Ana1996a

Ana1996a
FRUELA CRUISES DATA BASE
Ricardo Anadón, Marta Estrada
(University de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
Instituto de Ciencias del Mar – CSIC, Barcelona, Spain)
[email protected] , [email protected]
Study Area
Tracks and stations
Individual projects
Methods of the Data Base
FRUELA cruises Literature
1. MAP OF THE STUDIED AREA
King
George
3000 m
62
2000 m
3000 m
1000 m
4000 m
Boyd Strait
Smith
63
Livingston
Snow
1000 m
200 m
1000 m
1000 m
Low
500 m
Latitude S
Robert
500 m
200 m
Bellingshausen Sea
200 m
Bransfield Strait
Orleans
Canyon
200 m
1000 m
200 m
500 m
500 m
Trinity
Hoseason
Schollaert Ch
64
500 m
Brabant
500 m
200 m
Gerlache
Strait
Anvers
65
67
Antarctic
Peninsula
1000 m
66
65
64
63
62
Longitude W
61
Weddell
Sea
60
59
58
2. MAPS WITH CRUISE TRACKS AND STATIONS
62
12
Macro 95
11
13
26
63
28
7
17
30
19
21
31
47
45
20
32
Latitude
40
34
35 36
65
67
66
65
64
203
65
38
64
63
62
61
60
66
147
52
82
54
63
105
48
83
104
144
126
137
167
Meso 95
166
92
63
165
64
155
135
114
94
115
164
179
71
183
160
158
156
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
Longitude
1 192
188
89 190
187
65
64
63
220
217
204
186
202
4 4
43
42
33
205
201
5
216
206
200
4
6
221
215
207
199
222
214
208
198
3
18
22
63
213
209
197
2
8
16
23
29
64
9
15
24
1
Macro 96
212
210
10
14
25
27
211
62
218
196
195
194
1
62
61
60
219
3. INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS WITHIN THE FRUELA CRUISES
Research Topic / Operation
Physics
CTD – Macro and mesoescale distribution
Principal Investigator
Marc Antoni Garcia (UPC)
Oswaldo López (UPC)
CTD – Geostrophic circulation
Damià Gomis (UIB)
Chemistry
Nutrient distribution and utilisation
Carmen González-Castro (IIM)
Team on board
Cruise
Reference
Marc Antoni Garcia
Oswaldo López
Julia Figa (UPC)
Manuel González (UPC)
Joan Puigdefabregas (UPC)
María Pilar Rojas (UPC)
Damià Gomis
F96
F95
F95
F95
F95
F96
F95
(Garcia et al., 2001)
Carmen González-Castro
María José Pazo (IIM)
Aida Fernández-Ríos
Gabriel Rosón
Mª Victoria González (IIM)
María Trinidad Rellán (IIM)
María Dolores Doval
Ramon Penín (IIM)
Enrique Nogueira (IIM)
F95
F96
F96
F95
F95
F96
F95
F95
F95
(Gomis et al., 2001)
(Castro et al., 2001)
CO2 system, pH and alkalinity
Aida Fernández-Rios (IIM)
Gabriel Rosón (UV)
POC and DOC distribution
María Dolores Doval (IIM)
Phytoplankton
Light and bio-optics
Félix López-Figueroa (UM)
Félix López-Figueroa (UM)
Belén Arbones (IIM)
María Luisa Villarinos (IIM)
F95
F95
F96
Flow-citometry and size structure
Jaime Rodríguez (UM)
Primary production and pigments (HPLC)
Emilio Fernández (UV)
Manuel Varela (IEO)
Pablo Serret (UO)
Jaime Rodríguez
Francisco Jiménez (UM)
José María Blanco (UM)
Emilio Fernández (UV)
Manuel Varela (IEO)
Pablo Serret (UO)
F95
F95
F95
F95
F96
F95
DOC release
Microbial ETS activity
Marta Estrada (ICM)
Rosa Martínez (US)
Emilio Marañón (UO)
Natalia González (UO)
Marta Estrada
Rosa Martínez
F96
F96
F95
F95
(Morán and Estrada, )
(Morán et al., In press)
New and regenerated production (15N)
Antonio Bode (IEO)
Antonio Bode (IEO)
F95
(Bode et al., 2001)
Heterotrophic microbes
Protist abundance and bacterivory
Dolors Vaqué (ICM)
Dolors Vaqué
Núria Guixa-Boixereu (ICM)
Carles Pedrós-Alió
F95
F96
F96
(Pedrós-Alió et al., 2001)
(Vaqué et al., 2001)
(Guixa-Boixereu et al., 2001)
Josep M. Gasol (ICM)
F95
Gross primary production and microbial
respiration (oxygen)
Prokaryotes abundance and production,
Viruses and prokaryotic lysis
Carles Pedrós-Alió (ICM)
(Álvarez et al., 2001)
(Doval et al., 2001)
(Figueroa, 2001)
(Figueroa et al., 1997)
(Lorenzo et al., 2001)
(Arbones et al., 2000)
(Rodríguez et al., 2001b)
(Varela, et al., 2001)
(Rodríguez et al., 2001a)
(Serret et al., submitted)
Research Topic Operation
Meso y macrozooplankton
Mesozooplankton composition, abundance
and grazing
Principal Investigator
Team on board
Florentina Álvarez-Marqués (UO)
Florentina Álvarez-Marqués
José Luis Acuña (UO)
Cruise
Reference
F95
Copepod egg and faecal pellet production
Albert Calbet (ICM)
Mesozooplankton respiration, ETS activity
Santiago Hernández-León (ULP)
Bioacustics
Macrozooplankton and fish larvae
Arturo Castellón (ICM)
Fracesc Pagés (ICM)
PC and PON export (drifting sediment trap)
Ricardo Anadón (UO)
José Luis Acuña
Jesús Alberto Cabal (UO)
Mario Quevedo (UO)
Jorge Álvarez-Sostres (UO)
Ricardo Anadón
Albert Calbet
Xavier Irigoien (ICM)
Santiago Hernández-León
Irene Lidia Montero (ULP)
Arturo Castellón
Fracesc Pagés
Rafael González-Quirós (UO)
Ricardo Anadón
F96
F96
F96
F96
F95
F96
F96
F96
F96
F96
F96
F96
F95-F96
(Cabal et al., 2001)
(Anadón et al., 2001)
Sediment
Sediment carbon burial, bioaccumulation
and paleoclimatology
Jorge Guillén (ICM)
Jorge Guillén (ICM)
F96
(Masqué et al., 2001)
Marcelli Farran (ICM)
Pere Masqué (UAB)
F96
F96
(Bárcena et al., 2001)
(Calbet and Irigoien, 1997)
Moorings
Current meters and sediment traps
Deposition of carbon and nitrogen
Technicians
CTD, LHPR, Bioness
Computing
Albert Palanques (ICM)
Albert Palanques
Pere Puig (ICM)
Marc Garcia (UPC)
Pedro Jornet (UGBOIP)
Mario Manríquez (UGBOIP)
Pedro Jornet
Mario Manríquez
María Isabel Lloret (ICM)
Fernando Uceta (UGBOIP)
Miguel Pancorbo (UGBOIP)
Zacarías Garcia (UGBOIP)
(Palanques et al., 2001)
(Isla et al., submitted)
F95-F96
F96
F95
F95
F96
F95
ICM Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC)- Barcelona; IEO Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Laboratorio Costero de A Coruña - A Coruña;
IIM Instituto de Investigacions Mariñas (CSIC) - Vigo; UAB Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona - Barcelona; UGBOIP Unidad de Gestión
de Buques Oceanográficos e Instalaciones Polares - Barcelona; UIB Universidad de las Islas Baleares - Palma de Mallorca; ULP Universidad
de Las Palmas - Las Palmas de Gran Canaria; UM Universidad de Málaga - Málaga; UO Universidad de Oviedo - Oviedo; UPC Universitat
Politècnica de Catalunya (LIM) - Barcelona; US Universidad de Santander; UV Universidad de Vigo - Vigo.
