pic16f628

pic16f628
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Data Sheet
Flash-Based, 8-Bit CMOS
Microcontrollers with nanoWatt Technology
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
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Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
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Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron,
dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, microID, MPLAB, PIC,
PICmicro, PICSTART, PRO MATE, PowerSmart, rfPIC, and
SmartShunt are registered trademarks of Microchip
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AmpLab, FilterLab, Linear Active Thermistor, Migratable
Memory, MXDEV, MXLAB, PS logo, SEEVAL, SmartSensor
and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are
registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard,
dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB,
In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi,
MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, PICkit,
PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICLAB, PICtail, PowerCal,
PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, REAL ICE, rfLAB,
rfPICDEM, Select Mode, Smart Serial, SmartTel, Total
Endurance, UNI/O, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of
Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other
countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2007, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona, Gresham, Oregon and Mountain View, California. The
Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC®
MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial
EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog
products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and
manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
DS40044F-page ii
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
18-pin Flash-Based, 8-Bit CMOS Microcontrollers
with nanoWatt Technology
High-Performance RISC CPU:
Low-Power Features:
•
•
•
•
•
• Standby Current:
- 100 nA @ 2.0V, typical
• Operating Current:
- 12 μA @ 32 kHz, 2.0V, typical
- 120 μA @ 1 MHz, 2.0V, typical
• Watchdog Timer Current:
- 1 μA @ 2.0V, typical
• Timer1 Oscillator Current:
- 1.2 μA @ 32 kHz, 2.0V, typical
• Dual-speed Internal Oscillator:
- Run-time selectable between 4 MHz and
48 kHz
- 4 μs wake-up from Sleep, 3.0V, typical
Operating speeds from DC – 20 MHz
Interrupt capability
8-level deep hardware stack
Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes
35 single-word instructions:
- All instructions single cycle except branches
Special Microcontroller Features:
• Internal and external oscillator options:
- Precision internal 4 MHz oscillator factory
calibrated to ±1%
- Low-power internal 48 kHz oscillator
- External Oscillator support for crystals and
resonators
• Power-saving Sleep mode
• Programmable weak pull-ups on PORTB
• Multiplexed Master Clear/Input-pin
• Watchdog Timer with independent oscillator for
reliable operation
• Low-voltage programming
• In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (via two pins)
• Programmable code protection
• Brown-out Reset
• Power-on Reset
• Power-up Timer and Oscillator Start-up Timer
• Wide operating voltage range (2.0-5.5V)
• Industrial and extended temperature range
• High-Endurance Flash/EEPROM cell:
- 100,000 write Flash endurance
- 1,000,000 write EEPROM endurance
- 40 year data retention
Device
Program
Memory
Peripheral Features:
• 16 I/O pins with individual direction control
• High current sink/source for direct LED drive
• Analog comparator module with:
- Two analog comparators
- Programmable on-chip voltage reference
(VREF) module
- Selectable internal or external reference
- Comparator outputs are externally accessible
• Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit
programmable prescaler
• Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with external crystal/
clock capability
• Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period
register, prescaler and postscaler
• Capture, Compare, PWM module:
- 16-bit Capture/Compare
- 10-bit PWM
• Addressable Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous
Receiver/Transmitter USART/SCI
Data Memory
I/O
CCP
(PWM)
128
16
1
Y
2
2/1
128
16
1
Y
2
2/1
256
16
1
Y
2
2/1
Flash
(words)
SRAM
(bytes)
EEPROM
(bytes)
PIC16F627A
1024
224
PIC16F628A
2048
224
PIC16F648A
4096
256
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
USART Comparators
Timers
8/16-bit
DS40044F-page 1
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Pin Diagrams
PDIP, SOIC
1
18
RA1/AN1
RA3/AN3/CMP1
2
17
RA0/AN0
16
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
15
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT
14
VDD
13
RB7/T1OSI/PGD
3
RA5/MCLR/VPP
4
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
RA4/T0CKI/CMP2
27A/628A/648A
RB0/INT
6
RB1/RX/DT
7
12
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC
RB2/TX/CK
8
11
RB5
RB3/CCP1
9
10
RB4/PGM
RA5/MCLR/VPP
DS40044F-page 2
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
1
21
NC 2
20
VSS
3
19
NC 4 PIC16F627A/628A 18 NC
PIC16F648A
VSS
17
5
NC 6
16
RB0/INT
7
15
8
9
10
NC 11
12
RB4/PGM
13
RB5
NC 14
RA2/AN2/VREF
RA3/AN3/CMP1
RA4/T0CKI/CMP2
RA5/MCLR/VPP
VSS
VSS
RB0/INT
RB1/RX/DT
RB2/TX/CK
RB3/CCP1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
28
27
26
25 NC
24
23
22 NC
RA4/T0CKI/CMP2
RA3/AN3/CMP1
RA2/AN2/VREF
28-Pin QFN
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT
VDD
VDD
RB7/T1OSI/PGD
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC
RB1/RX/DT
RB2/TX/CK
RB3/CCP1
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT
VDD
VDD
RB7/T1OSI/PGD
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC
RB5
RB4/PGM
VSS
5
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
SSOP
RA2/AN2/VREF
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Table of Contents
1.0 General Description..................................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.0 PIC16F627A/628A/648A Device Varieties .................................................................................................................................. 7
3.0 Architectural Overview ................................................................................................................................................................ 9
4.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................ 15
5.0 I/O Ports .................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
6.0 Timer0 Module .......................................................................................................................................................................... 45
7.0 Timer1 Module .......................................................................................................................................................................... 48
8.0 Timer2 Module .......................................................................................................................................................................... 52
9.0 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Module .................................................................................................................................... 55
10.0 Comparator Module................................................................................................................................................................... 61
11.0 Voltage Reference Module........................................................................................................................................................ 67
12.0 Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) Module....................................................................... 71
13.0 Data EEPROM Memory ............................................................................................................................................................ 89
14.0 Special Features of the CPU..................................................................................................................................................... 95
15.0 Instruction Set Summary ......................................................................................................................................................... 115
16.0 Development Support.............................................................................................................................................................. 129
17.0 Electrical Specifications........................................................................................................................................................... 133
18.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables...................................................................................................................... 149
19.0 Packaging Information............................................................................................................................................................. 161
Appendix A: Revision History............................................................................................................................................................ 167
Appendix B: Device Differences ....................................................................................................................................................... 167
Appendix C: Device Migrations - PIC16C63/65A/73A/74A —> PIC16C63A/65B/73B/74B .............................................................. 168
Appendix D: Migration from Baseline to Mid-Range Devices ........................................................................................................... 168
The Microchip Web Site .................................................................................................................................................................... 169
Customer Change Notification Service ............................................................................................................................................. 169
Customer Support ............................................................................................................................................................................. 169
Reader Response ............................................................................................................................................................................. 170
Product Identification System ........................................................................................................................................................... 175
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© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 3
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 4
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
1.0
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The HS mode is for High-Speed crystals. The EC mode
is for an external clock source.
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A are 18-pin Flash-based
members of the versatile PIC16F627A/628A/648A
family of low-cost, high-performance, CMOS, fullystatic, 8-bit microcontrollers.
The Sleep (Power-down) mode offers power savings.
Users can wake-up the chip from Sleep through several
external interrupts, internal interrupts and Resets.
All PIC® microcontrollers employ an advanced RISC
architecture. The PIC16F627A/628A/648A have
enhanced core features, an eight-level deep stack, and
multiple internal and external interrupt sources. The
separate instruction and data buses of the Harvard
architecture allow a 14-bit wide instruction word with
the separate 8-bit wide data. The two-stage instruction
pipeline allows all instructions to execute in a singlecycle, except for program branches (which require two
cycles). A total of 35 instructions (reduced instruction
set) are available, complemented by a large register
set.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A microcontrollers typically
achieve a 2:1 code compression and a 4:1 speed
improvement over other 8-bit microcontrollers in their
class.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A devices have integrated
features to reduce external components, thus reducing
system cost, enhancing system reliability and reducing
power consumption.
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A has 8 oscillator
configurations. The single-pin RC oscillator provides a
low-cost solution. The LP oscillator minimizes power
consumption, XT is a standard crystal, and INTOSC is
a self-contained precision two-speed internal oscillator.
TABLE 1-1:
Clock
Memory
Peripherals
Table 1-1 shows the features of the PIC16F627A/628A/
648A mid-range microcontroller family.
A simplified block diagram of the PIC16F627A/628A/
648A is shown in Figure 3-1.
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A series fits in applications
ranging from battery chargers to low power remote
sensors. The Flash technology makes customizing
application programs (detection levels, pulse generation, timers, etc.) extremely fast and convenient. The
small footprint packages makes this microcontroller
series ideal for all applications with space limitations.
Low cost, low power, high performance, ease of use
and I/O flexibility make the PIC16F627A/628A/648A
very versatile.
1.1
Development Support
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A family is supported by a
full-featured macro assembler, a software simulator, an
in-circuit emulator, a low cost in-circuit debugger, a low
cost development programmer and a full-featured
programmer. A Third Party “C” compiler support tool is
also available.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A FAMILY OF DEVICES
PIC16F627A
PIC16F628A
PIC16F648A
PIC16LF627A
PIC16LF628A
PIC16LF648A
20
20
20
20
20
20
Flash Program
Memory (words)
1024
2048
4096
1024
2048
4096
RAM Data Memory
(bytes)
224
224
256
224
224
256
EEPROM Data
Memory (bytes)
128
128
256
128
128
256
Timer module(s)
TMR0, TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0, TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0, TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0, TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0, TMR1,
TMR2
TMR0, TMR1,
TMR2
Comparator(s)
2
2
2
2
2
2
Capture/Compare/
PWM modules
1
1
1
1
1
1
USART
USART
USART
USART
USART
USART
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Maximum Frequency
of Operation (MHz)
Serial Communications
Internal Voltage
Reference
Features
A highly reliable Watchdog Timer with its own on-chip
RC oscillator provides protection against software lockup.
Interrupt Sources
10
10
10
10
10
10
I/O Pins
16
16
16
16
16
16
3.0-5.5
3.0-5.5
3.0-5.5
2.0-5.5
2.0-5.5
2.0-5.5
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
18-pin DIP,
SOIC, 20-pin
SSOP,
28-pin QFN
18-pin DIP,
SOIC, 20-pin
SSOP,
28-pin QFN
18-pin DIP,
SOIC, 20-pin
SSOP,
28-pin QFN
18-pin DIP,
SOIC, 20-pin
SSOP,
28-pin QFN
18-pin DIP,
SOIC, 20-pin
SSOP,
28-pin QFN
18-pin DIP,
SOIC, 20-pin
SSOP,
28-pin QFN
Voltage Range (Volts)
Brown-out Reset
Packages
All PIC® family devices have Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code-protect and high I/O current capability.
All PIC16F627A/628A/648A family devices use serial programming with clock pin RB6 and data pin RB7.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 5
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 6
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
2.0
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
DEVICE VARIETIES
A variety of frequency ranges and packaging options
are available. Depending on application and production
requirements, the proper device option can be selected
using the information in the PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Product Identification System, at the end of this data
sheet. When placing orders, please use this page of
the data sheet to specify the correct part number.
2.1
Flash Devices
Flash devices can be erased and re-programmed
electrically. This allows the same device to be used for
prototype development, pilot programs and production.
A further advantage of the electrically erasable Flash is
that it can be erased and reprogrammed in-circuit, or by
device programmers, such as Microchip’s PICSTART®
Plus or PRO MATE® II programmers.
2.2
Quick-Turnaround-Production
(QTP) Devices
Microchip offers a QTP Programming Service for
factory production orders. This service is made
available for users who chose not to program a medium
to high quantity of units and whose code patterns have
stabilized. The devices are standard Flash devices, but
with all program locations and configuration options
already programmed by the factory. Certain code and
prototype verification procedures apply before
production shipments are available. Please contact
your Microchip Technology sales office for more
details.
2.3
Serialized Quick-TurnaroundProduction (SQTPSM) Devices
Microchip offers a unique programming service where
a few user-defined locations in each device are
programmed with different serial numbers. The serial
numbers may be random, pseudo-random or
sequential.
Serial programming allows each device to have a
unique number, which can serve as an entry-code,
password or ID number.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 7
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 8
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
3.0
ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW
The high performance of the PIC16F627A/628A/648A
family can be attributed to a number of architectural
features commonly found in RISC microprocessors. To
begin with, the PIC16F627A/628A/648A uses a
Harvard architecture in which program and data are
accessed from separate memories using separate
busses. This improves bandwidth over traditional Von
Neumann architecture where program and data are
fetched from the same memory. Separating program
and data memory further allows instructions to be sized
differently than 8-bit wide data word. Instruction
opcodes are 14-bits wide making it possible to have all
single-word instructions. A 14-bit wide program memory access bus fetches a 14-bit instruction in a single
cycle. A two-stage pipeline overlaps fetch and execution of instructions. Consequently, all instructions (35)
execute in a single-cycle (200 ns @ 20 MHz) except for
program branches.
Table 3-1 lists device memory sizes (Flash, Data and
EEPROM).
TABLE 3-1:
DEVICE MEMORY LIST
Memory
Device
Flash
Program
RAM
Data
EEPROM
Data
PIC16F627A
1024 x 14
224 x 8
128 x 8
PIC16F628A
2048 x 14
224 x 8
128 x 8
PIC16F648A
4096 x 14
256 x 8
256 x 8
PIC16LF627A
1024 x 14
224 x 8
128 x 8
PIC16LF628A
2048 x 14
224 x 8
128 x 8
PIC16LF648A
4096 x 14
256 x 8
256 x 8
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A can directly or indirectly
address its register files or data memory. All Special
Function Registers (SFR), including the program
counter, are mapped in the data memory. The
PIC16F627A/628A/648A have an orthogonal (symmetrical) instruction set that makes it possible to carry out
any operation, on any register, using any addressing
mode. This symmetrical nature and lack of ‘special
optimal situations’ makes programming with the
PIC16F627A/628A/648A simple yet efficient. In
addition, the learning curve is reduced significantly.
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A devices contain an 8-bit
ALU and working register. The ALU is a general
purpose arithmetic unit. It performs arithmetic and
Boolean functions between data in the working register
and any register file.
The ALU is 8-bits wide and capable of addition,
subtraction, shift and logical operations. Unless
otherwise mentioned, arithmetic operations are two’s
complement in nature. In two-operand instructions,
typically one operand is the working register
(W register). The other operand is a file register or an
immediate constant. In single operand instructions, the
operand is either the W register or a file register.
The W register is an 8-bit working register used for ALU
operations. It is not an addressable register.
Depending on the instruction executed, the ALU may
affect the values of the Carry (C), Digit Carry (DC), and
Zero (Z) bits in the Status Register. The C and DC bits
operate as Borrow and Digit Borrow out bits,
respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
A simplified block diagram is shown in Figure 3-1, and
a description of the device pins in Table 3-2.
Two types of data memory are provided on the
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
devices.
Nonvolatile
EEPROM data memory is provided for long term
storage of data, such as calibration values, look-up
table data, and any other data which may require
periodic updating in the field. These data types are not
lost when power is removed. The other data memory
provided is regular RAM data memory. Regular RAM
data memory is provided for temporary storage of data
during normal operation. Data is lost when power is
removed.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 9
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 3-1:
BLOCK DIAGRAM
13
Flash
Program
Memory
RAM
File
Registers
8-Level Stack
(13-bit)
Program
Bus
14
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
RAM Addr (1)
PORTA
9
Addr MUX
Instruction Reg
Direct Addr
7
8
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF
RA3/AN3/CMP1
RA4/T0CK1/CMP2
RA5/MCLR/VPP
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
Indirect
Addr
FSR Reg
Status Reg
8
3
Power-up
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Timing
Generation
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Power-on
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
MUX
ALU
8
W Reg
PORTB
RB0/INT
RB1/RX/DT
RB2/TX/CK
RB3/CCP1
RB4/PGM
RB5
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC
RB7/T1OSI/PGD
Low-Voltage
Programming
MCLR
Comparator
Timer0
VREF
CCP1
Note
1:
VDD, VSS
Timer1
USART
Timer2
Data EEPROM
Higher order bits are from the Status register.
DS40044F-page 10
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 3-2:
PIC16F627A/628A/648A PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Name
Function
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF
RA3/AN3/CMP1
RA4/T0CKI/CMP2
RA5/MCLR/VPP
Input Type Output Type
CMOS
Description
RA0
ST
Bidirectional I/O port
AN0
AN
—
RA1
ST
CMOS
AN1
AN
—
RA2
ST
CMOS
AN2
AN
—
Analog comparator input
VREF
—
AN
VREF output
RA3
ST
CMOS
AN3
AN
—
CMP1
—
CMOS
Comparator 1 output
RA4
ST
OD
Bidirectional I/O port
T0CKI
ST
—
Timer0 clock input
CMP2
—
OD
Comparator 2 output
RA5
ST
—
Input port
MCLR
ST
—
Master clear. When configured as MCLR, this
pin is an active low Reset to the device.
Voltage on MCLR/VPP must not exceed VDD
during normal device operation.
Programming voltage input
Analog comparator input
Bidirectional I/O port
Analog comparator input
Bidirectional I/O port
Bidirectional I/O port
Analog comparator input
VPP
—
—
RA6
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port
OSC2
—
XTAL
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal
or resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode.
CLKOUT
—
CMOS
In RC/INTOSC mode, OSC2 pin can output
CLKOUT, which has 1/4 the frequency of
OSC1.
RA7
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port
OSC1
XTAL
—
Oscillator crystal input
External clock source input. RC biasing pin.
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
CLKIN
ST
—
RB0/INT
RB0
TTL
CMOS
INT
ST
—
RB1/RX/DT
RB1
TTL
CMOS
RX
ST
—
DT
ST
CMOS
Synchronous data I/O
RB2
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up.
RB2/TX/CK
RB3/CCP1
O = Output
— = Not used
TTL = TTL Input
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
External interrupt
Bidirectional I/O port. Can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up.
USART receive pin
TX
—
CMOS
USART transmit pin
CK
ST
CMOS
Synchronous clock I/O
RB3
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up.
ST
CMOS
Capture/Compare/PWM I/O
CCP1
Legend:
Bidirectional I/O port. Can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up.
CMOS = CMOS Output
I
= Input
OD
= Open Drain Output
P = Power
ST = Schmitt Trigger Input
AN = Analog
DS40044F-page 11
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 3-2:
PIC16F627A/628A/648A PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Name
RB4/PGM
Function
Input Type Output Type
Description
RB4
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Interrupt-on-pin change.
Can be software programmed for internal
weak pull-up.
PGM
ST
—
RB5
RB5
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Interrupt-on-pin change.
Can be software programmed for internal
weak pull-up.
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC
RB6
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Interrupt-on-pin change.
Can be software programmed for internal
weak pull-up.
T1OSO
—
XTAL
Timer1 oscillator output
Low-voltage programming input pin. When
low-voltage programming is enabled, the
interrupt-on-pin change and weak pull-up
resistor are disabled.
T1CKI
ST
—
Timer1 clock input
PGC
ST
—
ICSP™ programming clock
RB7
TTL
CMOS
T1OSI
XTAL
—
PGD
ST
CMOS
VSS
VSS
Power
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins
VDD
VDD
Power
—
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins
RB7/T1OSI/PGD
Legend:
O = Output
— = Not used
TTL = TTL Input
DS40044F-page 12
Bidirectional I/O port. Interrupt-on-pin change.
Can be software programmed for internal
weak pull-up.
Timer1 oscillator input
ICSP data I/O
CMOS = CMOS Output
I
= Input
OD
= Open Drain Output
P = Power
ST = Schmitt Trigger Input
AN = Analog
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
3.1
Clocking Scheme/Instruction
Cycle
3.2
Instruction Flow/Pipelining
An instruction cycle consists of four Q cycles (Q1, Q2,
Q3 and Q4). The instruction fetch and execute are
pipelined such that fetch takes one instruction cycle
while decode and execute takes another instruction
cycle. However, due to the pipelining, each instruction
effectively executes in one cycle. If an instruction
causes the program counter to change (e.g., GOTO)
then two cycles are required to complete the instruction
(Example 3-1).
The clock input (RA7/OSC1/CLKIN pin) is internally
divided by four to generate four non-overlapping
quadrature clocks namely Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4.
Internally, the Program Counter (PC) is incremented
every Q1, the instruction is fetched from the program
memory and latched into the instruction register in Q4.
The instruction is decoded and executed during the
following Q1 through Q4. The clocks and instruction
execution flow is shown in Figure 3-2.
A fetch cycle begins with the program counter
incrementing in Q1.
In the execution cycle, the fetched instruction is latched
into the Instruction Register (IR) in cycle Q1. This
instruction is then decoded and executed during the
Q2, Q3 and Q4 cycles. Data memory is read during Q2
(operand read) and written during Q4 (destination
write).
FIGURE 3-2:
CLOCK/INSTRUCTION CYCLE
Q2
Q1
Q3
Q4
Q2
Q1
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
Q1
Q2
Internal
phase
clock
Q3
Q4
PC
PC
PC + 1
PC + 2
CLKOUT
Fetch INST (PC)
Execute INST (PC - 1)
EXAMPLE 3-1:
Fetch INST (PC + 1)
Execute INST (PC)
Fetch INST (PC + 2)
Execute INST (PC + 1)
INSTRUCTION PIPELINE FLOW
1. MOVLW 55h
Fetch 1
2. MOVWF PORTB
3. CALL
SUB_1
4. BSF
PORTA, 3
Execute 1
Fetch 2
Execute 2
Fetch 3
Execute 3
Fetch 4
Flush
Fetch SUB_1 Execute SUB_1
Note:
All instructions are single cycle except for any program branches. These take two cycles since the fetch
instruction is “flushed” from the pipeline while the new instruction is being fetched and then executed.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 13
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 14
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.0
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
4.1
Program Memory Organization
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A has a 13-bit program
counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program
memory space. Only the first 1K x 14 (0000h-03FFh)
for the PIC16F627A, 2K x 14 (0000h-07FFh) for the
PIC16F628A and 4K x 14 (0000h-0FFFh) for the
PIC16F648A are physically implemented. Accessing a
location above these boundaries will cause a wraparound within the first 1K x 14 space (PIC16F627A),
2K x 14 space (PIC16F628A) or 4K x 14 space
(PIC16F648A). The Reset vector is at 0000h and the
interrupt vector is at 0004h (Figure 4-1).
4.2
Data Memory Organization
The data memory (Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3) is
partitioned into four banks, which contain the General
Purpose Registers (GPRs) and the Special Function
Registers (SFRs). The SFRs are located in the first 32
locations of each bank. There are General Purpose
Registers implemented as static RAM in each bank.
Table 4-1 lists the General Purpose Register available
in each of the four banks.
TABLE 4-1:
Bank0
FIGURE 4-1:
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK
PC<12:0>
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
Stack Level 1
Stack Level 2
On-chip Program
Memory
PIC16F648A
20-7Fh
20-7Fh
Bank1
A0h-FF
A0h-FF
Bank2
120h-14Fh, 170h-17Fh
120h-17Fh
Bank3
1F0h-1FFh
1F0h-1FFh
Table 4-2 lists how to access the four banks of registers
via the Status register bits RP1 and RP0.
Stack Level 8
Interrupt Vector
PIC16F627A/628A
Addresses F0h-FFh, 170h-17Fh and 1F0h-1FFh are
implemented as common RAM and mapped back to
addresses 70h-7Fh.
13
Reset Vector
GENERAL PURPOSE STATIC
RAM REGISTERS
TABLE 4-2:
000h
0004
0005
4.2.1
PIC16F627A,
PIC16F628A and
PIC16F648A
03FFh
On-chip Program
Memory
PIC16F628A and
PIC16F648A
ACCESS TO BANKS OF
REGISTERS
Bank
RP1
RP0
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
1
0
3
1
1
GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER
FILE
The register file is organized as 224 x 8 in the
PIC16F627A/628A and 256 x 8 in the PIC16F648A.
Each is accessed either directly or indirectly through
the File Select Register (FSR), See Section 4.4
“Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR Registers”.
07FFh
On-chip Program
Memory
PIC16F648A only
0FFFh
1FFFh
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 15
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 4-2:
DATA MEMORY MAP OF THE PIC16F627A AND PIC16F628A
File
Address
Indirect addr.(1)
00h
Indirect addr.(1)
80h
Indirect addr.(1)
100h
Indirect addr.(1)
180h
TMR0
01h
OPTION
81h
TMR0
101h
OPTION
181h
PCL
02h
82h
PCL
102h
PCL
182h
STATUS
03h
STATUS
83h
STATUS
103h
STATUS
183h
FSR
04h
FSR
84h
FSR
104h
FSR
184h
PORTA
05h
TRISA
85h
PORTB
06h
TRISB
86h
PCL
105h
PORTB
106h
185h
TRISB
186h
07h
87h
107h
187h
08h
88h
108h
188h
89h
109h
09h
189h
8Ah
PCLATH
10Ah
PCLATH
18Ah
8Bh
INTCON
10Bh
INTCON
18Bh
PCLATH
0Ah
INTCON
0Bh
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
0Ch
PIE1
8Ch
10Ch
18Ch
8Dh
10Dh
18Dh
8Eh
10Eh
18Eh
10Fh
18Fh
0Dh
TMR1L
0Eh
TMR1H
0Fh
8Fh
T1CON
10h
90h
TMR2
11h
T2CON
12h
PCON
91h
PR2
92h
13h
93h
14h
94h
CCPR1L
15h
95h
CCPR1H
16h
96h
CCP1CON
17h
97h
RCSTA
18h
TXSTA
98h
TXREG
19h
99h
RCREG
1Ah
SPBRG
EEDATA
1Bh
EEADR
9Bh
1Ch
EECON1
9Ch
1Dh
EECON2(1)
9Dh
1Eh
CMCON
1Fh
9Ah
9Eh
VRCON
20h
9Fh
A0h
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
General
Purpose
Register
48 Bytes
11Fh
120h
14Fh
150h
80 Bytes
6Fh
70h
16 Bytes
accesses
70h-7Fh
7Fh
Bank 0
EFh
F0h
accesses
70h-7Fh
1EFh
1F0h
accesses
70h-7Fh
17Fh
FFh
Bank 1
16Fh
170h
Bank 2
1FFh
Bank 3
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: Not a physical register.
DS40044F-page 16
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 4-3:
DATA MEMORY MAP OF THE PIC16F648A
File
Address
Indirect addr.(1)
00h
Indirect addr.(1)
80h
Indirect addr.(1)
100h
Indirect addr.(1)
180h
TMR0
01h
OPTION
81h
TMR0
101h
OPTION
181h
PCL
02h
82h
PCL
102h
PCL
182h
STATUS
03h
STATUS
83h
STATUS
103h
STATUS
183h
FSR
04h
FSR
84h
FSR
104h
FSR
184h
PORTA
05h
TRISA
85h
PORTB
06h
TRISB
86h
PCL
105h
PORTB
106h
185h
TRISB
186h
07h
87h
107h
187h
08h
88h
108h
188h
89h
109h
189h
09h
8Ah
PCLATH
10Ah
PCLATH
18Ah
8Bh
INTCON
10Bh
INTCON
18Bh
PCLATH
0Ah
PCLATH
INTCON
0Bh
INTCON
PIR1
0Ch
PIE1
8Ch
10Ch
18Ch
8Dh
10Dh
18Dh
8Eh
10Eh
18Eh
10Fh
18Fh
0Dh
TMR1L
0Eh
TMR1H
0Fh
8Fh
T1CON
10h
90h
TMR2
11h
T2CON
12h
PCON
91h
PR2
92h
13h
93h
14h
94h
CCPR1L
15h
95h
CCPR1H
16h
96h
CCP1CON
17h
97h
RCSTA
18h
TXSTA
98h
TXREG
19h
99h
RCREG
1Ah
SPBRG
EEDATA
1Bh
EEADR
9Bh
1Ch
EECON1
9Ch
1Dh
EECON2(1)
9Dh
1Eh
CMCON
1Fh
9Ah
9Eh
VRCON
20h
9Fh
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
11Fh
120h
A0h
80 Bytes
6Fh
70h
16 Bytes
accesses
70h-7Fh
7Fh
Bank 0
EFh
F0h
accesses
70h-7Fh
1EFh
1F0h
accesses
70h-7Fh
17Fh
FFh
Bank 1
16Fh
170h
Bank 2
1FFh
Bank 3
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: Not a physical register.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 17
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.2.2
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The SFRs are registers used by the CPU and Peripheral functions for controlling the desired operation of
the device (Table 4-3). These registers are static RAM.
The special registers can be classified into two sets
(core and peripheral). The SFRs associated with the
“core” functions are described in this section. Those
related to the operation of the peripheral features are
described in the section of that peripheral feature.
TABLE 4-3:
Address
SPECIAL REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK0
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Reset(1)
Details
on Page
Bank 0
00h
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx
28
01h
TMR0
Timer0 Module’s Register
xxxx xxxx
45
Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000
28
02h
PCL
03h
STATUS
04h
FSR
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
0001 1xxx
22
xxxx xxxx
28
05h
PORTA
RA7
RA6
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
xxxx 0000
31
06h
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
xxxx xxxx
36
07h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
08h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
09h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---0 0000
28
0Ah
PCLATH
—
—
—
Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter
0Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
24
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 -000
26
0Dh
—
Unimplemented
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
—
—
xxxx xxxx
48
xxxx xxxx
48
0Fh
TMR1H
10h
T1CON
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
13h
—
Unimplemented
14h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
xxxx xxxx
55
xxxx xxxx
55
15h
—
—
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
—
TOUTPS3
TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1
Capture/Compare/PWM Register (LSB)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register (MSB)
16h
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
18h
RCSTA
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
TMR2 Module’s Register
CCPR1L
17h
T1OSCEN
TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0
--00 0000
48
0000 0000
52
-000 0000
52
—
—
—
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
--00 0000
55
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
72
19h
TXREG
USART Transmit Data Register
0000 0000
77
1Ah
RCREG
USART Receive Data Register
0000 0000
80
1Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
1Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
1Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
1Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
0000 0000
61
1Fh
Legend:
Note 1:
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
- = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented
For the initialization condition for registers tables, refer to Table 14-6 and Table 14-7.
DS40044F-page 18
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 4-4:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK1
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Reset(1)
Details
on Page
xxxx xxxx
28
1111 1111
23
0000 0000
28
0001 1xxx
22
xxxx xxxx
28
Bank 1
80h
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical
register)
81h
OPTION
82h
PCL
83h
STATUS
84h
FSR
85h
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
1111 1111
31
86h
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
1111 1111
36
87h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
88h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
89h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---0 0000
28
8Ah
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
PCLATH
—
—
—
Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter
8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
24
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 -000
25
—
—
—
—
OSCF
—
POR
BOR
---- 1-0x
27
8Dh
—
8Eh
PCON
8Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
90h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
91h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
1111 1111
52
92h
PR2
Unimplemented
—
—
Timer2 Period Register
93h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
94h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
95h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
96h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
97h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
98h
TXSTA
0000 -010
71
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
99h
SPBRG
Baud Rate Generator Register
0000 0000
73
9Ah
EEDATA
EEPROM Data Register
xxxx xxxx
89
9Bh
EEADR
EEPROM Address Register
xxxx xxxx
90
9Ch
EECON1
---- x000
90
9Dh
EECON2
---- ----
90
9Eh
—
—
—
—
—
WRERR
WREN
WR
RD
EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register)
Unimplemented
VREN
VRR
—
000- 0000
67
9Fh
VRCON
Legend:
Note 1:
- = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented
For the initialization condition for registers tables, refer to Table 14-6 and Table 14-7.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
VROE
—
—
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
DS40044F-page 19
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 4-5:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK2
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Reset(1)
Details
on Page
Bank 2
100h
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) xxxx xxxx
28
101h
TMR0
Timer0 Module’s Register
xxxx xxxx
45
102h
PCL
Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000
28
103h
STATUS
0001 1xxx
22
104h
FSR
xxxx xxxx
28
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
105h
—
106h
PORTB
107h
—
108h
—
109h
—
10Ah
PCLATH
10Bh
INTCON
Unimplemented
—
—
xxxx xxxx
36
Unimplemented
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---0 0000
28
RB7
RB6
RB5
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter
0000 000x
24
10Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
10Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
10Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
10Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
110h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
111h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
112h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
113h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
114h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
115h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
116h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
117h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
118h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
119h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
11Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
11Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
11Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
11Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
11Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
11Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
Legend:
Note 1:
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
- = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented.
For the initialization condition for registers tables, refer to Table 14-6 and Table 14-7.
DS40044F-page 20
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 4-6:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK3
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Reset(1)
Details
on Page
Bank 3
180h
INDF
181h
OPTION
182h
PCL
183h
STATUS
184h
FSR
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) xxxx xxxx
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
185h
—
186h
TRISB
187h
—
188h
—
189h
—
18Ah
PCLATH
18Bh
INTCON
Unimplemented
1111 1111
28
23
0000 0000
28
0001 1xxx
22
xxxx xxxx
28
—
—
1111 1111
36
Unimplemented
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---0 0000
28
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter
0000 000x
24
18Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
18Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
18Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
18Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
190h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
191h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
192h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
193h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
194h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
195h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
196h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
197h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
198h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
199h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
19Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
19Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
19Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
19Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
19Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
19Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
Legend:
Note 1:
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
- = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented
For the initialization condition for registers tables, refer to Table 14-6 and Table 14-7.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 21
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.2.2.1
Status Register
The Status register, shown in Register 4-1, contains the
arithmetic status of the ALU; the Reset status and the
bank select bits for data memory (SRAM).
The Status register can be the destination for any
instruction, like any other register. If the Status register
is the destination for an instruction that affects the Z,
DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is
disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are nonwritable. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the
Status register as destination may be different than
intended.
REGISTER 4-1:
For example, CLRF STATUS will clear the upper-three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the Status register
as “000uu1uu” (where u = unchanged).
It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF,
SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the
Status register because these instructions do not affect
any Status bit. For other instructions, not affecting any
Status bits, see the “Instruction Set Summary”.
Note:
The C and DC bits operate as a Borrow
and Digit Borrow out bit, respectively, in
subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
STATUS – STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS: 03h, 83h, 103h, 183h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-1
R-1
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
IRP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing)
1 = Bank 2, 3 (100h-1FFh)
0 = Bank 0, 1 (00h-FFh)
bit 6-5
RP<1:0>: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing)
00 = Bank 0 (00h-7Fh)
01 = Bank 1 (80h-FFh)
10 = Bank 2 (100h-17Fh)
11 = Bank 3 (180h-1FFh)
bit 4
TO: Time Out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time out occurred
bit 3
PD: Power-down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1
DC: Digit Carry/Borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions) (for Borrow the polarity
is reversed)
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result
bit 0
C: Carry/Borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions)
1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
Note:
For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s
complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is
loaded with either the high or low order bit of the source register.
Legend:
DS40044F-page 22
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.2.2.2
OPTION Register
Note:
The Option register is a readable and writable register,
which contains various control bits to configure the
TMR0/WDT prescaler, the external RB0/INT interrupt,
TMR0 and the weak pull-ups on PORTB.
