Aim for a Healthy Weight
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
National Institutes of Health
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Aim
for a
Healthy
Weight
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
National Institutes of Health
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NIH Publication No. 05-5213
August 2005
Table of Contents
Aim for a Healthy Weight
Why Is a Healthy Weight
Important?
eaching and maintaining a healthy weight is
good for your overall health and will help
you prevent and control many diseases and
conditions. We know that an increase in weight
also increases a person’s risk for heart disease, high
blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes,
gallbladder disease, gynecologic disorders, arthritis,
some types of cancer, and even some lung problems (see Box 1). Maintaining a healthy weight
has many benefits, including feeling good about
yourself and having more energy to enjoy life.
A person’s weight is the result of many things—
height, genes, metabolism, behavior, and environment. Maintaining a healthy weight requires
keeping a balance . . . a balance of energy. You
must balance the calories you get from food and
beverages with the calories you use to keep your
body going and being physically active.
The same amount of energy IN and energy OUT
over time = weight stays the same
This booklet will provide you with information to
figure out your body mass index (Box 2) and weightrelated risk for disease. It will also give you information on when and how to lose weight, including tips
on healthy eating and physical activity, setting weight
loss goals, and rewarding your success.
If you are overweight or obese you are at risk
of developing the following diseases:
■
High blood pressure
■
High blood cholesterol
■
Type 2 diabetes
■
Coronary heart disease
■
Stroke
■
Gallbladder disease
■
Arthritis
■
Sleep apnea and breathing problems
■
Some cancers
●
●
●
●
Endometrial
Breast
Prostate
Colon
More IN than OUT over time = weight gain
More OUT than IN over time = weight loss
Your energy IN and OUT don’t have to balance
exactly every day. It’s the balance over time that
will help you to maintain a healthy weight in the
long run.
Here is a shortcut method for calculating BMI.
1. Multiply weight
(in pounds) by 703
180 x 703 = 126,540
For many people, this balance means eating fewer
calories and increasing their physical activity.
Cutting back on calories is a matter of choice.
Making healthy food choices that are lower in fats,
especially saturated and trans fat, cholesterol, added
sugars, and salt can help you cut back on calories,
as can paying attention to portion sizes.
2. Divide the answer
in step 1 by height
(in inches)
126,540/65 = 1,946
(Example: for a person who is 5 feet 5 inches tall
weighing 180 lbs.)
3. Divide the answer
in step 2 by height
(in inches) to get your BMI
1,946/65 = 29.9
BMI = 29.9
What Is Your Risk?
First, let’s gather some information—
Check Your Body Mass Index
Your body mass index (BMI) is a good indicator
of your risk for a variety of diseases since it gives
an accurate estimate of your total body fat.
There are three ways to check your BMI.
■
One way is to use the chart
on the next page to find your
weight and height and then go
above that column to find your BMI.
■
A second way is to use the BMI calculator on the
NHLBI Web site at http://www. nhlbisupport.
com/bmi/.
■
A third way to check your BMI is to calculate it;
one method is shown in Box 2. Another way to
do this: Divide your weight in pounds by your
height in inches squared and then multiply the
total by 703.
Once you know your BMI, check Box 3, which
shows the BMI ranges for underweight, normal
weight, overweight, and obesity.
While BMI is valid for most men and women, it
does have some limitations:
■
■
It may overestimate body fat in athletes and
others who have a muscular build.
It may underestimate body fat in older persons
and others who have lost muscle mass.
Appropriate weight gain during pregnancy varies
and depends upon initial body weight or BMI
level. Pregnant women should contact a health
professional to assure appropriate weight gain during pregnancy.
Waist Circumference Measurement
Your waist circumference measurement is also
important in determining your overall risk. If most
of your fat is around your waist, you are at greater
chance for developing risk factors for heart disease
BMI
Underweight
<18.5
Normal
18.5–24.9
Overweight
25.0–29.9
Obesity
>30.0
–
Extreme Obesity
>40.0
–
Besides being overweight or obese, here are other
risk factors to consider—
■
Cigarette smoking
■
High blood pressure (hypertension)
■
High LDL-cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol)
■
Low HDL-cholesterol (“good” cholesterol)
■
High triglycerides
■
High blood glucose (sugar)
■
Family history of premature heart disease
■
Physical inactivity
and diabetes. This risk increases with a waist
measurement of greater than 35 inches for women
or greater than 40 inches for men.
Are You at Risk?
Talk to your doctor to see if you are at an
increased risk and if you should lose weight.
Your doctor will evaluate your BMI, waist
measurement, and other risk factors for heart
disease. These risk factors are shown in Box 4.
If you are overweight, do not have a high waist
measurement, and have less then two risk factors, it’s
important that you not gain any more weight. If you
are overweight (BMI 25–29.9), or have a high waist
circumference, and have two or more risk factors, or
if you are obese (BMI ≥30), it is important for you to
lose weight. Even a small weight loss (just 10 percent
of your current weight) will help to lower your risk
of developing the diseases listed in Box 1.
19
35
36
37
38
144 151 159 166 174 182 189 197 204 212 219 227 235 242 250 257 265 272 280 288 295 302 310 318 325 333 340 348 355 363 371 378 386 393 401 408
148 155 163 171 179 186 194 202 210 218 225 233 241 249 256 264 272 280 287 295 303 311 319 326 334 342 350 358 365 373 381 389 396 404 412 420
152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 256 264 272 279 287 295 303 311 319 327 335 343 351 359 367 375 383 391 399 407 415 423 431
156 164 172 180 189 197 205 213 221 230 238 246 254 263 271 279 287 295 304 312 320 328 336 344 353 361 369 377 385 394 402 410 418 426 435 443
74
75
76
Source: Adapted from Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity In Adults: The Evidence Report.
116 122 128 134 140 145 151 157 163 169 174 180 186 192 197 204 209 215 221 227 232 238 244 250 256 262 267 273 279 285 291 296 302 308 314
113 118 124 130 135 141 146 152 158 163 169 175 180 186 191 197 203 208 214 220 225 231 237 242 248 254 259 265 270 278 282 287 293 299 304
99 104 109 114 119 124 128 133 138 143 148 153 158 163 168 173 178 183 188 193 198 203 208 212 217 222 227 232 237 242 247 252 257 262 267
73
54
140 147 154 162 169 177 184 191 199 206 213 221 228 235 242 250 258 265 272 279 287 294 302 309 316 324 331 338 346 353 361 368 375 383 390 397
53
72
52
136 143 150 157 165 172 179 186 193 200 208 215 222 229 236 243 250 257 265 272 279 286 293 301 308 315 322 329 338 343 351 358 365 372 379 386
51
71
50
132 139 146 153 160 167 174 181 188 195 202 209 216 222 229 236 243 250 257 264 271 278 285 292 299 306 313 320 327 334 341 348 355 362 369 376
49
70
48
128 135 142 149 155 162 169 176 182 189 196 203 209 216 223 230 236 243 250 257 263 270 277 284 291 297 304 311 318 324 331 338 345 351 358 365
47
69
46
125 131 138 144 151 158 164 171 177 184 190 197 203 210 216 223 230 236 243 249 256 262 269 276 282 289 295 302 308 315 322 328 335 341 348 354
45
68
44
121 127 134 140 146 153 159 166 172 178 185 191 198 204 211 217 223 230 236 242 249 255 261 268 274 280 287 293 299 306 312 319 325 331 338 344
43
67
42
118 124 130 136 142 148 155 161 167 173 179 186 192 198 204 210 216 223 229 235 241 247 253 260 266 272 278 284 291 297 303 309 315 322 328 334
41
66
40
114 120 126 132 138 144 150 156 162 168 174 180 186 192 198 204 210 216 222 228 234 240 246 252 258 264 270 276 282 288 294 300 306 312 318 324
39
65
Body Weight (pounds)
34
110
33
64
32
107
31
63
30
104 109 115 120 126 131 136 142 147 153 158 164 169 175 180 186 191 196 202 207 213 218 224 229 235 240 246 251 256 262 267 273 278 284 289 295
29
62
28
100 106 111 116 122 127 132 137 143 148 153 158 164 169 174 180 185 190 195 201 206 211 217 222 227 232 238 243 248 254 259 264 269 275 280 285
27
61
26
97 102 107 112 118 123 128 133 138 143 148 153 158 163 168 174 179 184 189 194 199 204 209 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 261 266 271 276
25
60
24
94
23
59
22
Extreme Obesity
96 100 105 110 115 119 124 129 134 138 143 148 153 158 162 167 172 177 181 186 191 196 201 205 210 215 220 224 229 234 239 244 248 253 258
21
Obese
91
20
Overweight
58
Height
(inches)
BMI
Normal
How To Lose Weight and
Maintain It
Getting Started
We have all heard the facts . . . to lose weight, you
have to eat less and move more. But this is often
easier said than done. Many people make repeated
attempts, often using different fad diets and weight
loss gimmicks and are unsuccessful.
This booklet provides you with common sense
guidance and tips on ways to eat less and move
more, as well as weight loss goals that are attainable.
■
■
■
Did you know that simply losing as little as
10 percent of your current body weight can
make a difference in your health? Achieving this
initial weight loss goal will help to lower your
risk for heart disease and other conditions,
including high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes,
osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.
Did you know that a reasonable and safe weight
loss is 1–2 pounds per week? While it may take
as long as 6 months to lose the weight, it will
make it easier to keep the weight off. And it will
give you the time to make new healthy lifestyle
changes such as eating a healthy diet and
increasing your physical activity level.
