog box appears.
Figure 281 Datastore
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4. Select the datastore to store the virtual machine and click Next. The
Disk Format dialog box appears.
Figure 282 Disk Format
5. Select the format to store the virtual machine disk and click Next.
The Guest Customization dialog box appears.
Figure 283 Guest Customization
6. Select the option to use in customizing the guest operating system
of the new virtual machine and click Next. The Ready to Complete
dialog box appears.
Cloning methodologies
351
Note: Select Do not customize if no customization is required.
Figure 284 Ready to Complete
7. Click Finish. The cloning is initiated.
Note: After the clone operation is completed, a cloned virtual machine is
created with an exact copy of the source virtual machine. The Clone Virtual
Machine wizard can also handle system reconfiguration of the cloned virtual
machine.
4.2.2 VMware vCenter Converter
VMware vCenter Converter is a tool integrated with vCenter Server
that enables administrators to convert any type of a physical or virtual
machine, which runs on the Windows operating system, into a virtual
machine that runs on an ESX server. VMware vCenter Converter can
also be used to clone an existing virtual machine. VMware vCenter
Converter uses its cloning and system reconfiguration features to create
a virtual machine that is compatible with an ESX server.
Section 3.7, “Using NFS storage,” on page 128 provides more details
about VMware vCenter Converter.
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4.3 Cloning virtual machines by using Celerra-based
technologies
Note: The following section includes applicable Celerra technologies available
with Celerra versions earlier than 5.6.48. However, starting from this release,
the Celerra Data Deduplication technology was enhanced to also support
virtual machines cloning. EMC Celerra Plug-in for VMware—Solution Guide
provides more information on this technology and how it can be used in this
case.
Celerra provides two technologies that can be used to clone virtual
machines — Celerra SnapSure™ for file systems when using the NFS
protocol, and iSCSI snapshot for iSCSI LUNs when using the iSCSI
protocol. When using Celerra-based technologies for cloning, the
virtual machine data is not passed on the wire from Celerra to ESX and
back. Instead, the entire cloning operation is performed optimally
within the Celerra with no ESX cycles. If the information stored on the
snapshot or checkpoint needs to be application-consistent
(recoverable), administrators should either shut down or quiesce the
applications that are running on the virtual machines involved in the
cloning process. This must be done before a checkpoint or snapshot is
created. Otherwise, the information on the snapshot or checkpoint will
only be crash-consistent (restartable). This means that although it is
possible to restart the virtual machines and the applications in them
from the checkpoint or snapshot, some of the most recent data will be
missing because it is not yet committed by the application (data in
flight).
When virtual machines are cloned by using Celerra SnapSure or iSCSI
snapshots, the cloned virtual machines will be exact copies of the source
virtual machines. Administrators should manually customize these
cloned virtual machines to avoid any possible network or software
conflicts. To customize a Windows virtual machine that was cloned by
using Celerra SnapSure or iSCSI snapshots, install the Windows
customization tool, System Preparation (Sysprep), on the virtual
machine. Sysprep will resignature all details associated with the new
virtual machine and assign new system details. Sysprep also avoids
possible network and software conflict between the virtual machines.
Appendix B, “ Windows Customization,”provides information on
Windows customization with Sysprep.
Cloning virtual machines by using Celerra-based technologies
353
4.3.1 Clone virtual machines over NAS datastores using Celerra SnapSure
Celerra SnapSure makes cloning of virtual machines, which are
provisioned over an NAS datastore, easier. SnapSure creates a logical
point-in-time copy of the production file system called a checkpoint file
system. The production file system contains a NAS datastore that
contains the metadata and virtual disks associated with the virtual
machines that must be cloned. For cloning virtual machines by using
Celerra SnapSure, the writeable checkpoint file system must be in
read/write mode.
The writeable checkpoint file system is created using Celerra Manager
as shown in Figure 285 on page 354.
Figure 285 Create a writeable checkpoint for NAS datastore
Alternatively, writeable checkpoint file systems can be created by using
Celerra CLI:
# fs_ckpt
<NAS file system checkpoint> -Create -readonly n
Similar to a standard NAS file system, it is mandatory to grant the
VMkernel read/write access in addition to root access to the checkpoint
file system. Section 3.7.1, “Add a Celerra file system to ESX,” on page
128 explains how to provide VMkernel the required access
permissions.
To clone one or more virtual machines that reside on a checkpoint file
system, add the writeable checkpoint file system to the ESX server as a
new NAS datastore, browse for the new datastore, and add the VMX
files of the virtual machines to the vCenter inventory. This creates new
virtual machines with the help of the Add to Inventory wizard.
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Section 2.5.2, “Celerra SnapSure,” on page 76 provides more details
about Celerra SnapSure.
4.3.2 Clone virtual machines over iSCSI/vStorage VMFS datastores using iSCSI
snapshots
iSCSI snapshots on Celerra offer a logical point-in-time copy of the
iSCSI LUN. Virtual machines are created on the vStorage VMFS over
iSCSI. A Celerra iSCSI LUN is presented to the ESX server and
formatted as a VMFS datastore. Because each snapshot needs the same
amount of storage as the iSCSI LUN (when virtual provisioning is not
used), ensure that the file system that stores the production LUN unit
and its snapshot has enough free space to store the snapshot.
Section 2.5.4, “Celerra iSCSI snapshots,” on page 77 provides more
details about iSCSI snapshots.
4.3.2.1 Create a temporary writeable snap
Promoting a snapshot creates a temporary writeable snap (TWS).
Mounting a TWS on an iSCSI LUN makes the snapshot visible to the
iSCSI initiator. After mounting a TWS on an iSCSI LUN, it can be
configured as a disk device and used as a production LUN.
Note: Only a snapshot can be promoted.
Use the following CLI command to promote the snapshot.
#server_iscsi <movername> -snap -promote <snap_name>
-initiator <initiator_name>
Figure 286 shows how to promote a snapshot in CLI.
Figure 286 Promote a snapshot
Cloning virtual machines by using Celerra-based technologies
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The mounted LUN is assigned the next available number that is greater
than 127. If this number is not available, the LUN is assigned the next
available number in the range 0 through 127. After the LUN is
promoted, the TWS becomes visible to the ESX server as a new iSCSI
LUN.
With VMware Infrastructure, administrators must configure the
advanced configuration parameters, LVM.DisallowsnapshotLun and
LVM.EnableResignature, to control the clone behavior. To add the
promoted LUN to the storage without VMFS formatting, set the
LVM.EnableResignature parameter to 1, set LVM.DisallowsnapshotLun
to the default parameter value, which is 1. Refer step 7 onwards in
Section 3.8.3, “Create VMFS datastores on ESX,” on page 174 for more
details on the LVM parameter combination.
With VMware vSphere, the configuration is much simpler because
there is no need to configure any advanced configuration parameters.
To resignature a vStorage VMFS datastore copy, select the Assign a new
signature option when adding the LUN as a datastore. Datastore
resignaturing must be used to retain the data stored on the vStorage
VMFS datastore copy.
The prerequisites for datastore resignaturing are:
◆
Unmount the mounted datastore copy.
◆
Rescan the storage on the ESX server so that it updates its view of
LUNs presented to it and discovers any LUN copies.
To resignature a vStorage VMFS data copy:
1. Log in to vSphere Client and select the host from the Inventory
area.
2. Click Configuration and click Storage in the Hardware area.
3. Click Add Storage.
4. Select the Disk/LUN storage type and click Next.
5. From the list of LUNs, select the LUN that has a datastore name
displayed in the VMFS Label column and click Next. The Select
VMFS Mount Options dialog box appears.
Note: The name present in the VMFS Label column indicates that the LUN
is a copy that contains a copy of an existing vStorage VMFS datastore.
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6. Select Assign a new signature and click Next.
Figure 287 Assign a new signature option
The Ready to Complete page appears.
7. Review the datastore configuration information and click Finish.
The promoted LUN is added and is visible to the host.
8. Browse for the virtual machine's VMX file in the newly created
datastore, and add it to the vCenter inventory. The virtual machine
clone is created.
Although a promoted snapshot LUN is writeable, all changes made to
the LUN are allocated only to the TWS. When the snapshot is demoted,
the LUN is unmounted and its LUN number is unassigned. After the
snapshot demotion, data that was written to the promoted LUN
becomes irretrievable because it is lost. Therefore, back up the cloned
virtual machines before the promoted LUN is demoted.
4.3.3 Clone virtual machines over iSCSI or RDM volumes by using iSCSI
snapshots
RDM allows a special file in a vStorage VMFS datastore to act as a
proxy for a raw device, the RDM volume. iSCSI snapshots can be used
to create a logical point-in-time copy of the RDM volume, which can be
used to clone virtual machines.
Multiple virtual machines cannot be cloned on the same RDM volume
because only a single virtual machine can use an RDM volume. To clone
a virtual machine that is stored on an RDM volume, create a snapshot of
the iSCSI LUN that is mapped by the RDM volume.
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Section 2.5.4, “Celerra iSCSI snapshots,” on page 77 provides more
details about iSCSI snapshots.
The procedure to create a TWS of the RDM volume is the same as the
procedure to create a vStorage VMFS volume.
To clone a virtual machine over RDM, create a virtual machine over the
local datastore by using the Virtual Machine Creation wizard. After a
virtual machine is created, select and edit the virtual machine settings
by using the Edit Settings menu option. Using this option, remove the
hard disk created on the local datastore. Add the newly promoted iSCSI
LUN as the hard disk that contains the original virtual machine VMX
files and power on the virtual machine.
Section 3.8.4, “Create RDM volumes on ESX servers,” on page 182
provides detailed information about creating a virtual machine over an
RDM volume.
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4.4 Celerra-based cloning with Virtual Provisioning
To optimize the utilization of the file system, administrators can
combine Celerra Virtual Provisioning technology and virtual machine
cloning by using Celerra-based technologies. Celerra Virtual
Provisioning includes two technologies that are used together —
automatic file system extension and file system/LUN virtual
provisioning.
Section 2.5.1, “Celerra Virtual Provisioning,” on page 76 provides
more information about Celerra Virtual Provisioning.
4.4.1 Clone virtual machines over NAS using SnapSure and Virtual Provisioning
Virtual Provisioning provides the advantage of presenting the
maximum size of the file system to the ESX server, of which only a
portion is actually allocated. To create a NAS datastore, a virtually
provisioned file system must be selected.
Cloning virtual machines on a virtually provisioned file system is
similar to cloning virtual machines on a fully provisioned file system.
The advantage of cloning virtual machines on a virtually provisioned
file system is that the administrators can initially allocate a minimum
amount of storage space required for the virtual machines, and as the
data grows, they can automatically allocate additional space to the NAS
datastore.
When using a virtually provisioned file system during virtual machine
cloning, it is important to monitor the file system utilization to ensure
that enough space is available. The storage utilization of the file system
can be monitored by checking the size of the file system using Celerra
Manager. Figure 288 on page 360 shows the file system usage on
Celerra Manager.
Celerra-based cloning with Virtual Provisioning
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Figure 288 File system usage on Celerra Manager
Section 4.3.1, “Clone virtual machines over NAS datastores using
Celerra SnapSure,” on page 354 explains the procedure to clone virtual
machines from a file system.
4.4.2 Clone virtual machines over VMFS or RDM using iSCSI snapshot and Virtual
Provisioning
To maximize overall storage utilization, ensure that virtually
provisioned iSCSI LUNs are created to deploy the virtual machines.
The iSCSI LUNs take advantage of the automatic file system extension
when cloning virtual machines. Virtually provisioned iSCSI LUNs can
be created only through CLI. When using a virtually provisioned iSCSI
LUN during the virtual machine cloning, it is crucial to monitor the file
system space to ensure that enough space is available.
Monitor the LUN utilization by using the following CLI command:
#server_iscsi <Data_mover> -lun -info <lun number>
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A virtually provisioned LUN does not reserve space on the file system.
To avoid data loss or corruption, ensure that the file system space is
available for allocation when the data is added to the LUN. Setting a
conservative high water mark provides an added advantage when
enabling the automatic file system extension.
Cloning virtual machines on the virtually provisioned iSCSI LUN is the
same as cloning virtual machines on normal iSCSI LUNs.
Section 4.3.2, “Clone virtual machines over iSCSI/vStorage VMFS
datastores using iSCSI snapshots,” on page 355 explains the procedure
to clone virtual machines from the iSCSI LUN.
Section 3.12, “Virtually provisioned storage,” on page 258 provides
further information on deploying virtual machines over Celerra
virtually provisioned file systems.
4.4.2.1 Celerra Data Mover parameter setting for TWS
To further maximize the storage utilization, an extra step is required to
ensure that the TWS will also be virtually provisioned in all cases. Set
the sparseTws Celerra Data Mover parameter to 1 to ensure that the
TWS of an iSCSI LUN will be virtually provisioned.
If the sparseTws parameter is set to 1, the TWS created will always be
virtually provisioned. The default value of the sparseTws is 0 and its
possible values are 0 and 1. The value 0 indicates that a fully
provisioned TWS is created if the production LUN is not virtually
provisioned.
The sparseTws parameter can be modified by using Celerra Manager
(Figure 289 on page 362) or CLI.
Celerra-based cloning with Virtual Provisioning
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Figure 289 Parameter setting using Celerra Manager
In CLI, the following command updates the parameter:
$ server_param server_2 -facility nbs -modify sparseTws
-value 1
Section 3.12, “Virtually provisioned storage,” on page 258 provides
further information on deploying virtual machines over Celerra
virtually provisioned iSCSI LUNs.
