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,OPE&BLE UNi+ NO. 13 (SITE 63),
MCBCAMPLtiJEUNE,NORTHCAROLIN~
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FINAL
REMEDIAL
I
INVESTIGATION/FEASI~ILITY
HEALTH AND SAFETY PLAN
STUDY
OPERABLE UNIT NO. 13 (SITE 63)
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA
CONTRACT
TASK ORDER 0304
SEPTEMBER
1,1995
Prepared For:
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
ATLANTIC DIVISION
NAVAL FACILITIES
ENGINEERING
COMMAND
Norfolk, Virginia
Under the:
LANTDIV CLEAN Program
Contract N62470-89-D-4814
Prepared By:
BAKER ENVIRONMENTAL,
CoraopOlis, PA I51 08
INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0
....................................................
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Scope ........................................................
Site Description ................................................
1.2
1.3
Project Description .............................................
References ....................................................
1.4
AND COORDINATION
l-l
l-l
1. 1
l- 1
l-l
2.0
SITE ORGANIZATION
3.0
SITE CHARACTERIZATION
. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- 1
3- 1
...................................................
3.1
Site History
3- 1
Previous Investigations ..........................................
3.2
3-1
3.2.1 Soil Investigation ........................................
3-2
3.2.2 Groundwater Investigation .................................
3-2
3.2.3 Surface .Water/Sediment Investigation ........................
3-2
Physical Hazards ...............................................
3-3
3.3.1 Thermal Stress ..........................................
3-3
3.3.2 Explosion and Fire .......................................
................................................
3-3
3.3.3 Utilities
3-4
3.3.4 Heavy Equipment ........................................
3-5
3.3.5 Noise ..................................................
3-5
3.3.6 Monitoring Well Sampling .................................
3-5
Chemical Hazards ..............................................
3-6
Environmental Hazards ..........................................
3-6
3.5.1 Hazardous Flora .........................................
3-6
3.5.2 Hazardous Fauna ........................................
3-7
...........................................
3.6
Task-Specific Hazards
3-7
3.6.1 Sediment/Surface Water Sampling ...........................
3-7
3.6.2 Surface Soil Sampling ....................................
3-8
3.6.3 Monitoring Well Installation ...............................
3-8
3.6.4 Monitoring Well Development ..............................
3.6.5 Groundwater Sampling/Slug Test ...........................
3-9
3-9
3.6.6 Subsurface Sampling n- Soil Boring .........................
..............................
3-10
3.6.7 Equipment Decontamination
4.0
....................................................
SITE CONTROL
LevelD ......................................................
4.1
LevelC .......................................................
4.2
Site Access ....................................................
4.3
Buddy System .................................................
4.4
Safe Work Practices .............................................
4.5
4.5.1 Heavy Equipment ........................................
4.5.2 Drilling Operations .......................................
4.6
Sanitation Procedures/Site Precautions ..............................
4.7
Dust Generation Repression ......................................
ii
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-l
4-l
4-l
4-l
4- 1
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)
5.0
EXPOSURE MONITORING
..........................................
5.1
Breathing Zone ................................................
5.2
Point Source Monitoring .........................................
5.3
Perimeter Monitoring ...........................................
5.4
Equipment Calibration ...........................................
5.5
Monitoring Documentation .......................................
5-l
5- 1
5- 1
5- 1
5- 1
5- 1
6.0
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ..............................
6.1
Levels of Protection .............................................
6.2
Reassessmentof Protection Program ...............................
6-l
6- 1
6-2
7.0
DECONTAMINATION
PROCEDURES .................................
7.1
Personnel Decontamination .......................................
7.2
Equipment Decontamination ......................................
7-l
7- 1
7- 1
8.0
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1
Scope ........................................................
8.2
Pre-Emergency Planning .........................................
8.3
Emergency Coordinator ..........................................
8.4
Communications/Telephone Numbers ..............................
8.5
Assembly Area .................................................
8.6
Emergency Hospital Route .......................................
8.7
Emergency Medical Treatment ....................................
8.8
Injuries.. .....................................................
8.8.1 Physical Injury ..........................................
8.8.2 Chemical Injury .........................................
8.8.3 Snakebite Injury .........................................
8.8.4 Spider Bite Injury ........................................
8.9
Emergency Decontamination Procedures ............................
8.10 Personal Protection and First Aid Equipment .........................
8.11 Notification ...................................................
8.12 Hazard Assessment .............................................
8.13 Security ......................................................
8.14 Emergency Alerting .............................................
8.15 Training ......................................................
8.16 Spill Containment Procedures ...................................
;.
8-l
8-l
8- 1
8- 1
8-2
8-2
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-8
8-9
8-9
9.0
TR4ININGANDHAZARDCOMMUNI
CATION REQUIREMENTS
9.1
General Worker Training .........................................
9.2
Supervisor Training .............................................
9.3
Site Specific Training ...........................................
9.4
Hazard Communication ..........................................
9-l
9- 1
9- 1
9- 1
9- 1
.. .
111
........
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)
9.5
Recordkeeping .................................................
10.0
MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE REQUIREMENTS ........................
10.1 General ......................................................
10.2 SiteSpecific ..................................................
10-l
10-l
10-l
11.0
HEALTH
11-l
12.0
DECLARATION
AND SAFETY PLAN APPROVAL
OF HEALTH
...........................
AND SAFETY PLAN REVIEW
LIST OF TABLES
/----~
9-l
3-l
8-l
10-I
Toxicological Properties of Chemicals
Emergency Telephone Numbers
Medical Surveillance Testing Parameters
LIST OF FIGURES
8-1
8-2
Hospital Route Map
Directions to the Hospital
ATTACHMENTS
A
B
C
Baker Safety Standard Operating Procedures
Material Safety Data Sheets
Emergency Procedures for Exposure to Hazardous Materials/Waste
iv
...........
12-l
1.0
INTRODUCTION
This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) has been developed by Baker Environmental, Inc. (Baker) to
accompany the Project Plans for Contract Task Order 0304. The objective of the project is to
conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at Operable Unit No. 13 (Site 63) Verona
Loop Dump at Marine Corps Base (MCB), Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The purpose of this
HASP is to comply with the safety and health regulations of the OSHA General Industry and
Construction Standards and to define the requirements and designate protocols to be followed during
RI/l% activities involving potentially contaminated soils, groundwater, surfacewater, and/or
seidment.
1.1
Scooe
The provisions of this HASP are applicable to Baker personnel involved with the RI/FS activities.
This site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) has been prepared in accordance with the U.S.
Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Hazardous Waste
Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER)Standard, 29 CFR 1910.120 and 1925.65.
1.2
Site Descrhtion
The study area is located along Verona Road south of the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), New
River. Site 63 is approximately three to four acres in size. Verona Loop Dump is primarily wooded
with the exception of a haul road formerly used to transport debris to the dump. The site is bordered
by Verona Loop Road to the south, an intermittent stream to the east, and woods to the north and
west. The site is relatively flat, although the eastern portion slopes toward the stream. There are no
current site structures. There are no supply wells within a one mile radius of the site.
1.3
Project Descriptioq
The work tasks that will be conducted by Baker personnel as part of this project include the
following:
1.4
0
Soil boring and sampling
l
Monitoring well installations and sampling
0
Water/Sediment sampling
Refereenca
The following publications have been referenced in the development and implementation of this
HASP:
0
. .
ACGIH Threshold &rt Values fo r Chemical Substances 1994- 1995.
0
OSHA Federal Regulation. 29 CFR 1910 and 1926. 1993.
a
OSHA/NIOSH/EPmSCG
Occupational Health and Safety Guidance Manual for
Hazardous Waste Site Activities. October 1985.
l-l
0
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. June 1994.
0
Genium Publishing Corp, Genium’s Reference Collection, MSDSs
0
EPA Standard Oneratin? Safety Guidelines. June 1992.
0
Lewis, Richard J., Sr. Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference. 1991.
l-2
:-
2.0
SITE ORGANIZATION
AND COORDINATION
The following personnel have direct responsibility for health and safety management at the sites
under investigation, are identified as follows:
0
Project Manager - Mr. Tom Trebilcock - The Baker Project Manager has the
responsibility to ensure that the elements of the Work Plan are implemented in a
safe and healthy manner in accordance with the HASP.
0
Project Health and Safety Offtcer - to be determined - The PHSO is responsible for
the preparation, review, and approval of the HASP.
0
Site Manager - Mr. Mark DeJohn - The Site Manager is responsible for assuring
that day-to-day activities are conducted in accordance with the HASP. The Site
Manager has the immediate authority to suspend field activities if
conditions/activities develop or exist that present an immediate health or safety risk
to the employees.
0
Site Health and Safety Officer - [To Be Named Prior To Mobilization] - The SHSO
will be responsible for continually evaluating safety on the site and ensuring
adherence to the HASP. The SHSO has authority to modify the existing HASP
procedures as conditions warrant. The SHSO will also be responsible for the
preparation of daily reports which include the day’s events from a health and safety
standpoint, for documentation of measurements taken for health and safety
purposes, and for reporting accidents and other relevant health and safety issues.
Subcontractor personnel are responsible for:
0
Complying with the contents of this HASP at a minimum.
0
Complying with all OSHA regulations relevant to their work.
0
Obtaining the appropriate training-and medical surveillance requirements under 29
CFR 1910.120 and providing this documentation to the Site Manager prior to or
during site mobilization.
0
Having a competent safety monitor on site.
LANTDIV
Representatives:
Mr. Lance Laughmiller, Naval Technical Representative (NTR) (804) 322-48 11.
MCB Camp Lejeune Representatives:
l
0
Mr. Neal Paul
Mr. Tom Morris
(910) 4.51-5068
(910) 451-5068
2-l
3.0
SITE CHARACTERIZATION
This section provides information on the site history, previous investigations, and health and safety
concerns for the physical and health hazards associated with this site.
3.1
Site Historv
Information regarding the history of Site 63 is scarce. It was reported that the area was used as a
disposal site for wastes generated during military training exercises. The type of materials disposed
are described only as bivouac wastes. No hazardous wastes were reported to be involved in the
disposal operations. The years of operating the site as disposal grounds are unknown. The area is
currently unrestricted with respect to site accessand military maneuvers are still conducted in the
area.
3.2
3.2.1
Previous Investbations
0
A Site Inspection was conducted in 1991 by Baker Environmental, Inc.
0
Final Site Inspection Report (Baker, January 3 1, 1994).
Soil Investigation
Six (6) soil borings were drilled on site and advanced to the water table. Soil samples from two
depths, zero to two feet below ground surface (bgs) and from just above the soil/groundwater
interface, were collected from each borehole. Additionally, a total of six soil samples were taken
during the drilling and installation of three groundwater monitoring wells. All soil samples were
analyzed for full TCL organics and TAL metals.
Sui$ace Soil:
l
Low levels of the volatile organics toluene (2 ug/kg) and total xylenes (3 &kg)
were detected in the surface soil collected from soil boring 63SB03. The
subsurface sample from this boring did not exhibit either contaminant.
0
Low levels of phthalates were detected in three out of nine samples.
a
Low levels of pesticide constituents, 4,4’-DDD, 4,4’-DDT, and 4,4’-DDE, were
detected in sample 63SB04.
0
Aroclor-1254 was detected at a level of 1,000 pg/kg in sample 63SB02.
0
Inorganic concentrations in surface soil appeared to be consistent with base-specific
inorganic levels with the exception of lead (36.3 mg/kg) in soil boring SB0400.
Subsurface Soil:
0
Low levels of phthalates were detected in several samples.
3-1
0
3.2.2
Various inorganics were detected in subsurface-soil samples, none of which
appeared to be elevated substantially above base-specific levels.
Groundwater
Investigation
Three (3) shallow monitoring wells were installed, and one round of groundwater samples were
collected. Groundwater samples were analyzed for full TCL organics and TAL metals using CLP
analytical protocols.
3.2.3
0
Low levels of benzoic acid (3 pg/L) and bis(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (9 pg/L) were
detected in groundwater collected from monitoring well 63MW02.
0
Trace levels of carbon disulfide (1 ug/L) in both wells 63MWOl and 63MW02.
l
Maximum concentrations of aluminum (85,300 pg/L), barium (5,410 pg/L),
chromium (134 ug/L), iron (100,000 ug/L), lead (369 l&L), and manganese
(1020 pg/L) exceeded federal and/or state groundwater standards. All maximum
concentrations occurred in well 63MWO2.
Surface Water/Sediment Investigation
Two surface water and two sediment samples were collected from the intermittent stream. No
organic contaminants were detected in either the surface water or sediment samples.
0
Iron was the only contaminant detected above North Carolina and Federal surface
water quality standards.
0
Concentration levels of aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, copper,
iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, vanadium, and zinc were less than the
effective range-median (ER-M) and greater than the effective range-low (ER-L) in
both sediment samples.
According to USEPA guidance, sediment contaminant concentrations that are above the ER-M,
adverse effects on the biota are considered probable. If contaminant concentrations are between the
ER-L and the ER-M, adverse effects are considered possible, and USEPA recommends conducting
sediment toxicity tests as a follow-up. If contaminant concentrations are below the ER-L, adverse
effects are considered unlikely. The data from this proposed RI/IS will be used to confirm the
above SI results. The evaluation of the new data will determine what, if any, additional studies will
be needed.
3.3
Phvsical Hazards
The identified potential physical hazards associatedwith this project during the site activities include
thermal stress,explosion and fue, utilities, and heavy equipment operations. The following presents
a description of these potential hazards. General physical hazards that may be present during the
project activities are listed in the following subsections.
3-2
3.3.1
Thermal Stress
Provisions for monitoring for thermal stressare included in Attachment A - Baker Safety SOPS.
3.3.2
Explosion and Fire
In general, the following items present potential explosion or fire hazards and will be monitored
closely as they pertain to each area under investigation:
0
0
a
l
0
0
Heavy equipment malfunction or re-fueling operations
Penetration into underground utility/service lines (gas, electric, fuel)
Ignition of trapped flammable vapors
Vehicular accidents
Puncturing of drums or containers during drilling operations
Ignition of flammables or combustibles from open flames during welding or cutting
Hazard Prevention
Explosion and/or fire hazards can be prevented by grounding, approved safety cans, compressed gas
cylinder safety, leak repair, vehicle maintenance, fue extinguishers, no smoking, and no incendiary
or igniter devices.
Site personnel should be trained in the proper use of portable fire extinguishing equipment. Site
personnel should respond to fires as follows:
3.3.3
a
Evacuate all personnel
a
Call the Fire Department
l
If the fire is small or confined, attempts to fight the fire with portable fire
extinguishers is authorized
0
Support the Fire Department response forces as appropriate (probably will be
limited to providing information regarding site activities, hazards, and missing
personnel, if any)
Utilities
Underground utility clearance must be obtained before any intrusive activities are performed; this
clearance will be provided by a representative from the Public Works Department at MCB Camp
Lejeune. If underground utilities are identified in these areas, the ground above the utility lines are
to be physically marked, such as, with spray paint or flags. Base representatives are to be notified
at least three days prior to soil intrusive activities to acquire a utility clearance. A 24-inch minimum
clearance must be used for work near underground utilities.
,-,
Energized overhead electric lines may present a risk of electrocution. .OSHA standards require that
equipment maintain certain distances from power lines. For lines 0 to 50 kilovolts (kV), a minimum
distance of 10 feet must be maintained. Lines carrying over 50 kV require that the equipment
location be at least 10 feet plus an additional 0.4 inch for each 1 kV over 50.
3-3
3.3.4
Heavy Equipment
One of the primary physical hazards associated with the site work is the use of heavy equipment,
which may include the use of a drill rig for permanent monitoring wells and/or hydraulic-operated
direct push equipment for temporary monitoring wells. Only operators trained, qualified, and
authorized will be permitted to operate the heavy equipment.
Hazards generally associated with drilling operations include the following:
0
0
Motor vehicle exhaust products (e.g., carbon monoxide) from the drill rig engine
Overhead utility wires, (i.e., electrical and telephone), can be hazardous when the
drill rig boom is in the upright position
0
Underground pipelines and utility lines can be ruptured or damaged during active
drilling operations
0
Moving parts, i.e., augers, on the drill rig may catch clothing. Free or falling parts
from the cat head may cause head injury
0
Moving the drill rig over uneven terrain may cause the vehicle to roll over or
become stuck in a rut or mud. Be aware of hazards associated with moving heavy
machinery and other associated injury
0
High pressure hydraulic lines and air lines used on drill rigs are hazardous when
they are leaking, worn or incorrectly assembled
Hazard Prevention
0
Review the contaminants suspected to be on site and perform air monitoring as
required. Shut down drill rig and/or divert exhaust fumes.
0
All chains, lines, and cables should be inspected daily for weak spots, frays, etc.
0
Ear muffs and/or ear plugs effectively reduce noise levels.
0
Personal protection including safety boots, eye protection, and hard hats will be
worn at all times when working around a drill rig. Secure loose clothing. Check
boom prior to approaching drill rig.
0
To avoid contact with any overhead lines, the drill rig boom should be lowered
prior to moving the rig. Overhead utilities should be considered “live” until
determined to be otherwise.
0
The rig mast should not be erected within 10 feet of an overhead electrical line until
the line is deenergized, grounded, or shielded and an electrician has certified that
arcing cannot occur.
3-4
0
A thorough underground utilities search should be conducted before the
commencement of a drilling project. Proper utility clearances must be obtained
prior to intrusive work.
All high pressure lines should be checked prior to and during use.
The subcontracting drilling company’s site supervisor is to provide, during the
HASP briefing, a description of cautions to be observed when working around the
drill rig.
Hand signals will be prearranged between the operator and personnel working
around the drill rig.
Personal are to remain in the field of vision of the operator and remain clear of
moving parts, especially where loose-fitting clothing can become entangled.
Personnel working near a drill rig are to be aware of the location and operation of
the emergency shut off devices.
Establish appropriate work zone around the drill rig of a radius of at least equal to
the height of the drill boom, and delineate work zone with construction warning
tape.
3.3.5
Noise
Past experience during this type of heavy equipment operation has not indicated a noise level
concern in conjunction with 29 CFR 1910.95 requirements. Hearing protection will be made
available and employees can receive hearing protection upon request.
3.3.6
Monitoring
Well Sampling
General physical hazards that may be present if permanent monitoring wells are installed and the
associated sampling activities include:
0
0
0
3.4
Cuts from sharp edges of the well casing.
Biting insects inside the well casing.
Muscle strain during well purging.
. Haza rds
Chemical
The primary chemical hazards that may be encountered at the site are based are based on previous
soil and groundwater investigations. Previous surface soil investigation detected low levels of the
following compounds toluene, xylene, phthalates, 4,4’-DDD, 4,4’-DDT, 4,4’-DDE in some of the
samples. PCBs were detected in one sample at a level of 1,000 pg/kg and lead was detected in
another sample at 36 mg/kg. Previous groundwater investigations indicated low levels of benzoic
acid and bis(Zethylhexy1) phthalate. In addition, one monitoring well results exceeded the federal
and/or state groundwater standards with the following: aluminum, barium, chromium, iron, lead,
and manganese. Table 3-1, found in the tab entitled “Tables” at the end of this HASP, identifies
3-5
chemical/physical properties of the chemicals that were detected during previous investigations. A
Material Safety Data Sheet is available in Attachment B for each of the chemicals in Table 3- 1.
,-
Other chemical hazards that may be present are from the preservative chemicals that will be in some
of the sample containers (such as, hydrochloric acid). An MSDS will be obtained from the
laboratory and be available with the field sampling team for all sample preservatives. In addition,
isopropanol will be used as part of the decontamination of the sampling equipment. An MSDS for
this chemical can be located in Attachment B.
3.5
&wironmental
Hazards
The following paragraphs identify the potential hazards associated with flora and fauna at Site 63.
If additional concerns are identified, they will be added to this HASP.
3.5.1
Hazardous Flora
Incidence of contact by individuals to poisonous/thorny plants is high, especially during surface
water and sediment sampling activities; therefore, bare skin should be covered (i.e., long pants and
shirt, steel toe boots, leather or cotton gloves, safety glasses, and head protection) as much as
practical when working in forested or densely vegetated areas. Personnel should avoid entering an
area in the direct path of known poisonous flora (i.e., poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac); a
secondary route should be selected. Care should also be taken when walking in such areas as uneven
terrain or vines may present a tripping hazard.
While attempting to cut into dense underbrush, hazards exist from the sharp machete and gaspowered weed cutter, therefore, care should be taken when using such devices. (Note: Hearing
protection, steel toe boots, gloves, and safety glassesare required when using weed cutters.) Rashes
or other injuries will be reported to the SHSO as soon as they occur or are recognized.
3.52
Hazardous Fauna
Mosquitoes and gnats pose a nuisance and physical hazard to field personnel; they distract workers,
leading to accidents, and pose a physical threat by transmitting live microorganisms. Avoiding the
use of perfumes and scented deodorants and donning light colored clothing is preferable. The use
of Avon’s “Skin So Soft” or other insect repellent is encouraged and will be provided, as needed in
the Baker Field Trailer.
Poisonous snakessuch as the rattlesnake, copperhead, and cottonmouth (water moccasin), all known
as pit vipers, are common to the United States. Snakes typically do not attack people but will bite
when provoked, angered, or accidentally injured (as when stepped on). When encountering a snake,
avoid quick/jerky motions, loud noises, and retreat slowly; do not provoke the snake. If bitten,
follow emergency procedures outlined in Section 8.8.3.
There is a potential to come in contact with other dangerous insects;these include fire ants, chiggers,
bees, wasps, hornets, mites, fleas, spiders, and ticks.
3-6
-
,-
If a tick is found buried under the skin, remove it by pulling steadily and firmly. Grasp the tick with
fine-tipped tweezers, as close to the skin as possible, and pull slowly. Once the tick is removed,
wash the area immediately with soap and water. Apply an antiseptic or antibiotic ointment if
available. Observe the bite area periodically thereafter.
Insect bites are characterized by localized pain, potential stinger, swelling, and a possible allergic
reaction. Care for an insect bite by scrapping away stingers, wash wound, cover with sterile gauze,
apply a cold pack, and watch for signals of allergic reactions.
All personnel should perform “checks” on each other periodically and at the end of the work shift,
especially when working in grassy or forested areas. Ail insect bites must be reported to the SHSO.
If a spider bite by a black widow or brown recluse is suspected, follow emergency procedures in
Section 8.8.4.
Prior to initiating site activities, each individual shall be questioned as to any known sensitivities to
the previously mentioned organisms or agents.
3.4
Task-Specific Hazards
Listed below are summaries for the hazards associated with each potential task for an area under
investigation. Levels of protection outlined in Section 6.0 were selected based on this task-specific
hazard identification, information obtained from previous investigations and site visits, and previous
experience with similar investigations or activities.
3.6.1
Sediment/Surface Water Sampling
Chemical
0
0
0
0
Potential for contaminated material to be splashed onto body or in eyes.
Ingestion of contaminated material from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile constituents or volatile fraction of semivolatile constituents
within the sediments or surface water.
Absorption of constituents through the skin.
PhysicallEnvironmentaE
0
0
0
l
0
3.6.2
Muscle strain from boring with hand auger.
Sampling operations that occur from boats. These operations must comply with
Baker’s Safety SOP for Safe Boat Operations.
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
Skin irritation from contact with insects and vegetation.
Interaction with native and feral (i.e., wild) animal life.
Surface Soil Sampling
Chemical
:-
a
Skin contact with potentially-contaminated soil.
3-7
l
0
0
0
l
0
l
3.6.3
Ingestion of contaminated materials from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile
contaminants.
Absorption of constituents through the skin.
,---Y
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
Skin irritation from contact with insects and vegetation.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Muscle strain from boring with hand auger.
Monitoring
Well Installation
Chemical
l
l
0
0
Potentially-contaminated mud, soil, or groundwater to be splashed onto body or in
eyes.
Ingestion of contaminated materials from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile
contaminants.
Absorption of groundwater through the skin.
Physical/Environmental
Heavy objects landing on foot/toe or head.
Elevated noise levels from heavy equipment operation.
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
Skin irritation from contact with insects and vegetation.
Overhead hazards from drill rig operations.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Contact with underground utility lines.
Muscle strain from lifting hazards.
3.6.4
Monitoring Well Development
Chemical
0
l
l
l
Potential for groundwater to be splashed onto body or in eyes.
Ingestion of contaminated materials from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile
contaminants.
Adsorption of groundwater through the skin.
,-
3-8
P--
Physical/Environmental
l
0
0
3.6.5
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain.
Skin irritation from contact with insects and vegetation.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Groundwater
Sampling/Slug Test
Chemical
l
0
0
0
Potential for contaminated groundwater to be splashed onto, body or in eyes.
Ingestion of contaminated materials from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile contaminants
emitting from the well opening.
Adsorption of groundwater through the skin.
Physical/Environmental
0
0
0
l
0
,-
3.6.6
Skin irritation from contact with insects and vegetation.
Muscle strain from lifting bailers or removing slug.
Cuts from using knives to cut bailer rope.
Slips/trips/falls - sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Subsurface Sampling - Soil Boring
Chemical
0
0
0
0
Potential for contaminated mud, soil, or groundwater to be splashed onto body or
in eyes.
Skin contact with potentially-contaminated soil.
Ingestion of potentially-contaminated soils from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile
contaminants.
Physical/Environmental
0
0
0
l
l
0
0
Elevated noise levels from heavy equipment operations.
Muscle strain from lifting hazards.
Skin irritation from contact with insects and vegetation.
Contact with underground utilities.
Interaction with native and feral animal life.
Heavy opbjects landing on foot/toe or head.
Slips/trips/falls from sloped, uneven terrain; crawling over and under obstacles.
3-9
3.6.7
Equipment Decontamination
1
Chemical
0
0
l
l
l
Potential for contaminated mud, soil, or groundwater to be splashed onto body or
in eyes.
Skin contact with potentially-contaminated soil.
Ingestion of potentially-contaminated soils from hand-to-mouth contact.
Inhalation of volatile contaminants or volatile fraction of semivolatile
contaminants.
Injection of contaminated water during pressure washing of augers.
Physical/Environmental
0
l
0
Seeps/trips/falls
Muscle strain from lifting and bending.
Heavy object landing on fingers, hand, toes, foot and/or leg while moving augers.
,-i
-,
3-10
4.0
SITE CONTROL
The Site Manager is designated to control access and security on site. The Site Manager will
establish site security in accordance with job locations. The following identifies the PPE level
assigned to the site activities and the site control measures that accompany them. Refer to
Section 6.0 for a definition of the protection level requirements.
