FlexiScope

FlexiScope
FLEXISCOPE
HAND HELD WAVEFORM
VECTOR AND AUDIO MONITOR
WITH HD+SD or SD+CST OPTIONS
OPERATOR'S HANDBOOK
V2.2 onwards
© 2007 Hamlet Video International Ltd. All rights reserved
This handbook contains proprietary information of Hamlet Video International Limited and
may not be copied in whole or in part nor its contents disclosed to any third parties without
the express written consent of the company.
Hamlet Video International Limited.
Maple House, 11 Corinium Business Centre, Raans Road, Amersham, Bucks HP6 6FB England.
Main Line: +44 (0)1494 729 728, Fax Line: +44 (0)1494 723 237, Free phone (UK): 0500 625 525
E-mail: [email protected] Web site: www.hamlet.co.uk
Hamlet Video International USA service center , Tecads Inc, 23 Del Padre St, Foothill Ranch, CA 92610, U.S.A.
Tel: +1 (949) 597 1053, Fax: +1 (949) 597 1094. Toll Free Tel number: (866) 4 HAMLET
E-mail: [email protected] Web site: www.hamlet.us.com
IN CORRESPONDENCE CONCERNING THIS INSTRUMENT
PLEASE QUOTE THE SERIAL NUMBER PRINTED ON THE
LABEL AT THE REAR OF THE UNIT
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CONTENTS
GENERAL INFORMATION
List of figures
Warranty
Safety and EMC compliance
Product disposal instructions
Overview
Case view
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GETTING STARTED
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Main menu
Waveform sub menu
Vector sub menu
Audio sub menu
Cursor sub menu
Logger sub menu
Alarm sub menu
Data sub menu
Display sub menu
Remote control
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ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS
Vertical Interval Timecode
To start the unit in a known state
To store and recall user settings
Power source
Battery charging
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
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TROUBLESHOOTING
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TV STANDARDS
Composite basics
SD serial digital basics
HD serial digital basics
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USEFUL WEBSITES
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CONTACT DETAILS AND CUSTOMER SUPPORT
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FIGURES
Fig 1
Fig 2
Fig 3
Fig 4
Fig 5
Fig 6
Fig 7
Fig 8
Fig 9
Fig 10
Fig 11
Fig 12
Fig 13
Fig 14
Fig 15
Fig 16
Fig 17
Fig 18
Fig 19
Case View
Status Display
Top Menu
Waveform Sub Menu
Vector Sub Menu
Audio Sub Menu
Audio Scales
Cursor Sub Menu
Logger Sub Menu
Alarm Sub Menu
Data Sub Menu
Display Sub Menu
PAL basics
NTSC basics
Serial Digital Basics
625 Field Blanking
525 Field Blanking
HD Sample structure
HD Embedded audio
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GENERAL INFORMATION
WARRANTY
This product is manufactured by Hamlet Video International Ltd and is warranted to be free
from defects in components and factory workmanship under normal use and service for a
period of one year from the date of purchase.
FREE EXTENDED WARRANTY
The warranty period can be extended to two years by registering the instrument on the
Hamlet web site
http://www.hamlet.co.uk/serv.html
TERMS AND CONDITIONS
During the warranty period, Hamlet Video International Ltd will undertake to repair or at its
option, replace this product at no charge to its owner when failing to perform as specified,
provided the unit is returned shipping prepaid, to the factory or authorised service facility.
No other warranty is expressed or implied. Warranty shall not be applicable and be void
when this product is subjected to:
1.
Repair work or alteration by persons other than those authorised by Hamlet Video
International Ltd in such a manner as to injure the performance, stability, reliability or
safety of this product.
2.
Misuse, negligence, accident, act of God, war or civil insurrection.
3.
Connection, installation, adjustment or use otherwise than in accordance with the
instructions in this manual.
Hamlet Video International Ltd reserves the right to alter specifications without notice. This
warranty does not affect the statutory rights of the UK customer.
5
GENERAL INFORMATION
SAFETY COMPLIANCE
This product is manufactured and tested to comply with BS EN 61010-1 : 1993
Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use.
EMC COMPLIANCE
We:
Hamlet Video International Limited
Maple House, 11 Corinium Business Centre, Raans Road
Amersham, Bucks, HP6 6FB, England.
Declare under our sole responsibility that the product HAMLET FLEXISCOPE to which
this declaration relates is in conformity with the following standards:
EN50081-1
EN50082-1
Generic emissions standard for light industrial applications.
Generic immunity standard for light industrial applications.
Following the provisions of EU EMC directives 89/336/EEC and 92/31/EEC.
NOTE. During the EMC certification of this product, shielded cables were used.
We recommend that they be used in operation.
PRODUCT DISPOSAL INSTRUCTIONS
The symbol shown above and on the Flexiscope means the product is classed as Electrical or
Electronic Equipment and should not be disposed with other commercial waste at the end of
its working life.
The Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive (2002/96/EC) has been
put in place to recycle products using best available recovery and recycling techniques to
minimise the impact on the environment, treat any hazardous substances and avoid the
increasing landfill.
Product disposal instructions for business users.
Business users should contact their Flexiscope supplier to arrange for its return to Hamlet,
who will safely dispose of it and ensure that this Flexiscope is not mixed with other
commercial waste for disposal.
6
OVERVIEW
The Hamlet Flexiscope is a hand held digital video waveform, vector and embedded/AES
audio monitor. It operates with one of two input option modules.
Option 1 accepts all major high definition and standard definition serial digital video
standards.
Option 2 accepts Serial Digital video in 625 and 525 line standards and Composite video in
PAL and NTSC standards.
The Flexiscope displays the waveforms on a high quality 3.5” VGA high contrast TFT liquid
crystal display. All the standard displays are produced, including H and V Mag, Line Select,
Component Parade and Bowtie.
Proprietary patented digital signal processing produces displays with the look of a CRT but
without the problems of scan burn, EHT difficulties etc. The very low power consumption
also allows it to be used in the field from an external 12V supply or its own internal
rechargeable or alkaline batteries.
An additional feature is a display of component vectors. The unit also contains a high
specification audio de-embedder and an AES receiver, allowing audio bar graph displays of
four channels of audio (two from AES) and a vector audio phase display. There is a stereo
headphone monitor output jack and internal loudspeaker, fed from a high quality 1-bit DAC.
Remote control software allows all functions to be controlled from a personal computer and
for waveforms to be downloaded to the computer for display and storage.
The serial digital signal itself is analysed to give on-screen readouts of the EDH/CRC word,
various digital parameter errors and signal strength in the top of screen status bar.
Measurement cursors are provided to allow amplitude and timing differences to be measured
between two points on the waveform display and to provide vector phase and amplitude on
the vector display.
7
CASE VIEW
Fig 1
8
GETTING STARTED
UNPACKING
The Hamlet Flexiscope is shipped from the factory in a specially constructed packing case.
Exercise caution when unpacking the unit to prevent damage to the case finish. Examine the
unit carefully for damage, which may have occurred during shipment, if severely handled.
CHANGING OPTION MODULES
The Hamlet Flexiscope will normally be supplied with the requested option module. If an
additional module is purchased, care is needed to protect the delicate electronics in the
module and base unit when changing the module. All work should be carried out in an antistatic environment.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Switch off the unit and remove the power lead and any cables to the option unit.
Remove the two screws holding in the option module.
Gently slide out the module and place in an anti-static bag.
Remove the new option module from its bag and gently slide in to the base unit,
checking it is the correct way up.
Replace the two screws holding in the module.
POWER REQUIREMENTS
The Flexiscope should be powered from the supplied adaptor, or a regulated supply of
12VDC of at least 0.5 amp rating, centre negative, to the 2.1mm power socket.
It can also be run from its internal rechargeable batteries, giving four hours of continuous
use.
On first use, the 12V power supply should be connected for at least 14 hours, to fully charge
the batteries.
SIGNAL AND CONTROL CONNECTIONS
The HD/SD or SD/CST input connection is made to the centre BNC socket, which is
internally terminated at 75 ohms.
The left BNC provides an equalised output of the input feed and the right BNC allows an
external timing reference or AES audio signal to be input.
PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE
The Hamlet Flexiscope should be visually inspected and cleaned every one year of operation.
CAUTION. The display screen is made from polycarbonate, which may soften if cleaned
with some organic solvents. Do not allow water to get inside the equipment case.
9
GETTING STARTED
1.
Connect the supplied 12V power adaptor output to the rear 2.1mm input jack.
2.
Apply AC mains (100 - 250VAC) to the power adaptor.
3.
Connect a suitable video feed to the centre BNC.
4.
Press the front panel power button. The software versions will be displayed for the
first two seconds.
5.
The Flexiscope remembers all the setting when it was previously used, so if the icon
menu is not visible, press the far right key.
6.
If the Flexiscope was previously used in a non standard set-up, it can be reset by
switching on while holding down the left hand menu key. The key must be held down
for at least 4 seconds.
TYPICAL STATUS DISPLAY
Fig 2
The following abbreviations are used:
H is horizontal time base range.
x1 is the vertical gain.
10 BIT shows that all the input 10 bits are active, otherwise shows 8 BIT.
HD 24 (etc) is the television standard:
HD 60 is 1080/60/2:1
720 60 is 720/60/1:1
HD 50 is 1080/50/2:1
720 50 is 720/50/1:1
HD 48 is 1080/24/sf
HD 30 is 1080/30/1:1
HD 25 is 1080/25/1:1
SD 625 is 625 (composite displays PAL)
HD 24 is 1080/24/1:1
SD 525 is 525 (composite displays NTSC)
1/1.001 standards show a # symbol before the standard number.
