************************************************************************** USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA ...

************************************************************************** USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA    ...
**************************************************************************
USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-31 32 23 (August 2008)
--------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-31 32 23 (April 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIVISION 31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 32 23
FOUNDATION DRILLING AND GROUTING
08/08
PART 1
GENERAL
1.1
SUMMARY
1.2
UNIT PRICES
1.2.1
Mobilization and Demobilization
1.2.1.1
Payment
1.2.1.2
Unit of Measure
1.2.2
Drilling Grout Holes
1.2.2.1
Payment
1.2.2.2
Measurement
1.2.2.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.3
Drilling Drain Holes
1.2.3.1
Payment
1.2.3.2
Measurement
1.2.3.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.4
Drilling Exploratory Holes
1.2.4.1
Payment
1.2.4.2
Measurement
1.2.4.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.5
Pressure Washing and Pressure Testing
1.2.5.1
Payment
1.2.5.2
Measurement
1.2.5.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.6
Steel Pipe and Fittings
1.2.6.1
Payment
1.2.6.2
Measurement
1.2.6.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.7
Portland Cement in Grout
1.2.7.1
Payment
1.2.7.2
Measurement
1.2.7.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.8
Pozzolans (Fly Ash) in Grout
1.2.8.1
Payment
1.2.8.2
Measurement
1.2.8.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.9
Sand in Grout
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 1
1.2.9.1
Payment
1.2.9.2
Measurement
1.2.9.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.10
Fluidifier in Grout
1.2.10.1
Payment
1.2.10.2
Measurement
1.2.10.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.11
Bentonite in Grout
1.2.11.1
Payment
1.2.11.2
Measurement
1.2.11.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.12
Placing Grout
1.2.12.1
Payment
1.2.12.2
Measurement
1.2.12.3
Unit of Measure
1.2.13
Connections to Grout Holes
1.2.13.1
Payment
1.2.13.2
Measurement
1.2.13.3
Unit of Measure
1.3
REFERENCES
1.4
DEFINITIONS
1.4.1
Zone
1.4.2
Section
1.4.3
Stage
1.4.4
Stop
1.4.5
Split Spacing
1.5
SUBMITTALS
1.6
DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
1.7
PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS
PART 2
PRODUCTS
2.1
GROUTING MATERIAL
2.1.1
Water
2.1.2
Cement
2.1.3
Pozzolans
2.1.4
Admixtures
2.1.5
Fluidifier
2.1.6
Bentonite
2.1.7
Sand
2.2
METAL PIPE AND FITTINGS
2.2.1
Pipe
2.2.2
Fittings
PART 3
EXECUTION
3.1
EQUIPMENT
3.1.1
General
3.1.2
Drilling Equipment
3.1.3
Grouting Equipment
3.2
GROUT, DRAINAGE AND EXPLORATORY HOLES
3.2.1
Pipe for Foundation Grouting and Drainage
3.2.2
Grout Hole Drilling
3.2.3
Drain Hole Drilling
3.2.4
Completion of Grouting and Drain Hole Drilling
3.2.5
Exploratory Hole Drilling
3.3
PROCEDURES FOR DRILLING AND GROUTING
3.3.1
General
3.3.2
Stage Grouting
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 2
3.3.2.1
Primary Holes
3.3.2.2
Successive Holes
3.3.2.3
Completion of Section
3.3.3
Stop Grouting
3.3.4
Pressure Washing and Pressure Testing
3.3.5
Stage Grouting Procedures
3.3.5.1
First Stage
3.3.5.2
Second Stage
3.3.6
Stop Grouting Procedures
3.3.6.1
Stop Grouting of Grout Holes
3.3.6.2
Grouting of Existing Exploratory Holes
3.3.7
Grouting Pressures
3.3.8
Grouting
3.3.8.1
Grout Mixes
3.3.8.2
Grout Injection
3.3.8.3
Backfilling of Holes
3.3.8.4
Equipment Arrangement and Operation
3.3.8.5
Protection to Work and Cleanup
3.3.9
Records
3.3.10
Communications
-- End of Section Table of Contents --
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 3
**************************************************************************
USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-31 32 23 (August 2008)
--------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-31 32 23 (April 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION 31 32 23
FOUNDATION DRILLING AND GROUTING
08/08
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This guide specification covers the
requirements for drilling exploratory holes;
drilling drain holes; drilling, washing and pressure
testing grout holes; making grout connections;
furnishing, handling, transporting, storing, mixing
and injecting the grouting materials; patching the
finished grout holes; care and disposal of drill
cuttings, waste water and waste grout; clean-up
grout galleries and shafts and areas upon completion
of the work and all such other operations as are
incidental to the drilling and the grouting. This
section was originally developed for USACE Civil
Works projects.
Adhere to UFC 1-300-02 Unified Facilities Guide
Specifications (UFGS) Format Standard when editing
this guide specification or preparing new project
specification sections. Edit this guide
specification for project specific requirements by
adding, deleting, or revising text. For bracketed
items, choose applicable items(s) or insert
appropriate information.
Remove information and requirements not required in
respective project, whether or not brackets are
present.
Comments, suggestions and recommended changes for
this guide specification are welcome and should be
submitted as a Criteria Change Request (CCR).
**************************************************************************
PART 1
GENERAL
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This guide specification has been prepared as
a section in a general construction specification
for concrete dams. By rewording as necessary, this
specification may be adapted to other types of
foundation treatment, such as under power plants,
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 4
locks, cutoff trenches, tunnels, and others.
Methods for listing subdivided items are described
in Paragraph 52.2/9109(g) "Variations in Estimated
Quantities - Subdivided Items" of Engineer Federal
Acquisition Regulation Supplement (EFARS). However,
effectiveness of the use of subdivided items in
grouting has been questioned as being more hazardous
than helpful and that the standard variations in
quantity clause should be used.
Provisions are made for the use of a sanded grout
but should generally be limited to those formations
where quantities in excess of one cubic foot of
grout per linear foot of hole are anticipated. The
information contained in EM 1110-2-3506, "Grouting
Technology" and EM 1110-2-1302, "Cost Estimates Government Estimate of Fair and Reasonable Cost to
Contractor" should be used as a guide in estimating
quantities.
Computer Application of Geotechnical Engineering
(CAGE):
a. The CAGE Grouting Task Group has developed a
microcomputer program for documentation of grouting
operations and graphics for rapid display of data
for better field control. Some of the highlights of
the program include optional data entry by a laptop
or hand held computer in the field, technical review
and quality control, preparation of Contractors pay
schedules, and preparation of foundation reports.
The User's Guide "Microcomputer Grouting Data
Package (Multiple Zone and Stage Version for PC and
Hand Held Computer)" is available from the U.S. Army
Engineer Waterways Experiment Station
(USACE-WES-GL). Use of this CAGE package will not
require contractual or technical additions to the
contract specifications unless the computer
equipment, other facilities, or personnel for data
entry are to be Contractor supplied. In such case
the proper provisions should be included. This
program is also an attractive tool for use in
grouting operations by Corps of Engineers personnel.
Use of this program should be strongly considered
for any grouting operation.
b. Computer-aided control and monitoring of the
grout injection has recently been used by the U.S.
Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) on several of their
projects. Their system is appropriate for use on
large grouting projects. Use of their system will
necessitate certain contractual and technical
additions to the specifications which are not
included in this guide specification. If interested
in this type system for a large grout program more
information can be obtained by contacting the CAGE
grout task group and the USBR.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 5
a.
