Senior Science FinalPress

Senior Science FinalPress
SENIOR School
Ministry of Education
Department of Education
Essential Curriculum
2008
Curriculum and Instructional Leadership
Performance Standards Summary
SCIENCE
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ARE LEARNING EXPECTATIONS
“THE ESSENTIAL CURRICULUM”
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System (BPSS) is to be the first choice in
education by providing rigorous and stimulating learning experiences in safe, responsive
environments from which our students emerge confident and prepared to compete and
contribute locally and globally.
Performance Standards are statements
of what students should know and
be able to do and how they should
demonstrate their knowledge and skills
at the end of each year. Included within
the Performance Standards document
are strands, performance statements
and assessment indicators for English
language arts, mathematics, science
and social studies. It is important to
note that the assessment indicators
listed in this booklet represents the
“Essential Curriculum.” They are
the critical guidelines for ongoing
and island-wide curriculum based
assessment. They are guideposts in
the journey our students make from the
time they enter our schools to the time
they graduate confident and prepared
to compete and contribute locally and
globally.
Serving as guideposts, performance standards establish shared expectations for the:
• completion of each year of our school system,
• guidance in terms of how we may need to redirect our efforts during any given year
of our school system
• direction in terms of what we should be able to expect of students entering each
subsequent year of our school system.
As they serve as guideposts for teachers responsible for maximizing students’ learning
experiences, performance standards tell us not only the ultimate goals for each year level
but also provide direction towards achievement of the goals during each year.
Bermuda Performance Standards will be used to:
• emphasize the concepts and processes all students should learn with
understanding.
• provide explicit goals for student expectation at the end of each year.
• guide Bermuda Criterion Reference and classroom assessments
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
1
Bermuda Public School System Performance Standards
Science (SC)
Physical Science (P)
Life Science (L)
Earth and Space Science (E)
Nature of Science (N)
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
S1 Science (SC)
Introduction to Science Performance Standards ...................................................5
• Physical Science
• Life Science
• Earth and Space Science
• Nature of Science
References
Physical Science (P)...................................................................................................9
P1 Matter and Materials
P2 Force and Motion
P3 Energy
P4 Forces of Nature
Life Science (L) .......................................................................................................11 L1 Diversity of Life
L2Heredity
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems
L4 Interdependence
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy
L6 Evolution of Life
Earth and Space Science (E) .................................................................................13
E1 Astronomy
E2
E3
E4
E5
Geology
Resources
Meteorology
Oceanography
Nature of Science (N) .............................................................................................15 N1 Scientific Investigation
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation
N3 Designed World: Science Technology and Society
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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S2 Science (SC)
Introduction to Science Performance Standards ...................................................5
• Physical Science
• Life Science
• Earth and Space Science
• Nature of Science
References
Physical Science (P).................................................................................................19
P1 Matter and Materials
P2 Force and Motion
P3 Energy
P4 Forces of Nature
Life Science (L) .......................................................................................................21 L1 Diversity of Life
L2Heredity
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems
L4 Interdependence
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy
L6 Evolution of Life
Earth and Space Science (E) .................................................................................23
E1 Astronomy
E2
E3
E4
E5
Geology
Resources
Meteorology
Oceanography
Nature of Science (N) .............................................................................................25 N1 Scientific Investigation
4
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation
N3 Designed World: Science Technology and Society
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
BERMUDA SCIENCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (SC)
The study of science is an intellectual and social endeavour – the application of human intelligence to
figuring out how the world works.
Benchmarks for Science Literacy: Project 2061 (1993)
The Bermuda Science Performance Standards document is an amalgam of widely respected science
documents that have been developed in many different countries, including the United Kingdom, United
States and Canada. As is easily recognizable in standards documents from other jurisdictions, Benchmarks
for Science Literacy has been used as the basis for Bermuda Science Performance Standards. Science in
the schools provides an introduction to many different scientific disciplines from the traditional physics,
chemistry and biology to geology, environmental science and meteorology. These standards are therefore
wide ranging and provide the foundation for not only scientific literacy, but also the critical knowledge and
skills for those who intend to study science as a requisite for their careers.