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4.5 Conclusion
Celerra-based virtual machine cloning is an alternative that can be used
instead of the conventional VMware-based cloning. The advantage of
cloning virtual machines using Celerra-based technologies is that the
cloning of virtual machines can be performed on the storage layer in a
single operation for multiple virtual machines.
The Celerra methodologies used to clone virtual machines are Celerra
SnapSure and iSCSI snapshot. Celerra SnapSure creates a checkpoint of
the NAS file system. Adding the checkpoint file system as a storage to
the ESX server provides the advantage of creating clones of the original
virtual machines on the ESX server. The iSCSI snapshot creates an exact
snap of the LUN that can be used as a datastore to clone the original
virtual machine. Enabling Virtual Provisioning provides the advantage
of efficiently managing the storage space used for virtual machines
cloning on the file system and the LUN.
Table 4 summarizes when to consider VMware-based cloning and
Celerra-based cloning.
Table 4
Virtual machine cloning methodology comparison
Virtual machine cloning category
Consider when
VMware-based
• The VMware administrator has limited
access to the storage system.
• Only a few virtual machines from a datastore
must be cloned.
Celerra-based
• Most of the virtual machines from a datastore
must be cloned.
• Using VMware Infrastructure, the production
virtual machines should not be shut down
during the cloning process.
Conclusion
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5
Backup and Restore of
Virtual Machines
This chapter presents these topics:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
5.1 Backup and recovery options ....................................................... 366
5.2 Recoverable as compared to restartable copies of data ............ 367
5.3 Virtual machines data consistency............................................... 369
5.4 Backup and recovery of a NAS datastore ................................... 371
5.5 Backup and recovery of a vStorage VMFS datastore over iSCSI . 382
5.6 Backup and recovery of an RDM volume over iSCSI ............... 388
5.7 Backup and recovery using VCB ................................................. 389
5.8 Backup and recovery using VCB and EMC Avamar ................ 395
5.9 Backup and recovery using VMware Data Recovery ............... 398
5.10 Virtual machine single file restore from a Celerra checkpoint . 401
5.11 Other file-level backup and restore alternatives ...................... 404
5.12 Summary ....................................................................................... 406
Backup and Restore of Virtual Machines
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5.1 Backup and recovery options
EMC Celerra combines with VMware vSphere or VMware
Infrastructure to offer many possible ways to perform backup and
recovery of virtual machines. This is regardless of whether an ESX
server uses an NAS datastore, a vStorage VMFS datastore over iSCSI, or
an RDM volume over iSCSI. It is critical to determine the customer RPO
or RTO so that an appropriate method is used to meet the Service Level
Agreements (SLAs) and minimize downtime.
At the storage layer, two types of backup are discussed in the context of
this chapter: logical backup and physical backup. A logical backup does
not provide a physically independent copy of production data. It offers
a view of the file system or iSCSI LUN as of a certain point in time. A
logical backup can occur very rapidly and requires very little space to
store. Therefore, a logical backup can be taken very frequently.
Restoring from a logical backup can be quick as well, depending on the
data changes. This dramatically reduces the mean time to recovery.
However, a logical backup cannot replace a physical backup. The
logical backup protects against logical corruption of the file system or
iSCSI LUN, accidental deletion of files, and other similar human errors.
However, it does not protect the data from hardware failures. Also, loss
of the PFS or iSCSI LUN renders the checkpoints or snapshots
unusable. A physical backup takes a full and complete copy of the file
system or iSCSI LUN to a different physical media. Although the
backup and recovery time may be longer, a physical backup protects
the data from hardware failure.
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5.2 Recoverable as compared to restartable copies of data
The Celerra-based replication technologies can generate a restartable or
recoverable copy of the data. The difference between the two types of
copies can be confusing. A clear understanding of the differences
between the two is critical to ensure that the recovery goals for a virtual
infrastructure environment can be met.
5.2.1 Recoverable disk copies
A recoverable (also called application-consistent) copy of the data is
one that allows the application to apply logs and roll the data forward
to an arbitrary point in time after the copy was created. This is only
possible if recoverable disk copies are supported by the application.
The recoverable copy is most relevant in the database realm where
database administrators use it frequently to create backup copies of a
database. It is critical to business applications that a database failure can
be recovered to the last backup and that it can roll forward subsequent
transactions. Without this capability, a failure may cause an
unacceptable loss of all transactions that occurred since the last backup.
To create a recoverable image of an application, either shut down the
application or suspend writes when the data is copied. Most database
vendors provide the functionality to suspend writes in their RDBMS
engine. This functionality must be invoked inside the virtual machine
when EMC technology is deployed to ensure that a recoverable copy of
the data is generated on the target devices.
5.2.2 Restartable disk copies
When a copy of a running virtual machine is created by using EMC
consistency technology when no action is taking place inside the virtual
machine, the copy is normally a restartable (also called
crash-consistent) image of the virtual machine. This means that when
the data is used on cloned virtual machines, the operating system or the
application goes into crash recovery. The exact implications of crash
recovery in a virtual machine depends on the application that the
virtual machine supports. These implications could be:
◆
If the source virtual machine is a file server or it runs an application
that uses flat files, the operating system performs a file system
check and fixes inconsistencies in the file system, if any. Modern file
systems such as Microsoft NTFS use journals to accelerate the
process.
Recoverable as compared to restartable copies of data
367
◆
When the virtual machine is running a database or application with
a log-based recovery mechanism, the application uses the
transaction logs to bring the database or application to a point of
consistency. The deployed process varies depending on the
database or application, and is beyond the scope of this document.
Most applications and databases cannot perform roll-forward recovery
from a restartable copy of the data. Therefore, it is inappropriate to use
a restartable copy of data created from a virtual machine that is running
a database engine for performing backups. However, applications that
use flat files or virtual machines that act as file servers can be backed up
from a restartable copy of the data. This is possible because none of the
file systems provide a logging mechanism that enables roll-forward
recovery.
Note: Without additional steps, VCB creates a restartable copy of virtual disks
associated with virtual machines. The quiesced copy of the virtual disks created
by VCB is similar to the copy created by using EMC consistency technology.
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5.3 Virtual machines data consistency
In environments where EMC Celerra is deployed to provide storage to
the ESX server, crash consistency is generally offered by the Celerra
backup technologies that are described in this chapter. In a simplified
configuration where a virtual machine’s guest OS, application,
application data, and application log are encapsulated together in one
datastore, crash consistency is achieved by using one of the Celerra
technologies. However, many applications, especially database
applications, strongly recommend separating data and log files in
different file systems or iSCSI LUNs. By following this best practice, a
virtual machine will have multiple virtual disks (vmdk files) spread
across several datastores. It is therefore critical to maintain data
consistency across these datastores when backup or replication occurs.
VMware snapshots can be leveraged together with the Celerra
technologies to provide crash consistency in such complicated
scenarios.
VMware snapshot is a software-based technology that operates on a
per-virtual machine basis. When a VMware snapshot is taken, it
quiesces all I/Os and captures the entire state of a virtual machine
including its settings, virtual disks, and optionally the memory state, if
the virtual machine is up and running. The virtual machine ceases to
write to the existing virtual disks while subsequently writing changed
blocks to the newly created virtual disks, which essentially are the
.vmdk delta files. Because I/Os are frozen to the original virtual disks,
the virtual machine can revert to the snapshot by discarding the delta
files. On the other hand, the virtual disks merge together if the snapshot
must be deleted.
As soon as the VMware snapshot is taken, a virtual machine backup can
be completed by initiating a SnapSure checkpoint if the virtual disk
resides on an NAS datastore, or by taking an iSCSI snapshot if the
virtual disk resides on vStorage VMFS/iSCSI or RDM/iSCSI.
Snapshots of all datastores containing all virtual disks that belong to the
virtual machines constitute the entire backup set. All the files related to
a particular virtual machine must be restored together to revert to the
previous state when the VMware snapshot was taken. Carefully isolate
the placement of .vmdk files of multiple virtual machines in the same
datastore so that a snapshot restore does not affect other virtual
machines.
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As long as the backup set is intact, crash consistency can be maintained
even across protocols or storage types such as vStorage VMFS/iSCSI,
RDM/iSCSI, or, except RDM (physical mode), which is not supported
by VMware snapshot technology. To perform backup operations, do the
following:
1. Initiate a VMware snapshot and capture the memory state if the
virtual machine is up and running.
2. Take Celerra checkpoints or snapshots of all datastores that contain
virtual disks that belong to the virtual machine.
Note: Replicate the datastores to a local or remote Celerra. This is optional.
3. Delete the VMware snapshot to allow virtual disks to merge after
deltas are applied to the original virtual disks.
To perform restore operations, do the following:
1. Power off the virtual machine.
2. Perform checkpoint or snapshot restore of all datastores containing
virtual disks that belong to the virtual machine.
3. Execute the service console command service mgmt-vmware
restart to restart the ESX host agent, which updates the virtual
machine status reported in the vSphere GUI.
Note: Wait for 30 seconds for the refresh and then proceed.
4. Open the VMware Snapshot Manager and revert to the snapshot
taken in step 1 and delete the snapshot.
5. Power on the virtual machine.
Replication Manager, which is described later in this chapter, supports
the creation of replicas and vStorage VMFS datastores containing
virtual machines in a VMware ESX server environment. It also provides
a point-and-click backup and recovery of virtual machine-level images.
It automates and simplifies the management of virtual machine backup
and replication by leveraging VMware snapshots. This is to create
virtual machine consistent replicas of vStorage VMFS and NAS
datastores that are ideal for creating image-level backups and instant
restores of virtual machines.
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5.4 Backup and recovery of a NAS datastore
The backup and recovery of virtual machines residing on NAS
datastores can be performed in various ways. These are described in the
following sections.
5.4.1 Logical backup and restore using Celerra SnapSure
Celerra SnapSure can be used to create and schedule logical backups of
the file systems exported to an ESX server as NAS datastores. This is
accomplished by using the Celerra Manager as shown in Figure 290.
Figure 290 Checkpoint creation in Celerra Manager GUI 5.6
Alternatively, this can also be accomplished by using the following two
Celerra commands:
# /nas/sbin/fs_ckpt <ESX file system> -name <checkpoint
name> Create –readonly y
# /nas/sbin/rootfs_ckpt <new checkpoint name> -Restore
For Celerra version 5.5, use the following command to create and
restore checkpoints:
# /nas/sbin/fs_ckpt <ESX file system> -name <checkpoint
name> -Create
# /nas/sbin/rootfs_ckpt <checkpoint name> -name <new
checkpoint name> -Restore
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In general, this method works on a per-datastore basis. If multiple
virtual machines share the same datastore, they can be backed up and
recovered simultaneously and consistently, in one operation. To recover
an individual virtual machine:
1. Change the Data Mover parameter cfs.showChildFsRoot from the
default value of 0 to 1 as shown in Figure 291.
Figure 291 ShowChildFsRoot Server Parameter Properties in Celerra Manager
Note: A virtual directory is created for each checkpoint that is created with
Celerra SnapSure. By default, these directories will be under a virtual directory
named .ckpt. This virtual directory is located in the root of the file system. By
default, the .ckpt directory is hidden. Therefore, the datastore viewer in vCenter
Server will not be able to view the .ckpt directory. Changing the Data Mover
parameter enables each mounted checkpoint of a PFS to be visible to clients as
subdirectories of the root directory of the PFS as shown in Figure 292.
Figure 292 Datastore Browser view after checkpoints are visible
2. Power off the virtual machine.
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3. Browse to the appropriate configuration and virtual disk files of the
specific virtual machine as shown in Figure 292 on page 372.
4. Manually copy the files from the checkpoint and add it to the
datastore under the directory /vmfs/volumes/<ESX
filesystem>/VM_dir.
5. Power on the virtual machine.
5.4.2 Logical backup and restore using Replication Manager
Replication Manager can also be used to protect NAS datastores that
reside on an ESX server managed by a VMware vCenter Server and
attached to a Celerra system. Replication Manager uses Celerra
SnapSure to create local replicas of VMware NAS datastores. VMware
snapshots are taken for all the virtual machines that are online and that
reside on the NAS datastore just prior to creating local replicas to
ensure operating system consistency of the resulting replica. Operations
are sent from a Linux proxy host, which is either a physical host or a
separate virtual host. The Replication Manager Job Wizard (Figure 293)
can be used to select the replica type and expiry options. Replication
Manager version 5.2.2 must be installed for datastore support.
Figure 293 Job Wizard
Backup and recovery of a NAS datastore
373
Select the Restore option in Replication Manager (Figure 294) to restore
the entire datastore.
Figure 294 Restoring the datastore replica from Replication Manager
Before restoring the replica, do the following:
1. Power off the virtual machines that are hosted within the datastore.
2. Remove those virtual machines from the vCenter Server inventory.
3. Restore the replica from Replication Manager.
4. After the restore is complete, add the virtual machines to the
vCenter Server inventory.
5. Revert to the VMware snapshot taken by Replication Manager to
obtain an operating system consistent replica and delete the
snapshot.
6. Manually power on each virtual machine.
Note: Replication Manager creates a rollback snapshot for every Celerra file
system that has been restored. The name of each rollback snapshot can be found
in the restore details as shown in Figure 295 on page 375. The rollback snapshot
may be deleted manually after the contents of the restore have been verified
and the rollback snapshot is no longer needed. Retaining these snapshots
beyond their useful life can cause resource issues.