Did you know that it is better to maintain a
moderate weight loss over a longer period of
time than it is to lose lots of weight and regain
The following are general goals for weight loss and
management:
■
Reduce body weight if overweight or obese.
■
Maintain a lower body weight over
the long term.
■
Prevent further weight gain (a minimum goal).
it? You can consider additional weight loss after
you have lost 10 percent of your current body
weight and have maintained it for 6 months.
To be successful at losing weight, you need to adopt
a new lifestyle. This means making changes such as
eating healthy foods, being more physically active,
and learning how to change behaviors. Over time,
these changes will become routine. But there are
some people for whom lifestyle changes don’t work
no matter how hard they try. Weight loss medications and weight loss surgery can be options for
these people if they are at increased risk from overweight or obesity. Each of these approaches are
discussed in this booklet.
A Healthy Eating Plan
Calories
To lose weight, most people need to cut down on
the number of calories (units of energy) they get
from food and beverages and increase their physical activity. For a weight loss of 1–2 pounds per
week, daily intake should be reduced by 500 to
1,000 calories. In general:
■
Eating plans containing 1,000–1,200 calories will
help most women to lose weight safely.
■
Eating plans between 1,200 calories and 1,600
calories each day are suitable for men and
may also be appropriate for women who weigh
165 pounds or more or who exercise regularly.
If you are on a 1,600-calorie diet but do not lose
weight, you may want to try a 1,200-calorie diet.
If you are hungry on either diet, you may want to
boost your calories by 100 to 200 per day. Very
low calorie diets of less than 800 calories each day
should not be used routinely because they require
special monitoring by your doctor.
What foods make up a healthy eating plan?
A healthy eating plan is one that gives your body
the nutrients it needs every day while staying within your daily calorie level. This eating plan will
also lower your risk for heart disease and other
conditions such as high blood pressure or high
blood cholesterol levels.
Foods that can be eaten more often include those
that are lower in calories, total fat, saturated and
trans fat, cholesterol, and sodium (salt). Examples
of these foods include fat-free and low-fat dairy
products; lean meat, fish, and poultry; high-fiber
foods such as whole grains, breads, and cereals;
fruits; and vegetables. Canola or olive oils and soft
margarines made from these oils are heart healthy
and can be used in moderate amounts. Unsalted
nuts can also be built into a healthy diet as long as
you watch the amount.
Foods higher in fats are typically higher in calories.
Foods that should be limited include those with
higher amounts of saturated and trans fats and cholesterol. These particular fats raise blood cholesterol
levels, which increases the risk for heart disease.
Saturated fat is found mainly in fresh and processed
meats; high-fat dairy products (like cheese, whole
milk, cream, butter, and ice cream), lard, and in the
coconut and palm oils found in many processed
foods. Trans fat is found in foods with partially
hydrogenated oils such as many hard margarines
and shortening, commercially fried foods, and some
bakery goods. Cholesterol is found in eggs, organ
meats, and dairy fats.
It’s also important to limit foods and beverages
with added sugars such as many desserts, canned
fruit packed in syrup, fruit drinks, and sweetened
beverages (nondiet drinks). Foods and beverages
with added sugars will add calories to your diet
without giving you needed nutrients.
A healthy eating plan includes foods from all the
basic food groups. It is low in saturated fats, trans fat,
A healthy eating plan:
■
Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and
fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products.
■
Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs,
and nuts.
■
Is low in saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol, salt
(sodium), and added sugars.
■
Controls portion sizes.
cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars. It contains enough calories for good health but not too
many so that you gain weight. A healthy eating
plan also emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole
grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products,
lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. It
also allows for reasonable portion sizes to control
calories and prevent unhealthy weight gain.
Grains
Grains such as wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, and
barley are naturally low in fat and provide vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates—all important
for good health. Examples of grain products are
breads, pasta, breakfast cereals, grits, tortillas,
couscous, and crackers. Whole grain foods such as
whole wheat bread, brown rice, and oatmeal also
have fiber that helps protect you against certain
diseases and keeps your body regular. Fiber can
also help you feel full with fewer calories.
Vegetables
Most vegetables are naturally low in calories, fat,
and cholesterol, and are filling. They are also
important sources of many nutrients, including
potassium, fiber, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C. People who eat more vegetables as part of an overall healthy diet are likely
to have a lower risk of some chronic diseases such
as heart disease and diabetes. Any vegetable or
100 percent-vegetable juice counts as a member of
the vegetable group. Vegetables may be raw or
cooked; fresh, frozen, canned, or dried/dehydrated;
and may be whole, cut up, or mashed. To get the
most health benefits, vary the types of vegetables
you eat. Eat more dark green and orange vegetables.
Fruits
Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium, and
calories. None have cholesterol. Fruits are important
sources of many nutrients, including potassium,
fiber, vitamin C, and folate (folic acid). Whole or
cut up fruits also contain fiber which can provide a
feeling of fullness with fewer calories. People who
eat more fruits as part of an overall healthy diet are
likely to have a reduced risk of some chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. Any fruit
or 100 percent-fruit juice counts as part of the
fruit group. Fruits may be fresh, canned, frozen,
or dried, and may be whole, cut up, or pureed. To
get the most health benefits, eat a variety of fruits
and go easy on fruit juices to avoid getting too
many calories.
Milk
Milk and milk products such as yogurt and cheese
provide nutrients that are vital for the health and
maintenance of your body. These nutrients include
calcium, potassium, vitamin D, and protein.
People who have a diet rich in milk and milk products can lower their risk of low bone mass (osteoporosis) and maintain healthy bones throughout
the life cycle. Whole milk dairy foods contain
unhealthy saturated fats, so it’s a good idea to
choose low-fat or fat-free milk products such as
milk, cheese, and yogurt. If you can’t tolerate milk,
try lactose-free milk products.
Meat and Beans
All foods made from meat, poultry, fish, dry beans
or peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds are considered part of
this group. The foods in this group give you many
nutrients, including protein; B vitamins (niacin,
thiamin, riboflavin, and B6); vitamin E; and minerals such as iron, zinc, and magnesium.
Meats, especially high-fat processed meats such as
bologna, contain saturated fats and cholesterol, so
it’s a good idea to limit these, or to try lower fat
varieties. Also choose poultry, fish, beans, and peas
more often. Nuts and seeds can be included for
variety since they contain healthy fats, however,
limit the amount to avoid getting too many calories. Bake, broil, or grill your meats.
Oils (Fats)
Unsaturated oils are necessary for good health in
small amounts. Oils and solid fats both contain
about 120 calories per tablespoon so the amount of
oil you use needs to be limited to balance your
total calorie intake. It’s especially important to
limit saturated fat, which is found in whole dairy
foods, many meats, butter, and lard, and raises
blood cholesterol levels and thus the risk for heart
disease. Most of your fat should be from fish, nuts,
and vegetable oils. Limit solid fats like butter, stick
margarine, shortening, and lard.
Daily Food Group Amounts
The table on the next page provides the suggested
amounts of food that you should eat from the basic
food groups at different calorie levels.
The next section will provide you with information
on portion and serving sizes, low calorie menus,
food shopping, preparation, and dining out to help
you manage your weight.
Calorie Level
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
2,000
2,200
2,400
2,600
2,800
Food group
Food group amounts shown in cup (c) or ounce-equivalents (oz-eq), with number of servings (srv) in
parentheses when it differs from the other units. See note for quantity equivalents for foods in each group.
Oils are shown in grams (g).
Fruits
1c
(2 srv)
1c
(2 srv)
1.5 c
(3 srv)
1.5 c
(3 srv)
1.5 c
(3 srv)
2c
(4 srv)
2c
(4 srv)
2c
(4 srv)
2c
(4 srv)
2.5 c
(5 srv)
Vegetables
1c
(2 srv)
1.5 c
(3 srv)
1.5 c
(3 srv)
2c
(4 srv)
2.5 c
(5 srv)
2.5 c
(5 srv)
3c
(6 srv)
3c
(6 srv)
3.5 c
(7 srv)
3.5 c
(7 srv)
Dark green veg.
1 c/wk
1.5 c/wk
1.5 c/wk
2 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
Orange veg.
.5 c/wk
1 c/wk
1 c/wk
1.5 c/wk
2 c/wk
2 c/wk
2 c/wk
2 c/wk
2.5 c/wk
2.5 c/wk
Legumes
.5 c/wk
1 c/wk
1 c/wk
2.5 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
3.5 c/wk
3.5 c/wk
1.5 c/wk
2.5 c/wk
2.5 c/wk
2.5 c/wk
3 c/wk
3 c/wk
6 c/wk
6 c/wk
7 c/wk
7 c/wk
4 c/wk
4.5 c/wk
4.5 c/wk
5.5 c/wk
6.5 c/wk
6.5 c/wk
7 c/wk
7 c/wk
8.5 c/wk
8.5 c/wk
3 oz-eq
Starchy veg.
Other veg.
Grains
4 oz-eq
5 oz-eq
5 oz-eq
6 oz-eq
6 oz-eq
7 oz-eq
8 oz-eq
9 oz-eq
10 oz-eq
Whole grains
1.5
2
2.5
3
3
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
Other grains
1.5
2
2.5
2
3
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
3 oz-eq
4 oz-eq
5 oz-eq
5 oz-eq
5.5 oz-eq
6 oz-eq
Lean meat
and beans
2 oz-eq
6.5 oz-eq 6.5 oz-eq
7 oz-eq
Milk
2c
2c
2c
3c
3c
3c
3c
3c
3c
3c
Oils
15 g
17 g
17 g
22 g
24 g
27 g
29 g
31 g
34 g
36 g
Discretionary
calorie allowance
165
171
171
132
195
267
290
362
410
426
Quantity equivalents for each food group:
●
●
●
●
Grains—The following each count as 1 ounce-equivalent (1 serving) of grains: fi cup cooked rice, pasta, or cooked cereal;
1 ounce dry pasta or rice; 1 slice bread; 1 small muffin (1 oz); 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes.