The National Science Education Standards (NSES, National Research Council, 1995) define scientific
literacy as the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes which are required for
participation in civic and cultural activities, economic productivity and personal decision making. The
philosophy of The Bermuda Science Curriculum (Bermuda Ministry of Education, 1997) echoes the
intent of the NSES statement and indicates that science education should empower all students to make
informed choices concerning personal, societal, environmental and technological issues, thus fostering an
appreciation and a sense of responsibility for the future.
In Bermuda, science is considered a critical component of education for all children and is therefore
mandated as a core subject from preschool through to senior school. The Bermuda Science Performance
Standards are not a curriculum. They provide the framework for our year-by-year science curriculum that
spans the fourteen years from preschool to senior school. They expand the “what” students should know
and be able to do to the “how” and “to what extent” students should demonstrate their understanding of
scientific concepts and skills.
As stated in the National Curriculum for England, the standards must be “robust enough to define and
defend the core of knowledge and cultural experience and flexible enough to give teachers scope to build
their teaching around it in ways that will enhance its delivery to pupils” (The National Curriculum for
England, 2000).
The Bermuda Science Performance Standards are categorized into four (4) strands, recognizable as
organizers in curriculum documents of many jurisdictions:
1. Physical Science (P)
2. Life Science (L)
3. Earth and Space Science (E)
4. Nature of Science (N)
The first three strands, communicate the knowledge and concepts of science using traditional categories.
The Nature of Science emphasizes the way that science and scientists work and how, together with
mathematics and technology, the world has been shaped by human endeavour.
The strands are divided into standards that spiral throughout the compulsory years of the science
programme in Bermuda. When the goal is deep understanding it is essential for concepts to be revisited
over time. Standards are further broken down into indicators for assessment.
Students show conceptual understanding when they can:
• use a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions, first in familiar then
unfamiliar situations
• represent the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts and graphs, as
appropriate
Both aspects of understanding – explaining and representing – are required to meet the standard.
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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PHYSICAL SCIENCE (P)
Physical science, which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the study of matter and
materials, forces and energy. There are four (4) physical science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
P1 Matter and Materials - their properties, components, interactions and changes
P2 Force and Motion - the relationship between force, mass and motion of an object and the nature
and interaction of waves and matter
P3 Energy - the sources and forms of energy, including transmission and transformations and how
energy helps explain the structure of matter and the universe
P4 Forces of Nature - gravitational, electrical and magnetic forces as the fundamental forces acting
in nature
LIFE SCIENCE (L)
Life Science, which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the diversity of living
organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one another and their environment. There
are six (6) Life Science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
L1 Diversity of Life - the variety of living things and the processes responsible for the maintenance
of life
L2 Heredity – biological traits and how they are passed on from generation to generation
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems – the structure, function and reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization essential for life and specialized organs systems that interact with
each other to maintain internal balance
L4 Interdependence of Life – relationships amongst organisms and their dependence on their
environment
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy - the linking of organisms to one another and their physical setting
by the transfer and transformation of matter and energy
L6 Evolution of Life – the evolution of life on earth and natural selection as an explanation of
biological processes
EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (E)
Earth and Space Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources, meteorology and
oceanography. Earth and Space Science involves the study of the earth, the universe, their components
and interactions. There are five (5) Earth and Space Science standards
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
E1 Astronomy - the current scientific view of the nature, components, matter and energy sources of
the universe
E2 Geology - the features of the earth’s surface, how they were formed and how they are continually
changing
E3 Resources - the earth’s limited and varied materials that supply many of the resources that
humans use
E4 Meteorology - the interactions of structures of the earth’s system and the sun’s energy which
cause weather and climate patterns
E5 Oceanography - the features of oceans and the impact of these features on the global
ecosystem
NATURE OF SCIENCE (N)
The Nature of Science strand involves of the understanding and application of scientific investigative
techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also includes the study of the interrelationships among
science, technology, and society. There are three (3) Nature of Science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
N1 Scientific Investigation - People can often learn about things around them by just observing those
things carefully, but sometimes they can learn more by doing something to things and noting
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
what happens. Investigations are conducted for different reasons, which include exploring new
phenomena, checking on previous results and comparing different theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and making predictions.