4. FRUELA 95 STATIONS AND DEPTHS
FRUELA 95
CAST STATION DATE HOUR
LATITUDE
LONGITUDE
DEPTH
GMT
1
1
3-12
13:18
2
2
3-12
22:03
3
3
4-12
0:38
4
4
4-12
5:41
5
5
4-12
9:01
6
6
4-12
12:11
7
7
4-12
15:10
8
8
4-12
17:42
9
9
5-12
7:35
10
10
5-12
9:56
11
11
5-12
13:08
12
12
5-12
16:02
13
13
6-12
2:24
14
14
6-12
6:35
15
15
6-12
10:36
16
16
6-12
14:45
17
17
6-12
16:49
18
18
6-12
19:19
19
19
6-12
21:00
20
20
7-12
1:21
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
41
41
1
0
20
20
39
39
51
51
34
34
18
18
2
2
46
46
29
30
13
13
57
57
20
21
34
34
49
49
4
4
19
19
33
33
48
48
9
33
34
2
58
5
6
27
25
6
20
29
15
29
24
32
38
10
12
56
4
58
34
51
31
59
15
50
39
30
22
37
44
29
32
33
43
31
31
1
60
60
60
60
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
60
61
61
61
61
61
61
62
62
62
62
63
63
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
61
61
63
36
36
16
16
56
56
33
33
10
11
39
41
5
4
30
30
56
56
22
22
47
47
8
8
20
20
56
55
32
32
6
6
41
41
14
14
51
51
5
33
26
43
36
27
45
3
7
37
26
28
13
0
12
55
17
50
1
47
53
17
29
29
26
37
34
23
36
13
33
15
1
0
9
27
23
55
57
55
CAST
STATION
208
230
237
866
862
382
408
284
300
300
201
786
650
709
615
565
562
734
359
387
390
1527
1123
1856
1625
3106
3070
4097
3967
2000
2283
610
609
195
188
288
300
174
176
664
810
357
287
198
688
620
522
330
359
1192
1832
2797
4043
1986
562
162
279
149
629
21
21
7-12
3:45
22
22
7-12
5:56
23
23
7-12
8:09
24
24
7-12
10:41
25
25
7-12
17:39
26
26
8-12
0:05
27
27
8-12
5:32
28
28
8-12
12:16
29
29
8-12
17:37
30
30
8-12
22:30
31
31
9-12
0:28
32
32
9-12
2:43
33
33
9-12
4:51
34
34
9-12
8:25
35
34.1
9-12
12:19
36
35
10-12
0:32
37
36
10-12
2:40
38
37
10-12
5:05
39
38
10-12
7:39
40
39
10-12
9:20
41
39.1
10-12 12:08
42
40
10-12 17:15
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
9
54
55
41
41
25
25
11
11
56
55
42
43
5
5
19
20
33
33
47
47
59
59
13
12
26
26
54
54
54
54
54
55
52
52
51
51
57
57
52
51
51
52
37
37
8
52
1
15
15
54
49
10
28
1
32
31
22
36
33
21
51
3
26
18
5
59
56
2
56
57
56
6
12
30
26
46
4
53
55
28
30
29
31
1
58
58
2
50
34
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
65
65
65
65
66
66
66
66
65
65
65
65
65
65
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
6
26
26
50
50
16
16
40
39
3
5
27
28
35
37
12
8
47
47
27
28
5
6
45
45
21
21
29
29
29
29
37
37
16
17
54
54
31
31
14
14
13
13
52
53
11
6
13
47
48
17
22
7
57
56
11
42
41
26
9
4
28
26
37
37
2
39
8
0
19
33
18
20
20
2
16
24
47
48
34
47
36
36
38
14
14
56
49
54
25
387
211
224
2762
3215
3184
3327
3281
3216
385
415
497
97
740
889
838
543
372
363
306
290
296
674
419
415
241
241
256
252
2832
2819
3263
3303
3240
3250
3374
3399
3364
3327
3215
3216
422
419
447
447
526
526
126
123
726
798
900
798
866
878
590
568
390
367
309
388
334
334
322
315
530
350
43
41
10-12 19:04
44
42
10-12 21:43
45
453
10-12 23:15
46
44
11-12
1:45
47
45
11-12
3:14
48
46
11-12
5:42
49
47
11-12
9:10
50
47.1
11-12 11:25
51
48
12-12 17:28
52
49
12-12 17:56
53
50
12-12 18:37
54
51
12-12 19:13
55
52
12-12 20:16
56
53
12-12 21:24
57
54
12-12 22:45
58
55
12-12 23:57
59
56
13-12
0:42
60
57
13-12
1:27
61
58
13-12
3:36
62
59
13-12
4:15
63
60
13-12
4:59
64
61
13-12
5:52
65
62
13-12
7:23
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
33
34
29
29
23
23
17
17
17
16
12
12
3
3
3
3
49
49
49
49
51
51
52
52
54
54
55
55
2
2
4
4
8
8
11
11
24
24
27
27
30
30
34
34
37
56
1
40
39
13
6
16
12
1
58
53
53
9
1
1
1
28
33
45
49
10
11
32
46
3
18
8
12
12
3
55
48
18
21
10
11
42
45
29
33
29
32
9
16
59
62
62
62
62
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
35
35
16
16
54
54
39
39
14
14
55
55
46
45
45
45
37
38
42
42
51
51
57
58
5
6
14
14
22
22
20
20
16
16
14
14
2
2
59
0
56
56
53
53
49
45
40
4
4
57
54
10
30
7
19
10
1
3
50
3
20
55
10
26
42
33
56
41
10
44
18
6
2
55
50
23
18
58
59
9
9
8
8
42
1
55
55
2
34
23
767
739
619
652
258
445
300
1078
49
66
163
735
761
742
239
355
136
25
92
195
1252
1210
813
810
734
739
606
587
664
668
300
280
572
559
1004
1001
1078
1024
55
69
85
86
170
163
776
763
771
782
808
805
790
777
253
277
391
377
162
155
47
49
120
120
226
227
1336
1280
1280
66
63
13-12
8:48
67
64
13-12 10:38
68
65
13-12 11:33
69
66
13-12 13:15
70
67
13-12 14:22
71
68
13-12 16:26
72
69
13-12 17:36
73
70
13-12 18:38
74
71
13-12 19:17
75
72
13-12 21:15
76
73
13-12 22:42
77
74
14-12
0:01
78
75
14-12
1:36
79
76
14-12
2:53
80
77
14-12
5:05
81
78
14-12
8:21
82
78.1
14-12 10:39
83
79
14-12 11:59
84
80
14-12 14:07
85
81
14-12 15:33
86
82
14-12 17:31
87
52
14-12 19:23
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
38
41
41
50
49
53
53
56
56
3
3
5
6
9
9
13
13
16
16
58
58
53
53
47
47
39
39
33
33
31
30
25
26
26
26
19
20
13
13
7
7
0
1
54
54
2
1
3
1
57
1
4
46
47
19
25
57
14
36
33
22
29
50
50
31
16
48
48
17
17
32
45
33
31
17
45
53
3
1
5
54
5
15
35
17
30
58
2
11
9
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
62
62
49
46
46
38
38
35
35
32
32
26
26
23
23
19
19
16
16
13
13
1
1
6
6
12
13
20
20
26
26
39
38
34
34
34
34
40
40
46
47
52
53
59
59
6
6
53
53
47
17
21
54
39
52
43
16
22
32
4
29
8
46
45
37
26
39
29
52
43
54
9
42
40
34
17
1
55
31
31
2
23
23
34
15
7
59
19
5
9
16
47
377
585
1053
154
385
681
460
402
195
304
328
557
641
852
1300
1080
103
927
950
945
817
730
1254
415
377
615
580
1112
1112
198
180
382
379
695
722
469
484
421
444
201
212
371
265
353
350
579
584
668
680
868
878
1375
1336
1147
1147
1147
1145
984
987
1040
990
1016
984
900
817
779
777
88
49
14-12 21:35
89
83
14-12 22:30
90
84
14-12 23:34
91
85
15-12
0:56
92
86
15-12
2:02
93
87
15-12
3:06
94
88
15-12
4:26
95
89
15-12
6:05
96
90
15-12
7:49
97
91
15-12
9:13
98
92
15-12 10:20
99
93
15-12 13:39
100
94
15-12 15:27
101
95
15-12 16:55
102
96
15-12 17:59
103
97
15-12 19:30
104
98
15-12 21:54
105
99
16-12 23:05
106
100
16-12
0:49
107
101
16-12
2:00
108
102
16-12
4:05
109
103
16-12
5:13
110
104
16-12
6:52
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
49
49
56
56
2
2
5
5
11
11
8
8
15
15
21
21
29
29
35
35
38
38
57
57
52
52
48
48
44
44
31
38
30
30
24
23
17
17
11
11
4
4
58
58
52
44
41
49
46
49
44
25
24
28
27
48
47
15
16
24
25
12
12
5
4
52
53
19
21
34
36
47
45
48
54
21
23
28
18
8
59
11
16
7
16
36
48
33
35
39
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
61
61
61
61
61
42
42
36
36
30
30
43
43
37
37
26
25
18
18
12
12
5
5
58
58
56
56
37
37
16
16
19
20
23
23
30
30
36
36
42
42
49
50
55
55
1
2
8
8
13
39
43
27
41
33
26
36
39
9
8
5
59
17
17
22
44
34
49
47
47
8
3
45
51
33
25
54
7
27
12
0
6
32
6
56
38
54
10
35
32
58
12
18
1
46
65
232
527
592
449
590
1159
929
567
594
95
446
509
630
679
365
366
394
478
798
389
250
104
93
94
260
263
570
569
638
637
482
482
629
620
1224
1222
948
988
615
605
640
636
124
125
491
492
558
543
676
676
712
731
408
388
432
386
416
435
514
524
824
842
334
449
281
278
134
111
103.1
16-12
8:36
112
105
16-12 10:56
113
106
16-12 11:50
114
107
16-12 12:48
115
108
16-12 14:05
116
109
16-12 14:51
117
110
16-12 16:18
118
111
16-12 17:48
119
112