4.1
Level D
Work Zones for activities conducted in Level D or a modified Level D protection level will be
monitored by the SHSO to restrict unauthorized personnel from entering the monitoring well area
during installation and sampling activities.
4.2
Level C
Although activities are expected to be conducted in Level D and modified Level D attire, if air
monitoring indicates the presence of contaminants and warrant an upgrade in the level of personal
protection the boundaries for the following work zones will be defined as follows:
l
Work Zone - The area immediately around the work area, such as the drill rig boom
radius.
0
Hotline - The boundary between the Work Zone and the Contaminate Reduction
Zone (CRZ).
0
CRZ - The area between the Work Zone and the Support Zone (located upwind of
the site investigative activities).
0
Contamination Control Line - The boundary between the CRZ and the Support
Zone.
0
Support Zone - The outermost area next to the CRZ and upwind of the site
investigative activities.
These boundaries will be demarcated using colored boundary tape, cones, or equivalent.
Unauthorized personnel will not be permitted in the work areas.
4.3
Site Acces
The Site Manager is designated to coordinate overall access and security at each area under
investigation. Perimeters for activities to be conducted at Site 63 will be established based on in
Section 4.3, local conditions, the items listed below, and Navy Activity requirements.
0
Personnel will not be permitted within the Work Zone (i.e., Exclusion Zone) or
Contamination Reduction Zone without proper authorization from the SHSO.
0
All personnel arriving or departing the site will be documented in the site log book.
4-1
4.4
l
All activities on site must be cleared through the Site Manager and documented in
the site log book.
0
The on-site Command Post will be established at the Baker Field Trailer, which
will be in the Support Zone and oriented upwind from all Work Zones.
i--..
Buddy System
All site activities that involve hazardsand/or the potential for contact with hazardous materials will
be performed by a work team of no fewer than two people (i.e., Buddy System).
4.5
Safe Work Practices
Routine safe work practices may consist of:
0
l
l
0
0
0
0
0
4.5.1
Conducting operations in a manner to reduce exposure of personnel and equipment.
Implementing appropriate decontamination procedures.
Conducting sampling activities from an upwind location.
Adherence to applicable safety regulations in OSHA Standards 29 CFR 1910 and
1926.
Setting up barriers to exclude unauthorized personnel from contaminated areas.
Minimizing the number of personnel and equipment at each area under
investigation.
Establishing work zones within each area under investigation.
Establishing control points for ingress to and egress from work zones.
Heavy Equipment
The following safe work practices will be adhered to if heavy equipment operations take place.
Hard hats will be worn at when working in a work zone with heavy equipment.
Heavy equipment requiring an operator will not be permitted to run unattended.
Heavy equipment will not be operated in a manner that will endanger persons or
property nor will the safe operating speeds or loads be exceeded.
0
Heavy equipment will be shut down and positive means taken to prevent its
operation while repairs or fueling are being performed.
0
Personnel, other than the operator, should not ride on equipment.
0
A “spotter” will be used to help direct the heavy equipment operator.
l
Personnel are to remain in the field of vision of the operator and remain clear of
moving parts.
.4-2
0
Hand signals will be prearranged between operator and personnel working around
the heavy equipment.
l
Backup alarms must operate properly on the heavy equipment.
:-
4.5.2
Drilling Operations
The following safe work practices will be adhered to if drilling operations occur.
4.6
l
Hand signals will be prearranged between operator and personnel working around
the drill rig.
0
Personnel are to remain in the field of vision of the operator and remain clear of
moving parts where protective clothing can be entangled, i.e., Tyvek caught in the
auger.
l
Personnel working near a drill rig are to be aware of the location and operation of
the emergency shut off devices.
0
Utility clearances must be secured prior to digging (see Section 3.3.3).
0
The drill rig boom is to remain a minimum of 10 feet from power lines (see
Section 3.3.3).
0
During the HASP briefing, the supervisor of the drilling company will provide
additional precautions to be observed when working around the drill rig.
Sanitation Procedures/Site Precautions
Provisions for sanitation procedures and site precautions to be followed on site are outlined below.
,F-
0
A supply of clearly marked potable water, tightly closed, and equipped with a tap.
0
Single service disposal cups.
0
Outlets for non-potable water, clearly marked, for fire fighting or other purposes.
Cross-contamination of the potable supply shall be prevented.
0
One toilet facility for up to 20 personnel which is either chemical, recirculating,
combustion, or flush, depending on local code requirements. Two toilet facilities
will be required for greater than 20 personnel.
0
A place for food handling meeting applicable laws or suitable alternatives to such
facilities will be provided (i.e., nearby restaurants, food wagons, etc.).
0
Clean wash water will be available in the decontamination zone during Level C or
B activities, each Baker Field Vehicle and the Baker Field Trailer. Disposable
towelettes will also be available in each Baker Field Vehicle for periodic cleanups.
4-3
0
4.7
Eating, drinking, chewing gum or tobacco, smoking, or any practice that increases
the probability of hand-to-mouth transfer and ingestion of material is prohibited in
the EZ or CRZ. Smoking will also not be allowed in areas where flammable
materials are present. Hands and face must be thoroughly washed before breaking
for meals and upon leaving the site. “Contaminated” work garments are not to be
worn off site.
.
Whenever decontamination procedures for outer garments are in effect, the entire
body should be thoroughly washed as soon as possible after the protective garment
is removed.
0
Contact lenses are pot oermitted to be worn on site.
0
Facial hair, which interferes with a satisfactory tit of the mask-to-face seal, is not
permitted on personnel who are or may be required to wear respirators.
0
Contact with contaminated or potentially-contaminated surfaces should be avoided.
Wherever possible, do not walk through puddles, leachate, discolored surfaces,
lean, sit or place equipment on drums/containers.
0
Medicine and alcohol can potentiate the effects of exposure to toxic chemicals,
therefore, prescribed drugs should only be taken by personnel when approved by
a qualified physician. Alcoholic beverage intake should be minimized or avoided
during after-hour operations.
0
Alcoholic beverages and firearms are prohibited on site.
0
All site personnel will observe any posted sign, warning, fence, or barrier posted
around contaminated areas.
0
Site personnel must wear the proper attire while on site. At a minimum, this will
include steel-toed boots, work pants (e.g., jeans or other durable material), and work
shirt (e.g., short or long-sleeved, made of a durable material). Tank tops, muscle
shirts, and sweat pants are not permitted.
Dust Generation Repression
The nature of some of the chemicals that have been detected from previous investigation present a
health concern from ingestion and/or inhalation, therefore, visual dust generation during soil
intrusive activities is to be avoided. Although dust generation from the type of drilling that is to be
conducted at Site 63 is uncommon, a water mist will be provided to repress dust generation if this
situation should occur.
4-4
,-
5.0
EXPOSURE MONXTORING
The following information presents the air monitoring to be performed during the soil intrusive
activities at Site 63. The air monitoring will consist of breathing zone, point source, and perimeter
monitoring. Real-time organic vapor monitoring will be conducted using a HNu (PID) with a 10.2
eV probe.
5.1
Breathirp Zone
The action level to upgrade from Level D to Level C will be a HNu (PID) reading in the breathing
zone of greater than two ppm above the background for a period greater than or equal to 1 minute.
If breathing zone readings exceed ten ppm above background continuously for five minutes or
longer personnel will stop work, leave the work area, and consult the SHSO.
The action level(‘) to upgrade to Level C will be readings in the breathing zone based on the
following:
l
l
l
Background to CO.5mg/m’ = anticipated protection level
20.5 mg/m3 = Level C
24 mg/m3 = Stop Work and consult PHSO
(1)
Action levels are based on a “Worst Case” PEL of 0.05 mg/m3. This assumes that 10% of
the soil fraction that could adsorb to soil particulates (generated in the air). The action level
is obtained by dividing 0.05 mg/m” by 10% (0.1) = 0.5 mg/m”.
5.2
Point Source Monitorin?
The HNu (PID) monitor will be used to monitor the point source during the soil intrusive activities.
Point source monitoring is defined as monitoring performed at the source of the work activity. If
point source HNu (PID) readings are detected above background, breathing zone monitoring will
also be conducted.
5.3
. .
Perimeter Momtorm?
A PID and Miniram (if required) will be used to monitor the perimeter of the work area to determine
safe areas during a work stoppage if concentrations meet the work stoppage criteria identified in
Section 5.1.
5.4
wiument
.
.
Cahbratlos
Equipment calibration of the HNu (PID) will be completed daily before use. The calibration will
be perhormed in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements. The calibration information will
be logged on a field calibration form. These forms will be placed in the project files upon
completion of the field activities.
5.5
Monitoring
.
Docw.wstatlop
As the air monitoring is performed, documentation of the results will be entered into a field log book
by the individual performing the monitoring. Documentation is to include date, time, instrument
5-1
result, work area, weather (temperature and humidity), and specific location, such as, background,
point source and breathing zone. This air monitoring documentation will be placed in the project
files upon completion of the field activities.
5-2
-
6.0
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT
The Level of Protection selected is based upon the following:
6.1
a
Measured concentration of a chemical substance or substances in the ambient
atmosphere
0
Potential for exposure to substancesin air, liquids, or direct contact with material
because of work activities
0
Knowledge of chemicals on-site along with properties such as toxicity, route of
exposure, and contaminant matrix
Levels of Protection
Level of Protection
Job Task
A
B
C
D+
General site activities (such as,
Mobilization/Demobilization)
D
X
Soil boring and sampling
X
Monitoring well installation
X
Monitoring well developing, purging, and
sampling
X
Surface Water/Sediment sampling
X
Equipment Decontamination
X
x - Level of protection for the task identified
The SHSO will upgrade the level of protection based on the results of air monitoring at worker
locations, or based on his or her professional judgement according to observations of site activities.
Protective ensembles are described below:
Level
0
0
0
0
Work clothes
Work gloves (as needed)
Steel toe boots
Safety glasses (as needed)
6-l
FZodified Level D fD+)
0
0
l
l
l
Work clothes
Gloves, chemical resistant (nitrile) (during sampling activities)
Steel toe boots
Safety glasses
Hard Hat (during heavy equipment activities)
Level C
l
l
l
l
l
l
Air-purifying respirator, full-face, with organic vapor/HEPA cartridges
Chemical-resistant clothing (such as polycoated tyvek)
Gloves (outer), chemical resistant
Gloves (inner), chemical resistant
Steel toe boots
Boot covers (outer), chemical-resistant (disposable)
CHANGES TO THE SPECIFIED LEVELS OF PROTECTION
DIRECTION OF THE SHSO AND THE FIELD SUPERVISOR.
6.2
SHALL
BE AT THE
Reassessment of Protection Proyam
The Level of Protection shall be upgraded or downgraded based on changes in site conditions or
findings of investigations.
.-.\
6-2
7.0
DECONTAMINATION
PROCEDURES
The following presents the information for personnel and equipment decontamination requirements.
7.1
.
Personnel [email protected]
Standard
Decontamination involves the orderly, controlled removal of contaminants.
decontamination sequences are presented in the table below. All site personnel should minimize
contact with contaminants in order to minimize the need for extensive decontamination.
Level C
I
Level D & D+
I
1. Equipment drop
1. Equipment drop
2. Outer boot/glove wash
2. Boot/glove wash*
3. Outer boot/glove rinse
3. Boot/glove rinse*
4. Outer boot/glove removal
4. Boot/glove removal*
5. Coverall removal/disposal
5. Coverall removal *
6. Respirator removal
6. Hand/face wash
7. Inner glove removal/disposal
8. Hand/face wash
9. Respirator cleaning/sanitizing
*Optional - depends on degree of contamination and type of PPE used.
7.2
Eauiument Decontamination
The protocols outlined in the project plans for equipment decontamination must be followed to
minimize contamination extending beyond the site boundary.
7-l
8.0
EMERGENCY
8.1
Scope
PROCEDURES
The activities to be conducted under this HASP are not remediation (cleanup), but investigative;
therefore the potential for a “release” to air, water, or soil is low. However, other emergencies, such
as fire or personal injury may occur. If so, local emergency response groups will be called in to
handle the incident, as necessary.
8.2
Bre-Emergency Planninv
All applicable Navy/local emergency response contacts (On-Scene Commander, Fire Department,
Security, Ambulance, Hospital, etc.) at MCB, Camp Lejeune will be contacted prior to or during site
mobilization activities. This notification will be performed by the SHSO and/or Site Manager. The
information discussed may include:
l
0
0
0
0
l
l
A description of site activities.
Anticipated site hazards.
Hazardous chemicals/materials brought on site.
Expected length of time on site.
Specific requirements the emergency response facilities may require.
Confirmation of emergency phone numbers.
Security measures that must be followed by site personnel.
Specific points of contact, where applicable, will be established and added to the HASP. If
requested, Material Safety Data Sheetsfor hazardous chemicals/materials brought on site (which are
maintained at the Command Post), will be provided at this time.
8.3
Emergency Coordinatpr:
The SHSO acting as the Emergency Coordinator is responsible for field implementation of these
Emergency Procedures. The Emergency Coordinator is responsible for reacting (not responding)
to emergencies. As the Emergency Coordinator, specific duties include:
l
Familiarizing all on-site personnel with the emergency procedures and the
emergency coordinator’s authority.
l
Identifying the nearest telephone in the event of an emergency.
l
Communicating site emergency procedures and requirements to all Baker and
subcontractor personnel.
l
Specifying the Site Manager as the backup/alternate Emergency Coordinator.
l
Controlling activities of subcontractors and contacting the emergency response
groups, as necessary.
8-l
0
Anticipating, identifying, and assessing fires, explosions, chemical releases, and
other emergency situations to the best of the coordinator’s ability, and providing
this information to the emergency group(s) responding.
0
Familiarity with site personnel trained in emergency first aid and adult CPR.
All on-site personnel, whether involved in emergency response or not, will be notified of their
responsibilities during the initial HASP briefing. They will be familiar with the emergency
procedures and the Emergency Coordinator’s authority.
a.4
Communications/Telenhone
Numbers
Internal communications will rely on direct communication (via verbal or two-way radios) between
site personnel. External communications will employ a telephone located in the Baker Field Trailer,
a mobile telephone for emergency use, and various telephones located throughout the Base (near the
investigation areas). Telephone communication at the Command Post will be established during site
mobilization.
The “Buddy System” will be in effect at all times; any failure of communication requires an
evaluation of whether personnel should discontinue activities.
Air horns will be used for communication during emergency evacuation of personnel. One
long (3 second) air horn blast is the emergency signal to indicate that all personnel should
evacuate the Work Zone.
Coordination between Baker and subcontractor personnel is the responsibility of the Site Manager.
The best means for securing the lines of communication will be determined at the pre-entry briefing.
Hand signals, as outlined below, will be used in the event that radio communications fail:
Hand gripping throat
(typically Level C/B activities)
Grip partner’s wrist or both hands around waist
Hands on top of head
Thumbs up
Thumbs down
Can’t breathe
Leave area immediately
Need assistance
OK, I am all right, I understand
I do not understand
Emergency telephone numbers will be posted in the Baker Field Trailer and maintained in each
Baker Field Vehicle. The list of emergency phone numbers is presented in Table 8- 1, found in the
tab entitled “Tables” at the end of this HASP.
8.5
Assembly Area
In the event of an emergency, personnel will be instructed to meet initially at the Baker Field
Vehicle and eventually at the Baker Field Trailer. Where applicable, personnel will exit the work
area through the contamination reduction zone. If either location is inappropriate, an alternate
assembly area will be designated by the Emergency Coordinator in an upwind location from the site.
At this location, emergency needs will be provided such as:
8-2
-_
Assembly for evacuated personnel
First aid for injured personnel
Decontamination material
Communications
0
0
0
0
8.6
encvJ$osmtal
.
Route
An emergency hospital route map (Figure 8- 1) and written directions to the hospital (Figure 8-2) will
be posted in the Baker Field Trailer and maintained in the Baker Field Vehicle. Personnel will be
informed of the location of the map and the directions to the hospital during the pre-entry briefing.
8.7
Emermcy
.
M&Cal
T reatment
This section provides information on the nearest emergency medical facility and corresponding
emergency telephone numbers.
Emergency
Medical
Services
For chemical and nonchemical exposure incidents, the nearest public hospital is:
Name
Address
On-Base Telephone No.
Off-Base Telephone No.
Qnslow Countv Memorial Hospital
3 17 Western Boulevard. Jacksonville. North Carolina
[*9) 577-2240
@10) 577-2248
Local ambulance service is available from:
Name
On-Base Telephone No
Off-Base Telephone No
Naval Ho&al (On Base) or Citv of Jacksonville (Off Base)
ehl
(910) 455-9119 or 911
Contact will be made with emergency personnel prior to the start of activities (see Section 8.2).
8.8
l[Qjuries
If injuries are not serious or life threatening, affected personnel may be transported by other site
personnel to the local medical facility, if necessary. Emergency medical response personnel will
be contacted in the event of serious or multiple injuries. Medical personnel will be provided with
all available information regarding the nature of the incident, chemicals involved, etc. Instances
requiring treatment beyond “first aid” will be handled at appropriate facilities and reported to the
Project Manager and PHSO within 24 hours.
There will be a minimum of two persons during each phase of field activities that will be trained in
standard first aid and adult CPR. These personnel will also be familiar with Baker’s program for
potential exposure to bloodborne pathogens as outlined in the Baker Safety SOPSin Attachment A.
Subcontractors will be responsible for securing proper medical attention for their employees. Baker
may assistthe subcontractor as necessary.
8-3
8.8.1
Physical
Injury
-- .
If an employee working in a contaminated area is physically injured, first aid procedures are to be
followed. If the employee can be moved, he/she will be taken to the edge of the work area and
decontaminated, if necessary (refer to Section 8.9). Depending on the severity of the injury,
emergency medical response from Naval Hospital personnel may be sought to stabilize victim for
transport to public hospitals. Emergency first aid may be administered by Baker personnel prior to
transporting to an awaiting ambulance or to a local emergency medical facility, as appropriate.
8.8.2
Chemical
Injury
If the injury to a worker is chemical in nature (e.g., direct contact/exposure), the following first aid
procedures are to be instituted:
0
Bye Exnosure - If contaminated solid or liquid gets into the eyes, wash the eyes
immediately at the 15-minute emergency eyewash station (or with the personal eye
wash bottle when an eye wash station is not immediately available). Obtain
medical attention immediately.
NOTE:
Contact lenses will not be worn while working at any site.
l
Skin Exposure - If contaminated solid or liquid gets on the skin, promptly wash the
contaminated skin using soap or mild detergent and water. If solids or liquids
penetrate through the clothing, remove the clothing immediately and wash the skin
using soap or mild detergent and water. Obtain medical attention immediately.
0
Swallowing - If contaminated solid or liquid has been swallowed, immediately
contact the Duke Regional Poison Control Center at l-800-672-1697. Do not
induce vomiting in an unconscious person. Obtain medical attention as directed by
the Poison Control Center.
0
Breathing - If a person has difficulty breathing, move the exposed person to fresh
air at once. If breathing is not evident, check for pulse and perform appropriate first
aid, either rescue breathing or CPR, depending on the condition. Obtain medical
attention immediately.
Procedures to follow in the event of a chemical exposure are included in Attachment C.
8.8.3
Snakebite
Injury
In the event of a snakebite injury, the following procedures will be followed.
Look for signs and symptoms such as the characteristic appearanceof two small holes, usually about
a half inch apart, with surrounding discoloration, swelling, and pain. Systemic signs (which may
or may not occur) include weakness, sweating, faintness, and signs of shock.
8-4
Provide treatment as follows:
1.
Calm the victim and keep affected area still.
2.
Contact ambulance if you cannot provide victim with transportation to the nearest hospital.
3.
Wash the wound.
4.
Keep the affected area below the level of the heart if bite is on the arm or leg.
5.
Treat for shock.
6.
Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation.
7.
Obtain physical description of snake, if possible.
8.
Provide the emergency medical responder (either the ambulance attendant or the emergency
room at the hospital) with all pertinent information such as how long ago the bite occurred,
the type of snake (if known), any known allergic conditions (if known), etc.
9.
Inform the SHSO as soon as possible.
8.8.4
Spider
Bite Injury
There are two spiders commonly found in the United Stateswhose bite can be serious: the black
widow spider and the brown recluse spider. These bites may be serious, even life-threatening.
Many other spiders will bite, but they do not produce serious complications. The black widow
spider measures approximately 1 inch long with its legs extended. It is glossy black in color and has
a distinctive yellow-orange marking in the shape of an hourglass on its belly. On its back, however,
there is no marking, and unless you happen to turn the spider over, you cannot see this mark. The
danger of the black widow spider bite lies in its systemic manifestations. The venom from this
spider attacks the nervous system, resulting in severe muscle cramps with boardlike rigidity of the
abdominal muscles, tightness in the chest, and difficulty in breathing. Sweating, nausea, and
vomiting will also occur.
The emergency treatment for the black widow spider bite is basic life support. sometimes the
individual is not even aware of having been bitten, or where. Apply cold to the site of the bite if it
can be identified. There is a specific antivenin for this spider bite that must be administered by a
physician. It is particularly important to identify the spider, and bring it in, if you can.
The brown recluse spider is a little bit smaller than the black widow spider and is dull brown in
color. It has a violin-shaped mark on its back, which can be seen when you are looking at the spider
from above. The spider gets its name because it tends to live in dark areas, corners, and old unused
buildings. The bite from this animal produces local rather than systemic manifestations. The venom
of the brown recluse spider causessevere local tissue damage and can lead to an ulcer and gangrene.
The bitten area becomes red, swollen, and tender within a few hours after the bite. A small blister
forms, and several days later, this may form a large scab, covering a deep ulcer. Death is rarely
reported, but these bites need local surgical treatment, and these patients should be brought to the
hospital. Again, if possible, identification of the spider should be carried out.
8-5
8.9
Emerpency Decontamination Procedures
In the event of a medical emergency, patients are to be adequately decontaminated before transfer
(if possible) to prevent contamination of the medical transport vehicle and medical facility.
Emergency personnel decontamination will include the following, depending on the level of
protection.*
Level D+
0 Equipment drop 0 Equipment drop
l
Tape,boot, and l Tape, outer boot, and
glove removal
0 Coverall removal 0 Coverall removal/
disposal
0 Inner glove removal/
disposal
*
0
0
0
0
0
Level C
Equipment drop
Tape, outer boot, and
glove removal
Coverall removal/
disposal
Respiratorremoval
Inner glove removal/
disposal
Level B
0 Equipment drop
l
Tape, outer boot, and
glove removal
l
SCBA or escapetank
removal
l
Coverall removal/ disposal
l
SCBA or ALR face shield
removal
0 Inner glove removal/
disposal
If circumstances dictate that contaminated clothing cannot be readily removed, then remove
gross contamination and wrap injured personnel with clean garments/blankets to avoid
contaminating other personnel or transporting equipment. All emergency personnel are to
be immediately informed of the injured person’s condition, potential contaminants, and
provided with all pertinent chemical data.
If necessary, one of the site personnel equipped with appropriate PPE may accompany the injured
worker and perform decontamination with supervision of medical personnel.
8.10
Personal Protection and First Aid Equhment
PPE available for emergency response will include the following:
0
0
0
0
l
0
Polyvinyl chloride boots
[email protected] suits, polyethylene coated and uncoated
Nitrile gloves (inner and outer)
Neoprene and Nitrile Gloves (outer)
Face shields and goggles
SCBAs
PPE and first aid equipment will be available in the support zone (i.e., Baker Field Vehicle and
Baker Field Trailer).
Emergency and first aid equipment can be found at the following locations:
Fire Extinguisher:
First aid kit:
Air Horn:
15minute Emergency Eye
Wash Station
er Field Trawler and Contractor Field Vehicle
Baker Field Trailer and Baker Field Vehicle
With Perso&
Near Area With Greatest Potential for Chemical
Splash/Exposure
8-6
-_
8.11
Notificatiog
If the Emergency Coordinator determines that the site has an uncontrolled situation such as a spill,
fire, or explosion, that could threaten human health or the environment, the loordinator will
immediately call the Navy On-Scene Coordinator, the Activity Contact, the Project Manager, and
the NTR as soon as possible. The notification report will include:
0
0
0
l
0
0
l
8.12
Description of incident (e.g., release, fire).
Name and telephone number of individual reporting the emergency.
Location of incident.
Name and quantity of material (s) involved (if known).
The extent of injuries and number of casualties.
The possible hazards to human health or the environment and recommended
cleanup procedures.
Assistance that is requested.
Hazard Assessment
The Emergency Coordinator will assesspossible hazards to human health or the environment that
may result from an uncontrolled situation, to the best of the individual’s abilities, incorporating the
following steps, as appropriate.
l
Assessthe immediate need to protect human health and safety.
l
IdentiQ the materials involved in the incident including exposure and/or release
pathways and the quantities of materials involved.
l
Inform appropriate personnel, as identified in Section 8.11, who will determine if
release of material(s) meets USEPA requirements for reportable quantities for spills
under the RCRA or Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act (CERCLA).
This assessment may consider both the direct and indirect effects of the chemical release, fire,
explosion, or severe weather conditions (e.g., the effects of any toxic, irritating, or asphyxiating
gases that are liberated).
8.13
Security
During activation of these Emergency Procedures, the Emergency Coordinator or his/her designated
representative will control access to the site and maintain an incident log until the appropriate
personnel, such as the Navy On-Scene Commander, arrives and takes control. The incident log will
include:
l
l
l
l
Activities that have occurred since the incident was first reported.
Tasks currently being performed and where.
Rescue and response equipment used.
Protective equipment being used.
8-7
8.14
Emewency Alerting
-_
This section outlines the emergency alerting procedures according to the location and type of
emergency.
Personnel Injury in the Work Zone:
0
Initiate a verbal warning or one long airhorn blast and move all unaffected site
personnel to the support zone (for Level D/D+) or the CRZ (for Level C or higher).
l
Send the rescue team into the Work Zone (if required) to remove the injured person
to the hotline.
0
Have the SHSO and/or Site Manager evaluate the nature of the injury and assure
that the affected person is decontaminated according to Section 8.9.
0
If required, contact an ambulance and/or the designated medical facility.
In all situations when an on-site emergency results in evacuation of the Work Zone, personnel shall
not reenter until:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The conditions resulting in the emergency have been corrected.
The hazards have been reassessed.
The HASP has been reviewed and, if appropriate, modified.
Site personnel have been briefed on any changes in the HASP.
Personnel Injury in the Support Zone:
0
The Site Manager and SHSO will assessthe nature of the injury; if the cause of the
injury or loss of the injured person does not affect the performance of other site
personnel, operations may continue.
0’
If the injury increasesthe risk to others, a verbal warning or one long airhorn blast
shall be sounded and all remaining site personnel will move to the command post
for further instructions.