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Figure 295 Replica Properties in Replication Manager
A single virtual machine can be restored by using the Mount option in
Replication Manager. Using this option, it is possible to mount a
datastore replica to an ESX server as a read-only or read-write
datastore. To restore a single virtual machine, do the following:
1. Mount the read-only replica as a datastore in the ESX server as
shown in Figure 296 on page 376.
2. Power off the virtual machine residing in the production datastore.
3. Remove the virtual machine from the vCenter Server inventory.
4. Browse to the mounted datastore.
5. Copy the virtual machine files to the production datastore.
6. Add the virtual machine to the inventory again.
7. Revert to the VMware snapshot taken by Replication Manager to
obtain an operating system consistent replica and delete the
snapshot.
8. Unmount the replica through Replication Manager.
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375
9. Power on the virtual machine.
Figure 296 Read-only copy of the datastore view in the vSphere client
5.4.3 Physical backup and restore using the nas_copy command
The Celerra command /nas/bin/nas_copy can be used for full or
incremental physical backup. It can be typically used to back up a file
system to a volume on the Celerra that consists of ATA drives or
another Celerra. Although using nas_copy for backup is convenient, it
has some limitations during recovery. The nas_copy command cannot
be used to copy data back to the source file system directly. The
destination must be mounted and the files must be copied back to the
source file system manually. This could unnecessarily prolong the
recovery time. Therefore, using nas_copy to back up datastores is not
encouraged.
Note: Use the fs_copy command to perform a full physical backup in versions
earlier than Celerra version 5.6.
5.4.4 Physical backup and restore using Celerra NDMP and NetWorker
One of the recommended methods for physical backup and recovery is
to use Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) by utilizing
Celerra Backup along with the Integrated Checkpoints feature and
EMC NetWorker®, or any other compatible third-party backup
software in the following manner:
1. Create a Virtual Tape Library Unit (VTLU) on Celerra if the
performance needs to be improved by backing up on disks instead
of tapes.
2. Create a library in EMC NetWorker.
3. Configure NetWorker to create bootstrap configuration, backup
group, backup client, and so on.
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4. Run NetWorker Backup.
5. Execute NetWorker Recover.
The entire datastore or individual virtual machine can be selected for
backup and recovery. Figure 297 shows NetWorker during the process.
Figure 297 NDMP recovery using EMC NetWorker
To utilize Celerra backup with integrated checkpoints, set the
environment variable SNAPSURE=y. This feature automates the
checkpoint creation, management, and deletion activities by entering
the environmental variable in the qualified vendor backup software.
The setting of the SNAPSURE variable for creating a backup client with
EMC NetWorker is illustrated in Figure 298.
Figure 298 Backup with integrated checkpoint
Backup and recovery of a NAS datastore
377
When the variable is set in the backup software, each time a particular
job is run, a checkpoint of the file system is automatically created (and
mounted as read-only) before the NDMP backup starts. The checkpoint
is automatically used for the backup, allowing production activity to
continue uninterrupted on the file system. During the backup process,
the checkpoint is automatically managed (for example, SavVol is
auto-extended if needed, and if space is available). When the backup
completes, the checkpoint is automatically deleted, regardless of
whether it succeeds or fails.
5.4.5 Physical backup and restore using Celerra Replicator
Celerra Replicator can be used for the physical backup of the file
systems exported to ESX servers as datastores. This is accomplished by
using the Celerra /nas/bin/nas_replicate command or by using the
Celerra Manager. Multiple virtual machines can be backed up together
if they reside in the same datastore. If further granularity is required at
an image level for an individual virtual machine, move the virtual
machine in its own datastore. The backup can either be local or remote.
After the file system is completely backed up, stop the replication to
make the target file system a stand-alone copy. If required, this target
file system can be made read-writeable. After the target file system is
attached to an ESX server, an individual virtual machine can be restored
by copying its folder from the target file system to the PFS. If VMware
snapshots already exist at the time of the backup, the Snapshot
Manager in the VI client might not report all VMware snapshots
correctly after a virtual machine restore. One way of updating the GUI
information is to remove the virtual machine from the inventory and
add it again. If an entire file system is to be recovered, a replication
session can be established in the reverse direction from the target file
system to the production file system with the nas_replicate command.
Note: For versions earlier than Celerra version 5.6, use the /nas/bin/fs_replicate
command for physical backup of datastores.
5.4.6 Physical backup and restore using Replication Manager
Another method to take backups is to use Replication Manager to
provide physical backup of the datastores. Replication Manager uses
Celerra Replicator technology to create remote replicas in this scenario.
These replicas are actually snapshots that represent a crash-consistent
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replica of the entire datastore. Similar to a logical backup and restore,
Replication Manager version 5.2.2 must be installed for datastores
support.
Before creating replicas on a target Celerra, create a read-only file
system on the target Celerra to which the data will be transferred, and
create a Celerra Replicator session between the source and target file
systems by using Celerra Manager. While creating a replication session,
it is recommended to use a Time out of Sync value of 1 minute. VMware
snapshots are taken for all virtual machines that are online and reside
on the datastore just prior to creating replicas to ensure the operating
system consistency of the resulting replica.
The entire datastore can be restored by selecting the Restore option in
Replication Manager. Replication Manager creates a rollback snapshot
for a remote Celerra file system during restore. Before restoring a
crash-consistent remote replica, do the following:
1. Power off the virtual machines that are hosted within the datastore.
2. Remove those virtual machines from the vCenter Server inventory.
3. Restore the remote replica from Replication Manager.
4. After the restore is complete, add the virtual machines into the
vCenter Server inventory.
5. Revert to the VMware snapshot taken by Replication Manager to
obtain an operating system consistent replica, and then delete the
snapshot.
6. Manually power on each virtual machine.
Backup and recovery of a NAS datastore
379
A single virtual machine can be restored by using the Mount option in
the Replication Manager. Using this option, it is possible to mount a
datastore remote replica to an ESX server as a datastore as shown in
Figure 299.
Figure 299 Mount Wizard - Mount Options
To restore a single virtual machine:
1. Mount the read-only remote replica as a datastore in the ESX server.
2. Power off the virtual machine that resides in the production
datastore.
3. Remove the virtual machine from the vCenter Server inventory.
4. Browse the mounted datastore.
5. Copy the virtual machine files to the production datastore.
6. Add the virtual machine to the inventory again to report the
VMware snapshot taken by Replication Manager.
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7. Revert to the VMware snapshot taken by Replication Manager to
obtain an operating system consistent replica and delete the
snapshot.
8. Unmount the replica by using Replication Manager.
9. Power on the virtual machine.
Backup and recovery of a NAS datastore
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5.5 Backup and recovery of a vStorage VMFS datastore over
iSCSI
The backup and recovery of virtual machines residing on vStorage
VMFS datastores over iSCSI can be done in many ways. A brief
description of the methods is given here.
5.5.1 Logical backup and restore using Celerra iSCSI snapshots
When using vStorage VMFS over iSCSI, a Celerra iSCSI LUN is
presented to the ESX server and formatted as type vStorage VMFS. In
this case, users can create iSCSI snapshots on the Celerra to offer
point-in-time logical backup of the iSCSI LUN. Use the following
command to create and manage iSCSI snaps directly on Celerra Control
Station:
# server_iscsi <Data Mover> -snap –create –target
<target_alias_name> -lun <LUN_number>
# server_iscsi <Data Mover> -snap –restore <snap_name>
Note: To create and manage iSCSI snapshots in versions earlier than Celerra 5.6,
a Linux host that contains the Celerra Block Management Command Line
Interface (CBMCLI) package is required. The following command is used to
create snapshots and restore data on the Linux host:
# cbm_iscsi --snap <ESX iSCSI LUN> --create
# cbm_iscsi --snap <ESX iSCSI LUN> --restore <snap_name>
In general, this method works on a per-vStorage VMFS basis, unless the
vStorage VMFS spans multiple LUNs. If multiple virtual machines
share the same vStorage VMFS, back up and recover them together in
one operation. When multiple snapshots are created from the PLU,
restoring an earlier snapshot will delete all newer snapshots.
Furthermore, ensure that the file system that stores the PLU and its
snapshots has enough free space to create and restore from a snapshot.
An individual virtual machine can be restored from a snapshot when
the snapshot is made read-writeable and attached to the ESX server.
With VMware vSphere, as part of the Select VMFS Mount Options
screen, select Assign a new signature (Figure 300 on page 383) to
enable disk re-signature if the snapped LUN is attached to the same
ESX server.
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Figure 300 VMFS mount options to manage snapshots
With VMware Infrastructure, however, this step is somewhat more
complex. To present the snapshot correctly to ESX, administrators must
set the advanced configuration parameters, LVM.DisallowsnapshotLun
and LVM.EnableResignature, to control the clone behavior. Use a
proper combination of the LVM advanced configuration parameters to
discover the storage to ESX. To add the promoted LUN to the storage
without vStorage VMFS formatting, set the LVM.EnableResignature
parameter to 0. To add the promoted LUN to the storage, set
LVM.DisallowsnapshotLun to the default parameter value, which is 1.
Backup and recovery of a vStorage VMFS datastore over iSCSI
383
When the snapped vStorage VMFS is accessible from the ESX server,
the virtual machine files can be copied from the snapped vStorage
VMFS to the original vStorage VMFS to recover the virtual machine.
5.5.2 Logical backup and restore using Replication Manager
Replication Manager protects the vStorage VMFS datastore over iSCSI
that resides on an ESX server managed by a VMware vCenter Server
and attached to a Celerra. It uses Celerra iSCSI snapshots to create
replicas of vStorage VMFS datastores. VMware snapshots are taken for
all virtual machines, which are online and reside on the vStorage VMFS
datastore, just prior to creating local replicas to ensure operating system
consistency of the resulting replica. Operations are sent from a
Windows proxy host, which is either a physical host or a separate
virtual host. The entire vStorage VMFS datastore can be restored by
choosing the Restore option in Replication Manager. Before restoring a
crash-consistent vStorage VMFS replica, do the following:
1. Power off the virtual machines that are hosted within the vStorage
VMFS datastore.
2. Remove these virtual machines from the vCenter Server inventory.
3. Restore the replica from the Replication Manager.
4. After the restore is completed, add the virtual machines to the
vCenter Server inventory.
5. Revert to the VMware snapshot to obtain an operating system
consistent replica, and delete the snapshots.
6. Manually power on each virtual machine.
A single virtual machine can be restored by using the Mount option in
Replication Manager. Using this option, it is possible to mount a
vStorage VMFS datastore replica to an ESX server as a vStorage VMFS
datastore.
To restore a single virtual machine:
1. Mount the replica as a vStorage VMFS datastore in the ESX server.
2. Power off the virtual machine residing in the production datastore.
3. Remove the virtual machine from the vCenter Server inventory.
4. Browse for the mounted datastore.
5. Copy and paste the virtual machine files to the production
datastore.
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6. Add the virtual machine to the inventory again to report the
VMware snapshot taken by Replication Manager.
7. Revert to the VMware snapshot taken by Replication Manager to
obtain an operating system consistent replica and delete the
snapshot.
8. Unmount the replica through Replication Manager.
9. Power on the virtual machine.
5.5.3 Physical backup and restore using Celerra Replicator
For a physical backup, use the following nas_replicate command to
create and manage iSCSI clones by using Celerra Replicator V2 from the
CLI on the Control Station or from the Celerra Manager in Celerra
version 5.6:
# nas_replicate –create <name> -source –lun <lUN Number>
-target <targetIQN> -destination –lun <lUN Number> -target
<targetIQN> -interconnect <name>
Figure 301 shows the new Replication Wizard in the Celerra Manager,
which allows you to replicate an iSCSI LUN:
Figure 301 Celerra Manager Replication Wizard
Backup and recovery of a vStorage VMFS datastore over iSCSI
385
Note: To create a physical backup in versions earlier than Celerra version 5.6,
the Celerra iSCSI Replication-Based LUN Clone feature can be used. A target
iSCSI LUN of the same size as the production LUN must be created on Fibre
Channel or ATA disks to serve as the destination of a replication session
initiated by the following command:
# cbm_replicate --dev <ESX iSCSI LUN> --session --create
--alias <alias name> --dest_ip <dest_dm_ip> --dest_name
<cel_name> --label <sess_label>
The backup can be either local or remote. After the PLU is completely
replicated, stop the replication session to make the target LUN a
stand-alone copy. If required, this target LUN can be made
read-writeable. The target LUN can be attached to the same or different
ESX server. If the target LUN is attached to the same server, disk
re-signature must be enabled.
After the target LUN is attached to an ESX server, an individual virtual
machine can be restored by copying its folder from the target LUN to
the PLU. If VMware snapshots already exist at the time of backup and
VMware snapshots are added or deleted later, the Snapshot Manager in
the VI client might not report all VMware snapshots correctly after a
virtual machine restore. One way to update the GUI information is to
remove the virtual machine from the inventory and add it again.
If an entire vStorage VMFS must be recovered, a replication session can
be established in the reverse direction from the target LUN back to the
PLU with the cbm_replicate command or the nas_replicate command.