This section covers drilling exploratory holes; drilling drain holes;
drilling, washing and pressure testing grout holes; making grout
connections; furnishing, handling, transporting, storing, mixing and
injecting the grouting materials; backfilling holes; patching the
finished grout holes; care and disposal of drill cuttings, waste water
and waste grout; clean up of [grout galleries and shafts][the areas]
upon completion of the work and all other such operations as are
incidental to the drilling and grouting. The work contemplated
consists of [constructing a grout curtain and a drainage curtain][area
grouting], the approximate locations, limits, and details which are
indicated. Perform Government preconstruction sampling and testing as
specified below:
b.
Perform sampling and testing of sand, cementitious materials, and
admixtures in accordance with Section [03 70 00 MASS CONCRETE][03 30 00
CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE][03 31 01.00 10 CAST-IN-PLACE STRUCTURAL
CONCRETE].
c.
Perform sampling and testing of grout materials in accordance with
Section [03 70 00 MASS CONCRETE][03 30 00 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE][
03 31 01.00 10 CAST-IN-PLACE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE].
1.2
UNIT PRICES
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If Section 01 22 00.00 10 PRICE AND PAYMENT
PROCEDURES is included in the project
specifications, this paragraph title (UNIT PRICES)
should be deleted from this section and the
remaining appropriately edited subparagraphs below
should be inserted into Section 01 22 00.00 10.
**************************************************************************
1.2.1
1.2.1.1
Mobilization and Demobilization
Payment
Payment will be made for costs for assembling all plant and equipment at
the site, preparatory to initiating the work and for removing it therefrom
when the drilling and grouting program has been completed. Sixty (60)
percent of the contract lump sum price for mobilization and demobilization
will be paid following completion of moving onto the site, including
complete assembly, in working order, of all equipment necessary to perform
the required drilling and grouting operations. The remaining forty (40)
percent of the contract lump sum price will be paid when all equipment has
been removed from the site.
1.2.1.2
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.2
lump sum.
Drilling Grout Holes
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Delete the bracketed phrase if pay item
"Pressure Washing and Pressure Testing" is retained
as a pay item.
**************************************************************************
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 7
a.
This section covers drilling exploratory holes; drilling drain holes;
drilling, washing and pressure testing grout holes; making grout
connections; furnishing, handling, transporting, storing, mixing and
injecting the grouting materials; backfilling holes; patching the
finished grout holes; care and disposal of drill cuttings, waste water
and waste grout; clean up of [grout galleries and shafts][the areas]
upon completion of the work and all other such operations as are
incidental to the drilling and grouting. The work contemplated
consists of [constructing a grout curtain and a drainage curtain][area
grouting], the approximate locations, limits, and details which are
indicated. Perform Government preconstruction sampling and testing as
specified below:
b.
Perform sampling and testing of sand, cementitious materials, and
admixtures in accordance with Section [03 70 00 MASS CONCRETE][03 30 00
CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE][03 31 01.00 10 CAST-IN-PLACE STRUCTURAL
CONCRETE].
c.
Perform sampling and testing of grout materials in accordance with
Section [03 70 00 MASS CONCRETE][03 30 00 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE][
03 31 01.00 10 CAST-IN-PLACE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE].
1.2
UNIT PRICES
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If Section 01 22 00.00 10 PRICE AND PAYMENT
PROCEDURES is included in the project
specifications, this paragraph title (UNIT PRICES)
should be deleted from this section and the
remaining appropriately edited subparagraphs below
should be inserted into Section 01 22 00.00 10.
**************************************************************************
1.2.1
1.2.1.1
Mobilization and Demobilization
Payment
Payment will be made for costs for assembling all plant and equipment at
the site, preparatory to initiating the work and for removing it therefrom
when the drilling and grouting program has been completed. Sixty (60)
percent of the contract lump sum price for mobilization and demobilization
will be paid following completion of moving onto the site, including
complete assembly, in working order, of all equipment necessary to perform
the required drilling and grouting operations. The remaining forty (40)
percent of the contract lump sum price will be paid when all equipment has
been removed from the site.
1.2.1.2
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.2
lump sum.
Drilling Grout Holes
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Delete the bracketed phrase if pay item
"Pressure Washing and Pressure Testing" is retained
as a pay item.
**************************************************************************
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 7
1.2.2.1
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with drilling and redrilling
grout holes; [washing and pressure testing of grout holes; ]care and
disposal of waste water and waste grout; clean-up of the site; furnishing,
handling, transporting and storing of grout materials; and for furnishing
all labor and supplies incidental to the work. This price is subject to
the cost limitation imposed by[ Section 31 32 23 FOUNDATION DRILLING AND
GROUTING,] paragraph PIPE FOR FOUNDATION GROUTING AND DRAINAGE, but only in
those locations where pipe is specified. No payment will be made for
grout, or the material constituents thereof, wasted due to improper
anchorage of grout pipe or connections, or which is wasted due to
negligence on the part of the Contractor, nor for grout which is rejected
by the Contracting Officer because of improper mixing. Payment will be
made at the applicable contract unit prices for materials contained in
grout which are wasted, where the wasting is not due to negligence on the
part of the Contractor.
1.2.2.2
Measurement
Drilling of grout holes will be measured for payment on the basis of the
linear feet of holes actually drilled in concrete or rock, as shown or as
directed, including all intermediate holes at locations where pipe was not
installed.
1.2.2.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.3
1.2.3.1
linear meter foot.
Drilling Drain Holes
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with drilling of drain holes
actually drilled in concrete or rock, as shown or as directed. This price
is subject to the cost limitation imposed by[ Section 31 32 23 FOUNDATION
DRILLING AND GROUTING,] paragraph PIPE FOR FOUNDATION GROUTING AND DRAINAGE.
1.2.3.2
Measurement
Drilling of drain holes will be measured for payment on the basis of the
linear meter feet of holes actually drilled in concrete or rock, as shown
or as directed.
1.2.3.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.4
linear meter foot.
Drilling Exploratory Holes
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If a portion of exploratory drilling is to be
done through overburden, a separate pay item should
be included for this portion.
**************************************************************************
1.2.4.1
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with drilling of exploratory
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 8
holes.
1.2.4.2
Measurement
Drilling of exploratory holes will be measured for payment on the basis of
the linear meters feet of holes actually drilled in concrete or rock, as
directed by the Contracting Officer.
1.2.4.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
[1.2.5
[1.2.5.1
linear meter foot.
Pressure Washing and Pressure Testing
Payment
Payment will be made for pressure washing and pressure testing of grout
holes, which includes the cost of making and breaking connections
incidental to the work. Payment will be based upon the total amount of
time required for pressure washing and pressure testing, determined by
reducing the total number of minutes of operation to the nearest whole
hour. No payment will be made for time lost due to fault or negligence of
the Contractor, or due to defective equipment furnished by the Contractor.
Time will be measured cumulatively to the next whole minute of operations.
][1.2.5.2
Measurement
Pressure washing and pressure testing will be measured for payment on the
basis of the actual time water pumps are operating. Pressure washing and
pressure testing will be measured from the time pumping is begun on a hole
or section of a hole until the time pumping is completed on the hole or
section of the hole as determined by the Contracting Officer. Operation
time will be determined by rounding 30 or more minutes of operation up to
the nearest whole hour, and rounding 29 or less minutes of operation down
to the nearest whole hour. Fractional time will be measured cumulatively
to the next whole minute of operation.
][1.2.5.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
nearest whole hour.
]]1.2.6
Steel Pipe and Fittings
1.2.6.1
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with grout and drain hole pipe
and fittings remaining in the permanent work.