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation - Data must be analysed in order to make sense of
what has been collected. Sometimes the evidence collected might not be what you expected or
might not be sufficient to draw a conclusion. Clear and accurate communication is important in
doing science and an essential part of sharing an investigation order to inform others.
N3 Designed World: Science, Technology and Society - Over the course of the history of world
exploration, humans have shaped and reshaped the world we live in by using technology in
tandem with expanding science knowledge. Science cannot answer all questions and technology
cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs. Science influences society through its
knowledge and world view. Technology influences society through its products and processes.
Science and technology have advanced through contributions of many different people, in
different cultures, at different times in history.
REFERENCES
It should be noted that there is a great deal of similarity amongst standards. The main sources for the
Bermuda Performance Standards document contain hundreds of pages of detail that cannot be provided
in the Bermuda Science Performance Standards. If further amplification of standards is required, it
would appropriate to research the sources cited in this section.
Allport Geoff et al. (1996) The New Sc1 Book – Experimental and Investigative Science, Northampton:
NIAS Production Unit
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993) Bench Marks for Science Literacy:
Project 2061. New York: Oxford University Press
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2001) Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington,
DC: AAAS
Council for Basic Education. (1998) Standards for Excellence in Education. Washington, DC: CBE
Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. (1997) Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Toronto, Ontario: CMEC
Department of Education and Science. (2000) National Curriculum for England: Science. London:
HMSO
National Center on Education and Economy and the University of Pittsburg. (1995) New Standards
Performance Standards. Washington, DC and Pittsburg, PA: Hartcourt Brace
National Research Council. (1995) National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press
Wiggins, G. McTighe J. (1998) Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Physical Science (P)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P1 - Matter and Materials their properties, components,
interactions and changes
P2 - Force and Motion the relationship between
force, mass and motion of
an object and the nature and
interaction of waves and
matter.
SC.S1.P1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Matter is composed of atoms and molecules or ions.
b) Atoms are composed of electrons protons and neutrons.
Assessment limits:
• When using the term atomic mass, also include mass number (i.e.,
atomic mass or mass number).
c) Elements are placed in the periodic table based on the structure of
their atoms.
Assessment limits:
• reactivity trends across period and down groups
• families (alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases
• coinage metals, and transition metals.
d) About 100 different elements have been identified, out of which
everything is made. Some groups of elements have similar
properties. Some elements do not fit into any categories, such as
carbon and hydrogen, the essential elements of living matter. The
periodic table is a classification system of elements.
e) Chemical changes occur when one or more substances react together
to form another substance with different properties. Burning and
rusting are examples of oxidation, when oxygen is combined
with another substance. Some factors that influence reaction rates
include temperature, and particle size.
SC.S1.P2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Energy can be transmitted as waves.
Assessment limits:
• characteristics, nature, interactions of waves
• amplitude, wavelength, frequency
• various forms of electromagnetic waves
• sound and light waves
• speed of sound,
• visible light: reflection, refraction; including angle of incidence
• types of electromagnetic radiation
• electromagnetic spectrum: infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, microwaves,
radio waves
• colour and wavelength
Ministry of Education | S1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
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Physical Science (P)
(continued)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P3 - Energy the sources and forms of
energy, including transmission
and transformations and how
energy helps explain the
structure of matter and the
universe.
P4 - Forces of Nature gravitational, electrical
and magnetic forces as the
fundamental forces acting in
nature.
10
SC.S1.P3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Energy cannot be created or destroyed only transformed. During
many processes, energy is transferred to the environment in the
form of heat.
Assessment limits:
• Conduction, convection, radiation
• Understanding of specific heat - solve problem if given formula
b) Heat energy in a material consists of disordered motions of its
atoms or molecules.
Assessment limits:
• change of phase
• Kinetic theory -movement of particles
SC.S1.P4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | S1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L1 - Diversity of Life the variety of living things
and the processes responsible
for the maintenance of life.
L2 - Heredity –
biological traits and how they
are passed on from generation
to generation
L3 - Cells, Organs and Organ
Systems –
the structure, function and
reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization
essential for life and
specialized organ systems that
interact with each other to
maintain internal balance
SC.S1.L1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Biological diversity is the variety of living things. Scientists classify
organisms and give each one universally accepted scientific name.