0
Activities on site will stop until the added risk is mitigated.
Fire/Explosion:
0
Initiate a verbal warning or one long airhorn blast and move all site personnel to the
support zone (for Level D/D+) or the CRZ (for Level C or higher).
0
Alert the fire and security departments and move all nonessential personnel to the
Baker Command Post to await further instructions.
0
Activities will stop until the added risk is mitigated.
-8-8
:-
Personal Protective Equipment Failure:
0
If any site worker experiences difficulty, failure, or alteration of protective
equipment that affects the protection factor, that person and his/her buddy shall
immediately ceasework activities, leave the Work Zone, and repair or replace the
defective equipment.
0
Reentry will not be permitted until the equipment has been repaired or replaced.
Other Equipment Failure:
l
8.15
If any other equipment on site fails to operate properly, the Field Team Leader shall
notify the Site Manager and SHSO to determine the effect of this failure on site
operations. If the failure affects the safety of site personnel, work with the
equipment will ceaseuntil the situation is evaluated and appropriate actions taken.
Training
Site personnel will read the details in the Emergency Procedures prior to the pre-entry briefing. The
Emergency Procedures will be reviewed by site personnel during the pre-entry briefing.
8.16
Spill Containment Procedura
In the event that a small (less than the reportable quantity), easily-controlled spill of hazardous
substances (e.g., gasoline, oil, etc.) occurs during the implementation of field activities, spill
containment will be utilized to prevent the additional migration of contaminants through the site
area. Large, uncontrolled spills will be handled by qualified response organizations under the
direction of qualified Base personnel and/or Navy On-Scene Commander. Any release to soils or
surface waters equaling or exceeding the reportable quantities under CERCLA or the USEPA Clean
Water Act will be reported to the MCB Camp Lejeune 911 emergency number and the
Environmental Management Department who in turn will report it to the appropriate authorities.
Specific spill containment procedures will be dependent on the type of materials spilled and the type
of environment affected. Potential spill containment procedures may include diking with absorbent
material/pads, then removal or containment of the contaminated materials. Spill containment
materials will be located within close proximity to the storage area of the hazardous substances in
a manner such that the pathway remains accessible and free of obstructions. Spill containment
materials available on site may include:
l
0
0
l
Vermiculite
Ground corn cobs
Dirt or sand
Shovel
8-9
9.0
TRAININGANDHAZARDCOMMUNI
CATION REQUIREMENTS
Training requirements for site personnel are outlined in the following subsections.
9.1
. .
General Wo rker Tralnlgg
OSHA requires that personnel who will work on-site to be trained according to the requirements of
29 CFR 1910.120. Initial training must be a 40-hour course and .three days of actual field experience
under the direction of a trained, experienced supervisor. In addition to the initial training, personnel
must attend 8-hour annual refresher courses to ensure that personnel retain the basic knowledge
necessary for their safety when involved with hazardous waste site operations.
9.2
Suuervisor Training
Supervisory personnel must attend 8-hour supervisory training sessions in addition to the basic
40-hour training described above. This training provides instruction in the management aspects of
health and safety at hazardous waste sites. The SHSO will be qualified as a supervisor.
9.3
Site Specific Tra’niw
I
The SHSO will brief a11individuals who will enter the site on the contents of this HASP. Each
individual must certify that he or she has received the briefing, and that he or she understands the
health and safety precautions to be taken by signing the Health and Safety Training Record.
9.4
. .
ard Commumcatlon
In order to comply with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication Standard, the Baker written
Hazard Communication Program will be available to site personnel upon request.
All containers of hazardous materials received on site will be inspected to ensure the
following: (1) all containers will be clearly labeled as to the contents; (2) the appropriate hazard
warnings will be noted; (3) the name and address of the manufacturer will be listed.
All secondary containers will be labeled with either an extra copy of the original manufacturer’s
label or with generic labels which have a block for identity and blocks for the hazard warnings.
Copies of MSDSs for all hazardous chemicals known or suspected to be on site will be maintained
in the work area. MSDSs will be available to all employees for review during each work shift.
9.5
Recordkeepiw
Training records relevant to safe operation of the site will be maintained by the SHSO for all Baker
employees at the site.
9-1
10.0
MEDICAL
10.1
General
SURVEILLANCE
REQUIREMENTS
AI1 personnel who may be exposed to materials having potentially adverse and deleterious health
effects, obtain medical clearance from Baker’s Board Certified Occupational Health Physician in
accordance with 29 CFR 1910.120(f) prior to entry onto any site. Baker’s corporate medical
surveillance program establishes a medical baseline and monitors for symptoms of overexposure for
individuals who participate in Preliminary Assessments,Site Inspections, Remedial Investigations,
Feasibility Studies, and construction-phase services at sites covered by the Department of Labor,
OSHA, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard, 29 CFR 1910.120. The
program will include a medical and work history and is intended to determine the individual’s
capability for performing on-site work, including wearing chemical protective clothing and
respiratory protective equipment in a thermally-stressed environment.
All Baker employees that will be engaged in site activities covered by the 29 CFR 1910.120 standard
receive a Group III physical examination by a occupational health physician who has provided
information on the individual’s site activities and exposure or anticipated exposure levels. This
exam is received initially upon hire, then once every 12 months thereafter. More frequent medical
examinations, consultations, and/or laboratory testing will be provided if the occupational health
physician determines that an increased frequency of examination is required. A complete Group III
medical exam includes parameters such as height, weight, vision, temperature, blood pressure, and
a complete review of occupational and medical histories. Other tests in a Group III exam include
chest x-rays, electrocardiogram, spirometry, urinalysis, and blood tests. Table lo- 1, located in the
back of this HASP within a Tab entitled “Tables,” describes the medical surveillance testing
parameters performed annually on Baker employees. The need for additional monitoring depending
on site conditions will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
10.2
Site Specific
Prior to entry onto the site, all personnel, including subcontractors, will be required to provide
medical clearance to the SHSO from their company physician in accordance with 29 CFR
1910.120(f), stating that they are physically capable of performing the activities required of them.
The need for additional monitoring, dependent on information obtained during the site
characterization, will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. However, in the event that site
employees are injured, receive a health impairment, develop signs or symptoms which may have
resulted from exposure to hazardous substances resulting from an emergency incident, or are
exposed during an emergency incident to hazardous substancesat concentrations that are or may be
above the permissible exposure limits or the published exposure levels without the necessary
personal protective equipment being used, medical examinations and/or consultations shall be
performed according to the following schedule:
1.
As soon as possible following
symptoms.
the emergency incident or development of signs or
2.
At additional times, if the examining physician determines that follow-up examinations or
consultations are medically necessary.
10-l
Procedures to follow in the event of an exposure to a hazardous material/chemical are provided in
Attachment C.
10-2
i--W,
11.0
HEALTH
AND SAFETY PLAN APPROVAL
This HASP for the RVFS activities at MCB Camp Lejeune Site 63 has been reviewed by the
following personnel prior to the start of field activities.
Signature
Mr. Ronald Krivan
PHSO
NAME
Title
Mr. Matthew D. Bartman
Project Manager
11-l
Signature
12.0
DECLARATION
OF HEALTH
AND SAFETY PLAN REVIEW
All site personnel indicated below have reviewed and are familiar with this HASP for Site 63 RUFS
field activities.
(Name-Print)
(Compw)
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
(Name-Print)
(Compw9
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
(Name-Print)
(Con-w99
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
(Name-Print)
(Company)
(Signature)
(Date/Time)
12-1
TOXICOLOGICAL
Chemical Compound
(a)
Bis(Zethylhexy1) phthalate (DEHP)
Hazard Rating
@I
HFR
210
TABLE 3-l
PROPERTIES
OF CHEMICALS
RI/FS SITE 63
MCB CAMP LEJEUNE
Volatility
(4
0.01
Skin
Absorption
(4
No
Carcinogen
(4
Yes
Exposure
Limit
(0
5mg/m3
STEL
(g)
-
IDLH
00
NA
Chromium
NA
NA
No
Yes
0.5 mg/m3
-
4,4-DDD
NA
NA
Yes
Yes
Img/m3
-
4,4-DDE
NA
NA
Yes
Yes
lmg/m3
-
4,4-DDT
NA
NA
Yes
Yes
-1 mg/m3
-
-
Lead
NA
NA
No
Yes
0.05 mg/m3
-
700 mg/m’
[email protected]
100°F
Yes
Yes
0.5 mg/m’
-
50 mm
100 ppm
150 ppm
2,000 ppm
8.82
150 ppm
1,000 ppm
8.56
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Aroclor1254)
210
Toluene
,2 3 0
22
Yes
No
Xylene
230
6.72
No
No
-
-
63
(0
(g)
0-d
(0
NA
NA
Notes:
ti
NA
-
Chemical compound of potential concern obtained from previous investigation.
Hazard Rating - based upon Health (H), Fire (F), or Reactivity (R) hazard from NFPA 704 Standard Rating System (0 = no hazard, 4 = high
hazard)
Volatility Rating - based upon vapor pressure in mm Hg at 68“ F, 20” C
Skin Absorption - “Yes” indicates potential exposure through skin and mucous membranes, either by airborne or, more particularly, by direct
contact - ACGIH 1994-1995
Carcinogen - “Yes” indicates a compound is a confirmed or suspect human carcinogen by the IARC, NIOSH, NTP, EPA or ACGIH
Exposure Limit - Based on the Time Weighted Average from the 1994-1995 TLV - Threshold Limit Value of the ACGIH or OSHA Permissible
Exposure Limits (PEL), whichever is lower
Short Term Exposure Limit - “STEL” denotes a 15 minute time weighted average which may not be exceeded - ACGIH 1994-1995
IDLH - Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health.
Ionization Potential - expressed in electron volts (eV)
TABLE
EMERGENCY
S- 1
TELEPHONE
Phone Number
On- Base Phone(‘)
Facility
I
Phone Number
~ Off-Base [email protected])
~
911 or2555
NUMBERS
Contact*
911 or (910)
451-2555
Response Operator
(910) 451-6220
Response Operator
(910) 451-7221
Area Fire Captain
Response Operator
Ambulance (Off Base)
(*9) 455-9119
(910) 455-9119
or911
Response Operator
911
911
Response Operator
911
(910) 451-5815
Fire Chief
I
911 or4840,4841,
4842
Hospital Emergency Room
(On-Base)
Onslow County Hospital
(Off Base)
(*9) 577-2240
Emereencv (One Call)
On- Scene Coordinator
I
Environmental
Management Division
0-l-D)
5068
Public Works
(Underground Utilities via
EMD Contact)
5068
Duke Regional Poison
Control Center
(*2) l-800-672-
1697
l-800-672-
1697
Response Operator
I
National Resuonse Center
l-800-424-8802
CHEMTREC
I-800-424-9300
Baker Environmental
Project Manager
(*8) l-412-269-2053
Baker Environmental
Project Health and Safety
Office
(*8) l-412-269-2036
l-412-269-2036
Mr. Ronald Krivan
(I) The following prefures apply when using on-base telephones:
*2 - operator assisted calls including 800 numbers
*8 - long distance calls
*9 - local calls
c2) When using the mobile phone, which is programmed for the Pittsburgh area, use the phone numbers
(including area codes) for an off-base phone.
TABLE 10-l
MEDICAL
SURVEILLANCE
TESTING PARAMETERS”
Group II - Individuals OccasionaIly in the Field (lo- 30 days/year)
0
0
0
0
0
0
l
Medical History (Physical Exam)
Eye Exam
EKG (baseline and for individuals over 40 years of age)
Chest X-ray (baseline then every 5 years)
Spirometry
CBC with differential
SMA 12 or 26 (liver enzyme scan)
Group III - Individuals Frequently in the Field (>30 days/year)
l
0
0
0
0
l
0
0
l
0
Medical History (Physical Exam)
Eye Exam
EKG (baseline then annually for individuals over 40 years of age)
Audiometry
Chest X-ray (baseline then every 3 years)
Spirometry
CBC with differential
SMA 12 or 26 (liver enzyme scan)
Urinalysis (glucose scan)
Specific Blood and Urine Tests (dependent on field exposure)**
Group III with Asbestos - Individuals frequently in the field whom also work with asbestos
0
*
**
Group III testing with the Asbestos Medical Questionnaire w/Pulmonary Function
Test (FV& and FEV,,J
The occupational health physician has the right to reduce or expand the medical monitoring
on an annual basis as he/she deems necessary.
To be performed for individuals identified by the occupational health physician as being
chronically exposed to organic compounds.
FIGURE 8-1
EMERGENCY HOSPITAL ROUTE
SITE 63 - VERONA LOOP DUMP
MARINE CORPS BASE, CAMP LEJEUNE
NORTH CAROLINA
FIGURE
DIRECTIONS
TO HOSPITAL
8-2
FROM
SITES
65 AND 73
Directions to Naval Hospital Building NM100 are as follows:
la.
From Site 63, turn right onto Verona Loop Road proceed approximately 3/4 of a mile to
Ocean Highway (Route 17).
lb.
Turn right onto Route 17 and proceed north.
2.
Travel north on Route 17 for approximately S-112 miles until intersecting with Lejeune
Blvd.
3.
Turn right onto Lejeune Blvd. (Route 24) and proceed east to Holcomb Blvd. through the
main gate.
4.
At fust traffic light turn right onto Brewster Boulevard and proceed approximately 3/4 of
a mile then turn right, following directions to the emergency room entrance.
Directions to Onslow County Memorial Hospital are as follows:
1.
Follow directions 1-2 above.
2.
Turn right onto Lejeune Blvd. (Route 24) and proceed east.
3.
Continue on Route 24 east until intersecting with Western Boulevard.
4.
Turn left onto Western Boulevard and proceed north until the fifth stoplight (approximately
1.5 miles).
5.
Hospital is on left hand side.
6.
Follow directions to emergency room entrance.
ATTACHMENT
,f---
A
BAKER ENVIRONMENTAL,
INC.
SAFETY STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
Confmed Space Entry Program*
Respiratory Protection Program
Care and Cleaning of Personal Protective Equipment
Bloodborne Pathogens
Heat Stress
Cold Stress*
Safe Boat Operations*
Cutting and Welding
*Not Applicable
m
2.0 - RESPIRATORY
This Respiratory
Protection
Attached
successful program.
Environmental,
presents
at the end of this program
is a copy of the following
a
Baker
PURPOSE
The purpose of the Baker Respiratory
respiratory
protection
requirements
by Baker
of the Occupational
CFR 1910.134 and 1926.103,
2.2
Protection
Program
This
personnel.
Safety and Health
“Respiratory
is to govern the selection
program
and use of
is also designed
Administration
(OSHA)
to meet
standards
29
Protection.”
SCOPE
This program
hazards
applies to Baker SRN personnel
as part of their
respiratory
equipment
2.3
RESPONSIBILITY
Baker
provides
Baker
employee.
Manager
job duties.
sites,
Baker
who may be involved
This program
the necessary respiratory
The Baker
equipment
SRN Project
for identifying
The Baker
the procedures
respiratory
to follow when
Site Health
to protect the safety and health
Health
and Safety Officer
the need for this Respiratory
and Safety
for implementing
and administering
employees
are to use and maintain
accordance with training
outlines
with potential
is required.
are responsible
responsible
field.
necessary for administering
Qualitative
Respirator Fit Test Record
Air-Supplying
Respirator Inspection Form
Air-Purifying
Respirator Inspection Form
0
0
project
the elements
PROGRAM
Inc. (Baker) forms:
0
2.1
Program
PROTECTION
received and instructions
Officer
(SHSO)
the Respiratory
Protection
and Project
Program
and Site Manager
Protection
the respiratory
outlined
(PHSO)
of each
Program
protection
at
are
in the
provided
in
in this program.
Rev.: 3194
2.4
HAZARD
ASSESSMENT
The key elements
inhalation
of a respiratory
and ingestion
variety
protection
and industrial
possible hazards to which all employees
it is essential
any activities
Health
hygiene
studies,
services involve
it is not practical
could be exposed within
of the
to identify
a
all
the scope of this document.
that a task specific assessment be conducted prior to the initiation
on a given project.
of
This task specific assessment shall be part of the site-specific
and Safety Plan (HASP).
After a task-specific
assessment
airborne
concentrations
exposure
administrative
feasible
to reduce the airborne
l
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
is completed
and it is determined
that there is a potential
to exceed the recommended
controls should be implemented.
selected by the PHSO
2.5
must start with an assessment
hazards present in the work area. Because Baker’s
of environmental
Therefore,
program
limits,
engineering
for
and
If the exposure cannot be reduced, or it is not
exposure below the recommended
limits,
respirators
will be
and/or SHSO on the basis of:
Toxicity
Maximum
expected concentration
Oxygen levels
Warning properties of the substance(s) involved
Sorbent limitations
Facepiece fit
Mobility
requirements
l)pe of use (routine, escape, or emergency entry)
Possibility
of ingestion of toxic materials
Respirator attributes
_---
TRAINING
Each respirator
explanations
0
0
l
wearer shall be given training,
and discussions
by a qualified
individual,
which will include
of:
Opportunity
to wear respiratory protection in an uncontaminated
environment.
Respirator fit testing (qualitative)
The respiratory
hazard(s) and what may occur if the respirator
is not used
properly.
The reasons for selecting a particular type of respirator.
The function, capabilities,
and limitations
of the selected respirator.
The method of donning the respirator and checking its fit and operation.
The proper wearing of the respirator.
Respirator maintenance,
repair, and cleaning.
Recognizing and handling emergency situations.
Rev.: 3/94
Employees
who have attended
(HAZWOPER)
will
OSHA training
requirements
by qualified
reinforce
the 40-hour
be provided
Baker
with
in accordance
the basic information
with
necessary
29 CFR 1910.120
to comply
and will only need to attend a supplementary
personnel.
The
these issues on an annual
maintained
training
for a minimum
annual
basis.
HAEWOPER
Records
8-hour
of 30 years following
termination
the
session provided
refresher
of the training
with
will
serve to
and fit-testing
will be
of employment
for each
employee.
2.6
TYPES
OF RESPIRATORS
Baker purchases and provides, as necessary, the following
North
0
Brand
half-face
(Model
respirators:
7700) and full-face
(Model
7600) air-purifying
respirators
North
0
Brand
positive
pressure 30-minute
Self-Contained
Breathing
Apparatus
(SCBAs) (Model 800)
North
0
Brand
air cylinders
MSA Ultra
positive
pressure supplied
respiratory
MSHA)
according
Twin full-face respirator
Baker
employees.
protection
equipment
to Title
certified
escape air cylinders
escape
(Model 480263)
(Model 479529)
by the appropriate
approval
All Baker
employees
who regularly
perform
agencies
SCBAs,
positive
(e.g., NIOSH,
will be distributed
tasks requiring
will be issued their own half-face and/or full-face respirator,
30-minute
with B-minute
30, Part II of the Code of Federal Regulations,
can achieve a proper tit and is medically
Because
respirators
(Model 85500).
MSA Comfo II half-face respirator
Only
airline
to
respiratory
provided
the employee
capable of wearing the equipment.
pressure
are used less frequently,
supplied
airline
this equipment
respirators,
and B-minute
will be distributed
on an as-
needed basis.
Rev.: 3194
2.7
AIR
QUALITY
Compressed
air used for respiration
the requirements
Compressed
supplied
Air
-
of the specification
Gas Association
to respirators
cylinders
shall
Specification
Commodity
be tested
servicing
of air-line
Breathing
gas containers
Standard
Material
Contained,
Compressed
as described
Breathing
respirators.
Container
(49 CFR Part 178). Air-line
to prevent
inadvertent
gases or oxygen.
Portable
be marked
in accordance
Compressed
Gas Containers
Specification
or Interim
in
air may be
in the Shipping
for other gas systems
shall
Federal
Purposes;
Apparatus,
G-7.1-1966.
of Transportation
with nonrespirable
A48.1-1954;
Air (or higher)
as prescribed
outlets
of marking
for Breathing
1965, Breathing
with
(air cylinders)
Method
air shall meet at least
oxygen must never be used with air-line
of the Department
respirators
National
Specification
and maintained
shall be incompatible
Breathing
for Grade D Breathing
from cylinders;
Regulations
couplings
shall be of high purity.
Federal
BB-A-1034a,
with
to Identify
June
Specification
American
the
21, 1968, Air,
GG-BOO675b,
April
27,
Self-Contained.
,--
Breathing
air,
requirements
Compressed
as supplied
of the specification
Gas Association
The compressor
A breathing
air-type
sufficient
temperature
installed
failure,
in the system.
or carbon monoxide
the specifications
outlined
D Breathing
Specification
purity
and meet
air (or higher)
the
as described
in
G-7.1-1966.
shall be constructed
air into the system and suitable
to further
to enable the respirator
air from the compressor
be of. high
shall be used. Compressors
of contaminated
in the event of compressor
shall be installed
for Grade
shall
air shall be equipped with necessary safety and standby devices.
compressor
beds and filters
capacity
compressors,
Commodity
for supplying
so as to avoid entry
sorbent
by air
assure breathing
air quality,
If an oil-lubricated
compressor
compressor
failure
of
atmosphere
and overheating
is used, it shall have a high-
or both. If only a high-temperature
shall be frequently
air-purifying
A receiver
wearer to escape from a contaminated
and alarms to indicate
alarm,
in-line
and situated
tested for carbon monoxide
alarm is used, the
to insure that it meets
above.
-
Rev.:
3194
F=-
2.8
CLEANING
Respiratory
AND MAINTENANCE
equipment
personnel.
that is used on an as-needed basis shall be maintained
This equipment
shall be cleaned/sanitized,
by qualified
then rinsed and air-dried,
after each
me.
Respiratory
equipment
rinsed and air-dried
that
it will
conducted
that has been issued to an employee
by the wearer,
be maintained
on a regular
(specified
by OSHA
in 29 CF’B 1910.134)
in clean and good operating
basis during
shall be cleaned/sanitized
condition.
then
which ensures
Inspections
usage and prior to each project requiring
shall
be
the potential
usage of the equipment.
All respirators
protect
them
chemicals.
Cartridges
T-
shall be stored in a plastic bag within
against
They
shall
be stored to prevent
and repairs
repairs
of rubber
Baker
that will
or damaging
or other elastomer
respirator
only by appropriate
to appropriate
in a manner
cold, excessive moisture,
distortion
shall be performed
shall be reported
forms are included
2.9
heat, extreme
will not be stored while attached to an air-purifying
Parts replacement
requiring
dust, sunlight,
a cool/dry location,
at anytime.
personnel.
personnel.
parts.
Examples
Equipment
of inspection
at the end of this text.
INSPECTIONS
At the time
of cleaning,
Deteriorated
components
the respirator
to maintain
breathing
once a month.
the NIOSH
inspection
respirators
are attached.
inspected.
However,
enter the appropriate
Repair
apparatuses
Sample
and after
will be replaced
will be replaced.
the respirator
contained
and before
before the respirator
components
forms for both air-purifying
respirators
to be completed
into their field logbook
form. A list of the items to be covered during
an inspection
respirators
of
and self-
afier each use or at a minimum,
field projects in which a field logbook
information
be inspected.
from the manufacturer
Emergency-use
(SCBAs) will be inspected
will
is placed back into service, or
must be obtained
certification.
These forms are required
during
each use, respirators
and air supplying
each time a respirator
is in use, personnel
as an alternative
is
may
to the inspection
are as follows:
Rev.: 3194
l
Air-Purifying
(full or half-face)
-,
b
Face Piece
- Clean and sanitized?
- Cracks, tears or holes absent?
-- Proper shape and flexibility
retained?
-* Air-purifying
element holders intact?
-- Stored properly, free from heat, dirt, and sunlight?
)
Headstraps or Headbands
- Signs of wear or tears?
-- Buckles function properly?
)
Respirator Interior
- Foreign material under valve seat?
- Cracks or tears in valve&alve
bodies?
-- Valve covers/bodies installed properly?
Supplied Air Respirators
) Cylinder undamaged?
) Facepiece and hoses undamaged?
) Connections undamaged?
) Apparatus complete?
) Facemask cleaned and sanitized?
) Hoses and connections cleaned?
l
Note:
Respirator
The date and the initials
of the qualified
individual
performing
the inspection
must be
entered into the field logbook.
2.10
FIT-TESTING
Each respirator
face-to-mask
wearer shall be provided
seal.
either an irritant
end of text).
Air-purifying
Each wearer shall be fit-tested
shall be performed,
respirators
fit-tested
at a minimum,
qualitatively
Facial hair, which interferes
on an annual
pressure checks prior to entering
will be assigned
using
of form at
basis or if a different
fit-tested
for, is to be used.
a protection
factor of 10
Form is attached.
with the normally
wearer shall be required
form a secure
test agent (see example
other than the model the wearer was previously
(APF = 10). A copy of Baker’s Fit-Test
respirator
that can properly
prior to issuance of the respirator
smoke or odorous vapor, or other suitable
Retesting
model respirator,
with a respirator
effective face to mask seal, is prohibited.
to check the seal of the respirator
a harmful
by negative
Each
and positive
atmosphere.
Rev.: 3/94
*f-+-
2.11
MEDICAL
SURVEILLANCE
Personnel
who are or may be assigned to tasks requiring
a medical
surveillance
include,
exam,
use of respirators
program
on an annual
basis. The medical
but may not be limited
to, a history
of respiratory
and spirometry
company.
conducted
Test parameters
included
by the company’s
in Baker’s
surveillance
program
disease, work history,
physician
medical
shall participate
program
shall
a physical
and at the expense
surveillance
in
of the
are in each site-
specific HASP.
2.12
LIMITATIONS
Wearing
any respirator,
alone or in conjunction
impose some physiological
devices will
amount
Additional
needed
concerns regarding
requirements
2.13
stress on the wearer.
be based on the breathing
of protection
SUBCONTRACTOR
direction
with
of Baker
Baker’s
personnel
will
documentation
Provide
the employee
documentation
weight
of different
of respiratory
of the respirator,
tolerance
will
protective
the type and
of the given
device.
types of PPE and the monitoring
will be addressed in the “Heat Stress” SOP.
respiratory
o
l
selection
equipment,
REQUIREMENTS
1910.134 and 1926.103.
respirator
resistance,
the limitations
Standards
Provide
Therefore,
as well as the individual’s
for heat stress/strain
In compliance
with other types of protective
protection
program,
be expected
to comply
Additionally,
the subcontractor
that their employees
with
all subcontractors
pertinent
sections
under
the
of OSHA
will be asked to:
have been fit-tested
on the air-purifying
is expected to use.
that their employees
have been medically
certified
to wear a
respirator.