16-12 19:08
120
113
16-12 20:19
121
114
16-12 23:08
122
115
17-12
0:43
123
116
17-12
2:17
124
117
17-12
4:13
125
118
17-12
5:15
126
119
17-12
6:08
127
120
17-12
8:05
128
121
17-12
9:25
129
121.2
17-12 10:47
130
122
17-12 12:41
131
123
17-12 14:13
132
124
17-12 15:40
133
125
17-12 17:28
134
126
17-12 18:20
135
127
17-12 19:30
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
52
58
58
43
43
58
58
54
54
2
2
6
6
13
13
20
20
26
26
31
31
43
43
43
44
36
36
27
27
22
22
15
15
8
8
2
2
1
1
56
56
50
50
44
44
44
44
48
47
52
57
32
35
14
16
28
24
24
26
48
53
25
25
2
2
4
9
23
30
13
21
34
32
59
7
22
22
50
52
8
9
46
54
53
48
35
28
59
52
1
4
22
28
41
45
52
54
7
55
40
61
61
61
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
14
8
7
58
59
53
53
47
47
41
41
25
34
28
28
22
22
16
16
12
12
59
59
42
42
41
41
51
51
56
56
2
2
9
8
15
15
13
12
21
20
26
26
32
32
10
10
6
6
2
20
4
58
52
10
17
21
35
34
41
31
33
48
54
30
38
48
16
42
2
13
44
32
36
34
51
47
35
45
14
11
43
44
0
46
21
5
15
25
15
59
57
54
50
48
41
41
56
55
14
247
31
155
95
151
554
580
370
565
80
718
681
715
103
189
814
738
109
856
829
456
409
103
809
990
127
277
277
48
48
189
186
123
122
207
184
600
593
633
629
410
407
558
590
120
118
762
767
733
726
755
756
129
129
218
217
869
867
783
784
909
908
908
911
866
871
479
482
434
447
121
125
840
839
1035
136
128
17-12 21:11
137
129
17-12 22:36
138
130
18-12
0:07
139
131
18-12
1:21
140
132
18-12
2:28
141
133
18-12
3:50
142
134
18-12
5:12
143
135
18-12
6:18
144
137
18-12
7:51
145
138
18-12
8:58
146
138.1
18-12 10:11
147
139
18-12 11:41
148
140
18-12 13:27
149
141
18-12 15:19
150
142
18-12 16:40
151
143
18-12 18:45
152
144
18-12 20:20
153
145
18-12 22:37
154
146
19-12
0:05
155
147
19-12
1:05
156
148
19-12
2:45
157
149
19-12
4:39
158
150
19-12
6:18
159
151
19-12
8:04
160
154
19-12
9:24
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
63
52
58
59
5
5
11
11
18
18
25
25
23
24
29
30
32
32
28
28
21
21
21
21
14
14
7
7
1
1
55
55
48
48
42
42
39
39
33
33
36
36
44
44
50
50
56
56
3
3
12
40
50
3
9
24
49
55
18
17
36
38
55
0
56
0
20
30
10
5
47
44
37
37
34
40
49
49
20
20
3
3
33
33
57
57
35
35
25
25
41
41
28
28
44
44
46
46
49
49
42
60
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
2
56
56
50
50
42
42
36
35
28
27
17
17
11
11
21
21
1
1
8
8
8
8
16
16
25
25
30
30
37
37
42
42
49
49
53
53
34
34
30
30
22
22
15
15
8
8
1
1
55
7
16
26
5
30
49
35
2
47
4
37
10
0
47
39
57
47
29
24
25
31
34
37
25
26
31
31
43
43
14
14
24
24
35
35
20
20
36
36
57
57
27
27
34
34
41
41
35
35
0
937
842
305
216
908
359
463
283
222
92
90
787
731
834
885
954
1100
144
349
852
1374
1123
690
300
198
1035
969
992
894
899
344
336
235
248
930
969
407
387
498
496
334
317
249
251
119
119
117
116
821
817
760
763
866
888
940
942
1049
1049
1188
1170
149
179
341
401
850
909
1491
1282
1236
1104
740
738
332
332
247
161
152
19-12 10:27
162
153
19-12 11:28
163
155
19-12 13:08
164
99
19-12 19:29
165
74
19-12 22:55
166
38
20-12 10:56
167
37
20-12 14:28
168
36
20-12 17:10
169
36/37
20-12 19:09
170
156.1
21-12
2:20
171
156.1
21-12
3:54
172
156.2
21-12
6:12
173
156.3
21-12
8:38
174
156.4
21-12 11:06
175
156.5
21-12 13:57
176
156.6
21-12 17:00
177
156.7
21-12 20:09
178
156.8
21-12 23:11
179
156.9
22-12
180
157
22-12 18:11
181
158
22-12 20:36
182
159
22-12 23:13
183
160
23-12
1:35
184
161
23-12
3:38
185
162
23-12
5:30
1:56
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
12
9
9
15
15
24
24
24
24
47
47
57
57
51
51
54
54
52
52
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
49
49
38
38
33
33
28
27
23
23
12
42
49
49
47
47
16
16
6
6
20
20
36
36
27
27
20
20
4
4
35
35
38
38
34
34
28
28
42
42
35
35
35
35
27
48
33
58
36
27
25
8
3
7
56
51
15
59
26
28
55
59
58
58
58
58
58
58
60
60
61
61
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
62
61
61
61
55
54
54
46
46
35
35
42
42
13
13
31
31
54
54
15
15
6
6
32
32
32
32
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
32
11
11
52
52
35
35
15
15
55
55
55
0
18
18
36
36
18
18
47
47
15
15
48
48
59
59
56
56
10
10
10
10
2
2
59
59
42
42
50
50
34
34
38
38
10
10
23
23
1
1
48
48
48
48
45
45
29
29
26
26
38
107
65
431
384
590
353
387
1033
231
376
100
327
370
314
334
321
314
317
351
362
606
775
666
564
559
232
134
134
92
93
473
471
422
417
613
645
370
388
406
419
1114
1053
230
231
340
376
347
316
368
353
414
382
353
346
364
365
376
321
394
314
334
317
350
351
385
336
622
626
797
818
740
704
597
559
571
186
163
23-12
7:31
187
164
23-12
9:25
188
165
23-12 11:35
189
166
23-12 14:20
190
167
23-12 16:44
191
168.1
26-12
2:00
192
168.1
26-12
2:57
193
168.2
26-12
8:04
194
168.3
26-12 14:16
195
168.4
26-12 20:11
196
168.5
27-12
2:18
197
169.1
28-12
2:10
198
169.1
28-12
3:08
199
169.2
28-12
8:16
200
169.3
28-12 14:09
201
169.4
28-12 17:59
202
169.5
29-12
203
170
29-12 13:45
204
171
29-12 14:45
205
172
29-12 16:22
206
173
29-12 17:45
207
174
29-12 19:27
208
175
29-12 21:24
209
176
29-12 22:40
210
177.1
29-12
2:01
2:45
64
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
12
2
2
56
56
47
47
35
34
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
25
24
24
25
25
24
24
49
50
49
49
49
49
48
48
49
49
47
47
38
38
36
36
31
31
32
32
31
31
34
34
33
33
38
56
53
45
53
53
16
16
1
60
2
2
9
10
39
43
26
28
28
28
15
24
28
30
53
4
29
26
37
33
54
54
1
2
42
28
13
20
32
26
56
53
22
29
48
45
25
26
54
56
51
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
55
45
45
32
32
12
12
58
58
42
42
42
42
42
42
41
41
37
37
36
36
33
33
12
12
11
11
13
13
13
13
14
14
12
12
45
45
47
47
40
40
45
46
28
28
26
26
35
35
55
38
29
29
37
37
58
58
44
44
10
10
53
53
52
52
11
11
16
16
10
10
16
16
21
21
57
57
26
26
50
50
13
13
8
8
55
55
18
18
20
20
48
25
54
12
10
13
54
48
19
1076
84
548
586
402
383
103
338
413
361
340
263
111
224
119
98
122
163
645
472
444
568
520
783
573
566
1029
1094
115
213
590
594
630
628
442
444
414
415
397
396
379
377
450
444
414
398
382
370
308
287
338
338
227
238
150
148
119
117
166
137
183
166
707
676
514
494
460
469
591
601
552
534
830
838
598
211
177.1
30-12
3:54
212
177.2
30-12
8:07
213
177.3
30-12 14:21
214
177.4
30-12 21:55
215
177.5
31-12
1:54
216
178.1
2-1
2:05
217
178.1
2-1
3:37
218
178.2
2-1
8:00
219
178.3
2-1
14:02
220
178.4
3-1
20:08
221
178.5
3-1
1:55
222
179
3-1
10:05
223
180
3-1
11:35
224
181
3-1
12:41
225
182
3-1
13:52
226
183
3-1
15:07
227
184.1
4-1
2:43
228
184.1
4-1
4:01
229
184.2
4-1
7:56
230
184.3
4-1
14:20
231
184.4
4-1
19:58
232
184.4
4-1
22:00
233
184.5
5-1
1:57
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
38
38
38
38
38
37
37
36
36
36
36
58
58
58
58
58
58
57
57
57
57
56
56
17
16
18
18
19
18
20
20
21
21
32
32
32
32
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
34
34
33
43
44
40
44
33
26
10
17
32
3
2
0
5
21
24
26
35
50
57
37
54
29
27
5
58
7
3
2
58
8
7
9
12
57
54
48
47
20
23
16
19
39
46
56
3
3
59
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
55
55
54
53
53
47
47
45
44
44
45
41
41
41
42