Assessment limits:
• binomial nomenclature;
• Linnaeus’system of classification,
• taxonomic categories
• Dichotomous keys
SC.S1.L2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.S1.L3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) A cell is a well-specialized and complex system.
b) Cells function best under particular conditions of water and
temperature. The maintenance of these conditions is called
homeostasis.
Assessment limits:
• Basic understanding of an organism’s response to changes in the
environment.
• regulation of body temperature and water balance
c) Organelles in the cells use chemical reactions to carry out life
processes.
Assessment limits:
• cell theory
• prokaryotes and eukaryotes
• eukaryotic cell structure
• structure and function of organelles in plant and animal cells extended to nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus,
centrioles, ribosome
• transport across cell boundaries – functions of cell membrane and
cell wall
Ministry of Education | S1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
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Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L4 - Interdependence of Life –
relationships amongst
organisms and their
dependence on their
environment.
SC.S1.L4
L5 - Flow of Matter and Energy
- the linking of organisms to
one another and their physical
setting by the transfer and
transformation of matter and
energy.
SC.S1.L5
L6 - Evolution of Life –
the evolution of life on
earth, natural selection as
an explanation of biological
processes.
12
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.S1.L6
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related.
b) Living things evolve over time. Natural selection and its evolutionary
consequences provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record
of ancient life forms and striking molecular similarities observed
among the diverse species of living organisms.
c) The millions of different species of plants, animals and
microorganisms that live on earth today are related by descent from
common ancestors.
Ministry of Education | S1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Earth And Space Science (E)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E1 - Astronomy the current scientific view
of the nature, components,
matter and energy sources of
the universe.
E2 - Geology the features of the earth’s
surface, how they were
formed and how they are
continually changing.
E3 - Resources the earth’s limited and varied
materials that supply many of
the resources that humans use
SC.S1.E1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The universe has evolved over billions of years and will continue
to evolve.
b) Stars were condensed by gravity out of clouds of molecules of the
lightest elements until nuclear fusion of light elements into heavier
ones began to occur.
Assessment limits:
• Fusion released great amounts of energy over millions of years.
• Eventually some stars exploded producing clouds of heavy elements
from which other stars and planets could later condense.
• This process of star formation and destruction continues
c) The stars differ from one another in size, temperature and age, but
appear to be made up of the same elements that are found on earth.
Assessment limits:
• Hertzsprung – Russell diagram as stimulus for questions
• making comparisons and interpreting diagrams
d) The bodies of the solar system are bound together by gravitational
force. This force of attraction is exerted by every object on every
other object.
Assessment limits:
• organization of solar system
• characteristics of planets
• sun as star, moon, tides, eclipses
e) Increasingly sophisticated technologies and subsequent analysis by
mathematical modeling are being used to explore our universe and
beyond. This includes the search for evidence of life elsewhere
from earth.
Assessment limits:
• cameras, binoculars, telescopes, satellites, space probes
SC.S1.E2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.S1.E3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | S1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
13
Earth And Space Science (E)
(continued)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E4 - Meteorology the interactions of structures
of the earth’s system and the
sun’s energy which cause
weather and climate patterns
E5 - Oceanography the features of oceans and the
impact of these features on
the global ecosystem
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SC.S1.E4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.S1.E5
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | S1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Nature Of Science (N)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N1 - Scientific Investigation
-People can often learn
about things around them
by just observing those
things carefully, but
sometimes they can learn
more by doing something
to things and noting what
happens. Investigations
are conducted for different
reasons, which include
exploring new phenomena,
checking on previous results
and comparing different
theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting
evidence, reasoning, devising
hypotheses, and making
predictions.
N2 - Data Representation and
Interpretation Data must be analysed in
order to make sense of
what has been collected.
Sometimes the evidence
collected might not be what
you expected or might
not be sufficient to draw
a conclusion. Clear and
accurate communication is
important in doing science
and an essential part of
sharing an investigation in
order to inform others.
SC.S1.N1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Planning an investigation
Assessment limits:
• Use scientific knowledge and understanding to convert ideas into a
form that can be investigated
• Support predictions with scientific reasons (from books, Internet or
other sources)
• Understand concept of bias
• Write/evaluate clear step by step procedure for investigation
b) Obtaining evidence for investigation.