Rev.: 3194
m
QUALITATIVE
TEST SUBJECT
RESPIRATOR
SECURITY
MEDICAL
SPECIALAJNUSUAL
No
~1
I3
tl
0
o
NUMBER
DEPARTMENT
AGE
SEX (M/F)
(initial)
(first)
SOCIAL
DATE
Yes
-cl
cl
0
Cl
cl
-
NAME
(last)
RESPIRATOR
FIT TEST RECORD
RESPIRATOR
DATE
TRAINING
DATE
CONDITIONS/CONSIDERATIONS:
Yes
17
Cl
cl
0
Claustrophobia
Facial hair
Eyeglasses
Contacts
Other:
No
0
•I
•I
IZI
Scars
Broken or crooked nose
Extreme facial dimensions
Wrinkles
RESPIRATOR
Manufacturer/Model
SELECTION
Size
Result
Style
-
Testing
-
Full -
Pass
-
Fail
-
Pass
-
Fail
-
Pass
-
Fail
-
S-
M-
L-
Half
S-
M-
L-
Half
-
Full
s-
M -
L -
Half
-
Full -
Qualitative
Agent
Test
Sensitivity
Check
Isoamyl
Acetate
Yes:
No:
Yes:
No:
Irritant
Smoke
Yes:
No:
Yes:
No:
Yes:
No:
Yes:
Other:
TEST
(Check
-
__
No:
-
EXERCISES
all that apply)
Talking
Bending
Jaw Movements
Rainbow Passage
NormalBreathing
Deep Breathing
Head, Side to Side
Head, Up and Down
COMMENTS:
Signed:
Signed:
(Test Subject)
(Technician/Instructor)
Rev.: 3194
’
1 j)
>
AIR-PURIFYING
RESPIRATOR
INSPECTION
FORM
HEADSTRAPS
HEADBANDS
FACE PIECE
‘Ihe
(Full or
.
Half-Face)
Clean and
Sanitized?
cracks,
Tears, or
Holes?
Air Purifying
Element
Proper Shape
Holders
and
Operate
Flexibility?
Correctly?
Proper
Storage
FreeFrom
Heat, Dirt,
Sunlight, etc.?
Sign0 of
Wear or
Tear?
OR
Buckles
Function
Properly?
RESPIRATOR
INTERIOR
Valve Cover8
Foreign
Cracks or
and Bodies in
Material
Team in
Good Condition
Under
Valves or
and Installed
Valve Seat? Valve Bodies?
Correctly?
Inspected
BY
(Initials)
Date
Inspected
+-
=OK
X=NotOK
Rev.: 3194
AIR-SUPPLYING
INSPECTION
Type
@CBA or SAR)
Cylinder
Condition
(Damaged or
Undamaged)
Facepiece
and Hoses
Cylinder
(Full or MT)
(Damaged or
Undamaged)
Connections
(Damaged or
Undamaged)
RESPIRATOR
FORM
Apparatus
Complete
Cleaned
and
Sanitized
(Yes/No)
(Yes/No)
-
1’
1
Inspected
Date
Inspected
BY
Remarks
.
(Initials)
I
1
^ ,^
3.0 - CARE AND CLEANING
OF PERSONAL
PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT
INTRODUCTION
3.1
The following
protective
procedures
equipment
cover the care and cleaning
(ppe). Note:
and are not all inclusive.
These are general
Procedures
of Levels D, D + , C, and B personal
procedures that apply to most situations
are subject to change at the direction
of the Sits Health
and Safety Officer (SHSO).
3.2
INSPECTION
Proper
inspection
inspection
of personal
depending
on articles
protective
equipment
Inspection
and operational
l
Inspection
of PPE as it is issued to workers.
l
Inspection
after use or training,
l
Periodic
inspection
l
Periodic
inspection
use, will be conducted
several
sequences
of
testing
of PPE received from the factory or distributor.
and prior to maintenance.
of stored equipment.
selected equipment,
inspection
features
of PPE and its frequency of use as follows:
l
The primary
(PPE)
when
a question
or when problems
arises concerning
with similar
of PPE in use for activities
the appropriateness
equipment
of the
arise.
at the site will occur prior to immediate
by the user to ensure that the specific device or article has been checked
out by the user, and that the user is familiar
with its use.
Rev.: 3194
3.2.1
Chemical Resistant Suit (Levels D + through Bj
Determine
‘0
0
-~
if suit is the one specified in the Site Health
Before donning,
and Safety Plan (HASP)
inspect suit for holes or tears; check to see that sippers are operable
and look for signs of suit degradation.
0
When wearing,
avoid contact with contaminated
sharp objects that can tear suit; periodically
material
where possible; be aware of
look over suit to check for major rips or
tears.
While
l
decontaminating,
material
remove gross excess of material
does not contact
inner
suit;
place clothing
from suit; remove suit
in properly
labeled
so
that
disposal
containers.
3.2.2
Inner/Outer
0
Determine
0
Look
if gloves meet the specifications
for rips, tears,
direction
3.2.3
Gloves (Levels D + through B)
Determine
0
Nondisposable
3.2.4
0
Replace
as necessary
or at the
Resistant Boots (Levels D + through B)
0
according
of material.
of the SHSO.
ChemicalIs
Disposable
or degradation
--
in the site HASP.
if boots meet the specifications
boots are to be examined
boots should be examined
in the site HASP.
on a daily
prior to donning
basis before and after
use.
and while in use, and disposed
to site procedures.
Safety (Steel Toe and/or Shank) Boots (Levels D through B)
Examine
daily for gouges, open seams, etc., anything
that would lessen the integrity
of
the boot. Replace as boot becomes worn.
Rev.: 3194
Hard Hats (Levels D through B)
3.2.5
l
Should be visually
for fit, cracks, and overall
condition.
Safety Glasses/Goggles (Levels D through Cl
3.2.6
0
Should be visually
condition.
0
inspected before donning
Procedures
for care of respiratory
Respiratory
Protection.
0
Disposable
0
Reusable
3.3
General
protective
becomes worn or dirty.
- Inspect before use, clean regularly,
procedures
replace parts as necessary.
CLEANING
for cleaning
of equipment
are listed below.
site activities.
is covered under the “Respiratory
Program”
Remove
Protection
Site-specific
Cleaning
concerns will be
of respiratory
equipment
SOP.
Gross Physical Removal
large
amounts
of contaminated
depressor or other suitable
3.3.2
are covered in Baker’s SOP for
(Levels D through B)
- Replace daily, or as material
EQUIPMENT
equipment
addressed by the SHSO prior to and during
3.3.1
parts, and overall
(Levels D + throuph B)
Hearing Protection
3.2.8
for cracks, deteriorated
Replace as necessary.
Respirators
3.2.7
[email protected]
inspected before donning
instrument,
Physical/Chemical
Remove residual
nonphosphate
by scraping
then wipe off using a disposable
off with
wipe/paper
a tongue
towel.
Removal
contamination
detergent
soil or sediment
with a soft-bristled,
long-handled
brush or equivalent
using a
solution.
Rev.: 3f94
3.3.3
RinsinrrlDilution
The detergent
a pressurized
solution
Storage
l
will be rinsed with distilled/tap
water using
STORAGE
of ppe is an important
considerations
l
contaminant8
sprayer, a tub filled with clean wash water, or equivalent.
EQUIPMENT
3.4
and residual
aspect to the daily
care and cleaning
therefore,
the following
should be observed:
Different
types of ppe shall
be stored in a clean and dry environment,
element8
that could damage ppe.
PPE shall be stored and labeled
so that site personnel
can readily
free from
select the specified
PPE.
l
Contaminated,
nondisposable
ppe shall be decontaminated
before returning
to the
_--
storage area.
l
Contaminated,
disposable
PPE
disposed according to the provisions
shall
not be returned
identified
to the storage
trailer,
but
in the Site Work Plans.
Rev.: 3194
4.1
PURPOSE
The purpose
of the Occupational
Pathogens
Standard,
Title
pathogens
such as the (HIV)
and other potentially
by OSHA,
syphilis.
The standard
The purpose
materials.
the employer
employee
of transmission
procedures
for the safe handling
other potentially
4.2
All
infectious
of bloodborne
of first aid incidents
C, malaria,
and
exposure control plan that
their risk of infection.
exposure control
pathogens
mentioned
plan is to minimize
in the workplace
the
by establishing
that may expose personnel
to blood or
materials.
SCOPE
Baker
SRN
materials
personnel
who may be exposed to blood
as part of their job duties are required
The exposure
control
plan shall be reviewed
modified
tasks and procedures
employee
positions
4.3
workers’ exposure to blood
such as Hepatitis
to develop a written
Bloodborne
from bloodborne
HIV and HBV are specifically
pathogen,
(Baker)
(OSHA)
workers
or eliminating
exposure, thus reducing
Environmental
possibility
Administration
is to protect
Although
any bloodborne
requires
of the Baker
1910.1030,
and (HBV) by reducing
includes
will reduce or eliminate
and Health
29 CPR Part
infectious
the standard
Safety
potentially
to follow the guidelines
and updated
that affect occupational
with occupational
or other
infectious
set forth in this SOP.
at least annually,
to reflect new or
exposure, and to reflect new or revised
exposure.
RESPONSIBILITY
The Baker Project
implementing
employees.
and
Health
and Safety Off&e (PHSO)
administering
These individuals
this
exposure
and Project Manager
control
plan
are responsible
at project
sites for their
will be assisted in the field by the Baker Site Health
Officer (SHSO) who will be responsible
for implementing
for
and Safety
the exposure control plan.
Rev.: 3194
4.4
DEF’INITIONS
Bloodborne
Pathogens
has the potential
hepatitis
- Pathogenic
microorganisms
to cause disease in humans.
B virus (HBV) and human
Contaminated
potentially
that may be present in human
‘Iwo examples
immunodeficiency
Decontamination
materials
- Physically
pathogens
include,
virus (HIV).
- Means the presence or the reasonably
infectious
of bloodborne
blood and
anticipated
presence of blood or other
on an item or surface.
or chemically
removing,
inactivating,
or destroying
bloodborne
pathogens
on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting
infectious
particles,
so that the surface or item is rendered safe for handling,
Exposure
Incident
- A specific eye, mouth,
parenteral
contact
performance
parenteral
Exposure
vaginal
fluid,
contaminated
differentiate
experimental
Parenteral
needlesticks,
potentially
potentially
anticipated
cerebrospinal
amniotic
fluid,
- Includes
fluid,
saliva
in dental
infectious
cell or tissue
medium
materials
the following
fluid,
skin,
or
from the
membrane,
or
‘I-
that may result from
or other
human
pleural
procedures,
cultures,
solutions;
infected with HIV or HBV.
- Piercing
of the mucous membranes
body fluids:
semen,
pericardial
fluid,
fluid,
any body fluid
where it is difficult
that
organ cultures,
and blood, organs,
or the skin barrier
or impossible
or other
to
skin) from a
and HIV-
through
is visibly
or HBV-
tissues
from
such events as
bites, cuts, and abrasions.
Waste - OSHA
infectious
mucous
tissue or organ (other than intact
animals
infectious
that result
skin, eye, mouth,
synovial
between body fluids; any unfixed
human
materials
infectious
with blood, and all body fluids in situations
culture
non-intact
duties.
Materials
and HIV-containing
containing
Realated
Infectious
secretions,
peritoneal
human;
- Reasonably
,of an employee’s
Potentiallv
membrane,
duties.
contact with blood or other potentially
the performance
Other
with blood or other potentially
of an employee’s
Occupational
other mucous
use, or disposal.
defines a regulated
materials;
materials
contaminated
in a liquid
waste as a liquid
items
that
or semi-liquid
would
release
blood or other
blood
or other
state if compressed; items caked with dried blood or
Rev.: 3194
-
;F-
other potentially
handling;
infectious
contaminated
or other potentially
4.5
materials
that are capable
sharps; and pathological
infectious
PROCEDURES
of release of these materials
and microbiological
wastes containing
modes
blood
materials.
FOR EXPOSURE
TO BLOODBORNE
PATHOGENS
The sections below will discuss the means by which Baker personnel
potential,
during
of transmission,
methods
of compliance,
medical
can determine
exposure
monitoring,
and post
exposure procedures.
Exposure
4.5.1
The exposure
potential,
Determination
determination
and the activities
is based upon the job classifications
with occupational
exposure
in which these exposures can occur, as follows.
Job Classifications
plz
a
Site Manager/Site
0
Environmental
0
Geologists
0
Other Baker Field Personnel
Exposure
Safety and Health
Officer
Scientists
Activities
0
Response to first aid incidents
0
Decontamination
and equipment
involving
of personnel,
potentially
site personnel
personal
protective
exposed to blood
equipment,
or other
work
surfaces,
potentially
infectious
materials
Modes
Modes
of virus
transmission
of Virus
transmission
Transmission
are similar
occurs as the result
of direct
contact with an open wound, non-intact
membranes
to blood,
blood-contaminated
in the Workplace
for the viruses
blood
contact
of concern.
Primarily,
from percutaneous
skin (e.g. chapped, abraded, or dermatitis),
body fluids,
or concentrated
virus.
virus
inoculation,
or mucous
Protective
Rev.: 3194
measures for workers will focus on preventing
result from an injury
Methods
of Compliance
4.5.3.1
Universal
Precautions
make
and emergent
differentiation
difficult.
nature
of exposures likely
between hazardous
Thus, all employees
blood or other potentially
blood or other
,--.
or sudden illness.
4.5.3
The unpredictable
exposure to blood and other body fluids that can
potentially
body fluids
materials.
infectious
materials
on a site may
and those that are not hazardous
will observe “Universal
infectious
to be encountered
Precautions”
These “Universal
will be treated
to prevent
very
contact with
Precautions”
stress that all
as if they are known
to be
infectious.
The universal
precautions
will include:
(1)
Cover the skin, especially
(2)
Don’t touch objects that could be contaminated,
clothing
Cover mucous membranes
(4)
Prevent
surfaces,
(i.e., mouth,
nose, and eyes).
direct contact with sharps, such as needles, scalpels, or broken glass that
could pierce or puncture
Clean
such as blood-covered
or linens.
(3)
(5)
open cuts, scrapes, skin rashes, or other broken skin.
your skin.
and decontaminate
surfaces, containers,
and equipment
that may have
been exposed to blood or other body fluids.
4.5.3.2
Standard
Standard
work practices
Work
Practices
are to be implemented
exposed to blood or other potentially
specific policies
to bloodborne
or procedures
pathogens.
infectious
at all times by all employees
materials.
Work
whose purpose is to reduce the potential
Work practices
for use by site personnel
practices
who may be
are defined
for employee
as
exposure
are described in the balance
of this section.
Rev.: 3194
*
Personal
Hwiene
All exposed employees
will observe the following
During
0
or immediately
materials;
after exposure
do not eat, drink,
balms or medications,
l
chew gum, chew tobacco, smoke,
or any other activity
exposure to blood or other potentially
(PPE).
applying
make-up,
increased
potential
The basic premise
exposure
apply cosmetics,
of chemical-protective
This will be performed
smoking
for hand-
or skin contact.
infectious
materials,
hands and any other exposed skin with a disinfectant
after removal
Protective
infectious
that increases the potential
Following
equipment
available
to blood or other potentially
mucous membrane,
water
from
practices:
to-mouth,
will wash their
Personal
hygienic
gloves or other personal
before eating,
or undertaking
for hand to mouth,
urinating,
any activity
mucous membrane,
that
personnel
soap and
protective
defecating,
may result
in
or skin contact.
Equipment
for wearing
to blood
the appropriate
and other
PPE is that site personnel
potentially
infectious
materials.
must be protected
Appropriate
PPE
is
to all site personnel.
Responders
to a medical
emergencies
be present in the sits trailer
and field vehicles.
level of exposure encountered.
Minor
same extent of PPE use as required
who is not bleeding,
The following
will have access to the appropriate
PPE.
The PPE will
The PPE should be used in accordance with the
lacerations
or small amounts
for massive arterial
bleeding.
of blood do not merit
Management
and has no bloody body fluids, should not routinely
the
of the patient
require the use of PPE.
PPE will be present in each Baker Field Vehicle and/or the Baker Site Trailer.
1.
Disposable
chemical-protective
gloves (i.e, nitrile
2.
Resuscitation
3.
Safety glasses, goggles, or faceshields
4.
Tyveke
or latex)
equipment*
coveralls
Rev.: 3194
*
Resuscitation
Equipment
- Because the risk of salivary transmission
of infectious
disease during artificial
ventilation
of trauma victims, pocket mouth-to-mouth
resuscitation
masks will be present in the first aid kits. The pocket mouth-tomouth resuscitation
masks are designed to isolate response personnel from
contact with the victims’
blood and blood-contaminated
saliva, respiratory
secretions, and vomitus.
Decontamination
Handling
With
procedures
Regulated
the exception
will follow those outlined
of contaminated
sharps, all other regulated
labeled
and state regulations
must be followed for transporting
containers
that prevent
leakage
wastes must
of fluids.
and disposing
be placed in
All applicable
federal
of the wastes.
and Education
All employees
with the potential
safe handling
of first aid incidents
HASP
in each site HASP.
Wastes
closable, color-coded,
Training
--
briefings
Pathogens
and annual
Training
4.5.4
personnel
Physician
in association
involving
subsections
established
Procedures
and Follow-Up
presents the procedures
the presence of blood or other potentially
during
A for the Bloodborne
by Baker’s
Board Certified
Health
management
to follow when a fast aid incident
infectious
material;
occurs
specific steps need to
the health of Baker site personnel.
First Aid Incident
materials
and subsequently
on the
with EMR, Inc.
Post-Exposure
If there is a reasonable
infectious
Instruction,
See Appendix
refreshers.
will follow the guidelines
be taken to safeguard
4.5.5.1
training
first aid/CPR
training
Monitoring
All Baker
The following
during
exposure will receive initial
Outline.
Medical
4.5.5
for occupational
Report
cause to believe that a potential
has been experienced,
the employee
exposure to blood or other potentially
must complete
the steps listed below.
Rev.: 3194
-.
These steps are required
regardless
of whether
1.
when
notify the SHSO.
incident”
contamination
All parties
3.
incident
Non-HBV
vaccinated
infectious
materials
of the incident.
aid responders
participate
and
occurred.
The SHSO will determine
whether
an “exposure
will complete
will be reported
Baker
and remove contaminated
the Supervisors
to Baker’s Human
employees
who respond
potentially
infectious
Incident
Report Form and the
who render first aid where blood or other potentially
EMR physician
must take a copy of the Supervisors
1910.1030
Employees
to ensure that no
Resources office.
are present must be seen by a designated
The employee
clothing
will occur.
involved
copy of OSHA Standard
incident”
first
occurred.
Wash area of contamination
further
vaccinated
an actual “exposure incident’*
Immediately
2.
non-HBV
Incident
within
24 hours
Report Form and a
to the physician.
to first
aid incidents
materials
where
involving
the presence
the determination
occurred, have 90 days following
baseline
was made
blood level collection
of blood
that
or other
an “exposure
to decide if they wish
to have their blood tested for HIV.
The confidential
medical
evaluation
1.
The circumstances
2.
If consent has been obtained
testing
determine
infectivity.
HIV
documented
The occupational
includes
of the exposure.
and/or HBV
verification
also includes
physician
blood in order to
If consent is not obtained
the exposed employee’s
will provide the employer
that the employee
a recommendation
will be provided
of the source individual’s
this will be
in writing.
If consent has been obtained,
3.
opinion
and follow-up will include:
within
with a confidential
has been informed
for further
evaluation
15 days following
blood will be tested.
opinion
that
of the results of the evaluation
and
or treatment.
written
A copy of this written
the medical evaluation.
Rev.: 3194
-.
“Good
4.5.5.2
The OSHA
Samaritan”
standard
Behavior
does not cover “good samaritan”
behavior.
However,
provide first aid as “good samaritans”
should receive the same post incident
through
or their personal physician.
4.6
an EMR designated
of Labor, U.S. Department
protection
immunodeficiency
against
virus.
for Disease
immunodeficiency
Instruction
Federal Register
Occupational
Update
Control.
Exposure
exposure
and Human
to Hepatitis
B prevention.
Acquired
to Bloodborne
February
Pathogens
MMWR
immunodeficiency
among health- care workers.
2-2.44,
Services.
B
Joint Advisory
virus
and
human
1987; 52:41818-24.
on hepatitis
Update:
virus infection
CPL
of Health
occupational
Centers for Disease Control.
OSHA
either
29 CFR Part 1910.1030
U.S. Department
Centers
evaluation
who
REFERENCES
OSHA Title
Notice:
physician
employees
13, 1992,
MMWR
Enforcement
1987; 36:353-360,366.
syndrome
and human
_--
1988; 37:229-34,239.
Procedures
for
the
Standard.
_--
Rev.: 3194
Appendix
SUGGESTED
I.
B.
III.
PATHOGENS
TRAINING
OUTLINE
Introduction
. A.
II.
BLOODBORNE
A
Purpose of the training
program
Overview: Bloodborne Pathogen Standard 29 CFR 1910.1030
Applicability
to Site Personnel
8:
General requirements
Overview of Baker exposure control plan
3.
Bloodborne
Diseases
A.
Types
B.
Modes of Transmission
Baker
Exposure
A.
Purpose
B.
Plan availability
c.
Bloodborne pathogen hazard recognition steps
1.
Concept of universal precautions
2.
Blood and other potentially
infectious materials
D.
Potential exposure minimization
1.
Work practices
Personal protective equipment
3:
Hygienic practices
E.
Procedures for decontamination
Personnel
t:
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Tasks and procedures requiring
t
Location of PPE
Disposal of PPE
3.
gquipment
4.
Work surfaces
F.
Medical
i:
G.
Control
Plan
PPE
monitoring
Baker medical monitoring
program
Post exposure evaluation procedures
First aid incident report
E:
HBV and non-HBV vaccinated responders
Exposure incidents (defined)
C.
e.
Confidential
medical evaluation
Emergency Preparedness
First aid kits
1.
2.
Personal injury
Rev.: 3194
5.0 - HEAT
5.1
INTRODUCTION
Heat
stress in the hazardous
decreasing
performed
normal
natural
dexterity,
5.2
from mild
or movement)
The following
Site personnel
although
temperatures.
body temperature
CAUSES
waste industry
body ventilation,
at elevated
occur, ranging
,-..
STRESS
it may
occur at any time
If the body’s physiological
of protective
work
clothing
is being
processes fail to maintain
of physiological
(such as fatigue,
and decreased concentration,
irritability,
anxiety,
reactions
a
because of excessive heat, a number
can
SYMPTOMS
heat stress causes and symptoms
Levels D + through
is a result
to fatal.
AND
must
usually
realize
that
B protective
1. Heat rush results
The condition
monitoring
ensembles
from continuous
are provided
the physical
for buddy monitoring
condition
of fellow
purposes.
personnel
in
will be more difficult.
exposure to heat or humid
decreases the ability
to tolerate
heat.
air and chafing clothes.
Symptoms
include
a mild
red
rash.
2.
Heat cramps
include
3.
Heat
are caused by heavy sweating
fluid intake.
Symptoms
muscle spasms and pain in the hands, feet, and abdomen.
exhaustion
inadequate
occurs when
fluid intake
body organs
and personnel
attempt
not acclimated
include pale, cool, moist skin; heavy sweating;
4.
and inadequate
to keep the body cool, due to
to the environment.
dizziness, headaches, and vomiting.
Heat stroke is the most serious form of heat stress. It is a MEDICAL
Symptoms
are red, hot, &
Symptoms
skin; lack of perspiration;
EMERGENCY.
nausea; dizziness and confusion;
strong, rapid pulse rate; and coma.
Rev.: 3/94
The need to seek medical
the symptoms
attention
and the urgency in seeking
and the severity of the symptoms
stroke is noted
or suspected,
medical
displayed
attention
attention
depends on
by the affected individual.
-
If heat
must be sought IMMEDIATELY.
should be taken to cool the body to prevent serious injury
5.3
medical
Efforts
or death.
PREVENTION
Because heat stress is one of the most common
waste sites, regular
monitoring
learn to recognize
Monitor
l
Fluid
and other preventive
serious illnesses
measures
are vital.
at hazardous
Site workers
and treat the various forms of heat stress. The best approach
heat stress management.
0
and potentially
must
is preventive
In general:
for signs of heat stress.
intake
Drinking
should
be increased
cool water (maintained
occurs and temperatures
(i.e., Gatorade,
during
or equivalent)
sweating
electrolyte
solutions
must be used in addition
conditions:
continued
ambient
or heavy work loads.
to water under one
or heavy sweating,
The intake
dehydration.
when light
to cool; however, diluted
or all of the following
temperatures,
to prevent
at 50 to 60°F) is satisfactory
are moderate
Sqwincher,
rest schedules
moderate
of coffee during
to high
working
hours is discouraged.
a
Acclimate
workers to site work conditions
begin site work activities
a
Use cooling
weight
with extremely
devices to aid natural
by slowly increasing
demanding
against
These devices, however,
worker efficiency.
cooling aid is a cooling vest that can be worn under clothing,
In extremely
Ensure
hot weather, conduct field activities
that adequate
decrease physical
If possible,
shelter
efficiency
is available
An example
add
of a
but not against the skin.
in the early morning
to protect personnel
and increase the probability
set up the command
(i.e., do not
activities).
body ventilation.
and their use should be balanced
workloads
against
and evening.
heat that can
of both heat and cold stress.
post in a shaded area, and encourage breaks in shaded
areas.
Rev.: 3t94
-
;-,
l
In hot weather, rotate shifts of workers wearing impervious
l
Good hygienic
showering.
standards
Clothing
should be permitted
notice skin problem8
5.4
must be maintained
should immediately
by frequent
to dry during
change8
of clothing
and
Persons
who
rest periods.
consult the SHSO.
MONITORING
Provisions
outlined
for monitoring
below.
for heat stress will be determined
Because
the incidence
5.4.1
Monitoring
For worker8
for Permeable
wearing
follow recommendation8
the current
Limit
American
Values
ensemble
permeable
for monitoring
for Heat Stress.
in insulation
requirements
value
and work/rest
The guideline8
equipment,
(e.g., standard
requirement8
of Governmental
Fluid intake
3.
Self monitoring
4.
Attention
5.
cotton or synthetic
and suggested
Industrial
If the actual clothing
work clothes),
work/rest
Hygienists’
schedules
(ACGIH)
in
Threshold
work differ8 from the ACGIH
and/or wind and vapor permeability,
standard
change the monitoring
schedules accordingly.
awareness of heat stress symptoms
2.
of factors, all
should be monitored.
to follow for worker8 above as determined
1. Increased
on a variety
as
Clothing
clothing
Conference
by the SHSO and performed
of heat stress depends
workers, even those not wearing protective
.n
clothing.
by the SHSO are as follows:
and buddy monitoring.
discipline.
of urine output
quantities
to prevent dehydration.