REGISTER 4-2:
To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for
TMR0, assign the prescaler to the WDT
(PSA = 1). See Section 6.3.1 “Switching
Prescaler Assignment”.
OPTION_REG – OPTION REGISTER (ADDRESS: 81h, 181h)
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values
bit 6
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5
T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI/CMP2 pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT)
bit 4
T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI/CMP2 pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI/CMP2 pin
bit 3
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
bit 2-0
PS<2:0>: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Bit Value
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
TMR0 Rate WDT Rate
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS40044F-page 23
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.2.2.3
INTCON Register
Note:
The INTCON register is a readable and writable
register, which contains the various enable and flag bits
for all interrupt sources except the comparator module.
See
Section 4.2.2.4
“PIE1
Register”
and
Section 4.2.2.5 “PIR1 Register” for a description of
the comparator enable and flag bits.
REGISTER 4-3:
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>).
INTCON – INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS: 0Bh, 8Bh, 10Bh, 18Bh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-x
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6
PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
bit 5
T0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt
bit 4
INTE: RB0/INT External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB0/INT external interrupt
0 = Disables the RB0/INT external interrupt
bit 3
RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt
0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt
bit 2
T0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 1
INTF: RB0/INT External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The RB0/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The RB0/INT external interrupt did not occur
bit 0
RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = When at least one of the RB<7:4> pins changes state (must be cleared in software)
0 = None of the RB<7:4> pins have changed state
Legend:
DS40044F-page 24
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.2.2.4
PIE1 Register
This register contains interrupt enable bits.
REGISTER 4-4:
PIE1 – PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS: 8Ch)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
EEIE: EE Write Complete Interrupt Enable Bit
1 = Enables the EE write complete interrupt
0 = Disables the EE write complete interrupt
bit 6
CMIE: Comparator Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the comparator interrupt
0 = Disables the comparator interrupt
bit 5
RCIE: USART Receive Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART receive interrupt
0 = Disables the USART receive interrupt
bit 4
TXIE: USART Transmit Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART transmit interrupt
0 = Disables the USART transmit interrupt
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 1
TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0
TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS40044F-page 25
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.2.2.5
PIR1 Register
Note:
This register contains interrupt flag bits.
REGISTER 4-5:
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User
software should ensure the appropriate
interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
PIR1 – PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS: 0Ch)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
EEIF: EEPROM Write Operation Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The write operation completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The write operation has not completed or has not been started
bit 6
CMIF: Comparator Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Comparator output has changed
0 = Comparator output has not changed
bit 5
RCIF: USART Receive Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The USART receive buffer is full
0 = The USART receive buffer is empty
bit 4
TXIF: USART Transmit Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The USART transmit buffer is empty
0 = The USART transmit buffer is full
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture Mode
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare Mode
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM Mode
Unused in this mode
bit 1
TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred
bit 0
TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR1 register did not overflow
Legend:
DS40044F-page 26
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.2.2.6
PCON Register
The PCON register contains flag bits to differentiate
between a Power-on Reset, an external MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset or a Brown-out Reset.
REGISTER 4-6:
Note:
BOR is unknown on Power-on Reset. It
must then be set by the user and checked
on subsequent Resets to see if BOR is
cleared, indicating a brown-out has
occurred. The BOR Status bit is a “don’t
care” and is not necessarily predictable if
the brown-out circuit is disabled (by
clearing the BOREN bit in the
Configuration Word).
PCON – POWER CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS: 8Eh)
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-1
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-x
—
—
—
—
OSCF
—
POR
BOR
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
OSCF: INTOSC Oscillator Frequency bit
1 = 4 MHz typical
0 = 48 kHz typical
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = No Power-on Reset occurred
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0
BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs)
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS40044F-page 27
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
4.3
PCL and PCLATH
The Program Counter (PC) is 13-bits wide. The low
byte comes from the PCL register, which is a readable
and writable register. The high byte (PC<12:8>) is not
directly readable or writable and comes from PCLATH.
On any Reset, the PC is cleared. Figure 4-4 shows the
two situations for loading the PC. The upper example
in Figure 4-4 shows how the PC is loaded on a write to
PCL (PCLATH<4:0> → PCH). The lower example in
Figure 4-4 shows how the PC is loaded during a CALL
or GOTO instruction (PCLATH<4:3> → PCH).
FIGURE 4-4:
The stack operates as a circular buffer. This means that
after the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth
PUSH overwrites the value that was stored from the
first PUSH. The tenth PUSH overwrites the second
PUSH (and so on).
Note 1: There are no Status bits to indicate stack
overflow or stack underflow conditions.
2: There are no instructions/mnemonics
called PUSH or POP. These are actions
that occur from the execution of the
CALL, RETURN, RETLW and RETFIE
instructions, or the vectoring to an
interrupt address.
LOADING OF PC IN
DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
4.4
PCH
PCL
12
8
7
0
PC
8
PCLATH<4:0>
5
Instruction with
PCL as
Destination
The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing
the INDF register will cause indirect addressing.
ALU result
Indirect addressing is possible by using the INDF
register. Any instruction using the INDF register
actually accesses data pointed to by the File Select
Register (FSR). Reading INDF itself indirectly will
produce 00h. Writing to the INDF register indirectly
results in a no-operation (although Status bits may be
affected). An effective 9-bit address is obtained by
concatenating the 8-bit FSR register and the IRP bit
(STATUS<7>), as shown in Figure 4-5.
PCLATH
PCH
12
11 10
PCL
8
0
7
PC
GOTO, CALL
2
PCLATH<4:3>
Indirect Addressing, INDF and
FSR Registers
11
Opcode <10:0>
PCLATH
A simple program to clear RAM location 20h-2Fh using
indirect addressing is shown in Example 4-1.
EXAMPLE 4-1:
4.3.1
COMPUTED GOTO
A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset
to the program counter (ADDWF PCL). When doing a
table read using a computed GOTO method, care
should be exercised if the table location crosses a PCL
memory boundary (each 256-byte block). Refer to the
Application Note AN556 “Implementing a Table Read”
(DS00556).
4.3.2
NEXT
MOVLW
MOVWF
CLRF
INCF
BTFSS
GOTO
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
0x20
FSR
INDF
FSR
FSR,4
NEXT
;initialize pointer
;to RAM
;clear INDF register
;inc pointer
;all done?
;no clear next
;yes continue
STACK
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A family has an 8-level
deep x 13-bit wide hardware stack (Figure 4-1). The
stack space is not part of either program or data space
and the Stack Pointer is not readable or writable. The
PC is PUSHed onto the stack when a CALL instruction
is executed or an interrupt causes a branch. The stack
is POPed in the event of a RETURN, RETLW or a
RETFIE instruction execution. PCLATH is not affected
by a PUSH or POP operation.
DS40044F-page 28
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 4-5:
Status
Register
RP1 RP0
DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Status
Register
IRP
Direct Addressing
6
from opcode
bank select
0
location select
00
00h
Indirect Addressing
7
bank select
01
10
FSR Register
0
location select
11
180h
RAM
File
Registers
7Fh
1FFh
Bank 0
Note:
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
For memory map detail see Figure 4-3, Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-1.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 29
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 30
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
5.0
I/O PORTS
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A have two ports, PORTA
and PORTB. Some pins for these I/O ports are
multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral
features on the device. In general, when a peripheral is
enabled, that pin may not be used as a general
purpose I/O pin.
5.1
PORTA and TRISA Registers
PORTA is an 8-bit wide latch. RA4 is a Schmitt Trigger
input and an open drain output. Port RA4 is multiplexed
with the T0CKI clock input. RA5(1) is a Schmitt Trigger
input only and has no output drivers. All other RA port
pins have Schmitt Trigger input levels and full CMOS
output drivers. All pins have data direction bits (TRIS
registers) which can configure these pins as input or
output.
A ‘1’ in the TRISA register puts the corresponding
output driver in a High-impedance mode. A ‘0’ in the
TRISA register puts the contents of the output latch on
the selected pin(s).
Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the
pins whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All
write operations are read-modify-write operations. So a
write to a port implies that the port pins are first read,
then this value is modified and written to the port data
latch.
The PORTA pins are multiplexed with comparator and
voltage reference functions. The operation of these
pins are selected by control bits in the CMCON
(Comparator Control register) register and the VRCON
(Voltage Reference Control register) register. When
selected as a comparator input, these pins will read
as ‘0’s.
Note 1: RA5 shares function with VPP. When VPP
voltage levels are applied to RA5, the
device will enter Programming mode.
In one of the comparator modes defined by the
CMCON register, pins RA3 and RA4 become outputs
of the comparators. The TRISA<4:3> bits must be
cleared to enable outputs to use this function.
EXAMPLE 5-1:
PORTA
MOVLW
MOVWF
0x07
CMCON
BCF
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP1
STATUS, RP0 ;Select Bank1
0x1F
;Value used to initialize
;data direction
TRISA
;Set RA<4:0> as inputs
;TRISA<5> always
;read as ‘1’.
;TRISA<7:6>
;depend on oscillator
;mode
MOVWF
TRISA controls the direction of the RA pins, even when
they are being used as comparator inputs. The user
must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs
when using them as comparator inputs.
;Initialize PORTA by
;setting
;output data latches
;Turn comparators off and
;enable pins for I/O
;functions
FIGURE 5-1:
Data
Bus
D
WR
PORTA
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA0/AN0:RA1/AN1 PINS
Q
CK
VDD
Q
Data Latch
D
WR
TRISA
Q
CK
RD
TRISA
I/O Pin
Q
TRIS Latch
2: On Reset, the TRISA register is set to all
inputs. The digital inputs (RA<3:0>) are
disabled and the comparator inputs are
forced to ground to reduce current
consumption.
3: TRISA<6:7> is overridden by oscillator
configuration. When PORTA<6:7> is
overridden, the data reads ‘0’ and the
TRISA<6:7> bits are ignored.
INITIALIZING PORTA
CLRF
Analog
Input Mode
(CMCON Reg.)
VSS
Schmitt Trigger
Input Buffer
Q
D
EN
RD PORTA
To Comparator
The RA2 pin will also function as the output for the
voltage reference. When in this mode, the VREF pin is a
very high-impedance output. The user must configure
TRISA<2> bit as an input and use high-impedance
loads.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 31
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-2:
Data
Bus
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA2/AN2/VREF PIN
D
WR
PORTA
Q
CK
VDD
Q
Data Latch
D
WR
TRISA
Q
RA2 Pin
CK
Analog
Input Mode
(CMCON Reg.)
Q
TRIS Latch
RD
TRISA
VSS
Schmitt Trigger
Input Buffer
Q
D
EN
RD PORTA
To Comparator
VROE
VREF
FIGURE 5-3:
Data
Bus
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE RA3/AN3/CMP1 PIN
Comparator Mode = 110 (CMCON Reg.)
D
Comparator Output
WR
PORTA
1
CK
Q
Data Latch
D
WR
TRISA
VDD
Q
0
Q
RA3 Pin
CK
Analog
Input Mode
(CMCON Reg.)
Q
TRIS Latch
RD
TRISA
VSS
Schmitt Trigger
Input Buffer
Q
D
EN
RD PORTA
To Comparator
DS40044F-page 32
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-4:
Data
Bus
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA4/T0CKI/CMP2 PIN
Comparator Mode = 110
D
(CMCON Reg.)
Q
Comparator Output
WR
PORTA
1
CK
Q
0
Data Latch
D
WR
TRISA
Q
RA4 Pin
N
CK
Q
Vss
Vss
TRIS Latch
Schmitt Trigger
Input Buffer
RD TRISA
Q
D
EN
RD PORTA
TMR0 Clock Input
FIGURE 5-5:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE
RA5/MCLR/VPP PIN
MCLRE (Configuration Bit)
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT PIN
From OSC1
OSC
Circuit
1
MCLR Filter
WR
PORTA
Schmitt Trigger
Input Buffer
HV Detect
RA5/MCLR/VPP
Data
Bus
VSS
D
Q
0
CK Q
FOSC =
Data Latch
(2)
101, 111
WR
TRISA
D
VSS
Q
CK Q
TRIS Latch
RD
TRISA
RD
TRISA
VDD
CLKOUT(FOSC/4)
MCLR
circuit
Program
mode
FIGURE 5-6:
FOSC =
011, 100, 110 (1)
VSS
Q
Schmitt
Trigger
Input Buffer
D
Q
EN
EN
RD
PORTA
D
RD PORTA
Note 1: INTOSC with RA6 = I/O or RC with RA6 = I/O.
2: INTOSC with RA6 = CLKOUT or RC with
RA6 = CLKOUT.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 33
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-7:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA7/OSC1/CLKIN PIN
To Clock Circuits
VDD
Data Bus
D
WR PORTA
Q
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN Pin
CK
Q
Data Latch
D
WR TRISA
CK
VSS
Q
Q
TRIS Latch
RD TRISA
FOSC = 100, 101(1)
Q
D
EN
Schmitt Trigger
Input Buffer
RD PORTA
Note 1:
DS40044F-page 34
INTOSC with CLKOUT and INTOSC with I/O.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 5-1:
PORTA FUNCTIONS
Name
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF
RA3/AN3/CMP1
RA4/T0CKI/CMP2
RA5/MCLR/VPP
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
Legend:
Function
Input
Type
Output
Type
RA0
ST
CMOS
AN0
AN
—
RA1
ST
CMOS
AN1
AN
—
RA2
ST
CMOS
AN2
AN
—
Analog comparator input
VREF
—
AN
VREF output
RA3
ST
CMOS
AN3
AN
—
CMP1
—
CMOS
RA4
ST
OD
Bidirectional I/O port. Output is open drain type.
T0CKI
ST
—
External clock input for TMR0 or comparator output
CMP2
—
OD
Comparator 2 output
RA5
ST
—
Input port
MCLR
ST
—
Master clear. When configured as MCLR, this pin is an
active low Reset to the device. Voltage on MCLR/VPP must
not exceed VDD during normal device operation.
VPP
HV
—
Programming voltage input
Bidirectional I/O port
Analog comparator input
Bidirectional I/O port
Analog comparator input
Bidirectional I/O port
Bidirectional I/O port
Analog comparator input
Comparator 1 output
RA6
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port
OSC2
—
XTAL
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal resonator in
Crystal Oscillator mode.
CLKOUT
—
CMOS
In RC or INTOSC mode. OSC2 pin can output CLKOUT,
which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1.
RA7
ST
CMOS
OSC1
XTAL
—
Oscillator crystal input. Connects to crystal resonator in
Crystal Oscillator mode.
CLKIN
ST
—
External clock source input. RC biasing pin.
O = Output
— = Not used
TTL = TTL Input
TABLE 5-2:
Description
Bidirectional I/O port
CMOS = CMOS Output
I
= Input
OD
= Open Drain Output
P = Power
ST = Schmitt Trigger Input
AN = Analog
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on
All Other
Resets
05h
PORTA
RA7
RA6
RA5(1)
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
xxxx 0000
qqqu 0000
85h
TRISA
TRISA7 TRISA6 TRISA5 TRISA4 TRISA3 TRISA2 TRISA1 TRISA0
1111 1111
1111 1111
1Fh
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
0000 0000
0000 0000
9Fh
VRCON
VREN
VROE
VRR
—
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
000- 0000
000- 0000
Legend:
- = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells
are not used for PORTA.
MCLRE configuration bit sets RA5 functionality.
Address
Note 1:
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 35
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
5.2
PORTB and TRISB Registers
PORTB is an 8-bit wide bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISB. A ‘1’ in
the TRISB register puts the corresponding output driver
in a High-impedance mode. A ‘0’ in the TRISB register
puts the contents of the output latch on the selected
pin(s).
PORTB is multiplexed with the external interrupt,
USART, CCP module and the TMR1 clock input/output.
The standard port functions and the alternate port
functions are shown in Table 5-3. Alternate port
functions may override the TRIS setting when enabled.
Reading PORTB register reads the status of the pins,
whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All write
operations are read-modify-write operations. So a write
to a port implies that the port pins are first read, then
this value is modified and written to the port data latch.
Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up
(≈200 μA typical). A single control bit can turn on all the
pull-ups. This is done by clearing the RBPU
(OPTION<7>) bit. The weak pull-up is automatically
turned off when the port pin is configured as an output.
The pull-ups are disabled on Power-on Reset.
Four of PORTB’s pins, RB<7:4>, have an interrupt-onchange feature. Only pins configured as inputs can
cause this interrupt to occur (i.e., any RB<7:4> pin
configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton-change comparison). The input pins (of RB<7:4>)
are compared with the old value latched on the last
read of PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB<7:4>
are OR’ed together to generate the RBIF interrupt (flag
latched in INTCON<0>).
This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. The
user, in the interrupt service routine, can clear the
interrupt in the following manner:
a)
b)
Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit RBIF.
The interrupt-on-change feature is recommended for
wake-up on key depression operation and operations
where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change
feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while
using the interrupt-on-change feature.
FIGURE 5-8:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB0/INT PIN
VDD
RBPU
P Weak Pull-up
VDD
Data Bus
WR PORTB
D
Q
RB0/INT
CK
Q
VSS
Data Latch
D
WR TRISB
CK
Q
Q
TRIS Latch
TTL
Input
Buffer
RD TRISB
Q
D
EN
EN
RD PORTB
INT
Schmitt
Trigger
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.
Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.
This interrupt on mismatch feature, together with
software configurable pull-ups on these four pins allow
easy interface to a key pad and make it possible for
wake-up on key-depression (See Application Note
AN552 “Implementing Wake-up on Key Strokes”
(DS00552).
Note:
If a change on the I/O pin should occur
when a read operation is being executed
(start of the Q2 cycle), then the RBIF
interrupt flag may not get set.
DS40044F-page 36
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-9:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB1/RX/DT PIN
FIGURE 5-10:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB2/TX/CK PIN
VDD
Weak
P Pull-up
VDD
RBPU
SPEN
USART Data Output
Data Bus
WR PORTB
Q
CK
Q
0
RB1/
RX/DT
WR TRISB
Q
CK
Q
Data Bus
WR PORTB
Data Latch
D
SPEN
USART TX/CK Output
1
D
VDD
Weak
P Pull-up
VDD
RBPU
1
D
Q
CK
Q
Data Latch
VSS
WR TRISB
TRIS Latch
D
Q
CK
Q
VSS
TRIS Latch
Peripheral OE(1)
Peripheral OE(1)
TTL
Input
Buffer
RD TRISB
Q
TTL
Input
Buffer
RD TRISB
D
Q
EN
RD PORTB
RD PORTB
USART Slave Clock In
Schmitt
Trigger
1:
D
EN
USART Receive Input
Note
RB2/
TX/CK
0
Peripheral OE (output enable) is only active if
peripheral select is active.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
Schmitt
Trigger
Note
1:
Peripheral OE (output enable) is only active if
peripheral select is active.
DS40044F-page 37
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-11:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB3/CCP1 PIN
VDD
Weak
P Pull-up
VDD
RBPU
CCP1CON
CCP output
0
Data Bus
WR PORTB
D
Q
CK
Q
RB3/
CCP1
1
Data Latch
WR TRISB
D
Q
CK
Q
VSS
TRIS Latch
Peripheral OE(2)
TTL
Input
Buffer
RD TRISB
Q
D
EN
RD PORTB
CCP In
Schmitt
Trigger
Note
1:
Peripheral OE (output enable) is only active if
peripheral select is active.
DS40044F-page 38
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-12:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB4/PGM PIN
VDD
RBPU
P weak pull-up
Data Bus
WR PORTB
D
Q
CK
Q
VDD
Data Latch
WR TRISB
D
Q
CK
Q
RB4/PGM
VSS
TRIS Latch
RD TRISB
LVP (Configuration Bit)
RD PORTB
PGM input
TTL
input
buffer
Schmitt
Trigger
Q
D
EN
Q1
Set RBIF
From other
RB<7:4> pins
Q
D
EN
Note:
Q3
The low-voltage programming disables the interrupt-on-change and the weak pull-ups on RB4.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 39
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-13:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB5 PIN
VDD
RBPU
weak VDD
P pull-up
Data Bus
D
Q
CK
Q
RB5 pin
WR PORTB
Data Latch
VSS
D
Q
CK
Q
WR TRISB
TRIS Latch
TTL
input
buffer
RD TRISB
Q
D
RD PORTB
EN
Q1
Set RBIF
From other
RB<7:4> pins
Q
D
EN
DS40044F-page 40
Q3
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-14:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC PIN
VDD
RBPU
P weak pull-up
Data Bus
WR PORTB
D
Q
CK
Q
VDD
Data Latch
WR TRISB
D
Q
CK
Q
RB6/
T1OSO/
T1CKI/
PGC
pin
VSS
TRIS Latch
RD TRISB
T1OSCEN
TTL
input
buffer
RD PORTB
TMR1 Clock
From RB7
Schmitt
Trigger
TMR1 oscillator
Serial Programming Clock
Q
D
EN
Q1
Set RBIF
From other
RB<7:4> pins
Q
D
Q3
EN
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 41
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 5-15:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE RB7/T1OSI/PGD PIN
VDD
RBPU
P weak pull-up
TMR1 oscillator
To RB6
VDD
Data Bus
WR PORTB
D
Q
CK
Q
RB7/T1OSI/
PGD pin
Data Latch
WR TRISB
D
Q
CK
Q
VSS
TRIS Latch
RD TRISB
T10SCEN
TTL
input
buffer
RD PORTB
Serial Programming Input
Schmitt
Trigger
Q
D
EN
Q1
Set RBIF
From other
RB<7:4> pins
Q
D
EN
DS40044F-page 42
Q3
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 5-3:
PORTB FUNCTIONS
Name
Function Input Type
RB0/INT
RB1/RX/DT
Output
Type
RB0
TTL
CMOS
INT
ST
—
RB1
TTL
CMOS
Description
Bidirectional I/O port. Can be software programmed for
internal weak pull-up.
External interrupt
Bidirectional I/O port. Can be software programmed for
internal weak pull-up.
RX
ST
—
DT
ST
CMOS
RB2
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port
TX
—
CMOS
USART Transmit Pin
CK
ST
CMOS
Synchronous Clock I/O. Can be software programmed
for internal weak pull-up.
RB3
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Can be software programmed for
internal weak pull-up.
CCP1
ST
CMOS
Capture/Compare/PWM/I/O
RB4
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Interrupt-on-pin change. Can be
software programmed for internal weak pull-up.
PGM
ST
—
Low-voltage programming input pin. When low-voltage
programming is enabled, the interrupt-on-pin change
and weak pull-up resistor are disabled.
RB5
RB5
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Interrupt-on-pin change. Can be
software programmed for internal weak pull-up.
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/
PGC
RB6
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port. Interrupt-on-pin change. Can be
software programmed for internal weak pull-up.
T1OSO
—
XTAL
T1CKI
ST
—
Timer1 Clock Input
PGC
ST
—
ICSP™ Programming Clock
RB7
TTL
CMOS
T1OSI
XTAL
—
PGD
ST
RB2/TX/CK
RB3/CCP1
RB4/PGM
RB7/T1OSI/PGD
Legend:
O = Output
— = Not used
TTL = TTL Input
TABLE 5-4:
CMOS
USART Receive Pin
Synchronous data I/O
Timer1 Oscillator Output
Bidirectional I/O port. Interrupt-on-pin change. Can be
software programmed for internal weak pull-up.
Timer1 Oscillator Input
ICSP Data I/O
CMOS = CMOS Output
I
= Input
OD
= Open Drain Output
P = Power
ST = Schmitt Trigger Input
AN = Analog
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on
All Other
Resets
06h, 106h
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4(1)
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
86h, 186h
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5 TRISB4 TRISB3 TRISB2 TRISB1 TRISB0 1111 1111
1111 1111
81h, 181h
OPTION
RBPU
INTEDG
Legend:
Note 1:
u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used for PORTB.
LVP configuration bit sets RB4 functionality.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
DS40044F-page 43
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
5.3
I/O Programming Considerations
5.3.1
EXAMPLE 5-2:
BIDIRECTIONAL I/O PORTS
Any instruction that writes operates internally as a read
followed by a write operation. The BCF and BSF
instructions, for example, read the register into the
CPU, execute the bit operation and write the result
back to the register. Caution must be used when these
instructions are applied to a port with both inputs and
outputs defined. For example, a BSF operation on bit 5
of PORTB will cause all eight bits of PORTB to be read
into the CPU. Then the BSF operation takes place on
bit 5 and PORTB is written to the output latches. If
another bit of PORTB is used as a bidirectional I/O pin
(e.g., bit 0) and is defined as an input at this time, the
input signal present on the pin itself would be read into
the CPU and rewritten to the data latch of this particular
pin, overwriting the previous content. As long as the pin
stays in the Input mode, no problem occurs. However,
if bit 0 is switched into Output mode later on, the
content of the data latch may now be unknown.
Reading a port register reads the values of the port
pins. Writing to the port register writes the value to the
port latch. When using read-modify-write instructions
(ex. BCF, BSF, etc.) on a port, the value of the port pins
is read, the desired operation is done to this value, and
this value is then written to the port latch.
Example 5-2 shows the effect of two sequential readmodify-write instructions (ex., BCF, BSF, etc.) on an
I/O port.
A pin actively outputting a Low or High should not be
driven from external devices at the same time in order
to change the level on this pin (“wired-OR”, “wiredAND”). The resulting high output currents may damage
the chip.
FIGURE 5-16:
;Initial PORT settings:PORTB<7:4> Inputs
;
PORTB<3:0> Outputs
;PORTB<7:6> have external pull-up and are
;not connected to other circuitry
;
;
PORT latchPORT Pins
---------- ---------BCF STATUS, RP0
;
BCF PORTB, 7
;01pp pppp 11pp pppp
BSF STATUS, RP0
;
BCF TRISB, 7
;10pp pppp 11pp pppp
BCF TRISB, 6
;10pp pppp 10pp pppp
;
;Note that the user may have expected the
;pin values to be 00pp pppp. The 2nd BCF
;caused RB7 to be latched as the pin value
;(High).
5.3.2
SUCCESSIVE OPERATIONS ON I/O
PORTS
The actual write to an I/O port happens at the end of
an instruction cycle, whereas for reading, the data
must be valid at the beginning of the instruction cycle
(Figure 5-16). Therefore, care must be exercised if a
write followed by a read operation is carried out on the
same I/O port. The sequence of instructions should be
such to allow the pin voltage to stabilize (load
dependent) before the next instruction, which causes
that file to be read into the CPU, is executed. Otherwise, the previous state of that pin may be read into
the CPU rather than the new state. When in doubt, it
is better to separate these instructions with a NOP or
another instruction not accessing this I/O port.
SUCCESSIVE I/O OPERATION
Q1
PC
Instruction
fetched
READ-MODIFY-WRITE
INSTRUCTIONS ON AN
I/O PORT
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
PC
MOVWF PORTB
Write to PORTB
Q2 Q3 Q4
PC + 1
MOVF PORTB, W
Read to PORTB
Q1
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
PC + 2
NOP
Q2 Q3 Q4
PC + 3
NOP
Port pin
sampled here
TPD
Execute
MOVWF
PORTB
Note 1:
2:
Execute
MOVF
PORTB, W
Execute
NOP
This example shows write to PORTB followed by a read from PORTB.
Data setup time = (0.25 TCY - TPD) where TCY = instruction cycle and TPD = propagation delay of Q1 cycle
to output valid. Therefore, at higher clock frequencies, a write followed by a read may be problematic.
DS40044F-page 44
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
6.0
TIMER0 MODULE
The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following
features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
8-bit timer/counter
Read/write capabilities
8-bit software programmable prescaler
Internal or external clock select
Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h
Edge select for external clock
Figure 6-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer0
module. Additional information is available in the “PIC®
Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual” (DS33023).
Timer mode is selected by clearing the T0CS bit
(OPTION<5>). In Timer mode, the TMR0 register value
will increment every instruction cycle (without
prescaler). If the TMR0 register is written to, the
increment is inhibited for the following two cycles. The
user can work around this by writing an adjusted value
to the TMR0 register.
Counter mode is selected by setting the T0CS bit. In
this mode the TMR0 register value will increment either
on every rising or falling edge of pin RA4/T0CKI/CMP2.
The incrementing edge is determined by the source
edge (T0SE) control bit (OPTION<4>). Clearing the
T0SE bit selects the rising edge. Restrictions on the
external clock input are discussed in detail in
Section 6.2 “Using Timer0 with External Clock”.
The prescaler is shared between the Timer0 module
and the Watchdog Timer. The prescaler assignment is
controlled in software by the control bit PSA
(OPTION<3>). Clearing the PSA bit will assign the
prescaler to Timer0. The prescaler is not readable or
writable. When the prescaler is assigned to the Timer0
module, prescale value of 1:2, 1:4,..., 1:256 are
selectable. Section 6.3 “Timer0 Prescaler” details
the operation of the prescaler.
6.1
6.2
Using Timer0 with External Clock
When an external clock input is used for Timer0, it must
meet certain requirements. The external clock
requirement is due to internal phase clock (TOSC)
synchronization. Also, there is a delay in the actual
incrementing of Timer0 after synchronization.
6.2.1
EXTERNAL CLOCK
SYNCHRONIZATION
When no prescaler is used, the external clock input is
the same as the prescaler output. The synchronization
of T0CKI with the internal phase clocks is
accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the
Q2 and Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks
(Figure 6-1). Therefore, it is necessary for T0CKI to be
high for at least 2TOSC (and a small RC delay of 20 ns)
and low for at least 2TOSC (and a small RC delay of
20 ns). Refer to the electrical specification of the
desired device.
When a prescaler is used, the external clock input is
divided by the asynchronous ripple-counter type
prescaler so that the prescaler output is symmetrical.
For the external clock to meet the sampling
requirement, the ripple-counter must be taken into
account. Therefore, it is necessary for T0CKI to have a
period of at least 4TOSC (and a small RC delay of 40 ns)
divided by the prescaler value. The only requirement
on T0CKI high and low time is that they do not violate
the minimum pulse width requirement of 10 ns. Refer to
parameters 40, 41 and 42 in the electrical specification
of the desired device. See Table 17-8.
Timer0 Interrupt
Timer0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register
timer/counter overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow
sets the T0IF bit. The interrupt can be masked by
clearing the T0IE bit (INTCON<5>). The T0IF bit
(INTCON<2>) must be cleared in software by the
Timer0 module interrupt service routine before reenabling this interrupt. The Timer0 interrupt cannot
wake the processor from Sleep since the timer is shut
off during Sleep.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 45
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
6.3
Timer0 Prescaler
The PSA and PS<2:0> bits (OPTION<3:0>) determine
the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio.
An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the
Timer0 module, or as a postscaler for the Watchdog
Timer. A prescaler assignment for the Timer0 module
means that there is no postscaler for the Watchdog
Timer, and vice-versa.
FIGURE 6-1:
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g., CLRF 1, MOVWF 1,
BSF 1, x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When
assigned to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the
prescaler along with the Watchdog Timer. The prescaler
is not readable or writable.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT
Data Bus
FOSC/4
8
0
T0CKI
pin
1
1
SYNC
2
Cycles
0
T0SE
T0CS
0
Watchdog
Timer
1
Set flag bit T0IF
on Overflow
PSA
TMR1 Clock Source
TMR0 Reg
WDT Postscaler/
TMR0 Prescaler
8
PSA
8-to-1MUX
PS<2:0>
WDT Enable bit
1
0
WDT
Time-out
PSA
Note:
DS40044F-page 46
T0SE, T0CS, PSA,. PS<2:0> are bits in the Option Register.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
6.3.1
SWITCHING PRESCALER
ASSIGNMENT
The prescaler assignment is fully under software
control (i.e., it can be changed “on-the-fly” during
program execution). Use the instruction sequences
shown in Example 6-1 when changing the prescaler
assignment from Timer0 to WDT, to avoid an
unintended device Reset.
EXAMPLE 6-1:
BCF
CLRWDT
CLRF
TMR0
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
'00101111’b
MOVWF
OPTION_REG
CLRWDT
MOVLW
'00101xxx’b
MOVWF
OPTION_REG
BCF
STATUS, RP0
Address
01h, 101h
85h
Legend:
Note 1:
CHANGING PRESCALER
(WDT → TIMER0)
CLRWDT
;Skip if already in
;Bank 0
;Clear WDT
;Clear TMR0 and
;Prescaler
;Bank 1
;These 3 lines
;(5, 6, 7)
;are required only
;if desired PS<2:0>
;are
;000 or 001
;Set Postscaler to
;desired WDT rate
;Return to Bank 0
;Clear WDT and
;prescaler
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
b'xxxx0xxx’
MOVWF
BCF
OPTION_REG
STATUS, RP0
;Select TMR0, new
;prescale value and
;clock source
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Name
TMR0
0Bh, 8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
81h, 181h
EXAMPLE 6-2:
CHANGING PRESCALER
(TIMER0 → WDT)
STATUS, RP0
TABLE 6-1:
To change prescaler from the WDT to the Timer0
module, use the sequence shown in Example 6-2. This
precaution must be taken even if the WDT is disabled.
OPTION(2)
TRISA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Timer0 Module Register
Value on
POR
Value on
All Other
Resets
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111 1111 1111
TRISA7 TRISA6 TRISA5 TRISA4 TRISA3 TRISA2 TRISA1 TRISA0 1111 1111 1111 1111
- = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used for Timer0.
Option is referred by OPTION_REG in MPLAB® IDE Software.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 47
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
7.0
TIMER1 MODULE
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting
of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L) which are
readable and writable. The TMR1 register pair
(TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh
and rolls over to 0000h. The Timer1 Interrupt, if
enabled, is generated on overflow of the TMR1 register
pair which latches the interrupt flag bit TMR1IF
(PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by
setting/clearing the Timer1 interrupt enable bit TMR1IE
(PIE1<0>).
Timer1 can operate in one of two modes:
• As a timer
• As a counter
In Timer mode, the TMR1 register pair value
increments every instruction cycle. In Counter mode, it
increments on every rising edge of the external clock
input.
Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing
control bit TMR1ON (T1CON<0>).
Timer1 also has an internal “Reset input”. This Reset
can be generated by the CCP module (Section 9.0
“Capture/Compare/PWM
(CCP)
Module”).
Register 7-1 shows the Timer1 control register.
For the PIC16F627A/628A/648A, when the Timer1
oscillator is enabled (T1OSCEN is set), the RB7/
T1OSI/PGD and RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC pins
become inputs. That is, the TRISB<7:6> value is
ignored.
The Operating mode is determined by the clock select
bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>).
REGISTER 7-1:
T1CON – TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS: 10h)
U-0
U-0
—
—
R/W-0
R/W-0
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0
R/W-0
T1OSCEN
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-4
T1CKPS<1:0>: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 3
T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control bit
1 = Oscillator is enabled
0 = Oscillator is shut off(1)
bit 2
T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
TMR1CS = 1
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
TMR1CS = 0
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.
bit 1
TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from pin RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0
TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
Note 1: The oscillator inverter and feedback resistor are turned off to eliminate power drain.
Legend:
DS40044F-page 48
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
7.1
7.2.1
Timer1 Operation in Timer Mode
Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS
(T1CON<1>) bit. In this mode, the input clock to the
timer is FOSC/4. The synchronize control bit T1SYNC
(T1CON<2>) has no effect since the internal clock is
always in sync.