Storage operations, such as snapshot restore, can cause the vSphere
client GUI to be out of sync with the actual state of the ESX server. For
example, if VMware snapshots already exist at the time of backup and
VMware snapshots are added or deleted later, the Snapshot Manager in
the vSphere client may not report all VMware snapshots correctly after
a LUN restore. One way of updating the GUI information is executing
the following command in the service console to restart the ESX host
agent:
# service mgmt-vmware restart
Restore and refresh all VMware snapshots existing prior to the backup
when the Snapshot Manager is reopened. However, VMware snapshots
taken after the backup are lost following an iSCSI LUN restore.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
5.5.4 Physical backup and restore using Replication Manager
Replication Manager also provides a physical backup of the vStorage
VMFS datastore over iSCSI that resides on an ESX server managed by
VMware vCenter Server and attached to a Celerra. It uses Celerra
Replicator to create remote replicas of vStorage VMFS datastores. For a
single virtual machine recovery, the Mount option in Replication
Manager can be used. To restore the entire vStorage VMFS datastore,
use the Restore option as described in Section 5.5.2, “Logical backup
and restore using Replication Manager,” on page 384.
Backup and recovery of a vStorage VMFS datastore over iSCSI
387
5.6 Backup and recovery of an RDM volume over iSCSI
The iSCSI LUNs presented to an ESX server as RDM are normal raw
devices just like they are in a non-virtualized environment. RDM
provides some advantages of a virtual disk in the vStorage VMFS file
system while retaining some advantages of direct access to physical
devices. For example, administrators can take full advantage of storage
array-based data protection technologies regardless of whether the
RDM is in a physical mode or virtual mode.
For logical backup and recovery, point-in-time, Celerra-based iSCSI
snapshots can be created. To back up an RDM volume physically,
administrators can use the Celerra iSCSI Replication-Based LUN Clone
feature to create clones for versions earlier than Celerra version 5.6.
When using RDM, it is recommended that an RDM volume is not
shared among different virtual machines or different applications,
except in the case of being used as the quorum disk of a clustered
application.
With RDM, administrators can create snapshots or clones in one of the
following ways:
◆
Use the nas_replicate command or the Celerra Manager Replication
Wizard. Alternatively, for Celerra version 5.5, administrators can
install the CBMCLI package and use the cbm_iscsi and
cbm_replicate commands as described in Section 5.5, “Backup and
recovery of a vStorage VMFS datastore over iSCSI,” on page 382.
◆
Install and use Replication Manager. Replication Manager offers
customers a simple interface to manipulate and manage the
disk-based snaps and replicas for Celerra and other platforms and
integrate with Windows applications to provide application-level
consistency.
Note:
Only RDM volumes in the physical compatibility mode are supported at this
time.
Only RDM volumes formatted as NTFS can be recognized by Replication
Manager. Therefore, Microsoft Windows guest machines can be backed up this
way. Virtual machines of other OS types still require CBMCLI for
crash-consistent backup.
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5.7 Backup and recovery using VCB
VCB allows a virtual machine backup at any time by providing a
centralized backup facility that leverages a centralized proxy server and
reduces the load on production ESX server hosts. VCB integrates with
existing backup tools and technologies to perform full and incremental
file backups of virtual machines. VCB can perform full image-level
backup for virtual machines running any OS, as well as file-level
backups for virtual machines running Microsoft Windows without
requiring a backup agent in the guest hosts. Figure 302 on page 390
illustrates how VCB works.
In addition to the current LAN and SAN mode, VMware introduced the
Hot-Add mode in the VCB 1.5 release. This mode allows administrators
to leverage VCB for any datastore by setting up one of the virtual
machines as a VCB proxy and using it to back up other virtual machines
residing on storage visible to the ESX server that hosts the VCB proxy.
VCB creates a snapshot of the virtual disk to be protected and hot-adds
the snapshot to the VCB proxy, allowing it to access virtual machine
disk data. The VCB proxy reads the data through the I/O stack of the
ESX host. In contrast to the LAN mode, which uses the service console
network to perform backups, the Hot-Add mode uses the hypervisor
I/O stack. In the LAN mode, the IP network can potentially be
saturated. The testing proved that the Hot-Add mode is more efficient
than the LAN mode.
Backup and recovery using VCB
389
Figure 302 VCB
The Celerra array-based solutions for backup and recovery operate at
the datastore level, or more granularly at the virtual machine image
level. If individual files residing inside a virtual machine must be
backed up, other tools will be required. VCB is a great tool for file-level
and image-level backup. A VCB proxy must be configured on a
Windows system that requires third-party backup software such as
EMC NetWorker or EMC Avamar®, the VCB integration module for the
backup software, and the VCB software itself. VMware provides the
latter two components that are downloadable at no cost. However, the
VCB licenses must be purchased and enabled on the ESX or vCenter
Server. After all three components are installed, the configuration file
config.js located in the directory <VCB installed path>\config must
be modified before the first backup can be taken. This file contains
comments that define each parameter.
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It is recommended to follow the README file in the integration
module, which contains step-by-step instructions to prepare and
complete the first VCB backup successfully. When a backup is initiated
through EMC NetWorker, it triggers the scripts provided in the
integration module, which in turn starts the executable
vcbMounter.exe (included in the VCB software) to contact the vCenter
Server or the ESX server directly to locate the virtual machine to be
backed up. The arguments passed to vcbMounter.exe come from
config.js and the Save set syntax in EMC NetWorker.
VCB image-level backup supports virtual machines that run any type of
OS. For NetWorker versions earlier than 7.4.1, the Save set in EMC
NetWorker must include the keyword FULL and the name or IP of the
target virtual machine. Starting with release 7.4.1, each virtual machine
to be backed up must be added as a client to NetWorker. Specify FULL
in the Save set for full machine backup as shown in Figure 303 on
page 392. VCB first retrieves the virtual machine configuration files as
well as its virtual disks in a local directory before NetWorker takes a
backup of the directory. During a restore, NetWorker restores the
directory on the VCB proxy. The administrator must take the final step
to restore the virtual machine onto an ESX server by using the
vcbRestore command or VMware vCenter Server Converter tool.
Because the command vcbRestore is unavailable in the VCB proxy, it
must be run directly from the ESX service console.
VCB file-level backup only supports the Windows guest OS. For
versions earlier than NetWorker version 7.4.1, the Save set in EMC
NetWorker must include the name or IP of the target virtual machine
and a colon-separated list of paths that must be backed up. Starting
with the NetWorker release 7.4.1, each virtual machine that must be
backed up must be added as a client to NetWorker. In the Save set,
specify the colon-separated list of paths that must be backed up or
ALLVMFS to back up all the files and directories on all drivers of the
target machine. VCB first takes a VMware snapshot and uses
mountvm.exe to mount the virtual disk on the VCB proxy before
NetWorker backs up the list of paths provided in the Save set. During a
restore, expose the target directory of the virtual machine as a CIFS
share to the backup proxy. Use NetWorker User on the VCB proxy to
restore the desired file to this network share.
Backup and recovery using VCB
391
Figure 303 NetWorker configuration settings for VCB
While planning to use VCB with vSphere, consider the following
guidelines and best practices:
392
◆
Ensure that all virtual machines that must be used with VCB have
the latest version of VMware tools installed. Without the latest
version of VMware tools, the snapshots that VCB creates for
backups are crash-consistent only. This means that no virtual
machine-level file system consistency is performed.
◆
Image-level backup can be performed on virtual machines running
any OS. File-level backup can be done only on Windows virtual
machines.
◆
RDM physical mode is not supported for VCB.
◆
When an RDM disk in a virtual mode is backed up, it is converted
to a standard virtual disk format. Hence, when it is restored, it will
no longer be in the RDM format.
◆
When using the LAN mode, each virtual disk cannot exceed 1 TB.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
◆
The default backup mode is SAN. To perform LAN-based backup,
modify TRANSPORT_MODE to either nbd or nbdssl or hotadd in
file config.js.
◆
Even though Hot-Add transport mode is efficient, it does not
support the backup of virtual disks belonging to different
datastores.
◆
vcbMounter and vcbRestore commands can be executed directly
on the ESX server without the need for a VCB license. However,
there will be a performance impact on the ESX server because
additional resources are consumed during backup/restore.
◆
vcbRestore is not available on VCB proxy. It has to be run directly
on the ESX server or a VMware vCenter Server Converter must be
installed to restore a VCB image backup.
◆
Mountvm.exe on VCB proxy is a useful tool to mount a virtual disk
that contains NTFS partitions.
◆
Before taking a file-level backup, VCB creates a virtual machine
snapshot named _VCB-BACKUP_. An EMC NetWorker job will
hang if the snapshot with the same name already exists. This default
behavior can be modified by changing the parameter
PREEXISTING_VCB_SNAPSHOT to delete in config.js.
◆
If a backup job fails, virtual machines can remain mounted in the
snapshot mode. Run vcbCleanup to clean up snapshots and
unmount virtual machines from the directory specified in
BACKUPROOT of config.js.
◆
Because VCB by default searches for the target virtual machines by
IP address, the virtual machine has to be powered on the first time it
is backed up so that VMware tools can relay the information to the
ESX or VC server. This information is then cached locally on the
VCB proxy after the first backup. A workaround is to switch to the
virtual machine lookup by name setting
VM_LOOKUP_METHOD=”name” in config.js.
Note: The backup would fail if there are duplicated virtual machine names.
◆
Beginning with release 7.4.1 of NetWorker, each virtual machine to
be backed up must be added as a client to the NetWorker. However,
installing the NetWorker client software on the virtual machine
itself is not required. It is recommended that with NetWorker
Backup and recovery using VCB
393
release 7.4.1 or later, the VCB method to find virtual machines
should be based on the virtual machine IP address (default
method).
◆
If vcbMounter hangs, NetWorker will also hang waiting for it to
complete. To troubleshoot this issue, download and run a copy of
the Process Explorer utility from sysinternals.com, right-click the
vcbMounter process, and select Properties. The Command line
textbox on the Image tab displays the full syntax of the vcbMounter
command. Copy the command, terminate the hung process, then
paste and run the command manually in a DOS window to view
the output and determine the cause.
◆
vcbRestore by default restores the image to its original location. An
alternate location can be specified by editing the paths listed in the
catalog file.
When using Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI) authentication,
ensure that the HOST in the config.js configuration file points to the
vCenter Server. The NetWorker integration module that calls the VCB
Framework must use the user credentials that reside on both the VCB
and the vCenter Servers with identical passwords, or must use the
domain account. The user account must have administrator privileges
on the VCB proxy and at least VCB user privileges in the vCenter
Server.
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5.8 Backup and recovery using VCB and EMC Avamar
EMC Avamar is a backup and recovery software product. Avamar’s
source-based global data deduplication technology eliminates
unnecessary network traffic and data duplication. By identifying
redundant data at the source, this deduplication minimizes backup
data before it is sent over the network, thereby slowing the pace of the
data growth in the core data centers and at remote offices. Avamar is
very effective in areas where traditional backup solutions are
inadequate such as virtual machines, remote offices, and large
LAN-attached file servers. Avamar solves traditional backup challenges
by:
◆
Reducing the size of backup data at the source.
◆
Storing only a single copy of sub-file data segments across all sites
and servers.
◆
Performing full backups that can be recovered in just one step.
◆
Verifying backup data recoverability.
Avamar Virtual Edition for VMware integrates with VCB for virtual
environments by using the Avamar VCB Interoperability Module
(AVIM). The AVIM is a series of .bat wrapper scripts that leverage VCB
scripts to snap/mount and unmount running virtual machines. These
scripts are called before and after an Avamar backup job. There are
some scripts for full virtual machine backup (for all types of virtual
machines) and some scripts for file-level backup (for Windows virtual
machines only). These scripts can be used regardless of whether a NFS
datastore or vStorage VMFS over iSCSI is used.
Figure 304 on page 396 illustrates the full virtual machine backup and
file-level backup process.
Backup and recovery using VCB and EMC Avamar
395
Figure 304 VCB backup with EMC Avamar Virtual Edition
The Avamar agent, AVIM, and the VCB software must be installed on
the VCB proxy server. After all the three software components are
installed, the VCB configuration file (config.js), which is located in the
<VCB installed path>\config directory, must be modified before the
first backup can be taken. The VCB configuration file contains
comments that define each parameter for Avamar backups. After
initiating a backup job from Avamar, VCB retrieves configuration files
as well as virtual disks to its local directory. Then Avamar copies the
files to the backup destination. After the job is successful, Avamar
removes the duplicate copy on the VCB proxy server. This type of
backup can be performed on any guest OS and the deduplication
occurs at the .vmdk level.
VCB file-level backup with Avamar is similar to the VCB image-level
backup with Avamar. When a backup is initiated through Avamar, it
triggers the scripts provided in the integration module, which in turn
starts the executable vcbMounter.exe (included in the VCB software) to
contact the vCenter Server or the ESX server directly to locate the
virtual machine to be backed up. The arguments passed to
vcbMounter.exe come from config.js and the Dataset syntax in EMC
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Avamar. In this case, data deduplication happens at the file level.
However, presently, VCB file-level backup works only for virtual
machines that run the Windows OS.
Backup and recovery using VCB and EMC Avamar
397
5.9 Backup and recovery using VMware Data Recovery
In the VMware vSphere 4 release, VMware introduced VMware Data
Recovery, which is a disk-based backup and recovery solution. It is built
on the VMware vStorage API for data protection and uses a virtual
machine appliance and a client plug-in to manage and restore backups.
VMware Data Recovery can be used to protect any kind of OS. It
incorporates capabilities such as block-based data deduplication and
performs only incremental backups after the first full backup to
maximize storage efficiency. Celerra-based CIFS and iSCSI storage can
be used as destination storage for VMware Data Recovery. Backed-up
virtual machines are stored on a target disk in a deduplicated store.