Assessment limits:
• Vary key variables
• Determine number of observations or measurements to be made
• Select and manipulate a range of apparatus to help to obtain precise
evidence
• Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct
measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates and
temperature
• Repeat results to obtain average readings
SC.S1.N2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Summarising and organising data
Assessment limits:
• Represent data and results in multiple ways such as numbers, tables,
graphs, diagrams.
• Select the best way of displaying your evidence; represent data with
pie charts, graphs, tables, histograms etc.
• Create table of results with clear headings and correct units
b) Analyzing evidence and making conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Identify trends or patterns in results (best fit graphs, multi-line
graphs, multiple data sets).
• Use graphs to determine relationships between variables
• Explain whether you have enough evidence to draw a conclusion
• Explain whether results are consistent with original prediction
• Draw a meaningful conclusion based on evidence in outcome
• Support conclusions with evidence from experiments or research
• Evaluate investigation (redesign investigation if necessary – how
might the method be improved to obtain more evidence to support
the conclusion)
Ministry of Education | S1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
15
Nature Of Science (N)
(continued)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N3 - The Designed World Over the course of the
history of world exploration,
humans have shaped and
reshaped the world we live
in by using technology in
tandem with expanding
science knowledge. Science
cannot answer all questions
and technology cannot solve
all human problems or meet
all human needs. Science
influences society through
its knowledge and world
view. Technology influences
society through its products
and processes. Science and
technology have advanced
through contributions of many
different people, in different
cultures, at different times in
history.
SC.S1.N3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Things found in nature are different from those that are made by
humans. New products and systems can be developed to help solve
problems, but there could be desirable or undesirable consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Applications of technology – communications, transportation,
manufacturing and construction
• formation of plastics, new fuels, synthetic fibres, pharmaceuticals,
• Science and mathematics attend to result in advances in technology
(e.g., binary system to digital machines such as laptop computers,
digital cameras, compact disc players)
• Increased use of energy in more industrialized countries leads to rapid
depletion of Earth’s energy resources and heightened environmental
risks from fossil and nuclear fuels.
• Decisions to develop and use technologies often put environmental and
economic concerns in direct competition (for example, preservation
of open space and wetlands vs. housing and improvement of roads)
b) Important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics
and technology have been made by different kinds of people in
different cultures in different times.
Assessment limits:
• Science disciplines differ from one another in what is studied,
techniques used and outcomes sought, but they are all part of the
same scientific enterprise. (physics, chemistry, biology, ecology;
environmental science, meteorology and related careers; what kinds
of processes are studied in the discipline by the scientists – other
careers – forensic scientist, medical laboratory technician)
c) Diet, exercise, disease and toxic substances influence the physical
health of individuals. Science has contributed to health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• (pertaining to S1 concepts)
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Ministry of Education | S1 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
PLANNING Notes
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Physical Science (P)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P1 - Matter and Materials their properties, components,
interactions and changes
P2 - Force and Motion the relationship between
force, mass and motion of
an object and the nature and
interaction of waves and
matter.
SC.S2.P1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Reactions of elements depend on the arrangement of electrons in
the atom.
b) Compounds are formed when atoms of elements combine by
gaining, losing (transferring) or sharing electrons.
Assessment limits:
• ionic vs. covalent bonding
• ionic compounds such as sodium chloride, covalent compounds such
as hydrogen, water, methane, hydrogen chloride
• Lewis dot structures for electron configuration of same
c) The arrangement of particles (atoms, molecules, ions) in a substance
determines its structure and properties.
Assessment limits:
• diamond, sodium chloride, graphite, metallic bonding
d) Chemical formulas and balanced equations are used to represent
chemical reactions.
Assessment limits:
• types of reaction include synthesis, single and double displacement,
decomposition, oxidation; acid/base – neutralization
• acids, bases and salt formation
• full pH scale, write formulas and balance simple equations
e) Factors that affect reaction rates include temperature, concentration,
and particle size of the reactants, catalysts.
SC.S2.P2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Forces have both magnitude and direction (vectors).
b) Forces cause changes in motion. The change in motion of an object
is proportional to the force applied and inversely proportional to the
mass of the object.
c) When two objects interact, they exert equal and opposite forces on
each other.
Assessment limits:
• Newton’s Laws of Motion
d) Apply formula to a problem.