Fruits and vegetables—The following each count as 1 cup (2 servings) of fruits or vegetables: 1 cup cut-up raw or cooked fruit or
vegetable, 1 cup fruit or vegetable juice, 2 cups leafy salad greens.
Meat and beans—The following each count as 1 ounce-equivalent: 1 ounce lean meat, poultry, or fish; 1 egg; ⁄ cup cooked dry
beans or tofu; 1 tablespoon peanut butter; fi ounce nuts or seeds.
Milk—The following each count as 1 cup (1 serving) of milk: 1 cup milk or yogurt, 1fi ounces natural cheese such as cheddar
cheese or 2 ounces processed cheese. Discretionary calories must be counted for all choices, except fat-free milk.
Discretionary calorie allowance is: the remaining number of calories that can be from added sugars and fat in food preparation, sugars added to beverages, canned fruit; higher fat products.
For more information, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 at: www.healthierus.gov.
A calorie is a calorie is a calorie whether it comes
from fat or carbohydrate. Anything eaten in excess
can lead to weight gain. You can lose weight by
eating less calories and by increasing your physical
activity. Reducing the amount of fat and saturated
fat that you eat is one easy way to limit your overall
calorie intake. However, eating fat-free or reduced
fat foods isn’t always the answer to weight loss.
This is especially true when you eat more of the
reduced fat food than you would of the regular
item. For example, if you eat twice as many fatfree cookies, you have actually increased your overall calorie intake. The following list of foods and
their reduced fat varieties will show you that just
because a product is fat-free, it doesn’t mean that it
is “calorie free.” And, calories do count!
Calories
Reduced fat peanut butter,
2 Tbsp
Cookies:
Reduced fat chocolate chip cookies,
3 cookies (30 g)
Fat-free fig cookies,
2 cookies (30 g)
Ice cream:
Fat-free vanilla frozen yogurt
(<1% fat), 1/2 cup
187
118
102
100
Calories
Regular peanut butter,
2 Tbsp
Cookies:
Regular chocolate chip cookies,
3 cookies (30 g)
Regular fig cookies,
2 cookies (30 g)
Ice cream:
Regular whole milk vanilla
frozen yogurt (3–4% fat), 1/2 cup
191
142
111
104
Light vanilla ice cream (7% fat),
fi cup
111
Regular vanilla ice cream
(11% fat), 1/2 cup
133
Fat-free caramel topping,
2 Tbsp
103
Caramel topping, homemade
with butter, 2 Tbsp
103
Low-fat granola cereal,
approx. 1/2 cup (55 g)
213
Regular granola cereal,
approx. 1/2 cup (55 g)
257
Low-fat blueberry muffin,
1 small (21/2 inch)
131
Regular blueberry muffin,
1 small (21/2 inch)
138
Baked tortilla chips,
1 oz
113
Regular tortilla chips,
1 oz
143
Low-fat cereal bar,
1 bar (1.3 oz)
130
Regular cereal bar,
1 bar (1.3 oz)
140
Nutrient data taken from Nutrient Data System for Research, Version v4. 02/30, Nutrition Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota.
provide most of their calories from sugar and fat
but give you few, if any, vitamins and minerals.
These low calorie alternatives provide new ideas for
old favorites. When making a food choice, remember to consider vitamins and minerals. Some foods
This guide is not meant to be an exhaustive list. We
stress reading labels to find out just how many calories are in the specific products you decide to buy.
Dairy Products
Evaporated whole milk
Evaporated fat-free (skim) or reduced fat (2%) milk
Whole milk
Low-fat (1%), reduced fat (2%), or fat-free (skim) milk
Ice cream
Sorbet, sherbet, low-fat or fat-free frozen yogurt, or
ice milk (check label for calorie content)
Whipping cream
Imitation whipped cream (made with fat-free
[skim] milk) or low-fat vanilla yogurt
Sour cream
Plain low-fat yogurt
Cream cheese
Neufchatel or “light” cream cheese or fat-free cream
cheese
Cheese (cheddar, American, Swiss, jack)
Reduced calorie cheese, low calorie processed
cheeses, etc.; fat-free cheese
Regular (4%) cottage cheese
Low-fat (1%) or reduced fat (2%) cottage cheese
Whole milk mozzarella cheese
Part skim milk, low moisture mozzarella cheese
Whole milk ricotta cheese
Part skim milk ricotta cheese
Coffee cream (half and half) or
nondairy creamer (liquid, powder)
Low-fat (1%) or reduced fat (2%) milk or fat-free
dry milk powder
Cereals, Grains,
and Pasta
Ramen noodles
Rice or noodles (spaghetti, macaroni, etc.)
Pasta with white sauce (alfredo)
Pasta with red sauce (marinara)
Pasta with cheese sauce
Pasta with vegetables (primavera)
Granola
Bran flakes, crispy rice, etc.
Cooked grits or oatmeal
Whole grains (e.g., couscous, barley, bulgur, etc.)
Reduced fat granola
Meat, Fish,
and Poultry
Cold cuts or lunch meats
(bologna, salami, liverwurst, etc.)
Low-fat cold cuts (95% to 97% fat-free lunch meats,
low-fat pressed meats)
Hot dogs (regular)
Lower fat hot dogs
Bacon or sausage
Canadian bacon or lean ham
Regular ground beef
Extra lean ground beef such as ground round or
ground turkey (read labels)
Chicken or turkey with skin, duck,
or goose
Chicken or turkey without skin (white meat)
Oil-packed tuna
Water-packed tuna (rinse to reduce sodium content)
Beef (chuck, rib, brisket)
Beef (round, loin) trimmed of external fat
(choose select grades)
Continued on next page
Continued from previous page
Pork (spareribs, untrimmed loin)
Pork tenderloin or trimmed, lean smoked ham
Frozen breaded fish or fried fish
(homemade or commercial)
Fish or shellfish, unbreaded (fresh, frozen, canned
in water)
Whole eggs
Egg whites or egg substitutes
Frozen TV dinners (containing more than
13 grams of fat per serving)
Frozen TV dinners (containing less than
13 grams of fat per serving and lower in sodium)
Chorizo sausage
Turkey sausage, drained well (read label)
Vegetarian sausage (made with tofu)
Baked Goods
Croissants, brioches, etc.
Hard french rolls or soft “brown ’n serve” rolls
Donuts, sweet rolls, muffins, scones,
or pastries
English muffins, bagels, reduced fat or fat-free
muffins or scones
Party crackers
Low-fat crackers (choose lower in sodium)
Saltine or soda crackers (choose lower in sodium)
Snacks and
Sweets
Cake (pound, chocolate, yellow)
Cake (angel food, white, gingerbread)
Cookies
Reduced fat or fat-free cookies (graham crackers,
ginger snaps, fig bars) (compare calorie level)
Nuts
Popcorn (air-popped or light microwave),
fruits, vegetables
Ice cream, e.g., cones or bars
Frozen yogurt, frozen fruit, or chocolate
pudding bars
Custards or puddings (made with
whole milk)
Puddings (made with skim milk)
Fats, Oils, and
Salad Dressings Regular margarine or butter
Light-spread margarines, diet margarine,
or whipped butter, tub or squeeze bottle
Regular mayonnaise
Light or diet mayonnaise or mustard
Regular salad dressings
Reduced calorie or fat-free salad dressings,
lemon juice, or plain, herb-flavored, or wine vinegar
Butter or margarine on toast or bread
Jelly, jam, or honey on bread or toast
Oils, shortening, or lard
Nonstick cooking spray for stir-frying or sautéing
As a substitute for oil or butter, use applesauce
or prune puree in baked goods.
Miscellaneous
Canned cream soups
Canned broth-based soups
Canned beans and franks
Canned baked beans in tomato sauce
Gravy (homemade with fat and/or milk)
Gravy mixes made with water or homemade
with the fat skimmed off and fat-free milk included
Fudge sauce
Chocolate syrup
Avocado on sandwiches
Cucumber slices or lettuce leaves
Guacamole dip or refried beans with lard
Salsa
Serving
Nutrition recommendations use serving sizes to help
people know how much of different types of foods
they should eat to get the nutrients they need. The
Nutrition Facts Label on packaged foods also lists a
serving size. The serving sizes on packaged foods are
not always the same as those included in nutrition
recommendations. However, serving sizes are
standardized to make it easier to compare similar
foods. To get an idea of how big recommended serving sizes really are, refer to the chart below. For help
on using the Nutrition Facts Label, refer to page 17.
A “serving” is a measured amount of food or drink,
such as one slice of bread or 1 cup of milk. Some
foods that most people consume as a single serving actually contain multiple serving sizes (e.g., a
20-ounce soda, or a 3-ounce bag of chips).
Also, check out the NHLBI Portion Distortion
Interactive Quiz at http://hin.nhlbi.nih.gov/
portion/ to see how portion sizes have changed
in 20 years.
What’s the Difference Between a Portion
and a Recommended Serving Size?
Portion
A “portion” is the amount of a food that you choose
to eat for a meal or snack. It can be big or small—
you decide.