Figure 305 VMware Data Recovery
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During the backup, VMware Data Recovery takes a snapshot of the
virtual machine and mounts the snapshot directly to the VMware Data
Recovery virtual appliance. After the snapshot is mounted, VMware
Data Recovery begins streaming the blocks of data to the destination
storage as shown in Figure 305 on page 398. During this process,
VMware Data Recovery deduplicates the stream of data blocks to
ensure that redundant data is eliminated prior to the backup data being
written to the destination disk. VMware Data Recovery uses the change
tracking functionality on ESX hosts to obtain the changes since the last
backup. The deduplicated store creates a virtual full backup based on
the last backup image and applies the changes to it. When all the data is
written, VMware Data Recovery dismounts the snapshot and takes the
virtual disk out of the snapshot mode. VMware Data Recovery
supports only full and incremental backups at the virtual machine level
and does not support backups at file level.
Figure 306 on page 399 shows a sample backup screenshot.
Figure 306 VDR backup process
When using VMware Data Recovery, adhere to the following
guidelines:
◆
A VMware Data Recovery appliance can protect up to 100 virtual
machines. It supports the use of only two backup destinations
simultaneously. If more than two backup destinations must be used,
configure them to be used at different times. It is recommended that
the backup destination size does not exceed 1 TB.
Backup and recovery using VMware Data Recovery
399
400
◆
A VMware Data Recovery appliance is only supported if the mount
is presented by an ESX server and the VMDK is assigned to the
VDR appliance. Mounts cannot be mapped directly to the VDR
appliance.
◆
VMware Data Recovery supports both RDM virtual and physical
compatibility modes as backup destinations. When using RDM as a
backup destination, it is recommended to use the virtual
compatibility mode. Using this mode, a VMware snapshot can be
taken, which can be leveraged together with the Celerra
technologies to provide crash consistency and protection for the
backed-up data.
◆
When creating vStorage VMFS over iSCSI as a backup destination,
choose the block size that matches the storage requirements.
Selecting the default 1 MB block size only allows for a maximum
virtual disk size of 256 GB.
◆
To realize increased space savings, ensure that similar virtual
machines are backed up to the same destination. Because VMware
Data Recovery performs data duplication within and across virtual
machines, virtual machines with the same OS will have only one
copy of the OS data stored.
◆
The virtual machine must not have a snapshot named _data
recovery_ prior to backup by using VMware Data Recovery. This is
because VDR creates a snapshot named _data recovery_ as a part of
its backup procedure. If the snapshot with the same name exists
already, the VDR will delete and re-create it.
◆
Backups of virtual machines with RDM can be performed only
when the RDM is running in virtual compatibility mode.
◆
VMware Data Recovery provides an experimental capability called
File Level Restore (FLR) to restore the individual files without
restoring the whole virtual machine for Windows machines.
◆
Because VMware Data Recovery will only copy the state of the
virtual machine at the time of backup, pre-existing snaps are not a
part of the VMware Data Recovery backup process.
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
5.10 Virtual machine single file restore from a Celerra
checkpoint
VMware has introduced the Virtual Disk Development Kit (VDDK) to
create or access VMware virtual disk storage. The VMware website
(http://communities.vmware.com/community/developer/forums/v
ddk) provides more information. The VDDK Disk Mount utility allows
administrators to mount a virtual disk as a separate drive or partition
without requiring to connect to the virtual disk from within a virtual
machine. Therefore, this tool provides a way to mount a Celerra
checkpoint-based virtual disk or Celerra iSCSI snapshot-based virtual
disk from which one can restore specific files to production virtual
machines. A virtual disk cannot be mounted if any of its vmdk files
have read-only permissions. Change these attributes to read/write
before mounting the virtual disk.
To restore a single file for a Windows virtual machine residing on a
Celerra-based file system read-only checkpoint:
1. Install VDDK either in the vCenter Server or in a virtual machine
where the file has to be restored.
2. Identify the appropriate read-only checkpoint from the Celerra
Manager GUI.
3. Create a CIFS share on the read-only checkpoint file system
identified in step 2.
4. Map that CIFS share on to the vCenter Server or on to the virtual
machine as mentioned in step 1.
5. Execute the following command syntax to mount the virtual disk
from the mapped read-only checkpoint:
vmware-mount <driveletter:> <path-to-vmdk> </m:n>
</v:n>
• driveletter—Specifies the drive letter where a virtual disk must
be mounted or unmounted.
• path-to-vmdk—Specifies the location of a virtual disk that must
be mounted.
• /m:n—Allows mounting of Celerra file system read-only
checkpoint.
• /v:n—Mounts volume N of a virtual disk. N defaults to 1.
The following example shows how to mount a virtual disk when
the read-only checkpoint is mapped to the U: drive of vCenter
Server as shown in Figure 307 on page 402.
Virtual machine single file restore from a Celerra checkpoint
401
Figure 307 Mapped CIFS share containing a virtual machine in the vCenter Server
From the command prompt, execute the following command to list
the volume partitions:
vmware-mount "U:\DEMO\DEMO.vmdk" /p
From the command prompt, execute the following command to
mount the virtual disk:
vmware-mount P: "U:\DEMO\DEMO.vmdk" /m:n
6. After the virtual disk has been mounted as a P: drive on the vCenter
Server, the administrator must copy the individual files through
CIFS to the corresponding production machine.
7. After the copy is completed, unmount the virtual disk by using the
following command:
vmware-mount P:
/d
To restore the Windows files from a vmdk residing on a vStorage VMFS
datastore over iSCSI:
1. Identify the Celerra iSCSI snap from which the files have to be
restored.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
2. Execute the server_iscsi command from Celerra to promote the
identified snap.
3. Create a new datastore and add a copy of the virtual machine to the
vCenter Server inventory.
4. Install VDDK in vCenter Server and use the following syntax to
mount the vmdk file:
vmware-mount <Drive letter> /v:N <Mount volume N of a
virtual disk> /i:<Path to the data center>/vm/<VMpathname
as read from inventory tree in VC client UI>
"[datastorename] <VMname>/<VMname>.vmdk" /h:<ESX or
Vcenter server> /u:<user> /s:<password>
The following command mounts the vmdk of the testvm_copy
machine on the Q: drive of the vCenter Server as shown in
Figure 308.
vmware-mount Q: /v:1 /i:"EMC/vm/testvm_copy"
"[snap-63ac0294-iscsidatastore] testvm/testvm.vmdk"
/h:10.6.119.201 /u:administrator /s:nasadmin
Figure 308 Virtual machine view from the vSphere client
5. After it is mounted, copy the files back to the production machine.
6. After the restore has completed, demote the snap by using the
server_iscsi command from the Celerra Control Station.
The virtual disk, which is in the RDM format, can also be mounted in a
similar manner as the single file restore described in this procedure.
Virtual machine single file restore from a Celerra checkpoint
403
5.11 Other file-level backup and restore alternatives
There are other alternatives for virtual machine file-level backup and
restore.
A traditional file-level backup method is installing a backup agent on
the guest operating system that runs in the virtual machine, in the same
way as it is done on a physical machine. This is normally called
guest-based backup.
Another method of file-level backup is to use a Linux host to mount the
.vmdk file and access the files within the .vmdk directly. Do the
following to achieve this:
1. Download the Linux NTFS driver located at
http://linux-ntfs.org/doku.php, and install it on the Linux host.
2. Mount the file system being used as the datastore on the Linux host.
Administrators can now access configuration and virtual disk files
and can do image-level backup of a virtual machine.
# mount <IP of DM>:/<ESX file system> /mnt/esxfs
3. Mount the virtual disk file of the virtual machine as a loopback
mount. Specify the starting offset of 32,256 and the NTFS file system
type in the mount command line.
# mount /mnt/esxfs/<VM>/-flat.vmdk /mnt/vmdk –o
ro,loop=/dev/loop2,offset=32256 –t ntfs
4. Browse the mounted .vmdk, which can be viewed as an NTFS file
system. All the files can be viewed in the virtual machine.
5. Back up the necessary files.
Administrators must review the following carefully before
implementing the Linux method:
404
◆
The Linux method has been verified to work only for datastores.
◆
VCB works only for Windows virtual machines. This alternative
may work for any guest OS type whose file system can be
loopback-mounted on a Linux host.
◆
The offset for the loopback mount is not always the same.
Determining the correct value may not be straightforward
depending on the OS, partition, and so on.
◆
This alternative works only when flat virtual disks are allocated as
opposed to thin-provisioned. Testing has shown that thinly
provisioned virtual disks cannot be mounted by using any offset. In
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
contrast, VCB comes with a utility mountvm.exe that allows
mounting both flat and thin-provisioned virtual disks that contain
NTFS partitions.
◆
After a successful mount of the virtual disk file, the file backup is
performed on a Linux system. Thus, the Windows ACL metadata is
not maintained and will be lost after a restore.
File-level backup can also be performed for RDM devices either in the
physical compatibility mode or in the virtual compatibility mode by
using the CBMCLI package in the following manner:
1. Take an iSCSI snapshot of the RDM LUN.
2. Promote the snapshot and provide access to the backup server by
using the following command:
# cbm_iscsi --snap /dev/sdh --promote <LUN ID> --mask
<initiator>
3. Connect the snapshot to the backup server. The files in the snapshot
can now be backed up.
4. Demote and remove the snapshot when finished.
Other file-level backup and restore alternatives
405
5.12 Summary
Table 5 summarizes the backup and recovery options of Celerra storage
presented to VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure.
Table 5
Backup and recovery options
Backup/recovery
Image-level
File-level
NFS datastore
•
•
•
•
•
• VCB (Windows)
• Loopback mount (all OS)
vStorage
VMFS/iSCSI
• Celerra iSCSI snapshot
(CBMCLI or server_iscsi)
• Celerra iSCSI
replication-based clone
(CBMCLI, nas_replicate, or
Celerra Manager)
• VCB
• Replication Manager
• VDR
• VCB (Windows)
RDM/iSCSI
(physical)
• Celerra iSCSI snapshot
(CBMCLI, server_iscsi, or
Replication Manager)
• Celerra iSCSI
replication-based clone
(CBMCLI, nas_replicate,
Celerra Manager, or
Replication Manager)
• Celerra iSCSI snapshot
(CBMCLI or server_iscsi)
RDM/iSCSI
(virtual)
• Celerra iSCSI snapshot
(CBMCLI or server_iscsi)
• Celerra iSCSI
replication-based clone
(CBMCLI, nas_replicate, or
Celerra Manager)
• VDR
• Celerra iSCSI snapshot
(CBMCLI or server_iscsi)
Celerra SnapSure
Celerra NDMP
VCB
Replication Manager
VDR
The best practices planning white papers on Powerlink provide more
information and recommendations about protecting applications such
as Microsoft Exchange and Microsoft SQL Server deployed on VMware
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
VMware vSphere or VMware Infrastructure. Access to Powerlink is
based upon access privileges. If this information cannot be accessed,
contact your local EMC representative.
Summary
407
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
6
Using VMware vSphere and
VMware Virtual
Infrastructure in Disaster
Restart Solutions
This chapter presents these topics:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
6.1 Overview .........................................................................................
6.2 Definitions .......................................................................................
6.3 Design considerations for disaster recovery and disaster restart
6.4 Geographically distributed virtual infrastructure.....................
6.5 Business continuity solutions .......................................................
6.6 Summary .........................................................................................
Using VMware vSphere and VMware Virtual Infrastructure in Disaster Restart Solutions
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411
413
419
420
453
409
6.1 Overview
VMware technology virtualizes the x86-based physical infrastructure
into a pool of resources. Virtual machines are presented with a virtual
hardware environment independent of the underlying physical
hardware. This enables organizations to leverage different physical
hardware in the environment and provide low total cost of ownership.
The virtualization of the physical hardware can also be used to create
disaster recovery and business continuity solutions that would have
been impractical otherwise. These solutions normally involve a
combination of virtual infrastructure at one or more geographically
separated data centers and EMC remote replication technology. One
example of such an architecture has physical servers running various
business applications in their primary data center while the secondary
data center has a limited number of virtualized physical servers.
During normal operations, the physical servers in the secondary data
center are used to support workloads such as QA and testing. In case of
a disruption in services at the primary data center, the physical servers
in the secondary data center run the business applications in a
virtualized environment.
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss:
410
◆
EMC Celerra Replicator configurations and their interaction with
an ESX server
◆
EMC Celerra Replicator and ESX server application-specific
considerations
◆
Integration of guest operating environments with EMC
technologies and an ESX server
◆
The use of VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager to manage and
automate a site-to-site disaster recovery with EMC Celerra
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
6.2 Definitions
In the next sections, the terms dependent-write consistency, disaster
restart, disaster recovery, and roll-forward recovery are used. A sound
understanding of these terms is required to understand the context of
this section.
6.2.1 Dependent-write consistency
A dependent-write I/O cannot be issued until a related predecessor
I/O is completed. Dependent-write consistency is a state where data
integrity is guaranteed by dependent-write I/Os embedded in an
application logic. Database management systems are good examples of
the practice of dependent-write consistency.
Database management systems must devise a protection against
abnormal termination to successfully recover from one. The most
common technique used is to guarantee that a dependent-write cannot
be issued until a predecessor write is complete. Typically, the
dependent-write is a data or index write, while the predecessor write is
a write to the log.
Because the write to the log must be completed before issuing the
dependent-write, the application thread is synchronous to the log write.
The application thread waits for the write to complete before
continuing. The result is a dependent-write consistent database.
6.2.2 Disaster restart
Disaster restart involves the implicit use of active logs by various
databases and applications during their normal initialization process to
ensure a transactionally-consistent data state.
If a database or application is shut down normally, the process of
getting to a point of consistency during restart requires minimal work.