44
44
40
40
35
35
37
38
56
56
42
42
48
48
43
44
40
40
21
21
21
21
20
20
16
16
16
16
15
15
16
17
9
39
32
56
46
44
37
0
56
59
0
0
19
57
7
15
33
32
22
59
45
58
2
37
15
18
38
13
23
56
0
7
14
28
41
28
25
2
4
50
50
5
14
46
58
50
5
101
623
675
628
550
1124
112
1108
1107
889
1101
690
983
889
720
402
691
100
579
481
626
60
508
594
642
611
673
629
734
672
632
635
593
592
1170
1180
1188
1190
1170
1171
1158
1169
933
944
1157
1158
727
705
999
1036
940
908
704
715
870
403
708
681
673
675
687
683
488
493
662
639
635
598
590
612
5. FRUELA 96 STATIONS AND DEPTHS
FRUELA 96
CAST STATION DATE HOUR
GMT
234
185
18-1 13:55
14:30
235
186
19-1
2:47
3:47
236
187
17:21
18:17
237
187.2
20-1
2:09
2:34
238
188
4:08
239
189
5:40
240
190
241
191
242
192
243
193
244
194
245
195
246
195.2
247
196
248
197
249
198
250
199
251
200
252
201
253
201.2
254
202
255
203
256
204
257
205
9:29
9:54
11:01
11:37
14:48
15:27
16:35
17:28
21:24
22:00
23:20
23:57
2:40
3:15
4:40
5:00
20:15
22:41
3:14
5:48
10:20
12:20
14:15
14:40
21:15
22:02
1:44
2:18
4:34
5:02
7:00
7:47
13:38
14:19
19:30
21-1
22-1
23-1
LATITUDE
LONGITUDE
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
11
11
3
3
54
53
54
54
52
52
51
51
57
57
51
52
37
37
33
34
29
29
22
22
22
22
12
12
42
43
56
56
11
12
25
4
31
9
6
18
47
33
43
55
53
24
20
31
37
58
15
51
37
51
1
34
34
49
47
35
35
36
36
25
38
16
38
19
10
55
59
59
61
61
64
64
64
64
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
62
61
61
61
61
61
61
65
65
65
65
64
64
64
22
22
45
45
28
29
29
29
16
16
54
54
31
31
14
14
52
52
35
35
15
15
53
54
53
52
55
55
27
26
3
3
39
39
16
7
18
50
56
57
27
6
12
39
44
39
52
24
24
21
25
38
20
31
32
38
32
58
7
6
23
5
6
34
36
30
23
46
38
37
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
63
63
63
41
41
41
41
54
54
8
8
48
48
33
21
14
18
13
51
56
54
35
27
28
35
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
61
61
62
50
50
50
51
26
26
5
5
52
53
14
32
14
52
6
2
10
50
26
4
6
22
CAST
206
1004
726
100
596
100
334
302
772
721
515
DEPTH
STATION
792
786
1027
1008
678
590
970
1007
621
594
409
414
354
353
320
314
529
526
815
809
765
750
544
554
103
620
3163
3196
2742
234
215
218
393
615
165
260
627
627
3236
3266
3250
3258
2784
2810
272
240
240
242
236
420
634
622
187
204
280
258
206
259
207
260
208
261
209
262
210
263
211
264
212
265
213
266
214
267
215
268
216
269
217
270
218
271
219
272
220
273
221
274
222
275
223
276
223.1
277
223.2
278
223.3
279
223.4
280
224
281
224.1
282
224.2
283
224.3
284
224.4
1-1
25-1
26-1
27-1
28-1
29-1
30-1
19:59
22:42
23:09
2:31
3:15
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
62
61
61
62
62
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
33
19
19
4
4
49
49
34
35
21
21
57
58
14
14
28
30
46
46
2
2
18
28
25
26
40
37
27
34
51
11
9
48
57
4
3
19
58
19
11
11
23
45
30
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
63
63
62
62
62
62
61
61
61
61
61
13
41
40
6
8
32
32
56
55
20
19
8
8
46
46
22
23
57
56
31
29
5
43
2
45
31
27
14
20
13
57
15
14
24
20
46
35
45
8
6
47
7
28
15
8:30
9:25
14:11
15:05
20:00
21:04
2:00
3:20
19:57
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
34
34
51
51
39
39
20
20
1
0
41
41
27
27
28
28
28
27
27
27
26
26
55
30
42
6
8
25
28
3
13
0
28
35
40
55
59
7
45
16
41
29
22
56
25
33
60
60
60
60
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
60
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
59
39
39
10
10
32
32
56
56
16
16
36
36
26
26
25
24
23
23
23
23
23
24
58
37
2
41
36
56
44
33
24
37
0
34
34
2
3
14
59
34
8
12
0
20
13
37
2:04
3:10
8:00
9:01
13:56
15:07
20:02
63
63
62
62
62
62
62
1
1
59
59
55
55
51
5
14
28
9
48
4
34
60
60
60
60
60
60
59
16
16
13
13
7
4
57
57
54
8
8
33
56
21
7:29
14:25
17:22
19:54
22:18
4:49
7:54
15:24
18:33
20:30
21:08
1:10
1:42
5:31
6:17
9:57
12:56
13:50
17:20
17:45
20:21
20:48
0:15
0:46
4:29
5:20
8:26
9:01
2:41
162
570
1918
4042
2756
3768
3978
358
524
704
706
284
189
184
597
619
1969
1998
4083
4086
2780
2798
3836
3838
4034
3933
388
398
412
441
560
540
722
341
734
750
232
244
235
198
394
810
862
233
1138
254
261
1180
916
1032
836
875
940
1040
1062
1282
1360
1065
215
217
1031
1238
1023
824
952
1011
757
863
866
997
1010
1010
894
21:04
2:36
3:42
2:44
3:49
8:25
8:31
14:01
15:12
20:01
21:06
2:20
62
62
62
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
51
46
46
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
23
58
38
6
39
5
2
55
51
43
23
17
59
59
59
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
55
46
44
45
46
46
46
46
47
45
46
46
22
55
10
49
56
45
40
47
18
57
29
50
226.1
2:16
2:34
3:16
64
64
64
51
51
51
25
17
25
63
63
63
54
55
55
42
27
46
293
226.2
8:51
294
226.3
14:00
295
226.4
296
226.5
297
226.6
298
227.1
299
227.2
300
227.3
301
227.4
302
227.5
20:00
20:27
22:16
22:48
2:08
2:39
20:03
20:58
1:05
2:08
8:02
8:50
14:10
14:59
19:50
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
51
51
51
51
52
52
50
50
50
50
32
32
32
32
32
31
30
30
20
8
13
10
44
34
39
53
33
16
39
44
26
21
34
29
5
60
5
2
26
13
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
54
54
58
59
58
58
55
54
1
1
30
29
31
31
28
28
22
22
18
18
51
53
32
6
58
40
27
34
46
41
26
54
8
23
47
27
39
11
55
45
285
224.5
31-1
286
225.1
287
225.2
288
225.3
289
225.4
290
225.5
2-1
291
226
3-1
292
4-1
5-1
978
1022
1121
1087
1072
1092
30
360
384
492
167
325
379
740
763
670
647
567
1036
1202
1053
1170
1156
1138
1124
1144
1150
410
408
379
402
406
502
461
194
290
336
414
380
770
753
785
739
689
701
672
681
599
6. CTD METHODS
Marc A. García, Damiá Gomis
(Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats
(CSIC-UIB), Palma de Mallorca, Spain)
[email protected] , [email protected]
Surface-to-bottom CTD cast was performed with a GO MkIIIC WOCE probe provided
with extra dissolved oxygen, fluorescence and light transmission sensors. Water samples were
obtained routinely at 24 levels with a GO Rosette equipped with 10 l Niskin bottles. Some of
the Niskin bottles carried RTM SiS 4002 digital reversible thermometers. Salinity was
obtained from water samples by means of a Guildline Autosal 8600 B. The θ has been derived
from CTD profiles. Calibration of CTD after the FRUELA cruises is annexed as GIF file
7. CHEMICAL METHODS
Marta Alvarez, Aida F. Ríos
(Instituto de Investigacións Marinas. CSIC. Spain)
[email protected] , [email protected]
A Metrohm E-654 pH-meter equipped with a Ross (Orion 81-04) combined glass electrode was
used to determine pH on the NBS scale. The temperature was measured using a platinum
resistance thermometer and finally pH was referred to a standard temperature of 15°C (pH15)
according to Pérez and Fraga (1987a). The method has a shipboard precision of ±0.002 pH15
(Ríos and Rosón, 1996) and an accuracy of ±0.004 pH15 using samples of Certified Reference
Material (CRMs) provided by Dr. Dickson from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Ríos
and Pérez, 1999; Ríos and Rellán, 1998).
Alkalinity was determined by automatic potentiometric titration with HCl at a final pH
of 4.44 (Pérez and Fraga, 1987b). The electrodes were standardised using an NBS buffer of pH
7.413 and checked using an NBS buffer of 4.008. This method has a precision of 0.1% (Pérez
and Fraga, 1987b), and an accuracy of ±1.4µmol.kg-1 (Ríos and Pérez, 1999; Ríos and Rellán,
1998).
Carmen G. Castro
(Instituto de Investigacións Marinas. CSIC. Spain)
[email protected],csic.es
Nutrient samples were filtered through 0.45 µm Millipore filter prior to analysis and were
analysed within 12 h after collection; and were stored in the refrigerator prior to analysis and
in the dark. Nutrient concentrations were determined by segmented flow analysis with
Technicon AAII systems, following Hansen and Grasshoff (1983) with some improvements
(Mouriño and Fraga, 1985; Álvarez-Salgado et al., 1992). The analytical error was ±0.05
µmol⋅kg-1 for nitrate, ±0.05 µmol⋅kg-1 for silicic acid and ±0.01 µmol⋅kg-1 for phosphate.
Dissolved oxygen was determined by Winkler potentiometric titration. The estimated
analytical error was ±1 µmol⋅kg-1. Oxygen saturation was calculated following Benson and
Krause equation (UNESCO, 1986). Chlorophyll a was measured using 90% acetone
extraction in a 10,000 R Turner fluorometer (Yentsch and Menzel, 1963). The precision was ±
0.05 mg⋅m-3. Particulate organic matter (filtration volume 1 l) was collected on Whatman
GF/F filters and analyses were performed in a PE 2400 elemental analyser, with a precision of
±0.04 µmol⋅kg-1 for nitrogen and ±0.1 µmol⋅kg-1 for carbon.
M.D. Doval
(Instituto de Investigacións Marinas. CSIC. Spain)
[email protected] , [email protected]
Seawater samples for DOC analysis were collected with 100 ml polyethylene syringes with
teflon plunger tips and filtered by hand through Whatman Puradisc GF/F disposable filter
devices (0.7µm pore size) on polypropylene housing. The filtrate was drawn eventually into
50 ml polyethylene containers. The filtering system and the containers used for DOC had
been previously soaked on 0.1 N HCl, and rinsed with Milli-Q water. In addition, the
containers were rinsed three times with 50 ml of sample. Samples were immediately stored at
-70ºC until analysis in the base laboratory, eight months later. This storage technique has
demonstrated no artefactual results on the micromolar scale (Hansell and Carlson, 1998b).
DOC determination was performed by high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO)
with a commercial Shimadzu TOC-5000. The combustion quartz tube was filled with a 0.5%
Pt on Al2O3 catalyst. Three to 5 replicate injections of 200 µl were performed per sample. The
concentration of DOC was determined by subtracting the average peak area from the
instrument blank area and dividing by the slope of the standard curve. The instrument blank is
the system blank plus the filtration blank. The system blank was determined by subtracting
the DOC in UV-Milli-Q to the total blank. Measurements made with the high sensitivity
catalyst (Pt on silica wool) produced values <2 µmol C l-1 for fresh UV-Milli-Q water. The
filtration blank (determined by filtering UV-Milli-Q water through the filtration system) was
<2 µmol C l-1. Before sample analyses, the catalyst was washed by injecting UV-Milli-Q, for
at least 12 h, until the system blank was low and stable. The system blank was <8 µmol C l-1.
The device was standardized with Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP). The coefficient of
variation (C.V.) of the peak area for the 3-5 replicate analyses of each sample was ~1%. The
accuracy of our HTCO system has been tested within the international intercalibration
exercise conducted by J. Sharp (Univ. of Delaware), with very satisfactory results (within
±10%; J. Sharp, pers. com.).
8. CHLOROPHYLL a, PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND
COMMUNITY METABOLIMS METHODS
Manuel Varela
(Instituto Español de Oceanografía, La Coruña, Spain)
[email protected]
Samples were obtained with PVC Niskin bottles in a CTD rossete system (no trace
metal clean) at depths of 100, 50, 25, 10 and 1% of surface PAR. Particulate material was
concentrated by filtration of 100-250 ml of seawater and pigments were extracted in 90%
acetone (Parsons et al., 1984) for 24 h in dark at 4° C. Chlorophyll a concentration was
measured fluorimetrically on board, using a Turner Designs fluorometer. No sonication or
destruction of filters was carried out. Samples for chlorophyll and primary production (after
incubation) measurements were size fractionated by sequential filtration through Nucleopore
10 µm, Nucleopore 2 µm and Whatman GF/F filters, under vacuum pressures lower than 250
mm Hg.
The method followed for the C14 uptake experiments was based on that described in
the JGOFS protocols. Water samples from each sampled depth were poured into three clear
300 ml polycarbonate bottles. In addition, a dark bottle was used for the 100%, 25% and 1%
levels. Each bottle was inoculated with 740 kBq (20 µCi) of C14 labelled sodium bicarbonate
and incubated for 24 h in a deck incubator refrigerated with surface water. The different light
regimes of the sampling depths were simulated using neutral density filters. For some
stations, two sets of data were obtained, one from on deck incubations and the other from in
situ incubations. Correlation between the two data sets was very good (n=25; r2= 0.98;
p<0.0001). Following incubation, samples were sequentially filtered (see previous section)
and the filters were placed into scintillation vials and exposed to concentrated HCl fumes for
12 h. The incorporated radiocarbon was determined using a Beckman Liquid Scintillation
Counter.
Pablo Serret
(Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain)
[email protected]
Rates of O2 production and consumption by the planktonic community were
determined by in vitro changes of seawater O2 concentration in transparent (“light”) and dark
bottles incubated in situ during 24 hours. Sampling and incubation were carried out at the
same depths of
14
C experiments. Twelve 250 ml, gravimetrically calibrated, borosilicate
bottles were carefully filled from every Niskin bottle by means of a silicone tube, overflowing
more than 500 ml. Filled bottles were immediately closed and kept, in darkness, into a deck
incubator refrigerated with surface water. An initial set of four dark bottles was fixed at once,
the remaining (four dark, covered with aluminium foil, and four transparent or “light” bottles)
were attached to a buoy at the depths of origin of the sampled water. Dissolved oxygen
concentration was determined following the method described above. Data were available
only for 4 stations of the FRUELA 95 cruise, two in tje Gerlache Strait and two in the
Bransfield Strait. Fixing and storage procedures, reagents and standardisation followed the
recommendations by Grasshoff et al. (1983). Dissolved oxygen concentration was measured
through automated precision Winkler titration performed with a Metrohm 716 DMS Titrino,
using a potentiometric end point. Aliquots of fixed samples were delivered by a 50 ml
overflow pipette.
9. PHOTOSYNTHESIS, PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND
PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTH RATES METHODS
Luisa M. Lorenzo , Belén Arbones, Francisco G. Figueiras
(Instituto de Investigacións Mariñas , CSIC, Vigo, Spain)
[email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected]
Phytoplankton light absorption coefficients (PhytopAbsortCoeff.xls)
Phytoplankton light absorption coefficients [ a ph (λ ) , m-1] were determined by filtering
seawater volumes of 1 to 4 litres through 25 mm Whatman GF/F filters. The optical density
spectra of concentrated material were measured on a Kontron UVIKON 860 dual-beam
spectrophotometer at 1 nm bandwidth from 400 to 750 nm using a wet GF/F filter as a blank.
Phytoplankton pigments were extracted in methanol (Kishino et al. 1985) and the optical
density of non-algal material retained on the filters was determined in the same way.
Absorbance at 750 nm was subtracted from all other wavelengths in the spectra. The
correction for pathlength amplification on filters was done following the methodology of
Arbones et al. (1996).
Photosynthesis-irradiance relationships (FotoParam.xls)
Fourteen subsamples collected in 75 ml Corning tissue culture flasks were inoculated
with 3.70 x 105 Bq (10 µCi) of
14
C-labelled bicarbonate and placed in linear incubators
illuminated by tungsten-halogen lamps (50 W, 12 V) of a known light spectra. The flask at the
end of the incubator was covered with aluminium foil and used to check dark carbon fixation.
A digital temperature refrigeration unit was used to maintain the samples at ambient
temperature. The PAR ( E PAR ) at the position of each bottle in the incubators was measured
with a Li-Cor cosine sensor LI-190SA. After 2 h of incubation, samples were filtered through
25 mm Whatman GF/F filters. The filters were exposed to concentrated HCl fumes for 12 h to
eliminate unincorporated 14C. The external standard and the channel ratio methods were used
to calculate disintegrations per minute (dpm).
Because photoinhibition was not observed, the broadband photosynthetic parameters,
PmB [mg C (mg Chl)-1 h-1] and α B [mg C (mg Chl)-1 h-1 (µmol m-2 s-1)-1] were estimated by
fitting the data to the model of Webb et al. (1974):
[
PzB = PmB 1 − exp(−α B ⋅ E PAR / PmB )
]
(1)
where PzB [mg C (mg Chl)-1 h-1] is the Chl-specific rate of photosynthesis at each
sampled depth.
The spectral quality of the incident light did not change along the incubators
(Figueiras et al., 1999) and therefore the spectral irradiance E q (λ ) at each location in the
incubators was deduced by multiplying the normalised spectra of the tungsten-halogen lamp
E N (λ ) by the corresponding E PAR at each location:
E q (λ ) = E N (λ ) ⋅ E PAR
(2)
where
E N (λ ) = E (λ ) / ∫ E (λ )d (λ )
(3)
λ
The light absorbed by phytoplankton ( E PUR , µmol photons m-3 s-1) at each position in
the incubators was calculated following Dubinsky (1980):
E PUR = ∫
700
400
a ph (λ ) ⋅ E q (λ )d (λ )
(4)
The maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation [φ m mol C fixed (mol photons
absorbed)-1] was estimated by fitting the photosynthetic rates P (mg C m-3 h-1) to the
photosynthetic radiation absorbed by phytoplankton EPUR (µmol photons m-3 s-1):
[
Pz = Pm 1 − exp(−φ m' ⋅ E PUR / Pm )
]
(5)
where φ m = 0.0231 ⋅ φ m' . The factor 0.0231 converts milligrams of carbon to moles,
µmol of photons to moles and hours to seconds.
From equation (1) the spectral light saturation parameter for light absorbed by
phytoplankton [ E kPUR = Pm φ m' , (µmol photons m-3 s-1)], is analogous to the saturation
parameter for PAR radiation [ E kPAR = PmB α B , (µmol photons m-2 s-1)] derived from broad
band photosynthesis – irradiance relationships.
Primary production (PrimaryProd.xls)
Primary production (PP) was integrated to the depth of 1% of surface irradiance
( Z1% ):
Z1%
PP = D ∫ Chl ( z ) ⋅ PmB ( z ) ⋅ [1 − exp(− E PUR ( z ) / E kPUR ( z ))]dz
0
where D is the daylength.
(6)
Gross phytoplankton growth rates (GrowthRates.xls)
Gross phytoplankton growth rates ( µ + r , day-1) were calculated as:
 dC dt 
µ + r = ln 1 +
C 

(7)
where dC dt is the daily integrated primary production (mg C m-3 d-1) at each depth:
dC dt = D ⋅ Chl ⋅ PmB [1 − exp( E zPUR E kPUR ]
(8)
and C (mg C m-3) is the phytoplankton carbon estimated from the slope of the linear
regression (model II) between particulate organic carbon POC and Chl.
References
Kishino M., Takahashi N., Okami N., Ichimura S. (1985). Estimation of the spectral
absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea. Bulletin of Marine Science 37,
634-642.
Arbones B., Figueiras F.G., Zapata M. (1996) Determination of phytoplankton absorption
coefficients in natural sea water samples: evidence of a unique equation to correct for
pathlength amplification on glass fibre filters. Mar Eco Prog Ser 137:293-304.
Webb W.L., Newton M., Starr D. (1974). Carbon dioxide exchange of Alnus rubra: A
mathematical model. Oecologia. 17, 281-291.
Dubinsky Z. (1980). Light utilization efficiency in natural phytoplankton communities. In:
Falkowski PG (ed) Primary productivity in the Sea. Plenum Press, New York and London, p
83-97.
10. PHYTOPLANKTONIC DOC AND POC PRODUCTION
METHODS
Xosé Anxelu G. Morán, Marta Estrada
(Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Xixón-Gijón, Spain)
(Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
[email protected] , [email protected]
Time-course incorporation of carbon into the dissolved and particulate fractions was
measured by the 14C-technique (Steeman-Nielsen, 1952). Water for incubations was
collected from surface (5 m depth), and at some stations also from 10-15 m depth, in 12
l Niskin bottles attached to a rosette sampler. Aliquots (70 ml) were introduced in sterile
polystyrene tissue culture bottles (Corning). The bottles were inoculated with 0.3 to 0.7
MBq (8.4 to 19 µCi) of
14
C-bicarbonate and incubated under constant light conditions.
Surface samples were incubated under 90-100 µmol photons m-2 s-1 except for samples
from stations 8, 17 and 29, which were incubated under 50 µmol photons m-2 s-1. In both
cases saturation was achieved. Samples from 10-15 m depth were incubated under 9
µmol photons m-2 s-1 to match the decreased irradiance at these depths (on average 7% ±
4% of surface values, Figueroa et al., 2002). Incubations were made in controlledtemperature baths fixed at in situ temperature (± 0.5°C). Part of the bottles (dark bottles)
were covered with aluminium foil.
We used Whatman GF/F filters for separating the particulate and dissolved fractions of
primary production. Four dark bottles (time-zero bottles) were processed immediately at
the beginning of the experiment, in the same way as the dark bottles of the subsequent
sampling times. In these samplings, aliquots of 5 ml were taken from two light and two
dark bottles for determination of total labelled organic carbon (TOC) and the remaining
65 ml were filtered on GF/F filters for determination of total labelled POC. Aliquots of
5 ml from the remaining two light and two dark bottles were also filtered on GF/F filters
and the filtrate collected for determination of labelled DOC. The remaining 65 ml were
filtered on Nuclepore polycarbonate 0.8 µm or 2 µm filters (data not shown). Filtration
through GF/F filters for DOC sampling was made by gravity. In the other cases,
filtration pressure did not exceed 100 mm Hg. Filters were treated with concentrated
HCl fumes for ca. 12 h before addition of 4.5 ml of ReadySafe liquid scintillation
cocktail. Liquid samples (with labelled TOC or DOC) were acidified with 1 ml HCl 6M
and left open in an orbital shaker for 12 h before adition of 15 ml of scintillation
cocktail. Radioactivity was measured in a Beckman LS6000LL liquid scintillation
counter. The time-zero values were subtracted from all subsequent samples for
correction of abiotic incorporation. Dark bottle values after time-zero blank substraction
were on average 4% ± 1% (SE) of the light bottle values for POC measurements, 24% ±
4% of those for DOC and 16% ± 3% of those for TOC, and did not increase appreciably
during the experiments. These dark bottle values were not subtracted, following the
recommendation of Watanabe (1980). In each experiment, the radioactivity of the 14Cbicarbonate solution added to the incubation bottles was determined in 20 µl aliquots.
Carbon exchange model and compartmental analysis
A simple 3-compartment carbon exchange model for obtaining steady-state rates of
production of POC and DOC was used. The equations defining the rates of change of
carbon in the compartments are:
dC1/dt = -k(2,1) C1 + k(1,2) C2 - k(3,1) C3
(1)
dC2/dt = k(2,1) C1 - k(1,2) C2 + k(2,3) C3
(2)
dC3/dt = k(3,1) C1 - k(2,3) C3
(3)
where Ci is the carbon concentration in pool i and k(i,j) is the fractional rate constant of
flux from Cj to Ci. k(2,1) is the constant of particulate carbon production and would
reflect only photosynthetically produced carbon. k(1,2) is considered the constant of
respiration of synthesized POC, inferred from its influence on PO14C kinetics. k(3,1) is
the constant of dissolved carbon production. No distinction is possible between active
excretion by phytoplankton and other sources of labelled DOC release, such as cell
lysis. k(2,3) is the constant of heterotrophic assimilation of recently released DOC. The
inverse of the rate constant k(2,3) is the turnover time of the photosynthetically
produced DOC pool (Lancelot, 1979).
The performance of alternative 3-compartment carbon exchange models was first
evaluated by the residual sum of squares (RSS) after fitting to data, as a measure of the
remaining unexplained variance. The model which minimized the average RSS for all
experiments was chosen. Least-squares non-linear fitting of the model to actual
measurements of DO14C and PO14C was made with a computer program especially
designed for such compartmental analysis (SAAM II, SAAM Institute, Washington).
Data were weighted by the inverse of the standard deviation of duplicates. These
analyses yielded estimates of the rate constants of flux between compartments (k(i,j), in
units h-1) and of their variance and total remaining unexplained variance. Once the
model was fitted to a set of data, it was possible to derive the DOC and POC production
rates (mg C m-3 h-1) from the estimates of the rate constants and the concentration of
dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) at each sampling site. No isotopic discrimination
factor was considered for the conversion of dpm to carbon units. Percent extracellular
release (PER) was calculated as the ratio of DOC production rate to the sum of POC
and DOC production rates.
11. PROKARIOTIC PRODUCTION AND ABUNDANCE
METHODS
Carlos Pedrós-Alió
(Inst. Ciencias del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain)
[email protected]
Samples for determination of prokaryotic abundance (10 to 20 mL) were filtered
through 0.2 µm pore diameter black polycarbonate filters and stained with DAPI (1 µg
mL-1 final concentration) for 5 min before sucking the filters dry (Porter and Feig 1980).
Filters were then mounted on microscope slides with non-fluorescent oil (R.P. Cargille
Lab., Inc.) and stored frozen until counted. Filters were counted by epifluorescence
microscopy with a Nikon Diaphot microscope. About 200-400 prokaryotic cells were
counted per sample.
Prokaryotic
heterotrophic
production
was
determined
by
3
H-leucine
incorporation (Kirchman et al. 1985) as modified for micro-centrifugation by Smith &
Azam (1992). Aliquots of 1.2 mL were dispensed into 2 mL microcentrifuge tubes with
a step pipette. Control tubes received 133 µL of 50% TCA and were vortexed. Next, 48
3
µL of a 1µM solution of H-leucine was added to the tubes providing a final
concentration of 40 nM (which was found to be saturating in these waters). At least four
replicates and two killed controls were incubated per sample. After vortexing, tubes
were placed in whirl-pack plastic bags and these were incubated in the dark in a water
bath, at temperatures close to in situ, for 2 to 4 hours. Incubations were stopped with
133 µL of 50% TCA and vortexing. Next, tubes were spun in a microcentrifuge for 10
min at 16000 g. Liquid was aspirated with a Pasteur pipette connected to a vacuum
pump, taking care not to leave any droplets, especially around the cap. Pellets were
rinsed with 1.5 mL of 5% TCA, vortexed and spun again. Supernatant was sucked again
and 0.5 mL of scintillation cocktail were added. The tubes were counted within standard
20 mL scintillation vials in a Beckman scintillation counter on board. Counts were
repeated after 48 hours of adding cocktail. These second sets of counts were less
variable and had lower blanks than the initial counts. Dpm were calculated by the
instrument using the H number.
Prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) was calculated from leucine
incorporation (Leu) according to the equation
PHP = Leu*CF
Where CF is a conversion factor expressed in KgC mol-1. These conversion factors
were empirically derived for different samples (see below). From these estimates of
production and those of prokaryotic biomass, specific growth rates (µ) were calculated
as
µ = [Ln (1 + PHP/PB)] / t
Where PB is prokaryotic plankton biomass and t is the time over which the PHP is
considered.
12. MESOZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE, BIOMASS,
GUT CONTENT AND GRAZING METHODS
Jesús A. Cabal , Ricardo Anadón
(Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain)
[email protected],uniovi.es , [email protected]
Zooplankton samples were collected by 200-0 m vertical tows of a modified
triple-ring WP2 net with 0.125 m2 mouth area and 200 µm mesh size. Cod end contents
were immediately fractionated into three size fractions, 200-500 (small), 500-1000
(medium), and >1000 µm (large), using sieve cups equipped with Nitex screens
Samples for taxonomic analysis were preserved in 2-4% sodium borate-buffered
formalin, and later examined under a stereomicroscope to assess the species
composition and abundance. We did not include Actinopoda and Foraminifera in our
taxonomic analysis, in spite of their high densities in some stations, because our
sampling method was not adequate for these groups. Similarly, the abundance data of
large size zooplankton (Euphausiids and Salps) must be considered with caution
because of potential net avoidance or extremely aggregated distributions. Samples for
biomass analysis were rinsed with 0.2 µm filtered seawater, filtered onto pre-combusted
(450 °C, 24 h), pre-weighed Whatman GF/A filters and dried at 60 °C during 24 h; their
dry weight was measured with a Sartorius microbalance. After grinding each sample in
a mortar, the CNH content of a subsample was measured with a Perkin Elmer CNH
2400-II analyzer.
José Luis Acuña, Mario Quevedo and Ignacio Huskin
(Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain)
[email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected]
For the analysis of gut pigment contents, zooplankton from the different size
fractions was rinsed by immersion in filtered (0.2 µm) seawater, filtered onto 45 mm
diameter sharkskin filters (Head, 1986), and stored at -60 ºC in the dark. The whole
procedure was completed in less than 5 min. Animals for gut evacuation experiments
were collected using a WP2 net equipped with closed, soft plastic cod ends. Cod end
contents were size fractionated as above and introduced in a cooler filled with filtered
seawater from the same station. Subsamples were filtered and stored (as above) during
45 min for copepods and 3 h for euphausiids. Sampling interval was 5 min during the
first 30 minutes for both groups, with additional sampling at 45 min for copepods and at
45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for euphausiids.
Animals were picked from the frozen filters, within 1 year of collection, under a
dim light stereomicroscope. The number of copepods picked varied between 1 and 50,
and was typically greater than 10. When the number was large enough, duplicate
samples were taken. Euphausiids were analysed independently, except for a few small
animals which were pooled in groups. No attention was paid to species or development
stage, but carnivorous species were avoided. Animals were placed in 25 ml glass vials
with 5 ml of 90 % acetone and pigments were extracted overnight, in the dark, at 4 ºC.
Fluorescence was measured in a Turner Designs II fluorometer before and after
acidification (Mackas and Bohrer, 1976). Pigment concentration was estimated as
chlorophyll a equivalents (Chl a). No correction for background fluorescence or
pigment destruction was applied.
We used the gut pigment technique (Mackas and Bohrer, 1976) to measure
grazing rates of herbivorous crustacean zooplankton. Individual ingestion rate was
calculated as
I = GPC x k
where I is ingestion rate (ng Chl a ind-1 day-1) , GPC is individual gut pigment
content (ng Chl a ind-1) and k (d-1) is the gut evacuation rate, represented by the slope
of the exponential decay in gut contents with time obtained in the gut evacuation
experiments (Mackas and Bohrer, 1976). Population grazing rates of each zooplankton
category were calculated as individual ingestion (calculated by equation above) times
population densities. Chlorophyll a values were converted into C using a C:Chl factor of
60.
CRUISE: 1 stands for first cruise (3 December 1995 to 5 January 1996) 2 stands for
second cruise (17 January 1996 to 5 February 1996)
GRP: 1, 2 and 3 stand for the 3 groups of stations defined according to the community
structure
sta: each number represents one station
rep: In some stations, we sampled several times consecutively to examine diel
variations. Each each number represents the position within a series of samples
corresponding to a diel cycle station
con1000: individual gut contents in > 1000 µm zooplankton. Units: ng chla indv-1
con500: individual gut contents in 500-1000 µm zooplankton. Units: ng chla indv-1
coneuf: individual gut contents in euphausiids. Units: ng chla indv-1
con200: individual gut contents in 200-500 µm zooplankton. Units: ng chla indv-1
gpt1000: Gut passage time of >1000 µm zooplankton. Units: days
gpt500: Gut passage time of 500-1000 µm zooplankton. Units: days
num200: areal density of 200-500 µm zooplankton. Units: indv.m-2
num1000: areal density of >1000 µm zooplankton. Units: indv.m-2
num500: areal density of 500-1000 µm zooplankton. Units: indv.m-2
numeuf: areal density of euphausiids. Units: indv.m-2
pin200: Total ingestion rate of 200-500 µm zooplankton. Calculated as individual
content times nareal density divided by gut passage time. Units: ng Chla m-2 day-1
pin1000: Total ingestion rate of >1000 µm zooplankton. Calculated as individual
content times nareal density divided by gut passage time. Units: ng Chla m-2 day-1
pin500: Total ingestion rate of 500-1000 µm zooplankton. Calculated as individual
content times nareal density divided by gut passage time. Units: ng Chla m-2 day-1
pineuf: Total ingestion rate of euphausiids. Calculated as individual content times
nareal density divided by gut passage time. Units: ng Chla m-2 day-1
chla: areal chlorophyll concentration. Units: mg Chla m-2
Prodint: Integrated primary production. Units: mgCm-2 day-1
%CLH: daily chlorophyll percent removal by the zooplankton community (all fractions
summed).
%PP: daily primary production percent removal by the zooplankton community (all
fractions summed).
%clh200: daily chlorophyll percent removal by the 200-500 µm zooplankton size
fraction.
%clh500: daily chlorophyll percent removal by the 500-1000 µm zooplankton size
fraction.
%clh1000: daily chlorophyll percent removal by the >1000 µm zooplankton size
fraction.
%clheuf: daily chlorophyll percent removal by euphausiids.
%pp200: daily primary production percent removal by the 200-500 µm zooplankton
size fraction.
%pp500: daily primary production percent removal by the 500-1000 µm zooplankton
size fraction.
%pp1000: daily primary production percent removal by the >1000 µm zooplankton
size fraction.
%ppeuf: daily primary production percent removal by euphausiids.
13. DOWNWARD PARTICLE FLUXES METHODS
Ricardo Anadón
(Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain)
[email protected]
Drifting sediment traps were deployed during diel cycles as part of the FRUELA
95 (spring) and FRUELA 96 (summer) cruises. The trap array consisted in four
individual MULTITRAP baffled and unscreened collectors (60 mm diameter mouth and
640 mm long). The traps were placed at a depth of between 60 and 65 m, and filled with
filtered (Whatman GF/F) seawater, supplemented with NaCl (5 g L-1) to avoid losses of
materials due to turbulence. The salt solution was sterilised after the NaCl addition and
filtered through Whatman GF/F filters right before deployement. In the present data,
swimmers were not removed. Nevertheless, visual observation of the bottom of the
traps did not show the presence of meso- or macrozooplanktonic organisms.