7.2
Timer1 Operation in Synchronized
Counter Mode
Counter mode is selected by setting bit TMR1CS. In
this mode, the TMR1 register pair value increments on
every rising edge of clock input on pin RB7/T1OSI/PGD
when bit T1OSCEN is set or pin RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/
PGC when bit T1OSCEN is cleared.
If T1SYNC is cleared, then the external clock input is
synchronized with internal phase clocks. The synchronization is done after the prescaler stage. The
prescaler stage is an asynchronous ripple-counter.
In this configuration, during Sleep mode, the TMR1
register pair value will not increment even if the
external clock is present, since the synchronization
circuit is shut off. The prescaler however will continue
to increment.
FIGURE 7-1:
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT TIMING
FOR SYNCHRONIZED COUNTER
MODE
When an external clock input is used for Timer1 in
Synchronized Counter mode, it must meet certain
requirements. The external clock requirement is due to
internal phase clock (TOSC) synchronization. Also,
there is a delay in the actual incrementing of the TMR1
register pair value after synchronization.
When the prescaler is 1:1, the external clock input is
the same as the prescaler output. The synchronization
of T1CKI with the internal phase clocks is accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and
Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks. Therefore, it is
necessary for T1CKI to be high for at least 2 TOSC (and
a small RC delay of 20 ns) and low for at least 2 TOSC
(and a small RC delay of 20 ns). Refer to Table 17-8 in
the Electrical Specifications Section, timing parameters
45, 46 and 47.
When a prescaler other than 1:1 is used, the external
clock input is divided by the asynchronous ripple-counter
type prescaler so that the prescaler output is symmetrical. In order for the external clock to meet the sampling
requirement, the ripple-counter must be taken into
account. Therefore, it is necessary for T1CKI to have a
period of at least 4 TOSC (and a small RC delay of 40 ns)
divided by the prescaler value. The only requirement on
T1CKI high and low time is that they do not violate the
minimum pulse width requirements of 10 ns). Refer to
the appropriate electrical specifications in Table 17-8,
parameters 45, 46 and 47.
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Set flag bit
TMR1IF on
Overflow
TMR1H
Synchronized
0
TMR1
Clock Input
TMR1L
1
TMR1ON
T1SYNC
T1OSC
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC
RB7/T1OSI/PGD
1
T1OSCEN
Enable
Oscillator(1)
FOSC/4
Internal
Clock
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
Synchronize
det
0
2
Sleep Input
T1CKPS<1:0>
TMR1CS
Note 1: When the T1OSCEN bit is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off. This eliminates power drain.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 49
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
7.3
Timer1 Operation in
Asynchronous Counter Mode
If control bit T1SYNC (T1CON<2>) is set, the external
clock input is not synchronized. The timer continues to
increment asynchronous to the internal phase clocks.
The timer will continue to run during Sleep and can
generate an interrupt on overflow, which will wake-up the
processor. However, special precautions in software are
needed to read/write the timer (Section 7.3.2 “Reading
and Writing Timer1 in Asynchronous Counter
Mode”).
Note:
7.3.1
In Asynchronous Counter mode, Timer1
cannot be used as a time base for capture
or compare operations.
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT TIMING
WITH UNSYNCHRONIZED CLOCK
If control bit T1SYNC is set, the timer will increment
completely asynchronously. The input clock must meet
certain minimum high and low time requirements. Refer
to Table 17-8 in the Electrical Specifications Section,
timing parameters 45, 46 and 47.
7.3.2
EXAMPLE 7-1:
READING A 16-BIT FREERUNNING TIMER
; All interrupts are disabled
MOVF
TMR1H, W
;Read high byte
MOVWF
TMPH
;
MOVF
TMR1L, W
;Read low byte
MOVWF
TMPL
;
MOVF
TMR1H, W
;Read high byte
SUBWF
TMPH, W
;Sub 1st read with
;2nd read
BTFSC
STATUS,Z
;Is result = 0
GOTO
CONTINUE
;Good 16-bit read
;
; TMR1L may have rolled over between the
; read of the high and low bytes. Reading
; the high and low bytes now will read a good
; value.
;
MOVF
TMR1H, W
;Read high byte
MOVWF
TMPH
;
MOVF
TMR1L, W
;Read low byte
MOVWF
TMPL
;
; Re-enable the Interrupts (if required)
CONTINUE
;Continue with your
;code
READING AND WRITING TIMER1 IN
ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER
MODE
Reading the TMR1H or TMR1L register, while the timer
is running from an external asynchronous clock, will
produce a valid read (taken care of in hardware).
However, the user should keep in mind that reading the
16-bit timer in two 8-bit values itself poses certain
problems since the timer may overflow between the
reads.
For writes, it is recommended that the user simply stop
the timer and write the desired values. A write
contention may occur by writing to the timer registers
while the register is incrementing. This may produce an
unpredictable value in the timer register.
Reading the 16-bit value requires some care.
Example 7-1 is an example routine to read the 16-bit
timer value. This is useful if the timer cannot be
stopped.
DS40044F-page 50
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
7.4
Timer1 Oscillator
7.5
A crystal oscillator circuit is built in between pins T1OSI
(input) and T1OSO (amplifier output). It is enabled by
setting control bit T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). It will
continue to run during Sleep. It is primarily intended for
a 32.768 kHz watch crystal. Table 7-1 shows the
capacitor selection for the Timer1 oscillator.
If the CCP1 module is configured in Compare mode to
generate a “special event trigger” (CCP1M<3:0> =
1011), this signal will reset Timer1.
Note:
The user must provide a software time delay to ensure
proper oscillator start-up.
TABLE 7-1:
C1
C2
32.768 kHz
15 pF
15 pF
Note:
The special event triggers from the CCP1
module will not set interrupt flag bit
TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
Timer1 must be configured for either timer or
Synchronized Counter mode to take advantage of this
feature. If Timer1 is running in Asynchronous Counter
mode, this Reset operation may not work.
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
THE TIMER1 OSCILLATOR
Freq
Resetting Timer1 Using a CCP
Trigger Output
In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a
special event trigger from CCP1, the write will take
precedence.
These values are for design guidance only.
Consult Application Note AN826 “Crystal
Oscillator Basics and Crystal Selection for
rfPIC® and PIC® Devices” (DS00826) for
further information on Crystal/Capacitor
Selection.
In this mode of operation, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL
register pair effectively becomes the period register for
Timer1.
7.6
Resetting Timer1 Register Pair
(TMR1H, TMR1L)
TMR1H and TMR1L registers are not reset to 00h on
a POR or any other Reset except by the CCP1 special
event triggers (see Section 9.2.4 “Special Event
Trigger”).
T1CON register is reset to 00h on a Power-on Reset or
a Brown-out Reset, which shuts off the timer and
leaves a 1:1 prescale. In all other Resets, the register
is unaffected.
7.7
Timer1 Prescaler
The prescaler counter is cleared on writes to the
TMR1H or TMR1L registers.
TABLE 7-2:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
0Bh, 8Bh,
10Bh, 18Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 -000
0000 -000
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 -000
0000 -000
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
Legend:
—
—
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 51
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
8.0
TIMER2 MODULE
Timer2 is an 8-bit timer with a prescaler and a
postscaler. It can be used as the PWM time base for
PWM mode of the CCP module. The TMR2 register is
readable and writable, and is cleared on any device
Reset.
The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option of 1:1,
1:4 or 1:16, selected by control bits T2CKPS<1:0>
(T2CON<1:0>).
The Timer2 module has an 8-bit period register PR2.
The TMR2 register value increments from 00h until it
matches the PR2 register value and then resets to 00h
on the next increment cycle. The PR2 register is a
readable and writable register. The PR2 register is
initialized to FFh upon Reset.
The match output of Timer2 goes through a 4-bit
postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling inclusive)
to generate a Timer2 interrupt (latched in flag bit
TMR2IF, (PIR1<1>)).
8.1
Timer2 Prescaler and Postscaler
The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
when any of the following occurs:
• a write to the TMR2 register
• a write to the T2CON register
• any device Reset (Power-on Reset, MCLR Reset,
Watchdog Timer Reset or Brown-out Reset)
The TMR2 register is not cleared when T2CON is
written.
8.2
TMR2 Output
The TMR2 output (before the postscaler) is fed to the
Synchronous Serial Port module which optionally uses
it to generate shift clock.
FIGURE 8-1:
Sets flag
bit TMR2IF
TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR2
output
Timer2 can be shut off by clearing control bit TMR2ON
(T2CON<2>) to minimize power consumption.
Reset
Register 8-1 shows the Timer2 control register.
Postscaler
1:1 to 1:16
EQ
TMR2 Reg
Comparator
Prescaler
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
FOSC/4
2
T2CKPS<1:0>
4
PR2 Reg
TOUTPS<3:0>
DS40044F-page 52
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
REGISTER 8-1:
T2CON – TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS: 12h)
U-0
R/W-0
—
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1
R/W-0
TOUTPS0
R/W-0
R/W-0
TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-3
TOUTPS<3:0>: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscale Value
0001 = 1:2 Postscale Value
•
•
•
1111 = 1:16 Postscale
bit 2
TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit
1 = Timer2 is on
0 = Timer2 is off
bit 1-0
T2CKPS<1:0>: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = 1:1 Prescaler Value
01 = 1:4 Prescaler Value
1x = 1:16 Prescaler Value
Legend:
TABLE 8-1:
Address
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0Bh, 8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 -000 0000 -000
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 -000 0000 -000
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
92h
PR2
Legend:
Name
Timer2 Module’s Register
—
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1
Timer2 Period Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 53
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 54
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
9.0
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM
(CCP) MODULE
TABLE 9-1:
The CCP (Capture/Compare/PWM) module contains a
16-bit register which can operate as a 16-bit Capture
register, as a 16-bit Compare register or as a PWM
master/slave Duty Cycle register. Table 9-1 shows the
timer resources of the CCP module modes.
CCP MODE – TIMER
RESOURCE
CCP Mode
Timer Resource
Capture
Timer1
Compare
Timer1
PWM
Timer2
CCP1 Module
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (CCPR1) is
comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte)
and CCPR1H (high byte). The CCP1CON register
controls the operation of CCP1. All are readable and
writable.
Additional information on the CCP module is available
in the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual” (DS33023).
REGISTER 9-1:
CCP1CON – CCP OPERATION REGISTER (ADDRESS: 17h)
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-4
CCP1X:CCP1Y: PWM Least Significant bits
Capture Mode
Unused
Compare Mode
Unused
PWM Mode
These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPRxL.
bit 3-0
CCP1M<3:0>: CCPx Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets CCP1 module)
0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode, set output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
1001 = Compare mode, clear output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCP1IF bit is set, CCP1 pin is
unaffected)
1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (CCP1IF bit is set; CCP1 resets TMR1
11xx = PWM mode
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS40044F-page 55
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
9.1
9.1.4
Capture Mode
In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the
16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs
on pin RB3/CCP1. An event is defined as:
•
•
•
•
Every falling edge
Every rising edge
Every 4th rising edge
Every 16th rising edge
An event is selected by control bits CCP1M<3:0>
(CCP1CON<3:0>). When a capture is made, the
interrupt request flag bit CCP1IF (PIR1<2>) is set. It
must be cleared in software. If another capture occurs
before the value in register CCPR1 is read, the old
captured value will be lost.
9.1.1
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
In Capture mode, the RB3/CCP1 pin should be configured as an input by setting the TRISB<3> bit.
Note:
If the RB3/CCP1 is configured as an
output, a write to the port can cause a
capture condition.
FIGURE 9-1:
CAPTURE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Prescaler
³ 1, 4, 16
Set flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
RB3/CCP1
pin
CCPR1H
and
edge detect
CCPR1L
Capture
Enable
TMR1H
TMR1L
CCP1CON<3:0>
Q’s
9.1.2
9.1.3
There are four prescaler settings, specified by bits
CCP1M<3:0>. Whenever the CCP module is turned
off, or the CCP module is not in Capture mode, the
prescaler counter is cleared. This means that any
Reset will clear the prescaler counter.
Switching from one capture prescaler to another may
generate an interrupt. Also, the prescaler counter will not
be cleared, therefore the first capture may be from a
non-zero
prescaler.
Example 9-1
shows
the
recommended method for switching between capture
prescalers. This example also clears the prescaler
counter and will not generate the “false” interrupt.
EXAMPLE 9-1:
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
9.2
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT
When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture
interrupt may be generated. The user should keep bit
CCP1IE (PIE1<2>) clear to avoid false interrupts and
should clear the flag bit CCP1IF following any such
change in Operating mode.
DS40044F-page 56
CHANGING BETWEEN
CAPTURE PRESCALERS
CCP1CON
;Turn CCP module off
NEW_CAPT_PS ;Load the W reg with
; the new prescaler
; mode value and CCP ON
CCP1CON
;Load CCP1CON with this
; value
Compare Mode
In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is
constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair
value. When a match occurs, the RB3/CCP1 pin is:
• Driven high
• Driven low
• Remains unchanged
The action on the pin is based on the value of control
bits CCP1M<3:0> (CCP1CON<3:0>). At the same
time, interrupt flag bit CCP1IF is set.
FIGURE 9-2:
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode for the CCP module to use the
capture feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the
capture operation may not work.
CCP PRESCALER
COMPARE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Set flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
CCPR1H CCPR1L
Q S Output
Logic
match
RB3/CCP1
R
pin
TRISB<3>
Output Enable CCP1CON<3:0>
Mode Select
Note:
Comparator
TMR1H
TMR1L
Special event trigger will reset Timer1, but not
set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
9.2.1
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
9.2.4
The user must configure the RB3/CCP1 pin as an
output by clearing the TRISB<3> bit.
Note:
9.2.2
In this mode (CCP1M<3:0>=1011), an internal hardware trigger is generated, which may be used to initiate
an action. See Register 9-1.
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the RB3/CCP1 compare output latch to
the default low level. This is not the data
latch.
The special event trigger output of the CCP occurs
immediately upon a match between the TMR1H,
TMR1L register pair and CCPR1H, CCPR1L register
pair. The TMR1H, TMR1L register pair is not reset until
the next rising edge of the TMR1 clock. This allows the
CCPR1 register pair to effectively be a 16-bit programmable period register for Timer1. The special event
trigger output also starts an A/D conversion provided
that the A/D module is enabled.
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode if the CCP module is using the
compare feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the
compare operation may not work.
9.2.3
Note:
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
When generate software interrupt is chosen the CCP1
pin is not affected. Only a CCP interrupt is generated (if
enabled).
TABLE 9-2:
Address
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
Removing the match condition by changing the contents of the CCPR1H, CCPR1L
register pair between the clock edge that
generates the special event trigger and
the clock edge that generates the TMR1
Reset will preclude the Reset from
occuring.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE, AND TIMER1
Name
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 7 Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF 0000 -000 0000 -000
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE 0000 -000 0000 -000
86h, 186h
TRISB
PORTB Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
—
—
0000 000x 0000 000u
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
17h
CCP1CON
Legend:
—
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Capture and Timer1.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 57
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
9.3
PWM Mode
In Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode, the CCP1 pin
produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since
the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTB data latch,
the TRISB<3> bit must be cleared to make the CCP1
pin an output.
Note:
A PWM output (Figure 9-4) has a time base (period)
and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). The
frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period
(frequency = 1/period).
FIGURE 9-4:
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the CCP1 PWM output latch to the default
low level. This is not the PORTB I/O data
latch.
Period
Duty Cycle
Figure 9-3 shows a simplified block diagram of the
CCP module in PWM mode.
TMR2 = PR2
For a step by step procedure on how to set up the CCP
module for PWM operation, see Section 9.3.3 “SetUp for PWM Operation”.
FIGURE 9-3:
SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Duty cycle registers
PWM OUTPUT
TMR2 = Duty Cycle
TMR2 = PR2
9.3.1
PWM PERIOD
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2
register. The PWM period can be calculated using the
following formula:
CCP1CON<5:4>
CCPR1L
PWM period = [ ( PR2 ) + 1 ] ⋅ 4 ⋅ Tosc ⋅ TMR2 prescale
value
CCPR1H (Slave)
PWM frequency is defined as 1/[PWM period].
R
Comparator
When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events
occur on the next increment cycle:
Q
RB3/CCP1
(1)
TMR2
S
TRISB<3>
Comparator
Clear Timer,
CCP1 pin and
latch D.C.
PR2
Note
1:
• TMR2 is cleared
• The CCP1 pin is set (exception: if PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into
CCPR1H
Note:
8-bit timer is concatenated with 2-bit internal Q
clock or 2 bits of the prescaler to create 10-bit
time base.
DS40044F-page 58
The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 8.0
“Timer2 Module”) is not used in the
determination of the PWM frequency. The
postscaler could be used to have a servo
update rate at a different frequency than
the PWM output.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
9.3.2
PWM DUTY CYCLE
Maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM
frequency:
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the
CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up
to 10-bit resolution is available: the CCPR1L contains
the eight MSbs and the CCP1CON<5:4> contains the
two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by
CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The following equation is
used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time:
Fosc
log ⎛⎝ -------------------------------------------------------------⎞⎠
PWM
F PWM × TMR2 Prescaler
Resolution = --------------------------------------------------------------------------- bits
log(2)
Note:
If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than
the PWM period the CCP1 pin will not be
cleared.
PWM duty cycle =
(CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) ⋅ Tosc ⋅ TMR2 prescale
value
For an example PWM period and duty cycle
calculation, see the PIC® Mid-Range Reference Manual (DS33023).
CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any
time, but the duty cycle value is not latched into
CCPR1H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2
occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode,
CCPR1H is a read-only register.
9.3.3
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the CCP module for PWM operation:
1.
The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double
buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation.
2.
When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2
concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or 2 bits of
the TMR2 prescaler, the CCP1 pin is cleared.
3.
4.
TABLE 9-3:
SET-UP FOR PWM OPERATION
Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2
register.
Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the
CCPR1L register and CCP1CON<5:4> bits.
Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the
TRISB<3> bit.
Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2
by writing to T2CON.
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS AT 20 MHz
PWM Frequency
1.22 kHz 4.88 kHz 19.53 kHz 78.12 kHz 156.3 kHz 208.3 kHz
Timer Prescaler (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
TABLE 9-4:
16
4
1
1
1
1
0xFF
0xFF
0xFF
0x3F
0x1F
0x17
10
10
10
8
7
6.5
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM AND TIMER2
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
0Bh, 8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
Address
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 -000
0000 -000
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 -000
0000 -000
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
86h, 186h
TRISB
TRISB7
1111 1111
1111 1111
11h
TMR2
Timer2 Module’s Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
92h
PR2
Timer2 Module’s Period Register
1111 1111
1111 1111
12h
T2CON
-000 0000
uuuu uuuu
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
17h
CCP1CON
--00 0000
--00 0000
Legend:
—
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0
—
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3
TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PWM and Timer2.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 59
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 60
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
10.0
COMPARATOR MODULE
The comparator module contains two analog
comparators. The inputs to the comparators are
multiplexed with the RA0 through RA3 pins. The on-chip
Voltage Reference (Section 11.0 “Voltage Reference
Module”) can also be an input to the comparators.
REGISTER 10-1:
The CMCON register, shown in Register 10-1, controls
the comparator input and output multiplexers. A block
diagram of the comparator is shown in Figure 10-1.
CMCON – COMPARATOR CONFIGURATION REGISTER (ADDRESS: 01Fh)
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
bit 7
bit 7
bit 0
C2OUT: Comparator 2 Output bit
When C2INV = 0:
1 = C2 VIN+ > C2 VIN0 = C2 VIN+ < C2 VINWhen C2INV = 1:
1 = C2 VIN+ < C2 VIN0 = C2 VIN+ > C2 VIN-
bit 6
C1OUT: Comparator 1 Output bit
When C1INV = 0:
1 = C1 VIN+ > C1 VIN0 = C1 VIN+ < C1 VINWhen C1INV = 1:
1 = C1 VIN+ < C1 VIN0 = C1 VIN+ > C1 VIN-
bit 5
C2INV: Comparator 2 Output Inversion bit
1 = C2 Output inverted
0 = C2 Output not inverted
bit 4
C1INV: Comparator 1 Output Inversion bit
1 = C1 Output inverted
0 = C1 Output not inverted
bit 3
CIS: Comparator Input Switch bit
When CM<2:0>: = 001
Then:
1 = C1 VIN- connects to RA3
0 = C1 VIN- connects to RA0
When CM<2:0> = 010
Then:
1 = C1 VIN- connects to RA3
C2 VIN- connects to RA2
0 = C1 VIN- connects to RA0
C2 VIN- connects to RA1
bit 2-0
CM<2:0>: Comparator Mode bits
Figure 10-1 shows the comparator modes and CM<2:0> bit settings
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS40044F-page 61
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
10.1
Comparator Configuration
If the Comparator mode is changed, the comparator
output level may not be valid for the specified mode
change delay shown in Table 17-2.
There are eight modes of operation for the
comparators. The CMCON register is used to select
the mode. Figure 10-1 shows the eight possible
modes. The TRISA register controls the data direction
of the comparator pins for each mode.
Note 1: Comparator interrupts should be disabled
during a Comparator mode change,
otherwise a false interrupt may occur.
2: Comparators can have an inverted
output. See Figure 10-1.
FIGURE 10-1:
COMPARATOR I/O OPERATING MODES
Comparators Off
CM<2:0> = 111
Comparators Reset (POR Default Value)
CM<2:0> = 000
RA0/AN0
A
VIN-
RA3/AN3/CMP1
A
VIN+
RA1/AN1
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/VREF
A
VIN+
C1
Off (Read as ‘0’)
RA0/AN0
D
VIN-
RA3/AN3/CMP1
D
VIN+
D
VIN-
D
VIN+
RA1/AN1
C2
Off (Read as ‘0’)
RA2/AN2/VREF
C1
Off (Read as ‘0’)
C2
Off (Read as ‘0’)
VSS
Four Inputs Multiplexed to Two Comparators
CM<2:0> = 010
Two Independent Comparators
CM<2:0> = 100
A
RA0/AN0
VIN+
A
RA3/AN3/CMP1
RA0/AN0
VIN-
RA1/AN1
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/VREF
A
VIN+
C1
C2
C1VOUT
A
CIS = 0
CIS = 1
RA3/AN3/CMP1 A
RA1/AN1
A
RA2/AN2/VREF
A
CIS = 0
CIS = 1
C2VOUT
VINVIN+
C1
C1VOUT
C2
C2VOUT
VINVIN+
From VREF
Module
Two Common Reference Comparators with Outputs
CM<2:0> = 110
Two Common Reference Comparators
CM<2:0> = 011
RA0/AN0
A
D
VIN+
RA1/AN1
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/VREF
A
VIN+
RA3/AN3/CMP1
A
VIN-
RA3/AN3/CMP1
D
VIN+
RA1/AN1
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/VREF
A
VIN+
RA0/AN0
VINC1
C2
C1VOUT
C2VOUT
C1
C1VOUT
C2
C2VOUT
RA4/T0CKI/CMP2 Open Drain
Three Inputs Multiplexed to Two Comparators
CM<2:0> = 001
One Independent Comparator
CM<2:0> = 101
RA0/AN0
D
RA3/AN3/CMP1 D
VINVIN+
RA0/AN0
C1
Off (Read as ‘0’)
A
RA3/AN3/CMP1 A
CIS = 0
CIS = 1
VINVIN+
C1
C1VOUT
C2
C2VOUT
VSS
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF
A
VIN-
A
VIN+
C2
A = Analog Input, port reads zeros always.
DS40044F-page 62
RA1/AN1
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/VREF
A
VIN+
C2VOUT
D = Digital Input.
CIS (CMCON<3>) is the Comparator Input Switch.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
The code example in Example 10-1 depicts the steps
required to configure the Comparator module. RA3 and
RA4 are configured as digital output. RA0 and RA1 are
configured as the V- inputs and RA2 as the V+ input to
both comparators.
EXAMPLE 10-1:
BCF
BSF
BSF
BCF
BSF
BSF
10.2
0X20
;Init flag register
;Init PORTA
;Load comparator bits
;Mask comparator bits
;Store bits in flag register
;Init comparator mode
;CM<2:0> = 011
;Select Bank1
;Initialize data direction
;Set RA<2:0> as inputs
;RA<4:3> as outputs
;TRISA<7:5> always read ‘0’
STATUS,RP0 ;Select Bank 0
DELAY10
;10µs delay
CMCON,F
;Read CMCON to end change
;condition
PIR1,CMIF ;Clear pending interrupts
STATUS,RP0 ;Select Bank 1
PIE1,CMIE ;Enable comparator interrupts
STATUS,RP0 ;Select Bank 0
INTCON,PEIE ;Enable peripheral interrupts
INTCON,GIE ;Global interrupt enable
VIN+
+
VIN-
–
Result
VINVIN+
Result
10.3.1
EXTERNAL REFERENCE SIGNAL
When external voltage references are used, the
Comparator module can be configured to have the
comparators operate from the same or different
reference sources. However, threshold detector
applications may require the same reference. The
reference signal must be between VSS and VDD, and
can be applied to either pin of the comparator(s).
Comparator Operation
A single comparator is shown in Figure 10-2 along with
the relationship between the analog input levels and
the digital output. When the analog input at VIN+ is less
than the analog input VIN-, the output of the comparator
is a digital low level. When the analog input at VIN+ is
greater than the analog input VIN-, the output of the
comparator is a digital high level. The shaded areas of
the output of the comparator in Figure 10-2 represent
the uncertainty due to input offsets and response time.
See Table 17-2 for Common Mode voltage.
10.3
SINGLE COMPARATOR
INITIALIZING
COMPARATOR MODULE
FLAG_REG
EQU
CLRF
FLAG_REG
CLRF
PORTA
MOVF
CMCON, W
ANDLW
0xC0
IORWF
FLAG_REG,F
MOVLW
0x03
MOVWF
CMCON
BSF
STATUS,RP0
MOVLW
0x07
MOVWF
TRISA
BCF
CALL
MOVF
FIGURE 10-2:
Comparator Reference
An external or internal reference signal may be used
depending on the comparator Operating mode. The
analog signal that is present at VIN- is compared to the
signal at VIN+, and the digital output of the comparator
is adjusted accordingly (Figure 10-2).
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
10.3.2
INTERNAL REFERENCE SIGNAL
The Comparator module also allows the selection of an
internally generated voltage reference for the
comparators. Section 11.0 “Voltage Reference
Module”, contains a detailed description of the Voltage
Reference module that provides this signal. The
internal reference signal is used when the comparators
are in mode CM<2:0> = 010 (Figure 10-1). In this
mode, the internal voltage reference is applied to the
VIN+ pin of both comparators.
10.4
Comparator Response Time
Response time is the minimum time, after selecting a
new reference voltage or input source, before the
comparator output is to have a valid level. If the internal
reference is changed, the maximum delay of the internal
voltage reference must be considered when using the
comparator outputs. Otherwise, the maximum delay of
the comparators should be used (Table 17-2, page 140).
DS40044F-page 63
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
10.5
Comparator Outputs
The comparator outputs are read through the CMCON
register. These bits are read-only. The comparator
outputs may also be directly output to the RA3 and RA4
I/O pins. When the CM<2:0> = 110 or 001, multiplexors
in the output path of the RA3 and RA4/T0CK1/CMP2
pins will switch and the output of each pin will be the
unsynchronized output of the comparator. The
uncertainty of each of the comparators is related to the
input offset voltage and the response time given in the
specifications. Figure 10-3 shows the comparator output
block diagram.
The TRISA bits will still function as an output enable/
disable for the RA3/AN3/CMP1 and RA4/T0CK1/
CMP2 pins while in this mode.
Note 1: When reading the PORT register, all pins
configured as analog inputs will read as a
‘0’. Pins configured as digital inputs will
convert an analog input, according to the
Schmitt Trigger input specification.
2: Analog levels on any pin that is defined as
a digital input may cause the input buffer
to consume more current than is
specified.
FIGURE 10-3:
MODIFIED COMPARATOR OUTPUT BLOCK DIAGRAM
CnINV
To RA3/AN3/CMP1 or
RA4/T0CK1/CMP2 pin
To Data Bus
CMCON<7:6>
CnVOUT
Q
D
Q3
EN
RD CMCON
Q
Set CMIF bit
D
EN
CL
Q1
From other Comparator
Reset
DS40044F-page 64
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
10.6
Comparator Interrupts
The comparator interrupt flag is set whenever there is
a change in the output value of either comparator.
Software will need to maintain information about the
status of the output bits, as read from CMCON<7:6>, to
determine the actual change that has occurred. The
CMIF bit, PIR1<6>, is the comparator interrupt flag.
The CMIF bit must be reset by clearing ‘0’. Since it is
also possible to write a ‘1’ to this register, a simulated
interrupt may be initiated.
The CMIE bit (PIE1<6>) and the PEIE bit
(INTCON<6>) must be set to enable the interrupt. In
addition, the GIE bit must also be set. If any of these
bits are clear, the interrupt is not enabled, though the
CMIF bit will still be set if an interrupt condition occurs.
Note:
If a change in the CMCON register
(C1OUT or C2OUT) should occur when a
read operation is being executed (start of
the Q2 cycle), then the CMIF (PIR1<6>)
interrupt flag may not get set.
The user, in the interrupt service routine, can clear the
interrupt in the following manner:
a)
b)
Any write or read of CMCON. This will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit CMIF.
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit CMIF.
Reading CMCON will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit CMIF to be cleared.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
10.7
Comparator Operation During
Sleep
When a comparator is active and the device is placed
in Sleep mode, the comparator remains active and the
interrupt is functional if enabled. This interrupt will
wake-up the device from Sleep mode when enabled.
While the comparator is powered-up, higher Sleep
currents than shown in the power-down current
specification will occur. Each comparator that is
operational will consume additional current as shown in
the comparator specifications. To minimize power
consumption while in Sleep mode, turn off the
comparators, CM<2:0> = 111, before entering Sleep. If
the device wakes up from Sleep, the contents of the
CMCON register are not affected.
10.8
Effects of a Reset
A device Reset forces the CMCON register to its Reset
state. This forces the Comparator module to be in the
comparator Reset mode, CM<2:0> = 000. This ensures
that all potential inputs are analog inputs. Device current
is minimized when analog inputs are present at Reset
time. The comparators will be powered-down during the
Reset interval.
10.9
Analog Input Connection
Considerations
A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in
Figure 10-4. Since the analog pins are connected to a
digital output, they have reverse biased diodes to VDD
and VSS. The analog input therefore, must be between
VSS and VDD. If the input voltage deviates from this
range by more than 0.6V in either direction, one of the
diodes is forward biased and a latch-up may occur. A
maximum
source
impedance
of
10 kΩ
is
recommended for the analog sources. Any external
component connected to an analog input pin, such as
a capacitor or a Zener diode, should have very little
leakage current.
DS40044F-page 65
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 10-4:
ANALOG INPUT MODE
VDD
VT = 0.6V
RS < 10 K
RIC
AIN
CPIN
5 pF
VA
VT = 0.6V
ILEAKAGE
±500 nA
VSS
Legend: CPIN
VT
ILEAKAGE
RIC
RS
VA
TABLE 10-1:
Address
1Fh
=
=
=
=
=
=
Input Capacitance
Threshold Voltage
Leakage Current at the Pin
Interconnect Resistance
Source Impedance
Analog Voltage
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR MODULE
Value on
POR
Value on
All Other
Resets
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1NV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
0000 0000 0000 0000
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
0Bh, 8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 -000 0000 -000
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 -000 0000 -000
85h
Legend:
TRISA
TRISA7 TRISA6 TRISA5 TRISA4 TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
1111 1111 1111 1111
x = Unknown, u = Unchanged, - = Unimplemented, read as ‘0’
DS40044F-page 66
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
11.0
VOLTAGE REFERENCE
MODULE
The equations used to calculate the output of the
Voltage Reference module are as follows:
if VRR = 1:
The Voltage Reference module consists of a 16-tap
resistor ladder network that provides a selectable voltage reference. The resistor ladder is segmented to provide two ranges of VREF values and has a power-down
function to conserve power when the reference is not
being used. The VRCON register controls the operation of the reference as shown in Figure 11-1. The
block diagram is given in Figure 11-1.
11.1
VR <3:0>
VREF = ----------------------- × VDD
24
if VRR = 0:
VR <3:0>
1
VREF = ⎛ VDD × ---⎞ + ----------------------- × VDD
⎝
4⎠
32
The setting time of the Voltage Reference module must
be considered when changing the VREF output
(Table 17-3). Example 11-1 demonstrates how voltage
reference is configured for an output voltage of 1.25V
with VDD = 5.0V.
Voltage Reference Configuration
The Voltage Reference module can output 16 distinct
voltage levels for each range.
REGISTER 11-1:
VRCON – VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS: 9Fh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
VREN
VROE
VRR
—
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
VREN: VREF Enable bit
1 = VREF circuit powered on
0 = VREF circuit powered down, no IDD drain
bit 6
VROE: VREF Output Enable bit
1 = VREF is output on RA2 pin
0 = VREF is disconnected from RA2 pin
bit 5
VRR: VREF Range Selection bit
1 = Low range
0 = High range
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3-0
VR<3:0>: VREF Value Selection bits 0 ≤ VR <3:0> ≤ 15
When VRR = 1: VREF = (VR<3:0>/ 24) * VDD
When VRR = 0: VREF = 1/4 * VDD + (VR<3:0>/ 32) * VDD
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS40044F-page 67
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 11-1:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
VDD
VREN
16 Stages
8R
R
R
R
R
8R
VSS
VREF
Note:
11.2
0x02
CMCON
STATUS,RP0
0x07
TRISA
0xA6
VRCON
STATUS,RP0
DELAY10
VOLTAGE REFERENCE
CONFIGURATION
;4 Inputs Muxed
;to 2 comps.
;go to Bank 1
;RA3-RA0 are
;outputs
;enable VREF
;low range set VR<3:0>=6
;go to Bank 0
;10μs delay
Voltage Reference Accuracy/Error
The full range of VSS to VDD cannot be realized due to
the construction of the module. The transistors on the
top and bottom of the resistor ladder network
(Figure 11-1) keep VREF from approaching VSS or VDD.
The Voltage Reference module is VDD derived and
therefore, the VREF output changes with fluctuations in
VDD. The tested absolute accuracy of the Voltage Reference module can be found in Table 17-3.
11.3
VSS
VR3
(From VRCON<3:0>)
VR0
R is defined in Table 17-3.
EXAMPLE 11-1:
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BCF
CALL
16-1 Analog Mux
VRR
11.5
Connection Considerations
The Voltage Reference module operates independently
of the Comparator module. The output of the reference
generator may be connected to the RA2 pin if the
TRISA<2> bit is set and the VROE bit, VRCON<6>, is
set. Enabling the Voltage Reference module output onto
the RA2 pin with an input signal present will increase
current consumption. Connecting RA2 as a digital output
with VREF enabled will also increase current consumption.