Calculate the Heat Exposure
using the following steps:
Threshold
Limit
a.
Determine
the Wet Bulb
Heat Stress Monitor.
Globe Temperature
b.
Estimate
to work-rest
intervals.
the work load using the following
(1) Light work = sitting
or arm work.
or standing
Value
(TLV) for work-rest
(WBGT)
Index
using
intervals
the Queste
guidelines:
to control machines,
performing
light
hand
Rev.: 3J94
(2) Moderate
work = walking
about with moderated
lifting
and pushing.
-..
(3) Heavy work = pick and shovel work.
c.
Evaluate
the calculation8
against the following
Heat Exposure TLVs*
in “C or (“F).
Work Load
Work - Rest Regimen
1
Heavy
26.7(80)
25.0 (77)
75% work - 25% rest, each hour
30.6(87)
28.0(82)
25.9(78)
50% work - 50% rest, each hour
31.4 (89)
29.4(85)
27.9(82)
25% work - 75% rest, each hour
32.2(90)
31,1(88)
30.0(86)
*
l
1 Moderate
30.0(86)
Continuous
Special
Light
work
For unacclimated
workers, the permissible
reduced by 2.5”C.
heat exposure TLV should be
Considerations
Acclimatization
- After approximately
one to two weeks, worker8 should be acclimated
to their environment.
l
Fitness - Physically
l
Medication
5.4.2
- Some medication8
Semipermeable/Impermeable
For worker8 wearing
ACGIH
standard
temperature
To monitor
l
fit worker8 will adjust more readily
semipermeable
can predispose individual8
Clothing
to a change in environment.
to heat-induced
illnesses.
Monitoring
or impermeable
clothing
cannot be used. For these situations,
encapsulating
ensembles,
worker8 should be monitored
the
when the
in the work area is above 70°F (21°C).
the worker, u8e one or more of the following
Heart rate. Count the radial
methods:
pulse during a 30-second period a8 early a8 possible in the
rest period.
)
If the heart rate exceed8 110 beat8 per minute
shorten the next work cycle by one-third
at the beginning
of the rest period,
and keep the rest period the same.
Rev.: 3194
--
)
If the heart rate still exceeds 110 beats per minute
the following
l
work cycle by one-third.
’ Oral temperature.
Use a clinical
thermometer
device to measure the oral temperature
)
If oral temperature
third without
)
changing
If oral temperatures
Do not permit
hither
l
at the end of the work period (before drinking).
shorten the next work cycle by one-
still exceeds 99.6“F (37.6”C) at the beginning
and end of each work
Weights
or impermeable
garment
when
exceeds 100.6”F (391°C).
weight on a scale accurate to zk0.25 pound at the beginning
day to see if enough
should be taken
in underwear
of the next rest
work cycle by one-third.
a worker to wear a semipermeable
Body water loss. Measure
preferably
under the tongue) or similar
the rest period.
oraI temperature
dehydration.
(3 minutes
exceeds 99.6”F (37.6”0,
period, shorten the following
)
at the next rest period, shorten
fluids
are being
while the employee
taken
wears similar
to prevent
clothing
or
only. The body water loss should not exceed 1.5 percent total
body weight loss in a work day.
Initially,
the frequency
for solar radiation
the frequency
5.5
of physiological
and the level of physical
of the required
CARING
monitoring
physiological
FOR HEAT-RELATED
To care for heat-related
depends on the air temperature
adjusted
work. The length of work cycle will be governed by
monitoring.
ILLNESS
illness provide the following:
l
Remove victim
from heat.
l
Loosen tight clothing.
l
Apply cool, wet cloths to the skin.
Rev.: 3i94
.
l
Fan the victim.
l
If victim
l
Call
is conscious, give cool water to drink.
for an ambulance
refuses water, vomits,
or transport
to hospital
if heat stroke
is suspected,
victim
or starts to lose consciousness.
-.
Rev.: 3/94
8.0 - CUTTING
Cutting
and welding
operations
operations
must be highly
to minimize
potential
skilled
exposure
flame or spark-producing
(attached)
&l
Both
and understand
to fire, explosion,
operation
and following
SAFETY
are performed
routinely.
Personnel
the importance
or health
is to be conducted
the provisions
AND WELDING
in these
of using safe work practices
hazards.
without
engaged
No work involving
preparing
a
a Hot Work Permit
of this procedure.
RESPONSIRILITY
welder and Baker
personnel
must work together
to ensure safe cutting
and welding
operations.
All personnel,
/Q--
site, required
of cutting
Under
including
subcontractors,
use of personal
and welding
equipment,
the potential
hazards of the work
and other safety aspects prior to initiation
procedures.
no circumstances
should work be done in front of or around the open end of piping
has not been cleaned/purged,
8.2
protective
should understand
then checked using the Oxygen/Lower
Explosive
Limit
that
Meter.
EQUIPMENT
It is necessary to keep equipment
Equipment
8.2.1
shall be approved
Welding
Carelessness
in good working
condition
and inspect regularly
for defects.
and operated as specified by the manufacturer.
Machines
around
should be particularly
welding
machines
can lead to serious injury
or death.
The inspector
electrocution
can result.
aware of the following.
l
Never touch live metal parts with bare skin or wet clothing
l
Do not attempt
to refuel a welding machine
while it is in operation.
. -.,
Rev.: 5194
-
0
Inspect all machine
connection8
and grounding
prior to use.
.
0
Prevent
electrode
holders
from coming
in contact
..
pedple,
with
metal
objects, fuel
8ource8, water, or compressed gas cylinders.
0
8.2.2
The welder should not loop or coil the electrode cable around part8 of the body.
Compressed
0
Gas Cylinders
Handling
and
governmental
0
Cylinder8
storage
with
approved
must be stored at least 20 feet
gas cylinders.
Do not confuse oxygen with
combustion
air or u8e it a8 a substitute
causing flammable
material8
Oil or grease in the presence of oxygen may ignite
Ensure that regulator8
Never
8.3
F‘IRE
8.3.1
Location
because it support8
and
to burn violently.
or explode spontaneously.
used in oxygen service are free of dirt, oil or grease.
u8e oxygen to blow out or purge vessels or pipelines
flammable8
Cutting
accordance
Use
accelerates
0
be in
must always be secured and oxygen cylinders
Oxygen
0
should
practices.
from combustible
8.2.3
of cylinder8
previously
containing
or to dust off clothing.
AND EXPLOSION
PREVENTION
of Combustibles
and welding
operation8
shall be conducted
in a designated
location
free from
combustibles.
/-..:
:
Rev.: 5194
( r””
0
Use care when welding
combustibles
metal
partitions
because of the possibility
.
or piping
of ignition
which are adjacent
to immovable
by conduction.
..
Fire Watch
8.3.2
0
Fire watchers with fire extinguishers
0
These individuals
should
or charged hoselines
shall be posted.
to extinguish fires in the incipient
be prepared
stage or
sound an alarm and should have no other duties at the job site.
0
The fire watch should continue
or welding
8.35
for at least a half hour after completion
of the cutting
operation.
Fire Extiwuishers
0
Welding
location
machines
must
have a fire extinguisher
either on the machine
mounted
in an easily
accessible
or nearby.
if-l
8.3.4
Cutting
Prohibited
Areas
and welding
operations
shall not be conducted
when any of the following
conditions
exist:
l
The area may contain flammable
o
Large quantities
vapors in excess of 10% of the L.E.L.
of exposed, readily
ignitable
materials
such as bulk sulfur are stored
in the area.
8.4
PERSONAL PROTECTlON
The following
face protection,
sections present
respiratory
the personal
protection,
protective
equipment
such as clothing,
eye and
and noise protection.
.
-.,:
.
Rev.: 5t94
8.4.1
Clothing
0
To protect
the skin during
and protective
leggings,
aprons.
cutting
or welding
‘Depending
clothing
wear gauntlet
on the job, it may be ‘necessary
type gloves
to also wear
cape sleeves or shoulder covers, and skull caps under helmets.
Sleeves and collars should be buttoned,
l
operations,
or buttoned
pockets should be removed
from the front of
with a flap, and pants should be uncuffed to prevent the retention
of sparks.
l
To prevent
l
Woolen
patter from getting
clothing
into shoes, use spats or have pants overlap shoes.
is preferred
but cotton
material,
preferably
flame
r&a.rdant,
is
acceptable.
l
8.4.2
Keep outer clothing
free from oil or grease.
Eye and Face Protection
l
Approved
protect
eye protection
against
flying
must be worn at all times by welders and their assistants
sparks,
radiant
energy,
ultraviolet,
visible
and
to
infrared
radiation.
l
Helmets
must be designed
to protect the face, forehead,
neck and ears from radiant
heat.
l
8.4.3
Where exposure to flash exists for the other personnel,
Respiratory
Adequate
operations.
a screen should be used.
Protection
ventilation
Respiratory
(natural
protection
or mechanical)
is necessary
in all
may also be necessary to prevent
levels to toxic fumes and gases. Avoid breathing
cutting
and welding
unacceptable
exposure
the fume plume.
-.
:
Rev.: 5194
8.4.4
Noise
Engine
driven
_
Protection
generators,
excessive noise.
plasma
arc cutting,
and other processes may expose personnel
If excessive noise cannot be controlled
at the sour&‘the
to
use of ear plugs or
muffs is required.
8.5
HOT WORK
PERMIT
No employee
is to begin
hot work unless a Hot Work Permit
responsibility
of the Site Manager
signed by the Site Manager
to request
and Site Health
this permit.
has been obtained.
The Hot Work
and Safety officer and explained
It is the
Permit
shall be
to each affected
employee.
Note:
It is the responsibility
of the Site Manager
to see that workers comply with all safety
practices of the Hot Work Permit.
The Hot Work
Permit
will be valid for a single work shift only.
than a single work shift, a new permit
shall be completed
shall be displayed
at the project site.
At the conclusion
of the project, the Hot Work Permits
On projects requiring
more
at the start of each shift. The permit
will be forwarded
to the Site Manager
and placed in the project file.
Rev.: 5194
Mat&al
No.
Safety Data Sheet
Cknium Publishing Corporation
1145 Catalyn Street
Schenectady, NY 12303-1836
CHROMIUhJ(lIl)OXIDE
USA
(5 18) 377-8855
1m
182
GENUY
PUBUSHNG
CORP.
HMIS
H Chronic
FO
RO
PPE*
CHROMIUM (III) OXIDE
-DESIGNATIONS:
Lkfi, CAS #1308-38-9
chrome Oxide, Chromic Oxide, Chromium Sesquioxide,
p
Available from several suppliers, including:
Ciba-Geirry Corp., Plastics, Pigments, and Additives Division, Three Skyline Drive, Hawthorne, NY 10532;
Not Found
*SecSeae8
z.:.;:
:.:.:.
OSHA PEL, 8-hrTWk
1 mgfm3**
+ Current (198546) ACGIH TLV for chromium (III) Compounds, as Cr.
+* Current OSHA PEL for chromium metal and insoluble salts, as Cr.
“,P-( ‘..
.:...:
2::;
~~~~~~~~~~~~~:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
I:.:\.
1Boii Point .. . 7232’F (4ooor)
1MeltingPoint... 4415’F(2435T)
,SpecificGra&y ... 521
iw
Greengranules,
crystals,or powder.No odor.
~
VaporPressure
@2% ... Negligible
Solubilityin Water.. Insoluble
MolecularWeight... 152
.
:.:::
:s::
:<<
chromicoxideisnotcomb&ibIe. Use extinguishing
agentsthataresuitable’forthesurrounding
m
fm
~JNUSUALFIRE~EXPL~SI~N
HAZARDS:
FIGWG
PD:
NOW
Firefightersshouldwearselfcontained
breathingapparatus
andfull protectivegear
.:.:
::;:
I:::.
Chmntiumoxideisstableundernormalconditions.
Hazardouspolymerization will not occur.
m:
Chromicoxidecanreactvigorouslywith lithium,chlorinetrifluorlde,oxygendifhmride,andmolte-n
aIkaIi.An explosionmayoccuroncontactwithglycerol.
f T--
RDQUSDECO-ON
PRODUm
None.
No. 182
4/86
CHROMKUh4
(III) OXIDE
MENT: The IARC and NTP list “chromium andcertain chromium compounds” as suspected
carcinogens. Chromic oxide is not specifically cited. Hexavalent chromium compounds are those most generally associated
with carcinogenic effects.
-OFEm:
Thismaterialcanenterthebodyifitisinhaledorswallowed.
EFFECTS
mUBE:
Trivalent chromium compounds (such as Crfi) are considered to exhibit a low degreeof toxicity.
Excessive concentrations of airborne dust may Irritate thenose, throas and respiratory tract. Prolonged overexposure may
result in pulmonary changes. Skin and eye contact may cause irritation.
.”
_cl
-AID:
EYE CONTm
Flush eyes, including under the eyelids, with a gentle flow of running water to ~tmove particles.
Thoroughly wash contaminatedareawith mild soap and
If irritation persists, seek medical attention.* -CONTACT:
water. Seek medical attention ifirritatkm persists.* INHALATION: Remove victim from exposure. Seek medicalattention
if irritationor discomfortpersistor if othersymptoms
develop.* INGESIION: If victim isconscious,
give hima large
quantityof milk orwaterto drink Getmedicalassistance.*
l
GET MEDICAL ASSISTANCE= In plant,pammedic,
community.Getmedicalhelpfor furthertreatment,omatlon, and
IXZCXALz Reclaimmaterialwhenpossible.Unsalvageable
wastemaybedisposed
of in anapproved
landfill Follow
Federa&
state,andlocalregulations.
m
Nonegivenin4OCFR117.3.
&A&&ous
WasteNum& DO007(EPToxic44 CFR261.34).Appliesto wastecontainingleachable
chromiumusing
EPA’sextractionprocedure.
ahkne levelsexceedtheTLV, NIGSH-approved
respirators
with appropriate
protectionfactorsshouldbeworn. Highefficiencyparticulate
respirators
aresuitable
for concentrations
upto 10mg/m3.Respirator
usagemustbein accordance
with
OSHArequirements
(29CFR 1910.134).
Cllw:
Dustproofgoggles
andglovesshouldbewornwhenhandlingthismaterial.Protective
clothingshouldbewornasrequiredby theworksituationto preventprolonged
or mpeated
skincontact.
Eyewashs&ionsandwashingfacilitiesshouldbereadilyaccessible
to employees
handlingthismaterial.
Contactlenses
posea specialhazard;softlenses
mayabsorbirritantsandall lenses
concentrate
them
p
Maintaingoodhousekeeping
procedures
to preventaccumulating
dust.Useprocedures
that
minimizedustgene&on. Usegoodpersonal hygiene:laundercontaminated
clothingbeforereuse;washexposed
skinafter
handling;washhands beforeeating,drinking,or smoking.
Avoid skin/eyecontactandinhalation.Usewith adequate
ventilation.Donotingest
DOT
Not listedin hazardous
materials
tables(49CFR172.101or 172102).
\
,r-.
(
Copyright 0 April 1, 1986-
lishing
Corp.
he Genium PIG
--r-a-- ‘W 12304-4690
m-8854
1 [email protected] Data Sheets Collection
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
MSDS No. 155
Date of Preparation: lo/93
ProductiChemkal Name: .... DDT (Dichlorodiphenyluichloroethane)
Chemical Formula: .............. (ClC&&CHCC13
CAS No.*................................. 50-29-3
Qnonyms: Agritan; 2&[email protected])- 1,l ,l -trichloroethane; chlorophenothamCitox; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroe~,
Dicophane;diphenyltrichloroethane;Genitox; Kopsok NCI-COO464;Neocid; Pentech;tricblorobis (4-chlorophenyl) etbane;
l,l’-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis(4-chlorobenzene),Zerdane.
Derivation: prepared by condensingchloral or chloral hydrate with chlorobenzenein presenceof sulfuric acid.
General Use: One of the most widely used contactinsecticidesfrom 1945until its ban in 1972. Although banned in the U.S.
(exceptfor suchusesasemergencyhealth situationsand for controlling body lice), it is still widely usedin the tropics for conm
of vector-canying diseasessuchas malaria, yellow fever, dengue,filariasis, louse-borne typhus,and louse-bornerelapsing feva
~
..,,,..,..,..
...~.;.:~fi*.:.:~...~
,.,..,.,,,,,,.,,,,
~,~~~~~,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DDT: p’pDDT 70% wt + o’p’DDT 30% wt (technicalgrade)
Iiace Impurities: DDD, DDE
NIOSH REL
OSHA PELs
10&r TWA: 0.5 mg/m3
34~ TWA: 1 mg/m3 (skin)
Ca*:
(Limit of quantitation: 0. 1
ACGIH TLVs
Wm3)
TWA: 1 mdm3
IDLH Level
Ca*
DFG (Germany) MAK (skin)
TWA: 1 mg/m3 (total dust)
Category III: Substanceswith systemic
effects
Onset of effect: > 2 hr.
PeakExposureLimit: 10mg/m3,30
min. averagevalue, l/shift
@Ca= Carcinogen
DDT is a white to gray, crystalline solid. Although it hasbeen bannedm the . becauseof its persistencein
the environment and potential for bioaccumulation,DDT hasnot producedtoxicity in workers who either
manufacturedor used it (even over many years).However, this lack of toxicity is basedon inhalation and
skin absorption,If DDT is ingested,especiallyin large amounts,central nervous systemeffects will occur
with possibleliver damage.DDT is considereda confirmed animal carcinogenand a suspectedhuman
Potential Health Effects
Wilson
Risk
Scale
R 1
I
3
s 1*
K 2
Skill
bsorption
HMIS
H 2-f
F 2
R 0
Primary Entry Routes: Inhalation, ingestion,skin contact.
Target Organs: Central nervous system,liver, skin, peripheral nervous system.
Acute Effects
Inhalation: Inhalation does not appear to causetoxicity beyond that of minor mechanicalirritation.
Eye: Exposureto 423 mg/m3/1 hr/&y for 6 dayscausedeye irritation.
fchmic
effecls
Skin: Skin absorptionmay occur from someDDT solutions,but degreeof absorption will dependon the solvent
PPES
involved. Aqueoussolutionsand the powder or crystalsare not easily absorbed.
4%. 8
Ingestion: DDT can causea variety of central nervous systemeffects if ingested.Large dosesgenerally result in
vomiting, while smaller dosescausesymptomswithin 2 to 3 hr post-ingestion.Symptomsinclude tingling of the
lips, tongue,and face; malaise;headache;sore throat; fatigue; tremors of the head, neck,and eyelids;apprehension;ataxia; and
confusion. Convulsions and paralysisof the handsis possiblein severeexposures(if vomiting doesnot occur). Vital signsare
usually normal, but in severepoisonings,the pulse may be irregular and abnormally slow. Basedon animal studies,it is
expectedthat ventricular fibrillation and suddendeathcan occur at any time during acutepoisoning. Recovery from acute
poisoning generally occurswithin 24 hr except in the most seriouscases.
Carciaogedcity: DDT is considereda suspectedhumancarcinogenby several governmental agencies.IARC3B (possibly
carcinogenicto humans,limited evidence in humansin the absenceof sufficient evidencein experimental animals),NTP-2
(reasonablyanticipatedto be a carcinogen:limited humanevidence or sufficient animal evidence), EPA-B2 (sufficient animal
evidence;inadequatehumanevidence), and NIOSH-X (carcinogendefined without further categorization)
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Long-Term Exposure: Possibly,disorders of the central nervous systemand liver.
MSDS No. 155
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
10193
Chronic Effects: There are conflicting reports on whether or not DDT produces chronic effects in humans. Although it is well
established that chronic exposure in experimental animals produces effects including liver damage, CNS degenera%on,
dermatitis, weakness, convulsions, coma, and death, these effects are not confirmed in humans. Liver cancer is confirmed in
animals, but has not been documented in humans. These conflicting reports appear due to the lack of documented chronic
toxicity in workers and data showing that DDT and its metabolites are retained in the body fat for long time periods, thus
providing a basis for thepossibiliry of chronic toxicity.
Other: Solvents such as kerosine are added to DDT as a vehicle and, depending on the type involved, may be more toxic than
DDT itself.
G
Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathing as needed.
Eye Contact: Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Gently lift eyelids and flush immediately and continuously
with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical facility. Consult a physician immediately.
Skin Contact: Quickly remove contaminated clothing. Rinse away any loose material and wash exposed area with soap and water
For reddened or blistered skin, consult a physician. Carefully dispose of contaminated clothing because it may pose a fiie hazard
Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. Contact a poison control center. Unless the
poison control center advises otherwise, have the conscious and alert person drink 1 to 2 glasses of water to dilute. Do not
induce vomiting. Gastric lavage should be performed promptly.
Aftirfirst aid, get appropriate in-plant, paramedic, or community medical support.
Notes to Physicians: Effects may be delayed; keep under observation.
Special Precautions/Procedures:
Amobarbital or pentobarbital is recommended for the relief of central neurological
manifestations; tribromoethanol and paraldehyde are recommended for allaying prolonged convulsions.
Flash Point: DDT itself is noncombustible but is dissolved in a variety of solvents. The average quoted Flash
Genium
Point is 162 ‘F (72.2 ‘C) although the specific vehicle is not identified.
2
Flash Point Method: CC
2 0
Autoignition Temperature: None reported
LEL: None reported
49
UEL: None reported
Flammability
Classification:
Class IIIA Combustible Liquid (varies depending on vehicle)
Extinguishing Media: For small fires, use dry chemical, water spray, or regular foam. For large fires, use
water spray, fog, or regular foam.
Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Container may explode in heat of fire.
Hazardous Combustion Products: Chloride fumes and carbon oxide gases.
Fire-Fighting Instructions: Do not release runoff from fire control methods to sewers or waterways. Fight fire from maximum
distance. Stay away from ends of tanks.
Fire-Fighting Equipment: Because fire may produce toxic thermal decomposition products, wear a self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepieee operated in pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode. Structural fire fighters’
protective clothing is not effective.
i--..
:::
;:.
..
:::
Spill /Leak Procedures: Notify safety personnel, isolate area, deny entry, and stay upwind. Shut off all ignition sources.
Cleanup personnel should protect against contamination.
Small Spills: For dry spills, carefully scoop up material or vacuum (with an approved filter). Damp mop any residue, For small
solution spills, take up with earth, sand, vermiculite, or other absorbent material and place in suitable containers for disposal.
Large Spills
Containment: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later reclamation or disposal. Do not release into sewers or waterways.
Regulatory Requirements: Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.120).
Handling Precautions: Use non-sparking tools to open containers. Keep dry chemical extinguishers on hand in case of fire.
Storage Requirements: Prevent physical damage to containers. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from heat,
ignition sources, and incompatibles (Sec. 10). Do not store in aluminum or iron containers.
Engineering Controls: To prevent static sparks, electrically ground and bond all equipment used with and around DDT.
Ventilation: Provide general or local exhaust ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below OSHA PEL
(Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at
its source.(lo3)
Administrative
Controls: Consider preplacement and periodic medical exams of exposed workers with emphasis on the liver
and central nervous system.
Page 2 of 4
Copright
d 1993 Genti
Fublbhii
Capcation.
Any ummrckl
use M rqxduaion
without tk plblikh
pmniaim
L pmbibirtd
.
3:
.A..
:;i
,::::
ijjj:
,L.
LO/93
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
MSDS No. 155
kespiratory Protection: Seekprofessional advice prior to respirator selectionand use.Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29
CFR 1910.134)and, if necessary,wear a MSHAjNIOSH-approved respirator.For any detectableconcentration,usea SCBA
with a full facepieceand operated in pressuredemandor other positive-pressuremode, or any supplied-air respirator with a full
facepieceandoperated in pressuredemandor other positive-pressuremodewith an auxiliary SCBA. For emergencyor
nonroutine operations(cleaning spills, reactor vessels,or storagetanks),wear an SCBA. Warning! Air-purifying respirators do
not protect workers in oxygcn-dcficient atmospheres. If respiratorsare used,OSHA requires a written respiratory protection
program that includes at least:medical certification, training, fit-testing, periodic environmental monitoring, maintenance,
inspection,cleaning,and convenient, sanitarystorageareas.
Votective Clothing/Equipment: Wear chemically protective gloves, boots,aprons,and gauntletsmadeof butyl rubber to
prevent prolonged or repeatedskin contact.Wear protective eyeglassesor chemicalsafety goggles,per OSHA eye and faceprotectitin regulations (29 CFR 1910.133).Becausecontactlens usein industry is controversial, establishyour own policy.
iafety Stations: Make available in the work areaemergencyeyewashstations,safety/quick-drenchshowers,and washing
facilities.
Contaminated Equipment: Separatecontaminatedwork clothesfrom streetclothes.Launder before reuse.Remove this
mate&l from your shoesand clean personal protective equipment.
Comments:Never eat,drink, or smokein work areas.Practicegood personal hygiene after using this material, especiallybefore
eating, drinking, smoking,using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
PhysicalState: Solid
Pppearance and Odor: White to gray crystalsor powder which is odorlessor has a slight aromatic odor.
3dor Threshold: 5.0725 mgfm3
Vapor Pressure: 5.5 x 10m6mm Hg at 68 ‘F (20 ‘C)
Formula Weight: 354.48
jpecific Gravity (H20=1, at 4 l C): 0.98 to 0.99
Water Solubility : 0.0012 ppm
Dtber Solubilities (g DDT/lOO mL): acetone58.95% alcohol 2, benzene78, benzyl benzoate42, carbon tetrachloride 45,
chlorobenzene74, cyclohexanone116, dibutyl phthalate 33, odichlorobenzene 68, dichlorodifluoromethane 2, dioxane 100,
ethyl ether 28, gasoline 10, isopropano13,kerosine 8 to 10, methylatednaphthalenes40 to 60, mineral oil 5, morpholine 75,
peanutoil 11,pine oil 0 to 16, tetralin 61, uibutyl phosphate50, and xylene 60.
Boiling Point: 365 ‘F (185 ‘C)
Melting Point: 227 ‘F (108.3 ‘C)
Stability: DDT is stableat room temperaturein closedcontainersunder normal storageand handling conditions.It biodegrades
very slowly.
Polymerization: Hazardouspolymerization doesnot occur.
Chemical Incompatibilities: Strong oxidizers,alkaline materials,iron and aluminum salts.
Conditions to Avoid: Exposureto heat,ignition sources,and incompatibles.
Hazardous Decomposition Products: Thermal oxidative decompositionof DDT can produce carbon dioxide.