Assessment limits:
• words and symbols in formulas (not symbols by themselves)
• force = mass x acceleration
• work = force x distance
• power = work done/ time taken
Ministry of Education | S2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
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Physical Science (P)
(continued)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P3 - Energy the sources and forms of
energy, including transmission
and transformations and how
energy helps explain the
structure of matter and the
universe.
P4 - Forces of Nature gravitational, electrical
and magnetic forces as the
fundamental forces acting in
nature.
20
SC.S2.P3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Energy is transferred from batteries to other components in
electrical circuits. Electrical energy in circuits can produce heat,
light sound and chemical changes. Components in a circuit resist a
current flowing through them.
Assessment limits:
• Understanding and application of circuits
• direct/alternating current
• more complicated circuits at this level
• understand resistors
• household circuits, wiring plugs and safety features -fuses, circuit
breakers
• calculation of power (current x voltage)
• simple calculations related to household electric use
SC.S2.P4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Gravitational force is an attraction between masses.
b) Electric forces between electrons, protons hold atoms and molecules
together and are involved in all chemical reactions. Materials are
electrically neutral.
c) Different kinds of materials respond differently to electric forces.
d) Moving electric changes produce magnetic forces and moving
magnets produce electric forces.
Assessment limits:
• explanation of magnetic effect of an electric current
• application of principles of electricity and magnetism to a simple
electric motor
e) Large amounts of energy are released from nuclear reactions in the
sun and other stars because of the strength of forces that hold the
nucleus of the atom together.
Ministry of Education | S2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L1 - Diversity of Life the variety of living things
and the processes responsible
for the maintenance of life.
L2 - Heredity –
biological traits and how they
are passed on from generation
to generation
L3 - Cells, Organs and Organ
Systems –
the structure, function and
reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization
essential for life and
specialized organ systems that
interact with each other to
maintain internal balance
SC.S2.L1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The great diversity of species increases the chance that at least
some living things will survive after significant changes to the
environment.
b) Kinship can be estimated from similarities of DNA sequences.
SC.S2.L2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Sorting and recombination gives a variety of possible
combinations.
Assessment limits:
• Complete and interpret Punnett square - monohybrid cross only
• understanding of homozygous, heterozygous, complete dominance,
genes, alleles
b) Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are identical to
the parent (clones). Sexual reproduction is a source of genetic
variation.
Assessment limits:
• Information passed from parent to offspring is coded in DNA
molecules
• Comparison of mitosis and meiosis
• ordering the phases of meiosis - pictures
• Understanding of the role of meiosis
SC.S2.L3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Humans and other animals have body systems for obtaining and
providing energy, defense, reproduction and the coordination of
body functions.
Assessment limits:
• Human male and female reproductive systems -anatomy
• role of hormones
• factors that affect fetal development;
• flowering plants, flowers as reproductive organs structure and
function -sepals and petal and stamens and carpels
• wind and insect pollination e.g. dandelion and hibiscus respectively
Ministry of Education | S2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
21
Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L4 - Interdependence of Life –
relationships amongst
organisms and their
dependence on their
environment.
SC.S2.L4
L5 - Flow of Matter and Energy
- the linking of organisms to
one another and their physical
setting by the transfer and
transformation of matter and
energy.
SC.S2.L5
L6 - Evolution of Life –
the evolution of life on
earth, natural selection as
an explanation of biological
processes.
22
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Ecosystems can be reasonably stable, but can change.
Assessment limits:
• levels of organization – species, populations, communities,
ecosystems, biomes
• change due to climate or appearance of new species
• basic concept of succession
b) Humans alter equilibrium in an ecosystem.
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Limiting factors such as water, energy, oxygen and minerals,
determine the amount of life that an ecosystem can support.
Assessment limits:
• energy flow – producers, consumers
• feeding relationships – food chains, food webs,
• trophic levels
• ecological pyramids – energy pyramid, biomass pyramid, pyramid
of numbers
b) The sun is the source of most of the energy resources on earth.
These resources are being burned by people and this stored energy
is being transferred back into the environment as heat and carbon
dioxide.