Preservatives to avoid degradation of sinking materials were not used. While, in a recent
paper, Nodder and Alexander (1999) reported significant underestimates (> 60 %) of
vertical carbon flux when traps were filled with concentrated brine (> 50 ‰), we used a
less concentrate brine ( 39 ‰ aprox.) that was not expected to produce significant
effects.
After gently shaking the sample to avoid particulate breakage (fecal pellets are
particularly sensitive), the trapped material was split for different analyses. Half of the
volume of each trap was filtered through Whatman GF/F filters and PC and PON
measured using a Perkin-Elmer 2400 Elemental Analyser. Previously the filters were
dried at 60 ºC during 24 hours.
Sub-samples of different volumes were used to determine the concentration of
photosynthetic pigments, to identify and count phytoplankton and fecal pellets and to
measure carbon incorporation rates by heterotrophic prokaryotes and phytoplankton
cells accumulated in the traps.
Chlorophyll a was measured after extraction with 90 % acetone using a 10.000
R Turner Design fluorometer.
The C assimilation of the sedimented phytoplankton cells was measured by the 14C
method (see Varela et al., 2002), in short-term incubations (1 hour) at saturating light.
This measurement was used as an estimate of the viability of the sedimented
primary producers. Absolute rates were normalised to total photosynthetic biomass in
the traps by dividing them by the trap carbon concentration.
The microbial consumption of the sedimented carbon was measured as the rate
of 3H-leucine incorporation in sub-samples of each trap enclosed in Eppendorf vials. A
subsample of the filtered salt solution used to fill the traps before deployment was used
as a control for the determination of prokaryotic activity, which was always statistically
not different from 0. Leucine incorporation was converted to biomass production using
the theoreticaly calculated conversion factor of 3.1 kg C mol leucine-1
and
a
prokaryotic growth efficiency [BP/(BP+Resp)] of 33 %. The results were expressed as
carbon processed per amount of carbon sedimented.
Albert Palanques
Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
[email protected]
A mooring line equipped with two sequential sediment traps was deployed south
of Livingston Island and west of Deception Island at 1000 m depth. One sediment trap
was placed 30 meters above bottom (mab), and the other trap was installed in mid-depth
waters, 500 mab.
The sediment traps used in this study were Technicap model PPS3. The traps'
sample-collecting hull is cylindrical and has an inner diameter of 40 cm. These traps
incorporate a carousel with 12 sampling bottles, which is controlled by a programmable
motor to preset variable sampling intervals for each of the 12 sampling tubes (Heussner
et al., 1990). The sampling period comprised almost a complete year (345 days) from
March 1st 1995 to February 15th 1996. In this experiment, the sample collecting interval
was set to different time intervals: 60 days during late autumn-winter months (from
April to September), 30 days in March and October and 15 days in spring and summer
months (from November to February) in order to have a higher resolution during the
spring and summer months.
Before the trap deployments, the sampling tubes were rinsed and filled with a
5% (~1.7 M) formalin solution prepared from Carlo Erba analytical grade 40%
formaldehyde mixed with 0.2 µm filtered seawater to avoid the degradation of organic
matter in the trapped particles. The solution was buffered (7.5<pH< 8) with Carlo Erba
analytical grade sodium borate. After the trap recovery, the pH was checked and it
indicated that the solutions remained buffered.
The total sample was divided into several aliquots to obtain different subsamples
for analyzing total mass flux, major constituents: organic carbon, calcium carbonate and
nitrogen. Zooplankton organisms, also called “swimmers”, were removed by hand
picking under a dissecting microscope.
Sample dry weight was determined using three subsamples filtered onto 47 mm
diameter, 0.45 µm preweighed Millipore filters rinsed with distilled water and dried at
40º C for 24 hours. Total mass flux was calculated from the sample dry weight, the
collecting trap area and the sampling interval.
For carbon and nitrogen analyses, four subsamples were filtered onto 47 mm
diameter preweighed Whatman GF/F glass microfiber filters that had previously been
combusted at 550ºC for 24 hours. Two subsamples were used to determine the total
carbon (TC) and nitrogen percentages in a LECO CN 2000 analyzer. Another two
subsamples were digested with HCl in a LECO CC 100 digestor and the resulting CO2
was analyzed in the same CN analyzer and assigned to inorganic carbon (IC) content,
which is used to calculate the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) percentage.
14. SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION RATES METHODS
Albert Palanques and Pere Masqué
(Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain)
(Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain)
[email protected] , [email protected]
Bottom sediments were collected using a multiple corer (Bowers and Connelly)
designed to recover up to 8 replicates of 10 cm diameter. All studied samples presented
a layer of clear sea water over the top of the sediment, thus indicating that very low, if
any, disturbance of the samples were induced due to insertion of the tube. Three cores
(A3, A6 and B2) were selected for 210Pb analysis.
Sediment core lengths ranged from 34 to 40 cm. One core from each station was
subsampled at 0.5 to 2-cm intervals from top to bottom and sections were stored and
frozen in sealed plastic bags until analysis. The outer 2 mm ring was removed from
each section to discard the sediment possibly smeared downward during core insertion.
For each section, wet and dry masses were determined before and after drying samples
at 40ºC, and dry bulk densities were calculated. About half of the sample was
homogenised to carry out carbon, nitrogen and radionuclide analyses, which included
210
Pb and gamma-emitters.
Radiometric analysis
210
Pb analyses of the sediment samples were performed following the methodology
described by Sanchez-Cabeza et al. (1998), by total digestion of 200-300 mg sample
aliquots. 209Po was added to each sample before digestion as internal tracer. After
digestion, samples were made 1 N HCl and 209Po and 210Po were deposited onto silver
disks at 60-70 ºC for 8 hours while stirring. Polonium isotopes were counted with αspectrometers equipped with low background SSB detectors (EG&G Ortec). Due to the
elapsed time span between sediment sampling and analyses, 210Pb was assumed to be in
radioactive equilibrium with 210Po (half-life = 138 d) in the sediment samples.
Some dried and homogenised samples of each core were counted by gamma
spectrometry in calibrated geometries for 2-3 105 seconds. This was done by using a
high purity intrinsic Ge detector, surrounded by a 12 cm lead shield, lined with 1 cm
copper and 2 mm cadmium, and linked to an 8K MCA. Spectra were analysed with a
modified version of the SAMPO family of programs (Koskelo et al., 1981). 226Ra
activities were determined through 214Pb (351.92 keV) and 214Bi (609.4 keV) lines of
gamma emissions, assuming secular equilibrium with 226Ra. No 137Cs was detected
along the cores by gamma spectrometry, due to the combined effects of low
concentrations and small amounts of sample available.
Filters containing SPM for 210Pb and 210Po analyses were digested using aqua regia
after addition of 209Po, while precipitates were centrifuged in order to reduce volumes.
All samples were made 1 N with HCl and the same procedure described for sediment
samples was followed. As analyses were carried out within 3 months after sample
collection, equilibrium between 210Po and 210Pb was not yet reached. One year after the
first analyses, samples were reanalysed for 210Po, present by in situ disintegration of
210
Pb, thus permitting us to determine both 210Pb and 210Po activities at the sample
collection date after appropriate decay corrections.
Chemical recoveries of all radiochemical separations ranged from 85 to 100%. For each
batch of 10 samples, a reagent blank analysis was also carried out and subtracted for
activity determination.
Sediment accumulation rates
We used a one-dimensional advection-diffusion model (Goldberg and Koide, 1962) to
calculate the sedimentation rate (S, in mm y-1) and the mixing coefficient (DB, in cm2 y1
) that describes the intensity of particle reworking:
∂A
∂2 A
∂A
= DB
−S
− λA
2
∂t
∂x
∂x
(1)
where A (Bq kg-1) is the excess 210Pb concentration at depth x (cm), and S and DB are
assumed to be constant. As DB and S cannot be determined independently, a solution for
DB can be obtained if S is known or assumed to be negligible. Assuming steady state
conditions and when mixing is not present, equation (1) can be solved under the
boundary conditions of A = A0 (x=0) and A → 0 (x → ∞), by means of the equation
λ
A = A0 e
− ·x
S
(2)
This is usually done by least-squares fitting of the logarithm of excess 210Pb versus
depth for the strata below the SML. Then, the sedimentation rate were calculated by
using equation (2) to determine DB, also using least-square fitting for the SML:
A = A0 e
( S − S 2 + 4 λDB ) / 2 DB )· x
(3)
In this study we consider the 210Pb profiles as a two layer system with an upper mixed
layer extending to a distance L below the water-sediment interface (SML) and a second
layer below L where no mixing takes place
Carbon and nitrogen
Total carbon (TC%) and nitrogen (N%) were measured in duplicate using a Leco CN
2000 analyser. Two subsamples were used to determine the total carbon percentage
(TC%). Two other subsamples were digested with HCl in a LECO CC 100 digester and
the resultant CO2 was analysed in the LECO CN 2000 analyser and assigned to
inorganic carbon content (IC%), which was used to calculate the calcium carbonate
concentration (CaCO3%). The difference between the two values was assumed to
represent the percentage of organic carbon content (OC%).
15. FRUELA cruises REFERENCES
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