Toxicity Data:’
Eye Effects: None reported.
Skin Effects: None reported.
Acute Oral Effects:
Human, oral, Lb: 500 mg/kg caused
convulsions, cardiacarrhythmias,and
respiratory changes.
Rat, oral, LDso: 87 mg/kg; details not reported
Carcinogenicity: Rat, oral, TDh: 1225 mg/kg given for 7 continuous
weeks causedliver tumors.
Mutagenicity: E. coii: 15pmol/L causedDNA damage.
Teratogenicity: Rat, oral, TDb: 112 mg/kg given to a 56 day old
male causedpaternaleffects (spermatogenesis,testes,epididymis,
sperm duct).
Ecotoxicity: Glassshrimp (Paluemonesteskadiakensis),LC50 = 2.3 mcgU96 hr at 69.8 ‘F (21 ‘C); Japanesequail, 2 month old
male, (Coturnixjuponica), LD50 = 841 mg/kg; bluegill (Lepomis mucrochirus), LC50 = 28.7 mcg/L/36 hr.
Page3 of 4
MSDS No. 155
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
10193
Environmental
Degradation: In water, DDT will adsorb strongly to sediments, significantly bioconcentrate in fish, and will be
subject to considerable evaporation with an estimated half-life of several hr to almost 50 hr from certain waters. It may
biodegrade when high concentrations of required microbes (Escherichia, Hydrogenomonas, and Saccharomyces) are present.
On land, DDT will adsorb strongly and should not appreciably leach to groundwater. It may evaporate (half-life of 100 days)
and is subject to photooxidation from soil. DDT may significantly biodegrade in flooded soils or under anaerobic conditions
provided high populations of the required microbes are present. Half-life ranges from 2 to >15 yr. In the air, DDT is subject to
direct photooxidation and reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (est. half-life = 2 days). Wet and dry
deposition are significant mechanisms for removal from air.
Disposal: DDT is a good candidate for rotary kiln or liquid injection incineration (furnace with afterburner and alkali scrubber).
60 to 80% removal of DDT from contaminated soils has been achieved in 10 min. by super critical-carbon dioxide extraction.
Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local
regulations.
Container Cleaning and Disposal: Triple rinse containers. Containers in good condition should be returned to the manufacturer
and those that are not reusable should be punctured and transported to a scrap metal facility for recycling, disposal, or burial in
a designated landfill.
DOT Transportation Data (49 CFR 172.101):
Shipping Name: Grganochlorine
pesticides, solid toxic, n.o.s.
Shipping Symbols: Hazard Class: 6.1
[D No.: UN2761
Packing Group: III
Label: Keep Away From Food
special Provisions (172.102): -
Packaging Authorizations
a) Exceptions: 173.153
b) Non-bulk Packaging: 173.213
c) Bulk Packaging: 173.240
Quantity Limitations
a) Passenger, Aircraft, or Railcar:
b) Cargo Aircraft Only: 200 kg
100 kg
Vessel Stowage Requirements
a) Vessel Stowage: A
b) Other: 40
EPA Regulations:
3CRA Hazardous Waste Number (40 CFR 261.33): U061
listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste Classification (40 CFR 261.33)
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 302.4) per RCRA, Sec. 3001; CWA, Sec. 311 (b)(4); and CWA, Sec. 307(a)
ZERCLA Reportable Quantity (X2). 1 lb (0.454 kg)
SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65): Not listed
SARA EHS (Extremely Hazardous Substance) (40 CFR 355): Not listed
3SHA Regulations:
listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-l, 2-l-A)
Xeferences: 73,101,103,124,126,127,132,133,136,139,148,153,167,1~,
169,176,180,183
?repared By ................................. M Gannon, BA
ndustrial Hygiene Review.. ....... PA Roy, MPH, CIH
tiedical Review ........................... T Thobum, MD, MPH
Xsclaimer: Judgments as to the suitability of information herein for the purchaser’s purposes are necessarily the purchaser’s
responsibility. Although reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of such information, Genium Publishing Corporation
extends no warranties, makes no representations, and assumes no responsibility as to the accuracy or suitability of such
information for application to the purchaser’s intended purpose or for consequences of its use.
Page 4 of 4
Copyright
0 1993 Gcnium Publbhii
Capakm.
Any cnmmxx.ti
vse orls~oduaion
without tk
publisbi~
pcrmiuion
is pmhibiccd
\,
:
OCCUPATIONAL
(
..:’
SAFETY AND HEALTH GUIDELINE FOR
DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL
POTENTIAL
PHTHALATE
HUMAN CARCINOGEN
INTRODUCTION
This guideline summarizes pertinent information about
di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) for workers, employers, and
occupational safety and health professionals who may need
such information to conduct effective occupational safety and
health programs. Recommendations may be superseded by new
developments in these fields; therefore, readers are advised to
regard these recommendations as general guidelines.
SUBSTANCE
l
Formula:
l
structure:
IDENTIFICATION
C24H3804
~JWH,
~OOCH2CHCH2CH2CH&H3
(e.g., carbon monoxide) may be released in a tire involving
DEHP.
l Flammability
1. Flash point: 218 “C (425 “F) (open cup)
2. Autoignition temperature: 390°C (735°F)
3. Flammable limits in air, % by volume: Lower, 0.3 at 245 “C
(474’F); Upper, Not available
4. Extinguishant: Dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide
5. Class IIIB Combustible Liquid (29 CFR 1910.106), Flammability Rating 1 (NFPA)
l Warning
properties
1. Evaluation of warning properties for respirator selection:
Warning properties are not considered in recommending respirators for use with carcinogens.
EXPOSURE
Synonyms:
DEHP; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic
acid;
bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester; bis(Zethylhexy1) phthalate; DEHP;
phthalic acid; bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester; di-set octyl phthalate
l Identifiers:
C4S ll7-81-7, RTECS TIO350000; D(TT not assigned
l Appearance and odor: Clear to slightly colored, oily, odorless liquid
l
CHEMICAL
AND PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES
Physical data
1. Molecular weight: 390.54
2. Boiling point (at 760 mmHg): 386°C (727°F)
3. Specific gravity (water = 1): 0.9861
4. Vapor density (air = 1 at boiling point of DEHP): 16
5. Melting point: -50°C (-58’F)
6. Vapor pressure: At 20°C (68”F), 0.01 mmHg; at 200°C
(392”F), 1.32 mmHg
7. Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20°C (68°F): 0.005
8. Evaporation rate (butyl acetate = 1): Almost zero
l Reactivity
1. Incompatibilities:
Contact with nitrates, strong oxidizers,
strong alkalies, or strong acids may cause fire and explosion.
2. Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic vapors and gases
l
.-
U.S. DEPARTMENT
(DEHP)
OF HEALTH
LIMITS
The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for DEHP is 5 milligrams of DEHP per cubic meter of air (mg/m3) as a timeweighted average (TWA) concentration over an &hour workshift. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) recommends that DEHP be controlled and handled
as a potential human carcinogen in the workplace, and the
recommended exposure limit (REL) is that exposure be
reduced to the lowest feasible limit. The use of DEHP in the
quantitative fit testing of respirators should be discontinued and
replaced with less toxic material such as refined corn oil. The
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH) threshold limit value ([email protected]) is 5 mg/m3 as a TWA
for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek; the
ACGIH short-term exposure limit (STEL) is 10 mg/m3 (Table
1).
Table I.-Occupationa
exposure limits
for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate
Exposure limits
mg/m3
5
Lowest feasible limit
5
10
OSHA PEL TWA
NIOSH REL (Ca)*
ACGIH [email protected] TWA
STEL
* (Ca): NIOSH recommends treating as a potential human carcinogen.
AND HUMAN
SERVICES
Public Health Service
Centers for Disease Control
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer
i.
1988
Di-P-Ethylhexyl
Phthalate
1
HEALTH
HAZARD
INFORMATION
Routes of exposure
DEHP may cause adverse health effects following exposure via
inhalation, ingestion, or dermal or eye contact.
l
Summary of toxicology
Effects on animals: Subchronic inhalation of DEHP by rats or
mice caused pulmonary irritation, swelling, and congestion of
the liver and kidneys, renal cysts, bladder stones, testicular degeneration, increased liver metabolism and liver and kidney
weights, and reduced weight gain, renal concentration capacity, blood hematocrit, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Chronic inhalation of DEHP by mice or rats produced liver
cancer. Oral administration of DEHP to mice or rats on various days during fetal development caused a reduction in implantation rates, an increase in embryolethality, delayed births,
and malformations of the skeletal system and the external and
central nervous systems. Two-generation reproduction studies
in treated rats showed a depression in placental and t&l weights
and an increase in liver and kidney weights.
* Signs and symptoms of exposure
Short-term (acute) : Exposure to DEHP can cause gastric disturbances and diarrhea. Skin sensitization and irritation of the
eyes, skin, and respiratory tract can also occur.
l
RECOMMENDED
MEDICAL
PRACTICES
* Medical surveillance program
Workers with potential exposures to chemical hazards should
be monitored in a systematic program of medical surveillance
intended to prevent or control occupational injury and disease.
The program should include education of employers and workers about work-related hazards, placement of workers in jobs
that do not jeopardize their safety and health, earliest possible detection of adverse health effects, and referral of workers
for diagnostic confirmation and treatment. The occurrence of
disease (a “sentinel health event,” SHE) or other work-related
adverse health effects should prompt immediate evaluation of
primary preventive measures (e.g., industrial hygiene monitoring, engineering controls, and personal protective equipment).
A medical surveillance program is intended to supplement, not
replace, such measures.
A medical surveillance program should include systematic collection and epidemiologic analysis of relevant environmental
and biologic monitoring, medical screening, morbidity, and
mortality data. This analysis may provide information about
the relatedness of adverse health effects and occupational exposure that cannot be discerned from results in individual
workers. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of biologic monitoring and medical screening tests should be evaluated on an industry-wide basis prior to application in any given
worker group. Intrinsic to a surveillance program is the dissemination of summary data to those who need to know, including employers, occupational health professionals,
potentially exposed workers, and regulatory and public health
agencies.
l
Preplacement medical evaluation
Prior to placing a worker in a job with a potential for exposure
2
Di-2-Ethylhexyl
Phthalate
to DEHP, the physician should evaluate and document the
worker’s baseline health status with thorough medical, environmental, and occupational histories, a physical examination, and
physiologic and laboratory tests appropriate for the anticipated occupational risks. These should concentrate on the function and integrity of the eyes, skin, liver, kidneys,
gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive and respiratory systems.
Medical surveillance for respiratory disease should be conducted by using the principles and methods recommended by
NIOSH and the American Thoracic Society (ATS).
‘^_c- .
A preplacement medical evaluation is recommended in order
to detect and assesspreexisting or concurrent conditions which
may be aggravated or result in increased risk when a worker
is exposed to DEHF? The examining physician should consider
the probable frequency, intensity, and duration of exposure, as
well as the nature and degree of the condition, in placing such
a worker. Such conditions, which should not be regarded as
absolute contraindications to job placement, include chronic
diseases of the liver or skin. The physician should obtain baseline values for liver function tests.
l
Periodic medical screening and/or biologic monitoring
Occupational health interviews and physical examinations
should be performed at regular intervals. Additional examinations may be necessary should a worker develop symptoms that
may be attributed to exposure to DEHP. The interviews, examinations, and appropriate medical screening and/or biologic
monitoring tests should be directed at identifying an excessive
decrease or adverse trend in the integrity and physiologic function of the eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and
reproductive and respiratory systems as compared to the baseline status of the individual worker or to expected values for
a suitable reference population. The following tests should be
used and interpreted according to standardized procedures and
evaluation criteria recommended by NIOSH and ATS: standardized questionnaires and lung function tests.
’_-_
c
Medical practices recommended at the time of job transfer or termination
The medical, environmental, and occupational history interviews, the physical examination, and selected physiologic and
laboratory tests which were conducted at the time of placement
should be repeated at the time of job transfer or termination.
Any changes in the worker’s health status should be compared
to those expected for a suitable reference population. Because
occupational exposure to DEHP may cause diseases of
prolonged induction-latency, the need for medical surveillance
may extend well beyond termination of employment.
l
l
Sentinel health events
Acute SHE’s include contact and/or allergic dermatitis.
MONITORING
PROCEDURES
AND MEASUREMENT
-
Method
Sampling and analysis may be performed by collecting DEHP
vapors with cellulose membrane filters followed by elution with
l
1988
i
I
(
’
carbon disulfide and analysis by gas chromatography. Directreading devices calibrated to measure DEHP may also be used
if available. A detailed sampling and analytical method for
DEHP may be found in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical
Methods (method number 5020).
PERSONAL
PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT
Chemical protective clothing (CPC) should be selected after
utilizing available performance data, consulting with the
manufacturer, and then evaluating the clothing under actual use
conditions.
Workers should be provided with and required to use CPC,
gloves, and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to
prevent skin contact with DEHP.
Table 2.-Operations
control for di-Zethylhexyi
During bulk processing and
application of plasticized
polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, and
other vinyl resins
L0cal exhaust ventilation,
personal protective equipment
Duiing hot processing of
some plasticized polystyrenes, acrylics, urethanes,
polyamides, and other synthetic resins
Local exhaust ventilation,
personal protective equipment
During hot compounding
plasticization of chlorinated
rubbers and nitrile and neoprene rubbers
Local exhaust ventilation,
personal protective equipment
During the application
nitrocellulose-based
adhesives
of
Local exhaust ventilation,
personal protective equipment
During hot esterification
and subsequent steps in the
manufacturing of DEHP
Local exhaust ventilation,
personal protective equipment
Clothing which is contaminated with DEHP should be removed
immediately and placed in sealed containers for storage until
it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal
of DEHP from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered
or cleaned, the person performing the operation should be informed of DEHP’s hazardous properties. Reusable clothing
and equipment should be checked for residual contamination
before reuse or storage.
1.
A change room with showers, washing facilities, and lockers
that permit separation of street and work clothes should be
provided.
EMERGENCY
Skin that becomes contaminated with DEHP should be promptly washed with soap and water.
The storage, preparation, dispensing, or consumption of food
or beverages, the storage or application of cosmetics, the
storage or smoking of tobacco or other smoking materials, or
the storage or use of products for chewing should be prohibited in work areas.
Wbrkers who handle DEHP should wash their faces, hands,
and forearms thoroughly with soap and water before eating,
smoking, or using toilet facilities.
COMMON OPERATIONS
‘\
AND CONTROLS
Common operations in which exposure to DEHP may occur
and control methods which may be effective in each case are
listed in Table 2.
1988
Eye exposure
Where there is any possibility of a worker’s eyes being exposed
to DEHP, an eye-wash fountain should be provided within the
immediate work area for emergency use.
If DEHP gets into the eyes, flush them immediately with large
amounts of water fbr 15 minutes, lifting the lower and upper
lids occasionally. Get medical attention as soon as possible.
Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this
chemical.
l
Skin exposure
Where there is any possibility of a worker’s body being exposed
to DEHP, Edcilities for quick drenching of the body should be
provided within the immediate work area for emergency use.
If DEHP gets on the skin, wash it immediately with soap and
water. If DEHP penetrates the clothing, remove the clothing
immediately and wash the skin with soap and water. Get medical attention promptly.
l
,y=--
FIRST AID PROCEDURES
In the event of an emergency, remove the victim from further
exposure, send for medical assistance, and initiate emergency procedures.
l
Workers should be required to shower following a workshift
and prior to putting on street clothes. Clean work clothes should
be provided daily.
Controls
operations
SANITATION
/-.
and methods of
phthalate (DEHP)
Rescue
If a worker has been incapacitated, move the affected worker
from the hazardous exposure. Put into efftit the established
emergency rescue procedures. Do not become a casualty. Understand the ticility’s emergency rescue procedures and know
the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises.
Di-P-Ethylhexyl
Phthalate
3
SPILLS AND LEAKS
Workers not wearing protective equipment and clothing should
be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been
completed.
If DEHP is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be
taken:
1. Remove all ignition sources.
2. Ventilate area of spill or leak.
3. For small quantities of liquids containing DEHP, absorb on
paper towels and place in an appropriate container.
4. Large quantities of liquids containing DEHP may be absorbed in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material
and placed in an appropriate container.
5. Liquids containing DEHP may be collected by vacuuming
with an appropriate system. If a vacuum system is used, there
should be no sources of ignition in the vicinity of the spill, and
flashback prevention devices should be provided.
WASTE REMOVAL
AND DISPOSAL
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Transportation, and/or state and local regulations shall be followed
to assure that removal, transport, and disposal are in accordance with existing regulations.
RESPIRATORY
PROTECTION
It must be stressed that the use of respirators is the least
preferred method of controlling worker exposure and should
not normally be used as the only means of preventing or
minimizing exposure during routine operations. However,
there are some exceptions for which respirators may be used
to control exposure: when engineering and work practice controls are not technically feasible, when engineering controls
are in the process of being installed, or during emergencies and
certain maintenance operations including those requiring
confined-space entry (Table 3).
In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which as a minimum complies with the requirements found in the OSHA Safety and
Health Standards 29 CFR 1910.134. A respiratory protection
program should include as a minimum an evaluation of the
worker’s ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator, the regular training of personnel, fit testing, periodic environmental monitoring,
maintenance, inspection, and
cleaning. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program, including selection of the correct respirators,
requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly.
Only respirators that have been approved by the Mine Safety
and Health Administration (MSHA, formerly Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration) and by NIOSH should be
used. Remember! Air-purifying respirators will not protect from oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
4
Di-P-Ethylhexyl
Phthalate
BIBLIOGRAPHY
l
American Conference of Governmental
Industrial
Hygienists: “Di-set-Octyl Phthalate,” Documentation ofthe
7hreshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices (5th
ed.), Cincinnati, 1986.
l
American Conference of Governmental
Industrial
Hygienists: [email protected] 7hreshokiLimit Valuesand Biological Exposure Indices for 1987-88, Cincinnati, 1987.
l
American Lung Association of San Diego and Imperial
Counties: “Taking the Occupational History,” Annals of Internal Medicine, 99641651, November 1983.
l
Clayton, G.D., and Clayton, F.E. @is.): Toxicology, Vol. IIA
of Patty’s Industriul Hygiene and Toxicology (3rd rev. ed ,) , John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1981.
. CodeofFedeeml Regulations, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 29 CFR 1910.106,
1910.134, 1910.1000, OSHA 2206, revised July 1, 1986.
l
Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Department of Transportation, 49 CFR 172.101,Transportation 49, revised October 1,
1982.
l
Goldman, R.H., and Peters, J.M. : “The Occupational and
Environmental Health History,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 246:2831-2836, 1981.
l
Halperin, W.E., Ratcliffe, J., Frazier, T.M., Wilson, L.,
Becker, S.P, and Shulte, PA.: “Medical Screening in the
Workplace: Proposed Principles,” Journal of Occupational
Medicine, 28(8): 547-552, 1986.
l
Hankinson, J.L.: “Pulmonary Function Testing in the
Screening of Workers: Guidelines for Instrumentation, Performance, and Interpretation,” Journul of Occupational Meditine, 28(10):1081-1092, 1986.
l
International Agency for Research on Cancer: IARCMotwgraphs on the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans,
Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs, Vol. 29, Lyon,
France, 1982.
l
Levy, B.S., and Wegman, D.H. (eds.): Occupational Health:
Recognizing and Preventing Work-Related Disease, Little,
Brown and Company, Boston, 1983.
l
National Fire Protection Association: National Fire [email protected]
(Vol. l3), Quincy, Massachusetts, 1983.
l
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health
Service, Centers for Disease Control: NIOSHManuaLofAnalyticul Methods (3rd cd., Vol. I), Eller, PM. (ed.), DHHS
(NIOSH) Publication No. 84-100, Cincinnati, 1984.
l
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health
Service, Centers for Disease Control: Registry ofToxic Eflcts
of ChmicalSubstances
(Microfiche Edition), Sweet, D.V., and
Lewis, R.J. (eds.), Cincinnati, April 1985.
l
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health
Service, Centers for Disease Control: 198.5 Supplement to
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd ed., Eller, P.M.
(ed)., DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 85-117, Cincinnati,
1985.
* Proctor, N. H., and Hughes, J.F?: Chemical Hazards of the
Workplace, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1978.
1988
‘-.L.
-..
(
i-
b Rom, W.N. (4.): Eiwironmentaland Occupational Medicine, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1983.
. Rothstein, M . A. : Medical Screening of Workers, Bureau of
National Affairs, Washington, DC, 1984.
l Rutstein, D.D., Mullan,
R.J., Frazier, T.M., Halperin,
W.E., Melius, J.M., and Sestito, J. P.: “Sentinel Health Events
(Occupational): A Basis for Physician Recognition and Public Health Surveillance,” American Journal ofpublic Health,
X3:1054-1062, 1983.
Scientific Assembly on Environmental and Occupational
Health: “Evaluation of Impairment/Disability
Secondary to
Respiratory Disease,” American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 126945-951, 1982.
l Scientific Assembly on Environmental
and Occupational
Health: “Surveillance for Respiratory Hazards in the Occupational Setting,” American Review of Respiratory Diseases,
126:952-956, 1982.
Table 3.-Respiratory
phthalate (DEHP)
protection for SZethylhexyl
Condition
Any detectable concentration
l
Minimum
respiratory
protection*
Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other
positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode
Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand
or other positive pressure mode
Planned or emergency entry
into environments containing
unknown or any detectable
concentration
Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand
or other positive pressure mode
Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other
positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in a pressuredemand or other positive pressure mode
Firefighting
Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand
or other positive pressure mode
Escape only
Any air-purifying
full facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter
Any appropriate escape-type self-contained breathing apparatus
* Only NIOSH/MSHA-approved
t988
equipment should be used.
Di-2-Ethylhexyl
Phthalate
5
MateriA
Genium
-=7
Publishing
Safety Dali
Sheets COllec[ion:
Corporation
1145 Catalyn Street
y,NY 12303-1836 USA
Sheet No. 467
Automotive
Gasoline,
Lead-free
p 18) 377-8854
Issued: 1O/8 1
~utions: Inhzfatiooof automotivegasolinevaporscancauseintenseburningio throatandlungs,central~QVOUS
Automotivegasoline,lead-free’
I990 OSHA PELS
1990-91 ACCIH TLVs
TWA: 300 ppm,890 mgim'
8-hr TWA: 300 ppm,900 mglm’
Smin STBL SO0ppm,[email protected] SllZ SO0ppm, 1480 mg/m’
\
1990 NOSH REL
None established
* Atypical modem
gasoline
composition
is80%pa&ii
=Wphabphczur,rmdMTBE
Revision:
system
A. 9191
’
(CNS)
1985-86 Toxkity Data*
Man, inhalation, TC,: 900 ppmll hr, toxic effectsinclude ~pft
organs and tpocial souses(conjuoctiva iuitation), behavioral
(hallucinations. distorted perceptions), lungs, thorax. or
respiration (cough)
Human, eye 140 ppm/l hr; toxic effectsincludemild irritation
Rat, inhalation, LCw: 300 glm’/S min
14%uormria. and6%okfins.Themean
benxcne
coatentisrppmximakly1%.Otbcradditivcs
include
(60‘C); aha SO%distilled,230 ‘F (110‘C); after 9O?G
distilled,
Water Solubility: Insoluble
338 ‘F (170‘c); fiial boilingpoint+399 T (204‘C)
Vapor Density (air = 1): 3.0 to 4.0
Appearance and Odor: A clear(gasolinemaybecoloredwith dye), mobile liquid with acharacteristicodor rczognizableat about10ppmin air
fm, bit useY&X spray to knockdowovapon andto cool fm-exposcddrumsandtaoksto preventprusurerupture.Do not usea solidstreamof
-r..
water since it may spread the fuel.
Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Automobile gasoline is an 0SHA Class IB flammableliquid and a dangerous fin sod explosion hazed
whco exposed to heat and flames. Vapors can flow to an ignition source and flash bade. Automobile gasoline can also ru~ct violeotly with
oxidizing agcots.
Special Fire-fighting Procedures: Isolate hazard area sod dcuy m&y. Since fuc may produce toxic fumes, weara sclfcootaincd brcathiog
apparatus(SCBA) with a full facepieceoperated in prcssurtdemand of positive-pressure mode. sod full prokctive clothin8. when the fii is
Hazardouspolymaizatioocannotoccur.
ChemicalIncompatlbllities: Automot&~gasolinecanreactwith oxidizing materialssuchaspcmxidcs.nitric acid.sodpcrchloratcs.
Condltlo~
to Avold: Avoid heat and ignitionSOURXS.
Hazardous Products of Decompos[tioo:Thermaloxidativc decomposition
of aufomotivcgasolinecan productoxidesof carbonandpartidlY
oxidized hydmcarboos.
No. 467
Automotive Gasoline. Lead-fret
9191
protect agamst vapo
storage areas to eon
Aquatic Toxicity: Bluegill, freshwater, Lc 8 pptn/% hr.
D osal: Contact your supplier or a liccnsa contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state. and local regulations.
EPz Designations
RCRA Hazatdous Waste (40 CFR 261.21): Characteristic of ignitability
CERCLA Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 3024 : Not listed
4RA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 C FL 355): Not listed
LRA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 37265): Not listed
cnfflation: Provide general and local explosion-proof exhaust ventilation systems to maintain airborne conccntsatiops kploy the GSHA PELS
(Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred since it ptwents contaminant dispersion into the work area by cmkoUlng tt at I! f0ur~e.o~
Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency e ewash stations, safe /quick-drench showers, and waahmg facil$c%
Contaminated Equlpmcnt: Remove thii material from your sLs and equipment z under contaminated clothiig before Wcarmg.
Comments: Never cat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material. cspcciaBy before eating, drinking
smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
1,................................
- ..
,Ch.renr
Dm.,,l..~m.
i,---.
- --
detached stora c preferred.
Eqlneertng 8 ontrolsr Avoid vapor inhalation and skin or eye contact. Consider a respiratory protection
program that includes regular training,
mamtcnancc, ins &ion, and evaluation. Indoor use of this material requites explosion-proof exhaust vcnutatloa to remove vapon.
only USC
gasoline as a fuc Psource due to its volatility and flammablelexplosivc nature. practice good personal hygiene and housekeeping procedures. Wci
&can work clothing daily.
Transportation Data (49 CFR 172.101, .102)
TM0 Sblppln Name: Gasoline
DOT Sblppin Name: Gasoline (including casing-head Md ncfurcf)
TM0 Haxard gclass: 3.1
DOT Hazard gclass: Flammable liquid
ID No.: UN1203
r[D No.: UN1203
I&IO Label: Flammable liquid
‘OT Labet: flammable liquid
IMDG Packaglng Croup: I1
,GT Packaglng Exceptlons: 173.118
DOT Packaging Requirements: 173.119
Material Safe& Data Sheets Collection:
Genium Publishing
Corporation
1145 catalyn street
Schowtady,
NY 12303-1836 USA
,-
.