1 Serving Looks Like . . .
1 Serving Looks Like . . .
Fruits and Vegetables
Grains
1 cup of cereal flakes = fist
1 pancake = compact disc
/2 cup of cooked rice, pasta, or potato = 1/2 baseball
1
1 slice of bread = cassette tape
1 piece of cornbread = bar of soap
1 Serving Looks Like . . .
1 med fruit = baseball
/2 cup of fresh fruit = 1/2 baseball
1
/4 cup of raisins = large egg
1
1 cup of salad greens = baseball
1 baked potato = fist
1 Serving Looks Like . . .
Milk
11/2 oz cheese = 4 stacked dice or 2 cheese slices
Lean Meat and Beans
3 oz meat, fish, and poultry
= deck of cards
/2 cup of ice cream = 1/2 baseball
1
3 oz grilled/baked fish = checkbook
Fats/Oils
1 tsp margarine or spreads = 1 dice
2 Tbsp peanut butter = ping pong ball
The reduced calorie menus illustrate healthy food
choices from a variety of cuisines (American,
Southern, Asian, Mexican-American) at two calorie
levels, 1,200 and 1,600. These menus are appropriate for weight loss in women and men.
Breakfast
Whole wheat bread
1,200 Calories
1,600 Calories
1 med slice
1 med slice
Jelly, regular
Cereal, shredded wheat
2 tsp
2 tsp
/2 cup
1 cup
1
Milk, 1%
1 cup
Orange juice
3
Coffee, regular
1 cup
1 cup with 1 oz
of 1% milk
2 med slices
2 med slices
2 oz
2 oz
—
1 slice, 3/4 oz
Lettuce
1 leaf
1 leaf
Tomato
3 med slices
3 med slices
1 tsp
2 tsp
Apple
1 med
1 med
Water
1 cup
1 cup
/4 cup
1 cup
/4 cup
3
Lunch
Roast beef sandwich:
Whole wheat bread
Lean roast beef, unseasoned
American cheese, low fat and low sodium
Mayonnaise, low calorie
Dinner
Salmon
2 oz edible
3 oz edible
Vegetable oil
11/2 tsp
11/2 tsp
Baked potato
3
/4 med
Margarine
1 tsp
Green beans, seasoned, with margarine
1
Carrots, seasoned
1
/2 cup
/4 med
3
1 tsp
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
Carrots, seasoned, with margarine
White dinner roll
—
1 small
Ice milk
—
—
/2 cup
1
1 med
/2 cup
1
Iced tea, unsweetened
1 cup
1 cup
Water
2 cup
2 cup
21/2 cup
21/2 cup
Snack
Popcorn
Margarine
Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,247
Total carbohydrate, % kcals . . . . . . . .58
Total fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
*Sodium, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,043
Saturated fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Cholesterol, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Protein, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
/4 tsp
3
Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,613
Total carbohydrate, % kcals . . . . . . . .55
Total fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
*Sodium, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,341
Saturated fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Cholesterol, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Protein, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Note: Calories have been rounded. *No salt added in recipe preparation or as seasoning.
/2 tsp
1
Breakfast
1,200 Calories
1,600 Calories
Banana
1 small
1 small
Whole wheat bread
1 slice
2 slices
Margarine
1 tsp
Orange juice
3
Milk 1%, low fat
3
Beef noodle soup, canned, low sodium
1
1 tsp
/4 cup
3
/4 cup
3
/4 cup
/2 cup
1
/4 cup
Lunch
/2 cup
Chinese noodle and beef salad:
Beef roast
2 oz
3 oz
Peanut oil
1 tsp
11/2 tsp
Soy sauce, low sodium
1 tsp
Carrots
1
Zucchini
1
Onion
1
Chinese noodles, soft-type
1 tsp
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
/4 cup
1
1
/4 cup
1
Apple
1 med
1 med
Tea, unsweetened
1 cup
1 cup
/2 cup
/4 cup
/4 cup
Dinner
Pork stir-fry with vegetables:
Pork cutlet
2 oz
2 oz
Peanut oil
1 tsp
1 tsp
Soy sauce, low sodium
1 tsp
Broccoli
1
/2 cup
Carrots
1
Mushrooms
1
1 tsp
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
1 cup
/2 cup
1
/4 cup
Steamed white rice
1
/2 cup
1 cup
Tea, unsweetened
1 cup
1 cup
—
2 cookies
Snack
Almond cookies
Milk 1%, low fat
Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,220
Total carbohydrate, % kcals . . . . . . . .55
Total fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
*Sodium, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,043
Saturated fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Cholesterol, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Protein, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
/4 cup
3
Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,609
Total carbohydrate, % kcals . . . . . . . .56
Total fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
*Sodium, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,296
Saturated fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Cholesterol, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Protein, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Note: Calories have been rounded. *No salt added in recipe preparation or as seasoning.
/4 cup
3
Breakfast
1,200 Calories
Oatmeal, prepared with 1% milk, low fat
1
Milk 1%, low fat
1
1,600 Calories
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
1
English muffin
Cream cheese, light, 18% fat
/2 cup
/2 cup
—
1 med
—
1 Tbsp
Orange juice
1
/2 cup
/4 cup
Coffee
1 cup
1 cup
Milk 1%, low fat
1 oz
1 oz
2 oz
2 oz
/2 tsp
1 tsp
3
Lunch
Baked chicken, without skin
Vegetable oil
1
Salad:
Lettuce
1
Tomato
1
Cucumber
1
Oil and vinegar dressing
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
/2 cup
1 tsp
White rice
1
Margarine, diet
1
Baking powder biscuit, prepared with vegetable oil
2 tsp
/4 cup
1
/2 tsp
1
/2 cup
/2 tsp
/2 small
1 small
Margarine
1 tsp
1 tsp
Water
1 cup
1 cup
1
Dinner
Lean roast beef
2 oz
Onion
3 oz
/4 cup
/4 cup
1
Beef gravy, water-based
1
1 Tbsp
Turnip greens
1
Margarine, diet
1
Sweet potato, baked
1 Tbsp
/2 cup
1
/2 tsp
1
/2 cup
/2 tsp
1 small
1 small
Margarine, diet
1
/4 tsp
1
Ground cinnamon
1 tsp
1 tsp
Brown sugar
1 tsp
Corn bread prepared with margarine, diet
/2 med slice
1
/8 med
/2 tsp
1 tsp
/2 med slice
1
Honeydew melon
1
/4 med
Iced tea, sweetened with sugar
1 cup
1 cup
Saltine crackers, unsalted tops
4 crackers
4 crackers
1 oz
1 oz
1
Snack
Mozzarella cheese, part skim, low sodium
Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,225
Total carbohydrate, % kcals . . . . . . . .50
Total fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
*Sodium, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .867
Saturated fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Cholesterol, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Protein, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,653
Total carbohydrate, % kcals . . . . . . . .53
Total fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
*Sodium, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,231
Saturated fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Cholesterol, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Protein, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Note: Calories have been rounded. *No salt added in recipe preparation or as seasoning.
Breakfast
1,200 Calories
Cantaloupe
1
1,600 Calories
/2 cup
1 cup
Farina, prepared with 1% low-fat milk
1
/2 cup
1
White bread
1 slice
1 slice
Margarine
1 tsp
1 tsp
Jelly
1 tsp
1 tsp
/4 cup
11/2 cup
Orange juice
3
Milk, 1%, low fat
1
/2 cup
/2 cup
/2 cup
1
Lunch
Beef enchilada:
Tortilla, corn
2 tortillas
2 tortillas
2 oz
21/2 oz
/3 tsp
2
Lean roast beef
Vegetable oil
/3 tsp
2
Onion
1 Tbsp
1 Tbsp
Tomato
4 Tbsp
4 Tbsp
Lettuce
/2 cup
/2 cup
1
Chili peppers
1
2 tsp
Refried beans, prepared with vegetable oil
2 tsp
/4 cup
/4 cup
1
1
Carrots
5 sticks
5 sticks
Celery
6 sticks
6 sticks
Milk, 1%, low fat
—
Water
/2 cup
1
1 cup
—
1 tortilla
1 tortilla
Dinner
Chicken taco:
Tortilla, corn
Chicken breast, without skin
1 oz
Vegetable oil
2
Cheddar cheese, low fat and low sodium
1
2 oz
/3 tsp
/3 tsp
2
/2 oz
1 oz
Guacamole
1 Tbsp
2 Tbsp
Salsa
1 Tbsp
1 Tbsp
/2 cup
/2 cup seasoned
with 1/2 tsp margarine
Corn
1
Spanish rice without meat
Banana
Coffee
/2 cup
1
/2 cup
1
/2 large
1 large
/2 cup
1 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1
1
Milk, 1%, low fat
Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,239
Total carbohydrate, % kcals . . . . . . . .58
Total fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
*Sodium, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,364
Saturated fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Cholesterol, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Protein, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
1
Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,638
Total carbohydrate, % kcals . . . . . . . .56
Total fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
*Sodium, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,616
Saturated fat, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Cholesterol, mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Protein, % kcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Note: Calories have been rounded. *No salt added in recipe preparation or as seasoning.
Foods Lower in Calories and Fat
Use this guide to help you shop for foods that are
nutritious and lower in calories and fat to help you
achieve your weight goal. Learning how to read a
Nutrition Facts food label will help you save time
in the store and fill your kitchen with low calorie
foods.
Read labels as you shop. Pay attention to the serving size and the servings per container. All labels
list total calories and fat in a serving size of the
product. Compare the total calories in the product
you choose with others like it; choose one that is
lowest in calories and fat. Below is a label that
identifies important information.
To achieve your weight goal, you may need to eat
much less than the 2,000-calorie reference amount.