Assessment limits:
• fossil fuels – oil, gas, coal
• cycles of matter – water cycle , nutrient cycles including nitrogen
cycle, carbon cycle
c) The impact of humans on ecosystems depends on factors such as
population size, levels of consumption and waste, technological and
industrial processes (social and economic factors). The principle of
sustainable development is critical to survival.
d) The transfer of chemical elements through food webs - the continual
impact of energy from sun light to maintain the process.
Assessment limits:
• photosynthesis, respiration
SC.S2.L6
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | S2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Earth And Space Science (E)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E1 - Astronomy the current scientific view
of the nature, components,
matter and energy sources of
the universe.
E2 - Geology the features of the earth’s
surface, how they were
formed and how they are
continually changing.
E3 - Resources the earth’s limited and varied
materials that supply many of
the resources that humans use
SC.S2.E1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.S2.E2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Water is stored and moves in pervious sediments and rocks called
aquifers (water bearers).
Assessment limits:
• In Bermuda there are different rock formations which have different
hydrologic characteristic. These rocks are the container for the
groundwater
• Fresh groundwater is found in five separate areas in Bermuda (in
approximately 20% of the island).
• Fresh ground water occurs in lens-shaped bodies (Gyhen-Herzberg
lens) that are laterally surrounded and underlain by a zone of brackish
ground water which is a mixture of fresh groundwater and seawater
b) The Bermudian hydrologic cycle shows the paths and processes
involved in the passage of water from the atmosphere to the ocean.
Recharge of the lens is basically from rainwater.
Assessment limits:
• Rainfall percolates through the soil and limestones to the water
table.
• Rainfall lands on marshes which are outcroppings of the groundwater
reservoir.
• Rainfall lands on the roofs and is passed into storage tanks. • Some roads have drainage wells for excess rainwater. This water
reaches the water table.
• Rainwater from other roads evaporates or runs off into land area
• Discharge is loss due to pumping, plant usage, tidal action seepage
into the marshes etc.
• Waste disposal is from individual household cesspits
SC.S2.E3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The earth has limited resources some of which are non renewable.
b) The local and global environment is affected by national policies
and practices relating to energy use, waste disposal, ecological
management, manufacturing and population.
c) In Bermuda sustainable development is of critical importance since
there is a limited land mass.
Ministry of Education | S2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
23
Earth And Space Science (E)
(continued)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E3 - Resources the earth’s limited and varied
materials that supply many of
the resources that humans use
E4 - Meteorology the interactions of structures
of the earth’s system and the
sun’s energy which cause
weather and climate patterns
E5 - Oceanography the features of oceans and the
impact of these features on
the global ecosystem
24
SC.S2.E3 (continued)
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of :
Assessment limits:
• management of lands
• reclaiming of land
• groundwater
• waste management techniques etc.
d) Fresh (drinking) water is a limited resource in Bermuda.
Assessment limits:
The sources are:• Term potable (drinkable) water
• rainwater collected in household and other tanks
• treated well water from government-licensed wells
• reverse osmosis plants – use of brackish water
• water pollution
• water treatment methods- filtering, screening, disinfecting (boiling,
chemical treatment including chlorination)
SC.S2.E4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) The transfer of energy in and out of the atmosphere (such as in the
water cycle) affects weather and climate. Living things are adapted
to their surroundings, including the contents of the atmosphere
retained by the planets gravity and the water cycle which is
influenced by the intensity of the sun’s radiation.
b) Water dissolves minerals and gases and carries them to the oceans
via the water cycle.
SC.S2.E5
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Oceans currents affect climate and therefore life on earth.
b) Earth’s oceans are ever changing bodies of water.
Assessment limits:
• impact of global warming
• melting of icecaps and sea level rise
• impact on Bermuda’s water-front properties
c) People have a significant impact on the health of the oceans.
Assessment limits:
Bermuda issues include
• preservation of the coral reef,
• over-fishing,
• pollution of the inshore waters,
• cruise ship capacity,
• sewage outfalls from large businesses and hotels
• increased use of leisure craft
Ministry of Education | S2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Nature Of Science (N)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N1 - Scientific Investigation
-People can often learn
about things around them
by just observing those
things carefully, but
sometimes they can learn
more by doing something
to things and noting what
happens. Investigations
are conducted for different
reasons, which include
exploring new phenomena,
checking on previous results
and comparing different
theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting
evidence, reasoning, devising
hypotheses, and making
predictions.