To the right of the television standard display is an indication of the state of battery charge or
SDI cable attenuation in dbs, as set in the DISPLAY menu.
The internal real time clock displays on the right of the status screen and has a battery backup
for at least 5 years. If there is a letter V in front of the number, it is showing the vertical
interval timecode on the input video.
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
All Flexiscope functions are controlled from a simple menu structure.
TOP MENU
Fig 3
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
WAVEFORM SUB MENU
Fig 4
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VECTOR SUB MENU
Fig 5
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
AUDIO SUB MENU
Fig 6
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
AUDIO SUB MENU
Fig 7
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
CURSOR SUB MENU
Fig 8
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LOGGER SUB MENU
Fig 9
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OPERATING INSTRUCTION
ALARM SUB MENU
These alarms can be set individually. When set and an error of that type occurs, they will
have the following effects:
If the logger is running the error will be logged
If the logger is not running the error count will be displayed in the top status bar in Data
mode and an audible warning will sound.
With SD Video Input
Fig 10a
With HD Video Input
Fig 10b
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
DATA SUB MENU
Fig 11
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
DISPLAY SUB MENU
Fig 12
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INSTALLATION OF SOFTWARE
Equipment needed to remote control the Hamlet Flexiscope or Microflex:
PC running Win98 or later.
Software: CDROM supplied by Hamlet
USB lead with type A to mini B connectors.
From the supplied CDROM
Fit the Hamlet Flexiscope CD to your CD-ROM Drive,
If the CD Drive does not start automatically double click on the setup.exe file on the CD.
Follow the onscreen instructions. This will install various utilities & programs in a folder
C:\Program Files\Microflex_rem on your PC.
For Win XP Computers (disconnect from internet if using XP + SP1)
Power up the Flexiscope & plug in the USB cable from it to the PC.
The PC should detect the new USB device & launch the 'New Hardware Wizard'
which will ask for the location of the required drivers.
Tick the 'Install from list or specific location1' option....Next
Tick ‘search for best driver in these locations and tick ‘include this location in search’
Use Browse to navigate to folder C:\Program Files\Microflex_rem......Next
If a warning about ‘Windows Logo testing’ appears, click 'Continue anyway' ... Finish
For Win98 Computers
Power up the Flexiscope & plug in the USB cable from it to the PC.
The PC should detect the new USB device & launch the 'New Hardware Wizard'
which will ask for the location of the required drivers.
Tick the 'Search for best driver' option....Next
Use Browse to navigate to folder C:\Program Files\Microflex_rem........Next
If ‘Insert Hamlet disk’ message appears, ignore it & press OK.
If ‘Can’t find FTD2XX.CAT’ message appears, ignore it & press ‘Skip File‘....Finish
If the PC does not launch the 'New Hardware Wizard'
1)
Check that the USB cable is correct & the Flexiscope switched is on.
2)
Some drivers may already be installed on your PC, to check:
Go to Start...Control Panel...System...Hardware...Device Manager
scroll down the list to look at the USB controllers, click Properties.
3)
You can delete old drivers using Control Panel:
Start...Control Panel...Add/Remove Programs
Scroll down list till see FTDI USB drivers or Hamlet MicroFlex USB Drivers
then Delete.
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TO RUN THE REMOTE CONTROL UTILITY
From the Desktop click Start then ‘Programs’ then select the MicroFlex option from the list
Double clicking will launch the utility or drag it onto the desktop to make a shortcut for easy
use in future.
The utility consists of 2 main parts:
An Error logger, which can download a recorded list of errors gathered by the unit.
This list can be viewed on the PC by scrolling the displayed list, it can be printed out on the
computer’s printer or the error logger in the unit can be deleted if required.
Commands which download the actual ‘on screen picture’ from the unit.
The Waveform, Vector or Audio displays can be downloaded.
This can be done once or continuously.
The picture can be stored on the PC as a .BMP file, also previously stored pictures
may be recalled for display.
Logger Commands
Get Log
This button downloads the stored errors from the Flexiscope.
They are displayed in the message area on the screen in the following format. The top 2 lines
lists the types of error that the unit has been set to monitor, these are as follows:
TRS Means the unit is monitoring CODE errors eg SAV & EAV errors.
LNE Means monitoring LINE number errors in HD video.
CRC1 Means monitoring AP CRC errors (Active picture CRC) in SD video streams
or Y CRC errors in HD video.
CRC2 Means monitoring FF CRC errors (Full Field CRC) in SD video streams
or C CRC errors in HD video streams.
ANC Means monitoring errors in the ancillary data packets in SD or HD video streams.
LCK Means monitoring for the unit not locking on the incoming video stream.
GAM Means monitoring for out of GAMUT levels in the active video area.
ILL Means monitoring for ILLEGAL levels in the active video area.
The Errors are then listed in a table.
The error number is listed first starting at 1 and going up to a possible 940.
The type of error is next, taken from the selection the unit was set to monitor.
Note: If 2 or more errors occur at the same time the message MULTI is displayed
The video standard being input at the time the error occurred is next.
The time the error occurred is displayed at the end of the line.
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The standards are abbreviated as follows:
60 Hz:
59.94 Hz
50 Hz
48 Hz
47.95 Hz
30 Hz
29.97 Hz
25 Hz
24 Hz
23.97 Hz
525
625
720 60
#720 60
720 50
Unknown
is 1929 x 1080 60Hz Interlaced
is 1929 x 1080 60/1.001Hz Interlaced
is 1929 x 1080 50Hz Interlaced
is 1929 x 1080 48Hz Interlaced
is 1929 x 1080 48/1.001Hz Interlaced
is 1929 x 1080 30Hz Progressive
is 1929 x 1080 30/1.001Hz Progressive
is 1929 x 1080 25Hz Progressive
is 1929 x 1080 24Hz Progressive
is 1929 x 1080 24/1.001Hz Progressive
is SD 525 lines 60Hz Interlaced
is SD 625 lines 50 Hz Interlaced
is 1280 x 720 60Hz Progressive
is 1280 x 720 60/1.001Hz Progressive
is 1280 x 720 50Hz Progressive
is unknown standard
A typical log may look like this:
------------------------------------------------------------MONITORED ERROR TYPES
TRS, GAM, LCK, ILL
ERROR
STD HOUR MIN SEC
1: ILLEGAL 525 14
23 01
2: GAMUT 525 14
30 24
3: LOCK
525 15
24 56
4: LOCK
525 15
25 56
5: LOCK
525 15
31 56
6: LOCK
525 15
34 56
7: LOCK
525 15
44 56
8: LOCK
525 15
44 57
9: LOCK
525 15
44 03
---------------End of Log-------------------------------This means the Flexiscope was monitoring the following error types:
TRS (CODE), GAMUT, UNLOCK and ILLEGAL errors.
The first error was an ILLEGAL error in a 525 video stream and occurred at 14/23/01
The second error was an GAMUT error in a 525 video stream and occurred at 14/30/24
etc.
Print Log
This will print the displayed log to the PC’s printer.
Erase Log
This will erase the logged error data stored in the Flexiscope.
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Download Picture Commands
1 Frame
This command causes 1 frame to be downloaded from the unit and be displayed on the
screen, this command only works with Waveforms, Vectors and Audio displays.
Continuous
This command causes frames to be downloaded from the unit continuously and be displayed
on the screen, this command only works with Waveforms, Vectors and Audio displays.
Stop
This command cancels the Continuous mode.
Print
This command will send the display to your printer.
Files
This command calls the file handling window where the displayed picture can be
stored to disc or recalled.
To store a displayed picture as a .BMP file select the Drive required and the Folder in that
drive using the list boxes provided, then type in the name you wish to call the file, eg
mypicture.bmp Then click the Store button
To display a stored .BMP file select the Drive required and the Folder in that drive
using the list boxes provided, then click on the file you wish to use, eg mypicture.bmp
Then click the Display button, the file will be displayed in the main window.
The Cancel button returns to the main window.
Auxiliary Commands
Clear clears the display areas.
Exit closes the utility.
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ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS
Vertical interval timecode
If there is a VITC signal on the Composite or SDI input video, this is decoded and replaces
the clock display on the status bar. A letter "V" is added to the left of the display to identify
VITC display mode. The error logger will also use the VITC time.
To start the unit in a known state
Powering on the unit normally will recall the settings previously used, but if previous settings
were non-standard, factory set mode can be established to allow faster use.
Select the [DATA] icon, then the Factory settings icon [FCT].
To store and recall user settings
8 sets of front panel setting can be stored for later recall.
To Store Settings: From the WFM, VEC or AUD menus, select [AUX] then [STO] and a
number from 1 to 8.
To Recall the settings: From the WFM, VEC or AUD menus, select [AUX] then [RCL] and a
number from 1 to 8.
Power Source
The Hamlet Flexiscope can be powered from the supplied adaptor, providing 12V @ 1 amp
regulated, or from internal alkaline or rechargeable batteries.
Set the internal jumper to the CHG position when using NiCd or NiMh batteries. When using
alkaline batteries, this must be set to the off position to avoid possible battery damage.
To avoid damage to the Flexiscope when using a power source other than the supplied
adapter, please ensure that it has a 12V regulated output rated at 0.5 amps minimum and has
a 2.1mm plug with a negative ground and a negative centre lead.
Battery Charging
When external power is supplied, the factory fitted NiMh batteries are automatically charged,
whether or not the unit is switched on. If non rechargeable batteries are fitted, the CHARGE
jumper should be moved to the OFF position to prevent possible damage due to battery
leakage.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
INPUTS WITH SD-CST MODULE
INPUT
BNC connector. Input impedance 75 ohms. Max d.c. +/- 10V.
SMPTE 259M serial digital at 800mV p/p.
Auto equalised up to 350 metres of cable at 270Mb/s.
PAL or NTSC composite video 0.5 to 2.0V p/p.
SDI output.
BNC connector. Output impedance 75 ohms. Equalised version of the
serial digital input.
Ext-ref / AES input. BNC connector. Input impedance 75 ohms. Max dc +/- 3 volts.
Video 0.5 to 2.0V p/p.
Digital Audio min 150mV p/p, max 3V p/p conforming to S/PDIF,
AES3, IEC60958 or EIAJ CP1201.
INPUTS WITH HD-SD MODULE
SD/HD digital input. BNC connector. Input impedance 75 ohms. Max d.c. +/- 10V.
SMPTE 259M serial digital at 800mV p/p.
SMPTE 292M high definition serial digital at 800mV p/p.
Auto equalised up to 350 metres of cable at 270Mb/s.
Auto equalised up to 140 metres of cable at 1.485Gb/s.
SD/HD digital output. BNC connector. Output impedance 75 ohms. Equalised version of the
serial digital input.
Ext-ref / AES input. BNC connector. Input impedance 75 ohms. Max dc +/- 3 volts.
Video 0.5 to 2.0V p/p.
Digital Audio min 150mV p/p, max 3V p/p conforming to S/PDIF,
AES3, IEC60958 or EIAJ CP1201.
AUDIO MONITORING OUTPUT
3.5mm stereo jack socket and internal loudspeaker.
REMOTE CONTROL
USB
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
POWER
12V d.c. to 2.1mm jack, centre negative, 0.5A max.
ENVIRONMENT
Indoor use, 5 to 45 deg.C. ambient to 2,000m.
Max humidity 80% to 31 deg.C decreasing to 50% at 40 deg.C.
Overvoltage category 2. Pollution degree 1.
Weight 1.2Kg.
DISPLAY AREAS
Display
72.0mm x 52.5mm viewing area.
Resolution
640 pixels wide x 480 pixels high.
WAVEFORM MONITOR
Response
Flat is +/- 1% 50Hz to 5.5MHz (25.0MHz in HD modes).
Low Pass is -3db @ 1.5MHz, -60db @ 6.75MHz.
Timebase
H, 2H and Hmag (x5).
V, 2V and Vmag.
Line select is any line from the frame.
Parade is YCrCb left to right.
VECTOR MONITOR
Video
Traditional component display.
Accuracy 0.2%. B/width 3.4MHz (12MHz in HD).
Audio
Stereo phase display of CH1 or CH2 audio pair.
Phase accuracy 2 deg.
AUDIO MONITOR
Accuracy
Better than 0.1db over full scale range.
Characteristics
BBC, EBU, Nordic, VU, DIGITAL & DIN.
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TROUBLE SHOOTING
Unit appears dead:
Check that the 12V supply adaptor is plugged into the unit and that this is plugged into an
operational mains supply, or if unplugged, that the batteries are charged.
No video displayed:
If there is no video signal connected to the selected input, the screen will display the message
“No Signal”.
Unusual display:
The unit may be set to a non-standard mode. Reset the unit as follows.
Select the [DATA] icon, then the Factory settings icon [FCT].
If the menus can't be accessed, the Flexiscope may need to be re-booted. Switch off the unit
and then switch on again while holding down the left hand menu key. The key should be held
down for at least four seconds.
Displays not locked:
May be in external reference mode. Press the menu EXT REF key to cancel. This may need
pressing twice to step through the HFT mode.
No vector display:
Audio vectors may have been selected.
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COMPOSITE BASICS
COMPONENT COLOUR
The colour picture can be distributed in two forms, whether in 625 or 525 line standards:
RGB
This is the basic signal produced by a camera etc and fed to a colour CRT It consists of three
primary signals, Red, Green and Blue. By convention, black level is at 0mV and peak
brightness is at + 700mV.
YCrCb
As the human eye can see less resolution with colours, the video can be modified to take
advantage of this to reduce the amount of information needed. The picture is separated into
monochrome and colour components. The monochrome Y signal is formed from:
Y = (0.3 x Red) + (0.59 x Green) + (0.11 x Blue) approximately.
This signal has black level at 0mV and maximum white level at + 700mV.
The colour components are two colour difference signals:
Cr = (R-Y) and Cb = (B-Y)
These are weighted to give maximum values of +/- 350mV and are bandwidth restricted to
half that of the Y component.
PAL
Fig 18 shows an encoded 100% colour bar signal. The two colour components of Cr and Cb
are used to amplitude modulate a 4.43361875Mhz carrier signal. The two carriers are
arranged to be 90 degrees apart before they are combined with the Y luminance signal, so
that they can be decoded separately. The PAL system is designed to minimise hue errors by
phase reversing the Cr axis on alternate lines (Phase Alternate Line). This reversal is copied
by the decoder, so that the hue error will now alternate in phase. By combining the
chrominance from two adjacent lines, the error is thus cancelled out.
NTSC
Fig 19 shows an encoded SMPTE (75%) colour bar signal. The two colour components of Cr
and Cb are used to amplitude modulate a 3.579545Mhz carrier signal, but they are first
modified into I and Q signals to reduce the overall maximum chrominance level when
combined.
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Fig 13
30
Fig 14
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SD SERIAL DIGITAL BASICS
625 and 525 digital component video is produced by applying a 4:2:2 sampling structure to
the analog signal. This process is defined by a sub-set of international standards ITU-R
BT.601 and BT.656. (these were formerly known as CCIR-601 and CCIR-656. The label
'CCIR601' is commonly applied to digital video coded in this manner.)
The luminance (Y) component is sampled at 13.5 MHz, and the colour difference
components (U and V) are both sampled at 6.75 MHz. With 10 bit quantisation, this results in
a data stream of 10 bit words at a clock frequency of 27 MHz. If the signal source uses 8 bit
quantisation, 10 bit data is used with the two least significant bits of each sample code set to
binary zero. This is to maintain the same data rate.
The quantizing levels employed in the analog to digital conversion are set to give 66.4mV
headroom above peak white and 51.1mV below black. Coded U and V signals have 50mV
above and below their normal maximum and minimum excursions.
The synchronisation pulses are discarded in the coding process, and are replaced by Timing
Reference Signals (TRS) which are inserted into the data stream to serve the same purpose.
Two TRS's are used to synchronise the data stream, EAV (End of Active Video) and SAV
(Start of Active Video). These are placed at the beginning and end of the horizontal video
blanking period. see fig 15.
Each TRS consists of 4 words:
1) 3ff hex ie all '1's
2) 000 hex ie all '0's
3) 000 hex ie all '0's
4) XYZ, which determines the type of TRS pulse:
XYZ:
Bit 9:
Bit 8:
Bit 7:
Bit 6:
Bit 5:
Bit 4:
Bit 3:
Bit 2:
Bit 1:
Bit 0:
always '1'
0 = frame 1 1 = frame 2
0 = normal
1 = field blanking
0 = SAV
1 = EAV
Bits used for Hamming correction.
Bits used for Hamming correction.
Bits used for Hamming correction.
Bits used for Hamming correction.
Always '0'
Always '0'
32
SD SERIAL DIGITAL BASICS
The period between EAV and SAV is not used by normal video and is available for other
purposes eg: error checking, timecodes or embedded audio.
Illegal Values: The values 0 and 3FF hex are used solely by TRS pulses (EAV and SAV) they
must not appear anywhere in the active video area.
Out of Gamut: Values apart from the illegal values which should not be used.
Luminance is defined as being between peak white, 700mV 3AC, hex and
black, 0mV 040 hex.
Chroma is defined as being between max positive, 350mV 3C0, hex and
max negative, -350mV 040 hex.
The values above and below these are termed out of gamut.
The data is serialised using an NRZ (None Return to Zero) code to produce a 270 Mb/s
signal. This coding method removes any low frequency component and is insensitive to
polarity. The data has to be scrambled first to avoid the possible transmission of all '0's.
This data is output at 800mV p-p to normal 75 ohm video coaxial cable.
Due to the high frequencies, the cable losses are quite high, typically 10dB per 100 metres at
270 MHz. To allow acceptable cable lengths, automatic cable equalises are used at the
receiver which usually allow up to 300 metres of cable to be used. It is important that
standard cable is used, otherwise the equaliser will not compensate correctly.
Suitable cable is:
PSF 2/3
BELDEN 8281
F&G 1.0/6.6
DIGITAL ERROR DETECTION OVERVIEW
In order to check if the digital video signal has been received correctly a Cyclic Redundancy
Check (CRC) can be made on each frame in the generating equipment, this four digit number
is then placed in a 'packet' and put in the EAV-SAV space of one line of each field.
At the receiving equipment the incoming video field also has a Cyclic Redundancy Check
number calculated, this value is then compared with the 4 digit number sent in the packet. If
the two numbers are not identical an error has occurred between transmission and reception
of the signal.
33
SD SERIAL DIGITAL BASICS
This type of error detection is known as Error Detection and Handling or EDH and is defined
by SMPTE RP165. In practice two check sums are sent per frame, one for the active video
period and one for the full frame. A typical packet consists of:
The Header:
(000, 3FF, 3FF) This always precedes an EDH packet.
Data ID:
Block Number:
Data Count:
Active picture crc:
Full-field crc
Error flags:
Reserved:
Check Sum:
(1F4)
(200)
This contains the number of words that follow.
3 words
3 words
3 words
7 words
This is used to test for transmission errors.
EMBEDDED AUDIO OVERVIEW
The period between the EAV and SAV markers can be used to send embedded digital audio
signals. This is known as SMPTE 272M. Up to 16 separate audio signals may be sent in a
single video channel. These are organised as four GROUPS of four signals, the four signals
are often two stereo pairs. Typically only one group will be used, giving two stereo pairs of
audio. The audio data is digitised in the sending equipment to 20 bits of resolution, usually at
a 48 KHz sample rate. Often only 16 bits are used in practice. The digitised data is arranged
in packets which are placed in the EAV-SAV space.
A typical packet consists of:
The Header:
Data ID:
Block Number:
Data Count:
Audio Sample:
Audio Sample:
Audio Sample:
Audio Sample:
Check Sum:
(000, 3FF, 3FF) This always precedes an audio packet.
This contains the Audio Group number.
AES blocks have 192 'frames' of audio data
This contains the number of words that follow.
This is used to test for transmission errors.
Each audio sample consists of a sample of all four audio signals,
eg: Channel 1 left, Channel 1 right, Channel 2 left, Channel 2 right.
Each signal requires 3 words to hold all 20 bits data, thus each audio sample has 12 words in
it. Typically 3 or 4 audio samples are sent in each EAV-SAV period.
As with the video signal, words which consist of all '1's or all '0's are not allowed.
34
Fig 15
35
Fig 16/17
36
HD SERIAL DIGITAL BASICS
BIT SERIAL DIGITAL INTERFACE DEFINED BY SMPTE 292M.
HDTV digital component video is produced by applying a 4:2:2 sampling structure to the
analog signal. The luminance component (Y) is sampled at 74.25 MHz, the colour difference
components U & V) are both sampled at 37.125 MHz.
The Y stream is quantised to 10 bits resolution and Timing Reference Signals (TRS) are
added at the beginning and end of the horizontal video blanking period.
The U & V streams are also quantised to 10 bits and then interleaved to give a C stream at
74.25 MHz. TRS are added at the beginning and end of the horizontal video blanking period.
The 74.25MHz Y and C streams are then interleaved to produce a single stream at
148.5MHz.
This data is then scrambled and serialised using a None Return to Zero (NRZ) code to
produce a 1.485 GHz signal.
The TRS at the end of the horizontal blanking period is called Start of Active Video (SAV) it
consists of 4 words:
1) 3FF hex ie all '1;s
2) 000 hex ie all '0's
3) 000 hex ie all '0's
4) XYZ, which determines the type of TRS pulse, consisting of:
Bit 9:
Bit 8:
Bit 7:
Bit 6:
Bit 5:
Bit 4:
Bit 3:
Bit 2:
Bit 1:
Bit 0:
Always '1'
0=frame 1, 1=frame 2
0=normal 1=field blanking
0=SAV 1=EAV
Bits used for Hamming correction.
Bits used for Hamming correction.
Bits used for Hamming correction.
Bits used for Hamming correction.
Always 0
Always 0
The TRS at the beginning of the horizontal blanking period is called End of Active Video
(EAV) it consists of 8 words: The first 4 are the same as for SAV, followed by 2 words
containing the current line number and 2 words containing a Cyclic Redundancy Check
(CRC) for all the preceding words in the line. The period between EAV and SAV is not used
by normal video and may be used for embedded audio or timecode data.
ILLEGAL VALUES
The values 000 and 3FF hex are used solely by TRS pulses (EAV & SAV) they must not
appear anywhere in the active video area.
37
SAMPLE STRUCTURE
Fig 18
38
PARALLEL DIGITAL INTERFACES
Several parallel video Standards can be used with the above serial interface. These are
defined in SMPTE 274M for 1920 x 1080 scanning and SMPTE 296M for 1280 x 720
scanning.
SMPTE 274M
Several sub-standards for this are defined:
1920 x 1080/60/2:1
1920 samples/active line 1080 active line/frame 30PsF segmented format.
74.25 MHz Sample frequency 2200 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
1920 x 1080/59.94/2:1
1920 samples/active line 1080 active line/frame 29.97PsF segmented format.
74.176 MHz Sample frequency 2200 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
This standard gives an exact frame rate compatibility with NTSC.
1920 x 1080/50/2:1
1920 samples/active line 1080 active line/frame 25PsF segmented format.
74.25 MHz Sample frequency 2640 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
1920 x 1080/30/1:1
1920 samples/active line 1080 active line/frame 30 Hz Progressive scan.
74.25 MHz Sample frequency 2200 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
1920 x 1080/29.97/1:1
1920 samples/active line 1080 active line/frame 29.97 Hz Progressive scan.
74.176 MHz Sample frequency 2200 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
This standard gives an exact frame rate compatibility with NTSC.
1920 x 1080/25/1:1
1920 samples/active line 1080 active line/frame 25 Hz Progressive scan.
74.25 MHz Sample frequency 2640 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
1920 x 1080/24/1:1
1920 samples/active line 1080 active line/frame 24 Hz Progressive scan.
74.25 MHz Sample frequency 2750 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
1920 x 1080/24sf
1920 samples/active line 1080 activelines/frame 24 Hz segmented frame
74.25 MHz sample frequency 2750 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
1920 x 1080/23.98/1:1
1920 samples/active line 1080 active line/frame 23.98 Hz Progressive scan.
74.176 MHz Sample frequency 2750 total samples/line 1125 total lines/frame
39
HD SERIAL DIGITAL BASICS
SMPTE 296M
Several substandards for this are defined:
1280 x 720/60/1:1
1280 samples/active line 720 active line/frame 60 Hz Progressive scan.
74.25 MHz Sample frequency 1650 total samples/line 750 total lines/frame
1280 x 720/59.94/1:1
1280 samples/active line 720 active line/frame 59.94 Hz Progressive scan.
74.176 MHz Sample frequency 1650 total samples/line 750 total lines/frame
1280 x 720/50/1:1
1280 samples/active line 720 active line/frame 50 Hz Progressive scan.
74.25 MHz Sample frequency 1980 total samples/line 750 total lines/frame
EMBEDDED AUDIO
The period between EAV and SAV can be used to send embedded digital audio signals. This
is defined in SMPTE 299M. Up to 16 separate audio signals may be sent in a single video
channel. These are organised as four GROUPS of four signals, the four signals are often two
stereo pairs. Typically only one group will be used, giving two stereo pairs of audio. The
audio data is quantised in the sending equipment to 24 bits of resolution, usually at 48 KHz
sample rate in AES/EBU format. The digitised data is arranged in packets which are placed
in the EAV-SAV space.
A packet consists of:
Fig 19
40
HD SERIAL DIGITAL BASICS
The Header: (000, 3FF, 3FF)
Data ID: This contains the Audio group number.
Data block number: AES frames have 192 samples of audio data
Data Count: This contains the number of words that follow, always 218 hex
Clock: 2 words containing the number of video clocks that have elapsed between the first
word of EAV and the time the audio sample was made, it is used by the receiving equipment
to reconstruct the audio signal with the correct phase delay.
Audio Sample 1: Consists of four words
Audio Sample 2: Consists of four words
Audio Sample 3: Consists of four words
Audio Sample 4: Consists of four words
Error Correction Codes
Consist of six words used by the receiving equipment to detect or correct errors in the 24
words from the header to the last word of audio sample 4 inclusive.
Check Sum This is the sum of all previous words in the packet except the header words.
Each audio packet contains a sample of all four audio signals
eg: Channel 1 left, Channel 1 right, Channel 2 left and Channel 2 right.
Each audio signal requires 3 words to hold all 24 bits, thus each audio packet has 12 words of
audio data.
Typically one or two packets are sent in each EAV-SAV period.
These audio data packets are placed in the Chroma data stream only.
Audio Control Packets.
The audio control packet structure is similar to the audio data packet.
Data in the packet includes the audio sample rate eg 48 KHz,
the number of active channels out of the possible 4,
the delay information between Channel 1 audio and Channel 2
and delay information between Channel 3 audio and Channel 4.
Audio control packets are placed in the Luminance Stream, this is sent once per frame in the
second line after the switching point.
As with the video signal, words consisting of all '1's or all '0's are not allowed.
41
USEFUL WEBSITES
FLEXISCOPE
www.flexiscope.tv
HAMLET
www.hamlet.co.uk
HAMLET (USA)
www.hamlet.us.com
SMPTE
www.smpte.org
Society of Motion Picture Television Engineers
DIN
www.din.de
German Standards Institute
EBU
www.ebu.ch
European Broadcasting Union
AES
www.aes.org
Audio Engineering Society
ITU
www.itu.int
International Telecommunication Union
CONTACT DETAILS AND CUSTOMER SUPPORT
For any form of assistance in maintaining your Flexiscope, please contact:
Hamlet Video International Limited.
Maple House, 11 Corinium Business Centre, Raans Road, Amersham, Bucks HP6 6FB
England.
Main Line: +44 (0)1494 729 728
Fax Line: +44 (0)1494 723 237
Free phone (UK): 0500 625 525
E-mail: [email protected] Web site: www.hamlet.co.uk
Hamlet Video International USA service center , Tecads Inc, 23 Del Padre St, Foothill
Ranch, CA 92610, U.S.A.
Tel: +1 (949) 597 1053
Fax: +1 (949) 597 1094
Toll Free Tel number: (866) 4 HAMLET
E-mail: [email protected] Web site: www.hamlet.us.com
In correspondence concerning this instrument, please quote the serial number, which you will
find printed on the label at the back of the unit.
42
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