The RA2 pin can be used as a simple D/A output with
limited drive capability. Due to the limited drive
capability, a buffer must be used in conjunction with the
Voltage Reference module output for external connections to VREF. Figure 11-2 shows an example buffering
technique.
Operation During Sleep
When the device wakes up from Sleep through an
interrupt or a Watchdog Timer time out, the contents of
the VRCON register are not affected. To minimize
current consumption in Sleep mode, the Voltage
Reference module should be disabled.
11.4
Effects of a Reset
A device Reset disables the Voltage Reference module
by clearing bit VREN (VRCON<7>). This Reset also
disconnects the reference from the RA2 pin by clearing
bit VROE (VRCON<6>) and selects the high voltage
range by clearing bit VRR (VRCON<5>). The VREF
value select bits, VRCON<3:0>, are also cleared.
DS40044F-page 68
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 11-2:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE OUTPUT BUFFER EXAMPLE
R(1)
VREF
Op Amp
RA2
+
Module
VREF Output
Voltage
Reference
Output
Impedance
Note 1: R is dependent upon the voltage reference configuration VRCON<3:0> and VRCON<5>.
TABLE 11-1:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH VOLTAGE REFERENCE
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value On
POR
Value On
All Other
Resets
9Fh
VRCON
VREN
VROE
VRR
—
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
000- 0000 000- 0000
1Fh
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
0000 0000 0000 0000
85h
TRISA
TRISA7 TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
Legend:
TRISA2 TRISA1
TRISA0 1111 1111 1111 1111
- = Unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 69
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 70
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
12.0
UNIVERSAL SYNCHRONOUS
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
TRANSMITTER (USART)
MODULE
The USART can be configured in the following modes:
• Asynchronous (full-duplex)
• Synchronous – Master (half-duplex)
• Synchronous – Slave (half-duplex)
The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (USART) is also known as a Serial
Communications Interface (SCI). The USART can be
configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system that
can communicate with peripheral devices such as CRT
terminals and personal computers, or it can be
configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that
can communicate with peripheral devices such as A/D
or D/A integrated circuits, Serial EEPROMs, etc.
REGISTER 12-1:
Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISB<2:1> have to be
set in order to configure pins RB2/TX/CK and RB1/RX/DT
as the Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter.
Register 12-1 shows the Transmit Status and Control
Register (TXSTA) and Register 12-2 shows the
Receive Status and Control Register (RCSTA).
TXSTA – TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS: 98h)
R/W-0
CSRC
R/W-0
TX9
R/W-0
TXEN
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R-1
R/W-0
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
CSRC: Clock Source Select bit
Asynchronous mode
Don’t care
Synchronous mode
1 = Master mode (Clock generated internally from BRG)
0 = Slave mode (Clock from external source)
bit 6
TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit transmission
0 = Selects 8-bit transmission
bit 5
TXEN: Transmit Enable bit(1)
1 = Transmit enabled
0 = Transmit disabled
bit 4
SYNC: USART Mode Select bit
1 = Synchronous mode
0 = Asynchronous mode
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit
Asynchronous mode
1 = High speed
0 = Low speed
Synchronous mode
Unused in this mode
bit 1
TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit
1 = TSR empty
0 = TSR full
bit 0
TX9D: 9th bit of transmit data. Can be parity bit.
Note 1: SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in SYNC mode.
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS40044F-page 71
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
REGISTER 12-2:
RCSTA – RECEIVE STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS: 18h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R-x
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit
(Configures RB1/RX/DT and RB2/TX/CK pins as serial port pins when bits TRISB<2:1> are set)
1 = Serial port enabled
0 = Serial port disabled
bit 6
RX9: 9-bit Receive Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit reception
0 = Selects 8-bit reception
bit 5
SREN: Single Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
Don’t care
Synchronous mode - master:
1 = Enables single receive
0 = Disables single receive
This bit is cleared after reception is complete.
Synchronous mode - slave:
Unused in this mode
bit 4
CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Enables continuous receive
0 = Disables continuous receive
Synchronous mode:
1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit CREN is cleared (CREN overrides SREN)
0 = Disables continuous receive
bit 3
ADEN: Address Detect Enable bit
Asynchronous mode 9-bit (RX9 = 1):
1 = Enables address detection, enable interrupt and load of the receive buffer when RSR<8>
is set
0 = Disables address detection, all bytes are received, and ninth bit can be used as parity bit
Asynchronous mode 8-bit (RX9 = 0):
Unused in this mode
Synchronous mode
Unused in this mode
bit 2
FERR: Framing Error bit
1 = Framing error (Can be updated by reading RCREG register and receive next valid byte)
0 = No framing error
bit 1
OERR: Overrun Error bit
1 = Overrun error (Can be cleared by clearing bit CREN)
0 = No overrun error
bit 0
RX9D: 9th bit of received data (Can be parity bit)
Legend:
DS40044F-page 72
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
12.1
EQUATION 12-1:
USART Baud Rate Generator
(BRG)
The BRG supports both the Asynchronous and
Synchronous modes of the USART. It is a dedicated
8-bit baud rate generator. The SPBRG register
controls the period of a free running 8-bit timer. In
Asynchronous mode, bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>) also
controls the baud rate. In Synchronous mode, bit
BRGH is ignored. Table 12-1 shows the formula for
computation of the baud rate for different USART
modes, which only apply in Master mode (internal
clock).
CALCULATING BAUD
RATE ERROR
Fosc
Desired Baud Rate = ----------------------64 ( x + 1 )
16000000
9600 = -----------------------64 ( x + 1 )
x = 25.042
16000000
Calculated Baud Rate = --------------------------- = 9615
64 ( 25 + 1 )
Given the desired baud rate and FOSC, the nearest
integer value for the SPBRG register can be calculated
using the formula in Table 12-1. From this, the error in
baud rate can be determined.
(Calculated Baud Rate - Desired Baud Rate)
Error = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Desired Baud Rate
Example 12-1 shows the calculation of the baud rate
error for the following conditions:
9615 – 9600
= ------------------------------ = 0.16%
9600
FOSC = 16 MHz
Desired Baud Rate = 9600
BRGH = 0
It may be advantageous to use the high baud rate
(BRGH = 1) even for slower baud clocks. This is
because the FOSC/(16(X + 1)) equation can reduce the
baud rate error in some cases.
SYNC = 0
Writing a new value to the SPBRG register causes the
BRG timer to be reset (or cleared) and ensures the
BRG does not wait for a timer overflow before
outputting the new baud rate.
The data on the RB1/RX/DT pin is sampled three times
by a majority detect circuit to determine if a high or a
low level is present at the RX pin.
TABLE 12-1:
BAUD RATE FORMULA
SYNC
BRGH = 0 (Low Speed)
BRGH = 1 (High Speed)
0
(Asynchronous) Baud Rate = FOSC/(64(X+1))
Baud Rate = FOSC/(16(X+1))
(Synchronous) Baud Rate = FOSC/(4(X+1))
NA
1
Legend:
X = value in SPBRG (0 to 255)
TABLE 12-2:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BAUD RATE GENERATOR
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on all
other Resets
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
0000 000x
99h
SPBRG
0000 0000
0000 0000
Legend:
Baud Rate Generator Register
x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for the BRG.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 73
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 12-3:
BAUD RATES FOR SYNCHRONOUS MODE
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
0.3
NA
—
1.2
NA
2.4
NA
9.6
19.2
BAUD
RATE (K)
FOSC = 20 MHz
16 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
—
NA
—
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
NA
—
—
19.53
+1.73%
10 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
—
NA
—
—
—
—
NA
—
—
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
9.766
+1.73%
255
255
19.23
+0.16%
207
19.23
+0.16%
129
76.8
76.92
+0.16%
64
76.92
+0.16%
51
75.76
-1.36%
32
96
96.15
+0.16%
51
95.24
-0.79%
41
96.15
+0.16%
25
300
294.1
-1.96
16
307.69
+2.56%
12
312.5
+4.17%
7
500
500
0
9
500
0
7
500
0
4
HIGH
5000
—
0
4000
—
0
2500
—
0
LOW
19.53
—
255
15.625
—
255
9.766
—
255
5.0688 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
0.3
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
1.2
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
2.4
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
BAUD
RATE (K)
FOSC = 7.15909 MHz
4 MHz
9.6
9.622
+0.23%
185
9.6
0
131
9.615
+0.16%
103
19.2
19.24
+0.23%
92
19.2
0
65
19.231
+0.16%
51
76.8
77.82
+1.32
22
79.2
+3.13%
15
75.923
+0.16%
12
96
94.20
-1.88
18
97.48
+1.54%
12
1000
+4.17%
9
300
298.3
-0.57
5
316.8
5.60%
3
NA
—
—
500
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
HIGH
1789.8
—
0
1267
—
0
100
—
0
LOW
6.991
—
255
4.950
—
255
3.906
—
255
32.768 kHz
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
BAUD
RATE (K)
FOSC = 3.579545 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
1 MHz
KBAUD
0.3
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
0.303
+1.14%
26
1.2
NA
—
—
1.202
+0.16%
207
1.170
-2.48%
6
2.4
NA
—
—
2.404
+0.16%
103
NA
—
—
9.6
9.622
+0.23%
92
9.615
+0.16%
25
NA
—
—
19.2
19.04
-0.83%
46
19.24
+0.16%
12
NA
—
—
76.8
74.57
-2.90%
11
83.34
+8.51%
2
NA
—
—
96
99.43
+3.57%
8
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
300
298.3
0.57%
2
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
500
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
HIGH
894.9
—
0
250
—
0
8.192
—
0
LOW
3.496
—
255
0.9766
—
255
0.032
—
255
DS40044F-page 74
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 12-4:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 0)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
0.3
NA
—
1.2
1.221
2.4
2.404
9.6
19.2
BAUD
RATE (K)
FOSC = 20 MHz
16 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
—
NA
—
+1.73%
255
1.202
+0.16%
129
2.404
9.469
-1.36%
32
19.53
+1.73%
10 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
—
NA
—
—
+0.16%
207
1.202
+0.16%
129
+0.16%
103
2.404
+0.16%
64
9.615
+0.16%
25
9.766
+1.73%
15
15
19.23
+0.16%
12
19.53
+1.73V
7
76.8
78.13
+1.73%
3
83.33
+8.51%
2
78.13
+1.73%
1
96
104.2
+8.51%
2
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
300
312.5
+4.17%
0
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
500
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
HIGH
312.5
—
0
250
—
0
156.3
—
0
LOW
1.221
—
255
0.977
—
255
0.6104
—
255
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
5.0688 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
207
BAUD
RATE (K)
FOSC = 7.15909 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
4 MHz
KBAUD
0.3
NA
—
—
0.31
+3.13%
255
0.3005
-0.17%
1.2
1.203
+0.23%
92
1.2
0
65
1.202
+1.67%
51
2.4
2.380
-0.83%
46
2.4
0
32
2.404
+1.67%
25
9.6
9.322
-2.90%
11
9.9
+3.13%
7
NA
—
—
19.2
18.64
-2.90%
5
19.8
+3.13%
3
NA
—
—
76.8
NA
—
—
79.2
+3.13%
0
NA
—
—
96
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
300
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
500
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
HIGH
111.9
—
0
79.2
—
0
62.500
—
0
LOW
0.437
—
255
0.3094
—
255
3.906
—
255
32.768 kHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
0.3
0.301
+0.23%
185
0.300
+0.16%
51
0.256
-14.67%
1
1.2
1.190
-0.83%
46
1.202
+0.16%
12
NA
—
—
2.4
2.432
+1.32%
22
2.232
-6.99%
6
NA
—
—
9.6
9.322
-2.90%
5
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
19.2
18.64
-2.90%
2
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
76.8
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
96
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
300
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
—
BAUD
RATE (K)
FOSC = 3.579545 MHz
1 MHz
500
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
HIGH
55.93
—
0
15.63
—
0
0.512
—
0
LOW
0.2185
—
255
0.0610
—
255
0.0020
—
255
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 75
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 12-5:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 1)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
9.615
+0.16%
19200
19.230
38400
37.878
BAUD
RATE (K)
9600
FOSC = 20 MHz
16 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
129
9.615
+0.16%
+0.16%
64
19.230
-1.36%
32
38.461
10 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
103
9.615
+0.16%
64
+0.16%
51
18.939
-1.36%
32
+0.16%
25
39.062
+1.7%
15
57600
56.818
-1.36%
21
58.823
+2.12%
16
56.818
-1.36%
10
115200
113.636
-1.36%
10
111.111
-3.55%
8
125
+8.51%
4
250000
250
0
4
250
0
3
NA
—
—
625000
625
0
1
NA
—
—
625
0
0
1250000
1250
0
0
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
5.068 MHz
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
BAUD
RATE (K)
FOSC = 7.16 MHz
KBAUD
KBAUD
4 MHz
9600
9.520
-0.83%
46
9598.485
0.016%
32
9615.385
0.160%
25
19200
19.454
+1.32%
22
18632.35
-2.956%
16
19230.77
0.160%
12
38400
37.286
-2.90%
11
39593.75
3.109%
7
35714.29
-6.994%
6
57600
55.930
-2.90%
7
52791.67
-8.348%
5
62500
8.507%
3
115200
111.860
-2.90%
3
105583.3
-8.348%
2
125000
8.507%
1
250000
NA
—
—
316750
26.700%
0
250000
0.000%
0
625000
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
1250000
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
32.768 kHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
BAUD
RATE (K)
FOSC = 3.579 MHz
KBAUD
ERROR
SPBRG
value
(decimal)
1 MHz
9600
9725.543
1.308%
22
8.928
-6.994%
6
NA
NA
NA
19200
18640.63
-2.913%
11
20833.3
8.507%
2
NA
NA
NA
38400
37281.25
-2.913%
5
31250
-18.620%
1
NA
NA
NA
57600
55921.88
-2.913%
3
62500
+8.507
0
NA
NA
NA
115200
111243.8
-2.913%
1
NA
—
—
NA
NA
NA
250000
223687.5
-10.525%
0
NA
—
—
NA
NA
NA
625000
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
NA
NA
1250000
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
NA
NA
DS40044F-page 76
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
12.2
USART Asynchronous Mode
In this mode, the USART uses standard non-return-tozero (NRZ) format (one Start bit, eight or nine data bits
and one Stop bit). The most common data format is
8-bit. A dedicated 8-bit baud rate generator is used to
derive baud rate frequencies from the oscillator. The
USART transmits and receives the LSb first. The
USART’s transmitter and receiver are functionally
independent, but use the same data format and baud
rate. The baud rate generator produces a clock either
x16 or x64 of the bit shift rate, depending on bit BRGH
(TXSTA<2>). Parity is not supported by the hardware,
but can be implemented in software (and stored as the
ninth data bit). Asynchronous mode is stopped during
Sleep.
Asynchronous mode is selected by clearing bit SYNC
(TXSTA<4>).
The USART Asynchronous module consists of the
following important elements:
•
•
•
•
Baud Rate Generator
Sampling Circuit
Asynchronous Transmitter
Asynchronous Receiver
12.2.1
Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit TXEN
(TXSTA<5>). The actual transmission will not occur
until the TXREG register has been loaded with data
and the Baud Rate Generator (BRG) has produced a
shift clock (Figure 12-1). The transmission can also be
started by first loading the TXREG register and then
setting enable bit TXEN. Normally when transmission
is first started, the TSR register is empty, so a transfer
to the TXREG register will result in an immediate
transfer to TSR resulting in an empty TXREG. A backto-back transfer is thus possible (Figure 12-3). Clearing
enable bit TXEN during a transmission will cause the
transmission to be aborted and will reset the
transmitter. As a result the RB2/TX/CK pin will revert to
high-impedance.
In order to select 9-bit transmission, transmit bit TX9
(TXSTA<6>) should be set and the ninth bit should be
written to TX9D (TXSTA<0>). The ninth bit must be
written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG
register. This is because a data write to the TXREG
register can result in an immediate transfer of the data
to the TSR register (if the TSR is empty). In such a
case, an incorrect ninth data bit may be loaded in the
TSR register.
USART ASYNCHRONOUS
TRANSMITTER
The USART transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 12-1. The heart of the transmitter is the Transmit
(serial) Shift Register (TSR). The shift register obtains
its data from the read/write transmit buffer, TXREG. The
TXREG register is loaded with data in software. The
TSR register is not loaded until the Stop bit has been
transmitted from the previous load. As soon as the Stop
bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded with new data from
the TXREG register (if available). Once the TXREG
register transfers the data to the TSR register (occurs
in one TCY), the TXREG register is empty and flag bit
TXIF (PIR1<4>) is set. This interrupt can be enabled/
disabled by setting/clearing enable bit TXIE
( PIE1<4>). Flag bit TXIF will be set regardless of the
state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in
software. It will reset only when new data is loaded into
the TXREG register. While flag bit TXIF indicated the
status of the TXREG register, another bit TRMT
(TXSTA<1>) shows the status of the TSR register.
Status bit TRMT is a read-only bit which is set when the
TSR register is empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this
bit, so the user has to poll this bit in order to determine
if the TSR register is empty.
Note 1: The TSR register is not mapped in data
memory so it is not available to the user.
2: Flag bit TXIF is set when enable bit TXEN
is set.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 77
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 12-1:
USART TRANSMIT BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
TXIF
TXREG register
TXIE
8
MSb
(8)
LSb
0
² ² ²
Pin Buffer
and Control
TSR register
RB2/TX/CK pin
Interrupt
TXEN
Baud Rate CLK
TRMT
SPEN
SPBRG
TX9
Baud Rate Generator
TX9D
Follow these steps when setting up an Asynchronous
Transmission:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
TRISB<1> and TRISB<2> should both be set to
‘1’ to configure the RB1/RX/DT and RB2/TX/CK
pins as inputs. Output drive, when required, is
controlled by the peripheral circuitry.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. If a high-speed baud rate is desired,
set bit BRGH. (Section 12.1 “USART Baud
Rate Generator (BRG)”).
Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
TXIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set transmit
bit TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN,
which will also set bit TXIF.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Load data to the TXREG register (starts
transmission).
FIGURE 12-2:
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Write to TXREG
BRG output
(shift clock)
RB2/TX/CK (pin)
Word 1
Start bit
DS40044F-page 78
bit 1
bit 7/8
Stop bit
Word 1
TXIF bit
(Transmit buffer
reg. empty flag)
TRMT bit
(Transmit shift
reg. empty flag)
bit 0
Word 1
Transmit Shift Reg.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 12-3:
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (BACK TO BACK)
Write to TXREG
Word 1
BRG output
(shift clock)
RB2/TX/CK (pin)
Word 2
Start bit
TXIF bit
(interrupt reg. flag)
TRMT bit
(Transmit shift
reg. empty flag)
bit 0
bit 1
Word 1
bit 7/8
Word 1
Transmit Shift Reg.
Start bit
Word 2
Stop bit
bit 0
Word 2
Transmit Shift Reg.
.
Note:
This timing diagram shows two consecutive transmissions.
TABLE 12-6:
Address
Name
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 -000
0000 -000
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
0000 000x
19h
TXREG USART Transmit Data Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 -000
0000 -000
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
Legend:
x = unknown, - = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’.
Shaded cells are not used for Asynchronous Transmission.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 79
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
12.2.2
USART ASYNCHRONOUS
RECEIVER
double buffered register (i.e., it is a two-deep FIFO). It
is possible for two bytes of data to be received and
transferred to the RCREG FIFO and a third byte begin
shifting to the RSR register. On the detection of the
Stop bit of the third byte, if the RCREG register is still
full, then overrun error bit OERR (RCSTA<1>) will be
set. The word in the RSR will be lost. The RCREG
register can be read twice to retrieve the two bytes in
the FIFO. Overrun bit OERR has to be cleared in software. This is done by resetting the receive logic (CREN
is cleared and then set). If bit OERR is set, transfers
from the RSR register to the RCREG register are inhibited, so it is essential to clear error bit OERR if it is set.
Framing error bit FERR (RCSTA<2>) is set if a Stop bit
is detected as clear. Bit FERR and the 9th receive bit
are buffered the same way as the receive data. Reading the RCREG, will load bits RX9D and FERR with
new values, therefore it is essential for the user to read
the RCSTA register before reading RCREG register in
order not to lose the old FERR and RX9D information.
The receiver block diagram is shown in Figure 12-4.
The data is received on the RB1/RX/DT pin and drives
the data recovery block. The data recovery block is
actually a high-speed shifter operating at x16 times the
baud rate, whereas the main receive serial shifter
operates at the bit rate or at FOSC.
When Asynchronous mode is selected, reception is
enabled by setting bit CREN (RCSTA<4>).
The heart of the receiver is the Receive (serial) Shift
Register (RSR). After sampling the Stop bit, the
received data in the RSR is transferred to the RCREG
register (if it is empty). If the transfer is complete, flag
bit RCIF (PIR1<5>) is set. The actual interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RCIE
(PIE1<5>). Flag bit RCIF is a read-only bit, which is
cleared by the hardware. It is cleared when the RCREG
register has been read and is empty. The RCREG is a
FIGURE 12-4:
USART RECEIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM
x64 Baud Rate CLK
FERR
OERR
CREN
SPBRG
÷ 64
or
÷ 16
Baud Rate Generator
RSR register
MSb
Stop (8)
7
• • •
1
LSb
0 Start
RB1/RX/DT
Pin Buffer
and Control
Data
Recovery
RX9
8
SPEN
RX9
ADEN
Enable
Load of
RX9
ADEN
RSR<8>
Receive
Buffer
8
RX9D
RCREG register
RX9D
RCREG register
FIFO
8
Interrupt
RCIF
Data Bus
RCIE
DS40044F-page 80
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 12-5:
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION WITH ADDRESS DETECT
Start
bit
RB1/RX/DT (Pin)
bit 0
bit 1
bit 8
Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit 0
bit 8
Stop
bit
RCV Shift Reg
RCV Buffer Reg
bit 8 = 0, Data Byte
bit 8 = 1, Address Byte
Read RCV
Buffer Reg
RCREG
Word 1
RCREG
RCIF
(interrupt flag)
ADEN = 1
(Address Match
Enable)
Note:
‘1’
‘1’
This timing diagram shows a data byte followed by an address byte. The data byte is not read into the RCREG
(Receive Buffer) because ADEN = 1 and bit 8 = 0.
FIGURE 12-6:
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION WITH ADDRESS BYTE FIRST
Start
bit
RB1/RX/DT (pin)
bit 0
bit 1
bit 8
Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit 0
bit 8
Stop
bit
RCV Shift Reg
RCV Buffer Reg
bit 8 = 1, Address Byte
Read RCV
Buffer Reg
RCREG
Word 1
RCREG
bit 8 = 0, Data Byte
RCIF
(Interrupt Flag)
ADEN = 1
(Address Match
Enable)
Note:
‘1’
‘1’
This timing diagram shows an address byte followed by an data byte. The data byte is not read into the RCREG
(receive buffer) because ADEN was not updated (still = 1) and bit 8 = 0.
FIGURE 12-7:
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION WITH ADDRESS BYTE FIRST FOLLOWED BY
VALID DATA BYTE
RB1/RX/DT (pin)
Start
bit
bit 0
RCV Shift
Reg
RCV Buffer Reg
Read RCV
Buffer Reg
RCREG
bit 1
bit 8
bit 8 = 1, Address Byte
Stop
bit
Start
bit
Word 1
RCREG
bit 0
bit 8
bit 8 = 0, Data Byte
Stop
bit
Word 2
RCREG
RCIF
(Interrupt Flag)
ADEN
(Address Match
Enable)
Note:
This timing diagram shows an address byte followed by an data byte. The data byte is read into the RCREG
(Receive Buffer) because ADEN was updated after an address match, and was cleared to a ‘0’, so the contents
of the Receive Shift Register (RSR) are read into the Receive Buffer regardless of the value of bit 8.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 81
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Follow these steps when setting up an Asynchronous
Reception:
1.
TRISB<1> and TRISB<2> should both be set to
‘1’ to configure the RB1/RX/DT and RB2/TX/CK
pins as inputs. Output drive, when required, is
controlled by the peripheral circuitry.
2. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. If a high-speed baud rate is desired,
set bit BRGH. (Section 12.1 “USART Baud
Rate Generator (BRG)”).
3. Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN.
4. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
5. If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9.
6. Enable the reception by setting bit CREN.
7. Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is
complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit RCIE was set.
8. Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
9. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
10. If an OERR error occurred, clear the error by
clearing enable bit CREN.
TABLE 12-7:
Address
Name
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADEN
1Ah
RCREG USART Receive Data Register
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend:
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 -000 0000 -000
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x 0000 000x
0000 0000 0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 -000 0000 -000
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010 0000 -010
0000 0000 0000 0000
x = unknown, - = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous reception.
DS40044F-page 82
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
12.3
USART Address Detect Function
12.3.1
The ADEN bit will only take effect when the receiver is
configured in 9-bit mode (RX9 = 1). When ADEN is
disabled (= 0), all data bytes are received and the 9th
bit can be used as the parity bit.
USART 9-BIT RECEIVER WITH
ADDRESS DETECT
The receive block diagram is shown in Figure 12-4.
When the RX9 bit is set in the RCSTA register, 9 bits
are received and the ninth bit is placed in the RX9D bit
of the RCSTA register. The USART module has a
special provision for multiprocessor communication.
Multiprocessor communication is enabled by setting
the ADEN bit (RCSTA<3>) along with the RX9 bit. The
port is now programmed such that when the last bit is
received, the contents of the Receive Shift Register
(RSR) are transferred to the receive buffer, the ninth bit
of the RSR (RSR<8>) is transferred to RX9D, and the
receive interrupt is set if and only if RSR<8> = 1. This
feature can be used in a multiprocessor system as
follows:
Reception is
(RCSTA<4>).
12.3.1.1
bit
CREN
Setting up 9-bit mode with Address
Detect
TRISB<1> and TRISB<2> should both be set to
‘1’ to configure the RB1/RX/DT and RB2/TX/CK
pins as inputs. Output drive, when required, is
controlled by the peripheral circuitry.
2. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. If a high-speed baud rate is desired,
set bit BRGH.
3. Enable asynchronous communication by setting
or clearing bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN.
4. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
5. Set bit RX9 to enable 9-bit reception.
6. Set ADEN to enable address detect.
7. Enable the reception by setting enable bit CREN
or SREN.
8. Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is
complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit RCIE was set.
9. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register to determine if the device is
being addressed.
10. If an OERR error occurred, clear the error by
clearing enable bit CREN if it was already set.
11. If the device has been addressed (RSR<8> = 1
with address match enabled), clear the ADEN
and RCIF bits to allow data bytes and address
bytes to be read into the receive buffer and
interrupt the CPU.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADEN
1Ah
RCREG USART Receive Data Register
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 -000 0000 -000
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x 0000 000x
0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend:
setting
1.
When ADEN is enabled (= 1), all data bytes are
ignored. Following the Stop bit, the data will not be
loaded into the receive buffer, and no interrupt will
occur. If another byte is shifted into the RSR register,
the previous data byte will be lost.
Address
by
Follow these steps when setting up Asynchronous
Reception with Address Detect Enabled:
A master processor intends to transmit a block of data
to one of many slaves. It must first send out an address
byte that identifies the target slave. An address byte is
identified by setting the ninth bit (RSR<8>) to a ‘1’
(instead of a ‘0’ for a data byte). If the ADEN and RX9
bits are set in the slave’s RCSTA register, enabling
multiprocessor communication, all data bytes will be
ignored. However, if the ninth received bit is equal to a
‘1’, indicating that the received byte is an address, the
slave will be interrupted and the contents of the RSR
register will be transferred into the receive buffer. This
allows the slave to be interrupted only by addresses, so
that the slave can examine the received byte to see if it
is being addressed. The addressed slave will then clear
its ADEN bit and prepare to receive data bytes from the
master.
TABLE 12-8:
enabled
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 -000 0000 -000
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010 0000 -010
0000 0000 0000 0000
x = unknown, - = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous
reception.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 83
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
12.4
USART Synchronous Master
Mode
In Synchronous Master mode, the data is transmitted in
a half-duplex manner (i.e., transmission and reception
do not occur at the same time). When transmitting data,
the reception is inhibited and vice versa. Synchronous
mode is entered by setting bit SYNC (TXSTA<4>). In
addition enable bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) is set in order to
configure the RB2/TX/CK and RB1/RX/DT I/O pins to
CK (clock) and DT (data) lines, respectively. The
Master mode indicates that the processor transmits the
master clock on the CK line. The Master mode is
entered by setting bit CSRC (TXSTA<7>).
12.4.1
USART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER
TRANSMISSION
The USART transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 12-1. The heart of the transmitter is the Transmit
(serial) Shift Register (TSR). The shift register obtains
its data from the read/write transmit buffer register,
TXREG. The TXREG register is loaded with data in
software. The TSR register is not loaded until the last
bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As
soon as the last bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded
with new data from the TXREG (if available). Once the
TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register
(occurs in one Tcycle), the TXREG is empty and
interrupt bit, TXIF (PIR1<4>) is set. The interrupt can
be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit TXIE
(PIE1<4>). Flag bit TXIF will be set regardless of the
state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in
software. It will reset only when new data is loaded into
the TXREG register. While flag bit TXIF indicates the
status of the TXREG register, another bit TRMT
(TXSTA<1>) shows the status of the TSR register.
TRMT is a read-only bit which is set when the TSR is
empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit, so the user
has to poll this bit in order to determine if the TSR
register is empty. The TSR is not mapped in data
memory so it is not available to the user.
Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit TXEN
(TXSTA<5>). The actual transmission will not occur
until the TXREG register has been loaded with data.
The first data bit will be shifted out on the next available
rising edge of the clock on the CK line. Data out is
stable around the falling edge of the synchronous clock
(Figure 12-8). The transmission can also be started by
first loading the TXREG register and then setting bit
TXEN (Figure 12-9). This is advantageous when slow
baud rates are selected, since the BRG is kept in Reset
when bits TXEN, CREN and SREN are clear. Setting
enable bit TXEN will start the BRG, creating a shift
clock immediately. Normally, when transmission is first
started, the TSR register is empty, so a transfer to the
TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to
TSR resulting in an empty TXREG. Back-to-back
transfers are possible.
DS40044F-page 84
Clearing enable bit TXEN during a transmission will
cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the
transmitter. The DT and CK pins will revert to highimpedance. If either bit CREN or bit SREN is set during
a transmission, the transmission is aborted and the DT
pin reverts to a high-impedance state (for a reception).
The CK pin will remain an output if bit CSRC is set
(internal clock). The transmitter logic however is not
reset although it is disconnected from the pins. In order
to reset the transmitter, the user has to clear bit TXEN.
If bit SREN is set (to interrupt an on-going transmission
and receive a single word), then after the single word is
received, bit SREN will be cleared and the serial port
will revert back to transmitting since bit TXEN is still set.
The DT line will immediately switch from high-impedance Receive mode to transmit and start driving. To
avoid this, bit TXEN should be cleared.
In order to select 9-bit transmission, the TX9
(TXSTA<6>) bit should be set and the ninth bit should
be written to bit TX9D (TXSTA<0>). The ninth bit must
be written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG
register. This is because a data write to the TXREG can
result in an immediate transfer of the data to the TSR
register (if the TSR is empty). If the TSR was empty and
the TXREG was written before writing the “new” TX9D,
the “present” value of bit TX9D is loaded.
Follow these steps when setting up a Synchronous
Master Transmission:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
TRISB<1> and TRISB<2> should both be set to
‘1’ to configure the RB1/RX/DT and RB2/TX/CK
pins as inputs. Output drive, when required, is
controlled by the peripheral circuitry.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate (Section 12.1 “USART Baud Rate
Generator (BRG)”).
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC, SPEN and CSRC.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
TXIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set bit TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Start each transmission by loading data to the
TXREG register.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 12-9:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
TXIF
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN CREN
19h
TXREG USART Transmit Data Register
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend:
RCIE
Bit 3
—
Bit 2
—
TXEN SYNC
—
Bit 0
Value on
POR
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 -000
ADEN
TXIE
Bit 1
FERR
OERR
RX9D
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -000
0000 000x
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 -000
BRGH
Value on all
other Resets
0000 -000
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
x = unknown, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master transmission.
FIGURE 12-8:
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4
bit 0
RB1/RX/DT pin
bit 1
Q3Q4 Q1Q2Q3Q4 Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4
bit 2
bit 7
bit 0
Word 1
bit 1
Word 2
bit 7
RB2/TX/CK pin
Write to
TXREG Reg
Write Word 1
TXIF bit
(Interrupt Flag)
Write Word 2
TRMT
TRMT
bit
‘1’
‘1’
TXEN bit
Note:
Sync Master Mode; SPBRG = 0. Continuous transmission of two 8-bit words.
FIGURE 12-9:
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (THROUGH TXEN)
RB1/RX/DT pin
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 6
bit 7
RB2/TX/CK pin
Write to
TXREG Reg
TXIF bit
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 85
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
12.4.2
USART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER
RECEPTION
Follow these steps when setting up a Synchronous
Master Reception:
1.
TRISB<1> and TRISB<2> should both be set to
‘1’ to configure the RB1/RX/DT and RB2/TX/CK
pins as inputs. Output drive, when required, is
controlled by the peripheral circuitry.
2. Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. (Section 12.1 “USART Baud Rate
Generator (BRG)”).
3. Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC, SPEN and CSRC.
4. Ensure bits CREN and SREN are clear.
5. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
6. If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9.
7. If a single reception is required, set bit SREN.
For continuous reception, set bit CREN.
8. Interrupt flag bit RCIF will be set when reception
is complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit RCIE was set.
9. Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
10. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
11. If an OERR error occurred, clear the error by
clearing bit CREN.
Once Synchronous mode is selected, reception is
enabled by setting either enable bit SREN
(RCSTA<5>) or enable bit CREN (RCSTA<4>). Data is
sampled on the RB1/RX/DT pin on the falling edge of
the clock. If enable bit SREN is set, then only a single
word is received. If enable bit CREN is set, the reception is continuous until CREN is cleared. If both bits are
set, then CREN takes precedence. After clocking the
last bit, the received data in the Receive Shift Register
(RSR) is transferred to the RCREG register (if it is
empty). When the transfer is complete, interrupt flag bit
RCIF (PIR1<5>) is set. The actual interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit RCIE
(PIE1<5>). Flag bit RCIF is a read-only bit which is
reset by the hardware. In this case, it is reset when the
RCREG register has been read and is empty. The
RCREG is a double buffered register (i.e., it is a twodeep FIFO). It is possible for two bytes of data to be
received and transferred to the RCREG FIFO and a
third byte to begin shifting into the RSR register. On the
clocking of the last bit of the third byte, if the RCREG
register is still full, then overrun error bit OERR
(RCSTA<1>) is set. The word in the RSR will be lost.
The RCREG register can be read twice to retrieve the
two bytes in the FIFO. Bit OERR has to be cleared in
software (by clearing bit CREN). If bit OERR is set,
transfers from the RSR to the RCREG are inhibited, so
it is essential to clear bit OERR if it is set. The 9th
receive bit is buffered the same way as the receive
data. Reading the RCREG register, will load bit RX9D
with a new value, therefore it is essential for the user to
read the RCSTA register before reading RCREG in
order not to lose the old RX9D information.