1.2.6.2
Measurement
Pipe and fittings will be measured for payment on the basis of the actual
weight of satisfactorily installed pipe and fittings left in place as
shown. No additional allowance will be made because of differences in pipe
size or length, or the number of pipes required.
1.2.6.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
kilogram pound.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 9
1.2.7
1.2.7.1
Portland Cement in Grout
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with Portland cement in grout.
1.2.7.2
Measurement
Portland cement in grout will be measured for payment on the basis of the
number of cubic meters (42.6 kilograms) feet (94 pounds) of cement used in
the grout satisfactorily placed in grout holes and in exploratory holes, or
wasted when such wasting is not due to the Contractor's negligence.
1.2.7.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.8
1.2.8.1
cubic meter (42.6 kilograms) foot (94 pounds).
Pozzolans (Fly Ash) in Grout
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with fly ash in grout.
1.2.8.2
Measurement
Fly ash in grout will be measured for payment on the basis of the number of
cubic meters (33.6 kilograms) feet (74 pounds) of fly ash used in the grout
satisfactorily placed in grout holes.
1.2.8.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.9
1.2.9.1
cubic meter foot.
Sand in Grout
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with sand in grout.
1.2.9.2
Measurement
Sand in grout will be measured for payment on the basis of the number of
cubic meters feet of sand[, dry rodded measurement,] used in the grout
satisfactorily placed in grout holes or in exploratory holes.
1.2.9.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.10
1.2.10.1
cubic meter foot.
Fluidifier in Grout
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with fluidifier in grout,
including full allowance for the payment by the Contractor of all required
royalties.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 10
1.2.10.2
Measurement
Fluidifier in grout will be measured for payment on the basis of the number
of kilograms pounds of fluidifier used in the grout satisfactorily placed
in grout holes.
1.2.10.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.11
1.2.11.1
kilogram pound.
Bentonite in Grout
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with bentonite in grout.
1.2.11.2
Measurement
Bentonite in grout will be measured for payment on the basis of the number
of kilograms pounds of bentonite actually used in grout mixtures
satisfactorily placed in grout holes.
1.2.11.3
Unit of Measure
Unit of measure:
1.2.12
kilogram pound.
Placing Grout
**************************************************************************
NOTES:
Select appropriate Alternative.
Under certain conditions it may be desirable to
include a pay item for standby time for Government
directed suspension of drilling or grouting
operations.
**************************************************************************
1.2.12.1
Payment
Payment will be made for costs associated with satisfactorily placing grout
in grout holes[, which includes full compensation for proportioning the mix
as directed and mixing and injecting the grout as specified[ in Section
31 32 23 FOUNDATION DRILLING AND GROUTING]. Separate payment will be made
for all materials used in grout as provided in unit price pay item(s)
"Portland Cement in Grout"[, "Pozzolans (Fly Ash) in Grout", "Sand in
Grout", "Fluidifier in Grout", and "Bentonite in Grout"].][. No payment
will be made for time lost due to fault or negligence of the Contractor or
due to defective equipment furnished by the Contractor.]
1.2.12.2
Measurement
Placing grout will be measured for payment on the basis of [the number of
cubic meters feet of materials, satisfactorily placed, exclusive of water
[and fluidifier] and regardless of the proportions of the mixes, measured
individually as specified in unit price pay items "Portland Cement in
Grout", "Pozzolans (Fly Ash) in Grout", and "Sand in Grout".][the actual
time grout pumps begin pumping on a hole or portion of hole and continuing
until the time pumping is completed on that hole or portion of hole, as
determined by the Contracting Officer. Time for satisfactory placement of
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 11
PART 2
2.1
PRODUCTS
GROUTING MATERIAL
Provide grout composed of water and cement, [pozzolans, admixtures, and
fillers]. The grout mixes will be designed by the Contracting Officer and
will be varied to meet the characteristics of each hole as determined by
conditions encountered. The various materials to be furnished shall
conform to the specifications listed in paragraphs below.
2.1.1
Water
[The water used in the grout shall be furnished by the Contractor. It
shall be fresh, clean and free from injurious amounts of sewage, oil, acid,
alkali, salts, or organic matter.][Water suitable for use in the work will
be furnished by the Government. It shall be the responsibility of the
Contractor to provide any necessary connections and extensions to the
Government supply line shown.]
2.1.2
Cement
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Avoid specifying the use of air entrained
cement, except on rare occasions when grout may be
exposed to severe freezing and thawing conditions.
**************************************************************************
Cement used in grout shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C91/C91M and
ASTM C150/C150M. The use of bulk cement will be permitted provided the
Contractor employs methods of handling, transporting, and storage that are
satisfactory to the Contracting Officer, otherwise only cement furnished in
cloth or paper bags will be accepted to use in the work. Storage of cement
shall be in accordance with paragraph DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING.
2.1.3
Pozzolans
Pozzolans shall be fly ash [or other raw or calcined natural pozzolans]
conforming to ASTM C618. Sampling will be done by an authorized
representative of the Government. All tests will be made by and at the
expense of the Government. Pozzolans may be furnished in paper sacks or in
bulk. It shall be transported, handled, and stored so as to avoid damage,
waste, or absorption of moisture.
2.1.4
Admixtures
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Refer to EM 1110-2-3506, "Grouting
Technology", for discussions of properties,
characteristics and limitations for principal
admixture and filler materials. Only the more
commonly used are included here.
**************************************************************************
Admixtures shall be added to the grout immediately before or during its
mixing and will consist of [accelerators, retarders, water reducers,
aluminum powder, and fluidifiers].
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 16
2.1.5
Fluidifier
Fluidifier shall be a compound possessing characteristics which will
increase the flowability of the mixture, assist in dispersal of the cement
grains, and neutralize the setting shrinkage of the grout. The quality of
the material shall meet the requirements specified in ASTM C937. Sampling
of fluidifier shall be done by an authorized representative of the
Contracting Officer. Trial mixtures should be tested prior to using the
materials in field work. All tests will be made by and at the expense of
the Government. Fluidifier shall be furnished in moisture-resistant paper
sacks shipped in sealed containers and shall be handled and stored so as to
avoid absorption of moisture, damage or waste. Material which has become
caked due to moisture absorption will be rejected.
2.1.6
Bentonite
Bentonite shall be sodium (Na) cation, powdered montmorillonite. It shall
be added to the cement grout 2 percent to 5 percent by weight of cement.
The percentage shall be adjusted as directed by the Contracting Officer. A
separate colloidal bentonite mixer is required to mix the bentonite and
water to ensure fully dispensing and hydrating the bentonite before adding
to the grout mixer. The bentonite shall be handled and stored so as to
avoid absorption of moisture, damage, or waste. Bentonite which has become
caked due to moisture absorption will be rejected. A sufficient quantity
of bentonite shall be stored at or near the site of the work to insure that
grouting operations will not be delayed by shortage of bentonite.
2.1.7
Sand
a.
Sand for grout shall be clean and consist of hard, tough, durable,
uncoated particles with no more than [_____] percent passing the No.
200 sieve. The shape of the particles shall be generally rounded or
cubical [and shall not contain more than [_____] percent of flat or
elongated pieces having a maximum dimension in excess of five times the
minimum dimension]. The sand shall be generally well graded from fine
to coarse in accordance with ASTM C136/C136M with 100 percent passing
the [No. 8][_____] sieve.
b.