If a database or application terminates abnormally, the restart process
takes longer, depending on the number and size of in-flight transactions
at the time of termination. An image of the database or application
created by using EMC consistency technology such as Replication
Manager while it is running, without any conditioning of the database
or application, is in a dependent-write consistent data state, which is
similar to that created by a local power failure. This is also known as a
restartable image. The restart of this image transforms it to a
transactionally consistent data state by completing committed
transactions and rolling back uncommitted transactions during the
normal initialization process.
Definitions
411
6.2.3 Disaster recovery
Disaster recovery is the process of rebuilding data from a backup
image, and then explicitly applying subsequent logs to roll the data
state forward to a designated point of consistency. The mechanism to
create recoverable copies of data depends on the database and
applications.
6.2.4 Roll-forward recovery
With some databases, it may be possible to take a Database
Management System (DBMS) restartable image of the database and
apply subsequent archive logs to roll forward the database to a point in
time after the image was created. This means the image created can be
used in a backup strategy in combination with archive logs.
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6.3 Design considerations for disaster recovery and disaster
restart
The effect of data loss or loss of application availability varies from one
business type to another. For instance, the loss of transactions for a bank
could cost millions of dollars, whereas system downtime may not have
a major fiscal impact. In contrast, businesses primarily engaged in web
commerce must have their applications available on a continual basis to
survive in the market. The two factors, data loss and availability, are the
business drivers that determine the baseline requirements for a disaster
restart or disaster recovery solution. When quantified, loss of data is
more frequently referred to as recovery point objective, while loss of
uptime is known as recovery time objective.
When evaluating a solution, the recovery point objective (RPO) and
recovery time objective (RTO) requirements of the business must be
met. In addition, the solution's operational complexity, cost, and its
ability to return the entire business to a point of consistency need to be
considered. Each of these aspects is discussed in the following sections.
6.3.1 Recovery point objective
RPO is a point of consistency to which a user wants to recover or
restart. It is measured by the difference between the time when the
point of consistency was created or captured to the time when the
disaster occurred. This time is the acceptable amount of data loss.
Zero data loss (no loss of committed transactions from the time of the
disaster) is the ideal goal, but the high cost of implementing such a
solution must be weighed against the business impact and cost of a
controlled data loss. Some organizations, such as banks, have zero data
loss requirements. The transactions entered at one location must be
replicated immediately to another location. This can affect application
performance when the two locations are far apart. On the other hand,
keeping the two locations close to one another might not protect the
data against a regional disaster.
Defining the required RPO is usually a compromise between the needs
of the business, the cost of the solution, and the probability of a
particular event happening.
6.3.2 Recovery time objective
The RTO is the maximum amount of time allowed after the declaration
of a disaster for recovery or restart to a specified point of consistency.
Design considerations for disaster recovery and disaster restart
413
This includes the time taken to:
◆
Provision power and utilities
◆
Provision servers with the appropriate software
◆
Configure the network
◆
Restore the data at the new site
◆
Roll forward the data to a known point of consistency
◆
Validate the data
Some delays can be reduced or eliminated by choosing certain disaster
recovery options such as having a hot site where servers are
preconfigured and are on standby. Also, if storage-based replication is
used, the time taken to restore the data to a usable state is completely
eliminated.
Like RPO, each solution with varying RTO has a different cost profile.
Defining the RTO is usually a compromise between the cost of the
solution and the cost to the business when applications are unavailable.
6.3.3 Operational complexity
The operational complexity of a disaster recovery solution may be the
most critical factor that determines the success or failure of a disaster
recovery activity. The complexity of a disaster recovery solution can be
considered as three separate phases:
1. Initial setup of the implementation
2. Maintenance and management of the running solution
3. Execution of the disaster recovery plan in the event of a disaster
While initial configuration complexity and running complexity can be a
demand on people resources, the third phase, that is, execution of the
plan, is where automation and simplicity must be the focus. When a
disaster is declared, key personnel may be unavailable in addition to
loss of servers, storage, networks, and buildings. If the disaster
recovery solution is so complex that it requires skilled personnel with
an intimate knowledge of all systems involved to restore, recover, and
validate application and database services, the solution has a high
probability of failure.
Multiple database and application environments over time grow
organically into complex federated database architectures. In these
federated environments, reducing the complexity of disaster recovery is
absolutely critical. Validation of transactional consistency within a
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
business process is time-consuming, costly, and requires application
and database familiarity. One of the reasons for this complexity is the
heterogeneous applications, databases, and operating systems in these
federated environments. Across multiple heterogeneous platforms, it is
hard to establish time synchronization, and therefore hard to determine
a business point of consistency across all platforms. This business point
of consistency has to be created from intimate knowledge of the
transactions and data flows.
6.3.4 Source server activity
Disaster recovery solutions may or may not require additional
processing activity on the source servers. The extent of that activity can
impact both the response time and throughput of the production
application. This effect should be understood and quantified for any
given solution to ensure that the impact to the business is minimized.
The effect for some solutions is continuous while the production
application is running. For other solutions, the impact is sporadic,
where bursts of write activity are followed by periods of inactivity.
6.3.5 Production impact
Some disaster recovery solutions delay the host activity while taking
actions to propagate the changed data to another location. This action
only affects write activity. Although the introduced delay may only be
for a few milliseconds, it can negatively impact response time in a
high-write environment. Synchronous solutions introduce delay into
write transactions at the source site; asynchronous solutions do not.
6.3.6 Target server activity
Some disaster recovery solutions require a target server at the remote
location to perform disaster recovery operations. The server has both
software and hardware costs and requires personnel with physical
access to the server to perform basic operational functions such as
power on and power off. Ideally, this server must have some usage such
as running development or test databases and applications. Some
disaster recovery solutions require more target server activity and some
require none.
6.3.7 Number of copies of data
Disaster recovery solutions require replication of data in one form or
another. Replication of application data and associated files can be as
simple as backing up data on a tape and shipping the tapes to a disaster
Design considerations for disaster recovery and disaster restart
415
recovery site or as sophisticated as an asynchronous array-based
replication. Some solutions require multiple copies of the data to
support disaster recovery functions. More copies of the data may be
required to perform testing of the disaster recovery solution in addition
to those that support the data replication process.
6.3.8 Distance for the solution
Disasters, when they occur, have differing ranges of impact. For
instance, a fire may be isolated to a small area of the data center or a
building; an earthquake may destroy a city; or a hurricane may
devastate a region. The level of protection for a disaster recovery
solution must address the probable disasters for a given location. This
means for protection against an earthquake, the disaster recovery site
should not be in the same locale as the production site. For regional
protection, the two sites need to be in two different regions. The
distance associated with the disaster recovery solution affects the kind
of disaster recovery solution that can be implemented.
6.3.9 Bandwidth requirements
One of the largest costs for disaster recovery is to provision bandwidth
for the solution. Bandwidth costs are an operational expense; this
makes solutions with reduced bandwidth requirements attractive to
customers. It is important to recognize in advance the bandwidth
consumption of a given solution to anticipate the running costs.
Incorrect provisioning of bandwidth for disaster recovery solutions can
adversely affect production performance and invalidate the overall
solution.
6.3.10 Federated consistency
Databases are rarely isolated islands of information with no interaction
or integration with other applications or databases. Most commonly,
databases are loosely or tightly coupled to other databases and
applications using triggers, database links, and stored procedures.
Some databases provide information downstream for other databases
and applications using information distribution middleware and other
applications and databases receive feeds and inbound data from
message queues and Electronic Data Exchange (EDI) transactions. The
result can be a complex, interwoven architecture with multiple
interrelationships. This is referred to as federated architecture. With
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
federated environments, making a disaster recovery copy of a single
database regardless of other components results in consistency issues
and creates logical data integrity problems.
All components in a federated architecture need to be recovered or
restarted to the same dependent-write consistent point in time to avoid
data consistency problems.
With this in mind, it is possible that point solutions for disaster
recovery, like host-based replication software, do not provide the
required business point of consistency in federated environments.
Federated consistency solutions guarantee that all components,
databases, applications, middleware, and flat files are recovered or
restarted to the same dependent-write consistent point in time.
6.3.11 Testing the solution
Tested, proven, and documented procedures are also required for a
disaster recovery solution. Often, the disaster recovery test procedures
are operationally different from a true disaster set of procedures.
Operational procedures need to be clearly documented. In the best-case
scenario, companies should periodically execute the actual set of
procedures for disaster recovery. This could be costly to the business
because of the application downtime required to perform such a test,
but is necessary to ensure validity of the disaster recovery solution.
6.3.12 Cost
The cost of disaster recovery can be justified by comparing it with the
cost of not following it. What does it cost the business when the
database and application systems are unavailable to users? For some
companies this is easily measurable and revenue loss can be calculated
per hour of downtime or data loss.
For all businesses, the disaster recovery cost is going to be an additional
expense item and, in many cases, with little in return. The costs include,
but are not limited to:
◆
Hardware (storage, servers, and maintenance)
◆
Software licenses and maintenance
◆
Facility leasing or purchase
◆
Utilities
◆
Network infrastructure
◆
Personnel
Design considerations for disaster recovery and disaster restart
417
418
◆
Training
◆
Creation and maintenance of processes
Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
6.4 Geographically distributed virtual infrastructure
Currently VMware does not provide any native tools to replicate the
data from the ESX server to a geographically separated location.
Software-based replication technology can be used inside virtual
machines or the service console. However, these techniques add
significantly to the network and CPU resource requirements.
Integrating ESX server and storage-array based replication products
adds a level of business data protection not attained easily. Using the
SnapSure and Replicator families of Celerra products with VMware
technologies enables customers to provide a cost-effective disaster
recovery and business continuity solution. Some of these solutions are
discussed in the following sections.
Note: Similar solutions are possible using host-based replication software such
as RepliStor®. However, utilizing storage-array based replication enables
customers to provide a disaster restart solution that can provide a
business-consistent view of the data that includes multiple hosts, operating
systems, and application.
Geographically distributed virtual infrastructure
419
6.5 Business continuity solutions
The business continuity solution for a production environment with
VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure includes the use of EMC
Celerra Replicator as the mechanism to replicate data from the
production data center to the remote data center. The copy of the data in
the remote data center can be presented to a VMware ESX server cluster
group. The remote virtual data center thus provides a business
continuity solution.
For disaster recovery purposes, a remote replica of the PFS or an iSCSI
LUN that is used to provide ESX server storage is required. Celerra
offers advanced data replication technologies to help protect a file
system or an iSCSI LUN. In case of a disaster, fail over to the destination
side with minimum administrator intervention. The replication session
has to be maintained and the snapshots need to be refreshed
periodically. The update frequency is determined based on the WAN
bandwidth and the RPO.
6.5.1 NAS datastore replication
Providing high availability to virtual machines is crucial in large
VMware environments. This section explains how Celerra replication
technology provides high availability for virtual machines hosted on
NAS datastores. Celerra Replicator technology along with Replication
Manager can be used to provide the ability to instantly create virtual
machine consistent replicas of NAS datastores containing virtual
machines.
6.5.1.1 Replication using Celerra Replicator
Celerra Replicator can be used to replicate file systems exported to ESX
servers as NAS datastores. This is done by one of the following ways:
◆
Using Celerra Manager: Section , “Using Celerra Manager,” on
page 422 provides more details.
◆
Using the Celerra /nas/bin/nas_replicate command, or the
/nas/bin/fs_replicate command, for versions earlier than Celerra
version 5.6.
The replication operates at a datastore level. Multiple virtual machines
will be replicated together if they reside in the same datastore. If further
granularity is required at an image level for an individual virtual
machine, move the virtual machine in its own NAS datastore. However,
consider that the maximum number of NFS mounts per ESX server is 64
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
for VMware vSpehere, and 32 for VMware Infrastructure. Section
3.6.1.5, “ESX host timeout settings for NFS,” on page 118 provides
details on how to increase the number from a default value of 8.
After the failover operation to promote the replica, the destination file
system can be mounted as a NAS datastore on the remote ESX server.
When configuring the remote ESX server, the network must be
configured such that the replicated virtual machines will be accessible.
Virtual machines residing in the file system need to register with the
new ESX server using the vSphere client for VMware vSphere, or the VI
Client for VMware Infrastructure. While browsing the NAS datastore,
right-click a .vmx configuration file and select Add to Inventory to
complete the registration as shown in Figure 309.
Figure 309 Registration of a virtual machine with ESX
Alternatively, the ESX service console command vmware-cmd can be
used to automate the process if a large number of virtual machines need
to be registered. Run the following shell script to automate the process:
for vm in `ls /vmfs/volumes/<datastore name>`
do
/usr/bin/vmware-cmd –s register /vmfs/volumes/<datastore
name>/$vm/*.vmx
done
Business continuity solutions
421
After registration, the virtual machine can be powered on. This may
take a while to complete. During power on, a pop-up message box
regarding msg.uuid.altered appears. Select I-movedit to complete the
power on procedure.
Using Celerra Manager
For remote replication using Celerra Manager, complete the following
steps:
1. From the Celerra Manager, click Wizards in the left navigation
pane. The Select a Wizard page opens in the right pane.
Figure 310 Select a Wizard
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
2. Click New Replication. The Replication Wizard - EMC Celerra
Manager appears.
Figure 311 Select a Replication Type
3. Select the replication type as File System and click Next. The File
System page appears.
Figure 312 File System
4. Select Ongoing File System Replication and click Next. The list of
destination Celerra Network Servers appears.