TABLE 12-10: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
TXIF
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN CREN
1Ah
RCREG USART Receive Data Register
8Ch
PIE1
EPIE
CMIE
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend:
RCIE
Bit 3
—
ADEN
TXIE
—
TXEN SYNC
—
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 -000
FERR
OERR
RX9D
Value on all
other Resets
0000 -000
0000 000x
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE -000 0000
-000 -000
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master reception.
DS40044F-page 86
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 12-10:
SYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION (MASTER MODE, SREN)
Q2 Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4 Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4 Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3 Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4 Q1Q2Q3Q4
RB1/RX/DT pin
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 3
bit 4
bit 5
bit 6
bit 7
RB2/TX/CK pin
WRITE to
Bit SREN
SREN bit
CREN bit
‘0’
‘0’
RCIF bit
(Interrupt)
Read
RXREG
Note:
12.5
Timing diagram demonstrates Sync Master mode with bit SREN = 1 and bit BRG = 0.
USART Synchronous Slave Mode
Synchronous Slave mode differs from the Master mode
in the fact that the shift clock is supplied externally at
the RB2/TX/CK pin (instead of being supplied internally
in Master mode). This allows the device to transfer or
receive data while in Sleep mode. Slave mode is
entered by clearing bit CSRC (TXSTA<7>).
12.5.1
USART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE
TRANSMIT
The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave
modes are identical except in the case of the Sleep
mode.
If two words are written to the TXREG and then the
SLEEP instruction is executed, the following will occur:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
The first word will immediately transfer to the
TSR register and transmit.
The second word will remain in TXREG register.
Flag bit TXIF will not be set.
When the first word has been shifted out of TSR,
the TXREG register will transfer the second
word to the TSR and flag bit TXIF will now be
set.
If enable bit TXIE is set, the interrupt will wake
the chip from Sleep and if the global interrupt is
enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt
vector (0004h).
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
Follow these steps when setting up a Synchronous
Slave Transmission:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
TRISB<1> and TRISB<2> should both be set to
‘1’ to configure the RB1/RX/DT and RB2/TX/CK
pins as inputs. Output drive, when required, is
controlled by the peripheral circuitry.
Enable the synchronous slave serial port by
setting bits SYNC and SPEN and clearing bit
CSRC.
Clear bits CREN and SREN.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
TXIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set bit TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting enable bit
TXEN.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Start transmission by loading data to the TXREG
register.
DS40044F-page 87
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
12.5.2
USART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE
RECEPTION
Follow these steps when setting up a Synchronous
Slave Reception:
1.
The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave
modes is identical except in the case of the Sleep
mode. Also, bit SREN is a “don’t care” in Slave mode.
If receive is enabled by setting bit CREN prior to the
SLEEP instruction, then a word may be received during
Sleep. On completely receiving the word, the RSR
register will transfer the data to the RCREG register
and if enable bit RCIE bit is set, the interrupt generated
will wake the chip from Sleep. If the global interrupt is
enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt vector
(0004h).
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
TRISB<1> and TRISB<2> should both be set to
‘1’ to configure the RB1/RX/DT and RB2/TX/CK
pins as inputs. Output drive, when required, is
controlled by the peripheral circuitry.
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC and SPEN and clearing bit
CSRC.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9.
To enable reception, set enable bit CREN.
Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is
complete and an interrupt will be generated, if
enable bit RCIE was set.
Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
If an OERR error occurred, clear the error by
clearing bit CREN.
TABLE 12-11: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMISSION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN CREN
19h
TXREG USART Transmit Data Register
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
8Ch
Legend:
RCIE
ADEN
TXIE
—
TXEN SYNC
—
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 -000
FERR
OERR
RX9D
Value on all
other Resets
0000 -000
0000 000x
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 -000
0000 -000
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous slave transmission.
TABLE 12-12: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
TXIF
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN CREN
1Ah
RCREG USART Receive Data Register
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
8Ch
RCIE
Bit 3
—
ADEN
TXIE
—
TXEN SYNC
—
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 -000
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
Value on all
other Resets
0000 -000
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 -000
0000 -000
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
Legend: x = unknown, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous slave reception.
DS40044F-page 88
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
13.0
DATA EEPROM MEMORY
The EEPROM data memory is readable and writable
during normal operation (full VDD range). This memory
is not directly mapped in the register file space. Instead
it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function
Registers (SFRs). There are four SFRs used to read
and write this memory. These registers are:
•
•
•
•
EECON1
EECON2 (Not a physically implemented register)
EEDATA
EEADR
When the device is code-protected, the CPU can
continue to read and write the data EEPROM memory. A
device programmer can no longer access this memory.
EEDATA holds the 8-bit data for read/write and EEADR
holds the address of the EEPROM location being
accessed. PIC16F627A/628A devices have 128 bytes
of data EEPROM with an address range from 0h to
7Fh. The PIC16F648A device has 256 bytes of data
EEPROM with an address range from 0h to FFh.
REGISTER 13-1:
The EEPROM data memory allows byte read and write.
A byte write automatically erases the location and
writes the new data (erase before write). The EEPROM
data memory is rated for high erase/write cycles. The
write time is controlled by an on-chip timer. The write
time will vary with voltage and temperature, as well as
from chip-to-chip. Please refer to AC specifications for
exact limits.
Additional information on the data EEPROM is
available in the PIC® Mid-Range Reference Manual
(DS33023).
EEDATA – EEPROM DATA REGISTER (ADDRESS: 9Ah)
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
EEDAT7
EEDAT6
EEDAT5
EEDAT4
EEDAT3
R/W-x
R/W-x
EEDAT2 EEDAT1
R/W-x
EEDAT0
bit 7
bit 7-0
bit 0
EEDATn: Byte value to Write to or Read from data EEPROM memory location.
Legend:
REGISTER 13-2:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
EEADR – EEPROM ADDRESS REGISTER (ADDRESS: 9Bh)
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
EADR7
EADR6
EADR5
EADR4
EADR3
EADR2
EADR1
EADR0
bit 7
bit 7
bit 0
PIC16F627A/628A
Unimplemented Address: Must be set to ‘0’
PIC16F648A
EEADR: Set to ‘1’ specifies top 128 locations (128-255) of EEPROM Read/Write Operation
bit 6-0
EEADR: Specifies one of 128 locations of EEPROM Read/Write Operation
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS40044F-page 89
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
13.1
EEADR
13.2
EECON1 and EECON2 Registers
The PIC16F648A EEADR register addresses 256
bytes of data EEPROM. All eight bits in the register
(EEADR<7:0>) are required.
EECON1 is the control register with four low order bits
physically implemented. The upper-four bits are nonexistent and read as ‘0’s.
The PIC16F627A/628A EEADR register addresses
only the first 128 bytes of data EEPROM so only seven
of the eight bits in the register (EEADR<6:0>) are
required. The upper bit is address decoded. This
means that this bit should always be ‘0’ to ensure that
the address is in the 128 byte memory space.
Control bits RD and WR initiate read and write,
respectively. These bits cannot be cleared, only set, in
software. They are cleared in hardware at completion
of the read or write operation. The inability to clear the
WR bit in software prevents the accidental, premature
termination of a write operation.
The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation.
On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The WRERR bit is
set when a write operation is interrupted by a MCLR
Reset or a WDT Time-out Reset during normal
operation. In these situations, following Reset, the user
can check the WRERR bit and rewrite the location. The
data and address will be unchanged in the EEDATA
and EEADR registers.
Interrupt flag bit EEIF in the PIR1 register is set when
write is complete. This bit must be cleared in software.
EECON2 is not a physical register. Reading EECON2
will read all ‘0’s. The EECON2 register is used
exclusively in the data EEPROM write sequence.
REGISTER 13-3:
EECON1 – EEPROM CONTROL REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS: 9Ch)
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-x
R/W-0
R/S-0
R/S-0
—
—
—
—
WRERR
WREN
WR
RD
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
WRERR: EEPROM Error Flag bit
1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated (any MCLR Reset, any WDT Reset during
normal operation or BOR Reset)
0 = The write operation completed
bit 2
WREN: EEPROM Write Enable bit
1 = Allows write cycles
0 = Inhibits write to the data EEPROM
bit 1
WR: Write Control bit
1 = initiates a write cycle. (The bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete. The WR bit
can only be set (not cleared) in software.
0 = Write cycle to the data EEPROM is complete
bit 0
RD: Read Control bit
1 = Initiates an EEPROM read (read takes one cycle. RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit
can only be set (not cleared) in software).
0 = Does not initiate an EEPROM read
Legend:
DS40044F-page 90
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
13.3
Reading the EEPROM Data
Memory
To read a data memory location, the user must write the
address to the EEADR register and then set control bit
RD (EECON1<0>). The data is available, in the very
next cycle, in the EEDATA register; therefore it can be
read in the next instruction. EEDATA will hold this value
until another read or until it is written to by the user
(during a write operation).
EXAMPLE 13-1:
DATA EEPROM READ
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
MOVF
BCF
STATUS, RP0
CONFIG_ADDR
EEADR
EECON1, RD
EEDATA, W
STATUS, RP0
;Bank 1
;
;Address to read
;EE Read
;W = EEDATA
;Bank 0
13.4
Writing to the EEPROM Data
Memory
To write an EEPROM data location, the user must first
write the address to the EEADR register and the data
to the EEDATA register. Then the user must follow a
specific sequence to initiate the write for each byte.
Required
Sequence
EXAMPLE 13-2:
BSF
BSF
BCF
BTFSC
GOTO
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
DATA EEPROM WRITE
STATUS, RP0
EECON1, WREN
INTCON, GIE
INTCON,GIE
$-2
55h
EECON2
AAh
EECON2
EECON1,WR
BSF INTCON, GIE
;Bank 1
;Enable write
;Disable INTs.
;See AN576
;
;Write 55h
;
;Write AAh
;Set WR bit
;begin write
;Enable INTs.
The write will not initiate if the above sequence is not
followed exactly (write 55h to EECON2, write AAh to
EECON2, then set WR bit) for each byte. We strongly
recommend that interrupts be disabled during this
code segment. A cycle count is executed during the
required sequence. Any number that is not equal to the
required cycles to execute the required sequence will
cause the data not to be written into the EEPROM.
At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit is
cleared in hardware and the EE Write Complete
Interrupt Flag bit (EEIF) is set. The user can either
enable this interrupt or poll this bit. The EEIF bit in the
PIR1 registers must be cleared by software.
13.5
Write Verify
Depending on the application, good programming
practice may dictate that the value written to the Data
EEPROM should be verified (Example 13-3) to the
desired value to be written. This should be used in
applications where an EEPROM bit will be stressed
near the specification limit.
EXAMPLE 13-3:
BSF
MOVF
BSF
WRITE VERIFY
STATUS, RP0 ;Bank 1
EEDATA, W
EECON1, RD ;Read the
;value written
;
;Is the value written
;read (in EEDATA) the
;
SUBWF
EEDATA, W
BTFSS
STATUS, Z
GOTO
WRITE_ERR
:
:
13.6
(in W reg) and
same?
;
;Is difference 0?
;NO, Write error
;YES, Good write
;Continue program
Protection Against Spurious Write
There are conditions when the device may not want to
write to the data EEPROM memory. To protect against
spurious EEPROM writes, various mechanisms have
been built-in. On power-up, WREN is cleared. Also
when enabled, the Power-up Timer (72 ms duration)
prevents EEPROM write.
The write initiate sequence and the WREN bit together
help prevent an accidental write during brown-out,
power glitch or software malfunction.
Additionally, the WREN bit in EECON1 must be set to
enable write. This mechanism prevents accidental
writes to data EEPROM due to errant (unexpected)
code execution (i.e., lost programs). The user should
keep the WREN bit clear at all times, except when
updating EEPROM. The WREN bit is not cleared
by hardware.
After a write sequence has been initiated, clearing the
WREN bit will not affect this write cycle. The WR bit will
be inhibited from being set unless the WREN bit is set.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 91
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
13.7
Using the Data EEPROM
The data EEPROM is a high endurance, byte
addressable array that has been optimized for the storage
of frequently changing information (e.g., program
variables or other data that are updated often). When
variables in one section change frequently, while
variables in another section do not change, it is possible
to exceed the total number of write cycles to the EEPROM
(specification D124) without exceeding the total number
of write cycles to a single byte (specifications D120 and
D120A). If this is the case, then an array refresh must be
performed. For this reason, variables that change
infrequently (such as constants, IDs, calibration, etc.)
should be stored in Flash program memory.
EXAMPLE 13-4:
BANKSEL
CLRF
BCF
BTFSC
GOTO
BSF
Loop
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
BTFSC
GOTO
A simple data EEPROM refresh routine is shown in
Example 13-4.
Note:
DATA EEPROM REFRESH ROUTINE
0X80
EEADR
INTCON, GIE
INTCON, GIE
$ - 2
EECON1, WREN
;select Bank1
;start at address 0
;disable interrupts
;see AN576
EECON1, RD
0x55
EECON2
0xAA
EECON2
EECON1, WR
EECON1, WR
$ - 1
;retrieve data into EEDATA
;first step of ...
;... required sequence
;second step of ...
;... required sequence
;start write sequence
;wait for write complete
;enable EE writes
#IFDEF __16F648A
;256 bytes in 16F648A
INCFSZ
#ELSE
INCF
BTFSS
#ENDIF
;test for end of memory
;128 bytes in 16F627A/628A
;next address
;test for end of memory
;end of conditional assembly
EEADR, f
EEADR, f
EEADR, 7
GOTO
Loop
;repeat for all locations
BCF
BSF
EECON1, WREN
INTCON, GIE
;disable EE writes
;enable interrupts (optional)
DS40044F-page 92
If data EEPROM is only used to store
constants and/or data that changes rarely,
an array refresh is likely not required. See
specification D124.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
13.8
Data EEPROM Operation During
Code-Protect
When the device is code-protected, the CPU is able to
read and write data to the data EEPROM.
TABLE 13-1:
REGISTERS/BITS ASSOCIATED WITH DATA EEPROM
Value on
Power-on
Reset
Value on all
other
Resets
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
---- x000
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
---- q000
---- ---9Dh
EECON2(1) EEPROM Control Register 2
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’, q = value depends upon condition.
Shaded cells are not used by data EEPROM.
Note 1: EECON2 is not a physical register.
---- ----
Address
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
Name
EEDATA
EEADR
EECON1
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
EEPROM Data Register
EEPROM Address Register
—
—
—
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
Bit 4
—
Bit 3
WRERR
Bit 2
WREN
Bit 1
WR
Bit 0
RD
DS40044F-page 93
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 94
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE
CPU
Special circuits to deal with the needs of real-time
applications are what sets a microcontroller apart from
other processors. The PIC16F627A/628A/648A family
has a host of such features intended to maximize
system reliability, minimize cost through elimination of
external components, provide power-saving operating
modes and offer code protection.
These are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
OSC selection
Reset
Power-on Reset (POR)
Power-up Timer (PWRT)
Oscillator Start-Up Timer (OST)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Interrupts
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
Sleep
Code protection
ID Locations
In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™)
14.1
Configuration Bits
The configuration bits can be programmed (read as ‘0’)
or left unprogrammed (read as ‘1’) to select various
device configurations. These bits are mapped in
program memory location 2007h.
The user will note that address 2007h is beyond the
user program memory space. In fact, it belongs to the
special configuration memory space (2000h-3FFFh),
which can be accessed only during programming. See
“PIC16F627A/628A/648A EEPROM Memory
Programming Specification” (DS41196) for additional
information.
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A has a Watchdog Timer
which is controlled by configuration bits. It runs off its
own RC oscillator for added reliability. There are two
timers that offer necessary delays on power-up. One is
the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep
the chip in Reset until the crystal oscillator is stable.
The other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which
provides a fixed delay of 72 ms (nominal) on power-up
only, designed to keep the part in Reset while the
power supply stabilizes. There is also circuitry to reset
the device if a brown-out occurs. With these three
functions on-chip, most applications need no external
Reset circuitry.
The Sleep mode is designed to offer a very low current
Power-down mode. The user can wake-up from Sleep
through external Reset, Watchdog Timer wake-up or
through an interrupt. Several oscillator options are also
made available to allow the part to fit the application.
The RC oscillator option saves system cost while the
LP crystal option saves power. A set of configuration
bits are used to select various options.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 95
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
REGISTER 14-1:
CP
—
CONFIG – CONFIGURATION WORD REGISTER
—
—
—
CPD
LVP
BOREN
MCLRE
FOSC2
PWRTE
WDTE
F0SC1
bit 13
F0SC0
bit 0
bit 13:
CP: Flash Program Memory Code Protection bit(2)
(PIC16F648A)
1 = Code protection off
0 = 0000h to 0FFFh code-protected
(PIC16F628A)
1 = Code protection off
0 = 0000h to 07FFh code-protected
(PIC16F627A)
1 = Code protection off
0 = 0000h to 03FFh code-protected
bit 12-9:
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 8:
CPD: Data Code Protection bit(3)
1 = Data memory code protection off
0 = Data memory code-protected
bit 7:
LVP: Low-Voltage Programming Enable bit
1 = RB4/PGM pin has PGM function, low-voltage programming enabled
0 = RB4/PGM is digital I/O, HV on MCLR must be used for programming
bit 6:
BOREN: Brown-out Reset Enable bit (1)
1 = BOR Reset enabled
0 = BOR Reset disabled
bit 5:
MCLRE: RA5/MCLR/VPP Pin Function Select bit
1 = RA5/MCLR/VPP pin function is MCLR
0 = RA5/MCLR/VPP pin function is digital Input, MCLR internally tied to VDD
bit 3:
PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit (1)
1 = PWRT disabled
0 = PWRT enabled
bit 2:
WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 4, 1-0:
FOSC<2:0>: Oscillator Selection bits(4)
111 = RC oscillator: CLKOUT function on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, Resistor and Capacitor on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
110 = RC oscillator: I/O function on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, Resistor and Capacitor on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
101 = INTOSC oscillator: CLKOUT function on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, I/O function on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
100 = INTOSC oscillator: I/O function on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, I/O function on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
011 = EC: I/O function on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, CLKIN on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
010 = HS oscillator: High-speed crystal/resonator on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT and RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
001 = XT oscillator: Crystal/resonator on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT and RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
000 = LP oscillator: Low-power crystal on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT and RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
Note
1:
2:
3:
4:
Enabling Brown-out Reset does not automatically enable the Power-up Timer (PWRT) the way it does on the
PIC16F627/628 devices.
The code protection scheme has changed from the code protection scheme used on the PIC16F627/628 devices. The
entire Flash program memory needs to be bulk erased to set the CP bit, turning the code protection off. See
“PIC16F627A/628A/648A EEPROM Memory Programming Specification” (DS41196) for details.
The entire data EEPROM needs to be bulk erased to set the CPD bit, turning the code protection off. See “PIC16F627A/
628A/648A EEPROM Memory Programming Specification” (DS41196) for details.
When MCLR is asserted in INTOSC mode, the internal clock oscillator is disabled.
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = bit is set
‘0’ = bit is cleared
DS40044F-page 96
x = bit is unknown
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.2
TABLE 14-1:
Oscillator Configurations
14.2.1
OSCILLATOR TYPES
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A can be operated in eight
different oscillator options. The user can program three
configuration bits (FOSC2 through FOSC0) to select
one of these eight modes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
LP
Low Power Crystal
XT
Crystal/Resonator
HS
High Speed Crystal/Resonator
RC
External Resistor/Capacitor (2 modes)
INTOSC Internal Precision Oscillator (2 modes)
EC
External Clock In
14.2.2
FIGURE 14-1:
CRYSTAL OPERATION
(OR CERAMIC RESONATOR)
(HS, XT OR LP OSC
CONFIGURATION)
Freq
OSC1(C1)
OSC2(C2)
XT
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
22-100 pF
15-68 pF
15-68 pF
22-100 pF
15-68 pF
15-68 pF
HS
8.0 MHz
16.0 MHz
10-68 pF
10-22 pF
10-68 pF
10-22 pF
Note:
C1(2)
XTAL
RF
Sleep
OSC2
RS(1)
C2(2)
1:
2:
FOSC
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
A series resistor may be required for AT strip cut
crystals.
See Table 14-1 and Table 14-2 for recommended
values of C1 and C2.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
Higher capacitance increases the stability
of the oscillator, but also increases the
start-up time. These values are for design
guidance only. Since each resonator has
its own characteristics, the user should
consult the resonator manufacturer for
appropriate values of external components.
TABLE 14-2:
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
Mode
Freq
OSC1(C1)
OSC2(C2)
LP
32 kHz
200 kHz
15-30 pF
0-15 pF
15-30 pF
0-15 pF
XT
100 kHz
2 MHz
4 MHz
68-150 pF
15-30 pF
15-30 pF
150-200 pF
15-30 pF
15-30 pF
HS
8 MHz
10 MHz
20 MHz
15-30 pF
15-30 pF
15-30 pF
15-30 pF
15-30 pF
15-30 pF
Note:
OSC1
Note
Mode
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR / CERAMIC
RESONATORS
In XT, LP or HS modes a crystal or ceramic resonator
is connected to the OSC1 and OSC2 pins to establish
oscillation (Figure 14-1). The PIC16F627A/628A/648A
oscillator design requires the use of a parallel cut
crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may give a frequency
out of the crystal manufacturers specifications. When in
XT, LP or HS modes, the device can have an external
clock source to drive the OSC1 pin (Figure 14-4).
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
CERAMIC RESONATORS
Higher capacitance increases the stability
of the oscillator, but also increases the
start-up time. These values are for design
guidance only. A series resistor (RS) may
be required in HS mode, as well as XT
mode, to avoid overdriving crystals with
low drive level specification. Since each
crystal has its own characteristics, the
user should consult the crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external
components.
DS40044F-page 97
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.2.3
EXTERNAL CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
CIRCUIT
Either a prepackaged oscillator can be used or a simple
oscillator circuit with TTL gates can be built.
Prepackaged oscillators provide a wide operating
range and better stability. A well-designed crystal
oscillator will provide good performance with TTL
gates. Two types of crystal oscillator circuits can be
used; one with series resonance, or one with parallel
resonance.
Figure 14-2 shows implementation of a parallel
resonant oscillator circuit. The circuit is designed to
use the fundamental frequency of the crystal. The
74AS04 inverter performs the 180° phase shift that a
parallel oscillator requires. The 4.7 kΩ resistor
provides the negative feedback for stability. The
10 kΩ potentiometers bias the 74AS04 in the linear
region. This could be used for external oscillator
designs.
FIGURE 14-2:
EXTERNAL PARALLEL
RESONANT CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
+5V
To other
Devices
10K
4.7K
74AS04
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
CLKIN
74AS04
10K
FIGURE 14-3:
330 KΩ
330 KΩ
74AS04
74AS04
Figure 14-3 shows a series resonant oscillator circuit.
This circuit is also designed to use the fundamental
frequency of the crystal. The inverter performs a 180°
phase shift in a series resonant oscillator circuit. The
330 kΩ resistors provide the negative feedback to bias
the inverters in their linear region.
DS40044F-page 98
74AS04
CLKIN
PIC16F627A/
628A/648A
XTAL
14.2.4
PRECISION INTERNAL 4 MHZ
OSCILLATOR
The internal precision oscillator provides a fixed 4 MHz
(nominal) system clock at VDD = 5V and 25°C. See
Section 17.0 “Electrical Specifications”, for information on variation over voltage and temperature.
14.2.5
EXTERNAL CLOCK IN
For applications where a clock is already available
elsewhere, users may directly drive the PIC16F627A/
628A/648A provided that this external clock source meets
the AC/DC timing requirements listed in Section 17.6
“Timing Diagrams and Specifications”. Figure 14-4
below shows how an external clock circuit should be
configured.
FIGURE 14-4:
10K
C2
To other
Devices
0.1 pF
XTAL
C1
EXTERNAL SERIES
RESONANT CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
Clock from
ext. system
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT
OPERATION (EC, HS, XT
OR LP OSC
CONFIGURATION)
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
RA6
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.2.6
RC OSCILLATOR
14.2.8
For applications where precise timing is not a
requirement, the RC oscillator option is available. The
operation and functionality of the RC oscillator is
dependent upon a number of variables. The RC oscillator
frequency is a function of:
• Supply voltage
• Resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values
• Operating temperature
The oscillator frequency will vary from unit-to-unit due
to normal process parameter variation. The difference
in lead frame capacitance between package types will
also affect the oscillation frequency, especially for low
CEXT values. The user also needs to account for the
tolerance of the external R and C components.
Figure 14-5 shows how the R/C combination is
connected.
FIGURE 14-5:
VDD
RC OSCILLATOR MODE
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
REXT
RA7/OSC1/
CLKIN
Internal
Clock
CEXT
VSS
FOSC/4
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT
Recommended Values: 3 kΩ ≤ REXT ≤ 100 kΩ (VDD ≥ 3.0V)
10 kΩ ≤ REXT ≤ 100 kΩ (VDD < 3.0V)
CEXT > 20 pF
The RC Oscillator mode has two options that control
the unused OSC2 pin. The first allows it to be used as
a general purpose I/O port. The other configures the
pin as an output providing the FOSC signal (internal
clock divided by 4) for test or external synchronization
purposes.
14.2.7
CLKOUT
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A can be configured to
provide a clock out signal by programming the
Configuration Word. The oscillator frequency, divided
by 4 can be used for test purposes or to synchronize
other logic.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
SPECIAL FEATURE: DUAL-SPEED
OSCILLATOR MODES
A software programmable dual-speed oscillator mode
is provided when the PIC16F627A/628A/648A is
configured in the INTOSC oscillator mode. This feature
allows users to dynamically toggle the oscillator speed
between 4 MHz and 48 kHz nominal in the INTOSC
mode. Applications that require low-current power
savings, but cannot tolerate putting the part into Sleep,
may use this mode.
There is a time delay associated with the transition
between fast and slow oscillator speeds. This oscillator
speed transition delay consists of two existing clock
pulses and eight new speed clock pulses. During this
clock speed transition delay, the System Clock is halted
causing the processor to be frozen in time. During this
delay, the program counter and the CLKOUT stop.
The OSCF bit in the PCON register is used to control
Dual Speed mode. See Section 4.2.2.6 “PCON
Register”, Register 4-6.
14.3
Reset
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A differentiates between
various kinds of Reset:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
Power-on Reset (POR)
MCLR Reset during normal operation
MCLR Reset during Sleep
WDT Reset (normal operation)
WDT wake-up (Sleep)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Some registers are not affected in any Reset condition;
their status is unknown on POR and unchanged in any
other Reset. Most other registers are reset to a “Reset
state” on Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset, MCLR
Reset, WDT Reset and MCLR Reset during Sleep.
They are not affected by a WDT wake-up, since this is
viewed as the resumption of normal operation. TO and
PD bits are set or cleared differently in different Reset
situations as indicated in Table 14-4. These bits are
used in software to determine the nature of the Reset.
See Table 14-7 for a full description of Reset states of
all registers.
A simplified block diagram of the on-chip Reset circuit
is shown in Figure 14-6.
The MCLR Reset path has a noise filter to detect and
ignore small pulses. See Table 17-7 for pulse width
specification.
DS40044F-page 99
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 14-6:
SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
External
Reset
Schmitt Trigger Input
MCLR/
VPP Pin
Sleep
WDT
Module
VDD Rise
Detect
WDT
Time-out
Reset
Power-on Reset
VDD
Brown-out
Reset
S
Q
R
Q
BOREN
OST/PWRT
OST
Chip_Reset
10-bit Ripple-counter
OSC1/
CLKIN
Pin
PWRT
On-chip(1)
OSC
10-bit Ripple-counter
Enable PWRT
See Table 14-3 for time out situations.
Enable OST
Note
1:
This is a separate oscillator from the INTOSC/RC oscillator.
DS40044F-page 100
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.4
14.4.1
14.4.3
Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up
Timer (PWRT), Oscillator Start-up
Timer (OST) and Brown-out Reset
(BOR)
The OST provides a 1024 oscillator cycle (from OSC1
input) delay after the PWRT delay is over. Program
execution will not start until the OST time out is
complete. This ensures that the crystal oscillator or
resonator has started and stabilized.
POWER-ON RESET (POR)
The on-chip POR holds the part in Reset until a VDD
rise is detected (in the range of 1.2-1.7V). A maximum rise time for VDD is required. See Section 17.0
“Electrical Specifications” for details.
The OST time out is invoked only for XT, LP and HS
modes and only on Power-on Reset or wake-up from
Sleep. See Table 17-7.
The POR circuit does not produce an internal Reset
when VDD declines.
14.4.4
BROWN-OUT RESET (BOR)
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A have on-chip BOR
circuitry. A configuration bit, BOREN, can disable (if
clear/programmed) or enable (if set) the BOR circuitry.
If VDD falls below VBOR for longer than TBOR, the
brown-out situation will reset the chip. A Reset is not
assured if VDD falls below VBOR for shorter than TBOR.
VBOR and TBOR are defined in Table 17-2 and
Table 17-7, respectively.
When the device starts normal operation (exits the
Reset condition), device operating parameters
(voltage, frequency, temperature, etc.) must be met to
ensure proper operation. If these conditions are not
met, the device must be held in Reset via MCLR, BOR
or PWRT until the operating conditions are met.
For additional information, refer to Application Note
AN607 “Power-up Trouble Shooting” (DS00607).
14.4.2
OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER
(OST)
On any Reset (Power-on, Brown-out, Watchdog, etc.),
the chip will remain in Reset until VDD rises above
VBOR (see Figure 14-7). The Power-up Timer will now
be invoked, if enabled, and will keep the chip in Reset
an additional 72 ms.
POWER-UP TIMER (PWRT)
The PWRT provides a fixed 72 ms (nominal) time out
on power-up (POR) or if enabled from a Brown-out
Reset. The PWRT operates on an internal RC oscillator. The chip is kept in Reset as long as PWRT is active.
The PWRT delay allows the VDD to rise to an acceptable level. A configuration bit, PWRTE can disable (if
set) or enable (if cleared or programmed) the PWRT. It
is recommended that the PWRT be enabled when
Brown-out Reset is enabled.
If VDD drops below VBOR while the Power-up Timer is
running, the chip will go back into a Brown-out Reset
and the Power-up Timer will be re-initialized. Once VDD
rises above VBOR, the Power-Up Timer will execute a
72 ms Reset. Figure 14-7 shows typical brown-out
situations.
The power-up time delay will vary from chip-to-chip and
due to VDD, temperature and process variation. See
DC parameters Table 17-7 for details.
FIGURE 14-7:
BROWN-OUT SITUATIONS WITH PWRT ENABLED
VDD
VBOR
≥ TBOR
Internal
Reset
72 ms
VDD
VBOR
Internal
Reset
<72 ms
72 ms
VDD
VBOR
Internal
Reset
Note:
72 ms
72 ms delay only if PWRTE bit is programmed to ‘0’.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 101
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.4.5
TIME OUT SEQUENCE
14.4.6
On power-up, the time out sequence is as follows: First
PWRT time-out is invoked after POR has expired. Then
OST is activated. The total time out will vary based on
oscillator configuration and PWRTE bit Status. For
example, in RC mode with PWRTE bit set (PWRT
disabled), there will be no time out at all. Figure 14-8,
Figure 14-11 and Figure 14-12 depict time out
sequences.
The PCON/Status register, PCON (address 8Eh), has
two bits.
Bit 0 is BOR (Brown-out Reset). BOR is unknown on
Power-on Reset. It must then be set by the user and
checked on subsequent Resets to see if BOR = 0
indicating that a brown-out has occurred. The BOR
Status bit is a “don’t care” and is not necessarily
predictable if the brown-out circuit is disabled (by
setting BOREN bit = 0 in the Configuration Word).
Since the time outs occur from the POR pulse, if MCLR
is kept low long enough, the time outs will expire. Then
bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately
(see Figure 14-11). This is useful for testing purposes
or to synchronize more than one PIC16F627A/628A/
648A device operating in parallel.
Bit 1 is POR (Power-on Reset). It is a ‘0’ on Power-on
Reset and unaffected otherwise. The user must write a
‘1’ to this bit following a Power-on Reset. On a
subsequent Reset if POR is ‘0’, it will indicate that a
Power-on Reset must have occurred (VDD may have
gone too low).
Table 14-6 shows the Reset conditions for some
special registers, while Table 14-7 shows the Reset
conditions for all the registers.
TABLE 14-3:
POWER CONTROL (PCON) STATUS
REGISTER
TIME OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS
Power-up Timer
Brown-out Reset
PWRTE = 0
PWRTE = 1
PWRTE = 0
PWRTE = 1
Wake-up from
Sleep
XT, HS, LP
72 ms +
1024•TOSC
1024•TOSC
72 ms +
1024•TOSC
1024•TOSC
1024•TOSC
RC, EC
72 ms
—
72 ms
—
—
INTOSC
72 ms
—
72 ms
—
6 μs
Oscillator Configuration
TABLE 14-4:
STATUS/PCON BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
POR
BOR
TO
PD
0
X
1
1
Power-on Reset
0
X
0
X
Illegal, TO is set on POR
0
X
X
0
Illegal, PD is set on POR
1
0
X
X
Brown-out Reset
1
1
0
u
WDT Reset
1
1
0
0
WDT Wake-up
1
1
u
u
MCLR Reset during normal operation
1
1
0
MCLR Reset during Sleep
1
Legend:
Condition
u = unchanged, x = unknown
DS40044F-page 102
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 14-5:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BROWN-OUT RESET
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR Reset
Value on all
other
Resets(1)
03h, 83h,
103h, 183h
STATUS
IRP
RP1
RPO
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
0001 1xxx
000q quuu
PCON
—
—
—
—
OSCF
—
POR
BOR
---- 1-0x
---- u-uq
8Eh
Legend:
Note
1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’, q = value depends upon condition.
Shaded cells are not used by Brown-out Reset.
Other (non Power-up) Resets include MCLR Reset, Brown-out Reset and Watchdog Timer Reset during normal operation.
TABLE 14-6:
INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS
Program
Counter
Status
Register
PCON
Register
Power-on Reset
000h
0001 1xxx
---- 1-0x
MCLR Reset during normal operation
000h
000u uuuu
---- 1-uu
MCLR Reset during Sleep
000h
0001 0uuu
---- 1-uu
WDT Reset
000h
0000 uuuu
---- 1-uu
PC + 1
uuu0 0uuu
---- u-uu
000h
000x xuuu
---- 1-u0
uuu1 0uuu
---- u-uu
Condition
WDT Wake-up
Brown-out Reset
Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep
PC + 1
(1)
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’.
Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and global enable bit, GIE is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h) after execution of PC + 1.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 103
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 14-7:
Register
INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR REGISTERS
Address
Power-on Reset
W
• MCLR Reset during normal
operation
• MCLR Reset during Sleep
• WDT Reset
• Brown-out Reset (1)
• Wake-up from Sleep(7) through
interrupt
• Wake-up from Sleep(7) through
WDT time out
—
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
INDF
00h, 80h,
100h, 180h
—
—
—
TMR0
01h, 101h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCL
02h, 82h,
102h, 182h
0000 0000
0000 0000
PC + 1(3)
STATUS
03h, 83h,
103h, 183h
0001 1xxx
000q quuu(4)
uuuq 0uuu(4)
FSR
04h, 84h,
104h, 184h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTA
05h
xxxx 0000
xxxx 0000
uuuu uuuu
PORTB
06h, 106h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCLATH
0Ah, 8Ah,
10Ah, 18Ah
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
INTCON
0Bh, 8Bh,
10Bh,18Bh
0000 000x
0000 000u
uuuu uqqq(2)
PIR1
0Ch
0000 -000
0000 -000
qqqq -qqq(2)
TMR1L
0Eh
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
0Fh
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
T1CON
10h
--00 0000
--uu uuuu(6)
--uu uuuu
TMR2
11h
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
T2CON
12h
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
CCPR1L
15h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1H
16h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP1CON
17h
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
RCSTA
18h
0000 000x
0000 000x
uuuu uuuu
TXREG
19h
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
RCREG
1Ah
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CMCON
1Fh
0000 0000
0000 0000
uu-- uuuu
OPTION
81h,181h
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
85h
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISB
86h, 186h
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PIE1
8Ch
0000 -000
0000 -000
uuuu -uuu
PCON
8Eh
---- 1-0x
---- 1-uq(1,5)
---- u-uu
PR2
92h
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TXSTA
98h
0000 -010
0000 -010
uuuu -uuu
SPBRG
99h
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
EEDATA
9Ah
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
EEADR
9Bh
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
EECON1
9Ch
---- x000
---- q000
---- uuuu
EECON2
9Dh
—
—
—
VRCON
9Fh
000- 0000
000- 0000
uuu- uuuu
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
If VDD goes too low, Power-on Reset will be activated and registers will be affected differently.
One or more bits in INTCON and PIR1 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h).
See Table 14-6 for Reset value for specific condition.
If Reset was due to brown-out, then bit 0 = 0. All other Resets will cause bit 0 = u.
Reset to ‘--00 0000’ on a Brown-out Reset (BOR).
Peripherals generating interrupts for wake-up from Sleep will change the resulting bits in the associated registers.
DS40044F-page 104
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 14-8:
TIME OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time Out
TOST
OST Time Out
Internal Reset
TIME OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 2
FIGURE 14-9:
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time Out
TOST
OST Time Out
Internal Reset
FIGURE 14-10:
TIME OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD)
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time Out
TOST
OST Time Out
Internal Reset
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 105
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 14-11:
EXTERNAL POWER-ON
RESET CIRCUIT (FOR
SLOW VDD POWER-UP)
FIGURE 14-13:
EXTERNAL BROWN-OUT
PROTECTION CIRCUIT 2
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
R1
Q1
D
R
MCLR
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
R2
R1
40k
MCLR
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
C
Note 1:
2:
3:
External Power-on Reset circuit is required
only if VDD power-up slope is too slow. The
diode D helps discharge the capacitor
quickly when VDD powers down.
R < 40 kΩ is recommended to make sure
that voltage drop across R does not violate
the device’s electrical specification.
R1 = 100Ω to 1 kΩ will limit any current
flowing into MCLR from external capacitor
C in the event of MCLR/VPP pin breakdown due to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
or Electrical Overstress (EOS).
FIGURE 14-12:
Note 1: This brown-out circuit is less expensive,
albeit less accurate. Transistor Q1 turns off
when VDD is below a certain level such that:
VDD x
R1
R1 + R2
= 0.7 V
R1
0.7 V be
2: Internal
x Brown-out Reset= should
R1 + R2
disabled when using this circuit.
3: Resistors should be adjusted for the
characteristics of the transistor.
EXTERNAL BROWN-OUT
PROTECTION CIRCUIT 1
VDD
VDD
33k
10k
MCLR
40k
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Note 1: This circuit will activate Reset when VDD
goes below (Vz + 0.7V) where Vz = Zener
voltage.
2: Internal Brown-out Reset circuitry should
be disabled when using this circuit.
DS40044F-page 106
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.5
Interrupts
When an interrupt is responded to, the GIE is cleared
to disable any further interrupt, the return address is
pushed into the stack and the PC is loaded with 0004h.
Once in the interrupt service routine, the source(s) of
the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt
flag bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in
software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid RB0/
INT recursive interrupts.
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A has 10 sources of
interrupt:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
External Interrupt RB0/INT
TMR0 Overflow Interrupt
PORTB Change Interrupts (pins RB<7:4>)
Comparator Interrupt
USART Interrupt TX
USART Interrupt RX
CCP Interrupt
TMR1 Overflow Interrupt
TMR2 Match Interrupt
Data EEPROM Interrupt
For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or
PORTB change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be
three or four instruction cycles. The exact latency
depends when the interrupt event occurs (Figure 14-15).
The latency is the same for one or two-cycle instructions.
Once in the interrupt service routine, the source(s) of the
interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt flag
bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software
before re-enabling interrupts to avoid multiple interrupt
requests.
The Interrupt Control register (INTCON) records
individual interrupt requests in flag bits. It also has
individual and global interrupt enable bits.
Note 1: Individual interrupt flag bits are set
regardless of the status of their
corresponding mask bit or the GIE bit.
A Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>)
enables (if set) all un-masked interrupts or disables (if
cleared) all interrupts. Individual interrupts can be
disabled through their corresponding enable bits in
INTCON register. GIE is cleared on Reset.
2: When an instruction that clears the GIE
bit is executed, any interrupts that were
pending for execution in the next cycle
are ignored. The CPU will execute a NOP
in the cycle immediately following the
instruction which clears the GIE bit. The
interrupts which were ignored are still
pending to be serviced when the GIE bit
is set again.
The “return-from-interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits
interrupt routine as well as sets the GIE bit, which reenables RB0/INT interrupts.
The INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt and
the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in the
INTCON register.
The peripheral interrupt flag is contained in the special
register PIR1. The corresponding interrupt enable bit is
contained in special registers PIE1.
FIGURE 14-14:
INTERRUPT LOGIC
TMR1IF
TMR1IE
TMR2IF
TMR2IE
T0IF
T0IE
INTF
INTE
CCP1IF
CCP1IE
CMIF
CMIE
TXIF
TXIE
RCIF
RCIE
EEIF
EEIE
RBIF
RBIE
Wake-up (if in Sleep mode)(1)
Interrupt to CPU
PEIE
GIE
Note 1: Some peripherals depend upon the system clock for operation. Since the system clock is
suspended during Sleep, only those peripherals which do not depend upon the system
clock will wake the part from Sleep. See Section 14.8.1 “Wake-up from Sleep”.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 107
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.5.1
RB0/INT INTERRUPT
14.5.3
External interrupt on the RB0/INT pin is edge triggered;
either rising if INTEDG bit (OPTION<6>) is set, or
falling, if INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid edge
appears on the RB0/INT pin, the INTF bit
(INTCON<1>) is set. This interrupt can be disabled by
clearing the INTE control bit (INTCON<4>). The INTF
bit must be cleared in software in the interrupt service
routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The RB0/INT
interrupt can wake-up the processor from Sleep, if the
INTE bit was set prior to going into Sleep. The status of
the GIE bit decides whether or not the processor
branches to the interrupt vector following wake-up. See
Section 14.8 “Power-Down Mode (Sleep)” for details
on Sleep, and Figure 14-17 for timing of wake-up from
Sleep through RB0/INT interrupt.
14.5.2
PORTB INTERRUPT
An input change on PORTB <7:4> sets the RBIF
(INTCON<0>) bit. The interrupt can be enabled/disabled
by setting/clearing the RBIE (INTCON<3>) bit. For
operation of PORTB (Section 5.2 “PORTB and TRISB
Registers”).
Note:
If a change on the I/O pin should occur
when the read operation is being executed
(starts during the Q2 cycle and ends before
the start of the Q3 cycle), then the RBIF
interrupt flag may not get set.
14.5.4
COMPARATOR INTERRUPT
See Section 10.6 “Comparator Interrupts”
complete description of comparator interrupts.
for
TMR0 INTERRUPT
An overflow (FFh → 00h) in the TMR0 register will set the
T0IF (INTCON<2>) bit. The interrupt can be enabled/
disabled by setting/clearing T0IE (INTCON<5>) bit. For
operation of the Timer0 module, see Section 6.0
“Timer0 Module”.
FIGURE 14-15:
INT PIN INTERRUPT TIMING
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
CLKOUT
(3)
(4)
INT pin
(1)
INTF flag
(INTCON<1>)
(1)
(5)
Interrupt Latency (2)
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
Instruction Flow
PC
PC
Instruction
Fetched
Inst (PC)
Instruction
Executed
Inst (PC - 1)
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
PC + 1
Inst (PC + 1)
Inst (PC)
PC + 1
—
Dummy Cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst (0004h)
Inst (0005h)
Dummy Cycle
Inst (0004h)
INTF flag is sampled here (every Q1).
Asynchronous interrupt latency = 3-4 TCY. Synchronous latency = 3 TCY, where TCY = instruction cycle time.
Latency is the same whether Inst (PC) is a single cycle or a two-cycle instruction.
CLKOUT is available in RC and INTOSC oscillator mode.
For minimum width of INT pulse, refer to AC specs.
INTF is enabled to be set anytime during the Q4-Q1 cycles.
DS40044F-page 108
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 14-8:
Address
SUMMARY OF INTERRUPT REGISTERS
Name
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR Reset
Value on all
other
Resets(1)
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
EEIF
CMIF
RCIF
TXIF
—
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF
0000 -000
0000 -000
8Ch
PIE1
EEIE
CMIE
RCIE
TXIE
—
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE
0000 -000
0000 -000
Note 1: Other (non Power-up) Resets include MCLR Reset, Brown-out Reset and Watchdog Timer Reset during normal
operation.
14.6
Context Saving During Interrupts
During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved
on the stack. Typically, users may wish to save key
registers during an interrupt (e.g., W register and
Status register). This must be implemented in software.
Example 14-1 stores and restores the Status and W
registers. The user register, W_TEMP, must be defined
in a common memory location (i.e., W_TEMP is
defined at 0x70 in Bank 0 and is therefore, accessible
at 0xF0, 0x170 and 0x1F0). The Example 14-1:
•
•
•
•
•
Stores the W register
Stores the Status register
Executes the ISR code
Restores the Status (and bank select bit register)
Restores the W register
EXAMPLE 14-1:
MOVWF
SWAPF
BCF
MOVWF
SAVING THE STATUS
AND W REGISTERS IN
RAM
W_TEMP
;copy W to temp register,
;could be in any bank
STATUS,W
;swap status to be saved
;into W
STATUS,RP0 ;change to bank 0
;regardless of current
;bank
STATUS_TEMP ;save status to bank 0
;register
:
:(ISR)
:
SWAPF
STATUS_TEMP,W;swap STATUS_TEMP
register
;into W, sets bank to
original
;state
MOVWF
STATUS
;move W into STATUS
;register
SWAPF
W_TEMP,F
;swap W_TEMP
SWAPF
W_TEMP,W
;swap W_TEMP into W
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
14.7
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
The Watchdog Timer is a free running on-chip RC
oscillator which does not require any external
components. This RC oscillator is separate from the
RC oscillator of the CLKIN pin. That means that the
WDT will run, even if the clock on the OSC1 and OSC2
pins of the device has been stopped, for example, by
execution of a SLEEP instruction. During normal
operation, a WDT time out generates a device Reset. If
the device is in Sleep mode, a WDT time out causes
the device to wake-up and continue with normal
operation. The WDT can be permanently disabled by
programming the configuration bit WDTE as clear
(Section 14.1 “Configuration Bits”).
14.7.1
WDT PERIOD
The WDT has a nominal time-out period of 18 ms (with
no prescaler). The time-out periods vary with
temperature, VDD and process variations from part to
part (see DC Specifications, Table 17-7). If longer timeout periods are desired, a postscaler with a division ratio
of up to 1:128 can be assigned to the WDT under
software control by writing to the OPTION register. Thus,
time-out periods up to 2.3 seconds can be realized.
The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear the WDT
and the postscaler, if assigned to the WDT, and prevent
it from timing out and generating a device Reset.
The TO bit in the Status register will be cleared upon a
Watchdog Timer time out.
14.7.2
WDT PROGRAMMING
CONSIDERATIONS
It should also be taken in account that under worst case
conditions (VDD = Min., Temperature = Max., max.
WDT prescaler) it may take several seconds before a
WDT time out occurs.
DS40044F-page 109
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 14-16:
WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
From TMR0 Clock Source
(Figure 6-1)
0
M
U
1X
Watchdog
Timer
WDT Postscaler/
TMR0 Prescaler
8
8 to 1 MUX
PSA
3
PS<2:0>
WDT
Enable Bit
To TMR0
(Figure 6-1)
0
MUX
1
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note:
T0SE, T0CS, PSA, PS0-PS2 are bits in the OPTION register.
TABLE 14-9:
SUMMARY OF WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTERS
Address
Name
Bit 7
2007h
CONFIG
LVP
81h, 181h
OPTION
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
BOREN MCLRE FOSC2
RBPU INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
Value on
POR Reset
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
PWRTE
WDTE
FOSC1
FOSC0
uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111 1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ‘0’, q = value depends upon condition.
Note:
14.8
Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer.
Power-Down Mode (Sleep)
The Power-down mode is entered by executing a
SLEEP instruction.
If enabled, the Watchdog Timer will be cleared but
keeps running, the PD bit in the Status register is
cleared, the TO bit is set, and the oscillator driver is
turned off. The I/O ports maintain the status they had,
before SLEEP was executed (driving high, low or highimpedance).
For lowest current consumption in this mode, all I/O
pins should be either at VDD or VSS with no external
circuitry drawing current from the I/O pin and the
comparators, and VREF should be disabled. I/O pins
that are high-impedance inputs should be pulled high
or low externally to avoid switching currents caused by
floating inputs. The T0CKI input should also be at VDD
or VSS for lowest current consumption. The
contribution from on chip pull-ups on PORTB should be
considered.
The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level (VIHMC).
Note:
DS40044F-page 110
It should be noted that a Reset generated
by a WDT time-out does not drive MCLR
pin low.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.8.1
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The device can wake-up from Sleep through one of the
following events:
1.
2.
3.
External Reset input on MCLR pin
Watchdog Timer wake-up (if WDT was enabled)
Interrupt from RB0/INT pin, RB port change, or
any peripheral interrupt, which is active in Sleep.
The first event will cause a device Reset. The two latter
events are considered a continuation of program
execution. The TO and PD bits in the Status register
can be used to determine the cause of device Reset.
PD bit, which is set on power-up, is cleared when Sleep
is invoked. TO bit is cleared if WDT wake-up occurred.
When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next
instruction (PC + 1) is pre-fetched. For the device to
wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding
interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up is
regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE bit is
clear (disabled), the device continues execution at the
instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit is
set (enabled), the device executes the instruction after
the SLEEP instruction and then branches to the
interrupt address (0004h). In cases where the
execution of the instruction following SLEEP is not
desirable, the user should have an NOP after the SLEEP
instruction.
Note:
If the global interrupts are disabled (GIE is
cleared), but any interrupt source has both
its interrupt enable bit and the corresponding
interrupt flag bits set, the device will not enter
Sleep. The SLEEP instruction is executed as
a NOP instruction.
The WDT is cleared when the device wakes up from
Sleep, regardless of the source of wake-up.
FIGURE 14-17:
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
OSC1
TOST(1,2)
CLKOUT(4)
INT pin
INTF flag
(INTCON<1>)
Interrupt Latency
(Note 2)
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
Processor in
Sleep
Instruction Flow
PC
Instruction
Fetched
Instruction
Executed
Note
1:
2:
3:
4:
14.9
PC
Inst(PC) = Sleep
Inst(PC - 1)
PC + 1
PC + 2
Inst(PC + 1)
Inst(PC + 2)
Sleep
Inst(PC + 1)
PC + 2
Dummy cycle
0004h(3)
0005h
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
Dummy cycle
Inst(0004h)
XT, HS or LP Oscillator mode assumed.
TOST = 1024 TOSC (drawing not to scale). Approximately 1 μs delay will be there for RC Oscillator mode.
GIE = 1 assumed. In this case, after wake-up the processor jumps to the interrupt routine. If GIE = 0, execution will continue
in-line.
CLKOUT is not available in these Oscillator modes, but shown here for timing reference.
Code Protection
With the Code-Protect bit is cleared (Code-Protect
enabled), the contents of the program memory
locations are read out as ‘0’. See “PIC16F627A/628A/
648A EEPROM Memory Programming Specification”
(DS41196) for details.
Note:
PC + 2
Only a Bulk Erase function can set the CP
and CPD bits by turning off the code
protection. The entire data EEPROM and
Flash program memory will be erased to
turn the code protection off.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
14.10 User ID Locations
Four memory locations (2000h-2003h) are designated
as user ID locations where the user can store
checksum or other code-identification numbers. These
locations are not accessible during normal execution
but are readable and writable during Program/Verify.
Only the Least Significant 4 bits of the user ID locations
are used for checksum calculations although each
location has 14 bits.
DS40044F-page 111
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.11 In-Circuit Serial Programming™
(ICSP™)
The PIC16F627A/628A/648A microcontrollers can be
serially programmed while in the end application circuit.
This is simply done with two lines for clock and data,
and three other lines for power, ground and the
programming voltage. This allows customers to
manufacture boards with unprogrammed devices and
then program the microcontroller just before shipping
the product. This also allows the most recent firmware
or custom firmware to be programmed.
The device is placed into a Program/Verify mode by
holding the RB6 and RB7 pins low while raising the
MCLR (VPP) pin from VIL to VIHH. See “PIC16F627A/
628A/648A
EEPROM
Memory
Programming
Specification” (DS41196) for details. RB6 becomes the
programming clock and RB7 becomes the programming
data. Both RB6 and RB7 are Schmitt Trigger inputs in
this mode.
After Reset, to place the device into Programming/Verify
mode, the Program Counter (PC) is at location 00h. A
6-bit command is then supplied to the device. Depending
on the command, 14 bits of program data are then
supplied to or from the device, depending if the command
was a load or a read. For complete details of serial
programming, please refer to “PIC16F627A/628A/648A
EEPROM
Memory
Programming
Specification”
(DS41196).
A typical In-Circuit Serial Programming connection is
shown in Figure 14-18.
FIGURE 14-18:
14.12 Low-Voltage Programming
The LVP bit of the Configuration Word, enables the lowvoltage programming. This mode allows the
microcontroller to be programmed via ICSP using only
a 5V source. This mode removes the requirement of
VIHH to be placed on the MCLR pin. The LVP bit is
normally erased to ‘1’ which enables the low-voltage
programming. In this mode, the RB4/PGM pin is
dedicated to the programming function and ceases to
be a general purpose I/O pin. The device will enter
Programming mode when a ‘1’ is placed on the RB4/
PGM pin. The High-Voltage Programming mode is still
available by placing VIHH on the MCLR pin.
Note 1: While in this mode, the RB4 pin can no
longer be used as a general purpose I/O
pin.
2: VDD must be 5.0V +10% during erase
operations.
If Low-Voltage Programming mode is not used, the
LVP bit should be programmed to a ‘0’ so that RB4/
PGM becomes a digital I/O pin. To program the device,
VIHH must be placed onto MCLR during programming.
The LVP bit may only be programmed when programming is entered with VIHH on MCLR. The LVP bit
cannot be programmed when programming is entered
with RB4/PGM.
It should be noted, that once the LVP bit is programmed
to ‘0’, only High-Voltage Programming mode can be
used to program the device.
TYPICAL IN-CIRCUIT
SERIAL PROGRAMMING
CONNECTION
To Normal
Connections
External
Connector
Signals
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
+5V
VDD
0V
VSS
VPP
RA5/MCLR/VPP
CLK
RB6/PGC
Data I/O
RB7/PGD
VDD
To Normal
Connections
DS40044F-page 112
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
14.13 In-Circuit Debugger
Since in-circuit debugging requires the loss of clock,
data and MCLR pins, MPLAB® ICD 2 development with
an 18-pin device is not practical. A special 28-pin
PIC16F648A-ICD device is used with MPLAB ICD 2 to
provide separate clock, data and MCLR pins and frees
all normally available pins to the user. Debugging of all
three versions of the PIC16F627A/628A/648A is
supported by the PIC16F648A-ICD.
This special ICD device is mounted on the top of a
header and its signals are routed to the MPLAB ICD 2
connector. On the bottom of the header is an 18-pin
socket that plugs into the user’s target via an 18-pin
stand-off connector.
When the ICD pin on the PIC16F648A-ICD device is
held low, the In-Circuit Debugger functionality is
enabled. This function allows simple debugging
functions when used with MPLAB ICD 2. When the
microcontroller has this feature enabled, some of the
resources are not available for general use. Table 14-19
shows which features are consumed by the background
debugger.
TABLE 14-19: DEBUGGER RESOURCES
I/O pins
ICDCLK, ICDDATA
Stack
1 level
Program Memory
Address 0h must be NOP
300h-3FEh
The PIC16F648A-ICD device with header is supplied
as an assembly. See Microchip Part Number
AC162053.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 113
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 114
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
15.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
Each PIC16F627A/628A/648A instruction is a 14-bit
word divided into an OPCODE which specifies the
instruction type and one or more operands which
further specify the operation of the instruction. The
PIC16F627A/628A/648A instruction set summary in
Table 15-2 lists byte-oriented, bit-oriented, and
literal and control operations. Table 15-1 shows the
opcode field descriptions.
For byte-oriented instructions, ‘f’ represents a file
register designator and ‘d’ represents a destination
designator. The file register designator specifies which
file register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If ‘d’ is zero, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is one, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
For bit-oriented instructions, ‘b’ represents a bit field
designator which selects the number of the bit affected
by the operation, while ‘f’ represents the number of the
file in which the bit is located.
For literal and control operations, ‘k’ represents an
eight or eleven bit constant or literal value.
15.1
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
All instructions are executed within one single
instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the
program counter is changed as a result of an
instruction. In this case, the execution takes two
instruction cycles with the second cycle executed as a
NOP. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator
periods. Thus, for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the
normal instruction execution time is 1 μs. If a
conditional test is true or the program counter is
changed as a result of an instruction, the instruction
execution time is 2 μs.
Table 15-2 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASM™ assembler.
Figure 15-1 shows the three general formats that the
instructions can have.
Note 1: Any unused opcode is reserved. Use of
any reserved opcode may cause unexpected operation.
2: To maintain upward compatibility with
future PIC MCU products, do not use the
OPTION and TRIS instructions.
Read-Modify-Write Operations
Any instruction that specifies a file register as part of
the instruction performs a Read-Modify-Write (R-M-W)
operation. The register is read, the data is modified,
and the result is stored according to either the instruction, or the destination designator ‘d’. A read operation
is performed on a register even if the instruction writes
to that register.
For example, a “clrf PORTB” instruction will read
PORTB, clear all the data bits, then write the result
back to PORTB. This example would have the unintended result that the condition that sets the RBIF flag
would be cleared for pins configured as inputs and
using the PORTB interrupt-on-change feature.
TABLE 15-1:
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
f
The instruction set is highly orthogonal and is grouped
into three basic categories:
Description
All examples use the following format to represent a
hexadecimal number:
0xhh
where ‘h’ signifies a hexadecimal digit.
FIGURE 15-1:
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8
7 6
OPCODE
Working register (accumulator)
b
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
d
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
76
OPCODE
Literal field, constant data or label
Literal and control operations
Don’t care location (= 0 or 1)
The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the
recommended form of use for compatibility with all
Microchip software tools.
General
13
8 7
0
OPCODE
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
11 10
TO
Time-out bit
OPCODE
PD
Power-down bit
k = 11-bit immediate value
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
f (FILE #)
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
x
Destination select; d = 0: store result in W,
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1
0
b (BIT #)
k
d
0
f (FILE #)
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
W
GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
0
k (literal)
DS40044F-page 115
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 15-2:
PIC16F627A/628A/648A INSTRUCTION SET
Mnemonic,
Operands
14-Bit Opcode
Description
Cycles
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ANDWF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
DECFSZ
INCF
INCFSZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
NOP
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SWAPF
XORWF
f, d
f, d
f
—
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
—
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
Add W and f
AND W with f
Clear f
Clear W
Complement f
Decrement f
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Increment f
Increment f, Skip if 0
Inclusive OR W with f
Move f
Move W to f
No Operation
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Right f through Carry
Subtract W from f
Swap nibbles in f
Exclusive OR W with f
1
1
1
1
1
1
1(2)
1
1(2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
0111
0101
0001
0001
1001
0011
1011
1010
1111
0100
1000
0000
0000
1101
1100
0010
1110
0110
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xxx
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xx0
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
xxxx
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
0000
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
00bb
01bb
10bb
11bb
bfff
bfff
bfff
bfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
111x
1001
0kkk
0000
1kkk
1000
00xx
0000
01xx
0000
0000
110x
1010
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0100
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
1001
kkkk
1000
0011
kkkk
kkkk
C,DC,Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
C
C
C,DC,Z
Z
1, 2
1, 2
2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2, 3
1, 2
1, 2, 3
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
f, b
f, b
f, b
f, b
BCF
BSF
BTFSC
BTFSS
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
1
1
1(2)
1(2)
01
01
01
01
1, 2
1, 2
3
3
LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS
ADDLW
ANDLW
CALL
CLRWDT
GOTO
IORLW
MOVLW
RETFIE
RETLW
RETURN
SLEEP
SUBLW
XORLW
Note
1:
2:
3:
k
k
k
—
k
k
k
—
k
—
—
k
k
Add literal and W
AND literal with W
Call subroutine
Clear Watchdog Timer
Go to address
Inclusive OR literal with W
Move literal to W
Return from interrupt
Return with literal in W
Return from Subroutine
Go into Standby mode
Subtract W from literal
Exclusive OR literal with W
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
11
11
10
00
10
11
11
00
11
00
00
11
11
C,DC,Z
Z
TO,PD
Z
TO,PD
C,DC,Z
Z
When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1), the value used will be that value present on the
pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external device, the data
will be written back with a ‘0’.
If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned to the
Timer0 Module.
If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is executed
as a NOP.
DS40044F-page 116
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
15.2
Instruction Descriptions
ADDLW
Add Literal and W
AND Literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDLW
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDLW
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
(W) + k → (W)
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
Operation:
(W) .AND. (k) → (W)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
11
Encoding:
11
Description:
The contents of the W register
are added to the eight bit literal
‘k’ and the result is placed in the
W register.
Description:
Words:
1
The contents of W register are
AND’ed with the eight bit literal
‘k’. The result is placed in the W
register.
Cycles:
1
Words:
1
Example
ADDLW
Cycles:
1
Example
ANDLW
111x
k
ANDLW
kkkk
kkkk
0x15
Before Instruction
W = 0x10
After Instruction
W = 0x25
1001
k
kkkk
kkkk
0x5F
Before Instruction
W = 0xA3
After Instruction
W = 0x03
ANDWF
AND W with f
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDWF
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) + (f) → (dest)
Operation:
(W) .AND. (f) → (dest)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
Encoding:
00
Description:
Add the contents of the W
register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Description:
AND the W register with register
‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored
in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the
result is stored back in register
‘f’.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
ADDWF
Example
ANDWF
ADDWF
Add W and f
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDWF
Operands:
0111
f,d
dfff
REG1, 0
Before Instruction
W
= 0x17
REG1 = 0xC2
After Instruction
W
= 0xD9
REG1 = 0xC2
Z
= 0
C
= 0
DC
= 0
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
ffff
0101
f,d
dfff
ffff
REG1, 1
Before Instruction
W
= 0x17
REG1 = 0xC2
After Instruction
W
= 0x17
REG1 = 0x02
DS40044F-page 117
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
BCF
Bit Clear f
BTFSC
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Syntax:
[ label ] BCF
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSC f,b
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operation:
0 → (f<b>)
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
01
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is cleared.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
BCF
f,b
00bb
bfff
ffff
Encoding:
BSF
Bit Set f
Syntax:
[ label ] BSF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operation:
1 → (f<b>)
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
01
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is set.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
BSF
01bb
f,b
bfff
ffff
10bb
bfff
ffff
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, then the
next instruction is skipped.
If bit ‘b’ is ‘0’, then the next
instruction fetched during the
current instruction execution is
discarded, and a NOP is executed
instead, making this a two-cycle
instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Example
HERE
FALSE
TRUE
REG1, 7
Before Instruction
REG1 = 0xC7
After Instruction
REG1 = 0x47
01
BTFSC
GOTO
•
•
•
REG1
PROCESS_CODE
Before Instruction
PC = address HERE
After Instruction
if REG<1> = 0,
PC = address TRUE
if REG<1> =1,
PC = address FALSE
REG1, 7
Before Instruction
REG1 = 0x0A
After Instruction
REG1 = 0x8A
DS40044F-page 118
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
BTFSS
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
CALL
Call Subroutine
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSS f,b
Syntax:
[ label ] CALL k
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b<7
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 2047
Operation:
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 1
Status Affected:
None
(PC)+ 1→ TOS,
k → PC<10:0>,
(PCLATH<4:3>) → PC<12:11>
Encoding:
01
Status Affected:
None
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘1’, then
the next instruction is skipped.
If bit ‘b’ is ‘1’, then the next
instruction fetched during the
current instruction execution, is
discarded and a NOP is executed
instead, making this a two-cycle
instruction.
Encoding:
10
Description:
Call Subroutine. First, return
address (PC + 1) is pushed onto
the stack. The eleven bit immediate address is loaded into PC
bits <10:0>. The upper bits of
the PC are loaded from
PCLATH. CALL is a two-cycle
instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Example
HERE
Words:
1
Cycles:
1(2)
Example
HERE
FALSE
TRUE
11bb
BTFSS
GOTO
•
•
•
bfff
ffff
REG1
PROCESS_CODE
Before Instruction
PC = address HERE
After Instruction
if FLAG<1> = 0,
PC = address FALSE
if FLAG<1> = 1,
PC = address TRUE
0kkk
CALL
kkkk
kkkk
THERE
Before Instruction
PC = Address HERE
After Instruction
PC = Address THERE
TOS = Address HERE+1
CLRF
Syntax:
Clear f
[ label ] CLRF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
Operation:
00h → (f)
1→Z
f
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
cleared and the Z bit is set.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
CLRF
0001
1fff
ffff
REG1
Before Instruction
REG1 = 0x5A
After Instruction
REG1 = 0x00
Z
= 1
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 119
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
CLRW
Clear W
COMF
Complement f
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRW
Syntax:
[ label ] COMF
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
00h → (W)
1→Z
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) → (dest)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
Encoding:
00
Description:
W register is cleared. Zero bit
(Z) is set.
Description:
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
The contents of register ‘f’ are
complemented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’,
the result is stored back in
register ‘f’.
Example
CLRW
Words:
1
Before Instruction
W = 0x5A
After Instruction
W = 0x00
Z = 1
Cycles:
1
Example
COMF
CLRWDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
DECF
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRWDT
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
00h → WDT
0 → WDT prescaler,
1 → TO
1 → PD
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - 1 → (dest)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Encoding:
Encoding:
00
Description:
0001
0000
0011
1001
f,d
dfff
ffff
REG1, 0
Before Instruction
REG1 = 0x13
After Instruction
REG1 = 0x13
W
= 0xEC
Syntax:
Decrement f
[ label ] DECF f,d
00
0011
dfff
ffff
Description:
CLRWDT instruction resets the
Watchdog Timer. It also resets
the prescaler of the WDT. Status
bits TO and PD are set.
Decrement register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’. the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
DECF
Example
0000
0110
CLRWDT
Before Instruction
WDT counter = ?
After Instruction
WDT counter =
WDT prescaler =
=
TO
=
PD
DS40044F-page 120
0100
0x00
0
1
1
CNT, 1
Before Instruction
CNT = 0x01
Z
= 0
After Instruction
CNT = 0x00
Z
= 1
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
DECFSZ
Decrement f, Skip if 0
GOTO
Unconditional Branch
Syntax:
[ label ] DECFSZ f,d
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 2047
Operation:
(f) - 1 → (dest);
0
Operation:
k → PC<10:0>
PCLATH<4:3> → PC<12:11>
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
Encoding:
10
00
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is placed in the W register.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed
back in register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘0’, the next
instruction, which is already
fetched, is discarded. A NOP is
executed instead making it a
two-cycle instruction.
Description:
GOTO is an unconditional
branch. The eleven-bit immediate value is loaded into PC bits
<10:0>. The upper bits of PC
are loaded from PCLATH<4:3>.
GOTO is a two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Example
GOTO THERE
Words:
1011
skip if result =
dfff
ffff
1(2)
Example
HERE
DECFSZ
GOTO
CONTINUE •
•
•
1kkk
kkkk
kkkk
After Instruction
PC = Address THERE
1
Cycles:
GOTO k
REG1, 1
LOOP
Before Instruction
PC
= address HERE
After Instruction
REG1 = REG1 - 1
if REG1 = 0,
PC = address CONTINUE
if REG1 ≠ 0,
PC
= address HERE+1
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 121
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
INCF
Increment f
INCFSZ
Increment f, Skip if 0
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) + 1 → (dest)
Operation:
(f) + 1 → (dest), skip if result = 0
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
00
Encoding:
00
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is placed in the W register.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed
back in register ‘f’.
Description:
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
INCF
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is placed in the W register.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed
back in register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘0’, the next
instruction, which is already
fetched, is discarded. A NOP is
executed instead making it a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
INCF f,d
1010
dfff
ffff
REG1, 1
Before Instruction
REG1 = 0xFF
Z
= 0
After Instruction
REG1 = 0x00
Z
= 1
INCFSZ f,d
1111
Cycles:
1(2)
Example
HERE
dfff
INCFSZ
GOTO
CONTINUE •
•
•
ffff
REG1, 1
LOOP
Before Instruction
PC
= address HERE
After Instruction
REG1 = REG1 + 1
if CNT = 0,
PC = address CONTINUE
if REG1≠ 0,
PC
= address HERE +1
DS40044F-page 122
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
IORLW
Inclusive OR Literal with W
MOVLW
Move Literal to W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) .OR. k → (W)
Operation:
k → (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
11
Encoding:
11
Description:
The contents of the W register is
OR’ed with the eight-bit literal
‘k’. The result is placed in the W
register.
Description:
The eight bit literal ‘k’ is loaded
into W register. The “don’t
cares” will assemble as ‘0’s.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
MOVLW
Example
IORLW
IORLW k
1000
kkkk
kkkk
0x35
MOVLW k
00xx
kkkk
kkkk
0x5A
After Instruction
W = 0x5A
Before Instruction
W = 0x9A
After Instruction
W = 0xBF
Z = 0
IORWF
Inclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) → (dest)
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ is
moved to a destination
dependent upon the status of
‘d’. If d = 0, destination is W
register. If d = 1, the destination
is file register f itself. d = 1 is
useful to test a file register since
status flag Z is affected.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
MOVF
IORWF
MOVF
f,d
Operation:
(W) .OR. (f) → (dest)
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
Description:
Inclusive OR the W register with
register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’
is ‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
IORWF
0100
dfff
REG1, 0
Before Instruction
REG1 = 0x13
W
= 0x91
After Instruction
REG1 = 0x13
W
= 0x93
Z
= 1
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
ffff
Move f
MOVF f,d
1000
dfff
ffff
REG1, 0
After Instruction
W= value in REG1 register
Z = 1
DS40044F-page 123
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
MOVWF
Move W to f
OPTION
Load Option Register
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
(W) → (f)
Operation:
(W) → OPTION
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
00
Encoding:
00
Description:
The contents of the W register are
loaded in the OPTION register.