For example, if you eat 1,600 calories per day, your
total daily fat limit should be 53 grams (30 percent
calories from fat) and 18 grams of saturated fat
(10 percent calories from fat). If you eat 1,200
calories per day, your total daily fat limit should be
40 grams (30 percent calories from fat) and your
total daily saturated fat limit would be 13 grams
(10 percent calories from fat).
■
Low Calorie, Low-fat Cooking/Serving
Methods
Cooking low calorie, low-fat dishes may not take a
long time, but best intentions can be lost with the
addition of butter or other added fats at the table.
It is important to learn how certain ingredients can
add unwanted calories and fat to low-fat dishes—
making them no longer lower in calories and lower
in fat. The following list provides examples of
lower fat cooking methods and tips on how to
serve your low-fat dishes.
Try These Low-fat Flavorings—Added
During Preparation or at the Table:
■
Herbs—oregano, basil, cilantro, thyme, parsley,
sage, or rosemary
■
Spices—cinnamon, nutmeg,
pepper, or paprika
■
Reduced fat or fat-free salad
dressing
■
Mustard
■
Ketchup
■
Fat-free mayonnaise
■
Fat-free or reduced fat sour cream
■
Fat-free or reduced fat yogurt
■
Reduced sodium soy sauce
■
Salsa
■
Lemon or lime juice
■
Vinegar
■
Horseradish
■
Fresh ginger
■
Sprinkled buttered flavor (not made with
real butter)
■
Red pepper flakes
■
Sprinkle of parmesan cheese (stronger
flavor than most cheese)
■
Sodium free salt substitute
■
Jelly or fruit preserves on toast or bagels
Low-fat Cooking Methods
These cooking methods tend to be lower in fat:
■
Bake
■
Broil
■
Microwave
■
Roast—for vegetables and/or chicken without skin
■
Steam
■
Lightly stir-fry or sauté in
cooking spray, small amounts
of vegetable oil, or reduced sodium broth
■
Grill seafood, chicken, or vegetables
How To Save Calories and Fat
Look at the following examples for how to save
calories and fat when preparing and serving foods.
You might be surprised at how
easy it is.
■
Two tablespoons of butter
on a baked potato adds an extra 200 calories and
22 grams of fat. However, 1/4 cup salsa adds only
18 calories and no fat.
Two tablespoons of regular clear Italian salad
dressing will add an extra 136 calories and
14 grams of fat. Reduced fat Italian dressing
adds only 30 calories and 2 grams of fat.
Reading the Menu
General Tips for Healthy Dining Out
Whether or not you’re trying to lose weight, you
can eat healthfully when dining out or bringing in
food, if you know how. The following tips will
help you move toward healthier eating as you limit
your calories, as well as fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium when eating out.
■
Choose lower calorie, low-fat cooking methods.
Look for terms such as, “steamed in its own
juice” (au jus), “garden fresh,” “broiled,”
“baked,” “roasted,” “poached,” “tomato juice,”
“dry boiled” (in wine or lemon juice), or
“lightly sautéed.”
■
Be aware of foods high in calories, fat, and
saturated fat. Watch out for terms such as “butter
sauce,”“fried,”“crispy,”“creamed,” “in cream or
cheese sauce,”“au gratin,”“au fromage,”“escalloped,”“parmesan,”“hollandaise,”“bearnaise,”
“marinated (in oil),”“stewed,”“basted,”“sautéed,”
“stir-fried,”“casserole,”“hash,”“prime,”“pot pie,”
and “pastry crust.”
You Are the Customer
■
Ask for what you want. Most restaurants will
honor your requests.
■
Ask questions. Don’t be
intimidated by the menu—
your server will be able to
tell you how foods are prepared
or suggest substitutions on the menu.
■
■
To reduce portion sizes, try ordering appetizers
as your main meal or share an entree with a
friend or family member.
General tips: Limiting your calories and fat can
be easy as long as you know what to order. Try
asking these questions when you call ahead or
before you order. Ask the restaurant, whether
they would, on request, do the following:
– Serve fat-free (skim) milk rather
than whole milk or cream
– Reveal the type of cooking oil used
Specific Tips for Healthy Choices
Breakfast
■
Fresh fruit or small glass of citrus juice
■
Whole grain bread, bagel, or English muffin
with jelly or honey
■
Whole grain cereal with
low-fat (1%) or fat-free milk
■
Oatmeal with fat-free milk topped with fruit
■
Omelet made with egg whites or egg substitute
■
Multigrain pancakes without butter on top
■
Fat-free yogurt (Try adding cereal or fresh fruit.)
– Trim visible fat off poultry or meat
– Leave all butter, gravy, or sauces off a side dish
or entree
Beverages
■
Water with lemon
– Serve salad dressing on the side
■
– Accommodate special requests if made in
advance by telephone or in person
Flavored sparkling water
(noncaloric)
■
Juice spritzer (half fruit juice and half sparkling
water)
■
Iced tea
■
Tomato juice (reduced sodium)
Above all, don’t get discouraged. There are usually
several healthy choices to choose from at most
restaurants.
Bread
Salads/Salad Bars
Most bread and bread sticks are low in calories and
low in fat. The calories add up when you add butter, margarine, or olive oil to the
bread. Also, eating a lot of bread in
addition to your meal will fill you up
with extra unwanted calories and not leave enough
room for fruits and vegetables.
■
Fresh greens, lettuce, and
spinach
■
Fresh vegetables—tomato, mushroom, carrots,
cucumber, peppers, onion, radishes, and broccoli
■
Beans, chickpeas, and kidney beans
■
Skip the nonvegetable choices: deli meats,
bacon, egg, cheese, croutons
■
Choose lower calorie, reduced fat, or fat-free
dressing; lemon juice; or vinegar
Appetizers
■
Steamed seafood
■
Shrimp* cocktail (limit cocktail
sauce—it’s high in sodium)
Side Dish
■
Melons or fresh fruit
■
■
Bean soups
■
Salad with reduced fat dressing (or add lemon
juice or vinegar)
Vegetables and starches
(rice, potato, noodles) make good additions to
meals and can also be combined for a lower
calorie alternative to higher calorie entrees
■
Ask for side dishes without butter or margarine
■
Ask for mustard, salsa, or low-fat yogurt instead
of sour cream or butter
Entree
■
Poultry, fish, shellfish, and
vegetable dishes are healthy
choices
■
Pasta with red sauce or with vegetables (primavera)
■
Look for terms such as “baked,” “broiled,”
“steamed,” “poached,” “lightly sauteed,” or
“stir-fried”
Dessert/Coffee
■
Fresh fruit
■
Fat-free frozen yogurt
■
Sherbet or fruit sorbet (these are usually fat-free,
but check the calorie content)
■
Ask for sauces and dressings on the side
■
Try sharing a dessert
■
Limit the amount of butter, margarine, and salt
you use at the table
■
Ask for low-fat milk for your coffee (instead of
cream or half-and-half)
*If you are on a cholesterol-lowering diet, eat shrimp and other shellfish in moderation.
If you’re dining out or bringing in, it is easy to find
healthy foods. Knowing about American food
terms, as well as other ethnic cuisines, can help
make your dining experience healthy and enjoyable. The following list includes healthy food
choices (lower in calories and fat) and terms to
look for when making your selection.
■
Moo shu vegetables, chicken, or shrimp
■
Steamed rice
■
Lychee fruit
French
Choose More Often . . .
■
Dinner salad with vinegar or lemon
juice dressing (or other
reduced fat dressing)
Chinese
■
Crusty bread without butter
Choose More Often . . .
■
Fresh fish, shrimp, scallops, steamed mussels
(without sauces)
■
Steamed
■
Jum (poached)
■
Chicken breast, without skin
■
Chu (boiled)
■
■
Kow (roasted)
Rice and noodles without cream or added butter
or other fat
■
Shu (barbecued)
■
Fresh fruit for dessert
■
Hoison sauce with assorted Chinese vegetables:
broccoli, mushrooms, onion, cabbage, snow
peas, scallions, bamboo shoots, water chestnuts,
asparagus
■
Oyster sauce (made from seafood)
■
Lightly stir-fried in
mild sauce
■
Cooked in light wine
sauce
Italian
Choose More Often . . .
■
Lightly sautéed with onions
■
Shallots
■
Peppers and mushrooms
■
Artichoke hearts
■
Sun-dried tomatoes
■
Red sauces—spicy marinara sauce (arrabiata),
marinara sauce, or cacciatore
■
Hot and spicy tomato sauce
■
Sweet and sour sauce
■
Light red sauce or light red or white wine sauce
■
Hot mustard sauce
■
Light mushroom sauce
■
Reduced sodium soy sauce
■
Red clam sauce
■
Dishes without MSG added
■
Primavera (no cream sauce)
■
Garnished with spinach or broccoli
■
Lemon sauce
■
Fresh fish filets, shrimp, scallops
■
Capers
■
Chicken, without skin
■
Herbs and spices—garlic and oregano
■
Lean beef
■
Crushed tomatoes and spices
■
Bean curd (tofu)
■
Florentine (spinach)
■
Grilled (often fish or vegetables)
■
Nabemono
■
Piccata (lemon)
■
■
Manzanne (eggplant)
Chicken, fish, or
shrimp teriyaki, broiled in sauce
■
Soba noodles, often used in soups
■
Yakimono (broiled)
■
Tofu or bean curd
■
Grilled vegetables
Middle Eastern
Choose More Often . . .