Subject the sand to such tests as are necessary to determine its
acceptability. Perform sampling of sand in accordance with the
applicable sampling provisions contained in COE CRD-C 100 or as
directed. Unless otherwise directed, all test samples shall be taken
under the supervision of the Contracting Officer and shall be delivered
to a designated point, at the expense of the Contractor, at least
[_____] days in advance of the time when sand will be required at the
site of work. All tests will be made by the Government at its
expense. The tests to which the sand will be subjected will include
specific gravity, absorption, soundness in magnesium sulfate,
petrographic analyses, and any other tests that are necessary to
demonstrate that grout of adequate durability can be produced.
c.
The percentage of surface moisture in terms of the saturated
surface-dried sand will be determined in accordance with ASTM C70, or
other method giving comparable results.
d.
Store sand in such a manner as to avoid the inclusion of any foreign
materials in the grout. All sand shall remain in free draining storage
for at least 72 hours prior to use.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 17
directed by the Contracting Officer.[ A maximum tolerance for deviation in
angle and direction shall be [_____].] The first series of holes to be
drilled and grouted shall be at [_____] meter foot intervals and
hereinafter are referred to as primary holes. The location of secondary
and succeeding series (intermediate) holes shall be determined by the split
spacing method as defined in paragraph SPLIT SPACING. The number of grout
holes shall be increased, progressively, by the split spacing method as
defined in paragraph SPLIT SPACING. The number of grout holes shall be
increased, progressively, by the split spacing method as deemed necessary
by the Contracting Officer until the amount of grout used indicates that
the foundation is tight. Each hole drilled shall be protected from
becoming clogged or obstructed by means of a cap or other suitable device
on the collar and any hole that becomes clogged or obstructed due to fault
of the Contractor before completion of operations shall be cleaned out in a
manner satisfactory to the Contracting Officer or another hole provided by
and at the expense of the Contractor. That portion of holes which
penetrates concrete of the dam shall be [formed by embedding pipes in the
concrete at the time of its placement] [drilled] as specified in paragraph
PIPE FOR FOUNDATION GROUTING AND DRAINAGE. Payment will be made for such
partial depth of holes at the unit contract price for [Item No. [_____]
"Steel Pipe and Fittings"], [Item No. [_____] "Drilling Grout Holes"],
[Item No. [_____] "Drilling Drain Holes"], [Item No. [_____] "Drilling
Exploratory Holes"].
3.2.1
Pipe for Foundation Grouting and Drainage
All metal pipe and fittings required for constructing grout, drainage and
exploratory holes shall be embedded. The pipe and fittings shall be
cleaned thoroughly of all dirt, grease, oil, grout and mortar immediately
before embedment. All joints shall be made up snug and the assembly held
firmly in position and protected from damage or displacement while the
concrete is being placed. Take all necessary precautions to prevent any
pipe from becoming clogged or obstructed from any cause and any pipe which
becomes clogged shall be cleaned out in a manner satisfactory to the
Contracting Officer at the Contractor's expense. The presence of tramp
metal such as nails, wire, bolts, nuts and other foreign material in the
pipes through which diamond drilled holes are to be drilled shall be
considered as obstructions. As an option, substitute percussion or diamond
drilled holes through the concrete in lieu of pipe, provided that the
method proposed meets with the approval of the Contracting Officer and
provided further that such substitution does not result in any increased
cost to the Government.
3.2.2
a.
Grout Hole Drilling
Drill grout holes with standard rotary [or percussion] drilling
equipment. No core recovery will be required and the type bit used
shall be optional with the Contractor. [The hole shall be of
sufficient diameter to allow use of an expansion plug or packer with an
effective inside diameter of not less than 13 mm 1/2 inch]. The
minimum diameter of hole shall be [35] [_____] mm [1 3/8] [_____] inches
at the point of maximum penetration. No grout hole will be drilled at
an angle greater than [_____] degrees measured from the vertical nor to
a depth greater than [_____] meters feet measured from the collar of
the hole. If, as the work progresses, it is determined that holes to
depths greater than indicated are necessary, drilling to such greater
depth will be ordered in writing, and the drilling to depths in excess
of [_____] meters feet will be paid for at a negotiated unit price.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 20
b.
3.2.3
Perform drilling in accordance with the applicable grouting method
hereinafter described. Whenever as much as [_____] percent of the
drill water is lost or the cumulative total of successive water losses
is estimated to amount to [_____] percent loss, or artesian flow is
encountered, the drilling operations shall be stopped, the hole washed,
pressure tested and grouted before drilling operations are resumed in
such hole. The grout so injected remaining in a partially completed
hole shall be removed therefrom by washing or other methods before it
has set sufficiently to require redrilling. Redrilling required
because of the Contractor's failure to clean out a hole before the
grout has set shall be performed at the Contractor's expense except
that where the grout has been allowed to set by direction of the
Contracting Officer, the redrilling will be paid for at the contract
price for drilling the grout hole. Upon completion of drilling of any
hole and prior to pressure testing, all drill cuttings and slurry shall
be removed by applying water to the bottom of the hole [through open
end rods] and returning the wash water through the hole to the surfaces
until the return water is clear. No separate payment will be made for
this washing.
Drain Hole Drilling
Drill drain holes with standard diamond drilling equipment, but no core
recovery will be required and the Contractor may elect to use coring or
noncoring bits. The minimum diameter of hole shall be [72] [_____] mm [2
7/8] [_____] inches, measured at the point of maximum penetration. No
drain hole will be drilled at an angle greater than [_____] degrees from
the vertical nor to a depth greater than [_____] meters feet, measured from
the collar of the hole. Drainage holes shall not be drilled in any
location until all adjacent grout holes within a minimum distance of 50
meters 150 feet have been drilled and grouted to full depth.
3.2.4
Completion of Grouting and Drain Hole Drilling
All grouting operations and all drain hole drilling shall be completed and
in proper working condition prior to the time of impounding water. At that
time all work in the [grouting and drainage galleries] [tunnels] shall be
completed, all drain holes shall be uncovered and unobstructed, and the
[galleries and their gutters] [tunnels] shall be free of all construction
debris. Nipples for grout hole drilling will be removed from the [gallery]
[cutoff trench] and disposed of and the finished grout holes will be
patched.
3.2.5
Exploratory Hole Drilling
a.
Perform such exploratory drilling as may be required to determine the
condition of the rock prior to grouting or the effectiveness of the
grouting operations during or after grouting. All exploratory drilling
shall be performed with rotary drilling equipment using coring type
bits. Since the maximum recovery of unpredictable soft or friable
materials is of prime importance, make every effort to recover 100
percent of the core by use of the appropriate equipment and drilling
procedures.
b.
The holes may be required to be drilled to varying depths, with a
maximum depth of [_____] meters feet. No exploratory hole will be
drilled at an angle greater than [_____] degrees measured from the
vertical.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 21
PART 2
2.1
PRODUCTS
GROUTING MATERIAL
Provide grout composed of water and cement, [pozzolans, admixtures, and
fillers]. The grout mixes will be designed by the Contracting Officer and
will be varied to meet the characteristics of each hole as determined by
conditions encountered. The various materials to be furnished shall
conform to the specifications listed in paragraphs below.
2.1.1
Water
[The water used in the grout shall be furnished by the Contractor. It
shall be fresh, clean and free from injurious amounts of sewage, oil, acid,
alkali, salts, or organic matter.][Water suitable for use in the work will
be furnished by the Government. It shall be the responsibility of the
Contractor to provide any necessary connections and extensions to the
Government supply line shown.]
2.1.2
Cement
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Avoid specifying the use of air entrained
cement, except on rare occasions when grout may be
exposed to severe freezing and thawing conditions.