This instruction is supported for
code compatibility with PIC16C5X
products. Since OPTION is a
readable/writable register, the
user can directly address it. Using
only register instruction such as
MOVWF.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
MOVWF
0000
f
1fff
ffff
Description:
Move data from W register to
register ‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
MOVWF
REG1
Before Instruction
REG1 = 0xFF
W
= 0x4F
After Instruction
REG1 = 0x4F
W
= 0x4F
OPTION
0000
0110
0010
Example
To maintain upward compatibility with future PIC® MCU
products, do not use this
instruction.
NOP
No Operation
RETFIE
Return from Interrupt
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operands:
None
Operation:
No operation
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
TOS → PC,
1 → GIE
Encoding:
00
Status Affected:
None
Description:
No operation.
Encoding:
00
Words:
1
Description:
Cycles:
1
Example
NOP
Return from Interrupt. Stack is
POPed and Top-of-Stack (TOS)
is loaded in the PC. Interrupts
are enabled by setting Global
Interrupt Enable bit, GIE
(INTCON<7>). This is a twocycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Example
RETFIE
NOP
0000
0xx0
0000
RETFIE
0000
0000
1001
After Interrupt
PC = TOS
GIE = 1
DS40044F-page 124
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
RETLW
Return with Literal in W
RLF
Rotate Left f through Carry
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
Operation:
k → (W);
TOS → PC
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
C
Encoding:
11
Encoding:
00
Description:
The W register is loaded with
the eight-bit literal ‘k’. The
program counter is loaded from
the top of the stack (the return
address). This is a two-cycle
instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
rotated one bit to the left through
the Carry Flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is placed in the W register.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored
back in register ‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Example
CALL TABLE;W contains table
;offset value
•
;W now has table value
•
•
ADDWF PC;W = offset
RETLW k1;Begin table
RETLW k2;
•
•
•
RETLW kn; End of table
TABLE
RETLW k
01xx
kkkk
kkkk
1
Cycles:
1
Example
RLF
f,d
1101
C
Words:
RLF
dfff
ffff
REGISTER F
REG1, 0
Before Instruction
REG1=1110 0110
C
= 0
After Instruction
REG1=1110 0110
W = 1100 1100
C
= 1
Before Instruction
W = 0x07
After Instruction
W = value of k8
RETURN
Return from Subroutine
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operation:
TOS → PC
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
00
Description:
Return from subroutine. The
stack is POPed and the top of
the stack (TOS) is loaded into
the program counter. This is a
two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Example
RETURN
RETURN
0000
0000
1000
After Interrupt
PC = TOS
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 125
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
RRF
Rotate Right f through Carry
SUBLW
Subtract W from Literal
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
k - (W) → (W)
Operation:
See description below
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
C
Status
Affected:
Encoding:
00
Encoding:
11
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
rotated one bit to the right
through the Carry Flag. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is placed in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’.
Description:
The W register is subtracted (2’s
complement method) from the eightbit literal ‘k’. The result is placed in
the W register.
1100
C
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
RRF
RRF f,d
dfff
ffff
REGISTER F
SUBLW k
110x
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example 1:
SUBLW
kkkk
kkkk
0x02
Before Instruction
W = 1
C = ?
REG1, 0
Before Instruction
REG1 = 1110 0110
C
= 0
After Instruction
REG1 = 1110 0110
W
= 0111 0011
C
= 0
After Instruction
W = 1
C = 1; result is positive
Example 2:
Before Instruction
W = 2
C = ?
After Instruction
W = 0
C = 1; result is zero
SLEEP
Example 3:
Syntax:
[ label ]
SLEEP
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h → WDT,
0 → WDT prescaler,
1 → TO,
0 → PD
W =
C =
W =
C =
TO, PD
Encoding:
00
Description:
The power-down Status bit, PD
is cleared. Time out Status bit,
TO is set. Watchdog Timer and
its prescaler are cleared.
The processor is put into Sleep
mode with the oscillator
stopped. See Section 14.8
“Power-Down Mode (Sleep)”
for more details.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example:
SLEEP
DS40044F-page 126
0110
3
?
After Instruction
Status Affected:
0000
Before Instruction
0xFF
0; result is negative
0011
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
SUBWF
Subtract W from f
SWAPF
Swap Nibbles in f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - (W) → (dest)
Operation:
Status
Affected:
C, DC, Z
(f<3:0>) → (dest<7:4>),
(f<7:4>) → (dest<3:0>)
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
00
Encoding:
00
Description:
Subtract (2’s complement method)
W register from register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Description:
The upper and lower nibbles of
register ‘f’ are exchanged. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is placed in W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed in register ‘f’.
Words:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Cycles:
1
Example 1:
SUBWF
Example
SWAPF
SUBWF f,d
0010
dfff
ffff
REG1, 1
Before Instruction
Example 2:
1
2
1; result is positive
1
0
Before Instruction
REG1 = 2
W
= 2
C
= ?
After Instruction
REG1
W
C
Z
Example 3:
=
=
=
=
REG1 = 1
W
= 2
C
= ?
After Instruction
REG1
W
C
Z
=
=
=
=
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
0xFF
2
0; result is negative
DC = 0
ffff
REG1, 0
After Instruction
REG1 = 0xA5
W
= 0x5A
TRIS
Load TRIS Register
Syntax:
[ label ] TRIS
Operands:
5≤f≤7
Operation:
(W) → TRIS register f;
Status Affected:
None
Encoding:
00
Description:
The instruction is supported for
code compatibility with the
PIC16C5X products. Since TRIS
registers are readable and
writable, the user can directly
address them.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
0
2
1; result is zero
DC = 1
Before Instruction
dfff
REG1 = 0xA5
After Instruction
=
=
=
=
=
1110
Before Instruction
REG1 = 3
W
= 2
C
= ?
REG1
W
C
DC
Z
SWAPF f,d
0000
f
0110
0fff
Example
To maintain upward compatibility with future PIC® MCU
products, do not use this
instruction.
DS40044F-page 127
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
XORLW
Exclusive OR Literal with W
XORWF
Exclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) .XOR. (f) → (dest)
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
00
Description:
Exclusive OR the contents of the
W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example
XORWF
XORLW k
Operation:
(W) .XOR. k → (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Encoding:
11
Description:
The contents of the W register
are XOR’ed with the eight-bit
literal ‘k’. The result is placed in
the W register.
1010
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example:
XORLW
kkkk
0xAF
Before Instruction
W = 0xB5
After Instruction
W = 0x1A
kkkk
XORWF
0110
f,d
dfff
ffff
REG1, 1
Before Instruction
REG1 = 0xAF
W
= 0xB5
After Instruction
REG1 = 0x1A
W
= 0xB5
DS40044F-page 128
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
16.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
The PIC® microcontrollers are supported with a full
range of hardware and software development tools:
• Integrated Development Environment
- MPLAB® IDE Software
• Assemblers/Compilers/Linkers
- MPASMTM Assembler
- MPLAB C18 and MPLAB C30 C Compilers
- MPLINKTM Object Linker/
MPLIBTM Object Librarian
- MPLAB ASM30 Assembler/Linker/Library
• Simulators
- MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• Emulators
- MPLAB ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator
- MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator
• In-Circuit Debugger
- MPLAB ICD 2
• Device Programmers
- PICSTART® Plus Development Programmer
- MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
- PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer
• Low-Cost Demonstration and Development
Boards and Evaluation Kits
16.1
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8/16-bit microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows®
operating system-based application that contains:
• A single graphical interface to all debugging tools
- Simulator
- Programmer (sold separately)
- Emulator (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately)
• A full-featured editor with color-coded context
• A multiple project manager
• Customizable data windows with direct edit of
contents
• High-level source code debugging
• Visual device initializer for easy register
initialization
• Mouse over variable inspection
• Drag and drop variables from source to watch
windows
• Extensive on-line help
• Integration of select third party tools, such as
HI-TECH Software C Compilers and IAR
C Compilers
The MPLAB IDE allows you to:
• Edit your source files (either assembly or C)
• One touch assemble (or compile) and download
to PIC MCU emulator and simulator tools
(automatically updates all project information)
• Debug using:
- Source files (assembly or C)
- Mixed assembly and C
- Machine code
MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a
single development paradigm, from the cost-effective
simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to
full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning
curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility
and power.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 129
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
16.2
MPASM Assembler
The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal
macro assembler for all PIC MCUs.
The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object
files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX
files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol
reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines
and generated machine code and COFF files for
debugging.
The MPASM Assembler features include:
• Integration into MPLAB IDE projects
• User-defined macros to streamline
assembly code
• Conditional assembly for multi-purpose
source files
• Directives that allow complete control over the
assembly process
16.5
MPLAB ASM30 Assembler produces relocatable
machine code from symbolic assembly language for
dsPIC30F devices. MPLAB C30 C Compiler uses the
assembler to produce its object file. The assembler
generates relocatable object files that can then be
archived or linked with other relocatable object files and
archives to create an executable file. Notable features
of the assembler include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support for the entire dsPIC30F instruction set
Support for fixed-point and floating-point data
Command line interface
Rich directive set
Flexible macro language
MPLAB IDE compatibility
16.6
16.3
MPLAB C18 and MPLAB C30
C Compilers
The MPLAB C18 and MPLAB C30 Code Development
Systems are complete ANSI C compilers for
Microchip’s PIC18 and PIC24 families of microcontrollers and the dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 family of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful
integration capabilities, superior code optimization and
ease of use not found with other compilers.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
16.4
MPLINK Object Linker/
MPLIB Object Librarian
The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable
objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the
MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects
from precompiled libraries, using directives from a
linker script.
MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker
and Librarian
MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction
level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be
examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from
a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be
logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace
buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of
the simulator to record and track program execution,
actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers.
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports
symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C18 and
MPLAB C30 C Compilers, and the MPASM and
MPLAB ASM30 Assemblers. The software simulator
offers the flexibility to develop and debug code outside
of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an
excellent, economical software development tool.
The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and
modification of library files of precompiled code. When
a routine from a library is called from a source file, only
the modules that contain that routine will be linked in
with the application. This allows large libraries to be
used efficiently in many different applications.
The object linker/library features include:
• Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many
smaller files
• Enhanced code maintainability by grouping
related modules together
• Flexible creation of libraries with easy module
listing, replacement, deletion and extraction
DS40044F-page 130
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
16.7
MPLAB ICE 2000
High-Performance
In-Circuit Emulator
The MPLAB ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator is intended
to provide the product development engineer with a
complete microcontroller design tool set for PIC
microcontrollers. Software control of the MPLAB ICE
2000 In-Circuit Emulator is advanced by the MPLAB
Integrated Development Environment, which allows
editing, building, downloading and source debugging
from a single environment.
The MPLAB ICE 2000 is a full-featured emulator
system with enhanced trace, trigger and data monitoring features. Interchangeable processor modules allow
the system to be easily reconfigured for emulation of
different processors. The architecture of the MPLAB
ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator allows expansion to
support new PIC microcontrollers.
The MPLAB ICE 2000 In-Circuit Emulator system has
been designed as a real-time emulation system with
advanced features that are typically found on more
expensive development tools. The PC platform and
Microsoft® Windows® 32-bit operating system were
chosen to best make these features available in a
simple, unified application.
16.8
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit
Emulator System
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is
Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for
Microchip Flash DSC® and MCU devices. It debugs and
programs PIC® and dsPIC® Flash microcontrollers with
the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of the
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE),
included with each kit.
The MPLAB REAL ICE probe is connected to the design
engineer’s PC using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and
is connected to the target with either a connector
compatible with the popular MPLAB ICD 2 system
(RJ11) or with the new high speed, noise tolerant, lowvoltage differential signal (LVDS) interconnection
(CAT5).
16.9
MPLAB ICD 2 In-Circuit Debugger
Microchip’s In-Circuit Debugger, MPLAB ICD 2, is a
powerful, low-cost, run-time development tool,
connecting to the host PC via an RS-232 or high-speed
USB interface. This tool is based on the Flash PIC
MCUs and can be used to develop for these and other
PIC MCUs and dsPIC DSCs. The MPLAB ICD 2 utilizes
the in-circuit debugging capability built into the Flash
devices. This feature, along with Microchip’s In-Circuit
Serial ProgrammingTM (ICSPTM) protocol, offers costeffective, in-circuit Flash debugging from the graphical
user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment. This enables a designer to develop and
debug source code by setting breakpoints, single stepping and watching variables, and CPU status and
peripheral registers. Running at full speed enables
testing hardware and applications in real time. MPLAB
ICD 2 also serves as a development programmer for
selected PIC devices.
16.10 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal,
CE compliant device programmer with programmable
voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for
maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display
(128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various
package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included
as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB
PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program
PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set
code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3
connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable.
The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and
optimized algorithms for quick programming of large
memory devices and incorporates an SD/MMC card for
file storage and secure data applications.
MPLAB REAL ICE is field upgradeable through future
firmware downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming
releases of MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported,
and new features will be added, such as software breakpoints and assembly code trace. MPLAB REAL ICE
offers significant advantages over competitive emulators
including low-cost, full-speed emulation, real-time
variable watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a
ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters)
interconnection cables.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 131
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
16.11 PICSTART Plus Development
Programmer
16.13 Demonstration, Development and
Evaluation Boards
The PICSTART Plus Development Programmer is an
easy-to-use, low-cost, prototype programmer. It
connects to the PC via a COM (RS-232) port. MPLAB
Integrated Development Environment software makes
using the programmer simple and efficient. The
PICSTART Plus Development Programmer supports
most PIC devices in DIP packages up to 40 pins.
Larger pin count devices, such as the PIC16C92X and
PIC17C76X, may be supported with an adapter socket.
The PICSTART Plus Development Programmer is CE
compliant.
A wide variety of demonstration, development and
evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC
DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for
adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware
and source code for examination and modification.
16.12 PICkit 2 Development Programmer
The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer is a low-cost
programmer and selected Flash device debugger with
an easy-to-use interface for programming many of
Microchip’s baseline, mid-range and PIC18F families of
Flash memory microcontrollers. The PICkit 2 Starter Kit
includes a prototyping development board, twelve
sequential lessons, software and HI-TECH’s PICC™
Lite C compiler, and is designed to help get up to speed
quickly using PIC® microcontrollers. The kit provides
everything needed to program, evaluate and develop
applications using Microchip’s powerful, mid-range
Flash memory family of microcontrollers.
DS40044F-page 132
The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs,
temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232
interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional
EEPROM memory.
The demonstration and development boards can be
used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom
circuits and for learning about various microcontroller
applications.
In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/development board series of circuits, Microchip
has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software
for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN,
IrDA®, PowerSmart® battery management, SEEVAL®
evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate
sensing, plus many more.
Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com)
and the latest “Product Selector Guide” (DS00148) for
the complete list of demonstration, development and
evaluation kits.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
17.0
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Absolute Maximum Ratings(†)
Ambient temperature under bias................................................................................................................. -40 to +125°C
Storage temperature .............................................................................................................................. -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ............................................................................................................ -0.3 to +6.5V
Voltage on MCLR and RA4 with respect to VSS ............................................................................................-0.3 to +14V
Voltage on all other pins with respect to VSS ....................................................................................-0.3V to VDD + 0.3V
Total power dissipation(1) .....................................................................................................................................800 mW
Maximum current out of VSS pin ...........................................................................................................................300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ..............................................................................................................................250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)..................................................................................................................... ± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (Vo < 0 or Vo >VDD)............................................................................................................... ± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin..........................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin ....................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA and PORTB (Combined)................................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA and PORTB (Combined)...........................................................................200 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: PDIS = VDD x {IDD – ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD – VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL)
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
Note:
Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up.
Thus, a series resistor of 50-100 Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin rather than
pulling this pin directly to VSS.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 133
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
PIC16F627A/628A/648A VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH, -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
FIGURE 17-1:
6.0
5.5
5.0
VDD
(VOLTS)
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
4
0
10
20
25
FREQUENCY (MHz)
Note:
The shaded region indicates the permissible combinations of voltage and frequency.
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH, -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C
FIGURE 17-2:
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.5
VDD
(VOLTS)
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
0
4
10
20
25
FREQUENCY (MHz)
Note:
The shaded region indicates the permissible combinations of voltage and frequency.
DS40044F-page 134
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
17.1
DC Characteristics: PIC16F627A/628A/648A (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A (Industrial)
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ Ta ≤ +85°C for industrial
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ Ta ≤ +85°C for industrial and
-40°C ≤ Ta ≤ +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Sym
VDD
D001
Characteristic/Device
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Supply Voltage
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A
2.0
—
5.5
V
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
3.0
—
5.5
V
—
1.5*
—
V
Device in Sleep mode
D002
VDR
D003
VPOR VDD Start Voltage
to ensure Power-on Reset
—
VSS
—
V
See Section 14.4 “Poweron Reset (POR), Power-up
Timer (PWRT), Oscillator
Start-up Timer (OST) and
Brown-out Reset
(BOR)”on Power-on Reset
for details
D004
SVDD VDD Rise Rate
to ensure Power-on Reset
0.05*
—
—
V/ms
See Section 14.4 “Poweron Reset (POR), Power-up
Timer (PWRT), Oscillator
Start-up Timer (OST) and
Brown-out Reset (BOR)”
on Power-on Reset for
details
D005
VBOR Brown-out Reset Voltage
3.65
4.0
4.35
V
3.65
4.0
4.4
V
BOREN configuration bit is
set
BOREN configuration bit is
set, Extended
Legend:
RAM Data Retention
Voltage(1)
Rows with standard voltage device data only are shaded for improved readability.
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C, unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1:
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in Sleep mode without losing RAM data.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 135
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
17.2
DC Characteristics: PIC16F627A/628A/648A (Industrial)
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A (Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ Ta ≤ +85°C for industrial
Param
No.
Min†
LF and F Device
Characteristics
Conditions
Typ
Max
Units
Note
VDD
Supply Voltage (VDD)
D001
LF
2.0
—
5.5
V
—
LF/F
3.0
—
5.5
V
—
LF
—
0.01
0.80
μA
2.0
LF/F
—
0.01
0.85
μA
3.0
—
0.02
2.7
μA
5.0
Power-down Base Current (IPD)
D020
WDT, BOR, Comparators, VREF and
T1OSC: disabled
Peripheral Module Current (ΔIMOD)(1)
D021
D022
D023
D024
LF
—
1
2.0
μA
2.0
LF/F
—
2
3.4
μA
3.0
—
9
17.0
μA
5.0
LF/F
—
29
52
μA
4.5
—
30
55
μA
5.0
LF
—
15
22
μA
2.0
LF/F
—
22
37
μA
3.0
—
44
68
μA
5.0
LF
—
34
55
μA
2.0
LF/F
—
50
75
μA
3.0
—
80
110
μA
5.0
LF
—
1.2
2.0
μA
2.0
LF/F
D025
—
1.3
2.2
μA
3.0
—
1.8
2.9
μA
5.0
—
10
15
μA
2.0
WDT Current
BOR Current
Comparator Current
(Both comparators enabled)
VREF Current
T1OSC Current
Supply Current (IDD)
LF
D010
LF/F
D011
D012A
Note 1:
25
μA
3.0
48
μA
5.0
LF
—
125
190
μA
2.0
—
175
340
μA
3.0
—
320
520
μA
5.0
LF
—
250
350
μA
2.0
—
450
600
μA
3.0
—
710
995
μA
5.0
LF
—
395
465
μA
2.0
LF/F
—
565
785
μA
3.0
—
0.895
1.3
mA
5.0
—
2.5
2.9
mA
4.5
—
2.75
3.3
mA
5.0
LF/F
D013
15
28
LF/F
LF/F
D012
—
—
FOSC = 32 kHz
LP Oscillator Mode
FOSC = 1 MHz
XT Oscillator Mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
XT Oscillator Mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
INTOSC
FOSC = 20 MHz
HS Oscillator Mode
The “Δ” current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement. Max values should be used when calculating total current
consumption.
DS40044F-page 136
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
17.3
DC Characteristics: PIC16F627A/628A/648A (Extended)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ Ta ≤ +125°C for extended
Conditions
Device Characteristics
Min†
Typ
Max
Units
Note
VDD
Supply Voltage (VDD)
D001
—
3.0
—
5.5
V
—
—
0.01
4
μA
3.0
—
0.02
8
μA
5.0
WDT, BOR, Comparators, VREF and
T1OSC: disabled
—
—
2
9
μA
3.0
WDT Current
—
9
20
μA
5.0
—
—
29
52
μA
4.5
—
30
55
μA
5.0
—
—
22
37
μA
3.0
—
44
68
μA
5.0
Comparator Current
(Both comparators enabled)
—
—
50
75
μA
3.0
VREF Current
—
83
110
μA
5.0
—
—
1.3
4
μA
3.0
—
1.8
6
μA
5.0
—
15
28
μA
3.0
—
28
54
μA
5.0
—
175
340
μA
3.0
—
320
520
μA
5.0
—
450
650
μA
3.0
—
0.710
1.1
mA
5.0
—
565
785
μA
3.0
—
0.895
1.3
mA
5.0
—
2.5
2.9
mA
4.5
—
2.75
3.5
mA
5.0
Power-down Base Current (IPD)
—
D020E
Peripheral Module Current (ΔIMOD)(1)
D021E
D022E
D023E
D024E
D025E
BOR Current
T1OSC Current
Supply Current (IDD)
D010E
D011E
D012E
D012AE
D013E
Note 1:
—
—
—
—
—
FOSC = 32 kHz
LP Oscillator Mode
FOSC = 1 MHz
XT Oscillator Mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
XT Oscillator Mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
INTOSC
FOSC = 20 MHz
HS Oscillator Mode
The “Δ” current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement. Max values should be used when calculating total current
consumption.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 137
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
17.4
DC Characteristics: PIC16F627A/628A/648A (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A (Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param.
No.
Sym
VIL
Characteristic/Device
Min
Typ†
Max
Unit
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
—
—
—
—
0.8
0.15 VDD
0.2 VDD
0.2 VDD
V
V
V
V
VSS
VSS
—
—
0.3 VDD
0.6
V
V
2.0V
.25 VDD + 0.8V
0.8 VDD
0.8 VDD
1.3
0.9 VDD
0.7 VDD
—
—
—
—
—
—
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
VDD = 4.5V to 5.5V
otherwise
50
200
400
μA
VDD = 5.0V, VPIN = VSS
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
±1.0
±0.5
±1.0
±5.0
μA
μA
μA
μA
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, pin at high-impedance
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, pin at high-impedance
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS and LP
oscillator configuration
—
—
—
—
0.6
0.6
V
V
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5 V, -40° to +85°C
IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5 V, +85° to
+125°C
I/O ports (Except RA4(4) )
VDD – 0.7
VDD – 0.7
—
—
—
—
V
V
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5 V, -40° to +85°C
IOH = -2.5 mA, VDD = 4.5 V, +85° to
+125°C
Open-Drain High Voltage
—
—
8.5*
V
RA4 pin PIC16F627A/628A/648A,
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A
—
—
15
pF
In XT, HS and LP modes when external
clock used to drive OSC1.
—
—
50
pF
with Schmitt Trigger input(4)
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI,OSC1
(in RC mode)
OSC1 (in HS)
OSC1 (in LP and XT)
D031
D032
D033
VIH
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
D041
D042
D043
D043A
D043B
with Schmitt Trigger input(4)
MCLR RA4/T0CKI
OSC1 (XT and LP)
OSC1 (in RC mode)
OSC1 (in HS mode)
IPURB
IIL
PORTB weak pull-up
current
VOL
I/O ports(4)
D090
D150
VOD
(Note1)
Output Low Voltage
D080
VOH
(Note1)
Input Leakage Current(2), (3)
I/O ports (Except PORTA)
PORTA(4)
RA4/T0CKI
OSC1, MCLR
D060
D061
D063
VDD = 4.5V to 5.5V
otherwise
Input High Voltage
D040
D070
Conditions
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
D030
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial and
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC specification Table 17-2 and
Table 17-3
Output High Voltage(3)
Capacitive Loading Specs on Output Pins
D100*
D101*
Note
COSC2 OSC2 pin
CIO
All I/O pins/OSC2 (in RC mode)
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested.
1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1 pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the PIC16F627A/628A/648A
be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal
operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as coming out of the pin.
4: Includes OSC1 and OSC2 when configured as I/O pins, CLKIN or CLKOUT.
DS40044F-page 138
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 17-1:
DC Characteristics: PIC16F627A/628A/648A (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A (Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial and
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC specification
Table 17-2 and Table 17-3
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
100K
10K
VMIN
1M
100K
—
—
5.5
E/W
E/W
V
Conditions
Data EEPROM Memory
D120
D120A
D121
Endurance
ED
ED
Endurance
VDRW VDD for read/write
D122
D123
TDEW Erase/Write cycle time
TRETD Characteristic Retention
—
40
4
—
8*
—
ms
Year
D124
TREF
1M
10M
—
E/W
D130
D130A
D131
EP
EP
VPR
Endurance
Endurance
VDD for read
10K
1000
VMIN
100K
10K
—
—
—
5.5
E/W
E/W
V
D132
D132A
VDD for Block erase
VIE
VPEW VDD for write
4.5
VMIN
—
—
5.5
5.5
V
V
D133
D133A
D134
Block Erase cycle time
TIE
TPEW Write cycle time
TRETP Characteristic Retention
—
—
40
4
2
—
8*
4*
—
ms
ms
year
Number of Total Erase/Write
Cycles before Refresh(1)
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C
85°C ≤ TA ≤ 125°C
VMIN = Minimum operating
voltage
Provided no other
specifications are violated
-40°C to +85°C
Program Flash Memory
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C
85°C ≤ TA ≤ 125°C
VMIN = Minimum operating
voltage
VMIN = Minimum operating
voltage
VDD > 4.5V
Provided no other
specifications are violated
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1:
Refer to Section 13.7 “Using the Data EEPROM” for a more detailed discussion on data EEPROM
endurance.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 139
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 17-2:
COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: 2.0V < VDD <5.5V, -40°C < TA < +125°C, unless otherwise stated.
Param
No.
Characteristics
Sym
Min
Typ
Max
Units
D300
Input Offset Voltage
VIOFF
—
±5.0
±10
mV
D301
Input Common Mode Voltage
VICM
0
—
VDD – 1.5*
V
D302
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
CMRR
55*
—
—
db
TRESP
—
300
400*
ns
—
400
600*
ns
—
400
600*
ns
—
300
10*
μs
D303
Response Time
D304
(1)
Comparator Mode Change to
Output Valid
TMC2OV
Comments
VDD = 3.0V to 5.5V
-40° to +85°C
VDD = 3.0V to 5.5V
-85° to +125°C
VDD = 2.0V to 3.0V
-40° to +85°C
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Note 1:
Response time measured with one comparator input at (VDD – 1.5)/2, while the other input transitions from
VSS to VDD.
TABLE 17-3:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: 2.0V < VDD < 5.5V, -40°C < TA < +125°C, unless otherwise stated.
Spec
No.
Characteristics
Sym
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Comments
D310
Resolution
VRES
—
—
VDD/24
VDD/32
LSb
LSb
Low Range (VRR = 1)
High Range (VRR = 0)
D311
Absolute Accuracy
VRAA
—
—
—
—
1/4(2)*
1/2(2)*
LSb
LSb
Low Range (VRR = 1)
High Range (VRR = 0)
D312
Unit Resistor Value (R)
VRUR
—
2k*
—
Ω
D313
Time(1)
TSET
—
—
10*
μs
Settling
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Note 1: Settling time measured while VRR = 1 and VR<3:0> transitions from ‘0000’ to ‘1111’.
2: When VDD is between 2.0V and 3.0V, the VREF output voltage levels on RA2 described by the
equation:[VDD/2 ± (3 – VDD)/2] may cause the Absolute Accuracy (VRAA) of the VREF output signal on RA2
to be greater than the stated max.
DS40044F-page 140
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
17.5
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created with one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
2. TppS
T
F
Frequency
T
Time
Lowercase subscripts (pp) and their meanings:
pp
ck
CLKOUT
osc
OSC1
io
I/O port
t0
T0CKI
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
P
Period
H
High
R
Rise
I
Invalid (High-impedance)
V
Valid
L
Low
Z
High-Impedance
FIGURE 17-3:
LOAD CONDITIONS
Load Condition 1
Load Condition 2
VDD/2
RL
CL
Pin
VSS
CL
Pin
VSS
RL = 464Ω
CL = 50 pF for all pins except OSC2
15 pF for OSC2 output
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 141
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
17.6
Timing Diagrams and Specifications
FIGURE 17-4:
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q3
Q2
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
3
4
4
2
CLKOUT
TABLE 17-4:
Parameter
No.
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
FOSC
Characteristic
External CLKIN Frequency(1)
Oscillator Frequency(1)
1
TOSC
External CLKIN Period(1)
Oscillator Period(1)
2
TCY
3
TosL,
TosH
4
RC
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
DC
—
4
MHz XT and RC Osc mode,
VDD = 5.0 V
DC
—
20
MHz HS, EC Osc mode
DC
—
200
—
—
4
kHz LP Osc mode
MHz RC Osc mode, VDD = 5.0V
0.1
—
4
MHz XT Osc mode
1
—
—
—
20
200
MHz HS Osc mode
kHz LP Osc mode
—
4
—
MHz INTOSC mode (fast)
—
48
—
kHz INTOSC mode (slow)
250
—
—
ns
XT and RC Osc mode
50
—
—
ns
HS, EC Osc mode
5
—
—
μs
LP Osc mode
250
—
—
ns
RC Osc mode
250
—
10,000
ns
XT Osc mode
50
—
1,000
ns
HS Osc mode
5
—
—
μs
LP Osc mode
—
250
—
ns
INTOSC mode (fast)
—
21
—
μs
INTOSC mode (slow)
Instruction Cycle Time
200
TCY
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
External CLKIN (OSC1) High
External CLKIN Low
100*
—
—
ns
XT oscillator, TOSC L/H duty
cycle
10 kHz*
—
4 MHz
—
VDD = 5.0V
External Biased RC
Frequency
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1:
Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-based period. All specified values
are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions
with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “Min” values
with an external clock applied to the OSC1 pin. When an external clock input is used, the “Max” cycle time
limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
DS40044F-page 142
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 17-5:
PRECISION INTERNAL OSCILLATOR PARAMETERS
Parameter
No.
Sym
F10
FIOSC
Oscillator Center frequency
F13
ΔIOSC
Oscillator Accuracy
F14*
Characteristic
TIOSCST Oscillator Wake-up from Sleep
start-up time
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
—
4
—
MHz
3.96
4
4.04
MHz VDD = 3.5 V, 25°C
3.92
4
4.08
MHz 2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
0°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C
3.80
4
4.20
MHz 2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (IND)
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C (EXT)
—
6
8
μs
VDD = 2.0V, -40°C to +85°C
—
4
6
μs
VDD = 3.0V, -40°C to +85°C
—
3
5
μs
VDD = 5.0V, -40°C to +85°C
Legend: TBD = To Be Determined.
* Characterized but not tested.
FIGURE 17-5:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
22
CLKOUT
23
13
19
14
12
18
16
I/O Pin
(input)
15
17
I/O Pin
(output)
New Value
Old Value
20, 21
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 143
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 17-6:
Parameter
No.
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
PIC16F62XA
TOSH2CKL OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓
10
10A
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
—
75
200*
ns
PIC16LF62XA
—
—
400*
ns
TOSH2CKH OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑
PIC16F62XA
—
75
200*
ns
PIC16LF62XA
—
—
400*
ns
TCKR
CLKOUT rise time
PIC16F62XA
—
35
100*
ns
PIC16LF62XA
—
—
200*
ns
TCKF
CLKOUT fall time
PIC16F62XA
—
35
100*
ns
—
—
200*
ns
14
TCKL2IOV
CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid
—
—
20*
ns
15
TIOV2CKH Port in valid before CLKOUT ↑
11
11A
12
12A
13
13A
PIC16LF62XA
PIC16F62XA
TOSC+200 ns*
—
—
ns
PIC16LF62XA TOSC+400 ns*
—
—
ns
16
TCKH2IOI
Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑
17
TOSH2IOV
OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to
PIC16F62XA
Port out valid
PIC16LF62XA
18
TOSH2IOI
OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to Port input invalid
(I/O in hold time)
0
—
—
ns
—
50
150*
ns
—
—
300*
ns
100*
200*
—
—
ns
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
FIGURE 17-6:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time out
32
OST
Time out
Internal
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Reset
34
31
34
I/O Pins
DS40044F-page 144
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 17-7:
BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING
VBOR
VDD
35
TABLE 17-7:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
30
TMCL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
31
TWDT
Watchdog Timer Time out Period
(No Prescaler)
32
TOST
33
TPWRT
34
35
Legend:
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
2000
—
—
ns
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C
7*
18
33*
ms
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
—
1024 TOSC
—
—
TOSC = OSC1 period
Power-up Timer Period
28*
72
132*
ms
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C
TIOZ
I/O High-impedance from MCLR
Low or Watchdog Timer Reset
—
—
2.0*
μs
TBOR
Brown-out Reset pulse width
100*
—
—
μs
VDD ≤ VBOR (D005)
TBD = To Be Determined.
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
FIGURE 17-8:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
RA4/T0CKI/CMP2
41
40
42
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI/PGC
46
45
47
48
TMR0 OR
TMR1
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 145
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
TABLE 17-8:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Sym
40
TT0H
T0CKI High Pulse Width
41
TT0L
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
42
TT0P
T0CKI Period
45
TT1H
T1CKI High Synchronous, No Prescaler
Time
Synchronous, PIC16F62XA
with Prescaler PIC16LF62XA
Characteristic
No Prescaler
Min
Typ†
0.5TCY + 20*
—
With Prescaler
No Prescaler
—
—
ns
—
—
ns
10*
—
—
ns
Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40*
N
—
—
ns N = prescale
value (2, 4,
..., 256)
0.5TCY + 20*
—
—
ns
15*
—
—
ns
25*
—
—
ns
30*
—
—
ns
50*
—
—
ns
0.5TCY + 20*
—
—
ns
15*
—
—
ns
PIC16LF62XA
T1CKI Low Synchronous, No Prescaler
Time
Synchronous, PIC16F62XA
with Prescaler PIC16LF62XA
Asynchronous PIC16F62XA
PIC16LF62XA
TT1P
47
T1CKI input Synchronous PIC16F62XA
period
—
—
ns
—
—
ns
50*
—
—
ns
—
—
ns N = prescale
value (1, 2,
4, 8)
Greater of:
TCY + 40*
N
—
—
—
—
—
ns
20 or
Asynchronous PIC16F62XA
PIC16LF62XA
48
25*
30*
Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40*
N
PIC16LF62XA
FT1
ns
10*
Asynchronous PIC16F62XA
TT1L
—
0.5TCY + 20*
With Prescaler
46
Max Units Conditions
Timer1 oscillator input frequency range
(oscillator enabled by setting bit
T1OSCEN)
TCKEZTMR1 Delay from external clock edge to timer
increment
60*
100*
—
—
ns
—
32.7(1)
—
kHz
2TOSC
—
7TOSC —
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1:
This oscillator is intended to work only with 32.768 kHz watch crystals and their manufactured tolerances.
Higher value crystal frequencies may not be compatible with this crystal driver.
DS40044F-page 146
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 17-9:
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS
RB3/CCP1
(CAPTURE MODE)
50
51
52
RB3/CCP1
(COMPARE OR PWM MODE)
53
TABLE 17-9:
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS
Param
Sym
No.
TCCL CCP
input low time
50
54
Characteristic
Min
No Prescaler
PIC16F62XA
With Prescaler PIC16LF62XA
51
TCCH CCP
input high time
No Prescaler
PIC16F62XA
With Prescaler PIC16LF62XA
52
TCCP CCP input period
53
TCCR CCP output rise time
TCCF CCP output fall time
54
Typ† Max Units
0.5TCY +
20*
—
—
ns
10*
—
—
ns
20*
—
—
ns
0.5TCY +
20*
—
—
ns
10*
—
—
ns
20*
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40*
N
—
—
ns
PIC16F62XA
10
25*
ns
PIC16LF62XA
25
45*
ns
PIC16F62XA
10
25*
ns
PIC16LF62XA
25
45*
ns
Conditions
N = prescale
value (1,4 or 16)
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
†
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 147
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 148
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
18.0
DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES
The graphs and tables provided in this section are for design guidance and are not tested.
In some graphs or tables, the data presented are outside specified operating range (i.e., outside specified VDD
range). This is for information only and devices are ensured to operate properly only within the specified range.
The data presented in this section is a statistical summary of data collected on units from different lots over a period
of time and matrix samples. ‘Typical’ represents the mean of the distribution at 25°C. ‘Max’ or ‘Min’ represents
(mean + 3σ) or (mean - 3σ) respectively, where σ is standard deviation, over the whole temperature range.
FIGURE 18-1:
TYPICAL BASELINE IPD vs. VDD (-40°C TO 25°C)
160
140
120
IPD (nA)
100
80
60
-40°C
0°C
40
+25°C
20
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (Volts)
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 149
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-2:
TYPICAL BASELINE IPD vs. VDD (85°C)
300
280
260
IPD (nA)
240
220
200
+85°C
180
160
140
120
100
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (Volts)
FIGURE 18-3:
TYPICAL BASELINE CURRENT IPD vs. VDD (125°C)
2.4
2.2
IPD (μA)
2.0
1.8
+125°C
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (Volts)
DS40044F-page 150
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-4:
TYPICAL BOR IPD vs. VDD
40
38
36
IPD (μA)
34
125°C
85°C
25°C
0°C
-40°C
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
VDD (Volts)
FIGURE 18-5:
TYPICAL SINGLE COMPARATOR IPD vs. VDD
30
25
IPD (μA)
20
125°C
85°C
25°C
0°C
-40°C
15
10
5
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VDD (Volts)
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 151
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-6:
TYPICAL VREF IPD vs. VDD
100
90
80
IPD (μA)
70
125°C
85°C
25°C
0°C
-40°C
60
50
40
30
20
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (Volts)
FIGURE 18-7:
TYPICAL WDT IPD vs. VDD
16
14
12
IPD (μA)
10
125°C
85°C
25°C
0°C
-40°C
8
6
4
2
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (Volts)
DS40044F-page 152
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-8:
AVERAGE IPD_TIMER1
5
4
3
-40C
IPD (uA)
0C
25C
85C
125
2
1
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 18-9:
TYPICAL INTERNAL OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE
VDD = 5 VOLTS
5.0%
4.0%
Change from Calibration Target (%)
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
-1.0%
-2.0%
-3.0%
-4.0%
-5.0%
-40
25
85
125
Temperature (ºC)
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 153
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-10:
TYPICAL INTERNAL OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE
VDD = 3 VOLTS
5.0%
4.0%
Change from Calibration Target (%)
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
-1.0%
-2.0%
-3.0%
-4.0%
-5.0%
-40
25
85
125
Temperature (ºC)
FIGURE 18-11:
TYPICAL INTERNAL OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE
VDD = 2 VOLTS
5.0%
4.0%
Change from Calibration Target (%)
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
-1.0%
-2.0%
-3.0%
-4.0%
-5.0%
-40
25
85
125
Temperature (ºC)
DS40044F-page 154
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-12:
TYPICAL INTERNAL OSCILLATOR DEVIATION vs. VDD AT 25°C – 4 MHz MODE
5.0%
4.0%
Change from Calibration Target (%)
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
-1.0%
-2.0%
-3.0%
-4.0%
-5.0%
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 18-13:
TYPICAL INTERNAL OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. VDD TEMPERATURE =
-40°C TO 85°C
5.0%
4.0%
Change from Calibration Target (%)
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
-1.0%
-2.0%
-3.0%
-4.0%
-5.0%
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VDD (V)
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 155
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-14:
INTERNAL OSCILLATOR IDD vs. VDD – 4 MHz MODE
85 C
25 C Avg
-40 C
1.40
1.20
IDD (mA)
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 18-15:
TYPICAL INTERNAL OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. VDD AT 25°C – SLOW
MODE
60
Oscillator Frequency (kHz)
55
50
45
40
35
30
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VDD (V)
DS40044F-page 156
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-16:
INTERNAL OSCILLATOR IDD vs. VDD – SLOW MODE
85 C
25 C Avg
-40 C
180
160
140
IPD (μA)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 18-17:
SUPPLY CURRENT (IDD vs. VDD, FOSC = 1 MHz (XT OSCILLATOR MODE)
500
450
400
IPD (μA)
350
125°C
85°C
25°C
0°C
-40°C
300
250
200
150
100
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (Volts)
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 157
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-18:
SUPPLY CURRENT (IDD vs. VDD, FOSC = 4 MHz (XT OSCILLATOR MODE)
1000
900
800
IPD (μA)
700
125°C
85°C
25°C
0°C
-40°C
600
500
400
300
200
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (Volts)
FIGURE 18-19:
SUPPLY CURRENT (IDD) vs. VDD, FOSC = 20 MHz (HS OSCILLATOR MODE)
4.0
IDD (mA)
3.5
125°C
85°C
25°C
0°C
-40°C
3.0
2.5
2.0
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
VDD (Volts)
DS40044F-page 158
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
FIGURE 18-20:
TYPICAL WDT PERIOD vs. VDD (-40°C TO +125°C)
WDT Time-out
50
Time (mS)
45
40
35
-40
30
25
0
20
15
10
5
85
25
125
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
V DD (V)
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 159
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 160
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
19.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
19.1
Package Marking Information
18-Lead PDIP
Example
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
18-Lead SOIC (.300”)
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
PIC16F627A
-I/P e3
0410017
Example
PIC16F628A
-E/SO e3
0410017
YYWWNNN
20-Lead SSOP
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
28-Lead QFN
XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
Legend: XX...X
Y
YY
WW
NNN
e3
*
Note:
Example
PIC16F648A
-I/SS e3
0410017
Example
16F628A
-I/ML e3
0410017
Customer-specific information
Year code (last digit of calendar year)
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Alphanumeric traceability code
Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn)
This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 )
can be found on the outer packaging for this package.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available
characters for customer-specific information.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 161
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
18-Lead Plastic Dual In-Line (P) – 300 mil Body [PDIP]
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
N
NOTE 1
E1
1
2
3
D
E
A2
A
L
c
A1
b1
b
e
eB
Units
Dimension Limits
Number of Pins
INCHES
MIN
N
NOM
MAX
18
Pitch
e
Top to Seating Plane
A
–
–
.210
Molded Package Thickness
A2
.115
.130
.195
Base to Seating Plane
A1
.015
–
–
Shoulder to Shoulder Width
E
.300
.310
.325
Molded Package Width
E1
.240
.250
.280
Overall Length
D
.880
.900
.920
Tip to Seating Plane
L
.115
.130
.150
Lead Thickness
c
.008
.010
.014
b1
.045
.060
.070
b
.014
.018
.022
eB
–
–
Upper Lead Width
Lower Lead Width
Overall Row Spacing §
.100 BSC
.430
Notes:
1. Pin 1 visual index feature may vary, but must be located within the hatched area.
2. § Significant Characteristic.
3. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed .010" per side.
4. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ASME Y14.5M.
BSC: Basic Dimension. Theoretically exact value shown without tolerances.
Microchip Technology Drawing C04-007B
DS40044F-page 162
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
18-Lead Plastic Small Outline (SO) – Wide, 7.50 mm Body [SOIC]
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
D
N
E
E1
NOTE 1
1
2 3
b
e
α
h
h
c
φ
A2
A
A1
β
L
L1
Units
Dimension Limits
Number of Pins
MILLIMETERS
MIN
N
NOM
MAX
18
Pitch
e
Overall Height
A
–
1.27 BSC
–
Molded Package Thickness
A2
2.05
–
–
Standoff §
A1
0.10
–
0.30
Overall Width
E
Molded Package Width
E1
7.50 BSC
Overall Length
D
11.55 BSC
2.65
10.30 BSC
Chamfer (optional)
h
0.25
–
0.75
Foot Length
L
0.40
–
1.27
Footprint
L1
1.40 REF
Foot Angle
φ
0°
–
8°
Lead Thickness
c
0.20
–
0.33
Lead Width
b
0.31
–
0.51
Mold Draft Angle Top
α
5°
–
15°
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
β
5°
–
15°
Notes:
1. Pin 1 visual index feature may vary, but must be located within the hatched area.
2. § Significant Characteristic.
3. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.15 mm per side.
4. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ASME Y14.5M.
BSC: Basic Dimension. Theoretically exact value shown without tolerances.
REF: Reference Dimension, usually without tolerance, for information purposes only.
Microchip Technology Drawing C04-051B
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 163
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
20-Lead Plastic Shrink Small Outline (SS) – 5.30 mm Body [SSOP]
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
D
N
E
E1
NOTE 1
1 2
b
e
c
A2
A
φ
A1
L1
Units
Dimension Limits
Number of Pins
L
MILLIMETERS
MIN
N
NOM
MAX
20
Pitch
e
Overall Height
A
–
0.65 BSC
–
2.00
Molded Package Thickness
A2
1.65
1.75
1.85
Standoff
A1
0.05
–
–
Overall Width
E
7.40
7.80
8.20
Molded Package Width
E1
5.00
5.30
5.60
Overall Length
D
6.90
7.20
7.50
Foot Length
L
0.55
0.75
0.95
Footprint
L1
1.25 REF
Lead Thickness
c
0.09
–
Foot Angle
φ
0°
4°
0.25
8°
Lead Width
b
0.22
–
0.38
Notes:
1. Pin 1 visual index feature may vary, but must be located within the hatched area.
2. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.20 mm per side.
3. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ASME Y14.5M.
BSC: Basic Dimension. Theoretically exact value shown without tolerances.
REF: Reference Dimension, usually without tolerance, for information purposes only.
Microchip Technology Drawing C04-072B
DS40044F-page 164
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
28-Lead Plastic Quad Flat, No Lead Package (ML) – 6x6 mm Body [QFN]
with 0.55 mm Contact Length
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
D
D2
EXPOSED
PAD
e
E
b
E2
2
2
1
1
N
K
N
NOTE 1
L
BOTTOM VIEW
TOP VIEW
A
A3
A1
Units
Dimension Limits
Number of Pins
MILLIMETERS
MIN
N
NOM
MAX
28
Pitch
e
Overall Height
A
0.80
0.65 BSC
0.90
1.00
Standoff
A1
0.00
0.02
0.05
Contact Thickness
A3
0.20 REF
Overall Width
E
Exposed Pad Width
E2
Overall Length
D
Exposed Pad Length
D2
3.65
3.70
4.20
b
0.23
0.30
0.35
Contact Length
L
0.50
0.55
0.70
Contact-to-Exposed Pad
K
0.20
–
–
Contact Width
6.00 BSC
3.65
3.70
4.20
6.00 BSC
Notes:
1. Pin 1 visual index feature may vary, but must be located within the hatched area.
2. Package is saw singulated.
3. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ASME Y14.5M.
BSC: Basic Dimension. Theoretically exact value shown without tolerances.
REF: Reference Dimension, usually without tolerance, for information purposes only.
Microchip Technology Drawing C04-105B
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 165
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
NOTES:
DS40044F-page 166
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
APPENDIX A:
DATA SHEET
REVISION HISTORY
APPENDIX B:
DEVICE
DIFFERENCES
The differences between the PIC16F627A/628A/648A
devices listed in this data sheet are shown in Table B-1.
Revision A
This is a new data sheet.
TABLE B-1:
Revision B
Revised 28-Pin QFN Pin Diagram
Revised Figure 5-4 Block Diagram
Revised Register 7-1 TMR1ON
Revised Example 13-4 Data EEPROM Refresh Routine
Revised Instruction Set SUBWF, Example 1
Revised DC Characteristics 17-2 and 17-3
Revised Tables 17-4 and 17-6
Corrected Table and Figure numbering in Section 17.0
DEVICE DIFFERENCES
Memory
Device
Flash
Program
RAM
Data
EEPROM
Data
PIC16F627A
1024 x 14
224 x 8
128 x 8
PIC16F628A
2048 x 14
224 x 8
128 x 8
PIC16F648A
4096 x 14
256 x 8
256 x 8
Revision C
General revisions throughout. Revisions to Section
14.0 – Special Features of the CPU. Section 18,
modified graphs.
Revision D
Revise Example 13-2, Data EEPROM Write
Revise Sections 17.2, Param No. D020 and 17.3,
Param No. D020E
Revise Section 18.0 graphs
Revision E
Section 19.0 Packaging Information:
package drawings and added note.
Replaced
Revision F (03/2007)
Replaced Package Drawings (Rev. AM); Replaced
Development Support Section; Revised Product ID
System.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 167
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
APPENDIX C:
DEVICE MIGRATIONS
This section describes the functional and electrical
specification differences when migrating between
functionally similar devices. (such as from a
PIC16F627 to a PIC16F627A).
C.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
PIC16F627/628 to a PIC16F627A/
628A
ER mode is now RC mode.
Code protection for the program memory has
changed from code-protect sections of memory
to code-protect of the whole memory. The
configuration bits CP0 and CP1 in the
PIC16F627/628 do not exist in the PIC16F627A/
628A. They have been replaced with one
configuration bit<13> CP.
“Brown-out Detect (BOD)” terminology has
changed to “Brown-out Reset (BOR)” to better
represent the function of the Brown-out circuitry.
Enabling Brown-out Reset (BOR) does not
automatically enable the Power-up Timer
(PWRT) the way it did in the PIC16F627/628.
INTRC is now called INTOSC.
Timer1 Oscillator is now designed for
32.768 kHz operation. In the PIC16F627/628,
the Timer1 oscillator was designed to run up to
200 kHz.
The Dual-Speed Oscillator mode only works in
the INTOSC oscillator mode. In the PIC16F627/
628, the Dual-Speed Oscillator mode worked in
both the INTRC and ER oscillator modes.
DS40044F-page 168
APPENDIX D:
MIGRATING FROM
OTHER PIC®
DEVICES
This discusses some of the issues in migrating from
other PIC MCU devices to the PIC16F627A/628A/
648A family of devices.
D.1
PIC16C62X/CE62X to PIC16F627A/
628A/648A Migration
See
Microchip
web
(www.microchip.com).
D.2
for
availability
PIC16C622A to PIC16F627A/628A/
648A Migration
See
Microchip
web
(www.microchip.com).
Note:
site
site
for
availability
This device has been designed to perform
to the parameters of its data sheet. It has
been tested to an electrical specification
designed to determine its conformance
with these parameters. Due to process
differences in the manufacture of this
device, this device may have different
performance characteristics than its earlier
version. These differences may cause this
device to perform differently in your
application than the earlier version of this
device.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at
www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means
to make files and information easily available to
customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet
browser, the web site contains the following
information:
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance
through several channels:
• Product Support – Data sheets and errata,
application notes and sample programs, design
resources, user’s guides and hardware support
documents, latest software releases and archived
software
• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked
Questions (FAQ), technical support requests,
online discussion groups, Microchip consultant
program member listing
• Business of Microchip – Product selector and
ordering guides, latest Microchip press releases,
listing of seminars and events, listings of
Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory
representatives
•
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Development Systems Information Line
Customers
should
contact
their
distributor,
representative or field application engineer (FAE) for
support. Local sales offices are also available to help
customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is
included in the back of this document.
Technical support is available through the web site
at: http://support.microchip.com
CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION
SERVICE
Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep
customers current on Microchip products. Subscribers
will receive e-mail notification whenever there are
changes, updates, revisions or errata related to a
specified product family or development tool of interest.
To register, access the Microchip web site at
www.microchip.com, click on Customer Change
Notification and follow the registration instructions.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 169
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
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Device: PIC16F627A/628A/648A
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Literature Number: DS40044F
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DS40044F-page 170
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
INDEX
A
A/D
Special Event Trigger (CCP)....................................... 57
Absolute Maximum Ratings .............................................. 133
ADDLW Instruction ........................................................... 117
ADDWF Instruction ........................................................... 117
ANDLW Instruction ........................................................... 117
ANDWF Instruction ........................................................... 117
Architectural Overview .......................................................... 9
Assembler
MPASM Assembler................................................... 130
B
Baud Rate Error .................................................................. 73
Baud Rate Formula ............................................................. 73
BCF Instruction ................................................................. 118
Block Diagrams
Comparator
I/O Operating Modes .......................................... 62
Modified Comparator Output .............................. 64
I/O Ports
RB0/INT Pin ........................................................ 36
RB1/RX/DT Pin ................................................... 37
RB2/TX/CK Pin ................................................... 37
RB3/CCP1 Pin .................................................... 38
RB4/PGM Pin ..................................................... 39
RB5 Pin............................................................... 40
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI Pin ...................................... 41
RB7/T1OSI Pin ................................................... 42
RC Oscillator Mode..................................................... 99
USART Receive.......................................................... 80
USART Transmit......................................................... 78
BRGH bit ............................................................................. 73
Brown-Out Reset (BOR) ................................................... 101
BSF Instruction ................................................................. 118
BTFSC Instruction............................................................. 118
BTFSS Instruction ............................................................. 119
C
C Compilers
MPLAB C18 .............................................................. 130
MPLAB C30 .............................................................. 130
CALL Instruction ............................................................... 119
Capture (CCP Module) ....................................................... 56
Block Diagram............................................................. 56
CCP Pin Configuration................................................ 56
CCPR1H:CCPR1L Registers...................................... 56
Changing Between Capture Prescalers...................... 56
Prescaler..................................................................... 56
Software Interrupt ....................................................... 56
Timer1 Mode Selection ............................................... 56
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP)........................................... 55
Capture Mode. See Capture
CCP1 .......................................................................... 55
CCPR1H Register............................................... 55
CCPR1L Register ............................................... 55
CCP2 .......................................................................... 55
Compare Mode. See Compare
PWM Mode. See PWM
Timer Resources......................................................... 55
CCP1CON Register ............................................................ 55
CCP1M Bits ................................................................ 55
CCP1X:CCP1Y Bits .................................................... 55
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
CCP2CON Register
CCP2M<3:2> Bits....................................................... 55
CCP2X:CCP2Y Bits.................................................... 55
Clocking Scheme/Instruction Cycle .................................... 13
CLRF Instruction............................................................... 119
CLRW Instruction.............................................................. 120
CLRWDT Instruction......................................................... 120
CMCON Register................................................................ 61
Code Examples
Data EEPROM Refresh Routine ................................ 92
Code Protection ................................................................ 111
COMF Instruction.............................................................. 120
Comparator
Block Diagrams
I/O Operating Modes .......................................... 62
Modified Comparator Output .............................. 64
Comparator Module.................................................... 61
Configuration .............................................................. 62
Interrupts .................................................................... 65
Operation.................................................................... 63
Reference ................................................................... 63
Compare (CCP Module) ..................................................... 56
Block Diagram ............................................................ 56
CCP Pin Configuration ............................................... 57
CCPR1H:CCPR1L Registers ..................................... 56
Software Interrupt ....................................................... 57
Special Event Trigger ................................................. 57
Timer1 Mode Selection............................................... 57
CONFIG Register ............................................................... 96
Configuration Bits ............................................................... 95
Crystal Operation................................................................ 97
Customer Change Notification Service............................. 169
Customer Notification Service .......................................... 169
Customer Support............................................................. 169
D
Data EEPROM Memory...................................................... 89
EECON1 Register ...................................................... 89
EECON2 Register ...................................................... 89
Operation During Code Protection ............................. 93
Reading ...................................................................... 91
Spurious Write Protection........................................... 91
Using .......................................................................... 92
Write Verify ................................................................. 91
Writing to .................................................................... 91
Data Memory Organization................................................. 15
DECF Instruction .............................................................. 120
DECFSZ Instruction.......................................................... 121
Development Support ....................................................... 129
Device Differences............................................................ 167
Device Migrations ............................................................. 168
Dual-speed Oscillator Modes.............................................. 99
E
EECON1 Register............................................................... 90
EECON1 register ................................................................ 90
EECON2 register ................................................................ 90
Errata .................................................................................... 3
External Crystal Oscillator Circuit ....................................... 98
F
Fuses. See Configuration Bits
G
General Purpose Register File ........................................... 15
GOTO Instruction.............................................................. 121
DS40044F-page 171
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
I
I/O Ports .............................................................................. 31
Bidirectional ................................................................ 44
Block Diagrams
RB0/INT Pin ........................................................ 36
RB1/RX/DT Pin ................................................... 37
RB2/TX/CK Pin ................................................... 37
RB3/CCP1 Pin .................................................... 38
RB4/PGM Pin...................................................... 39
RB5 Pin............................................................... 40
RB6/T1OSO/T1CKI Pin ...................................... 41
RB7/T1OSI Pin ................................................... 42
PORTA........................................................................ 31
PORTB........................................................................ 36
Programming Considerations ..................................... 44
Successive Operations ............................................... 44
TRISA ......................................................................... 31
TRISB ......................................................................... 36
ID Locations ...................................................................... 111
INCF Instruction ................................................................ 122
INCFSZ Instruction............................................................ 122
In-Circuit Serial Programming™ ....................................... 112
Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR Registers.................... 28
Instruction Flow/Pipelining .................................................. 13
Instruction Set
ADDLW ..................................................................... 117
ADDWF ..................................................................... 117
ANDLW ..................................................................... 117
ANDWF ..................................................................... 117
BCF ........................................................................... 118
BSF ........................................................................... 118
BTFSC ...................................................................... 118
BTFSS ...................................................................... 119
CALL ......................................................................... 119
CLRF......................................................................... 119
CLRW ....................................................................... 120
CLRWDT................................................................... 120
COMF ....................................................................... 120
DECF ........................................................................ 120
DECFSZ.................................................................... 121
GOTO ....................................................................... 121
INCF.......................................................................... 122
INCFSZ ..................................................................... 122
IORLW ...................................................................... 123
IORWF ...................................................................... 123
MOVF........................................................................ 123
MOVLW .................................................................... 123
MOVWF .................................................................... 124
NOP .......................................................................... 124
OPTION .................................................................... 124
RETFIE ..................................................................... 124
RETLW ..................................................................... 125
RETURN ................................................................... 125
RLF ........................................................................... 125
RRF........................................................................... 126
SLEEP ...................................................................... 126
SUBLW ..................................................................... 126
SUBWF ..................................................................... 127
SWAPF ..................................................................... 127
TRIS .......................................................................... 127
XORLW ..................................................................... 128
XORWF..................................................................... 128
Instruction Set Summary................................................... 115
INT Interrupt ...................................................................... 108
INTCON Register ................................................................ 24
DS40044F-page 172
Internet Address ............................................................... 169
Interrupt Sources
Capture Complete (CCP)............................................ 56
Compare Complete (CCP).......................................... 57
TMR2 to PR2 Match (PWM) ....................................... 58
Interrupts........................................................................... 107
Interrupts, Enable Bits
CCP1 Enable (CCP1IE Bit) ........................................ 56
Interrupts, Flag Bits
CCP1 Flag (CCP1IF Bit)............................................. 56
IORLW Instruction ............................................................ 123
IORWF Instruction ............................................................ 123
M
Memory Organization
Data EEPROM Memory.................................. 89, 91, 93
Microchip Internet Web Site.............................................. 169
Migrating from other PIC Devices..................................... 168
MOVF Instruction.............................................................. 123
MOVLW Instruction........................................................... 123
MOVWF Instruction .......................................................... 124
MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker, Librarian ................... 130
MPLAB ICD 2 In-Circuit Debugger ................................... 131
MPLAB ICE 2000 High-Performance Universal
In-Circuit Emulator ................................................... 131
MPLAB ICE 4000 High-Performance Universal
In-Circuit Emulator ................................................... 131
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software.. 129
MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer .................................... 131
MPLINK Object Linker/MPLIB Object Librarian ................ 130
N
NOP Instruction ................................................................ 124
O
OPTION Instruction .......................................................... 124
OPTION Register................................................................ 23
OPTION_REG Register...................................................... 23
Oscillator Configurations..................................................... 97
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ........................................ 101
P
Package Marking Information ........................................... 161
Packaging Information ...................................................... 161
PCL and PCLATH............................................................... 28
Stack........................................................................... 28
PCON Register ................................................................... 27
PICSTART Plus Development Programmer..................... 132
PIE1 Register...................................................................... 25
Pin Functions
RC6/TX/CK ........................................................... 71–87
RC7/RX/DT........................................................... 71–87
PIR1 Register ..................................................................... 26
PORTA ............................................................................... 31
PORTB ............................................................................... 36
PORTB Interrupt ............................................................... 108
Power Control/Status Register (PCON)............................ 102
Power-Down Mode (Sleep)............................................... 110
Power-On Reset (POR) .................................................... 101
Power-up Timer (PWRT) .................................................. 101
PR2 Register ................................................................ 52, 58
Program Memory Organization........................................... 15
PWM (CCP Module) ........................................................... 58
Block Diagram ............................................................ 58
Simplified PWM .................................................. 58
CCPR1H:CCPR1L Registers...................................... 58
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Duty Cycle................................................................... 59
Example Frequencies/Resolutions ............................. 59
Period.......................................................................... 58
Set-Up for PWM Operation ......................................... 59
TMR2 to PR2 Match ................................................... 58
Q
Q-Clock ............................................................................... 59
Quick-Turnaround-Production (QTP) Devices ...................... 7
R
RC Oscillator ....................................................................... 99
RC Oscillator Mode
Block Diagram............................................................. 99
Reader Response ............................................................. 170
Registers
CCP1CON (CCP Operation)....................................... 55
CMCON (Comparator Configuration).......................... 61
CONFIG (Configuration Word).................................... 96
EECON1 (EEPROM Control Register 1) .................... 90
INTCON (Interrupt Control)......................................... 24
Maps
PIC16F627A ................................................. 16, 17
PIC16F628A ................................................. 16, 17
OPTION_REG (Option) .............................................. 23
PCON (Power Control) ............................................... 27
PIE1 (Peripheral Interrupt Enable 1)........................... 25
PIR1 (Peripheral Interrupt Register 1) ........................ 26
Status.......................................................................... 22
T1CON Timer1 Control).............................................. 48
T2CON Timer2 Control).............................................. 53
Reset................................................................................... 99
RETFIE Instruction............................................................ 124
RETLW Instruction ............................................................ 125
RETURN Instruction ......................................................... 125
Revision History ................................................................ 167
RLF Instruction.................................................................. 125
RRF Instruction ................................................................. 126
S
Serial Communication Interface (SCI) Module, See USART
Serialized Quick-Turnaround-Production (SQTP) Devices ... 7
SLEEP Instruction ............................................................. 126
Software Simulator (MPLAB SIM)..................................... 130
Special Event Trigger. See Compare
Special Features of the CPU .............................................. 95
Special Function Registers ................................................. 18
Status Register ................................................................... 22
SUBLW Instruction............................................................ 126
SUBWF Instruction ........................................................... 127
SWAPF Instruction............................................................ 127
T
T1CKPS0 bit ....................................................................... 48
T1CKPS1 bit ....................................................................... 48
T1CON Register ................................................................. 48
T1OSCEN bit ...................................................................... 48
T1SYNC bit ......................................................................... 48
T2CKPS0 bit ....................................................................... 53
T2CKPS1 bit ....................................................................... 53
T2CON Register ................................................................. 53
Timer0
Block Diagrams
Timer0/WDT ....................................................... 46
External Clock Input.................................................... 45
Interrupt....................................................................... 45
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
Prescaler .................................................................... 46
Switching Prescaler Assignment ................................ 47
Timer0 Module............................................................ 45
Timer1
Asynchronous Counter Mode ..................................... 50
Capacitor Selection .................................................... 51
External Clock Input ................................................... 49
External Clock Input Timing........................................ 50
Oscillator..................................................................... 51
Prescaler .............................................................. 49, 51
Resetting Timer1 ........................................................ 51
Resetting Timer1 Registers ........................................ 51
Special Event Trigger (CCP) ...................................... 57
Synchronized Counter Mode ...................................... 49
Timer Mode ................................................................ 49
TMR1H ....................................................................... 50
TMR1L........................................................................ 50
Timer2
Block Diagram ............................................................ 52
Postscaler................................................................... 52
PR2 register................................................................ 52
Prescaler .............................................................. 52, 59
Timer2 Module............................................................ 52
TMR2 output ............................................................... 52
TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt..................................... 58
Timing Diagrams
Timer0 ...................................................................... 145
Timer1 ...................................................................... 145
USART
Asynchronous Receiver...................................... 81
USART Asynchronous Master Transmission ............. 78
USART Asynchronous Reception .............................. 81
USART Synchronous Reception ................................ 87
USART Synchronous Transmission ........................... 85
Timing Diagrams and Specifications ................................ 142
TMR0 Interrupt.................................................................. 108
TMR1CS bit ........................................................................ 48
TMR1ON bit........................................................................ 48
TMR2ON bit........................................................................ 53
TOUTPS0 bit ...................................................................... 53
TOUTPS1 bit ...................................................................... 53
TOUTPS2 bit ...................................................................... 53
TOUTPS3 bit ...................................................................... 53
TRIS Instruction ................................................................ 127
TRISA ................................................................................. 31
TRISB ................................................................................. 36
U
Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (USART)................................................. 71
Asynchronous Receiver
Setting Up Reception.......................................... 83
Asynchronous Receiver Mode
Address Detect ................................................... 83
Block Diagram .................................................... 83
USART
Asynchronous Mode................................................... 77
Asynchronous Receiver.............................................. 80
Asynchronous Reception............................................ 82
Asynchronous Transmission ...................................... 78
Asynchronous Transmitter.......................................... 77
Baud Rate Generator (BRG) ...................................... 73
Block Diagrams
Transmit.............................................................. 78
USART Receive ................................................. 80
BRGH bit .................................................................... 73
DS40044F-page 173
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
Sampling ......................................................... 74, 75, 76
Synchronous Master Mode ......................................... 84
Synchronous Master Reception .................................. 86
Synchronous Master Transmission............................. 84
Synchronous Slave Mode ........................................... 87
Synchronous Slave Reception .................................... 88
Synchronous Slave Transmit ...................................... 87
V
Voltage Reference
Configuration............................................................... 67
Voltage Reference Module ......................................... 67
W
Watchdog Timer (WDT) .................................................... 109
WWW Address.................................................................. 169
WWW, On-Line Support........................................................ 3
X
XORLW Instruction ........................................................... 128
XORWF Instruction ........................................................... 128
DS40044F-page 174
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F627A/628A/648A
PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
PART NO.
X
/XX
XXX
Device
Temperature
Range
Package
Pattern
Device:
PIC16F627A/628A/648A:Standard VDD range 3.0V to
5.5V
PIC16F627A/628A/648AT:VDD range 3.0V to 5.5V
(Tape and Reel)
PIC16LF627A/628A/648A:VDD range 2.0V to 5.5V
PIC16LF627A/628A/648AT:VDD range 2.0V to 5.5V
(Tape and Reel)
Temperature
Range:
I
E
= -40°C to +85°C
= -40°C to+125°C
Package:
P
SO
SS
ML
=
=
=
=
Examples:
a)
PIC16F627A - E/P 301 = Extended
Temp.,
PDIP package, 20 MHz, normal VDD limits, QTP pattern #301.
b)
PIC16LF627A - I/SO = Industrial Temp.,
SOIC package, 20 MHz, extended VDD
limits.
PDIP
SOIC (Gull Wing, 7.50 mm body)
SSOP (5.30 mm
QFN (28 Lead)
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS40044F-page 175
WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE
AMERICAS
ASIA/PACIFIC
ASIA/PACIFIC
EUROPE
Corporate Office
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
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Tel: 480-792-7200
Fax: 480-792-7277
Technical Support:
http://support.microchip.com
Web Address:
www.microchip.com
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Suites 3707-14, 37th Floor
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Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
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Tel: 91-80-4182-8400
Fax: 91-80-4182-8422
India - New Delhi
Tel: 91-11-4160-8631
Fax: 91-11-4160-8632
Austria - Wels
Tel: 43-7242-2244-39
Fax: 43-7242-2244-393
Denmark - Copenhagen
Tel: 45-4450-2828
Fax: 45-4485-2829
India - Pune
Tel: 91-20-2566-1512
Fax: 91-20-2566-1513
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Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20
Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
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Tel: 81-45-471- 6166
Fax: 81-45-471-6122
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Tel: 49-89-627-144-0
Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
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Tel: 678-957-9614
Fax: 678-957-1455
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Tel: 774-760-0087
Fax: 774-760-0088
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Tel: 630-285-0071
Fax: 630-285-0075
Dallas
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Fax: 408-961-6445
Toronto
Mississauga, Ontario,
Canada
Tel: 905-673-0699
Fax: 905-673-6509
Australia - Sydney
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
China - Beijing
Tel: 86-10-8528-2100
Fax: 86-10-8528-2104
China - Chengdu
Tel: 86-28-8665-5511
Fax: 86-28-8665-7889
Korea - Gumi
Tel: 82-54-473-4301
Fax: 82-54-473-4302
China - Fuzhou
Tel: 86-591-8750-3506
Fax: 86-591-8750-3521
Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934
China - Hong Kong SAR
Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-646-8870
Fax: 60-4-646-5086
China - Qingdao
Tel: 86-532-8502-7355
Fax: 86-532-8502-7205
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
China - Shanghai
Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
Fax: 86-21-5407-5066
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
China - Shenyang
Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-572-9526
Fax: 886-3-572-6459
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8203-2660
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-536-4818
Fax: 886-7-536-4803
China - Shunde
Tel: 86-757-2839-5507
Fax: 86-757-2839-5571
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2500-6610
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7250
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
12/08/06
DS40044F-page 176
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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