■
Lemon dressing, lemon juice
■
Blended or seasoned with
Middle Eastern spices
■
Herbs and spices
■
Mashed chickpeas
■
Tikka (pan roasted)
■
Fava beans
■
Cooked with, or marinated in yogurt
■
Smoked eggplant
■
■
With tomatoes, onions, green peppers, and
cucumbers
Cooked with green vegetables, onions, tomatoes,
peppers, and mushrooms
■
With spinach (saag)
■
Spiced ground meat
■
Baked leavened bread
■
Special garlic sauce
■
Masala
■
Basted with tomato sauce
■
Tandoori
■
Garlic
■
Paneer
■
Chopped parsley
and/or onion
■
Cooked with curry, marinated in spices
■
Lentils, chickpeas (garbanzo beans)
■
Couscous (grain)
■
Garnished with dried fruits
■
Rice or bulgur (cracked wheat)
■
Chickpeas (garbanzo) and potatoes
■
Stuffed with rice and
imported spices
■
Basmati rice (pullao)
■
Grilled on a skewer
■
Matta (peas)
■
Marinated and barbecued
■
Chicken or shrimp kebab
■
Baked
Mexican
■
Charbroiled or charcoal broiled
Choose More Often . . .
■
Fresh fruit
Indian
Choose More Often . . .
■
Shredded spicy chicken
Japanese
■
Rice and black beans
Choose More Often . . .
■
Rice
■
House salad with fresh ginger and cellophane
(clear rice) noodles
■
Ceviche (fish marinated
in lime juice and mixed with spices)
■
Rice
■
Served with salsa (hot red tomato sauce)
■
Served with salsa verde (green chili sauce)
■
Baked potato without added butter, margarine,
or sour cream. Try low-fat
yogurt or mustard.
■
Covered with enchilada sauce
■
Topped with shredded lettuce, diced tomatoes,
and onions
■
Green salad with reduced
fat dressing
■
Served with or wrapped in a corn or wheat flour
(soft) tortilla
■
■
Grilled
Steamed vegetables without
added butter or margarine. Try lemon juice
and herbs.
■
Marinated
■
■
Picante sauce
Seafood dishes (usually indicated as “surf ” on
menus)
■
Simmered with chili vegetarian tomato sauce
Fast Food
Thai
Choose More Often . . .
Choose More Often . . .
■
Grilled chicken breast
sandwich without
mayonnaise
■
Single hamburger without
cheese
■
Grilled chicken salad with reduced fat dressing
■
Garden salad with reduced fat dressing
■
Low-fat or fat-free yogurt
■
Fat-free muffin
■
Cereal with low-fat milk
■
Barbecued, sautéed, broiled, boiled, steamed,
braised, marinated
■
Charbroiled
■
Basil sauce, basil, or sweet basil leaves
■
Lime sauce or lime juice
■
Chili sauce or crushed dried chili flakes
■
Thai spices
■
Served in hollowed-out pineapple
■
Fish sauce
■
Hot sauce
Deli/Sandwich Shop
■
Napa, bamboo shoots, black mushrooms, ginger,
garlic
Choose More Often . . .
■
Bed of mixed vegetables
■
Scallions, onions
■
Fresh sliced vegetables in pita
bread with low-fat dressing,
yogurt, or mustard
■
Cup of bean soup (lentil,
minestrone)
■
Turkey breast sandwich
with mustard, lettuce, and
tomato
■
Fresh fruit
Steak Houses
Choose More Often . . .
■
Lean broiled beef (no more than 6 ounces)—
London broil, filet mignon, round and
flank steaks
When you eat in a heart healthy way, you don’t have
to give up eating fast foods completely. You can eat
right and still eat fast foods if you select carefully.
Here are some tips on fast foods to choose:
■
Order a small hamburger instead of a larger one.
Try the lower fat hamburger. Hold the extra
sauce.
■
Order roast beef for a leaner choice than most
burgers.
■
Order a baked potato instead of french fries.
Be careful of high fat toppings like sour cream,
butter, or cheese.
■
Order grilled, broiled, or baked fish and chicken.
■
Order skim or 1-percent milk instead
of a milkshake. Try the low-fat frozen
yogurt or low-fat milkshake.
■
Order a salad.
Use vinegar and
oil or low calorie
dressing.
■
Create a salad at
the salad bar.
Choose any raw
vegetables, fruits, or beans. Limit high saturated fat toppings of cheese, fried noodles, and
bacon bits as well as some salads made with
mayonnaise. Also limit salad dressings high in
saturated fat and cholesterol.
■
For sandwich toppings try lettuce, tomato,
onion, mustard, and ketchup instead of toppings
high in saturated fat, such as cheese, bacon,
special sauces, or butter.
■
Order pizza with vegetable toppings such as
peppers, mushrooms, or onions instead of extra
cheese, pepperoni, or sausage.
Let’s see how small changes can add up to big changes with the following sample
fast-food meal:
Typical Meal
Lower Fat Choice
Cheeseburger
Hamburger
Large french fries
1
/2 small french fries
12-ounce cola
12-ounce cola
Vanilla ice milk cone
Low-fat frozen yogurt cone
Saturated fat (g)
16
Saturated fat (g)
Dietary cholesterol (mg)
78
Dietary cholesterol (mg) 38
Total fat (g)
40
Total fat (g)
Total calories
990
Total calories
6
19
649
Physical Activity
Both healthy eating and physical activity are
important in weight control. Most successful
weight loss involves a combination of eating fewer
calories and using more energy through activity.
Staying physically active is most helpful in keeping
weight off for life. Plus, physical activity has the
benefit of lowering the risk of certain diseases such
as heart disease and diabetes—beyond the impact
of losing weight.
There are many other benefits of regular physical
activity listed in the box on page 26.
■
For overall health and to reduce the risk of disease,
aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical
activity most days of the week.
■
To help manage body weight and prevent
gradual weight gain, aim for 60 minutes of
moderate-to-vigorous physical activity most
days of the week.
Less Vigorous,
More Time
■
To maintain weight loss, aim for at least 60–90
minutes of daily moderate physical activity.
You can do this all at one time, or break it up into
shorter bouts of physical activity such as 15 minutes
at a time.
Most adults do not need to see their doctor before
starting or increasing their activity level. However,
you should speak to your doctor before starting a
very active (vigorous) program if you are over age
40 (men) or over age 50 (women), or if you have
one or more of the conditions below:
■
A health problem, such as heart disease, high
blood pressure, diabetes, osteoporosis (bone
loss), asthma, or obesity
■
High risk for heart disease, such as a family history
of heart disease or stroke, eating a diet high in
saturated fat and cholesterol, smoking, or having
an inactive lifestyle
If you have not been physically active in the past,
the key to success is to start slowly. Trying too hard
at first can lead to injury. Also, taking the time to
Common Chores
Sporting Activities
Washing and waxing a car
for 45 to 60 minutes
Playing volleyball for 45 to 60 minutes
Washing windows or floors
for 45 to 60 minutes
Playing touch football for 45 minutes
Gardening for 30 to 45 minutes
Walking 13/4 miles in 35 minutes (20 minutes/mile)
Wheeling self in wheelchair
30 to 40 minutes
Basketball (shooting baskets) for 30 minutes
Pushing a stroller 11/2 miles in
30 minutes
Bicycling 5 miles in 30 minutes
Raking leaves for 30 minutes
Dancing fast (social) for 30 minutes
Walking 2 miles in 30 minutes
(15 minutes/mile)
Water aerobics for 30 minutes
Shoveling snow for 15 minutes
Swimming laps for 20 minutes
Stair-walking for 15 minutes
Basketball (playing game) for 15 to 20 minutes
Bicycling 4 miles in 15 minutes
More Vigorous,
Less Time
Jumping rope for 15 minutes
Running 11/2 miles in 15 minutes (10 minutes/mile)
You can have fun and feel healthier by doing
any of the following:
■
Walk or ride a bike in your neighborhood.
■
Join a walking club at a mall or at work.
■
Play golf at a local club.
■
Join a dance class.
■
Work in your garden.
■
Use local athletic facilities.
■
Join a hiking or biking club.
■
Join a softball team or other sports team with
coworkers, friends, or family.
■
Chase your kids in the park. If you don’t have
kids, take your neighbor’s. They will appreciate
the break, the kids will enjoy it, and you’ll benefit
from getting more activity.
For example, you can start out walking slowly a
total of 20 minutes for 3 days a week and gradually
build to 45 minutes or more of faster-paced walking. By doing this, you can use 100 to
200 more calories per day. This plan
can be used with other types of physical activity, but walking is popular because it
is safe and convenient.
High intensity (vigorous) activities include
very fast walking or walking with a load
uphill, tree felling, heavy manual digging,
basketball, climbing, or soccer/kickball.
You may also want to try:
■
Walk your dog. If you don’t have a dog, pretend
you do.
■
Flexibility exercise to improve joints and muscles
■
Take a walk during your lunch break.
■
Strength-building or resistance exercises
■
Aerobic conditioning
find out what you enjoy doing will help to make
physical activity a regular part of your lifestyle.
For the beginner, one way to be more active is to
do more “everyday” activities, such as taking the
stairs instead of the elevator,
stretching or taking a walk during
breaks at work, and spending less
time watching television and
working on the computer. Also,
try spending more time doing activities
such as gardening, household chores, pushing a
stroller or wheelchair, yard work, ironing or cooking,
and playing a musical instrument.
The next level would be light activities, such as slow
walking, garage work, carpentry, house cleaning,
child care, golf, sailing, and recreational table
tennis.