N2 - Data Representation and
Interpretation Data must be analysed in
order to make sense of
what has been collected.
Sometimes the evidence
collected might not be what
you expected or might
not be sufficient to draw
a conclusion. Clear and
accurate communication is
important in doing science
and an essential part of
sharing an investigation in
order to inform others.
SC.S2.N1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Planning an investigation
Assessment limits:
• Use scientific knowledge and understanding to convert ideas into a
form that can be investigated
• Support predictions with scientific reasons (from books, Internet or
other sources)
• Understand concept of bias
• write/evaluate clear step by step procedure for investigation
b) Obtaining evidence for investigation.
Assessment limits:
• vary key variables
• determine number of observations or measurements to be made
• Select and manipulate a range of apparatus to help to obtain precise
evidence
• Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct
measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates and
temperature
• Repeat results to obtain average readings
SC.S2.N2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Summarising and organising data
Assessment limits:
• Represent data and results in multiple ways such as numbers, tables,
graphs, diagrams.
• Select the best way of displaying your evidence; represent data with
pie charts, graphs, tables, histograms etc.
• Create table of results with clear headings and correct units
b) Analyzing evidence and making conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Identify trends or patterns in results (best fit graphs, multi-line
graphs, multiple data sets.
• Use graphs to determine relationships between variables
• Explain whether you have enough evidence to draw a conclusion
• Explain whether results are consistent with original prediction
• Draw a meaningful conclusion based on evidence in outcome
• Support conclusions with evidence from experiments or research
• Evaluate investigation (redesign investigation if necessary – how
might the method be improved to obtain more evidence to support
the conclusion)
Ministry of Education | S2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
25
Nature Of Science (N)
(continued)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N3 - The Designed World Over the course of the
history of world exploration,
humans have shaped and
reshaped the world we live
in by using technology in
tandem with expanding
science knowledge. Science
cannot answer all questions
and technology cannot solve
all human problems or meet
all human needs. Science
influences society through
its knowledge and world
view. Technology influences
society through its products
and processes. Science and
technology have advanced
through contributions of many
different people, in different
cultures, at different times in
history.
SC.S2.N3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Things found in nature are different from those that are made by
humans. New products and systems can be developed to help solve
problems, but there could be desirable or undesirable consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Applications of technology – communications, transportation,
manufacturing and construction
• Formation of plastics, new fuels, synthetic fibres, pharmaceuticals,
• Science and mathematics attend to result in advances in technology
(e.g., binary system to digital machines such as laptop computers,
digital cameras, compact disc players)
• Waste management includes considerations of quantity, safety,
degradability and cost. Waste disposal problems are political,
economic as well as technical
• Different ways of obtaining, transforming and distributing energy
have different environmental consequences
• Increased use of energy in more industrialized countries leads to rapid
depletion of Earth’s energy resources and heightened environmental
risks from fossil and nuclear fuels.
• Decisions to develop and use technologies often put environmental and
economic concerns in direct competition (for example, preservation
of open space and wetlands vs. housing and improvement of roads
b) Important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics
and technology have been made by different kinds of people in
different cultures in different times.
Assessment limits:
• Science disciplines differ from one another in what is studied,
techniques used and outcomes sought, but they are all part of the
same scientific enterprise (physics, chemistry, biology, ecology;
environmental science, meteorology and related careers; what kinds
of processes are studied in the discipline by the scientists – other
careers – forensic scientist, medical laboratory technician)
c) Diet, exercise, disease and toxic substances influence the physical
health of individuals. Science has contributed to health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• waste management, water purification and potable water from
seawater or brackish water
• knowledge of genetics is opening new fields of health care
(geneticists).
26
Ministry of Education | S2 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
PLANNING Notes
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
27
PLANNING Notes
28
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
MISSION STATEMENT
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System is to be the
1st choice in education by providing rigorous and stimulating
learning experiences in safe responsive environments from which
our students emerge confident and prepared to compete and
contribute locally and globally.
Ministry of Education
Curriculum & Instructional Leadership Office
P. O. Box HM 1185
Hamilton HMEX
Telephone: (441) 292-3507
Fax: (441) 296-2843
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