**************************************************************************
Cement used in grout shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C91/C91M and
ASTM C150/C150M. The use of bulk cement will be permitted provided the
Contractor employs methods of handling, transporting, and storage that are
satisfactory to the Contracting Officer, otherwise only cement furnished in
cloth or paper bags will be accepted to use in the work. Storage of cement
shall be in accordance with paragraph DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING.
2.1.3
Pozzolans
Pozzolans shall be fly ash [or other raw or calcined natural pozzolans]
conforming to ASTM C618. Sampling will be done by an authorized
representative of the Government. All tests will be made by and at the
expense of the Government. Pozzolans may be furnished in paper sacks or in
bulk. It shall be transported, handled, and stored so as to avoid damage,
waste, or absorption of moisture.
2.1.4
Admixtures
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Refer to EM 1110-2-3506, "Grouting
Technology", for discussions of properties,
characteristics and limitations for principal
admixture and filler materials. Only the more
commonly used are included here.
**************************************************************************
Admixtures shall be added to the grout immediately before or during its
mixing and will consist of [accelerators, retarders, water reducers,
aluminum powder, and fluidifiers].
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 16
2.1.5
Fluidifier
Fluidifier shall be a compound possessing characteristics which will
increase the flowability of the mixture, assist in dispersal of the cement
grains, and neutralize the setting shrinkage of the grout. The quality of
the material shall meet the requirements specified in ASTM C937. Sampling
of fluidifier shall be done by an authorized representative of the
Contracting Officer. Trial mixtures should be tested prior to using the
materials in field work. All tests will be made by and at the expense of
the Government. Fluidifier shall be furnished in moisture-resistant paper
sacks shipped in sealed containers and shall be handled and stored so as to
avoid absorption of moisture, damage or waste. Material which has become
caked due to moisture absorption will be rejected.
2.1.6
Bentonite
Bentonite shall be sodium (Na) cation, powdered montmorillonite. It shall
be added to the cement grout 2 percent to 5 percent by weight of cement.
The percentage shall be adjusted as directed by the Contracting Officer. A
separate colloidal bentonite mixer is required to mix the bentonite and
water to ensure fully dispensing and hydrating the bentonite before adding
to the grout mixer. The bentonite shall be handled and stored so as to
avoid absorption of moisture, damage, or waste. Bentonite which has become
caked due to moisture absorption will be rejected. A sufficient quantity
of bentonite shall be stored at or near the site of the work to insure that
grouting operations will not be delayed by shortage of bentonite.
2.1.7
Sand
a.
Sand for grout shall be clean and consist of hard, tough, durable,
uncoated particles with no more than [_____] percent passing the No.
200 sieve. The shape of the particles shall be generally rounded or
cubical [and shall not contain more than [_____] percent of flat or
elongated pieces having a maximum dimension in excess of five times the
minimum dimension]. The sand shall be generally well graded from fine
to coarse in accordance with ASTM C136/C136M with 100 percent passing
the [No. 8][_____] sieve.
b.
Subject the sand to such tests as are necessary to determine its
acceptability. Perform sampling of sand in accordance with the
applicable sampling provisions contained in COE CRD-C 100 or as
directed. Unless otherwise directed, all test samples shall be taken
under the supervision of the Contracting Officer and shall be delivered
to a designated point, at the expense of the Contractor, at least
[_____] days in advance of the time when sand will be required at the
site of work. All tests will be made by the Government at its
expense. The tests to which the sand will be subjected will include
specific gravity, absorption, soundness in magnesium sulfate,
petrographic analyses, and any other tests that are necessary to
demonstrate that grout of adequate durability can be produced.
c.
The percentage of surface moisture in terms of the saturated
surface-dried sand will be determined in accordance with ASTM C70, or
other method giving comparable results.
d.
Store sand in such a manner as to avoid the inclusion of any foreign
materials in the grout. All sand shall remain in free draining storage
for at least 72 hours prior to use.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 17
2.2
METAL PIPE AND FITTINGS
Metal pipe and fittings required for constructing grout, drainage and
exploratory holes shall be furnished, cut, threaded, and fabricated by the
Contractor.
2.2.1
Pipe
Pipe will be black steel of the diameter and in the location indicated.
The pipe shall conform to ASTM A53/A53M.
2.2.2
Fittings
The fittings shall be black, malleable iron in accordance with ASME B16.3.
PART 3
3.1
EXECUTION
EQUIPMENT
**************************************************************************
NOTE: For jobs where the estimated quantity of
solids is between zero and 30 cubic meters 1,000
cubic feet, a pumping capacity of 950 cm 3/s 15 gpm
is recommended; from 30 to 1400 cubic meters 1,000
to 50,000 cubic feet, a 1900 cm 3/s 30 gpm pump; and
for jobs greater than 1400 cubic meters 50,000 cubic
feet, a 3800 cm3/s 60 gpm pump. Also, for jobs
where large grout quantities are anticipated it may
be desirable to specify an automated batching plant
with batch tickets for all items in the mix.
**************************************************************************
The use of internal combustion engines within dam galleries for operation
of drilling and grouting equipment will not be permitted. Submit details
and data on the drilling and grouting equipment.
3.1.1
General
All drilling [including exploratory hole drilling] and grouting equipment
used shall be of a type, capacity and mechanical condition suitable for
performing the work, as determined by the Contracting Officer. The power
and equipment and the layout thereof shall meet all applicable requirements
of local, State, and Federal regulations and codes, both safety and
otherwise.
3.1.2
Drilling Equipment
Standard drilling equipment of the rotary [or percussion] type shall be
used to perform the drilling as specified in paragraphs GROUT HOLE
DRILLING, DRAIN HOLE DRILLING, COMPLETION OF GROUTING AND DRAIN HOLE
DRILLING, and EXPLORATORY HOLE DRILLING. Use [water] [air] for removing
cuttings from the hole during drilling operations. Air driven drills used
in galleries shall be equipped with suitable mufflers. Supplies shall
include all bits, drill rods, tools, casing, piping, pumps, water, and
power to accomplish the required drilling. All drilling rigs and pumps
will be equipped with pressure gages.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 18
with the following general procedures.
3.3.8.1
Grout Mixes
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Appropriate additives will be used for
specific cases.
**************************************************************************
Mixes shall be in the proportions directed by the Contracting Officer who
will, from time to time, direct changes to suit the conditions found to
exist in the particular grout hole. [The cement grout will include 2
percent to 5 percent (by weight of cement) of sodium bentonite]. The
water/cement ratio by volume will be varied to meet the characteristics of
each hole as revealed by the grouting operation and will range between
[_____] and [_____]. The types of grout shall be as follows:
[a.
Cement Grout shall consist of cement, (bentonite) and water.]
[b. Mortar Grout shall consist of cement, (bentonite), sand, and
water.]
3.3.8.2
Grout Injection
a.
In general, if pressure tests indicate a tight hole, grouting shall be
started with a thin mix. If an open hole condition exists, as
determined by loss of drill water or inability to build up pressure
during washing operations, then grouting shall be started with a
thicker mix and with a grout pump operating as nearly as practicable at
constant speed at all times; the ratio will be decreased, if necessary,
until the required pressure has been reached. [If this procedure does
not produce the desired pressure, mortar grout shall be used and the
mix varied as necessary to produce the desired results.]
b.