,
1 Issued: S/90
1989 OSHA PELS @ad,
Inor-
~~~~~yg!Q
Action LevelTWA*: 30 pg/m’
29 CFR 1910.1025 Lead Standard
Blood Lead Level: 40 [email protected] g
I
Data*
lw19-90 ACGIH TLV (Lead,
luo
nk, fumes and dusts)
19W6Toxk~~~
Humdqm&alatm~
1988 NIOSH RRL
Human,oral,‘II&: 450mgjkgingestedover 6 yr affects
peripheralandcentralnervoussystems
Rat, oral, TD,: 790 mg/kgaffectsmultigtion
xepro&ction
TLiJswk
15O~ghn
IO-hrTWA:<lOOcrghn.’
TC,:
10pgfm3affectsgasuoin=tinsltract
insoluble in hotor cold wata*
f---Appearance
and Odw: Bluish-white,
silvay, gray, very soft metal.
ExtlnguisldngMedhu Use cIwmical,carbondioxide,waterspray,or foamto extinguishfire.
UnusualFire or Expkwba Y azardsz Plammable and modmtely explosive in the fozm of dustwhenexposedto heator flame.
SpeeidFire-fighting Procedures:Isolatehaxardareaanddenyentry. Sincefue [email protected] toxic fumes,weara self-contained
breathing
apparatus
(SCRA)wuh a full facepie opemtedin thepressure-demand
or positive-pressure
modeandfull protectiveequipmentBe awareof
runofffrom fm controlmethods.Do not release
to sewers
or waterways.
StablUtylPolymerfzstbn:
Lead is stable at ruom temperature in closed containers under normal storageandhandlingconditions.It tarnishes
on
&fixof hydrogenperoxide+ trioxaneexplodeoncontactwith lead.Leadis incompatiilewith sodiumaxide,
ziramium,disodiutnacetykie, andoxidants.A violentreactionon i ‘tion mayoccurwith concentrated
hydrogenperoxide,chlorinet%uoride,
sodiumaEetylide(with powderedlead),ammoniumnitmtc(below2
tic* C with powderedlead).Leadis attackedby purewatersndweakorganic
acidsin thepmswceof oxygen Leadisresistantto tapwater,hydrofluoricacid,brine,and solvents.
Couditiousto Avokk Rubberglovescontainingleadmay ignitein nitric acid.
Hazardousproductsof Recompdtion:
Thamd oxidative decomposition of leadcanproducehighly toxic fumesof lead.
;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
iliz;.::~,.:<*.:+..
~
‘>.j.‘..&...
..,:\ 5.
Carrhogenkity:
AlthoughtheNIT andOSH.4&not list leadasa carcinogen,theIARC listsit asprobablycarcinogenicto humans,buthaving
(usually) no human eviclwce. However, the literature rqorts instances of lead-induced
neoplasms,
bothbenignandmalignant,of thekidneysnd
otherorgsnsin laboratoryrodents.Excessiveexposureto leadhasresultedin neumlogicdisorders
in infants.Experimental studies show lead has
repmductiveandteratogeniceffectsin laboratoryanimals.Humanmaleandfemalereproductiveeffectsarealsodocumented.
Summaryof RlskszLeadis apotent,systemicpoisonthat affectavariety of orgsnsystems,inchuiingthenervous system, kidneys, reproductive
system,bW formation,andgastrointestinal
(GI) system.The mostimpmtantwayleadentersthebody is throughinhalation.but rt canalsobe
ingested
whenleaddustor unwashed
handscon&&ate food,drink, or cigarettes.Muchof ingestedleadpasses
throughfeceswithoutabsorption
into thebody.Adultsmay absorbonly 5 to 15%of ingestedlead,childrenmayabsorba muchlargerfracuon.Gncein thebody, leadentersthe
bloodstream
andcirculatesto variousorgans.Leadcon~trates andremainsin bonefor manyyears.The amountof leadthebcdy stores
increases
asexposurewntinues,with possiblycumulativeeffects.Dependingonthedoseenteringthebody, leadcanbedeadlywithinseveral
daysor affect healthafter manyyears.Very highdosescancausebraindamage(enoEphalopathy).
Medical Conditions Aggravated by wure:
L.esi yay aggravate
nervous~ystem~diirders
(e.g.,epilepsy.neuropathies),
kidney*diseases,
mErod pressure
(hypertzuion). mfertrltty, andanenua.Lead-mduced
anumaandrtseffect onbloodpresssure
canaggravatecardiovascular
Chemkal IncompatibUitIes
Contimeonnextva2e
No. 7 13
Lead (Inorganic)
8/S’o
i
/-
Eyes: Gently lift the eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency
- medical
facility. Consult a phy%an immediately.
Skhx @i&y remove CoNBmmattd clothing. Rinse with flooding amounts of water for at least 15 min Consult a physicii if any health
comulamts develon.
Spill/Leak: Noti safety personnel and evacuate all unnecessary persomrel immediately. Cleanup pasormel should protect against inhslation of
dusts or fume an B contact with skin or eyes. Avoid creating dusty conditions. Water sprays may be used in large quantities to prevent the fotmapriate filfer) or wet mopping minimhe dust dispersion. Scoop the spilled
tion of dust. Cleanup methods such as vacuuming (with an
material into closed containers for disposal or reclamation. Pi?
0 ow apphcable OSHA re atlons (29 CFR 1910.120).
Dis
1: Contact your supplier or a hcensed contractor for detailed recommendations. %! Bow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPKslgnatlotts
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33, A
Listed as a CERCLA Haxardous Substance* (40 CFR 3&??$6!&&%$%%$$~~!
kg) [* per Clean Water Act, Sec. 307(a)]
SARA Extremely Haxardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not hs
L&d 8s a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
OSHA De&nations
LiitedaswAirco
ntamimmt (29 CFR 191O.lCKKl. Table Zl-A)
(-
Goggles: Wear protective eye lasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye and face+otection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133).
Respirator: Seek profession 9 advice prior to respirator selection and use. Follow CXHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, ifneces- wear a NIOSH-approved respirator. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleanhrg - * rea&r vessels, or storage tanks),wear an
%A.
W aming! [email protected]
rcsqriratot do not protect workers in oxygen-defckntatmoq
P res.
Other: Wear impervious glovy, boots, aprons, and suntlets to prevent skin contact. Protective clothing made of man-made fibers and lacking
turn-up, pleats, or~ketsretamlessdustf$rn~
Ventllatlon: Provi
ened and local ventrlanon systems to maintain airborne concantmtions below the OSHA PELs (Sec. 2). Local exhaust
ventilation is pref
since it events contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at its soutce.“@)
Safety Stations: Make availab Fe m the work area emergency eyewash stations, safetylquckdrench
showers, and washing facilities.
Contaminated Equipment: Never wear contact lenses in the work area: soft lenses may absorb, awl all lenses concentrate, irritants. Remove this
material from our shoes and equipment Launder contaminated clothing before wearing.
Comments: J ever eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material. especially washing hands before
eating, drinkin& smoking using the toilek or applying cosmetics.
Transportation
Data (49 CFR 172.102)
IMO Shlpplng Name: Lead compotmds. soluble, n.a.s.
IMO Hazard Classt 6.1
ID No.: UN2291
IMO Label: St. Andrews Cross (X. Stow away from foodstuffs)
IMDG Packaging Group: lIl
MSDS Colkction
References:
26.38,73,84.8S,88,89,90,100.101,103.109,124,126.132,133,134.136,
Prepared
by: MJ Alhon. Bs. Industriai
Hygiene Review: DJ Wilm.
CJH; Medical
4 138.139.142.143
Review: MJ Upfal, MD. MPH, Editedby: JR Stuart. MS
4
if--
GP
Genium Publishing Corporation
I Material Safety
- - Data Sheets Collection:
Sheet No. 683
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
One Genium Plaza
Schenectady, NY 123044690 USA
(518) 377-8854
-
___
Issued: 11/88
Revision: A.. 9/92
.
-
biphenyl nucleus (Go benzene nuclei connected by a single C-C bond) in which any or all of the hydrogen atoms have been I 4
replaced by chlorine. Commercial F'CBs are mixtures of chlorinatedbiphenyl isomers with varying degrees of chlorination. S 3*
Prepared industrially by the chlorination of biphenyl with anhydrous chlorine in the presence of a catalyst such as ferric
K 1
chloride or iron filings. Except for limited research and development applications, PCBs have not been produced in the US * skin
since 1977. When large quantities of PCBs w a e manufactured in the US,they were marketed under the hadenme Aroclor absorption
(Monsanto) and were characterizedby four digit numbers. The f i i t two digits indicating biphenyls (12). eriphenyls (54). or
H 2f
F 1
both (25.44); the last two digits indicating the weight percent ofchlorine. PCBs' thermal stabsty, nonflammability, and
R O
high dielectriccapability made them very useful in electrical equipment. Formerly used ks additives in hydraulic fluids, heat
PPEt
transfer systems, lubricants, cutting oils,printer's ink, fire retardants, asphalt. brake linings. automobilebody sealants,
*Sec 8
pIasticizen. adhesives, syntheticrubber, floor tile, wax extenders, dedusting agents, pesticide extenders, and carbonless
f chronil
reproducing paper. PCBs are still used in certain existing electrical capacitors and transformersthat require enhanced
Effects
electricalprotection to avoid heating from sustained electric faults.
Other Designations: CAS No. 1336-36-3, Aroclor, Clophen, Chlorextol, chlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated diphenyl,
Kaneclor, Montar, Noflamol,
chlorinated diphenylene. chloro biphenyl, chlm-l,l-biphenyl, Dykanol. Fenclor, In-.
Phenoclor, Pyralene, Pyranol, Santotherm, Sovol, Thaminol FR-1
Cautions: PCBs are potent liver toxins that may be absorbed through skin.Potentially, chronic or delayed toxicity is significant because PCBs
accumulate in fatty tissue and may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens. PCBs are a bioaccumulative environmental hazard. When
burned. decompositionproducts may be more hazardous than the PCBs.
PCBs, contain various levels of polychlorinateddibenzofurans and chlorinated naphthalenes as contaminants
i
\
-
1991 OSHA PELS, Skin
8-hr TWA (Chlorodiphenyl, 42% chlorine): 1 mg/m3
8-hrTWA (Chlorodiphenyl, 54% chlorine): 0.5 mg/m3
I990DFG (Germany) MAK, Danger of Cutaneous Absorption
TWA (Chlorodiphenyl, 42% chlorine): 0.1 ppm (1 mg/m3)
Category IE Substances with systemic effects. onset of effect > 2 hr.,
half-life> shift length (strongly cumulative)
Short-term Level: 1 ppm, 30 min., average value, 1 p a shift
TWA (Chlorodiphenyl. 54% chlorine): 0.05 ppm (0.5 mg/m3)
Category Ill (see above)
Short-term Level: 0.5 ppm, 30 min.,average value, 1per shift
1985-86Toxtclty Data*
Rat,oral, TI2 1250 m a g administered intermittently for 25
weeks produced liver tumors.
325 m a g administered to female for
Mammal, oral,
30 days prior to mating and from the 1st to the 36th day of
gestation produced effects on newborn (stillbirth; live birth
mdex; viability index).
1990 NIOSH REL
TWA (Chlordiphenyl, 42% chlorine): 0.001 mg/m3
TWA (Chlorodiphenyl, 54% chlorine): 0.001 mg/m3
m:
1992-93ACGIH TLVS,Skin *
TWA (Chldiphenyl. 42% chlorine): 1 mglm3
'IWA (Chlorodiphenyl, 54% chlorine): 0.5 mg/m3
'These guidelinesofferreasonably good protection against systemic intoxiCetion, but may not guarantee that chlomcne won't occur.
t See NIOSH, RTECS ('TQ135oooO), for additional nproductivc, tumorigenic,and tOXicity data.
Specific Gravity: 1.3 to 1.8 at 20 *C
Boiling Point: 644-707 'F (340-375 'C)
Melting Point: 42%: -2.2 'F (-19*C); 54%: 14 'F (-10 C
'J
Water Solubility: Low solubility (0.007 to 5.9 mg/L)
Other Solubilities: Most common organic solvents, oils. and fats;
Vapor Pressure: 1 m m Hg at 100 'F (38 T);
106to 10 mm at 20 'C
slightly soluble in glycerol and glycols.
Molecular Weight: 188.7 to 398.5
Appearance and Odor. PCBs vary from mobile oily liquids to white crystalline solids and hard noncrystalline resins, depending upon
chlorine content
* Physical and chemical propaties vary widely according 10 degree and to the position of chlorination.
F-
Extinguishing Media: Use extinguishing media suitable to the surrounding fire. Use dry chemical, foam. carbon dioxide (COz). or water spray.
Water spray may be ineffective. Use water spray to cool fii-exposed containers or transformers. Do not scatter P C B s with high-pressure water
streams. Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Combustion products (hydrogen chloride, phosgene, polychlorinated dibenzofurans,and furand
are more hazardous than the PCBs themselves. Speclal Fire-fighting Procedures: Because fire may produce toxic thermal decomposition
products. wear a self-containedbreathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full facepiece operated in prewuredemand or positivepressure mode. Approach firefrom upwind to avoid highly toxic decomposition products. Structural fuefighter's protective clothing will provide fimled protection.
Do not release runoff from fire control methods to sewers or waterways. Dilre for later disposal.
* Flash winu shown are a ranee for various PCBs.Some forms do not have flash mints.
I
StablfltylPolymeri~tion:PCBs are very stable materials but are subject to photodechlorination when exposed to sunlight or W (spectral region
above 290 nanometers). Hazardous polymerization cannot occur. Chemical Incompatibilities: P a s are chemically inert and resistant to
oxidation, acids,and bases. Conditions to Avoid: Avoid heat and ignition sources.
Hazardous Products of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative decomposition [1112-1202 'F (600-650 'C)]of PCBs can produce highly toxic
derivatives, including polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs). polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). hydrogen chloride, phosgene and
other imtants.
[email protected]&O
1992ocniumpUbluhingChpcn1iot~Aaycomnmi.lumorrcpoduaia,wi~tttmplU~hponnir~abpohibi~d
No. 683
Polvchlorinated BiDhenvls (PCBs)
9/92
animal dza) and NTP anticipated carcinogen, respectively. Summiry of Risks: PCFh are potent liver toxins that can be. absorbed thro-ugh
unbroken skin in toxic amounts without immediate pain or irritation. PCBs have low acute toxicity, but can accumulate in fatty tissue and severe
health effects may develop later. Generally, toxicity increases with a higher chlorine content; PCB-oxides are more toxic. The toxic action on the
liver also increases with simultaneous exposura-to other liver toxins, e.g. chlorinated solvents, alcohol, and certain drugs. Pathological pregnancies
(abnormal pigmentations, abortions, stillbirths. and underweight births) have been associated with increased PCB serum levels in mothers; PCBs
can be passed in breast milk PCBs can affect the reproductive system of adults. Medical Conditions Aggravated by Long-Term Exposure:
Skin. liver, and respiratory disease. Target Organs: Skin. liver. eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract. Primary Entry Routes:
Inhalation. dermal contact, ingestion. Acute Effects: Exposure to PCB vapor or mist is severely irritating to the skin. eyes, nose, throat, and upper
respiratory tract. Intense acute exposure to high concentrations may result in eye, lung, and liver injury. Systemic effects include nausea, vomitmg,
increased blood pressure, fatigue, weight loss, jaundice, edema and abdominal pain. Cognitive, neurobehavior and psychomotor impairment and
memory loss have also been seen after acute exposure. Chronic Effects: Repeated exposure to PCBs can cause chloroacne; redness, swelling,
dryness, thickening and darkening of the skin and nails; swellin and burning of the eyes, and excessive eye discharge; distinctive hair follicles;
gastrointestinal disturbances; neurological symptoms including feadache. dizziness. depression. nervousness. numbness of the extremities. and
joint and muscle pain; liver enlargement menstrual changes in women; and chronic bronchitis. Cancer, primarily liver, is also a possible result of
exposure, but data is inconclusive.
FIRST AID Eyes: Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Rinsing eyes with medical oil (olive, mineral) initially may remove PCB
and halt irritation better than water rinsing alone. Gently lift eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until
transported to an emergency medical facility. Consult a physician immediately. Skin: QuickZy remove contaminated clothing. Rinse with flooding
amounts of water for at least 15 min. Wash exposed area with soap and water. Multiple soap and water washings are necessary. Avoid the use of
organic solvents to clean the skin. For reddened or blistered skin, consult a physician. Inhalation: Remove exposed person to fresh air and support
breathing as needed. Ingestion: In most cases, accidental PCB ingestion will not be recognized until long after vomiting would be of any value.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. Vomiting of the pure substance may cause aspiration. Consult a physician.
Note to Physicians: Monitor patients for increased hepatic enzymes. chloroacne, and eye, gastrointestinal, and neurologic symptoms listed above.
Diagnostic tests include blood levels of PCBs and altered liver enzymes.
SpilVLeak: Notify safety personnel, evacuate all unnecessary personnel, provide adequate ventilation. and isolate hazard area. Cleanup personnel
should protect against vapor inhalation and skin or eye contact. For small spills, take up with sand or other noncombustible material and place into
containers for later disposal. For larger spills, dike far ahead of spill to contain for later disposal. Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29 CFR
1910.120). Environmental Transport: PCBs have been shown to bioconcentrate significantly in aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicity: Bluegill, TLm:
0.278 p p M 6 hr. Mallard Duck, LDs: 2OOO ppm. Environmental Degradation: In general, the persistence of PCBs increases with an increase
degree of chlorination. Soil Absorptionhlobillty: PCBs are tightly absorbed in soil and generally do not leach significantly in most aqueous soil
systems. However, in the presence of organic solvents, PCBs may leach rapidly through the soil. Volatilization of PCBs from soil may be slow, but
over time may be significant. Disposal: Approved PCB disposal methods include: incineration with scrubbing, high-efficiency boilers, landfills, ant
EPA-approved alternative disposal methods. Each disposal method has various criteria. Contact your supplier or a licensed contractor for detailed
recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state. and local regulations.
EPA Designations
RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33): Not listed
OSHA Designations
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not listed
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1000,Table 2-1-A)
Listed as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Final Reportable Quantity (RQ), 1lb (0.454 kg) [* per CWA, Sec. 31l(b)(4)
and 307(a)l
. ,-
Section 8. Special Protection Data
I
Goggles: Wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye- and face-protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Because
contact lens use in industry is controversial, establish your own policy. Respirator: Seek professional advice prior to respirator selection and use.
Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, wear a MSHAflIOSH-approved respirator. Select respirator based on it:
suitability to provide adequate worker protection for given working conditions, level of airborne contamination, and presence of sufficient oxygen.
Minimum respiratory protection should include a combination dust-fume-mist and organic vapor cartridge or canister or air-supplied, depending
upon the situation. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleaning spills, reactor vessels, or storage tanks), wear an SCBA. Warning! Airpurifring respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. If respirators are used, OSHA requires a written respiratory protection program that includes at least: medical certification, training. fit-testing. periodic environmental monitoring, maintenance, inspection, cleaning,
and convenient. sanitary storage areas. Other: Wear chemically protective gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent all skin contact. Butyl
rubber, neoprene, Teflon, and fluorocarbon rubber have break through times greater than 8 hrs. Ventilation: Provide general and local exhaust
ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below the OSHA PEL (Sec.2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents
contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at its source.(1o3) Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash
stations, safety/quickdrench showers, and washing facilities. Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes from street clothes
and launder before reuse. Segregate contaminated clothing in such a manner so that there is no direct contact by laundry personnel. Implement
quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures. Remove this material from your shoes and clean PPE. Comments:
Never eat drink,or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material, especially before eating, drinking, smoking,
concentrations at the lowest practical level. Administrative Controls: Inform employees of the adverse health effects associated with PCBs. Limil
access to PCB work areas to authorized personnel. Consider preplacement and periodic medical examinations with emphasis on the skin, liver,
lung. and reproductive system. Monitor PCB blood levels. Consider possible effects on the fetus. Keep medical records for the entire length of
employment and for the following 30 yrs.
Transportation Data (49 CFR 172.101)
DOT Shipping Name: Polychlorinated biphenyls
Packaging Authorizations
Quantity Limitations
DOT Hazard Class: 9
a) Exceptions: 173.155
a) Passenger Aircraft or Railcar: 100 L
ID No.: UN2315
b) Non-bulk Packaeine: 173.202
b) Carno Aircraft Onlv: 220 L
DOT Packing Group: II
c) Bulk PackagingTl7h41
Vessel itowage Requiiements
DOT Label: CLASS 9
a) vessel Stowage: A
Special Provisions (172.102): 9. N8l
b) Other:
- - 34
- I
IMSDS Coffecjion References: 26.73.89.100. 101. 103.124. 126. 127.132 133.136.163.164.168.169.174. 175.180
Prepared by: MJ Wurth, BS;IndustthI Hygiene Review: PA R6y MPH, 6IH; Medkal Review: A C Darlington. M D
1
Gvrkht 0 1992by oclriw PublLhLuCumnuon Any m c i d
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Genium Publishing Corporation
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One Genium Plaza
Schenectady,NY 123044690 USA
(518) 377-8854
Material Sufefy Data Sheets Collection:
Sheet No. 317
Toluene
Issued: 8/79
Revision: E,9/92
aromatizatick 6f sak~ratediomatic hydrocarbons-or by fractional & w o n of coal-tar light oil and purified by rectification Used widely as a solvent (replacing benzene in many cases) for oils,rosins, adhesives, natural rubber, coal tar, asphalt,
pitch acelylcefluloses, ceuulose paints and varnishes; a diluent for photogravure inks, raw mataial for organic synthesis
(benzoyl & beddenechlorides, saccharine, W,toluene diisocyanate, and many dyestuffs), in aviation and high octane
automobile gasoline, as a nonclinical thermometa liquid and SaSpeJlsion solution for navigational instruments.
Other Designations: CAS No. 108-88-3. Methacide, methylbenzene, methylbenml. phenylmethane, toluol, Tolu-sol.
Manutacburer: Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult latest Chemical Week Buyers' GuideCn) for a suppliers list.
S
2*
K 3
:bGtim
Cautfons: Toluene is an eye, skin,and respiratory tract inirant becoming narcotic at high oeneatians. Liver and kidney damage
has occurred. h w t women chronically exposed to toluene have shown tezatogenic effects. Toluene is highly flammable.
HMIs Qvaric
H 2-dfeaS
F 3
R 0
PPE-Sec t
Toluene, < 100%; may contain a smaU amount of benzene (- 1%). xylene, and nonaromatichydrocarbons.
1991 OSHA PELS
1992-93 ACGIH TLV (Skin)
1985-86 Toxicity Data+
Man.inhalation. T G 100 ppm caused hallucinations,
8-hr TWA: 1OOppm (375 mg/m3)
T W A 50 ppm (188 mglm3)
and changes in motor activity and changes in
15-min STEL. 150ppm (560 mg/m3)
1990 DFG (Germany) M U *
psychophysiologicaltests.
1990 IDLH Level
T W A lOOppm (380 mg/n?)
Human, oral, L k : 50 mg/kg; toxic effects not
2000 ppm
Half-life: 2 hr to end of shift
yet reviewed
Category II:Substances with systemic effects
1990 NIOSH REL.6
300 ppm caused initation,
'lwk100 ppm (375 mg/m3)
Peak Exposure Limit: 500 ppm 30min
R
a
t
,
oral, LD& 5000 mgkg
average value, 21shift
ST& 150 ppm (560mg/m3)
Rat.liver: 30 pmol/L caused DNA damage.
* Available informatimsuggests damage to the developing fetus is pnhblc.
tSeeNIOSH, RTECS (XSSUoooO), for additimsl imratian. mutatim, nprodudive. and toxicity data.
Water Solubility: Very slightly soluble. 0.6 mg/L at 68 'F (20 'C)
Boiling Point:232 'F (1 10.6 'C)
Other Solubilities: Solublein acetone, alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform. glacial acetic
Melting Point: -139'F (-95'C)
acid, petroleum ether, and carbon disulfide.
Molecular Weight: 92.15
Vapor Pressure: 22 mm Hg at 68 'F (20 'C); 36.7 mm Hg at 86 *F(30 'C)
Density: 0,866at 68 'F (2014 'C)
Saturated Vapor Density (Air = 0.075 lb/ftJ or 1.2 kgh?: 0.0797 lblft' or 1.2755 kg/m3
Surface Tension: 29 dyndcrn at 68 'F (20 'C)
Viscosity: 0.59 CPat 68 'F (20 'C)
Odor Threshold (range of all referenced values): 0.021 to 69 ppm
Refraction Index: 1.4%7 at 20 ' C D
Appearance and Odor: Colorless liquid with a sickly sweet odor.
ExtinguisbhgMedia:Toluene is a Class 1B flammable liquid. To fight fire, use dry chemical carbon dioxide. or 'alcohol-resistant' foam. Water
spray may be ineffective as toluene floats on water and may actually spread iirc Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazards: Concentrated vapors are
heavier than air and may mvel to an ignition source and flash back. Container may explode in heat of fire. Toluenes' burning rate = 5.7 d m i n
and its flamespeed = 37 cmfsec. Vapor poses an explosion hazard indoors, outdoors, and in sewers. May accumulate static electricity. Spec&
Fire-fighfing Procedures: Because fwe may produce toxic thermal decomposition products, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
with a full facepieceoperated in pressuredemand or positive-pressure mode. Stn~cturalfirefighter'sprotective clothing provides only limited
protection. Apply cooling water to sides of tanks until well afta fire is out. Stay away from ends of tanks.For massive fire in cargo area,use
monitor nozzles or unmanned hose holders; if impossible. withdraw from fire and let burn. Withdraw immediately if you hear a rising sound from
venting safety device or notice any tank discoloration due to fire b u s e a BLEVE (boiling liquid expandingvapor explosion) may be imminent.
Do not releaserunoff from fue control methods to sewers or watawavs.
StabilltyhlyxnerkaUon:Toluene is stable at mom temperature in closed containers under n m a l storage and handling conditions. Hazardous
polymerkationcan't occur. Chemical Incompatibilities: Strong oxidizQs, Concentrated nitric acid, nitric acid + sulfuric acid, dinitrogen tetmxide,
dver perchknate, bromine uifluoride, tetraniwomethane, and 1,3di~hloro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-imid~lididione.