Once comfortable with this level, try adding more
moderate activities such as faster walking, weeding
and hoeing a garden, carrying a load, cycling, skiing,
tennis, and dancing.
If structured group activities are what you need to
help you stay physically active, try joining community
recreation programs, the YMCA, or a health club.
You can find a variety of activities for all fitness levels
and budgets.
The key to success is to choose activities that you
enjoy.
■
Your weight is much easier to control when you
are active.
■
Physical activity can be lots of fun.
■
You can be with other people when you are
active.
■
You’ll feel and look better when you’re physically
active.
■
Physical activity is good for your heart.
■
Physical activity is a great way to burn off steam
and stress and helps you beat the blues.
■
You’ll feel more confident when you are active.
■
You’ll have more energy.
Many people are completely inactive, and they all
have reasons such as:
I don’t have the time to exercise.
While physical activity does take time, only 30 minutes of moderate activity most days of the week gives
benefits to your heart, lungs, and muscles. Although
60 minutes of moderate activity is recommended for
weight loss, you don’t have to do it all at once. You
can break it up into smaller chunks such as 20 minutes, three times a day. Consider the amount of time
you spend watching TV. Also, many forms of physical
activity can be done while watching TV, such as riding
an exercise bike or using hand weights.
I don’t like to exercise.
You have bad memories of doing situps or running
in high school, sweating, puffing, and panting. Now
we know that you can get plenty of gain without
pain. Activities you already do such as gardening and
walking can improve your health, so just do more of
the activities you like.
Examples of moderate and vigorous types of physical
activities and the number of calories used (or burned)
are shown below.
Moderate Physical Activity
Approximate
Calories/Hr for a
154-lb Person
Hiking
370
Light gardening/yard work
330
Dancing
330
Golf (walking and carrying clubs)
330
Bicycling (<10 mph)
290
Walking (3.5 mph)
280
Weight lifting (general light workout)
220
Stretching
180
Vigorous Physical Activity
Approximate
Calories/Hr for a
154-lb Person
Running/jogging (5 mph)
590
Bicycling (>10 mph)
590
Swimming (slow freestyle laps)
510
Aerobics
480
I don’t have the energy to be more active.
Walking (4.5 mph)
460
Once you become a little more active, you should
have more energy. As you progress, daily tasks will
seem easier.
Heavy yard work (chopping wood)
440
Weight lifting (vigorous effort)
440
Basketball (vigorous)
440
Try the sample walking program on page 28 to get
you started on a more physically active life.
From: Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services; U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Warm-up
Exercising
Cool down
Total time
Session A
Walk 5 min
Then walk
briskly 5 min
Then walk more
slowly 5 min
15 min
Session B
Repeat above pattern
Session C
Repeat above pattern
Week 1
Continue with at least three exercise sessions during each week of the program
Week 2
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 7 min
Walk 5 min
17 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 9 min
Walk 5 min
19 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 11 min
Walk 5 min
21 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 13 min
Walk 5 min
23 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 15 min
Walk 5 min
25 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 18 min
Walk 5 min
28 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 20 min
Walk 5 min
30 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 23 min
Walk 5 min
33 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 26 min
Walk 5 min
36 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 28 min
Walk 5 min
38 min
Walk 5 min
Walk briskly 30 min
Walk 5 min
40 min
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
Week 11
Week 12
Week 13 on:
Gradually increase your brisk walking time to 30–60 minutes, three or four times a week.
Remember that your goal is to get the benefits you are seeking and enjoy your activity.
■
Hold your head up, and keep your back straight.
■
Bend your elbows as you swing your arms.
■
Take long, easy strides.
Other Weight Loss Options
Weight loss drugs approved by the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) may be an option for
some patients and should be used only as part of
a program that includes diet, physical activity,
and behavioral changes.
Weight loss drugs may be considered:
■
■
■
For people with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27
who also have obesity-related risk factors or
diseases
For people with a BMI ≥30 without other
obesity-related risk factors or diseases
If weight loss of 1 pound per week has not
occurred after 6 months of a calorie-controlled
diet and physical activity
Two weight drugs have been approved by the FDA.
They are Sibutramine (Meridia) and Orlistat
(Xenical). These drugs have been shown to produce
a modest weight loss (between 4.4 and 22 pounds),
although some people lose more weight. It is not
possible to predict exactly how much weight an
individual may lose. Most of the weight loss occurs
within the first 6 months of therapy.
The table below provides some information about
weight loss drugs.
If you think you’re a candidate for weight loss drugs,
you should discuss this option with your doctor.
Patients on weight loss drugs need to be monitored
for side effects by their doctors. Followup visits are
generally recommended within 2–4 weeks after
starting the medication, then monthly for 3 months,
then every 3 months for the first year after starting
the medication. After the first year, your doctor will
advise you on appropriate return visits. The purpose of these visits is to monitor weight, blood pressure, and pulse; discuss side effects; conduct laboratory tests; and answer your questions.
Weight loss surgery may be an option for patients
with severe obesity (BMI ≥40 or a BMI ≥35 with
high-risk, comorbid conditions such as life threatening severe sleep apnea, obesity-related cardiomyopathy, or severe diabetes). Weight loss surgery may
also be considered for people with severe obesity
when other methods of treatment have failed.
Two types of operations have proven to be effective: a banded gastroplasty that limits the amount
of food and liquids the stomach can hold, and the
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass that, in addition to limiting food intake, also alters digestion.
Both of these procedures carry a risk of complications depending on the individual’s weight and
overall health. Lifelong medical monitoring is
necessary as well as a comprehensive program
before and after surgery to provide guidance on
diet, physical activity, and psychosocial concerns.
If you feel that you are a candidate for weight loss
surgery, talk to your doctor. Ask him/her to assess
whether you are a candidate for the surgery and
discuss the risks, benefits, and what to expect.
(For more information on weight loss surgery,
please refer to Additional Information at the end of
this booklet.)
Sibutramine (Meridia)
Increase in heart rate and blood
pressure
People with high blood pressure, congestive
heart failure, arrhythmias, or history of stroke
Orlistat (Xenical)
Decreased absorption of fat-soluble
vitamins; oily, loose, and more
frequent bowel movements
Chronic malabsorption disorders,
gall bladder disease
Moving Forward
Weight management is a long-term challenge influenced by behavioral, emotional, and physical factors.
Changing the way you approach weight loss can
help you be more successful. Most people who are
trying to lose weight focus on one thing: weight loss.
However, setting goals and focusing on physical
activity changes is much more productive.
Setting the right goals is an important first step.
Did you know that the amount of weight loss
needed to improve health may be much less than
you want to lose to look thinner? If your provider
suggests an initial weight loss goal that seems too
heavy for you, please understand that your health
can be greatly improved by a loss of 5 percent to
10 percent of your starting weight. That doesn’t
mean you have to stop there, but it does mean that
an initial goal of 5 percent to 10 percent of your
starting weight is both realistic and valuable.
It’s important to set diet and/or physical activity
goals. People who are successful at managing their
weight set only two to three goals at a time.
Effective goals are:
■
Specific
■
Realistic
■
Forgiving (less than perfect)
For example:
“Exercise more” is a fine goal, but it’s not specific
enough.
“Walk 5 miles every day” is specific and measurable, but is it achievable if you’re just starting out?
“Walk 30 minutes every day” is more attainable,
but what happens if you’re held up at work one day
and there’s a thunderstorm during your walking
time on another day?
“Walk 30 minutes, 5 days each week” is specific,
achievable, and forgiving. A great goal!
Shaping is a technique where you set some
short-term goals that get you closer and closer to
the ultimate goal (e.g., reduce fat from 40 percent
of calories to 35 percent of calories, and ultimately to 30 percent). It is based on
the concept that “nothing
succeeds like success.”
Shaping uses two important
behavioral principles:
■
Continuous goals that move you ahead in small
steps to reach a distant point
■
Continuous rewards to keep you motivated to
make changes
Rewards that you control can encourage achievement of your goals, especially ones that have been
hard to reach. An effective reward is something
that is desirable, timely, and dependent upon meeting your goal. The rewards you choose may be
material, (e.g., a movie, music CD, or a payment
toward buying a larger item) or an act of selfkindness (e.g., an afternoon off from work, a massage,
or personal time). Frequent small rewards earned for
meeting smaller goals are more effective than bigger
rewards, requiring a long, difficult effort.
Self-monitoring refers to observing and recording
some aspect of your behavior, such as calorie
intake, servings of fruits and vegetables eaten, and
amount of physical activity, etc., or an outcome of
these behaviors, such as weight. Self-monitoring of
a behavior can be used at times when you’re not
sure of how you are doing, and at times when you
want the behavior to improve. Self-monitoring of
a behavior usually moves you closer to the desired
behavior. When you record your behavior, you
produce “real time” records for you and your health
care provider to discuss. For example, keeping a
record of your activity can let you and your
provider know quickly how you are doing. When
your record shows that your activity is
increasing, you’ll be encouraged to keep
it up. Some patients find that
standard self-monitoring
forms make it easier, while
others like their own recording
system. Use the form on page 32 to help you keep
track of your daily diet and activity levels.
Regular monitoring of your weight is key to keeping it off. Remember these four points if you are
keeping a weight chart or graph:
■
One day’s diet and activity routine won’t necessarily affect your weight the next day. Your weight
will change quite a bit over the course of a few
days because of fluctuations in water and body fat.
■
Try to weigh yourself at a set time once or twice
per week. This can be when you first wake up
and before eating and drinking, after exercise, or
right before dinner, etc.
■
Whatever time you choose, just make sure it is
always the same time and use the same scale to
help you keep the most accurate
records.