Note: It creates a read-only, point-in-time copy of a source file system at a
destination and periodically updates this copy, making it consistent with
the source file system. The destination for this read-only copy can be the
Business continuity solutions
423
same Data Mover (loop back replication), another Data Mover in the same
Celerra cabinet (local replication) or a Data Mover in a different Celerra
cabinet (remote replication).
Figure 313 Specify Destination Celerra Network Server
5. Click New Destination Celerra. The Create Celerra Network
Server page appears.
Figure 314 Create Celerra Network Server
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
6. Specify the name, IP address and passphrase of the destination
Celerra Network Server and click Next. The Specify Destination
Credentials page appears.
Figure 315 Specify Destination Credentials
Note: A trust relationship allows two Celerra systems to replicate data between
them. This trust relationship is required for Celerra Replicator sessions that
communicate between the separate file systems. The passphrase must be the
same for both source and target Celerra systems.
7. Specify the username and password credentials of the Control
Station on the destination Celerra to gain appropriate access and
click Next. The Create Peer Celerra Network Server page appears.
Figure 316 Create Peer Celerra Network Server
Note: The system will also automatically create the reverse communication
relationship on the destination side between the destination and source Celerra
systems.
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8. Specify the name by which the source Celerra system is known to
the destination Celerra system. The time difference between the
source and destination Control Station must be within 10 minutes.
The Overview/Results page appears.
Figure 317 Overview/Results
9. Review the result and click Next. The Specify Destination Celerra
Network Server page appears.
Figure 318 Specify Destination Celerra Network Server
10. Select the destination Celerra and click Next. The Select Data
Mover Interconnect page appears.
Note: Replication requires a connection between source Data Mover and
peer Data Mover. This connection is called an interconnect.
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Figure 319 Select Data Mover Interconnect
11. Click New Interconnect. The Source Settings page appears.
Figure 320 Source Settings
Note: An interconnect supports the Celerra Replicator™ V2 sessions by defining
the communication path between a given Data Mover pair located on the same
cabinet or different cabinets. The interconnect configures a list of local (source)
and peer (destination) interfaces for all v2 replication sessions using the
interconnect.
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12. Enter the Data Mover interconnect name, select the source Data
Mover and click Next. The Specify Destination Credentials page
appears.
Figure 321 Specify Destination Credentials
13. Specify the username and password of the Control Station on the
destination Celerra and click Next. The Destination Settings page
appears.
Figure 322 Destination Settings
14. Specify the name for the peer Data Mover interconnect and then
select the Celerra Network Server Data Mover on the other (peer)
side of the interconnect and click Next. The Overview/Results page
appears.
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Figure 323 Overview/Results
15. Review the results and click Next. The Select Data Mover
Interconnect page appears.
Figure 324 Select Data Mover Interconnect
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16. Select an already created interconnect and click Next. The Select
Replication Session's Interface page appears.
Figure 325 Select Replication Session's Interface
Note: Only one interconnect per Data Mover pair can be available.
17. Specify a source interface and a destination interface for this
replication session or use the default of any and click Next. The
Select Source page appears.
Figure 326 Select Source
Note: By using the default, the system selects an interface from the source and
destination interface lists for the interconnect.
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18. Specify a name for this replication session and select an existing file
system as the source for the session and click Next. The Select
Destination page appears.
Figure 327 Select Destination
19. Use the existing file system at the destination or create a new
destination file system and click Next. The Update Policy page
appears.
Figure 328 Update Policy
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Note: When replication creates a destination file system, it automatically
assigns a name based on the source file system and ensures that the file
system size is the same as the source. Administrators can select a storage
pool for the destination file system, and can also select the storage pool
used for future checkpoints.
20. Select the required update policy and click Next. The Select Tape
Transport page appears.
Figure 329 Select Tape Transport
Note: Using this policy, replication can be used to respond only to an explicit
request to update (refresh) the destination based on the source content or to
specify a maximum time that the source and destination can be out of
synchronization before an update occurs.
21. Click Next. The Overview/Results page appears.
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Note: Select Use Tape Transport? if the initial copy (slivering) of the file system
will be physically transported to the destination site using a disk array or tape
unit. This will create the replication session and then stop it to enable it to initial
copy using a physical tape.
Figure 330 Overview/Results
22. Review the result and click Finish. The job is submitted.
Figure 331 Command Successful
23. After the command is successful, click Close.
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6.5.1.2 Replication using Replication Manager and Celerra Replicator
Replication Manager can replicate a Celerra-based NAS datastore that
resides on an ESX server managed by the VMware vCenter Server.
Replication Manager uses Celerra Replicator to create remote replicas of
NAS datastores. Replication Manager version 5.2.2 supports NAS
datastore replication.
Because all operations are performed using the VMware vCenter
Server, neither the Replication Manager nor its required software needs
to be installed on a virtual machine or on the ESX server where the NAS
datastore resides. Operations are sent from a proxy host that is either a
Linux physical host or a separate virtual host. VMware snapshots are
taken for all virtual machines, which are online and residing on the
NAS datastore, just before the remote replication to ensure operating
system consistency of the resulting replica. Figure 332 shows the NAS
datastore replica in the Replication Manager.
Figure 332 NFS replication using Replication Manager
Administrators should ensure that the Linux proxy host is able to
resolve the addresses of the Replication Manager server and mount the
host and the Celerra Control Station by using DNS. After performing a
failover operation, the destination file system can be mounted as an
NAS datastore on the remote ESX server. When a NAS datastore replica
is mounted to an alternate ESX server, Replication Manager performs
all tasks necessary to make the NAS datastore visible to the ESX server.
After that is complete, further administrative tasks such as restarting
the virtual machines and the applications must be either completed by
scripts or by manual intervention.
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6.5.2 VMFS datastore replication over iSCSI
Providing high availability to the virtual machines is crucial in large
VMware environments. This section explains how Celerra replication
technology provides high availability for virtual machines hosted on
VMFS datastores over iSCSI. Celerra Replicator technology along with
Replication Manager can be used to provide the ability to instantly
create virtual machine consistent replicas of VMFS datastores
containing virtual machines.
6.5.2.1 Replication using Celerra Replicator
Celerra Replicator for iSCSI can be used to replicate the iSCSI LUNs
exported to an ESX server as VMFS datastores.
1. From the Celerra Manager, click Wizards in the left navigation
pane. The Select a Wizard page opens in the right pane.
Figure 333 Select a Wizard
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2. Click New Replication. The Replication Wizard - EMC Celerra
Manager appears.
Figure 334 Select a Replication Type
3. Select the replication type as iSCSI LUN and click Next. The Specify
Destination Celerra Network Server page appears.
Figure 335 Specify Destination Celerra Network Server
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4. Select an existing destination Celerra. If the destination Celerra is
not in the list, click New Destination Celerra. The Create Celerra
Network Server page appears.
Figure 336 Create Celerra Network Server
5. Specify the name, IP address, and passphrase of the destination
Celerra Network Server and click Next. The Specify Destination
Credentials page appears.
Figure 337 Specify Destination Credentials
Note: A trust relationship allows two Celerra systems to replicate data
between them. This trust relationship is required for Celerra Replicator
sessions that communicate between the separate file systems. The
passphrase must be same for both the source and target.
6. Specify the username and password credentials of the Control
Station on the destination Celerra to gain appropriate access and
click Next. The Create Peer Celerra Network Server page appears.
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Note: The system will also automatically create the reverse communication
relationship on the destination side between the destination and local Celerra.
Figure 338 Create Peer Celerra Network Server
7. Specify the name by which the source Celerra will be known to the
destination Celerra. The time difference between the local and
destination Control Stations must be within 10 minutes and click
Next. The Overview/Results page appears.
Figure 339 Overview/Results
8. Review the result and click Next. The Specify Destination Celerra
Network Server page appears.
Figure 340 Specify Destination Celerra Network Server
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9. Select an existing destination Celerra and click Next. The Select
Data Mover Interconnect page appears.
Figure 341 Data Mover Interconnect
10. Click New Interconnect. The Source Settings page appears.
Note: An interconnect supports the Celerra Replicator V2 sessions by defining
the communication path between a given Data Mover pair located on the same
cabinet or different cabinets. The interconnect configures a list of local (source)
and peer (destination) interfaces for all V2 replication sessions using the
interconnect.
Figure 342 Source Settings
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11. Type the name of the Data Mover interconnect, select the Data
Mover, and then click Next. The Specify Destination Credentials
page appears.
Figure 343 Specify Destination Credentials
12. Type the username and password of the Control Station on the
destination Celerra and click Next. The Destination Settings page
appears.
Figure 344 Destination Settings
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13. Type the name of the peer Data Mover interconnect and select the
Celerra Network Server Data Mover on the other side (peer) of the
interconnect and click Next. The Overview/Results page appears.
Figure 345 Overview/Results
14. Review the results of the changes and click Next. The Select Data
Mover Interconnect page appears.
Figure 346 Select Data Mover Interconnect
15. Select an already created interconnect and click Next. The Select
Replication Session's Interface page appears.
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Note: Only one interconnect per Data Mover pair is available.
Figure 347 Select Replication Session's Interface
16. Specify a source interface and a destination interface for this
replication session or use the default of any, which lets the system
select an interface from the source and destination interface lists for
the interconnect and click Next. The Select Source page appears.
Figure 348 Select Source
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17. Specify a name for this replication session, select an available source
iSCSI target and LUN for the source iSCSI LUN that needs to be
replicated, and then click Next. The Select Destination page
appears.
Note: The target iSCSI LUN needs to be set to read only and has to be the
same size as the source LUN
Figure 349 Select Destination
18. Select an available iSCSI target and iSCSI LUN and click Next. The
Update Policy page appears.
Figure 350 Update Policy
19. Select the Update policy and click Next. The Overview/Results
page appears.
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Note: Using this policy replication can be configured to respond only to an
explicit request to update (refresh) the destination based on the source content.
The maximum time that the source and destination can be out of
synchronization before an update can also be specified.
Figure 351 Overview/Results
20. Review the changes and then click Finish.
Figure 352 Command Successful
Because the replication operates at a LUN level, multiple virtual
machines will be replicated all together if they reside on the same iSCSI
LUN. If better granularity is required at an image level for an
individual virtual machine, place the virtual machine on its own iSCSI
LUN. However, when using this design, the maximum number of
VMFS file systems per ESX server is 256. As in the case of a NAS
datastore, virtual machines need to be registered with the remote ESX
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server after a failover. A virtual machine registration can be done by
either using the datastore browser GUI interface or can be scripted by
using the vmware-cmd command.
6.5.2.2 Replication using Replication Manager and Celerra Replicator
Replication Manager can replicate a VMFS that resides on an ESX
server managed by the VMware vCenter Server and is attached to a
Celerra system. Replication Manager uses Celerra Replicator
technology to create remote replicas. These replicas are actually
snapshots that represent a crash-consistent replica of the entire VMFS.
Because all operations are performed through the VMware vCenter
Server, neither the Replication Manager nor its required software need
to be installed on a virtual machine or on the ESX server where the
VMFS resides. Operations are sent from a proxy host that is either a
windows physical host or a separate virtual host. Replication Manager
proxy host can be the same physical or virtual host that serves as a
Replication Manager Server. In Celerra environments, the VMFS data
may reside on more than one LUN. However, all LUNs must be from
the same Celerra and must share the same target iSCSI qualified name
(IQN). VMware snapshots are taken for all virtual machines that are
online and reside on the VMFS just prior to replication. When a disaster
occurs, the user can fail over this replica, enabling Replication Manager
to make the clone LUN from the original production host's VMFS
datastores on the remote ESX. Failover also makes the production
storage read-only. After performing a failover operation, the destination
LUN can be mounted as a VMFS datastore on the remote ESX server.
After that is complete, further administrative tasks such as restarting
the virtual machines and the applications must be either completed by
scripts or by manual intervention. Figure 353 on page 445 shows the
VMFS datastore replica in Replication Manager.
Figure 353 VMFS replication using Replication Manager
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6.5.3 RDM volume replication over iSCSI
The iSCSI LUNs presented to an ESX server as RDM are normal raw
devices just like they are in a non-virtualized environment. RDM
provides some advantages of a virtual disk in the VMFS file system
while retaining some advantages of direct access to physical devices.
For example, administrators can take full advantage of storage array
based data protection technologies regardless of whether the RDM is in
a physical mode or virtual mode and another example of such a use
case is physical-to-virtual clustering between a virtual machine and a
physical server.
Replication of RDM volumes is similar to the physical backup of RDM
volumes. Celerra Replicator for iSCSI can be used to replicate iSCSI
LUNs presented to the ESX server as RDM volumes either by using the
cbm_replicate command of the CBMCLI package or by using the
Celerra nas_replicate command in Celerra version 5.6 or Replication
Manager. Replication Manager can only be used with a RDM volume
that is formatted as NTFS and is in the physical compatibility mode.
6.5.4 Site failover over NFS and iSCSI using VMware SRM and Celerra
VMware vCenter SRM is an integrated component of VMware vSphere
and VMware Infrastructure that is installed within a vCenter-controlled
VMware data center. SRM leverages the data replication capability of
the underlying storage array to create a workflow that will fail over
selected virtual machines from a protected site to a recovery site and
bring the virtual machines and their associated applications back into
production at the recovery site as shown in Figure 354 on page 447.
VMware vCenter SRM 4 supports both Celerra iSCSI and NFS-based
replications in VMware vSphere. With VMware Infrastructure and
versions earlier than VMware vCenter SRM 4, only Celerra iSCSI based
replications are supported.
SRM accomplishes this by communicating with and controlling the
underlying storage replication software through an SRM plug-in called
Storage Replication Adapter (SRA). The SRA is a software provided by
storage vendors that ensures integration of storage devices and
replication with VMware vCenter SRM. These vendor-specific scripts
support array discovery, replicated LUN discovery, test failover, and
actual failover.
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Figure 354 VMware vCenter SRM with VMware vSphere
The EMC Celerra Replicator SRA for VMware SRM is a software
package that enables SRM to implement disaster recovery for virtual
machines by using EMC Celerra systems running Celerra Replicator
and Celerra SnapSure software. The SRA-specific scripts support array
discovery, replicated LUN discovery, test failover, failback, and actual
failover. Disaster recovery plans can be implemented for virtual
machines running on NFS, VMFS, and RDM. Figure 355 on page 448
shows a sample screenshot of a VMware SRM configuration.
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Figure 355 VMware vCenter SRM configuration
During the test failover process, the production virtual machines at the
protected site continue to run and the replication connection remains
active for all the replicated iSCSI LUNs or file systems. When the test
failover command is run, SRM requests Celerra at the recovery site to
take a writeable snap or checkpoint by using the local replication
feature licensed at the recovery site. Based on the definitions in the
recovery plan, these snaps or checkpoints are discovered and mounted,
and pre-power-on scripts or callouts are executed. Virtual machines are
powered up and the post-power-on scripts or callouts are executed. The
same recovery plan is used for the test as for the real failover so that the
users can be confident that the test process is as close to a real failover
as possible without actually failing over the environment. Companies
realize a greater level of confidence in knowing that their users are
trained on the disaster recovery process and can execute the process
consistently and correctly each time. Users have the ability to add a
layer of test-specific customization to the workflow that is only
executed during a test failover to handle scenarios where the test may
have differences from the actual failover scenario. If virtual machine
power on is successful, the SRM test process is complete. Users can start
applications and perform tests, if required. Prior to cleaning up the test
environment, SRM uses a system callout to pause the simulated
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failover. At this point, the user should verify that their test environment
is consistent with the expected results. After verification, the user
acknowledges the callout and the test failover process concludes and
powers down and unregisters virtual machines, demotes and deletes
the Celerra writeable snaps or checkpoints, and restarts any suspended
virtual machines at the recovery site.
The actual failover is similar to the test failover, except that rather than
leveraging snaps or checkpoints at the recovery site while keeping the
primary site running, the storage array is physically failed over to a
remote location and the actual recovery site LUNs or file systems are
brought online and virtual machines are powered up. VMware will
attempt to power off the protected site virtual machines if they are
active when the failover command is issued. However, if the protected
site is destroyed, VMware will be unable to complete this task. SRM
will not allow a virtual machine to be active on both sites. Celerra
Replicator has an adaptive mechanism that attempts to ensure that
RPOs are met, even with varying VMware workloads, so that users can
be confident that the crash-consistent datastores that are recovered by
SRM meet their pre-defined service level specifications.
6.5.5 Site failback over NFS and iSCSI using VMware vCenter SRM 4 and EMC
Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter SRM
EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter SRM is a
supplemental software package for VMware vCenter SRM 4. This
plug-in enables users to fail back virtual machines and their associated
datastores to the primary site after implementing and executing
disaster recovery through VMware vCenter SRM for Celerra storage
systems running Celerra Replicator V2 and Celerra SnapSure.
The plug-in does the following:
◆
Provides the ability to input login information (hostname/IP,
username, and password) for two vCenter systems and two Celerra
systems
◆
Cross-references replication sessions with vCenter Server datastores
and virtual machines
◆
Provides the ability to select one or more failed-over Celerra
replication sessions for failback
◆
Supports both iSCSI and NAS datastores
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◆
Manipulates vCenter Server at the primary site to rescan storage,
unregister orphaned virtual machines, rename datastores, register
failed-back virtual machines, reconfigure virtual machines,
customize virtual machines, remove orphaned .vswp files for
virtual machines, and power on failed-back virtual machines.
◆
Manipulates vCenter Server at the secondary site to power off the
orphaned virtual machines, unregister the virtual machines, and
rescan storage.
◆
Identifies failed-over sessions created by EMC Replication Manager
and directs the user about how these sessions can be failed back.
The Failback Plug-in version 4.0 introduces support for virtual
machines on NAS datastores and support for virtual machines’
network reconfiguration before failback.
6.5.5.1 New features and changes
New features include:
◆
Support for virtual machines on NAS datastores
◆
Support for virtual machine network reconfiguration before
failback
Changes include:
◆
Improved log file format for readability
◆
Installation utility automatically determines the IP address of the
plug-in server
6.5.5.2 Environment and system requirements
The VMware infrastructure at both the protected (primary) and
recovery (secondary) sites must meet the following minimum
requirements:
◆
vCenter Server 2.5 or later
◆
VI Client
◆
SRM Server with the following installed:
• SRM 1.0 or later
• Celerra Replicator Adapter 1.X or later available on the VMware
website
This server can be vCenter Server or a separate Windows host and
should have one or more ESX 3.02, 3.5, 3i, or 4 servers connected to a
Celerra storage system.
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EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager
Release Notes available on Powerlink provide information on specific
system requirements.
6.5.5.3 Known problems and limitations
EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter SRM has the
following known problems and limitations:
◆
Virtual machine dependencies are not checked.
◆
Fibre Channel LUNs are not supported.
6.5.5.4 Installing the EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter SRM
Before installing the EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter
SRM, the following must be done.
◆
Install the VMware vCenter SRM on a supported Windows host
(the SRM server) at both the protected and recovery sites.
Note: Install the EMC Celerra Replicator Adapter for VMware SRM on a
supported Windows host (preferably the SRM server) at both the protected
and recovery sites.
To install the EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter SRM,
extract and run the executable EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for
VMware vCenter SRM.exe from the downloaded zip file. Follow the
on-screen instructions and provide the username and password for the
vCenter Server where the Plug-in is registered.
6.5.5.5 Using the EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter SRM
To run the EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter SRM:
1. Open an instance of VI Client or vSphere Client to connect to the
protected site vCenter.
2. Click Celerra Failback Plug-in.
3. Follow the on-screen instructions to connect to the protected and
recovery site Celerras and vCenters.
4. Click Discover.
5. Select the desired sessions for failback from the list on the Failed
Over Datastores, Virtual Machines, and Replication Sessions
areas.
6. Click Failback.
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Note: The failback progress is displayed in the Status Messages area.
EMC Celerra Failback Plug-in for VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager
Release Notes available on Powerlink provide further information on
troubleshooting and support when using the plug-in.
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6.6 Summary
The following table provides data replication solutions of Celerra
storage presented to an ESX server.
Table 6
Data replication solution
Type of virtual object
Replication
NAS datastore
• Celerra Replicator
• Replication Manager
• VMware vCenter SRM
VMFS/iSCSI
• Celerra Replicator (CBMCLI,
nas_replicate, or Celerra Manager)
• Replication Manager
• VMware vCenter SRM
RDM/iSCSI (physical)
Celerra Replicator (CBMCLI,
nas_replicate, Celerra Manager, or
Replication Manager) and SRM
RDM/iSCSI (virtual)
Celerra Replicator (CBMCLI,
nas_replicate, or Celerra Manager) and
SRM
Summary
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A
CLARiiON Back-End Array
Configuration for Celerra
Unified Storage
This appendix presents these topics:
◆
◆
A.1 Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration ............................. 457
A.2 Present the new CLARiiON back-end configuration to Celerra
unified storage...................................................................................... 468
CLARiiON Back-End Array Configuration for Celerra Unified Storage
455
A
Note: This appendix contains procedures to configure the captive back-end
CLARiiON storage in the Celerra unified storage. As such, this procedure
should only be performed by a skilled user who is experienced in CLARiiON
configuration with Celerra. This appendix is only provided for completion.
Given the automation already included as part of the initial Celerra unified
storage setup, a typical user will not need to perform this procedure.
The procedure in this appendix should be performed whenever there is
a need to modify the configuration of the captive back-end CLARiiON
storage of the Celerra unified storage. This procedure will include
CLARiiON configuration and presenting this new configuration to
Celerra in the form of new Celerra disk volumes that will be added to
the existing Celerra storage pools.
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A.1 Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration
To configure the back-end CLARiiON storage, create LUNs and add
them to the storage group:
1. Create a RAID group
2. Create LUNs from the RAID group
3. Add LUNs to the storage group
Create a RAID group
To create a RAID group:
1. In Navisphere Manager, right-click the RAID group, and then click
Create RAID Group.
Figure 356 Create RAID Group option
The Create Storage Pool dialog box appears.
Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration
457
Figure 357 Create Storage Pool
2. Select the Storage Pool ID and RAID Type. Select Manual, and
then click Select. The Disk Selection dialog box appears.
3. Select the disks for the RAID type from the Available Disks box,
and then click OK. The selected disks appear in the Selected Disks
box.
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Figure 358 Disk Selection
4. Click Apply. This RAID group is created.
Create LUNs from the RAID group
After the RAID group is created, the LUNs must be created.
With FC, SAS, and SATA disks, use the following RAID configuration:
RAID 5 (4+1) group in CLARiiON with two LUNs per RAID group.
These LUNs should be load balanced between the CLARiiON storage
processors (SPs). Section 3.5.3, ”Storage considerations for using
Celerra EFDs,” on page 107 provides configuration details for EFDs.
Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration
459
To create LUNs from the RAID group:
1. In Navisphere Manager, right-click the RAID group, and then click
Create LUN.
Figure 359 Create LUN option
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The Create LUN dialog box appears.
Figure 360 Create LUN
2. Select the RAID Type, Storage Pool for new LUN, User Capacity,
LUN ID, Number of LUNS to create, and then click Apply. The
Confirm: Create LUN dialog box appears.
Note: With FC disks, use a RAID 5 (4+1) group in CLARiiON. Create two
LUNs per RAID group and load-balance LUNs between CLARiiON SPs.
Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration
461
Figure 361 Confirm: Create LUN
3. Click Yes. The Message: Create LUN dialog box appears when the
LUN operation is created successfully.
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Figure 362 Message: Create LUN
4. Click OK.
Add LUNs to the storage group
The host can access the required LUNs only when the LUN is added to
the storage group that is connected to the host. To add LUNs to the
storage group:
1. In Navisphere Manager, right-click the storage group, and then
click Select LUNs.
Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration
463
Figure 363 Select LUNs
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The Storage Group Properties dialog box appears.
Figure 364 Storage Group Properties
2. Select the LUNs that need to be added, and then click Apply. The
Confirm dialog box appears.
Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration
465
Figure 365 Confirm
3. Click Yes to confirm the operation. The Success dialog box appears
when the LUNs are added successfully.
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Figure 366 Success
4. Click OK.
Back-end CLARiiON storage configuration
467
A.2 Present the new CLARiiON back-end configuration to
Celerra unified storage
After the backup CLARiiON storage was configured, this new
configuration should be presented to Celerra.
To add the disk volume to the default storage pool a disk mark is
required. To do the disk mark, type the following command at the CLI
prompt of Celerra:
$ nas_diskmark -mark -all -discovery y -monitor y
Figure 367 Disk mark
New disk volumes are added to the default storage pool.
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B
Windows Customization
This appendix presents these topics:
◆
◆
◆
B.1 Windows customization ............................................................... 470
B.2 System Preparation tool ................................................................ 471
B.3 Customization process for the cloned virtual machines .......... 472
Windows Customization
469
B.1 Windows customization
Windows customization provides a mechanism to assign customized
installations efficiently to different user groups. Windows Installer
places all the information about the installation in a relational database.
The installation of an application or product can be customized for
particular user groups by applying transform operations to the
package. Transforms can be used to encapsulate various customizations
of a base package required by different workgroups.
When a virtual machine is cloned, the exact copy of the virtual machine
is built with the same asset ID, product key details, IP address, system
name, and other system details. This leads to software and network
conflicts. The customization of a clone's guest OS is recommended to
prevent the possible network and software conflicts.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
B.2 System Preparation tool
The System Preparation tool (Sysprep) can be used with other
deployment tools to install Microsoft Windows operating systems with
minimal intervention by an administrator. Sysprep is typically used
during large-scale rollouts when it would be too slow and costly to
have administrators or technicians interactively install the operating
system on individual computers.
System Preparation tool
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B.3 Customization process for the cloned virtual machines
Install Sysprep on the source virtual machine to avoid possible network
and software conflicts. Running Sysprep will re-signature the present
software and network setting of the source virtual machine.
To customize virtual machines:
1. Run Sysprep on the source virtual machine that is identified to be
cloned.
Figure 368 shows the welcome screen for the customization wizard
by using Sysprep.
Figure 368 System Preparation tool
2. Click OK. The following screen appears.
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Using EMC Celerra Storage with VMware vSphere and VMware Infrastructure
Figure 369 Reseal option
3. Click Reseal. The following dialog box appears.
Customization process for the cloned virtual machines
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Figure 370 Generate new SID
4. Click OK. The virtual machine reboots and a new SID is created for
the cloned system.
5. Clone the customized virtual machine using the Celerra-based
technologies:
a. Create the checkpoint/snap in Celerra Manager.
b. Add the checkpoint/snap to the storage of vCenter Server.
c. Create the cloned virtual machine.
d. Switch on the cloned virtual machine.
e. Confirm the details of the new cloned virtual machine. Any
possible conflict between the cloned virtual machine and the
source virtual machine is avoided.
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