Conditionsto Avoid: Contact with
heat,ignition sou~ces,or incompatibles. Hazardous Products of Decomposition: T
h
e
r
m
a
loxidative decomposition of toluene can produce carbon
dioxide,and acrid, irritating smoke.
Cardnogenidty: The IARC,('@) NTP,(lW and OSHA(164)do not list toluene 8s a carcinogen. Summary of Risks: Toluene is imtating to the eyes,
nose, and respHatory tract Inhalation of high concentrations produces a narcatic effect sometimes leading to coma as well as liver and kidney
damage. 93%of inhaled toluene is retained in the body of which 80% is metabolized to benzoic acid. then to hippuric acid and excreted in urine.
Theremainder is metabolized to o-cresol and excreted or exhaled unchanged. Toluene metabolism is inhibited by dcohol ingestion and is synergistic with bcnzene, asphalt fumes,or chlorinated hydrocarbons (Le. perchlmoethylene). Toluene is readily absorbed through the skin at 14 tos.mgi
c m * h Toluene is absorbed quicker during exercise than at rest and appears to be [email protected] in obese versus thin victims; presumably due to its
lipid solubility. There is inconsistentdata on toluene's ability to damage bone marrow; chronic poisoning has resulted in anemia and leucopenia with
biopsy showing bone IWIKOW hypo-plasia. These reports are few and some authorities argue that the effects may have been due to benzene contami~ n fChronic
~ . inhalation during pregnancy has been associated with teratogenic effects on the fetus including microcephaly, CNS dysfunction,
attentional deficits,developmental delay + language impairment, growth retardation, and physical defects including a small midface, shortpalpebral
fksures, with deepset eyes, low-set ears. flat nasal bridge with a small nose, micrognathia, and blunt fingertips. There is some evidence that toluene
Causes an autoimmune illness in which the body produces antibodies that cause inflammation of its own kidney.
Continue on nen pa8
Nn.117
Tnliiene
9r92
kidney, skin. Primary Entry Routes: Inhalation, skin-contact/absorption.Acute Effects: Vapor inhalation causes resp-&tory-mct initation, fatigue,
weakness, confusion,dizziness, headache, dilated pupils, watering eyes, nervousness, insomnia, parasthesis, and vertigo progressing to narcotic coma.
Death may result from cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation with catecholamines loss. Liquid splashed in the eye causes conjunctivalirritation,
transient corneal damage and possible burns. Prolonged skin contact leads to drying and fissured dermatitis. Ingestion causes GI tract irritation and
symptoms associated with inhalation. Chronic Effects: Symptoms include mucous membrane irritation. headache, vertigo, nausea,appetite loss and
alcohol intolerance. Repeated heavy exposure may result in encephalopathies (cerebellar ataxia and cognitivedysfunction), liver enlargement, and
kidney dystrophy (wasting away). Symptoms usually appear at workdays end, worsen at weeks end and decrease or disappear over the weekend.
FIRST AID Eyes: Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Gently lift eyelids and flush immediately and continuously with flooding
amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical facility. Consult an ophthalmologist immediately. Skin: Quickly remove contaminated
clothing. Rinse with flooding amounts of water for at least 15 min. Wash exposed area with soap and water. inhalation: Remove exposed person to
fresh air and support breathing as needed. Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. Contact a poison control
Center and unless otherwise advised, have that conrciour Md alert person drink 1 to 2 glasses of water to dilute. Do not induce vomiting because of
danger of aspiration into the lungs. Gastric lavage may be indicated if large amounts are swallowed: potential toxicity needs to be weighed against
aspiration risk when deciding for or against gastric lavage. Note to Physicians: Monitor cardiac function. If indicated, use epinephrineand other
catecholamines carefully, because of the possibility of a lowered myocardial threshold to the anhythmogeniceffects of such substances. Obtain CBC.
electrolytes, and urinalysis. Monitor arterial blood gases. If toluene has > 0.02% (200 ppm) benzene, evaluate for potential benzene toxicity. BE:
hippuric acid in urine, sample at shift end (2.5 g/g creatinine); Toluene in venous blood, sample at shift end (1.0 m a ) .
f -
SpWLeak: Notify safety personnel, isolate and ventilate area,deny entry, and stay upwind. Cleanup personnel protect against inhalation and skin/eye
contact. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors but it may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. Cellosolve, hycar absorbent materials. and
fluorocarbon water can also be used for vapor suppression/containment. Take up small spill with earth, sand, vermiculite, or other absorbent,
noncombustible material. Dike far ahead of large spills for later reclamation or disposal. For watex spills, (10 ppm or greater) apply activated carbon ai
1OX the spilled amount and remove trapped material with suction hoses or use mechanical dredgesflifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants
and precipitates. Toluene can undergo fluidized bed incineration at 842 to 1796 'F (450 to 980 T ) , rotary kiln incineration at 1508 to 2912 'F (820 to
1600 "C), or liquid injection incineration at 1202 to 2912 'F (650 to 1600 'C). Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.120). Ecotoxicity
Values: Blue gill, LCso= 17 m&24 hr,shrimp (Crungonfraciscoron), LCH,= 4.3 p p d 6 hr,fathead minnow (Pimphales promelas), LCso = 36.2
mgRJ96 hr. Environmental Degradation: If released to land, toluene evaporates and undergoes microbial degradation. In water, toluene volatilizes
and biodegrades with a half-life of days to several weeks. In air, toluene degrades by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals.
Disposal: Treat contaminated water by gravity separation of solids, followed by skimming of surface. Pass through dual media filtration and carbon
absorption units (carbon ratio 1kg to 10 kg soluble material). Return waste water from backwash to gravity separator. Contact your supplier or a
licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPA Designations
OSHA Designations
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33): No. U220
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1O00. Table 2-1-A)
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355), TpQr Not listed
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Final Reportable Quantity (RQ), lo00 lb (454 kg)
[* per RCRA, Sec. 3001; CWA, Sec. 311 (b)(4); CWA, Sec. 307 (a)]
Listed as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40CFR 372.65): Not hted
--
Goggles: Wear protective eyeglasses with shatter-resistant glass and sideshields or chemical safety goggles. per OSHA eye- and face-protection
regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Because contact lens use in industrv is controversial. establish vow own wlicv. Resdrator: Seek
- rmfessional
- - -- -a&ice prior to respirator selection and use. Follow OSHA respinit& regulations (29 CFR 1910:134) and,% n&esq=,wear a MSHA/NIOSHapproved respirator. For < 100 ppm. use any chemical d d g e respirator with appropriate organic vapor cartridges. any supplied-air respirator
(SAR).or SCBA. For c 200 ppm. use any S A R operated in continuous-flow mode, any SAR or SCBA with a full facepiece, or any air-purifying
respirator with a full facepiece having a chin-style, front or back mounted organic vapor canister. For emergency or nomutine operations (cleaning
spills, reactor vessels. or storage tanks), wear an SCBA. warning! Air-pwifjring respirators do notprotect workers in oxygen-deficientatmospheres.
If respirators are used, OSHA requires a written respiratory protection program that includes at least: medical cerrScation, training, fit-tefting.
periodic environmental monitoring. maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and convenient, sanitary storage areas. Other: Wear chemically protective
gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent skin contact. Polyvinyl alcohol with a breakthrough time of > 8 hr, Teflon and Viton are recommended as suitable materials for PPE. Ventilation: Provide general and local exhaust ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below
the OSHA PELS (Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by controllingit at its
source.(la)Safety Stations: Make availablein the work area emergency eyewash stations, safety/quick-drench showers, and washing facilities.
Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes fiom street clothes and launder before reuse, Remove toluene from your shoes and
clean PPE. Comments: Never eat, drink, or smoke in work areas. Practice good personal hygiene after using this material, especially before eating,
drinking, smoking, using the toilet, or applying cosmetics.
DOT Shipping Name: Toluene
DOT Hazard Class: 3
ID No.: UN1294
DOT Packin Group: II
DOT Label: aammable Li uid
Specid Provisions ( I ~ I O TI
~):
Transportation Data (49 CFR 172.101)
Packaging Authorizations
uantity Limitations
a) Exceptions: 150
Passenger Aircraft or Railcar: 5L
b) Non-bulk Packagin :202
b) Cargo Aircraft Only: 60L
c) Bulk Packaging: 24f
3
Vessel Stowage Requirements
Vessel Stowage: B
Other: --
MSDS Collection References: 26.73.100,lOl. 103 124.126,127,132.140.148.153.159,163,164.167,169.171.174,175,176,180.
Prepared by: M Gannon. BA; Industrial Hygiene Review: PA Roy. CIH. MPH; Medical Review: AC Darlington, MD. MPH
C0p)nghte 1992by h m n h b i u h k i g Cmpmtion. b y ummcnid u c a r c p r o d u c m w i t h c u t t k p u b l i i i pcrmiuionia pmbilned. J u d m .
I
mtbD suipbility ofinfmtim krciifatbcpudmcfa p q m a uc
WC=SUTIIV
thc m r r d u r r ' s nspmsibdiry AlthouJt mumabb ux hu been taken in t h p~p m t ' o " of much infanm~on.Omlw h b l u h w -Wm
cxrCnd. rn w u T M I c I . rmLu no ~sprsrotatmu.
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Genium Publishing Corporation
i
P
I Material Safety
- - Data Sheets Collection:
Xylene (Mked homers)
\.
u
2t
;ohent/vehicksfor pesticides.
3ther Deslgmat\ons: CAS No. 1330-20-7 [95-47-43 108-38-3;106-42-3 (o-,m-,p-isOmers)l. dimethylbenzenc,
nethyltoluene, NU-C55232, Violet 3, xylol.
Manufacturer: Contact your supplier or distributor. Consult latest Chunical Week Buyers' GuideC",for a supplierslist.
-
Kylene (mixed isomers): the commercialproduct generally contains 40% m-xylene; 2% each of 0-xylene. p-xylene, and ethylbenzene; and small
pntities of toluene. Unpuritied xylene may contain pseudocumene.
1991OSHA PELS
1992-93 ACGIH TLVs
1985-86Toxicity Data*
Human.inhalation, T C 6 200 ppm produced
B-hr TWA: loOppm (435 mg/m3)
WA 100ppm (434 m g / d
olfaction effects, conjunctiva idtation. and other
15-& STEL:150ppm (655mg/m3) STTEL: 150ppm (651 mgrhn))
changes involving the lungs, thorax.or respiration.
BEI (Biological Exposure Index): Methylhippuric
1990 IDLHLevel
Man, inhalation. L
C
,
: loo00p p d 6 hr; toxic
acids in urine at end of shift 1.5 g/g matinine
"0PPm
effects not yet reviewed.
1990 DFG (Germany) MAX
Human,oral,
50 m$g; no toxic effect noted.
1990 NIOSfL RELs
T W A 100ppm (440mg/m3)
Rat, oral, LDd 4300 mg/kg; toxic effect not yet
T W A 100ppm (435 mgfrn?
with systemic effects
reviewed.
STEL 150ppm (655 mdm )
Category
Half-life: Ik
< 2Substances
hr
Rat,
inhalation, LCS: SO00 p p d 4 k,
toxic effects
Peak Exposure: 200 ppm. 30 min, average value,
not yet reviewed.
4peakspershift
w:
M--..
I
!
Boiling Po& Range: 279 to 284 'F (137 to 140 'C)*
Boiling Poi& urtb: 291 '
F (144 *C);me&: 281.8 'F (138.8 *C);
pmu: 2813 '
F (1385 'C)
Freezfng polnt/Meltlng Point: urfho:-13'F (-25 'C);
m u : -533'F (- 47.4 'C); para: 55 to 57 'F (13 to 14 'C)
Vapor Pressure: 6.72 mm Hg at 70 'F (21 'C)
Saturated Vapor Density (Air = 1.2 kg/d): 1.23 kg/m3. 0.077 lb4fi3
Appearance and Odor:Clear, sweet-smelling liquid
Molecular Weight: 106.16
S Ik:Gravity: 0.864 at 20 'C/4 'C
P
ater Solubility: Practically insoluble
Other Solubilities: Miscible with absolute alcohol. ether, and
many othm organic liquids,
OctanMater Partition CoetYIcient: logKow = 3.12-3.20
Odor Threshold: 1 ppm
Viscosity: 4 2 . 6 SUS
E x t i n g u L s ~ M & kFor small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide ((204, water spra or re lar foam. For Iarge fires, use water spray, fog or
regularfoam atex may be ineffective. Wse water spray to cool fire-exposed containers dusuakre or Explosion Hazards: Xylene vapors or
liquid ( w K i floatson water) may travel to an i 'tion source and flash back. The heat if fire may cause containers to explode and/or produce
irritating or poisonous decompositionproducts. ylene may present a vapor explosionhazard indoors, outdoors. or in sewers. Accumulated static
electricity my OCCUT from vapor or liquid flow sufficient to cause ignition. Special Flre- hting Procedures: Because fire may produce toxic
thermal decomposition products, wear a Self-contained breathingapparatus (SCBA)with a U facepiex operated in pressure-demand or positivepressure made. Strucaual firefighter's protective clothin will provide limited protection.If feasible and without risk, move containersfrom fue area.
Otherwise.cool fincxposed containers until well after fire is extinguished. Stay clear of tank ends. Use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles fa
massive cargo fires. If impossible, withdraw from area and let fire bum. Withdraw immediately in case of any tank discolorationor rising sound from
venting safety device. Do not release runoff From fire control methods to sewers or wateaways.
F
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polyme&a& cannot occur.-Xylene is easily chlorinat&, sulfonated. or nitrated. Chemical Ineompati6Uities: Incompatibilitiesinclude strong
acids and oxidiirs and 1~~ichloro-5,Sdimethyl-2,4-imidazolidin
(dichlorohydrantoh). XyIene attacks some forms of plastics, rubber, and
marings. Condltlons to Avoid: Avoid heat and ignition sources and incompatibles. Ha~ardousProducts of Decomposition: Thermal oxidative
decomposition of xylene can m d u c e carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and various hvdtocarbon IJroducts.
.. .
Carcinogenicity: The IARC!*64) NTP,(169)and OSHA(164)do not list xylene as a Carcinogen. Summary of Rlsks: Xylene is an eye, mucous - . . =
membrane,andrespiratory tract irritant Initation starts at 200ppm; severe breathing diffiialties which may be delayed in onset can occur at high
concentrations. It is a central nervous system (CNS)depressant and at high c~ncentmtionScan cause coma. Kidney and liver damage can occur with
xylene exposure. With prolonged or repeated cutaneous exposure, xylene produces a defatting dermatitis. Chronic toxicity is not well defined, but it
k less toxic than benzene. Prior to the 1950s. benzene was often found as a contaminant of xylene and the effects attributed to xylene such as blood
dyscrasias are questionable. Since the late 1950s. xylenes have been virtually benzene-freeand blood dyscrasias have not been associated with
xylenes. Qnonic exposure to high concentrations of xylene in animal studies have demonstrated milk reversibled v s e in red and white cell
counts as well as increases in platelet counts.
Continue on ntxi pod
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No. 318
Xvlene (Mixed Isomers) 9/92
pla&nta, but does-not appear to be teratogenic under conditions tested to d&. Medical Conditions Afgravated by LoG-Term Exposure: CNS,
respiratory, eye. skin. gastrointestinal (GI),liver and kidney disorders. Target Organs: CNS. eyes, G tract, liver, kidneys, and skin. Primary
Entry Routes: Inhalation, skin absorption (slight), eye contact, ingestion. Acute Wefts: Inhalation of high xylene concentrations may cause
dizziness; nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain; eye, nose, and throat initation; respiratoxy tract initation leading to pulmonary edema (fluid in
lung); drowsiness; and unconsciousness. Direct eye contact can result in conjunctivitis and corneal burns. Ingestion may cause a buming sensation
in the oropharynx and stomach and transient CNS depression. Chronic Effects Repeated or prolonged skin contact may cause drying and defatting of the skin leading to dermatitis. Repeated eye exposure to high vapor concentrations may cause reversible eye dama6e. peripheral and central
neuropathy. and liver damage. Other symptoms of chronic exposure include headache, fatigue. irritability, chronic bronchtis, and GI disturbances
such as nausea, loss of appetite, and gas.
FIRST AID Emergency personnel shouldprotect against exposure. Eyes: Do not allow victim to rub or keep eyes tightly shut. Gently lift eyelids
and flush immediately and continuously with flooding amounts of water until transported to an emergency medical facility. Consult a physician
immediately. Skin. Quickfy remove contaminated clothing. Rinse with flooding amounts of warex for at least 15 min. Wash exposed area with soap
and water. For reddened or blistered skin. consult a physician. Carefully dispose of contaminated clothing as it may pose a fire hazard. Inhalation:
Remove exposed person to fresh air and support breathing as needed. Monitor exposed person for respiratory distress. Ingestion: Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious or convulsing person. Contact a poison control center and unless otherwise advised, do not induce vomiring! If
spontaneous vomiting should occur, keep exposed person's head below the hips to prevent aspiration (breathing liquid xylene into the lungs).
Aspiration of a few millimeters of xylene can cause chemicdpnewnonitis,p u l m o ~ l yedema, and hemorrhage. Note to Physicians: Hippuric acid
or the ether glucuronide of ortho-toluicacid may be useful in diagnosis of mefa-,para- and ortho-xylene exposure, respectively. Consider gastric
lavage ifa large quantity of xylene was ingested. Proceed gastric lavage with protection of the airway from aspiration; consider endotracheal
intubation with inflated cuff.
personnel, remove all heat and ignition sources, ahd ventilate spill area. Cleanup
SpiU/Leak: Notify safety personnel, evacuate all
personnel should protect against vapor inhalation and skin or eye contact. If feasible and without undue risk, stop leak. Use appropriatefoam to
blanket release and suppress vapors. Water spray may reduce vapor, but does not prevent ignition in closed spaces. For small spills, absorb on paper
and evaporate in appropriateexhaust hood or absorb with sand or some noncombustible absorbent and place in containers for later disposal. For
large spills dike far ahead of liquid to contain. Do not allow xylene to enter a confined space such as sewers or drains. On land, dike to contain or
divert to impermeable holding area. Apply water spray to control flammable vapor and remove material with pumps or vacuum equipment. On
water, contain material with natural barriers. booms. or weirq apply universal gellin agent; and use suction hoses to remove spilled material.
Report any release in excess of lo00 lb. Follow applicable OSHA regulations (29 C h 1910.120). Environmental Transport: Little bioconcen&tion is expected. Biological oxygen demand 5 (aftes 5 days at 20 'C): 0.64 (no stated isomer). Ecotoxicity values: LD,, Goldfish, 13 mgN24 hr,
conditions of bioassay not specified. no specific isomer. Environmental Degradation: In the atmosphere, xylenes degrade by reacting with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with a half-life ranging from 1-1.7 hr. in the summer to 10-18 hr in winter or a typical loss of 67-86%
per day. Xylenes are resistant to hydrolysis. Soil AbsorptiodMobility: Xylenes have low to moderate adsorption to soil and when spilled on land,
will volatilize and leach into groundwater. Disposal: As a hydrocarbon, xylene is a good candidate for controlled incineration. Contact your supplier
or a licensed contractor for detailed recommendations. Follow applicable Federal, state, and local regulations.
EPA Designations
OSHA Designations
SARA Extremely Hazardous Substance (40 CFR 355): Not listed
Listed as an Air Contaminant (29 CFR 1910.1O00, Table Z-1-A)
Listed as a SARA Toxic Chemical (40 CFR 372.65)
Listed as a RCRA Hazardous Waste (40 CFR 261.33): No. U239, FUO3 (spent solvent)
Listed as a CERCLA Hazardous Substance* (40 CFR 302.4): Final Reportable Quantity (RQ. lo00 lb (454 kg) [* per Clean Water Act,
Sec.311(b)(4): ~ eRCRA.
r
See. 30011
."*
conzct lens use'in industry is &ntroversial, establish your own Glicy. RespGator: Seek pbfessional a h c e pri& to respirator sel&tion and use.
Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, wear a MSHA/NIOSH-approved respirator. For concenmtions >loo0
ppm. use any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor m i d g e s ; any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridges; any
supplied-air respirator; or any self-contained breathing apparatus. For emergency or nomoutine operations (cleaning spills, reactor vessels, or
storagetankr), wear an SCBA.Wmning! Air-purifying respwators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. If respirators are used,
Other: Wear chemically protective gloves, boots, aprons, and gauntlets to prevent all skincontact. With breakthrough times > 8 hr, consider
[email protected]~yl alcohol and fluorocarbon rubber (Viton) as materials for PPE. Ventilation: Provide general and local exhaust ventilation systems to
mamtain airborne concentrations below the OSHA PELS(Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents contaminant dispersion
into the work area by controlling it at its source.('03) Safety Stations: Make available in the work area emergency eyewash stations,safety/quickdrench showers, and washing facilities. Contaminated Equipment: Separate contaminated work clothes from street clothes. Launder contaminated work clothine before wmine. Remove this material from vour shoes and clean PPE. Comments Never eat. drink. or smoke in work areas.
potential health hazards. use sufficientdilution or local exhaust ventilation to control airborne contaminants and to maintain concentrations at the
lowest practical level. Use hermetically sealed equipment, transfer xylene in enclosed systems, avoid processes associated with open evaporating
surfaces, and provide sources of gas release with enclosures and local exhaust ventilation. Use Class I, Group D electrical equipment. Administrative Controls: Establish air and biological monitoring programs and evaluate regularly. Consider preplacement and periodic medical examinations
including a complete blood count, a routine urinalysis, and liver function tests. Consider hematologic studies if there is any significantcontamination
of the solvent with benzene. If feasible, consider the replacement of xylene by less toxic solvents such as petrol (motor fuel) or white spirit. Before
carrying out maintenance and repair work, steam and flush all equipment to remove any xylene residues.
Transportation Data (49 CFR 172.101)
DOT SWping Name: Xylenes
Packaging Authorizations
Quantity Limitations
Vessel Stowage R uirements
DOT Hazard Class: 3
a) Passenger, Aircraft, or Railcar: 5L
a) Vessel Stowagcy
a) Exceptions: 173.150
ID No.: UN1307
b) Other: b) Nonbulk Packaging : 173.202 b) cargo Aircraft Only: 6oL
DOT Packin Group: II
c) Bulk Packaging: 173.242
DOT Label: bammable Liquid
Special Provisions (172.102): T1
MSDS CoUeclion References: 26.73.89,100,101,103.124,126.127,132.133.136.139.140.148.149.153,159,163.164,
Prepared by: MJ Wunh, BS; Industrial Hygiene Review: PA Roy. MPH, CIH; Medical Review: W Silverman, MD
167.171.174.176.180.
Ccpy~ighlOI992byGcniumFuHiahingCapxAa1. Any cmvncrsid u t a rspmdusb ri~b~ui~hchcpubllhsr'apamirrior,
iapmhtbhsd Jdgncnu u l o h a u i u b i l i t y ofinlomvlmbsrsin f a hp u c h ~ c f apupmca
us-dyIhspurbudarc-ibili*.
A l ~ r u - b l ~ c u c h u ~ ~ i n I h s - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f - ~ D n i u m P u b l ~ C o r p a *rur&.rmtumrspsmu+.mdmuurra
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ATTACHMENT C
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR EXPOSURE TO
HAZARDOUS MATERIALSWASTE
1. Call ambulance or transport individual to hospital/clinic immediately. Monitor airway,
breathing and circulation during trip to hospital or while waiting for the ambulance.
Administer first aid or CPR, as necessary. Don't forget to take the HASP with you; it
contains information on the contaminants expected to be found on site and will assist the
physician in hidher assessment of the exposure.
2.
Fill in Potential Exposure Report, answering each of the questions to the best of your
ability.
3. Contact our physicianb) at EMR as soon as possible. The procedure is as follows:
a. Call EMR at 1-800-229-3674!
b. Asktospeakwith:
Dr.David L. Barnes;
Dr. Elaine Theriault; or
Ms.TJ.Wolff, R.N.
Note:
During nonbusiness hours (after 6 p.m.1 call 1-800-229-3674 and follow directions for
paging the aforementioned individuals.
4. Once in contact with any of these individuals, explain what has happened (they will
review the information on the form with you and may ask you to fax the form to them, if
possible), and allow either of them to speak with the attending physician.
5. When asked about payment (and they will ask), inform the HospitalEliniJPhysician that
this is a "work related injury" and have them contact the Benefits Coordinator at
- (412)269-2744. Have invoices sent to:
Michael Baker Jr. Inc.
A*.
Benefits Coordinator
Airport Ofice Park, Bldg. 3
Coraopolis, PA 15108
6. Contact the Project Manager and the Project Health and Safety Officer as soon as it is
feasible, but wait no longer than 24 hours.
. -
Page 1 of 2
POTENTIAL EXPOSURE REPORT
Name:
Date of Exposure:
Social Security No.:
Age:
Sex:
Exposing Agent
Name of Product or Chemicals (if known)
Characteristics (if the name is not known)
Solid
II,
Liquid
Gas
Fume
Mist
Vapor
Dose Determinants
W h a t was individual doing?
How long did individual work in area before signs/symptoms developed?
W a s protective gear being used? If yes, what was the PPE?
W a s there skin contact?
Was the exposing agent inhaled?
Were other persons exposed? If yes, did they experience symptoms?
m,
S i p and Symptoms (check off appropriate symptoms)
Im mediat ely with Exposure:
0 Burning of eyes, nose, or throat
0 Tearing
Headache
0 Cough
0 Shortness of breath
U Delirium
0 Chest tightnesdpressure
0 Nausedvomiting
Dizziness
0 Weakness
0 Heat flashes
cl Other
Delayed Symptoms:
0 Weakness
0 Nausedvomiting
CI Shortness of breath
0 Cough
0 Loss of appetite
0 Abdominal pain
0 Headache
CI Numbnedt ingling
0 Other
POTENTIAL EXPOSURE REPORT
Iv.
Page 2 of 2
Present Status of Symptoms (check off appropriate symptoms)
0
0
0
0
El
0
0
Burning of eyes, nose, or throat
Tearing
Headache
Cough
Shortness of breath
Chest tightness/pressure
Cyanosis (bluish skin color)
Nausedvomiting
Dizziness
Weakness
Loss of appetite
El Abdominal pain
0 Numbness/tingling
0 Other
0
0
0
0
Have symptoms (please check off appropriate response and give duration of
symptoms):
Improved
'CI,
Remain Unchanged
Reatment of Symptoms (check off appropriate response)
None
n
Worsened
Self-medicated
Name
(Attending physician)
M, Hospitat/Cliuic
Source:
EMR, Inc.
Physician treated
/"u
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