When the pressure tends to rise too high, the water/cement ratio shall
be increased [and/or the mix of mortar grout changed or discontinued]
as may be required to produce the desired results. If necessary to
relieve premature stoppage, periodic applications of water under
pressure shall be made. Under no conditions shall the pressure or rate
of pumping be increased suddenly as either may produce a water-hammer
effect which may promote stoppage.
c.
The grouting of any hole shall not be considered complete until [that
hole refuses to take any grout whatever at three-fourths of the maximum
pressures required for that stage] [that hole takes grout at the rate
of one cubic foot of grout or less in ten minutes measured over at
least a five minute period at the pressure required for that portion of
the hole being grouted.]
d.
Should grout leaks develop, caulk such leaks when and as directed, the
cost thereof being included in the contract price for unit price pay
item "Placing Grout", in accordance with Section 01 22 00.00 10 PRICE
AND PAYMENT PROCEDURES.
e.
If, due to size and continuity of fracture, it is found impossible to
reach the required pressure after pumping a reasonable volume of grout
at the minimum workable water/cement ratio [or mortar grout with the
maximum volume of sand at the minimum water/cementing materials ratio]
the speed of the pumping shall be reduced or pumping shall be stopped
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 26
temporarily and intermittent grouting shall be performed, allowing
sufficient time between grout injections for the grout to stiffen.
Following such reduction in pumping speed, if the desired result is not
obtained, grouting in the hole shall be discontinued when directed. In
such event, the hole shall be cleaned, the grout allowed to set, and
additional drilling and grouting shall then be done in this hole or in
the adjacent areas as directed, until the desired resistance is built
up.
f.
After the grouting of any [stage] [stop] of a hole is finished, the
pressure shall be maintained by means of a stop-cock or other suitable
device until the grout has set to the extent that it will be retained
in the hole.
g.
Grout that cannot be placed, for any reason, within two hours after
mixing shall be wasted. If such grout is mixed at the direction of the
Contracting Officer or with his knowledge and consent, such wasted
grout, except as specified in Section 01 22 00.00 10 PRICE AND PAYMENT
PROCEDURES, shall be paid for at the contract unit prices for the
materials contained therein.
3.3.8.3
Backfilling of Holes
Holes shall be backfilled with grout proportioned as directed by the
Contracting Officer and generally having a water/cement ratio less than
1.0. The backfilling shall be accomplished by injection of grout through a
tremie pipe or hose inserted to full depth of hole. When grout vents at
the surface, the tremie shall be gradually withdrawn, maintaining grout in
pipe or hose until completely removed. Holes containing freshly injected
grout shall not be backfilled until the injected grout has set. No
separate payment will be made for backfilling holes; however, grout will be
paid for at the contract unit price for the Portland cement therein.
3.3.8.4
Equipment Arrangement and Operation
The arrangement of the grouting equipment shall be such as to provide a
continuous circulation of grout throughout the system and to permit
accurate pressure control by operation of a valve on the grout return line,
regardless of how small the grout take may be. The equipment and lines
shall be prevented from becoming fouled by the constant circulation of
grout and by the periodic flushing out of the system with water. Flushing
shall be done with the grout intake valve closed, the water supply valve
open, and the pump running at full speed.
3.3.8.5
Protection to Work and Cleanup
[Except as otherwise specified, no grouting will be permitted within [_____]
meters feet of installed perforated pipe or gravel filters for foundation
drains. Where permitted in such locations, maintain a flow of water
through the drains likely to be affected, to serve as tell-tales. In case
leakage of grout into drains does occur immediately stop the grouting
operations and remove all grout from the drains affected by washing to the
satisfaction of the Contracting Officer. Payment for washing will be in
accordance with unit price pay item "Pressure Washing and Pressure Testing"
in [this Section][Section 01 22 00.00 10 PRICE AND PAYMENT PROCEDURES].
Such stopping of grouting operations and washing of drains shall be
repeated as often as required to complete the curtain grouting.] During
grouting operations take such precautions as may be necessary to prevent
drill cuttings, equipment exhaust oil, wash water, and grout, from defacing
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 27
b.
3.2.3
Perform drilling in accordance with the applicable grouting method
hereinafter described. Whenever as much as [_____] percent of the
drill water is lost or the cumulative total of successive water losses
is estimated to amount to [_____] percent loss, or artesian flow is
encountered, the drilling operations shall be stopped, the hole washed,
pressure tested and grouted before drilling operations are resumed in
such hole. The grout so injected remaining in a partially completed
hole shall be removed therefrom by washing or other methods before it
has set sufficiently to require redrilling. Redrilling required
because of the Contractor's failure to clean out a hole before the
grout has set shall be performed at the Contractor's expense except
that where the grout has been allowed to set by direction of the
Contracting Officer, the redrilling will be paid for at the contract
price for drilling the grout hole. Upon completion of drilling of any
hole and prior to pressure testing, all drill cuttings and slurry shall
be removed by applying water to the bottom of the hole [through open
end rods] and returning the wash water through the hole to the surfaces
until the return water is clear. No separate payment will be made for
this washing.
Drain Hole Drilling
Drill drain holes with standard diamond drilling equipment, but no core
recovery will be required and the Contractor may elect to use coring or
noncoring bits. The minimum diameter of hole shall be [72] [_____] mm [2
7/8] [_____] inches, measured at the point of maximum penetration. No
drain hole will be drilled at an angle greater than [_____] degrees from
the vertical nor to a depth greater than [_____] meters feet, measured from
the collar of the hole. Drainage holes shall not be drilled in any
location until all adjacent grout holes within a minimum distance of 50
meters 150 feet have been drilled and grouted to full depth.
3.2.4
Completion of Grouting and Drain Hole Drilling
All grouting operations and all drain hole drilling shall be completed and
in proper working condition prior to the time of impounding water. At that
time all work in the [grouting and drainage galleries] [tunnels] shall be
completed, all drain holes shall be uncovered and unobstructed, and the
[galleries and their gutters] [tunnels] shall be free of all construction
debris. Nipples for grout hole drilling will be removed from the [gallery]
[cutoff trench] and disposed of and the finished grout holes will be
patched.
3.2.5
Exploratory Hole Drilling
a.
Perform such exploratory drilling as may be required to determine the
condition of the rock prior to grouting or the effectiveness of the
grouting operations during or after grouting. All exploratory drilling
shall be performed with rotary drilling equipment using coring type
bits. Since the maximum recovery of unpredictable soft or friable
materials is of prime importance, make every effort to recover 100
percent of the core by use of the appropriate equipment and drilling
procedures.
b.
The holes may be required to be drilled to varying depths, with a
maximum depth of [_____] meters feet. No exploratory hole will be
drilled at an angle greater than [_____] degrees measured from the
vertical.
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 21
c.
Special care should be exercised to obtain cores in as good condition
as possible. Keep, in a manner satisfactory to the Contracting
Officer, an accurate Driller's Log of all exploratory holes drilled.
The log shall include a nontechnical description of all materials
encountered in the drilling, their location in the holes and the
location of special features such as seams, open cracks, soft or broken
rock, points where abnormal loss or gain of drill water occurred, and
any other items of interest in connection with the purpose for which
the exploratory drilling is required.
d.
Wooden or other approved core boxes will be furnished by [the
Government] [the Contractor], and place the cores in the boxes in the
correct sequence and separated accurately by wooden blocks, according
to the measured distances in the hole. No box shall contain cores from
more than one hole. The covers shall be fastened securely to the core
boxes and delivered in the vicinity of the work as directed.
e.
Exploratory holes shall be grouted under pressure, if conditions so
indicate, by [stop grouting] [grouting to full depth in one operation]
and backfilled in accordance with paragraph BACKFILLING OF HOLES.
3.3
PROCEDURES FOR DRILLING AND GROUTING
3.3.1
General
The drilling and grouting shall be accomplished in single or multiple lines
as shown. The drilling and the grouting shall be done by [zones, using the
split spacing, stage grouting method] [split spacing, stop grouting method]
as described herein.
3.3.2
Stage Grouting
Perform stage grouting of progressively deeper zones in stages with the
placement of a grout curtain by drilling and grouting in successive
operations in accordance with the following general procedure.
3.3.2.1
Primary Holes
Primary holes for foundation grouting shall be drilled to their first stage
of depth within the first zone. The depths will be governed by the
foundation conditions.
a.
The holes thus drilled shall be washed and pressure tested, and then
grouted, except that when pressure testing indicates a relatively tight
hole, the Contracting Officer may direct that the grouting of that hole
be omitted for that stage and the hole be left open for drilling and
grouting of the next stage.
b.
After the grouting of any hole, the grout within the hole shall be
[removed by washing or by other methods before it has set sufficiently
to require redrilling][allowed to set and subsequently the holes shall
be redrilled].
c.
After the interval of time as specified in paragraph SECOND STAGE, the
primary holes not already drilled to the limit of the first zone shall
be drilled as directed to additional depths not exceeding the zone
limit.
d.
The primary holes thus deepened shall again be washed and pressure
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 22
tested and then grouted at higher pressures as directed. Again, the
grout within the hole shall be removed as described above.
e.
The process of successively drilling primary holes to additional depths
and grouting at higher and higher pressures in stages, as directed,
shall be repeated until all of the primary holes on the maximum spacing
(see paragraph GROUT, DRAINAGE AND EXPLORATORY HOLES) have been
completely drilled and grouted to the depth of the first zone in that
section of the grout curtain.
3.3.2.2
Successive Holes
After the primary holes in the first zone have been completed in any
section as specified above, the second and succeeding series of holes, as
determined by the "split spacing method," shall be drilled and grouted to
the depth of the first zone in like manner until the first zone of that
section is completely grouted as directed.
3.3.2.3
Completion of Section
The process of successively drilling to additional depths and grouting at
higher and higher pressures in stages for the first series of holes and
then for succeeding series of holes shall be repeated for the second and
subsequent zones of that section. Other sections along the grout curtain
shall be grouted in like manner until grouting of the foundation is
completed to the satisfaction of the Contracting Officer. As the drilling
and grouting work progresses, it may develop that conditions are such that
all or parts of the foundation already grouted require additional
grouting. In such event, the equipment shall be returned and additional
holes shall be drilled and grouted as directed.
3.3.3
Stop Grouting
Stop grouting is a method whereby each hole is drilled to a final depth and
grouted by stops through an expansion plug or packer which is set at
successively shallower depths. It involves the placement of a grout
curtain by drilling and grouting in accordance with the following general
procedure:
a.
Drill hole to the full depth and wash as specified in paragraph GROUT
HOLE DRILLING.
b.
The holes thus drilled and washed shall be pressure tested, and
pressure washed as specified in paragraph PRESSURE WASHING AND PRESSURE
TESTING.
c.
The expansion plug, or packer, shall be placed in the hole at the top
of the interval to be grouted blocking off the higher portion of the
holes, and the interval is grouted. The lowest zone is grouted first.
In no case will the Contractor be required to set the packer deeper
than [_____] meters feet.
d.
After placing the grout at the pressure and mix directed by the
Contracting Officer, the expansion plug, or packer, shall be left in
place until the grout pressure drops to that pressure required for the
next higher stop or as directed by the Contracting Officer.
e.
The expansion plug, or packer, shall then be moved to the next higher
stop and grout placed at the lower pressure as directed by the
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 23
Contracting Officer.
f.
The procedures described in subparagraphs "d" and "e" above shall be
repeated until grouting of the hole is complete.
g.
After the primary holes in the first zone have been completed in any
section as specified above, the second and succeeding series of holes,
as determined by the "split spacing method" shall be grouted in like
manner until all zones of that section are completely grouted as
directed.
h.
Other sections along the grout curtain shall be grouted in like manner
until grouting of the foundation is completed to the satisfaction of
the Contracting Officer.
i.
As the drilling and grouting work progresses, it may develop that
conditions are such that all or parts of the foundation already grouted
require additional grouting. In such event, the equipment shall be
returned and additional holes for grouting shall be drilled and grouted
as directed and no allowance above contract unit prices will be made
for drilling and grouting such holes or for the expense of any movement
of equipment necessary to the performance of such work.
3.3.4
Pressure Washing and Pressure Testing
Immediately before the pressure grouting operation, the hole shall be
thoroughly washed under pressure and pressure tested. All intersected rock
seams and crevices containing clay or other washable materials shall be
washed with water [and air] under pressure to remove as much of these
materials as possible. If practicable, as determined by the Contracting
Officer, such material shall be ejected from one or more holes by
introducing water [and air] under pressure into an adjacent hole. In no
case shall such pressure exceed the maximum grouting pressure as directed.
All grout holes shall be tested with clean water under continuous pressure
up to the maximum grouting pressure as directed. All holes sufficiently
tight to build up the maximum required pressure shall be washed at such
pressure and the washing shall continue as long as there is any increase in
the rate at which water is taken, such increase indicating the fractures
are being opened by the washing operation. Open holes in which no pressure
can be built up shall be washed for a period of 5 minutes, with the pump
operating at full capacity, or for such period of time as fracture-filling
is being removed, as evidenced by the escape of muddy water through surface
openings or other grout holes.
3.3.5
3.3.5.1
Stage Grouting Procedures
First Stage
Perform the first stage, or low-pressure, shallow-curtain grouting by
washing and grouting holes at locations indicated or as directed, using the
"split spacing" method described in paragraph SPLIT SPACING. Similar
stages of drilling and grouting are repeated as necessary to reach the
bottom of the first zone. Before grouting is begun in any hole of a given
series in any section, at least the nearest two holes in advance of each
such hole in that series shall be completely drilled for the same stage and
the adjacent hole completely washed to facilitate washing and flushing out
of any intervening clay-filled seams, fractures, or solution channels. No
hole beneath any portion of the dam shall be grouted until all concrete
within [35] [_____] meters [100] [_____] feet has been placed to [full
SECTION 31 32 23
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height] [_____] unless otherwise directed.
3.3.5.2
Second Stage
After all first stage grouting in any section has been completed, as
specified above, proceed, when so directed, with second stage drilling and
grouting in accordance with the procedure outlined herein but in no case
shall the deepening of any hole preparatory to grouting be commenced before
the previously placed grout has set: nor shall second stage grouting be
conducted within a distance of approximately 35 meters 100 feet of any hole
in which a previous stage of grouting has been completed until the grout in
such previous stage hole has [taken its set] [set for a period of
24-hours]. Grouting at subsequent stages shall conform to the same
requirements as to minimum time and distance. Upon completion of all holes
to the bottom of the first zone, and after the waiting period the primary
holes are drilled to the next stage in the second zone and grouted at
higher pressures. The process of drilling, washing, pressure testing,
pressure washing, and grouting at progressively higher pressures are
continued until the ground is satisfactorily tight to the required depth.
3.3.6
3.3.6.1
Stop Grouting Procedures
Stop Grouting of Grout Holes
Perform the grouting by washing and grouting holes at locations indicated
or as directed. Before grouting is begun in any hole of a given series in
any section, at least the nearest two holes in the advance of each such
hole in that series shall be completely drilled and the adjacent hole
completely washed to facilitate washing and flushing out of any intervening
clay-filled seams, fractures, or solution channels.
3.3.6.2
Grouting of Existing Exploratory Holes
Existing exploratory holes or portions of holes more than five feet deep
after excavation shall be cleaned [pressure-tested], and [pressure grouted]
[gravity grouted] as specified for grout holes. Holes less than 1.5 meters
five feet deep shall be back-filled with grout mixed in proportions
directed by the Contracting Officer. Gravity grouting or backfilling shall
be done in accordance with paragraph BACKFILLING OF HOLES.
3.3.7
Grouting Pressures
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Refer to EM 1110-2-3506, "Grouting
Technology" for discussions of grouting pressures as
an aid in selecting allowable pressures under
different conditions.
**************************************************************************
Grouting pressures to be used in the work will vary with conditions
encountered in the respective holes and pressures used shall be as
directed. It is anticipated that pressures will range from [_____] kPa psi
to [_____] kPa psi but in no event will pressures in excess of [_____] kPa
psi be required or allowed.
3.3.8
Grouting
All pressure grouting operations shall be performed in the presence of the
[Contracting Officer][Government Inspector], and shall be in accordance
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 25
with the following general procedures.
3.3.8.1
Grout Mixes
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Appropriate additives will be used for
specific cases.
**************************************************************************
Mixes shall be in the proportions directed by the Contracting Officer who
will, from time to time, direct changes to suit the conditions found to
exist in the particular grout hole. [The cement grout will include 2
percent to 5 percent (by weight of cement) of sodium bentonite]. The
water/cement ratio by volume will be varied to meet the characteristics of
each hole as revealed by the grouting operation and will range between
[_____] and [_____]. The types of grout shall be as follows:
[a.
Cement Grout shall consist of cement, (bentonite) and water.]
[b. Mortar Grout shall consist of cement, (bentonite), sand, and
water.]
3.3.8.2
Grout Injection
a.
In general, if pressure tests indicate a tight hole, grouting shall be
started with a thin mix. If an open hole condition exists, as
determined by loss of drill water or inability to build up pressure
during washing operations, then grouting shall be started with a
thicker mix and with a grout pump operating as nearly as practicable at
constant speed at all times; the ratio will be decreased, if necessary,
until the required pressure has been reached. [If this procedure does
not produce the desired pressure, mortar grout shall be used and the
mix varied as necessary to produce the desired results.]
b.
When the pressure tends to rise too high, the water/cement ratio shall
be increased [and/or the mix of mortar grout changed or discontinued]
as may be required to produce the desired results. If necessary to
relieve premature stoppage, periodic applications of water under
pressure shall be made. Under no conditions shall the pressure or rate
of pumping be increased suddenly as either may produce a water-hammer
effect which may promote stoppage.
c.
The grouting of any hole shall not be considered complete until [that
hole refuses to take any grout whatever at three-fourths of the maximum
pressures required for that stage] [that hole takes grout at the rate
of one cubic foot of grout or less in ten minutes measured over at
least a five minute period at the pressure required for that portion of
the hole being grouted.]
d.
Should grout leaks develop, caulk such leaks when and as directed, the
cost thereof being included in the contract price for unit price pay
item "Placing Grout", in accordance with Section 01 22 00.00 10 PRICE
AND PAYMENT PROCEDURES.
e.
If, due to size and continuity of fracture, it is found impossible to
reach the required pressure after pumping a reasonable volume of grout
at the minimum workable water/cement ratio [or mortar grout with the
maximum volume of sand at the minimum water/cementing materials ratio]
the speed of the pumping shall be reduced or pumping shall be stopped
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 26
temporarily and intermittent grouting shall be performed, allowing
sufficient time between grout injections for the grout to stiffen.
Following such reduction in pumping speed, if the desired result is not
obtained, grouting in the hole shall be discontinued when directed. In
such event, the hole shall be cleaned, the grout allowed to set, and
additional drilling and grouting shall then be done in this hole or in
the adjacent areas as directed, until the desired resistance is built
up.
f.
After the grouting of any [stage] [stop] of a hole is finished, the
pressure shall be maintained by means of a stop-cock or other suitable
device until the grout has set to the extent that it will be retained
in the hole.
g.
Grout that cannot be placed, for any reason, within two hours after
mixing shall be wasted. If such grout is mixed at the direction of the
Contracting Officer or with his knowledge and consent, such wasted
grout, except as specified in Section 01 22 00.00 10 PRICE AND PAYMENT
PROCEDURES, shall be paid for at the contract unit prices for the
materials contained therein.
3.3.8.3
Backfilling of Holes
Holes shall be backfilled with grout proportioned as directed by the
Contracting Officer and generally having a water/cement ratio less than
1.0. The backfilling shall be accomplished by injection of grout through a
tremie pipe or hose inserted to full depth of hole. When grout vents at
the surface, the tremie shall be gradually withdrawn, maintaining grout in
pipe or hose until completely removed. Holes containing freshly injected
grout shall not be backfilled until the injected grout has set. No
separate payment will be made for backfilling holes; however, grout will be
paid for at the contract unit price for the Portland cement therein.
3.3.8.4
Equipment Arrangement and Operation
The arrangement of the grouting equipment shall be such as to provide a
continuous circulation of grout throughout the system and to permit
accurate pressure control by operation of a valve on the grout return line,
regardless of how small the grout take may be. The equipment and lines
shall be prevented from becoming fouled by the constant circulation of
grout and by the periodic flushing out of the system with water. Flushing
shall be done with the grout intake valve closed, the water supply valve
open, and the pump running at full speed.
3.3.8.5
Protection to Work and Cleanup
[Except as otherwise specified, no grouting will be permitted within [_____]
meters feet of installed perforated pipe or gravel filters for foundation
drains. Where permitted in such locations, maintain a flow of water
through the drains likely to be affected, to serve as tell-tales. In case
leakage of grout into drains does occur immediately stop the grouting
operations and remove all grout from the drains affected by washing to the
satisfaction of the Contracting Officer. Payment for washing will be in
accordance with unit price pay item "Pressure Washing and Pressure Testing"
in [this Section][Section 01 22 00.00 10 PRICE AND PAYMENT PROCEDURES].
Such stopping of grouting operations and washing of drains shall be
repeated as often as required to complete the curtain grouting.] During
grouting operations take such precautions as may be necessary to prevent
drill cuttings, equipment exhaust oil, wash water, and grout, from defacing
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 27
or damaging the permanent structure. Daily maintenance may be required
along grout lines, in order to offer better inspection of interconnected
holes and breakouts. The Contractor will be required to furnish such pumps
as may be necessary to care for waste water and grout from his operations.
Upon completion of these operations, clean up all waste resulting from his
operations that is unsightly or would interfere with the efficient
operation of the project as anticipated by the original design.
3.3.9
Records
The Contracting Officer will keep records of all grouting operations, such
as a log of the grout holes, results of washing and pressure testing
operations, time of each change of grouting operation, pressure, rate of
pumping, amount of cement for each change in water/cement ratio, and other
data as deemed by him to be necessary. Furnish all necessary assistance
and cooperation to this end.
3.3.10
Communications
When, for its own convenience, the Contractor has the individual elements
of the plant so located that communication by normal voice between these
elements is not satisfactory, the Contracting Officer may require him to
install a satisfactory mechanical means of communications, such as a
telephone or other suitable device.
-- End of Section --
SECTION 31 32 23
Page 28
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