■
It may also be helpful to
create a graph of your weight
as a visual reminder of how you’re
doing, rather than just listing numbers.
Stimulus (cue) control involves learning what
social or environmental cues encourage undesired
eating, and then changing those cues. For example,
you may learn from your self-monitoring techniques or from sessions
with your health care provider that
you’re more likely to overeat when
watching TV, when treats are on display by the
office coffee pot, or when around a certain friend.
Ways to change the situation include:
■
Separating the association of eating from the cue
(Don’t eat while watching television.)
■
Avoiding or eliminating the cue (Leave the coffee room immediately after pouring coffee.)
■
Changing the environment (Plan to meet this
friend in a nonfood setting.)
In general, visible and reachable food items often
lead to unplanned eating.
Changing the way you eat can help you to eat less
and not feel deprived.
■
Eating slowly will help you to feel satisfied when
you’ve eaten the right amount of food for you.
It takes 15 or more minutes for your brain to get
the message you’ve been fed. Slowing the rate of
eating can allow you to feel full sooner and,
therefore, help you eat less.
■
Eating lots of vegetables and fruit
and also starting a meal with a
broth-based soup can help you feel
fuller.
■
Using smaller plates helps to moderate
portions so they don’t appear too small.
■
Drinking at least eight glasses of
noncaloric beverages each day will help
you to feel full, possibly eat less, and benefit you
in other ways.
■
Serving food from the kitchen instead of at the
table can help you be less tempted to eat more.
■
Pouring food or snacks from large packages into
smaller ones and keeping them in your cupboard
can prevent overeating.
Once you’ve reached your weight loss goal, maintaining your lower body weight can be a challenge. Successful weight maintenance is defined as
a regain of weight that is less than 6–7 pounds in
2 years and a sustained lowered waist circumference reduction of least 2 inches. The key to weight
maintenance is to continue the healthy lifestyle
changes that you have adopted. Staying on a
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
healthy diet and aiming for 60–90 minutes of physical activity most days of the week will help you
maintain your lower weight. For long-term motivation, continue the strategies you’ve learned from
the Moving Forward section of this booklet; ask for
encouragement from your health care provider(s)
via telephone or e-mail and from friends or family,
or join a support group. The longer you can maintain your weight, the better the chances you have
for overall long-term success in weight reduction.
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Breakfast
Lunch
Dinner
Activity
Notes:
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Check It Out Before You Sign Up
for Any Weight Loss Program
✔
The best way to reach a healthy weight is to follow
a sensible eating plan and engage in regular physical activity. Weight loss programs should encourage healthy behaviors that help you lose weight and
that you can maintain over time.
You need to be evaluated by a physician if you
have any health problems, are currently taking
any medicine, or plan to lose more than 15–20
pounds. If your weight control plan uses a very
low-calorie diet (a special liquid formula that
replaces all food for 1–4 months), an exam and
followup visits by a doctor are also needed.
Safe and effective weight loss programs should
include:
■
Healthy eating plans that reduce calories but do
not rule out specific foods or food groups
■
Regular physical activity and/or exercise
instruction
■
Tips on healthy behavior changes that also consider your cultural needs
■
Slow and steady weight loss of about 1–2 pounds
per week and not more than 3 pounds per week
(Weight loss may be faster at the start of a program.)
■
Medical care if you are planning to lose weight
by following a special formula diet, such as a
very low-calorie diet
■
✔
✔
✔
✔
Does the program provide counseling to
help you change your eating, activity, and
personal habits?
The program should teach you how to change
permanently those eating habits and lifestyle
factors, such as lack of physical activity, that
have contributed to weight gain.
Is attention paid to keeping the weight
off? How long is this phase?
Choose a program that teaches skills and techniques to make permanent changes in eating
habits and levels of physical activity to prevent
weight gain.
✔
Is the diet safe?
The eating plan should be
low in calories but still provide all the nutrients needed
to stay healthy, including
vitamins and minerals.
Is training available on how to deal with
times when you may feel stressed and slip
back to old habits?
The program should provide long-term strategies to deal with weight problems you may have
in the future. These strategies might include
things like setting up a support system and
establishing a physical activity routine.
A plan to keep the weight off after you have
lost it
If you decide to join any kind of weight loss program, here are some questions to ask before you join.
Is the staff made up of a variety of qualified counselors and health professionals
such as nutritionists, registered dietitians,
doctors, nurses, psychologists, and exercise physiologists?
Are food choices flexible and suitable?
Are weight goals set by the client and the
health professional?
The program should consider your food likes
and dislikes and your lifestyle when your
weight loss goals are planned.
There are other questions you can ask about how well
a program works. Because many programs don’t
gather this information, you may not get answers.
But it’s still important to ask them the following:
✔
✔
What percentage of people complete the
program?
What is the average weight loss among people
who finish the program?
✔
✔
✔
What percentage of people maintain their
weight loss after 1, 2, and even 5 years?
What percentage of people have problems or
side effects? What are they?
Are there fees or costs for additional items such
as dietary supplements?
Remember, quick weight loss methods don’t provide lasting results. Weight loss methods that rely
on diet aids like drinks, prepackaged foods, or diet pills don’t
work in the long run.
Whether you lose weight on
your own or with a group,
remember that the most
important changes are long
term. No matter how much weight
you have to lose, modest goals and a slow course
will increase your chances of both losing the weight
and keeping it off.
Additional Information
American Diabetes Association
ATTN: National Call Center
1701 North Beauregard Street
Alexandria, VA 22311
800–342–2383
www.diabetes.org
■
Information and publications on diabetes,
nutrition, and exercise
American Dietetic Association
120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 2000
Chicago, IL 60606-6995
800–877–1600
www.eatright.org
HealthierUS.gov
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Office of Public Health and Science
Office of Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Room 738G
Washington, DC 20201
202–401–6295
www.healthierus.gov
■
Online information on nutrition and physical
activity
■
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
■
Information and publications on weight control,
nutrition, and physical activity
North American Association for the Study of
Obesity
■
Find a dietitian
8630 Fenton Street, Suite 918
Silver Spring, MD 20910
301–563–6526
www.naaso.org
American Heart Association
7272 Greenville Avenue
Dallas, TX 75231
800–242–8721
www.americanheart.org
■
Information on heart disease; healthy lifestyles,
including diet and nutrition; and exercise and
fitness
American Society of Bariatric Physicians
2821 South Parker Road, Suite 625
Aurora, CO 80014
303–770–2526
www.asbp.org
■
Information on weight loss surgery
American Society for Bariatric Surgery
100 S.W. 75th Street, Suite 201
Gainesville, FL 32607
352–331–4900
www.asbs.org
■
Information on weight loss surgery
■
Information on obesity and obesity research
President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Room 738
Washington, DC 20201-0004
202–690–9000
www.fitness.gov
■
Information and publications on physical
activity
Weight-Control Information Network (WIN)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive
and Kidney Diseases
1 WIN Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3665
877–946–4627
www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/win.htm
■
Information and publications on weight control,
nutrition, and physical activity
To Learn More
To find out more about weight management, please
visit the NHLBI Aim for a Healthy Weight Web site
at: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/
lose_wt/index.htm
The Web pages for patients and the public contain
many interactive features such as:
Also, check out these NHLBI heart health Web
sites to find out more about heart health:
■
NHLBI Web site: www.nhlbi.nih.gov
■
Your Guide to Lowering High Blood Pressure:
www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/index.html
■
Live Healthier, Live Longer (on lowering elevated blood cholesterol): www.nhlbi.nih.gov/chd
■
High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To
Know:
www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/chol/
hbc_what.htm
■
Body mass index (BMI) calculator
■
Menu planner
■
Portion Distortion Quiz
■
Act in Time to Heart Attack Signs:
www.nhlbi.nih.gov/actintime/index.htm
The Web site also has links to:
■
The Heart Truth: A National Awareness
Campaign on Women and Heart Disease:
www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/hearttruth
■
Recipes, including those for African Americans
and Latinos
■
Tip sheets
■
Publications that may be downloaded or ordered
on healthy eating in English, Spanish, Vietnamese,
and Filipino
■
Publications on physical activity that may be
downloaded or ordered
Parents looking for information and materials to
help prevent overweight and obesity in their children,
ages 8–13, should check out the We Can! Web site at:
www.wecan.nhlbi.nih.gov for:
■
Toolkit for Action
■
Parent Handbook
■
Poster, print ads, and wristbands
NHLBI Health Information Center
P.O. Box 30105
Bethesda, MD 20824-0105
Phone: 301–592–8573
TTY: 240–629–3255
Fax: 301–592–8563
E-mail: [email protected]
www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health
The NHLBI Health Information Center is a service of
the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the
National Institutes of Health. The NHLBI Health
Information Center provides information to health
professionals, patients, and the public about the treatment, diagnosis, and prevention of heart, lung, and
blood diseases and sleep disorders.
ISCRIMINATION PROHIBITED: Under provisions of applicable public laws
enacted by Congress since 1964, no person in the United States shall, on the
grounds of race, color, national origin, handicap, or age, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program
or activity (or, on the basis of sex, with respect to any education program and activity)
receiving Federal financial assistance. In addition, Executive Order 11141 prohibits discrimination on the basis of age by contractors and subcontractors in the performance of
Federal contracts, and Executive Order 11246 States that no federally funded contractor
may discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race,
color, religion, sex, or national origin. Therefore, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Institute must be operated in compliance with these laws and Executive Orders.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
National Institutes of Health
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NIH Publication No. 05-5213
August 2005
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement