アプリケーション PPM100分圧モニタが有効な理由

アプリケーション PPM100分圧モニタが有効な理由
PPM100 Application Note
Do I need a PPM100 Partial
Pressure Monitor for my SRS
RGA?
Introduction ..................................................................................... 2
What is the PPM100 controller? ..................................................... 3
How does the PPM100 interface to the SRS RGA?....................... 4
What does the PPM100 controller do? .......................................... 5
Partial Pressure Monitor and Control ................................................................5
Leak Test Analysis ............................................................................................5
Mass Spec Display............................................................................................6
RGA Control .....................................................................................................7
Analog I/O Ports ................................................................................................8
Capacitance Manometer readings (CM1-4) ......................................................8
Data Logging (Charts and Tables) ....................................................................9
Vacuum Process Control.................................................................................10
Computer Interfaces (RS-232, GPIB and USB)...............................................10
Internet Access................................................................................................11
Who should consider the PPM100?............................................. 13
Do I still need RGA Windows? ..................................................... 16
PPM100 Specifications ................................................................. 17
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
2
Introduction
If you are planning to purchase an SRS RGA, or even if you already own one,
you might want to consider the addition of a PPM100 Partial Pressure Monitor to
your vacuum setup.
The PPM100 was designed based on recommendations from vacuum users with
a broad range of partial pressure measurement requirements. The PPM100 is
most suitable for RGA users who …
… require analog I/O capabilities.
… require process control capabilities.
… perform repetitive vacuum processes.
… demand high reliability (i.e. mission-critical applications.)
… need access to RGA data over the world wide web
… operate in process environments incompatible with PCs
… require uninterrupted 24/7 access to partial pressure data
… require a compact and mobile partial pressure measurement
setup.
… prefer a traditional standalone RGA controller box over a PC.
… do not wish to deal with computers, software upgrades and
system crashes
If any of the above requirements applies to you, please read the rest of this
application note to familiarize yourself with: (1) the main features and
specifications of the PPM100 controller, (2) the advantages of operating any SRS
RGA with a stand-alone PPM100 controller (i.e. as compared to a PC/RGA
Windows interface), and (3) the cases in which RGA Windows is still
recommended.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
3
What is the PPM100 controller?
Figure 1. Front panel of the PPM100 controller with its
touchscreen/LCD display and RGA control buttons.
The PPM100 Partial Pressure Monitor is a standalone, fully-programmable,
microprocessor-based vacuum system controller that when connected to any
SRS RGA100/200/300 residual gas analyzer can continuously monitor and
display partial pressures of up to eight individual gas components. It includes a
touchscreen/LCD front-panel display, pressure vs. time and analog-scan
graphing, built-in relays for vacuum system control and several multipurpose
(analog and digital) I/O ports. RS-232, USB and GPIB computer interfaces are
standard in all controllers. An Embedded Web Server (EWS), with a standard
Ethernet connector, connects the PPM100 to the World Wide Web.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
How does the PPM100 interface to
the SRS RGA?
A very important feature of the PPM100 controller is that it eliminates the
requirement to connect the SRS RGA to a host PC computer. The RGA is
instead connected directly to the PPM100 controller through its standard RGARS232 serial interface port and all data is displayed on the front panel of the
controller.
Warning! PPM100 is not compatible with third-party residual gas analyzers
A menu-driven user-interface allows the PPM100 operator to easily program all
required RGA Setup parameters from the controller’s front panel- i.e. no RGA
Windows software interface is required.
Note that the PPM100 is a standalone instrument - there is no need to connect
the controller itself to an external computer to access its full performance and
functionality.
Figure 2. Back panel of the PPM100 controller. Connect the
SRS RGA to the RGA RS-232 (DB-9) connector using a
standard serial communication cable.
Stanford Research Systems
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PPM100 Application Note
5
What does the PPM100 controller do?
Partial Pressure Monitor and Control
PPM100 can monitor and display up to eight independent RGA partial pressures
on its front panel LCD. Each partial pressure reading has its own (1) mass, (2)
detector , (3) scan rate and (4) alarm settings. The Partial Pressure Display
mode of operation is primarily used to generate single gas data for leak testing
applications, and to track changes in the concentrations of up to eight
independent components of a gas mixture as a function of time. The partial
pressure readings can also be linked to alarms, process control relays and both
digital and analog output signals.
Figure 3. The partial pressure Monitor Display mode of the PPM100
shows partial pressure readings, and alarm status, for up to eight
individual gas species.
Leak Test Analysis
The PPM100 can be used to leak test components attached to the vacuum
system. Use leak trend graphs to detect leaks as partial pressure transients while
spraying the vacuum system components with a tracer gas such as helium or
argon. A stamp-sized 'Signal vs. time' plot of the most recent partial pressures for
the selected mass is displayed on the front panel. A small instantaneous partial
pressure reading is also included next to the plot.
When 'Audio Leak Trend' is selected, a repetitive audio signal whose frequency
is proportional to the partial pressure readings provides a means to “hear”
pressure transients, eliminating the need to look at the front panel display while
searching for leaks.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
In order to provide optimum data acquisition rates at the mass of interest, all
other partial pressure readings and displays are disabled while in this display
mode.
Figure 4. Leak trend Display Mode. Use this graphical mode to
Leak test components of your vacuum system. PP2 data bar is set
to Leak trend, and three display modes are available on the same
screen to visualize leak rates during testing.
Mass Spec Display
A Scan Display mode is available to graph RGA Mass Spectra directly on the
front panel of the controller. During analog scanning the quadrupole mass
spectrometer is stepped at fixed mass increments (i.e. 0.1 amu) through a userspecified mass range. The ion current is measured after each mass-increment
step and transmitted to the PPM100 for display. Analog scanning simplifies the
detection of mass peaks for component gas identification, and provides a direct
measure of the mass resolution of the quadrupole mass spectrometer.
Stanford Research Systems
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PPM100 Application Note
7
Figure 5. The Mass Spec Display mode of the PPM100 shows
complete RGA Mass spectra and includes a cursor for fast peak
identification.
RGA Control
The PPM100 includes a FILAMENT button on its front panel for manual
activation of filament emission as required for partial pressure measurements.
Press the E. MULTIPLIER button at any time to activate the electron multiplier
detector during analog scans. All RGA ionizer settings are easily configured from
the touchscreen/LCD user interface.
Figure 6. RGA Setup parameters are easily set from the front
panel.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
8
Analog I/O Ports
The PPM100 controller has four analog input/output ports. Their range is ±12 V
with 14 bit input resolution and 12-bit output resolution. The update rate is 2 Hz.
Each port is individually configurable as an input or an output for complete I/O
flexibility.
Figure 7. The AnalogIO Display mode of the PPM100 (w/CM
readings disabled) shows the voltage levels at the analog I/O ports.
Use analog I/O ports as inputs to read voltages from vacuum system instruments
such as capacitance manometers, analog output third-party gauges, mass flow
controllers, turbo pump controllers, etc.
Analog output levels can be programmed manually from the front panel, remotely
through the computer interface, or they can be linked to partial pressure readings
for closed-loop control of gas composition. Use analog I/O ports as outputs to
control auxiliary vacuum equipment such as heaters, actuators, ion sources,
programmable logic controllers, dosing valves and throttle controllers.
Capacitance Manometer readings (CM1-4)
The PPM100 controller can display pressure as measured by standard
capacitance manometers (CMs). Up to four independent CM readings can be
monitored simultaneously. Pressure readings are updated at 2 Hz. The PPM100
precisely measures the 0 to 10 Vdc linear output signal from the CM to determine
pressure. Full-scale ranges up to 1000 Torr are supported by the controller.
For added convenience, the PPM100 also supplies an auxiliary (AUX) ±15 V,
100 mA power output. This is usually sufficient to power up a couple of standard
(i.e. non-heated) capacitance manometers.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
9
Tip! The CM pressure display mode can also be applied to display pressures
from third-party vacuum gauges with analog outputs linked to the log of the total
pressure.
Data Logging (Charts and Tables)
All PPM100 controllers include Data Logging capabilities. When Data Logging is
enabled, data from all partial pressure measurements and all analog inputs are
stored in a circular memory buffer at the rate specified by a user-programmable
logging interval.
Figure 8. Data Logging (Chart) Display mode of the PPM100. Both
Graph and Table display modes are shown side-to-side. The
signal-vs-time display allows you to monitor pump-down and
venting cycles and follow the time behavior of your system.
The logged data can be accessed through the touchscreen LCD. Both table and
chart (P vs. Time) displays are available. The chart display includes convenient
graphical tools such as (1) cursor, (2) zoom, (3) (x, y)-axis scaling (manual and
auto), and (4) cursor readings. Users can switch rapidly between current and
logged readings for the pressures or analog signals of interest. The data log can
also be accessed remotely through the computer interface, or through the world
wide web when using the embedded web server.
Typical applications of the Data Logging capabilities include capturing
pump-down or venting curves for vacuum system characterization, monitoring
mass-flow controller signals during deposition processes, and tracking
temperatures and other time dependent variables during bakeouts or heat
treatments.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
10
Vacuum Process Control
Eight channels of process control are standard in the PPM100 controller.
Figure 9. Process Control Display mode of the PPM100. Eight
process control channels bring additional power and versatility to
the PPM100.
Each channel has a relay closure output and corresponding opto-isolated TTL
output signal, that may be linked to a variety of input sources with intuitive
user-programmable rules. Each individual channel can be linked to any partial
pressure or analog input, the system clock, gauge status or a TTL input trigger
signal. The Process Control module also includes several opto-isolated TTL level
inputs, used to remotely control filament on/off, degas on/off, E. MULT. On/Off,
keypad lockout, datalogging reset and touchscreen enable/disable functions.
Manual override is available for all process control channels, making it possible
to manually control channel relays and TTL output levels directly from the front
panel. Manual relay control makes it possible to use the PPM100 as a
standalone controller capable of manually or automatically managing the
operation of any standard vacuum system.
All process control events are automatically time-stamped and recorded in
memory (Event Logging) so they can be reviewed at any time. Use the History
button on the Process Control panel to access the Process Control Event Log at
any time.
Computer Interfaces (RS-232, GPIB and USB)
PPM100 includes standard RS-232, GPIB and USB communication ports. A
host computer connected to the instrument can easily configure, diagnose and
operate the PPM100 controller using simple ASCII commands. An intuitive and
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
11
complete Remote Command Set facilitates integration of all controller functions
into any processing or diagnostic software. The same command set is shared by
the RS232, USB and GPIB interfaces.
Figure 10. Back panel of PPM100. Computer interface ports on the
back panel of the PPM100 include: (1) HOST RS232, (2) GPIB, (3)
USB, and (4) 10 BASET Ethernet port (for embedded web server)
Tip! Computer interfacing is only required for: (1) Computer monitor/control of
the PPM100 and vacuum system, (2) Remote access to data-logs and history
lists, (3) calibration data uploads, and (4) firmware upgrades (for controller and
web server).
The PPM100 itself is a standalone instrument - there is no need to connect the
controller to an external computer to access its full performance and functionality.
All instrument functions and parameters are manually accessible and easily
modified through its menu-driven user interface.
Internet Access
An Embedded Web Server (EWS) connects the PPM100 to the World Wide
Web. The EWS is a TCP/IP compatible web server that resides inside the
PPM100 box, continuously gathering data from the instrument. When connected
to an ethernet network with an Internet gateway, the EWS can deliver PPM100
data to a user anywhere on the world wide web using a standard browser. Users
can monitor their vacuum system gas composition from anywhere in the world.
E-mail notification can notify a client list of potential or real system problems.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
12
Figure 11. Sample of the PPM100 web page.
The EWS provides the most convenient way to access PPM100 data from a
computer without writing custom serial or GPIB based software. Display modes
supported include: analog-scans, pressure-versus-time, tables, etc. The EWS
can also be configured to allow access to process control functions, so that any
vacuum system can be monitored and controlled from anywhere in the world.
Tip! Use the web interface to track your vacuum system from your office or from
home without having to pay periodic visits to your lab. Use the control capabilities
to turn heating jackets on/off or activate/deactivate valves, pumps and gauges
from the comfort of your office.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
13
Who should consider the PPM100?
♦ RGA users who require auxiliary Analog I/O capabilities.
Process vacuum applications often require monitoring analog signals from
multiple electronic sources such as capacitance manometers, third-party gauges
with analog outputs, mass flow controllers, turbo pump controllers,
thermometers, etc. The PPM100 analog input ports provide the simplest way to
collect and log data from up to four auxiliary vacuum instruments in parallel with
its RGA partial pressure readings.
PPM100 can also provide Analog OUT signals linked to partial pressures of
individual gases for applications requiring feedback-loop control of gas
composition. Use analog OUT signals to control auxiliary vacuum equipment
such as heaters, actuators, ion sources, programmable logic controllers and
dosing valves and throttles.
Note! Analog I/O is not supported by the RGA Windows software provided with
the SRS RGA.
A good example of a vacuum application requiring multiple inputs is the
Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) procedures that are common during
surface science experiments. The only viable alternative to the Analog I/O
capabilities of the PPM100 would be to interface the RGA directly to a personal
computer, fitted with an “A/D and D/A” board and to write specialized software to
integrate the RGA readings with the analog I/O signals of interest.
♦ RGA users who need Process Control Capabilities.
PPM100 provides one of the simplest and most reliable ways to build process
control and interlocking capabilities into a vacuum system setup. Use the 8
channels of process control to make mission-critical decisions based on (1) logic
levels, (2) analog signal levels, (3) time, (4) system status, and/or (5) partial
pressure readings during your process. All this without any need for computer
programming/interfacing or additional hardware.
The only viable alternative to the Process Control capabilities of the PPM100
would be to interface the RGA directly to a computer, fitted with a “Logic I/O and
Relay” board and to write specialized software to link the RGA and analog
readings to the Logic and Relay ports.
♦ RGA Users who perform repetitive vacuum processes.
PPM100 is ideally suited for repetitive processes where the partial pressure limits
and intelocking requirements during execution of the vacuum procedure are well
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
14
understood. Fast response, reliability and standalone operation make the
PPM100 an ideal alternative to the PC/RGA Windows interface. Alarms can
immediately announce out-of-range conditions for critical gas components of a
gas mixture, while process control channels and rules can be used to protect the
system from catastrophic events without any need for human intervention.
♦ RGA Users with high reliability requirements
The reliability of the PPM100 as a partial pressure monitor/controller far exceeds
any PC Computer/RGA Windows based setup. As a standalone instrument,
PPM100 continues to collect data day-in and day-out without interruption, without
sharing CPU time with any other software applications and without being
susceptible to PC operating system crashes.
If uninterrupted datalogging is a requirement in your process, you should
seriously consider the PPM100 as an upgrade for the PC/RGA Windows setup.
♦ RGA users who require access to RGA data over the World Wide Web
The Embedded Web Server (EWS) available for the PPM100 provides the most
convenient way to access RGA data through the Internet. The EWS can also be
configured to allow access to process control functions, so that any vacuum
system can be monitored and controlled from anywhere in the world.
Use the web interface to monitor your vacuum system from your office or from
home without having to pay periodic visits to your lab and while waiting for your
system to pump down. Use the control capabilities to turn heating jackets on/off
or activate/deactivate valves or pumps and gauges from the comfort of your
office.
Note! Web access is not supported by the RGA Windows software package
provided with the SRS RGA.
As an added convenience, the PPM100 includes an e-mail notification system,
that can be easily programmed to notify RGA/PPM100 users of important
vacuum system events by sending e-mail messages to a user-specified address.
♦ RGA users in process environments incompatible with PCs
PC computers are often incompatible with process environments, and alternative
solutions such as remote interfacing or industrial PCs are often technically
incompatible or prohibitively expensive. Desktops are often too large, and
laptops are generally considered too delicate for the process floor. The
standalone PPM100 solves all of the above problems with a small, rugged,
reliable and rack mountable package.
♦ RGA users who require 24/7 access to partial pressure data
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
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PPM100 provides 24/7 access to your RGA data. If your application requires
uninterrupted access to gas composition information from your vacuum system,
carefully consider a PPM100 for your RGA setup.
For example, surface scientists are used to keeping a watchful eye on their
vacuum system’s RGA spectra throughout system pumpdowns and during
sample handling. Displaying the RGA data with a standalone PPM100, frees the
experiment’s computer(s) for critical (i.e. experiment related) data acquisition
functions and minimizes the possibility of missing important “vacuum events”
while RGA data is not being displayed on the computer’s screen.
♦ RGA users who require a compact and mobile measurement setup
PPM100 offers a very compact, rugged and rack mountable package. Its size
can only be compared to a much more delicate laptop PC.
Vacuum engineers and technicians, requiring mobile, RGA-based, diagnostic
systems should seriously consider the PPM100 as a compact and rugged
substitute for the PC/RGA Windows setup. For example, a PPM100/RGA system
provides an excellent portable “leak detection” setup.
♦ RGA users who have PC interfacing requirements beyond RS232
The SRS RGA offers only one interface option- RS232 at 28.8 Kbaud rate.
If your interfacing requirements involve GPIB, USB or ethernet , or you simply
need a more flexible RS232 setup, consider a PPM100 as a bridge between your
RGA and your process computers.
♦ RGA users who demand a traditional standalone controller box
Standalone partial pressure display units, which connect directly to RGA mass
spectrometers, have been available since the early days of mass spectrometry
and are still the preferred display option for many vacuum users.
♦ RGA users who do not wish to deal with computers, software upgrades
and system crashes.
There is a modern trend to dedicate a PC to every new instrument or sensor in
the lab. However, PCs cannot generally be regarded as friendly or reliable in
process environments. If you are not interested in dealing with: (1) system
crashes, (2) software incompatibilities, (3) hardware incompatibilities, (4) boot-up
times, (5) software upgrades, (6) operating system upgrades, (7) software
development, (8) computer interfaces, etc, you should consider the PPM100 as
an upgrade to your RGA/RGA Windows setup.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
16
Do I still need RGA Windows?
♦ PPM100 is not a complete substitute for RGA Windows.
RGA Windows offers several RGA data display options that are not feasible in a
standalone, monochrome display unit as the PPM110. Obvious examples
include: bigger screen, color-coded gas traces, fast display update, scan logging,
deeper data buffers and hard disk data storage.
RGA Windows is still sometimes required to perform RGA tuning operations such
as: (1) mass axis calibration, (2) sensitivity calibration, and (3) E. MULT. gain
adjustment. However, RGA users must keep in mind that these procedures are
rarely required during routine vacuum measurements.
♦ PPM100 is not recommended for very fast data acquisition applications
RGA users interested in fast data acquisition rates (i.e. such as fast-TPD, or
laser desorption experiments) must still rely in the faster PC/RGA Windows setup
for data acquisition. Consult the factory for specific details.
Stanford Research Systems
PPM100 Application Note
17
PPM100 Specifications
Specifications apply after 1 hour of warm-up
General
Interfaces
Weight/Dimensions
Warranty
RS-232 (std.), USB (std), GPIB (std) or Ethernet
interface with embedded web server.
90 to 264 VAC, 47 to 63 Hz, 240 W
0°C to 40°C, non-condensing
Less than 90% humidity
15 lbs. / 8.5"x5.25"x16" (WHD)
One year parts and labor
Display
Type
Resolution
Modes
Units
Numeric resolution
Update rate
Back-lit, touchscreen LCD (4.7" diag)
320 x 240 pixels
Numeric, bargraph, P vs. T
Torr, mbar, bar, Pa and micron
3 digit mantissa plus exponent
2 samples per second
Power
Operating temperature
Electrical (20°C to 30°C)
Analog I/O
Ports
Range
Resolution
Update rate
Connector
4 configurable analog ports
±12 Vdc
14-bit (In), 12-bit (Out)
2 Hz
BNC
Gauges (Total Pressure)
Capacitance Manometer
Number of gauges
Simultaneous readout of up to four capacitance
manometers using the auxiliary inputs.
Auxiliary power output
±15 Vdc, 100 mA (for CM power)
Process Control
Number of channels
Input signals
Output signals
Relays
TTL outputs
Manual control
Remote TTL control
Stanford Research Systems
8 channels with programmable setpoint, polarity,
hysteresis, delay, audio signal and text messages.
Total pressure (CM gauge), partial pressure (RGA),
voltage (I/O ports), time (internal clock), TTL and
gauge status.
Relay and TTL level
SPDT, form C, 5A/250VAC/30VDC, resistive load
Active low, opto-isolated
All channels can be operated from front panel.
7 opto-isolated TTL channels (Fil on/off, Degas on/off,
Fil lockout, Control keypad lockout, data logging time
reset, touchscreen enable/disable, remote
enable/disable)
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